WorldWideScience

Sample records for hsp90 affecting chromatin

  1. Isoform-Specific Phosphorylation in Human Hsp90β Affects Interaction with Clients and the Cochaperone Cdc37.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh T N; Knieß, Robert A; Daturpalli, Soumya; Le Breton, Laura; Ke, Xiangyu; Chen, Xuemei; Mayer, Matthias P

    2017-03-10

    The 90-kDa heat shock proteins (Hsp90s) assist the maturation of many key regulators of signal transduction pathways and cellular control circuits like protein kinases and transcription factors and chaperone their stability and activity. In this function, Hsp90s cooperate with some 30 cochaperones and they are themselves subject to regulation by numerous post-translational modifications. In vertebrates, two major isoforms exist in the cytosol, Hsp90α and Hsp90β, which share a high degree of sequence identity and are expressed in tissue- and environmental condition-dependent manner. We identified an isoform-specific phosphorylation site in human Hsp90β. This phosphorylation site seems to be linked to vertebrate evolution since it is not found in invertebrata but in all tetrapoda and many but not all fish species. We provide data suggesting that this phosphorylation is important for the activation of Hsp90 clients like glucocorticoid receptor and a protein kinase. Replacement of the phosphorylation site by glutamate affects the conformational dynamics of Hsp90 and interaction with the kinase-specific cochaperone Cdc37. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hsp90 depletion goes wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Mark L; Masel, Joanna

    2012-02-27

    Hsp90 reveals phenotypic variation in the laboratory, but is Hsp90 depletion important in the wild? Recent work from Chen and Wagner in BMC Evolutionary Biology has discovered a naturally occurring Drosophila allele that downregulates Hsp90, creating sensitivity to cryptic genetic variation. Laboratory studies suggest that the exact magnitude of Hsp90 downregulation is important. Extreme Hsp90 depletion might reactivate transposable elements and/or induce aneuploidy, in addition to revealing cryptic genetic variation. See research article http://wwww.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/12/25.

  3. Overexpression of GmHsp90s, a heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 gene family cloning from soybean, decrease damage of abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyan Xu

    Full Text Available Hsp90 is one of the most conserved and abundant molecular chaperones and is an essential component of the protective stress response; however, its roles in abiotic stress responses in soybean (Glycine max remain obscure. Here, 12 GmHsp90 genes from soybean were identified and found to be expressed and to function differentially under abiotic stresses. The 12 GmHsp90 genes were isolated and named GmHsp90A1-GmHsp90A6, GmHsp90B1, GmHsp90B2, GmHsp90C1.1, GmHsp90C1.2, GmHsp90C2.1 and GmHsp90C2.2 based on their characteristics and high homology to other Hsp90s according to a new nomenclature system. Quantitative real-time PCR expression data revealed that all the genes exhibited higher transcript levels in leaves and could be strongly induced under heat, osmotic and salt stress but not cold stress. Overexpression of five typical genes (GmHsp90A2, GmHsp90A4, GmHsp90B1, GmHsp90C1.1 and GmHsp90C2.1 in Arabidopsis thaliana provided useful evidences that GmHsp90 genes can decrease damage of abiotic stresses. In addition, an abnormal accumulation of proline was detected in some transgenic Arabidopsis plants suggested overexpressing GmHsp90s may affect the synthesis and response system of proline. Our work represents a systematic determination of soybean genes encoding Hsp90s, and provides useful evidence that GmHsp90 genes function differently in response to abiotic stresses and may affect the synthesis and response system of proline.

  4. Structure, Function and Regulation of the Hsp90 Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 is an ATP-dependent molecular chaperone which is essential in eukaryotes. It is required for the activation and stabilization of a wide variety of client proteins and many of them are involved in important cellular pathways. Since Hsp90 affects numerous physiological processes such as signal transduction, intracellular transport, and protein degradation, it became an interesting target for cancer therapy. Structurally, Hsp90 is a flexible dimeric protein composed of three different domains which adopt structurally distinct conformations. ATP binding triggers directionality in these conformational changes and leads to a more compact state. To achieve its function, Hsp90 works together with a large group of cofactors, termed co-chaperones. Co-chaperones form defined binary or ternary complexes with Hsp90, which facilitate the maturation of client proteins. In addition, posttranslational modifications of Hsp90, such as phosphorylation and acetylation, provide another level of regulation. They influence the conformational cycle, co-chaperone interaction, and inter-domain communications. In this review, we discuss the recent progress made in understanding the Hsp90 machinery.

  5. Stability of the Human Hsp90-p50Cdc37 Chaperone Complex against Nucleotides and Hsp90 Inhibitors, and the Influence of Phosphorylation by Casein Kinase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Sanne H.; Ingles, Donna J.; Zhu, Jin-Yi; Martin, Mathew P.; Betzi, Stephane; Georg, Gunda I.; Tash, Joseph S.; Schönbrunn, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    The molecular chaperone Hsp90 is regulated by co-chaperones such as p50Cdc37, which recruits a wide selection of client protein kinases. Targeted disruption of the Hsp90-p50Cdc37 complex by protein-protein interaction (PPI) inhibitors has emerged as an alternative strategy to treat diseases characterized by aberrant Hsp90 activity. Using isothermal microcalorimetry, ELISA and GST-pull down assays we evaluated reported Hsp90 inhibitors and nucleotides for their ability to inhibit formation of the human Hsp90β-p50Cdc37 complex, reconstituted in-vitro from full-length proteins. Hsp90 inhibitors, including the proposed PPI inhibitors gedunin and H2-gamendazole, did not affect the interaction of Hsp90 with p50Cdc37 in vitro. Phosphorylation of Hsp90 and p50Cdc37 by casein kinase 2 (CK2) did not alter the thermodynamic signature of complex formation. However, the phosphorylated complex was vulnerable to disruption by ADP (IC50 = 32 µM), while ATP, AMPPNP and Hsp90 inhibitors remained largely ineffective. The differential inhibitory activity of ADP suggests that phosphorylation by CK2 primes the complex for dissociation in response to a drop in ATP/ADP levels. The approach applied herein provides robust assays for a comprehensive biochemical evaluation of potential effectors of the Hsp90-p50Cdc37 complex, such as phosphorylation by a kinase or the interaction with small molecule ligands. PMID:25608045

  6. Stability of the human Hsp90-p50Cdc37 chaperone complex against nucleotides and Hsp90 inhibitors, and the influence of phosphorylation by casein kinase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Sanne H; Ingles, Donna J; Zhu, Jin-Yi; Martin, Mathew P; Betzi, Stephane; Georg, Gunda I; Tash, Joseph S; Schönbrunn, Ernst

    2015-01-19

    The molecular chaperone Hsp90 is regulated by co-chaperones such as p50Cdc37, which recruits a wide selection of client protein kinases. Targeted disruption of the Hsp90-p50Cdc37 complex by protein-protein interaction (PPI) inhibitors has emerged as an alternative strategy to treat diseases characterized by aberrant Hsp90 activity. Using isothermal microcalorimetry, ELISA and GST-pull down assays we evaluated reported Hsp90 inhibitors and nucleotides for their ability to inhibit formation of the human Hsp90β-p50Cdc37 complex, reconstituted in vitro from full-length proteins. Hsp90 inhibitors, including the proposed PPI inhibitors gedunin and H2-gamendazole, did not affect the interaction of Hsp90 with p50Cdc37 in vitro. Phosphorylation of Hsp90 and p50Cdc37 by casein kinase 2 (CK2) did not alter the thermodynamic signature of complex formation. However, the phosphorylated complex was vulnerable to disruption by ADP (IC50 = 32 µM), while ATP, AMPPNP and Hsp90 inhibitors remained largely ineffective. The differential inhibitory activity of ADP suggests that phosphorylation by CK2 primes the complex for dissociation in response to a drop in ATP/ADP levels. The approach applied herein provides robust assays for a comprehensive biochemical evaluation of potential effectors of the Hsp90-p50Cdc37 complex, such as phosphorylation by a kinase or the interaction with small molecule ligands.

  7. Stability of the Human Hsp90-p50Cdc37 Chaperone Complex against Nucleotides and Hsp90 Inhibitors, and the Influence of Phosphorylation by Casein Kinase 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne H. Olesen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular chaperone Hsp90 is regulated by co-chaperones such as p50Cdc37, which recruits a wide selection of client protein kinases. Targeted disruption of the Hsp90-p50Cdc37 complex by protein–protein interaction (PPI inhibitors has emerged as an alternative strategy to treat diseases characterized by aberrant Hsp90 activity. Using isothermal microcalorimetry, ELISA and GST-pull down assays we evaluated reported Hsp90 inhibitors and nucleotides for their ability to inhibit formation of the human Hsp90β-p50Cdc37 complex, reconstituted in vitro from full-length proteins. Hsp90 inhibitors, including the proposed PPI inhibitors gedunin and H2-gamendazole, did not affect the interaction of Hsp90 with p50Cdc37 in vitro. Phosphorylation of Hsp90 and p50Cdc37 by casein kinase 2 (CK2 did not alter the thermodynamic signature of complex formation. However, the phosphorylated complex was vulnerable to disruption by ADP (IC50 = 32 µM, while ATP, AMPPNP and Hsp90 inhibitors remained largely ineffective. The differential inhibitory activity of ADP suggests that phosphorylation by CK2 primes the complex for dissociation in response to a drop in ATP/ADP levels. The approach applied herein provides robust assays for a comprehensive biochemical evaluation of potential effectors of the Hsp90-p50Cdc37 complex, such as phosphorylation by a kinase or the interaction with small molecule ligands.

  8. The HSP90 complex of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadota, Yasuhiro; Shirasu, Ken

    2012-03-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a highly conserved and essential molecular chaperone involved in maturation and activation of signaling proteins in eukaryotes. HSP90 operates as a dimer in a conformational cycle driven by ATP binding and hydrolysis. HSP90 often functions together with co-chaperones that regulate the conformational cycle and/or load a substrate "client" protein onto HSP90. In plants, immune sensing NLR (nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing) proteins are among the few known client proteins of HSP90. In the process of chaperoning NLR proteins, co-chaperones, RAR1 and SGT1 function together with HSP90. Recent structural and functional analyses indicate that RAR1 dynamically controls conformational changes of the HSP90 dimer, allowing SGT1 to bridge the interaction between NLR proteins and HSP90. Here, we discuss the regulation of NLR proteins by HSP90 upon interaction with RAR1 and SGT1, emphasizing the recent progress in our understanding of the structure and function of the complex. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Heat Shock Protein 90 (HSP90). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Spatio-temporal regulation of Hsp90-ligand complex leads to immune activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuaki eTamura

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hsp90 is the most abundant cytosolic HSP and is known to act as a molecular chaperone. We found that an Hsp90-cancer antigen peptide complex was efficiently cross-presented by human monocyte-derived dendritic cells and induced peptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Furthermore, we observed that the internalized Hsp90-peptide complex was strictly sorted to the Rab5+, EEA1+ static early endosome and the Hsp90-chaperoned peptide was processed and bound to MHC class I molecules through a endosome-recycling pathway. We also found that extracellular Hsp90 complexed with CpG-A or self-DNA stimulates production of a large amount of IFN-α from pDCs via static early endosome targeting. Thus, extracellular Hsp90 can target the antigen or nucleic acid to a static early endosome by spatio-temporal regulation. Moreover, we showed that Hsp90 associates with and delivers TLR7/9 from the ER to early endosomes for ligand recognition. Hsp90 inhibitor, geldanamycin derivative inhibited the Hsp90 association with TLR7/9, resulting in inhibition IFN-α production, leading to improvement of SLE symptoms. Interstingly, we observed that serum Hsp90 is clearly increased in patients with active SLE compared with that in patients with inactive disease. Serum Hsp90 detected in SLE patients binds to self-DNA and/or anti-DNA Ab, thus leading to stimulation of pDCs to produce IFN-α. Thus, Hsp90 plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of SLE and that an Hsp90 inhibitor will therefore provide a new therapeutic approach to SLE and other nucleic acid-related autoimmune diseases. We will discuss how spatio-temporal regulation of Hsp90-ligand complexes within antigen-presenting cells affects the innate immunity and adaptive immunity.

  10. Conformational switching of the molecular chaperone Hsp90 via regulated phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroka, Joanna; Wandinger, Sebastian K; Mäusbacher, Nina; Schreiber, Thiemo; Richter, Klaus; Daub, Henrik; Buchner, Johannes

    2012-02-24

    Hsp90 is an essential molecular chaperone in the eukaryotic cytosol. Its function is modulated by cochaperones and posttranslational modifications. Importantly, the phosphatase Ppt1 is a dedicated regulator of the Hsp90 chaperone system. Little is known about Ppt1-dependent phosphorylation sites and how these affect Hsp90 activity. Here, we identified the major phosphorylation sites of yeast Hsp90 in its middle or the C-terminal domain and determined the subset regulated by Ppt1. In general, phosphorylation decelerates the Hsp90 machinery, reduces chaperone function in vivo, sensitizes yeast cells to Hsp90 inhibition and affects DNA repair processes. Modification of one particular site (S485) is lethal, whereas others modulate Hsp90 activity via distinct mechanisms affecting the ATPase activity, cochaperone binding and manipulating conformational transitions in Hsp90. Our mechanistic analysis reveals that phosphorylation of Hsp90 permits a regulation of the conformational cycle at distinct steps by targeting switch points for the communication of remote regions within Hsp90. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cytosolic HSP90 associates with and modulates the Arabidopsis RPM1 disease resistance protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, David A; Tornero, Pablo; Belkhadir, Youssef; Krishna, Priti; Takahashi, Akira; Shirasu, Ken; Dangl, Jeffery L

    2003-11-03

    The Arabidopsis protein RPM1 activates disease resistance in response to Pseudomonas syringae proteins targeted to the inside of the host cell via the bacterial type III delivery system. We demonstrate that specific mutations in the ATP-binding domain of a single Arabidopsis cytosolic HSP90 isoform compromise RPM1 function. These mutations do not affect the function of related disease resistance proteins. RPM1 associates with HSP90 in plant cells. The Arabidopsis proteins RAR1 and SGT1 are required for the action of many R proteins, and display some structural similarity to HSP90 co-chaperones. Each associates with HSP90 in plant cells. Our data suggest that (i) RPM1 is an HSP90 client protein; and (ii) RAR1 and SGT1 may function independently as HSP90 cofactors. Dynamic interactions among these proteins can regulate RPM1 stability and function, perhaps similarly to the formation and regulation of animal steroid receptor complexes.

  12. Targeting Hsp90 in urothelial carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotnicki, Kamil; Landas, Steve; Bratslavsky, Gennady; Bourboulia, Dimitra

    2015-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma, or transitional cell carcinoma, is the most common urologic malignancy that carries significant morbidity, mortality, recurrence risk and associated health care costs. Despite use of current chemotherapies and immunotherapies, long-term remission in patients with muscle-invasive or metastatic disease remains low, and disease recurrence is common. The molecular chaperone Heat Shock Protein-90 (Hsp90) may offer an ideal treatment target, as it is a critical signaling hub in urothelial carcinoma pathogenesis and potentiates chemoradiation. Preclinical testing with Hsp90 inhibitors has demonstrated reduced proliferation, enhanced apoptosis and synergism with chemotherapies and radiation. Despite promising preclinical data, clinical trials utilizing Hsp90 inhibitors for other malignancies had modest efficacy. Therefore, we propose that Hsp90 inhibition would best serve as an adjuvant treatment in advanced muscle-invasive or metastatic bladder cancers to potentiate other therapies. An overview of bladder cancer biology, current treatments, molecular targeted therapies, and the role for Hsp90 inhibitors in the treatment of urothelial carcinoma is the focus of this review. PMID:25909217

  13. Hsp90 and FKBP51: complex regulators of psychiatric diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado-Marrero, Marangelie; Rein, Theo; Binder, Elisabeth B; Porter, James T; Koren, John; Blair, Laura J

    2018-01-19

    Mood disorders affect nearly a quarter of the world's population. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying these conditions is of great importance. FK-506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) encodes the FKBP51 protein, a heat shock protein 90 kDa (Hsp90) co-chaperone, and is a risk factor for several affective disorders. FKBP51, in coordination with Hsp90, regulates glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activity via a short negative feedback loop. This signalling pathway rapidly restores homeostasis in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis following stress. Expression of FKBP5 increases with age through reduced DNA methylation. High levels of FKBP51 are linked to GR resistance and reduced stress coping behaviour. Moreover, common allelic variants in the FKBP5 gene are associated with increased risk of developing affective disorders like anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This review highlights the current understanding of the Hsp90 co-chaperone, FKBP5, in disease from both human and animal studies. In addition, FKBP5 genetic implications in the clinic involving life stress exposure, gender differences and treatment outcomes are discussed.This article is part of the theme issue 'Heat shock proteins as modulators and therapeutic targets of chronic disease: an integrated perspective'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. An Impermeant Ganetespib Analog Inhibits Extracellular Hsp90-Mediated Cancer Cell Migration that Involves Lysyl Oxidase 2-like Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica McCready

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular Hsp90 (eHsp90 activates a number of client proteins outside of cancer cells required for migration and invasion. Therefore, eHsp90 may serve as a novel target for anti-metastatic drugs as its inhibition using impermeant Hsp90 inhibitors would not affect the numerous vital intracellular Hsp90 functions in normal cells. While some eHsp90 clients are known, it is important to establish other proteins that act outside the cell to validate eHsp90 as a drug target to limit cancer spread. Using mass spectrometry we identified two precursor proteins Galectin 3 binding protein (G3BP and Lysyl oxidase 2-like protein (LOXL2 that associate with eHsp90 in MDA-MB231 breast cancer cell conditioned media and confirmed that LOXL2 binds to eHsp90 in immunoprecipitates. We introduce a novel impermeant Hsp90 inhibitor STA-12-7191 derived from ganetespib and show that it is markedly less toxic to cells and can inhibit cancer cell migration in a dose dependent manner. We used STA-12-7191 to test if LOXL2 and G3BP are potential eHsp90 clients. We showed that while LOXL2 can increase wound healing and compensate for STA-12-7191-mediated inhibition of wound closure, addition of G3BP had no affect on this assay. These findings support of role for LOXL2 in eHsp90 stimulated cancer cell migration and provide preliminary evidence for the use of STA-12-7191 to inhibit eHsp90 to limit cancer invasion.

  15. An Impermeant Ganetespib Analog Inhibits Extracellular Hsp90-Mediated Cancer Cell Migration that Involves Lysyl Oxidase 2-like Protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCready, Jessica [Department of Natural Sciences, Assumption College, Worcester, MA 01609 (United States); Wong, Daniel S. [Department of Developmental Molecular and Chemical Biology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111 (United States); Cell and Molecular Physiology Program, Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111 (United States); Burlison, Joseph A.; Ying, Weiwen [Synta Pharmaceuticals, Lexington, MA 02421 (United States); Jay, Daniel G., E-mail: daniel.jay@tufts.edu [Department of Developmental Molecular and Chemical Biology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111 (United States); Cell and Molecular Physiology Program, Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111 (United States)

    2014-04-30

    Extracellular Hsp90 (eHsp90) activates a number of client proteins outside of cancer cells required for migration and invasion. Therefore, eHsp90 may serve as a novel target for anti-metastatic drugs as its inhibition using impermeant Hsp90 inhibitors would not affect the numerous vital intracellular Hsp90 functions in normal cells. While some eHsp90 clients are known, it is important to establish other proteins that act outside the cell to validate eHsp90 as a drug target to limit cancer spread. Using mass spectrometry we identified two precursor proteins Galectin 3 binding protein (G3BP) and Lysyl oxidase 2-like protein (LOXL2) that associate with eHsp90 in MDA-MB231 breast cancer cell conditioned media and confirmed that LOXL2 binds to eHsp90 in immunoprecipitates. We introduce a novel impermeant Hsp90 inhibitor STA-12-7191 derived from ganetespib and show that it is markedly less toxic to cells and can inhibit cancer cell migration in a dose dependent manner. We used STA-12-7191 to test if LOXL2 and G3BP are potential eHsp90 clients. We showed that while LOXL2 can increase wound healing and compensate for STA-12-7191-mediated inhibition of wound closure, addition of G3BP had no affect on this assay. These findings support of role for LOXL2 in eHsp90 stimulated cancer cell migration and provide preliminary evidence for the use of STA-12-7191 to inhibit eHsp90 to limit cancer invasion.

  16. Molecular mechanisms of canalization: Hsp90 and beyond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2006-03-26

    ' proteins. Many of these Hsp90 clients are essential nodes in signal transduction pathways and regulatory circuits, accounting for the important role Hsp90 plays in organismal development and responses to the environment.

  17. Hsp90α regulates ATM and NBN functions in sensing and repair of DNA double-strand breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennisi, Rosa; Antoccia, Antonio; Leone, Stefano; Ascenzi, Paolo; di Masi, Alessandra

    2017-08-01

    The molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90α) regulates cell proteostasis and mitigates the harmful effects of endogenous and exogenous stressors on the proteome. Indeed, the inhibition of Hsp90α ATPase activity affects the cellular response to ionizing radiation (IR). Although the interplay between Hsp90α and several DNA damage response (DDR) proteins has been reported, its role in the DDR is still unclear. Here, we show that ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated kinase (ATM) and nibrin (NBN), but not 53BP1, RAD50, and MRE11, are Hsp90α clients as the Hsp90α inhibitor 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) induces ATM and NBN polyubiquitination and proteosomal degradation in normal fibroblasts and lymphoblastoid cell lines. Hsp90α-ATM and Hsp90α-NBN complexes are present in unstressed and irradiated cells, allowing the maintenance of ATM and NBN stability that is required for the MRE11/RAD50/NBN complex-dependent ATM activation and the ATM-dependent phosphorylation of both NBN and Hsp90α in response to IR-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Hsp90α forms a complex also with ph-Ser1981-ATM following IR. Upon phosphorylation, NBN dissociates from Hsp90α and translocates at the DSBs, while phThr5/7-Hsp90α is not recruited at the damaged sites. The inhibition of Hsp90α affects nuclear localization of MRE11 and RAD50, impairs DDR signaling (e.g., BRCA1 and CHK2 phosphorylation), and slows down DSBs repair. Hsp90α inhibition does not affect DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity, which possibly phosphorylates Hsp90α and H2AX after IR. Notably, Hsp90α inhibition causes H2AX phosphorylation in proliferating cells, this possibly indicating replication stress events. Overall, present data shed light on the regulatory role of Hsp90α on the DDR, controlling ATM and NBN stability and influencing the DSBs signaling and repair. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  18. Hsp90 inhibitor celastrol reinstates growth plate angiogenesis in thiram-induced tibial dyschondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Fazul; Shahzad, Muhammad; Liu, Jingying; Li, Kun; Han, Zhaoqing; Zhang, Ding; Iqbal, Muhammad Kashif; Li, Jiakui

    2016-01-01

    Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is an important long bone defect of broiler chickens that disturbs the proximal growth plate and is characterized by non-vascularized cartilage, a distended growth plate and lameness. Celastrol, a medicinal root extract from the plant Tripterygium wilfordii, is reported widely as a well-known heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor. Recently, Hsp90 inhibition in chondrocyte differentiation and growth-plate vascularization were effective in restoring the morphology of the growth plate. The present study was aimed at investigating Hsp90 inhibition in TD using celastrol. The broiler chicks were divided into three groups; Control; TD induced (40 mg/kg thiram) and celastrol treatment. Hsp90, vascular endothelial growth factor and Flk-1 expressions were evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and the protein levels of Hsp90 were measured by Western blot analysis. Antioxidant enzymes were determined to assess the liver damage caused by thiram and the protective effects of the medicine were evaluated by levels of serum biomarkers. The expression levels of Hsp90 and vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA transcripts were increased while Flk-1 receptor was decreased in TD-affected chicks. Celastrol therapy inhibited Hsp90 mRNA and protein levels and up-regulated the expressions of receptor Flk-1 in TD-affected tibial growth plates significantly (P thiram on the liver by decreasing the levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and malondialdehyde and correcting the oxidative imbalance. In conclusion, administering celastrol to dyschondroplastic chicks prevented un-vascularized growth plate, lameness and reinstated angiogenesis. Celastrol may be efficacious for the treatment of TD through the inhibition of Hsp90 expression and limiting the liver damage caused by thiram in broiler chickens.

  19. Mps1 Mediated Phosphorylation of Hsp90 Confers Renal Cell Carcinoma Sensitivity and Selectivity to Hsp90 Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Woodford

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The molecular chaperone Hsp90 protects deregulated signaling proteins that are vital for tumor growth and survival. Tumors generally display sensitivity and selectivity toward Hsp90 inhibitors; however, the molecular mechanism underlying this phenotype remains undefined. We report that the mitotic checkpoint kinase Mps1 phosphorylates a conserved threonine residue in the amino-domain of Hsp90. This, in turn, regulates chaperone function by reducing Hsp90 ATPase activity while fostering Hsp90 association with kinase clients, including Mps1. Phosphorylation of Hsp90 is also essential for the mitotic checkpoint because it confers Mps1 stability and activity. We identified Cdc14 as the phosphatase that dephosphorylates Hsp90 and disrupts its interaction with Mps1. This causes Mps1 degradation, thus providing a mechanism for its inactivation. Finally, Hsp90 phosphorylation sensitizes cells to its inhibitors, and elevated Mps1 levels confer renal cell carcinoma selectivity to Hsp90 drugs. Mps1 expression level can potentially serve as a predictive indicator of tumor response to Hsp90 inhibitors.

  20. Sulphoxythiocarbamates modify cysteine residues in HSP90 causing degradation of client proteins and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Dayalan Naidu, S; Samarasinghe, K; Van Hecke, G C; Pheely, A; Boronina, T N; Cole, R N; Benjamin, I J; Cole, P A; Ahn, Y-H; Dinkova-Kostova, A T

    2014-01-07

    Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) has a key role in the maintenance of the cellular proteostasis. However, HSP90 is also involved in stabilisation of oncogenic client proteins and facilitates oncogene addiction and cancer cell survival. The development of HSP90 inhibitors for cancer treatment is an area of growing interest as such agents can affect multiple pathways that are linked to all hallmarks of cancer. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that targeting cysteine residues of HSP90 will lead to degradation of client proteins and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Combining chemical synthesis, biological evaluation, and structure-activity relationship analysis, we identified a new class of HSP90 inhibitors. Click chemistry and protease-mass spectrometry established the sites of modification of the chaperone. The mildly electrophilic sulphoxythiocarbamate alkyne (STCA) selectively targets cysteine residues of HSP90, forming stable thiocarbamate adducts. Without interfering with the ATP-binding ability of the chaperone, STCA destabilises the client proteins RAF1, HER2, CDK1, CHK1, and mutant p53, and decreases proliferation of breast cancer cells. Addition of a phenyl or a tert-butyl group in tandem with the benzyl substituent at nitrogen increased the potency. A new compound, S-4, was identified as the most robust HSP90 inhibitor within a series of 19 derivatives. By virtue of their cysteine reactivity, sulphoxythiocarbamates target HSP90, causing destabilisation of its client oncoproteins and inhibiting cell proliferation.

  1. Identification and characterization of the antiplasmodial activity of Hsp90 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Solano, Claribel; Dong, Chunmin; Sanchez, Cecilia G; Pizarro, Juan C

    2017-07-19

    The recent reduction in mortality due to malaria is being threatened by the appearance of Plasmodium falciparum parasites that are resistant to artemisinin in Southeast Asia. To limit the impact of resistant parasites and their spread across the world, there is a need to validate anti-malarial drug targets and identify new leads that will serve as foundations for future drug development programmes targeting malaria. Towards that end, the antiplasmodial potential of several Hsp90 inhibitors was characterized. Because, the Hsp90 chaperone has been suggested as a good drug target against multiple parasitic infections including malaria. Chemically diverse sets of Hsp90 inhibitors, evaluated in clinical trials as anti-cancer agents, were tested against the malaria parasite. Most of the compounds showed strong antiplasmodial activity in growth inhibition assays against chloroquine sensitive and resistant strains. There was a good agreement between the compound in vitro anti-parasitic activity and their affinity against the Plasmodium chaperone. The two most potent Hsp90 inhibitors also showed cytocidal activity against two P. falciparum strains. Their antiplasmodial activity affected all parasite forms during the malaria blood cycle. However, the compounds activity against the parasite showed no synergy when combined with anti-malarial drugs, like chloroquine or DHA. The Hsp90 inhibitors anti-parasitic activity correlates with their affinity to their predicted target the P. falciparum chaperone Hsp90. However, the most effective compounds also showed high affinity for a close homologue, Grp94. This association points to a mode of action for Hsp90 inhibitors that correlate compound efficacy with multi-target engagement. Besides their ability to limit parasite replication, two compounds also significantly impacted P. falciparum viability in vitro. Finally, a structural analysis suggests that the best hit represents a promising scaffold to develop parasite specific leads

  2. Hsp90 regulation of fibroblast activation in pulmonary fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontake, Vishwaraj; Wang, Yunguan; Kasam, Rajesh K.; Sinner, Debora; Reddy, Geereddy B.; Naren, Anjaparavanda P.; McCormack, Francis X.; Jegga, Anil G.; Madala, Satish K.

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a severe fibrotic lung disease associated with fibroblast activation that includes excessive proliferation, tissue invasiveness, myofibroblast transformation, and extracellular matrix (ECM) production. To identify inhibitors that can attenuate fibroblast activation, we queried IPF gene signatures against a library of small-molecule-induced gene-expression profiles and identified Hsp90 inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents that can suppress fibroblast activation in IPF. Although Hsp90 is a molecular chaperone that regulates multiple processes involved in fibroblast activation, it has not been previously proposed as a molecular target in IPF. Here, we found elevated Hsp90 staining in lung biopsies of patients with IPF. Notably, fibroblasts isolated from fibrotic lesions showed heightened Hsp90 ATPase activity compared with normal fibroblasts. 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), a small-molecule inhibitor of Hsp90 ATPase activity, attenuated fibroblast activation and also TGF-β–driven effects on fibroblast to myofibroblast transformation. The loss of the Hsp90AB, but not the Hsp90AA isoform, resulted in reduced fibroblast proliferation, myofibroblast transformation, and ECM production. Finally, in vivo therapy with 17-AAG attenuated progression of established and ongoing fibrosis in a mouse model of pulmonary fibrosis, suggesting that targeting Hsp90 represents an effective strategy for the treatment of fibrotic lung disease. PMID:28239659

  3. Molecular mechanisms of canalization: Hsp90 and beyond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu Sudhan

    2007-03-26

    Mar 26, 2007 ... action is supported by a recent study in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which investigated Hsp90's ... growth conditions including temperature on phenotype in diverse organisms have been widely reported (Durrant ..... Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hsp90 chaperone; Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94 12949–12956.

  4. Identification of HSP90 gene from the Chinese oak silkworm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The complete cDNA (2,482 bp) contained a 2,154 bp open reading frame encoding 717 amino acid residues and had 94.5% identity with Antheraea yamamai Hsp90. The relative expression levels of Hsp90 in five different tissues at normal and high temperatures were evaluated with real-time fluorescence quantitative ...

  5. RET is a heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) client protein and is knocked down upon HSP90 pharmacological block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, Luigi; Guida, Teresa; Provitera, Livia; Vecchio, Giancarlo; Billaud, Marc; Santoro, Massimo; Carlomagno, Francesca

    2010-07-01

    Mutations of the RET receptor tyrosine kinase are associated to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) and sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). The heat shock protein (HSP) 90 chaperone is required for folding and stability of several kinases. HSP90 is specifically inhibited by 17-allyl-amino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG). Our aim was to investigate whether RET protein half-life depends on HSP90 and to dissect the molecular pathway responsible for the degradation of RET upon HSP90 inhibition by 17-AAG. 17-AAG effects were studied in RAT1 fibroblasts exogenously expressing MEN2-associated RET mutants and human MTC-derived cell lines. 17-AAG induced a 26S proteasome-dependent degradation of wild-type RET and MEN2-associated RET mutants. The compound hampered HSP90/RET interaction and stabilized RET binding to HSP70, leading to the recruitment of the HSP70-associated E3 ligase C-terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein. In turn, C-terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein polyubiquitinated RET, promoting its proteasomal degradation. 17-AAG blocked RET downstream effectors and RET-dependent transcriptional activation of gene promoters. In human MTC cells carrying oncogenic RET mutants, HSP90 inhibition induced receptor degradation and signaling hindrance leading to cell cycle arrest. RET and MEN2-associated RET mutants rely on HSP90 for protein stability, and HSP90 blockade by 17-AAG promotes RET degradation.

  6. Picky Hsp90-Every Game with Another Mate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radli, Martina; Rüdiger, Stefan G D

    2017-01-01

    In this issue of Molecular Cell, Sahasrabudhe et al. (2017) present a dramatically renovated functional cycle for the molecular chaperone Hsp90, which stimulates re-thinking of the mechanism of this vital protein folding machine.

  7. How Hsp90 and Cdc37 Lubricate Kinase Molecular Switches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verba, Kliment A; Agard, David A

    2017-10-01

    The Hsp90/Cdc37 chaperone system interacts with and supports 60% of the human kinome. Not only are Hsp90 and Cdc37 generally required for initial folding, but many kinases rely on the Hsp90/Cdc37 throughout their lifetimes. A large fraction of these 'client' kinases are key oncoproteins, and their interactions with the Hsp90/Cdc37 machinery are crucial for both their normal and malignant activity. Recently, advances in single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) and biochemical strategies have provided the first key molecular insights into kinase-chaperone interactions. The surprising results suggest a re-evaluation of the role of chaperones in the kinase lifecycle, and suggest that such interactions potentially allow kinases to more rapidly respond to key signals while simultaneously protecting unstable kinases from degradation and suppressing unwanted basal activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90 Expression and Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Papadimitriou

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hsp90 is an abundant protein in mammalian cells. It forms several discrete complexes, each containing distinct groups of co-chaperones that assist protein folding and refolding during stress, protein transport and degradation. It interacts with a variety of proteins that play key roles in breast neoplasia including estrogen receptors, tumor suppressor p53 protein, angiogenesis transcription factor HIF-1alpha, antiapoptotic kinase Akt, Raf-1 MAP kinase and a variety of receptor tyrosine kinases of the erbB family. Elevated Hsp90 expression has been documented in breast ductal carcinomas contributing to the proliferative activity of breast cancer cells; whilst a significantly decreased Hsp90 expression has been shown in infiltrative lobular carcinomas and lobular neoplasia. Hsp90 overexpression has been proposed as a component of a mechanism through which breast cancer cells become resistant to various stress stimuli. Therefore, pharmacological inhibition of HSPs can provide therapeutic opportunities in the field of cancer treatment. 17-allylamino,17-demethoxygeldanamycin is the first Hsp90 inhibitor that has clinically been investigated in phase II trial, yielding promising results in patients with HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer, whilst other Hsp90 inhibitors (retaspimycin HCL, NVP-AUY922, NVP-BEP800, CNF2024/BIIB021, SNX-5422, STA-9090, etc. are currently under evaluation.

  9. The protective role of HSP90 against 3-hydroxykynurenine-induced neuronal apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M W; Park, S C; Chae, H S; Bach, J H; Lee, H J; Lee, S H; Kang, Y K; Kim, K Y; Lee, W B; Kim, S S

    2001-06-08

    3-hydroxykynurenine (3HK), an endogenous metabolite of tryptophan in the kynurenine pathway, is a potential neurotoxin in several neurodegenerative disorders. Stabilizing protein structure, heat shock proteins (HSPs) have diverse roles as molecular chaperones to mediate stress tolerance. In the present study, we investigated the possible protective role of HSPs against 3HK induced neuronal cell death. Here we report that 3HK induced in a dose- and time-dependent manner neuronal cell death in neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells. The cell death showed characteristic apoptotic features such as cell shrinkage, plasma membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation, and nuclear condensation and fragmentation. Furthermore, SK-N-SN cells were protected from 3HK induced cytotoxicity by prior elevation of HSPs expression. Our results show that the protective effect was abolished by HSP90 anti-sense oligonucleotides while not by HSP27 and HSP70 anti-sense oligonucleotides. Also, our result shows that HSP90 effectively inhibits caspases activities leading to the apoptosis. These results suggest that 3HK induces apoptosis in neuroblastoma SK-N-SN cells and that HSP90 is major contributing protein component of protection against 3HK induced apoptosis. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  10. A protective role of HSP90 chaperone in gamma-irradiated Arabidopsis thaliana seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozeko, Liudmyla; Talalaiev, Oleksandr; Neimash, Volodymyr; Povarchuk, Vasyl

    2015-07-01

    The heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is required for the maturation and conformational regulation of many regulatory proteins affecting morphogenetic pathways and stress tolerance. The purpose of this work is to disclose a role of HSP90 in radioresistance of seeds. Arabidopsis thaliana (Ler) seeds were exposed to γ-ray irradiation with doses of 0.1-1 kGy using (60)Co source to obtain a viable but polymorphic material. A comet assay of the seeds showed a dose-dependent increase in DNA damage. Phenotypic consequences of irradiation included growth stimulation at doses of 0.1-0.25 kGy and negative growth effects at doses from 0.5 kGy and beyond, along with increasing heterogeneity of seedling growth rate and phenotype. The frequencies of abnormal phenotypes were highly correlated with the degree of DNA damage in seeds. Treatment of seeds with geldanamycin (GDA), an inhibitor of HSP90, stimulated the seedling growth at all radiation doses and, at the same time, enhanced the growth rate and morphological diversity. It was also found that HSP70 induction by γ-rays was increased following GDA treatment (shown at 1 kGy). We suppose that the GDA-induced HSP70 can be involved in elimination of detrimental radiation effects that ultimately results in growth stimulation. On the other hand, the increase in phenotypic variation, when HSP90 function was impaired, confirms the supposition that the chaperone may control the concealment of cryptic genetic alterations and the developmental stability. In general, these results demonstrate that HSP90 may interface the stress response and phenotypic expression of genetic alterations induced by irradiation. Copyright © 2015 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of HSP90 inhibitors as a novel class of senolytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann-Stroissnigg, Heike; Ling, Yuan Yuan; Zhao, Jing; McGowan, Sara J; Zhu, Yi; Brooks, Robert W; Grassi, Diego; Gregg, Siobhan Q; Stripay, Jennifer L; Dorronsoro, Akaitz; Corbo, Lana; Tang, Priscilla; Bukata, Christina; Ring, Nadja; Giacca, Mauro; Li, Xuesen; Tchkonia, Tamara; Kirkland, James L; Niedernhofer, Laura J; Robbins, Paul D

    2017-09-04

    Aging is the main risk factor for many chronic degenerative diseases and cancer. Increased senescent cell burden in various tissues is a major contributor to aging and age-related diseases. Recently, a new class of drugs termed senolytics were demonstrated to extending healthspan, reducing frailty and improving stem cell function in multiple murine models of aging. To identify novel and more optimal senotherapeutic drugs and combinations, we established a senescence associated β-galactosidase assay as a screening platform to rapidly identify drugs that specifically affect senescent cells. We used primary Ercc1 -/- murine embryonic fibroblasts with reduced DNA repair capacity, which senesce rapidly if grown at atmospheric oxygen. This platform was used to screen a small library of compounds that regulate autophagy, identifying two inhibitors of the HSP90 chaperone family as having significant senolytic activity in mouse and human cells. Treatment of Ercc1 -/∆ mice, a mouse model of a human progeroid syndrome, with the HSP90 inhibitor 17-DMAG extended healthspan, delayed the onset of several age-related symptoms and reduced p16INK4a expression. These results demonstrate the utility of our screening platform to identify senotherapeutic agents as well as identified HSP90 inhibitors as a promising new class of senolytic drugs.The accumulation of senescent cells is thought to contribute to the age-associated decline in tissue function. Here, the authors identify HSP90 inhibitors as a new class of senolytic compounds in an in vitro screening and show that administration of a HSP90 inhibitor reduces age-related symptoms in progeroid mice.

  12. NLR sensors meet at the SGT1-HSP90 crossroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadota, Yasuhiro; Shirasu, Ken; Guerois, Raphaël

    2010-04-01

    The NLR (nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing) proteins provide pathogen-sensing systems that are conserved in both plants and animals. They can be activated directly or indirectly by pathogen-derived molecules through mechanisms that remain largely elusive. Studies in plants revealed that the molecular chaperone, HSP90, and its co-chaperones, SGT1 and RAR1, are major stabilizing factors for NLR proteins. More recent work indicates that SGT1 and HSP90 are also required for the function of NLR proteins in mammals, underscoring the evolutionary conservation of innate immune system regulatory mechanisms. Comparative analyses of plant and mammalian NLR proteins, together with recent insights provided by the structure of SGT1-HSP90 complex, have begun to uncover the mechanisms by which immune NLR sensors are regulated. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Multiple Conformations of E. Coli Hsp90 in Solution: Insights Into the Conformational Dynamics of Hsp90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krukenberg, K.A.; Forster, F.; Rice, L.M.; Sali, A.; Agard, D.A.

    2009-05-20

    Hsp90, an essential eukaryotic chaperone, depends upon its intrinsic ATPase activity for function. Crystal structures of the bacterial Hsp90 homolog, HtpG, and the yeast Hsp90 reveal large domain rearrangements between the nucleotide-free and the nucleotide-bound forms. We used small-angle X-ray scattering and recently developed molecular modeling methods to characterize the solution structure of HtpG and demonstrate how it differs from known Hsp90 conformations. In addition to this HtpG conformation, we demonstrate that under physiologically relevant conditions, multiple conformations coexist in equilibrium. In solution, nucleotide-free HtpG adopts a more extended conformation than observed in the crystal, and upon the addition of AMPPNP, HtpG is in equilibrium between this open state and a closed state that is in good agreement with the yeast AMPPNP crystal structure. These studies provide a unique view of Hsp90 conformational dynamics and provide a model for the role of nucleotide in effecting conformational change.

  14. The soluble recombinant Neisseria meningitidis adhesin NadA(Δ351-405) stimulates human monocytes by binding to extracellular Hsp90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchini, Paola; Tavano, Regina; Polverino de Laureto, Patrizia; Franzoso, Susanna; Mazzon, Cristina; Montanari, Paolo; Papini, Emanuele

    2011-01-01

    The adhesin NadA favors cell adhesion/invasion by hypervirulent Neisseria meningitidis B (MenB). Its recombinant form NadA(Δ351-405,) devoid of the outer membrane domain, is an immunogenic candidate for an anti-MenB vaccine able to stimulate monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. In this study we investigated the molecular mechanism of NadA(Δ351-405) cellular effects in monocytes. We show that NadA(Δ351-405) (against which we obtained polyclonal antibodies in rabbits), binds to hsp90, but not to other extracellular homologous heat shock proteins grp94 and hsp70, in vitro and on the surface of monocytes, in a temperature dependent way. Pre-incubation of monocytes with the MenB soluble adhesin interfered with the binding of anti-hsp90 and anti-hsp70 antibodies to hsp90 and hsp70 at 37°C, a condition in which specific cell-binding occurs, but not at 0°C, a condition in which specific cell-binding is very diminished. Conversely, pre-incubation of monocytes with anti-hsp90 and anti-hsp70 antibodies did not affected NadA(Δ351-405) cell binding in any temperature condition, indicating that it associates to another receptor on their plasma membrane and then laterally diffuses to encounter hsp90. Consistently, polymixin B interfered with NadA(Δ351-405) /hsp90 association, abrogated the decrease of anti-hsp90 antibodies binding to the cell surface due to NadA(Δ351-405) and inhibited adhesin-induced cytokine/chemokine secretion without affecting monocyte-adhesin binding. Co-stimulation of monocytes with anti-hsp90 antibodies and NadA(Δ351-405) determined a stronger but polymixin B insensitive cell activation. This indicated that the formation of a recombinant NadA/hsp90/hsp70 complex, although essential for full monocyte stimulation, can be replaced by anti-hsp90 antibody/hsp90 binding. Finally, the activation of monocytes by NadA(Δ351-405) alone or in the presence of anti-hsp90 antibodies were both inhibited by neutralizing anti-TLR4 antibodies, but not by

  15. Antiviral evaluation of an Hsp90 inhibitor, gedunin, against dengue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    including herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Zaire EBOV in vitro [10,11]. It has been observed for several viruses, including Ebola, Influenza, DENV, and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), that many proteins of these viruses require Hsp90 for their folding, assembly, and ...

  16. Antiviral evaluation of an Hsp90 inhibitor, gedunin, against dengue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conducted to evaluate the inhibitory potential of gedunin against DENV-2 replicon in cell culture. Further, molecular docking was performed in order to investigate the possible interaction of gedunin with Hsp90. The results of this study will aid in the development of more effective therapeutics to treat dengue virus infections.

  17. Antiviral evaluation of an Hsp90 inhibitor, gedunin, against dengue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the antiviral potential of a tetranortriterpenoid, gedunin, against dengue virus (DENV) replication by targeting the host chaperone, Hsp90. Methods: The compound, gedunin, was tested against the replication of DENV in vitro using BHK-15 cells transfected with DENV-2 subgenomic replicon. Molecular ...

  18. Regulation of Nod1 by Hsp90 chaperone complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Ji-Sook

    2005-08-15

    Nod1 and Nod2 proteins play important roles in mammalian innate immune responses as intracellular sensors for bacterial peptidoglycan. Nod1 and Nod2 share structural homology with many R proteins involved in plant disease resistance. It has been demonstrated that plant Hsp90 and its co-chaperone RAR1 are implicated in R-mediated disease resistance. Here the Chp-1 gene encoding a mammalian homologue of plant RAR1 was identified as a new target for transcriptional activation by heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), a stress-responsive HSF isoform. In addition, Nod1 is demonstrated to be a client protein of the Hsp90 chaperone complex containing the Chp-1. Chp-1 interacts with the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain of protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) and the ATPase domain of Hsp90 via two distinct zinc-binding cysteine and histidine rich domains (CHORDs). These findings suggest a common regulatory mechanism involving the Hsp90 chaperone complex in R-mediated disease resistance in plants and Nod1-mediated innate immune response in mammals.

  19. The Hsp70/Hsp90 Chaperone Machinery in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackie, Rachel E.; Maciejewski, Andrzej; Ostapchenko, Valeriy G.; Marques-Lopes, Jose; Choy, Wing-Yiu; Duennwald, Martin L.; Prado, Vania F.; Prado, Marco A. M.

    2017-01-01

    The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the human brain is one of the critical features of many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Assembles of beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptide—either soluble (oligomers) or insoluble (plaques) and of tau protein, which form neurofibrillary tangles, are the major hallmarks of AD. Chaperones and co-chaperones regulate protein folding and client maturation, but they also target misfolded or aggregated proteins for refolding or for degradation, mostly by the proteasome. They form an important line of defense against misfolded proteins and are part of the cellular quality control system. The heat shock protein (Hsp) family, particularly Hsp70 and Hsp90, plays a major part in this process and it is well-known to regulate protein misfolding in a variety of diseases, including tau levels and toxicity in AD. However, the role of Hsp90 in regulating protein misfolding is not yet fully understood. For example, knockdown of Hsp90 and its co-chaperones in a Caenorhabditis elegans model of Aβ misfolding leads to increased toxicity. On the other hand, the use of Hsp90 inhibitors in AD mouse models reduces Aβ toxicity, and normalizes synaptic function. Stress-inducible phosphoprotein 1 (STI1), an intracellular co-chaperone, mediates the transfer of clients from Hsp70 to Hsp90. Importantly, STI1 has been shown to regulate aggregation of amyloid-like proteins in yeast. In addition to its intracellular function, STI1 can be secreted by diverse cell types, including astrocytes and microglia and function as a neurotrophic ligand by triggering signaling via the cellular prion protein (PrPC). Extracellular STI1 can prevent Aβ toxic signaling by (i) interfering with Aβ binding to PrPC and (ii) triggering pro-survival signaling cascades. Interestingly, decreased levels of STI1 in C. elegans can also increase toxicity in an amyloid model. In this review, we will discuss the role of intracellular and extracellular STI1 and the

  20. The Hsp70/Hsp90 Chaperone Machinery in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Lackie

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the human brain is one of the critical features of many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD. Assembles of beta-amyloid (Aβ peptide—either soluble (oligomers or insoluble (plaques and of tau protein, which form neurofibrillary tangles, are the major hallmarks of AD. Chaperones and co-chaperones regulate protein folding and client maturation, but they also target misfolded or aggregated proteins for refolding or for degradation, mostly by the proteasome. They form an important line of defense against misfolded proteins and are part of the cellular quality control system. The heat shock protein (Hsp family, particularly Hsp70 and Hsp90, plays a major part in this process and it is well-known to regulate protein misfolding in a variety of diseases, including tau levels and toxicity in AD. However, the role of Hsp90 in regulating protein misfolding is not yet fully understood. For example, knockdown of Hsp90 and its co-chaperones in a Caenorhabditis elegans model of Aβ misfolding leads to increased toxicity. On the other hand, the use of Hsp90 inhibitors in AD mouse models reduces Aβ toxicity, and normalizes synaptic function. Stress-inducible phosphoprotein 1 (STI1, an intracellular co-chaperone, mediates the transfer of clients from Hsp70 to Hsp90. Importantly, STI1 has been shown to regulate aggregation of amyloid-like proteins in yeast. In addition to its intracellular function, STI1 can be secreted by diverse cell types, including astrocytes and microglia and function as a neurotrophic ligand by triggering signaling via the cellular prion protein (PrPC. Extracellular STI1 can prevent Aβ toxic signaling by (i interfering with Aβ binding to PrPC and (ii triggering pro-survival signaling cascades. Interestingly, decreased levels of STI1 in C. elegans can also increase toxicity in an amyloid model. In this review, we will discuss the role of intracellular and extracellular

  1. Tel2 structure and function in the Hsp90-dependent maturation of mTOR and ATR complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takai, Hiroyuki; Xie, Yihu; de Lange, Titia; Pavletich, Nikola P. (Rockefeller); (SKI)

    2010-09-20

    We reported previously that the stability of all mammalian phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinases (PIKKs) depends on their interaction with Tel2, the ortholog of yeast Tel2 and Caenorhabditis elegans Clk-2. Here we provide evidence that Tel2 acts with Hsp90 in the maturation of PIKK complexes. Quantitative immunoblotting showed that the abundance of Tel2 is low compared with the PIKKs, and Tel2 preferentially bound newly synthesized ATM, ATR, mTOR, and DNA-PKcs. Tel2 complexes contained, in addition to Tti1-Tti2, the Hsp90 chaperone, and inhibition of Hsp90 interfered with the interaction of Tel2 with the PIKKs. Analysis of in vivo labeled nascent protein complexes showed that Tel2 and Hsp90 mediate the formation of the mTOR TORC1 and TORC2 complexes and the association of ATR with ATRIP. The structure of yeast Tel2, reported here, shows that Tel2 consists of HEAT-like helical repeats that assemble into two separate {alpha}-solenoids. Through mutagenesis, we identify a surface patch of conserved residues involved in binding to the Tti1-Tti2 complex in vitro. In vivo, mutation of this conserved patch affects cell growth, levels of PIKKs, and ATM/ATR-mediated checkpoint signaling, highlighting the importance of Tti1-Tti2 binding to the function of Tel2. Taken together, our data suggest that the Tel2-Tti1-Tti2 complex is a PIKK-specific cochaperone for Hsp90.

  2. The HSP90 Inhibitor Ganetespib Radiosensitizes Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Casal, Roberto; Bhattacharya, Chitralekha [The University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Department of Medicine, The University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Epperly, Michael W. [The University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Basse, Per H. [The University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Department of Immunology, The University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Wang, Hong [The University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Department of Biostatistics, The University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Wang, Xinhui [Harvard Medical School, Harvard University, 25 Shattuck Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Proia, David A. [Synta Pharmaceuticals Corp., 45 Hartwell Avenue, Lexington, MA 02421 (United States); Greenberger, Joel S. [The University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Socinski, Mark A.; Levina, Vera, E-mail: levinav@upmc.edu [The University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Department of Medicine, The University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2015-05-22

    The molecular chaperone HSP90 is involved in stabilization and function of multiple client proteins, many of which represent important oncogenic drivers in NSCLC. Utilization of HSP90 inhibitors as radiosensitizing agents is a promising approach. The antitumor activity of ganetespib, HSP90 inhibitor, was evaluated in human lung adenocarcinoma (AC) cells for its ability to potentiate the effects of IR treatment in both in vitro and in vivo. The cytotoxic effects of ganetespib included; G2/M cell cycle arrest, inhibition of DNA repair, apoptosis induction, and promotion of senescence. All of these antitumor effects were both concentration- and time-dependent. Both pretreatment and post-radiation treatment with ganetespib at low nanomolar concentrations induced radiosensitization in lung AC cells in vitro. Ganetespib may impart radiosensitization through multiple mechanisms: such as down regulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway; diminished DNA repair capacity and promotion of cellular senescence. In vivo, ganetespib reduced growth of T2821 tumor xenografts in mice and sensitized tumors to IR. Tumor irradiation led to dramatic upregulation of β-catenin expression in tumor tissues, an effect that was mitigated in T2821 xenografts when ganetespib was combined with IR treatments. These data highlight the promise of combining ganetespib with IR therapies in the treatment of AC lung tumors.

  3. Assessment and Reconstruction of Novel HSP90 Genes: Duplications, Gains and Losses in Fungal and Animal Lineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantzartzi, Chrysoula N.; Drosopoulou, Elena; Scouras, Zacharias G.

    2013-01-01

    Hsp90s, members of the Heat Shock Protein class, protect the structure and function of proteins and play a significant task in cellular homeostasis and signal transduction. In order to determine the number of hsp90 gene copies and encoded proteins in fungal and animal lineages and through that key duplication events that this family has undergone, we collected and evaluated Hsp90 protein sequences and corresponding Expressed Sequence Tags and analyzed available genomes from various taxa. We provide evidence for duplication events affecting either single species or wider taxonomic groups. With regard to Fungi, duplicated genes have been detected in several lineages. In invertebrates, we demonstrate key duplication events in certain clades of Arthropoda and Mollusca, and a possible gene loss event in a hymenopteran family. Finally, we infer that the duplication event responsible for the two (a and b) isoforms in vertebrates occurred probably shortly after the split of Hyperoartia and Gnathostomata. PMID:24066039

  4. Role of oxidative stress in Geldanamycin-induced cytotoxicity and disruption of Hsp90 signaling complex

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Christina B.; Rane, Madhavi J.; Mehdi, Delphine El; Miller, Cynthia J; Sachleben, Leroy R.; Gozal, Evelyne

    2009-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a chaperone protein regulating PC-12 cell survival by binding and stabilizing Akt, Raf-1, and Cdc37. Hsp90 inhibitor Geldanamycin (GA) cytotoxicity has been attributed to disruption of Hsp90 binding, and the contribution of oxidative stress generated by its quinone group has not been studied in this context.

  5. Targeting Plasmodium falciparum Hsp90: Towards Reversing Antimalarial Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dea Shahinas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Malaria continues to exact a great human toll in tropical settings. Antimalarial resistance is rife and the parasite inexorably develops mechanisms to outwit our best drugs, including the now first-line choice, artesunate. Novel strategies to circumvent resistance are needed. Here we detail drug development focusing on heat shock protein 90 and its central role as a chaperone. A growing body of evidence supports the role for Hsp90 inhibitors as adjunctive drugs able to restore susceptibility to traditionally efficacious compounds like chloroquine.

  6. High-Throughput Screen of Natural Product Libraries for Hsp90 Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Davenport

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hsp90 has become the target of intensive investigation, as inhibition of its function has the ability to simultaneously incapacitate proteins that function in pathways that represent the six hallmarks of cancer. While a number of Hsp90 inhibitors have made it into clinical trials, a number of short-comings have been noted, such that the search continues for novel Hsp90 inhibitors with superior pharmacological properties. To identify new potential Hsp90 inhibitors, we have utilized a high-throughput assay based on measuring Hsp90-dependent refolding of thermally denatured luciferase to screen natural compound libraries. Over 4,000 compounds were screen with over 100 hits. Data mining of the literature indicated that 51 compounds had physiological effects that Hsp90 inhibitors also exhibit, and/or the ability to downregulate the expression levels of Hsp90-dependent proteins. Of these 51 compounds, seven were previously characterized as Hsp90 inhibitors. Four compounds, anthothecol, garcinol, piplartine, and rottlerin, were further characterized, and the ability of these compounds to inhibit the refolding of luciferase, and reduce the rate of growth of MCF7 breast cancer cells, correlated with their ability to suppress the Hsp90-dependent maturation of the heme-regulated eIF2α kinase, and deplete cultured cells of Hsp90-dependent client proteins. Thus, this screen has identified an additional 44 compounds with known beneficial pharmacological properties, but with unknown mechanisms of action as possible new inhibitors of the Hsp90 chaperone machine.

  7. Repercussion of mitochondria deformity induced by anti-Hsp90 drug 17AAG in human tumor cells

    KAUST Repository

    Vishal, Chaturvedi

    2011-06-07

    Inhibiting Hsp90 chaperone roles using 17AAG induces cytostasis or apoptosis in tumor cells through destabilization of several mutated cancer promoting proteins. Although mitochondria are central in deciding the fate of cells, 17AAG induced effects on tumor cell mitochondria were largely unknown. Here, we show that Hsp90 inhibition with 17AAG first affects mitochondrial integrity in different human tumor cells, neuroblastoma, cervical cancer and glial cells. Using human neuroblastoma tumor cells, we found the early effects associated with a change in mitochondrial membrane potential, elongation and engorgement of mitochondria because of an increased matrix vacuolization. These effects are specific to Hsp90 inhibition as other chemotherapeutic drugs did not induce similar mitochondrial deformity. Further, the effects are independent of oxidative damage and cytoarchitecture destabilization since cytoskeletal disruptors and mitochondrial metabolic inhibitors also do not induce similar deformity induced by 17AAG. The 1D PAGE LC MS/ MS mitochondrial proteome analysis of 17AAG treated human neuroblastoma cells showed a loss of 61% proteins from membrane, metabolic, chaperone and ribonucleoprotein families. About 31 unmapped protein IDs were identified from proteolytic processing map using Swiss-Prot accession number, and converted to the matching gene name searching the ExPASy proteomics server. Our studies display that Hsp90 inhibition effects at first embark on mitochondria of tumor cells and compromise mitochondrial integrity. the author(s), publisher and licensee Libertas Academica Ltd.

  8. Characterization of an Hsp90-independent interaction between the co-chaperone p23 and the transcription factor p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huiwen; Hyun, Jashil; Martinez-Yamout, Maria A; Park, Sung Jean; Dyson, Jane

    2018-01-15

    The cancer-suppressing transcription factor p53 is regulated by a wide variety of cellular factors, including many chaperones. The DNA-binding domain (DBD) of p53 is known to interact with the chaperone Hsp90, but the role of other members of the chaperone network, including co-chaperones such as p23 is unknown. Using a combination of NMR titration, isothermal titration calorimetry, fluorescence anisotropy and native agarose gel electrophoresis, we have identified a direct interaction between the p53 DBD and the Hsp90 co-chaperone p23 that occurs in the absence of Hsp90. The affinity is relatively weak, and largely determined by electrostatic interactions between the acidic C-terminal disordered tail of p23 and the two DNA binding regions of p53 DBD. We show by NMR and native agarose gel electrophoresis that a p53-specific double-stranded DNA sequence competes successfully with p23 for binding to the p53 DBD. The Hsp90-independence of the interaction between p23 and p53 DBD, together with the p23-DNA competition for p53, raise the intriguing possibility that p23, like other small charged proteins, may affect the p53 in hitherto-unknown ways.

  9. Co-crystalization and in vitro biological characterization of 5-aryl-4-(5-substituted-2-4-dihydroxyphenyl-1,2,3-thiadiazole Hsp90 inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swee Y Sharp

    Full Text Available A potential therapeutic strategy for targeting cancer that has gained much interest is the inhibition of the ATP binding and ATPase activity of the molecular chaperone Hsp90. We have determined the structure of the human Hsp90α N-terminal domain in complex with a series of 5-aryl-4-(5-substituted-2-4-dihydroxyphenyl-1,2,3-thiadiazoles. The structures provide the molecular details for the activity of these inhibitors. One of these inhibitors, ICPD 34, causes a structural change that affects a mobile loop, which adopts a conformation similar to that seen in complexes with ADP, rather than the conformation generally seen with the pyrazole/isoxazole-resorcinol class of inhibitors. Competitive binding to the Hsp90 N-terminal domain was observed in a biochemical assay, and these compounds showed antiproliferative activity and induced apoptosis in the HCT116 human colon cancer cell line. These inhibitors also caused induction of the heat shock response with the upregulation of Hsp72 and Hsp27 protein expression and the depletion of Hsp90 clients, CRAF, ERBB2 and CDK4, thus confirming that antiproliferative activity was through the inhibition of Hsp90. The presence of increased levels of the cleavage product of PARP indicated apoptosis in response to Hsp90 inhibitors. This work provides a framework for the further optimization of thiadiazole inhibitors of Hsp90. Importantly, we demonstrate that the thiadiazole inhibitors display a more limited core set of interactions relative to the clinical trial candidate NVP-AUY922, and consequently may be less susceptible to resistance derived through mutations in Hsp90.

  10. Cloning and Expression of a Cytosolic HSP90 Gene in Chlorella vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyi Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90, a highly conserved molecular chaperone, plays essential roles in folding, keeping structural integrity, and regulating the subset of cytosolic proteins. We cloned the cDNA of Chlorella vulgaris HSP90 (named CvHSP90 by combining homology cloning with rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE. Sequence analysis indicated that CvHSP90 is a cytosolic member of the HSP90 family. Quantitative RT-PCR was applied to determine the expression level of messenger RNA (mRNA in CvHSP90 under different stress conditions. C. vulgaris was kept in different temperatures (5–45°C for 1 h. The mRNA expression level of CvHSP90 increased with temperature from 5 to 10°C, went further from 35 to 40°C, and reached the maximum at 40°C. On the other hand, for C. vulgaris kept at 35°C for different durations, the mRNA expression level of CvHSP90 increased gradually and reached the peak at 7 h and then declined progressively. In addition, the expression level of CvHSP90 at 40 or 45 in salinity (‰ was almost fourfold of that at 25 in salinity (‰ for 2 h. Therefore, CvHSP90 may be a potential biomarker to monitor environment changes.

  11. The Double-Edged Sword: Conserved Functions of Extracellular Hsp90 in Wound Healing and Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hance, Michael W.; Nolan, Krystal D.; Isaacs, Jennifer S., E-mail: isaacsj@musc.edu [Department of Cell and Molecular Pharmacology, Medical University of South Carolina, Hollings Cancer Center, Charleston, SC 29412 (United States)

    2014-05-06

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) represent a diverse group of chaperones that play a vital role in the protection of cells against numerous environmental stresses. Although our understanding of chaperone biology has deepened over the last decade, the “atypical” extracellular functions of Hsps have remained somewhat enigmatic and comparatively understudied. The heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) chaperone is a prototypic model for an Hsp family member exhibiting a duality of intracellular and extracellular functions. Intracellular Hsp90 is best known as a master regulator of protein folding. Cancers are particularly adept at exploiting this function of Hsp90, providing the impetus for the robust clinical development of small molecule Hsp90 inhibitors. However, in addition to its maintenance of protein homeostasis, Hsp90 has also been identified as an extracellular protein. Although early reports ascribed immunoregulatory functions to extracellular Hsp90 (eHsp90), recent studies have illuminated expanded functions for eHsp90 in wound healing and cancer. While the intended physiological role of eHsp90 remains enigmatic, its evolutionarily conserved functions in wound healing are easily co-opted during malignancy, a pathology sharing many properties of wounded tissue. This review will highlight the emerging functions of eHsp90 and shed light on its seemingly dichotomous roles as a benevolent facilitator of wound healing and as a sinister effector of tumor progression.

  12. The Double-Edged Sword: Conserved Functions of Extracellular Hsp90 in Wound Healing and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Hance

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins (Hsps represent a diverse group of chaperones that play a vital role in the protection of cells against numerous environmental stresses. Although our understanding of chaperone biology has deepened over the last decade, the “atypical” extracellular functions of Hsps have remained somewhat enigmatic and comparatively understudied. The heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 chaperone is a prototypic model for an Hsp family member exhibiting a duality of intracellular and extracellular functions. Intracellular Hsp90 is best known as a master regulator of protein folding. Cancers are particularly adept at exploiting this function of Hsp90, providing the impetus for the robust clinical development of small molecule Hsp90 inhibitors. However, in addition to its maintenance of protein homeostasis, Hsp90 has also been identified as an extracellular protein. Although early reports ascribed immunoregulatory functions to extracellular Hsp90 (eHsp90, recent studies have illuminated expanded functions for eHsp90 in wound healing and cancer. While the intended physiological role of eHsp90 remains enigmatic, its evolutionarily conserved functions in wound healing are easily co-opted during malignancy, a pathology sharing many properties of wounded tissue. This review will highlight the emerging functions of eHsp90 and shed light on its seemingly dichotomous roles as a benevolent facilitator of wound healing and as a sinister effector of tumor progression.

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of the full-length Hsp90 gene from Matricaria recutita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, S P; Su, S S; Zhang, H M; Zhang, X S; Liu, X Y; Pan, G F; Yuan, Y

    2014-12-19

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is one of the most abundant and conserved chaperone proteins and plays important roles in plant growth and responses to environmental stimuli. However, little is known regarding the sequence and function of Hsp90s in Matricaria recutita. In the present study, we cloned the full-length cDNA sequence of the hsp90 gene from this species. Using rapid amplification of cDNA ends technologies with 2 degenerate primers that were designed based on the hsp90 gene sequence from other members of Asteraceae, we isolated and characterized an Hsp90 homolog gene from M. recutita (Mr-Hsp90). The full-length Mr-hsp90 cDNA sequence, containing 2097 base pairs, encodes a protein of 698 amino acids. Based on amino acid sequence identity, Mr-Hsp90 showed high similarity to other cloned Hsp90 proteins. The Mr-Hsp90 protein was closely clustered with the Lactuca sativa in a phylogenetic tree. These results indicate that the cloned sequence of Mr-Hsp90 is a member of the Hsp90 family, which is reported for the first time in M. recutita. Next, we conducted a salt stress experiment to determine the protein's function under salt stress conditions. Survival of chamomile seedlings subjected to heat-shock pretreatment was significantly increased compared with groups that had not undergone heat-shock pretreatment in a salt stress environment. This indicates that Mr-Hsp90 plays an important role in the salt resistance of chamomile seedlings.

  14. The MI-1-mediated pest resistance requires Hsp90 and Sgt1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Kishor K; Li, Qi; Liu, Yule; Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma P; Kaloshian, Isgouhi

    2007-05-01

    The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Mi-1 gene encodes a protein with putative coiled-coil nucleotide-binding site and leucine-rich repeat motifs. Mi-1 confers resistance to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), potato aphids (Macrosiphum euphorbiae), and sweet potato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci). To identify genes required in the Mi-1-mediated resistance to nematodes and aphids, we used tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-based virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) to repress candidate genes and assay for nematode and aphid resistance. We targeted Sgt1 (suppressor of G-two allele of Skp1), Rar1 (required for Mla12 resistance), and Hsp90 (heat shock protein 90), which are known to participate early in resistance gene signaling pathways. Two Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Sgt1 genes exist and one has been implicated in disease resistance. Thus far the sequence of only one Sgt1 ortholog is known in tomato. To design gene-specific VIGS constructs, we cloned a second tomato Sgt1 gene, Sgt1-2. The gene-specific VIGS construct TRV-SlSgt1-1 resulted in lethality, while silencing Sgt1-2 using TRV-SlSgt1-2 did not result in lethal phenotype. Aphid and root-knot nematode assays of Sgt1-2-silenced plants indicated no role for Sgt1-2 in Mi-1-mediated resistance. A Nicotiana benthamiana Sgt1 VIGS construct silencing both Sgt1-1 and Sgt1-2 yielded live plants and identified a role for Sgt1 in Mi-1-mediated aphid resistance. Silencing of Rar1 did not affect Mi-1-mediated nematode and aphid resistance and demonstrated that Rar1 is not required for Mi-1 resistance. Silencing Hsp90-1 resulted in attenuation of Mi-1-mediated aphid and nematode resistance and indicated a role for Hsp90-1. The requirement for Sgt1 and Hsp90-1 in Mi-1-mediated resistance provides further evidence for common components in early resistance gene defense signaling against diverse pathogens and pests.

  15. Hsp90 inhibition destabilizes Ezh2 protein in alloreactive T cells and reduces graft-versus-host disease in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qingrong; He, Shan; Tian, Yuanyuan; Gu, Yuting; Chen, Pan; Li, Changhong; Huang, Jiefang; Liu, Yongnian; Yu, Hongshuang; Jin, Min; Hu, Shaoyan; Tong, Qing; Ma, Anqi; Jin, Jian; Hexner, Elizabeth; Fung, Henry; Reshef, Ran; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Yanyun

    2017-05-18

    Modulating T-cell alloreactivity has been a main strategy to reduce graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), a life-threatening complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). Genetic deletion of T-cell Ezh2, which catalyzes trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3), inhibits GVHD. Therefore, reducing Ezh2-mediated H3K27me3 is thought to be essential for inhibiting GVHD. We tested this hypothesis in mouse GVHD models. Unexpectedly, administration of the Ezh2 inhibitor GSK126, which specifically decreases H3K27me3 without affecting Ezh2 protein, failed to prevent the disease. In contrast, destabilizing T-cell Ezh2 protein by inhibiting Hsp90 using its specific inhibitor AUY922 reduced GVHD in mice undergoing allogeneic HSCT. In vivo administration of AUY922 selectively induced apoptosis of activated T cells and decreased the production of effector cells producing interferon γ and tumor necrosis factor α, similar to genetic deletion of Ezh2. Introduction of Ezh2 into alloreactive T cells restored their expansion and production of effector cytokines upon AUY922 treatment, suggesting that impaired T-cell alloreactivity by inhibiting Hsp90 is achieved mainly through depleting Ezh2. Mechanistic analysis revealed that the enzymatic SET domain of Ezh2 directly interacted with Hsp90 to prevent Ezh2 from rapid degradation in activated T cells. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of Hsp90 preserved antileukemia activity of donor T cells, leading to improved overall survival of recipient mice after allogeneic HSCT. Our findings identify the Ezh2-Hsp90 interaction as a previously unrecognized mechanism essential for T-cell responses and an effective target for controlling GVHD. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  16. Extracellular Hsp90 as a Novel Epigenetic of EMT and Metastatic Risk in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    cadherin can also stimulate Wnt activation, and lead to EMT events, we also utilized CRISPR technology to downregulate E-cadherin (Task 3b). Although this...studies also suggest that eHsp90 may enhance the stem-like cell diversity existing within populations, which would be predicted to further confound...reported that secreted extracellular Hsp90 (eHsp90) initiates EMT in prostate cancer cells, coincident with its enhanced expression in mesenchymal models

  17. Hsp90 orchestrates transcriptional regulation by Hsf1 and cell wall remodelling by MAPK signalling during thermal adaptation in a pathogenic yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle D Leach

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal adaptation is essential in all organisms. In yeasts, the heat shock response is commanded by the heat shock transcription factor Hsf1. Here we have integrated unbiased genetic screens with directed molecular dissection to demonstrate that multiple signalling cascades contribute to thermal adaptation in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. We show that the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 interacts with and down-regulates Hsf1 thereby modulating short term thermal adaptation. In the longer term, thermal adaptation depends on key MAP kinase signalling pathways that are associated with cell wall remodelling: the Hog1, Mkc1 and Cek1 pathways. We demonstrate that these pathways are differentially activated and display cross talk during heat shock. As a result ambient temperature significantly affects the resistance of C. albicans cells to cell wall stresses (Calcofluor White and Congo Red, but not osmotic stress (NaCl. We also show that the inactivation of MAP kinase signalling disrupts this cross talk between thermal and cell wall adaptation. Critically, Hsp90 coordinates this cross talk. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of Hsp90 disrupts the Hsf1-Hsp90 regulatory circuit thereby disturbing HSP gene regulation and reducing the resistance of C. albicans to proteotoxic stresses. Hsp90 depletion also affects cell wall biogenesis by impairing the activation of its client proteins Mkc1 and Hog1, as well as Cek1, which we implicate as a new Hsp90 client in this study. Therefore Hsp90 modulates the short term Hsf1-mediated activation of the classic heat shock response, coordinating this response with long term thermal adaptation via Mkc1- Hog1- and Cek1-mediated cell wall remodelling.

  18. Sulforaphane inhibits pancreatic cancer through disrupting Hsp90-p50(Cdc37) complex and direct interactions with amino acids residues of Hsp90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanyan; Karagöz, G Elif; Seo, Young Ho; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Yiqun; Yu, Yanke; Duarte, Afonso M S; Schwartz, Steven J; Boelens, Rolf; Carroll, Kate; Rüdiger, Stefan G D; Sun, Duxin

    2012-12-01

    Sulforaphane [1-isothiocyanato-4-(methyl-sulfinyl) butane)], an isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, has been shown to possess potent chemopreventive activity. We analyzed the effect of sulforaphane on the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells. Sulforaphane inhibited pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro with IC(50)s of around 10-15 μM and induced apoptosis. In pancreatic cancer xenograft mouse model, administration of sulforaphane showed remarkable inhibition of tumor growth without apparent toxicity noticed. We found that sulforaphane induced the degradation of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) client proteins and blocked the interaction of Hsp90 with its cochaperone p50(Cdc37) in pancreatic cancer cells. Using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) with an isoleucine-specific labeling strategy, we overcame the protein size limit of conventional NMR and studied the interaction of sulforaphane with full-length Hsp90 dimer (170 kDa) in solution. NMR revealed multiple chemical shifts in sheet 2 and the adjacent loop in Hsp90 N-terminal domain after incubation of Hsp90 with sulforaphane. Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry further mapped a short peptide in this region that was tagged with sulforaphane. These data suggest a new mechanism of sulforaphane that disrupts protein-protein interaction in Hsp90 complex for its chemopreventive activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sulforaphane inhibits pancreatic cancer through disrupting Hsp90-p50Cdc37 complex and direct interactions with amino acids residues of Hsp90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanyan; Karagöz, G. Elif; Seo, Young Ho; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Yiqun; Yu, Yanke; Duarte, Afonso M.S.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Boelens, Rolf; Carroll, Kate; Rüdiger, Stefan G. D.; Sun, Duxin

    2011-01-01

    Sulforaphane [1-isothiocyanato-4-(methyl-sulfinyl) butane)], an isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, has been shown to possess potent chemopreventive activity. We analyzed the effect of sulforaphane on the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells. Sulforaphane inhibited pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro with the IC50's around 10-15 μM and induced apoptosis. In pancreatic cancer xenograft mouse model, administration of sulforaphane showed remarkable inhibition of tumor growth without apparent toxicity noticed. We found that sulforaphane induced the degradation of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) client proteins and blocked the interaction of Hsp90 with its cochaperone p50Cdc37 in pancreatic cancer cells. Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR) with an isoleucine-specific labeling strategy, we overcame the protein size limit of conventional NMR and studied the interaction of sulforaphane with full-length Hsp90 dimer (170 kDa) in solution. NMR revealed multiple chemical shifts in sheet 2 and the adjacent loop in Hsp90 N-terminal domain after incubation of Hsp90 with sulforaphane. Liquid Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) further mapped a short peptide in this region that was tagged with sulforaphane. These data suggest a new mechanism of sulforaphane that disrupts protein-protein interaction in Hsp90 complex for its chemopreventive activity. PMID:22444872

  20. Decreased Hsp90 expression in infiltrative lobular carcinoma: an immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zagouri Flora

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated Hsp90 expression has been documented in breast ductal carcinomas, whereas decreased Hsp90 expression has been reported in precursor lobular lesions. This study aims to assess Hsp90 expression in infiltrative lobular carcinomas of the breast. Methods Tissue specimens were taken from 32 patients with infiltrative lobular carcinoma. Immunohistochemical assessment of Hsp90 was performed both in the lesion and the adjacent normal breast ducts and lobules; the latter serving as control. Concerning Hsp90 assessment: i the percentage of positive cells and ii the intensity were separately analyzed. Subsequently, the Allred score was adopted and calculated. The intensity was treated as an ordinal variable-score (0: negative, low: 1, moderate: 2, high: 3. Statistical analysis followed. Results All infiltrative lobular carcinoma foci mainly presented with a positive cytoplasmic immunoreaction for Hsp90. Compared to the adjacent normal ducts and lobules, infiltrative lobular carcinoma exhibited a statistically significant decrease in Hsp90 expression, both in terms of Hsp90 positive cells (% and Allred score (74.2 ± 11.2 vs. 59.1 ± 14.2 p = 0.0001; 7.00 ± 0.95 vs. 6.22 ± 1.01, p = 0.007, Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test. Concerning the intensity of Hsp90 immunostaining only a marginal decrease was noted (2.16 ± 0.68 vs. 1.84 ± 0.63, p = 0.087, Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test. Conclusion ILC lesions seem to exhibit decreased Hsp90 expression, a finding contrary to what might have been expected, given that high Hsp90 expression is a trait of invasive ductal carcinomas.

  1. Molecular analysis of common wheat genes encoding three types of cytosolic heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90): functional involvement of cytosolic Hsp90s in the control of wheat seedling growth and disease resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan-Feng; Wei, Xuening; Fan, Renchun; Zhou, Huanbin; Wang, Xianping; Yu, Chunmei; Dong, Lingli; Dong, Zhenying; Wang, Xiaojie; Kang, Zhensheng; Ling, Hongqing; Shen, Qian-Hua; Wang, Daowen; Zhang, Xiangqi

    2011-07-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) molecular chaperones play important roles in plant growth and responses to environmental stimuli. However, little is known about the genes encoding Hsp90s in common wheat. Here, we report genetic and functional analysis of the genes specifying cytosolic Hsp90s in this species. Three groups of homoeologous genes (TaHsp90.1, TaHsp90.2 and TaHsp90.3), encoding three types of cytosolic Hsp90, were isolated. The loci containing TaHsp90.1, TaHsp90.2 and TaHsp90.3 genes were assigned to groups 2, 7 and 5 chromosomes, respectively. TaHsp90.1 genes exhibited higher transcript levels in the stamen than in the leaf, root and culm. TaHsp90.2 and TaHsp90.3 genes were more ubiquitously transcribed in the vegetative and reproductive organs examined. Decreasing the expression of TaHsp90.1 genes through virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) caused pronounced inhibition of wheat seedling growth, whereas the suppression of TaHsp90.2 or TaHsp90.3 genes via VIGS compromised the hypersensitive resistance response of the wheat variety Suwon 11 to stripe rust fungus. Our work represents the first systematic determination of wheat genes encoding cytosolic Hsp90s, and provides useful evidence for the functional involvement of cytosolic Hsp90s in the control of seedling growth and disease resistance in common wheat. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Integration of gene dosage and gene expression in non-small cell lung cancer, identification of HSP90 as potential target.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariëlle I Gallegos Ruiz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lung cancer causes approximately 1.2 million deaths per year worldwide, and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC represents 85% of all lung cancers. Understanding the molecular events in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC is essential to improve early diagnosis and treatment for this disease. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In an attempt to identify novel NSCLC related genes, we performed a genome-wide screening of chromosomal copy number changes affecting gene expression using microarray based comparative genomic hybridization and gene expression arrays on 32 radically resected tumor samples from stage I and II NSCLC patients. An integrative analysis tool was applied to determine whether chromosomal copy number affects gene expression. We identified a deletion on 14q32.2-33 as a common alteration in NSCLC (44%, which significantly influenced gene expression for HSP90, residing on 14q32. This deletion was correlated with better overall survival (P = 0.008, survival was also longer in patients whose tumors had low expression levels of HSP90. We extended the analysis to three independent validation sets of NSCLC patients, and confirmed low HSP90 expression to be related with longer overall survival (P = 0.003, P = 0.07 and P = 0.04. Furthermore, in vitro treatment with an HSP90 inhibitor had potent antiproliferative activity in NSCLC cell lines. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that targeting HSP90 will have clinical impact for NSCLC patients.

  3. Inhibiting heat shock protein 90 (HSP90 limits the formation of liver cysts induced by conditional deletion of Pkd1 in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary B Smithline

    Full Text Available Polycystic liver disease (PLD occurs in 75-90% of patients affected by autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD, which affects 1∶400-1,000 adults and arises from inherited mutations in the PKD1 or PKD2 genes. PLD can lead to bile duct obstructions, infected or bleeding cysts, and hepatomegaly, which can diminish quality of life. At present, no effective, approved therapy exists for ADPKD or PLD. We recently showed that inhibition of the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (HSP90 with a small molecule inhibitor, STA-2842, induced the degradation of multiple HSP90-dependent client proteins that contribute to ADPKD pathogenesis and slowed the progression of renal cystogenesis in mice with conditional deletion of Pkd1. Here, we analyzed the effects of STA-2842 on liver size and cystic burden in Pkd-/- mice with established PLD. Using magnetic resonance imaging over time, we demonstrate that ten weeks of STA-2842 treatment significantly reduced both liver mass and cystic index suggesting selective elimination of cystic tissue. Pre-treatment cystic epithelia contain abundant HSP90; the degree of reduction in cysts was accompanied by inhibition of proliferation-associated signaling proteins EGFR and others, and induced cleavage of caspase 8 and PARP1, and correlated with degree of HSP90 inhibition and with inactivation of ERK1/2. Our results suggest that HSP90 inhibition is worth further evaluation as a therapeutic approach for patients with PLD.

  4. The Hsp90 chaperone in action: following the ATP cycle of a molecular machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karagoz, G.E.

    2011-01-01

    Protein folding in the cell is assisted by molecular chaperones. Hsp90 is the most abundant molecular chaperone in the cytosol. It facilitates the folding and activation of mainly signalling molecules. Its chaperoning of regulatory proteins places Hsp90 in the cross road of several important

  5. Why is this effective HSP90 inhibitor not being developed in HER2+ breast cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Carlos L

    2011-08-01

    Inhibition of the HSP90 chaperone leads to degradation of the HER2 receptor. The HSP90 inhibitor tanespimycin in combination with trastuzumab is active in patients with HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer. This combination is one of several HER2-targeted therapies that will significantly improve the outcome of patients with this subtype of breast cancer. ©2011 AACR.

  6. Hsp90 inhibitors exhibit resistance-free antiviral activity against respiratory syncytial virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Geller

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is a major cause of respiratory illness in young children, leading to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite its medical importance, no vaccine or effective therapeutic interventions are currently available. Therefore, there is a pressing need to identify novel antiviral drugs to combat RSV infections. Hsp90, a cellular protein-folding factor, has been shown to play an important role in the replication of numerous viruses. We here demonstrate that RSV requires Hsp90 for replication. Mechanistic studies reveal that inhibition of Hsp90 during RSV infection leads to the degradation of a viral protein similar in size to the RSV L protein, the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, implicating it as an Hsp90 client protein. Accordingly, Hsp90 inhibitors exhibit antiviral activity against laboratory and clinical isolates of RSV in both immortalized as well as primary differentiated airway epithelial cells. Interestingly, we find a high barrier to the emergence of drug resistance to Hsp90 inhibitors, as extensive growth of RSV under conditions of Hsp90 inhibition did not yield mutants with reduced sensitivity to these drugs. Our results suggest that Hsp90 inhibitors may present attractive antiviral therapeutics for treatment of RSV infections and highlight the potential of chaperone inhibitors as antivirals exhibiting high barriers to development of drug resistance.

  7. Spermatogenesis arrest caused by conditional deletion of Hsp90α in adult mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki Kajiwara

    2012-08-01

    It is controversial whether a functional androgen receptor (AR on germ cells, including spermatogonia, is essential for their development into sperm and, thus, initiation and maintenance of spermatogenesis. It was recently shown that many spermatocytes underwent apoptosis in the testes of Hsp90α KO mice. We had generated Hsp90α KO mice independently and confirmed this phenotype. However, the important question of whether Hsp90α is required to maintain spermatogenesis in adult mice in which testicular maturation is already completed could not be addressed using these conventional KO mice. To answer this question, we generated a tamoxifen-inducible deletion mutant of Hsp90α and found that conditional deletion of Hsp90α in adult mice caused even more severe apoptosis in germ cells beyond the pachytene stage, leading to complete arrest of spermatogenesis and testicular atrophy. Importantly, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that AR expression in WT testis was more evident in spermatogonia than in spermatocytes, whereas its expression was aberrant and ectopic in Hsp90α KO testis, raising the possibility that an AR abnormality in primordial germ cells is involved in spermatogenesis arrest in the Hsp90α KO mice. Our results suggest that the AR, specifically chaperoned by Hsp90α in spermatogonia, is critical for maintenance of established spermatogenesis and for survival of spermatocytes in adult testis, in addition to setting the first wave of spermatogenesis before puberty.

  8. Phosphorylation and oligomerization states of native pig brain HSP90 studied by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garnier, C.; Lafitte, D.; Jorgensen, T.J.

    2001-01-01

    such as actin-microfilament, tubulin-microtubule and intermediate filaments, and also exhibits conventional chaperone functions. This protein exists in two isoforms alpha-HSP90 and beta-HSP90, and it forms dimers which are crucial species for its biological activity. PAGE, ESI-MS and MALDI-MS were used to study...

  9. Toxoplasma gondii Hsp90: potential roles in essential cellular processes of the parasite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Sergio O.; Figueras, Maria J.; Alomar, Maria L.; Echeverria, Pablo C.; Deng, Bin

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Hsp90 is a widely distributed and highly conserved molecular chaperone that is ubiquitously expressed throughout nature, being one of the most abundant proteins within non-stressed cells. This chaperone is up-regulated following stressful events and has been involved in many cellular processes. In Toxoplasma gondii, Hsp90 could be linked with many essential processes of the parasite such as host cell invasion, replication and tachyzoite-bradyzoite interconversion. A Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) network approach of TgHsp90 has allowed inferring how these processes may be altered. In addition, data mining of T. gondii phosphoproteome and acetylome has allowed the generation of the phosphorylation and acetylation map of TgHsp90. This review focuses on the potential roles of TgHsp90 in parasite biology and the analysis of experimental data in comparison with its counterparts in yeast and humans. PMID:24560345

  10. A primate specific extra domain in the molecular chaperone Hsp90.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwadeepak Tripathi

    Full Text Available Hsp90 (heat shock protein 90 is an essential molecular chaperone that mediates folding and quality control of client proteins. Many of them such as protein kinases, steroid receptors and transcription factors are involved in cellular signaling processes. Hsp90 undergoes an ATP hydrolysis dependent conformational cycle to assist folding of the client protein. The canonical Hsp90 shows a typical composition of three distinct domains and interacts with individual cochaperone partners such as Hop, Cdc37 and Aha1 (activator of Hsp90 ATPase that regulate the reaction cycle of the molecular chaperone. A bioinformatic survey identified an additional domain of 122 amino acids in front of the canonical Hsp90 sequence. This extra domain (E domain is specific to the Catarrhini or drooping nose monkeys, a subdivision of the higher primates that includes man, the great apes and the old world monkeys but is absent from all other species. Our biochemical analysis reveals that Hsp103 associates with cochaperone proteins such as Hop, Cdc37 and Aha1 similar to Hsp90. However, the extra domain reduces the ATP hydrolysis rate to about half when compared to Hsp90 thereby acting as a negative regulator of the molecular chaperonés intrinsic ATPase activity.

  11. Scoring functions and enrichment: a case study on Hsp90

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell John BO

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need for fast and accurate scoring functions has been driven by the increased use of in silico virtual screening twinned with high-throughput screening as a method to rapidly identify potential candidates in the early stages of drug development. We examine the ability of some the most common scoring functions (GOLD, ChemScore, DOCK, PMF, BLEEP and Consensus to discriminate correctly and efficiently between active and non-active compounds among a library of ~3,600 diverse decoy compounds in a virtual screening experiment against heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90. Results Firstly, we investigated two ranking methodologies, GOLDrank and BestScorerank. GOLDrank is based on ranks generated using GOLD. The various scoring functions, GOLD, ChemScore, DOCK, PMF, BLEEP and Consensus, are applied to the pose ranked number one by GOLD for that ligand. BestScorerank uses multiple poses for each ligand and independently chooses the best ranked pose of the ligand according to each different scoring function. Secondly, we considered the effect of introducing the Thr184 hydrogen bond tether to guide the docking process towards a particular solution, and its effect on enrichment. Thirdly, we considered normalisation to account for the known bias of scoring functions to select larger molecules. All the scoring functions gave fairly similar enrichments, with the exception of PMF which was consistently the poorest performer. In most cases, GOLD was marginally the best performing individual function; the Consensus score usually performed similarly to the best single scoring function. Our best results were obtained using the Thr184 tether in combination with the BestScorerank protocol and normalisation for molecular weight. For that particular combination, DOCK was the best individual function; DOCK recovered 90% of the actives in the top 10% of the ranked list; Consensus similarly recovered 89% of the actives in its top 10%. Conclusion Overall, we

  12. Hyponatremia and V2 vasopressin receptor upregulation: a result of HSP90 inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiong; Puhm, Florian; Freissmuth, Michael; Nanoff, Christian

    2017-10-01

    Small-molecule inhibitors of heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) have been under development as chemotherapeutic agents. The adverse events reported from early clinical trials included hyponatremia. Given the limited number of patients enrolled, the number of hyponatremia incidents was remarkable and repeatedly, the event was judged as severe. Inappropriate V2 vasopressin receptor stimulation is an established cause of hyponatremia. We explored the hypothesis that HSP90 inhibition produces hypersensitivity to vasopressin by upregulating V2-receptors. Experiments were carried out in cell culture using HEK293 cells with heterologous expression of the human V2-receptor and HELA cells with an endogenous V2-receptor complement. We tested the effect of HSP90 inhibition by three structurally unrelated compounds (alvespimycin, luminespib, radicicol) and asserted its specificity in cells depleted of cytosolic HSP90 (by RNA interference). Assays encompassed surface V2-receptor density and vasopressin-stimulated formation of cyclic AMP (cAMP). The results demonstrate a twofold increase in cell-surface receptor density following pre-incubation with each of the HSP90 inhibitors. The effect had a concentration-dependence consistent with the individual potencies to inhibit HSP90. Similarly, depletion of cytosolic HSP90 increased surface-receptor density and at the same time, reduced the inhibitor effect. Upregulated V2-receptors were fully functional; hence, in culture treated with an HSP90 inhibitor, addition of vasopressin resulted in higher levels of cAMP than in controls. Since formation of cAMP is the first signalling step in raising water permeability of the collecting duct epithelia, we suggest that V2-receptor upregulation generates hypersensitivity to vasopressin linking HSP90 inhibition to the development of hyponatremia.

  13. Probing molecular mechanisms of the Hsp90 chaperone: biophysical modeling identifies key regulators of functional dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshuman Dixit

    Full Text Available Deciphering functional mechanisms of the Hsp90 chaperone machinery is an important objective in cancer biology aiming to facilitate discovery of targeted anti-cancer therapies. Despite significant advances in understanding structure and function of molecular chaperones, organizing molecular principles that control the relationship between conformational diversity and functional mechanisms of the Hsp90 activity lack a sufficient quantitative characterization. We combined molecular dynamics simulations, principal component analysis, the energy landscape model and structure-functional analysis of Hsp90 regulatory interactions to systematically investigate functional dynamics of the molecular chaperone. This approach has identified a network of conserved regions common to the Hsp90 chaperones that could play a universal role in coordinating functional dynamics, principal collective motions and allosteric signaling of Hsp90. We have found that these functional motifs may be utilized by the molecular chaperone machinery to act collectively as central regulators of Hsp90 dynamics and activity, including the inter-domain communications, control of ATP hydrolysis, and protein client binding. These findings have provided support to a long-standing assertion that allosteric regulation and catalysis may have emerged via common evolutionary routes. The interaction networks regulating functional motions of Hsp90 may be determined by the inherent structural architecture of the molecular chaperone. At the same time, the thermodynamics-based "conformational selection" of functional states is likely to be activated based on the nature of the binding partner. This mechanistic model of Hsp90 dynamics and function is consistent with the notion that allosteric networks orchestrating cooperative protein motions can be formed by evolutionary conserved and sparsely connected residue clusters. Hence, allosteric signaling through a small network of distantly connected

  14. Probing molecular mechanisms of the Hsp90 chaperone: biophysical modeling identifies key regulators of functional dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Anshuman; Verkhivker, Gennady M

    2012-01-01

    Deciphering functional mechanisms of the Hsp90 chaperone machinery is an important objective in cancer biology aiming to facilitate discovery of targeted anti-cancer therapies. Despite significant advances in understanding structure and function of molecular chaperones, organizing molecular principles that control the relationship between conformational diversity and functional mechanisms of the Hsp90 activity lack a sufficient quantitative characterization. We combined molecular dynamics simulations, principal component analysis, the energy landscape model and structure-functional analysis of Hsp90 regulatory interactions to systematically investigate functional dynamics of the molecular chaperone. This approach has identified a network of conserved regions common to the Hsp90 chaperones that could play a universal role in coordinating functional dynamics, principal collective motions and allosteric signaling of Hsp90. We have found that these functional motifs may be utilized by the molecular chaperone machinery to act collectively as central regulators of Hsp90 dynamics and activity, including the inter-domain communications, control of ATP hydrolysis, and protein client binding. These findings have provided support to a long-standing assertion that allosteric regulation and catalysis may have emerged via common evolutionary routes. The interaction networks regulating functional motions of Hsp90 may be determined by the inherent structural architecture of the molecular chaperone. At the same time, the thermodynamics-based "conformational selection" of functional states is likely to be activated based on the nature of the binding partner. This mechanistic model of Hsp90 dynamics and function is consistent with the notion that allosteric networks orchestrating cooperative protein motions can be formed by evolutionary conserved and sparsely connected residue clusters. Hence, allosteric signaling through a small network of distantly connected residue clusters may be

  15. MicroRNA-223 is a novel negative regulator of HSP90B1 in CLL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vicente, Ana E; Quwaider, Dalia; Benito, Rocío; Misiewicz-Krzeminska, Irena; Hernández-Sánchez, María; de Coca, Alfonso García; Fisac, Rosa; Alonso, José-María; Zato, Carolina; de Paz, Juan Francisco; García, Juan Luis; Sarasquete, Ma Eugenia; Hernández, José Ángel; Corchado, Juan M; González, Marcos; Gutiérrez, Norma C; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús-María

    2015-04-08

    MicroRNAs are known to inhibit gene expression by binding to the 3'UTR of the target transcript. Downregulation of miR-223 has been recently reported to have prognostic significance in CLL. However, there is no evidence of the pathogenetic mechanism of this miRNA in CLL patients. By applying next-generation sequencing techniques we have detected a common polymorphism (rs2307842), in 24% of CLL patients, which disrupts the binding site for miR-223 in HSP90B1 3'UTR. We investigated whether miR-223 directly targets HSP90B1 through luciferase assays and ectopic expression of miR-223. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot were used to determine HSP90B1 expression in CLL patients. The relationship between rs2307842 status, HSP90B1 expression and clinico-biological data were assessed. HSP90B1 is a direct target for miR-223 by interaction with the putative miR-223 binding site. The analysis in paired samples (CD19+ fraction cell and non-CD19+ fraction cell) showed that the presence of rs2307842 and IGHV unmutated genes determined HSP90B1 overexpression in B lymphocytes from CLL patients. These results were confirmed at the protein level by western blot. Of note, HSP90B1 overexpression was independently predictive of shorter time to the first therapy in CLL patients. By contrast, the presence of rs2307842 was not related to the outcome. HSP90B1 is a direct target gene of miR-223. Our results provide a plausible explanation of why CLL patients harboring miR-223 downregulation are associated with a poor outcome, pointing out HSP90B1 as a new pathogenic mechanism in CLL and a promising therapeutic target.

  16. Development of Tethered Hsp90 Inhibitors Carrying Radioiodinated Probes to Specifically Discriminate and Kill Malignant Breast Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    tethered Hsp90 inhibitor capable of carrying various radioactive iodine isotopes for early detection and ablation of metastatic breast cancers . These...imaging agents in mouse models of breast cancer . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Radiodination, tethered Hsp90 inhibitor, malignant breast tumor , ectopic Hsp90 16...and 324 ER- tumors ) showed increased Hsp90 expression in all breast cancer cell lines, and in nearly 90% of primary breast cancers (2). A recent

  17. A Review of Recent Patents on the Protozoan Parasite HSP90 as a Drug Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Sergio O; Matrajt, Mariana; Echeverria, Pablo C

    2013-01-01

    Diseases caused by protozoan parasites are still an important health problem. These parasites can cause a wide spectrum of diseases, some of which are severe and have high morbidity or mortality if untreated. Since they are still uncontrolled, it is important to find novel drug targets and develop new therapies to decrease their remarkable social and economic impact on human societies. In the past years, human HSP90 has become an interesting drug target that has led to a large number of investigations both at state organizations and pharmaceutical companies, followed by clinical trials. The finding that HSP90 has important biological roles in some protozoan parasites like Plasmodium spp, Toxoplasma gondii and trypanosomatids has allowed the expansion of the results obtained in human cancer to these infections. This review summarizes the latest important findings showing protozoan HSP90 as a drug target and presents three patents targeting T. gondii, P. falciparum and trypanosomatids HSP90. PMID:23002958

  18. Synthesis and biological evaluation of hybrid acridine-HSP90 ligand conjugates as telomerase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, S; Gunaratnam, M; Spiteri, C; Sharma, P; Alharthy, R D; Neidle, S; Moses, J E

    2015-08-21

    The synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of bifunctional acridine-HSP90 inhibitor ligands as telomerase inhibitors is herein described. Four hybrid acridine-HSP90 inhibitor conjugates were prepared using a click-chemistry approach, and subsequently shown to display comparable results to the established telomerase inhibitor BRACO-19 in the TRAP-LIG telomerase assay. The conjugates also demonstrated significant cyctotoxity against a number of cancer cell lines, in the sub-μM range.

  19. DsHsp90 is involved in the early response of Dunaliella salina to environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Si-Jia; Wu, Ming-Jie; Chen, Xiang-Jun; Jiang, Yan; Yan, Yong-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone highly conserved across the species from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Hsp90 is essential for cell viability under all growth conditions and is proposed to act as a hub of the signaling network and protein homeostasis of the eukaryotic cells. By interacting with various client proteins, Hsp90 is involved in diverse physiological processes such as signal transduction, cell mobility, heat shock response and osmotic stress response. In this research, we cloned the dshsp90 gene encoding a polypeptide composed of 696 amino acids from the halotolerant unicellular green algae Dunaliella salina. Sequence alignment indicated that DsHsp90 belonged to the cytosolic Hsp90A family. Further biophysical and biochemical studies of the recombinant protein revealed that DsHsp90 possessed ATPase activity and existed as a dimer with similar percentages of secondary structures to those well-studied Hsp90As. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the cloned genomic DNA fragment indicated that dshsp90 contained 21 exons interrupted by 20 introns, which is much more complicated than the other plant hsp90 genes. The promoter region of dshsp90 contained putative cis-acting stress responsive elements and binding sites of transcriptional factors that respond to heat shock and salt stress. Further experimental research confirmed that dshsp90 was upregulated quickly by heat and salt shock in the D. salina cells. These findings suggested that dshsp90 might serve as a component of the early response system of the D. salina cells against environmental stresses.

  20. DsHsp90 Is Involved in the Early Response of Dunaliella salina to Environmental Stress†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Si-Jia; Wu, Ming-Jie; Chen, Xiang-Jun; Jiang, Yan; Yan, Yong-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone highly conserved across the species from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Hsp90 is essential for cell viability under all growth conditions and is proposed to act as a hub of the signaling network and protein homeostasis of the eukaryotic cells. By interacting with various client proteins, Hsp90 is involved in diverse physiological processes such as signal transduction, cell mobility, heat shock response and osmotic stress response. In this research, we cloned the dshsp90 gene encoding a polypeptide composed of 696 amino acids from the halotolerant unicellular green algae Dunaliella salina. Sequence alignment indicated that DsHsp90 belonged to the cytosolic Hsp90A family. Further biophysical and biochemical studies of the recombinant protein revealed that DsHsp90 possessed ATPase activity and existed as a dimer with similar percentages of secondary structures to those well-studied Hsp90As. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the cloned genomic DNA fragment indicated that dshsp90 contained 21 exons interrupted by 20 introns, which is much more complicated than the other plant hsp90 genes. The promoter region of dshsp90 contained putative cis-acting stress responsive elements and binding sites of transcriptional factors that respond to heat shock and salt stress. Further experimental research confirmed that dshsp90 was upregulated quickly by heat and salt shock in the D. salina cells. These findings suggested that dshsp90 might serve as a component of the early response system of the D. salina cells against environmental stresses. PMID:22942684

  1. Post-translational modifications of Hsp90 and their contributions to chaperone regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Mollapour, Mehdi; Neckers, Len

    2011-01-01

    Molecular chaperones, as the name suggests, are involved in folding, maintenance, intracellular transport, and degradation of proteins as well as in facilitating cell signaling. Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is an essential eukaryotic molecular chaperone that carries out these processes in normal and cancer cells. Hsp90 function in vivo is coupled to its ability to hydrolyze ATP and this can be regulated by co-chaperones and post-translational modifications. In this review, we explore the var...

  2. Differential Regulation of G1 CDK Complexes by the Hsp90-Cdc37 Chaperone System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen T. Hallett

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Selective recruitment of protein kinases to the Hsp90 system is mediated by the adaptor co-chaperone Cdc37. We show that assembly of CDK4 and CDK6 into protein complexes is differentially regulated by the Cdc37-Hsp90 system. Like other Hsp90 kinase clients, binding of CDK4/6 to Cdc37 is blocked by ATP-competitive inhibitors. Cdc37-Hsp90 relinquishes CDK6 to D3- and virus-type cyclins and to INK family CDK inhibitors, whereas CDK4 is relinquished to INKs but less readily to cyclins. p21CIP1 and p27KIP1 CDK inhibitors are less potent than the INKs at displacing CDK4 and CDK6 from Cdc37. However, they cooperate with the D-type cyclins to generate CDK4/6-containing ternary complexes that are resistant to cyclin D displacement by Cdc37, suggesting a molecular mechanism to explain the assembly factor activity ascribed to CIP/KIP family members. Overall, our data reveal multiple mechanisms whereby the Hsp90 system may control formation of CDK4- and CDK6-cyclin complexes under different cellular conditions. : Hallett et al. reconstitute CDK4/6 client kinase handover from Cdc37-Hsp90 to CDK regulatory partners and propose a model for the assembly factor activity of CIP/KIP CDK inhibitors. They find that CDK4/6 inhibitors in clinical use can displace G1 CDKs from the Cdc37-Hsp90 chaperone system at submicromolar concentrations. Keywords: Cdc37, CDK, chaperone, CIP/KIP, cyclin D, Hsp90, INK, kinase, palbociclib, ribociclib

  3. Heat Shock Protein 90 (HSP90 and Her2 in Adenocarcinomas of the Esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Slotta-Huspenina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Her2 overexpression and amplification can be found in a significant subset of esophageal adenocarcinomas. The activity of Her2 has been shown to be modulated by molecular chaperones such as HSP90. We analyzed expression/amplification data for HSP90 and Her2 on 127 primary resected esophageal adenocarcinomas in order to evaluate a possible relationship between these two molecules. HSP90 expression determined by immunohistochemistry was observed in various levels. Thirty nine (39 tumors (30.7% were classified as Her2-positive according to their immunoreactivity and amplification status. There was a significant correlation between HSP90 expression and Her2-status (p = 0.008. This could also be demonstrated by quantitative protein expression analysis with reverse phase protein arrays (r = 0.9; p < 0.001. Her2-status was associated withpT-category (p = 0.041, lymph node metastases (p = 0.049 and tumor differentiation (p = 0.036 with a higher percentage of cases with negative Her2 status in lower tumor stagesA negative Her2-status was also associated with better survival in univariate and multivariate analysis (p = 0.001 and p = 0.014. For HSP90, no associations between clinical and pathological parameters were found. The observed association between HSP90 expression and Her2 suggests a co-regulation of these molecules in at least a subset of esophageal adenocarcinomas. Anti-HSP90 drugs, which recently have been introduced in cancer treatment, may also be an option for these tumors by targeting HSP90 alone or in combination with Her2.

  4. Heat Shock Protein 90 (HSP90) and Her2 in Adenocarcinomas of the Esophagus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slotta-Huspenina, Julia; Becker, Karl-Friedrich [Institute of Pathology, Technische Universität München, München 81765 (Germany); Feith, Marcus [Department of Surgery, Klinikum Rechts der Isar der Technischen Universität München, München 81622 (Germany); Walch, Axel [Institute of Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt (GmbH), Neuherberg 85764 (Germany); Langer, Rupert, E-mail: rupert.langer@pathology.unibe.ch [Institute of Pathology, University of Bern, Bern 3010 (Switzerland)

    2014-06-27

    Her2 overexpression and amplification can be found in a significant subset of esophageal adenocarcinomas. The activity of Her2 has been shown to be modulated by molecular chaperones such as HSP90. We analyzed expression/amplification data for HSP90 and Her2 on 127 primary resected esophageal adenocarcinomas in order to evaluate a possible relationship between these two molecules. HSP90 expression determined by immunohistochemistry was observed in various levels. Thirty nine (39) tumors (30.7%) were classified as Her2-positive according to their immunoreactivity and amplification status. There was a significant correlation between HSP90 expression and Her2-status (p = 0.008). This could also be demonstrated by quantitative protein expression analysis with reverse phase protein arrays (r = 0.9; p < 0.001). Her2-status was associated withpT-category (p = 0.041), lymph node metastases (p = 0.049) and tumor differentiation (p = 0.036) with a higher percentage of cases with negative Her2 status in lower tumor stagesA negative Her2-status was also associated with better survival in univariate and multivariate analysis (p = 0.001 and p = 0.014). For HSP90, no associations between clinical and pathological parameters were found. The observed association between HSP90 expression and Her2 suggests a co-regulation of these molecules in at least a subset of esophageal adenocarcinomas. Anti-HSP90 drugs, which recently have been introduced in cancer treatment, may also be an option for these tumors by targeting HSP90 alone or in combination with Her2.

  5. Genome-wide analysis of the Populus Hsp90 gene family reveals differential expression patterns, localization, and heat stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Li, Jianbo; Liu, Bobin; Zhang, Li; Chen, Jun; Lu, Mengzhu

    2013-08-05

    Members of the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) class of proteins are evolutionarily conserved molecular chaperones. They are involved in protein folding, assembly, stabilization, activation, and degradation in many normal cellular processes and under stress conditions. Unlike many other well-characterized molecular chaperones, Hsp90s play key roles in signal transduction, cell-cycle control, genomic silencing, and protein trafficking. However, no systematic analysis of genome organization, gene structure, and expression compendium has been performed in the Populus model tree genus to date. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the Populus Hsp90 gene family and identified 10 Populus Hsp90 genes, which were phylogenetically clustered into two major groups. Gene structure and motif composition are relatively conserved in each group. In Populus trichocarpa, we identified three paralogous pairs, among which the PtHsp90-5a/PtHsp90-5b paralogous pair might be created by duplication of a genome segment. Subcellular localization analysis shows that PtHsp90 members are localized in different subcellular compartments. PtHsp90-3 is localized both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm, PtHsp90-5a and PtHsp90-5b are in chloroplasts, and PtHsp90-7 is in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Furthermore, microarray and semi-quantitative real-time RT-PCR analyses show that a number of Populus Hsp90 genes are differentially expressed upon exposure to various stresses. The gene structure and motif composition of PtHsp90s are highly conserved among group members, suggesting that members of the same group may also have conserved functions. Microarray and RT-PCR analyses show that most PtHsp90s were induced by various stresses, including heat stress. Collectively, these observations lay the foundation for future efforts to unravel the biological roles of PtHsp90 genes.

  6. Little effect of HSP90 inhibition on the quantitative wing traits variation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazuo H

    2017-02-01

    Drosophila wings have been a model system to study the effect of HSP90 on quantitative trait variation. The effect of HSP90 inhibition on environmental buffering of wing morphology varies among studies while the genetic buffering effect of it was examined in only one study and was not detected. Variable results so far might show that the genetic background influences the environmental and genetic buffering effect of HSP90. In the previous studies, the number of the genetic backgrounds used is limited. To examine the effect of HSP90 inhibition with a larger number of genetic backgrounds than the previous studies, 20 wild-type strains of Drosophila melanogaster were used in this study. Here I investigated the effect of HSP90 inhibition on the environmental buffering of wing shape and size by assessing within-individual and among-individual variations, and as a result, I found little or very weak effects on environmental and genetic buffering. The current results suggest that the role of HSP90 as a global regulator of environmental and genetic buffering is limited at least in quantitative traits.

  7. A Chemogenomic Screening Platform Used to Identify Chemotypes Perturbing HSP90 Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Fiona M; Goode, Kourtney M; Rajwa, Bartek; Bieberich, Andrew A; Avramova, Larisa V; Hazbun, Tony R; Davisson, V Jo

    2017-07-01

    Compounds that modulate the heat shock protein (HSP) network have potential in a broad range of research applications and diseases. A yeast-based liquid culture assay that measured time-dependent turbidity enabled the high-throughput screening of different Saccharomyces cerevisae strains to identify HSP modulators with unique molecular mechanisms. A focused set of four strains, with differing sensitivities to Hsp90 inhibitors, was used to screen a compound library of 3680 compounds. Computed turbidity curve functions were used to classify strain responses and sensitivity to chemical effects across the compound library. Filtering based on single-strain selectivity identified nine compounds as potential heat shock modulators, including the known Hsp90 inhibitor macbecin. Haploid yeast deletion strains (360), mined from previous Hsp90 inhibitor yeast screens and heat shock protein interaction data, were screened for differential sensitivities to known N-terminal ATP site-directed Hsp90 inhibitors to reveal functional distinctions. Strains demonstrating differential sensitivity (13) to Hsp90 inhibitors were used to prioritize primary screen hit compounds, with NSC145366 emerging as the lead hit. Our follow-up biochemical and functional studies show that NSC145366 directly interacts and inhibits the C-terminus of Hsp90, validating the platform as a powerful approach for early-stage identification of bioactive modulators of heat shock-dependent pathways.

  8. Characterisation of the Plasmodium falciparum Hsp70-Hsp90 organising protein (PfHop).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitau, Grace W; Mandal, Pradipta; Blatch, Gregory L; Przyborski, Jude; Shonhai, Addmore

    2012-03-01

    Malaria is caused by Plasmodium species, whose transmission to vertebrate hosts is facilitated by mosquito vectors. The transition from the cold blooded mosquito vector to the host represents physiological stress to the parasite, and additionally malaria blood stage infection is characterised by intense fever periods. In recent years, it has become clear that heat shock proteins play an essential role during the parasite's life cycle. Plasmodium falciparum expresses two prominent heat shock proteins: heat shock protein 70 (PfHsp70) and heat shock protein 90 (PfHsp90). Both of these proteins have been implicated in the development and pathogenesis of malaria. In eukaryotes, Hsp70 and Hsp90 proteins are functionally linked by an essential adaptor protein known as the Hsp70-Hsp90 organising protein (Hop). In this study, recombinant P. falciparum Hop (PfHop) was heterologously produced in E. coli and purified by nickel affinity chromatography. Using specific anti-PfHop antisera, the expression and localisation of PfHop in P. falciparum was investigated. PfHop was shown to co-localise with PfHsp70 and PfHsp90 in parasites at the trophozoite stage. Gel filtration and co-immunoprecipitation experiments suggested that PfHop was present in a complex together with PfHsp70 and PfHsp90. The association of PfHop with both PfHsp70 and PfHsp90 suggests that this protein may mediate the functional interaction between the two chaperones.

  9. HSP-90 expression as a predictor of response to radiotherapy in head and neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Lorenzo, Jacinto; León Vintró, Xavier; Camacho Pérez de Madrid, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    HSP-90 is an intracellular protein that protects the cell from environmental stress situations. The overexpression of HSP-90 isoforms could serve as a mechanism of resistance to radiotherapy for tumour cells. We studied this effect in a sample of head and neck tumours. We included 87 patients diagnosed with oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx and hypopharynx tumours. We studied the expression of the HSP-90 isoforms by real-time PCR on pre-treatment biopsy samples. We analysed the relationship between HSP-90 expression levels and local relapse of the tumour with CRT decision trees. The expression levels of the inducible citosolic isoform (HSP90AA) allowed the definition of 2 groups of patients with different rates of local relapse. The group with a low expression level showed a 2.9% local relapse rate, while the group with a high expression level showed a 38.2% rate. Survival curves showed differences in time to local relapse for both groups of patients. These differences did not reach statistical significance. Radiotherapy response was related to expression levels of HSP-90 in a sample of head and neck cancer patients. This result could prove useful in the selection of treatments for this group of patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of the plant compound geraniin as a novel Hsp90 inhibitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vassallo

    Full Text Available Besides its function in normal cellular growth, the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 binds to a large number of client proteins required for promoting cancer cell growth and/or survival. In an effort to discover new small molecules able to inhibit the Hsp90 ATPase and chaperoning activities, we screened, by a surface plasmon resonance assay, a small library including different plant polyphenols. The ellagitannin geraniin, was identified as the most promising molecule, showing a binding affinity to Hsp90α similar to that of 17-(allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17AGG. Geraniin was able to inhibit in vitro the Hsp90α ATPase activity in a dose-dependent manner, with an inhibitory efficiency comparable to that measured for 17-AAG. In addition, this compound compromised the chaperone activity of Hsp90α, monitored by the citrate synthase thermal induced aggregation assay. Geraniin decreased the viability of HeLa and Jurkat cell lines and caused an arrest in G2/M phase. We also proved that following exposure to different concentrations of geraniin, the level of expression of the client proteins c-Raf, pAkt, and EGFR was strongly down-regulated in both the cell lines. These results, along with the finding that geraniin did not exert any appreciable cytotoxicity on normal cells, encourage further studies on this compound as a promising chemical scaffold for the design of new Hsp90 inhibitors.

  11. The regulatory mechanism of Hsp90{alpha} secretion from endothelial cells and its role in angiogenesis during wound healing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Xiaomin [National Engineering Laboratory for Anti-tumor Protein Therapeutics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory for Protein Therapeutics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Cancer Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Luo, Yongzhang, E-mail: yluo@tsinghua.edu.cn [National Engineering Laboratory for Anti-tumor Protein Therapeutics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory for Protein Therapeutics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Cancer Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-07-16

    Research highlights: {yields} Growth factors such as bFGF, VEGF, PDGF and SDF-1 stimulate Hsp90{alpha} secretion from endothelial cells. {yields} Secreted Hsp90{alpha} localizes on the leading edge of activated endothelial cells. {yields} Secreted Hsp90{alpha} promotes angiogenesis in wound healing. -- Abstract: Heat shock protein 90{alpha} (Hsp90{alpha}) is a ubiquitously expressed molecular chaperone, which is essential for the maintenance of eukaryote homeostasis. Hsp90{alpha} can also be secreted extracellularly and is associated with several physiological and pathological processes including wound healing, cancer, infectious diseases and diabetes. Angiogenesis, defined as the sprouting of new blood vessels from pre-existing capillaries via endothelial cell proliferation and migration, commonly occurs in and contributes to the above mentioned processes. However, the secretion of Hsp90{alpha} from endothelial cells and also its function in angiogenesis are still unclear. Here we investigated the role of extracellular Hsp90{alpha} in angiogenesis using dermal endothelial cells in vitro and a wound healing model in vivo. We find that the secretion of Hsp90{alpha} but not Hsp90{beta} is increased in activated endothelial cells with the induction of angiogenic factors and matrix proteins. Secreted Hsp90{alpha} localizes on the leading edge of endothelial cells and promotes their angiogenic activities, whereas Hsp90{alpha} neutralizing antibodies reverse the effect. Furthermore, using a mouse skin wound healing model in vivo, we demonstrate that extracellular Hsp90{alpha} localizes on blood vessels in granulation tissues of wounded skin and promotes angiogenesis during wound healing. Taken together, our study reveals that Hsp90{alpha} can be secreted by activated endothelial cells and is a positive regulator of angiogenesis, suggesting the potential application of Hsp90{alpha} as a stimulator for wound repair.

  12. Targeting the Hsp90 C-terminal domain to induce allosteric inhibition and selective client downregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Kourtney M; Petrov, Dino P; Vickman, Renee E; Crist, Scott A; Pascuzzi, Pete E; Ratliff, Tim L; Davisson, V Jo; Hazbun, Tony R

    2017-08-01

    Inhibition of Hsp90 is desirable due to potential downregulation of oncogenic clients. Early generation inhibitors bind to the N-terminal domain (NTD) but C-terminal domain (CTD) inhibitors are a promising class because they do not induce a heat shock response. Here we present a new structural class of CTD binding molecules with a unique allosteric inhibition mechanism. A hit molecule, NSC145366, and structurally similar probes were assessed for inhibition of Hsp90 activities. A ligand-binding model was proposed indicating a novel Hsp90 CTD binding site. Client protein downregulation was also determined. NSC145366 interacts with the Hsp90 CTD and has anti-proliferative activity in tumor cell lines (GI50=0.2-1.9μM). NSC145366 increases Hsp90 oligomerization resulting in allosteric inhibition of NTD ATPase activity (IC50=119μM) but does not compete with NTD or CTD-ATP binding. Treatment of LNCaP prostate tumor cells resulted in selective client protein downregulation including AR and BRCA1 but without a heat shock response. Analogs had similar potencies in ATPase and chaperone activity assays and variable effects on oligomerization. In silico modeling predicted a binding site at the CTD dimer interface distinct from the nucleotide-binding site. A set of symmetrical scaffold molecules with bisphenol A cores induced allosteric inhibition of Hsp90. Experimental evidence and molecular modeling suggest that the binding site is independent of the CTD-ATP site and consistent with unique induction of allosteric effects. Allosteric inhibition of Hsp90 via a mechanism used by the NSC145366-based probes is a promising avenue for selective oncogenic client downregulation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Hsp70 and Hsp90 are differentially expressed in crayfish muscle and neurons after heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang S

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Shuang Liang, Xiaoqing Yu, Debra E Wood, Emmitt R Jolly Department of Biology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA Abstract: Heat shock proteins are essential cellular proteins that are highly conserved across organisms and contribute to adaptive responses of organisms during changing environmental conditions. Protein members of the families of heat shock genes can be differentially regulated in response to stressors and play critical roles in protein stability, folding, and molecular trafficking. We used a crustacean species with strong adaptability to diverse environments, the crayfish Procambarus clarkii, to study expression profiles of two well known heat shock genes, Hsp90 and Hsp70. This crayfish can withstand a broad range of temperatures, and its adaptability contributes to its value for human use as an agricultural food source and as a biological control agent against snails that transmit schistosomiasis. However, it has become a harmful invasive species in some areas. To begin to understand the thermal resilience of P. clarkii, we identified and cloned Hsp90 from crayfish by degenerate polymerase chain reaction in conjunction with rapid amplification of 3' and 5' cDNA ends, and subsequently sequenced and characterized the molecular chaperone. Sequence analysis by phylogenetic alignment and polypeptide three-dimensional structure prediction of the newly identified Hsp90 gene shows that it has conserved motifs with Hsp90 s in other species. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we characterized the expression profiles of Hsp90 and Hsp70 in muscle and in central nervous system tissues. We found that Hsp70 and Hsp90 transcripts are upregulated under heat stress in both muscle and the central nervous system, but that their expression levels are more robustly increased in muscle. Keywords: crayfish, stress response, Procambarus clarkii, heat shock protein, Hsp90, schistosomiasis

  14. Suppression by HSP90 inhibitors of BMP‑4‑stimulated osteoprotegerin synthesis in osteoblasts: Attenuation of p70 S6 kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Tetsu; Otsuka, Takanobu; Fujita, Kazuhiko; Kainuma, Shingo; Yamamoto, Naohiro; Kuroyanagi, Gen; Sakai, Go; Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Kozawa, Osamu; Tokuda, Haruhiko

    2017-09-27

    Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is an ATP‑dependent ubiquitous molecular chaperon which is important in cell homeostasis. The authors previously demonstrated that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)‑4 stimulates osteoprotegerin (OPG) production in osteoblast‑like MC3T3‑E1 cells, and that p70 S6 kinase positively regulates the OPG synthesis by BMP‑4. The present study investigated the involvement of HSP90 in the BMP‑4‑stimulated OPG synthesis and the mechanism in MC3T3‑E1 cells. HSP90 inhibitors, 17‑allylamino‑17demethoxy‑geldanamycin (17‑AAG), 17‑dimethylamino‑ethylamino‑17‑demethoxy‑geldanamycin (17‑DMAG) and geldanamycin significantly suppressed the BMP‑4‑stimulated OPG release. Geldanamycin markedly reduced the BMP‑4‑induced mRNA expression of OPG. 17‑AAG and 17‑DMAG significantly attenuated the phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase induced by BMP‑4 without affecting the BMP‑4‑induced phosphorylation of mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 1/5. The results suggest that HSP90 inhibitors suppress the BMP‑4‑stimulated OPG synthesis in osteoblasts, and that their suppressive effects are exerted through downregulating p70 S6 kinase.

  15. Expression of heat shock protein (Hsp90 paralogues is regulated by amino acids in skeletal muscle of Atlantic salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Garcia de la Serrana

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins 90 (Hsp90 have an essential role in sarcomere formation and differentiation in skeletal muscle and also act as molecular chaperones during protein folding impacting a wide range of physiological processes. We characterised and provided a phylogenetically consistent nomenclature for the complete repertoire of six Hsp90 paralogues present in duplicated salmonid fish genomes (Hsp90α1a, Hsp90α1b, Hsp90α2a, Hsp90α2b, Hsp90ß1a and Hsp90ß1b. The expression of paralogues in fast skeletal muscle was investigated using in vivo fasting-feeding experiments and primary myogenic cultures. Fasted juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar showed a transient 2 to 8-fold increase in the expression of all 4 Hsp90α paralogues within 24h of satiation feeding. Hsp90α1a and hsp90α1b also showed a pronounced secondary increase in expression after 10 days, concomitant with muscle differentiation and the expression of myogenin and sarcomeric proteins (mlc2, myhc. Hsp90ß1b was constitutively expressed whereas Hsp90ß1a expression was downregulated 10-fold between fasted and fed individuals. Hsp90α1a and Hsp90α1b were upregulated 10 to 15-fold concomitant with myotube formation and muscle differentiation in vitro whereas other Hsp90 paralogues showed no change in expression. In cells starved of amino acid (AA and serum for 72h the addition of AA, but not insulin-like growth factor 1, increased phosphorylation of mTor and expression of all 4 hsp90α paralogues and associated co-chaperones including hsp30, tbcb, pdia4, pdia6, stga and fk504bp1, indicating a general activation of the protein folding response. In contrast, Hsp90ß1a expression in vitro was unresponsive to AA treatment indicating that some other as yet uncharacterised signal(s regulate its expression in response to altered nutritional state.

  16. Localization of MRP-1 to the outer mitochondrial membrane by the chaperone protein HSP90β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roundhill, Elizabeth; Turnbull, Doug; Burchill, Susan

    2016-05-01

    Overexpression of plasma membrane multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP-1) in Ewing's sarcoma (ES) predicts poor outcome. MRP-1 is also expressed in mitochondria, and we have examined the submitochondrial localization of MRP-1 and investigated the mechanism of MRP-1 transport and role of this organelle in the response to doxorubicin. The mitochondrial localization of MRP-1 was examined in ES cell lines by differential centrifugation and membrane solubilization by digitonin. Whether MRP-1 is chaperoned by heat shock proteins (HSPs) was investigated by immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence microscopy, and HSP knockout using small hairpin RNA and inhibitors (apoptozole, 17-AAG, and NVPAUY). The effect of disrupting mitochondrial MRP-1-dependent efflux activity on the cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin was investigated by counting viable cell number. Mitochondrial MRP-1 is glycosylated and localized to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it is coexpressed with HSP90. MRP-1 binds to both HSP90 and HSP70, although only inhibition of HSP90β decreases expression of MRP-1 in the mitochondria. Disruption of mitochondrial MRP-1-dependent efflux significantly increases the cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin (combination index, MRP-1 is expressed in the outer mitochondrial membrane and is a client protein of HSP90β, where it may play a role in the doxorubicin-induced resistance of ES.-Roundhill, E., Turnbull, D., Burchill, S. Localization of MRP-1 to the outer mitochondrial membrane by the chaperone protein HSP90β. © FASEB.

  17. Hsp90 Binds Directly to Fibronectin (FN) and Inhibition Reduces the Extracellular Fibronectin Matrix in Breast Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Amy; Dhanani, Karim C. H.; Prinsloo, Earl; Edkins, Adrienne L.

    2014-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) has been identified in the extracellular space and has been shown to chaperone a finite number of extracellular proteins involved in cell migration and invasion. We used chemical cross-linking and immunoprecipitation followed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to isolate a complex containing Hsp90 and the matrix protein fibronectin (FN) from breast cancer cells. Further analysis showed direct binding of Hsp90 to FN using an in vitro co-immunoprecipitation assay, a solid phase binding assay and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. Confocal microscopy showed regions of co-localisation of Hsp90 and FN in breast cancer cell lines. Exogenous Hsp90β was shown to increase the formation of extracellular FN matrix in the Hs578T cell line, whilst knockdown or inhibition of Hsp90 led to a reduction in the levels of both soluble and insoluble FN and could be partially rescued by addition of exogenous Hsp90β. Treatment of cells with novobiocin led to internalization of FN into vesicles that were positive for the presence of the lysosomal marker, LAMP-1. Taken together, the direct interaction between FN and Hsp90, as well as the decreased levels of both soluble and insoluble FN upon Hsp90 inhibition or knockdown, suggested that FN may be a new client protein for Hsp90 and that Hsp90 was involved in FN matrix assembly and/or stability. The identification of FN as a putative client protein of Hsp90 suggests a role for Hsp90 in FN matrix stability, which is important for a number of fundamental cellular processes including embryogenesis, wound healing, cell migration and metastasis. PMID:24466266

  18. Hsp90-binding immunophilin FKBP51 forms complexes with hTERT enhancing telomerase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagadari, Mariana; Zgajnar, Nadia R; Gallo, Luciana I; Galigniana, Mario D

    2016-08-01

    FK506-binding proteins are members of the immunophilin family of proteins. Those immunophilins associated to the 90-kDa-heat-shock protein, Hsp90, have been proposed as potential modulators of signalling cascade factors chaperoned by Hsp90. FKBP51 and FKBP52 are the best characterized Hsp90-bound immunophilins first described associated to steroid-receptors. The reverse transcriptase subunit of telomerase, hTERT, is also an Hsp90 client-protein and is highly expressed in cancer cells, where it is required to compensate the loss of telomeric DNA after each successive cell division. Because FKBP51 is also a highly expressed protein in cancer tissues, we analyzed its potential association with hTERT·Hsp90 complexes and its possible biological role. In this study it is demonstrated that both immunophilins, FKBP51 and FKBP52, co-immunoprecipitate with hTERT. The Hsp90 inhibitor radicicol disrupts the heterocomplex and favors the partial cytoplasmic relocalization of hTERT in similar manner as the overexpression of the TPR-domain peptide of the immunophilin. While confocal microscopy images show that FKBP51 is primarily localized in mitochondria and hTERT is totally nuclear, upon the onset of oxidative stress, FKBP51 (but not FKBP52) becomes mostly nuclear colocalizing with hTERT, and longer exposure times to peroxide favors hTERT export to mitochondria. Importantly, telomerase activity of hTERT is significantly enhanced by FKBP51. These observations support the emerging role assigned to FKBP51 as antiapoptotic factor in cancer development and progression, and describe for the first time the potential role of this immunophilin favoring the clonal expansion by enhancing telomerase activity. Copyright © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Interplay between HSP90 and Nrf2 pathways in diabetes-associated atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaro, Iolanda; Oguiza, Ainhoa; Recio, Carlota; Lopez-Sanz, Laura; Bernal, Susana; Egido, Jesus; Gomez-Guerrero, Carmen

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are determinant processes in the development of diabetic vascular complications. Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) overexpression in atherosclerotic plaques plays a role in sustaining inflammatory mechanisms, and its specific inhibition prevents atherosclerosis. The present work investigates, in a mouse model of diabetes-driven atherosclerosis, whether atheroprotection by pharmacological HSP90 inhibition is accomplished by bolstering antioxidant defense mechanisms headed by nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2). Streptozotocin-induced diabetic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were randomized to receive vehicle or HSP90 inhibitor (17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin, 4mg/kg) for 10 weeks. Aortic root sections were analyzed for plaque size and composition, transcription factor activity, and expression of inflammatory and antioxidant markers. In vitro studies were performed in murine macrophages cultured under hyperglycemic conditions. Treatment with HSP90 inhibitor promoted the activation of Nrf2 in the aortic tissue of diabetic mice (predominantly localized in macrophages and smooth muscle cells) and also in cultured cells. Nrf2 induction was associated with a concomitant inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in atherosclerotic plaques, thus resulting in a significant reduction in lesion size and inflammatory component (leukocytes and cytokines). Furthermore, atheroprotection by HSP90 inhibition was linked to the induction of cytoprotective HSP70, antioxidant enzymes (heme oxygenase-1, superoxide dismutase and catalase) and autophagy machinery (LC3 and p62/SQSTM1) in aortic tissue. HSP90 inhibition protects from atherosclerosis in experimental diabetes through the induction of Nrf2-dependent cytoprotective mechanisms, reinforcing its therapeutic potential. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Client Proteins and Small Molecule Inhibitors Display Distinct Binding Preferences for Constitutive and Stress-Induced HSP90 Isoforms and Their Conformationally Restricted Mutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L Prince

    Full Text Available The two cytosolic/nuclear isoforms of the molecular chaperone HSP90, stress-inducible HSP90α and constitutively expressed HSP90β, fold, assemble and maintain the three-dimensional structure of numerous client proteins. Because many HSP90 clients are important in cancer, several HSP90 inhibitors have been evaluated in the clinic. However, little is known concerning possible unique isoform or conformational preferences of either individual HSP90 clients or inhibitors. In this report, we compare the relative interaction strength of both HSP90α and HSP90β with the transcription factors HSF1 and HIF1α, the kinases ERBB2 and MET, the E3-ubiquitin ligases KEAP1 and RHOBTB2, and the HSP90 inhibitors geldanamycin and ganetespib. We observed unexpected differences in relative client and drug preferences for the two HSP90 isoforms, with HSP90α binding each client protein with greater apparent affinity compared to HSP90β, while HSP90β bound each inhibitor with greater relative interaction strength compared to HSP90α. Stable HSP90 interaction was associated with reduced client activity. Using a defined set of HSP90 conformational mutants, we found that some clients interact strongly with a single, ATP-stabilized HSP90 conformation, only transiently populated during the dynamic HSP90 chaperone cycle, while other clients interact equally with multiple HSP90 conformations. These data suggest different functional requirements among HSP90 clientele that, for some clients, are likely to be ATP-independent. Lastly, the two inhibitors examined, although sharing the same binding site, were differentially able to access distinct HSP90 conformational states.

  1. Cellular growth kinetics distinguish a cyclophilin inhibitor from an HSP90 inhibitor as a selective inhibitor of hepatitis C virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf K F Beran

    Full Text Available During antiviral drug discovery, it is critical to distinguish molecules that selectively interrupt viral replication from those that reduce virus replication by adversely affecting host cell viability. In this report we investigate the selectivity of inhibitors of the host chaperone proteins cyclophilin A (CypA and heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90 which have each been reported to inhibit replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV. By comparing the toxicity of the HSP90 inhibitor, 17-(Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG to two known cytostatic compounds, colchicine and gemcitabine, we provide evidence that 17-AAG exerts its antiviral effects indirectly through slowing cell growth. In contrast, a cyclophilin inhibitor, cyclosporin A (CsA, exhibited selective antiviral activity without slowing cell proliferation. Furthermore, we observed that 17-AAG had little antiviral effect in a non-dividing cell-culture model of HCV replication, while CsA reduced HCV titer by more than two orders of magnitude in the same model. The assays we describe here are useful for discriminating selective antivirals from compounds that indirectly affect virus replication by reducing host cell viability or slowing cell growth.

  2. A Hyperactive Signalosome in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Drives Addiction to a Tumor-Specific Hsp90 Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Zong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute myeloid leukemia (AML is a heterogeneous and fatal disease with an urgent need for improved therapeutic regimens given that most patients die from relapsed disease. Irrespective of mutation status, the development of aggressive leukemias is enabled by increasing dependence on signaling networks. We demonstrate that a hyperactive signalosome drives addiction of AML cells to a tumor-specific Hsp90 species (teHsp90. Through genetic, environmental, and pharmacologic perturbations, we demonstrate a direct and quantitative link between hyperactivated signaling pathways and apoptotic sensitivity of AML to teHsp90 inhibition. Specifically, we find that hyperactive JAK-STAT and PI3K-AKT signaling networks are maintained by teHsp90 and, in fact, gradual activation of these networks drives tumors increasingly dependent on teHsp90. Thus, although clinically aggressive AML survives via signalosome activation, this addiction creates a vulnerability that can be exploited with Hsp90-directed therapy.

  3. Interactions between Hsp90 and oncogenic viruses: implications for viral cancer therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defee, Michael R; Qin, Zhiqiang; Dai, Lu; Isaacs, Jennifer S; Parsons, Chris H

    2011-01-01

    Oncogenic viruses are the etiologic agents for a significant proportion of human cancers, but effective therapies and preventative strategies are lacking for the majority of virus-associated cancers. Targeting of virus-induced signal transduction or virus-host protein interactions may offer novel therapeutic strategies for viral cancers. Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a well-characterized, multifunctional molecular chaperone involved in regulation of signal transduction, transcriptional activation, oncogenic protein stabilization, and neovascularization-pathogenic elements relevant to viral cancer pathogenesis. This review will summarize mechanistic concepts involving regulation of viral oncogenesis by both intracellular and extracellular Hsp90, as well as current therapeutic implications of these data.

  4. Allosteric regulation of the Hsp90 dynamics and stability by client recruiter cochaperones: protein structure network modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacklock, Kristin; Verkhivker, Gennady M

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental role of the Hsp90 chaperone in supporting functional activity of diverse protein clients is anchored by specific cochaperones. A family of immune sensing client proteins is delivered to the Hsp90 system with the aid of cochaperones Sgt1 and Rar1 that act cooperatively with Hsp90 to form allosterically regulated dynamic complexes. In this work, functional dynamics and protein structure network modeling are combined to dissect molecular mechanisms of Hsp90 regulation by the client recruiter cochaperones. Dynamic signatures of the Hsp90-cochaperone complexes are manifested in differential modulation of the conformational mobility in the Hsp90 lid motif. Consistent with the experiments, we have determined that targeted reorganization of the lid dynamics is a unifying characteristic of the client recruiter cochaperones. Protein network analysis of the essential conformational space of the Hsp90-cochaperone motions has identified structurally stable interaction communities, interfacial hubs and key mediating residues of allosteric communication pathways that act concertedly with the shifts in conformational equilibrium. The results have shown that client recruiter cochaperones can orchestrate global changes in the dynamics and stability of the interaction networks that could enhance the ATPase activity and assist in the client recruitment. The network analysis has recapitulated a broad range of structural and mutagenesis experiments, particularly clarifying the elusive role of Rar1 as a regulator of the Hsp90 interactions and a stability enhancer of the Hsp90-cochaperone complexes. Small-world organization of the interaction networks in the Hsp90 regulatory complexes gives rise to a strong correspondence between highly connected local interfacial hubs, global mediator residues of allosteric interactions and key functional hot spots of the Hsp90 activity. We have found that cochaperone-induced conformational changes in Hsp90 may be determined by specific

  5. Allosteric regulation of the Hsp90 dynamics and stability by client recruiter cochaperones: protein structure network modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Blacklock

    Full Text Available The fundamental role of the Hsp90 chaperone in supporting functional activity of diverse protein clients is anchored by specific cochaperones. A family of immune sensing client proteins is delivered to the Hsp90 system with the aid of cochaperones Sgt1 and Rar1 that act cooperatively with Hsp90 to form allosterically regulated dynamic complexes. In this work, functional dynamics and protein structure network modeling are combined to dissect molecular mechanisms of Hsp90 regulation by the client recruiter cochaperones. Dynamic signatures of the Hsp90-cochaperone complexes are manifested in differential modulation of the conformational mobility in the Hsp90 lid motif. Consistent with the experiments, we have determined that targeted reorganization of the lid dynamics is a unifying characteristic of the client recruiter cochaperones. Protein network analysis of the essential conformational space of the Hsp90-cochaperone motions has identified structurally stable interaction communities, interfacial hubs and key mediating residues of allosteric communication pathways that act concertedly with the shifts in conformational equilibrium. The results have shown that client recruiter cochaperones can orchestrate global changes in the dynamics and stability of the interaction networks that could enhance the ATPase activity and assist in the client recruitment. The network analysis has recapitulated a broad range of structural and mutagenesis experiments, particularly clarifying the elusive role of Rar1 as a regulator of the Hsp90 interactions and a stability enhancer of the Hsp90-cochaperone complexes. Small-world organization of the interaction networks in the Hsp90 regulatory complexes gives rise to a strong correspondence between highly connected local interfacial hubs, global mediator residues of allosteric interactions and key functional hot spots of the Hsp90 activity. We have found that cochaperone-induced conformational changes in Hsp90 may be

  6. Human heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 interferes with Neisseria meningitidis adhesin A (NadA)-mediated adhesion and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, Paolo; Bozza, Giuseppe; Capecchi, Barbara; Caproni, Elena; Barrile, Riccardo; Norais, Nathalie; Capitani, Mirco; Sallese, Michele; Cecchini, Paola; Ciucchi, Laura; Gao, Zhenai; Rappuoli, Rino; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Aricò, Beatrice; Merola, Marcello

    2012-03-01

    NadA (N eisseria meningitidisadhesin A), a meningococcal surface protein, mediates adhesion to and invasion of human cells, an activity in which host membrane proteins have been implicated. While investigating these host factors in human epithelial cells by affinity chromatography, we discovered an unanticipated interaction of NadA with heat shock protein (Hsp) 90, a molecular chaperone. The specific in vitro interaction of recombinant soluble NadA and Hsp90 was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitations, dot and far-Western blot. Intriguingly, ADP, but not ATP, was required for this association, and the Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG promoted complex formation. Hsp90 binding to an Escherichia coli strain used as carrier to express surface exposed NadA confirmed these results in live bacteria. We also examined RNA interference, plasmid-driven overexpression, addition of exogenous rHsp90 and 17-AAG inhibition in human epithelial cells to further elucidate the involvement of Hsp90 in NadA-mediated adhesion and invasion. Together, these data suggest an inverse correlation between the amount of host Hsp90 and the NadA adhesive/invasive phenotype. Confocal microscopy also demonstrated that meningococci interact with cellular Hsp90, a completely novel finding. Altogether our results show that variation of host Hsp90 expression or activity interferes with adhesive and invasive events driven by NadA. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Low resolution structural studies indicate that the activator of Hsp90 ATPase 1 (Aha1 of Leishmania braziliensis has an elongated shape which allows its interaction with both N- and M-domains of Hsp90.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago V Seraphim

    Full Text Available The Hsp90 molecular chaperone is essential for protein homeostasis and in the maturation of proteins involved with cell-cycle control. The low ATPase activity of Hsp90 is critical to drive its functional cycle, which is dependent on the Hsp90 cochaperones. The Activator of Hsp90 ATPase-1 (Aha1 is a protein formed by two domains, N- and C-terminal, that stimulates the Hsp90 ATPase activity by several folds. Although the relevance of Aha1 for Hsp90 functions has been proved, as well as its involvement in the desensitization to inhibitors of the Hsp90, the knowledge on its overall structure and behavior in solution is limited. In this work we present the functional and structural characterization of Leishmania braziliensis Aha1 (LbAha1. This protozoan is the causative agent of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, a neglected disease. The recombinant LbAha1 behaves as an elongated monomer and is organized into two folded domains interconnected by a flexible linker. Functional experiments showed that LbAha1 interacts with L. braziliensis Hsp90 (LbHsp90 with micromolar dissociation constant in a stoichiometry of 2 LbAha1 to 1 LbHsp90 dimer and stimulates 10-fold the LbHsp90 ATPase activity showing positive cooperativity. Furthermore, the LbHsp90::LbAha1 complex is directed by enthalphy and opposed by entropy, probably due to the spatial freedom restrictions imposed by the proteins' interactions. Small-angle X-ray scattering data allowed the reconstruction of low resolution models and rigid body simulations of LbAha1, indicating its mode of action on LbHsp90. Western blot experiments allowed Aha1 identification (as well as Hsp90 in three Leishmania species at two temperatures, suggesting that Aha1 is a cognate protein. All these data shed light on the LbAha1 mechanism of action, showing that it has structural dimensions and flexibility that allow interacting with both N-terminal and middle domains of the LbHsp90.

  8. TsDAF-21/Hsp90 is expressed in all examined stages of Trichinella spiralis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichinella is an important parasitic nematode of animals worldwide. Heat shock proteins are ubiquitous in nature and allow organisms to quickly respond to environmental stress. A portion of the Tsdaf-21 gene, a Caenorhabditis elegans daf-21 homologue encoding heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) was clone...

  9. High dose of antibiotic colistin induces oligomerization of molecular chaperone HSP90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, Shuntaro; Takahashi, Kyosuke; Tamura, Arisa; Toyota, Ikumi; Hatakeyama, Shiori; Komatsuda, Atsushi; Kudo, Ikuru; Sasaki Kudoh, Erina; Okamoto, Tomoya; Haga, Asami; Miyamoto, Asuka; Grave, Ewa; Sugawara, Taku; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Itoh, Hideaki

    2017-07-01

    Colistin is an antimicrobial cationic peptide that belongs to the polymyxin family. Colistin was clinically used for the treatment of gram-negative infections but fell out of favour because of its significant side effects including neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. More recently, colistin has been regarded as one of the important options for nosocomial infections caused by multidrug resistant bacteria. Mechanisms of both the side effect onset of the drug and the side effect reduction are yet to be elucidated. In this study, we identified the specific binding protein of colistin using an affinity column chromatography. Colistin binds to the molecular chaperone HSP90. Although colistin slightly suppressed the chaperone activity of HSP90, there are no effects on the ATPase activity for a low concentration of colistin. Interestingly, colistin-induced aggregation of HSP90 via the N-domain. As for the cell viability of the SHSY5Y cell, the cell viability decreased to approximately 80% by the colistin 300 μM. However, the cell viability recovered to approximately 100% by adding ATP dosage. The same result was obtained by dot blot assay using anti-HSP90 antibody. Our results may help to understand the side effect mechanism of colistin. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  10. The Role of DAF-21/Hsp90 in Mouth-Form Plasticity in Pristionchus pacificus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieriebriennikov, Bogdan; Markov, Gabriel V; Witte, Hanh; Sommer, Ralf J

    2017-07-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is increasingly recognized to facilitate adaptive change in plants and animals, including insects, nematodes, and vertebrates. Plasticity can occur as continuous or discrete (polyphenisms) variation. In social insects, for example, in ants, some species have workers of distinct size classes while in other closely related species variation in size may be continuous. Despite the abundance of examples in nature, how discrete morphs are specified remains currently unknown. In theory, polyphenisms might require robustness, whereby the distribution of morphologies would be limited by the same mechanisms that execute buffering from stochastic perturbations, a function attributed to heat-shock proteins of the Hsp90 family. However, this possibility has never been directly tested because plasticity and robustness are considered to represent opposite evolutionary principles. Here, we used a polyphenism of feeding structures in the nematode Pristionchus pacificus to test the relationship between robustness and plasticity using geometric morphometrics of 20 mouth-form landmarks. We show that reducing heat-shock protein activity, which reduces developmental robustness, increases the range of mouth-form morphologies. Specifically, elevated temperature led to a shift within morphospace, pharmacological inhibition of all Hsp90 genes using radicicol treatment increased shape variability in both mouth-forms, and CRISPR/Cas9-induced Ppa-daf-21/Hsp90 knockout had a combined effect. Thus, Hsp90 canalizes the morphologies of plastic traits resulting in discrete polyphenism of mouth-forms. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  11. HSP90 expression correlation with the freezing resistance of bull sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Wang, Yan-Feng; Wang, Hong; Wang, Chun-Wei; Zan, Lin-Sen; Hu, Jian-Hong; Li, Qing-Wang; Jia, Yong-Hong; Ma, Guo-Ji

    2014-05-01

    To date, there has been little improvement in cryopreservation of bull sperm due to lack of understanding of the freezing mechanisms. Therefore, this study set out to investigate expression levels of fertility-associated proteins in bull sperm, and in particular the relationship between the 90 kDa heat-shock protein (HSP90) and the sperm characteristics after freezing-thawing. Semen was collected from eight Holstein bulls by artificial vagina. Characteristics of these fresh semen, including sperm motility, morphology, viability and concentration, were evaluated. Sperm quality was also assessed after freezing-thawing. Eight ejaculates were divided into two groups based on freezing resistance and sperm motility. Sperm proteins were extracted and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis and western blotting were performed. SDS-PAGE results showed that there was substantial diversity in 90 kDa proteins in the frozen-thawed sperm and HSP90 was confirmed as one of the 90 kDa proteins by western blot. This study indicated that HSP90 expression correlated positively with sperm quality. The amount of expressed 90 kDa proteins in the high freezing resistance (HFR) group was significantly higher than that in the low freezing resistance (LFR) group (P sperm found after freezing-thawing. Therefore, we concluded that level of HSP90 expression could be used to predict reliably and simply the freezing resistance of bull sperm.

  12. Induction of hsp70, hsp90, and catalase activity in planarian Dugesia japonica exposed to cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiufang; Mo, Yehua; Zhou, Luming; Wang, Yinan; Wang, Zhongchen; Zhao, Bosheng

    2016-08-01

    The hsp70 and hsp90 expression patterns and catalase (CAT) activity in the freshwater planaria Dugesia japonica exposed to cadmium (Cd) under laboratory conditions were investigated. Planaria were exposed to a range of Cd concentrations (0-150 μg Cd/L) for 24 h. The expression levels of hsp70 and hsp90 were determined by relative quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Within the overall dose range in the experiment, the expression level of hsp70 and the activity of CAT in D. japonica were altered significantly. Hsp70 was induced in D. japonica upon Cd exposure concentrations as low as 9.375 μg Cd/L. No significant effect on the expression level of hsp90 was observed. Our findings demonstrated that stress gene hsp70, but not hsp90, was responsive to Cd contamination in D. japonica CAT activity was significantly induced at concentrations of 18.75, 37.5, and 75 μg Cd/L after 24-h exposure. We recommend that the use of hsp70 as a biomarker should be complemented by evidence of changes in other parameters, such as CAT activity, in D. japonica. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Hsp90 prevents interaction between CHIP and HERG proteins to facilitate maturation of wild-type and mutant HERG proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Chisato; Li, Peili; Kurata, Yasutaka; Hoshikawa, Yoshiko; Morikawa, Kumi; Maharani, Nani; Higaki, Katsumi; Sasano, Tetsuro; Notsu, Tomomi; Ishido, Yuko; Miake, Junichiro; Yamamoto, Yasutaka; Shirayoshi, Yasuaki; Ninomiya, Haruaki; Nakai, Akira; Murata, Shigeo; Yoshida, Akio; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Hiraoka, Masayasu; Hisatome, Ichiro

    2013-12-01

    We examined the role of Hsp90 in expression and maturation of wild-type (WT) and mutant ether-a-go-go related gene (HERG) proteins by using Hsp90 inhibitors, geldanamycin (GA) and radicicol, and Hsp90 overexpression. The proteins were expressed in HEK293 cells or collected from HL-1 mouse cardiomyocytes, and analysed by western blotting, immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence, and whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. GA and radicicol suppressed maturation of HERG-FLAG proteins and increased their immature forms. Co-expression of Hsp90 counteracted the effects of Hsp90 inhibitors and suppressed ubiquitination of HERG proteins. Overexpressed Hsp90 also inhibited the binding of endogenous C-terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP) to HERG-FLAG proteins. Hsp90-induced increase of functional HERG proteins was verified by their increased expression on the cell surface and enhanced HERG channel currents. CHIP overexpression decreased both mature and immature forms of HERG-FLAG proteins in cells treated with GA. Hsp90 facilitated maturation of endogenous ERG proteins, whereas CHIP decreased both forms of ERG proteins in HL-1 cells. Mutant HERG proteins harbouring disease-causing missense mutations were mainly in the immature form and had a higher binding capacity to CHIP than the WT; Hsp90 overexpression suppressed this association. Overexpressed Hsp90 increased the mature form of HERG(1122fs/147) proteins, reduced its ubiquitinated form, increased its immunoreactivity in the endoplasmic reticulum and on the plasma membrane, and increased the mutant-mediated membrane current. CHIP overexpression decreased the immature form of HERG(1122fs/147) proteins. Enhancement of HERG protein expression through Hsp90 inhibition of CHIP binding might be a novel therapeutic strategy for long QT syndrome 2 caused by trafficking abnormalities of HERG proteins.

  14. The HSP90 inhibitor alvespimycin enhances the potency of telomerase inhibition by imetelstat in human osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yafang; Bobb, Daniel; He, Jianping; Hill, D Ashley; Dome, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    The unsatisfactory outcomes for osteosarcoma necessitate novel therapeutic strategies. This study evaluated the effect of the telomerase inhibitor imetelstat in pre-clinical models of human osteosarcoma. Because the chaperone molecule HSP90 facilitates the assembly of telomerase protein, the ability of the HSP90 inhibitor alvespimycin to potentiate the effect of the telomerase inhibitor was assessed. The effect of single or combined treatment with imetelstat and alvespimycin on long-term growth was assessed in osteosarcoma cell lines (143B, HOS and MG-63) and xenografts derived from 143B cells. Results indicated that imetelstat as a single agent inhibited telomerase activity, induced telomere shortening, and inhibited growth in all 3 osteosarcoma cell lines, though the bulk cell cultures did not undergo growth arrest. Combined treatment with imetelstat and alvespimycin resulted in diminished telomerase activity and shorter telomeres compared to either agent alone as well as higher levels of γH2AX and cleaved caspase-3, indicative of increased DNA damage and apoptosis. With dual telomerase and HSP90 inhibition, complete growth arrest of bulk cell cultures was achieved. In xenograft models, all 3 treatment groups significantly inhibited tumor growth compared with the placebo-treated control group, with the greatest effect seen in the combined treatment group (imetelstat, p = 0.045, alvespimycin, p = 0.034; combined treatment, p = 0.004). In conclusion, HSP90 inhibition enhanced the effect of telomerase inhibition in pre-clinical models of osteosarcoma. Dual targeting of telomerase and HSP90 warrants further investigation as a therapeutic strategy.

  15. HSP90 Stabilizes Auxin-Responsive Phenotypes by Masking a Mutation in the Auxin Receptor TIR1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Etsuko; Mano, Shoji; Nomoto, Mika; Tada, Yasuomi; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Nishimura, Mikio; Yamada, Kenji

    2016-11-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a molecular chaperone that is required for the function of various substrate proteins, also known as client proteins. It is proposed that HSP90 buffers or hides phenotypic variations in animals and plants by masking mutations in some of its client proteins. However, none of the client proteins with cryptic mutations has been identified to date. Here, we identify the first client protein example by which HSP90 buffers a mutation: the auxin receptor transport inhibitor response 1 (TIR1). TIR1 interacts with HSP90 in the nucleus. An HSP90-specific inhibitor abolished the nuclear localization of TIR1 and the auxin-induced degradation of a TIR1-substrate, indicating that TIR1 is an HSP90 client protein. Plants with a null mutation in the TIR1 gene had a defect in auxin response, whereas plants with a point mutation in the TIR1 gene responded to auxin treatment in young seedlings, but a cryptic defect in its auxin response was exposed with HSP90 inhibitor treatment. These results demonstrate that HSP90 masks a point mutation in the auxin receptor TIR1 and thereby buffers auxin-responsive phenotypes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Structural and functional analysis of SGT1-HSP90 core complex required for innate immunity in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadota, Yasuhiro; Amigues, Beatrice; Ducassou, Lionel; Madaoui, Hocine; Ochsenbein, Francoise; Guerois, Raphaël; Shirasu, Ken

    2008-12-01

    SGT1 (Suppressor of G2 allele of skp1), a co-chaperone of HSP90 (Heat-shock protein 90), is required for innate immunity in plants and animals. Unveiling the cross talks between SGT1 and other co-chaperones such as p23, AHA1 (Activator of HSP90 ATPase 1) or RAR1 (Required for Mla12 resistance) is an important step towards understanding the HSP90 machinery. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mutational analyses of HSP90 revealed the nature of its binding with the CS domain of SGT1. Although CS is structurally similar to p23, these domains were found to non-competitively bind to various regions of HSP90; yet, unexpectedly, full-length SGT1 could displace p23 from HSP90. RAR1 partly shares the same binding site with HSP90 as the CS domain, whereas AHA1 does not. This analysis allowed us to build a structural model of the HSP90-SGT1 complex and to obtain a compensatory mutant pair between both partners that is able to restore virus resistance in vivo through Rx (Resistance to potato virus X) immune sensor stabilization.

  17. 17AAG Treatment Accelerates Doxorubicin Induced Cellular Senescence: Hsp90 Interferes with Enforced Senescence of Tumor Cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarangi, U.; Paithankar, K.R.; Kumar, J.U.; Subramaniam, V.; Sreedhar, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    Hsp90 chaperone has been identified as an attractive pharmacological target to combat cancer. However, some metastatic tumors either fail to respond to Hsp90 inhibition or show recovery necessitating irreversible therapeutic strategies. In response to this enforced senescence has been proposed as an

  18. Selection and Characterization of Single Chain Antibody Fragments Specific for Hsp90 as a Potential Cancer Targeting Molecule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Petters

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins play an essential role in facilitating malignant transformation and they have been recognized as important factors in human cancers. One of the key elements of the molecular chaperones machinery is Hsp90 and it has recently become a target for anticancer therapeutic approaches. The potential and importance of Hsp90-directed agents becomes apparent when one realizes that disruption of Hsp90 function may influence over 200 oncogenic client proteins. Here, we described the selection and characterization of Hsp90-specific antibody fragments from commercially available Tomlinson I and J phage display libraries. The affinities of Hsp90-binding scFv variants were measured using SPR method. Then, based on the best clone selected, we performed the affinity maturation procedure and obtained valuable Hsp90-specific clones. The selected binders were expressed and applied for immunostaining, ELISA and SPR analysis using model cancer cell lines. All performed experiments confirmed the ability of selected antibodies to interact with the Hsp90. Therefore, the presented Hsp90-specific scFv, might be a starting point for the development of a novel antibody-based strategy targeting cancer.

  19. Virtual prototyping study shows increased ATPase activity of Hsp90 to be the key determinant of cancer phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vali, Shireen; Pallavi, Rani; Kapoor, Shweta; Tatu, Utpal

    2010-03-01

    Hsp90 is an ATP-dependent molecular chaperone that regulates key signaling proteins and thereby impacts cell growth and development. Chaperone cycle of Hsp90 is regulated by ATP binding and hydrolysis through its intrinsic ATPase activities, which is in turn modulated by interaction with its co-chaperones. Hsp90 ATPase activity varies in different organisms and is known to be increased in tumor cells. In this study we have quantitatively analyzed the impact of increasing Hsp90 ATPase activity on the activities of its clients through a virtual prototyping technology, which comprises a dynamic model of Hsp90 interaction with clients involved in proliferation pathways. Our studies highlight the importance of increased ATPase activity of Hsp90 in cancer cells as the key modulator for increased proliferation and survival. A tenfold increase in ATPase activity of Hsp90 often seen in cancer cells increases the levels of active client proteins such as Akt-1, Raf-1 and Cyclin D1 amongst others to about 12-, 8- and 186-folds respectively. Additionally we studied the effect of a competitive inhibitor of Hsp90 activity on the reduction in the client protein levels. Virtual prototyping experiments corroborate with findings that the drug has almost 10- to 100-fold higher affinity as indicated by a lower IC(50) value (30-100 nM) in tumor cells with higher ATPase activity. The results also indicate a 15- to 25-fold higher efficacy of the inhibitor in reducing client levels in tumor cells. This analysis provides mechanistic insights into the links between increased Hsp90 ATPase activity, tumor phenotype and the hypersensitivity of tumor Hsp90 to inhibition by ATP analogs. The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11693-009-9046-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  20. Reactive oxygen species-dependent HSP90 protein cleavage participates in arsenical As(+3)- and MMA(+3)-induced apoptosis through inhibition of telomerase activity via JNK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shing-Chuan; Yang, Liang-Yo; Lin, Hui-Yi; Wu, Chin-Yen; Su, Tsung-Hsien; Chen, Yen-Chou

    2008-06-01

    The effects of six arsenic compounds including As(+3), MMA(+3), DMA(+3), As(+5), MMA(+5), and DMA(+5) on the viability of NIH3T3 cells were examined. As(+3) and MMA(+3), but not the others, exhibited significant cytotoxic effects in NIH3T3 cells through apoptosis induction. The apoptotic events such as DNA fragmentation and chromosome condensation induced by As(+3) and MMA(+3) were prevented by the addition of NAC and CAT, and induction of HO-1 gene expression in accordance with cleavage of the HSP90 protein, and suppression of telomerase activity were observed in NIH3T3 cells under As(+3) and MMA(+3) treatments. An increase in the intracellular peroxide level was examined in As(+3)- and MMA(+3)-treated NIH3T3 cells, and As(+3)- and MMA(+3)-induced apoptotic events were blocked by NAC, CAT, and DPI addition. HSP90 inhibitors, GA and RD, significantly attenuated the telomerase activity in NIH3T3 cells with an enhancement of As(+3)- and MMA(+3)-induced cytotoxicity. Suppression of JNKs significantly inhibited As(+3)- and MMA(+3)-induced apoptosis by blocking HSP90 protein cleavage and telomerase reduction in NIH3T3 cells. Furthermore, Hb, SnPP, and dexferosamine showed no effect against As(+3)- and MMA(+3)-induced apoptosis, and overexpression of HO-1 protein or inhibition of HO-1 protein expression did not affect the apoptosis induced by As(+3) or MMA(+3). These data provide the first evidence to indicate that apoptosis induced by As(+3) and MMA(+3) is mediated by an ROS-dependent degradation of HSP90 protein and reduction of telomerase via JNK activation, and HO-1 induction might not be involved.

  1. Topically applied Hsp90 inhibitor 17AAG inhibits UVR-induced cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anupama; Singh, Ashok; Sand, Jordan M; Bauer, Samuel J; Hafeez, Bilal Bin; Meske, Louise; Verma, Ajit K

    2015-04-01

    We present here that heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17AAG), when topically applied to mouse skin, inhibits UVR-induced development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In these experiments, DMSO:acetone (1:40 v/v) solution of 17AAG (500 nmol) was applied topically to mouse skin in conjunction with each UVR exposure (1.8 kJ m(-2)). The UVR source was Kodacel-filtered FS-40 sun lamps (approximately 60% UVB and 40% UVA). In independent experiments with three separate mouse lines (SKH-1 hairless mice, wild-type FVB, and protein kinase C epsilon (PKCɛ)-overexpressing transgenic FVB mice), 17AAG treatment increased the latency and decreased both the incidence and multiplicity of UVR-induced SCC. Topical 17AAG alone or in conjunction with UVR treatments elicited neither skin nor systemic toxicity. 17AAG-caused inhibition of SCC induction was accompanied by a decrease in UVR-induced (1) hyperplasia, (2) Hsp90β-PKCɛ interaction, and (3) expression levels of Hsp90β, Stat3, pStat3Ser727, pStat3Tyr705, pAktSer473, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP). The results presented here indicate that topical Hsp90 inhibitor 17AAG is effective in prevention of UVR-induced epidermal hyperplasia and SCC. One may conclude from the preclinical data presented here that topical 17AAG may be useful for prevention of UVR-induced inflammation and cutaneous SCC either developed in UVR-exposed or organ transplant population.

  2. Stromal cell–derived factor 2 is critical for Hsp90-dependent eNOS activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siragusa, Mauro; Fröhlich, Florian; Park, Eon Joo; Schleicher, Michael; Walther, Tobias C.; Sessa, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) catalyzes the conversion of l-arginine and molecular oxygen into l-citrulline and nitric oxide (NO), a gaseous second messenger that influences cardiovascular physiology and disease. Several mechanisms regulate eNOS activity and function, including phosphorylation at Ser and Thr residues and protein-protein interactions. Combining a tandem affinity purification approach and mass spectrometry, we identified stromal cell–derived factor 2 (SDF2) as a component of the eNOS macromolecular complex in endothelial cells. SDF2 knockdown impaired agonist-stimulated NO synthesis and decreased the phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1177, a key event required for maximal activation of eNOS. Conversely, SDF2 overexpression dose-dependently increased NO synthesis through a mechanism involving Akt and calcium (induced with ionomycin), which increased the phosphorylation of Ser1177 in eNOS. NO synthesis by iNOS (inducible NOS) and nNOS (neuronal NOS) was also enhanced upon SDF2 overexpression. We found that SDF2 was a client protein of the chaperone protein Hsp90, interacting preferentially with the M domain of Hsp90, which is the same domain that binds to eNOS. In endothelial cells exposed to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), SDF2 was required for the binding of Hsp90 and calmodulin to eNOS, resulting in eNOS phosphorylation and activation. Thus, our data describe a function for SDF2 as a component of the Hsp90-eNOS complex that is critical for signal transduction in endothelial cells. PMID:26286023

  3. FGFR3 translocations in bladder cancer: differential sensitivity to HSP90 inhibition based on drug metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquaviva, Jaime; He, Suqin; Zhang, Chaohua; Jimenez, John-Paul; Nagai, Masazumi; Sang, Jim; Sequeira, Manuel; Smith, Donald L; Ogawa, Luisa Shin; Inoue, Takayo; Tatsuta, Noriaki; Knowles, Margaret A; Bates, Richard C; Proia, David A

    2014-07-01

    Activating mutations and/or overexpression of FGFR3 are common in bladder cancer, making FGFR3 an attractive therapeutic target in this disease. In addition, FGFR3 gene rearrangements have recently been described that define a unique subset of bladder tumors. Here, a selective HSP90 inhibitor, ganetespib, induced loss of FGFR3-TACC3 fusion protein expression and depletion of multiple oncogenic signaling proteins in RT112 bladder cells, resulting in potent cytotoxicity comparable with the pan-FGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor BGJ398. However, in contrast to BGJ398, ganetespib exerted pleiotropic effects on additional mitogenic and survival pathways and could overcome the FGFR inhibitor-resistant phenotype of FGFR3 mutant-expressing 97-7 and MHG-U3 cells. Combinatorial benefit was observed when ganetespib was used with BGJ398 both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, two additional FGFR3 fusion-positive lines (RT4 and SW480) retained sensitivity to HSP90 inhibitor treatment by the ansamycins 17-AAG and 17-DMAG yet displayed intrinsic resistance to ganetespib or AUY922, both second-generation resorcinol-based compounds. Both cell lines, compared with RT112, expressed considerably higher levels of endogenous UGT1A enzyme; this phenotype resulted in a rapid glucuronidation-dependent metabolism and subsequent efflux of ganetespib from SW780 cells, thus providing a mechanism to account for the lack of bioactivity. Pharmacologic blockade of the molecular chaperone HSP90 represents a promising approach for treating bladder tumors driven by oncogenic gene rearrangements of FGFR3. Furthermore, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase enzyme expression may serve as a predictive factor for clinical response to resorcinol-based HSP90 inhibitors. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Jasmonate signalling in Arabidopsis involves SGT1b-HSP70-HSP90 chaperone complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Cheng; Millet, Yves A; Cheng, Zhenyu; Bush, Jenifer; Ausubel, Frederick M

    Plant hormones play pivotal roles in growth, development and stress responses. Although it is essential to our understanding of hormone signalling, how plants maintain a steady state level of hormone receptors is poorly understood. We show that mutation of the Arabidopsis thaliana co-chaperone SGT1b impairs responses to the plant hormones jasmonate, auxin and gibberellic acid, but not brassinolide and abscisic acid, and that SGT1b and its homologue SGT1a are involved in maintaining the steady state levels of the F-box proteins COI1 and TIR1, receptors for jasmonate and auxin, respectively. The association of SGT1b with COI1 is direct and is independent of the Arabidopsis SKP1 protein, ASK1. We further show that COI1 is a client protein of SGT1b-HSP70-HSP90 chaperone complexes and that the complexes function in hormone signalling by stabilizing the COI1 protein. This study extends the SGT1b-HSP90 client protein list and broadens the functional scope of SGT1b-HSP70-HSP90 chaperone complexes.

  5. Hsp70/Hsp90 organising protein (hop): beyond interactions with chaperones and prion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baindur-Hudson, Swati; Edkins, Adrienne L; Blatch, Gregory L

    2015-01-01

    The Hsp70/Hsp90 organising protein (Hop), also known as stress-inducible protein 1 (STI1), has received considerable attention for diverse cellular functions in both healthy and diseased states. There is extensive evidence that intracellular Hop is a co-chaperone of the major chaperones Hsp70 and Hsp90, playing an important role in the productive folding of Hsp90 client proteins. Consequently, Hop is implicated in a number of key signalling pathways, including aberrant pathways leading to cancer. However, Hop is also secreted and it is now well established that Hop also serves as a receptor for the prion protein, PrP(C). The intracellular and extracellular forms of Hop most likely represent two different isoforms, although the molecular determinants of these divergent functions are yet to be identified. There is also a growing body of research that reports the involvement of Hop in cellular activities that appear independent of either chaperones or PrP(C). While Hop has been shown to have various cellular functions, its biological function remains elusive. However, recent knockout studies in mammals suggest that Hop has an important role in embryonic development. This review provides a critical overview of the latest molecular, cellular and biological research on Hop, critically evaluating its function in healthy systems and how this function is adapted in diseases states.

  6. Symmetry broken and rebroken during the ATP hydrolysis cycle of the mitochondrial Hsp90 TRAP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnatan, Daniel; Betegon, Miguel; Liu, Yanxin; Ramelot, Theresa; Kennedy, Michael A; Agard, David A

    2017-07-25

    Hsp90 is a homodimeric ATP-dependent molecular chaperone that remodels its substrate 'client' proteins, facilitating their folding and activating them for biological function. Despite decades of research, the mechanism connecting ATP hydrolysis and chaperone function remains elusive. Particularly puzzling has been the apparent lack of cooperativity in hydrolysis of the ATP in each protomer. A crystal structure of the mitochondrial Hsp90, TRAP1, revealed that the catalytically active state is closed in a highly strained asymmetric conformation. This asymmetry, unobserved in other Hsp90 homologs, is due to buckling of one of the protomers and is most pronounced at the broadly conserved client-binding region. Here, we show that rather than being cooperative or independent, ATP hydrolysis on the two protomers is sequential and deterministic. Moreover, dimer asymmetry sets up differential hydrolysis rates for each protomer, such that the buckled conformation favors ATP hydrolysis. Remarkably, after the first hydrolysis, the dimer undergoes a flip in the asymmetry while remaining in a closed state for the second hydrolysis. From these results, we propose a model where direct coupling of ATP hydrolysis and conformational flipping rearranges client-binding sites, providing a paradigm of how energy from ATP hydrolysis can be used for client remodeling.

  7. Hsp90 Is a Novel Target Molecule of CDDO-Me in Inhibiting Proliferation of Ovarian Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Jun Qin

    Full Text Available Synthetic triterpenoid methyl-2-cyano-3, 12-dioxooleana-1, 9(11-dien-28-oate (CDDO-Me has been shown as a promising agent against ovarian cancer. However, the underlying mechanism is not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that CDDO-Me directly interacts with Hsp90 in cells by cellular thermal shift assay. CDDO-Me treatment leads to upregulation of Hsp70 and degradation of Hsp90 clients (ErbB2 and Akt, indicating the inhibition of Hsp90 by CDDO-Me in cells. Knockdown of Hsp90 significantly inhibits cell proliferation and enhances the anti-proliferation effect of CDDO-Me in H08910 ovarian cancer cells. Dithiothreitol inhibits the interaction of CDDO-Me with Hsp90 in cells and abrogates CDDO-Me induced upregulation of Hsp70, degradation of Akt and cell proliferation inhibition. This suggests the anti-ovarian cancer effect of CDDO-Me is possibly mediated by the formation of Michael adducts between CDDO-Me and reactive nucleophiles on Hsp90. This study identifies Hsp90 as a novel target protein of CDDO-Me, and provides a novel insight into the mechanism of action of CDDO-Me in ovarian cancer cells.

  8. Involvement of Yeast HSP90 Isoforms in Response to Stress and Cell Death Induced by Acetic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Alexandra; Sampaio-Marques, Belém; Fernandes, Ângela; Carreto, Laura; Rodrigues, Fernando; Holcik, Martin; Santos, Manuel A. S.; Ludovico, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Acetic acid-induced apoptosis in yeast is accompanied by an impairment of the general protein synthesis machinery, yet paradoxically also by the up-regulation of the two isoforms of the heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) chaperone family, Hsc82p and Hsp82p. Herein, we show that impairment of cap-dependent translation initiation induced by acetic acid is caused by the phosphorylation and inactivation of eIF2α by Gcn2p kinase. A microarray analysis of polysome-associated mRNAs engaged in translation in acetic acid challenged cells further revealed that HSP90 mRNAs are over-represented in this polysome fraction suggesting preferential translation of HSP90 upon acetic acid treatment. The relevance of HSP90 isoform translation during programmed cell death (PCD) was unveiled using genetic and pharmacological abrogation of HSP90, which suggests opposing roles for HSP90 isoforms in cell survival and death. Hsc82p appears to promote survival and its deletion leads to necrotic cell death, while Hsp82p is a pro-death molecule involved in acetic acid-induced apoptosis. Therefore, HSP90 isoforms have distinct roles in the control of cell fate during PCD and their selective translation regulates cellular response to acetic acid stress. PMID:23967187

  9. Sequence features and phylogenetic analysis of the stress protein Hsp90α in chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, a poikilothermic vertebrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Aldo N.; Winton, James R.; Dickhoff, Walton W.

    1999-01-01

    We cloned and sequenced a chinook salmon Hsp90 cDNA; sequence analysis shows it to be Hsp90??. Phylogenetic analysis supports the hypothesis that ?? and ?? paralogs of Hsp90 arose as a result of a gene duplication event and that they diverged early in the evolution of vertebrates, before tetrapods separated from the teleost lineage. Among several differences distinguishing poikilothermic Hsp90?? sequences from their bird and mammal orthologs, the teleost versions specifically lack a characteristic QTQDQP phosphorylation site near the N-terminus. We used the cDNA to develop an RNA (Northern) blot to quantify cellular Hsp90 mRNA levels. Chinook salmon embryonic (CHSE-214) cells responded to heat shock with a rapid rise in Hsp90 mRNA through 4 h, followed by a gradual decline over the next 20 h. Hsp90 mRNA level may be useful as a stress indicator, especially in a laboratory setting or in response to acute heat stress.

  10. HSP90 interacts with RAR1 and SGT1 and is essential for RPS2-mediated disease resistance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Akira; Casais, Catarina; Ichimura, Kazuya; Shirasu, Ken

    2003-09-30

    RAR1 and its interacting partner SGT1 play a central role in plant disease resistance triggered by a number of resistance (R) proteins. We identified cytosolic heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), a molecular chaperone, as another RAR1 interacting protein by yeast two-hybrid screening. RAR1 interacts with the N-terminal half of HSP90 that contains the ATPase domain. HSP90 also specifically interacts with SGT1 that contains a tetratricopeptide repeat motif and a domain with similarity to the cochaperone p23. In Arabidopsis, the HSP90 inhibitor geldanamycin reduces the hypersensitive response and abolishes resistance triggered by the R protein RPS2 against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (avrRpt2). One of four Arabidopsis cytosolic HSP90 isoforms, AtHSP90.1 is required for full RPS2 resistance and is rapidly induced upon pathogen challenge. We propose that RAR1 and SGT1 function closely with HSP90 in chaperoning roles that are essential for disease resistance.

  11. Resolving hot spots in the C-terminal dimerization domain that determine the stability of the molecular chaperone Hsp90.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Ciglia

    Full Text Available Human heat shock protein of 90 kDa (hHsp90 is a homodimer that has an essential role in facilitating malignant transformation at the molecular level. Inhibiting hHsp90 function is a validated approach for treating different types of tumors. Inhibiting the dimerization of hHsp90 via its C-terminal domain (CTD should provide a novel way to therapeutically interfere with hHsp90 function. Here, we predicted hot spot residues that cluster in the CTD dimerization interface by a structural decomposition of the effective energy of binding computed by the MM-GBSA approach and confirmed these predictions using in silico alanine scanning with DrugScore(PPI. Mutation of these residues to alanine caused a significant decrease in the melting temperature according to differential scanning fluorimetry experiments, indicating a reduced stability of the mutant hHsp90 complexes. Size exclusion chromatography and multi-angle light scattering studies demonstrate that the reduced stability of the mutant hHsp90 correlates with a lower complex stoichiometry due to the disruption of the dimerization interface. These results suggest that the identified hot spot residues can be used as a pharmacophoric template for identifying and designing small-molecule inhibitors of hHsp90 dimerization.

  12. GRP94: An HSP90-like protein specialized for protein folding and quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marzec, Michal; Eletto, Davide; Argon, Yair

    2012-01-01

    Glucose-regulated protein 94 is the HSP90-like protein in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum and therefore it chaperones secreted and membrane proteins. It has essential functions in development and physiology of multicellular organisms, at least in part because of this unique clientele. GRP94...... shares many biochemical features with other HSP90 proteins, in particular its domain structure and ATPase activity, but also displays distinct activities, such as calcium binding, necessitated by the conditions in the endoplasmic reticulum. GRP94's mode of action varies from the general HSP90 theme...

  13. An AlphaScreen™ Based High-throughput Screen to Identify Inhibitors of Hsp90 and Cochaperone Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Fang; Zhu, Pingjun; Southall, Noel; Inglese, James; Austin, Christopher P.; Zheng, Wei; Regan, Lynne

    2009-01-01

    Hsp90 has emerged as an important anti-cancer drug target because of its essential role in promoting the folding and maturation of many oncogenic proteins. Here we describe the development of the first high throughput screen, based on AlphaScreen™ technology, to identify a novel type of Hsp90 inhibitors that interrupt its interaction with the cochaperone HOP. The assay uses the 20-mer C-terminal peptide of Hsp90 and the TPR2A domain of HOP. Assay specificity was demonstrated by measuring diff...

  14. HSP90 interacts with RAR1 and SGT1 and is essential for RPS2-mediated disease resistance in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Akira; Casais, Catarina; Ichimura, Kazuya; Shirasu, Ken

    2003-01-01

    RAR1 and its interacting partner SGT1 play a central role in plant disease resistance triggered by a number of resistance (R) proteins. We identified cytosolic heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), a molecular chaperone, as another RAR1 interacting protein by yeast two-hybrid screening. RAR1 interacts with the N-terminal half of HSP90 that contains the ATPase domain. HSP90 also specifically interacts with SGT1 that contains a tetratricopeptide repeat motif and a domain with similarity to the cochape...

  15. Molecular Chaperone Hsp90 Associates with Resistance Protein N and Its Signaling Proteins SGT1 and Rar1 to Modulate an Innate Immune Response in Plants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yule Liu; Tessa Burch-Smith; Michael Schiff; Suhua Feng; Savithramma P. Dinesh-Kumar

    2004-01-01

    .... Here we report that SGT1 and Rar1 associate with the molecular chaperone Hsp90. In addition, we show that Hsp90 associates with the resistance protein N that confers resistance to tobacco mosaic virus...

  16. Humic acid induces the endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation at Ser1177 and Thr495 Via Hsp90α and Hsp90β upregulation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masato; Miyajima, Miki; Hishioka, Naoko; Nishimura, Ryo; Kihara, Yusuke; Hosokawa, Toshiyuki; Kurasaki, Masaaki; Tanaka, Shunitz; Saito, Takeshi

    2015-02-01

    Humic acid (HA) has been implicated as a contributory factor for blackfoot disease, which is an endemic peripheral vascular disease. We investigated the effect of HA on the regulation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to evaluate the involvement of eNOS and related factors in peripheral vascular impairment with HA exposure. Treatment of HUVECs with HA induced upregulation of eNOS. This result coincides with those of previous studies. Furthermore this is the first study to report that HA induces upregulation of heat shock protein (Hsp)90α, Hsp90β, eNOS phosphorylation at Ser1177, and eNOS phosphorylation at Thr495, as compared to that in the control. In contrast, treatment with BAPTA, an intracellular Ca(2+) chelator, inhibited upregulation of these proteins induced by HA. This study demonstrates that HA treatment leads to increases in both Hsp90α and Hsp90β proteins and indicates that Hsp90α leads to eNOS phosphorylation at Ser1177 and that Hsp90β leads to eNOS phosphorylation at Thr495, respectively. Upregulation of eNOS, Hsp90α, and Hsp90β in HUVECs is regulated by intracellular Ca(2+) accumulation induced by HA. These results suggest that upregulation of eNOS phosphorylation at Ser1177 and eNOS phosphorylation at Thr495 produce NO and superoxide anions, respectively, resulting in generation of peroxynitrite, which causes impairment of vascular endothelial cells. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. An interaction network predicted from public data as a discovery tool: application to the Hsp90 molecular chaperone machine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo C Echeverría

    Full Text Available Understanding the functions of proteins requires information about their protein-protein interactions (PPI. The collective effort of the scientific community generates far more data on any given protein than individual experimental approaches. The latter are often too limited to reveal an interactome comprehensively. We developed a workflow for parallel mining of all major PPI databases, containing data from several model organisms, and to integrate data from the literature for a protein of interest. We applied this novel approach to build the PPI network of the human Hsp90 molecular chaperone machine (Hsp90Int for which previous efforts have yielded limited and poorly overlapping sets of interactors. We demonstrate the power of the Hsp90Int database as a discovery tool by validating the prediction that the Hsp90 co-chaperone Aha1 is involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport. Thus, we both describe how to build a custom database and introduce a powerful new resource for the scientific community.

  18. Expression patterns and structural modelling of Hsp70 and Hsp90 in a fish-borne zoonotic nematode Anisakis pegreffii

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Hui-Yu; Cheng, Yi-Sheng; Shih, Hsiu-Hui

    2015-01-01

    .... Here, we aimed to elucidate the possible roles of Hsp70 and Hsp90 in the life cycle of the parasitic nematode Anisakis, particularly third- and fourth-stage larvae, from cold-blooded fish to warm...

  19. Antibiotic Radicicol Binds to the N-Terminal Domain of Hsp90 and Shares Important Biologic Activities with Geldanamycin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Theodor W. Schulte; Shiro Akinaga; Shiro Soga; William Sullivan; Bridget Stensgard; David Toft; Leonard M. Neckers

    1998-01-01

    The molecular chaperone Hsp90 plays an essential role in the folding and function of important cellular proteins including steroid hormone receptors, protein kinases and proteins controlling the cell cycle and apoptosis. A 15 Å...

  20. A Novel Therapeutic Strategy for the Treatment of Glioma, Combining Chemical and Molecular Targeting of Hsp90α

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, Adi; Shervington, Leroy; Munje, Chinmay; Shervington, Amal, E-mail: aashervington@googlemail.com [Brain Tumour North West, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, PR1 2HE (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-08

    Hsp90α's vital role in tumour survival and progression, together with its highly inducible expression profile in gliomas and its absence in normal tissue and cell lines validates it as a therapeutic target for glioma. Hsp90α was downregulated using the post-transcriptional RNAi strategy (sihsp90α) and a post-translational inhibitor, the benzoquinone antibiotic 17-AAG. Glioblastoma U87-MG and normal human astrocyte SVGp12 were treated with sihsp90α, 17-AAG and concurrent sihsp90α/17-AAG (combined treatment). Both Hsp90α gene silencing and the protein inhibitor approaches resulted in a dramatic reduction in cell viability. Results showed that sihsp90α, 17-AAG and a combination of sihsp90α/17-AAG, reduced cell viability by 27%, 75% and 88% (p < 0.001), respectively, after 72 h. hsp90α mRNA copy numbers were downregulated by 65%, 90% and 99% after 72 h treatment with sihsp90α, 17-AAG and sihsp90α/17-AAG, respectively. The relationship between Hsp90α protein expression and its client Akt kinase activity levels were monitored following treatment with sihsp90α, 17-AAG and sihsp90α/17-AAG. Akt kinase activity was downregulated as a direct consequence of Hsp90α inhibition. Both Hsp90α and Akt kinase levels were significantly downregulated after 72 h. Although, 17-AAG when used as a single agent reduces the Hsp90α protein and the Akt kinase levels, the efficacy demonstrated by combinatorial treatment was found to be far more effective. Combination treatment reduced the Hsp90α protein and Akt kinase levels to 4.3% and 43%, respectively, after 72 h. hsp90α mRNA expression detected in SVGp12 was negligible compared to U87-MG, also, the combination treatment did not compromise the normal cell viability. Taking into account the role of Hsp90α in tumour progression and the involvement of Akt kinase in cell signalling and the anti-apoptotic pathways in tumours, this double targets treatment infers a novel therapeutic strategy.

  1. Ammonia stress under high environmental ammonia induces Hsp70 and Hsp90 in the mud eel, Monopterus cuchia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangzo, Hnunlalliani; Banerjee, Bodhisattwa; Saha, Shrabani; Saha, Nirmalendu

    2017-02-01

    The obligatory air-breathing mud eel (Monopterus cuchia) is frequently being challenged with high environmental ammonia (HEA) exposure in its natural habitats. The present study investigated the possible induction of heat shock protein 70 and 90 (hsp70, hsc70, hsp90α and hsp90β) genes and more expression of Hsp70 and Hsp90 proteins under ammonia stress in different tissues of the mud eel after exposure to HEA (50 mM NH4Cl) for 14 days. HEA resulted in significant accumulation of toxic ammonia in different body tissues and plasma, which was accompanied with the stimulation of oxidative stress in the mud eel as evidenced by more accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) during exposure to HEA. Further, hyper-ammonia stress led to significant increase in the levels of mRNA transcripts for inducible hsp70 and hsp90α genes and also their translated proteins in different tissues probably as a consequence of induction of hsp70 and hsp90α genes in the mud eel. However, hyper-ammonia stress was neither associated with any significant alterations in the levels of mRNA transcripts for constitutive hsc70 and hsp90β genes nor their translated proteins in any of the tissues studied. More abundance of Hsp70 and Hsp90α proteins might be one of the strategies adopted by the mud eel to defend itself from the ammonia-induced cellular damages under ammonia stress. Further, this is the first report of ammonia-induced induction of hsp70 and hsp90α genes under hyper-ammonia stress in any freshwater air-breathing teleost.

  2. Evidence of a Cell Surface Role for Hsp90 Complex Proteins Mediating Neuroblast Migration in the Subventricular Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo M. Miyakoshi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In most mammalian brains, the subventricular zone (SVZ is a germinative layer that maintains neurogenic activity throughout adulthood. Neuronal precursors arising from this region migrate through the rostral migratory stream (RMS and reach the olfactory bulbs where they differentiate and integrate into the local circuitry. Recently, studies have shown that heat shock proteins have an important role in cancer cell migration and blocking Hsp90 function was shown to hinder cell migration in the developing cerebellum. In this work, we hypothesize that chaperone complexes may have an important function regulating migration of neuronal precursors from the subventricular zone. Proteins from the Hsp90 complex are present in the postnatal SVZ as well as in the RMS. Using an in vitro SVZ explant model, we have demonstrated the expression of Hsp90 and Hop/STI1 by migrating neuroblasts. Treatment with antibodies against Hsp90 and co-chaperone Hop/STI1, as well as Hsp90 and Hsp70 inhibitors hinder neuroblast chain migration. Time-lapse videomicroscopy analysis revealed that cell motility and average migratory speed was decreased after exposure to both antibodies and inhibitors. Antibodies recognizing Hsp90, Hsp70, and Hop/STI1 were found bound to the membranes of cells from primary SVZ cultures and biotinylation assays demonstrated that Hsp70 and Hop/STI1 could be found on the external leaflet of neuroblast membranes. The latter could also be detected in conditioned medium samples obtained from cultivated SVZ cells. Our results suggest that chaperones Hsp90, Hsp70, and co-chaperone Hop/STI1, components of the Hsp90 complex, regulate SVZ neuroblast migration in a concerted manner through an extracellular mechanism.

  3. Protein Expression and Purification of the Hsp90-Cdc37-Cdk4 Kinase Complex from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verba, Kliment A; Agard, David A

    2017-10-05

    Interactions between Hsp90, its co-chaperone Cdc37 and kinases have been biochemically studied for over three decades and have been shown to be functionally important in organisms from yeast to humans. However, formation of a stable complex for structural studies has been elusive. In this protocol we describe expression and purification of Hsp90-Cdc37-Cdk4 kinase protein complex from Saccharomyces cerevisiae utilizing the viral 2A sequences to titrate the three proteins at similar levels.

  4. Expression patterns and structural modelling of Hsp70 and Hsp90 in a fish-borne zoonotic nematode Anisakis pegreffii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Yu; Cheng, Yi-Sheng; Shih, Hsiu-Hui

    2015-09-15

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are essential molecular chaperones that are highly conserved across organisms. They have a pivotal function in responding to thermal stress and are responsible for many cellular functions. Here, we aimed to elucidate the possible roles of Hsp70 and Hsp90 in the life cycle of the parasitic nematode Anisakis, particularly third- and fourth-stage larvae, from cold-blooded fish to warm-blooded marine mammals or accidentally to human hosts. We examined the expression profiles of Hsp70 and Hsp90 in different developmental stages of Anisakis pegreffii. The open reading frame of Hsp70 of A. pegreffii was 1950 bp, and deduced amino acid sequence showed high homology with those of other nematodes. Heatmap analysis revealed sequence identity of Hsp70 and Hsp90 in 13 important parasitic species, human and yeast. On heatmap and phylogenetic analysis, ApHsp70 and ApHsp90 shared the highest amino acid sequence identity with other nematodes and formed a monophyletic clade. The three-dimensional (3D) structure prediction of the newly characterized ApHsp70 and known ApHsp90 gene showed highly conserved motifs between A. pegreffii and other species. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analysis revealed higher mRNA and protein expression for ApHsp70 and ApHsp90 in fourth- than third-stage larvae, with higher mRNA and protein expression for ApHsp70 than ApHsp90. ApHsp70 and ApHsp90 may play important roles in Anisakis in response to thermal stress and might be important molecules in the development of A. pegreffii, which has implications for its control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fever-range hyperthermia vs. hypothermia effect on cancer cell viability, proliferation and HSP90 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalamida, Dimitra; Karagounis, Ilias V; Mitrakas, Achilleas; Kalamida, Sofia; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Koukourakis, Michael I

    2015-01-01

    The current study examines the effect of fever-range hyperthermia and mild hypothermia on human cancer cells focusing on cell viability, proliferation and HSP90 expression. A549 and H1299 lung carcinoma, MCF7 breast adenocarcinoma, U87MG and T98G glioblastoma, DU145 and PC3 prostate carcinoma and MRC5 normal fetal lung fibroblasts cell lines were studied. After 3-day exposure to 34°C, 37°C and 40°C, cell viability was determined. Cell proliferation (ki67 index), apoptosis (Caspase 9) and HSP90 expression was studied by confocal microscopy. Viability/proliferation experiments demonstrated that MRC5 fibroblasts were extremely sensitive to hyperthermia, while they were the most resistant to hypothermia. T98G and A549 were thermo-tolerant, the remaining being thermo-sensitive to a varying degree. Nonetheless, as a universal effect, hypothermia reduced viability/proliferation in all cell lines. Hyperthermia sharply induced Caspase 9 in the U87MG most thermo-sensitive cell line. In T98G and A549 thermo-tolerant cell lines, the levels of Caspase 9 declined. Moreover, hyperthermia strongly induced the HSP90 levels in T98G, whilst a sharp decrease was recorded in the thermo-sensitive PC3 and U87MG cell lines. Hyperthermia sensitized thermo-sensitive cancer cell lines to cisplatin and temozolomide, whilst its sensitizing effect was diminished in thermo-tolerant cell lines. The existence of thermo-tolerant and thermo-sensitive cancer cell lines was confirmed, which further encourages research to classify human tumor thermic predilection for patient stratification in clinical trials. Of interest, mild hypothermia had a universal suppressing effect on cancer cell proliferation, further supporting the radio-sensitization hypothesis through reduction of oxygen and metabolic demands.

  6. Fever-range hyperthermia vs. hypothermia effect on cancer cell viability, proliferation and HSP90 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitra Kalamida

    Full Text Available The current study examines the effect of fever-range hyperthermia and mild hypothermia on human cancer cells focusing on cell viability, proliferation and HSP90 expression.A549 and H1299 lung carcinoma, MCF7 breast adenocarcinoma, U87MG and T98G glioblastoma, DU145 and PC3 prostate carcinoma and MRC5 normal fetal lung fibroblasts cell lines were studied. After 3-day exposure to 34°C, 37°C and 40°C, cell viability was determined. Cell proliferation (ki67 index, apoptosis (Caspase 9 and HSP90 expression was studied by confocal microscopy.Viability/proliferation experiments demonstrated that MRC5 fibroblasts were extremely sensitive to hyperthermia, while they were the most resistant to hypothermia. T98G and A549 were thermo-tolerant, the remaining being thermo-sensitive to a varying degree. Nonetheless, as a universal effect, hypothermia reduced viability/proliferation in all cell lines. Hyperthermia sharply induced Caspase 9 in the U87MG most thermo-sensitive cell line. In T98G and A549 thermo-tolerant cell lines, the levels of Caspase 9 declined. Moreover, hyperthermia strongly induced the HSP90 levels in T98G, whilst a sharp decrease was recorded in the thermo-sensitive PC3 and U87MG cell lines. Hyperthermia sensitized thermo-sensitive cancer cell lines to cisplatin and temozolomide, whilst its sensitizing effect was diminished in thermo-tolerant cell lines.The existence of thermo-tolerant and thermo-sensitive cancer cell lines was confirmed, which further encourages research to classify human tumor thermic predilection for patient stratification in clinical trials. Of interest, mild hypothermia had a universal suppressing effect on cancer cell proliferation, further supporting the radio-sensitization hypothesis through reduction of oxygen and metabolic demands.

  7. Human calmodulin methyltransferase: expression, activity on calmodulin, and Hsp90 dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Magen

    Full Text Available Deletion of the first exon of calmodulin-lysine N-methyltransferase (CaM KMT, previously C2orf34 has been reported in two multigene deletion syndromes, but additional studies on the gene have not been reported. Here we show that in the cells from 2p21 deletion patients the loss of CaM KMT expression results in accumulation of hypomethylated calmodulin compared to normal controls, suggesting that CaM KMT is essential for calmodulin methylation and there are no compensatory mechanisms for CaM methylation in humans. We have further studied the expression of this gene at the transcript and protein levels. We have identified 2 additional transcripts in cells of the 2p21 deletion syndrome patients that start from alternative exons positioned outside the deletion region. One of them starts in the 2(nd known exon, the other in a novel exon. The transcript starting from the novel exon was also identified in a variety of tissues from normal individuals. These new transcripts are not expected to produce proteins. Immunofluorescent localization of tagged CaM KMT in HeLa cells indicates that it is present in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of cells whereas the short isoform is localized to the Golgi apparatus. Using Western blot analysis we show that the CaM KMT protein is broadly expressed in mouse tissues. Finally we demonstrate that the CaM KMT interacts with the middle portion of the Hsp90 molecular chaperon and is probably a client protein since it is degraded upon treatment of cells with the Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin. These findings suggest that the CaM KMT is the major, possibly the single, methyltransferase of calmodulin in human cells with a wide tissue distribution and is a novel Hsp90 client protein. Thus our data provides basic information for a gene potentially contributing to the patient phenotype of two contiguous gene deletion syndromes.

  8. Sulforaphane Potentiates the Efficacy of 17-Allylamino 17-Demethoxygeldanamycin Against Pancreatic Cancer Through Enhanced Abrogation of Hsp90 Chaperone Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanyan; Zhang, Tao; Schwartz, Steven J.; Sun, Duxin

    2013-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), an essential molecular chaperone that regulates the stability of a wide range of oncogenic proteins, is a promising target for cancer therapeutics. We investigated the combination efficacy and potential mechanisms of sulforaphane, a dietary component from broccoli and broccoli sprouts, and 17-allylamino 17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), an Hsp90 inhibitor, in pancreatic cancer. MTS assay demonstrated that sulforaphane sensitized pancreatic cancer cells to 17-AAG in vitro. Caspase-3 was activated to 6.4-fold in response to simultaneous treatment with sulforaphane and 17-AAG, whereas 17-AAG alone induced caspase-3 activity to 2-fold compared to control. ATP binding assay and coimmunoprecipitation revealed that sulforaphane disrupted Hsp90-p50Cdc37 interaction, whereas 17-AAG inhibited ATP binding to Hsp90. Concomitant use of sulforaphane and 17-AAG synergistically downregulated Hsp90 client proteins in Mia Paca-2 cells. Co-administration of sulforaphane and 17-AAG in pancreatic cancer xenograft model led to more than 70% inhibition of the tumor growth, whereas 17-AAG alone only suppressed the tumor growth by 50%. Our data suggest that sulforaphane potentiates the efficacy of 17-AAG against pancreatic cancer through enhanced abrogation of Hsp90 function. These findings provide a rationale for further evaluation of broccoli/broccoli sprout preparations combined with 17-AAG for better efficacy and lower dose-limiting toxicity in pancreatic cancer. PMID:21875325

  9. Ascorbic Acid Inhibition of Candida albicans Hsp90-Mediated Morphogenesis Occurs via the Transcriptional Regulator Upc2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hauwenhuyse, Frédérique; Fiori, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Morphogenetic transitions of the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans are influenced by temperature changes, with induction of filamentation upon a shift from 30 to 37°C. Hsp90 was identified as a major repressor of an elongated cell morphology at low temperatures, as treatment with specific inhibitors of Hsp90 results in elongated growth forms at 30°C. Elongated growth resulting from a compromised Hsp90 is considered neither hyphal nor pseudohyphal growth. It has been reported that ascorbic acid (vitamin C) interferes with the yeast-to-hypha transition in C. albicans. In the present study, we show that ascorbic acid also antagonizes the morphogenetic change caused by hampered Hsp90 function. Further analysis revealed that Upc2, a transcriptional regulator of genes involved in ergosterol biosynthesis, and Erg11, the target of azole antifungals, whose expression is in turn regulated by Upc2, are required for this antagonism. Ergosterol levels correlate with elongated growth and are reduced in cells treated with the Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin (GdA) and restored by cotreatment with ascorbic acid. In addition, we show that Upc2 appears to be required for ascorbic acid-mediated inhibition of the antifungal activity of fluconazole. These results identify Upc2 as a major regulator of ascorbic acid-induced effects in C. albicans and suggest an association between ergosterol content and elongated growth upon Hsp90 compromise. PMID:25084864

  10. An AlphaScreen-based high-throughput screen to identify inhibitors of Hsp90-cochaperone interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fang; Zhu, Pingjun; Southall, Noel; Inglese, James; Austin, Christopher P; Zheng, Wei; Regan, Lynne

    2009-03-01

    Hsp90 has emerged as an important anticancer drug target because of its essential role in promoting the folding and maturation of many oncogenic proteins. The authors describe the development of the first high-throughput screen, based on AlphaScreen technology, to identify a novel type of Hsp90 inhibitors that interrupt its interaction with the cochaperone HOP. The assay used the 20-mer C-terminal peptide of Hsp90 and the TPR2A domain of HOP. Assay specificity was demonstrated by measuring different interactions using synthetic peptides, with measured IC50s in good agreement with reported values. The assay was stable over 12 h and tolerated DMSO up to 5%. The authors first validated the assay by screening against 20,000 compounds in a 384-well format. After further optimization into a 1536-well format, it was screened against an NIH Chemical Genomics Center library of 76,134 compounds, with a signal-to-background ratio of 78 and Z' factor of 0.77. The present assay can be used for discovery of novel small-molecule Hsp90 inhibitors that can be used as chemical probes to investigate the role of cochaperones in Hsp90 function. Such molecules have the potential to be developed into novel anticancer drugs, for use alone or in combination with other Hsp90 inhibitors.

  11. Analysis of HSP90-related folds with MED-SuMo classification approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doppelt-Azeroual, Olivia; Moriaud, Fabrice; Delfaud, François; de Brevern, Alexandre G

    2009-09-21

    Three-dimensional structural information is critical for understanding functional protein properties and the precise mechanisms of protein functions implicated in physiological and pathological processes. Comparison and detection of protein binding sites are key steps for annotating structures with functional predictions and are extremely valuable steps in a drug design process. In this research area, MED-SuMo is a powerful technology to detect and characterize similar local regions on protein surfaces. Each amino acid residue's potential chemical interactions are represented by specific surface chemical features (SCFs). The MED-SuMo heuristic is based on the representation of binding sites by a graph structure suitable for exploration by an efficient comparison algorithm. We use this approach to analyze one particular SCOP superfamily which includes HSP90 chaperone, MutL/DNA topoisomerase, histidine kinases, and alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase C (BCK). They share a common fold and a common region for ATP-binding. To analyze both similar and differing features of this fold, we use a novel classification method, the MED-SuMo multi approach (MED-SMA). We highlight common and distinct features of these proteins. The different clusters created by MED-SMA yield interesting observations. For instance, one cluster gathers three types of proteins (HSP90, topoisomerase VI, and BCK) which all bind the drug radicicol.

  12. HSP90 Inhibitor Encapsulated Photo-Theranostic Nanoparticles for Synergistic Combination Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Yin; Guo, Wenchang; Long, Qilai; Ma, Aihong; Liu, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Hongyong; Huang, Yee; Chandrasekaran, Siddarth; Pan, Chongxian; Lam, Kit S; Li, Yuanpei

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising non-invasive therapeutic modality that has been proposed for treating prostate cancer, but the procedure is associated with limited efficacy, tumor recurrence and photo-toxicity. In the present study, we proposed to develop a novel multifunctional nano-platform for targeted delivery of heat, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor simultaneously for combination therapy against prostate cancer. This new nano-platform combines two newly developed entities: 1) a unique organic and biocompatible nanoporphyrin-based drug delivery system that can generate efficient heat and ROS simultaneously with light activation at the tumor sites for dual-modal photothermal- and photodynamic- therapy (PTT/PDT), and 2) new nano-formulations of Hsp90 inhibitors that can decrease the levels of pro-survival and angiogenic signaling molecules induced by phototherapy, therefore, further sensitizing cancer cells to phototherapy. Furthermore, the nanoparticles have activatable near infrared (NIR) fluorescence for optical imaging to conveniently monitor the real-time drug delivery in both subcutaneous and orthotopic mouse models bearing prostate cancer xenograft. This novel multifunctional nano-platform has great potential to improve the care of prostate cancer patients through targeted combination therapy.

  13. Hsp90 inhibitor 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin inhibits the proliferation of ARPE-19 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The antiproliferative effect of the Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG (17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin on human retinal pigment epithelial cells is investigated. Methods MTT and flow cytometry were used to study the antiproliferative effects of the 17-AAG treatment of ARPE-19 cells. 2D gel electrophoresis (2-DE and mass spectrometry were applied to detect the altered expression of proteins, which was verified by real-time PCR. Gene Ontology analysis and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA were utilized to analyze the signaling pathways, cellular location, function, and network connections of the identified proteins. And SOD assay was employed to confirm the analysis. Results 17-AAG suppressed the proliferation of ARPE-19 cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Proteomic analysis revealed that the expression of 94 proteins was altered by a factor of more than 1.5 following exposure to 17-AAG. Of these 94, 87 proteins were identified. Real-time PCR results indicated that Hsp90 and Hsp70, which were not identified by proteomic analysis, were both upregulated upon 17-AAG treatment. IPA revealed that most of the proteins have functions that are related to oxidative stress, as verified by SOD assay, while canonical pathway analysis revealed glycolysis/gluconeogenesis. Conclusions 17-AAG suppressed the proliferation of ARPE-19 cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and possibly by oxidative stress.

  14. LPS-induced delayed preconditioning is mediated by Hsp90 and involves the heat shock response in mouse kidney.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Kaucsár

    Full Text Available We and others demonstrated previously that preconditioning with endotoxin (LPS protected from a subsequent lethal LPS challenge or from renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI. LPS is effective in evoking the heat shock response, an ancient and essential cellular defense mechanism, which plays a role in resistance to, and recovery from diseases. Here, by using the pharmacological Hsp90 inhibitor novobiocin (NB, we investigated the role of Hsp90 and the heat shock response in LPS-induced delayed renal preconditioning.Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with preconditioning (P: 2 mg/kg, i.p. and subsequent lethal (L: 10 mg/kg, i.p. doses of LPS alone or in combination with NB (100 mg/kg, i.p.. Controls received saline (C or NB.Preconditioning LPS conferred protection from a subsequent lethal LPS treatment. Importantly, the protective effect of LPS preconditioning was completely abolished by a concomitant treatment with NB. LPS induced a marked heat shock protein increase as demonstrated by Western blots of Hsp70 and Hsp90. NB alone also stimulated Hsp70 and Hsp90 mRNA but not protein expression. However, Hsp70 and Hsp90 protein induction in LPS-treated mice was abolished by a concomitant NB treatment, demonstrating a NB-induced impairment of the heat shock response to LPS preconditioning.LPS-induced heat shock protein induction and tolerance to a subsequent lethal LPS treatment was prevented by the Hsp90 inhibitor, novobiocin. Our findings demonstrate a critical role of Hsp90 in LPS signaling, and a potential involvement of the heat shock response in LPS-induced preconditioning.

  15. Inhibiting the HSP90 chaperone slows cyst growth in a mouse model of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger-Nukpezah, Tamina; Proia, David A; Egleston, Brian L; Nikonova, Anna S; Kent, Tatiana; Cai, Kathy Q; Hensley, Harvey H; Ying, Weiwen; Chimmanamada, Dinesh; Serebriiskii, Ilya G; Golemis, Erica A

    2013-07-30

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a progressive genetic syndrome with an incidence of 1:500 in the population, arising from inherited mutations in the genes for polycystic kidney disease 1 (PKD1) or polycystic kidney disease 2 (PKD2). Typical onset is in middle age, with gradual replacement of renal tissue with thousands of fluid-filled cysts, resulting in end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis or kidney transplantation. There currently are no approved therapies to slow or cure ADPKD. Mutations in the PKD1 and PKD2 genes abnormally activate multiple signaling proteins and pathways regulating cell proliferation, many of which we observe, through network construction, to be regulated by heat shock protein 90 (HSP90). Inhibiting HSP90 with a small molecule, STA-2842, induces the degradation of many ADPKD-relevant HSP90 client proteins in Pkd1(-/-) primary kidney cells and in vivo. Using a conditional Cre-mediated mouse model to inactivate Pkd1 in vivo, we find that weekly administration of STA-2842 over 10 wk significantly reduces initial formation of renal cysts and kidney growth and slows the progression of these phenotypes in mice with preexisting cysts. These improved disease phenotypes are accompanied by improved indicators of kidney function and reduced expression and activity of HSP90 clients and their effectors, with the degree of inhibition correlating with cystic expansion in individual animals. Pharmacokinetic analysis indicates that HSP90 is overexpressed and HSP90 inhibitors are selectively retained in cystic versus normal kidney tissue, analogous to the situation observed in solid tumors. These results provide an initial justification for evaluating HSP90 inhibitors as therapeutic agents for ADPKD.

  16. Acquired resistance to 5-fluorouracil via HSP90/Src-mediated increase in thymidylate synthase expression in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ji-Young; Lee, Ji-Sun; Min, Hye-Young; Lee, Ho-Young

    2015-10-20

    5-fluorouracil (5-FU), one of the first-line chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of gastrointestinal malignancies, has shown limited efficacy. The expression of thymidylate synthase (TYMS) has been reported to be associated with the resistance to 5-FU. Here, we demonstrate that the enhanced HSP90 function and subsequent activation of Src induce expression of TYMS and acquired resistance to 5-FU in colon cancer. We show that the persistent 5-FU treatment granted 5-FU-sensitive HCT116 colon cancer cells morphologic, molecular, and behavioral characteristic of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), contributing to emergence of acquired resistance to 5-FU. HCT116/R, a HCT116 colon cancer cell subline carrying acquired resistance to 5-FU, showed increased expression and activation of HSP90's client proteins and transcriptional up-regulation of TYMS. Forced overexpression of HSP90 or constitutive active Src in HCT116 cells increased TYMS expression. Conversely, pharmacological blockade of HSP90 or Src in HCT116/R cells effectively suppressed the changes involved in 5-FU resistance in vitro and xenograft tumor growth, hematogenous spread, and metastatic tumor development in vivo. This study suggests a novel function of HSP90-Src pathway in regulation of TYMS expression and acquisition of 5-FU resistance. Thus, therapeutics targeting this pathway may be an effective clinical strategy to overcome 5-FU resistance in colon cancer.

  17. Myocyte-Derived Hsp90 Modulates Collagen Upregulation via Biphasic Activation of STAT-3 in Fibroblasts during Cardiac Hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Ritwik; Bansal, Trisha; Rana, Santanu; Datta, Kaberi; Datta Chaudhuri, Ratul; Chawla-Sarkar, Mamta

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT-3)-mediated signaling in relation to upregulated collagen expression in fibroblasts during cardiac hypertrophy is well defined. Our recent findings have identified heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) to be a critical modulator of fibrotic signaling in cardiac fibroblasts in this disease milieu. The present study was therefore intended to analyze the role of Hsp90 in the STAT-3-mediated collagen upregulation process. Our data revealed a significant difference between in vivo and in vitro results, pointing to a possible involvement of myocyte-fibroblast cross talk in this process. Cardiomyocyte-targeted knockdown of Hsp90 in rats (Rattus norvegicus) in which the renal artery was ligated showed downregulated collagen synthesis. Furthermore, the results obtained with cardiac fibroblasts conditioned with Hsp90-inhibited hypertrophied myocyte supernatant pointed toward cardiomyocytes' role in the regulation of collagen expression in fibroblasts during hypertrophy. Our study also revealed a novel signaling mechanism where myocyte-derived Hsp90 orchestrates not only p65-mediated interleukin-6 (IL-6) synthesis but also its release in exosomal vesicles. Such myocyte-derived exosomes and myocyte-secreted IL-6 are responsible in unison for the biphasic activation of STAT-3 signaling in cardiac fibroblasts that culminates in excess collagen synthesis, leading to severely compromised cardiac function during cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:28031326

  18. Hectd1 regulates intracellular localization and secretion of Hsp90 to control cellular behavior of the cranial mesenchyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Anjali A; Zohn, Irene E

    2012-03-19

    Hectd1 mutant mouse embryos exhibit the neural tube defect exencephaly associated with abnormal cranial mesenchyme. Cellular rearrangements in cranial mesenchyme are essential during neurulation for elevation of the neural folds. Here we investigate the molecular basis of the abnormal behavior of Hectd1 mutant cranial mesenchyme. We demonstrate that Hectd1 is a functional ubiquitin ligase and that one of its substrates is Hsp90, a chaperone protein with both intra- and extracellular clients. Extracellular Hsp90 enhances migration of multiple cell types. In mutant cranial mesenchyme cells, both secretion of Hsp90 and emigration of cells from cranial mesenchyme explants were enhanced. Importantly, we show that this enhanced emigration was highly dependent on the excess Hsp90 secreted from mutant cells. Together, our data set forth a model whereby increased secretion of Hsp90 in the cranial mesenchyme of Hectd1 mutants is responsible, at least in part, for the altered organization and behavior of these cells and provides a potential molecular mechanism underlying the neural tube defect.

  19. Structural basis for assembly of Hsp90-Sgt1-CHORD protein complexes: implications for chaperoning of NLR innate immunity receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minghao; Kadota, Yasuhiro; Prodromou, Chrisostomos; Shirasu, Ken; Pearl, Laurence H

    2010-07-30

    Hsp90-mediated function of NLR receptors in plant and animal innate immunity depends on the cochaperone Sgt1 and, at least in plants, on a cysteine- and histidine-rich domains (CHORD)-containing protein Rar1. Functionally, CHORD domains are associated with CS domains, either within the same protein, as in the mammalian melusin and Chp1, or in separate but interacting proteins, as in the plant Rar1 and Sgt1. Both CHORD and CS domains are independently capable of interacting with the molecular chaperone Hsp90 and can coexist in complexes with Hsp90. We have now determined the structure of an Hsp90-CS-CHORD ternary complex, providing a framework for understanding the dynamic nature of Hsp90-Rar1-Sgt1 complexes. Mutational and biochemical analyses define the architecture of the ternary complex that recruits nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat receptors (NLRs) by manipulating the structural elements to control the ATPase-dependent conformational cycle of the chaperone. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Differential modulation of functional dynamics and allosteric interactions in the Hsp90-cochaperone complexes with p23 and Aha1: a computational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Blacklock

    Full Text Available Allosteric interactions of the molecular chaperone Hsp90 with a large cohort of cochaperones and client proteins allow for molecular communication and event coupling in signal transduction networks. The integration of cochaperones into the Hsp90 system is driven by the regulatory mechanisms that modulate the progression of the ATPase cycle and control the recruitment of the Hsp90 clientele. In this work, we report the results of computational modeling of allosteric regulation in the Hsp90 complexes with the cochaperones p23 and Aha1. By integrating protein docking, biophysical simulations, modeling of allosteric communications, protein structure network analysis and the energy landscape theory we have investigated dynamics and stability of the Hsp90-p23 and Hsp90-Aha1 interactions in direct comparison with the extensive body of structural and functional experiments. The results have revealed that functional dynamics and allosteric interactions of Hsp90 can be selectively modulated by these cochaperones via specific targeting of the regulatory hinge regions that could restrict collective motions and stabilize specific chaperone conformations. The protein structure network parameters have quantified the effects of cochaperones on conformational stability of the Hsp90 complexes and identified dynamically stable communities of residues that can contribute to the strengthening of allosteric interactions. According to our results, p23-mediated changes in the Hsp90 interactions may provide "molecular brakes" that could slow down an efficient transmission of the inter-domain allosteric signals, consistent with the functional role of p23 in partially inhibiting the ATPase cycle. Unlike p23, Aha1-mediated acceleration of the Hsp90-ATPase cycle may be achieved via modulation of the equilibrium motions that facilitate allosteric changes favoring a closed dimerized form of Hsp90. The results of our study have shown that Aha1 and p23 can modulate the Hsp90

  1. HSP90 as a novel molecular target in non-small-cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esfahani K

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Khashayar Esfahani, Victor Cohen Segal Cancer Center, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada Abstract: Lung cancer remains the most lethal cancer, with over 160,000 annual deaths in the USA alone. Over the past decade, the discovery of driver mutations has changed the landscape for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Targeted therapies against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK have now been approved by the Food and Drug Administration as part of the standard first-line treatment of NSCLC. Despite good initial responses, most patients develop resistance within 8–12 months and have disease progression. Keywords: non-small-cell lung cancer, driver mutations, targeted therapy, heat shock protein 90 (HSP90

  2. The molecular chaperone Hsp90 is required for cell cycle exit in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Jennifer L; Jiang, Huaqi; Nickerson, Derek W; Edgar, Bruce A

    2013-01-01

    The coordination of cell proliferation and differentiation is crucial for proper development. In particular, robust mechanisms exist to ensure that cells permanently exit the cell cycle upon terminal differentiation, and these include restraining the activities of both the E2F/DP transcription factor and Cyclin/Cdk kinases. However, the full complement of mechanisms necessary to restrain E2F/DP and Cyclin/Cdk activities in differentiating cells are not known. Here, we have performed a genetic screen in Drosophila melanogaster, designed to identify genes required for cell cycle exit. This screen utilized a PCNA-miniwhite(+) reporter that is highly E2F-responsive and results in a darker red eye color when crossed into genetic backgrounds that delay cell cycle exit. Mutation of Hsp83, the Drosophila homolog of mammalian Hsp90, results in increased E2F-dependent transcription and ectopic cell proliferation in pupal tissues at a time when neighboring wild-type cells are postmitotic. Further, these Hsp83 mutant cells have increased Cyclin/Cdk activity and accumulate proteins normally targeted for proteolysis by the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), suggesting that APC/C function is inhibited. Indeed, reducing the gene dosage of an inhibitor of Cdh1/Fzr, an activating subunit of the APC/C that is required for timely cell cycle exit, can genetically suppress the Hsp83 cell cycle exit phenotype. Based on these data, we propose that Cdh1/Fzr is a client protein of Hsp83. Our results reveal that Hsp83 plays a heretofore unappreciated role in promoting APC/C function during cell cycle exit and suggest a mechanism by which Hsp90 inhibition could promote genomic instability and carcinogenesis.

  3. The molecular chaperone Hsp90 is required for cell cycle exit in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Bandura

    Full Text Available The coordination of cell proliferation and differentiation is crucial for proper development. In particular, robust mechanisms exist to ensure that cells permanently exit the cell cycle upon terminal differentiation, and these include restraining the activities of both the E2F/DP transcription factor and Cyclin/Cdk kinases. However, the full complement of mechanisms necessary to restrain E2F/DP and Cyclin/Cdk activities in differentiating cells are not known. Here, we have performed a genetic screen in Drosophila melanogaster, designed to identify genes required for cell cycle exit. This screen utilized a PCNA-miniwhite(+ reporter that is highly E2F-responsive and results in a darker red eye color when crossed into genetic backgrounds that delay cell cycle exit. Mutation of Hsp83, the Drosophila homolog of mammalian Hsp90, results in increased E2F-dependent transcription and ectopic cell proliferation in pupal tissues at a time when neighboring wild-type cells are postmitotic. Further, these Hsp83 mutant cells have increased Cyclin/Cdk activity and accumulate proteins normally targeted for proteolysis by the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C, suggesting that APC/C function is inhibited. Indeed, reducing the gene dosage of an inhibitor of Cdh1/Fzr, an activating subunit of the APC/C that is required for timely cell cycle exit, can genetically suppress the Hsp83 cell cycle exit phenotype. Based on these data, we propose that Cdh1/Fzr is a client protein of Hsp83. Our results reveal that Hsp83 plays a heretofore unappreciated role in promoting APC/C function during cell cycle exit and suggest a mechanism by which Hsp90 inhibition could promote genomic instability and carcinogenesis.

  4. The differential regulation of human ACT1 isoforms by Hsp90 in IL-17 signaling1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ling; Wang, Chenhui; Boisson, Bertrand; Misra, Saurav; Rayman, Patricia; Finke, James H.; Puel, Anne; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Li, Xiaoxia

    2014-01-01

    IL-17 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases including psoriasis. ACT1 is an essential adaptor molecule in the IL-17 signaling pathway. A missense single nucleotide polymorphism (rs33980500; SNP-D10N) that resulted in the substitution of an asparagine for an aspartic acid at position 10 of ACT1 (ACT1-D10N) is associated with psoriasis susceptibility. Due to alternative splicing in humans, SNP-D10N encodes two mutated ACT1 proteins, ACT1-D10N and ACT1-D19N. Though both ACT1 isoforms are Hsp90 ‘client’ proteins, the nine additional amino acids in ACT1-D19N provide an additional Hsp90 binding site that is absent in ACT1-D10N. Therefore, while ACT1-D10N is a dead protein that is unable to transduce IL-17 signals for gene expression, ACT1-D19N is fully responsive to IL-17. Intriguingly, the two ACT1 isoforms are differentially expressed in ACT1D10N/D10N fibroblasts and T cells. Fibroblasts express both isoforms equally, enabling ACT1-D19N to compensate for the loss of ACT1-D10N function. ACT1D10N/D10N T cells, however, express predominantly ACT1-D10N. Lacking this compensatory mechanism, ACT1D10N/D10N T cells behave like ACT1-deficient T cells, exhibiting a dysregulated and hyperactive Th17 phenotype with overproduction of IL-22 and IL-17. The hyperactive Th17 response combined with fully responsive fibroblasts likely synergized to contribute to psoriasis susceptibility in SNP-D10N patients. PMID:25024377

  5. Intra- And Inter-Monomer Interactions are Required to Synergistically Facilitate ATP Hydrolysis in HSP90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, C.N.; Krukenberg, K.A.; Agard, D.A.

    2009-05-12

    Nucleotide-dependent conformational changes of the constitutively dimeric molecular chaperone Hsp90 are integral to its molecular mechanism. Recent full-length crystal structures (Protein Data Bank codes 2IOQ, 2CG9, AND 2IOP) of Hsp90 homologs reveal large scale quaternary domain rearrangements upon the addition of nucleotides. Although previous work has shown the importance of C-terminal domain dimerization for efficient ATP hydrolysis, which should imply cooperativity, other studies suggest that the two ATPases function independently. Using the crystal structures as a guide, we examined the role of intra- and intermonomer interactions in stabilizing the ATPase activity of a single active site within an intact dimer. This was accomplished by creating heterodimers that allow us to differentially mutate each monomer, probing the context in which particular residues are important for ATP hydrolysis. Although the ATPase activity of each monomer can function independently, we found that the activity of one monomer could be inhibited by the mutation of hydrophobic residues on the trans N-terminal domain (opposite monomer). Furthermore, these trans interactions are synergistically mediated by a loop on the cis middle domain. This loop contains hydrophobic residues as well as a critical arginine that provides a direct linkage to the {gamma}-phosphate of bound ATP. Small angle x-ray scattering demonstrates that deleterious mutations block domain closure in the presence of AMPPNP (5{prime}-adenylyl-{beta},{gamma}-imidodiphosphate), providing a direct linkage between structural changes and functional consequences. Together, these data indicate that both the cis monomer and the trans monomer and the intradomain and interdomain interactions cooperatively stabilize the active conformation of each active site and help explain the importance of dimer formation.

  6. Out with the old: Hsp90 finds amino acid residue more useful than co-chaperone protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbey D. Zuehlke

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Redundant functions maintained from single to multi-cellular organisms have made Saccharomyces cere-visiae an important model for the analysis of con-served com-plex cellular processes. Yeast has been especially useful in understanding the regulation and function of the essential molecular chaperone, Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90. Research focused on Hsp90 has determined that it is highly regulated by both co-chaperones and posttranslational modifications. A recent study per-formed by (Zuehlke et al., 2017 demonstrates that the function of one co-chaperone in yeast is replaced by posttranslational modification (PTM of a single amino acid within Hsp90 in higher eukaryotes.

  7. 17AAG Treatment Accelerates Doxorubicin Induced Cellular Senescence: Hsp90 Interferes with Enforced Senescence of Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upasana Sarangi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hsp90 chaperone has been identified as an attractive pharmacological target to combat cancer. However, some metastatic tumors either fail to respond to Hsp90 inhibition or show recovery necessitating irreversible therapeutic strategies. In response to this enforced senescence has been proposed as an alternate strategy. Here, we demonstrate that inhibiting Hsp90 with 17AAG sensitizes human neuroblastoma to DNA damage response mediated cellular senescence. Among individual and combination drug treatments, 17AAG pre-treatment followed by doxorubicin treatment exhibited senescence-like characteristics such as increased nucleus to cytoplasm ratio, cell cycle arrest, SA- β -gal staining and the perpetual increase in SAHF. Doxorubicin induced senescence signaling was mediated by p53-p21 CIP/WAF-1 and was accelerated in the absence of functional Hsp90. Sustained p16 INK4a and H3K4me3 expressions correlating with unaffected telomerase activation annulled replicative senescence and appraised stress induced senescence. Despite increases in [(ROSi] and [(Ca 2+ i], a concomitant increase in cellular antioxidant defense system suggested oxidation independent senescence activation. Sustained activation of survival (Akt and proliferative (ERK1/2 kinases fosters robustness of cells. Invigorating senescent cells with growth factor or snooping with mTOR or PI3 kinase inhibitors compromised cell survival but not senescence. Intriguingly, senescence-associated secretory factors from the senescence cells manifested established senescence in neuroblastoma, which offers clinical advantage to our approach. Our study discusses tumor selective functions of Hsp90 and discusses irrefutable strategies of Hsp90 inhibition in anticancer treatments.

  8. Interaction between Calpain-1 and HSP90: New Insights into the Regulation of Localization and Activity of the Protease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averna, Monica; De Tullio, Roberta; Pedrazzi, Marco; Bavestrello, Margherita; Pellegrini, Matteo; Salamino, Franca; Pontremoli, Sandro; Melloni, Edon

    2015-01-01

    Here we demonstrate that heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) interacts with calpain-1, but not with calpain-2, and forms a discrete complex in which the protease maintains its catalytic activity, although with a lower affinity for Ca2+. Equilibrium gel distribution experiments show that this complex is composed by an equal number of molecules of each protein partner. Moreover, in resting cells, cytosolic calpain-1 is completely associated with HSP90. Since calpain-1, in association with HSP90, retains its proteolytic activity, and the chaperone is displaced by calpastatin also in the absence of Ca2+, the catalytic cleft of the protease is not involved in this association. Thus, calpain-1 can form two distinct complexes depending on the availability of calpastatin in the cytosol. The occurrence of a complex between HSP90 and calpain-1, in which the protease is still activable, can prevent the complete inhibition of the protease even in the presence of high calpastatin levels. We also demonstrate that in basal cell conditions HSP90 and calpain-1, but not calpain-2, are inserted in the multi-protein N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor (NMDAR) complex. The amount of calpain-1 at the NMDAR cluster is not modified in conditions of increased [Ca2+]i, and this resident protease is involved in the processing of NMDAR components. Finally, the amount of calpain-1 associated with NMDAR cluster is independent from Ca2+-mediated translocation. Our findings show that HSP90 plays an important role in maintaining a given and proper amount of calpain-1 at the functional sites. PMID:25575026

  9. Development of Tethered Hsp90 Inhibitors Carrying Radioiodinated Probes to Specifically Discriminate and Kill Malignant Breast Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    specifically target a surface form of heat shock protein 90 (eHsp90)that is expressed on malignant cells and internalized. In this report we describe our...cancer deaths annually. Clinical data indicate a strong link between high expression/activation of Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) with poor prognosis in...MeOH/ NH3 in CH2Cl2) to give iodide 2 (203 mg, 57%) as a clear oil. LC/MS gives m/z = 820.4 [M+1]+. Bisalkylation product was also isolated (91 mg

  10. The Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 7 Channel Regulates Pancreatic Cancer Cell Invasion through the Hsp90α/uPA/MMP2 pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Rybarczyk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC is an aggressive malignancy with a very poor prognosis. There is an urgent need to better understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate PDAC cell aggressiveness. The transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7 is a nonselective cationic channel that mainly conducts Ca2+ and Mg2+. TRPM7 is overexpressed in numerous malignancies including PDAC. In the present study, we used the PANC-1 and MIA PaCa-2 cell lines to specifically assess the role of TRPM7 in cell invasion and matrix metalloproteinase secretion. We show that TRPM7 regulates Mg2+ homeostasis and constitutive cation entry in both PDAC cell lines. Moreover, cell invasion is strongly reduced by TRPM7 silencing without affecting the cell viability. Conditioned media were further studied, by gel zymography, to detect matrix metalloproteinase (MMP secretion in PDAC cells. Our results show that MMP-2, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA, and heat-shock protein 90α (Hsp90α secretions are significantly decreased in TRPM7-deficient PDAC cells. Moreover, TRPM7 expression in human PDAC lymph node metastasis is correlated to the channel expression in primary tumor. Taken together, our results show that TRPM7 is involved in PDAC cell invasion through regulation of Hsp90α/uPA/MMP-2 proteolytic axis, confirming that this channel could be a promising biomarker and possibly a target for PDAC metastasis therapy.

  11. Detection of changes in gene regulatory patterns, elicited by perturbations of the Hsp90 molecular chaperone complex, by visualizing multiple experiments with an animation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echeverría Pablo C

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To make sense out of gene expression profiles, such analyses must be pushed beyond the mere listing of affected genes. For example, if a group of genes persistently display similar changes in expression levels under particular experimental conditions, and the proteins encoded by these genes interact and function in the same cellular compartments, this could be taken as very strong indicators for co-regulated protein complexes. One of the key requirements is having appropriate tools to detect such regulatory patterns. Results We have analyzed the global adaptations in gene expression patterns in the budding yeast when the Hsp90 molecular chaperone complex is perturbed either pharmacologically or genetically. We integrated these results with publicly accessible expression, protein-protein interaction and intracellular localization data. But most importantly, all experimental conditions were simultaneously and dynamically visualized with an animation. This critically facilitated the detection of patterns of gene expression changes that suggested underlying regulatory networks that a standard analysis by pairwise comparison and clustering could not have revealed. Conclusions The results of the animation-assisted detection of changes in gene regulatory patterns make predictions about the potential roles of Hsp90 and its co-chaperone p23 in regulating whole sets of genes. The simultaneous dynamic visualization of microarray experiments, represented in networks built by integrating one's own experimental with publicly accessible data, represents a powerful discovery tool that allows the generation of new interpretations and hypotheses.

  12. RNAi knockdown of Hop (Hsp70/Hsp90 organising protein) decreases invasion via MMP-2 down regulation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Naomi

    2011-07-28

    We previously identified Hop as over expressed in invasive pancreatic cancer cell lines and malignant tissues of pancreatic cancer patients, suggesting an important role for Hop in the biology of invasive pancreatic cancer. Hop is a co-chaperone protein that binds to both Hsp70\\/Hsp90. We hypothesised that by targeting Hop, signalling pathways modulating invasion and client protein stabilisation involving Hsp90-dependent complexes may be altered. In this study, we show that Hop knockdown by small interfering (si)RNA reduces the invasion of pancreatic cancer cells, resulting in decreased expression of the downstream target gene, matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2). Hop in conditioned media co-immunoprecipitates with MMP-2, implicating a possible extracellular function for Hop. Knockdown of Hop expression also reduced expression levels of Hsp90 client proteins, HER2, Bcr-Abl, c-MET and v-Src. Furthermore, Hop is strongly expressed in high grade PanINs compared to lower PanIN grades, displaying differential localisation in invasive ductal pancreatic cancer, indicating that the localisation of Hop is an important factor in pancreatic tumours. Our data suggests that the attenuation of Hop expression inactivates key signal transduction proteins which may decrease the invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells possibly through the modulation of Hsp90 activity. Therefore, targeting Hop in pancreatic cancer may constitute a viable strategy for targeted cancer therapy.

  13. Interactions of p60, a mediator of progesterone receptor assembly, with heat shock proteins hsp90 and hsp70

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, S; Prapapanich, V; Rimerman, R A

    1996-01-01

    mature PR complexes. In the present study we observe that a monoclonal antibody specific for p60 can, on the one hand, inhibit formation of mature PR complexes containing heat shock protein 90 (hsp90), p23, and immunophilins and, on the other, enhance recovery of early PR complexes containing hsp70...

  14. Whey protein hydrolysate enhances HSP90 but does not alter HSP60 and HSP25 in skeletal muscle of rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Soares Moura

    Full Text Available Whey protein hydrolysate (WPH intake has shown to increase HSP70 expression. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether WPH intake would also influences HSP90, HSP60 and HSP25 expression, as well as associated parameters. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into sedentary (unstressed and exercised (stressed groups, and were fed with three different sources of protein: whey protein (WP, whey protein hydrolysate (WPH and casein (CAS as a control, based on the AIN93G diet for 3 weeks. WPH intake increased HSP90 expression in both sedentary and exercised animals compared to WP or CAS, however no alteration was found from exercise or diet to HSP60 or HSP25. Co-chaperone Aha1 and p-HSF1 were also increased in the exercised animals fed with WPH in comparison with WP or CAS, consistent with enhanced HSP90 expression. VEGF and p-AKT were increased in the WPH exercised group. No alteration was found in BCKDH, PI3-Kinase (p85, GFAT, OGT or PGC for diet or exercise. The antioxidant system GPx, catalase and SOD showed different responses to diet and exercise. The data indicate that WPH intake enhanced factors related to cell survival, such as HSP90 and VEGF, but does not alter HSP60 or HSP25 in rat skeletal muscle.

  15. Targeting HSP90 by the novel inhibitor NVP-AUY922 reduces growth and angiogenesis of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Christian; Lang, Sven A; Hackl, Christina; Wagner, Christine; Scheiffert, Eva; Schlitt, Hans J; Geissler, Edward K; Stoeltzing, Oliver

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the impact of heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) blockade by the novel inhibitor NVP-AUY922, on tumor growth and angiogenesis in pancreatic cancer. Effects of NVP-AUY922 on signaling pathways were evaluated by western blotting. Cell motility of cancer cells, pericytes and endothelial cells was investigated in Boyden chambers. Impact of HSP90 blockade on pancreatic tumor growth and angiogenesis were studied in in vivo tumor models. NVP-AUY922 effectively inhibited cancer cell growth. Moreover, HSP90 inhibition potently interfered with multiple signaling pathways in cancer cells, as well as endothelial cells and pericytes, leading to significant reduction of pro-migratory and invasive properties of these cell types. In vivo, treatment with NVP-AUY922 significantly inhibited growth and vascularization of pancreatic cancer at doses far below the maximum tolerated dose. HSP90 blockade by the novel synthetic inhibitor NVP-AUY922 effectively reduces pancreatic cancer progression through direct effects on cancer cells, as well as on endothelial cells and pericytes.

  16. Hsp70 Forms Antiparallel Dimers Stabilized by Post-translational Modifications to Position Clients for Transfer to Hsp90

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Morgner

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein folding in cells is regulated by networks of chaperones, including the heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 system, which consists of the Hsp40 cochaperone and a nucleotide exchange factor. Hsp40 mediates complex formation between Hsp70 and client proteins prior to interaction with Hsp90. We used mass spectrometry (MS to monitor assemblies formed between eukaryotic Hsp90/Hsp70/Hsp40, Hop, p23, and a client protein, a fragment of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR. We found that Hsp40 promotes interactions between the client and Hsp70, and facilitates dimerization of monomeric Hsp70. This dimerization is antiparallel, stabilized by post-translational modifications (PTMs, and maintained in the stable heterohexameric client-loading complex Hsp902Hsp702HopGR identified here. Addition of p23 to this client-loading complex induces transfer of GR onto Hsp90 and leads to expulsion of Hop and Hsp70. Based on these results, we propose that Hsp70 antiparallel dimerization, stabilized by PTMs, positions the client for transfer from Hsp70 to Hsp90.

  17. The Stoichiometric Interaction of the Hsp90-Sgt1-Rar1 Complex by CD and SRCD Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Siligardi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available While the molecular details by which Hsp90 interacts with Sgt1 and Rar1 were previously described the exact stoichiometric complex that is formed remains elusive. Several possibilities remain that include two asymmetric complexes, Sgt12-Hsp902-Rar12 (two molecules of Sgt1 and Rar1 and one Hsp90 dimer or Sgt12-Hsp902-Rar11 (with a single Rar1 molecule and an asymmetric complex (Sgt11-Hsp902-Rar11. The Hsp90-mediated activation of NLR receptors (Nucleotide-binding domain and Leucine-rich Repeat in the innate immunity of both plants and animals is dependent on the co-chaperone Sgt1 and in plants on Rar1, a cysteine- and histidine-rich domain (CHORD-containing protein. The exact stoichiometry of such a complex may have a direct impact on NLR protein oligomerization and thus ultimately on the mechanism by which NLRs are activated. CD spectroscopy was successfully used to determine the stoichiometry of a ternary protein complex among Hsp90, Sgt1, and Rar1 in the presence of excess ADP. The results indicated that a symmetric Sgt12-Hsp902-Rar11 complex was formed that could allow two NLR molecules to simultaneously bind. The stoichiometry of this complex has implications on, and might promote, the dimerization of NLR proteins following their activation.

  18. Hsp90 interacts specifically with viral RNA and differentially regulates replication initiation of Bamboo mosaic virus and associated satellite RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wen Huang

    Full Text Available Host factors play crucial roles in the replication of plus-strand RNA viruses. In this report, a heat shock protein 90 homologue of Nicotiana benthamiana, NbHsp90, was identified in association with partially purified replicase complexes from BaMV-infected tissue, and shown to specifically interact with the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR of BaMV genomic RNA, but not with the 3' UTR of BaMV-associated satellite RNA (satBaMV RNA or that of genomic RNA of other viruses, such as Potato virus X (PVX or Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV. Mutational analyses revealed that the interaction occurs between the middle domain of NbHsp90 and domain E of the BaMV 3' UTR. The knockdown or inhibition of NbHsp90 suppressed BaMV infectivity, but not that of satBaMV RNA, PVX, or CMV in N. benthamiana. Time-course analysis further revealed that the inhibitory effect of 17-AAG is significant only during the immediate early stages of BaMV replication. Moreover, yeast two-hybrid and GST pull-down assays demonstrated the existence of an interaction between NbHsp90 and the BaMV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. These results reveal a novel role for NbHsp90 in the selective enhancement of BaMV replication, most likely through direct interaction with the 3' UTR of BaMV RNA during the initiation of BaMV RNA replication.

  19. Hsp10, Hsp70, and Hsp90 immunohistochemical levels change in ulcerative colitis after therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, G.; Sciumè, C.; Rappa, F.; Rodolico, V.; Zerilli, M.; Martorana, A.; Cicero, G.; De Luca, R.; Damiani, P.; Accardo, F.M.; Romeo, M.; Farina, F.; Bonaventura, G.; Modica, G.; Zummo, G.; Conway de Macario, E.; Macario, A.J.L.; Cappello, F.

    2011-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) characterized by damage of large bowel mucosa and frequent extra-intestinal autoimmune comorbidities. The role played in IBD pathogenesis by molecular chaperones known to interact with components of the immune system involved in inflammation is unclear. We previously demonstrated that mucosal Hsp60 decreases in UC patients treated with conventional therapies (mesalazine, probiotics), suggesting that this chaperonin could be a reliable biomarker useful for monitoring response to treatment, and that it might play a role in pathogenesis. In the present work we investigated three other heat shock protein/molecular chaperones: Hsp10, Hsp70, and Hsp90. We found that the levels of these proteins are increased in UC patients at the time of diagnosis and decrease after therapy, supporting the notion that these proteins deserve attention in the study of the mechanisms that promote the development and maintenance of IBD, and as biomarkers of this disease (e.g., to monitor response to treatment at the histological level). PMID:22297444

  20. Hsp 70/Hsp 90 organizing protein as a nitrosylation target in cystic fibrosis therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marozkina, Nadzeya V.; Yemen, Sean; Borowitz, Molly; Liu, Lei; Plapp, Melissa; Sun, Fei; Islam, Rafique; Erdmann-Gilmore, Petra; Townsend, R. Reid; Lichti, Cheryl F.; Mantri, Sneha; Clapp, Phillip W.; Randell, Scott H.; Gaston, Benjamin; Zaman, Khalequz

    2010-01-01

    The endogenous signaling molecule S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and other S-nitrosylating agents can cause full maturation of the abnormal gene product ΔF508 cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). However, the molecular mechanism of action is not known. Here we show that Hsp70/Hsp90 organizing protein (Hop) is a critical target of GSNO, and its S-nitrosylation results in ΔF508 CFTR maturation and cell surface expression. S-nitrosylation by GSNO inhibited the association of Hop with CFTR in the endoplasmic reticulum. This effect was necessary and sufficient to mediate GSNO-induced cell-surface expression of ΔF508 CFTR. Hop knockdown using siRNA recapitulated the effect of GSNO on ΔF508 CFTR maturation and expression. Moreover, GSNO acted additively with decreased temperature, which promoted mutant CFTR maturation through a Hop-independent mechanism. We conclude that GSNO corrects ΔF508 CFTR trafficking by inhibiting Hop expression, and that combination therapies—using differing mechanisms of action—may have additive benefits in treating CF. PMID:20534503

  1. Photodynamic Therapy with Hypericin Improved by Targeting HSP90 Associated Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ferenc

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we have focused on the response of SKBR-3 cells to both single 17-DMAG treatment as well as its combination with photodynamic therapy with hypericin. Low concentrations of 17-DMAG without any effect on survival of SKBR-3 cells significantly reduced metabolic activity, viability and cell number when combined with photodynamic therapy with hypericin. Moreover, IC10 concentation of 17-DMAG resulted in significant increase of SKBR-3 cells in G1 phase of the cell cycle, followed by an increase of cells in G2 phase when combined with photodynamic therapy. Furthermore, 17-DMAG already decreased HER2, Akt, P-Erk1/2 and survivin protein levels in SKBR-3 cells a short time after its application. In this regard, 17-DMAG protected also SKBR-3 cells against both P-Erk1/2 as well as survivin upregulations induced by photodynamic therapy with hypericin. Interestingly, IC10 concentration of 17-DMAG led to total depletion of Akt, P-Erk1/2 proteins and to decrease of survivin level at 48 h. On the other hand, 17-DMAG did not change HER2 relative expression in SKBR-3 cells, but caused a significant decrease of HER2 mRNA in MCF-7 cells characterized by low HER2 expression. These results show that targeting HSP90 client proteins increases the efficiency of antineoplastic effect of photodynamic therapy in vitro.

  2. Hsp10, Hsp70, and Hsp90 immunohistochemical levels change in ulcerative colitis after therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Tomasello

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis (UC is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD characterized by damage of large bowel mucosa and frequent extra-intestinal autoimmune comorbidities. The role played in IBD pathogenesis by molecular chaperones known to interact with components of the immune system involved in inflammation is unclear. We previously demonstrated that mucosal Hsp60 decreases in UC patients treated with conventional therapies (mesalazine, probiotics, suggesting that this chaperonin could be a reliable biomarker useful for monitoring response to treatment, and that it might play a role in pathogenesis. In the present work we investigated three other heat shock protein/molecular chaperones: Hsp10, Hsp70, and Hsp90. We found that the levels of these proteins are increased in UC patients at the time of diagnosis and decrease after therapy, supporting the notion that these proteins deserve attention in the study of the mechanisms that promote the development and maintenance of IBD, and as biomarkers of this disease (e.g., to monitor response to treatment at the histological level.

  3. Hsp 70/Hsp 90 organizing protein as a nitrosylation target in cystic fibrosis therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marozkina, Nadzeya V; Yemen, Sean; Borowitz, Molly; Liu, Lei; Plapp, Melissa; Sun, Fei; Islam, Rafique; Erdmann-Gilmore, Petra; Townsend, R Reid; Lichti, Cheryl F; Mantri, Sneha; Clapp, Phillip W; Randell, Scott H; Gaston, Benjamin; Zaman, Khalequz

    2010-06-22

    The endogenous signaling molecule S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and other S-nitrosylating agents can cause full maturation of the abnormal gene product DeltaF508 cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). However, the molecular mechanism of action is not known. Here we show that Hsp70/Hsp90 organizing protein (Hop) is a critical target of GSNO, and its S-nitrosylation results in DeltaF508 CFTR maturation and cell surface expression. S-nitrosylation by GSNO inhibited the association of Hop with CFTR in the endoplasmic reticulum. This effect was necessary and sufficient to mediate GSNO-induced cell-surface expression of DeltaF508 CFTR. Hop knockdown using siRNA recapitulated the effect of GSNO on DeltaF508 CFTR maturation and expression. Moreover, GSNO acted additively with decreased temperature, which promoted mutant CFTR maturation through a Hop-independent mechanism. We conclude that GSNO corrects DeltaF508 CFTR trafficking by inhibiting Hop expression, and that combination therapies--using differing mechanisms of action--may have additive benefits in treating CF.

  4. Specific Arabidopsis HSP90.2 alleles recapitulate RAR1 cochaperone function in plant NB-LRR disease resistance protein regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, David A; He, Yijian; McNulty, Brian C; Tornero, Pablo; Dangl, Jeffery L

    2009-06-16

    Both plants and animals require the activity of proteins containing nucleotide binding (NB) domain and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains for proper immune system function. NB-LRR proteins in plants (NLR proteins in animals) also require conserved regulation via the proteins SGT1 and cytosolic HSP90. RAR1, a protein specifically required for plant innate immunity, interacts with SGT1 and HSP90 to maintain proper NB-LRR protein steady-state levels. Here, we present the identification and characterization of specific mutations in Arabidopsis HSP90.2 that suppress all known phenotypes of rar1. These mutations are unique with respect to the many mutant alleles of HSP90 identified in all systems in that they can bypass the requirement for a cochaperone and result in the recovery of client protein accumulation and function. Additionally, these mutations separate HSP90 ATP hydrolysis from HSP90 function in client protein folding and/or accumulation. By recapitulating the activity of RAR1, these novel hsp90 alleles allow us to propose that RAR1 regulates the physical open-close cycling of a known "lid structure" that is used as a dynamic regulatory HSP90 mechanism. Thus, in rar1, lid cycling is locked into a conformation favoring NB-LRR client degradation, likely via SGT1 and the proteasome.

  5. Zr-89-trastuzumab PET visualises HER2 downregulation by the HSP90 inhibitor NVP-AUY922 in a human tumour xenograft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munnink, Thijs H. Oude; de Korte, Maarten A.; Nagengast, Wouter B.; Timmer-Bosscha, Hetty; Schroder, Carolina P.; de Jong, Johan R.; van Dongen, Guus A. M. S.; Jensen, Michael Rugaard; Quadt, Cornelia; Lub-de Hooge, Marjolijn N.; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.

    NVP-AUY922, a potent heat shock protein (HSP) 90 inhibitor, downregulates the expression of many oncogenic proteins, including the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2). Because HER2 downregulation is a potential biomarker for early response to HSP90-targeted therapies, we used the

  6. HSP90 stabilizes B-cell receptor kinases in a multi-client interactome: PU-H71 induces CLL apoptosis in a cytoprotective microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, A; Lu, P; Lee, J; Zhen, C; Chiosis, G; Wang, Y L

    2017-06-15

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by the accumulation of B cells in the hematopoietic system and lymphoid tissues. Although inhibitors targeting the B-cell receptor (BCR) pathway have been successful in the treatment of the disease, the underlying mechanisms leading to BCR over-activity in CLL are not fully understood. In this study, we found that HSP90, a highly conserved molecular chaperone, is overexpressed in CLL compared with resting B cells. HSP90 overexpression is accompanied by the overexpression of several BCR kinases including LYN, spleen tyrosine kinase, Bruton tyrosine kinase and AKT. Chemical and immune-precipitation demonstrated that these BCR constituents are present in a multi-client chaperone complex with HSP90. Inhibition of HSP90 with PU-H71 destabilized the BCR kinases and caused apoptosis of CLL cells through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Further, PU-H71 induced apoptosis in the presence of stromal co-culture or cytoprotective survival signals. Finally, genetic knockdown of HSP90 and its client AKT, but not BTK, reduced CLL viability. Overall, our study suggests that the chaperone function of HSP90 contributes to the over-activity of the BCR signaling in CLL and inhibition of HSP90 has the potential to achieve a multi-targeting effect. Thus, HSP90 inhibition may be explored to prevent or overcome drug resistance to single targeting agents.

  7. Molecular chaperons and co-chaperons, Hsp90, RAR1, and SGT1 negatively regulate bacterial wilt disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Makoto; Ohnishi, Kouhei; Hikichi, Yasufumi; Kiba, Akinori

    2015-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum is the causal agent of bacterial wilt disease. To better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in interaction between Nicotiana benthamiana and R. solanacearum, we focused on Hsp90, RAR1 and SGT1. Appearances of wilt symptom were significantly suppressed in Hsp90, RAR1 and SGT1-silenced plants compared with control plants. In RAR1-silenced plants, population of R. solanacearum increased in a similar manner to control plants. In contrast, multiplication of R. solanacearum was significantly suppressed in Hsp90 and SGT1-silenced plants. In addition, expression of PR genes were increased in Hsp90 and SGT1-silenced plants challenged with R. solanacearum. Therefore, RAR1 might be required for disease development or suppression of disease tolerance. These results also suggested that Hsp90 and/or SGT1 might play an important role in suppression of plant defenses leading to disease susceptibility and disease development.

  8. Molecular chaperone Hsp90 associates with resistance protein N and its signaling proteins SGT1 and Rar1 to modulate an innate immune response in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yule; Burch-Smith, Tessa; Schiff, Michael; Feng, Suhua; Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma P

    2004-01-16

    SGT1 and Rar1 are important signaling components of resistance (R) gene-mediated plant innate immune responses. Here we report that SGT1 and Rar1 associate with the molecular chaperone Hsp90. In addition, we show that Hsp90 associates with the resistance protein N that confers resistance to tobacco mosaic virus. This suggests that Hsp90-SGT1-Rar1 and R proteins might exist in one complex. Suppression of Hsp90 in Nicotiana benthamiana plants shows that it plays an important role in plant growth and development. In addition, Hsp90 suppression in NN plants compromises N-mediated resistance to tobacco mosaic virus. Our results reveal a new role for SGT1- and Rar1-associated chaperone machinery in R gene-mediated defense signaling.

  9. Molecular Dynamic Simulation of 3-(5-Chloro-2, 4-dihydroxyphenyl-pyrazole-4-carboxamide and HSP90 Molecular Chaperone Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Baramakeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of free energy differences of a system is of great importance as the rate and extent of many if not all chemical and biophysical processes are governed by the nature of underlying free energy landscape. In this study the preferential binding of 3-(5-chloro-2, 4-dihydroxyphenyl–pyrazole-4-carboxamide (4BC and Heat shock protein 90(Hsp90 molecular chaperone has been evaluated using molecular dynamics simulation. A soft core potential was used during the mutations to facilitate the creation and deletion of atoms. Trajectory analysis showed a stable equilibrium after energy minimization. Potential energy plot showed equilibrium around -69520 and -183859 kJ/mol for Hsp90 and Hsp90-4BC. Kinetic energy also was calculated for Hsp90 and Hsp90-4BC as 44500 and 65928.29 kJ/mol, respectively.

  10. Cyclophilin40 isomerase activity is regulated by a temperature-dependent allosteric interaction with Hsp90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Elizabeth A; Wear, Martin A; Landré, Vivian; Narayan, Vikram; Ning, Jia; Erman, Burak; Ball, Kathryn L; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D

    2015-09-01

    Cyclophilin 40 (Cyp40) comprises an N-terminal cyclophilin domain with peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase) activity and a C-terminal tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain that binds to the C-terminal-EEVD sequence common to both heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and Hsp90. We show in the present study that binding of peptides containing the MEEVD motif reduces the PPIase activity by ∼30%. CD and fluorescence assays show that the TPR domain is less stable than the cyclophilin domain and is stabilized by peptide binding. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) shows that the affinity for the-MEEVD peptide is temperature sensitive in the physiological temperature range. Results from these biophysical studies fit with the MD simulations of the apo and holo (peptide-bound) structures which show a significant reduction in root mean square (RMS) fluctuation in both TPR and cyclophilin domains when-MEEVD is bound. The MD simulations of the apo-protein also highlight strong anti-correlated motions between residues around the PPIase-active site and a band of residues running across four of the seven helices in the TPR domain. Peptide binding leads to a distortion in the shape of the active site and a significant reduction in these strongly anti-correlated motions, providing an explanation for the allosteric effect of ligand binding and loss of PPIase activity. Together the experimental and MD results suggest that on heat shock, dissociation of Cyp40 from complexes mediated by the TPR domain leads to an increased pool of free Cyp40 capable of acting as an isomerase/chaperone in conditions of cellular stress. © 2015 Authors.

  11. Degradation of HIF-1alpha under hypoxia combined with induction of Hsp90 polyubiquitination in cancer cells by hypericin: a unique cancer therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilda Barliya

    Full Text Available The perihydroxylated perylene quinone hypericin has been reported to possess potent anti-metastatic and antiangiogenic activities, generated by targeting diverse crossroads of cancer-promoting processes via unique mechanisms. Hypericin is the only known exogenous reagent that can induce forced poly-ubiquitination and accelerated degradation of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 in cancer cells. Hsp90 client proteins are thereby destabilized and rapidly degraded. Hsp70 client proteins may potentially be also affected via preventing formation of hsp90-hsp70 intermediate complexes. We show here that hypericin also induces enhanced degradation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α in two human tumor cell lines, U87-MG glioblastoma and RCC-C2VHL-/- renal cell carcinoma and in the non-malignant ARPE19 retinal pigment epithelial cell line. The hypericin-accelerated turnover of HIF-1α, the regulatory precursor of the HIF-1 transcription factor which promotes hypoxic stress and angiogenic responses, overcomes the physiologic HIF-1α protein stabilization which occurs in hypoxic cells. The hypericin effect also eliminates the high HIF-1α levels expressed constitutively in the von-Hippel Lindau protein (pVHL-deficient RCC-C2VHL-/- renal cell carcinoma cell line. Unlike the normal ubiquitin-proteasome pathway-dependent turnover of HIF-α proteins which occurs in normoxia, the hypericin-induced HIF-1α catabolism can occur independently of cellular oxygen levels or pVHL-promoted ubiquitin ligation of HIF-1α. It is mediated by lysosomal cathepsin-B enzymes with cathepsin-B activity being optimized in the cells through hypericin-mediated reduction in intracellular pH. Our findings suggest that hypericin may potentially be useful in preventing growth of tumors in which HIF-1α plays pivotal roles, and in pVHL ablated tumor cells such as renal cell carcinoma through elimination of elevated HIF-1α contents in these cells, scaling down the excessive angiogenesis

  12. Molecular signature of response and potential pathways related to resistance to the HSP90 inhibitor, 17AAG, in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benitez Javier

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HSP90 may be a favorable target for investigational therapy in breast cancer. In fact, the HSP90 inhibitor, 17AAG, currently has entered in phase II clinical trials as an anticancer agent in breast and other tumors. Since HSP90 inhibition leads to global depletion of oncogenic proteins involved in multiple pathways we applied global analysis using gene array technology to study new genes and pathways involved in the drug response in breast cancer. Methods Gene expression profiling using Whole Human Genome Agilent array technology was applied to a total of six sensitive and two resistant breast cancer cell lines pre-treatment and treated with the 17AAG for 24 and 48 hours. Results We have identified a common molecular signature of response to 17AAG composed of 35 genes which include novel pharmacodynamic markers of this drug. In addition, different patterns of HSP90 client transcriptional changes after 17AAG were identified associated to the sensitive cell lines, which could be useful to evaluate drug effectiveness. Finally, we have found differentially expressed pathways associated to resistance to 17AAG. We observed significant activation of NF-κB and MAPK pathways in resistant cells upon treatment, indicating that these pathways could be potentially targeted to overcome resistance. Conclusions Our study shows that global mRNA expression analysis is a useful strategy to examine molecular effects of drugs, which allowed us the discovery of new biomarkers of 17AAG activity and provided more insights into the complex mechanism of 17AAG resistance.

  13. The HSP90 inhibitor 17-PAG effectively inhibits the proliferation and migration of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ruixian; Li, Zhenyu; Lin, Zhiyuan; Wang, Yang; Wang, Wei; Hu, Bo; Wang, Xilong; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Yangyun; Zhou, Renyuan; Lu, Chunhua; Shen, Yuemao; Wang, Jifeng; Shi, Guowei

    2015-01-01

    Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) ultimately occurs after a period of treatment with androgen deprivation therapy. Furthermore, CRPC patients can only derive limited survival benefits from traditional cytotoxic drugs. HSP90, which is a molecular chaperone, plays a vital role in client protein processing and maintaining the function of cells. HSP90 is usually overexpressed in prostate cancer tissues, which makes it a potential target for managing prostate cancer. Geldanamycin (GA), which was recognized as the first natural HSP90 inhibitor, has demonstrated potent anti-tumor efficacy in large-scale pre-clinical studies, but its application in the clinic is not permitted due to its liver toxicity and unstable physical properties. In this study, we report a new GA derivative, 17-PAG (17-(propynylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin), which demonstrates highly effective anti-tumor activity against androgen-independent prostate cancer cells. Treating cells with 17-PAG dose-dependently suppressed proliferation, reduced colony formation and induced apoptosis of DU-145/C4-2B cells. Moreover, 17-PAG suppressed the migration and invasion of DU-145/C4-2B cells by regulating epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). 17-PAG also downregulated the HSP90 client proteins, including Her2, EGFR, C-Raf, AKT, p-AKT, and CDK4. Animal assays confirmed that 17-PAG shows strong anti-tumor effects with no obvious organ toxicity in DU-145 cell xenografted nude mice. These results provide us with a potential target for treating androgen-independent prostate cancer in a safe and effective manner. PMID:26693070

  14. Expression dynamics of HSP90 and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms during heat stress acclimation in Tharparkar cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharati, Jaya; Dangi, S. S.; Bag, S.; Maurya, V. P.; Singh, G.; Kumar, P.; Sarkar, M.

    2017-08-01

    Six male Tharparkar cattle of 2-3 years old were selected for the study. After 15-day acclimation at thermoneutral zone (TNZ) in psychrometric chamber, animals were exposed at 42 °C for 6 h up to 23 days followed by 12 days of recovery period. Blood samples were collected during control period at TNZ (days 1, 5, and 12), after heat stress exposure (day 1, immediate heat stress acclimation (IHSA); days 2 to 10, short-term heat stress acclimation (STHSA); days 15 to 23, long-term heat stress acclimation (LTHSA); days 7 and 12, recovery period), and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated for RNA and protein extraction. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression in PBMCs were determined by qPCR and western blot, respectively. Samples at TNZ were taken as control. The mRNA expression of HSP90, iNOS, and eNOS was significantly upregulated ( P culture study was conducted to study transcriptional abundance of HSP90, iNOS, and eNOS at different temperature-time combinations. The present findings indicate that HSP90, iNOS, and eNOS could possibly play an important role in mitigating thermal insults and confer thermotolerance during long-term heat stress exposure in Tharparkar cattle.

  15. Oncogenic MST1R activity in pancreatic and gastric cancer represents a valid target of HSP90 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Christian; Lang, Sven A; Hackl, Christina; Zhang, Hong; Lundgren, Karen; Hong, Victor; McKenzie, Andres; Weber, Bernhard; Park, Jung S; Schlitt, Hans J; Geissler, Edward K; Jung, Young D; Stoeltzing, Oliver

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of HSP90 blockade by EC154 on the oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinase macrophage-stimulating 1 receptor (MST1R) in gastric and pancreatic cancer. Impact of EC154 on signaling pathways was investigated by western blotting. Cancer cell migration was evaluated in Boyden chambers. Transcriptional regulation of MST1R was examined by using promoter-luciferase reporter constructs. Effects on MST1R expression, and tumor growth were investigated in in vivo tumor models. MST1R was expressed by cancer cells without evidence of MST1R mutations. EC154 led to an effective inhibition of cancer cell growth, down-regulated MST1R, diminished its promoter activity, and disrupted oncogenic macrophage-stimulating protein 1 (MSP1) signaling. Moreover, pro-migratory activities of cancer cells were dramatically inhibited. In vivo, treatment with EC154 significantly reduced tumor growth, while MST1R expression was down-regulated. Wild-type MST1R is an HSP90 client protein that can be targeted in gastrointestinal cancer using HSP90 inhibitors.

  16. Development and characterization of a novel C-terminal inhibitor of Hsp90 in androgen dependent and independent prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskew Jeffery D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular chaperone, heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 has been shown to be overexpressed in a number of cancers, including prostate cancer, making it an important target for drug discovery. Unfortunately, results with N-terminal inhibitors from initial clinical trials have been disappointing, as toxicity and resistance resulting from induction of the heat shock response (HSR has led to both scheduling and administration concerns. Therefore, Hsp90 inhibitors that do not induce the heat shock response represent a promising new direction for the treatment of prostate cancer. Herein, the development of a C-terminal Hsp90 inhibitor, KU174, is described, which demonstrates anti-cancer activity in prostate cancer cells in the absence of a HSR and describe a novel approach to characterize Hsp90 inhibition in cancer cells. Methods PC3-MM2 and LNCaP-LN3 cells were used in both direct and indirect in vitro Hsp90 inhibition assays (DARTS, Surface Plasmon Resonance, co-immunoprecipitation, luciferase, Western blot, anti-proliferative, cytotoxicity and size exclusion chromatography to characterize the effects of KU174 in prostate cancer cells. Pilot in vivo efficacy studies were also conducted with KU174 in PC3-MM2 xenograft studies. Results KU174 exhibits robust anti-proliferative and cytotoxic activity along with client protein degradation and disruption of Hsp90 native complexes without induction of a HSR. Furthermore, KU174 demonstrates direct binding to the Hsp90 protein and Hsp90 complexes in cancer cells. In addition, in pilot in-vivo proof-of-concept studies KU174 demonstrates efficacy at 75 mg/kg in a PC3-MM2 rat tumor model. Conclusions Overall, these findings suggest C-terminal Hsp90 inhibitors have potential as therapeutic agents for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  17. Effect of inhibition of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System and Hsp90 on growth and survival of Rhabdomyosarcoma cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peron Marica

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS and the heat shock response (HSR are two critical regulators of cell homeostasis, as their inhibition affects growth and survival of normal cells, as well as stress response and invasiveness of cancer cells. We evaluated the effects of the proteasome inhibitor Bortezomib and of 17-DMAG, a competitive inhibitor of Hsp90, in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS cells, and analyzed the efficacy of single-agent exposures with combination treatments. Methods To assess cytotoxicity induced by Bortezomib and 17-DMAG in RMS cells, viability was measured by MTT assay after 24, 48 and 72 hours. Western blotting and immunofluorescence analyses were carried out to elucidate the mechanisms of action. Apoptosis was measured by FACS with Annexin-V-FITC and Propidium Iodide. Results Bortezomib and 17-DMAG, when combined at single low-toxic concentrations, enhanced growth inhibition of RMS cells, with signs of autophagy that included intensive cytoplasmic vacuolization and conversion of cytosolic LC3-I protein to its autophagosome-associated form. Treatment with lysosomal inhibitor chloroquine facilitates apoptosis, whereas stimulation of autophagy by rapamycin prevents LC3-I conversion and cell death, suggesting that autophagy is a resistance mechanism in RMS cells exposed to proteotoxic drugs. However, combination treatment also causes caspase-dependent apoptosis, PARP cleavage and Annexin V staining, as simultaneous inhibition of both UPS and HSR systems limits cytoprotective autophagy, exacerbating stress resulting from accumulation of misfolded proteins. Conclusion The combination of proteasome inhibitor Bortezomib with Hsp90 inhibitor 17-DMAG, appears to have important therapeutic advantages in the treatment of RMS cells compared with single-agent exposure, because compensatory survival mechanisms that occur as side effects of treatment may be prevented.

  18. Bcl-2 regulates HIF-1alpha protein stabilization in hypoxic melanoma cells via the molecular chaperone HSP90.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Trisciuoglio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 (HIF-1 is a transcription factor that is a critical mediator of the cellular response to hypoxia. Enhanced levels of HIF-1alpha, the oxygen-regulated subunit of HIF-1, is often associated with increased tumour angiogenesis, metastasis, therapeutic resistance and poor prognosis. It is in this context that we previously demonstrated that under hypoxia, bcl-2 protein promotes HIF-1/Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF-mediated tumour angiogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By using human melanoma cell lines and their stable or transient derivative bcl-2 overexpressing cells, the current study identified HIF-1alpha protein stabilization as a key regulator for the induction of HIF-1 by bcl-2 under hypoxia. We also demonstrated that bcl-2-induced accumulation of HIF-1alpha protein during hypoxia was not due to an increased gene transcription or protein synthesis. In fact, it was related to a modulation of HIF-1alpha protein expression at a post-translational level, indeed its degradation rate was faster in the control lines than in bcl-2 transfectants. The bcl-2-induced HIF-1alpha stabilization in response to low oxygen tension conditions was achieved through the impairment of ubiquitin-dependent HIF-1alpha degradation involving the molecular chaperone HSP90, but it was not dependent on the prolyl hydroxylation of HIF-1alpha protein. We also showed that bcl-2, HIF-1alpha and HSP90 proteins form a tri-complex that may contribute to enhancing the stability of the HIF-1alpha protein in bcl-2 overexpressing clones under hypoxic conditions. Finally, by using genetic and pharmacological approaches we proved that HSP90 is involved in bcl-2-dependent stabilization of HIF-1alpha protein during hypoxia, and in particular the isoform HSP90beta is the main player in this phenomenon. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We identified the stabilization of HIF-1alpha protein as a mechanism through which bcl-2 induces the

  19. Hsp90 inhibitors block outgrowth of EBV-infected malignant cells in vitro and in vivo through an EBNA1-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoping; Barlow, Elizabeth A; Ma, Shidong; Hagemeier, Stacy R; Duellman, Sarah J; Burgess, Richard R; Tellam, Judy; Khanna, Rajiv; Kenney, Shannon C

    2010-02-16

    EBV causes infectious mononucleosis and is associated with certain malignancies. EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) mediates EBV genome replication, partition, and transcription, and is essential for persistence of the viral genome in host cells. Here we demonstrate that Hsp90 inhibitors decrease EBNA1 expression and translation, and that this effect requires the Gly-Ala repeat domain of EBNA1. Hsp90 inhibitors induce the death of established, EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines at doses nontoxic to normal cells, and this effect is substantially reversed when lymphoblastoid cell lines are stably infected with a retrovirus expressing a functional EBNA1 mutant lacking the Gly-Ala repeats. Hsp90 inhibitors prevent EBV transformation of primary B cells, and strongly inhibit the growth of EBV-induced lymphoproliferative disease in SCID mice. These results suggest that Hsp90 inhibitors may be particularly effective for treating EBV-induced diseases requiring the continued presence of the viral genome.

  20. Tissue-specific induction of Hsp90 mRNA and plasma cortisol response in chinook salmon following heat shock, seawater challenge, and handling challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Aldo N.; Winton, J.R.; Dickhoff, Walton W.

    2000-01-01

    In studying the whole-body response of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to various stressors, we found that 5-hour exposure to elevated temperature (mean 21.6??C; + 10.6??C over ambient) induced a marked increase in Hsp90 messenger RNA accumulation in heart, brain, gill, muscle, liver, kidney, and tail fin tissues. The most vital tissues (heart, brain, gill, and muscle) showed the greatest Hsp90-mRNA response, with heart tissue increasing approximately 35-fold, Heat shock induced no increase in plasma cortisol. In contrast, a standard handling challenge induced high plasma cortisol levels, but no elevation in Hsp90 mRNA in any tissue, clearly separating the physiological and cellular stress responses. We saw no increase either in tissue Hsp90 mRNA levels or in plasma cortisol concentrations after exposing the fish to seawater overnight.

  1. Prediction of new Hsp90 inhibitors based on 3,4-isoxazolediamide scaffold using QSAR study, molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Maryam; Sadeghi-Aliabadi, Hojjat; Amanlou, Massoud

    2017-06-30

    Heat shock protein90 (Hsp90) are overexpressed in tumor cells, so the inhibition of the Hsp90 ATPase activity would be a significantly effective strategy in cancer therapy. In the current study, 3,4-isoxazolediamide derivatives were suggested as an Hsp90 inhibitor for anti-cancer therapy. Multiple linear regression (MLR) and genetic algorithm of partial least square (GA-PLS) methods were performed to build models to predict the inhibitory activity of Hsp90. The leave-one out (LOO) cross-validation and Y-randomization tests were performed to models' validation. The new ligands were monitored by applicability domain. Molecular docking studies were also conducted to evaluate the mode of interaction of these compounds with Hsp90. Identification of the likely pathways into the active site pocket and the involved residues were performed by CAVAER 3.0.1 software. According to QSAR models and docking analysis, three new compounds were predicted. 50 ns molecular dynamic simulation was performed for the strongest synthesized compound and the best predicted compound in terms of binding energy and interactions between ligand and protein. The made models showed the significance of size, shape, symmetry, and branching of molecules in inhibitory activities of Hsp90. Docking studies indicated that two hydroxyl groups in the resorcinol ring were important in interacting with Asp93 and the orientation of these groups was related to substitution of different R1 groups. Comparing of molecular dynamic simulation (MDs) results shows that new compound perched in active site with lower binding energy than the best synthesized compound. The QSAR and docking analyses shown to be beneficial tools in the proposal of anti-cancer activities and a leader to the synthesis of new Hsp90 inhibitors based 3,4-isoxazolediamide. The MDs confirmed that predicted ligand is steady in the Hsp90 active sites.

  2. RAR1 and HSP90 Form a Complex with Rac/Rop GTPase and Function in Innate-Immune Responses in Rice[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Chen, Letian; Nakashima, Ayako; Hara, Shin-ichiro; Umemura, Kenji; Takahashi, Akira; Shirasu, Ken; Kawasaki, Tsutomu; Shimamoto, Ko

    2007-01-01

    A rice (Oryza sativa) Rac/Rop GTPase, Os Rac1, is involved in innate immunity, but its molecular function is largely unknown. RAR1 (for required for Mla12 resistance) and HSP90 (a heat shock protein 90 kD) are important components of R gene–mediated disease resistance, and their function is conserved in several plant species. HSP90 has also recently been shown to be important in mammalian innate immunity. However, their functions at the molecular level are not well understood. In this study, we examined the functional relationships between Os Rac1, RAR1, and HSP90. Os RAR1-RNA interference (RNAi) rice plants had impaired basal resistance to a compatible race of the blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea and the virulent bacterial blight pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae. Constitutively active Os Rac1 complemented the loss of resistance, suggesting that Os Rac1 and RAR1 are functionally linked. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments with rice cell culture extracts indicate that Rac1 forms a complex with RAR1, HSP90, and HSP70 in vivo. Studies with Os RAR1-RNAi and treatment with geldanamycin, an HSP90-specific inhibitor, showed that RAR1 and HSP90 are essential for the Rac1-mediated enhancement of pathogen-associated molecular pattern–triggered immune responses in rice cell cultures. Furthermore, the function of HSP90, but not RAR1, may be essential for their association with the Rac1 complex. Os Rac1 also regulates RAR1 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Together, our results indicate that Rac1, RAR1, HSP90, and HSP70 form one or more protein complexes in rice cells and suggest that these proteins play important roles in innate immunity in rice. PMID:18156216

  3. RAR1 and HSP90 form a complex with Rac/Rop GTPase and function in innate-immune responses in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Chen, Letian; Nakashima, Ayako; Hara, Shin-ichiro; Umemura, Kenji; Takahashi, Akira; Shirasu, Ken; Kawasaki, Tsutomu; Shimamoto, Ko

    2007-12-01

    A rice (Oryza sativa) Rac/Rop GTPase, Os Rac1, is involved in innate immunity, but its molecular function is largely unknown. RAR1 (for required for Mla12 resistance) and HSP90 (a heat shock protein 90 kD) are important components of R gene-mediated disease resistance, and their function is conserved in several plant species. HSP90 has also recently been shown to be important in mammalian innate immunity. However, their functions at the molecular level are not well understood. In this study, we examined the functional relationships between Os Rac1, RAR1, and HSP90. Os RAR1-RNA interference (RNAi) rice plants had impaired basal resistance to a compatible race of the blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea and the virulent bacterial blight pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae. Constitutively active Os Rac1 complemented the loss of resistance, suggesting that Os Rac1 and RAR1 are functionally linked. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments with rice cell culture extracts indicate that Rac1 forms a complex with RAR1, HSP90, and HSP70 in vivo. Studies with Os RAR1-RNAi and treatment with geldanamycin, an HSP90-specific inhibitor, showed that RAR1 and HSP90 are essential for the Rac1-mediated enhancement of pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immune responses in rice cell cultures. Furthermore, the function of HSP90, but not RAR1, may be essential for their association with the Rac1 complex. Os Rac1 also regulates RAR1 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Together, our results indicate that Rac1, RAR1, HSP90, and HSP70 form one or more protein complexes in rice cells and suggest that these proteins play important roles in innate immunity in rice.

  4. DsHsp90 Is Involved in the Early Response of Dunaliella salina to Environmental Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Jia Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 is a molecular chaperone highly conserved across the species from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Hsp90 is essential for cell viability under all growth conditions and is proposed to act as a hub of the signaling network and protein homeostasis of the eukaryotic cells. By interacting with various client proteins, Hsp90 is involved in diverse physiological processes such as signal transduction, cell mobility, heat shock response and osmotic stress response. In this research, we cloned the dshsp90 gene encoding a polypeptide composed of 696 amino acids from the halotolerant unicellular green algae Dunaliella salina. Sequence alignment indicated that DsHsp90 belonged to the cytosolic Hsp90A family. Further biophysical and biochemical studies of the recombinant protein revealed that DsHsp90 possessed ATPase activity and existed as a dimer with similar percentages of secondary structures to those well-studied Hsp90As. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the cloned genomic DNA fragment indicated that dshsp90 contained 21 exons interrupted by 20 introns, which is much more complicated than the other plant hsp90 genes. The promoter region of dshsp90 contained putative cis-acting stress responsive elements and binding sites of transcriptional factors that respond to heat shock and salt stress. Further experimental research confirmed that dshsp90 was upregulated quickly by heat and salt shock in the D. salina cells. These findings suggested that dshsp90 might serve as a component of the early response system of the D. salina cells against environmental stresses.

  5. Mechanistic evaluation of the novel HSP90 inhibitor NVP-AUY922 in adult and pediatric glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Nathalie; Sharp, Swee Y; Eccles, Suzanne A; Gowan, Sharon; Popov, Sergey; Jones, Chris; Pearson, Andrew; Vassal, Gilles; Workman, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The dismal prognosis of glioblastoma (GB) indicates the urgent need for new therapies for these tumors. Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitors induce proteasome-mediated degradation of many oncogenic client proteins involved in all of the hallmark characteristics of cancer. Here, we explored the mechanistic potential of the potent synthetic diarylisoxazole amide resorcinol HSP90 inhibitor, NVP-AUY922, in adult and pediatric GB. In vitro antiproliferative potency (nanomolar range) was seen in both adult and pediatric human GB cell lines with different molecular pathologies. A cytostatic effect was observed in all GB lines; more apoptosis was observed at lower concentrations in SF188 pediatric GB line and at 144hrs in the slower growing KNS42 pediatric GB line, as compared to the adult GB lines, U87MG and SF268. In vitro combination studies with inhibitors of PI3 kinase/mTOR (PI-103) or MEK (PD-0325901) supported the hypothesis that sustained inhibition of ERK up to 72hrs and at least temporary inhibition of AKT were necessary to induce apoptosis in GB lines. In athymic mice bearing established subcutaneous U87MG glioblastoma xenografts, NVP-AUY922 (50mg/kg i.p x 3 days) caused inhibition of ERK1/2 and AKT phosphorylation and induced apoptosis, while 17-AAG used at MTD was less effective. NVP-AUY922 antitumor activity with objective tumor regression resulted from antiproliferative, pro-apoptotic and anti-angiogenic effects, the latter shown by decreased microvessel density and HIF1α levels. Our results have established mechanistic proof of concept for the potential of novel synthetic HSP90 inhibitors in adult and pediatric GB, alone or in combination with PI3 kinase/mTOR and MEK inhibitors. PMID:20457619

  6. PRDM14 directly interacts with heat shock proteins HSP90α and glucose-regulated protein 78.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Chiharu; Taniguchi, Hiroaki; Nagatoishi, Satoru; Igarashi, Hisayoshi; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Imai, Kohzoh

    2018-02-01

    PRDM14 is overexpressed in various cancers and can regulate cancer phenotype under certain conditions. Inhibiting PRDM14 expression in breast and pancreatic cancers has been reported to reduce cancer stem-like phenotypes, which are associated with aggressive tumor properties. Therefore, PRDM14 is considered a promising target for cancer therapy. To develop a pharmaceutical treatment, the mechanism and interacting partners of PRDM14 need to be clarified. Here, we identified the proteins interacting with PRDM14 in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells, which do not express the three most common types of receptor (estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, and HER2). We obtained 13 candidates that were pulled down with PRDM14 in TNBC HCC1937 cells and identified them by mass spectrometry. Two candidates-glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and heat shock protein 90-α (HSP90α)-were confirmed in immunoprecipitation assay in two TNBC cell lines (HCC1937 and MDA-MB231). Surface plasmon resonance analysis using GST-PRDM14 showed that these two proteins directly interacted with PRDM14 and that the interactions required the C-terminal region of PRDM14, which includes zinc finger motifs. We also confirmed the interactions in living cells by NanoLuc luciferase-based bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (NanoBRET) assay. Moreover, HSP90 inhibitors (17DMAG and HSP990) significantly decreased breast cancer stem-like CD24-  CD44+ and side population (SP) cells in HCC1937 cells, but not in PRDM14 knockdown HCC1937 cells. The combination of the GRP78 inhibitor HA15 and PRDM14 knockdown significantly decreased cell proliferation and SP cell number in HCC1937 cells. These results suggest that HSP90α and GRP78 interact with PRDM14 and participate in cancer regulation. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  7. Decreased Thioredoxin-1 and Increased HSP90 Expression in Skeletal Muscle in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes or Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venojärvi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In diabetes, the endogenous defence systems are overwhelmed, causing various types of stress in tissues. In this study, newly diagnosed or diet-treated type 2 diabetics (T2D (n=10 were compared with subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT (n=8. In both groups, at resting conditions, blood samples were drawn for assessing metabolic indices and skeletal muscle samples (m. vastus lateralis were taken for the measurements of cellular defence markers: thioredoxin-1 (TRX-1 and stress proteins HSP72, HSP90. The protein level of TRX-1 was 36.1% lower (P=0.031 and HSP90 was 380% higher (P<0.001 in the T2D than in the IGT subjects, with no significant changes in HSP72. However, after the adjustment of both analyses with HOMA-IR only HSP90 difference remained significant. In conclusion, level of TRX-1 in skeletal muscle tissue was lower while that of HSP90 was higher in T2D than in IGT subjects. This may impair antioxidant defence and lead to disruptions of protein homoeostasis and redox regulation of cellular defences. Because HSP90 may be involved in sustaining functional insulin signalling pathway in type 2 diabetic muscles and higher HSP90 levels can be a consequence of type 2 diabetes, our results are potentially important for the diabetes research.

  8. Search for Hsp90 inhibitors with potential anticancer activity: isolation and SAR studies of radicicol and monocillin I from two plant-associated fungi of the Sonoran desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbyville, Thomas J; Wijeratne, E M Kithsiri; Liu, Manping X; Burns, Anna M; Seliga, Christopher J; Luevano, Libia A; David, Cynthia L; Faeth, Stanley H; Whitesell, Luke; Gunatilaka, A A Leslie

    2006-02-01

    In an effort to discover small molecule inhibitors of Hsp90, we have screened over 500 EtOAc extracts of Sonoran desert plant-associated fungi using a two-stage strategy consisting of a primary cell-based heat shock induction assay (HSIA) followed by a secondary biochemical luciferase refolding assay (LRA). Bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts active in these assays derived from Chaetomium chiversii and Paraphaeosphaeria quadriseptata furnished the Hsp90 inhibitors radicicol (1) and monocillin I (2), respectively. In SAR studies, 1, 2, and their analogues, 3-16, were evaluated in these assays, and the antiproliferative activity of compounds active in both assays was determined using the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Radicicol and monocillin I were also evaluated in a solid-phase competition assay for their ability to bind Hsp90 and to deplete cellular levels of two known Hsp90 client proteins with relevance to breast cancer, estrogen receptor (ER), and the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R). Some inferences on SAR were made considering the crystal structure of the N-terminus of yeast Hsp90 bound to 1 and the observed biological activities of 1-16. Isolation of radicicol and monocillin I in this study provides evidence that we have developed an effective strategy for discovering natural product-based Hsp90 inhibitors with potential anticancer activity.

  9. Choice of biological source material supersedes oxidative stress in its influence on DJ-1 in vivo interactions with Hsp90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobbe, Christiane B; Revett, Timothy J; Bai, Yu; Chow, Vinca; Jeon, Amy Hye Won; Böhm, Christopher; Ehsani, Sepehr; Kislinger, Thomas; Mount, Howard T; Mak, Tak W; St George-Hyslop, Peter; Schmitt-Ulms, Gerold

    2011-10-07

    DJ-1 is a small but relatively abundant protein of unknown function that may undergo stress-dependent cellular translocation and has been implicated in both neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. As such, DJ-1 may be an excellent study object to elucidate the relative influence of the cellular context on its interactome and for exploring whether acute exposure to oxidative stressors alters its molecular environment. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we conducted comparative DJ-1 interactome analyses from in vivo cross-linked brains or livers and from hydrogen peroxide-treated or naïve embryonic stem cells. The analysis identified a subset of glycolytic enzymes, heat shock proteins 70 and 90, and peroxiredoxins as interactors of DJ-1. Consistent with a role of DJ-1 in Hsp90 chaperone biology, we document destabilization of Hsp90 clients in DJ-1 knockout cells. We further demonstrate the existence of a C106 sulfinic acid modification within DJ-1 and thereby establish that this previously inferred modification also exists in vivo. Our data suggest that caution has to be exerted in interpreting interactome data obtained from a single biological source material and identify a role of DJ-1 as an oxidative stress sensor and partner of a molecular machinery notorious for its involvement in cell fate decisions.

  10. MicroPET/CT Imaging of AXL Downregulation by HSP90 Inhibition in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanqin Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available AXL receptor tyrosine kinase is overexpressed in a number of solid tumor types including triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC. AXL is considered an important regulator of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT and a potential therapeutic target for TNBC. In this work, we used microPET/CT with 64Cu-labeled anti-human AXL antibody (64Cu-anti-hAXL to noninvasively interrogate the degradation of AXL in vivo in response to 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG, a potent inhibitor of HSP90. 17-AAG treatment caused significant decline in AXL expression in orthotopic TNBC MDA-MB-231 tumors, inhibited EMT, and delayed tumor growth in vivo, resulting in significant reduction in tumor uptake of 64Cu-anti-hAXL as clearly visualized by microPET/CT. Our data indicate that 64Cu-anti-hAXL can be useful for monitoring anti-AXL therapies and for assessing inhibition of HSP90 molecular chaperone using AXL as a molecular surrogate.

  11. Predicting Allosteric Effects from Orthosteric Binding in Hsp90-Ligand Interactions: Implications for Fragment-Based Drug Design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Chandramohan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A key question in mapping dynamics of protein-ligand interactions is to distinguish changes at binding sites from those associated with long range conformational changes upon binding at distal sites. This assumes a greater challenge when considering the interactions of low affinity ligands (dissociation constants, KD, in the μM range or lower. Amide hydrogen deuterium Exchange mass spectrometry (HDXMS is a robust method that can provide both structural insights and dynamics information on both high affinity and transient protein-ligand interactions. In this study, an application of HDXMS for probing the dynamics of low affinity ligands to proteins is described using the N-terminal ATPase domain of Hsp90. Comparison of Hsp90 dynamics between high affinity natural inhibitors (KD ~ nM and fragment compounds reveal that HDXMS is highly sensitive in mapping the interactions of both high and low affinity ligands. HDXMS reports on changes that reflect both orthosteric effects and allosteric changes accompanying binding. Orthosteric sites can be identified by overlaying HDXMS onto structural information of protein-ligand complexes. Regions distal to orthosteric sites indicate long range conformational changes with implications for allostery. HDXMS, thus finds powerful utility as a high throughput method for compound library screening to identify binding sites and describe allostery with important implications for fragment-based ligand discovery (FBLD.

  12. Phase I evaluation of STA-1474, a prodrug of the novel HSP90 inhibitor ganetespib, in dogs with spontaneous cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A London

    Full Text Available The novel water soluble compound STA-1474 is metabolized to ganetespib (formerly STA-9090, a potent HSP90 inhibitor previously shown to kill canine tumor cell lines in vitro and inhibit tumor growth in the setting of murine xenografts. The purpose of the following study was to extend these observations and investigate the safety and efficacy of STA-1474 in dogs with spontaneous tumors.This was a Phase 1 trial in which dogs with spontaneous tumors received STA-1474 under one of three different dosing schemes. Pharmacokinetics, toxicities, biomarker changes, and tumor responses were assessed. Twenty-five dogs with a variety of cancers were enrolled. Toxicities were primarily gastrointestinal in nature consisting of diarrhea, vomiting, inappetence and lethargy. Upregulation of HSP70 protein expression was noted in both tumor specimens and PBMCs within 7 hours following drug administration. Measurable objective responses were observed in dogs with malignant mast cell disease (n = 3, osteosarcoma (n = 1, melanoma (n = 1 and thyroid carcinoma (n = 1, for a response rate of 24% (6/25. Stable disease (>10 weeks was seen in 3 dogs, for a resultant overall biological activity of 36% (9/25.This study provides evidence that STA-1474 exhibits biologic activity in a relevant large animal model of cancer. Given the similarities of canine and human cancers with respect to tumor biology and HSP90 activation, it is likely that STA-1474 and ganetespib will demonstrate comparable anti-cancer activity in human patients.

  13. Heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) promotes opioid-induced anti-nociception by an ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) mechanism in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Wei; Mullen, Nathan; McCarthy, Sarah; Brann, Courtney; Richard, Philomena; Cormier, James; Edwards, Katie; Bilsky, Edward J; Streicher, John M

    2017-06-23

    Recent advances in developing opioid treatments for pain with reduced side effects have focused on the signaling cascades of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR). However, few such signaling targets have been identified for exploitation. To address this need, we explored the role of heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) in opioid-induced MOR signaling and pain, which has only been studied in four previous articles. First, in four cell models of MOR signaling, we found that Hsp90 inhibition for 24 h with the inhibitor 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) had different effects on protein expression and opioid signaling in each line, suggesting that cell models may not be reliable for predicting pharmacology with this protein. We thus developed an in vivo model using CD-1 mice with an intracerebroventricular injection of 17-AAG for 24 h. We found that Hsp90 inhibition strongly blocked morphine-induced anti-nociception in models of post-surgical and HIV neuropathic pain but only slightly blocked anti-nociception in a naive tail-flick model, while enhancing morphine-induced precipitated withdrawal. Seeking a mechanism for these changes, we found that Hsp90 inhibition blocks ERK MAPK activation in the periaqueductal gray and caudal brain stem. We tested these signaling changes by inhibiting ERK in the above-mentioned pain models and found that ERK inhibition could account for all of the changes in anti-nociception induced by Hsp90 inhibition. Taken together, these findings suggest that Hsp90 promotes opioid-induced anti-nociception by an ERK mechanism in mouse brain and that Hsp90 could be a future target for improving the therapeutic index of opioid drugs. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate suppresses the expression of HSP70 and HSP90 and exhibits anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Jung-Hoon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, one of the major catechins in green tea, is a potential chemopreventive agent for various cancers. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of EGCG on the expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs and tumor suppression. Methods Cell colony formation was evaluated by a soft agar assay. Transcriptional activity of HSP70 and HSP90 was determined by luciferase reporter assay. An EGCG-HSPs complex was prepared using EGCG attached to the cyanogen bromide (CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B. In vivo effect of EGCG on tumor growth was examined in a xenograft model. Results Treatment with EGCG decreased cell proliferation and colony formation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. EGCG specifically inhibited the expression of HSP70 and HSP90 by inhibiting the promoter activity of HSP70 and HSP90. Pretreatment with EGCG increased the stress sensitivity of MCF-7 cells upon heat shock (44°C for 1 h or oxidative stress (H2O2, 500 μM for 24 h. Moreover, treatment with EGCG (10 mg/kg in a xenograft model resulted in delayed tumor incidence and reduced tumor size, as well as the inhibition of HSP70 and HSP90 expression. Conclusions Overall, these findings demonstrate that HSP70 and HSP90 are potent molecular targets of EGCG and suggest EGCG as a drug candidate for the treatment of human cancer.

  15. 2.4 Å resolution crystal structure of human TRAP1 NM , the Hsp90 paralog in the mitochondrial matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Nuri; Lee, Jungsoon; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Chang, Changsoo; Tsai, Francis T. F.; Lee, Sukyeong

    2016-07-13

    TRAP1 is an organelle-specific Hsp90 paralog that is essential for neoplastic growth. As a member of the Hsp90 family, TRAP1 is presumed to be a general chaperone facilitating the late-stage folding of Hsp90 client proteins in the mitochondrial matrix. Interestingly, TRAP1 cannot replace cytosolic Hsp90 in protein folding, and none of the known Hsp90 co-chaperones are found in mitochondria. Thus, the three-dimensional structure of TRAP1 must feature regulatory elements that are essential to the ATPase activity and chaperone function of TRAP1. Here, the crystal structure of a human TRAP1NMdimer is presented, featuring an intact N-domain and M-domain structure, bound to adenosine 5'-β,γ-imidotriphosphate (ADPNP). The crystal structure together with epitope-mapping results shows that the TRAP1 M-domain loop 1 contacts the neighboring subunit and forms a previously unobserved third dimer interface that mediates the specific interaction with mitochondrial Hsp70.

  16. 3D-QSAR, molecular docking, and molecular dynamic simulations for prediction of new Hsp90 inhibitors based on isoxazole scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Maryam; Sadeghi-Aliabadi, Hojjat; Amanlou, Massoud

    2017-05-24

    Heat shock protein 90(Hsp90), as a molecular chaperone, play a crucial role in folding and proper function of many proteins. Hsp90 inhibitors containing isoxazole scaffold are currently being used in the treatment of cancer as tumor suppressers. Here in the present studies, new compounds based on isoxazole scaffold were predicted using a combination of molecular modeling techniques including three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR), molecular docking and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations. Comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) were also done. The steric and electrostatic contour map of CoMFA and CoMSIA were created. Hydrophobic, hydrogen bond donor and acceptor of CoMSIA model also were generated, and new compounds were predicted by CoMFA and CoMSIA contour maps. To investigate the binding modes of the predicted compounds in the active site of Hsp90, a molecular docking simulation was carried out. MD simulations were also conducted to evaluate the obtained results on the best predicted compound and the best reported Hsp90 inhibitors in the 3D-QSAR model. Findings indicate that the predicted ligands were stable in the active site of Hsp90.

  17. Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90) as a Molecular Target for the Development of Novel Drugs Against the Dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Tiago R.; Peres, Nalu T. A.; Martins, Maíra P.; Lang, Elza A. S.; Sanches, Pablo R.; Rossi, Antonio; Martinez-Rossi, Nilce M.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of fungal infections is difficult due to several reasons, such as side effects of drugs, emergence of resistant strains, and limited number of molecular targets for the drug compounds. In fungi, heat shock proteins (Hsps) have been implicated in several processes with the conserved molecular chaperone Hsp90 emerging as a potential target for antifungal therapy. It plays key cellular roles by eliciting molecular response to environmental changes, morphogenesis, antifungal resistance, and fungal pathogenicity. Here, we evaluated the transcription profiles of hsp genes of the most prevalent dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum in response to different environmental challenges including nutrient availability, interaction with cells and molecules of the host tissue, and drug exposure. The results suggest that each Hsp responds to a specific stress condition and that the cohort of Hsps facilitates fungal survival under various environmental challenges. Chemical inhibition of Hsp90 resulted in increased susceptibility of the fungus to itraconazole and micafungin, and decreased its growth in human nails in vitro. Moreover, some hsp and related genes were modulated by Hsp90 at the transcriptional level. We are suggesting a role of Hsp90 in the pathogenicity and drug susceptibility of T. rubrum as well as the regulation of other Hsps. The synergism observed between the inhibition of Hsp90 and the effect of itraconazole or micafungin in reducing the fungal growth is of great interest as a novel and potential strategy to treat dermatophytoses. PMID:26617583

  18. Structural Bioinformatics and Protein Docking Analysis of the Molecular Chaperone-Kinase Interactions: Towards Allosteric Inhibition of Protein Kinases by Targeting the Hsp90-Cdc37 Chaperone Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady Verkhivker

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental role of the Hsp90-Cdc37 chaperone system in mediating maturation of protein kinase clients and supporting kinase functional activity is essential for the integrity and viability of signaling pathways involved in cell cycle control and organism development. Despite significant advances in understanding structure and function of molecular chaperones, the molecular mechanisms and guiding principles of kinase recruitment to the chaperone system are lacking quantitative characterization. Structural and thermodynamic characterization of Hsp90-Cdc37 binding with protein kinase clients by modern experimental techniques is highly challenging, owing to a transient nature of chaperone-mediated interactions. In this work, we used experimentally-guided protein docking to probe the allosteric nature of the Hsp90-Cdc37 binding with the cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4 kinase clients. The results of docking simulations suggest that the kinase recognition and recruitment to the chaperone system may be primarily determined by Cdc37 targeting of the N-terminal kinase lobe. The interactions of Hsp90 with the C-terminal kinase lobe may provide additional “molecular brakes” that can lock (or unlock kinase from the system during client loading (release stages. The results of this study support a central role of the Cdc37 chaperone in recognition and recruitment of the kinase clients. Structural analysis may have useful implications in developing strategies for allosteric inhibition of protein kinases by targeting the Hsp90-Cdc37 chaperone machinery.

  19. Structural and functional analysis of SGT1 reveals that its interaction with HSP90 is required for the accumulation of Rx, an R protein involved in plant immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botër, Marta; Amigues, Béatrice; Peart, Jack; Breuer, Christian; Kadota, Yasuhiro; Casais, Catarina; Moore, Geoffrey; Kleanthous, Colin; Ochsenbein, Francoise; Shirasu, Ken; Guerois, Raphaël

    2007-11-01

    SGT1 (for suppressor of G2 allele of skp1) and RAR1 (for required for Mla12 resistance) are highly conserved eukaryotic proteins that interact with the molecular chaperone HSP90 (for heat shock protein90). In plants, SGT1, RAR1, and HSP90 are essential for disease resistance triggered by a number of resistance (R) proteins. Here, we present structural and functional characterization of plant SGT1 proteins. Random mutagenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana SGT1b revealed that its CS (for CHORD-SGT1) and SGS (for SGT1 specific) domains are essential for disease resistance. NMR-based interaction surface mapping and mutational analyses of the CS domain showed that the CHORD II domain of RAR1 and the N-terminal domain of HSP90 interact with opposite sides of the CS domain. Functional analysis of the CS mutations indicated that the interaction between SGT1 and HSP90 is required for the accumulation of Rx, a potato (Solanum tuberosum) R protein. Biochemical reconstitution experiments suggest that RAR1 may function to enhance the SGT1-HSP90 interaction by promoting ternary complex formation.

  20. Inhibition of HSP90 Promotes Neural Stem Cell Survival from Oxidative Stress through Attenuating NF-κB/p65 Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell survival after transplantation determines the efficiency of stem cell treatment, which develops as a novel potential therapy for several central nervous system (CNS diseases in recent decades. The engrafted stem cells face the damage of oxidative stress, inflammation, and immune response at the lesion point in host. Among the damaging pathologies, oxidative stress directs stem cells to apoptosis and even death through several signalling pathways and DNA damage. However, the in-detail mechanism of stem cell survival from oxidative stress has not been revealed clearly. Here, in this study, we used hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 to induce the oxidative damage on neural stem cells (NSCs. The damage was in consequence demonstrated involving the activation of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90 and NF-κB/p65 signalling pathways. Further application of the pharmacological inhibitors, respectively, targeting at each signalling indicated an upper-stream role of HSP90 upon NF-κB/p65 on NSCs survival. Preinhibition of HSP90 with the specific inhibitor displayed a significant protection on NSCs against oxidative stress. In conclusion, inhibition of HSP90 would attenuate NF-κB/p65 activation by oxidative induction and promote NSCs survival from oxidative damage. The HSP90/NF-κB mechanism provides a new evidence on rescuing NSCs from oxidative stress and also promotes the stem cell application on CNS pathologies.

  1. Involvement of YAP, TAZ and HSP90 in contact guidance and intercellular junction formation in corneal epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Krishna Raghunathan

    Full Text Available The extracellular environment possesses a rich milieu of biophysical and biochemical signaling cues that are simultaneously integrated by cells and influence cellular phenotype. Yes-associated protein (YAP and transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (WWTR1; TAZ, two important signaling molecules of the Hippo pathway, have been recently implicated as nuclear relays of cytoskeletal changes mediated by substratum rigidity and topography. These proteins intersect with other important intracellular signaling pathways (e.g. Wnt and TGFβ. In the cornea, epithelial cells adhere to the stroma through a 3-dimensional topography-rich basement membrane, with features in the nano-submicron size-scale that are capable of profoundly modulating a wide range of fundamental cell behaviors. The influences of substratum-topography, YAP/TAZ knockdown, and HSP90 inhibition on cell morphology, YAP/TAZ localization, and the expression of TGFβ2 and CTGF, were investigated. The results demonstrate (a that knockdown of TAZ enhances contact guidance in a YAP dependent manner, (b that CTGF is predominantly regulated by YAP and not TAZ, and (c that TGFβ2 is regulated by both YAP and TAZ in these cells. Additionally, inhibition of HSP90 resulted in nuclear localization and subsequent transcriptional-activation of YAP, formation of cell-cell junctions and co-localization of E-cadherin and β-catenin at adherens junctions. Results presented in this study reflect the complexities underlying the molecular relationships between the cytoskeleton, growth factors, heat shock proteins, and co-activators of transcription that impact mechanotransduction. The data reveal the importance of YAP/TAZ on the cell behaviors, and gene and protein expression.

  2. Potential diagnostic significance of HSP90, ACS/TMS1, and L-plastin in the identification of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickler, Allen G; Vasquez, Juan G; Yates, Nathan; Ho, Jonhan

    2014-12-01

    Melanoma is one of the deadliest cancers, yet it remains a diagnostic and prognostic challenge. The lack of effective treatment modalities compounds this challenge. Characterizing the molecular mechanisms leading to the development of melanoma is the first step to understanding the pathophysiology of melanoma. Numerous molecular studies have helped us understand critical changes that occur in the transition from a benign nevus to melanoma. However, many of these processes remain undiscovered. The goal of the current project was to characterize the proteomes of benign nevi and malignant melanomas using proteomic methods, with confirmation by immunohistochemical analysis. Using tandem mass spectrometry, we identified proteins potentially involved in melanoma pathogenesis. Several of the identified proteins have known roles in oncogenesis, melanogenesis, or both. We selected Hsp90-β, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC/TMS1), and L-plastin from these to analyze nevi and melanoma samples by immunohistochemical analysis. Hsp90-β and ASC/TMS1 staining was higher in melanoma when compared with nevi, whereas L-plastin protein expression was not significantly different between cells of these tumor types; however, it was expressed in the inflammatory milieu of melanoma. ACS/TMS1 showed staining in normal and junctional melanocytes, as well as in superficial nevomelanocytes, but deeper dermal nevomelanocytes gradually lost expression. This study helps validate the use of proteomics to aid in characterizing protein differences between nevi and melanomas and also underscores the importance of correlating proteomic results with histomorphology to understand the context of the information. The proteins in the current study may hold potential in differentiating between melanoma and benign nevi in diagnostically challenging cases.

  3. Genome-wide dissection of AP2/ERF and HSP90 gene families in five legumes and expression profiles in chickpea and pigeonpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Gaurav; Garg, Vanika; Kudapa, Himabindu; Doddamani, Dadakhalandar; Pazhamala, Lekha T; Khan, Aamir W; Thudi, Mahendar; Lee, Suk-Ha; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2016-07-01

    APETALA2/ethylene response factor (AP2/ERF) and heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) are two significant classes of transcription factor and molecular chaperone proteins which are known to be implicated under abiotic and biotic stresses. Comprehensive survey identified a total of 147 AP2/ERF genes in chickpea, 176 in pigeonpea, 131 in Medicago, 179 in common bean and 140 in Lotus, whereas the number of HSP90 genes ranged from 5 to 7 in five legumes. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses distinguished AP2, ERF, DREB, RAV and soloist proteins, while HSP90 proteins segregated on the basis of their cellular localization. Deeper insights into the gene structure allowed ERF proteins to be classified into AP2s based on DNA-binding domains, intron arrangements and phylogenetic grouping. RNA-seq and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses in heat-stressed chickpea as well as Fusarium wilt (FW)- and sterility mosaic disease (SMD)-stressed pigeonpea provided insights into the modus operandi of AP2/ERF and HSP90 genes. This study identified potential candidate genes in response to heat stress in chickpea while for FW and SMD stresses in pigeonpea. For instance, two DREB genes (Ca_02170 and Ca_16631) and three HSP90 genes (Ca_23016, Ca_09743 and Ca_25602) in chickpea can be targeted as potential candidate genes. Similarly, in pigeonpea, a HSP90 gene, C.cajan_27949, was highly responsive to SMD in the resistant genotype ICPL 20096, can be recommended for further functional validation. Also, two DREB genes, C.cajan_41905 and C.cajan_41951, were identified as leads for further investigation in response to FW stress in pigeonpea. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Loss of Smyhc1 or Hsp90alpha1 function results in different effects on myofibril organization in skeletal muscles of zebrafish embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Codina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Myofibrillogenesis requires the correct folding and assembly of sarcomeric proteins into highly organized sarcomeres. Heat shock protein 90alpha1 (Hsp90alpha1 has been implicated as a myosin chaperone that plays a key role in myofibrillogenesis. Knockdown or mutation of hsp90alpha1 resulted in complete disorganization of thick and thin filaments and M- and Z-line structures. It is not clear whether the disorganization of these sarcomeric structures is due to a direct effect from loss of Hsp90alpha1 function or indirectly through the disorganization of myosin thick filaments. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we carried out a loss-of-function analysis of myosin thick filaments via gene-specific knockdown or using a myosin ATPase inhibitor BTS (N-benzyl-p-toluene sulphonamide in zebrafish embryos. We demonstrated that knockdown of myosin heavy chain 1 (myhc1 resulted in sarcomeric defects in the thick and thin filaments and defective alignment of Z-lines. Similarly, treating zebrafish embryos with BTS disrupted thick and thin filament organization, with little effect on the M- and Z-lines. In contrast, loss of Hsp90alpha1 function completely disrupted all sarcomeric structures including both thick and thin filaments as well as the M- and Z-lines. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Together, these studies indicate that the hsp90alpha1 mutant phenotype is not simply due to disruption of myosin folding and assembly, suggesting that Hsp90alpha1 may play a role in the assembly and organization of other sarcomeric structures.

  5. Specific Arabidopsis HSP90.2 alleles recapitulate RAR1 cochaperone function in plant NB-LRR disease resistance protein regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hubert, David A.; He, Yijian; McNulty, Brian C.; Tornero, Pablo; Jeffery L Dangl

    2009-01-01

    Both plants and animals require the activity of proteins containing nucleotide binding (NB) domain and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains for proper immune system function. NB-LRR proteins in plants (NLR proteins in animals) also require conserved regulation via the proteins SGT1 and cytosolic HSP90. RAR1, a protein specifically required for plant innate immunity, interacts with SGT1 and HSP90 to maintain proper NB-LRR protein steady-state levels. Here, we present the identification and charac...

  6. Reprogramming chromatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensberger, Andreas Hasso; Svejstrup, Jesper Qualmann

    2012-01-01

    attributed to high kinetic barriers that affect all cells equally and can only be overcome by rare stochastic events. The barriers to reprogramming are likely to involve transformations of chromatin state because (i) inhibitors of chromatin-modifying enzymes can enhance the efficiency of reprogramming...... and (ii) knockdown or knock-out of chromatin-modifying enzymes can lower the efficiency of reprogramming. Here, we review the relationship between chromatin state transformations (chromatin reprogramming) and cellular reprogramming, with an emphasis on transcription factors, chromatin remodeling factors...

  7. Dynamic Nucleotide-dependent Interactions of Cysteine- and Histidine-rich Domain (CHORD)-containing Hsp90 Cochaperones Chp-1 and Melusin with Cochaperones PP5 and Sgt1*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Tae-Joon; Kim, Sangkyu; Wi, Ah Ram; Lee, Peter; Kang, Miae; Jeong, Jae-Hoon; Hahn, Ji-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Mammals have two cysteine- and histidine-rich domain (CHORD)-containing Hsp90 cochaperones, Chp-1 and melusin, which are homologs of plant Rar1. It has been shown previously that Rar1 CHORD directly interacts with ADP bound to the nucleotide pocket of Hsp90. Here, we report that ADP and ATP can bind to Hsp90 cochaperones Chp-1 and PP5, inducing their conformational changes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Chp-1 and melusin can interact with cochaperones PP5 and Sgt1 and with each other in an ATP-dependent manner. Based on the known structure of the Rar1-Hsp90 complex, His-186 has been identified as an important residue of Chp-1 for ADP/ATP binding. His-186 is necessary for the nucleotide-dependent interaction of Chp-1 not only with Hsp90 but also with Sgt1. In addition, Ca2+, which is known to bind to melusin, enhances the interactions of melusin with Hsp90 and Sgt1. Furthermore, melusin acquires the ADP preference for Hsp90 binding in the presence of Ca2+. Our newly discovered nucleotide-dependent interactions between cochaperones might provide additional complexity to the dynamics of the Hsp90 chaperone system, also suggesting potential Hsp90-independent roles for these cochaperones. PMID:23184943

  8. Boosting the effects of hyperthermia-based anticancer treatments by HSP90 inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriend, Lianne E. M.; van den Tempel, Nathalie; Oei, Arlene L.; L'Acosta, Mike; Pieterson, Frederique J.; Franken, Nicolaas A. P.; Kanaar, Roland; Krawczyk, Przemek M.

    2017-01-01

    Hyperthermia - application of supra-physiological temperatures to cells, tissues or organs - is a pleiotropic treatment that affects most aspects of cellular metabolism, but its effects on DNA are of special interest in the context of cancer research and treatment. Hyperthermia inhibits repair of

  9. The 4C5 cell-impermeable anti-HSP90 antibody with anti-cancer activity, is composed of a single light chain dimer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Sidera

    Full Text Available MAb 4C5 is a cell impermeable, anti-HSP90 murine monoclonal antibody, originally produced using hybridoma technology. We have previously shown that mAb 4C5 specifically recognizes both the α- and to a lesser extent the β-isoform of HSP90. Additionally, in vitro and in vivo studies revealed that by selectively inhibiting the function of cell-surface HSP90, mAb 4C5 significantly impairs cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Here we describe the reconstitution of mAb 4C5 into a mouse-human chimera. More importantly we report that mAb 4C5 and consequently its chimeric counterpart are completely devoid of heavy chain and consist only of a functional kappa light chain dimer. The chimeric antibody is shown to retain the original antibody's specificity and functional properties. Thus it is capable of inhibiting the function of surface HSP90, leading to reduced cancer cell invasion in vitro. Finally, we present in vivo evidence showing that the chimeric 4C5 significantly inhibits the metastatic deposit formation of MDA-MB-453 cells into the lungs of SCID mice. These data suggest that a chimeric kappa light chain antibody could be potentially used as an anti-cancer agent, thereby introducing a novel type of antibody fragment, with reduced possible adverse immunogenic effects, into cancer therapeutics.

  10. 17-Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin induces downregulation of critical Hsp90 protein clients and results in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of human urinary bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkoulis, Panagiotis K; Stravopodis, Dimitrios J; Margaritis, Lukas H; Voutsinas, Gerassimos E

    2010-09-09

    17-Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), a benzoquinone ansamycin antibiotic, specifically targets heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and interferes with its function as a molecular chaperone that maintains the structural and functional integrity of various protein clients involved in cellular signaling. In this study, we have investigated the effect of 17-AAG on the regulation of Hsp90-dependent signaling pathways directly implicated in cell cycle progression, survival and motility of human urinary bladder cancer cell lines. We have used MTT-based assays, FACS analysis, Western blotting, semi-quantitative RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry and scratch-wound assay in RT4, RT112 and T24 human urinary bladder cancer cell lines. We have demonstrated that, upon 17-AAG treatment, bladder cancer cells are arrested in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and eventually undergo apoptotic cell death in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, 17-AAG administration was shown to induce a pronounced downregulation of multiple Hsp90 protein clients and other downstream effectors, such as IGF-IR, Akt, IKK-α, IKK-β, FOXO1, ERK1/2 and c-Met, resulting in sequestration-mediated inactivation of NF-κB, reduced cell proliferation and decline of cell motility. In total, we have clearly evinced a dose-dependent and cell type-specific effect of 17-AAG on cell cycle progression, survival and motility of human bladder cancer cells, due to downregulation of multiple Hsp90 clients and subsequent disruption of signaling integrity.

  11. Establish an automated flow injection ESI-MS method for the screening of fragment based libraries: Application to Hsp90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccardi Sirtori, Federico; Caronni, Dannica; Colombo, Maristella; Dalvit, Claudio; Paolucci, Mauro; Regazzoni, Luca; Visco, Carlo; Fogliatto, Gianpaolo

    2015-08-30

    ESI-MS is a well established technique for the study of biopolymers (nucleic acids, proteins) and their non covalent adducts, due to its capacity to detect ligand-target complexes in the gas phase and allows inference of ligand-target binding in solution. In this article we used this approach to investigate the interaction of ligands to the Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90). This enzyme is a molecular chaperone involved in the folding and maturation of several proteins which has been subjected in the last years to intensive drug discovery efforts due to its key role in cancer. In particular, reference compounds, with a broad range of dissociation constants from 40pM to 100μM, were tested to assess the reliability of ESI-MS for the study of protein-ligand complexes. A good agreement was found between the values measured with a fluorescence polarization displacement assay and those determined by mass spectrometry. After this validation step we describe the setup of a medium throughput screening method, based on ESI-MS, suitable to explore interactions of therapeutic relevance biopolymers with chemical libraries. Our approach is based on an automated flow injection ESI-MS method (AFI-MS) and has been applied to screen the Nerviano Medical Sciences proprietary fragment library of about 2000 fragments against Hsp90. In order to discard false positive hits and to discriminate those of them interacting with the N-terminal ATP binding site, competition experiments were performed using a reference inhibitor. Gratifyingly, this group of hits matches with the ligands previously identified by NMR FAXS techniques and confirmed by X-ray co-crystallization experiments. These results support the use of AFI-MS for the screening of medium size libraries, including libraries of small molecules with low affinity typically used in fragment based drug discovery. AFI-MS is a valid alternative to other techniques with the additional opportunities to identify compounds interacting with

  12. Effect of different temperatures on the expression of the newly characterized heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) in L3 of Anisakis spp. isolated from Scomber australasicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Yu; Cheng, Yi-Sheng; Grabner, Daniel S; Chang, Shih-Hsin; Shih, Hsiu-Hui

    2014-10-15

    Anisakid nematodes are distributed worldwide in a wide variety of marine fishes and they are known to cause the zoonotic disease, anisakiasis. The temperature control is commonly applied for prevention and control of anisakiasis. To analyze the cellular response to temperature stress in Anisakis, the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) was chosen in the present study, as it plays a key role in many cellular processes and responds to stress conditions such as heat or cold shock. Anisakids were sampled from spotted mackerel Scomber australasicus caught from the coastal waters of Yilan, in northeastern Taiwan (25 °N, 121 °E). Anisakid nematodes were pre-identified morphologically and later molecularly by PCR-RFLP. In total, we obtained six species of the genus Anisakis, A. typica, A. pegreffii, A. paggiae, A. brevispiculata, A. physeteris, and a recombinant genotype between A. pegreffii and A. simplex sensu stricto. Thereby we provide new host and locality records for A. paggiae, A. brevispiculata and A. physeteris. The Hsp90 genes of five species (except the recombinant genotype) were cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and their deduced amino acid sequences were further characterized. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis were used to examine the expression levels of the Hsp90 in A. pegreffii under different temperature conditions. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that Hsp90 transcript levels increased slightly under heat shock (50 °C) treatment, and increased gradually during the first 3h, and thereafter, returned to its baseline value at 37 °C. Under cold shock (4 °C) treatment, the mRNA expression of Hsp90 did not change significantly. In addition, we found a clear time-dependent Hsp90 protein expression pattern of A. pegreffii exposed to high temperature. Our results suggest that the mRNA and protein expression patterns of Hsp90 are related to the temperature, and are especially significantly increased under heat stress. Copyright © 2014

  13. Purification and comparison of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) in Candida albicans isolates from Malaysian and Iranian patients and infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, V; Shokri, H; Khosravi, A R; Akim, A; Amri Saroukolaei, S

    2016-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to purify and compare the concentration ratios of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) in clinical isolates of Candida albicans (C. albicans) obtained from Malaysian and Iranian patients and infected mice. Hsp90 was extracted using glass beads and ultracentrifugation from yeast cells and purified by ion exchange chromatography (DEAE-cellulose) and followed by affinity chromatography (hydroxyapatite). Purity of Hsp90 was controlled by SDS-PAGE and its identification was realized by immunoblotting test. The graphs of ion exchange and affinity chromatography showed one peak in all C. albicans isolates obtained from both Malaysian and Iranian samples, infected mice and under high-thermal (42°C) and low-thermal (25°C) shock. In immunoblotting, the location of Hsp90 fragments was obtained around 47, 75 and 82kDa. The least average concentration ratios of Hsp90 were 0.350 and 0.240mg/g for Malaysian and Iranian isolates at 25°C, respectively, while the highest average concentration ratios of Hsp90 were 3.05 and 2.600mg/g for Malaysian and Iranian isolates at 42°C, respectively. There were differences in the ratio amount of Hsp90 between Malaysian isolates (1.01±0.07mg/g) and mice kidneys (1.23±0.28mg/g) as well as between Iranian isolates (0.70±0.19mg/g) and mice kidneys (1.00±0.28mg/g) (P<0.05). The results showed differences in all situations tested including Iranian and Malaysian isolates, samples treated with temperatures (25°C or 42°C) and before and after infecting the mice (37°C), indicating higher virulent nature of this yeast species in high temperature in human and animal models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. TaRAR1 and TaSGT1 associate with TaHsp90 to function in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedling growth and stripe rust resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan-Feng; Fan, Renchun; Wang, Xianping; Wang, Daowen; Zhang, Xiangqi

    2015-04-01

    RAR1 and SGT1 are important co-chaperones of Hsp90. We previously showed that TaHsp90.1 is required for wheat seedling growth, and that TaHsp90.2 and TaHsp90.3 are essential for resistance (R) gene mediated resistance to stripe rust fungus. Here, we report the characterization of TaRAR1 and TaSGT1 genes in bread wheat. TaRAR1 and TaSGT1 each had three homoeologs, which were located on wheat groups 2 and 3 chromosomes, respectively. Strong inhibition of seedling growth was observed after silencing TaSGT1 but not TaRAR1. In contrast, decreasing the expression of TaRAR1 or TaSGT1 could all compromise R gene mediated resistance to stripe rust fungus infection. Protein-protein interactions were found among TaRAR1, TaSGT1 and TaHsp90. The N-terminus of TaHsp90, the CHORD-I and CHORD-II domains of TaRAR1 and the CS domain of TaSGT1 may be instrumental for the interactions among the three proteins. Based on this work and our previous study on TaHsp90, we speculate that the TaSGT1-TaHsp90.1 interaction is important for maintaining bread wheat seedling growth. The TaRAR1-TaSGT1-TaHsp90.2 and TaRAR1-TaSGT1-TaHsp90.3 interactions are involved in controlling the resistance to stripe rust disease. The new information obtained here should aid further functional investigations of TaRAR1-TaSGT1-TaHsp90 complexes in regulating bread wheat growth and disease resistance.

  15. The HSP90 inhibitor NVP-AUY922 radiosensitizes by abrogation of homologous recombination resulting in mitotic entry with unresolved DNA damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane Zaidi

    Full Text Available Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90 is a molecular chaperone responsible for the conformational maintenance of a number of client proteins that play key roles in cell cycle arrest, DNA damage repair and apoptosis following radiation. HSP90 inhibitors exhibit antitumor activity by modulating the stabilisation and activation of HSP90 client proteins. We sought to evaluate NVP-AUY922, the most potent HSP90 inhibitor yet reported, in preclinical radiosensitization studies.NVP-AUY922 potently radiosensitized cells in vitro at low nanomolar concentrations with a concurrent depletion of radioresistance-linked client proteins. Radiosensitization by NVP-AUY922 was verified for the first time in vivo in a human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma xenograft model in athymic mice, as measured by delayed tumor growth and increased surrogate end-point survival (p = <0.0001. NVP-AUY922 was shown to ubiquitously inhibit resolution of dsDNA damage repair correlating to delayed Rad51 foci formation in all cell lines tested. Additionally, NVP-AUY922 induced a stalled mitotic phenotype, in a cell line-dependent manner, in HeLa and HN5 cell lines irrespective of radiation exposure. Cell cycle analysis indicated that NVP-AUY922 induced aberrant mitotic entry in all cell lines tested in the presence of radiation-induced DNA damage due to ubiquitous CHK1 depletion, but resultant downstream cell cycle effects were cell line dependent.These results identify NVP-AUY922 as the most potent HSP90-mediated radiosensitizer yet reported in vitro, and for the first time validate it in a clinically relevant in vivo model. Mechanistic analysis at clinically achievable concentrations demonstrated that radiosensitization is mediated by the combinatorial inhibition of cell growth and survival pathways, ubiquitous delay in Rad51-mediated homologous recombination and CHK1-mediated G(2/M arrest, but that the contribution of cell cycle perturbation to radiosensitization may be cell line

  16. Activating transcription factor-3 (ATF3 functions as a tumor suppressor in colon cancer and is up-regulated upon heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90 inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmeier Wolfgang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activating transcription factor-3 (ATF3 is involved in the complex process of cellular stress response. However, its exact role in cancer is discussed controversially because both tumor suppressive and oncogenic effects have been described. Here we followed-up on our previous observation that inhibition of Hsp90 may increase ATF3 expression and sought to determine the role of ATF3 in colon cancer. Methods Regulation of ATF3 was determined in cancer cells using signaling inhibitors and a heat-shock protein-90 (Hsp90 antagonist. Human HCT116 cancer cells were stably transfected with an ATF3-shRNA or a luciferase-shRNA expression plasmid and alterations in cell motility were assessed in migration assays. The impact of ATF3 down-regulation on cancer growth and metastasis were investigated in a subcutaneous tumor model, a model of hepatic tumor growth and in a model of peritoneal carcinomatosis. Human colon cancer tissues were analyzed for ATF3 expression. Results The results show that therapeutic Hsp90 inhibition substantially up-regulates the expression of ATF3 in various cancer cells, including colon, gastric and pancreatic cancer. This effect was evident both in vitro and in vivo. RNAi mediated knock-down of ATF3 in HCT116 colon cancer cells significantly increased cancer cell migration in vitro. Moreover, in xenogenic mouse models, ATF3 knock-down promoted subcutaneous tumor growth and hepatic metastasis, as well as peritoneal carcinomatosis. Importantly, ATF3 expression was lower in human colon cancer specimens, as compared to corresponding normal surrounding tissues, suggesting that ATF3 may represent a down-regulated tumor suppressor in colon cancer. Conclusion In conclusion, ATF3 down-regulation in colon cancer promotes tumor growth and metastasis. Considering that blocking Hsp90 induces ATF3 expression, Hsp90 inhibition may represent a valid strategy to treat metastatic colon cancer by up-regulating this anti

  17. ATM is required for the prolactin-induced HSP90-mediated increase in cellular viability and clonogenic growth after DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayazi Atici, Ödül; Urbanska, Anna; Gopal Gopinathan, Sesha; Boutillon, Florence; Goffin, Vincent; Shemanko, Carrie S

    2017-11-24

    Prolactin acts as a survival factor for breast cancer cells, but the prolactin signaling pathway and the mechanism is unknown. Previously, we identified the master chaperone, heat shock protein 90α (HSP90α), as a prolactin-Janus-Kinase-(JAK2)-signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-5-(STAT5) target gene involved in survival, and here we investigated the role of HSP90 in the mechanism of prolactin-induced viability in response to DNA damage. The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase protein (ATM) plays a critical role in the cellular response to double strand DNA damage. Prolactin increased viability of breast cancer cells treated with doxorubicin or etoposide. The increase in cellular resistance is specific to the prolactin receptor, as the prolactin receptor antagonist, Δ1-9-G129R-hPRL, prevented the increase in viability. Two different HSP90 inhibitors, 17-allylamino-17-demethoxy geldanamycin and BIIB021, reduced the prolactin-mediated increase in cell viability of doxorubicin treated cells, and led to a decrease in JAK2, ATM and phospho-ATM protein levels. Inhibitors of JAK2 (G6) and ATM (KU55933) abolished the prolactin-mediated increase in cell viability of DNA damaged cells, supporting the involvement of each, as well as the cross-talk of ATM with the prolactin pathway in the context of DNA damage. Drug synergism was detected between the ATM inhibitor, KU55933, and doxorubicin, and also between the HSP90 inhibitor, BIIB021, and doxorubicin. Short interfering RNA, directed against ATM, prevented the PRL-mediated increase in cell survival in both 2D and 3D collagen gel cultures, and in clonogenic cell survival, after doxorubicin treatment. Our results indicate that ATM contributes to the prolactin-JAK2-STAT5-HSP90 pathway in mediating cellular resistance to DNA damaging agents. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  18. Down-regulation of cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (Long Form contributes to apoptosis induced by Hsp90 inhibition in human lung cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qilin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellular FLICE-Inhibitory Protein (long form, c-FLIPL is a critical negative regulator of death receptor-mediated apoptosis. Overexpression of c-FLIPL has been reported in many cancer cell lines and is associated with chemoresistance. In contrast, down-regulation of c-FLIP may drive cancer cells into cellular apoptosis. This study aims to demonstrate that inhibition of the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 either by inhibitors geldanamycin/17-N-Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (GA/17-AAG or siRNA technique in human lung cancer cells induces c-FLIPL degradation and cellular apoptosis through C-terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP-mediated mechanisms. Methods Calu-1 and H157 cell lines (including H157-c-FLIPL overexpressing c-FLIPL and control cell H157-lacZ were treated with 17-AAG and the cell lysates were prepared to detect the given proteins by Western Blot and the cell survival was assayed by SRB assay. CHIP and Hsp90 α/β proteins were knocked down by siRNA technique. CHIP and c-FLIPL plasmids were transfected into cells and immunoprecipitation experiments were performed to testify the interactions between c-FLIPL, CHIP and Hsp90. Results c-FLIPL down-regulation induced by 17-AAG can be reversed with the proteasome inhibitor MG132, which suggested that c-FLIPL degradation is mediated by a ubiquitin-proteasome system. Inhibition of Hsp90α/β reduced c-FLIPL level, whereas knocking down CHIP expression with siRNA technique inhibited c-FLIPL degradation. Furthermore, c-FLIPL and CHIP were co-precipitated in the IP complexes. In addition, overexpression of c-FLIPL can rescue cancer cells from apoptosis. When 17-AAG was combined with an anti-cancer agent celecoxib(CCB, c-FLIPL level declined further and there was a higher degree of caspase activation. Conclusion We have elucidated c-FLIPL degradation contributes to apoptosis induced by Hsp90 inhibition, suggesting c-FLIP and Hsp90 may be the promising combined targets

  19. Differential Proteomics Identification of HSP90 as Potential Serum Biomarker in Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Two-dimensional Electrophoresis and Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyi Sun

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study is to identify the potential biomarkers involved in Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC carcinogenesis. A comparative proteomics approach was utilized to identify the differentially expressed proteins in the serum of 10 HCC patients and 10 controls. A total of 12 significantly altered proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Of the 12 proteins identified, HSP90 was one of the most significantly altered proteins and its over-expression in the serum of 20 HCC patients was confirmed using ELISA analysis. The observations suggest that HSP90 might be a potential biomarker for early diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring in the therapy of HCC. This work demonstrates that a comprehensive strategy of proteomic identification combined with further validation should be adopted in the field of cancer biomarker discovery.

  20. MeCP2 Rett mutations affect large scale chromatin organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Noopur Agarwal; Becker, Annette; Jost, K Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a neurological, X chromosomal-linked disorder associated with mutations in the MECP2 gene. MeCP2 protein has been proposed to play a role in transcriptional regulation as well as in chromatin architecture. Since MeCP2 mutant cells exhibit surprisingly mild changes in gene...... heterochromatin proteins are required for MeCP2 function and their dysfunction lead to Rett syndrome....... expression, we have now explored the possibility that Rett mutations may affect the ability of MeCP2 to bind and organize chromatin. We found that all but one of the 21 missense MeCP2 mutants analyzed accumulated at heterochromatin and about half of them were significantly affected. Furthermore, two...

  1. PKC signaling regulates drug resistance of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans via circuitry comprised of Mkc1, calcineurin, and Hsp90.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantelle L LaFayette

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungal pathogens exploit diverse mechanisms to survive exposure to antifungal drugs. This poses concern given the limited number of clinically useful antifungals and the growing population of immunocompromised individuals vulnerable to life-threatening fungal infection. To identify molecules that abrogate resistance to the most widely deployed class of antifungals, the azoles, we conducted a screen of 1,280 pharmacologically active compounds. Three out of seven hits that abolished azole resistance of a resistant mutant of the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a clinical isolate of the leading human fungal pathogen Candida albicans were inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC, which regulates cell wall integrity during growth, morphogenesis, and response to cell wall stress. Pharmacological or genetic impairment of Pkc1 conferred hypersensitivity to multiple drugs that target synthesis of the key cell membrane sterol ergosterol, including azoles, allylamines, and morpholines. Pkc1 enabled survival of cell membrane stress at least in part via the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK cascade in both species, though through distinct downstream effectors. Strikingly, inhibition of Pkc1 phenocopied inhibition of the molecular chaperone Hsp90 or its client protein calcineurin. PKC signaling was required for calcineurin activation in response to drug exposure in S. cerevisiae. In contrast, Pkc1 and calcineurin independently regulate drug resistance via a common target in C. albicans. We identified an additional level of regulatory control in the C. albicans circuitry linking PKC signaling, Hsp90, and calcineurin as genetic reduction of Hsp90 led to depletion of the terminal MAPK, Mkc1. Deletion of C. albicans PKC1 rendered fungistatic ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors fungicidal and attenuated virulence in a murine model of systemic candidiasis. This work establishes a new role for PKC signaling in drug resistance, novel circuitry through which

  2. Apigenin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in human multiple myeloma cells through targeting the trinity of CK2, Cdc37 and Hsp90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Ma, Jian; Zhu, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Xu-Hui; Du, Zhi-Yan; Xu, Yuan-Ji; Yu, Xiao-Dan

    2011-08-29

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a B-cell malignancy that is largely incurable and is characterized by the accumulation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow. Apigenin, a common flavonoid, has been reported to suppress proliferation in a wide variety of solid tumors and hematological cancers; however its mechanism is not well understood and its effect on MM cells has not been determined. In this study, we investigated the effects of apigenin on MM cell lines and on primary MM cells. Cell viability assays demonstrated that apigenin exhibited cytotoxicity against both MM cell lines and primary MM cells but not against normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Together, kinase assays, immunoprecipitation and western blot analysis showed that apigenin inhibited CK2 kinase activity, decreased phosphorylation of Cdc37, disassociated the Hsp90/Cdc37/client complex and induced the degradation of multiple kinase clients, including RIP1, Src, Raf-1, Cdk4 and AKT. By depleting these kinases, apigenin suppressed both constitutive and inducible activation of STAT3, ERK, AKT and NF-κB. The treatment also downregulated the expression of the antiapoptotic proteins Mcl-1, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, XIAP and Survivin, which ultimately induced apoptosis in MM cells. In addition, apigenin had a greater effects in depleting Hsp90 clients when used in combination with the Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin and the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat. Our results suggest that the primary mechanisms by which apigenin kill MM cells is by targeting the trinity of CK2-Cdc37-Hsp90, and this observation reveals the therapeutic potential of apigenin in treating multiple myeloma.

  3. Differential Proteomics Identification of HSP90 as Potential Serum Biomarker in Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Two-dimensional Electrophoresis and Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yiyi; Zang, Zhihe; Xu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Zhonglin; Zhong, Ling; Zan, Wang; Zhao, Yan; Sun, Lin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to identify the potential biomarkers involved in Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) carcinogenesis. A comparative proteomics approach was utilized to identify the differentially expressed proteins in the serum of 10 HCC patients and 10 controls. A total of 12 significantly altered proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Of the 12 proteins identified, HSP90 was one of the most significantly altered proteins and its over-expression in the serum of 20 HCC patie...

  4. Chromosomal assignment of six genes (EIF4G3, HSP90, RBBP6, IL8, TERT, and TERC) in four species of the genus Equus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidale, Pamela; Piras, Francesca M; Nergadze, Solomon G; Bertoni, Livia; Verini-Supplizi, Andrea; Adelson, David; Guérin, Gérard; Giulotto, Elena

    2011-01-01

    We mapped six genes (EIF4G3, HSP90, RBBP6, IL8, TERT, and TERC) on the chromosomes of Equus caballus, Equus asinus, Equus grevyi, and Equus burchelli by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Our results add six type I markers to the cytogenetic map of these species and provide new information on the comparative genomics of the genus Equus. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  5. 17-Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin induces downregulation of critical Hsp90 protein clients and results in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of human urinary bladder cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karkoulis Panagiotis K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 17-Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG, a benzoquinone ansamycin antibiotic, specifically targets heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 and interferes with its function as a molecular chaperone that maintains the structural and functional integrity of various protein clients involved in cellular signaling. In this study, we have investigated the effect of 17-AAG on the regulation of Hsp90-dependent signaling pathways directly implicated in cell cycle progression, survival and motility of human urinary bladder cancer cell lines. Methods We have used MTT-based assays, FACS analysis, Western blotting, semi-quantitative RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry and scratch-wound assay in RT4, RT112 and T24 human urinary bladder cancer cell lines. Results We have demonstrated that, upon 17-AAG treatment, bladder cancer cells are arrested in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and eventually undergo apoptotic cell death in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, 17-AAG administration was shown to induce a pronounced downregulation of multiple Hsp90 protein clients and other downstream effectors, such as IGF-IR, Akt, IKK-α, IKK-β, FOXO1, ERK1/2 and c-Met, resulting in sequestration-mediated inactivation of NF-κB, reduced cell proliferation and decline of cell motility. Conclusions In total, we have clearly evinced a dose-dependent and cell type-specific effect of 17-AAG on cell cycle progression, survival and motility of human bladder cancer cells, due to downregulation of multiple Hsp90 clients and subsequent disruption of signaling integrity.

  6. Effect of electromagnetic fields at 2.45 GHz on the levels of cellular stress proteins HSP-90 and 70 in the rat thyroid; Efecto de los campos electromagneticos a 2,45 GHz sobre los niveles de proteinas de estres celular HSP-90 y 70 en el toroides de rata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misa Agustino, M. J.; Alvarez-Folgueras, M.; Jorge-Mora, M. T.; Jorge Barreiro, F. J.; Ares Pena, F. J.; Lleiro, J.; Lopez Martin, M. E.

    2011-07-01

    In this study we analyzed the cellular stress levels achieved by heat shock proteins (HSP) 90 and 70 in rat thyroid tissue after exposure to radio waves in TWG experimental system. Parallel measurements of body stress in animals by rectal temperature probes allow us to determine whether there is any interaction between temperature increases and cellular stress.

  7. Molecular imaging of EGFR and CD44v6 for prediction and response monitoring of HSP90 inhibition in an in vivo squamous cell carcinoma model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiegelberg, Diana; Mortensen, Anja C.; Stenerloew, Bo [Uppsala University, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala (Sweden); Selvaraju, Ram K.; Eriksson, Olof [Uppsala University, Preclinical PET Platform, Uppsala (Sweden); Nestor, Marika [Uppsala University, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala (Sweden); Uppsala University, Unit of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2016-05-15

    Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is essential for the activation and stabilization of numerous oncogenic client proteins. AT13387 is a novel HSP90 inhibitor promoting degradation of oncogenic proteins upon binding, and may also act as a radiosensitizer. For optimal treatment there is, however, the need for identification of biomarkers for patient stratification and therapeutic response monitoring, and to find suitable targets for combination treatments. The aim of this study was to assess the response of surface antigens commonly expressed in squamous cell carcinoma to AT13387 treatment, and to find suitable biomarkers for molecular imaging and radioimmunotherapy in combination with HSP90 inhibition. Cancer cell proliferation and radioimmunoassays were used to evaluate the effect of AT13387 on target antigen expression in vitro. Inhibitor effects were then assessed in vivo in mice-xenografts. Animals were treated with AT13387 (5 x 50 mg/kg), and were imaged with PET using either {sup 18}F-FDG or {sup 124}I-labelled tracers for EGFR and CD44v6, and this was followed by ex-vivo biodistribution analysis and immunohistochemical staining. AT13387 exposure resulted in high cytotoxicity and possible radiosensitization with IC{sub 50} values below 4 nM. Both in vitro and in vivo AT13387 effectively downregulated HSP90 client proteins. PET imaging with {sup 124}I-cetuximab showed a significant decrease of EGFR in AT13387-treated animals compared with untreated animals. In contrast, the squamous cell carcinoma-associated biomarker CD44v6, visualized with {sup 124}I-AbD19384 as well as {sup 18}F-FDG uptake, were not significantly altered by AT13387 treatment. We conclude that AT13387 downregulates HSP90 client proteins, and that molecular imaging of these proteins may be a suitable approach for assessing treatment response. Furthermore, radioimmunotherapy targeting CD44v6 in combination with AT13387 may potentiate the radioimmunotherapy outcome due to radiosensitizing effects of

  8. Calcium/calmodulin kinase1 and its relation to thermotolerance and HSP90 in Sporothrix schenckii: an RNAi and yeast two-hybrid study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Mendez Ricardo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sporothrix schenckii is a pathogenic dimorphic fungus of worldwide distribution. It grows in the saprophytic form with hyaline, regularly septated hyphae and pyriform conidia at 25°C and as the yeast or parasitic form at 35°C. Previously, we characterized a calcium/calmodulin kinase in this fungus. Inhibitors of this kinase were observed to inhibit the yeast cell cycle in S. schenckii. Results The presence of RNA interference (RNAi mechanism in this fungus was confirmed by the identification of a Dicer-1 homologue in S. schenckii DNA. RNAi technology was used to corroborate the role of calcium/calmodulin kinase I in S. schenckii dimorphism. Yeast cells were transformed with the pSilent-Dual2G (pSD2G plasmid w/wo inserts of the coding region of the calcium/calmodulin kinase I (sscmk1 gene. Transformants were selected at 35°C using resistance to geneticin. Following transfer to liquid medium at 35°C, RNAi transformants developed as abnormal mycelium clumps and not as yeast cells as would be expected. The level of sscmk1 gene expression in RNAi transformants at 35°C was less than that of cells transformed with the empty pSD2G at this same temperature. Yeast two-hybrid analysis of proteins that interact with SSCMK1 identified a homologue of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90 as interacting with this kinase. Growth of the fungus similar to that of the RNAi transformants was observed in medium with geldanamycin (GdA, 10 μM, an inhibitor of HSP90. Conclusions Using the RNAi technology we silenced the expression of sscmk1 gene in this fungus. RNAi transformants were unable to grow as yeast cells at 35°C showing decreased tolerance to this temperature. The interaction of SSCMK1 with HSP90, observed using the yeast two-hybrid assay suggests that this kinase is involved in thermotolerance through its interaction with HSP90. SSCMK1 interacted with the C terminal domain of HSP90 where effector proteins and co-chaperones interact. These

  9. Downregulation of androgen receptors by NaAsO2via inhibition of AKT-NF-κB and HSP90 in castration resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yunlim; Park, Sang Eun; Moon, Jeong-Weon; Kim, Bong-Min; Kim, Ha-Gyeong; Jeong, In Gab; Yoo, Sangjun; Ahn, Jae Beom; You, Dalsan; Pak, Jhang Ho; Kim, Sujong; Hwang, Jung Jin; Kim, Choung-Soo

    2017-07-01

    Androgen and androgen receptor (AR) play essential roles in the development and maintenance of prostate cancer. The recently identified AR splice variants (AR-Vs) have been considered as a plausible mechanism for the primary resistance against androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Sodium meta-arsenite (NaAsO 2 ; KML001; Kominox), a trivalent arsenical, is an orally bioavailable and water soluble, which is currently in phase I/II clinical trials for the treatment of prostate cancer. It has a potent anti-cancer effect on prostate cancer cells and xenografts. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of NaAsO 2 on AR signaling in LNCaP and 22Rv1 CRPC cells. We used hormone-sensitive LNCaP cells, hormone-insensitive 22Rv1 cells, and CRPC patient-derived primary cells. We analyzed anti-cancer effect of NaAsO 2 using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence staining and CellTiter Glo® luminescent assay. Statistical evaluation of the results was performed by one-way ANOVA. NaAsO 2 significantly reduced the translocation of AR and AR-Vs to the nucleus as well as their level in LNCaP and 22Rv1 cells. Besides, the level of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA), downstream target gene of AR, was also decreased. This compound was also an effective modulator of AKT-dependent NF-κB activation which regulates AR. NaAsO 2 significantly inhibited phosphorylation of AKT and expression and nuclear translocation of NF-κB. We then investigated the effect of NaAsO 2 on AR stabilization. NaAsO 2 promoted HSP90 acetylation by down-regulating HDAC6, which reduces the stability of AR in prostate cancer cells. Here, we show that NaAsO 2 disrupts AR signaling at multiple levels by affecting AR expression, stability, and degradation in primary tumor cell cultures from prostate cancer patients as well as CRPC cell lines. These results suggest that NaAsO 2 could be a novel therapeutics for prostate

  10. ATP-Dependent Chromatin Remodeling Factors and Their Roles in Affecting Nucleosome Fiber Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Lusser

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors of the SNF2 family are key components of the cellular machineries that shape and regulate chromatin structure and function. Members of this group of proteins have broad and heterogeneous functions ranging from controlling gene activity, facilitating DNA damage repair, promoting homologous recombination to maintaining genomic stability. Several chromatin remodeling factors are critical components of nucleosome assembly processes, and recent reports have identified specific functions of distinct chromatin remodeling factors in the assembly of variant histones into chromatin. In this review we will discuss the specific roles of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors in determining nucleosome composition and, thus, chromatin fiber properties.

  11. A novel pulse-chase SILAC strategy measures changes in protein decay and synthesis rates induced by perturbation of proteostasis with an Hsp90 inhibitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Fierro-Monti

    Full Text Available Standard proteomics methods allow the relative quantitation of levels of thousands of proteins in two or more samples. While such methods are invaluable for defining the variations in protein concentrations which follow the perturbation of a biological system, they do not offer information on the mechanisms underlying such changes. Expanding on previous work [1], we developed a pulse-chase (pc variant of SILAC (stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture. pcSILAC can quantitate in one experiment and for two conditions the relative levels of proteins newly synthesized in a given time as well as the relative levels of remaining preexisting proteins. We validated the method studying the drug-mediated inhibition of the Hsp90 molecular chaperone, which is known to lead to increased synthesis of stress response proteins as well as the increased decay of Hsp90 "clients". We showed that pcSILAC can give information on changes in global cellular proteostasis induced by treatment with the inhibitor, which are normally not captured by standard relative quantitation techniques. Furthermore, we have developed a mathematical model and computational framework that uses pcSILAC data to determine degradation constants kd and synthesis rates Vs for proteins in both control and drug-treated cells. The results show that Hsp90 inhibition induced a generalized slowdown of protein synthesis and an increase in protein decay. Treatment with the inhibitor also resulted in widespread protein-specific changes in relative synthesis rates, together with variations in protein decay rates. The latter were more restricted to individual proteins or protein families than the variations in synthesis. Our results establish pcSILAC as a viable workflow for the mechanistic dissection of changes in the proteome which follow perturbations. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000538.

  12. Combining trail with PI3 kinase or HSP90 inhibitors enhances apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells via suppression of survival signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturno, Grazia; Valenti, Melanie; De Haven Brandon, Alexis; Thomas, George V; Eccles, Suzanne; Clarke, Paul A; Workman, Paul

    2013-08-01

    TRAIL has been shown to induce apoptosis in cancer cells, but in some cases they fail to respond to this ligand. We explored the ability of representative phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3 Kinase)/mTOR and HSP90 inhibitors to overcome TRAIL resistance by increasing apoptosis in colorectal cancer models. We determined the sensitivity of 27 human colorectal cancer and 2 non-transformed colon epithelial cell lines to TRAIL treatment. A subset of the cancer cell lines with a range of responses to TRAIL was selected from the panel for treatment with TRAIL combined with the PI3 Kinase/mTOR inhibitor PI-103 or the HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG (tanespimycin). Two TRAIL-resistant cell lines were selected for in vivo combination studies with TRAIL and 17-AAG. We found that 13 colorectal cancer cell lines and the 2 non-transformed colon epithelial cell lines were resistant to TRAIL. We demonstrated that co-treatment of TRAIL and PI-103 or 17-AAG was synergistic or additive and significantly enhanced apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. This was associated with decreased expression or activity of survival protein biomarkers such as ERBB2, AKT, IKKα and XIAP. In contrast, the effect of the combination treatments in non-transformed colon cells was minimal. We show here for the first time that co-treatment in vivo with TRAIL and 17-AAG in two TRAIL-resistant human colorectal cancer xenograft models resulted in significantly greater tumor growth inhibition compared to single treatments. We propose that combining TRAIL with PI3 Kinase/mTOR or HSP90 inhibitors has therapeutic potential in the treatment of TRAIL-resistant colorectal cancers.

  13. The flavonoid TL-2-8 induces cell death and immature mitophagy in breast cancer cells via abrogating the function of the AHA1/Hsp90 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui-Juan; Jiang, Xiao-Xiao; Guo, Yi-Zhen; Sun, Fang-Hui; Kou, Xin-Hui; Bao, Yong; Zhang, Zhu-Qing; Lin, Zhao-Hu; Ding, Ting-Bo; Jiang, Lan; Lei, Xin-Sheng; Yang, Yong-Hua

    2017-10-01

    The flavonoid quercetin exhibits significant anticancer activities with few side effects. In the current study, we characterized TL-2-8, a quercetin derivative, as a novel anticancer agent in vitro and in vivo. Cell proliferation and viability were assessed using Cell Counting Kit-8 and CellTiter-Blue assay, respectively. Cell death was examined using PI staining or a TUNEL assay. Mitophagy was determined by measuring autophagic flux and by confocal imaging. Protein expression was examined by Western blotting. We found that TL-2-8 selectively inhibited the proliferation and decreased the viability of various cancer cells (the anti-proliferation IC50 values in MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells at 72 h were 8.28, 8.56, and 9.58 μmol/L, respectively), and it displayed only slight cytotoxicity against normal MCF-10A and HEK-293 cells. In MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells, TL-2-8 treatment induced the degradation of multiple Hsp90 client proteins without inducing Hsp70. TL-2-8 (3, 6, 12 μmol/L) dose-dependently inhibited the expression of AHA1, an activator of Hsp90 ATPase, and decreased Hsp90-AHA1 complex formation, leading to decreased Hsp90 chaperone function and reduced polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) signaling. Consequently, impaired mitophagy was induced via the downregulation of lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2). The in vivo anticancer effects of TL-2-8 were evaluated in an MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenograft model, which was treated with TL-2-8 (25, 50, 100 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), po). Administration of TL-2-8 resulted in tumor growth inhibition rates of 37.9%, 58.9% and 70.9%, respectively, whereas quercetin treatment (100 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), po) produced only a lower tumor growth inhibition rate (49.5%). Furthermore, TL-2-8 treatment significantly extended the lifespan of mice bearing MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell xenografts. Our results demonstrate that TL-2-8 induces significant cell death and immature mitophagy in breast

  14. Atomistic simulations and network-based modeling of the Hsp90-Cdc37 chaperone binding with Cdk4 client protein: A mechanism of chaperoning kinase clients by exploiting weak spots of intrinsically dynamic kinase domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh Czemeres

    Full Text Available A fundamental role of the Hsp90 and Cdc37 chaperones in mediating conformational development and activation of diverse protein kinase clients is essential in signal transduction. There has been increasing evidence that the Hsp90-Cdc37 system executes its chaperoning duties by recognizing conformational instability of kinase clients and modulating their folding landscapes. The recent cryo-electron microscopy structure of the Hsp90-Cdc37-Cdk4 kinase complex has provided a framework for dissecting regulatory principles underlying differentiation and recruitment of protein kinase clients to the chaperone machinery. In this work, we have combined atomistic simulations with protein stability and network-based rigidity decomposition analyses to characterize dynamic factors underlying allosteric mechanism of the chaperone-kinase cycle and identify regulatory hotspots that control client recognition. Through comprehensive characterization of conformational dynamics and systematic identification of stabilization centers in the unbound and client- bound Hsp90 forms, we have simulated key stages of the allosteric mechanism, in which Hsp90 binding can induce instability and partial unfolding of Cdk4 client. Conformational landscapes of the Hsp90 and Cdk4 structures suggested that client binding can trigger coordinated dynamic changes and induce global rigidification of the Hsp90 inter-domain regions that is coupled with a concomitant increase in conformational flexibility of the kinase client. This process is allosteric in nature and can involve reciprocal dynamic exchanges that exert global effect on stability of the Hsp90 dimer, while promoting client instability. The network-based rigidity analysis and emulation of thermal unfolding of the Cdk4-cyclin D complex and Hsp90-Cdc37-Cdk4 complex revealed weak spots of kinase instability that are present in the native Cdk4 structure and are targeted by the chaperone during client recruitment. Our findings

  15. Atomistic simulations and network-based modeling of the Hsp90-Cdc37 chaperone binding with Cdk4 client protein: A mechanism of chaperoning kinase clients by exploiting weak spots of intrinsically dynamic kinase domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czemeres, Josh; Buse, Kurt; Verkhivker, Gennady M

    2017-01-01

    A fundamental role of the Hsp90 and Cdc37 chaperones in mediating conformational development and activation of diverse protein kinase clients is essential in signal transduction. There has been increasing evidence that the Hsp90-Cdc37 system executes its chaperoning duties by recognizing conformational instability of kinase clients and modulating their folding landscapes. The recent cryo-electron microscopy structure of the Hsp90-Cdc37-Cdk4 kinase complex has provided a framework for dissecting regulatory principles underlying differentiation and recruitment of protein kinase clients to the chaperone machinery. In this work, we have combined atomistic simulations with protein stability and network-based rigidity decomposition analyses to characterize dynamic factors underlying allosteric mechanism of the chaperone-kinase cycle and identify regulatory hotspots that control client recognition. Through comprehensive characterization of conformational dynamics and systematic identification of stabilization centers in the unbound and client- bound Hsp90 forms, we have simulated key stages of the allosteric mechanism, in which Hsp90 binding can induce instability and partial unfolding of Cdk4 client. Conformational landscapes of the Hsp90 and Cdk4 structures suggested that client binding can trigger coordinated dynamic changes and induce global rigidification of the Hsp90 inter-domain regions that is coupled with a concomitant increase in conformational flexibility of the kinase client. This process is allosteric in nature and can involve reciprocal dynamic exchanges that exert global effect on stability of the Hsp90 dimer, while promoting client instability. The network-based rigidity analysis and emulation of thermal unfolding of the Cdk4-cyclin D complex and Hsp90-Cdc37-Cdk4 complex revealed weak spots of kinase instability that are present in the native Cdk4 structure and are targeted by the chaperone during client recruitment. Our findings suggested that this

  16. Comparative Expression Analysis of HSP70, HSP90, IL-4, TNF, KITLG and KIT-receptor Gene between Varicocele-Induced and Non-Varicocele Testes of Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Hassanpour

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background This study was designed to create an experimental varicocele model by a simple surgical procedure in dog with minimum invasion and to investigate the effect of varicocele-induced infertility on the expression of six related genes (HSP90, HSP70, IL-4, TNF, KITLG and KIT receptor. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, the proximal part of the pampini-form plexus of dog testes was partially occluded without abdominal incision which was confirmed by venographic examination. To evaluate varicocele in its acute form, dogs were castrated after 15 days and testes were dissected. Histopathologic evaluation was undertaken and the relative expression of the six genes was assessed by quantitative realtime polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results Microscopic changes showed tubule degeneration. The Johnson score was significantly decreased in the varicocele testes when compared with non-varicocele testes. Expressions of HSP90, TNF, KITLG and the KIT-receptor gene were significantly downregulated (P=0.029, 0.047, 0.004 and 0.035 respectively in varicocele-induced testes while HSP70 was upregulated (P=0.018. IL-4 did not show differential expression (P=0.377. Conclusion We conclude that partial occlusion of the proximal part of the pampiniform plexus induces varicocele in the testis of dog. Differential expression of the mentioned genes may be responsible for the pathophysiology of varicocele and related subfertility.

  17. Exosomes from Hepatitis C Infected Patients Transmit HCV Infection and Contain Replication Competent Viral RNA in Complex with Ago2-miR122-HSP90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodys, Karen; Bala, Shashi; Szabo, Gyongyi

    2014-01-01

    Antibodies targeting receptor-mediated entry of HCV into hepatocytes confer limited therapeutic benefits. Evidence suggests that exosomes can transfer genetic materials between cells; however, their role in HCV infection remains obscure. Here, we show that exosomes isolated from sera of chronic HCV infected patients or supernatants of J6/JFH1-HCV-infected Huh7.5 cells contained HCV RNA. These exosomes could mediate viral receptor-independent transmission of HCV to hepatocytes. Negative sense HCV RNA, indicative of replication competent viral RNA, was present in exosomes of all HCV infected treatment non-responders and some treatment-naïve individuals. Remarkably, HCV RNA was associated with Ago2, HSP90 and miR-122 in exosomes isolated from HCV-infected individuals or HCV-infected Huh7.5 cell supernatants. Exosome-loading with a miR-122 inhibitor, or inhibition of HSP90, vacuolar H+-ATPases, and proton pumps, significantly suppressed exosome-mediated HCV transmission to naïve cells. Our findings provide mechanistic evidence for HCV transmission by blood-derived exosomes and highlight potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:25275643

  18. Exosomes from hepatitis C infected patients transmit HCV infection and contain replication competent viral RNA in complex with Ago2-miR122-HSP90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukong, Terence N; Momen-Heravi, Fatemeh; Kodys, Karen; Bala, Shashi; Szabo, Gyongyi

    2014-10-01

    Antibodies targeting receptor-mediated entry of HCV into hepatocytes confer limited therapeutic benefits. Evidence suggests that exosomes can transfer genetic materials between cells; however, their role in HCV infection remains obscure. Here, we show that exosomes isolated from sera of chronic HCV infected patients or supernatants of J6/JFH1-HCV-infected Huh7.5 cells contained HCV RNA. These exosomes could mediate viral receptor-independent transmission of HCV to hepatocytes. Negative sense HCV RNA, indicative of replication competent viral RNA, was present in exosomes of all HCV infected treatment non-responders and some treatment-naïve individuals. Remarkably, HCV RNA was associated with Ago2, HSP90 and miR-122 in exosomes isolated from HCV-infected individuals or HCV-infected Huh7.5 cell supernatants. Exosome-loading with a miR-122 inhibitor, or inhibition of HSP90, vacuolar H+-ATPases, and proton pumps, significantly suppressed exosome-mediated HCV transmission to naïve cells. Our findings provide mechanistic evidence for HCV transmission by blood-derived exosomes and highlight potential therapeutic strategies.

  19. In vitro Cytotoxic Activities of the Oral Platinum(IV) Prodrug Oxoplatin and HSP90 Inhibitor Ganetespib against a Panel of Gastric Cancer Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klameth, Lukas; Rath, Barbara; Hamilton, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer exhibits a poor prognosis and is the third most common cause of cancer death worldwide. Chemotherapy of metastatic gastric cancer is based on combinations of platinum drugs and fluoropyrimidines, with added agents. Oxoplatin is a stable oral platinum(IV) prodrug which is converted to a highly active tetrachlorido(IV) complex under acidic conditions. In the present work, we studied the cytotoxic effects of oxoplatin against a panel of four gastric cancer cell lines in vitro. Furthermore, the role of HSP90 in chemoresistance of these lines was investigated using the specific inhibitor ganetespib. The KATO-III, MKN-1, MKN-28, MKN-45 lines were used in MTT chemosensitivity, cell cycle and apoptosis assays. KATO-III is a signet ring diffuse cell type, MKN-1 an adenosquamous primary, MKN-28 a well-differentiated intestinal type and the MKN-45 a poorly differentiated, diffuse type gastric carcinoma line. Cytotoxicity was tested in MTT assays and intracellular signal transduction with proteome profiler Western blot arrays. Interactions of platinum drugs and ganetespib were calculated with help of the Chou-Talalay method. The prodrug oxoplatin revealed low activity against the four gastric cancer cell lines, whereas the platinum tetrachlorido(IV) complex and cisplatin gave IC50 values of 1-3 µg/ml with increasing chemoresistance observed in the order of MKN-1, KATO-III, MKN-28 to MKN-45. With exception of KATO-III and MKN-28/oxoplatin, all other cell lines featured marked synergistic toxicity with clinically achievable concentrations of ganetespib. Oral administration of a platinum agent such as oxoplatin would be of great value for patients and care providers alike. These results suggest that the oncogene-stabilizing HSP90 chaperone represents an important mediator of chemoresistance in gastric cancer. Ganetespib reduced the phosphorylation of p53, Akt1/2/3 and PRAS40, as well as of WNK1, a kinase which regulates intracellular chloride concentrations

  20. Structural and Functional Analysis of SGT1 Reveals That Its Interaction with HSP90 Is Required for the Accumulation of Rx, an R Protein Involved in Plant Immunity[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botër, Marta; Amigues, Béatrice; Peart, Jack; Breuer, Christian; Kadota, Yasuhiro; Casais, Catarina; Moore, Geoffrey; Kleanthous, Colin; Ochsenbein, Francoise; Shirasu, Ken; Guerois, Raphaël

    2007-01-01

    SGT1 (for suppressor of G2 allele of skp1) and RAR1 (for required for Mla12 resistance) are highly conserved eukaryotic proteins that interact with the molecular chaperone HSP90 (for heat shock protein90). In plants, SGT1, RAR1, and HSP90 are essential for disease resistance triggered by a number of resistance (R) proteins. Here, we present structural and functional characterization of plant SGT1 proteins. Random mutagenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana SGT1b revealed that its CS (for CHORD-SGT1) and SGS (for SGT1 specific) domains are essential for disease resistance. NMR-based interaction surface mapping and mutational analyses of the CS domain showed that the CHORD II domain of RAR1 and the N-terminal domain of HSP90 interact with opposite sides of the CS domain. Functional analysis of the CS mutations indicated that the interaction between SGT1 and HSP90 is required for the accumulation of Rx, a potato (Solanum tuberosum) R protein. Biochemical reconstitution experiments suggest that RAR1 may function to enhance the SGT1–HSP90 interaction by promoting ternary complex formation. PMID:18032631

  1. Salt and divalent cations affect the flexible nature of the natural beaded chromatin structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Gunna; Griffith, J

    1977-01-01

    A natural chromatin containing simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA and histone has been used to examine changes in chromatin structure caused by various physical and chemical treatments. We find that histone H1 depleted chromatin is more compact in solutions of 0.15M NaCl or 2 mM MgCl2 than in 0.01 M NaCl...

  2. Oral administration of an HSP90 inhibitor, 17-DMAG, intervenes tumor-cell infiltration into multiple organs and improves survival period for ATL model mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikebe, E; Kawaguchi, A; Tezuka, K; Taguchi, S; Hirose, S; Matsumoto, T; Mitsui, T; Senba, K; Nishizono, A; Hori, M; Hasegawa, H; Yamada, Y; Ueno, T; Tanaka, Y; Sawa, H; Hall, W; Minami, Y; Jeang, K T; Ogata, M; Morishita, K; Hasegawa, H; Fujisawa, J; Iha, H

    2013-08-16

    In the peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) from the carriers of the human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) or the patients with adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB)-mediated antiapoptotic signals are constitutively activated primarily by the HTLV-1-encoded oncoprotein Tax. Tax interacts with the I κB kinase regulatory subunit NEMO (NF-κB essential modulator) to activate NF-κB, and this interaction is maintained in part by a molecular chaperone, heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90), and its co-chaperone cell division cycle 37 (CDC37). The antibiotic geldanamycin (GA) inhibits HSP90's ATP binding for its proper interaction with client proteins. Administration of a novel water-soluble and less toxic GA derivative, 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin hydrochloride (17-DMAG), to Tax-expressing ATL-transformed cell lines, C8166 and MT4, induced significant degradation of Tax. 17-DMAG also facilitated growth arrest and cellular apoptosis to C8166 and MT4 and other ATL cell lines, although this treatment has no apparent effects on normal PBLs. 17-DMAG also downregulated Tax-mediated intracellular signals including the activation of NF-κB, activator protein 1 or HTLV-1 long terminal repeat in Tax-transfected HEK293 cells. Oral administration of 17-DMAG to ATL model mice xenografted with lymphomatous transgenic Lck-Tax (Lck proximal promoter-driven Tax transgene) cells or HTLV-1-producing tumor cells dramatically attenuated aggressive infiltration into multiple organs, inhibited de novo viral production and improved survival period. These observations identified 17-DMAG as a promising candidate for the prevention of ATL progression.

  3. Down-regulation of ERK1/2 and AKT-mediated X-ray repair cross-complement group 1 protein (XRCC1) expression by Hsp90 inhibition enhances the gefitinib-induced cytotoxicity in human lung cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tung, Chun-Liang [Department of Pathology, Ditmanson Medical Foundation Chia-Yi Christian Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Jian, Yi-Jun [Department of Pathology, Ditmanson Medical Foundation Chia-Yi Christian Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Department of Biochemical Science and Technology, National Chiayi University, 300 Syuefu Road, Chiayi 600, Taiwan (China); Syu, Jhan-Jhang; Wang, Tai-Jing; Chang, Po-Yuan; Chen, Chien-Yu; Jian, Yun-Ting [Department of Biochemical Science and Technology, National Chiayi University, 300 Syuefu Road, Chiayi 600, Taiwan (China); Lin, Yun-Wei, E-mail: linyw@mail.ncyu.edu.tw [Department of Biochemical Science and Technology, National Chiayi University, 300 Syuefu Road, Chiayi 600, Taiwan (China)

    2015-05-15

    Gefitinib (Iressa{sup R}, ZD1839) is a selective epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) that blocks growth factor-mediated cell proliferation and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and AKT signaling activation. It has been shown that inhibition of Hsp90 function can enhance antitumor activity of EGFR-TKI. XRCC1 is an important scaffold protein in base excision repair, which could be regulated by ERK1/2 and AKT pathways. However, the role of ERK1/2 and AKT-mediated XRCC1 expression in gefitinib alone or combination with an Hsp90 inhibitor-induced cytotoxicity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells has not been identified. In this study, gefitinib treatment decreased XRCC1 mRNA and protein expression through ERK1/2 and AKT inactivation in two NSCLC cells, A549 and H1975. Knocking down XRCC1 expression by transfection with small interfering RNA of XRCC1 enhanced the cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition of gefitinib. Combining treatment of gefitinib with an Hsp90 inhibitor resulted in enhancing the reduction of XRCC1 protein and mRNA levels in gefitinib-exposed A549 and H1975 cells. Compared to a single agent alone, gefitinib combined with an Hsp90 inhibitor resulted in cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition synergistically in NSCLC cells. Furthermore, transfection with constitutive active MKK1 or AKT vectors rescued the XRCC1 protein level as well as the cell survival suppressed by an Hsp90 inhibitor and gefitinib. These findings suggested that down-regulation of XRCC1 can enhance the sensitivity of gefitinib for NSCLC cells. - Highlights: • Gefitinib treatment decreased XRCC1 mRNA and protein expression in NSCLC cells. • Knocking down XRCC1 expression enhanced the cytotoxic effect of gefitinib. • Gefitinib combined with an Hsp90 inhibitor resulted in synergistically cytotoxicity.

  4. Measuring the pharmacodynamic effects of a novel Hsp90 inhibitor on HER2/neu expression in mice using Zr-DFO-trastuzumab.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason P Holland

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The positron-emitting radionuclide (89Zr (t(1/2 = 3.17 days was used to prepare (89Zr-radiolabeled trastuzumab for use as a radiotracer for characterizing HER2/neu-positive breast tumors. In addition, pharmacodynamic studies on HER2/neu expression levels in response to therapeutic doses of PU-H71 (a specific inhibitor of heat-shock protein 90 [Hsp90] were conducted. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Trastuzumab was functionalized with desferrioxamine B (DFO and radiolabeled with [(89Zr]Zr-oxalate at room temperature using modified literature methods. ImmunoPET and biodistribution experiments in female, athymic nu/nu mice bearing sub-cutaneous BT-474 (HER2/neu positive and/or MDA-MB-468 (HER2/neu negative tumor xenografts were conducted. The change in (89Zr-DFO-trastuzumab tissue uptake in response to high- and low-specific-activity formulations and co-administration of PU-H71 was evaluated by biodistribution studies, Western blot analysis and immunoPET. (89Zr-DFO-trastuzumab radiolabeling proceeded in high radiochemical yield and specific-activity 104.3+/-2.1 MBq/mg (2.82+/-0.05 mCi/mg of mAb. In vitro assays demonstrated >99% radiochemical purity with an immunoreactive fraction of 0.87+/-0.07. In vivo biodistribution experiments revealed high specific BT-474 uptake after 24, 48 and 72 h (64.68+/-13.06%ID/g; 71.71+/-10.35%ID/g and 85.18+/-11.10%ID/g, respectively with retention of activity for over 120 h. Pre-treatment with PU-H71 was followed by biodistribution studies and immunoPET of (89Zr-DFO-trastuzumab. Expression levels of HER2/neu were modulated during the first 24 and 48 h post-administration (29.75+/-4.43%ID/g and 41.42+/-3.64%ID/g, respectively. By 72 h radiotracer uptake (73.64+/-12.17%ID/g and Western blot analysis demonstrated that HER2/neu expression recovered to baseline levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results indicate that (89Zr-DFO-trastuzumab provides quantitative and highly-specific delineation of HER2/neu

  5. The targeted inhibition of mitochondrial Hsp90 overcomes the apoptosis resistance conferred by Bcl-2 in Hep3B cells via necroptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Chunlan [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Dong-A University College of Medicine and Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Busan, 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physiology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Oh, Joon Seok; Yoo, Seung Hee; Lee, Jee Suk [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Dong-A University College of Medicine and Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Busan, 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Young Geol [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Dong-A University College of Medicine and Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Busan, 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Science, Institute for Biomedical and Health Sciences, Jungwon University, Chungbuk, 367-805 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Yoo Jin; Jang, Min Seok [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Dong-A University College of Medicine and Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Busan, 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Yeob [Department of Rheumatology, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan, 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Jun [Department of Toxicology, Hangzhou Normal University School of Public Health, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310036 China (China); Lee, Sang Hwa [Department of Microbiology and, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan, 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hye Young [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Dong-A University College of Medicine and Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Busan, 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Young Hyun, E-mail: yhyoo@dau.ac.kr [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Dong-A University College of Medicine and Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Busan, 602-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that a Gamitrinib variant containing triphenylphosphonium (G-TPP) binds to mitochondrial Hsp90 and rapidly inhibits its activity, thus inducing the apoptotic pathway in the cells. Accordingly, G-TPP shows a potential as a promising drug for the treatment of cancer. A cell can die from different types of cell death such as apoptosis, necrosis, necroptosis, and autophagic cell death. In this study, we further investigated the mechanisms and modes of cell death in the G-TPP-treated Hep3B and U937 cell lines. We discovered that G-TPP kills the U937 cells through the apoptotic pathway and the overexpression of Bcl-2 significantly inhibits U937 cell death to G-TPP. We further discovered that G-TPP kills the Hep3B cells by activating necroptosis in combination with the partial activation of caspase-dependent apoptosis. Importantly, G-TPP overcomes the apoptosis resistance conferred by Bcl-2 in Hep3B cells via necroptosis. We also observed that G-TPP induces compensatory autophagy in the Hep3B cell line. We further found that whereas there is a Bcl-2-Beclin 1 interaction in response to G-TPP, silencing the beclin 1 gene failed to block LC3-II accumulation in the Hep3B cells, indicating that G-TPP triggers Beclin 1-independent protective autophagy in Hep3B cells. Taken together, these data reveal that G-TPP induces cell death through a combination of death pathways, including necroptosis and apoptosis, and overcomes the apoptosis resistance conferred by Bcl-2 in Hep3B cells via necroptosis. These findings are important for the therapeutic exploitation of necroptosis as an alternative cell death program to bypass the resistance to apoptosis. Highlights: ► G-TPP binds to mitochondrial Hsp90. ► G-TPP induces apoptosis in U937 human leukemia cancer cells. ► G-TPP induces combination of death pathways in Hep3B cell. ► G-TPP overcomes the resistance conferred by Bcl-2 in Hep3B cells via necroptosis. ► G-TPP triggers Beclin 1-independent

  6. Stress induces changes in the phosphorylation of Trypanosoma cruzi RNA polymerase II, affecting its association with chromatin and RNA processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Antônio Augusto; Moretti, Nilmar Silvio; Schenkman, Sergio

    2014-07-01

    The phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal heptapeptide repeats of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) controls several transcription-related events in eukaryotes. Trypanosomatids lack these typical repeats and display an unusual transcription control. RNA Pol II associates with the transcription site of the spliced leader (SL) RNA, which is used in the trans-splicing of all mRNAs transcribed on long polycistronic units. We found that Trypanosoma cruzi RNA Pol II associated with chromatin is highly phosphorylated. When transcription is inhibited by actinomycin D, the enzyme runs off from SL genes, remaining hyperphosphorylated and associated with polycistronic transcription units. Upon heat shock, the enzyme is dephosphorylated and remains associated with the chromatin. Transcription is partially inhibited with the accumulation of housekeeping precursor mRNAs, except for heat shock genes. DNA damage caused dephosphorylation and transcription arrest, with RNA Pol II dissociating from chromatin although staying at the SL. In the presence of calyculin A, the hyperphosphorylated form detached from chromatin, including the SL loci. These results indicate that in trypanosomes, the unusual RNA Pol II is phosphorylated during the transcription of SL and polycistronic operons. Different types of stresses modify its phosphorylation state, affecting pre-RNA processing. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Cohesin and CTCF differentially affect chromatin architecture and gene expression in human cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuin, Jessica; Dixon, Jesse R.; van der Reijden, Michael I. J. A.; Ye, Zhen; Kolovos, Petros; Brouwer, Rutger W. W.; van de Corput, Mariëtte P. C.; van de Werken, Harmen J. G.; Knoch, Tobias A.; van IJcken, Wilfred F. J.; Grosveld, Frank G.; Ren, Bing; Wendt, Kerstin S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies of genome-wide chromatin interactions have revealed that the human genome is partitioned into many self-associating topological domains. The boundary sequences between domains are enriched for binding sites of CTCC-binding factor (CTCF) and the cohesin complex, implicating these two factors in the establishment or maintenance of topological domains. To determine the role of cohesin and CTCF in higher-order chromatin architecture in human cells, we depleted the cohesin complex or CTCF and examined the consequences of loss of these factors on higher-order chromatin organization, as well as the transcriptome. We observed a general loss of local chromatin interactions upon disruption of cohesin, but the topological domains remain intact. However, we found that depletion of CTCF not only reduced intradomain interactions but also increased interdomain interactions. Furthermore, distinct groups of genes become misregulated upon depletion of cohesin and CTCF. Taken together, these observations suggest that CTCF and cohesin contribute differentially to chromatin organization and gene regulation. PMID:24335803

  8. Geldanamycin, an inhibitor of Hsp90, increases paclitaxel-mediated toxicity in ovarian cancer cells through sustained activation of the p38/H2AX axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Qingqing; Zhang, Yu; Jin, Xin; Gao, Yue; Wu, Yuan; Hao, Xing; Gao, Qinglei; Chen, Pingbo

    2016-11-01

    Paclitaxel is a mitotic inhibitor used in ovarian cancer chemotherapy. Unfortunately, due to the rapid genetic and epigenetic changes in adaptation to stress induced by anticancer drugs, cancer cells are often able to become resistant to single or multiple anticancer agents. However, it remains largely unknown how paclitaxel resistance happens. In this study, we generated a cell line of acquired resistance to paclitaxel therapy, A2780T, which is cross-resistant to other antimitotic drugs, such as PLK1 inhibitor or AURKA inhibitor. Immunoblotting revealed significant alterations in cell-cycle-related and apoptotic-related proteins involved in key signaling pathways. In particular, phosphorylation of p38, which activates H2AX, was significantly decreased in A2780T cells compared to the parental A2780 cells. Geldanamycin (GA), an inhibitor of Hsp90, sustained activation of the p38/H2AX axis, and A2780T cells were shown to be more sensitive to GA compared to A2780 cells. Furthermore, treatment of A2780 and A2780T cells with GA significantly enhanced sensitivity to paclitaxel. Meanwhile, GA cooperated with paclitaxel to suppress tumor growth in a mouse ovarian cancer xenograft model. In conclusion, GA may sensitize a subset of ovarian cancer to paclitaxel, particularly those tumors in which resistance is driven by inactivation of p38/H2AX axis.

  9. Ahsa1 and Hsp90 activity confers more severe craniofacial phenotypes in a zebrafish model of hypoparathyroidism, sensorineural deafness and renal dysplasia (HDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Sheehan-Rooney

    2013-09-01

    The severity of most human birth defects is highly variable. Our ability to diagnose, treat and prevent defects relies on our understanding of this variability. Mutation of the transcription factor GATA3 in humans causes the highly variable hypoparathyroidism, sensorineural deafness and renal dysplasia (HDR syndrome. Although named for a triad of defects, individuals with HDR can also exhibit craniofacial defects. Through a forward genetic screen for craniofacial mutants, we isolated a zebrafish mutant in which the first cysteine of the second zinc finger of Gata3 is mutated. Because mutation of the homologous cysteine causes HDR in humans, these zebrafish mutants could be a quick and effective animal model for understanding the role of gata3 in the HDR disease spectrum. We demonstrate that, unexpectedly, the chaperone proteins Ahsa1 and Hsp90 promote severe craniofacial phenotypes in our zebrafish model of HDR syndrome. The strengths of the zebrafish system, including rapid development, genetic tractability and live imaging, make this an important model for variability.

  10. The caste- and age-specific expression signature of honeybee heat shock genes shows an alternative splicing-dependent regulation of Hsp90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamodt, Randi M

    2008-11-01

    I report the investigation of the age- and caste-specific expression patterns of eight genes involved in protein maintenance and repair in wing muscle tissue of the honeybee Apis mellifera. mRNA levels of seven heat shock genes and the protein repair gene pcmt (encoding L-isoaspartyl-O-methyltransferase) were measured in a comparative study of queens and ageing workers. Two hsp90 orthologs, transcribed from the same locus, showed different age- and caste-dependent expression patterns suggesting an alternative splicing-dependent regulatory mechanism. One transcript showed decreasing expression levels with worker age and four times higher levels in queens than workers on average, while the other variant had much higher and even expression levels. An hsp22-like gene was sevenfold upregulated in workers from the newly emerged-stage and showed an age-dependent decreasing slope for the subsequent stages. Honeybee ageing seems therefore not to be accompanied by increase in the heat shock response at the level of gene expression. The method used provides very sensitive measurements of a limited number of genes, and this study is one of the first of the regulation of expression of protein protection and repair genes during aging, performed in an un-manipulated model organisms living in a natural environment.

  11. HAT2 mediates histone H4K4 acetylation and affects micrococcal nuclease sensitivity of chromatin in Leishmania donovani.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin K Jha

    Full Text Available Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs such as acetylation and methylation are known to affect chromatin higher order structures. Primary targets of these modifications include basic residues present at N-terminus tail region of core histones. Four histone acetyltransferase (HAT genes have been identified in trypanosomatids. HAT1, HAT3 and HAT4 of Leishmania donovani have been partially characterized. However, there is no report about HAT2 of Leishmania donovani. Lysine residues present on the N-terminal tail of Leishmania donovani histone H4 are conserved in other trypanosomatids and humans. PTMs of lysines modulate various functions at chromatin level. The four histone acetyltransferases encoded in Leishmania genome were over-expressed to analyse their functional activity. All four HATs were found actively acetylating core histones H3/H4. Similar to L. donovani HAT3 and HAT4, HAT2 was found to be a member of MYST family protein and have SAS2 type domain. Over-expression of HAT2 significantly increases acetylation of H4K4. To analyse the effect of HAT2 over-expression on chromatin accessibility, micrococcal nuclease digestion assay was performed. MNase digestion resulted in a higher proportion of the mononucleosomes and dinucleosomes in HAT2 over-expressing cells as compared to WT L. donovani cells. Acetylation of lysine-4 neutralizes the amino terminal region of histone H4. This weakens its interaction with neighbouring nucleosomes and the linker DNA. HAT2 over-expression in L. donovani resulted in highly accessible chromatin suggesting chromatin decondensation. HAT2 may have an important role to play in global regulation of transcription in L. donovani. Better understanding of these epigenetic determinants of parasite would help in designing novel therapeutic strategies.

  12. Repurposing L-Menthol for Systems Medicine and Cancer Therapeutics? L-Menthol Induces Apoptosis through Caspase 10 and by Suppressing HSP90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faridi, Uzma; Dhawan, Sunita S; Pal, Shaifali; Gupta, Sanchita; Shukla, Ashutosh K; Darokar, Mahendra P; Sharma, Ashok; Shasany, Ajit K

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to repurpose L-menthol, which is frequently used in oral health and topical formulations, for cancer therapeutics. In this article, we argue that monoterpenes such as L-menthol might offer veritable potentials in systems medicine, for example, as cheaper anti-cancer compounds. Other monoterpenes such as limonene, perillyl alcohol, and geraniol have been shown to induce apoptosis in various cancer cell lines, but their mechanisms of action are yet to be completely elucidated. Earlier, we showed that L-menthol modulates tubulin polymerization and apoptosis to inhibit cancer cell proliferation. In the present report, we used an apoptosis-related gene microarray in conjunction with proteomics analyses, as well as in silico interpretations, to study gene expression modulation in human adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cell line in response to L-menthol treatment. The microarray analysis identified caspase 10 as the important initiator caspase, instead of caspase 8. The proteomics analyses showed downregulation of HSP90 protein (also corroborated by its low transcript abundance), which in turn indicated inhibition of AKT-mediated survival pathway, release of pro-apoptotic factor BAD from BAD and BCLxL complex, besides regulation of other factors related to apoptosis. Based on the combined microarray, proteomics, and in silico data, a signaling pathway for L-menthol-induced apoptosis is being presented for the first time here. These data and literature analysis have significant implications for "repurposing" L-menthol beyond oral medicine, and in understanding the mode of action of plant-derived monoterpenes towards development of cheaper anticancer drugs in future.

  13. Combination treatment of renal cell carcinoma with belinostat and 5-fluorouracil: a role for oxidative stress induced DNA damage and HSP90 regulated thymidine synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Joung; Lee, Jee Suk; Park, Sang Eun; Yi, Hye-Jin; Jeong, In Gab; Kang, Jong Soon; Yun, Jieun; Lee, Joo-Yong; Ro, Seonggu; Lee, Jung Shin; Choi, Eun Kyung; Hwang, Jung Jin; Kim, Choung-Soo

    2015-05-01

    Despite several therapeutic options renal cell carcinoma is associated with a poor clinical outcome. Therefore, we investigated whether combining 5-fluorouracil with the histone deacetylase inhibitor belinostat would exert a synergistic effect on renal cell carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo. We used SN12C cells treated with 5-fluorouracil and/or belinostat in vitro and in xenograft experiments in vivo. Cell viability and death mechanisms were assessed by MTS assay and Western blot. To investigate the role of reactive oxygen species we used H2DCF-DA, reactive oxygen species scavengers and the roGFP2 construct. Belinostat potentiated the anticancer effect of 5-fluorouracil. It synergistically induced apoptosis by activating caspases and increasing the subG1 cell population. Effects on reactive oxygen species mediated DNA damage included decreased thioredoxin expression and increased levels of TBP-2, γ-H2AX and Ac-H3. Furthermore, belinostat attenuated the 5-fluorouracil mediated induction of thymidylate synthase via HSP90 hyperacetylation. Co-administration of 5-fluorouracil with belinostat similarly reduced tumor volume and weight, and increased γ-H2AX and Ac-H3 levels in the SN12C xenograft model. In combination with 5-fluorouracil the targeted inhibitor of histone deacetylase synergistically inhibited renal cancer cell growth by the blockade of thymidylate synthase induction and the induction of reactive oxygen species mediated DNA damage in vitro and in vivo. Our results suggest that combined treatment with belinostat and 5-fluorouracil may represent a promising new approach to renal cancer. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Multi-drug loaded micelles delivering chemotherapy and targeted therapies directed against HSP90 and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Bao; Powers, Ginny L; Tam, Yu Tong; Schumacher, Nicholas; Malinowski, Rita L; Steinke, Laura; Kwon, Glen; Marker, Paul C

    2017-01-01

    Advanced prostate cancers that are resistant to all current therapies create a need for new therapeutic strategies. One recent innovative approach to cancer therapy is the simultaneous use of multiple FDA-approved drugs to target multiple pathways. A challenge for this approach is caused by the different solubility requirements of each individual drug, resulting in the need for a drug vehicle that is non-toxic and capable of carrying multiple water-insoluble antitumor drugs. Micelles have recently been shown to be new candidate drug solubilizers for anti cancer therapy. This study set out to examine the potential use of multi-drug loaded micelles for prostate cancer treatment in preclinical models including cell line and mouse models for prostate cancers with Pten deletions. Specifically antimitotic agent docetaxel, mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, and HSP90 inhibitor 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin were incorporated into the micelle system (DR17) and tested for antitumor efficacy. In vitro growth inhibition of prostate cancer cells was greater when all three drugs were used in combination compared to each individual drug, and packaging the drugs into micelles enhanced the cytotoxic effects. At the molecular level DR17 targeted simultaneously several molecular signaling axes important in prostate cancer including androgen receptor, mTOR, and PI3K/AKT. In a mouse genetic model of prostate cancer, DR17 treatment decreased prostate weight, which was achieved by both increasing caspase-dependent cell death and decreasing cell proliferation. Similar effects were also observed when DR17 was administered to nude mice bearing prostate cancer cells xenografts. These results suggest that combining these three cancer drugs in multi-drug loaded micelles may be a promising strategy for prostate cancer therapy.

  15. The synthetic heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor EC141 induces degradation of Bcr-Abl p190 protein and apoptosis of Ph-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wei-Gang; Estrov, Zeev; Wang, Yongtao; O'Brien, Susan; Faderl, Stefan; Harris, David M; Van Pham, Quin; Hazan-Halevy, Inbal; Liu, Zhiming; Koch, Patricia; Kantarjian, Hagop; Keating, Michael J; Ferrajoli, Alessandra

    2011-12-01

    The prognosis of patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is poor. Chemotherapy is rarely curative and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) induce only transient responses. Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a chaperone protein that is important in signal transduction, cell cycle control, and transcription regulation in both normal and leukemia cells. In the current study, we tested the growth inhibitory and apoptotic effects of a novel Hsp90 inhibitor, EC141 on the Ph+ ALL lines Z-119, Z-181, and Z-33, as well as primary bone marrow-derived blasts from patients with newly diagnosed Ph+ ALL. We found that EC141 inhibited the growth of Ph+ ALL cells in a concentration-dependent manner with IC(50) ranged from 1 to 10 nM. EC141 also inhibited the proliferation of primary bone marrow-derived blasts using the ALL blast colony assay. EC141 down-regulated Hsp90 and up-regulated Hsp70 protein levels, inhibited CrkL phosphorylation, and induced degradation of Bcr-Abl p190 protein through ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal pathway. Furthermore, exposure of Ph+ ALL cells to EC141 resulted in activation of caspase-3, cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and induction of apoptosis. In conclusion, our data suggest that EC141 is a potent Hsp90 inhibitor with activity against Ph+ ALL. Further studies to investigate the anticancer effect of EC141 either as a single agent, or in combination in Ph+ ALL and other hematological malignancies are warranted.

  16. Role of ARF6, Rab11 and external Hsp90 in the trafficking and recycling of recombinant-soluble Neisseria meningitidis adhesin A (rNadA) in human epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozza, Giuseppe; Capitani, Mirco; Montanari, Paolo; Benucci, Barbara; Biancucci, Marco; Nardi-Dei, Vincenzo; Caproni, Elena; Barrile, Riccardo; Picciani, Benedetta; Savino, Silvana; Aricò, Beatrice; Rappuoli, Rino; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Luini, Alberto; Sallese, Michele; Merola, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis adhesin A (NadA) is a meningococcus surface protein thought to assist in the adhesion of the bacterium to host cells. We have previously shown that NadA also promotes bacterial internalization in a heterologous expression system. Here we have used the soluble recombinant NadA (rNadA) lacking the membrane anchor region to characterize its internalization route in Chang epithelial cells. Added to the culture medium, rNadA internalizes through a PI3K-dependent endocytosis process not mediated by the canonical clathrin or caveolin scaffolds, but instead follows an ARF6-regulated recycling pathway previously described for MHC-I. The intracellular pool of rNadA reaches a steady state level within one hour of incubation and colocalizes in endocytic vesicles with MHC-I and with the extracellularly labeled chaperone Hsp90. Treatment with membrane permeated and impermeable Hsp90 inhibitors 17-AAG and FITC-GA respectively, lead to intracellular accumulation of rNadA, strongly suggesting that the extracellular secreted pool of the chaperone is involved in rNadA intracellular trafficking. A significant number of intracellular vesicles containing rNadA recruit Rab11, a small GTPase associated to recycling endosomes, but do not contain transferrin receptor (TfR). Interestingly, cell treatment with Hsp90 inhibitors, including the membrane-impermeable FITC-GA, abolished Rab11-rNadA colocalization but do not interfere with Rab11-TfR colocalization. Collectively, these results are consistent with a model whereby rNadA internalizes into human epithelial cells hijacking the recycling endosome pathway and recycle back to the surface of the cell via an ARF6-dependent, Rab11 associated and Hsp90-regulated mechanism. The present study addresses for the first time a meningoccoccal adhesin mechanism of endocytosis and suggests a possible entry pathway engaged by N. meningitidis in primary infection of human epithelial cells.

  17. Role of ARF6, Rab11 and external Hsp90 in the trafficking and recycling of recombinant-soluble Neisseria meningitidis adhesin A (rNadA in human epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Bozza

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis adhesin A (NadA is a meningococcus surface protein thought to assist in the adhesion of the bacterium to host cells. We have previously shown that NadA also promotes bacterial internalization in a heterologous expression system. Here we have used the soluble recombinant NadA (rNadA lacking the membrane anchor region to characterize its internalization route in Chang epithelial cells. Added to the culture medium, rNadA internalizes through a PI3K-dependent endocytosis process not mediated by the canonical clathrin or caveolin scaffolds, but instead follows an ARF6-regulated recycling pathway previously described for MHC-I. The intracellular pool of rNadA reaches a steady state level within one hour of incubation and colocalizes in endocytic vesicles with MHC-I and with the extracellularly labeled chaperone Hsp90. Treatment with membrane permeated and impermeable Hsp90 inhibitors 17-AAG and FITC-GA respectively, lead to intracellular accumulation of rNadA, strongly suggesting that the extracellular secreted pool of the chaperone is involved in rNadA intracellular trafficking. A significant number of intracellular vesicles containing rNadA recruit Rab11, a small GTPase associated to recycling endosomes, but do not contain transferrin receptor (TfR. Interestingly, cell treatment with Hsp90 inhibitors, including the membrane-impermeable FITC-GA, abolished Rab11-rNadA colocalization but do not interfere with Rab11-TfR colocalization. Collectively, these results are consistent with a model whereby rNadA internalizes into human epithelial cells hijacking the recycling endosome pathway and recycle back to the surface of the cell via an ARF6-dependent, Rab11 associated and Hsp90-regulated mechanism. The present study addresses for the first time a meningoccoccal adhesin mechanism of endocytosis and suggests a possible entry pathway engaged by N. meningitidis in primary infection of human epithelial cells.

  18. Ganetespib, an HSP90 inhibitor, kills Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected B and T cells and reduces the percentage of EBV-infected cells in the blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatzer, Amber; Ali, Mir A; Chavez, Mayra; Dowdell, Kennichi; Lee, Min-Jung; Tomita, Yusuke; El-Hariry, Iman; Trepel, Jane B; Proia, David A; Cohen, Jeffrey I

    2017-04-01

    HSP90 inhibitors have been shown to kill Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected cells by reducing the level of EBV EBNA-1 and/or LMP1. We treated virus-infected cells with ganetespib, an HSP90 inhibitor currently being evaluated in multiple clinical trials for cancer and found that the drug killed EBV-positive B and T cells and reduced the level of both EBV EBNA-1 and LMP1. Treatment of cells with ganetespib also reduced the level of pAkt. Ganetespib delayed the onset of EBV-positive lymphomas and prolonged survival in SCID mice inoculated with one EBV-transformed B-cell line, but not another B-cell line. The former cell line showed lower levels of EBNA-1 after treatment with ganetespib in vitro. Treatment of a patient with T-cell chronic active EBV with ganetespib reduced the percentage of EBV-positive cells in the peripheral blood. These data indicate that HSP90 inhibitors may have a role in the therapy of certain EBV-associated diseases.

  19. Multi-faceted proteomic characterization of host protein complement of Rift Valley fever virus virions and identification of specific heat shock proteins, including HSP90, as important viral host factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E Nuss

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever is a potentially fatal disease of humans and domestic animals caused by Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV. Infection with RVFV in ruminants can cause near 100% abortion rates and recent outbreaks in naïve human populations have suggested case fatality rates of greater than thirty percent. To elucidate the roles that host proteins play during RVFV infection, proteomic analysis of RVFV virions was conducted using complementary analytical approaches, followed by functional validation studies of select identified host factors. Coupling the more traditional Gel LC/MS/MS approach (SDS PAGE followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with an alternative technique that preserves protein complexes allowed the protein complement of these viral particles to be thoroughly examined. In addition to viral proteins present within the virions and virion-associated host proteins, multiple macromolecular complexes were identified. Bioinformatic analysis showed that host chaperones were among over-represented protein families associated with virions, and functional experiments using siRNA gene silencing and small molecule inhibitors identified several of these heat shock proteins, including heat shock protein 90 (HSP90, as important viral host factors. Further analysis indicated that HSP inhibition effects occur during the replication/transcription phase of the virus life cycle, leading to significant lowering of viral titers without compromising the functional capacity of released virions. Overall, these studies provide much needed further insight into interactions between RVFV and host cells, increasing our understanding of the infection process and suggesting novel strategies for anti-viral development. In particular, considering that several HSP90 inhibitors have been advancing through clinical trials for cancer treatment, these results also highlight the exciting potential of repurposing HSP90 inhibitors to treat RVF.

  20. MicroRNA-27b plays a role in pulmonary arterial hypertension by modulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ dependent Hsp90-eNOS signaling and nitric oxide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi, Rui; Bao, Chunrong; Jiang, Lianyong; Liu, Hao; Yang, Yang; Mei, Ju; Ding, Fangbao, E-mail: dbcar126@126.com

    2015-05-01

    Pulmonary artery endothelial dysfunction is associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Based on recent studies showing that microRNA (miR)-27b is aberrantly expressed in PAH, we hypothesized that miR-27b may contribute to pulmonary endothelial dysfunction and vascular remodeling in PAH. The effect of miR-27b on pulmonary endothelial dysfunction and the underlying mechanism were investigated in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAECs) in vitro and in a monocrotaline (MCT)-induced model of PAH in vivo. miR-27b expression was upregulated in MCT-induced PAH and inversely correlated with the levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, and miR-27b inhibition attenuated MCT-induced endothelial dysfunction and remodeling and prevented PAH associated right ventricular hypertrophy and systolic pressure in rats. PPARγ was confirmed as a direct target of miR-27b in HPAECs and shown to mediate the effect of miR-27b on the disruption of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) coupling to Hsp90 and the suppression of NO production associated with the PAH phenotype. We showed that miR-27b plays a role endothelial function and NO release and elucidated a potential mechanism by which miR-27b regulates Hsp90-eNOS and NO signaling by modulating PPARγ expression, providing potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of PAH. - Highlights: • miR-27b plays a role in endothelial function and NO release. • miR-27b inhibition ameliorates MCT-induced endothelial dysfunction and PAH. • miR-27b targets PPARγ in HPAECs. • miR-27b regulates PPARγ dependent Hsp90-eNOS and NO signaling.

  1. Novel SNP identification in exon 3 of HSP90AA1 gene and their association with heat tolerance traits in Karan Fries (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) cows under tropical climatic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Gupta, Ishwar Dayal; Verma, Archana; Singh, Sohan Vir; Verma, Nishant; Vineeth, M R; Magotra, Ankit; Das, Ramendra

    2016-04-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) act as molecular chaperones those are preferentially transcribed in respose to heat stress and the polymorphism in HSP genes associated with heat tolerance traits in cows. HSP90AA1 gene has been mapped on Bos taurus autosome 21 (BTA-21) and spans nearly 5368 bp comprising of 11 exons out of which the first exon does not translate. The present study was done on Karan Fries (5/8 HF × 3/8 Tharparkar) cows reared in tropical climate with the objectives of identifying single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in targeted regions (exon 3) of HSP90AA1 gene and analyzing their association with heat tolerance traits in Karan Fries cows. Respiration rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT) were recorded once daily for four consecutive days during probable extreme hours in different seasons or temperature humidity index (THI), viz., winter, spring, and summer. For detecting single-nucleotide polymorphisms, sequence data were analyzed using BioEdit software (version 7.2). Comparative sequence analysis of HSP90AA1 gene showed point mutation, viz., g.1209A>G (exon 3) as compared to Bos taurus (NCBI Ref Seq: AC_000178.1). Association analysis indicated that THI was influenced (P G were categorized into three genotypes, i.e., AA, AG, and GG, and the least squares means (LSMEANS) of RR, RT, and HTC for GG (homozygous) genotype were significantly lower (P < 0.01) than AA (homozygous) and AG (heterozygous) genotypes. These findings may partly suggest that cows with GG genotypes were favored for heat tolerance trait, which can be used as an aid to selection for thermo-tolerance Karan Fries cows for better adaptation in subtropical and tropical hot climate.

  2. The Hsp72 and Hsp90α mRNA Responses to Hot Downhill Running Are Reduced Following a Prior Bout of Hot Downhill Running, and Occur Concurrently within Leukocytes and the Vastus Lateralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Tuttle

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The leukocyte heat shock response (HSR is used to determine individual's thermotolerance. The HSR and thermotolerance are enhanced following interventions such as preconditioning and/or acclimation/acclimatization. However, it is unclear whether the leukocyte HSR is an appropriate surrogate for the HSR in other tissues implicated within the pathophysiology of exertional heat illnesses (e.g., skeletal muscle, and whether an acute preconditioning strategy (e.g., downhill running can improve subsequent thermotolerance. Physically active, non-heat acclimated participants were split into two groups to investigate the benefits of hot downhill running as preconditioning strategy. A hot preconditioning group (HPC; n = 6 completed two trials (HPC1HOTDOWN and HPC2HOTDOWN of 30 min running at lactate threshold (LT on −10% gradient in 30°C and 50% relative humidity (RH separated by 7 d. A temperate preconditioning group (TPC; n = 5 completed 30 min running at LT on a −1% gradient in 20°C and 50% (TPC1TEMPFLAT and 7 d later completed 30 min running at LT on −10% gradient in 30°C and 50% RH (TPC2HOTDOWN. Venous blood samples and muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis; VL were obtained before, immediately after, 3, 24, and 48 h after each trial. Leukocyte and VL Hsp72, Hsp90α, and Grp78 mRNA relative expression was determined via RT-QPCR. Attenuated leukocyte and VL Hsp72 (2.8 to 1.8 fold and 5.9 to 2.4 fold; p < 0.05 and Hsp90α mRNA (2.9 to 2.4 fold and 5.2 to 2.4 fold; p < 0.05 responses accompanied reductions (p < 0.05 in physiological strain [exercising rectal temperature (−0.3°C and perceived muscle soreness (~ −14%] during HPC2HOTDOWN compared to HPC1HOTDOWN (i.e., a preconditioning effect. Both VL and leukocyte Hsp72 and Hsp90α mRNA increased (p < 0.05 simultaneously following downhill runs and demonstrated a strong relationship (p < 0.01 of similar magnitudes with one another. Hot downhill running is an effective preconditioning strategy

  3. Caracterización in silico de las proteínas del choque térmico Hsp70 y Hsp90 deBemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae y su posible actividad adaptativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneida Torres Cabra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La mosca blanca, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae es una de las plagas más destructivas e invasivas en el mundo, ataca una gran cantidad de cultivos. Se adapta fácilmente a plantas hospederas y a nuevas regiones geográficas, lo que sugiere el desarrollo de mecanismos de control a daños producidos por factores estresantes. Las proteínas Hsp se expresanen los organismos como mecanismo de defensa, actúan como chaperonas en el correcto ensamblaje de las proteínas. En este estudio se realizó una caracterizaciónin silico de las proteínas Hsp70 y Hsp90 de B. tabaci, secuencias obtenidas de NCBI. La determinaciónde los perfiles de hidrofobicidad, polaridad, accesibilidady flexibilidad se obtuvieron con “ProScale” de ExPASy, el perfil de antigenicidad con JaMBW. La secuencia aminoacídica se analizó con GOR IV y SOPMA y la composición de aminoácidos con ProtParam. Para analizar el peso molecular, índice deinestabilidad, índice alifático y gradiente hidropático,con GRAVY. La estructura terciaria se obtuvo con HHpred, y ESyPred3D. Para validar las estructuras 3D se utilizó Procheck, What_check y errat. Hsp70 y Hsp90 de B. tabaci presentan valores bajos de hidrofobicidady altos de polaridad, flexibilidad y accesibilidad, características que le permiten a las proteínas extender su capacidad como chaperonas. La Hsp70tiene una estructura secundaria compuesta por 41-45% alfa hélices, 30-43% coil y menos del 6% en hoja plegada y la Hsp90 por 52 y 53% hélices, 26-34% coily 6% hoja plegada. Las Hsp juegan un rol importante en los insectos debido a su tamaño y corto ciclo de vida, pues la temperatura influye en su distribución y abundancia.

  4. Chromatin computation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Bryant

    Full Text Available In living cells, DNA is packaged along with protein and RNA into chromatin. Chemical modifications to nucleotides and histone proteins are added, removed and recognized by multi-functional molecular complexes. Here I define a new computational model, in which chromatin modifications are information units that can be written onto a one-dimensional string of nucleosomes, analogous to the symbols written onto cells of a Turing machine tape, and chromatin-modifying complexes are modeled as read-write rules that operate on a finite set of adjacent nucleosomes. I illustrate the use of this "chromatin computer" to solve an instance of the Hamiltonian path problem. I prove that chromatin computers are computationally universal--and therefore more powerful than the logic circuits often used to model transcription factor control of gene expression. Features of biological chromatin provide a rich instruction set for efficient computation of nontrivial algorithms in biological time scales. Modeling chromatin as a computer shifts how we think about chromatin function, suggests new approaches to medical intervention, and lays the groundwork for the engineering of a new class of biological computing machines.

  5. Chromatin Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    In living cells, DNA is packaged along with protein and RNA into chromatin. Chemical modifications to nucleotides and histone proteins are added, removed and recognized by multi-functional molecular complexes. Here I define a new computational model, in which chromatin modifications are information units that can be written onto a one-dimensional string of nucleosomes, analogous to the symbols written onto cells of a Turing machine tape, and chromatin-modifying complexes are modeled as read-write rules that operate on a finite set of adjacent nucleosomes. I illustrate the use of this “chromatin computer” to solve an instance of the Hamiltonian path problem. I prove that chromatin computers are computationally universal – and therefore more powerful than the logic circuits often used to model transcription factor control of gene expression. Features of biological chromatin provide a rich instruction set for efficient computation of nontrivial algorithms in biological time scales. Modeling chromatin as a computer shifts how we think about chromatin function, suggests new approaches to medical intervention, and lays the groundwork for the engineering of a new class of biological computing machines. PMID:22567109

  6. Standardized tape stripping prior to patch testing induces upregulation of Hsp90, Hsp70, IL-33, TNF-α and IL-8/CXCL8 mRNA: new insights into the involvement of 'alarmins'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickel, Heinrich; Gambichler, Thilo; Kamphowe, Jeanette; Altmeyer, Peter; Skrygan, Marina

    2010-10-01

    The strip patch test is recommended if patch test results are presumed to be false-negative. It is under discussion whether the cutaneous inflammation induced by tape stripping is a pivotal element in enhancing the allergic contact dermatitis response. To investigate epidermal mRNA expression of mediators implicated in the regulation of inflammation induced by tape stripping according to our standardized protocol in human skin. Thirty-one healthy volunteers (median age 26 years, range 18-62 years) participated in the study. We measured epidermal mRNAs coding for cytokines [tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-33, IL-10, IL-8/CXCL8, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2)/MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein-1), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5)/RANTES (regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed, and presumably secreted), IL-6, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)], an adhesion molecule [intercellular adhesion molecule type 1 (ICAM-1)], heat shock proteins (Hsp27, Hsp70 and Hsp90), and the inflammasome complex [NACHT-LRR-PYD-containing protein-3 (NALP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC)/CARD5 (caspase recruitment domain-containing protein-5) and caspase-1] in tape-stripped skin of the upper back relative to untreated skin of the upper back, using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction technology. Epidermal mRNA expression levels of TNF-α, Hsp90, Hsp70, IL-33, and IL-8/CXCL8 were significantly upregulated, whereas CCL5/RANTES expression was significantly downregulated 6 hr after standardized tape stripping. Tape stripping the skin according to our standardized protocol shows immunostimulatory effects, with induction of keratinocyte-derived 'alarmins' and cytokines mounting an immune response, which may contribute to the increased sensitivity of the strip patch test versus the patch test. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Chromatin and alternative splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alló, M; Schor, I E; Muñoz, M J; de la Mata, M; Agirre, E; Valcárcel, J; Eyras, E; Kornblihtt, A R

    2010-01-01

    Alternative splicing affects more than 90% of human genes. Coupling between transcription and splicing has become crucial in the complex network underlying alternative splicing regulation. Because chromatin is the real template for nuclear transcription, changes in its structure, but also in the "reading" and "writing" of the histone code, could modulate splicing choices. Here, we discuss the evidence supporting these ideas, from the first proposal of chromatin affecting alternative splicing, performed 20 years ago, to the latest findings including genome-wide evidence that nucleosomes are preferentially positioned in exons. We focus on two recent reports from our laboratories that add new evidence to this field. The first report shows that a physiological stimulus such as neuron depolarization promotes intragenic histone acetylation (H3K9ac) and chromatin relaxation, causing the skipping of exon 18 of the neural cell adhesion molecule gene. In the second report, we show how specific histone modifications can be created at targeted gene regions as a way to affect alternative splicing: Using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), we increased the levels of H3K9me2 and H3K27me3 in the proximity of alternative exon 33 of the human fibronectin gene, favoring its inclusion into mature messenger RNA (mRNA) through a mechanism that recalls RNA-mediated transcriptional gene silencing.

  8. The Kcnq1ot1 Long Non-Coding RNA Affects Chromatin Conformation and Expression of Kcnq1, but Does Not Regulate Its Imprinting in the Developing Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korostowski, Lisa; Sedlak, Natalie; Engel, Nora

    2012-01-01

    . We also uncover a novel mechanism by which an antisense non-coding RNA affects transcription through regulating chromatin flexibility and access to enhancers. PMID:23028363

  9. Chromatin Dynamics during Lytic Infection with Herpes Simplex Virus 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Kristen L.; Schang, Luis M.

    2013-01-01

    Latent HSV-1 genomes are chromatinized with silencing marks. Since 2004, however, there has been an apparent inconsistency in the studies of the chromatinization of the HSV-1 genomes in lytically infected cells. Nuclease protection and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays suggested that the genomes were not regularly chromatinized, having only low histone occupancy. However, the chromatin modifications associated with transcribed and non-transcribed HSV-1 genes were those associated with active or repressed transcription, respectively. Moreover, the three critical HSV-1 transcriptional activators all had the capability to induce chromatin remodelling, and interacted with critical chromatin modifying enzymes. Depletion or overexpression of some, but not all, chromatin modifying proteins affected HSV-1 transcription, but often in unexpected manners. Since 2010, it has become clear that both cellular and HSV-1 chromatins are highly dynamic in infected cells. These dynamics reconcile the weak interactions between HSV-1 genomes and chromatin proteins, detected by nuclease protection and chromatin immunoprecipitation, with the proposed regulation of HSV-1 gene expression by chromatin, supported by the marks in the chromatin in the viral genomes and the abilities of the HSV-1 transcription activators to modulate chromatin. It also explains the sometimes unexpected results of interventions to modulate chromatin remodelling activities in infected cells. PMID:23863878

  10. Chromatin is wonderful stuff.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Driel, R.

    2007-01-01

    Chromatin molecules have properties that set them aside from all other biomacromolecules in the cell. (i) Chromosomes, which are single chromatin molecules, are the largest macromolecules in eukaryotic cells. (ii) Chromatin molecules carry the cell's genetic and epigenetic information and all

  11. Chromatin Structure and Function

    CERN Document Server

    Wolffe, Alan P

    1999-01-01

    The Third Edition of Chromatin: Structure and Function brings the reader up-to-date with the remarkable progress in chromatin research over the past three years. It has been extensively rewritten to cover new material on chromatin remodeling, histone modification, nuclear compartmentalization, DNA methylation, and transcriptional co-activators and co-repressors. The book is written in a clear and concise fashion, with 60 new illustrations. Chromatin: Structure and Function provides the reader with a concise and coherent account of the nature, structure, and assembly of chromatin and its active

  12. Chromatin dynamics during cell cycle mediate conversion of DNA damage into chromatid breaks and affect formation of chromosomal aberrations: Biological and clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terzoudi, Georgia I.; Hatzi, Vasiliki I. [Institute of Radioisotopes and Radiodiagnostic Products, National Centre for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , 15310 Ag. Paraskevi Attikis, Athens (Greece); Donta-Bakoyianni, Catherine [Oral Diagnosis and Radiology, University of Athens Dental School, Athens (Greece); Pantelias, Gabriel E., E-mail: gabriel@ipta.demokritos.gr [Institute of Radioisotopes and Radiodiagnostic Products, National Centre for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , 15310 Ag. Paraskevi Attikis, Athens (Greece)

    2011-06-03

    The formation of diverse chromosomal aberrations following irradiation and the variability in radiosensitivity at different cell-cycle stages remain a long standing controversy, probably because most of the studies have focused on elucidating the enzymatic mechanisms involved using simple DNA substrates. Yet, recognition, processing and repair of DNA damage occur within the nucleoprotein complex of chromatin which is dynamic in nature, capable of rapid unfolding, disassembling, assembling and refolding. The present work reviews experimental work designed to investigate the impact of chromatin dynamics and chromosome conformation changes during cell-cycle in the formation of chromosomal aberrations. Using conventional cytogenetics and premature chromosome condensation to visualize interphase chromatin, the data presented support the hypothesis that chromatin dynamic changes during cell-cycle are important determinants in the conversion of sub-microscopic DNA lesions into chromatid breaks. Consequently, the type and yield of radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations at a given cell-cycle-stage depends on the combined effect of DNA repair processes and chromatin dynamics, which is cell-cycle-regulated and subject to up- or down-regulation following radiation exposure or genetic alterations. This new hypothesis is used to explain the variability in radiosensitivity observed at various cell-cycle-stages, among mutant cells and cells of different origin, or among different individuals, and to revisit unresolved issues and unanswered questions. In addition, it is used to better understand hypersensitivity of AT cells and to provide an improved predictive G2-assay for evaluating radiosensitivity at individual level. Finally, experimental data at single cell level obtained using hybrid cells suggest that the proposed hypothesis applies only to the irradiated component of the hybrid.

  13. Phosphorylation-dependent regulation of plant chromatin and chromatin-associated proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Bigeard, Jean

    2014-07-10

    In eukaryotes, most of the DNA is located in the nucleus where it is organized with histone proteins in a higher order structure as chromatin. Chromatin and chromatin-associated proteins contribute to DNA-related processes such as replication and transcription as well as epigenetic regulation. Protein functions are often regulated by PTMs among which phosphorylation is one of the most abundant PTM. Phosphorylation of proteins affects important properties, such as enzyme activity, protein stability, or subcellular localization. We here describe the main specificities of protein phosphorylation in plants and review the current knowledge on phosphorylation-dependent regulation of plant chromatin and chromatin-associated proteins. We also outline some future challenges to further elucidate protein phosphorylation and chromatin regulation.

  14. The physics of chromatin

    OpenAIRE

    Schiessel, Helmut

    2003-01-01

    Recent progress has been made in the understanding of the physical properties of chromatin -- the dense complex of DNA and histone proteins that occupies the nuclei of plant and animal cells. Here I will focus on the two lowest levels of the hierarchy of DNA folding into the chromatin complex: (i) the nucleosome, the chromatin repeating unit consisting of a globular aggregate of eight histone proteins with the DNA wrapped around: its overcharging, the DNA unwrapping transition, the ''sliding'...

  15. SUMO and Chromatin Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotton, David; Pemberton, Lucy F; Merrill-Schools, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    Many of the known SUMO substrates are nuclear proteins, which regulate gene expression and chromatin dynamics. Sumoylation, in general, appears to correlate with decreased transcriptional activity, and in many cases modulation of the chromatin template is implicated. Sumoylation of the core histones is associated with transcriptional silencing, and transcription factor sumoylation can decrease gene expression by promoting recruitment of chromatin modifying enzymes. Additionally, sumoylation of transcriptional corepressors and chromatin remodeling enzymes can influence interactions with other transcriptional regulators, and alter their enzymatic activity. In some cases, proteins that are components of transcriptional corepressor complexes have been shown to be SUMO E3 ligases, further emphasizing the integration of sumoylation with the regulation of chromatin remodeling. Despite the evidence suggesting that sumoylation is primarily repressive for access to chromatin, recent analyses suggest that protein sumoylation on the chromatin template may play important roles at highly expressed genes. Elucidating the dynamic interplay of sumoylation with other post-translational modifications of histones and chromatin associated proteins will be key to fully understanding the regulation of access to the chromatin template.

  16. Etiology and Evaluation of Sperm Chromatin Anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziyeh Tavalaee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that human sperm chromatin anomalies adversely affect reproductive outcomesand infertile men possess substantially amount of sperm with chromatin anomalies than fertilemen.Routine semen analysis evaluates parameters such as sperm motility and morphology, but doesnot examine the nuclear DNA integrity of spermatozoa. It has been suggested that altered nuclearchromatin structure or damaged DNA in spermatozoa could modify the special cellular functionsof human spermatozoa, and thereby affect the fertility potential. Intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection(ICSI bypass the barriers to fertilization for such a sperm, then the effect of chromatin anomalies onthe development remains a concern. Therefore, it is essential to develop and use accurate diagnostictests, which may provide better prognostic capabilities than the standard sperm assessments. Thisreview discusses our current understanding of the structure and organization of sperm DNA,the different procedures for assessment of sperm chromatin anomalies including comet assay,Chromomycin A3 (CMA3, sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA, acridine orange test (AOT,terminal TdT-mediated dUTP-nick-end labelling (TUNEL assay, aniline blue and sperm chromatindispersion (SCD test and the impact of chromatin anomalies on reproductive outcome.

  17. Chromatin deregulation in disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabella, Anne C; Foster, Benjamin M; Bartke, Till

    2016-03-01

    The regulation of chromatin by epigenetic mechanisms plays a central role in gene expression and is essential for development and maintenance of cell identity and function. Aberrant chromatin regulation is observed in many diseases where it leads to defects in epigenetic gene regulation resulting in pathological gene expression programmes. These defects are caused by inherited or acquired mutations in genes encoding enzymes that deposit or remove DNA and histone modifications and that shape chromatin architecture. Chromatin deregulation often results in neurodevelopmental disorders and intellectual disabilities, frequently linked to physical and developmental abnormalities, but can also cause neurodegenerative diseases, immunodeficiency, or muscle wasting syndromes. Epigenetic diseases can either be of monogenic origin or manifest themselves as complex multifactorial diseases such as in congenital heart disease, autism spectrum disorders, or cancer in which mutations in chromatin regulators are contributing factors. The environment directly influences the epigenome and can induce changes that cause or predispose to diseases through risk factors such as stress, malnutrition or exposure to harmful chemicals. The plasticity of chromatin regulation makes targeting the enzymatic machinery an attractive strategy for therapeutic intervention and an increasing number of small molecule inhibitors against a variety of epigenetic regulators are in clinical use or under development. In this review, we will give an overview of the molecular lesions that underlie epigenetic diseases, and we will discuss the impact of the environment and prospects for epigenetic therapies.

  18. The impact of cellular metabolism on chromatin dynamics and epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Michael A; Dai, Ziwei; Locasale, Jason W

    2017-11-01

    The substrates used to modify nucleic acids and chromatin are affected by nutrient availability and the activity of metabolic pathways. Thus, cellular metabolism constitutes a fundamental component of chromatin status and thereby of genome regulation. Here we describe the biochemical and genetic principles of how metabolism can influence chromatin biology and epigenetics, discuss the functional roles of this interplay in developmental and cancer biology, and present future directions in this rapidly emerging area.

  19. Phenotypic plasticity in Drosophila pigmentation caused by temperature sensitivity of a chromatin regulator network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Gibert

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of a genotype to produce contrasting phenotypes in different environments. Although many examples have been described, the responsible mechanisms are poorly understood. In particular, it is not clear how phenotypic plasticity is related to buffering, the maintenance of a constant phenotype against genetic or environmental variation. We investigate here the genetic basis of a particularly well described plastic phenotype: the abdominal pigmentation in female Drosophila melanogaster. Cold temperature induces a dark pigmentation, in particular in posterior segments, while higher temperature has the opposite effect. We show that the homeotic gene Abdominal-B (Abd-B has a major role in the plasticity of pigmentation in the abdomen. Abd-B plays opposite roles on melanin production through the regulation of several pigmentation enzymes. This makes the control of pigmentation very unstable in the posterior abdomen, and we show that the relative spatio-temporal expression of limiting pigmentation enzymes in this region of the body is thermosensitive. Temperature acts on melanin production by modulating a chromatin regulator network, interacting genetically with the transcription factor bric-à-brac (bab, a target of Abd-B and Hsp83, encoding the chaperone Hsp90. Genetic disruption of this chromatin regulator network increases the effect of temperature and the instability of the pigmentation pattern in the posterior abdomen. Colocalizations on polytene chromosomes suggest that BAB and these chromatin regulators cooperate in the regulation of many targets, including several pigmentation enzymes. We show that they are also involved in sex comb development in males and that genetic destabilization of this network is also strongly modulated by temperature for this phenotype. Thus, we propose that phenotypic plasticity of pigmentation is a side effect reflecting a global impact of temperature on epigenetic mechanisms

  20. Progressive loss of CD3 expression after HTLV-I infection results from chromatin remodeling affecting all the CD3 genes and persists despite early viral genes silencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martiat Philippe

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HTLV-I infected CD4+ T-cells lines usually progress towards a CD3- or CD3low phenotype. In this paper, we studied expression, kinetics, chromatin remodeling of the CD3 gene at different time-points post HTLV-I infection. Results The onset of this phenomenon coincided with a decrease of CD3γ followed by the subsequent progressive reduction in CD3δ, then CD3ε and CD3ζ mRNA. Transient transfection experiments showed that the CD3γ promoter was still active in CD3- HTLV-I infected cells demonstrating that adequate amounts of the required transcription factors were available. We next looked at whether epigenetic mechanisms could be responsible for this progressive decrease in CD3 expression using DNase I hypersensitivity (DHS experiments examining the CD3γ and CD3δ promoters and the CD3δ enhancer. In uninfected and cells immediately post-infection all three DHS sites were open, then the CD3γ promoter became non accessible, and this was followed by a sequential closure of all the DHS sites corresponding to all three transcriptional control regions. Furthermore, a continuous decrease of in vivo bound transcription initiation factors to the CD3γ promoter was observed after silencing of the viral genome. Coincidently, cells with a lower expression of CD3 grew more rapidly. Conclusion We conclude that HTLV-I infection initiates a process leading to a complete loss of CD3 membrane expression by an epigenetic mechanism which continues along time, despite an early silencing of the viral genome. Whether CD3 progressive loss is an epiphenomenon or a causal event in the process of eventual malignant transformation remains to be investigated.

  1. Identification of HSP90 gene from the Chinese oak silkworm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl user 1

    2012-06-28

    Jun 28, 2012 ... College of Life Science, Anhui Agricultural University, 130 Changjiang West Road 230036, Peoples Republic of China. Accepted 11 June .... Real-time PCR analysis. The primers F3, R3, F18S and R18S are used for real-time quantitative PCR. Total RNA was extracted from hemocytes, fat bodies, midgut ...

  2. Role of Hsp90 in Androgen-Refractory Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    amplified cDNA was restriction digested and cloned into the multiple cloning sites (MCS). Lentiviral vectors were next packaged into packaging cell line...provided by Dr. Tso-Pang Yao (Duke University, Durham, NC); MEF cells were maintained in DMEM ( Invitro - gen). Cells were transfected via

  3. Targeting SRC Family Kinases and HSP90 in Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    protein lysates for analysis by RPPA analysis or Western blotting . Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was performed on all FFPE tissue from...blue) as predicted by RPPA for multiple Nedd9-null versus Nedd9-wt dissected lung tumors Figure 12. Representative Western blot data and quantitation...null versus Nedd9-wt dissected lung tumors. Figure 12. Representative Western blot data and quantitation from multiple independent experiments of the

  4. The Hsp70/Hsp90 Chaperone Machinery in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel E. Lackie; Rachel E. Lackie; Andrzej Maciejewski; Andrzej Maciejewski; Valeriy G. Ostapchenko; Jose Marques-Lopes; Wing-Yiu Choy; Martin L. Duennwald; Vania F. Prado; Vania F. Prado; Vania F. Prado; Vania F. Prado; Marco A. M. Prado; Marco A. M. Prado; Marco A. M. Prado

    2017-01-01

    The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the human brain is one of the critical features of many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Assembles of beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptide—either soluble (oligomers) or insoluble (plaques) and of tau protein, which form neurofibrillary tangles, are the major hallmarks of AD. Chaperones and co-chaperones regulate protein folding and client maturation, but they also target misfolded or aggregated proteins for refolding or for degrada...

  5. Targeting SRC Family Kinases in HSP90 in Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a...to detect tumor initiation and growth, followed by euthanasia and processing of tissues for mechanistic analysis. Representative images of MRI are

  6. Chromatin replication and epigenome maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alabert, Constance; Groth, Anja

    2012-01-01

    initiates, whereas the replication process itself disrupts chromatin and challenges established patterns of genome regulation. Specialized replication-coupled mechanisms assemble new DNA into chromatin, but epigenome maintenance is a continuous process taking place throughout the cell cycle. If DNA...

  7. Chromatin replication and histone dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alabert, Constance; Jasencakova, Zuzana; Groth, Anja

    2017-01-01

    organization into chromatin. We reveal how specialized replication-coupled mechanisms rapidly assemble newly synthesized DNA into nucleosomes, while the complete restoration of chromatin organization including histone marks is a continuous process taking place throughout the cell cycle. Because failure...

  8. Effect of chromatin structure on quantitative ultrasound parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternak, Maurice; Doss, Lilian; Farhat, Golnaz; Al-Mahrouki, Azza; Kim, Christina Hyunjung; Kolios, Michael; Tran, William Tyler; Czarnota, Gregory J

    2017-03-21

    High-frequency ultrasound (~20 MHz) techniques were investigated using in vitro and ex vivo models to determine whether alterations in chromatin structure are responsible for ultrasound backscatter changes in biological samples. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells and their isolated nuclei were exposed to various chromatin altering treatments. These included 10 different ionic environments, DNA cleaving and unfolding agents, as well as DNA condensing agents. Raw radiofrequency (RF) data was used to generate quantitative ultrasound parameters from spectral and form factor analyses. Chromatin structure was evaluated using electron microscopy. Results indicated that trends in quantitative ultrasound parameters mirrored trends in biophysical chromatin structure parameters. In general, higher ordered states of chromatin compaction resulted in increases to ultrasound paramaters of midband fit, spectral intercept, and estimated scatterer concentration, while samples with decondensed forms of chromatin followed an opposite trend. Experiments with isolated nuclei demonstrated that chromatin changes alone were sufficient to account for these observations. Experiments with ex vivo samples indicated similar effects of chromatin structure changes. The results obtained in this research provide a mechanistic explanation for ultrasound investigations studying scattering from cells and tissues undergoing biological processes affecting chromatin.

  9. Chromatin dynamics in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransz, P.F.; Jong, de J.H.

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies in yeast, animals and plants have provided major breakthroughs in unraveling the molecular mechanism of higher-order gene regulation. In conjunction with the DNA code, proteins that are involved in chromatin remodeling, histone modification and epigenetic imprinting form a large

  10. Reprogramming the chromatin landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miranda, Tina B; Voss, Ty C; Sung, Myong-Hee

    2013-01-01

    , mechanistic details defining the cellular interactions between ER and GR are poorly understood. We investigated genome-wide binding profiles for ER and GR upon coactivation and characterized the status of the chromatin landscape. We describe a novel mechanism dictating the molecular interplay between ER...

  11. Analysis of Chromatin Organisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2011-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: chromatin, nucleases, sucrose density gradient centrifugation, melting point, gel electrophoresis, ethidium bromide, autoradiography, Southern blotting, Northern blotting, Sanger sequencing, restriction endonucleases, exonucleases, linker DNA, chloroform extraction, nucleosomes,…

  12. NET23/STING Promotes Chromatin Compaction from the Nuclear Envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    de las Heras, Jose I.; Saiz-Ros, Natalia; Makarov, Alexandr A.; Lazou, Vassiliki; Meinke, Peter; Waterfall, Martin; Kelly, David A.; Schirmer, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the peripheral distribution and amount of condensed chromatin are observed in a number of diseases linked to mutations in the lamin A protein of the nuclear envelope. We postulated that lamin A interactions with nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) that affect chromatin structure might be altered in these diseases and so screened thirty-one NETs for those that promote chromatin compaction as determined by an increase in the number of chromatin clusters of high pixel intensity. One of these, NET23 (also called STING, MITA, MPYS, ERIS, Tmem173), strongly promoted chromatin compaction. A correlation between chromatin compaction and endogenous levels of NET23/STING was observed for a number of human cell lines, suggesting that NET23/STING may contribute generally to chromatin condensation. NET23/STING has separately been found to be involved in innate immune response signaling. Upon infection cells make a choice to either apoptose or to alter chromatin architecture to support focused expression of interferon genes and other response factors. We postulate that the chromatin compaction induced by NET23/STING may contribute to this choice because the cells expressing NET23/STING eventually apoptose, but the chromatin compaction effect is separate from this as the condensation was still observed when cells were treated with Z-VAD to block apoptosis. NET23/STING-induced compacted chromatin revealed changes in epigenetic marks including changes in histone methylation and acetylation. This indicates a previously uncharacterized nuclear role for NET23/STING potentially in both innate immune signaling and general chromatin architecture. PMID:25386906

  13. The Chromatin Fiber: Multiscale Problems and Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Gungor; Luque, Antoni; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    The structure of chromatin, affected by many factors from DNA linker lengths to posttranslational modifications, is crucial to the regulation of eukaryotic cells. Combined experimental and computational methods have led to new insights into its structural and dynamical features, from interactions due to the flexible core histone tails of the nucleosomes to the physical mechanism driving the formation of chromosomal domains. Here we present a perspective of recent advances in chromatin modeling techniques at the atomic, mesoscopic, and chromosomal scales with a view toward developing multiscale computational strategies to integrate such findings. Innovative modeling methods that connect molecular to chromosomal scales are crucial for interpreting experiments and eventually deciphering the complex dynamic organization and function of chromatin in the cell. PMID:26057099

  14. Proteomic interrogation of human chromatin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana P Torrente

    Full Text Available Chromatin proteins provide a scaffold for DNA packaging and a basis for epigenetic regulation and genomic maintenance. Despite understanding its functional roles, mapping the chromatin proteome (i.e. the "Chromatome" is still a continuing process. Here, we assess the biological specificity and proteomic extent of three distinct chromatin preparations by identifying proteins in selected chromatin-enriched fractions using mass spectrometry-based proteomics. These experiments allowed us to produce a chromatin catalog, including several proteins ranging from highly abundant histone proteins to less abundant members of different chromatin machinery complexes. Using a Normalized Spectral Abundance Factor approach, we quantified relative abundances of the proteins across the chromatin enriched fractions giving a glimpse into their chromosomal abundance. The large-scale data sets also allowed for the discovery of a variety of novel post-translational modifications on the identified chromatin proteins. With these comparisons, we find one of the probed methods to be qualitatively superior in specificity for chromatin proteins, but inferior in proteomic extent, evidencing a compromise that must be made between biological specificity and broadness of characterization. Additionally, we attempt to identify proteins in eu- and heterochromatin, verifying the enrichments by characterizing the post-translational modifications detected on histone proteins from these chromatin regions. In summary, our results provide insights into the value of different methods to extract chromatin-associated proteins and provide starting points to study the factors that may be involved in directing gene expression and other chromatin-related processes.

  15. Chromatin dynamics in genome stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nair, Nidhi; Shoaib, Muhammad; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2017-01-01

    Genomic DNA is compacted into chromatin through packaging with histone and non-histone proteins. Importantly, DNA accessibility is dynamically regulated to ensure genome stability. This is exemplified in the response to DNA damage where chromatin relaxation near genomic lesions serves to promote ...... of chromatin structure regulation in maintaining genome integrity by multiple mechanisms including facilitating DNA repair and directly suppressing endogenous DNA damage.......Genomic DNA is compacted into chromatin through packaging with histone and non-histone proteins. Importantly, DNA accessibility is dynamically regulated to ensure genome stability. This is exemplified in the response to DNA damage where chromatin relaxation near genomic lesions serves to promote...... access of relevant enzymes to specific DNA regions for signaling and repair. Furthermore, recent data highlight genome maintenance roles of chromatin through the regulation of endogenous DNA-templated processes including transcription and replication. Here, we review research that shows the importance...

  16. The Varicella-Zoster Virus Immediate-Early 63 protein affects chromatin controlled gene transcription in a cell-type dependent manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bontems Sébastien

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Varicella Zoster Virus Immediate Early 63 protein (IE63 has been shown to be essential for VZV replication, and critical for latency establishment. The activity of the protein as a transcriptional regulator is not fully clear yet. Using transient transfection assays, IE63 has been shown to repress viral and cellular promoters containing typical TATA boxes by interacting with general transcription factors. Results In this paper, IE63 regulation properties on endogenous gene expression were evaluated using an oligonucleotide-based micro-array approach. We found that IE63 modulates the transcription of only a few genes in HeLa cells including genes implicated in transcription or immunity. Furthermore, we showed that this effect is mediated by a modification of RNA POL II binding on the promoters tested and that IE63 phosphorylation was essential for these effects. In MeWo cells, the number of genes whose transcription was modified by IE63 was somewhat higher, including genes implicated in signal transduction, transcription, immunity, and heat-shock signalling. While IE63 did not modify the basal expression of several NF-κB dependent genes such as IL-8, ICAM-1, and IκBα, it modulates transcription of these genes upon TNFα induction. This effect was obviously correlated with the amount of p65 binding to the promoter of these genes and with histone H3 acetylation and HDAC-3 removal. Conclusion While IE63 only affected transcription of a small number of cellular genes, it interfered with the TNF-inducibility of several NF-κB dependent genes by the accelerated resynthesis of the inhibitor IκBα.

  17. Optical tweezers stretching of chromatin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pope, L.H.; Bennink, Martin L.; Greve, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Recently significant success has emerged from exciting research involving chromatin stretching using optical tweezers. These experiments, in which a single chromatin fibre is attached by one end to a micron-sized bead held in an optical trap and to a solid surface or second bead via the other end,

  18. Epigenetics & chromatin: Interactions and processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Henikoff (Steven); F.G. Grosveld (Frank)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractOn 11 to 13 March 2013, BioMed Central will be hosting its inaugural conference, Epigenetics & Chromatin: Interactions and Processes, at Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA, USA. Epigenetics & Chromatin has now launched a special article series based on the general themes of the

  19. Chromatin condensation during terminal erythropoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baobing; Yang, Jing; Ji, Peng

    2016-09-02

    Mammalian terminal erythropoiesis involves gradual but dramatic chromatin condensation steps that are essential for cell differentiation. Chromatin and nuclear condensation is followed by a unique enucleation process, which is believed to liberate more spaces for hemoglobin enrichment and enable the generation of a physically flexible mature red blood cell. Although these processes have been known for decades, the mechanisms are still unclear. Our recent study reveals an unexpected nuclear opening formation during mouse terminal erythropoiesis that requires caspase-3 activity. Major histones, except H2AZ, are partially released from the opening, which is important for chromatin condensation. Block of the nuclear opening through caspase inhibitor or knockdown of caspase-3 inhibits chromatin condensation and enucleation. We also demonstrate that nuclear opening and histone release are cell cycle regulated. These studies reveal a novel mechanism for chromatin condensation in mammalia terminal erythropoiesis.

  20. Increased chromatin plasticity supports enhanced metastatic potential of mouse melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maizels, Yael; Elbaz, Adi; Hernandez-Vicens, Rosari; Sandrusy, Oshrat; Rosenberg, Anna; Gerlitz, Gabi

    2017-08-15

    Metastasis formation is strongly dependent on the migration capabilities of tumor cells. Recently it has become apparent that nuclear structure and morphology affect the cellular ability to migrate. Previously we found that migration of melanoma cells is both associated with and dependent on global chromatin condensation. Therefore, we anticipated that tumor progression would be associated with increased chromatin condensation. Interestingly, the opposite has been reported for melanoma. In trying to resolve this contradiction, we show that during growth conditions, tumor progression is associated with global chromatin de-condensation that is beneficial for faster proliferation. However, upon induction of migration, in both low- and high-metastatic mouse melanoma cells chromatin undergoes condensation to support cell migration. Our results reveal that throughout tumor progression induction of chromatin condensation by migration signals is maintained, whereas the organization of chromatin during growth conditions is altered. Thus, tumor progression is associated with an increase in chromatin dynamics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Chromatin remodeling in plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarillo, José A; Piñeiro, Manuel; Cubas, Pilar; Martínez-Zapater, José M

    2009-01-01

    Plant development results from specific patterns of gene expression that are tightly regulated in a spatio-temporal manner. Chromatin remodeling plays a central role in establishing these expression patterns and maintaining epigenetic transcriptional states through successive rounds of mitosis that take place within a cell lineage. Plant epigenetic switches occur not only at the embryo stage, but also during postembryonic developmental transitions, suggesting that chromatin remodeling activities in plants can provide a higher degree of regulatory flexibility which probably underlies their developmental plasticity. Here, we highlight recent progress in the understanding of plant chromatin dynamic organization, facilitating the activation or repression of specific sets of genes involved in different developmental programs and integrating them with the response to environmental signals. Chromatin conformation controls gene expression both in actively dividing undifferentiated cells and in those already fate-determined. In this context, we first describe chromatin reorganization activities required to maintain meristem function stable through DNA replication and cell division. Organ initiation at the apex, with emphasis on reproductive development, is next discussed to uncover the chromatin events involved in the establishment and maintenance of expression patterns associated with differentiating cells; this is illustrated with the complex epigenetic regulation of the Arabidopsis floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). Finally, we discuss the involvement of chromatin remodeling in plant responses to environmental cues and to different types of stress conditions.

  2. HACking the centromere chromatin code: insights from human artificial chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Jan H; Martins, Nuno M C; Larionov, Vladimir; Masumoto, Hiroshi; Earnshaw, William C

    2012-07-01

    The centromere is a specialized chromosomal region that serves as the assembly site of the kinetochore. At the centromere, CENP-A nucleosomes form part of a chromatin landscape termed centrochromatin. This chromatin environment conveys epigenetic marks regulating kinetochore formation. Recent work sheds light on the intricate relationship between centrochromatin state, the CENP-A assembly pathway and the maintenance of centromere function. Here, we review the emerging picture of how chromatin affects mammalian kinetochore formation. We place particular emphasis on data obtained from Human Artificial Chromosome (HAC) biology and the targeted engineering of centrochromatin using synthetic HACs. We discuss implications of these findings, which indicate that a delicate balance of histone modifications and chromatin state dictates both de novo centromere formation and the maintenance of centromere identity in dividing cell populations.

  3. FACT facilitates chromatin transcription by RNA polymerases I and III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Joanna L; Tan, Bertrand C-M; Panov, Kostya I

    2009-01-01

    Efficient transcription elongation from a chromatin template requires RNA polymerases (Pols) to negotiate nucleosomes. Our biochemical analyses demonstrate that RNA Pol I can transcribe through nucleosome templates and that this requires structural rearrangement of the nucleosomal core particle....... The subunits of the histone chaperone FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription), SSRP1 and Spt16, co-purify and co-immunoprecipitate with mammalian Pol I complexes. In cells, SSRP1 is detectable at the rRNA gene repeats. Crucially, siRNA-mediated repression of FACT subunit expression in cells results...... in a significant reduction in 47S pre-rRNA levels, whereas synthesis of the first 40 nt of the rRNA is not affected, implying that FACT is important for Pol I transcription elongation through chromatin. FACT also associates with RNA Pol III complexes, is present at the chromatin of genes transcribed by Pol III...

  4. Chromatin and Transcription in Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rando, Oliver J.; Winston, Fred

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which chromatin structure controls eukaryotic transcription has been an intense area of investigation for the past 25 years. Many of the key discoveries that created the foundation for this field came from studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, including the discovery of the role of chromatin in transcriptional silencing, as well as the discovery of chromatin-remodeling factors and histone modification activities. Since that time, studies in yeast have continued to contribute in leading ways. This review article summarizes the large body of yeast studies in this field. PMID:22345607

  5. Brain Function and Chromatin Plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Dulac, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    The characteristics of epigenetic control, including the potential for long-lasting, stable effects on gene expression that outlive an initial transient signal, could be of singular importance for post-mitotic neurons, which are subject to changes with short- to long-lasting influence on their activity and connectivity. Persistent changes in chromatin structure are thought to contribute to mechanisms of epigenetic inheritance. Recent advances in chromatin biology offer new avenues to investig...

  6. Titration and hysteresis in epigenetic chromatin silencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayarian, Adel; Sengupta, Anirvan M.

    2013-06-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms of silencing via heritable chromatin modifications play a major role in gene regulation and cell fate specification. We consider a model of epigenetic chromatin silencing in budding yeast and study the bifurcation diagram and characterize the bistable and the monostable regimes. The main focus of this paper is to examine how the perturbations altering the activity of histone modifying enzymes affect the epigenetic states. We analyze the implications of having the total number of silencing proteins, given by the sum of proteins bound to the nucleosomes and the ones available in the ambient, to be constant. This constraint couples different regions of chromatin through the shared reservoir of ambient silencing proteins. We show that the response of the system to perturbations depends dramatically on the titration effect caused by the above constraint. In particular, for a certain range of overall abundance of silencing proteins, the hysteresis loop changes qualitatively with certain jump replaced by continuous merger of different states. In addition, we find a nonmonotonic dependence of gene expression on the rate of histone deacetylation activity of Sir2. We discuss how these qualitative predictions of our model could be compared with experimental studies of the yeast system under anti-silencing drugs.

  7. Sperm chromatin maturity and integrity correlated to zygote development in ICSI program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmarinah; Syauqy, Ahmad; Umar, Liya Agustin; Lestari, Silvia Werdhy; Mansyur, Eliza; Hestiantoro, Andon; Paradowszka-Dogan, Agnieszka

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate sperm chromatin maturity and integrity of that injected into good-quality oocytes in an in vitro fertilization-intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) program. A cut-off value of sperm chromatin maturity and integrity was developed as a function of their correlation to the zygote development, i.e., embryo formation and cleavage rate. The study assessed sperm chromatin maturity using aniline blue (AB) staining, whereas toluidine blue (TB) staining was used to assess sperm chromatin integrity. Ejaculates from 59 patients undergoing ICSI and 46 fertile normozoospermic donors for determination of normal values of sperm chromatin status were used in this study. Embryo formation and cleavage rates were observed for the period of 3 days after ICSI. There was a significant difference in the percentage of sperm with mature chromatin between ejaculate from ICSI patients and fertile donor (p=0.020); while there was no significant difference in sperm chromatin integrity of both samples (p=0.120). There was no significant correlation between sperm chromatin maturity and either embryo formation or cleavage rate; as well as sperm chromatin integrity to both parameters of zygote development (p>0.05). Furthermore, we found that the cut-off value of sperm chromatin maturity and integrity of the fertile normozoospermic ejaculates were 87.2% and 80.2%, respectively. Using the cut-offs, we found that low sperm chromatin maturity at the level of chromatin integrity at the level of chromatin (AB<87% and TB<80%, respectively), could affect zygote development following ICSI. AB: aniline blue; CMA3: chromomycin A3; ICSI: intra cytoplasmic sperm injection; IVF: in vitro fertilization; PBS: phosphate buffer saline; SPSS: Statistical Package for Social Science; TB: toluidine blue; WHO: World Health Organization.

  8. Introducing enteral feeding induces intestinal subclinical inflammation and respective chromatin changes in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willems, Rhea; Krych, Lukasz; Rybicki, Verena

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To analyze how enteral food introduction affects intestinal gene regulation and chromatin structure in preterm pigs. MATERIALS & METHODS: Preterm pigs were fed parenteral nutrition plus/minus slowly increasing volumes of enteral nutrition. Intestinal gene-expression and chromatin structure w...

  9. Chromatin challenges during DNA replication and repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Anja; Rocha, Walter; Verreault, Alain

    2007-01-01

    Inheritance and maintenance of the DNA sequence and its organization into chromatin are central for eukaryotic life. To orchestrate DNA-replication and -repair processes in the context of chromatin is a challenge, both in terms of accessibility and maintenance of chromatin organization. To meet...... the challenge of maintenance, cells have evolved efficient nucleosome-assembly pathways and chromatin-maturation mechanisms that reproduce chromatin organization in the wake of DNA replication and repair. The aim of this Review is to describe how these pathways operate and to highlight how the epigenetic...... landscape may be stably maintained even in the face of dramatic changes in chromatin structure....

  10. Chromatin remodeling in mammalian embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabot, Birgit; Cabot, Ryan A

    2018-03-01

    The mammalian embryo undergoes a dramatic amount of epigenetic remodeling during the first week of development. In this review, we discuss several epigenetic changes that happen over the course of cleavage development, focusing on covalent marks (e.g., histone methylation and acetylation) and non-covalent remodeling (chromatin remodeling via remodeling complexes; e.g., SWI/SNF-mediated chromatin remodeling). Comparisons are also drawn between remodeling events that occur in embryos from a variety of mammalian species. © 2018 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  11. Global quantitative modeling of chromatin factor interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhou

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin is the driver of gene regulation, yet understanding the molecular interactions underlying chromatin factor combinatorial patterns (or the "chromatin codes" remains a fundamental challenge in chromatin biology. Here we developed a global modeling framework that leverages chromatin profiling data to produce a systems-level view of the macromolecular complex of chromatin. Our model ultilizes maximum entropy modeling with regularization-based structure learning to statistically dissect dependencies between chromatin factors and produce an accurate probability distribution of chromatin code. Our unsupervised quantitative model, trained on genome-wide chromatin profiles of 73 histone marks and chromatin proteins from modENCODE, enabled making various data-driven inferences about chromatin profiles and interactions. We provided a highly accurate predictor of chromatin factor pairwise interactions validated by known experimental evidence, and for the first time enabled higher-order interaction prediction. Our predictions can thus help guide future experimental studies. The model can also serve as an inference engine for predicting unknown chromatin profiles--we demonstrated that with this approach we can leverage data from well-characterized cell types to help understand less-studied cell type or conditions.

  12. Global Quantitative Modeling of Chromatin Factor Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Troyanskaya, Olga G.

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin is the driver of gene regulation, yet understanding the molecular interactions underlying chromatin factor combinatorial patterns (or the “chromatin codes”) remains a fundamental challenge in chromatin biology. Here we developed a global modeling framework that leverages chromatin profiling data to produce a systems-level view of the macromolecular complex of chromatin. Our model ultilizes maximum entropy modeling with regularization-based structure learning to statistically dissect dependencies between chromatin factors and produce an accurate probability distribution of chromatin code. Our unsupervised quantitative model, trained on genome-wide chromatin profiles of 73 histone marks and chromatin proteins from modENCODE, enabled making various data-driven inferences about chromatin profiles and interactions. We provided a highly accurate predictor of chromatin factor pairwise interactions validated by known experimental evidence, and for the first time enabled higher-order interaction prediction. Our predictions can thus help guide future experimental studies. The model can also serve as an inference engine for predicting unknown chromatin profiles — we demonstrated that with this approach we can leverage data from well-characterized cell types to help understand less-studied cell type or conditions. PMID:24675896

  13. Transcriptional networks and chromatin remodeling controlling adipogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersbæk, Rasmus; Nielsen, Ronni; Mandrup, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    remodeling have revealed 'snapshots' of this cascade and the chromatin landscape at specific time-points of differentiation. These studies demonstrate that multiple adipogenic transcription factors co-occupy hotspots characterized by an open chromatin structure and specific epigenetic modifications...

  14. Guarding against Collateral Damage during Chromatin Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altmeyer, Matthias; Lukas, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    Signal amplifications are vital for chromatin function, yet they also bear the risk of transforming into unrestrained, self-escalating, and potentially harmful responses. Examples of inbuilt limitations are emerging, revealing how chromatin transactions are confined within physiological boundaries....

  15. A Long-Distance Chromatin Affair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denker, Annette; de Laat, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    Changes in transcription factor binding sequences result in correlated changes in chromatin composition locally and at sites hundreds of kilobases away. New studies demonstrate that this concordance is mediated via spatial chromatin interactions that constitute regulatory modules of the human

  16. Chromatin stiffening underlies enhanced locus mobility after DNA damage in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Sébastien; Brion, Alice; Arbona, Jean-Michel; Lelek, Mickaël; Veillet, Adeline; Lelandais, Benoît; Parmar, Jyotsana; Fernández, Fabiola García; Almayrac, Etienne; Khalil, Yasmine; Birgy, Eleonore; Fabre, Emmanuelle; Zimmer, Christophe

    2017-09-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induce a cellular response that involves histone modifications and chromatin remodeling at the damaged site and increases chromosome dynamics both locally at the damaged site and globally in the nucleus. In parallel, it has become clear that the spatial organization and dynamics of chromosomes can be largely explained by the statistical properties of tethered, but randomly moving, polymer chains, characterized mainly by their rigidity and compaction. How these properties of chromatin are affected during DNA damage remains, however, unclear. Here, we use live cell microscopy to track chromatin loci and measure distances between loci on yeast chromosome IV in thousands of cells, in the presence or absence of genotoxic stress. We confirm that DSBs result in enhanced chromatin subdiffusion and show that intrachromosomal distances increase with DNA damage all along the chromosome. Our data can be explained by an increase in chromatin rigidity, but not by chromatin decondensation or centromeric untethering only. We provide evidence that chromatin stiffening is mediated in part by histone H2A phosphorylation. Our results support a genome-wide stiffening of the chromatin fiber as a consequence of DNA damage and as a novel mechanism underlying increased chromatin mobility. © 2017 The Authors.

  17. Chromatin states modify network motifs contributing to cell-specific functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongying; Liu, Tingting; Liu, Ling; Zhang, Guanxiong; Pang, Lin; Yu, Fulong; Fan, Huihui; Ping, Yanyan; Wang, Li; Xu, Chaohan; Xiao, Yun; Li, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic modification can affect many important biological processes, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis. It can alter chromatin conformation and contribute to gene regulation. To investigate how chromatin states associated with network motifs, we assembled chromatin state-modified regulatory networks by combining 269 ChIP-seq data and chromatin states in four cell types. We found that many chromatin states were significantly associated with network motifs, especially for feedforward loops (FFLs). These distinct chromatin state compositions contribute to different expression levels and translational control of targets in FFLs. Strikingly, the chromatin state-modified FFLs were highly cell-specific and, to a large extent, determined cell-selective functions, such as the embryonic stem cell-specific bivalent modification-related FFL with an important role in poising developmentally important genes for expression. Besides, comparisons of chromatin state-modified FFLs between cancerous/stem and primary cell lines revealed specific type of chromatin state alterations that may act together with motif structural changes cooperatively contribute to cell-to-cell functional differences. Combination of these alterations could be helpful in prioritizing candidate genes. Together, this work highlights that a dynamic epigenetic dimension can help network motifs to control cell-specific functions. PMID:26169043

  18. Impact of chromatin structure on PR signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Lars; Hager, Gordon L

    2012-01-01

    The progesterone receptor (PR) interacts with chromatin in a highly dynamic manner that requires ongoing chromatin remodeling, interaction with chaparones and activity of the proteasome. Here we discuss dynamic interaction of steroid receptor with chromatin, with special attention not only to PR ...

  19. Spectroscopic study of laser irradiated chromatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, Liliana; Mihailescu, I.; Gazdaru, Doina; Preoteasa, V.

    2013-04-01

    The effects of three UV excimer laser radiations, with wavelengths of 193, 248 and 282 nm respectively, on the structure of chromatin (the complex of deoxyribonucleic acid with proteins that exists in eukaryotic cells nuclei) were investigated. The chromatin was extracted from livers of Winstar rats. The spectroscopic methods used are: fluorescence (Förster) resonance energy transfer (FRET), time resolved fluorescence and steady-state fluorescence. A chromatin deoxyribonucleic acid radiolysis, a chromatin proteins damage and a change of the global chromatin structure on lasers action were indicated by this study. It exists some small differences between the actions of these three laser radiations.

  20. Spectroscopic study of laser irradiated chromatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radu, Liliana, E-mail: liliana1radu@gmail.com [V. Babes National Institute, Department of Molecular Genetics and Radiobiology (Romania); Mihailescu, I. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Department of Lasers (Romania); Gazdaru, Doina [Faculty of Physics, Bucharest University, Department of Biophysics (Romania); Preoteasa, V. [V. Babes National Institute, Department of Molecular Genetics and Radiobiology (Romania)

    2013-04-15

    The effects of three UV excimer laser radiations, with wavelengths of 193, 248 and 282 nm respectively, on the structure of chromatin (the complex of deoxyribonucleic acid with proteins that exists in eukaryotic cells nuclei) were investigated. The chromatin was extracted from livers of Winstar rats. The spectroscopic methods used are: fluorescence (Foerster) resonance energy transfer (FRET), time resolved fluorescence and steady-state fluorescence. A chromatin deoxyribonucleic acid radiolysis, a chromatin proteins damage and a change of the global chromatin structure on lasers action were indicated by this study. It exists some small differences between the actions of these three laser radiations.

  1. Plant chromatin warms up in Madrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarillo, José A; Gaudin, Valerie; Hennig, Lars; Köhler, Claudia; Piñeiro, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The 3rd European Workshop on Plant Chromatin (EWPC) was held on August 2013 in Madrid, Spain. A number of different topics on plant chromatin were presented during the meeting, including new factors mediating Polycomb Group protein function in plants, chromatin-mediated reprogramming in plant developmental transitions, the role of histone variants, and newly identified chromatin remodeling factors. The function of interactions between chromatin and transcription factors in the modulation of gene expression, the role of chromatin dynamics in the control of nuclear processes and the influence of environmental factors on chromatin organization were also reported. In this report, we highlight some of the new insights emerging in this growing area of research, presented at the 3rd EWPC. PMID:24504145

  2. Open chromatin in plant genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenli; Zhang, Tao; Wu, Yufeng; Jiang, Jiming

    2014-01-01

    Sensitivity to DNase I digestion is an indicator of the accessibility and configuration of chromatin in eukaryotic genomes. Open chromatin exhibits high sensitivity to DNase I cleavage. DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs) in eukaryotic genomes can be identified through DNase I treatment followed by sequencing (DNase-seq). DHSs are most frequently associated with various cis-regulatory DNA elements, including promoters, enhancers, and silencers in both animal and plant genomes. Genome-wide identification of DHSs provides an efficient method to interpret previously un-annotated regulatory DNA sequences. In this review, we provide an overview of the historical perspective of DHS research in eukaryotes. We summarize the main achievements of DHS research in model animal species and review the recent progress of DHS research in plants. We finally discuss possible future directions of using DHS as a tool in plant genomics research. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Chromatin structure in telomere dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra eGalati

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of a specific nucleoprotein structure, the telomere, is required to ensure the protection of chromosome ends from being recognized as DNA damage sites. Telomere shortening below a critical length triggers a DNA damage response that leads to replicative senescence. In normal human somatic cells, characterized by telomere shortening with each cell division, telomere uncapping is a regulated process associated with cell turnover. Nevertheless, telomere dysfunction has also been associated with genomic instability, cell transformation and cancer. Despite the essential role telomeres play in chromosome protection and in tumorigenesis, our knowledge of the chromatin structure involved in telomere maintenance is still limited. Here we review the recent findings on chromatin modifications associated with the dynamic changes of telomeres from protected to de-protected state and their role in telomere functions.

  4. Nuclear phosphoinositide regulation of chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Bree L; Blind, Raymond D

    2018-01-01

    Phospholipid signaling has clear connections to a wide array of cellular processes, particularly in gene expression and in controlling the chromatin biology of cells. However, most of the work elucidating how phospholipid signaling pathways contribute to cellular physiology have studied cytoplasmic membranes, while relatively little attention has been paid to the role of phospholipid signaling in the nucleus. Recent work from several labs has shown that nuclear phospholipid signaling can have important roles that are specific to this cellular compartment. This review focuses on the nuclear phospholipid functions and the activities of phospholipid signaling enzymes that regulate metazoan chromatin and gene expression. In particular, we highlight the roles that nuclear phosphoinositides play in several nuclear-driven physiological processes, such as differentiation, proliferation, and gene expression. Taken together, the recent discovery of several specifically nuclear phospholipid functions could have dramatic impact on our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms that enable tight control of cellular physiology. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Inferring the physical properties of yeast chromatin through Bayesian analysis of whole nucleus simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbona, Jean-Michel; Herbert, Sébastien; Fabre, Emmanuelle; Zimmer, Christophe

    2017-05-03

    The structure and mechanical properties of chromatin impact DNA functions and nuclear architecture but remain poorly understood. In budding yeast, a simple polymer model with minimal sequence-specific constraints and a small number of structural parameters can explain diverse experimental data on nuclear architecture. However, how assumed chromatin properties affect model predictions was not previously systematically investigated. We used hundreds of dynamic chromosome simulations and Bayesian inference to determine chromatin properties consistent with an extensive dataset that includes hundreds of measurements from imaging in fixed and live cells and two Hi-C studies. We place new constraints on average chromatin fiber properties, narrowing down the chromatin compaction to ~53-65 bp/nm and persistence length to ~52-85 nm. These constraints argue against a 20-30 nm fiber as the exclusive chromatin structure in the genome. Our best model provides a much better match to experimental measurements of nuclear architecture and also recapitulates chromatin dynamics measured on multiple loci over long timescales. This work substantially improves our understanding of yeast chromatin mechanics and chromosome architecture and provides a new analytic framework to infer chromosome properties in other organisms.

  6. Chromatin structure and evolution in the human genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunlop Malcolm G

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolutionary rates are not constant across the human genome but genes in close proximity have been shown to experience similar levels of divergence and selection. The higher-order organisation of chromosomes has often been invoked to explain such phenomena but previously there has been insufficient data on chromosome structure to investigate this rigorously. Using the results of a recent genome-wide analysis of open and closed human chromatin structures we have investigated the global association between divergence, selection and chromatin structure for the first time. Results In this study we have shown that, paradoxically, synonymous site divergence (dS at non-CpG sites is highest in regions of open chromatin, primarily as a result of an increased number of transitions, while the rates of other traditional measures of mutation (intergenic, intronic and ancient repeat divergence as well as SNP density are highest in closed regions of the genome. Analysis of human-chimpanzee divergence across intron-exon boundaries indicates that although genes in relatively open chromatin generally display little selection at their synonymous sites, those in closed regions show markedly lower divergence at their fourfold degenerate sites than in neighbouring introns and intergenic regions. Exclusion of known Exonic Splice Enhancer hexamers has little affect on the divergence observed at fourfold degenerate sites across chromatin categories; however, we show that closed chromatin is enriched with certain classes of ncRNA genes whose RNA secondary structure may be particularly important. Conclusion We conclude that, overall, non-CpG mutation rates are lowest in open regions of the genome and that regions of the genome with a closed chromatin structure have the highest background mutation rate. This might reflect lower rates of DNA damage or enhanced DNA repair processes in regions of open chromatin. Our results also indicate that dS is a poor

  7. Proteomics of a fuzzy organelle: interphase chromatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustatscher, Georg; Hégarat, Nadia; Wills, Karen L H; Furlan, Cristina; Bukowski-Wills, Jimi-Carlo; Hochegger, Helfrid; Rappsilber, Juri

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin proteins mediate replication, regulate expression, and ensure integrity of the genome. So far, a comprehensive inventory of interphase chromatin has not been determined. This is largely due to its heterogeneous and dynamic composition, which makes conclusive biochemical purification difficult, if not impossible. As a fuzzy organelle, it defies classical organellar proteomics and cannot be described by a single and ultimate list of protein components. Instead, we propose a new approach that provides a quantitative assessment of a protein's probability to function in chromatin. We integrate chromatin composition over a range of different biochemical and biological conditions. This resulted in interphase chromatin probabilities for 7635 human proteins, including 1840 previously uncharacterized proteins. We demonstrate the power of our large-scale data-driven annotation during the analysis of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) regulation in chromatin. Quantitative protein ontologies may provide a general alternative to list-based investigations of organelles and complement Gene Ontology. PMID:24534090

  8. Chromatin immunoprecipitation: optimization, quantitative analysis and data normalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterhansel Christoph

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromatin remodeling, histone modifications and other chromatin-related processes play a crucial role in gene regulation. A very useful technique to study these processes is chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP. ChIP is widely used for a few model systems, including Arabidopsis, but establishment of the technique for other organisms is still remarkably challenging. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of the precipitated material and normalization of the data is often underestimated, negatively affecting data quality. Results We developed a robust ChIP protocol, using maize (Zea mays as a model system, and present a general strategy to systematically optimize this protocol for any type of tissue. We propose endogenous controls for active and for repressed chromatin, and discuss various other controls that are essential for successful ChIP experiments. We experienced that the use of quantitative PCR (QPCR is crucial for obtaining high quality ChIP data and we explain why. The method of data normalization has a major impact on the quality of ChIP analyses. Therefore, we analyzed different normalization strategies, resulting in a thorough discussion of the advantages and drawbacks of the various approaches. Conclusion Here we provide a robust ChIP protocol and strategy to optimize the protocol for any type of tissue; we argue that quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR is the best method to analyze the precipitates, and present comprehensive insights into data normalization.

  9. The architects of crenarchaeal chromatin : A biophysical characterization of chromatin proteins from Sulfolobus solfataricus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, Rosalie Paula Catharina

    2014-01-01

    Understanding of chromatin organization and compaction in Archaea is currently limited. The genome of several megabasepairs long is folded by a set of small chromatin proteins to fit into the micron-sized cell. A first step in understanding archaeal chromatin organization is to study the action of

  10. Sulforaphane inhibits pancreatic cancer through disrupting Hsp90-p50Cdc37complex and direct interactions with amino acids residues of Hsp90

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Yanyan; Karagöz, G. Elif; Seo, Young Ho; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Yiqun; Yu, Yanke; Duarte, Afonso M.S.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Boelens, Rolf; Carroll, Kate; Rüdiger, Stefan G.D.; Sun, Duxin

    2012-01-01

    Sulforaphane [1-isothiocyanato-4-(methyl-sulfinyl) butane)], an isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, has been shown to possess potent chemopreventive activity. We analyzed the effect of sulforaphane on the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells. Sulforaphane inhibited pancreatic

  11. The ING tumor suppressors in cellular senescence and chromatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwig Susann

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Inhibitor of Growth (ING proteins represent a type II tumor suppressor family comprising five conserved genes, ING1 to ING5. While ING1, ING2 and ING3 proteins are stable components of the mSIN3a-HDAC complexes, the association of ING1, ING4 and ING5 with HAT protein complexes was also reported. Among these the ING1 and ING2 have been analyzed more deeply. Similar to other tumor suppressor factors the ING proteins are also involved in many cellular pathways linked to cancer and cell proliferation such as cell cycle regulation, cellular senescence, DNA repair, apoptosis, inhibition of angiogenesis and modulation of chromatin. A common structural feature of ING factors is the conserved plant homeodomain (PHD, which can bind directly to the histone mark trimethylated lysine of histone H3 (H3K4me3. PHD mutants lose the ability to undergo cellular senescence linking chromatin mark recognition with cellular senescence. ING1 and ING2 are localized in the cell nucleus and associated with chromatin modifying enzymes, linking tumor suppression directly to chromatin regulation. In line with this, the expression of ING1 in tumors is aberrant or identified point mutations are mostly localized in the PHD finger and affect histone binding. Interestingly, ING1 protein levels increase in replicative senescent cells, latter representing an efficient pathway to inhibit cancer proliferation. In association with this, suppression of p33ING1 expression prolongs replicative life span and is also sufficient to bypass oncogene-induced senescence. Recent analyses of ING1- and ING2-deficient mice confirm a tumor suppressive role of ING1 and ING2 and also indicate an essential role of ING2 in meiosis. Here we summarize the activity of ING1 and ING2 as tumor suppressors, chromatin factors and in development.

  12. Specific distribution of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae linker histone homolog HHO1p in the chromatin

    OpenAIRE

    Freidkin, Ilya; Katcoff, Don J.

    2001-01-01

    In virtually all eukaryotic organisms, linker DNA between nucleosomes is associated with a histone termed linker histone or histone H1. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, HHO1 encodes a putative linker histone with very significant homology to histone H1. The encoded protein is expressed in the nucleus, but has not been shown to affect global chromatin structure, nor has its deletion shown any detectable phenotype. In vitro chromatin assembly experiments with recombinant HHO1p have shown that it is...

  13. Nascent chromatin capture proteomics determines chromatin dynamics during DNA replication and identifies unknown fork components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alabert, Constance; Bukowski-Wills, Jimi-Carlo; Lee, Sung-Po

    2014-01-01

    replication in human cells. NCC relies on biotin-dUTP labelling of replicating DNA, affinity purification and quantitative proteomics. Comparing nascent chromatin with mature post-replicative chromatin, we provide association dynamics for 3,995 proteins. The replication machinery and 485 chromatin factors...... with experimentally derived chromatin probabilities to predict a function in nascent chromatin for 93 uncharacterized proteins, and identify FAM111A as a replication factor required for PCNA loading. Together, this provides an extensive resource to understand genome and epigenome maintenance....

  14. Chromatin Remodelers: From Function to Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot Längst

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin remodelers are key players in the regulation of chromatin accessibility and nucleosome positioning on the eukaryotic DNA, thereby essential for all DNA dependent biological processes. Thus, it is not surprising that upon of deregulation of those molecular machines healthy cells can turn into cancerous cells. Even though the remodeling enzymes are very abundant and a multitude of different enzymes and chromatin remodeling complexes exist in the cell, the particular remodeling complex with its specific nucleosome positioning features must be at the right place at the right time in order to ensure the proper regulation of the DNA dependent processes. To achieve this, chromatin remodeling complexes harbor protein domains that specifically read chromatin targeting signals, such as histone modifications, DNA sequence/structure, non-coding RNAs, histone variants or DNA bound interacting proteins. Recent studies reveal the interaction between non-coding RNAs and chromatin remodeling complexes showing importance of RNA in remodeling enzyme targeting, scaffolding and regulation. In this review, we summarize current understanding of chromatin remodeling enzyme targeting to chromatin and their role in cancer development.

  15. A microscopic analysis of Arabidopsis chromatin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Genetic information of eukaryotic organisms is stored as DNA in the nuclei of their cells. Nuclear DNA is associated with several proteins, which together form chromatin. The most abundant chromatin proteins arehistones,they arrange the initial packaging step of the DNA. DNA

  16. Chromatin-modifying proteins in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog, Cathrine K; Jensen, Klaus T; Lund, Anders Henrik

    2007-01-01

    -despite the fact that all cells in the organism contain the same genetic information. A large amount of data gathered over the last decades has demonstrated that deregulation of chromatin-modifying proteins is etiologically involved in the development and progression of cancer. Here we discuss how epigenetic...... alterations influence cancer development and review known cancer-associated alterations in chromatin-modifying proteins....

  17. Open chromatin reveals the functional maize genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Every cellular process mediated through nuclear DNA must contend with chromatin. As results from ENCODE show, open chromatin assays can efficiently integrate across diverse regulatory elements, revealing functional non-coding genome. In this study, we use a MNase hypersensitivity assay to discover o...

  18. Molecular structures guide the engineering of chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekel, Stefan J; Haynes, Karmella A

    2017-07-27

    Chromatin is a system of proteins, RNA, and DNA that interact with each other to organize and regulate genetic information within eukaryotic nuclei. Chromatin proteins carry out essential functions: packing DNA during cell division, partitioning DNA into sub-regions within the nucleus, and controlling levels of gene expression. There is a growing interest in manipulating chromatin dynamics for applications in medicine and agriculture. Progress in this area requires the identification of design rules for the chromatin system. Here, we focus on the relationship between the physical structure and function of chromatin proteins. We discuss key research that has elucidated the intrinsic properties of chromatin proteins and how this information informs design rules for synthetic systems. Recent work demonstrates that chromatin-derived peptide motifs are portable and in some cases can be customized to alter their function. Finally, we present a workflow for fusion protein design and discuss best practices for engineering chromatin to assist scientists in advancing the field of synthetic epigenetics. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. Chromatin dynamics resolved with force spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chien, Fan-Tso

    2011-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, genomic DNA is organized in chromatin fibers composed of nucleosomes as structural units. A nucleosome contains 1.7 turns of DNA wrapped around a histone octamer and is connected to the adjacent nucleosomes with linker DNA. The folding of chromatin fibers effectively increases

  20. Modulation of chromatin structure by the FACT histone chaperone complex regulates HIV-1 integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysiak, Julien; Lesbats, Paul; Mauro, Eric; Lapaillerie, Delphine; Dupuy, Jean-William; Lopez, Angelica P; Benleulmi, Mohamed Salah; Calmels, Christina; Andreola, Marie-Line; Ruff, Marc; Llano, Manuel; Delelis, Olivier; Lavigne, Marc; Parissi, Vincent

    2017-07-28

    Insertion of retroviral genome DNA occurs in the chromatin of the host cell. This step is modulated by chromatin structure as nucleosomes compaction was shown to prevent HIV-1 integration and chromatin remodeling has been reported to affect integration efficiency. LEDGF/p75-mediated targeting of the integration complex toward RNA polymerase II (polII) transcribed regions ensures optimal access to dynamic regions that are suitable for integration. Consequently, we have investigated the involvement of polII-associated factors in the regulation of HIV-1 integration. Using a pull down approach coupled with mass spectrometry, we have selected the FACT (FAcilitates Chromatin Transcription) complex as a new potential cofactor of HIV-1 integration. FACT is a histone chaperone complex associated with the polII transcription machinery and recently shown to bind LEDGF/p75. We report here that a tripartite complex can be formed between HIV-1 integrase, LEDGF/p75 and FACT in vitro and in cells. Biochemical analyzes show that FACT-dependent nucleosome disassembly promotes HIV-1 integration into chromatinized templates, and generates highly favored nucleosomal structures in vitro. This effect was found to be amplified by LEDGF/p75. Promotion of this FACT-mediated chromatin remodeling in cells both increases chromatin accessibility and stimulates HIV-1 infectivity and integration. Altogether, our data indicate that FACT regulates HIV-1 integration by inducing local nucleosomes dissociation that modulates the functional association between the incoming intasome and the targeted nucleosome.

  1. Mitotic post-translational modifications of histones promote chromatin compaction in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiteneva, Alisa; Bonfiglio, Juan Jose; Makarov, Alexandr; Colby, Thomas; Vagnarelli, Paola; Schirmer, Eric C; Matic, Ivan; Earnshaw, William C

    2017-09-01

    How eukaryotic chromosomes are compacted during mitosis has been a leading question in cell biology since the nineteenth century. Non-histone proteins such as condensin complexes contribute to chromosome shaping, but appear not to be necessary for mitotic chromatin compaction. Histone modifications are known to affect chromatin structure. As histones undergo major changes in their post-translational modifications during mitotic entry, we speculated that the spectrum of cell-cycle-specific histone modifications might contribute to chromosome compaction during mitosis. To test this hypothesis, we isolated core histones from interphase and mitotic cells and reconstituted chromatin with them. We used mass spectrometry to show that key post-translational modifications remained intact during our isolation procedure. Light, atomic force and transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that chromatin assembled from mitotic histones has a much greater tendency to aggregate than chromatin assembled from interphase histones, even under low magnesium conditions where interphase chromatin remains as separate beads-on-a-string structures. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that mitotic chromosome formation is a two-stage process with changes in the spectrum of histone post-translational modifications driving mitotic chromatin compaction, while the action of non-histone proteins such as condensin may then shape the condensed chromosomes into their classic mitotic morphology. © 2017 The Authors.

  2. Non coding RNA: sequence-specific guide for chromatin modification and DNA damage signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia eFrancia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin conformation shapes the environment in which our genome is transcribed into RNA. Transcription is a source of DNA damage, thus it often occurs concomitantly to DNA damage signaling. Growing amounts of evidence suggest that different types of RNAs can, independently from their protein-coding properties, directly affect chromatin conformation, transcription and splicing, as well as promote the activation of the DNA damage response (DDR and DNA repair. Therefore, transcription paradoxically functions to both threaten and safeguard genome integrity. On the other hand, DNA damage signaling is known to modulate chromatin to suppress transcription of the surrounding genetic unit. It is thus intriguing to understand how transcription can modulate DDR signaling while, in turn, DDR signaling represses transcription of chromatin around the DNA lesion. An unexpected player in this field is the RNA interference (RNAi machinery, which play roles in transcription, splicing and chromatin modulation in several organisms. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs and several protein factors involved in the RNAi pathway are well known master regulators of chromatin while only recent reports suggest that ncRNAs are involved in DDR signaling and homology-mediated DNA repair. Here, we discuss the experimental evidence supporting the idea that ncRNAs act at the genomic loci from which they are transcribed to modulate chromatin, DDR signaling and DNA repair.

  3. TOPICAL REVIEW: The physics of chromatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiessel, Helmut

    2003-05-01

    Recent progress has been made in the understanding of the physical properties of chromatin - the dense complex of DNA and histone proteins that occupies the nuclei of plant and animal cells. Here I will focus on the two lowest levels of the hierarchy of DNA folding into the chromatin complex. (i) The nucleosome, the chromatin repeating unit consisting of a globular aggregate of eight histone proteins with the DNA wrapped around it: its overcharging, the DNA unwrapping transition, the 'sliding' of the octamer along the DNA. (ii) The 30 nm chromatin fibre, the necklace-like structure of nucleosomes connected via linker DNA: its geometry, its mechanical properties under stretching and its response to changing ionic conditions. I will stress that chromatin combines two seemingly contradictory features: (1) high compaction of DNA within the nuclear envelope and, at the same time, (2) accessibility to genes, promoter regions and gene regulatory sequences.

  4. Organization of DNA in chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobell, H M; Tsai, C C; Gilbert, S G; Jain, S C; Sakore, T D

    1976-01-01

    Conformational changes in DNA that accompany drug intercalation have led us to ask if DNA first bends or "kinks" to accept an intercalative drug or dye. Kinking is made possible by altering the normal C2' endo deoxyribose sugar ring puckering in B DNA to a mixed sugar puckering pattern of the type C3' and partially unstacking base-pairs. A kinking scheme such as this would require minimal stereochemical rearrangement and would also involve small energies. This has prompted us to ask more generally if a conformational change such as this could be used by proteins in their interactions with nucleic acids. In this papter we describe an interesting superhelical DNA structure formed by kinking DNA every 10 base-pairs. The structure may be used in the organization of DNA in chromatin. Images PMID:1067602

  5. Organization of DNA in chromatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobell, H.M.; Tsai, C.C.; Gilbert, S.G.; Jain, S.C.; Sakore, T.D.

    1976-09-01

    Conformational changes in DNA that accompany drug intercalation have led us to ask if DNA first bends or ''kinks'' to accept an intercalative drug or dye. Kinking is made possible by altering the normal C2' endo deoxyribose sugar ring puckering in B DNA to a mixed sugar puckering pattern of the type C3' endo (3'--5')C2' endo and partially unstacking base-paris. A kinking scheme such as this would require minimal stereochemical rearrangement and would also involve small energies. This has prompted us to ask more generally if a conformational change such as this could be used by proteins in their interactions with nucleic acids. In this paper we describe an interesting superhelical DNA structure formed by kinking DNA every 10 base-pairs. The structure may be used in the organization of DNA in chromatin.

  6. Inheritance of epigenetic chromatin silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David-Rus, Diana; Mukhopadhyay, Swagatam; Lebowitz, Joel L; Sengupta, Anirvan M

    2009-05-07

    Maintenance of alternative chromatin states through cell divisions pose some fundamental constraints on the dynamics of histone modifications. In this paper, we study the systems biology of epigenetic inheritance by defining and analyzing general classes of mathematical models. We discuss how the number of modification states involved plays an essential role in the stability of epigenetic states. In addition, DNA duplication and the consequent dilution of marked histones act as a large perturbation for a stable state of histone modifications. The requirement that this large perturbation falls into the basin of attraction of the original state sometimes leads to additional constraints on effective models. Two such models, inspired by two different biological systems, are compared in their fulfilling the requirements of multistability and of recovery after DNA duplication. We conclude that in the presence of multiple histone modifications that characterize alternative epigenetic stable states, these requirements are more easily fulfilled.

  7. Micro- and nanoscale devices for the investigation of epigenetics and chromatin dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Carlos A.; Craighead, Harold G.

    2013-10-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the blueprint on which life is based and transmitted, but the way in which chromatin -- a dynamic complex of nucleic acids and proteins -- is packaged and behaves in the cellular nucleus has only begun to be investigated. Epigenetic modifications sit 'on top of' the genome and affect how DNA is compacted into chromatin and transcribed into ribonucleic acid (RNA). The packaging and modifications around the genome have been shown to exert significant influence on cellular behaviour and, in turn, human development and disease. However, conventional techniques for studying epigenetic or conformational modifications of chromosomes have inherent limitations and, therefore, new methods based on micro- and nanoscale devices have been sought. Here, we review the development of these devices and explore their use in the study of DNA modifications, chromatin modifications and higher-order chromatin structures.

  8. New insights into nucleosome and chromatin structure: an ordered state or a disordered affair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luger, Karolin; Dechassa, Mekonnen L.; Tremethick, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The compaction of genomic DNA into chromatin has profound implications for the regulation of key processes such as transcription, replication and DNA repair. Nucleosomes, the repeating building blocks of chromatin, vary in the composition of their histone protein components. This is the result of the incorporation of variant histones and post-translational modifications of histone amino acid side chains. The resulting changes in nucleosome structure, stability and dynamics affect the compaction of nucleosomal arrays into higher-order structures. It is becoming clear that chromatin structures are not nearly as uniform and regular as previously assumed. This implies that chromatin structure must also be viewed in the context of specific biological functions. PMID:22722606

  9. Cryo-electron microscopy of chromatin biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Marcus D; Costa, Alessandro

    2017-06-01

    The basic unit of chromatin, the nucleosome core particle (NCP), controls how DNA in eukaryotic cells is compacted, replicated and read. Since its discovery, biochemists have sought to understand how this protein-DNA complex can help to control so many diverse tasks. Recent electron-microscopy (EM) studies on NCP-containing assemblies have helped to describe important chromatin transactions at a molecular level. With the implementation of recent technical advances in single-particle EM, our understanding of how nucleosomes are recognized and read looks to take a leap forward. In this review, the authors highlight recent advances in the architectural understanding of chromatin biology elucidated by EM.

  10. Extensive Variation in Chromatin States Across Humans

    KAUST Repository

    Kasowski, M.

    2013-10-17

    The majority of disease-associated variants lie outside protein-coding regions, suggesting a link between variation in regulatory regions and disease predisposition. We studied differences in chromatin states using five histone modifications, cohesin, and CTCF in lymphoblastoid lines from 19 individuals of diverse ancestry. We found extensive signal variation in regulatory regions, which often switch between active and repressed states across individuals. Enhancer activity is particularly diverse among individuals, whereas gene expression remains relatively stable. Chromatin variability shows genetic inheritance in trios, correlates with genetic variation and population divergence, and is associated with disruptions of transcription factor binding motifs. Overall, our results provide insights into chromatin variation among humans.

  11. Roles of chromatin insulator proteins in higher-order chromatin organization and transcription regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelmann, Jutta; Valeri, Alessandro; Guillou, Emmanuelle; Cuvier, Olivier; Nollmann, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic chromosomes are condensed into several hierarchical levels of complexity: DNA is wrapped around core histones to form nucleosomes, nucleosomes form a higher-order structure called chromatin, and chromatin is subsequently compartmentalized in part by the combination of multiple specific or unspecific long-range contacts. The conformation of chromatin at these three levels greatly influences DNA metabolism and transcription. One class of chromatin regulatory proteins called insulator factors may organize chromatin both locally, by setting up barriers between heterochromatin and euchromatin, and globally by establishing platforms for long-range interactions. Here, we review recent data revealing a global role of insulator proteins in the regulation of transcription through the formation of clusters of long-range interactions that impact different levels of chromatin organization. PMID:21983085

  12. Chromatin Pioneers | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taking advantage of their ability to explore provocative ideas, NCI investigators pioneered the study of chromatin to demonstrate its functional importance and lay the groundwork for understanding its role in cancer and other diseases.

  13. Chromatin epigenomic domain folding: size matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand R. Caré

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, chromatin is coated with epigenetic marks which induce differential gene expression profiles and eventually lead to different cellular phenotypes. One of the challenges of contemporary cell biology is to relate the wealth of epigenomic data with the observed physical properties of chromatin. In this study, we present a polymer physics framework that takes into account the sizes of epigenomic domains. We build a model of chromatin as a block copolymer made of domains with various sizes. This model produces a rich set of conformations which is well explained by finite-size scaling analysis of the coil-globule transition of epigenomic domains. Our results suggest that size-dependent folding of epigenomic domains may be a crucial physical mechanism able to provide chromatin with tissue-specific folding states, these being associated with differential gene expression.

  14. Chromatin modification by PSC occurs at one PSC per nucleosome and does not require the acidic patch of histone H2A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley M Lo

    Full Text Available Chromatin architecture is regulated through both enzymatic and non-enzymatic activities. For example, the Polycomb Group (PcG proteins maintain developmental gene silencing using an array of chromatin-based mechanisms. The essential Drosophila PcG protein, Posterior Sex Combs (PSC, compacts chromatin and inhibits chromatin remodeling and transcription through a non-enzymatic mechanism involving nucleosome bridging. Nucleosome bridging is achieved through a combination of nucleosome binding and self-interaction. Precisely how PSC interacts with chromatin to bridge nucleosomes is not known and is the subject of this work. We determine the stoichiometry of PSC-chromatin interactions in compact chromatin (in which nucleosomes are bridged using Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM. We find that full compaction occurs with one PSC per nucleosome. In addition to compacting chromatin, we show that PSC oligomerizes nucleosome arrays. PSC-mediated oligomerization of chromatin occurs at similar stoichiometry as compaction suggesting it may also involve nucleosome bridging. Interactions between the tail of histone H4 and the acidic patch of histone H2A are important for chromatin folding and oligomerization, and several chromatin proteins bind the histone H2A acidic patch. However, mutation of the acidic patch of histone H2A does not affect PSC's ability to inhibit chromatin remodeling or bridge nucleosomes. In fact, PSC does not require nucleosomes for bridging activity but can bridge naked DNA segments. PSC clusters nucleosomes on sparsely assembled templates, suggesting it interacts preferentially with nucleosomes over bare DNA. This may be due to the ability of PSC to bind free histones. Our data are consistent with a model in which each PSC binds a nucleosome and at least one other PSC to directly bridge nucleosomes and compact chromatin, but also suggest that naked DNA can be included in compacted structures. We discuss how our data

  15. Probabilistic modelling of chromatin code landscape reveals functional diversity of enhancer-like chromatin states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Troyanskaya, Olga G.

    2016-01-01

    Interpreting the functional state of chromatin from the combinatorial binding patterns of chromatin factors, that is, the chromatin codes, is crucial for decoding the epigenetic state of the cell. Here we present a systematic map of Drosophila chromatin states derived from data-driven probabilistic modelling of dependencies between chromatin factors. Our model not only recapitulates enhancer-like chromatin states as indicated by widely used enhancer marks but also divides these states into three functionally distinct groups, of which only one specific group possesses active enhancer activity. Moreover, we discover a strong association between one specific enhancer state and RNA Polymerase II pausing, linking transcription regulatory potential and chromatin organization. We also observe that with the exception of long-intron genes, chromatin state transition positions in transcriptionally active genes align with an absolute distance to their corresponding transcription start site, regardless of gene length. Using our method, we provide a resource that helps elucidate the functional and spatial organization of the chromatin code landscape. PMID:26841971

  16. Modeling gene regulation from paired expression and chromatin accessibility data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, Zhana; Chen, Xi; Jiang, Rui; Wang, Yong; Wong, Wing Hung

    2017-06-20

    The rapid increase of genome-wide datasets on gene expression, chromatin states, and transcription factor (TF) binding locations offers an exciting opportunity to interpret the information encoded in genomes and epigenomes. This task can be challenging as it requires joint modeling of context-specific activation of cis-regulatory elements (REs) and the effects on transcription of associated regulatory factors. To meet this challenge, we propose a statistical approach based on paired expression and chromatin accessibility (PECA) data across diverse cellular contexts. In our approach, we model (i) the localization to REs of chromatin regulators (CRs) based on their interaction with sequence-specific TFs, (ii) the activation of REs due to CRs that are localized to them, and (iii) the effect of TFs bound to activated REs on the transcription of target genes (TGs). The transcriptional regulatory network inferred by PECA provides a detailed view of how trans- and cis-regulatory elements work together to affect gene expression in a context-specific manner. We illustrate the feasibility of this approach by analyzing paired expression and accessibility data from the mouse Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) and explore various applications of the resulting model.

  17. DNA methylation-independent removable insulator controls chromatin remodeling at the HOXA locus via retinoic acid signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Ko; Nakamoto, Masafumi; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-12-15

    Chromatin insulators partition the genome into functional units to control gene expression, particularly in complex chromosomal regions. The CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is an insulator-binding protein that functions in transcriptional regulation and higher-order chromatin formation. Variable CTCF-binding sites have been identified to be cell type-specific partly due to differential DNA methylation. Here, we show that DNA methylation-independent removable CTCF insulator is responsible for retinoic acid (RA)-mediated higher-order chromatin remodeling in the human HOXA gene locus. Detailed chromatin analysis characterized multiple CTCF-enriched sites and RA-responsive enhancers at this locus. These regulatory elements and transcriptionally silent HOXA genes are closely positioned under basal conditions. Notably, upon RA signaling, the RAR/RXR transcription factor induced loss of adjacent CTCF binding and changed the higher-order chromatin conformation of the overall locus. Targeted disruption of a CTCF site by genome editing with zinc finger nucleases and CRISPR/Cas9 system showed that the site is required for chromatin conformations that maintain the initial associations among insulators, enhancers and promoters. The results indicate that the initial chromatin conformation affects subsequent RA-induced HOXA gene activation. Our study uncovers that a removable insulator spatiotemporally switches higher-order chromatin and multiple gene activities via cooperation of CTCF and key transcription factors. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Chromatin structure and replication origins: determinants of chromosome replication and nuclear organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Owen K; Aladjem, Mirit I

    2014-10-09

    The DNA replication program is, in part, determined by the epigenetic landscape that governs local chromosome architecture and directs chromosome duplication. Replication must coordinate with other biochemical processes occurring concomitantly on chromatin, such as transcription and remodeling, to insure accurate duplication of both genetic and epigenetic features and to preserve genomic stability. The importance of genome architecture and chromatin looping in coordinating cellular processes on chromatin is illustrated by two recent sets of discoveries. First, chromatin-associated proteins that are not part of the core replication machinery were shown to affect the timing of DNA replication. These chromatin-associated proteins could be working in concert, or perhaps in competition, with the transcriptional machinery and with chromatin modifiers to determine the spatial and temporal organization of replication initiation events. Second, epigenetic interactions are mediated by DNA sequences that determine chromosomal replication. In this review, we summarize recent findings and current models linking spatial and temporal regulation of the replication program with epigenetic signaling. We discuss these issues in the context of the genome's three-dimensional structure with an emphasis on events occurring during the initiation of DNA replication. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Histone deacetylase 2 is required for chromatin condensation and subsequent enucleation of cultured mouse fetal erythroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Peng; Yeh, Victor; Ramirez, Tzutzuy; Murata-Hori, Maki; Lodish, Harvey F

    2010-12-01

    During the final stages of differentiation of mammalian erythroid cells, the chromatin is condensed and enucleated. We previously reported that Rac GTPases and their downstream target, mammalian homolog of Drosophila diaphanous 2 (mDia2), are required for enucleation of in vitro cultured mouse fetal liver erythroblasts. However, it is not clear how chromatin condensation is achieved and whether it is required for enucleation. Mouse fetal liver erythroblasts were purified from embryonic day 14.5 pregnant mice and cultured in erythropoietin-containing medium. Enucleation was determined by flow-cytometry based analysis after treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors or infection with lentiviral short hairpin RNA. We showed that histone deacetylases play critical roles in chromatin condensation and enucleation in cultured mouse fetal liver erythroblasts. Enzymatic inhibition of histone deacetylases by trichostatin A or valproic acid prior to the start of enucleation blocked chromatin condensation, contractile actin ring formation and enucleation. We further demonstrated that histone deacetylases 1, 2, 3 and 5 are highly expressed in mouse fetal erythroblasts. Short hairpin RNA down-regulation of histone deacetylase 2, but not of the other histone deacetylases, phenotypically mimicked the effect of trichostatin A or valproic acid treatment, causing significant inhibition of chromatin condensation and enucleation. Importantly, knock-down of histone deacetylase 2 did not affect erythroblast proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis. These results identify histone deacetylase 2 as an important regulator, mediating chromatin condensation and enucleation in the final stages of mammalian erythropoiesis.

  20. A Computer Lab Exploring Evolutionary Aspects of Chromatin Structure and Dynamics for an Undergraduate Chromatin Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eirin-Lopez, Jose M.

    2013-01-01

    The study of chromatin constitutes one of the most active research fields in life sciences, being subject to constant revisions that continuously redefine the state of the art in its knowledge. As every other rapidly changing field, chromatin biology requires clear and straightforward educational strategies able to efficiently translate such a…

  1. Ligation-mediated PCR for chromatin-structure analysis of interphase and metaphase chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkovitz, M; Riggs, A D

    1997-02-01

    Chromatin structure is becoming increasingly recognized as important for a full understanding of gene function and cell memory. With regard to cell memory, which involves the transfer of chromatin-encoded epigenetic information from one cell generation to another, the detailed structure of metaphase chromatin is of crucial importance. In this paper we describe methods for the use of dimethyl sulfate, DNase I, and potassium permanganate for in vivo footprinting and chromatin analysis, with special emphasis on studies of metaphase cells. We review the use of ligation-mediated PCR for the analysis of chromatin, including the human phosphoglycerate kinase promoter, and also report initial studies of a matrix attachment region near the human beta-interferon gene.

  2. β-Actin-dependent global chromatin organization and gene expression programs control cellular identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xin; Almuzzaini, Bader; Drou, Nizar; Kremb, Stephan; Yousif, Ayman; Farrants, Ann-Kristin Östlund; Gunsalus, Kristin; Percipalle, Piergiorgio

    2017-11-03

    During differentiation and development, cell fate and identity are established by waves of genetic reprogramming. Although the mechanisms are largely unknown, during these events, dynamic chromatin reorganization is likely to ensure that multiple genes involved in the same cellular functions are coregulated, depending on the nuclear environment. In this study, using high-content screening of embryonic fibroblasts from a β-actin knockout (KO) mouse, we found major chromatin rearrangements and changes in histone modifications, such as methylated histone (H)3-lysine-(K)9. Genome-wide H3K9 trimethylation-(Me)3 landscape changes correlate with gene up- and down-regulation in β-actin KO cells. Mechanistically, we found loss of chromatin association by the Brahma-related gene (Brg)/Brahma-associated factor (BAF) chromatin remodeling complex subunit Brg1 in the absence of β-actin. This actin-dependent chromatin reorganization was concomitant with the up-regulation of sets of genes involved in angiogenesis, cytoskeletal organization, and myofibroblast features in β-actin KO cells. Some of these genes and phenotypes were gained in a β-actin dose-dependent manner. Moreover, reintroducing a nuclear localization signal-containing β-actin in the knockout cells affected nuclear features and gene expression. Our results suggest that, by affecting the genome-wide organization of heterochromatin through the chromatin-binding activity of the BAF complex, β-actin plays an essential role in the determination of gene expression programs and cellular identity.-Xie, X., Almuzzaini, B., Drou, N., Kremb, S., Yousif, A., Östlund Farrants, A.-K., Gunsalus, K., Percipalle, P. β-Actin-dependent global chromatin organization and gene expression programs control cellular identity. © FASEB.

  3. The differential regulation of human ACT1 isoforms by Hsp90 in IL-17 signaling1

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Ling; Wang, Chenhui; Boisson, Bertrand; Misra, Saurav; Rayman, Patricia; Finke, James H.; Puel, Anne; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Li, Xiaoxia

    2014-01-01

    IL-17 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases including psoriasis. ACT1 is an essential adaptor molecule in the IL-17 signaling pathway. A missense single nucleotide polymorphism (rs33980500; SNP-D10N) that resulted in the substitution of an asparagine for an aspartic acid at position 10 of ACT1 (ACT1-D10N) is associated with psoriasis susceptibility. Due to alternative splicing in humans, SNP-D10N encodes two mutated ACT1 proteins, ACT1-D10N and A...

  4. Expression pattern of PRM2, HSP90 and WNT5A in male partners of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-12-13

    Dec 13, 2012 ... is associated with recurrent spontaneous abortion following natural or assisted conception (Venkatesh et al. 2011b). Stud- ies have suggested that pregnancy is unlikely to occur when sperm nuclear DFI is above a certain threshold value. DFI is the ratio of damaged and (undamaged) native DNA found.

  5. Local Inhibition of HSP90 to Prevent Intimal Hyperplasia after Balloon Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    pluronic gel, intraluminal or both). Harvest and fixation of tissues 14 days post injury. 2) Specific objectives: Obtain IACUC approval...fastest growing treatments for PAD; however, restenosis secondary to intimal hyperplasia (IH) remains a major cause of treatment failure. The...preventing IH. The key contribution of the proposed research will provide a major advance that is expected to lead to development of a new treatment strategy

  6. Clinical Development of Gamitrinib, a Novel Mitochondrial-Targeted Small Molecule Hsp90 Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    conditions may result from dysfunctional mitochondrial metabolism (see above), and/or increased nitric oxide generation from arginine, a possibility suggested...energy production, including HK- II-dependent glycolysis21, and oxidative phosphorylation (this study), especially under stress conditions of hypoxia ... signalling role of oncogenes in these responses40, have brought into question the function of mitochondrial bioenergetics, and in particular oxidative

  7. Clinical Development of Gamitrinib, a Novel Mitochondrial-Targeted Small Molecule Hsp90 Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    characterization of Gamitrinib in anticipation of IND filing and human testing. Specifically, ADME (adsorption, distribution, metabolism and... Testosterone (CYP3A4). Table 1. CYP isoform inhibition. Data are expressed as IC50 concentrations (µM) for both Gamitrinib and the relevant positive...medium to slow clearance of 85.6 ml/min/Kg (Table 7). Importantly, the metabolism of Gamitrinib in vivo differed from that of 17-AAG, as there was no

  8. Expression pattern of PRM2, HSP90 and WNT5A in male partners of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Laboratory for Molecular Reproduction and Genetics, Department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110 029, India; Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110 029, India; Department of Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, ...

  9. Clinical Development of Gamitrinib, a Novel Mitochondrial-Targeted Small Molecule Hsp90 Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    University of Pennsylvania Veterinary School Location: Philadelphia, PA Contribution: Collaboration on histologic characterization of TRAP-1 knockout...days, P = .008 by log-rank Mantel-Cox test) (Figure 5C). Histologic analysis of GBMs harvested from mice receiving the combination treatment showed...unknown, but protein folding quality control within the unique anatomy of mitochondria (18) is required to buffer the risk of proteotoxic stress (19

  10. Effect of Resuscitation Fluids on the Expression of hsp90α in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Pharmaceutical Abstract, Chemical Abstracts, Embase, Index Copernicus, EBSCO, African. Index Medicus, JournalSeek, Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition, Directory of Open Access Journals. (DOAJ), African Journal Online, Bioline International, Open-J-Gate and Pharmacy Abstracts. INTRODUCTION.

  11. Imaging Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90) Activity in Hormone-Refractory Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    same antibody is used alone or conjugated to a high- energy radioisotope for radioimmunotherapy. CONCLUSION The in vivo tumor uptake quantified from PET...emitting enzyme (such s firefly luciferase) in target cells and tissues [19]. In the pres- nce of its substrate (such as d-luciferin), an energy ...gene-expression patterns [19], measuring gene ransfer efficiency [20], monitoring tumor growth and responsePlease cite this article in press as: Niu G

  12. Quantitative analysis of chromatin accessibility in mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Baowen; Yu, Juan; Chang, Luyuan; Lei, Jiafan; Wen, Zengqi; Liu, Cuifang; Mao, Guankun; Wang, Kehui; Shen, Jie; Xu, Xueqing

    2017-11-04

    Genomic DNA of eukaryotic cells is hierarchically packaged into chromatin by histones. The dynamic organization of chromatin fibers plays a critical role in the regulation of gene transcription and other DNA-associated biological processes. Recently, numerous approaches have been developed to map the chromatin organization by characterizing chromatin accessibilities in genome-wide. However, reliable methods to quantitatively map chromatin accessibility are not well-established, especially not on a genome-wide scale. Here, we developed a modified MNase-seq for mouse embryonic fibroblasts, wherein chromatin was partially digested at multiple digestion times using micrococcal nuclease (MNase), allowing quantitative analysis of local yet genome-wide chromatin compaction. Our results provide strong evidence that the chromatin accessibility at promoter regions are positively correlated with gene activity. In conclusion, our assay is an ideal tool for the quantitative study of gene regulation in the perspective of chromatin accessibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. New mitotic regulators released from chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Hideki; Gruss, Oliver J

    2013-12-16

    Faithful action of the mitotic spindle segregates duplicated chromosomes into daughter cells. Perturbations of this process result in chromosome mis-segregation, leading to chromosomal instability and cancer development. Chromosomes are not simply passengers segregated by spindle microtubules but rather play a major active role in spindle assembly. The GTP bound form of the Ran GTPase (RanGTP), produced around chromosomes, locally activates spindle assembly factors. Recent studies have uncovered that chromosomes organize mitosis beyond spindle formation. They distinctly regulate other mitotic events, such as spindle maintenance in anaphase, which is essential for chromosome segregation. Furthermore, the direct function of chromosomes is not only to produce RanGTP but, in addition, to release key mitotic regulators from chromatin. Chromatin-remodeling factors and nuclear pore complex proteins, which have established functions on chromatin in interphase, dissociate from mitotic chromatin and function in spindle assembly or maintenance. Thus, chromosomes actively organize their own segregation using chromatin-releasing mitotic regulators as well as RanGTP.

  14. Chromatin proteins: key responders to stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen T Smith

    Full Text Available Environments can be ever-changing and stresses are commonplace. In order for organisms to survive, they need to be able to respond to change and adapt to new conditions. Fortunately, many organisms have systems in place that enable dynamic adaptation to immediate stresses and changes within the environment. Much of this cellular response is coordinated by modulating the structure and accessibility of the genome. In eukaryotic cells, the genome is packaged and rolled up by histone proteins to create a series of DNA/histone core structures known as nucleosomes; these are further condensed into chromatin. The degree and nature of the condensation can in turn determine which genes are transcribed. Histones can be modified chemically by a large number of proteins that are thereby responsible for dynamic changes in gene expression. In this Primer we discuss findings from a study published in this issue of PLoS Biology by Weiner et al. that highlight how chromatin structure and chromatin binding proteins alter transcription in response to environmental changes and stresses. Their study reveals the importance of chromatin in mediating the speed and amplitude of stress responses in cells and suggests that chromatin is a critically important component of the cellular response to stress.

  15. New mitotic regulators released from chromatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki eYokoyama

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Faithful action of the mitotic spindle segregates duplicated chromosomes into daughter cells. Perturbations of this process result in chromosome mis-segregation, leading to chromosomal instability and cancer development. Chromosomes are not simply passengers segregated by spindle microtubules but rather play a major active role in spindle assembly. The GTP bound form of the Ran GTPase (RanGTP, produced around chromosomes, locally activates spindle assembly factors. Recent studies have uncovered that chromosomes organize mitosis beyond spindle formation. They distinctly regulate other mitotic events, such as spindle maintenance in anaphase, which is essential for chromosome segregation. Furthermore, the direct function of chromosomes is not only to produce RanGTP but, in addition, to release key mitotic regulators from chromatin. Chromatin-remodeling factors and nuclear pore complex proteins, which have established functions on chromatin in interphase, dissociate from mitotic chromatin and function in spindle assembly or maintenance. Thus, chromosomes actively organize their own segregation using chromatin-releasing mitotic regulators as well as RanGTP.

  16. Influence of polynucleosome preparation methods on sedimentation velocity analysis of chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujirai, Tomoya; Machida, Shinichi; Osakabe, Akihisa; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi

    2017-04-01

    Chromatin dynamics and higher order structures play essential roles in genomic DNA functions. Histone variants and histone post-translational modifications are involved in the regulation of chromatin structure and dynamics, cooperatively with DNA methylation and chromatin binding proteins. Therefore, studies of higher-order chromatin conformations have become important to reveal how genomic DNA is regulated during DNA transcription, replication, recombination and repair. The sedimentation velocity analysis by analytical ultracentrifugation has been commonly used to evaluate the higher-order conformation of in vitro reconstituted polynucleosomes, as model chromatin. Three major preparation methods for the unpurified, purified, and partially purified polynucleosomes have been reported so far. It is important to clarify the effects of the different polynucleosome preparation methods on the sedimentation profiles. To accomplish this, in the present study, we prepared unpurified, purified and partially purified polynucleosomes, and compared their sedimentation velocity profiles by analytical ultracentrifugation. In addition, we tested how the histone occupancy affects the sedimentation velocities of polynucleosomes. Our results revealed how free histones and polynucleosome aggregates affect the sedimentation velocity profiles of the polynucleosomes, in the absence and presence of Mg2+ ions. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  17. [Structural studies of chromatin remodeling factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volokh, O I; Derkacheva, N I; Studitsky, V M; Sokolova, O S

    2016-01-01

    Changes of chromatin structure require participation of chromatin remodeling factors (CRFs), which are ATP-dependent multisubunit complexes that change the structure of the nucleosome without covalently modifying its components. CRFs act together with other protein factors to regulate the extent of chromatin condensation. Four CRF families are currently distinguished based on their structural and biochemical characteristics: SWI/SNF, ISWI, Mi-2/CHD, and SWR/INO80. X-ray diffraction analysis and electron microscopy are the main methods to obtain structural information about macromolecules. CRFs are difficult to obtain in crystal because of their large sizes and structural heterogeneity, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is mostly employed in their structural studies. The review considers all structures obtained for CRFs by TEM and discusses several models of CRF-nucleosome interactions.

  18. Chromatin proteins and modifications as drug targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helin, Kristian; Dhanak, Dashyant

    2013-01-01

    is a frequent event in disease, and the first epigenetic-based therapies for cancer treatment have been approved. A generation of new classes of potent and specific inhibitors for several chromatin-associated proteins have shown promise in preclinical trials. Although the biology of epigenetic regulation......A plethora of groundbreaking studies have demonstrated the importance of chromatin-associated proteins and post-translational modifications of histones, proteins and DNA (so-called epigenetic modifications) for transcriptional control and normal development. Disruption of epigenetic control...

  19. Replicating chromatin: a tale of histones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Anja

    2009-01-01

    framework of chromatin and carry information to specify higher-order organization and gene expression. When replication forks traverse the chromosomes, nucleosomes are transiently disrupted, allowing the replication machinery to gain access to DNA. Histone recycling, together with new deposition, ensures...... reassembly on nascent DNA strands. The aim of this review is to discuss how histones - new and old - are handled at the replication fork, highlighting new mechanistic insights and revisiting old paradigms.......Chromatin serves structural and functional roles crucial for genome stability and correct gene expression. This organization must be reproduced on daughter strands during replication to maintain proper overlay of epigenetic fabric onto genetic sequence. Nucleosomes constitute the structural...

  20. Putative molecular mechanism underlying sperm chromatin remodelling is regulated by reproductive hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill-Sharma Manjeet Kaur

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The putative regulatory role of the male reproductive hormones in the molecular mechanism underlying chromatin condensation remains poorly understood. In the past decade, we developed two adult male rat models wherein functional deficits of testosterone or FSH, produced after treatments with 20 mg/Kg/d of cyproterone acetate (CPA per os, for a period of 15 days or 3 mg/Kg/d of fluphenazine decanoate (FD subcutaneously, for a period of 60 days, respectively, affected the rate of sperm chromatin decondensation in vitro. These rat models have been used in the current study in order to delineate the putative roles of testosterone and FSH in the molecular mechanism underlying remodelling of sperm chromatin. Results We report that deficits of both testosterone and FSH affected the turnover of polyubiquitylated histones and led to their accumulation in the testis. Functional deficits of testosterone reduced expression of MIWI, the 5-methyl cap binding RNA-binding protein (PIWIlike murine homologue of the Drosophila protein PIWI/P-element induced wimpy testis containing a PAZ/Piwi-Argonaut-Zwille domain and levels of histone deacetylase1 (HDAC1, ubiquitin ligating enzyme (URE-B1/E3, 20S proteasome α1 concomitant with reduced expression of ubiquitin activating enzyme (ube1, conjugating enzyme (ube2d2, chromodomain Y like protein (cdyl, bromodomain testis specific protein (brdt, hdac6 (histone deacetylase6, androgen-dependent homeobox placentae embryonic protein (pem/RhoX5, histones h2b and th3 (testis-specific h3. Functional deficits of FSH reduced the expression of cdyl and brdt genes in the testis, affected turnover of ubiquitylated histones, stalled the physiological DNA repair mechanism and culminated in spermiation of DNA damaged sperm. Conclusions We aver that deficits of both testosterone and FSH differentially affected the process of sperm chromatin remodelling through subtle changes in the ‘chromatin condensation

  1. Regional tumour glutamine supply affects chromatin and cell identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højfeldt, Jonas W; Helin, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Limited perfusion of solid tumours produces a nutrient-deprived tumour core microenvironment. Low glutamine levels in the tumour core are now shown to lead to reduced levels of α-ketoglutarate and decreased histone demethylase activity, thereby promoting a less differentiated and more therapy...

  2. Chromatin Repressive Complexes in Stem Cells, Development, and Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Anne; Helin, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    The chromatin environment is essential for the correct specification and preservation of cell identity through modulation and maintenance of transcription patterns. Many chromatin regulators are required for development, stem cell maintenance, and differentiation. Here, we review the roles...

  3. Toxoplasma gondii gene expression is under the control of regulatory pathways acting through chromatin structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bougdour A.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The activity state of a gene is determined by a complex regulatory network of co-acting factors affecting the structure of the chromatin into which the gene is embedded. While significant changes of the transcriptome occur during cell differentiation in apicomplexan parasites, basic mechanisms controlling gene expression are still unknown. Recent studies support and expand the concept of the chromatin environment being key factor for the control of transcriptional activity in these lower eukaryotes organisms. Here, we review recent advances in the field of epigenetic gene regulation in Toxoplasma gondii, the model apicomplexan.

  4. Chromatin Modifications Associated With Diabetes and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schones, Dustin E; Leung, Amy; Natarajan, Rama

    2015-07-01

    The incidence of obesity across the globe has doubled over the past several decades, leading to escalating rates of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and other complications. Given this dramatic rise in disease incidence, understanding the cause of these diseases is therefore of paramount importance. Metabolic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes mellitus, result from a multitude of genetic and environmental factors. Although the genetic basis of these diseases has been extensively studied, the molecular pathways whereby environmental factors influence disease progression are only beginning to be understood. One manner by which environmental factors can contribute to disease progression is through modifications to chromatin. The highly structured packaging of the genome into the nucleus through chromatin has been shown to be fundamental to tissue-specific gene regulation. Modifications to chromatin can regulate gene expression and are involved in a myriad of biological functions, and hence, disruption of these modifications is central to many human diseases. These modifications can furthermore be epigenetic in nature, thereby contributing to prolonged disease risk. Recent work has demonstrated that modifications to chromatin are associated with the progression of both diabetes mellitus and obesity, which is the subject of this review. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Keystone Symposia on Epigenomics and Chromatin Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnskjær, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Keystone Symposia kicked off the start of 2012 with two joint meetings on Epigenomics and Chromatin Dynamics and a star-studded list of speakers. Held in Keystone, CO, January 17-22, and organized by Steven Jacobsen and Steven Henikoff and by Bradley Cairns and Geneviève Almouzni, respectively...

  6. Fibronectin: a chromatin-associated protein?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardi, L; Siri, A; Carnemolla, B; Santi, L; Gardner, W D; Hoch, S O

    1979-11-01

    We have previously reported that chromatin preparations from human cultured fibroblasts contain a single homologous serum protein. In this paper we present evidence, based on immunological identity and physicochemical properties, that this serum protein is fibronectin. Furthermore, using a radioimmunoassay system, we have estimated that fibronectin represents about 0.7% of the total protein in both chromatin preparations and whole fibroblasts. Using a nitrocellulose filter assay system, we also show that fibronectin is a DNA-binding protein having an equilibrium constant of 4.6 x 10(-6) M. Equilibrium competition experiments have demonstrated that fibronectin has the ability to differentiate among nucleotides, indicating that fibronectin-DNA interaction is at least partially specific, and that a minimum polymer length of 12-18 nucleotides is required for effective binding to occur. Fibronectin has been isolated readily from plasma using DNA-affinity chromatography. We do not have direct evidence that fibronectin is an actual nonhistone chromosomal protein, but fibronectin is a DNA-binding protein (at least under in vitro assay conditions) and appears to be a normal constituent of chromatin as chromatin is currently isolated from cell nuclei.

  7. Chromatin and epigenetics in all their states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bey, Till; Jamge, Suraj; Klemme, Sonja; Komar, Dorota Natalia; Gall, Le Sabine; Mikulski, Pawel; Schmidt, Martin; Zicola, Johan; Berr, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    In January 2016, the first Epigenetic and Chromatin Regulation of Plant Traits conference was held in Strasbourg, France. An all-star lineup of speakers, a packed audience of 130 participants from over 20 countries, and a friendly scientific atmosphere contributed to make this conference a

  8. On the role of inter-nucleosomal interactions and intrinsic nucleosome dynamics in chromatin function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladyslaw A. Krajewski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is emerging that many diseases result from defects in gene functions, which, in turn, depend on the local chromatin environment of a gene. However, it still remains not fully clear how chromatin activity code is ‘translated’ to the particular ‘activating’ or ‘repressing’ chromatin structural transition. Commonly, chromatin remodeling in vitro was studied using mononucleosomes as a model. However, recent data suggest that structural reorganization of a single mononucleosome is not equal to remodeling of a nucleosome particle under multinucleosomal content – such as, interaction of nucleosomes via flexible histone termini could significantly alter the mode (and the resulting products of nucleosome structural transitions. It is becoming evident that a nucleosome array does not constitute just a ‘polymer’ of individual ‘canonical’ nucleosomes due to multiple inter-nucleosomal interactions which affect nucleosome dynamics and structure. It could be hypothesized, that inter-nucleosomal interactions could act in cooperation with nucleosome inherent dynamics to orchestrate DNA-based processes and promote formation and stabilization of highly-dynamic, accessible structure of a nucleosome array. In the proposed paper we would like to discuss the nucleosome dynamics within the chromatin fiber mainly as it pertains to the roles of the structural changes mediated by inter-nucleosomal interactions.

  9. Concerted Flexibility of Chromatin Structure, Methylome, and Histone Modifications along with Plant Stress Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatial organization of chromosome structure within the interphase nucleus, as well as the patterns of methylome and histone modifications, represent intersecting layers that influence genome accessibility and function. This review is focused on the plastic nature of chromatin structure and epigenetic marks in association to stress situations. The use of chemical compounds (epigenetic drugs or T-DNA-mediated mutagenesis affecting epigenetic regulators (epi-mutants are discussed as being important tools for studying the impact of deregulated epigenetic backgrounds on gene function and phenotype. The inheritability of epigenetic marks and chromatin configurations along successive generations are interpreted as a way for plants to “communicate” past experiences of stress sensing. A mechanistic understanding of chromatin and epigenetics plasticity in plant response to stress, including tissue- and genotype-specific epigenetic patterns, may help to reveal the epigenetics contributions for genome and phenotype regulation.

  10. Chromatin Dynamics of the mouse β-globin locus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P.C. van de Corput (Mariëtte); E. de Boer (Ernie); T.A. Knoch (Tobias); W.A. van Cappellen (Gert); M. Lesnussa (Michael); H.J.F.M.M. Eussen (Bert)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractLately it has become more clear that (subtle) changes in 3D organization of chromatin can either trigger transcription or silence genes or gene clusters. It has also been postulated that due to changes in chromatin structure, a change in chromatin accessibility of transcription factors

  11. Spatially confined folding of chromatin in the interphase nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateos-Langerak, Julio; Bohn, Manfred; de Leeuw, Wim; Giromus, Osdilly; Manders, Erik M. M.; Verschure, Pernette J.; Indemans, Mireille H. G.; Gierman, Hinco J.; Heermann, Dieter W.; van Driel, Roel; Goetze, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    Genome function in higher eukaryotes involves major changes in the spatial organization of the chromatin fiber. Nevertheless, our understanding of chromatin folding is remarkably limited. Polymer models have been used to describe chromatin folding. However, none of the proposed models gives a

  12. Direct Chromatin PCR (DC-PCR): Hypotonic Conditions Allow Differentiation of Chromatin States during Thermal Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatolin, Sergei; Khan, Shahper N.; Reu, Frederic J.

    2012-01-01

    Current methods to study chromatin configuration are not well suited for high throughput drug screening since they require large cell numbers and multiple experimental steps that include centrifugation for isolation of nuclei or DNA. Here we show that site specific chromatin analysis can be achieved in one step by simply performing direct chromatin PCR (DC-PCR) on cells. The basic underlying observation was that standard hypotonic PCR buffers prevent global cellular chromatin solubilization during thermal cycling while more loosely organized chromatin can be amplified. Despite repeated heating to >90°C, 41 of 61 tested 5′ sequences of silenced genes (CDKN2A, PU.1, IRF4, FOSB, CD34) were not amplifiable while 47 could be amplified from expressing cells. Two gene regions (IRF4, FOSB) even required pre-heating of cells in isotonic media to allow this differentiation; otherwise none of 19 assayed sequences yielded PCR products. Cells with baseline expression or epigenetic reactivation gave similar DC-PCR results. Silencing during differentiation of CD34 positive cord blood cells closed respective chromatin while treatment of myeloma cells with an IRF4 transcriptional inhibitor opened a site to DC-PCR that was occupied by RNA polymerase II and NFκB as determined by ChIP. Translation into real-time PCR can not be achieved with commercial real-time PCR buffers which potently open chromatin, but even with simple ethidium bromide addition to standard PCR mastermix we were able to identify hits in small molecules screens that suppressed IRF4 expression or reactivated CDKN2A in myeloma cells using densitometry or visual inspection of PCR plates under UV light. While need in drug development inspired this work, application to genome-wide analysis appears feasible using phi29 for selective amplification of open cellular chromatin followed by library construction from supernatants since such supernatants yielded similar results as gene specific DC-PCR. PMID:22984542

  13. Plasticity of fission yeast CENP-A chromatin driven by relative levels of histone H3 and H4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli G Castillo

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The histone H3 variant CENP-A assembles into chromatin exclusively at centromeres. The process of CENP-A chromatin assembly is epigenetically regulated. Fission yeast centromeres are composed of a central kinetochore domain on which CENP-A chromatin is assembled, and this is flanked by heterochromatin. Marker genes are silenced when placed within kinetochore or heterochromatin domains. It is not known if fission yeast CENP-A(Cnp1 chromatin is confined to specific sequences or whether histone H3 is actively excluded. Here, we show that fission yeast CENP-A(Cnp1 can assemble on noncentromeric DNA when it is inserted within the central kinetochore domain, suggesting that in fission yeast CENP-A(Cnp1 chromatin assembly is driven by the context of a sequence rather than the underlying DNA sequence itself. Silencing in the central domain is correlated with the amount of CENP-A(Cnp1 associated with the marker gene and is also affected by the relative level of histone H3. Our analyses indicate that kinetochore integrity is dependent on maintaining the normal ratio of H3 and H4. Excess H3 competes with CENP-A(Cnp1 for assembly into central domain chromatin, resulting in less CENP-A(Cnp1 and other kinetochore proteins at centromeres causing defective kinetochore function, which is manifest as aberrant mitotic chromosome segregation. Alterations in the levels of H3 relative to H4 and CENP-A(Cnp1 influence the extent of DNA at centromeres that is packaged in CENP-A(Cnp1 chromatin and the composition of this chromatin. Thus, CENP-A(Cnp1 chromatin assembly in fission yeast exhibits plasticity with respect to the underlying sequences and is sensitive to the levels of CENP-A(Cnp1 and other core histones.

  14. Modulation of Higher Order Chromatin Conformation in Mammalian Cell Nuclei Can Be Mediated by Polyamines and Divalent Cations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwat Visvanathan

    Full Text Available The organisation of the large volume of mammalian genomic DNA within cell nuclei requires mechanisms to regulate chromatin compaction involving the reversible formation of higher order structures. The compaction state of chromatin varies between interphase and mitosis and is also subject to rapid and reversible change upon ATP depletion/repletion. In this study we have investigated mechanisms that may be involved in promoting the hyper-condensation of chromatin when ATP levels are depleted by treating cells with sodium azide and 2-deoxyglucose. Chromatin conformation was analysed in both live and permeabilised HeLa cells using FLIM-FRET, high resolution fluorescence microscopy and by electron spectroscopic imaging microscopy. We show that chromatin compaction following ATP depletion is not caused by loss of transcription activity and that it can occur at a similar level in both interphase and mitotic cells. Analysis of both live and permeabilised HeLa cells shows that chromatin conformation within nuclei is strongly influenced by the levels of divalent cations, including calcium and magnesium. While ATP depletion results in an increase in the level of unbound calcium, chromatin condensation still occurs even in the presence of a calcium chelator. Chromatin compaction is shown to be strongly affected by small changes in the levels of polyamines, including spermine and spermidine. The data are consistent with a model in which the increased intracellular pool of polyamines and divalent cations, resulting from depletion of ATP, bind to DNA and contribute to the large scale hyper-compaction of chromatin by a charge neutralisation mechanism.

  15. RegulatING chromatin regulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Satpathy, Shankha; Nabbi, Arash; Riabowol, Karl

    2013-01-01

    The five human ING genes encode at least 15 splicing isoforms, most of which affect cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis through their ability to alter gene expression by epigenetic mechanisms. Since their discovery in 1996, ING proteins have been classified as type II tumour suppressors...... on the basis of reports describing their down-regulation and mislocalization in a variety of cancer types. In addition to their regulation by transcriptional mechanisms, understanding the range of PTMs (post-translational modifications) of INGs is important in understanding how ING functions are fine...

  16. Biochemical and Biophysical Methods for Analysis of Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 1 and Its Interactions with Chromatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassé, Maggie H.; Muthurajan, Uma M.; Clark, Nicholas J.; Kramer, Michael A.; Chakravarthy, Srinivas; Irving, Thomas; Luger, Karolin [Children; (IIT); (Colorado); (Amgen)

    2018-01-18

    Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase I (PARP-1) is a first responder to DNA damage and participates in the regulation of gene expression. The interaction of PARP-1 with chromatin and DNA is complex and involves at least two different modes of interaction. In its enzymatically inactive state, PARP-1 binds native chromatin with similar affinity as it binds free DNA ends. Automodification of PARP-1 affects interaction with chromatin and DNA to different extents. Here we describe a series of biochemical and biophysical techniques to quantify and dissect the different binding modes of PARP-1 with its various substrates. The techniques listed here allow for high throughput and quantitative measurements of the interaction of different PARP-1 constructs (inactive and automodified) with chromatin and DNA damage models.

  17. ISWI chromatin remodellers sense nucleosome modifications to determine substrate preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dann, Geoffrey P; Liszczak, Glen P; Bagert, John D

    2017-01-01

    ATP-dependent chromatin remodellers regulate access to genetic information by controlling nucleosome positions in vivo. However, the mechanism by which remodellers discriminate between different nucleosome substrates is poorly understood. Many chromatin remodelling proteins possess conserved...... activity of all ISWI remodellers evaluated. This dependence also extends to CHD and SWI/SNF family remodellers, suggesting that the acidic patch may be generally required for chromatin remodelling. Critically, remodelling activity can be regulated by modifications neighbouring the acidic patch, signifying...... that it may act as a tunable interaction hotspot for ATP-dependent chromatin remodellers and, by extension, many other chromatin effectors that engage this region of the nucleosome surface....

  18. Histone propionylation is a mark of active chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Adam F; Nieborak, Anna; Shahidian, Lara Zorro; Le Gras, Stephanie; Richter, Florian; Gómez, Diana Aguilar; Baltissen, Marijke P; Meszaros, Gergo; Magliarelli, Helena de Fatima; Taudt, Aaron; Margueron, Raphael; Colomé-Tatché, Maria; Ricci, Romeo; Daujat, Sylvain; Vermeulen, Michiel; Mittler, Gerhard; Schneider, Robert

    2017-12-01

    Histones are highly covalently modified, but the functions of many of these modifications remain unknown. In particular, it is unclear how histone marks are coupled to cellular metabolism and how this coupling affects chromatin architecture. We identified histone H3 Lys14 (H3K14) as a site of propionylation and butyrylation in vivo and carried out the first systematic characterization of histone propionylation. We found that H3K14pr and H3K14bu are deposited by histone acetyltransferases, are preferentially enriched at promoters of active genes and are recognized by acylation-state-specific reader proteins. In agreement with these findings, propionyl-CoA was able to stimulate transcription in an in vitro transcription system. Notably, genome-wide H3 acylation profiles were redefined following changes to the metabolic state, and deletion of the metabolic enzyme propionyl-CoA carboxylase altered global histone propionylation levels. We propose that histone propionylation, acetylation and butyrylation may act in combination to promote high transcriptional output and to couple cellular metabolism with chromatin structure and function.

  19. Quantification of chromatin condensation level by image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irianto, Jerome; Lee, David A; Knight, Martin M

    2014-03-01

    The level of chromatin condensation is related to the silencing/activation of chromosomal territories and therefore impacts on gene expression. Chromatin condensation changes during cell cycle, progression and differentiation, and is influenced by various physicochemical and epigenetic factors. This study describes a validated experimental technique to quantify chromatin condensation. A novel image processing procedure is developed using Sobel edge detection to quantify the level of chromatin condensation from nuclei images taken by confocal microscopy. The algorithm was developed in MATLAB and used to quantify different levels of chromatin condensation in chondrocyte nuclei achieved through alteration in osmotic pressure. The resulting chromatin condensation parameter (CCP) is in good agreement with independent multi-observer qualitative visual assessment. This image processing technique thereby provides a validated unbiased parameter for rapid and highly reproducible quantification of the level of chromatin condensation. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Histone phosphorylation: a chromatin modification involved in diverse nuclear events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Dorine; Avvakumov, Nikita; Côté, Jacques

    2012-10-01

    Histone posttranslational modifications are key components of diverse processes that modulate chromatin structure. These marks function as signals during various chromatin-based events, and act as platforms for recruitment, assembly or retention of chromatin-associated factors. The best-known function of histone phosphorylation takes place during cellular response to DNA damage, when phosphorylated histone H2A(X) demarcates large chromatin domains around the site of DNA breakage. However, multiple studies have also shown that histone phosphorylation plays crucial roles in chromatin remodeling linked to other nuclear processes. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of histone phosphorylation and describe the many kinases and phosphatases that regulate it. We discuss the key roles played by this histone mark in DNA repair, transcription and chromatin compaction during cell division and apoptosis. Additionally, we describe the intricate crosstalk that occurs between phosphorylation and other histone modifications and allows for sophisticated control over the chromatin remodeling processes.

  1. Histone chaperone networks shaping chromatin function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammond, Colin; Strømme, Caroline Bianchi; Huang, Hongda

    2017-01-01

    The association of histones with specific chaperone complexes is important for their folding, oligomerization, post-translational modification, nuclear import, stability, assembly and genomic localization. In this way, the chaperoning of soluble histones is a key determinant of histone availabili...... chaperone network and via co-chaperone complexes to match histone supply with demand, thereby promoting proper nucleosome assembly and maintaining epigenetic information by recycling modified histones evicted from chromatin....

  2. Bromodomain Protein Brd4 Associated with Acetylated Chromatin Is Important for Maintenance of Higher-order Chromatin Structure*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ranran; Li, Qing; Helfer, Christine M.; Jiao, Jing; You, Jianxin

    2012-01-01

    Chromatin structure organization is crucial for regulating many fundamental cellular processes. However, the molecular mechanism that regulates the assembly of higher-order chromatin structure remains poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that Brd4 (bromodomain-containing protein 4) protein participates in the maintenance of the higher-order chromatin structure. Brd4, a member of the BET family of proteins, has been shown to play important roles in cellular growth control, cell cycle progression, and cancer development. We apply in situ single cell chromatin imaging and micrococcal nuclease (MNase) assay to show that Brd4 depletion leads to a large scale chromatin unfolding. A dominant-negative inhibitor encoding the double bromodomains (BDI/II) of Brd4 can competitively dissociate endogenous Brd4 from chromatin to trigger severely fragmented chromatin morphology. Mechanistic studies using Brd4 truncation mutants reveal that the Brd4 C-terminal domain is crucial for maintaining normal chromatin structure. Using bimolecular fluorescence complementation technology, we demonstrate that Brd4 molecules interact intermolecularly on chromatin and that replacing Brd4 molecules by BDI/II causes abnormal nucleosome aggregation and chromatin fragmentation. These studies establish a novel structural role of Brd4 in supporting the higher chromatin architecture. PMID:22334664

  3. Chromatin fiber allostery and the epigenetic code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesne, Annick; Foray, Nicolas; Cathala, Guy; Forné, Thierry; Wong, Hua; Victor, Jean-Marc

    2015-02-01

    The notion of allostery introduced for proteins about fifty years ago has been extended since then to DNA allostery, where a locally triggered DNA structural transition remotely controls other DNA-binding events. We further extend this notion and propose that chromatin fiber allosteric transitions, induced by histone-tail covalent modifications, may play a key role in transcriptional regulation. We present an integrated scenario articulating allosteric mechanisms at different scales: allosteric transitions of the condensed chromatin fiber induced by histone-tail acetylation modify the mechanical constraints experienced by the embedded DNA, thus possibly controlling DNA-binding of allosteric transcription factors or further allosteric mechanisms at the linker DNA level. At a higher scale, different epigenetic constraints delineate different statistically dominant subsets of accessible chromatin fiber conformations, which each favors the assembly of dedicated regulatory complexes, as detailed on the emblematic example of the mouse Igf2-H19 gene locus and its parental imprinting. This physical view offers a mechanistic and spatially structured explanation of the observed correlation between transcriptional activity and histone modifications. The evolutionary origin of allosteric control supports to speak of an ‘epigenetic code’, by which events involved in transcriptional regulation are encoded in histone modifications in a context-dependent way.

  4. Capturing Structural Heterogeneity in Chromatin Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekundayo, Babatunde; Richmond, Timothy J; Schalch, Thomas

    2017-10-13

    Chromatin fiber organization is implicated in processes such as transcription, DNA repair and chromosome segregation, but how nucleosomes interact to form higher-order structure remains poorly understood. We solved two crystal structures of tetranucleosomes with approximately 11-bp DNA linker length at 5.8 and 6.7 Å resolution. Minimal intramolecular nucleosome-nucleosome interactions result in a fiber model resembling a flat ribbon that is compatible with a two-start helical architecture, and that exposes histone and DNA surfaces to the environment. The differences in the two structures combined with electron microscopy reveal heterogeneous structural states, and we used site-specific chemical crosslinking to assess the diversity of nucleosome-nucleosome interactions through identification of structure-sensitive crosslink sites that provide a means to characterize fibers in solution. The chromatin fiber architectures observed here provide a basis for understanding heterogeneous chromatin higher-order structures as they occur in a genomic context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nanodosimetric Simulation of Direct Ion-Induced DNA Damage Using Different Chromatin Geometry Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henthorn, N T; Warmenhoven, J W; Sotiropoulos, M; Mackay, R I; Kirkby, K J; Merchant, M J

    2017-12-01

    Monte Carlo based simulation has proven useful in investigating the effect of proton-induced DNA damage and the processes through which this damage occurs. Clustering of ionizations within a small volume can be related to DNA damage through the principles of nanodosimetry. For simulation, it is standard to construct a small volume of water and determine spatial clusters. More recently, realistic DNA geometries have been used, tracking energy depositions within DNA backbone volumes. Traditionally a chromatin fiber is built within the simulation and identically replicated throughout a cell nucleus, representing the cell in interphase. However, the in vivo geometry of the chromatin fiber is still unknown within the literature, with many proposed models. In this work, the Geant4-DNA toolkit was used to build three chromatin models: the solenoid, zig-zag and cross-linked geometries. All fibers were built to the same chromatin density of 4.2 nucleosomes/11 nm. The fibers were then irradiated with protons (LET 5-80 keV/μm) or alpha particles (LET 63-226 keV/μm). Nanodosimetric parameters were scored for each fiber after each LET and used as a comparator among the models. Statistically significant differences were observed in the double-strand break backbone size distributions among the models, although nonsignificant differences were noted among the nanodosimetric parameters. From the data presented in this article, we conclude that selection of the solenoid, zig-zag or cross-linked chromatin model does not significantly affect the calculated nanodosimetric parameters. This allows for a simulation-based cell model to make use of any of these chromatin models for the scoring of direct ion-induced DNA damage.

  6. Plant chromatin warms up in Madrid: meeting summary of the 3rd European Workshop on Plant Chromatin 2013, Madrid, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarillo, José A; Gaudin, Valérie; Hennig, Lars; Köhler, Claudia; Piñeiro, Manuel

    2014-04-01

    The 3rd European Workshop on Plant Chromatin (EWPC) was held on August 2013 in Madrid, Spain. A number of different topics on plant chromatin were presented during the meeting, including new factors mediating Polycomb Group protein function in plants, chromatin-mediated reprogramming in plant developmental transitions, the role of histone variants, and newly identified chromatin remodeling factors. The function of interactions between chromatin and transcription factors in the modulation of gene expression, the role of chromatin dynamics in the control of nuclear processes and the influence of environmental factors on chromatin organization were also reported. In this report, we highlight some of the new insights emerging in this growing area of research, presented at the 3rd EWPC.

  7. A SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodelling Protein Controls Cytokinin Production through the Regulation of Chromatin Architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Jégu, Teddy

    2015-10-12

    Chromatin architecture determines transcriptional accessibility to DNA and consequently gene expression levels in response to developmental and environmental stimuli. Recently, chromatin remodelers such as SWI/SNF complexes have been recognized as key regulators of chromatin architecture. To gain insight into the function of these complexes during root development, we have analyzed Arabidopsis knock-down lines for one sub-unit of SWI/SNF complexes: BAF60. Here, we show that BAF60 is a positive regulator of root development and cell cycle progression in the root meristem via its ability to down-regulate cytokinin production. By opposing both the deposition of active histone marks and the formation of a chromatin regulatory loop, BAF60 negatively regulates two crucial target genes for cytokinin biosynthesis (IPT3 and IPT7) and one cell cycle inhibitor (KRP7). Our results demonstrate that SWI/SNF complexes containing BAF60 are key factors governing the equilibrium between formation and dissociation of a chromatin loop controlling phytohormone production and cell cycle progression.

  8. PTEN Interacts with Histone H1 and Controls Chromatin Condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhu Hong; Zhu, Minglu; Yang, Jingyi; Liang, Hui; He, Jinxue; He, Shiming; Wang, Pan; Kang, Xi; McNutt, Michael A.; Yin, Yuxin; Shen, Wen H.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Chromatin organization and dynamics are integral to global gene transcription. Histone modification influences chromatin status and gene expression. PTEN plays multiple roles in tumor suppression, development and metabolism. Here we report on the interplay of PTEN, histone H1 and chromatin. We show that loss of PTEN leads to dissociation of histone H1 from chromatin and decondensation of chromatin. PTEN deletion also results in elevation of histone H4 acetylation at lysine 16, an epigenetic marker for chromatin activation. We found that PTEN and histone H1 physically interact through their C-terminal domains. Disruption of the PTEN C-terminus promotes the chromatin association of MOF acetyltransferase and induces H4K16 acetylation. Hyperacetylation of H4K16 impairs the association of PTEN with histone H1, which constitutes regulatory feedback that may deteriorate chromatin stability. Our results demonstrate that PTEN controls chromatin condensation, thus influencing gene expression. We propose that PTEN regulates global gene transcription profiling through histones and chromatin remodeling. PMID:25199838

  9. Chromatin organization regulated by EZH2-mediated H3K27me3 is required for OPN-induced migration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lingling; Luo, Qing; Sun, Jinghui; Ju, Yang; Morita, Yasuyuki; Song, Guanbin

    2018-03-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a chemokine-like extracellular matrix-associated protein involved in the migration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). An increasing number of studies have found that chromatin organization may affect cellular migration. However, whether OPN regulates chromatin organization is not understood, nor are the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the link between chromatin organization and BMSC migration and demonstrated that OPN-mediated BMSC migration leads to elevated levels of heterochromatin marker histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) through the methyltransferase EZH2. The expression of EZH2 reorganizes the chromatin structure of BMSCs. Pharmacological inhibition or depletion of EZH2 blocks BMSC migration. Moreover, using an atomic force microscope (AFM), we found that chromatin decondensation alters the mechanical properties of the nucleus. In addition, inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signals represses OPN-promoted chromatin condensation and cell migration. Thus, our results identify a mechanism by which ERK1/2 signalling drives specific chromatin modifications in BMSCs, which alters chromatin organization and thereby enables OPN-mediated BMSC migration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cohesin is required for higher-order chromatin conformation at the imprinted IGF2-H19 locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Nativio

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cohesin is a chromatin-associated protein complex that mediates sister chromatid cohesion by connecting replicated DNA molecules. Cohesin also has important roles in gene regulation, but the mechanistic basis of this function is poorly understood. In mammalian genomes, cohesin co-localizes with CCCTC binding factor (CTCF, a zinc finger protein implicated in multiple gene regulatory events. At the imprinted IGF2-H19 locus, CTCF plays an important role in organizing allele-specific higher-order chromatin conformation and functions as an enhancer blocking transcriptional insulator. Here we have used chromosome conformation capture (3C assays and RNAi-mediated depletion of cohesin to address whether cohesin affects higher order chromatin conformation at the IGF2-H19 locus in human cells. Our data show that cohesin has a critical role in maintaining CTCF-mediated chromatin conformation at the locus and that disruption of this conformation coincides with changes in IGF2 expression. We show that the cohesin-dependent, higher-order chromatin conformation of the locus exists in both G1 and G2 phases of the cell cycle and is therefore independent of cohesin's function in sister chromatid cohesion. We propose that cohesin can mediate interactions between DNA molecules in cis to insulate genes through the formation of chromatin loops, analogous to the cohesin mediated interaction with sister chromatids in trans to establish cohesion.

  11. Epigenetic effects of chromatin remodeling agents on organotypic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirchia, Silvia M; Faversani, Alice; Rovina, Davide; Russo, Maria V; Paganini, Leda; Savi, Federica; Augello, Claudia; Rosso, Lorenzo; Del Gobbo, Alessandro; Tabano, Silvia; Bosari, Silvano; Miozzo, Monica

    2016-03-01

    Tumor epigenetic defects are of increasing relevance to clinical practice, because they are 'druggable' targets for cancer therapy using chromatin-remodeling agents (CRAs). New evidences highlight the importance of the microenvironment on the epigenome regulation and the need to use culture models able to preserve tissue morphology, to better understand the action of CRAs. Methods & methods: We studied the epigenetic response induced by culturing and CRAs in a preclinical model, preserving ex vivo the original tissue microenvironment and morphology, assessing different epigenetic signatures. Our overall findings suggest that culturing and CRAs cause heterogeneous effects on the genes methylation; CRAs affect the global DNA methylation and can trigger an active DNA demethylation; the culture induces alterations in the histone deacetylase expression. Despite the limited number of cases, these findings can be considered a proof of concept of the possibility to test CRAs epigenetic effects on ex vivo tissues maintained in their native tissue architecture.

  12. A role for chromatin topology in imprinted domain regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, William A; Sachani, Saqib S; White, Carlee R; Mann, Mellissa R W

    2016-02-01

    Recently, many advancements in genome-wide chromatin topology and nuclear architecture have unveiled the complex and hidden world of the nucleus, where chromatin is organized into discrete neighbourhoods with coordinated gene expression. This includes the active and inactive X chromosomes. Using X chromosome inactivation as a working model, we utilized publicly available datasets together with a literature review to gain insight into topologically associated domains, lamin-associated domains, nucleolar-associating domains, scaffold/matrix attachment regions, and nucleoporin-associated chromatin and their role in regulating monoallelic expression. Furthermore, we comprehensively review for the first time the role of chromatin topology and nuclear architecture in the regulation of genomic imprinting. We propose that chromatin topology and nuclear architecture are important regulatory mechanisms for directing gene expression within imprinted domains. Furthermore, we predict that dynamic changes in chromatin topology and nuclear architecture play roles in tissue-specific imprint domain regulation during early development and differentiation.

  13. Capitalizing on disaster: Establishing chromatin specificity behind the replication fork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Srinivas; Ahmad, Kami; Henikoff, Steven

    2017-04-01

    Eukaryotic genomes are packaged into nucleosomal chromatin, and genomic activity requires the precise localization of transcription factors, histone modifications and nucleosomes. Classic work described the progressive reassembly and maturation of bulk chromatin behind replication forks. More recent proteomics has detailed the molecular machines that accompany the replicative polymerase to promote rapid histone deposition onto the newly replicated DNA. However, localized chromatin features are transiently obliterated by DNA replication every S phase of the cell cycle. Genomic strategies now observe the rebuilding of locus-specific chromatin features, and reveal surprising delays in transcription factor binding behind replication forks. This implies that transient chromatin disorganization during replication is a central juncture for targeted transcription factor binding within genomes. We propose that transient occlusion of regulatory elements by disorganized nucleosomes during chromatin maturation enforces specificity of factor binding. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Histone Variant Regulates DNA Repair via Chromatin Condensation | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Activating the appropriate DNA repair pathway is essential for maintaining the stability of the genome after a break in both strands of DNA. How a pathway is selected, however, is not well understood. Since these double strand breaks (DSBs) occur while DNA is packaged as chromatin, changes in its organization are necessary for repair to take place. Numerous alterations have been associated with DSBs, including modifications of histone tails and exchange of histone variants, some increasing chromatin accessibility, others reducing it. In fact, distinct domains flanking a single DSB have been observed that are bound by opposing repair pathway proteins 53BP1and BRCA1, which promote non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR), respectively. To investigate whether DSB-proximal chromatin reorganization affects repair pathway selection, Philipp Oberdoerffer, Ph.D., of CCR’s Laboratory of Receptor Biology and Gene Expression, and his colleagues performed a high-throughput RNA interference (RNAi) screen for chromatin-related genes that modulate HR.

  15. Recognition of chromatin by the plant alkaloid, ellipticine as a dual binder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Amrita; Sanyal, Sulagna; Majumder, Parijat [Biophysics & Structural Genomics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Block-AF, Sector-1, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064, West Bengal (India); Chakraborty, Payal [Bionivid Technology Pvt Ltd, Kasturi Nagar, Bangalore 560043 (India); Jana, Kuladip [Division of Molecular Medicine, Centre for Translational Animal Research, Bose Institute, P-1/12 C.I.T. Scheme VIIM, Kolkata 700054, West Bengal (India); Das, Chandrima, E-mail: chandrima.das@saha.ac.in [Biophysics & Structural Genomics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Block-AF, Sector-1, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064, West Bengal (India); Dasgupta, Dipak, E-mail: dipak.dasgupta@saha.ac.in [Biophysics & Structural Genomics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Block-AF, Sector-1, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064, West Bengal (India)

    2015-07-10

    Recognition of core histone components of chromatin along with chromosomal DNA by a class of small molecule modulators is worth examining to evaluate their intracellular mode of action. A plant alkaloid ellipticine (ELP) which is a putative anticancer agent has so far been reported to function via DNA intercalation, association with topoisomerase II and binding to telomere region. However, its effect upon the potential intracellular target, chromatin is hitherto unreported. Here we have characterized the biomolecular recognition between ELP and different hierarchical levels of chromatin. The significant result is that in addition to DNA, it binds to core histone(s) and can be categorized as a ‘dual binder’. As a sequel to binding with histone(s) and core octamer, it alters post-translational histone acetylation marks. We have further demonstrated that it has the potential to modulate gene expression thereby regulating several key biological processes such as nuclear organization, transcription, translation and histone modifications. - Highlights: • Ellipticine acts a dual binder binding to both DNA and core histone(s). • It induces structural perturbations in chromatin, chromatosome and histone octamer. • It alters histones acetylation and affects global gene expression.

  16. Noncoding transcription by alternative rna polymerases dynamically regulates an auxin-driven chromatin loop

    KAUST Repository

    Ariel, Federico D.

    2014-08-01

    The eukaryotic epigenome is shaped by the genome topology in three-dimensional space. Dynamic reversible variations in this epigenome structure directly influence the transcriptional responses to developmental cues. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis long intergenic noncoding RNA (lincRNA) APOLO is transcribed by RNA polymerases II and V in response to auxin, a phytohormone controlling numerous facets of plant development. This dual APOLO transcription regulates the formation of a chromatin loop encompassing the promoter of its neighboring gene PID, a key regulator of polar auxin transport. Altering APOLO expression affects chromatin loop formation, whereas RNA-dependent DNA methylation, active DNA demethylation, and Polycomb complexes control loop dynamics. This dynamic chromatin topology determines PID expression patterns. Hence, the dual transcription of a lincRNA influences local chromatin topology and directs dynamic auxin-controlled developmental outputs on neighboring genes. This mechanism likely underscores the adaptive success of plants in diverse environments and may be widespread in eukaryotes. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  17. FRAP analysis of chromatin looseness in mouse zygotes that allows full-term development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Ooga

    Full Text Available Chromatin looseness, which can be analyzed by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP using eGFP-tagged core histone proteins, is an important index of the differentiation potential of blastomere cells and embryonic stem cells. Whether chromatin looseness is a reliable index of the developmental potential of embryos during ontogenesis is not known. As a necessary first step toward answering this question, we investigated whether FRAP-analyzed embryos are capable of normal preimplantation and full-term development. All tested concentrations (50, 100, and 250 ng/μL of microinjected eGFP-H2B mRNA were sufficient for detecting differences in chromatin looseness between male and female pronuclei. After FRAP analysis, most of the zygotes developed into blastocysts. Importantly, a considerable number of offspring developed from the FRAP analyzed zygotes (32/78; 41.0% and grew into healthy adults. The offspring of zygotes injected with 250 ng/μL of eGFP-H2B mRNA and bleached using 110 μW laser power for 5 s were not genetically modified. Interestingly, bleaching using a 3-fold stronger laser intensity for a 6-fold longer time did not cause toxicity during preimplantation development, indicating that bleaching did not critically affect preimplantation development. Finally, we confirmed that similar results were obtained using two different types of confocal laser-scanning microscopes. This FRAP protocol would be useful for investigating the association between chromatin looseness and development.

  18. Studies on the binding of B(a)P diol epoxide to DNA and chromatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kootstra, A.; Slaga, T.J.; Olins, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    The data strongly suggest that the interaction of B(a)P diol epoxide (anti) with free DNA or chromosomal DNA involved, apart from covalent binding, intercalation of the covalent and non-covalent bound carcinogen, and that in the case of chromatin or mononucleosomes, intercalation appeared to be decreased. This decrease may be a function of changes in DNA conformation, steric hindrance, or both due to the presence of chromosomal proteins. Furthermore in the presence of a competing nucleophile such as cysteine, the covalent binding of B(a)P diol epoxide could be greatly diminished and the data suggest that little if any non-covalent association occurred in chromatin. Analysis of the distribution of the carcinogen with respect to chromosomal components revealed that most of the adducts were associated with chromosomal DNA and that the internucleosomal DNA contained 3 to 4 times more carcinogen than nucleosomal DNA. Reconstitution of labeled chromatin showed that removal of the very lysine-rich histones by 0.65 M NaCl did not affect the distribution of the carcinogen, while complete dissociation using 2.0 M NaCl and reassociation revealed randomization of the bound carcinogen. The reconstitution experiments showed that the presence of carcinogen did not interfere with the reassociation of histones to DNA, and that B(a)P diol epoxide could be used to evaluate the fidelity of reconstituted chromatin in vitro.

  19. Dot1 binding induces chromatin rearrangements by histone methylation-dependent and -independent mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stulemeijer Iris JE

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methylation of histone H3 lysine 79 (H3K79 by Dot1 is highly conserved among species and has been associated with both gene repression and activation. To eliminate indirect effects and examine the direct consequences of Dot1 binding and H3K79 methylation, we investigated the effects of targeting Dot1 to different positions in the yeast genome. Results Targeting Dot1 did not activate transcription at a euchromatic locus. However, chromatin-bound Dot1 derepressed heterochromatin-mediated gene silencing over a considerable distance. Unexpectedly, Dot1-mediated derepression was established by both a H3K79 methylation-dependent and a methylation-independent mechanism; the latter required the histone acetyltransferase Gcn5. By monitoring the localization of a fluorescently tagged telomere in living cells, we found that the targeting of Dot1, but not its methylation activity, led to the release of a telomere from the repressive environment at the nuclear periphery. This probably contributes to the activity-independent derepression effect of Dot1. Conclusions Targeting of Dot1 promoted gene expression by antagonizing gene repression through both histone methylation and chromatin relocalization. Our findings show that binding of Dot1 to chromatin can positively affect local gene expression by chromatin rearrangements over a considerable distance.

  20. Capture-C reveals preformed chromatin interactions between HIF-binding sites and distant promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, James L; Salama, Rafik; Smythies, James; Choudhry, Hani; Davies, James Oj; Hughes, Jim R; Ratcliffe, Peter J; Mole, David R

    2016-10-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) directs an extensive transcriptional cascade that transduces numerous adaptive responses to hypoxia. Pan-genomic analyses, using chromatin immunoprecipitation and transcript profiling, have revealed large numbers of HIF-binding sites that are generally associated with hypoxia-inducible transcripts, even over long chromosomal distances. However, these studies do not define the specific targets of HIF-binding sites and do not reveal how induction of HIF affects chromatin conformation over distantly connected functional elements. To address these questions, we deployed a recently developed chromosome conformation assay that enables simultaneous high-resolution analyses from multiple viewpoints. These assays defined specific long-range interactions between intergenic HIF-binding regions and one or more promoters of hypoxia-inducible genes, revealing the existence of multiple enhancer-promoter, promoter-enhancer, and enhancer-enhancer interactions. However, neither short-term activation of HIF by hypoxia, nor long-term stabilization of HIF in von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)-defective cells greatly alters these interactions, indicating that at least under these conditions, HIF can operate on preexisting patterns of chromatin-chromatin interactions that define potential transcriptional targets and permit rapid gene activation by hypoxic stress. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  1. Chromatin insulators: regulatory mechanisms and epigenetic inheritance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushey, Ashley M.; Dorman, Elizabeth R.; Corces, Victor G.

    2008-01-01

    Enhancer-blocking insulators are DNA elements that disrupt the communication between a regulatory sequence, such as an enhancer or a silencer, and a promoter. Insulators participate in both transcriptional regulation and global nuclear organization, two features of chromatin that are thought to be maintained from one generation to the next through epigenetic mechanisms. Furthermore, there are many regulatory mechanisms in place that enhance or hinder insulator activity. These modes of regulation could be used to establish cell-type specific insulator activity that is epigenetically inherited along a cell and/or organismal lineage. This review will discuss the evidence for epigenetic inheritance and regulation of insulator function. PMID:18851828

  2. Chromatin Architecture Defines the Glucocorticoid Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Craig J.; Archer, Trevor K.

    2013-01-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) functions to regulate a wide group of physiological processes through hormone inducible interaction with genomic loci and subsequent manipulation of the transcriptional output of target genes. Despite expression in a wide variety of tissues, the GR has diverse roles that are regulated tightly in a cell type specific manner. With the advent of whole genome approaches, the details of that diversity and the mechanisms regulating them are beginning to be elucidated. This review aims describe the recent advances detailing the role chromatin structure plays in dictating GR specificity. PMID:23545159

  3. Regulation of chromatin structure in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa-Garrido, Manuel; Karbassi, Elaheh; Monte, Emma; Vondriska, Thomas M

    2013-01-01

    It has been appreciated for some time that cardiovascular disease involves large-scale transcriptional changes in various cell types. What has become increasingly clear only in the past few years, however, is the role of chromatin remodeling in cardiovascular phenotypes in normal physiology, as well as in development and disease. This review summarizes the state of the chromatin field in terms of distinct mechanisms to regulate chromatin structure in vivo, identifying when these modes of regulation have been demonstrated in cardiovascular tissues. We describe areas in which a better understanding of chromatin structure is leading to new insights into the fundamental biology of cardiovascular disease. 

  4. Formaldehyde Crosslinking: A Tool for the Study of Chromatin Complexes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Elizabeth A.; Frey, Brian L.; Smith, Lloyd M.; Auble, David T.

    2015-01-01

    Formaldehyde has been used for decades to probe macromolecular structure and function and to trap complexes, cells, and tissues for further analysis. Formaldehyde crosslinking is routinely employed for detection and quantification of protein-DNA interactions, interactions between chromatin proteins, and interactions between distal segments of the chromatin fiber. Despite widespread use and a rich biochemical literature, important aspects of formaldehyde behavior in cells have not been well described. Here, we highlight features of formaldehyde chemistry relevant to its use in analyses of chromatin complexes, focusing on how its properties may influence studies of chromatin structure and function. PMID:26354429

  5. Formaldehyde crosslinking: a tool for the study of chromatin complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Elizabeth A; Frey, Brian L; Smith, Lloyd M; Auble, David T

    2015-10-30

    Formaldehyde has been used for decades to probe macromolecular structure and function and to trap complexes, cells, and tissues for further analysis. Formaldehyde crosslinking is routinely employed for detection and quantification of protein-DNA interactions, interactions between chromatin proteins, and interactions between distal segments of the chromatin fiber. Despite widespread use and a rich biochemical literature, important aspects of formaldehyde behavior in cells have not been well described. Here, we highlight features of formaldehyde chemistry relevant to its use in analyses of chromatin complexes, focusing on how its properties may influence studies of chromatin structure and function. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Myogenic Differential Methylation: Diverse Associations with Chromatin Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sruti Chandra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Employing a new algorithm for identifying differentially methylated regions (DMRs from reduced representation bisulfite sequencing profiles, we identified 1972 hypermethylated and 3250 hypomethylated myogenic DMRs in a comparison of myoblasts (Mb and myotubes (Mt with 16 types of nonmuscle cell cultures. DMRs co-localized with a variety of chromatin structures, as deduced from ENCODE whole-genome profiles. Myogenic hypomethylation was highly associated with both weak and strong enhancer-type chromatin, while hypermethylation was infrequently associated with enhancer-type chromatin. Both myogenic hypermethylation and hypomethylation often overlapped weak transcription-type chromatin and Polycomb-repressed-type chromatin. For representative genes, we illustrate relationships between DNA methylation, the local chromatin state, DNaseI hypersensitivity, and gene expression. For example, MARVELD2 exhibited myogenic hypermethylation in transcription-type chromatin that overlapped a silenced promoter in Mb and Mt while TEAD4 had myogenic hypomethylation in intronic subregions displaying enhancer-type or transcription-type chromatin in these cells. For LSP1, alternative promoter usage and active promoter-type chromatin were linked to highly specific myogenic or lymphogenic hypomethylated DMRs. Lastly, despite its myogenesis-associated expression, TBX15 had multiple hypermethylated myogenic DMRs framing its promoter region. This could help explain why TBX15 was previously reported to be underexpressed and, unexpectedly, its promoter undermethylated in placentas exhibiting vascular intrauterine growth restriction.

  7. Probing Chromatin Modifications in Response to ERK Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksuz, Ozgur; Tee, Wee-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a technique used to determine the association of proteins or histone modifications with chromatin regions in living cells or tissues, and is used extensively in the chromatin biology field to study transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms. Increasing evidence points to an epigenetic coordination of signaling cascades, such as ERK, that regulate key processes in development and disease, revealing novel principles of gene regulation. Here we describe a detailed protocol for performing chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by qPCR (ChIP-qPCR) for probing histone modifications regulated by ERK signaling in mouse ESCs.

  8. The Chromatin Scaffold Protein SAFB1 Renders Chromatin Permissive for DNA Damage Signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altmeyer, Matthias; Toledo Lazaro, Luis Ignacio; Gudjonsson, Thorkell

    2013-01-01

    Although the general relevance of chromatin modifications for genotoxic stress signaling, cell-cycle checkpoint activation, and DNA repair is well established, how these modifications reach initial thresholds in order to trigger robust responses remains largely unexplored. Here, we identify the c...

  9. The Fun30 chromatin remodeler Fft3 controls nuclear organization and chromatin structure of insulators and subtelomeres in fission yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babett Steglich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotic cells, local chromatin structure and chromatin organization in the nucleus both influence transcriptional regulation. At the local level, the Fun30 chromatin remodeler Fft3 is essential for maintaining proper chromatin structure at centromeres and subtelomeres in fission yeast. Using genome-wide mapping and live cell imaging, we show that this role is linked to controlling nuclear organization of its targets. In fft3∆ cells, subtelomeres lose their association with the LEM domain protein Man1 at the nuclear periphery and move to the interior of the nucleus. Furthermore, genes in these domains are upregulated and active chromatin marks increase. Fft3 is also enriched at retrotransposon-derived long terminal repeat (LTR elements and at tRNA genes. In cells lacking Fft3, these sites lose their peripheral positioning and show reduced nucleosome occupancy. We propose that Fft3 has a global role in mediating association between specific chromatin domains and the nuclear envelope.

  10. Mapping of histone modifications in episomal HBV cccDNA uncovers an unusual chromatin organization amenable to epigenetic manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropberger, Philipp; Mercier, Alexandre; Robinson, Margaret; Zhong, Weidong; Ganem, Don E.; Holdorf, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection affects 240 million people worldwide and is a major risk factor for liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma. Current antiviral therapy inhibits cytoplasmic HBV genomic replication, but is not curative because it does not directly affect nuclear HBV closed circular DNA (cccDNA), the genomic form that templates viral transcription and sustains viral persistence. Novel approaches that directly target cccDNA regulation would therefore be highly desirable. cccDNA is assembled with cellular histone proteins into chromatin, but little is known about the regulation of HBV chromatin by histone posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Here, using a new cccDNA ChIP-Seq approach, we report, to our knowledge, the first genome-wide maps of PTMs in cccDNA-containing chromatin from de novo infected HepG2 cells, primary human hepatocytes, and from HBV-infected liver tissue. We find high levels of PTMs associated with active transcription enriched at specific sites within the HBV genome and, surprisingly, very low levels of PTMs linked to transcriptional repression even at silent HBV promoters. We show that transcription and active PTMs in HBV chromatin are reduced by the activation of an innate immunity pathway, and that this effect can be recapitulated with a small molecule epigenetic modifying agent, opening the possibility that chromatin-based regulation of cccDNA transcription could be a new therapeutic approach to chronic HBV infection. PMID:26438841

  11. Mapping chromatin interactions with 5C technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraiuolo, Maria A.; Sanyal, Amartya; Naumova, Natalia; Dekker, Job; Dostie, Josée

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotes, genome organization can be observed on many levels and at different scales. This organization is important not only to reduce chromosome length but also for the proper execution of various biological processes. High-resolution mapping of spatial chromatin structure was made possible by the development of the chromosome conformation capture (3C) technique. 3C uses chemical cross-linking followed by proximity-based ligation of fragmented DNA to capture frequently interacting chromatin segments in cell populations. Several 3C-related methods capable of higher chromosome conformation mapping throughput were reported afterwards. These techniques include the 3C-carbon copy (5C) approach, which offers the advantage of being highly quantitative and reproducible. We provide here a reference protocol for the production of 5C libraries analyzed by next-generation sequencing or onto microarrays. A procedure used to verify that 3C library templates bear the high quality required to produce superior 5C libraries is also described. We believe that this comprehensive detailed protocol will help guide researchers in probing spatial genome organization and its role in various biological processes. PMID:23137922

  12. Expression and chromatin structures of cellulolytic enzyme gene regulated by heterochromatin protein 1

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiujun; Qu, Yinbo; Qin, Yuqi

    2016-01-01

    Background Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1, homologue HepA in Penicillium oxalicum) binding is associated with a highly compact chromatin state accompanied by gene silencing or repression. HP1 loss leads to the derepression of gene expression. We investigated HepA roles in regulating cellulolytic enzyme gene expression, as an increasingly number of studies have suggested that cellulolytic enzyme gene expression is not only regulated by transcription factors, but is also affected by the chromat...

  13. Nuclear envelope proteins and chromatin arrangement: a pathogenic mechanism for laminopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NM Maraldi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of the nuclear envelope in the modulation of chromatin organization is strongly suggested by the increasing number of human diseases due to mutations of nuclear envelope proteins. A common feature of these diseases, named laminopathies, is the occurrence of major chromatin defects. Laminopathies share in some instances their clinical features, but each of them is characterized by a phenotype that involves one or multiple tissues.We previously reported that cells from laminopathic patients show an altered nuclear profile, and loss or detachment of heterochromatin from the nuclear envelope. Recent evidence indicates that processing of the lamin A precursor is altered in laminopathies featuring pre-mature aging and/or lipodystrophy phenotype. In these cases, pre-lamin A is accumulated in the nucleus and heterochromatin is severely disorganized. Moreover, altered distribution and solubility properties of heterochromatin-associated proteins such as HP1 are observed. These findings indicate that defects of chromatin remodeling are involved in the cascade of epigenetic events leading to the laminopathic phenotypes. Here we report evidence indicating that pre-lamin A is mis-localized in the nuclei of Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy fibroblasts, either bearing lamin A/C or emerin mutations. Abnornal pre-lamin A-containing structures are formed following treatment with a farnesyl-transferase inhibitor, a drug that causes accumulation of non-farnesylated pre-lamin A. Pre-lamin A-labeled structures co-localize with heterochromatin clumps. These data indicate that in almost all laminopathies the expression of the mutant lamin A precursor disrupts the organization of heterochromatin domains so that affected cells are unable to maintain the silenced chromatin state capable to allow/preserve terminal differentiation. Our results further show that the absence of emerin expression alters the distribution of pre-lamin A and of heterochromatin

  14. Small Chemical Chromatin Effectors Alter Secondary Metabolite Production in Aspergillus clavatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wagner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The filamentous fungus Aspergillus clavatus is known to produce a variety of secondary metabolites (SM such as patulin, pseurotin A, and cytochalasin E. In fungi, the production of most SM is strongly influenced by environmental factors and nutrients. Furthermore, it has been shown that the regulation of SM gene clusters is largely based on modulation of a chromatin structure. Communication between fungi and bacteria also triggers chromatin-based induction of silent SM gene clusters. Consequently, chemical chromatin effectors known to inhibit histone deacetylases (HDACs and DNA-methyltransferases (DNMTs influence the SM profile of several fungi. In this study, we tested the effect of five different chemicals, which are known to affect chromatin structure, on SM production in A. clavatus using two growth media with a different organic nitrogen source. We found that production of patulin was completely inhibited and cytochalasin E levels strongly reduced, whereas growing A. clavatus in media containing soya-derived peptone led to substantially higher pseurotin A levels. The HDAC inhibitors valproic acid, trichostatin A and butyrate, as well as the DNMT inhibitor 5-azacytidine (AZA and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, which was used as a proxy for bacterial fungal co-cultivation, had profound influence on SM accumulation and transcription of the corresponding biosynthetic genes. However, the repressing effect of the soya-based nitrogen source on patulin production could not be bypassed by any of the small chemical chromatin effectors. Interestingly, AZA influenced some SM cluster genes and SM production although no Aspergillus species has yet been shown to carry detectable DNA methylation.

  15. Small Chemical Chromatin Effectors Alter Secondary Metabolite Production in Aspergillus clavatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zutz, Christoph; Gacek, Agnieszka; Sulyok, Michael; Wagner, Martin; Strauss, Joseph; Rychli, Kathrin

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus clavatus is known to produce a variety of secondary metabolites (SM) such as patulin, pseurotin A, and cytochalasin E. In fungi, the production of most SM is strongly influenced by environmental factors and nutrients. Furthermore, it has been shown that the regulation of SM gene clusters is largely based on modulation of a chromatin structure. Communication between fungi and bacteria also triggers chromatin-based induction of silent SM gene clusters. Consequently, chemical chromatin effectors known to inhibit histone deacetylases (HDACs) and DNA-methyltransferases (DNMTs) influence the SM profile of several fungi. In this study, we tested the effect of five different chemicals, which are known to affect chromatin structure, on SM production in A. clavatus using two growth media with a different organic nitrogen source. We found that production of patulin was completely inhibited and cytochalasin E levels strongly reduced, whereas growing A. clavatus in media containing soya-derived peptone led to substantially higher pseurotin A levels. The HDAC inhibitors valproic acid, trichostatin A and butyrate, as well as the DNMT inhibitor 5-azacytidine (AZA) and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, which was used as a proxy for bacterial fungal co-cultivation, had profound influence on SM accumulation and transcription of the corresponding biosynthetic genes. However, the repressing effect of the soya-based nitrogen source on patulin production could not be bypassed by any of the small chemical chromatin effectors. Interestingly, AZA influenced some SM cluster genes and SM production although no Aspergillus species has yet been shown to carry detectable DNA methylation. PMID:24105402

  16. Multiple modes of chromatin remodeling by Forkhead box proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalmansingh, Avin S; Karmakar, Sudipan; Jin, Yetao; Nagaich, Akhilesh K

    2012-07-01

    Forkhead box (FOX) proteins represent a large family of transcriptional regulators unified by their DNA binding domain (DBD) known as a 'forkhead' or 'winged helix' domain. Over 40 FOX genes have been identified in the mammalian genome. FOX proteins share significant sequence similarities in the DBD which allow them to bind to a consensus DNA response element. However, their modes of action are quite diverse as they regulate gene expression by acting as pioneer factors, transcription factors, or both. This review focuses on the mechanisms of chromatin remodeling with an emphasis on three sub-classes-FOXA, FOXO, and FOXP members. FOXA proteins serve as pioneer factors to open up local chromatin structure and thereby increase accessibility of chromatin to factors regulating transcription. FOXP proteins, in contrast, function as classic transcription factors to recruit a variety of chromatin modifying enzymes to regulate gene expression. FOXO proteins represent a hybrid subclass having dual roles as pioneering factors and transcription factors. A subset of FOX proteins interacts with condensed mitotic chromatin and may function as 'bookmarking' agents to maintain transcriptional competence at specific genomic sites. The overall diversity in chromatin remodeling function by FOX proteins is related to unique structural motifs present within the DBD flanking regions that govern selective interactions with core histones and/or chromatin coregulatory proteins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Chromatin in time and space. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. (epigenetic) rule: Chromatin domains as functional and structural ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The nuclear sub- structure which provides a skeletal framework for periodic attachment of the 30nm chromatin fiber to form loop structures has been termed as the .... Various features of the human genome that transcend its primary. DNA sequence, such as chromatin packaging, his- tone modifications, and DNA methylation ...

  18. Human sperm chromatin epigenetic potential: genomics, proteomics, and male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Castillo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The classical idea about the function of the mammalian sperm chromatin is that it serves to transmit a highly protected and transcriptionally inactive paternal genome, largely condensed by protamines, to the next generation. In addition, recent sperm chromatin genome-wide dissection studies indicate the presence of a differential distribution of the genes and repetitive sequences in the protamine-condensed and histone-condensed sperm chromatin domains, which could be potentially involved in regulatory roles after fertilization. Interestingly, recent proteomic studies have shown that sperm chromatin contains many additional proteins, in addition to the abundant histones and protamines, with specific modifications and chromatin affinity features which are also delivered to the oocyte. Both gene and protein signatures seem to be altered in infertile patients and, as such, are consistent with the potential involvement of the sperm chromatin landscape in early embryo development. This present work reviews the available information on the composition of the human sperm chromatin and its epigenetic potential, with a particular focus on recent results derived from high-throughput genomic and proteomic studies. As a complement, we provide experimental evidence for the detection of phosphorylations and acetylations in human protamine 1 using a mass spectrometry approach. The available data indicate that the sperm chromatin is much more complex than what it was previously thought, raising the possibility that it could also serve to transmit crucial paternal epigenetic information to the embryo.

  19. The discrepancy between chromatin factor location and effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenstra, Tineke L; Holstege, Frank C P

    2012-01-01

    The influence of chromatin on many cellular processes is well appreciated. Much has been learned by studying the role of chromatin remodeling and modifying complexes on individual genes. The seemingly straightforward models that inevitably arise from such studies are challenged by genome-wide analyses. Two recent studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae provide unprecedented coverage of both the genome-wide location and the effect on gene expression for the majority of chromatin factors. Comparison of the overlap between location and expression effects reveals a large disconnect, with on average only 2.5% of occupied genes showing changes in expression. It is also interesting that only 24% of all expression effects are associated with chromatin factor occupancy. The large difference between location and effect likely reflects general properties inherent to regulation of gene expression through chromatin in yeast. Explanations for the discrepancy include gene-specific properties that exert a requirement for certain factors only on specific genes, as well as functional redundancy, whereby loss of a particular factor is compensated by others that function in a distinct but nevertheless compensatory manner. Since the majority of chromatin factor perturbations do show significant effects on specific subsets of genes, this implies the presence of different types of gene-specific properties that determine which chromatin factors a particular gene requires for proper expression. Understanding these gene-specific properties should be the focus of future studies aimed at understanding regulation of gene expression through chromatin.

  20. Chromatin architecture and gene expression in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willenbrock, Hanni; Ussery, David

    2004-01-01

    Two recent genome-scale analyses underscore the importance of DNA topology and chromatin structure in regulating transcription in Escherichia coli.......Two recent genome-scale analyses underscore the importance of DNA topology and chromatin structure in regulating transcription in Escherichia coli....

  1. A Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of In Vitro Assembled Chromatin*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völker-Albert, Moritz Carl; Pusch, Miriam Caroline; Fedisch, Andreas; Schilcher, Pierre; Schmidt, Andreas; Imhof, Axel

    2016-01-01

    The structure of chromatin is critical for many aspects of cellular physiology and is considered to be the primary medium to store epigenetic information. It is defined by the histone molecules that constitute the nucleosome, the positioning of the nucleosomes along the DNA and the non-histone proteins that associate with it. These factors help to establish and maintain a largely DNA sequence-independent but surprisingly stable structure. Chromatin is extensively disassembled and reassembled during DNA replication, repair, recombination or transcription in order to allow the necessary factors to gain access to their substrate. Despite such constant interference with chromatin structure, the epigenetic information is generally well maintained. Surprisingly, the mechanisms that coordinate chromatin assembly and ensure proper assembly are not particularly well understood. Here, we use label free quantitative mass spectrometry to describe the kinetics of in vitro assembled chromatin supported by an embryo extract prepared from preblastoderm Drosophila melanogaster embryos. The use of a data independent acquisition method for proteome wide quantitation allows a time resolved comparison of in vitro chromatin assembly. A comparison of our in vitro data with proteomic studies of replicative chromatin assembly in vivo reveals an extensive overlap showing that the in vitro system can be used for investigating the kinetics of chromatin assembly in a proteome-wide manner. PMID:26811354

  2. Analysis of Chromatin Dynamics during Glucocorticoid Receptor Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Craig J.; Ward, James M.; Crusselle-Davis, Valerie J.; Kissling, Grace E.; Phadke, Dhiral; Shah, Ruchir R.

    2012-01-01

    Steroid hormone receptors initiate a genetic program tightly regulated by the chromatin environment of the responsive regions. Using the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) as a model factor for transcriptional initiation, we classified chromatin structure through formaldehyde-assisted isolation of regulatory elements (FAIRE). We looked at dynamic changes in FAIRE signals during GR activation specifically at regions of receptor interaction. We found a distribution of GR-responsive regions with diverse responses to activation and chromatin modulation. The majority of GR binding regions demonstrate increases in FAIRE signal in response to ligand. However, the majority GR-responsive regions shared a similar FAIRE signal in the basal chromatin state, suggesting a common chromatin structure for GR recruitment. Supporting this notion, global FAIRE sequencing (seq) data indicated an enrichment of signal surrounding the GR binding site prior to activation. Brg-1 knockdown showed response element-specific effects of ATPase-dependent chromatin remodeling. FAIRE induction was universally decre