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Sample records for hsp27 improved maturation

  1. Altered Cross-Linking of HSP27 by Zerumbone as a Novel Strategy for Overcoming HSP27-Mediated Radioresistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seo-Hyun; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Seo, Woo Duck; Lee, Hae-June; Nam, Joo-Won; Lee, Yoo Jin; Kim, Joon; Seo, Eun-Kyoung; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: HSP27 or HSP25 negatively regulates apoptosis pathways after radiation or chemotherapeutic agents. Abrogation of HSP27 function may be a candidate target for overcoming radio- and chemoresistance. Methods and Materials: Zerumbone (ZER), a cytotoxic component isolated from Zingiber zerumbet smith. Clonogenic survival assay and flow cytometry after Annexin V staining were performed to determine in vitro sensitization effects of ZER with ionizing radiation. A nude mouse xenografting system was also applied to detect in vivo radiosensitizing effects of ZER. Results: ZER produced cross-linking of HSP27, which was dependent on inhibition of the monomeric form of HSP27. ZER was directly inserted between the disulfide bond in the HSP27 dimer and modified normal HSP27 dimerization. Pretreatment with ZER before radiation inhibited the binding affinity between HSP27 and apoptotic molecules, such as cytochrome c and PKCδ, and induced sensitization in vitro and in an in vivo xenografted nude mouse system. Structural analogs lacking only the carbonyl group in ZER, such as α-humulene (HUM) and 8-hydroxy-humulen (8-OH-HUM), did not affect normal cross-linking of HSP27 and did not induce radiosensitization. Conclusions: We suggest that altered cross-linking of HSP27 by ZER is a good strategy for abolishing HSP27-mediated resistance.

  2. Altered Cross-linking of HSP27 by Zerumbone as a Novel Strategy for Overcoming HSP27- mediated Resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seo Hyun; Lee, Yoon Jin; Lee, Hae June; Lee, Yun Sil; Kim, Joon; Seo, Woo Duck; Nam, Joo Won; Lee, Yoo Jin; Seo, Eun Kyung

    2010-01-01

    HSPs have diverse roles in the regulation of signal transduction and in numerous aspects of cell growth and death. Indeed, HSP90, HSP70, and HSP27 have each been implicated in promoting cancer. Most HSP27 exists as large oligomeric complexes ranging from 100- 800 kDa, which are probably stabilized by complex interactions between dimeric building blocks. The functional properties of HSP27 are dependent on the quaternary structure of the protein. For example, HSP27 acts as a chaperone and binds to cytochrome c or Daxx as a dimer. Therefore, the oligomerization pattern of HPS27 is believed to have HSP27-mediated protective functions. In this study, zerumbone (ZER), the cytotoxic component isolated from Zingiber zerumbet Smith, induced cross-linking of HSP27 protein by its insertion between the disulfide bond of HSP27, and ZERmediated altered cross-linking of HSP27 modified normal HSP27 dimerization, which resulted in a sensitizing effect to tumors after treatment with radiation. Therefore, altered cross-linking by ZER may be a novel strategy for inhibition of HSP27-mediated resistance

  3. Proteomic profiling reveals that resveratrol inhibits HSP27 expression and sensitizes breast cancer cells to doxorubicin therapy.

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    José Díaz-Chávez

    Full Text Available The use of chemopreventive natural compounds represents a promising strategy in the search for novel therapeutic agents in cancer. Resveratrol (3,4',5-trans-trihydroxystilbilene is a dietary polyphenol found in fruits, vegetables and medicinal plants that exhibits chemopreventive and antitumor effects. In this study, we searched for modulated proteins with preventive or therapeutic potential in MCF-7 breast cancer cells exposed to resveratrol. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis we found significant changes (FC >2.0; p≤0.05 in the expression of 16 proteins in resveratrol-treated MCF-7 cells. Six down-regulated proteins were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS as heat shock protein 27 (HSP27, translationally-controlled tumor protein, peroxiredoxin-6, stress-induced-phosphoprotein-1, pyridoxine-5'-phosphate oxidase-1 and hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase; whereas one up-regulated protein was identified as triosephosphate isomerase. Particularly, HSP27 overexpression has been associated to apoptosis inhibition and resistance of human cancer cells to therapy. Consistently, we demonstrated that resveratrol induces apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Apoptosis was associated with a significant increase in mitochondrial permeability transition, cytochrome c release in cytoplasm, and caspases -3 and -9 independent cell death. Then, we evaluated the chemosensitization effect of increasing concentrations of resveratrol in combination with doxorubicin anti-neoplastic agent in vitro. We found that resveratrol effectively sensitize MCF-7 cells to cytotoxic therapy. Next, we evaluated the relevance of HSP27 targeted inhibition in therapy effectiveness. Results evidenced that HSP27 inhibition using RNA interference enhances the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin. In conclusion, our data indicate that resveratrol may improve the therapeutic effects of doxorubicin in part by cell death induction. We propose that potential modulation of HSP27

  4. Proteomic profiling reveals that resveratrol inhibits HSP27 expression and sensitizes breast cancer cells to doxorubicin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Chávez, José; Fonseca-Sánchez, Miguel A; Arechaga-Ocampo, Elena; Flores-Pérez, Ali; Palacios-Rodríguez, Yadira; Domínguez-Gómez, Guadalupe; Marchat, Laurence A; Fuentes-Mera, Lizeth; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Gariglio, Patricio; López-Camarillo, César

    2013-01-01

    The use of chemopreventive natural compounds represents a promising strategy in the search for novel therapeutic agents in cancer. Resveratrol (3,4',5-trans-trihydroxystilbilene) is a dietary polyphenol found in fruits, vegetables and medicinal plants that exhibits chemopreventive and antitumor effects. In this study, we searched for modulated proteins with preventive or therapeutic potential in MCF-7 breast cancer cells exposed to resveratrol. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis we found significant changes (FC >2.0; p≤0.05) in the expression of 16 proteins in resveratrol-treated MCF-7 cells. Six down-regulated proteins were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) as heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), translationally-controlled tumor protein, peroxiredoxin-6, stress-induced-phosphoprotein-1, pyridoxine-5'-phosphate oxidase-1 and hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase; whereas one up-regulated protein was identified as triosephosphate isomerase. Particularly, HSP27 overexpression has been associated to apoptosis inhibition and resistance of human cancer cells to therapy. Consistently, we demonstrated that resveratrol induces apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Apoptosis was associated with a significant increase in mitochondrial permeability transition, cytochrome c release in cytoplasm, and caspases -3 and -9 independent cell death. Then, we evaluated the chemosensitization effect of increasing concentrations of resveratrol in combination with doxorubicin anti-neoplastic agent in vitro. We found that resveratrol effectively sensitize MCF-7 cells to cytotoxic therapy. Next, we evaluated the relevance of HSP27 targeted inhibition in therapy effectiveness. Results evidenced that HSP27 inhibition using RNA interference enhances the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin. In conclusion, our data indicate that resveratrol may improve the therapeutic effects of doxorubicin in part by cell death induction. We propose that potential modulation of HSP27 levels using natural

  5. Recruitment of phosphorylated small heat shock protein Hsp27 to nuclear speckles without stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryantsev, A.L.; Chechenova, M.B.; Shelden, E.A.

    2007-01-01

    During stress, the mammalian small heat shock protein Hsp27 enters cell nuclei. The present study examines the requirements for entry of Hsp27 into nuclei of normal rat kidney (NRK) renal epithelial cells, and for its interactions with specific nuclear structures. We find that phosphorylation of Hsp27 is necessary for the efficient entry into nuclei during heat shock but not sufficient for efficient nuclear entry under control conditions. We further report that Hsp27 is recruited to an RNAse sensitive fraction of SC35 positive nuclear speckles, but not other intranuclear structures, in response to heat shock. Intriguingly, Hsp27 phosphorylation, in the absence of stress, is sufficient for recruitment to speckles found in post-anaphase stage mitotic cells. Additionally, pseudophosphorylated Hsp27 fused to a nuclear localization peptide (NLS) is recruited to nuclear speckles in unstressed interphase cells, but wildtype and nonphosphorylatable Hsp27 NLS fusion proteins are not. The expression of NLS-Hsp27 mutants does not enhance colony forming abilities of cells subjected to severe heat shock, but does regulate nuclear speckle morphology. These data demonstrate that phosphorylation, but not stress, mediates Hsp27 recruitment to an RNAse soluble fraction of nuclear speckles and support a site-specific role for Hsp27 within the nucleus

  6. Heat Shock Protein HSP27 Secretion by Ovarian Cancer Cells Is Linked to Intracellular Expression Levels, Occurs Independently of the Endoplasmic Reticulum Pathway and HSP27’s Phosphorylation Status, and Is Mediated by Exosome Liberation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias B. Stope

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The heat shock protein HSP27 has been correlated in ovarian cancer (OC patients with aggressiveness and chemoresistance and, therefore, represents a promising potential biomarker for OC diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment response. Notably, secretion of soluble HSP27 has been described by a few cell types and may take place as well in OC cells. Therefore, we studied HSP27 secretion mechanisms under diverse cellular conditions in an OC cell model system. Secretion of HSP27 was characterized after overexpression of HSP27 by transfected plasmids and after heat shock. Intra- and extracellular HSP27 amounts were assessed by Western blotting and ELISA. Protein secretion was blocked by brefeldin A and the impact of the HSP27 phosphorylation status was analyzed overexpressing HSP27 phosphomutants. The present study demonstrated that HSP27 secretion by OVCAR-3 and SK-OV-3 cells depends on intracellular HSP27 concentrations. Moreover, HSP27 secretion is independent of the endoplasmic reticulum secretory pathway and HSP27 phosphorylation. Notably, analysis of OC cell-born exosomes not only confirmed the concentration-dependent correlation of HSP27 expression and secretion but also demonstrated a concentration-dependent incorporation of HSP27 protein into exosomes. Thus, secreted HSP27 may become more important as an extracellular factor which controls the tumor microenvironment and might be a noninvasive biomarker.

  7. Protective Role of Hsp27 Protein Against Gamma Radiation-Induced Apoptosis and Radiosensitization Effects of Hsp27 Gene Silencing in Different Human Tumor Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloy, Marie-Therese; Hadchity, Elie; Bionda, Clara; Diaz-Latoud, Chantal; Claude, Line; Rousson, Robert; Arrigo, Andre-Patrick; Rodriguez-Lafrasse, Claire

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The ability of heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) to protect cells from stressful stimuli and its increased levels in tumors resistant to anticancer therapeutics suggest that it may represent a target for sensitization to radiotherapy. In this study, we investigate the protective role of Hsp27 against radiation-induced apoptosis and the effect of its attenuation in highly expressing radioresistant cancer cell lines. Methods and Materials: We examined clonogenic death and the kinetics of apoptotic events in different tumor cell lines overexpressing or underexpressing Hsp27 protein irradiated with photons. The radiosensitive Jurkat cell line, which does not express Hsp27 constitutively or in response to γ-rays, was stably transfected with Hsp27 complementary DNA. Attenuation of Hsp27 expression was accomplished by antisense or RNAi (interfering RNA) strategies in SQ20B head-and-neck squamous carcinoma, PC3 prostate cancer, and U87 glioblastoma radioresistant cells. Results: We measured concentration-dependent protection against the cytotoxic effects of radiation in Jurkat-Hsp27 cells, which led to a 50% decrease in apoptotic cells at 48 hours in the highest expressing cells. Underlying mechanisms leading to radiation resistance involved a significant increase in glutathione levels associated with detoxification of reactive oxygen species, a delay in mitochondrial collapse, and caspase activation. Conversely, attenuation of Hsp27 in SQ20B cells, characterized by their resistance to apoptosis, sensitizes cells to irradiation. This was emphasized by increased apoptosis, decreased glutathione basal level, and clonogenic cell death. Sensitization to irradiation was confirmed in PC3 and U87 radioresistant cells. Conclusion: Hsp27 gene therapy offers a potential adjuvant to radiation-based therapy of resistant tumors

  8. Effects of HSP27 chaperone on THP-1 tumor cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaigorodova, E V; Ryazantseva, N V; Novitskii, V V; Maroshkina, A N; Belkina, M V

    2012-11-01

    The role of Hsp27 (heat shock protein 27) chaperone in regulation of THP-1 tumor cell apoptosis was studied. Realization of tumor cell apoptosis under conditions of in vitro culturing with Hsp27 specific inhibitor (KRIBB3) was evaluated by fluorescent microscopy with FITC-labeled annexin V and propidium iodide. Measurements of Bcl-2 family proteins (Bcl-2, Bax, Bad) in tumor cells incubated with Hsp27 inhibitor were carried out by Western blotting. Chaperone Hsp27 acted as apoptosis inhibitor in THP-1 tumor cells modulating the proportion of antiapoptotic (Bcl-2) and proapoptotic (Bax and Bad) proteins.

  9. Monocyte Proteomics Reveals Involvement of Phosphorylated HSP27 in the Pathogenesis of Osteoporosis

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    Bhavna Daswani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral monocytes, precursors of osteoclasts, have emerged as important candidates for identifying proteins relevant to osteoporosis, a condition characterized by low Bone Mineral Density (BMD and increased susceptibility for fractures. We employed 4-plex iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification coupled with LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry to identify differentially expressed monocyte proteins from premenopausal and postmenopausal women with low versus high BMD. Of 1801 proteins identified, 45 were differentially abundant in low versus high BMD, with heat shock protein 27 (HSP27 distinctly upregulated in low BMD condition in both premenopausal and postmenopausal categories. Validation in individual samples (n=80 using intracellular ELISA confirmed that total HSP27 (tHSP27 as well as phosphorylated HSP27 (pHSP27 was elevated in low BMD condition in both categories (P<0.05. Further, using transwell assays, pHSP27, when placed in the upper chamber, could increase monocyte migration (P<0.0001 and this was additive in combination with RANKL (receptor activator of NFkB ligand placed in the lower chamber (P=0.05. Effect of pHSP27 in monocyte migration towards bone milieu can result in increased osteoclast formation and thus contribute to pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Overall, this study reveals for the first time a novel link between monocyte HSP27 and BMD.

  10. Quercetin suppresses drug-resistant spheres via the p38 MAPK-Hsp27 apoptotic pathway in oral cancer cells.

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    Su-Feng Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Treatment failure in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC leading to local recurrence(s and metastases is mainly due to drug resistance. Cancer stem cells (CSCs are thought be responsible for the development of drug resistance. However, the correlations between CSCs, drug resistance, and new strategy against drug resistance in OSCC remain elusive. METHODS: A drug-resistant sphere (DRSP model was generated by using a nonadhesive culture system to induce drug-resistant cells from SCC25 oral cancer cells. A comparative analysis was performed between the parent control cells and DRSPs with a related treatment strategy focusing on the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT-associated markers, drug-resistance-related genes, and CSC properties in vitro, as well as tumorigenicity and the regimen for tumor regression in vivo. RESULTS: Our data show the presence of a phenomenon of EMT with gradual cellular transition from an epithelioid to mesenchymal-like spheroid morphology during induction of drug resistance. The characterization of DRSPs revealed the upregulation of the drug-resistance-related genes ABCG2 and MDR-1 and of CSC-representative markers, suggesting that DRSPs have greater resistance to cisplatin (Cis and stronger CSC properties compared with the control. Moreover, overexpression of phosphorylated heat-shock protein 27 (p-Hsp27 via the activation of p38 MAPK signaling was observed in DRSPs. Knockdown of Hsp27 decreased Cis resistance and induced apoptosis in DRSPs. Furthermore, an inhibitor of Hsp27, quercetin (Qu, suppressed p-Hsp27 expression, with alterations of the EMT signature, leading to the promotion of apoptosis in DRSPs. A xenographic study also confirmed the increase of tumorigenicity in DRSPs. The combination of Qu and Cis can reduce tumor growth and decrease drug resistance in OSCC. CONCLUSIONS: The p38 MAPK-Hsp27 axis plays an important role in CSCs-mediated drug resistance in OSCC. Targeting this axis

  11. Characterization of HSP27 phosphorylation sites in human atherosclerotic plaque secretome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durán, Mari-Carmen; Boeri-Erba, Elisabetta; Mohammed, Shabaz

    2007-01-01

    spectrometry (MS). Among the identified proteins, two isoforms of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), a protein recently described as a potential biomarker of atherosclerosis, were detected. However, the putative mechanisms in which HSP27 isoforms could be involved in the atherosclerotic process are unknown. Thus......, the role that phosphorylated HSP27 could play in the atherosclerotic process is actually under study. The present work shows the strategies employed to characterize the phosphorylation in the HSP27 secreted by atheroma plaque samples. The application of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (MS......-lymphocytes). These interactions can be mediated by proteins secreted from these cells, which therefore exert an important role in the atherosclerotic process. We recently described a novel strategy for the characterization of the human atherosclerotic plaque secretome, combining two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass...

  12. Localization of Hsp27 in the Rat Submandibular Gland Following the Application of Various Surgical Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizobe, Kenichi; Kawabe, Yoshihiro; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji; Araki, Hisao; Amano, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    Salivary glands repair and regenerate following various types of injuries and surgical procedures. However, the tissue responses induced in the contralateral glands have yet to be elucidated in detail. Hsp27, a member of the heat-shock protein (Hsp) family, is strongly expressed in physiological environments, particularly during development. Hsp27 was previously shown to play a role in the regulation of acinar cell proliferation and differentiation in the rat submandibular gland. The present study performed the following surgical treatments on the right submandibular glands of adult rats: 1) duct ligation followed by unligation after one week; 2) partial sialoadenectomy; and 3) total sialoadenectomy. Immunohistochemistry for Hsp27 and Ki67 was performed in the experimental and normal contralateral glands, and localization was histologically and morphometrically analyzed. The results obtained revealed the localization of Hsp27 to the intercalated duct in the submandibular glands of non-treated rats. The expression of Hsp27 was strongly induced in both the uninjured contralateral control glands as well as treated glands of experimental rats regardless of the surgical procedure performed. The number of Hsp27-immunopositive cells increased rapidly following surgery, and subsequently returned to the same level as that in non-treated rats after 4 weeks. However, no marked changes were observed in the number of Ki67-immunopositive proliferating cells. Therefore, the change in the number of Hsp27-immunopositive cells may have contributed to compensatory hypertrophy. The results of the present study indicate that the expression of Hsp27 in the intercalated duct in the submandibular gland may play a role in the differentiation of acinar cells

  13. Targeting Hsp27/eIF4E interaction with phenazine compound: a promising alternative for castration-resistant prostate cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajer, Ziouziou; Claudia, Andrieu; Erik, Laurini; Sara, Karaki; Maurizio, Fermeglia; Ridha, Oueslati; David, Taieb; Michel, Camplo; Olivier, Siri; Sabrina, Pricl; Maria, Katsogiannou; Palma, Rocchi

    2017-09-29

    The actual strategy to improve current therapies in advanced prostate cancer involves targeting genes activated by androgen withdrawal, either to delay or prevent the emergence of the castration-refractory phenotype. However, these genes are often implicated in several physiological processes, and long-term inhibition of survival proteins might be accompanied with cytotoxic effects. To avoid this problem, an alternative therapeutic strategy relies on the identification and use of compounds that disrupt specific protein-protein interactions involved in androgen withdrawal. Specifically, the interaction of the chaperone protein Hsp27 with the initiation factor eIF4E leads to the protection of protein synthesis initiation process and enhances cell survival during cell stress induced by castration or chemotherapy. Thus, in this work we aimed at i) identifying the interaction site of the Hsp27/eIF4E complex and ii) interfere with the relevant protein/protein association mechanism involved in castration-resistant progression of prostate cancer. By a combination of experimental and modeling techniques, we proved that eIF4E interacts with the C-terminal part of Hsp27, preferentially when Hsp27 is phosphorylated. We also observed that the loss of this interaction increased cell chemo-and hormone-sensitivity. In order to find a potential inhibitor of Hsp27/eIF4E interaction, BRET assays in combination with molecular simulations identified the phenazine derivative 14 as the compound able to efficiently interfere with this protein/protein interaction, thereby inhibiting cell viability and increasing cell death in chemo- and castration-resistant prostate cancer models in vitro and in vivo .

  14. Hsp27 regulates Akt activation and polymorphonuclear leukocyte apoptosis by scaffolding MK2 to Akt signal complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rui; Kausar, Hina; Johnson, Paul; Montoya-Durango, Diego E; Merchant, Michael; Rane, Madhavi J

    2007-07-27

    We have shown previously that Akt exists in a signal complex with p38 MAPK, MAPK-activated protein kinase-2 (MK2), and heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) and MK2 phosphorylates Akt on Ser-473. Additionally, dissociation of Hsp27 from Akt, prior to Akt activation, induced polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) apoptosis. However, the role of Hsp27 in regulating Akt activation was not examined. This study tested the hypothesis that Hsp27 regulates Akt activation and promotes cell survival by scaffolding MK2 to the Akt signal complex. Here we show that loss of Akt/Hsp27 interaction by anti-Hsp27 antibody treatment resulted in loss of Akt/MK2 interaction, loss of Akt-Ser-473 phosphorylation, and induced PMN apoptosis. Transfection of myristoylated Akt (AktCA) in HK-11 cells induced Akt-Ser-473 phosphorylation, activation, and Hsp27-Ser-82 phosphorylation. Cotransfection of AktCA with Hsp27 short interfering RNA, but not scrambled short interfering RNA, silenced Hsp27 expression, without altering Akt expression in HK-11 cells. Silencing Hsp27 expression inhibited Akt/MK2 interaction, inhibited Akt phosphorylation and Akt activation, and induced HK-11 cell death. Deletion mutagenesis studies identified acidic linker region (amino acids 117-128) on Akt as an Hsp27 binding region. Deletion of amino acids 117-128 on Akt resulted in loss of its interaction with Hsp27 and MK2 but not with Hsp90 as demonstrated by immunoprecipitation and glutathione S-transferase pulldown studies. Co-transfection studies demonstrated that constitutively active MK2 (MK2EE) phosphorylated Aktwt (wild type) on Ser-473 but failed to phosphorylate Akt(Delta117-128) mutant in transfixed cells. These studies collectively define a novel role of Hsp27 in regulating Akt activation and cellular apoptosis by mediating interaction between Akt and its upstream activator MK2.

  15. The expression of HSP27 is associated with poor clinical outcome in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romani, Antonello A; Crafa, Pellegrino; Desenzani, Silvia; Graiani, Gallia; Lagrasta, Costanza; Sianesi, Mario; Soliani, Paolo; Borghetti, Angelo F

    2007-01-01

    The heat shock proteins (HSPs) 27-kDa (HSP27) and 72-kDa (HSP72), are ubiquitous chaperone molecules inducible in cells exposed to different stress conditions. Increased level of HSPs are reported in several human cancers, and found to be associated with the resistance to some anticancer treatments and poor prognosis. However, there is no study of the relationship between HSPs expression and patient's prognosis in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCCA). In this exploratory retrospective study, we investigated the expressions of HSP27 and HSP72 as potential prognostic factors in IHCCA. Thirty-one paraffin-embedded samples were analyzed by immunohistochemical methods using HSP27 and HSP72 monoclonal antibodies. Proliferation rate was assessed in the same specimens by using monoclonal antibody against phosphorylated histone H3 (pHH3). Fisher's exact test was used to assess the hypothesis of independence between categorical variables in 2 × 2 tables. The ANOVA procedure was used to evaluate the association between ordinal and categorical variables. Estimates of the survival probability were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the log rank test was employed to test the null hypothesis of equality in overall survival among groups. The hazard ratio associated with HSP27 and HSP72 expression was estimated by Cox hazard-proportional regression. The expression of HSP27 was related to mitotic index, tumor greatest dimension, capsular and vascular invasion while the expression of HSP72 was only related to the presence of necrosis and the lymphoid infiltration. Kaplan-Maier analysis suggested that the expression of HSP27 significantly worsened the patients' median overall survival (11 ± 3.18 vs 55 ± 4.1 months, P-value = 0.0003). Moreover HSP27-positive patients exhibited the worst mean survival (7.0 ± 3.2 months) in the absence of concomitant HSP72 expression. The expression of HSP27, likely increasing cell proliferation, tumor mass, vascular and

  16. HSP27 phosphorylation modulates TRAIL-induced activation of Src-Akt/ERK signaling through interaction with β-arrestin2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shimei; Xin, Yinqiang; Qi, Zhilin; Xu, Yimiao; Diao, Ying; Lan, Lei; Luo, Lan; Yin, Zhimin

    2014-03-01

    Heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) regulates critical cellular functions such as development, differentiation, cell growth and apoptosis. A variety of stimuli induce the phosphorylation of HSP27, which affects its cellular functions. However, most previous studies focused on the role of HSP27 protein itself in apoptosis, the particular role of its phosphorylation state in signaling transduction remains largely unclear. In the present study, we reported that HSP27 phosphorylation modulated TRAIL-triggered pro-survival signaling transduction. In HeLa cells, suppression of HSP27 phosphorylation by specific inhibitor KRIBB3 or MAPKAPK2 (MK2) knockdown and by overexpression of non-phosphorylatable HSP27(3A) mutant demonstrated that hindered HSP27 phosphorylation enhanced the TRAIL-induced apoptosis. In addition, reduced HSP27 phosphorylation by KRIBB3 treatment or MK2 knockdown attenuated the TRAIL-induced activation of Akt and ERK survival signaling through suppressing the phosphorylation of Src. By overexpression of HSP27(15A) or HSP27(78/82A) phosphorylation mutant, we further showed that phosphorylation of HSP27 at serine 78/82 residues was essential to TRAIL-triggered Src-Akt/ERK signaling transduction. Co-immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy showed that HSP27 interacted with Src and scaffolding protein β-arrestin2 in response of TRAIL stimulation and suppression of HSP27 phosphorylation apparently disrupted the TRAIL-induced interaction of HSP27 and Src or interaction of HSP27 and β-arrestin2. We further demonstrated that β-arrestin2 mediated HSP27 action on TRAIL-induced Src activation, which was achieved by recruiting signaling complex of HSP27/β-arrestin2/Src in response to TRAIL. Taken together, our study revealed that HSP27 phosphorylation modulates TRAIL-triggered activation of Src-Akt/ERK pro-survival signaling via interacting with β-arrestin2 in HeLa cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hsp27 gene in Drosophila ananassae subgroup was split by a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To investigate the molecular evolution of Hsp27 in the .... genetic evolution, as base composition bias is known to dis- tort determination of phylogenetic relationships in simulated datasets ... examined using unbiased tests with CONSEL (Shimodaira .... ACD is still unclear, however, mutations of a conserved argi- nine in the ...

  18. Expression of HSP27, HSP72 and MRP proteins in in vitro co-culture ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We studied the expression of inducible heat shock protein (HSP27, HSP72) and multidrug-resistance protein (MRP) in co-cultures of human colon carcinoma cell spheroids obtained from different grades of tumour with normal human colon epithelium, myofibroblast and endothelial cell monolayers. We also measured the ...

  19. Cloning, characterization, and heat stress-induced redistribution of a protein homologous to human hsp27 in the zebrafish Danio rerio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Li; Bryantsev, Anton L.; Chechenova, Maria B.; Shelden, Eric A.

    2005-01-01

    Hsp27 is a small heat shock protein (shsp) regulating stress tolerance and increasingly thought to play roles in tissue homeostasis and differentiation. The zebrafish Danio rerio is an important model for the study of developmental processes, but little is known regarding shsps in this animal. Here, we report the sequence, expression, regulation, and function of a zebrafish protein (zfHsp27) homologous to human Hsp27. zfHsp27 contains three conserved phosphorylatable serines and a cysteine important for regulation of apoptosis, but it lacks much of a C-terminal tail domain and shows low homology in two putative actin interacting domains that are features of mammalian Hsp27. zfHsp27 mRNA is most abundant in adult skeletal muscle and heart and is upregulated during early embryogenesis. zfHsp27 expressed in mammalian fibroblasts was phosphorylated in response to heat stress and anisomycin, and this phosphorylation was prevented by treatment with SB202190, an inhibitor of p38 MAPK. Expression of zfHsp27 and human Hsp27 in mammalian fibroblasts promoted a similar degree of tolerance to heat stress. zfHsp27 fusion proteins entered the nucleus and associated with the cytoskeleton of heat stressed cells in vitro and in zebrafish embryos. These results reveal conservation in regulation and function of mammalian and teleost Hsp27 proteins and define zebrafish as a new model for the study of Hsp27 function

  20. Mobile phone base station-emitted radiation does not induce phosphorylation of Hsp27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, H; Sakuma, N; Kaji, N; Nakayama, K; Inoue, K; Sekijima, M; Nojima, T; Miyakoshi, J

    2007-02-01

    An in vitro study focusing on the effects of low-level radiofrequency (RF) fields from mobile radio base stations employing the International Mobile Telecommunication 2000 (IMT-2000) cellular system was conducted to test the hypothesis that modulated RF fields act to induce phosphorylation and overexpression of heat shock protein hsp27. First, we evaluated the responses of human cells to microwave exposure at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 80 mW/kg, which corresponds to the limit of the average whole-body SAR for general public exposure defined as a basic restriction in the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. Second, we investigated whether continuous wave (CW) and Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (W-CDMA) modulated signal RF fields at 2.1425 GHz induced activation or gene expression of hsp27 and other heat shock proteins (hsps). Human glioblastoma A172 cells were exposed to W-CDMA radiation at SARs of 80 and 800 mW/kg for 2-48 h, and CW radiation at 80 mW/kg for 24 h. Human IMR-90 fibroblasts from fetal lungs were exposed to W-CDMA at 80 and 800 mW/kg for 2 or 28 h, and CW at 80 mW/kg for 28 h. Under the RF field exposure conditions described above, no significant differences in the expression levels of phosphorylated hsp27 at serine 82 (hsp27[pS82]) were observed between the test groups exposed to W-CDMA or CW signal and the sham-exposed negative controls, as evaluated immediately after the exposure periods by bead-based multiplex assays. Moreover, no noticeable differences in the gene expression of hsps were observed between the test groups and the negative controls by DNA Chip analysis. Our results confirm that exposure to low-level RF field up to 800 mW/kg does not induce phosphorylation of hsp27 or expression of hsp gene family.

  1. HSP27 Inhibits Homocysteine-Induced Endothelial Apoptosis by Modulation of ROS Production and Mitochondrial Caspase-Dependent Apoptotic Pathway

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    Xin Tian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy could lead to endothelial dysfunction and is viewed as an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. Heat shock protein 27 (HSP27, a small heat shock protein, is reported to exert protective effect against atherosclerosis. This study aims to investigate the protective effect of HSP27 against Hcy-induced endothelial cell apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs and to determine the underlying mechanisms. Methods. Apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP of normal or HSP27-overexpressing HUVECs in the presence of Hcy were analyzed by flow cytometry. The mRNA and protein expression levels were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and western blot. Results. We found that Hcy could induce cell apoptosis with corresponding decrease of nitric oxide (NO level, increase of endothelin-1 (ET-1, intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 levels, elevation of ROS, and dissipation of MMP. In addition, HSP27 could protect the cell against Hcy-induced apoptosis and inhibit the effect of Hcy on HUVECs. Furthermore, HSP27 could increase the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and inhibit caspase-3 activity. Conclusions. Therefore, we concluded that HSP27 played a protective role against Hcy-induced endothelial apoptosis through modulation of ROS production and the mitochondrial caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway.

  2. Hsp27 promotes ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux through the PI3K/PKCζ/Sp1 pathway in THP-1 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Hai-Jun; Zhao, Guo-Jun; Chen, Wu-Jun; Zhang, Min; Zeng, Gao-Feng; Zheng, Xi-Long; Tang, Chao-Ke

    2017-09-05

    Heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) is a putative biomarker and therapeutic target in atherosclerosis. This study was to explore the potential mechanisms underlying Hsp27 effects on ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) expression and cellular cholesterol efflux. THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells were infected with adenovirus to express wild-type Hsp27, hyper-phosphorylated Hsp27 mimic (3D Hsp27), antisense Hsp27 or hypo-phosphorylated Hsp27 mimic (3A Hsp27). Wild-type and 3D Hsp27 were found to up-regulate ABCA1 mRNA and protein expression and increase cholesterol efflux from cells. Expression of antisense or 3A Hsp27 suppressed the expression of ABCA1 and cholesterol efflux. Furthermore, over-expression of wild-type and 3D Hsp27 significantly increased the levels of phosphorylated specificity protein 1 (Sp1), protein kinase C ζ (PKCζ) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). In addition, the up-regulation of ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux induced by 3D Hsp27 was suppressed by inhibition of Sp1, PKCζ and PI3K with specific kinase inhibitors. Taken together, our results revealed that Hsp27 may up-regulate the expression of ABCA1 and promotes cholesterol efflux through activation of the PI3K/PKCζ/Sp1 signal pathway in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells. Our findings may partly explain the mechanisms underlying the anti-atherogenic effect of Hsp27. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Localization of Heat Shock Protein 27 (Hsp27) in the Rat Gingiva and its Changes with Tooth Eruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Au; Yamada, Tohru; Inoue, Katsuyuki; Momoi, Tomoko; Tokunaga, Hiroshi; Sakiyama, Koji; Kanegae, Haruhide; Suda, Naoto; Amano, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    Heat shock protein 27 kDa (Hsp27) functions as a molecular chaperon to prevent apoptosis as well as to contribute to the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation during development. In the present study, the localization of Hsp27 in the oral epithelium of rats and its expression change during formation of the gingiva with the tooth eruption were examined immunohistochemically to elucidate the roles of Hsp27 in the oral mucosa. In adult rats, Hsp27-immunoreactivity was localized in the prickle and granular layers but absent in the basal and horny layers of the oral epithelium. On the other hand, in the outer and sulcular epithelia of the free gingival, Hsp27-immunoreactivity was detected in the whole layers, while it was not found in the proliferation zone of the junctional epithelium immunoreactive for Ki67. In immature rats on 10th postnatal day, Hsp27-immunoreactivity was intense in the prickle and granular layers of the oral epithelium, but was not detected in its basal layer. In rats at the eruptive phase on 15th postnatal day, Hsp27-immunoreactivity was detected in sites of the basal layer adjacent to where the dental cusps penetrated through the oral epithelium. Although the immunoreactivity for Ki67 was found in the basal layer of the oral epithelium, it was not localized in the Hsp27-immunopositive sites of tooth-penetration in the basal layer. Just after the tooth-eruption on 20th postnatal day, Hsp27-immunoreactivity was not found in the stratified squamous epithelium at the dentogingival junction, whereas it was intense in a single layer of cuboidal epithelial cells attached to the tooth neck. Ki67-positive cells were scattered in the stratified squamous epithelium at the dentogingival junction, whereas no positive cells were found in the portion of a single layer of cuboidal epithelial cells. These findings suggest that the outer and sulcular epithelia of the free gingiva have a relatively slower rate of proliferation than other gingival and

  4. l-glutamine and l-alanine supplementation increase glutamine-glutathione axis and muscle HSP-27 in rats trained using a progressive high-intensity resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Jaqueline Santos Moreira; Raizel, Raquel; Hypólito, Thaís Menezes; Rosa, Thiago Dos Santos; Cruzat, Vinicius Fernandes; Tirapegui, Julio

    2016-08-01

    In this study we investigated the chronic effects of oral l-glutamine and l-alanine supplementation, either in their free or dipeptide form, on glutamine-glutathione (GLN-GSH) axis and cytoprotection mediated by HSP-27 in rats submitted to resistance exercise (RE). Forty Wistar rats were distributed into 5 groups: sedentary; trained (CTRL); and trained supplemented with l-alanyl-l-glutamine, l-glutamine and l-alanine in their free form (GLN+ALA), or free l-alanine (ALA). All trained animals were submitted to a 6-week ladder-climbing protocol. Supplementations were offered in a 4% drinking water solution for 21 days prior to euthanasia. Plasma glutamine, creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin (MYO), and erythrocyte concentration of reduced GSH and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) were measured. In tibialis anterior skeletal muscle, GLN-GSH axis, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and the expression of heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1), 27-kDa heat shock protein (HSP-27), and glutamine synthetase were determined. In CRTL animals, high-intensity RE reduced muscle glutamine levels and increased GSSG/GSH rate and TBARS, as well as augmented plasma CK and MYO levels. Conversely, l-glutamine-supplemented animals showed an increase in plasma and muscle levels of glutamine, with a reduction in GSSG/GSH rate, TBARS, and CK. Free l-alanine administration increased plasma glutamine concentration and lowered muscle TBARS. HSF-1 and HSP-27 were high in all supplemented groups when compared with CTRL (p alanine, in both a free or dipeptide form, improve the GLN-GSH axis and promote cytoprotective effects in rats submitted to high-intensity RE training.

  5. [Apoptosis-modulating effects of heat shock proteins: the influence of Hsp27 chaperone on TBA Bcl-2 family proteins in Jurkat cell line].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riazantseva, N V; Kaĭgorodova, E V; Maroshkina, A N; Belkina, M V; Novitskiĭ, V V

    2012-01-01

    The in vitro phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated Hsp27 forms concentrations and Bcl-2 proteins affected by Hsp27 inhibition were studied in Jurkat-line tumor cells and healthy donor mononuclear lymphocytes by Western blotting technique. The Hsp27 inhibition causes the increase of intracellular Bax protein concentration and the decrease of Bcl-2 level leading to an increase of apoptotic changes in Jurkat line cells.

  6. Neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPCa) increased the neighboring PCa chemo-resistance via altering the PTHrP/p38/Hsp27/androgen receptor (AR)/p21 signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yun; Sun, Yin; Hu, Shuai; Luo, Jie; Li, Lei; Li, Xin; Yeh, Shuyuan; Jin, Jie; Chang, Chawnshang

    2016-01-01

    Prostatic neuroendocrine cells (NE) are an integral part of prostate cancer (PCa) that are associated with PCa progression. As the current androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) with anti-androgens may promote the neuroendocrine PCa (NEPCa) development, and few therapies can effectively suppress NEPCa, understanding the impact of NEPCa on PCa progression may help us to develop better therapies to battle PCa. Here we found NEPCa cells could increase the docetaxel-resistance of their neighboring PCa cells. Mechanism dissection revealed that through secretion of PTHrP, NEPCa cells could alter the p38/MAPK/Hsp27 signals in their neighboring PCa cells that resulted in increased androgen receptor (AR) activity via promoting AR nuclear translocation. The consequences of increased AR function might then increase docetaxel-resistance via increasing p21 expression. In vivo xenograft mice experiments also confirmed NEPCa could increase the docetaxel-resistance of neighboring PCa, and targeting this newly identified PTHrP/p38/Hsp27/AR/p21 signaling pathway with either p38 inhibitor (SB203580) or sh-PTHrP may result in improving/restoring the docetaxel sensitivity to better suppress PCa. PMID:27375022

  7. Cellular Hsp27 interacts with classical swine fever virus NS5A protein and negatively regulates viral replication by the NF-κB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Shifeng; Luo, Mingyang; Jiang, Shengnan; Liu, Jiayu; Ding, Chunying; Zhang, Qinghuan; Guo, Huancheng; Gong, Wenjie; Tu, Changchun; Sun, Jinfu

    2018-05-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) nonstructural protein NS5A is a multifunctional protein functioning in regulation of viral genome replication, protein translation and assembly by interaction with viral or host proteins. Here, heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) has been identified as a novel binding partner of NS5A by using His tag "pull down" coupled with shotgun LC-MS/MS, with interaction of both proteins further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and laser confocal assays. In PK-15 cells, silencing of Hsp27 expression by siRNA enhanced CSFV replication, and upregulation of Hsp27 inhibited viral proliferation. Additionally, we have shown that overexpression of Hsp27 increased NF-κB signaling induced by TNFα. Blocking NF-κB signaling in PK-15 cells overexpressing Hsp27 by ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC) eliminated the inhibition of CSFV replication by Hsp27. These findings clearly demonstrate that the inhibition of CSFV replication by Hsp27 is mediated via the NF-κB signaling pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. SB203580 Modulates p38 MAPK Signaling and Dengue Virus-Induced Liver Injury by Reducing MAPKAPK2, HSP27, and ATF2 Phosphorylation.

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    Gopinathan Pillai Sreekanth

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV infection causes organ injuries, and the liver is one of the most important sites of DENV infection, where viral replication generates a high viral load. The molecular mechanism of DENV-induced liver injury is still under investigation. The mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs, including p38 MAPK, have roles in the hepatic cell apoptosis induced by DENV. However, the in vivo role of p38 MAPK in DENV-induced liver injury is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the role of SB203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor, in a mouse model of DENV infection. Both the hematological parameters, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia, were improved by SB203580 treatment and liver transaminases and histopathology were also improved. We used a real-time PCR microarray to profile the expression of apoptosis-related genes. Tumor necrosis factor α, caspase 9, caspase 8, and caspase 3 proteins were significantly lower in the SB203580-treated DENV-infected mice than that in the infected control mice. Increased expressions of cytokines including TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10, and chemokines including RANTES and IP-10 in DENV infection were reduced by SB203580 treatment. DENV infection induced the phosphorylation of p38MAPK, and its downstream signals including MAPKAPK2, HSP27 and ATF-2. SB203580 treatment did not decrease the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, but it significantly reduced the phosphorylation of MAPKAPK2, HSP27, and ATF2. Therefore, SB203580 modulates the downstream signals to p38 MAPK and reduces DENV-induced liver injury.

  9. Recombinant heat shock protein 27 (HSP27/HSPB1) protects against cadmium-induced oxidative stress and toxicity in human cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Olmedo, Daiana G; Biaggio, Veronica S; Koumbadinga, Geremy A; Gómez, Nidia N; Shi, Chunhua; Ciocca, Daniel R; Batulan, Zarah; Fanelli, Mariel A; O'Brien, Edward R

    2017-05-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a carcinogen with several well-described toxicological effects in humans, but its molecular mechanisms are still not fully understood. Overexpression of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27/HSPB1)-a multifunctional protein chaperone-has been shown to protect cells from oxidative damage and apoptosis triggered by Cd exposure. The aims of this work were to investigate the potential use of extracellular recombinant HSP27 to prevent/counteract Cd-induced cellular toxicity and to evaluate if peroxynitrite was involved in the development of Cd-induced toxicity. Here, we report that the harmful effects of Cd correlated with changes in oxidative stress markers: upregulation of reactive oxygen species, reduction in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, increment in lipid peroxidation, peroxynitrite (PN), and protein nitration; intracellular HSP27 was reduced. Treatments with Cd (100 μM) for 24 h or with the peroxynitrite donor, SIN-1, decreased HSP27 levels (~50%), suggesting that PN formation is responsible for the reduction of HSP27. Pre-treatments of the cells either with Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) (a pharmacological inhibitor of NO synthase) or with recombinant HSP27 (rHSP27) attenuated the disruption of the cellular metabolism induced by Cd, increasing in a 55 and 52%, respectively, the cell viability measured by CCK-8. Cd induced necrotic cell death pathways, although apoptosis was also activated; pre-treatment with L-NAME or rHSP27 mitigated cell death. Our findings show for the first time a direct relationship between Cd-induced toxicity and PN production and a role for rHSP27 as a potential therapeutic agent that may counteract Cd toxicity.

  10. Ristocetin induces phosphorylated-HSP27 (HSPB1) release from the platelets of type 2 DM patients: Anti-platelet agent-effect on the release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Haruhiko; Kuroyanagi, Gen; Onuma, Takashi; Enomoto, Yukiko; Doi, Tomoaki; Iida, Hiroki; Otsuka, Takanobu; Ogura, Shinji; Iwama, Toru; Kojima, Kumi; Kozawa, Osamu

    2018-04-01

    It has been previously reported that HSP27 is released from platelets in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients according to phosphorylation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ristocetin, a glycoprotein (GP)Ib/IX/V activator, on the release of HSP27 and the effect of anti-platelet agents, such as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), on this release. Forty-six patients with type 2 DM were recruited, and classified into two groups depending on administration of anti-platelet agents, resulting in 31 patients without these agents (control group) and 15 patients with them (anti-platelet group). Ristocetin potently induced the aggregation of platelets in the two groups. Ristocetin-induced changes of the area under the curve of light transmittance and the ratio of the size of platelet aggregates in the anti-platelet group were slightly different from those in the control group. On the other hand, the levels of phosphorylated-HSP27 induced by ristocetin in the platelets from a patient of the anti-platelet group taking ASA were significantly lower than those from a patient of the control group. The levels of HSP27 release from the ristocetin-stimulated platelets were significantly correlated with the levels of phosphorylated-HSP27 in the platelets from patients in the two groups. The levels of HSP27 release and those of platelet-derived growth factor-AB (PDGF-AB) secretion stimulated by ristocetin in the anti-platelet group were lower than those in the control group. In addition, the levels of HSP27 release and those of PDGF-AB secretion stimulated by ADP in the anti-platelet group were lower than those in the control group. These results strongly suggest that anti-platelet agents inhibit the HSP27 release from platelets stimulated by ristocetin but not the aggregation in type 2 DM patients.

  11. Oligomerization and chaperone-like activity of Drosophila melanogaster small heat shock protein DmHsp27 and three arginine mutants in the alpha-crystallin domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutaoufik, Mohamed Taha; Morrow, Geneviève; Maaroufi, Halim; Férard, Céline; Finet, Stéphanie; Tanguay, Robert M

    2017-07-01

    The small Hsp DmHsp27 from Drosophila melanogaster is one of the few small heat shock proteins (sHsps) found within the nucleus. We report that its dimerization is independent of disulfide bond formation and seems to rely on salt bridges. Unlike metazoan sHsps, DmHsp27 forms two populations of oligomers not in equilibrium. Mutations at highly conserved arginine residues in mammalian sHsps have been reported to be associated with protein conformational defects and intracellular aggregation. Independent mutation of three highly conserved arginines (R122, R131, and R135) to glycine in DmHsp27 results in only one population of higher molecular weight form. In vitro, the chaperone-like activity of wild-type DmHsp27 was comparable with that of its two isolated populations and to the single population of the R122G, R131G, and R135G using luciferase as substrate. However, using insulin, the chaperone-like activity of wild-type DmHsp27 was lower than that of R122G and R131G mutants. Altogether, the results characterize wild-type DmHsp27 and its alpha-crystallin domain (ACD) arginine mutants and may give insight into protection mechanism of sHsps.

  12. Essential role of the NH2-terminal WD/EPF motif in the phosphorylation-activated protective function of mammalian Hsp27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thériault, Jimmy R; Lambert, Herman; Chávez-Zobel, Aura T; Charest, Gabriel; Lavigne, Pierre; Landry, Jacques

    2004-05-28

    Hsp27 is expressed at high levels after mild heat shock and contributes to making cells extremely resistant to subsequent treatments. The activity of the protein is regulated at the transcriptional level, but also by phosphorylation, which occurs rapidly during stress and is responsible for causing the dissociation of large 700-kDa Hsp27 oligomers into dimers. We investigated the mechanism by which phosphorylation and oligomerization modulate the protective activity of Chinese hamster Hsp27. In contrast to oligomer dissociation, which only required Ser90 phosphorylation, activation of Hsp27 thermoprotective activity required the phosphorylation of both Ser90 and Ser15. Replacement of Ser90 by Ala90, which prevented the dissociation of the oligomer upon stress, did cause a severe defect in the protective activity. Dissociation was, however, not a sufficient condition to activate the protein because replacement of Ser15 by Ala15, which caused little effect in the oligomeric organization of the protein, also yielded an inactive protein. Analyzes of mutants with short deletions in the NH2 terminus identified the Hsp27 WD/EPF or PF-rich domain as essential for protection, maintenance of the oligomeric structure, and in vitro chaperone activity of the protein. In light of a three-dimensional model of Hsp27 based on the crystallographic structure of wheat Hsp16.9, we propose that the conserved WD/EPF motif of mammalian Hsp27 mediates important intramolecular interactions with hydrophic surfaces of the alpha-crystallin domain of the protein. These interactions are destabilized by Ser90 phosphorylation, making the motif free to interact with heterologous molecular targets upon the additional phosphorylation of the nearby Ser15.

  13. Inhibition of HSP27 alone or in combination with pAKT inhibition as therapeutic approaches to target SPARC-induced glioma cell survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schultz Chad R

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current treatment regimen for glioma patients is surgery, followed by radiation therapy plus temozolomide (TMZ, followed by 6 months of adjuvant TMZ. Despite this aggressive treatment regimen, the overall survival of all surgically treated GBM patients remains dismal, and additional or different therapies are required. Depending on the cancer type, SPARC has been proposed both as a therapeutic target and as a therapeutic agent. In glioma, SPARC promotes invasion via upregulation of the p38 MAPK/MAPKAPK2/HSP27 signaling pathway, and promotes tumor cell survival by upregulating pAKT. As HSP27 and AKT interact to regulate the activity of each other, we determined whether inhibition of HSP27 was better than targeting SPARC as a therapeutic approach to inhibit both SPARC-induced glioma cell invasion and survival. Results Our studies found the following. 1 SPARC increases the expression of tumor cell pro-survival and pro-death protein signaling in balance, and, as a net result, tumor cell survival remains unchanged. 2 Suppressing SPARC increases tumor cell survival, indicating it is not a good therapeutic target. 3 Suppressing HSP27 decreases tumor cell survival in all gliomas, but is more effective in SPARC-expressing tumor cells due to the removal of HSP27 inhibition of SPARC-induced pro-apoptotic signaling. 4 Suppressing total AKT1/2 paradoxically enhanced tumor cell survival, indicating that AKT1 or 2 are poor therapeutic targets. 5 However, inhibiting pAKT suppresses tumor cell survival. 6 Inhibiting both HSP27 and pAKT synergistically decreases tumor cell survival. 7 There appears to be a complex feedback system between SPARC, HSP27, and AKT. 8 This interaction is likely influenced by PTEN status. With respect to chemosensitization, we found the following. 1 SPARC enhances pro-apoptotic signaling in cells exposed to TMZ. 2 Despite this enhanced signaling, SPARC protects cells against TMZ. 3 This protection can be reduced

  14. Expression of Hsp27 and Hsp70 and vacuolization in the pituitary glands in cases of fatal hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doberentz, Elke; Markwerth, Philipp; Wagner, Rebecca; Madea, Burkhard

    2017-09-01

    Hypothermia causes systemic cellular stress. The pituitary gland is an endocrine gland and plays an important role in thermoregulation. When the core body temperature drops, the pituitary gland is activated by stimulation of hypothalamic hormones. In this study, we investigated morphological alterations of the pituitary gland in cases of fatal hypothermia. Several morphological alterations of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, such as hemorrhage, vacuolization, and hyperemia, have been previously described in fatal hypothermia. However, the diagnostic value of these findings is controversial. We compared 11 cases of fatal hypothermia with 10 cases lacking antemortem hypothermic influences. In the presence of thermal cellular stress, the expression of heat shock proteins increases to protect cellular structures. Therefore, we immunohistochemically analyzed Hsp27 and Hsp70. Hsp27 expression was detected in 27.3% of the cases of fatal hypothermia and in 10.0% of the control cases, whereas Hsp70 expression was not detected in any case. Additionally, Sudan staining was performed to quantify fatty degeneration. A positive reaction was found in 45.5% of the study group and in 10.0% of the control group. This indicates that fatty degeneration might be a valuable marker when other macroscopic signs of hypothermia are absent.

  15. Plasma Hsp72 (HSPA1A) and Hsp27 (HSPB1) expression under heat stress: influence of exercise intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Périard, Julien D; Ruell, Patricia; Caillaud, Corinne; Thompson, Martin W

    2012-05-01

    Extracellular heat-shock protein 72 (eHsp72) expression during exercise-heat stress is suggested to increase with the level of hyperthermia attained, independent of the rate of heat storage. This study examined the influence of exercise at various intensities to elucidate this relationship, and investigated the association between eHsp72 and eHsp27. Sixteen male subjects cycled to exhaustion at 60% and 75% of maximal oxygen uptake in hot conditions (40°C, 50% RH). Core temperature, heart rate, oxidative stress, and blood lactate and glucose levels were measured to determine the predictor variables associated with eHsp expression. At exhaustion, heart rate exceeded 96% of maximum in both conditions. Core temperature reached 39.7°C in the 60% trial (58.9 min) and 39.0°C in the 75% trial (27.2 min) (P exercise may relate to the duration (i.e., core temperature attained) and intensity (i.e., rate of increase in core temperature) of exercise. Thus, the immuno-inflammatory release of eHsp72 and eHsp27 in response to exercise in the heat may be duration and intensity dependent.

  16. Effect of vibrational stress and spaceflight on regulation of heat shock proteins hsp70 and hsp27 in human lymphocytes (Jurkat)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubano, L. A.; Lewis, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    Heat shock protein levels are increased in cells as a result of exposure to stress. To determine whether heat shock protein regulation could be used to evaluate stress in cells during spaceflight, the response of Jurkat cells to spaceflight and simulated space shuttle launch vibration was investigated by evaluating hsp70 and hsp27 gene expression. Gene expression was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction using mRNA extracted from vibrated, nonvibrated, space-flown, and ground control cells. Results indicate that mechanical stresses of vibration and low gravity do not up-regulate the mRNA for hsp70, although the gene encoding hsp27 is up-regulated by spaceflight but not by vibration. In ground controls, the mRNA for hsp70 and hsp27 increased with time in culture. We conclude that hsp70 gene expression is a useful indicator of stress related to culture density but is not an indicator of the stresses of launch vibration or microgravity. Up-regulation of hsp27 gene expression in microgravity is a new finding.

  17. The expression and correlation of Hsp 70 and Hsp 27 in serous middle ear effusion fluids of pediatric patients-a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hyun Jin; Choe, Ji Won; Chang, Moon Young; Kim, Kyung Soo; Lee, Sei Young; Mun, Seog-Kyun

    2017-10-01

    Several cytokines and innate immune-associated molecules are present in middle ear effusions, but damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in middle ear effusion have not been studied. Therefore, we evaluated the role of heat shock proteins (Hsps) in the development of otitis media with effusion (OME). Serous middle ear effusions from 22 pediatric patients who were diagnosed with OME and underwent ventilation tube insertion from June 2015 to March 2017 were evaluated in our study. The levels of Hsp 90, 70, 27, IL-8, and TNF-α in effusion fluids were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The associations between the levels of these molecules and the degree of tympanic membrane inflammation were statistically evaluated. Finally, the relationships among these molecules were also evaluated. Hsp 70 and Hsp 27 were detected in all middle ear effusions, but Hsp 90 was detected in only five effusion fluid samples. IL-8 was also detected in all middle ear effusions, but TNF-α was detected in only four effusion fluid samples. When we compared the degree of tympanic membrane inflammation with the levels of Hsp 70, Hsp 27, and IL-8, which were detected in all effusion fluids, we could not find statistical significance. However, Hsp 70, Hsp 27, and IL-8 were significantly associated with each other (p effusions. Furthermore, the levels of Hsp 70 and Hsp 27 were positively correlated with each other, and were also positively associated with the neutrophil chemoattractant, IL-8. Our findings suggested that Hsp 70 and Hsp 27 might be involved in the pathophysiology of pediatric OME. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Hsp27, Hsp70 and mismatch repair proteins hMLH1 and hMSH2 expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy subjects and cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadin, Silvina Beatriz; Vargas-Roig, Laura M; Drago, Gisela; Ibarra, Jorge; Ciocca, Daniel R

    2007-07-08

    Mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency and higher expression levels of heat shock proteins (Hsps) have been implicated with drug resistance to topoisomerase II poisons (doxorubicin) and to platinum compounds (cisplatin). This study was designed to determine individual influences of doxorubicin and cisplatin treatment on the expression of Hsp27, Hsp70, hMLH1 and hMSH2 proteins and in the DNA damage status in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). In addition, we studied whether these proteins and the DNA damage correlated with the survival of cancer patients. PBLs from 10 healthy donors and 25 cancer patients (before and after three cycles of chemotherapy) were exposed to in vitro treatments: C (control), HS (heat shock at 42 degrees C), Do or Pt (doxorubicin or cisplatin alone), and HS+Do or HS+Pt (heat shock+doxorubicin or heat shock+cisplatin). PBLs were collected at time 0 (T0: immediately after drug treatment) and after 24h of repair (T24). Hsp27, Hsp70, hMLH1 and hMSH2 were studied by immunocytochemistry and the DNA damage by alkaline comet assay. Immunofluorescence studies and confocal microscopy revealed that hMLH1 and hMSH2 colocalized with Hsp27 and Hsp72 (inducible form of Hsp70). hMLH1 and hMSH2 were significantly induced by Pt and HS+Pt at T24 in cancer patients, but only modestly influenced by Do. Cancer patients presented higher basal expression of total and nuclear Hsp27 and Hsp70 than controls, and these proteins were also increased by HS, Do and HS+Do. The Hsp70 induction by Pt and HS+Pt was noted in cancer patients, especially nuclear Hsp70. In cancer patients, basal DNA damage was slightly higher than in healthy persons; and after Pt and HS+Pt treatments, DNA migration and number of apoptotic cells were higher than controls. Hsps accomplished a cytoprotective function in pre-chemotherapy PBLs (HS before Do or Pt), but not in post-chemotherapy samples. In Pt-treated patients the ratio N/C (nuclear/cytoplasmic) of Hsp27 was related to disease free survival

  19. Hsp27, Hsp70, and metallothionein in MDCK and LLC-PK1 renal epithelial cells: effects of prolonged exposure to cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonham, Rita T.; Fine, Michael R.; Pollock, Fiona M.; Shelden, Eric A.

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium is a widely distributed industrial and environmental toxin. The principal target organ of chronic sublethal cadmium exposure is the kidney. In renal epithelial cells, acute high-dose cadmium exposure induces differential expression of proteins, including heat shock proteins. However, few studies have examined heat shock protein expression in cells after prolonged exposure to cadmium at sublethal concentrations. Here, we assayed total cell protein, neutral red uptake, cell death, and levels of metallothionein and heat shock proteins Hsp27 and inducible Hsp70 in cultures of MDCK and LLC-PK1 renal epithelial cells treated with cadmium for 3 days. Treatment with cadmium at concentrations equal to or greater than 10 μM (LLC-PK1) or 25 μM (MDCK) reduced measures of cell vitality and induced cell death. However, a concentration-dependent increase in Hsp27 was detected in both cell types treated with as little as 5 μM cadmium. Accumulation of Hsp70 was correlated only with cadmium treatment at concentrations also causing cell death. Metallothionein was maximally detected in cells treated with cadmium at concentrations that did not reduce cell vitality, and further increases were not detected at greater concentrations. These results reveal that heat shock proteins accumulate in renal epithelial cells during prolonged cadmium exposure, that cadmium induces differential expression of heat shock protein in epithelial cells, and that protein expression patterns in epithelial cells are specific to the cadmium concentration and degree of cellular injury. A potential role for Hsp27 in the cellular response to sublethal cadmium-induced injury is also implicated by our results

  20. Correlation of Improved Version of Cervical Vertebral Maturation Indicator with Other Growth Maturity Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripti Tikku

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The correlation between middle phalanx of 3rd finger (MP3 and cervical vertebral maturation method (CVMI and CVMS was higher as compared to the correlation of either of the cervical vertebral maturation method or MP3 with dental maturation indicator.

  1. Non-thermal activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway by mobile phone radiation in human endothelial cells: molecular mechanism for cancer- and blood-brain barrier-related effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczynski, Dariusz; Joenväärä, Sakari; Reivinen, Jukka; Kuokka, Reetta

    2002-05-01

    We have examined whether non-thermal exposures of cultures of the human endothelial cell line EA.hy926 to 900 MHz GSM mobile phone microwave radiation could activate stress response. Results obtained demonstrate that 1-hour non-thermal exposure of EA.hy926 cells changes the phosphorylation status of numerous, yet largely unidentified, proteins. One of the affected proteins was identified as heat shock protein-27 (hsp27). Mobile phone exposure caused a transient increase in phosphorylation of hsp27, an effect which was prevented by SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK). Also, mobile phone exposure caused transient changes in the protein expression levels of hsp27 and p38MAPK. All these changes were non-thermal effects because, as determined using temperature probes, irradiation did not alter the temperature of cell cultures, which remained throughout the irradiation period at 37 +/- 0.3 degrees C. Changes in the overall pattern of protein phosphorylation suggest that mobile phone radiation activates a variety of cellular signal transduction pathways, among them the hsp27/p38MAPK stress response pathway. Based on the known functions of hsp27, we put forward the hypothesis that mobile phone radiation-induced activation of hsp27 may (i) facilitate the development of brain cancer by inhibiting the cytochrome c/caspase-3 apoptotic pathway and (ii) cause an increase in blood-brain barrier permeability through stabilization of endothelial cell stress fibers. We postulate that these events, when occurring repeatedly over a long period of time, might become a health hazard because of the possible accumulation of brain tissue damage. Furthermore, our hypothesis suggests that other brain damaging factors may co-participate in mobile phone radiation-induced effects.

  2. Regulation of Hsp27 and Hsp70 expression in human and mouse skin construct models by caveolae following exposure to the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, Adrienne T.; Hayden, Patrick J.; Casillas, Robert P.; Heck, Diane E.; Gerecke, Donald R.; Sinko, Patrick J.; Laskin, Debra L.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    Dermal exposure to the vesicant sulfur mustard causes marked inflammation and tissue damage. Basal keratinocytes appear to be a major target of sulfur mustard. In the present studies, mechanisms mediating skin toxicity were examined using a mouse skin construct model and a full-thickness human skin equivalent (EpiDerm-FT TM ). In both systems, administration of the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES, 100-1000 μM) at the air surface induced mRNA and protein expression of heat shock proteins 27 and 70 (Hsp27 and Hsp70). CEES treatment also resulted in increased expression of caveolin-1, the major structural component of caveolae. Immunohistochemistry revealed that Hsp27, Hsp70 and caveolin-1 were localized in basal and suprabasal layers of the epidermis. Caveolin-1 was also detected in fibroblasts in the dermal component of the full thickness human skin equivalent. Western blot analysis of caveolar membrane fractions isolated by sucrose density centrifugation demonstrated that Hsp27 and Hsp70 were localized in caveolae. Treatment of mouse keratinocytes with filipin III or methyl-β-cyclodextrin, which disrupt caveolar structure, markedly suppressed CEES-induced Hsp27 and Hsp70 mRNA and protein expression. CEES treatment is known to activate JNK and p38 MAP kinases; in mouse keratinocytes, inhibition of these enzymes suppressed CEES-induced expression of Hsp27 and Hsp70. These data suggest that MAP kinases regulate Hsp 27 and Hsp70; moreover, caveolae-mediated regulation of heat shock protein expression may be important in the pathophysiology of vesicant-induced skin toxicity.

  3. Silencing of Hsp27 and Hsp72 in glioma cells as a tool for programmed cell death induction upon temozolomide and quercetin treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakubowicz-Gil, Joanna, E-mail: jjgil@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl [Department of Comparative Anatomy and Anthropology, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Akademicka 19, 20-033 Lublin (Poland); Langner, Ewa [Department of Medical Biology, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Jaczewskiego 2, 20-950 Lublin (Poland); Bądziul, Dorota [Department of Comparative Anatomy and Anthropology, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Akademicka 19, 20-033 Lublin (Poland); Wertel, Iwona [1st Department of Gynaecology, University School of Medicine, Staszica 16, 20-081 Lublin (Poland); Rzeski, Wojciech [Department of Medical Biology, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Jaczewskiego 2, 20-950 Lublin (Poland); Department of Immunology and Virology, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Akademicka 19, 20-033 Lublin (Poland)

    2013-12-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether silencing of Hsp27 or Hsp72 expression in glioblastoma multiforme T98G and anaplastic astrocytoma MOGGCCM cells increases their sensitivity to programmed cell death induction upon temozolomide and/or quercetin treatment. Transfection with specific siRNA was performed for the Hsp gene silencing. As revealed by microscopic observation and flow cytometry, the inhibition of Hsp expression was correlated with severe apoptosis induction upon the drug treatment studied. No signs of autophagy were detected. This was correlated with a decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, increased level of cytochrome c in the cytoplasm, and activation of caspase 3 and caspase 9. All these results suggest that the apoptotic signal was mediated by an internal pathway. Additionally, in a large percentage of cells treated with temozolomide, with or without quercetin, granules within the ER system were found, which was accompanied by an increased level of caspase 12 expression. This might be correlated with ER stress. Quercetin and temozolomide also changed the shape of nuclei from circular to “croissant like” in both transfected cell lines. Our results indicate that blocking of Hsp27 and Hsp72 expression makes T98G cells and MOGGCCM cells extremely vulnerable to apoptosis induction upon temozolomide and quercetin treatment and that programmed cell death is initiated by an internal signal. - Highlights: • Hsps gene silencing induced severe apoptosis upon temozolomide–quercetin treatment • Apoptosis in transfected glioma cells was initiated by internal signal • Programmed cell death was preceded by ER stress • Temozolomide–quercetin treatment changed nuclei shape in transfected glioma cells.

  4. Predicción computacional de estructura terciaria de las proteínas humanas Hsp27, αB-cristalina y HspB8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homero Saenz-Suárez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Realizar predicciones computacionales de estructura de las proteínas humanas Hsp27, αB cristalina y HspB8. Materiales y métodos. La predicción de la estructura secundaria se obtuvo mediante un consenso de los programas de predicción secundaria GOR 4,nnPred,Sspro, APSSP2, JPredict, Porter, Prof, SOPMA, HNN y Psi-Pred. Los modelos de estructura terciaria se elaboraron a partir de fragmentos homólogos de proteínas con estructura terciaria conocida que fueron obtenidos por múltiples alineamientos. Empleando la secuencia primaria se obtuvieron perfiles de antigenicidad de las proteínas nativas y fueron analizados los perfiles de hidrofobicidad, polaridad, flexibilidad, accesibilidad tanto de las proteínas nativas como de las mutadas. Resultados. Las predicciones de estructura secundaria y terciariade las proteínas estudiadas muestran que en los tres casos, más del 65% son regiones en coil, 20-25% en hoja plegada y menos del 10% en alfa hélice. Los análisis de estructura primaria muestran que al menos uno de los perfiles estudiados, en cada mutación está alterado. Conclusiones. Los análisis comparativos de estructura sugieren que las mutaciones afectan la solubilidad de las proteínas mutadas y con ello su función como chaperonas moleculares

  5. Telmisartan, a possible PPAR-δ agonist, reduces TNF-α-stimulated VEGF-C production by inhibiting the p38MAPK/HSP27 pathway in human proximal renal tubular cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Hideki, E-mail: hkimura@u-fukui.ac.jp [Division of Nephrology, Department of General Medicine, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan); Department of Clinical Laboratories and Nephrology, University of Fukui Hospital, Fukui (Japan); Mikami, Daisuke; Kamiyama, Kazuko [Division of Nephrology, Department of General Medicine, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan); Sugimoto, Hidehiro [Department of Clinical Laboratories and Nephrology, University of Fukui Hospital, Fukui (Japan); Kasuno, Kenji; Takahashi, Naoki [Division of Nephrology, Department of General Medicine, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan); Yoshida, Haruyoshi [Division of Nephrology, Department of General Medicine, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan); Division of Nephrology, Obama Municipal Hospital, Obama, Fukui (Japan); Iwano, Masayuki [Division of Nephrology, Department of General Medicine, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan)

    2014-11-14

    Highlights: • TNF-α increased VEGF-C expression by enhancing phosphorylation of p38MAPK and HSP27. • Telmisartan decreased TNF-α-stimulated expression of VEGF-C. • Telmisartan suppressed TNF-α-induced phosphorylation of p38MAPK and HSP27. • Telmisartan activated endogenous PPAR-δ protein. • Telmisartan suppressed p38MAPK phosphorylation in a PPAR-δ-dependent manner. - Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) is a main inducer of inflammation-associated lymphangiogenesis in various inflammatory disorders including chronic progressive kidney diseases, for which angiotensin II receptor type 1 blockers (ARBs) are widely used as the main treatment. Although proximal renal tubular cells may affect the formation of lymphatic vessels in the interstitial area by producing VEGF-C, the molecular mechanisms of VEGF-C production and its manipulation by ARB have not yet been examined in human proximal renal tubular epithelial cells (HPTECs). In the present study, TNF-α dose-dependently induced the production of VEGF-C in HPTECs. The TNF-α-induced production of VEGF-C was mediated by the phosphorylation of p38MAPK and HSP27, but not by that of ERK or NFkB. Telmisartan, an ARB that can activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), served as a PPAR-δ activator and reduced the TNF-α-stimulated production of VEGF-C. This reduction was partially attributed to a PPAR-δ-dependent decrease in p38MAPK phosphorylation. Our results indicate that TNF-α induced the production of VEGF-C in HPTECs by activating p38MAPK/HSP27, and this was partially inhibited by telmisartan in a PPAR-δ dependent manner. These results provide a novel insight into inflammation-associated lymphangiogenesis.

  6. On the improvement of IT process maturity: assessment, recommendation and validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirgahayu Teduh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of information technology (IT in enterprises must be governed and managed appropriately using IT processes. The notion of IT process maturity is useful to measure the actual performance and to define the desired performance of IT processes. Improvements are necessary when there are gaps between the actual and desired performance. Most literatures focus on IT process maturity assessment. They do not address how to improve IT process maturity. This paper proposes an approach to enterprise IT process maturity improvement for COBIT processes. The approach consists of three activities, i.e. IT process maturity assessment, recommendation, and validation. Assessment is to recognise the process’ control objectives maturity. From the assessment results, recommendation identifies control objectives that must be improved and then suggests improvement actions. The prescriptive nature of the control objectives facilitates in suggesting those actions. Recommendations for managements are defined by abstracting similar actions. Validation checks whether the recommendations match with the enterprise needs and capability. It includes a scale for validation, in which enterprise’s capability is categorized into (i not capable, (ii capable with great efforts, and (iii fully capable. The paper illustrates the approach with a case study.

  7. The maturing of the quality improvement paradigm in the SEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, Victor R.

    1993-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory uses a paradigm for improving the software process and product, called the quality improvement paradigm. This paradigm has evolved over the past 18 years, along with our software development processes and product. Since 1976, when we first began the SEL, we have learned a great deal about improving the software process and product, making a great many mistakes along the way. Quality improvement paradigm, as it is currently defined, can be broken up into six steps: characterize the current project and its environment with respect to the appropriate models and metrics; set the quantifiable goals for successful project performance and improvement; choose the appropriate process model and supporting methods and tools for this project; execute the processes, construct the products, and collect, validate, and analyze the data to provide real-time feedback for corrective action; analyze the data to evaluate the current practices, determine problems, record findings, and make recommendations for future project improvements; and package the experience gained in the form of updated and refined models and other forms of structured knowledge gained from this and prior projects and save it in an experience base to be reused on future projects.

  8. Expression of HSP27, HSP72 and MRP proteins in in vitro co-culture of colon tumour cell spheroids with normal cells after incubation with rhTGF- beta1 and/or CPT-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduch, Roman; Jakubowicz-Gil, Joanna; Kandefer-Szerszen, Martyna

    2009-12-01

    We studied the expression of inducible heat shock protein (HSP27, HSP72) and multidrug-resistance protein (MRP) in co-cultures of human colon carcinoma cell spheroids obtained from different grades of tumour with normal human colon epithelium, myofibroblast and endothelial cell monolayers. We also measured the influence of recombinant human transforming growth factor beta1 (rhTGF-beta1) and camptothecin (CPT-11), added as single agents or in combination, on the levels of the HSPs, MRP, interleukin (IL)-6 and nitric oxide (NO). An immunoblotting analysis with densitometry showed that rhTGF-beta1 and/or CPT-11 increased HSP27, HSP72 and MRP expression in tumour cells and myofibroblasts, as well as in co-cultures compared with appropriate controls. By contrast, in colonic epithelium, inhibition of HSPs and MRP was comparable with that of the control. In endothelial cells, HSP72 was undetectable. Direct interaction of colon tumour spheroids with normal myofibroblasts caused a significant, tumour-grade dependent increase in IL-6 production. Production of IL-6 was significantly lowered by rhTGF-beta1 and/or CPT-11. Tumour cell spheroids cultivated alone produced larger amounts of NO than normal cells. In co-culture, the level of the radical decreased compared with the sum of NO produced by the monocultures of the two types of cells. rhTGF-beta1 and/or CPT-11 decreased NO production both in tumour and normal cell monocultures and their co-cultures. In conclusion, direct interactions between tumour and normal cells influence the expression of HSP27, HSP72 and MRP, and alter IL-6 and NO production. rhTGF-beta1 and/or CPT-11 may potentate resistance to chemotherapy by increasing HSP and MRP expression but, on the other hand, they may limit tumour cell spread by decreasing the level of some soluble mediators of inflammation (IL-6 and NO).

  9. ACHIEVING MATURITY (AND MEASURING PERFORMANCE THROUGH MODEL-BASED PROCESS IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Marcelo Almeida Prado Cestari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the approach adopted by a software development unit in order to achieve the maturity level 3 of CMMI-DEV and therefore obtaining better performance. Through historical research and secondary data analysis of the organization, the paper intends to answer the following research question: "Could the adoption of maturity/best practices models bring better performance results to small and medium organizations?" Data and analysis conducted show that, besides the creation of indicator’s based management, there are some quantitative performance improvements in indicators such as: Schedule Deviation Rate, Effort Deviation Rate, Percent Late Delivery, Productivity Deviation and Internal Rework Rate

  10. Effect of 3G cell phone exposure with computer controlled 2-D stepper motor on non-thermal activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesari, Kavindra Kumar; Meena, Ramovatar; Nirala, Jayprakash; Kumar, Jitender; Verma, H N

    2014-03-01

    Cell phone radiation exposure and its biological interaction is the present concern of debate. Present study aimed to investigate the effect of 3G cell phone exposure with computer controlled 2-D stepper motor on 45-day-old male Wistar rat brain. Animals were exposed for 2 h a day for 60 days by using mobile phone with angular movement up to zero to 30°. The variation of the motor is restricted to 90° with respect to the horizontal plane, moving at a pre-determined rate of 2° per minute. Immediately after 60 days of exposure, animals were scarified and numbers of parameters (DNA double-strand break, micronuclei, caspase 3, apoptosis, DNA fragmentation, expression of stress-responsive genes) were performed. Result shows that microwave radiation emitted from 3G mobile phone significantly induced DNA strand breaks in brain. Meanwhile a significant increase in micronuclei, caspase 3 and apoptosis were also observed in exposed group (P 3G mobile phone exposure causes a transient increase in phosphorylation of hsp27, hsp70, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), which leads to mitochondrial dysfunction-mediated cytochrome c release and subsequent activation of caspases, involved in the process of radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Study shows that the oxidative stress is the main factor which activates a variety of cellular signal transduction pathways, among them the hsp27/p38MAPK is the pathway of principle stress response. Results conclude that 3G mobile phone radiations affect the brain function and cause several neurological disorders.

  11. Cilostazol May Improve Maturation Rates and Durability of Vascular Access for Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Todd E; Kasper, Gregory C; Seiwert, Andrew J; Comerota, Anthony J; Lurie, Fedor

    2017-04-01

    Cilostazol is effective in controlling pathophysiological pathways similar or identical to those involved in nonmaturation and failure of the arteriovenous access. This case-control study examined whether cilostazol would improve maturation rates and durability of vascular access for hemodialysis. The treatment group included 33 patients who received cilostazol for ≥30 days prior to creation of a dialysis access and continued with cilostazol therapy for ≥60 days after surgery. The matched (gender, age, race, diabetes, and the year of surgery) control group included 116 patients who underwent the same procedure but did not receive cilostazol prior to and at least 3 months after surgery. Primary outcomes were maturation and, for those that matured, time of functioning access, defined as the time from the first use to irreparable failure of the access. Secondary outcomes were time to maturation, complications, and time to first complication. Study group patients were 3.8 times more likely to experience fistula maturation compared to the controls (88% vs 66%, RR = 3.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-11.6, P = .016). Fewer patients in the study group had complications (76% vs 92%, P = .025), and the time from construction of the fistula to the first complication was longer (345.6 ± 441 days vs 198.3 ± 185.0 days, P = .025). Time to maturation was similar in both groups (119.3 ± 62.9 days vs 100.2 ± 61.7 days, P = .2). However, once matured, time to failure was significantly longer in the treatment group (903.7 ± 543.6 vs 381.6 ± 317.2 days, P = .001). Multivariate analysis confirmed that the likelihood of maturation was significantly higher in the treatment group patients. These results suggest that dialysis access patients may benefit from preoperative and postoperative cilostazol therapy. If confirmed by a randomized trial, this treatment will have a major beneficial impact on patients dependent on a well-functioning access for their hemodialysis.

  12. Non-ablative fractional laser provides long-term improvement of mature burn scars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudorf, Elisabeth H; Danielsen, Patricia L; Paulsen, Ida F

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Non-ablative fractional laser-treatment is evolving for burn scars. The objective of this study was to evaluate clinical and histological long-term outcome of 1,540 nm fractional Erbium: Glass laser, targeting superficial, and deep components of mature burn scars....... MATERIALS & METHODS: Side-by-side scar-areas were randomized to untreated control or three monthly non-ablative fractional laser-treatments using superficial and extra-deep handpieces. Patient follow-up were at 1, 3, and 6 months. Primary outcome was improvement in overall scar-appearance on a modified...... of scar-appearance. CONCLUSIONS: Combined superficial and deep non-ablative fractional laser-treatments induce long-term clinical and histological improvement of mature burn scars....

  13. Application of hydrodynamic cavitation to improve the biodegradability of mature landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bis, M; Montusiewicz, A; Ozonek, J; Pasieczna-Patkowska, S

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the application of hydrodynamic cavitation to improve the biodegradability of mature landfill leachate was investigated. Three configurations of cavitation device were examined and operational parameters of the process were selected. The study indicated that the orifice plate with a 3/10mm diameter conical concentric hole, characterized by the cavitation number of 0.033, is a reasonable choice to ensure the enhanced biodegradability of mature leachate. Using such a configuration and maintaining 30 recirculation passes through the cavitation zone at inlet pressure of 7 bar, the highest increase of biodegradability index (BI) of approximately 22% occurred, i.e., from the value of 0.046 to 0.056. The FT-IR/PAS analysis confirmed a degradation of refractory compounds that typically prevail in mature leachate. An evaluation of energy efficiency was made in terms of the actual consumed energy measured by using the Kyoritsu KEW6310 Power Quality Tester. A cavitational yield of 9.8 mg COD kJ(-1) was obtained for the optimum configuration and 30 recirculation passes. Regarding energy efficiency, the application of 10 cavitation cycles appeared to be the most profitable. This was due to an almost threefold higher cavitational yield of 27.5 mg COD kJ(-1). However, the preferable option should be selected by considering a satisfactory effect in the biodegradability enhancement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Improving effects of chitosan nanofiber scaffolds on osteoblast proliferation and maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ming-Hua; Liao, Mei-Hsiu; Lin, Yi-Ling; Lai, Chien-Hao; Lin, Pei-I; Chen, Ruei-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Osteoblast maturation plays a key role in regulating osteogenesis. Electrospun nanofibrous products were reported to possess a high surface area and porosity. In this study, we developed chitosan nanofibers and examined the effects of nanofibrous scaffolds on osteoblast maturation and the possible mechanisms. Macro- and micro observations of the chitosan nanofibers revealed that these nanoproducts had a flat surface and well-distributed fibers with nanoscale diameters. Mouse osteoblasts were able to attach onto the chitosan nanofiber scaffolds, and the scaffolds degraded in a time-dependent manner. Analysis by scanning electron microscopy further showed mouse osteoblasts adhered onto the scaffolds along the nanofibers, and cell–cell communication was also detected. Mouse osteoblasts grew much better on chitosan nanofiber scaffolds than on chitosan films. In addition, human osteoblasts were able to adhere and grow on the chitosan nanofiber scaffolds. Interestingly, culturing human osteoblasts on chitosan nanofiber scaffolds time-dependently increased DNA replication and cell proliferation. In parallel, administration of human osteoblasts onto chitosan nanofibers significantly induced osteopontin, osteocalcin, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) messenger (m)RNA expression. As to the mechanism, chitosan nanofibers triggered runt-related transcription factor 2 mRNA and protein syntheses. Consequently, results of ALP-, alizarin red-, and von Kossa-staining analyses showed that chitosan nanofibers improved osteoblast mineralization. Taken together, results of this study demonstrate that chitosan nanofibers can stimulate osteoblast proliferation and maturation via runt-related transcription factor 2-mediated regulation of osteoblast-associated osteopontin, osteocalcin, and ALP gene expression. PMID:25246786

  15. Biaxial Stretch Improves Elastic Fiber Maturation, Collagen Arrangement, and Mechanical Properties in Engineered Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Angela H; Balestrini, Jenna L; Udelsman, Brooks V; Zhou, Kevin C; Zhao, Liping; Ferruzzi, Jacopo; Starcher, Barry C; Levene, Michael J; Humphrey, Jay D; Niklason, Laura E

    2016-06-01

    Tissue-engineered blood vessels (TEVs) are typically produced using the pulsatile, uniaxial circumferential stretch to mechanically condition and strengthen the arterial grafts. Despite improvements in the mechanical integrity of TEVs after uniaxial conditioning, these tissues fail to achieve critical properties of native arteries such as matrix content, collagen fiber orientation, and mechanical strength. As a result, uniaxially loaded TEVs can result in mechanical failure, thrombus, or stenosis on implantation. In planar tissue equivalents such as artificial skin, biaxial loading has been shown to improve matrix production and mechanical properties. To date however, multiaxial loading has not been examined as a means to improve mechanical and biochemical properties of TEVs during culture. Therefore, we developed a novel bioreactor that utilizes both circumferential and axial stretch that more closely simulates loading conditions in native arteries, and we examined the suture strength, matrix production, fiber orientation, and cell proliferation. After 3 months of biaxial loading, TEVs developed a formation of mature elastic fibers that consisted of elastin cores and microfibril sheaths. Furthermore, the distinctive features of collagen undulation and crimp in the biaxial TEVs were absent in both uniaxial and static TEVs. Relative to the uniaxially loaded TEVs, tissues that underwent biaxial loading remodeled and realigned collagen fibers toward a more physiologic, native-like organization. The biaxial TEVs also showed increased mechanical strength (suture retention load of 303 ± 14.53 g, with a wall thickness of 0.76 ± 0.028 mm) and increased compliance. The increase in compliance was due to combinatorial effects of mature elastic fibers, undulated collagen fibers, and collagen matrix orientation. In conclusion, biaxial stretching is a potential means to regenerate TEVs with improved matrix production, collagen organization, and mechanical

  16. In Vitro Maturation (IVM of Human Oocytes: Promising Potential, Challenges and Chances for Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roza silvia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn Vitro Maturation (IVM of human oocytes is an innovation in Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART. It is believed more patient-friendly than conventional In Vitro Fertilization (IVF method. It is a simple protocol that needs only less injection of ovarian stimulation for the patients and fewer blood sample and ultrasound scans, so this technique may become more favorable. Patients are also prevented from higher cost treatments and quite long control in the hospital. However, there are some problems to be addressed, such as how to improve the success rate, how to assure the safety and to avoid the health risk for the offsprings. Modification in IVM medium and optimizing the IVM protocols have increased the results in some studies. However, further investigation related to all aspects influencing the human oocyte maturation in vitro is still needed to make it enable to be a routine practice in ART centers for a defined group.Kata kunci: in vitro maturation, human oocyte, in vitro fertilization, assisted reproductive technology AbstrakMaturasi oosit in vitro atau In Vitro Maturation (IVM terhadap oosit manusia merupakan suatu inovasi dalam Teknologi Reproduksi Berbantu (TRB. Teknik ini dianggap lebih nyaman bagi pasien dibandingkan dengan metode Fertilisasi In Vitro (FIV konvensional. Metode IVM ini sederhana dan hanya membutuhkan lebih sedikit penyuntikan obat stimulasi ovarium ke pasien serta lebih sedikit pemeriksaan darah dan ultrasonografi, sehingga memungkinkan untuk menjadi suatu pilihan yang disukai oleh pasien. Pasien juga bisa terhindar dari biaya terapi yang lebih mahal serta waktu kontrol yang lama di rumah sakit. Namun demikian, terdapat beberapa masalah yang perlu ditangani terkait metode ini, seperti bagaimana meningkatkan angka keberhasilan serta memastikan keamanan dan mencegah resiko kesehatan pada anak yang akan dilahirkan. Modifikasi pada medium IVM serta pengoptimalan protokol IVM telah meningkatkan hasil pada

  17. Improving effects of chitosan nanofiber scaffolds on osteoblast proliferation and maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho MH

    2014-09-01

    showed that chitosan nanofibers improved osteoblast mineralization. Taken together, results of this study demonstrate that chitosan nanofibers can stimulate osteoblast proliferation and maturation via runt-related transcription factor 2-mediated regulation of osteoblast-associated osteopontin, osteocalcin, and ALP gene expression. Keywords: chitosan nanofibers, osteoblast-associated gene expression, osteoblast maturation, Runx2

  18. Agile Methodologies and Software Process Improvement Maturity Models, Current State of Practice in Small and Medium Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Koutsoumpos, Vasileios; Marinelarena, Iker

    2013-01-01

    Abstract—Background: Software Process Improvement (SPI) maturity models have been developed to assist organizations to enhance software quality. Agile methodologies are used to ensure productivity and quality of a software product. Amongst others they are applied in Small and Medium – sized Enterprises (SMEs). However, little is known about the combination of Agile methodologies and SPI maturity models regarding SMEs and the results that could emerge, as all the current SPI models are address...

  19. Criteria and model for assessing and improving information technology maturity within maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kans, M; Ehsanifard, K; Moniri, A

    2012-01-01

    Maintenance optimization and decision-making processes have been both influenced considerably by Information Technology (IT) developments mainly by increasing data availability. The decision-making process in its turn has affected systems trustworthiness positively. Therefore, theoretically speaking it could be said that Maintenance Management Information technology (MMIT) has the potential to provide applicable solutions for many of the maintenance management problems. Nevertheless, this potential has been hardly experienced in practice because of the mismatch between the level of IT maturity in the organizations and their selected MMIT solutions. To fill this gap this paper suggests a number of criteria which are crucial in decision making for selecting a MMIT application. The criteria are formed based on previous findings utilising an extensive literature review. A model is further developed for this purpose which is also tested on a case company active in power generation in Sweden. The model proved to be helpful when taking further improvement steps for reaching high utilization of IT in maintenance.

  20. Chlorophyll Fluorescence Sorting Method to Improve Quality of Capsicum Pepper Seed Lots Produced from Different Maturity Fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenanoglu, B.B.; Demir, I.; Jalink, H.

    2013-01-01

    This work was conducted to investigate the efficacy of chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) sorting to improve seed germination, seedling emergence, and vigor of seeds produced from different maturity fruits of four different cultivars. Four harvest dates from each cultivar were evaluated by harvesting

  1. Gamma rays role in the improvement of yield and early maturity in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moualla, M.Y.; Ali, N.M.

    1995-01-01

    Seeds from soybean variety glycine max (L) Merr., were irradiated with three doses of gamma rays: 100, 150 and 200 Gray in order to obtain high yielding and early maturity mutants to grown after wheat in a two crop rotation. All the three doses induced morphological and physiological variation and malformation that increased with increasing the dose. Coefficient of variation values were higher in M2 than in their respective values of M3. The results showed no selection efficiency under the non optimal environmental growing conditions with this lack of efficiency being more evident for yield than for early maturity. Using FTAB statistical programme 20 M2 and M3 plant were selected for each character and when evaluated in the following generation, it was clear that selection efficiency was higher for early maturity than for yield; the latter being high yielding and 4 early maturing m 4 mutants were obtained. 3 tabs

  2. Gamma rays role in the improvement of yield and early maturity in soybean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moualla, M Y; Ali, N M [Atomic Energy Commission, P.O.Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1995-10-01

    Seeds from soybean variety glycine max (L) Merr., were irradiated with three doses of gamma rays: 100, 150 and 200 Gray in order to obtain high yielding and early maturity mutants to grown after wheat in a two crop rotation. All the three doses induced morphological and physiological variation and malformation that increased with increasing the dose. Coefficient of variation values were higher in M2 than in their respective values of M3. The results showed no selection efficiency under the non optimal environmental growing conditions with this lack of efficiency being more evident for yield than for early maturity. Using FTAB statistical programme 20 M2 and M3 plant were selected for each character and when evaluated in the following generation, it was clear that selection efficiency was higher for early maturity than for yield; the latter being high yielding and 4 early maturing m 4 mutants were obtained. 3 tabs.

  3. Viral activation of MK2-hsp27-p115RhoGEF-RhoA signaling axis causes cytoskeletal rearrangements, p-body disruption and ARE-mRNA stabilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Corcoran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV is the infectious cause of several AIDS-related cancers, including the endothelial cell (EC neoplasm Kaposi's sarcoma (KS. KSHV-infected ECs secrete abundant host-derived pro-inflammatory molecules and angiogenic factors that contribute to tumorigenesis. The precise contributions of viral gene products to this secretory phenotype remain to be elucidated, but there is emerging evidence for post-transcriptional regulation. The Kaposin B (KapB protein is thought to contribute to the secretory phenotype in infected cells by binding and activating the stress-responsive kinase MK2, thereby selectively blocking decay of AU-rich mRNAs (ARE-mRNAs encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines and angiogenic factors. Processing bodies (PBs are cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein foci in which ARE-mRNAs normally undergo rapid 5' to 3' decay. Here, we demonstrate that PB dispersion is a feature of latent KSHV infection, which is dependent on kaposin protein expression. KapB is sufficient to disperse PBs, and KapB-mediated ARE-mRNA stabilization could be partially reversed by treatments that restore PBs. Using a combination of genetic and chemical approaches we provide evidence that KapB-mediated PB dispersion is dependent on activation of a non-canonical Rho-GTPase signaling axis involving MK2, hsp27, p115RhoGEF and RhoA. PB dispersion in latently infected cells is likewise dependent on p115RhoGEF. In addition to PB dispersion, KapB-mediated RhoA activation in primary ECs caused actin stress fiber formation, increased cell motility and angiogenesis; these effects were dependent on the activity of the RhoA substrate kinases ROCK1/2. By contrast, KapB-mediated PB dispersion occurred in a ROCK1/2-independent manner. Taken together, these observations position KapB as a key contributor to viral reprogramming of ECs, capable of eliciting many of the phenotypes characteristic of KS tumor cells, and strongly contributing to the post

  4. What We Know about Software Test Maturity and Test Process Improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garousi, Vahid; Felderer, Michael; Hacaloglu, Tuna

    2018-01-01

    In many companies, software testing practices and processes are far from mature and are usually conducted in an ad hoc fashion. Such immature practices lead to negative outcomes - for example, testing that doesn't detect all the defects or that incurs cost and schedule overruns. To conduct test

  5. Developmental Competence of Vitrified-Warmed Bovine Oocytes at the Germinal-Vesicle Stage is Improved by Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Modulators during In Vitro Maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Ezoe

    Full Text Available Cryopreservation of mature oocytes and embryos has provided numerous benefits in reproductive medicine. Although successful cryopreservation of germinal-vesicle stage (GV oocytes holds promise for further advances in reproductive biology and clinical embryology fields, reports regarding cryopreservation of immature oocytes are limited. Oocyte survival and maturation rates have improved since vitrification is being performed at the GV stage, but the subsequent developmental competence of GV oocytes is still low. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation of the maturation medium with cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP modulators on the developmental competence of vitrified-warmed GV bovine oocytes. GV oocytes were vitrified-warmed and cultured to allow for oocyte maturation, and then parthenogenetically activated or fertilized in vitro. Our results indicate that addition of a cAMP modulator forskolin (FSK or 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX to the maturation medium significantly improved the developmental competence of vitrified-warmed GV oocytes. We also demonstrated that vitrification of GV oocytes led to a decline in cAMP levels and maturation-promoting factor (MPF activity in the oocytes during the initial and final phases of maturation, respectively. Nevertheless, the addition of FSK or IBMX to the maturation medium significantly elevated cAMP levels and MPF activity during IVM. Taken together, our results suggest that the cryopreservation-associated meiotic and developmental abnormalities observed in GV oocytes may be ameliorated by an artificial increase in cAMP levels during maturation culture after warming.

  6. A Role of Lipid Metabolism during Cumulus-Oocyte Complex Maturation: Impact of Lipid Modulators to Improve Embryo Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Prates

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oocyte intracellular lipids are mainly stored in lipid droplets (LD providing energy for proper growth and development. Lipids are also important signalling molecules involved in the regulatory mechanisms of maturation and hence in oocyte competence acquisition. Recent studies show that LD are highly dynamic organelles. They change their shape, volume, and location within the ooplasm as well as their interaction with other organelles during the maturation process. The droplets high lipid content has been correlated with impaired oocyte developmental competence and low cryosurvival. Yet the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In particular, the lipid-rich pig oocyte might be an excellent model to understand the role of lipids and fatty acid metabolism during the mammalian oocyte maturation and their implications on subsequent monospermic fertilization and preimplantation embryo development. The possibility of using chemical molecules to modulate the lipid content of oocytes and embryos to improve cryopreservation as well as its biological effects during development is here described. Furthermore, these principles of lipid content modulation may be applied not only to germ cells and embryo cryopreservation in livestock production but also to biomedical fundamental research.

  7. Progesterone improves the maturation of male-induced preovulatory follicles in anoestrous ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, Achraf; Freret, Sandrine; Touze, Jean-Luc; Lomet, Didier; Lardic, Lionel; Chesneau, Didier; Estienne, Anthony; Papillier, Pascal; Monniaux, Danielle; Pellicer-Rubio, Maria-Teresa

    2014-10-01

    The first ovulation induced by male effect in sheep during seasonal anoestrus usually results in the development of a short cycle that can be avoided by progesterone priming before ram introduction. In elucidating the involvement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in the occurrence of short cycles, the effects of progesterone and the time of anoestrus on the development of male-induced preovulatory follicles were investigated in anoestrous ewes using morphological, endocrine and molecular approaches. Ewes were primed with progesterone for 2 (CIDR2) or 12 days (CIDR12) and untreated ewes used as controls during early (April) and late (June) anoestrus. The duration of follicular growth and the lifespan of the male-induced preovulatory follicles were prolonged by ∼1.6 days in CIDR12 ewes compared with the controls. These changes were accompanied by a delay in the preovulatory LH and FSH surges and ovulation. Intra-follicular oestradiol concentration and mRNA levels of LHCGR and STAR in the granulosa and theca cells of the preovulatory follicles were higher in CIDR12 ewes than the control ewes. The expression of mRNA levels of CYP11A1 and CYP17A1 also increased in theca cells of CIDR12 ewes. CIDR2 ewes gave intermediate results. Moreover, ewes ovulated earlier in June than in April, without changes in the duration of follicular growth, but these effects were unrelated to the lifespan of corpus luteum. Our results give the first evidence supporting the positive effect of progesterone priming on the completion of growth and maturation of preovulatory follicles induced by male effect in seasonal anoestrous ewes, thereby preventing short cycles. © 2014 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  8. Short-term water-based aerobic training promotes improvements in aerobic conditioning parameters of mature women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rochelle Rocha; Reichert, Thais; Coconcelli, Leandro; Simmer, Nicole Monticelli; Bagatini, Natália Carvalho; Buttelli, Adriana Cristine Koch; Bracht, Cláudia Gomes; Stein, Ricardo; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2017-08-01

    Aging is accompanied by a decrease in aerobic capacity. Therefore, physical training has been recommended to soften the effects of advancement age. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a short-term water-based aerobic training on resting heart rate (HR rest ), heart rate corresponding to anaerobic threshold (HR AT ), peak heart rate (HR peak ), percentage value of HR AT in relation to HR peak and test duration (TD) of mature women. Twenty-two women (65.91 ± 4.83 years) were submitted to a five-week water-based interval aerobic training. Aerobic capacity parameters were evaluated through an aquatic incremental test. After training, there was an increase in TD (16%) and HR AT percentage in relation to HR peak (4.68%), and a reduction of HR rest (9%). It is concluded that a water-based aerobic interval training prescribed through HR AT of only five weeks is able to promote improvements in aerobic capacity of mature women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ideation Training via Innovation Education to Improve Students' Ethical Maturation and Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsson, Gisli

    2013-01-01

    This paper will represent the pedagogy of Innovation Education in Iceland that is a new school policy within the Icelandic school system. In Innovation Education (IE) students are trained to identify needs and problems in their environment and to find solutions: this is referred to as the process of ideation. The main aim is to improve their…

  10. High hydrostatic pressure: a new way to improve in vitro developmental competence of porcine matured oocytes after vitrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Y; Pribenszky, C S; Molnár, M

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to improve cryotolerance using high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) pretreatment of porcine in vitro matured (IVM) oocytes, to facilitate their further developmental competence after parthenogenetic activation. A total of 1668 porcine IVM oocytes were used in our...... present study. The pressure tolerance and optimal duration of recovery after HHP treatment were determined. Oocytes were treated with either 20 or 40 MPa (200 and 400 times greater than atmospheric pressure) for 60 min, with an interval of 10, 70, and 130 min between pressure treatment and subsequent...... vitrification under each pressure parameter. Oocytes from all vitrification groups had much lower developmental competence than fresh oocytes (Ppressure, with either 70...

  11. Increased needle nitrogen contents did not improve shoot photosynthetic performance of mature nitrogen-poor Scots pine trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasse Tarvainen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have shown that temperate and boreal forests are limited by nitrogen (N availability. However, few studies have provided a detailed account of how carbon (C acquisition of such forests reacts to increasing N supply. We combined measurements of needle-scale biochemical photosynthetic capacities and continuous observations of shoot-scale photosynthetic performance from several canopy positions with simple mechanistic modelling to evaluate the photosynthetic responses of mature N-poor boreal Pinus sylvestris to N fertilization. The measurements were carried out in August 2013 on 90-year-old pine trees growing at Rosinedalsheden research site in northern Sweden. In spite of a nearly doubling of needle N content in response to the fertilization, no effect on the long-term shoot-scale C uptake was recorded. This lack of N-effect was due to strong light limitation of photosynthesis in all investigated canopy positions. The effect of greater N availability on needle photosynthetic capacities was also constrained by development of foliar P deficiency following N addition. Thus, P deficiency and accumulation of N in arginine appeared to contribute towards lower shoot-scale nitrogen-use efficiency in the fertilized trees, thereby additionally constraining tree-scale responses to increasing N availability. On the whole our study suggests that the C uptake response of the studied N-poor boreal P. sylvestris stand to enhanced N availability is constrained by the efficiency with which the additional N is utilized. This efficiency, in turn, depends on the ability of the trees to use the greater N availability for additional light capture. For stands that have not reached canopy closure, increase in leaf area following N fertilization would be the most effective way for improving light capture and C uptake while for mature stands an increased leaf area may have a rather limited effect on light capture owing to increased self-shading. This raises

  12. Increased Needle Nitrogen Contents Did Not Improve Shoot Photosynthetic Performance of Mature Nitrogen-Poor Scots Pine Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvainen, Lasse; Lutz, Martina; Räntfors, Mats; Näsholm, Torgny; Wallin, Göran

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that temperate and boreal forests are limited by nitrogen (N) availability. However, few studies have provided a detailed account of how carbon (C) acquisition of such forests reacts to increasing N supply. We combined measurements of needle-scale biochemical photosynthetic capacities and continuous observations of shoot-scale photosynthetic performance from several canopy positions with simple mechanistic modeling to evaluate the photosynthetic responses of mature N-poor boreal Pinus sylvestris to N fertilization. The measurements were carried out in August 2013 on 90-year-old pine trees growing at Rosinedalsheden research site in northern Sweden. In spite of a nearly doubling of needle N content in response to the fertilization, no effect on the long-term shoot-scale C uptake was recorded. This lack of N-effect was due to strong light limitation of photosynthesis in all investigated canopy positions. The effect of greater N availability on needle photosynthetic capacities was also constrained by development of foliar phosphorus (P) deficiency following N addition. Thus, P deficiency and accumulation of N in arginine appeared to contribute toward lower shoot-scale nitrogen-use efficiency in the fertilized trees, thereby additionally constraining tree-scale responses to increasing N availability. On the whole our study suggests that the C uptake response of the studied N-poor boreal P. sylvestris stand to enhanced N availability is constrained by the efficiency with which the additional N is utilized. This efficiency, in turn, depends on the ability of the trees to use the greater N availability for additional light capture. For stands that have not reached canopy closure, increase in leaf area following N fertilization would be the most effective way for improving light capture and C uptake while for mature stands an increased leaf area may have a rather limited effect on light capture owing to increased self-shading. This raises the

  13. Exposure to α-Tocopherol, Lutein or Ascorbic Acid improve Cumulus Expansion, Viability and Maturation of Swine Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Miclea

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Protection of the fatty acid and lipid components of oocytes that render them susceptible to free radical or other oxidative injury may prevent the damage currently associated with culture. The goal of this study was to establish the influence of several α-tocopherol, lutein and ascorbic acid concentrations on swine oocyte maturation, viability and the function of cumulus cells in order to improve culture media. Pig oocytes were cultured for 45 hours at 37°C in 5% CO2 atmosphere; in M199 containing several α-tocopherol (5, 10, 20, 40, 80 μM, lutein (2.5, 4, 5, 8, 10 M or ascorbic acid (50, 150, 250, 500, 750 μM concentrations and cumulus expansion was assessed. Afterwards oocytes were coloured using FDA, PI and Hoechst 33258. The differences between treatments were analyzed by the analysis of variance and interpreted using the Newman-Keuls method. When cultured in α-tocopherol supplemented medium the number of expanded COCs to be scored as 3 was significantly greater (p<0.05 for the 5 and 40 μM concentrations. The addition of 8 M lutein to the maturation medium lead to a significant (p<0.05 increase in the number of COCs that were scored at 4. For both α-tocopherol and lutein additions the numbers of oocytes stained by FDA, as well as those stained by Hoechst were greater than the control without being statistically significant. When cultured in 150 and 500 μM ascorbic acid the percentages of COCs scored at 4 were significantly lower (p<0.05 than the control. Also, significantly (p<0.05 fewer oocytes were stained with FDA when matured in 500 μM. Differences between the control and the several concentrations were significant (p<0.05 for 150 and 750 μM and distinctly significant (p<0.01 for 250 μM.

  14. Improved recovery potential in mature heavy oil fields by Alkali-surfactant flooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, J.; Kantzas, A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Tomographic Imaging and Porous Media Laboratory

    2008-10-15

    Primary and secondary alkali surfactant (AS) chemical flooding techniques were optimized in this study. Core flooding experiments were conducted in order to investigate the formation of emulsions in bulk liquid system due to flow through rock pores. Cores were dried and then saturated with water or brine in order to measure permeability. The floods were then performed at various injection rates followed by the AS solution. Solutions were also injected without previous waterflooding. Individual oil and water mobilities were then calculated using the experimental data. Individual phase mobilities were calculated using the total pressure gradient measured across the core. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies were conducted in order to determine emulsion formation within porous media from in situ flooding tests at 4 different locations. Data from the NMR studies were used to calculate fluid distributions and measurements of in situ emulsification during the chemical floods. The study demonstrated that the use of the surfactants resulted in the in situ formation of oil-water and water-oil emulsions. Responses from de-ionized alkali and brine AS systems were similar. The recovery mechanism blocked off water channels and provided improved sweep efficiency in the core. It was concluded that injection rates and pressure gradients for chemical floods should be lowered in order to optimize their efficiency. 26 refs., 6 tabs., 15 figs.

  15. Optimal doses of EGF and GDNF act as biological response modifiers to improve porcine oocyte maturation and quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valleh, Mehdi Vafaye; Zandi, Nahid Karimi; Rasmussen, Mikkel Aabech

    2017-01-01

    It is well documented that both epidermal growth factor (EGF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) are critical for porcine oocyte maturation, however, little information is known about their mechanism of action in vitro. To gain insight into the mechanisms of action of the opti......It is well documented that both epidermal growth factor (EGF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) are critical for porcine oocyte maturation, however, little information is known about their mechanism of action in vitro. To gain insight into the mechanisms of action...... of the optimum doses of EGF and GDNF on porcine oocyte maturation, porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured in defined porcine oocyte medium supplemented with EGF, GDNF or a combination of both at varying concentrations (0-100 ng/ml) for 44 h. Nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation were determined...

  16. Metformin therapy in a hyperandrogenic anovulatory mutant murine model with polycystic ovarian syndrome characteristics improves oocyte maturity during superovulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabatini Mary E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metformin, an oral biguanide traditionally used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, is widely used for the management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS-related anovulation. Because of the significant prevalence of insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in PCOS patients, and their putative role in ovulatory dysfunction, the use of metformin was touted as a means to improve ovulatory function and reproductive outcomes in PCOS patients. To date, there has been inconsistent evidence to demonstrate a favorable effect of metformin on oocyte quality and competence in women with PCOS. Given the heterogeneous nature of this disorder, we hypothesized that metformin may be beneficial in mice with aberrant metabolic characteristics similar to a significant number of PCOS patients. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the in vitro and in vivo effects of metformin on oocyte development and ovulatory function. Methods We utilized metformin treatment in the transgenic ob/ob and db/db mutant murine models which demonstrate metabolic and reproductive characteristics similar to women with PCOS. Results: Metformin did not improve in vitro oocyte maturation nor did it have an appreciable effect on in vitro granulosa cell luteinization (progesterone production in any genotype studied. Although both mutant strains have evidence of hyperandrogenemia, anovulation, and hyperinsulinemia, only db/db mice treated with metformin had a greater number of mature oocytes and total overall oocytes compared to control. There was no observed impact on body mass, or serum glucose and androgens in any genotype. Conclusions Our data provide evidence to suggest that metformin may optimize ovulatory performance in mice with a specific reproductive and metabolic phenotype shared by women with PCOS. The only obvious difference between the mutant murine models is that the db/db mice have elevated leptin levels raising the questions of whether their

  17. Maturity and maturity models in lean construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Nesensohn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increasing interest in maturity models in management-related disciplines; which reflects a growing recognition that becoming more mature and having a model to guide the route to maturity can help organisations in managing major transformational change. Lean Construction (LC is an increasingly important improvement approach that organisations seek to embed. This study explores how to apply the maturity models to LC. Hence the attitudes, opinions and experiences of key industry informants with high levels of knowledge of LC were investigated. To achieve this, a review of maturity models was conducted, and data for the analysis was collected through a sequential process involving three methods. First a group interview with seven key informants. Second a follow up discussion with the same individuals to investigate some of the issues raised in more depth. Third an online discussion held via LinkedIn in which members shared their views on some of the results. Overall, we found that there is a lack of common understanding as to what maturity means in LC, though there is general agreement that the concept of maturity is a suitable one to reflect the path of evolution for LC within organisations.

  18. ORGANIZATIONAL PROJECT MANAGEMENT MATURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Derenskaya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present article is aimed at developing a set of recommendations for achieving a higher level of organizational project maturity at a given enterprise. Methodology. For the purposes of the current research, the available information sources on the components of project management system are analysed; the essence of “organizational maturity” and the existing models of organizational maturity are studied. The method of systemic and structural analysis, as well as the method of logical generalization, are employed in order to study the existing models of organizational maturity, to describe levels of organizational maturity, and finally to develop a set of methodological recommendations for achieving a higher level of organizational project maturity at a given enterprise. The results of the research showed that the core elements of project management system are methodological, organizational, programtechnical, and motivational components. Project management encompasses a wide range of issues connected with organizational structure, project team, communication management, project participants, etc. However, the fundamental basis for developing project management concept within a given enterprise starts with defining its level of organizational maturity. The present paper describes various models of organizational maturity (staged, continuous, petal-shaped and their common types (H. Кеrzner Organizational Maturity Model, Berkeley PM Maturity Model, Organizational Project Management Maturity Model, Portfolio, Program & Project Management Maturity Model. The analysis of available theoretic works showed that the notion “organizational project maturity” refers to the capability of an enterprise to select projects and manage them with the intention of achieving its strategic goals in the most effective way. Importantly, the level of maturity can be improved by means of formalizing the acquired knowledge, regulating project-related activities

  19. People Capability Maturity Model. SM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    tailored so it consumes less time and resources than a traditional software process assessment or CMU/SEI-95-MM-02 People Capability Maturity Model...improved reputation or customer loyalty. CMU/SEI-95-MM-02 People Capability Maturity Model ■ L5-17 Coaching Level 5: Optimizing Activity 1...Maturity Model CMU/SEI-95-MM-62 Carnegie-Mellon University Software Engineering Institute DTIC ELECTE OCT 2 7 1995 People Capability Maturity

  20. Milrinone treatment of bovine oocytes during in vitro maturation benefits production of nuclear transfer embryos by improving enucleation rate and developmental competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, Kenji; Iga, Kosuke; Shimizu, Manabu; Takenouchi, Naoki; Akagi, Satoshi; Somfai, Tamas; Hirao, Yuji

    2012-01-01

    In the production of cattle nuclear transfer embryos, the production efficiency is affected by the oocyte developmental competence and successful enucleation rate. This study investigated the effect of treating oocytes with milrinone, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, on these two characteristics. When cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were cultured for 19 h with 0, 50 or 100 μM of milrinone, the enucleation rate was significantly improved by 100 μM milrinone. However, milrinone treatment during in vitro maturation (IVM) also delayed meiotic progression by at least 2 h, which would affect the examination of enucleation rate and developmental competence of oocytes. Thus, in the second experiment, meiotic resumption was temporarily inhibited with butyrolactone I (BL-I; 100 μM, 18 h) to decrease the delayed maturation caused by milrinone; this enabled a more accurate comparison of the effects of milrinone after oocyte maturation. In nuclear transfer embryo production, oocytes treated with milrinone (100 μM, 20 h) showed a significantly higher rate of enucleation compared with that of control oocytes. This improved enucleation rate was associated with a closer location of the metaphase plate to the first polar body in the treated oocytes compared with that in control oocytes. Furthermore, milrinone improved the frequency of development to the blastocyst stage in the resulting embryos. In conclusion, milrinone supplementation during IVM improved enucleation rates by rendering the metaphase plate in close proximity to the first polar body, and this treatment also improved oocyte developmental competence. These benefits additively improved the yield of cloned embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage.

  1. Contribuição dos modelos de qualidade e maturidade na melhoria dos processos de software Contribution of quality and maturity models to software process improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Tonini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Grande parte das empresas desenvolvedoras de software criou seu próprio processo de trabalho. Devido à rápida expansão do mercado de software, a concorrência ocorre muito mais em custo do que em diferenciação. Para obter vantagem competitiva, as empresas devem atualizar-se continuamente na tecnologia, buscar a maturidade nos processos e eliminar a ineficiência operacional. Isso requer um envolvimento das pessoas, dos processos e da organização como um todo. O artigo discute a implementação de melhorias nos processos de software segundo os principais modelos de qualidade e de maturidade. Com base em um Estudo de Casos Múltiplos, verifica-se que a melhoria dos processos de software requer que a melhoria ocorra primeiramente entre cada um dos desenvolvedores e, a seguir, envolva os grupos de desenvolvimento e por fim, a organização como um todo. A pesquisa conclui que os modelos de qualidade e maturidade servem como orientadores do processo de melhoria.Many software development companies have developed their own work method. Due to the fast software market growth, the competition focuses more on cost than on differentiation. To achieve competitive advantage, software developer organizations must continually update their technology, reach high level process maturity and eliminate all the operational inefficiency. These procedures involve people, processes and the whole organization. The aim of the paper is to discuss software process improvement implementation according to the most important quality and maturity models. Based on a Multiple Case Study, it is verified that the software process improvement needs firstly individual improvement and, later, it involves the developer teams and the whole organization. The research concludes that the quality and maturity models must be used as improvement process drivers.

  2. Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in set theory and readily available software have enabled social science researchers to bridge the variable-centered quantitative and case-based qualitative methodological paradigms in order to analyze multi-dimensional associations beyond the linearity assumptions, aggregate...... effects, unicausal reduction, and case specificity. Based on the developments in set theoretical thinking in social sciences and employing methods like Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), Necessary Condition Analysis (NCA), and set visualization techniques, in this position paper, we propose...... and demonstrate a new approach to maturity models in the domain of Information Systems. This position paper describes the set-theoretical approach to maturity models, presents current results and outlines future research work....

  3. Grammar Maturity Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaytsev, V.; Pierantonio, A.; Schätz, B.; Tamzalit, D.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of a software language (whether modelled by a grammar or a schema or a metamodel) is not limited to development of new versions and dialects. An important dimension of a software language evolution is maturing in the sense of improving the quality of its definition. In this paper, we

  4. Long Maturity Forward Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2001-01-01

    The paper aims to improve the knowledge of the empirical properties of the long maturity region of the forward rate curve. Firstly, the theoretical negative correlation between the slope at the long end of the forward rate curve and the term structure variance is recovered empirically and found...... to be statistically significant. Secondly, the expectations hypothesis is analyzed for the long maturity region of the forward rate curve using "forward rate" regressions. The expectations hypothesis is numerically close to being accepted but is statistically rejected. The findings provide mixed support...... for the affine term structure model....

  5. Improvement of efficient in vitro regeneration potential of mature callus induced from Malaysian upland rice seed (Oryza sativa cv. Panderas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Din, Abd Rahman Jabir; Iliyas Ahmad, Fauziah; Wagiran, Alina; Abd Samad, Azman; Rahmat, Zaidah; Sarmidi, Mohamad Roji

    2016-01-01

    A new and rapid protocol for optimum callus production and complete plant regeneration has been assessed in Malaysian upland rice (Oryza sativa) cv. Panderas. The effect of plant growth regulator (PGR) on the regeneration frequency of Malaysian upland rice (cv. Panderas) was investigated. Mature seeds were used as a starting material for callus induction experiment using various concentrations of 2,4-D and NAA. Optimal callus induction frequency at 90% was obtained on MS media containing 2,4-D (3 mg L(-1)) and NAA (2 mg L(-1)) after 6 weeks while no significant difference was seen on tryptophan and glutamine parameters. Embryogenic callus was recorded as compact, globular and light yellowish in color. The embryogenic callus morphology was further confirmed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. For regeneration, induced calli were treated with various concentrations of Kin (0.5-1.5 mg L(-1)), BAP, NAA and 0.5 mg L(-1) of TDZ. The result showed that the maximum regeneration frequency (100%) was achieved on MS medium containing BAP (0.5 mg L(-1)), Kin (1.5 mg L(-1)), NAA (0.5 mg L(-1)) and TDZ (0.5 mg L(-1)) within four weeks. Developed shoots were successfully rooted on half strength MS free hormone medium and later transferred into a pot containing soil for acclimatization. This cutting-edge finding is unique over the other existing publishable data due to the good regeneration response by producing a large number of shoots.

  6. Beyond maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tessmer, W.B.

    1990-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Plant Simulator Industry has undergone to decades of evolution in experience, technology and business practices. Link-Miles Simulation Corporation (LMSC) has been contracted to build 68 Full Scope Nuclear Simulators during the 1970's and 1980's. Traditional approaches to design, development and testing have been used to satisfy specifications for initial customer requirements. However, the Industry has matured. All U.S. Nuclear Utilities own, or have under contract, at least one simulator. Other industrial nations have centralized training facilities to satisfy the simulator training needs. The customer of the future is knowledgeable and experienced in the development and service of nuclear simulators. The role of the simulator vendor is changing in order to alter the traditional approach for development. Covenants between the vendors and their customers solidify new complementary roles. This paper presents examples of current simulator project development with recommendations for future endeavors

  7. In ovo feeding with minerals and vitamin D3 improves bone properties in hatchlings and mature broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yair, R; Shahar, R; Uni, Z

    2015-11-01

    bone and bone material in the mature broiler, but does not lead to longer LTL. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. A second dose of kisspeptin-54 improves oocyte maturation in women at high risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: a Phase 2 randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbara, Ali; Clarke, Sophie; Islam, Rumana; Prague, Julia K; Comninos, Alexander N; Narayanaswamy, Shakunthala; Papadopoulou, Deborah; Roberts, Rachel; Izzi-Engbeaya, Chioma; Ratnasabapathy, Risheka; Nesbitt, Alexander; Vimalesvaran, Sunitha; Salim, Rehan; Lavery, Stuart A; Bloom, Stephen R; Huson, Les; Trew, Geoffrey H; Dhillo, Waljit S

    2017-09-01

    Can increasing the duration of LH-exposure with a second dose of kisspeptin-54 improve oocyte maturation in women at high risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS)? A second dose of kisspeptin-54 at 10 h following the first improves oocyte yield in women at high risk of OHSS. Kisspeptin acts at the hypothalamus to stimulate the release of an endogenous pool of GnRH from the hypothalamus. We have previously reported that a single dose of kisspeptin-54 results in an LH-surge of ~12-14 h duration, which safely triggers oocyte maturation in women at high risk of OHSS. Phase-2 randomized placebo-controlled trial of 62 women at high risk of OHSS recruited between August 2015 and May 2016. Following controlled ovarian stimulation, all patients (n = 62) received a subcutaneous injection of kisspeptin-54 (9.6 nmol/kg) 36 h prior to oocyte retrieval. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive either a second dose of kisspeptin-54 (D; Double, n = 31), or saline (S; Single, n = 31) 10 h thereafter. Patients, embryologists, and IVF clinicians remained blinded to the dosing allocation. Study participants: Sixty-two women aged 18-34 years at high risk of OHSS (antral follicle count ≥23 or anti-Mullerian hormone level ≥40 pmol/L). Setting: Single centre study carried out at Hammersmith Hospital IVF unit, London, UK. Primary outcome: Proportion of patients achieving an oocyte yield (percentage of mature oocytes retrieved from follicles ≥14 mm on morning of first kisspeptin-54 trigger administration) of at least 60%. Secondary outcomes: Reproductive hormone levels, implantation rate and OHSS occurrence. A second dose of kisspeptin-54 at 10 h following the first induced further LH-secretion at 4 h after administration. A higher proportion of patients achieved an oocyte yield ≥60% following a second dose of kisspeptin-54 (Single: 14/31, 45%, Double: 21/31, 71%; absolute difference +26%, CI 2-50%, P = 0.042). Patients receiving two doses of kisspeptin-54 had a variable LH

  9. Maturing Defense Support of Civil Authorities and the Dual Status Commander Arrangement Through the Lens of Process Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    and complex problem solvers. Concurrently, it is our duty to the U.S. Army to also act as a “think factory” for commanders and civilian leaders at...conversation among policymakers and military strategists alike. In this context, there is a philosophical conflict between federalism and state sovereignty ...peatable, and predictable practices. By deconstructing complex processes into individual and related prac- tices or actions, process improvement offers

  10. In Vitro Maturation of a Humanized Shark VNAR Domain to Improve Its Biophysical Properties to Facilitate Clinical Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Steven

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Molecular engineering to increase the percentage identity to common human immunoglobulin sequences of non-human therapeutic antibodies and scaffolds has become standard practice. This strategy is often used to reduce undesirable immunogenic responses, accelerating the clinical development of candidate domains. The first humanized shark variable domain (VNAR was reported by Kovalenko and colleagues and used the anti-human serum albumin (HSA domain, clone E06, as a model to construct a number of humanized versions including huE06v1.10. This study extends this work by using huE06v1.10 as a template to isolate domains with improved biophysical properties and reduced antigenicity. Random mutagenesis was conducted on huE06v1.10 followed by refinement of clones through an off-rate ranking-based selection on target antigen. Many of these next-generation binders retained high affinity for target, together with good species cross-reactivity. Lead domains were assessed for any tendency to dimerize, tolerance to N- and C-terminal fusions, affinity, stability, and relative antigenicity in human dendritic cell assays. Functionality of candidate clones was verified in vivo through the extension of serum half-life in a typical drug format. From these analyses the domain, BA11, exhibited negligible antigenicity, high stability and high affinity for mouse, rat, and HSA. When these attributes were combined with demonstrable functionality in a rat model of PK, the BA11 clone was established as our clinical candidate.

  11. Cysteamine supplementation during in vitro maturation of slaughterhouse- and opu-derived bovine oocytes improves embryonic development without affecting cryotolerance, pregnancy rate, and calf characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merton, J S; Knijn, H M; Flapper, H; Dotinga, F; Roelen, B A J; Vos, P L A M; Mullaart, E

    2013-09-01

    Optimization of ovum pick up (OPU) followed by in vitro embryo production (IVP) is strongly driven by the needs of both beef and dairy cattle breeders to enhance genetic improvement. The rapidly growing use of genomic selection in cattle has increased the interest in using OPU-IVP technology to increase the number of embryos and offspring per donor, thus allowing enhanced selection intensity for the next generation. The aim of this study was to optimize embryo production through supplementation of cysteamine during in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro culture (IVC) of both slaughterhouse- and OPU-derived oocytes. The effects on embryo production and on embryo cryotolerance, post-transfer embryo survival, and calf characteristics, including gestation length, birth weight, perinatal mortality, and sex ratio were studied. In study 1, immature slaughterhouse-derived cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured in IVM medium supplemented with or without 0.1 mM cysteamine, fertilized and cultured for 7 days in 0.5 ml SOFaaBSA. In study 2, cysteamine was present during both IVM (0.1 mM) and IVC (0.01, 0.05, 0.1 mM) from Days 1 to 4. In study 3, OPU-derived COCs were matured in medium supplemented with or without 0.1 mM cysteamine in a 2 × 2 factorial design (OPU week and cysteamine treatment). Embryos were evaluated for stage and grade on Day 7 and, depending on the number of transferable embryos and recipients available, the embryos were transferred either fresh or frozen-thawed at a later date. The presence of cysteamine during IVM significantly increased the embryo production rate with slaughterhouse-derived COCs (24.0% vs. 19.4%). The higher number of embryos at Day 7 was due to an increased number of blastocysts, whereas the distribution of embryos among different quality grades and cryotolerance was not affected. Embryo production rate was negatively affected when cysteamine was present during both the processes of IVM and IVC during Days 1 to 4 of culture (13

  12. Improving the quality of matured coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn.) water by low alcoholic fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae: antioxidant and volatile profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guanfei; Chen, Wenxue; Chen, Weijun; Chen, Haiming

    2018-03-01

    Matured coconut water (MCW) is a by-product in the coconut milk industry that is usually discarded due to its unpleasant flavor. In this study, low-alcohol coconut water (LACW) was fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae to improve the quality of MCW. Volatile components and nonvolatile flavor-related elements were estimated to compare the qualities of the MCW and LACW. Besides measuring the kinetic changes, the levels of fructose, glucose, sucrose and ethanol contents were also determined. The results of the organic acid assays showed that tartaric, pyruvic and succinic acids were the primary organic acids present in LACW and increased significantly with fermentation. The resulting volatile composition assay indicated that esters, alcohols and fatty acids were significantly influenced by fermentation and yeast strains. Moreover, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power values increased significantly throughout the process, correlating with the enhancement of total phenolic content.

  13. Naturally Engineered Maturation of Cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano J. Scuderi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic heart disease remains one of the most prominent causes of mortalities worldwide with heart transplantation being the gold-standard treatment option. However, due to the major limitations associated with heart transplants, such as an inadequate supply and heart rejection, there remains a significant clinical need for a viable cardiac regenerative therapy to restore native myocardial function. Over the course of the previous several decades, researchers have made prominent advances in the field of cardiac regeneration with the creation of in vitro human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte tissue engineered constructs. However, these engineered constructs exhibit a functionally immature, disorganized, fetal-like phenotype that is not equivalent physiologically to native adult cardiac tissue. Due to this major limitation, many recent studies have investigated approaches to improve pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte maturation to close this large functionality gap between engineered and native cardiac tissue. This review integrates the natural developmental mechanisms of cardiomyocyte structural and functional maturation. The variety of ways researchers have attempted to improve cardiomyocyte maturation in vitro by mimicking natural development, known as natural engineering, is readily discussed. The main focus of this review involves the synergistic role of electrical and mechanical stimulation, extracellular matrix interactions, and non-cardiomyocyte interactions in facilitating cardiomyocyte maturation. Overall, even with these current natural engineering approaches, pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes within three-dimensional engineered heart tissue still remain mostly within the early to late fetal stages of cardiomyocyte maturity. Therefore, although the end goal is to achieve adult phenotypic maturity, more emphasis must be placed on elucidating how the in vivo fetal microenvironment drives cardiomyocyte

  14. Assessing healthcare process maturity: challenges of using a business process maturity model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarhan, A.; Turetken, O.; van den Biggelaar, F.J.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Doi: 10.4108/icst.pervasivehealth.2015.259105 The quality of healthcare services is influenced by the maturity of healthcare processes used to develop it. A maturity model is an instrument to assess and continually improve organizational processes. In the last decade, a number of maturity models

  15. An Improved Version of the Cervical Vertebral Maturation (CVM) Method for the Assessment of Mandibular Growth in Deutero-Malay Sub Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscandar, Fahmi; Malinda, Yuti; Azhari, H.; Murniati, Nani; Yeh Ong, Sing; Subiyanto; Supian, Sudradjat

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, Cervical Vertebral Maturation method was used to assess the mandibular growth in Deutero-Malay sub race. Twenty eight laterals Cephalometric radiographs of Deutero-Malay sub race aged 9-15 were observed. The observation used stratified random sampling by measuring the quantitative and qualitative assessment of the 2nd through 4th cervical vertebra of the subjects. It produced the diagram of developmental stages of cervical vertebrae for Deutero-Malay sub race. The diagram can be used to determine mandibular growth in term of qualitative by matching the shape of cervical vertebrae. It was obtained that the Cervical Vertebral Maturation method can be used to assess mandibular growth in Deutero-Malay sub race by matching the shape of cervical vertebrae to the diagram of developmental stages of cervical vertebrae. In addition, Cervical Vertebral Maturation method can be used to identification person’s age.

  16. Slab replacement maturity guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the use of maturity method to determine early age strength of concrete in slab : replacement application. Specific objectives were (1) to evaluate effects of various factors on the compressive : maturity-strength relationship ...

  17. Towards improved quantification of post-fire conifer mortality and recovery: Impacts of fire radiative flux on seedling and mature tree mortality, physiology, and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, A. M.; Kolden, C.; Smith, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Fire activity, in terms of intensity, frequency, and total area burned, is expected to increase with changing climate. A challenge for landscape level assessment of fire effects, termed burn severity, is that current assessments provide very little information regarding vegetation physiological performance and recovery, limiting our understanding of fire effects on ecosystem services such as carbon storage/cycling. To address these limitations, we evaluated an alternative dose-response methodology for quantifying fire effects that attempts to bridge fire combustion dynamics and ecophysiology. Specifically, we conducted a highly controlled, laboratory assessment of seedling response to increasing doses of fire radiative energy applied through surface fires, for two western U.S. conifer species. Seedling physiology and spectral reflectance were acquired pre- and up to 1 year post-fire. Post-fire mortality, physiological performance, and spectral reflectance were strongly related with fire radiative energy density (FRED: J m-2) dose. To examine how these relationships change with tree size and age, we conducted small prescribed fires at the tree scale (35 m2) in a mature conifer stand. Radial growth and resin duct defenses were assessed on the mature conifer trees following the prescribed fires. Differences in dose-response relationships between seedlings and mature trees indicate the importance of fire behavior (e.g., flaming-dominated versus smoldering-dominated combustion) in characterizing these relationships. Ultimately, these results suggest that post-fire impacts on growth of surviving seedlings and mature trees require modes of heat transfer to impact tree canopies.

  18. Supplementation with nanomolar concentrations of verbascoside during in vitro maturation improves embryo development by protecting the oocyte against oxidative stress: a large animal model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Nicola Antonio; Ariu, Federica; Bebbere, Daniela; Uranio, Manuel Filioli; Chirico, Adriana; Marzano, Giuseppina; Sardanelli, Anna Maria; Cardinali, Angela; Minervini, Fiorenza; Bogliolo, Luisa; Dell'Aquila, Maria Elena

    2016-10-01

    The effects of verbascoside (VB), added at nanomolar concentrations during in vitro maturation (IVM) of juvenile sheep oocytes, on in vitro embryo development and its mechanisms of action at the oocyte level were analyzed. Developmental rates, after IVM in the presence/absence of VB (1nM for 24h; 1nM for 2h; 10nM for 2h), were evaluated. The bioenergetic/oxidative status of oocytes matured after IVM in the presence/absence of 1nM VB for 24h was assessed by confocal analysis of mitochondria and reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation (LPO) assay, and quantitative PCR of bioenergy/redox-related genes. The addition of 1nM VB during 24h IVM significantly increased blastocyst formation and quality. Verbascoside reduced oocyte ROS and LPO and increased mitochondria/ROS colocalization while keeping mitochondria activity and gene expression unchanged. In conclusion, supplementation with nanomolar concentrations of VB during IVM, in the juvenile sheep model, promotes embryo development by protecting the oocyte against oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Human-derived physiological heat shock protein 27 complex protects brain after focal cerebral ischemia in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro Teramoto

    Full Text Available Although challenging, neuroprotective therapies for ischemic stroke remain an interesting strategy for countering ischemic injury and suppressing brain tissue damage. Among potential neuroprotective molecules, heat shock protein 27 (HSP27 is a strong cell death suppressor. To assess the neuroprotective effects of HSP27 in a mouse model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, we purified a "physiological" HSP27 (hHSP27 from normal human lymphocytes. hHSP27 differed from recombinant HSP27 in that it formed dimeric, tetrameric, and multimeric complexes, was phosphorylated, and contained small amounts of αβ-crystallin and HSP20. Mice received intravenous injections of hHSP27 following focal cerebral ischemia. Infarct volume, neurological deficit scores, physiological parameters, and immunohistochemical analyses were evaluated 24 h after reperfusion. Intravenous injections of hHSP27 1 h after reperfusion significantly reduced infarct size and improved neurological deficits. Injected hHSP27 was localized in neurons on the ischemic side of the brain. hHSP27 suppressed neuronal cell death resulting from cytochrome c-mediated caspase activation, oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses. Recombinant HSP27 (rHSP27, which was artificially expressed and purified from Escherichia coli, and dephosphorylated hHSP27 did not have brain protective effects, suggesting that the phosphorylation of hHSP27 may be important for neuroprotection after ischemic insults. The present study suggests that hHSP27 with posttranslational modifications provided neuroprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury and that the protection was mediated through the inhibition of apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Intravenously injected human HSP27 should be explored for the treatment of acute ischemic strokes.

  20. Maturity of the PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, P.; Rapin, M.; Aboudarham, L.; Bitsch, D.

    1983-03-01

    Figures illustrating the predominant position of the PWR system are presented. The question is whether on the basis of these figures the PWR can be considered to have reached maturity. The following analysis, based on the French program experience, is an attempt to pinpoint those areas in which industrial maturity of the PWR has been attained, and in which areas a certain evolution can still be expected to take place

  1. Improved detection rate of cytogenetic abnormalities in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other mature B-cell neoplasms with use of CpG-oligonucleotide DSP30 and interleukin 2 stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Min; Cipollini, Matthew J; Crowley-Bish, Patricia A; Higgins, Anne W; Yu, Hongbo; Miron, Patricia M

    2013-05-01

    Detection of cytogenetic abnormalities requires successful culture of the clonal population to obtain metaphase chromosomes for study, and as such, has been hampered by low mitotic indices of mature B cells in culture. Our study presents data on the improved abnormality detection rate with the use of a CpG-oligonucleotide/interleukin 2 (OL/IL-2) culture protocol for mature B-cell neoplasms, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and non-CLL specimens. The increased detection rate of abnormalities, compared with unstimulated culture and traditional pokeweed mitogen culture, was statistically significant for both CLL and non-CLL neoplasms. For CLL specimens, our data also showed that for cytogenetically visible aberrations, OL/IL-2 was as, if not more, sensitive than detection with interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH). Use of OL/IL-2 allowed a number of abnormalities to be detected, which were not covered by specific iFISH panels, especially balanced translocations. Therefore, OL/IL-2 stimulation improves diagnostic sensitivity and increases discovery rate of novel prognostic findings.

  2. Service Quality and Process Maturity Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serek Radomir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with service quality and the methods for its measurement and improvements to reach the so called service excellence. Besides older methods such as SERVQUAL and SERPERF, there are also shortly described capability maturity models based on which the own methodology is developed and used for process maturity assessment in organizations providing technical services. This method is equally described and accompanied by examples on pictures. The verification of method functionality is explored on finding a correlation between service employee satisfaction and average process maturity in a service organization. The results seem to be quite promising and open an arena for further studies.

  3. Maturity grids as tools for change management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Anja; Moultrie, James; Clarkson, P John

    2011-01-01

    A maturity grid is a change management tool. Levels of maturity are assigned against aspects of an area under study, thus creating a grid. Text descriptions at the resulting intersections describe the typical behaviour exhibited by a firm for each area under study and from the basis...... for the assessment scale. It is a flexible assessment technique that is used by practitioners in industry, consultants and researchers in academia for diagnostic, reflective and improvement purposes. A large number of maturity grids have been proposed to assess a range of capabilities including quality management...

  4. Growth of mature boreal Norway spruce was not affected by elevated [CO(2)] and/or air temperature unless nutrient availability was improved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Bjarni D; Medhurst, Jane L; Wallin, Göran; Eggertsson, Olafur; Linder, Sune

    2013-11-01

    The growth responses of mature Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees exposed to elevated [CO(2)] (CE; 670-700 ppm) and long-term optimized nutrient availability or elevated air temperature (TE; ±3.9 °C) were studied in situ in northern Sweden in two 3 year field experiments using 12 whole-tree chambers in ca. 40-year-old forest. The first experiment (Exp. I) studied the interactions between CE and nutrient availability and the second (Exp. II) between CE and TE. It should be noted that only air temperature was elevated in Exp. II, while soil temperature was maintained close to ambient. In Exp. I, CE significantly increased the mean annual height increment, stem volume and biomass increment during the treatment period (25, 28, and 22%, respectively) when nutrients were supplied. There was, however, no significant positive CE effect found at the low natural nutrient availability. In Exp. II, which was conducted at the natural site fertility, neither CE nor TE significantly affected height or stem increment. It is concluded that the low nutrient availability (mainly nitrogen) in the boreal forests is likely to restrict their response to the continuous rise in [CO(2)] and/or TE.

  5. Differentiating between hospitals according to the "maturity'' of quality improvement systems: a new classification scheme in a sample of European hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombarts, M. J. M. H.; Rupp, I.; Vallejo, P.; Klazinga, N. S.; Suñol, R.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: This study, part of the Methods of Assessing Response to Quality Improvement Strategies (MARQuIS) research project focusing on cross-border patients in Europe, investigated quality policies and improvement in healthcare systems across the European Union (EU). The aim was to develop a

  6. FTY720/Fingolimod Reduces Synucleinopathy and Improves Gut Motility in A53T Mice: CONTRIBUTIONS OF PRO-BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR (PRO-BDNF) AND MATURE BDNF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Martínez, Guadalupe; Vargas-Medrano, Javier; Gil-Tommee, Carolina; Medina, David; Garza, Nathan T; Yang, Barbara; Segura-Ulate, Ismael; Dominguez, Samantha J; Perez, Ruth G

    2016-09-23

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) often have aggregated α-synuclein (aSyn) in enteric nervous system (ENS) neurons, which may be associated with the development of constipation. This occurs well before the onset of classic PD motor symptoms. We previously found that aging A53T transgenic (Tg) mice closely model PD-like ENS aSyn pathology, making them appropriate for testing potential PD therapies. Here we show that Tg mice overexpressing mutant human aSyn develop ENS pathology by 4 months. We then evaluated the responses of Tg mice and their WT littermates to the Food and Drug Administration-approved drug FTY720 (fingolimod, Gilenya) or vehicle control solution from 5 months of age. Long term oral FTY720 in Tg mice reduced ENS aSyn aggregation and constipation, enhanced gut motility, and increased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) but produced no significant change in WT littermates. A role for BDNF was directly assessed in a cohort of young A53T mice given vehicle, FTY720, the Trk-B receptor inhibitor ANA-12, or FTY720 + ANA-12 from 1 to 4 months of age. ANA-12-treated Tg mice developed more gut aSyn aggregation as well as constipation, whereas FTY720-treated Tg mice had reduced aSyn aggregation and less constipation, occurring in part by increasing both pro-BDNF and mature BDNF levels. The data from young and old Tg mice revealed FTY720-associated neuroprotection and reduced aSyn pathology, suggesting that FTY720 may also benefit PD patients and others with synucleinopathy. Another finding was a loss of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in gut neurons with aggregated aSyn, comparable with our prior findings in the CNS. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Assessment of effects of maturity of Japan`s economy and society and improvement in automotive fuel consumption on demand for automotive fuels; Nippon keizai shakai no seijukuka to nenpi kaizen ga jidoshayo nenryo juyo ni ataeru eikyo hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimomura, S. [The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-04-01

    This paper evaluates impacts of the maturity of Japan`s economy and society and the improvement in automotive fuel efficiency on the demand for automotive fuels by FY 2010. Standard case and lower order case were examined. When the traffic volume of passenger cars in FY 1995 is assumed to be 100, it become 121 and 119 in standard and lower order cases, respectively. The traffic volume of lorries become 106 and 102 in standard and lower order cases, respectively, which showed a rather small growth. Deterioration rate of the fuel consumption was estimated by considering the difference in fuel consumption of new cars and existing cars. Although the fuel consumption will be lowered by FY 2000 when the cassation rate of ordinary passenger cars will rapidly increase, the impact will be lowered after that. For lorries for commercial use, the running fuel consumption will be gradually lowered due to the increased carrying capacity and vehicle weight a lorry with improving the transportation efficiency. Decreased running speed by traffic jam is also a cause of the deterioration of fuel consumption. When a policy of improvement in the fuel consumption is promoted in a background of CO2 issues, the fuel consumption of each vehicle will be gradually improved. The peak of fuel demand will be in FY 2005 by considering the changes in economical and social structures and the improvement in fuel consumption for the environmental protection. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Improving initiation, genotype capture, and family representation in somatic embryogenesis of Pinus radiata by a combination of zygotic embryo maturity, media, and explant preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hargreaves, Cathy; Find, Jens; Reeves, Cathie

    2009-01-01

    The principal aim of this investigation was to improve somatic embryogenesis initiation and to enhance representation of families and genotypes within those families of Pinus radiata D. Don. A total of 19 open-pollinated seed families, many with unrelated and weakly related parents, were tested...

  9. Maturing interorganisational information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, M.G.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313946809

    2012-01-01

    This thesis consists of nine chapters, divided over five parts. PART I is an introduction and the last part contains the conclusions. The remaining, intermediate parts are: PART II: Developing a maturity model for chain digitisation. This part contains two related studies concerning the development

  10. Jealousy and Moral Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Eugene W.; Deuger, Donna J.

    Jealousy may be perceived as either good or bad depending upon the moral maturity of the individual. To investigate this conclusion, a study was conducted testing two hypothesis: a positive relationship exists between conventional moral reasoning (reference to norms and laws) and the endorsement and level of jealousy; and a negative relationship…

  11. Mature students' perspectives of studying radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.; Decker, S.

    2009-01-01

    The study set out to explore the experiences of all final year mature students on a diagnostic radiography course, in one United Kingdom University. The aims were to identify any difficulties they may have had and to make recommendations to improve mature students' learning experiences with the hope of lowering attrition rates in this group. A qualitative study involving one-to-one audio recorded interviews was utilised. Analysis of the transcripts of interviews suggested that the group believed that their maturity and previous experiences helped them in the clinical environment and put them in a good position, when asked, to counsel younger students. However for some of the mature students these experiential skills did not extend fully into seeking appropriate support for themselves. The mature students were found to be highly motivated but there was a conflict between balancing clinical and academic aspects of studying as well as balancing studying with home life. The group was found to be unprepared for the volume of academic work and its detrimental effect on family life as they sacrificed other aspects of their lives in order to complete the course. It is recommended that forewarning and forearming prospective mature students be considered by radiography education providers. Setting up and utilising an on-line forum providing a 24/7 peer support environment would aid in coping with academic, clinical or personal problems

  12. Mature Oocyte Cryopreservation for Fertility Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tina; Motan, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, advances in cancer treatment have led to a dramatic improvement in long term survival. This has led to an increasing focus on quality of life after surviving cancer treatment, with fertility being an important aspect. Given the known reproductive risks of cancer therapies, there has been a growing interest in the field of fertility preservation (also referred to as oncofertility). Mature oocyte cryopreservation is no longer considered experimental and has become a realistic option for reproductive aged women prior to undergoing cancer treatment. Additionally, as cryopreservation techniques improve, mature oocyte cryopreservation is increasing being marketed to healthy women without cancer wishing to delay child bearing, also termed "social egg freezing". This chapter provides a review of the current technology, use, and outcomes of mature oocyte cryopreservation. It also outlines the ethical debate surrounding social egg freezing and directions for future research in female fertility preservation.

  13. Maturity effects in energy futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serletis, Apostolos (Calgary Univ., AB (CA). Dept. of Economics)

    1992-04-01

    This paper examines the effects of maturity on future price volatility and trading volume for 129 energy futures contracts recently traded in the NYMEX. The results provide support for the maturity effect hypothesis, that is, energy futures prices to become more volatile and trading volume increases as futures contracts approach maturity. (author).

  14. Antibody affinity maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Mette Louise

    Yeast surface display is an effective tool for antibody affinity maturation because yeast can be used as an all-in-one workhorse to assemble, display and screen diversified antibody libraries. By employing the natural ability of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to efficiently recombine multiple DNA...... laboratory conditions. A particular emphasis was put on using molecular techniques in conjunction with microenvironmental measurements (O2, pH, irradiance), a combination that is rarely found but provides a much more detailed understanding of “cause and effect” in complex natural systems...

  15. Expression of HSP27, HSP72 and MRP proteins in in vitro co-culture ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    2009-12-09

    Dec 9, 2009 ... in co-cultures of human colon carcinoma cell spheroids obtained from different grades of ...... of adherens junction in prostate epithelial cells; Exp. Cell. Res. ... tumour-associated antigens is related to estrogen receptor status;.

  16. CELLS OVEREXPRESSING HSP27 SHOW ACCELERATED RECOVERY FROM HEAT-INDUCED NUCLEAR-PROTEIN AGGREGATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KAMPINGA, HH; BRUNSTING, JF; STEGE, GJJ; KONINGS, AWT; LANDRY, J

    1994-01-01

    Protein denaturation/aggregation upon cell exposure to heat shock is a likely cause of cell death. in the nucleus, protein aggregation has often been correlated to inhibition of nuclear located processes and heat-induced cell killing. in Chinese hamster 023 cells made thermotolerant by a prior

  17. Capability maturity models for offshore organisational management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strutt, J E; Sharp, J V; Terry, E; Miles, R

    2006-12-01

    The goal setting regime imposed by the UK safety regulator has important implications for an organisation's ability to manage health and safety related risks. Existing approaches to safety assurance based on risk analysis and formal safety assessments are increasingly considered unlikely to create the step change improvement in safety to which the offshore industry aspires and alternative approaches are being considered. One approach, which addresses the important issue of organisational behaviour and which can be applied at a very early stage of design, is the capability maturity model (CMM). The paper describes the development of a design safety capability maturity model, outlining the key processes considered necessary to safety achievement, definition of maturity levels and scoring methods. The paper discusses how CMM is related to regulatory mechanisms and risk based decision making together with the potential of CMM to environmental risk management.

  18. Maturity Model for Advancing Smart Grid Interoperability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, Mark; Widergren, Steven E.; Mater, J.; Montgomery, Austin

    2013-10-28

    Abstract—Interoperability is about the properties of devices and systems to connect and work properly. Advancing interoperability eases integration and maintenance of the resulting interconnection. This leads to faster integration, lower labor and component costs, predictability of projects and the resulting performance, and evolutionary paths for upgrade. When specifications are shared and standardized, competition and novel solutions can bring new value streams to the community of stakeholders involved. Advancing interoperability involves reaching agreement for how things join at their interfaces. The quality of the agreements and the alignment of parties involved in the agreement present challenges that are best met with process improvement techniques. The GridWise® Architecture Council (GWAC) sponsored by the United States Department of Energy is supporting an effort to use concepts from capability maturity models used in the software industry to advance interoperability of smart grid technology. An interoperability maturity model has been drafted and experience is being gained through trials on various types of projects and community efforts. This paper describes the value and objectives of maturity models, the nature of the interoperability maturity model and how it compares with other maturity models, and experiences gained with its use.

  19. Next Generation Software Process Improvement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Turnas, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    .... The application of these processes allows for an organization to mature. The software maturity level, and process improvement, of an organization can be measured with the Capability Maturity Model...

  20. Effect of maturity stages, variety and storage environment on sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study clearly demonstrated the importance of integrated agro-technology of combining cultivar, maturity stage and storage environment in shelf life improvement of tomato by reducing the rate of ripening and utilization of sugar, reducing water loss and maintaining marketability. Key words: Tomato, maturity stage, ...

  1. Effect of melatonin on in vitro maturation of bovine oocytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Vs 17.67, 15.68, 16.53). In conclusion in this experiment, melatonin cannot improve cumulus cell expansion and nuclear maturation of bovine oocytes. When concentrations is high, melatonin may affect bovine oocytes meiotic maturation at metaphase-1 stage, but it is improbable melatonin be toxic for bovine oocytes.

  2. Asset management maturity in public infrastructure: the case of Rijkswaterstaat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volker, L.; Ligtvoet, A.; van den Boomen, M.; Wessels, Peter; van der Lei, T.E.; Herder, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    In times of restructuring governmental policies and resources, the
    need for strategic asset management is growing. Maturity models offer
    organisations a structure to assist them in improving their asset management
    performance. We present the results of a repeated maturity measurement

  3. Correlation between dental maturity and cervical vertebral maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianwei; Hu, Haikun; Guo, Jing; Liu, Zeping; Liu, Renkai; Li, Fan; Zou, Shujuan

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dental and skeletal maturity. Digital panoramic radiographs and lateral skull cephalograms of 302 patients (134 boys and 168 girls, ranging from 8 to 16 years of age) were examined. Dental maturity was assessed by calcification stages of the mandibular canines, first and second premolars, and second molars, whereas skeletal maturity was estimated by the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stages. The Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient was used to measure the association between CVM stage and dental calcification stage of individual teeth. The mean chronologic age of girls was significantly lower than that of boys in each CVM stage. The Spearman rank-order correlation coefficients between dental maturity and cervical vertebral maturity ranged from 0.391 to 0.582 for girls and from 0.464 to 0.496 for boys (P cervical vertebral maturation stage. The development of the mandibular second molar in females and that of the mandibular canine in males had the strongest correlations with cervical vertebral maturity. Therefore, it is practical to consider the relationship between dental and skeletal maturity when planning orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Systematic Literature Review of Agile Maturity Model Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughan Henriques

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim/Purpose: A commonly implemented software process improvement framework is the capability maturity model integrated (CMMI. Existing literature indicates higher levels of CMMI maturity could result in a loss of agility due to its organizational focus. To maintain agility, research has focussed attention on agile maturity models. The objective of this paper is to find the common research themes and conclusions in agile maturity model research. Methodology: This research adopts a systematic approach to agile maturity model research, using Google Scholar, Science Direct, and IEEE Xplore as sources. In total 531 articles were initially found matching the search criteria, which was filtered to 39 articles by applying specific exclusion criteria. Contribution:: The article highlights the trends in agile maturity model research, specifically bringing to light the lack of research providing validation of such models. Findings: Two major themes emerge, being the coexistence of agile and CMMI and the development of agile principle based maturity models. The research trend indicates an increase in agile maturity model articles, particularly in the latter half of the last decade, with concentrations of research coinciding with version updates of CMMI. While there is general consensus around higher CMMI maturity levels being incompatible with true agility, there is evidence of the two coexisting when agile is introduced into already highly matured environments. Future Research:\tFuture research direction for this topic should include how to attain higher levels of CMMI maturity using only agile methods, how governance is addressed in agile environments, and whether existing agile maturity models relate to improved project success.

  5. Mature Cystic Renal Teratoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, Alpaslan; Ceken, Kagan; Alimoglu, Emel; Akkaya, Bahar

    2014-01-01

    Teratomas are rare germline tumors that originate from one or more embryonic germ cell layers. Teratoma of the kidney is extremely rare, and less than 30 cases of primary intrarenal teratomas have been published to date. We report the main radiologic features of an unusual case of mature cystic teratoma arising from the left kidney in a two-year-old boy. A left-sided abdominal mass was detected on physical examination and B-Mod Ultrasound (US) examination revealed a heterogeneous mass with central cystic component. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a lobulated, heterogeneous, hypodense mass extending craniocaudally from the splenic hilum to the level of the left iliac fossa. Nephrectomy was performed and a large, fatty mass arising from the left kidney was excised. The final pathologic diagnosis was confirmed as cystic renal teratoma

  6. Developing maturity grids for assessing organisational capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Anja; Moultrie, James; Clarkson, P John

    2009-01-01

    Keyword: Maturity Model,Maturity Grid,Maturity Matrix,Organisational Capabilities,Benchmarking,New Product Development,Perfirmance Assessment......Keyword: Maturity Model,Maturity Grid,Maturity Matrix,Organisational Capabilities,Benchmarking,New Product Development,Perfirmance Assessment...

  7. Modeling non-maturing liabilities

    OpenAIRE

    von Feilitzen, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Non‐maturing liabilities, such as savings accounts, lack both predetermined maturity and reset dates due to the fact that the depositor is free to withdraw funds at any time and that the depository institution is free to change the rate. These attributes complicate the risk management of such products and no standardized solution exists. The problem is important however since non‐maturing liabilities typically make up a considerable part of the funding of a bank. In this report different mode...

  8. Assessing Organizational Capabilities: Reviewing and Guiding the Development of Maturity Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Anja; Moultrie, James; Clarkson, P John

    2012-01-01

    Managing and improving organizational capabilities is a significant and complex issue for many companies. To support management and enable improvement, performance assessments are commonly used. One way of assessing organizational capabilities is by means of maturity grids. Whilst maturity grids...... than twenty maturity grids places particular emphasis on embedded assumptions about organizational change in the formulation of the maturity ratings. The suggested roadmap encompasses four phases: planning, development, evaluation and maintenance. Each phase discusses a number of decision points...

  9. Whose Maturity is it Anyway?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents results from an ongoing empirical study that seeks to understand the influence of different quantitative methods on the design and assessment of maturity models. Although there have been many academic publications on maturity models, there exists a significant lack of understa...

  10. Analyzing Project Management Maturity Level in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliot Simangunsong

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Project management has been generally known and increasingly used by many organizations to gain competitive advantage. In this context, many studies have proposed maturity models to evaluate how project management knowledge has been deployed effectively and efficiently in or- ganization. As a developing country, Indonesia needs many development projects managed by government and private companies in different industries. Here, a study to assess project manage- ment maturity level in Indonesian businesses may bring insight about current business practices, which is important to speed up country development and business sustainability. Adapting the Project Management Maturity Model (ProMMM, a survey instrument has been developed and ap- plied to professionals from Jakarta and surrounding area. The result of analysis shows that con- struction and primary industry have a higher maturity level compare to manufacturing and servic- es. It is to be noted, however, that the level of project management understanding is low across in- dustries. This indicates that more quality project management training or certification is required to improve overall project management knowledge in Indonesia.

  11. Towards an energy management maturity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antunes, Pedro; Carreira, Paulo; Mira da Silva, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Energy management is becoming a priority as organizations strive to reduce energy costs, conform to regulatory requirements, and improve their corporate image. Despite the upsurge of interest in energy management standards, a gap persists between energy management literature and current implementation practices. This gap can be traced to the lack of an incremental improvement roadmap. In this paper we propose an Energy Management Maturity Model that can be used to guide organizations in their energy management implementation efforts to incrementally achieve compliance with energy management standards such as ISO 50001. The proposed maturity model is inspired on the Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle approach for continual improvement, and covers well-understood fundamental energy management activities common across energy management texts. The completeness of our proposal is then evaluated by establishing an ontology mapping against ISO 50001. - Highlights: • Real-world energy management activities are not aligned with the literature. • An Energy Management Maturity Model is proposed to overcome this alignment gap. • The completeness and relevance of proposed model are validated

  12. Customer-Provider Strategic Alignment: A Maturity Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luftman, Jerry; Brown, Carol V.; Balaji, S.

    This chapter presents a new model for assessing the maturity of a ­customer-provider relationship from a collaborative service delivery perspective: the Customer-Provider Strategic Alignment Maturity (CPSAM) Model. This model builds on recent research for effectively managing the customer-provider relationship in IT service outsourcing contexts and a validated model for assessing alignment across internal IT service units and their business customers within the same organization. After reviewing relevant literature by service science and information systems researchers, the six overarching components of the maturity model are presented: value measurements, governance, partnership, communications, human resources and skills, and scope and architecture. A key assumption of the model is that all of the components need be addressed to assess and improve customer-provider alignment. Examples of specific metrics for measuring the maturity level of each component over the five levels of maturity are also presented.

  13. Signs of Maturity

    OpenAIRE

    Bajekal, M.

    2012-01-01

    Lifestyle changes and improvements in healthcare mean that deaths owing to heart disease continue to fall. Yet relative inequalities have widened. Dr Madhavi Bajekal investigates what growing old means for different social groups

  14. Smart Grid Interoperability Maturity Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widergren, Steven E.; Levinson, Alex; Mater, J.; Drummond, R.

    2010-04-28

    The integration of automation associated with electricity resources (including transmission and distribution automation and demand-side resources operated by end-users) is key to supporting greater efficiencies and incorporating variable renewable resources and electric vehicles into the power system. The integration problems faced by this community are analogous to those faced in the health industry, emergency services, and other complex communities with many stakeholders. To highlight this issue and encourage communication and the development of a smart grid interoperability community, the GridWise Architecture Council (GWAC) created an Interoperability Context-Setting Framework. This "conceptual model" has been helpful to explain the importance of organizational alignment in addition to technical and informational interface specifications for "smart grid" devices and systems. As a next step to building a community sensitive to interoperability, the GWAC is investigating an interoperability maturity model (IMM) based on work done by others to address similar circumstances. The objective is to create a tool or set of tools that encourages a culture of interoperability in this emerging community. The tools would measure status and progress, analyze gaps, and prioritize efforts to improve the situation.

  15. ICoNOs MM: The IT-enabled Collaborative Networked Organizations Maturity Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santana Tapia, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to introduce a comprehensive model for assessing and improving maturity of business-IT alignment (B-ITa) in collaborative networked organizations (CNOs): the ICoNOs MM. This two dimensional maturity model (MM) addresses five levels of maturity as well as four domains to

  16. Growth indicators in orthodontic patients. Part 1: comparison of cervical vertebral maturation and hand-wrist skeletal maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litsas, G; Ari-Demirkaya, A

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to predict the skeletal maturation status based on the assessment of cervical vertebrae from lateral cephalometric radiographs and to compare these findings with the skeletal maturity of the same individuals judged from the hand-wrist radiographs. Lateral cephalometric and left hand-wrist radiographs of 393 Caucasian children from 8 to 18 years old were evaluated. On the hand-wrist radiographs the classification of Bjork [1972] and Grave and Brown [1976] was used to assess skeletal maturity (HWSS). Cervical vertebral maturation was also evaluated on lateral cephalometric radiographs using the improved CVMS method described by Baccetti, Franchi, and McNamara [2002]. These methods were correlated using the chi-square test. The chi-square test showed that skeletal maturational values obtained by the CVMS method were significantly correlated with the skeletal values obtained from the hand-wrist analysis for both genders (pmaturity.

  17. Slab replacement maturity guidelines : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Concrete sets in hours at moderate temperatures, : but the bonds that make concrete strong continue : to mature over days to years. However, for : replacement concrete slabs on highways, it is : crucial that concrete develop enough strength : within ...

  18. SOUL System Maturation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co. Inc. proposes to advance the maturity of an innovative Spacecraft on Umbilical Line (SOUL) System suitable for a wide variety of applications of interest...

  19. SOUL System Maturation, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co. Inc. proposes to advance the maturity of an innovative Spacecraft on Umbilical Line (SOUL) System suitable for a wide variety of applications of interest...

  20. Quality Management Systems Implementation Compared With Organizational Maturity in Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Tayebeh; Jafari, Mehdi; Maleki, Mohammad Reza; Naghdi, Seyran; Ghiasvand, Hesam

    2015-07-27

    A quality management system can provide a framework for continuous improvement in order to increase the probability of customers and other stakeholders' satisfaction. The test maturity model helps organizations to assess the degree of maturity in implementing effective and sustained quality management systems; plan based on the current realities of the organization and prioritize their improvement programs. We aim to investigate and compare the level of organizational maturity in hospitals with the status of quality management systems implementation. This analytical cross sectional study was conducted among hospital administrators and quality experts working in hospitals with over 200 beds located in Tehran. In the first step, 32 hospitals were selected and then 96 employees working in the selected hospitals were studied. The data were gathered using the implementation checklist of quality management systems and the organization maturity questionnaire derived from ISO 10014. The content validity was calculated using Lawshe method and the reliability was estimated using test - retest method and calculation of Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data using SPSS 18 software. According to the table, the mean score of organizational maturity among hospitals in the first stage of quality management systems implementation was equal to those in the third stage and hypothesis was rejected (p-value = 0.093). In general, there is no significant difference in the organizational maturity between the first and third level hospitals (in terms of implementation of quality management systems). Overall, the findings of the study show that there is no significant difference in the organizational maturity between the hospitals in different levels of the quality management systems implementation and in fact, the maturity of the organizations cannot be attributed to the implementation of such systems. As a result, hospitals

  1. Maturation of sugar maple seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton M., Jr. Carl; Albert G., Jr. Snow; Albert G. Snow

    1971-01-01

    The seeds of a sugar maple tree (Acer saccharum Marsh.) do not mature at the same time every year. And different trees mature their seeds at different times. So time of year is not a reliable measure of when seeds are ripe. Better criteria are needed. In recent studies we have found that moisture content and color are the best criteria for judging when sugar maple...

  2. A maturity model to assess organisational readiness for change

    OpenAIRE

    Zephir, Olivier; Minel, Stéphanie; Chapotot, Emilie

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The presented model which is developed in a European project allows project management teams to assess the organisational maturity to integrate new practices under structural or technological change. Maturity for change is defined here as workforce capability to operate effectively in transformed processes. This methodology is addressed to tackle organisational readiness to fulfil business objectives through technological and structural improvements. The tool integrate...

  3. Lean maturity, lean sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Matthiesen, Rikke; Nielsen, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    . A framework for describing levels of lean capability is presented, based on a brief review of the literature and experiences from 12 Danish companies currently implementing lean. Although still in its emerging phase, the framework contributes to both theory and practice by describing developmental stages......Although lean is rapidly growing in popularity, its implementation is far from problem free and companies may experience difficulties sustaining long term success. In this paper, it is suggested that sustainable lean requires attention to both performance improvement and capability development...... that support lean capability development and consequently, lean sustainability....

  4. Sustaining Exploration in Mature Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayo, A.

    2002-01-01

    Exploration is a business like any other business driven by opportunity, resources and expectation of profit. Therefore, exploration will thrive anywhere the opportunities are significant, the resources are available and the outlook for profit (or value creation) is good. To sustain exploration activities anywhere, irrespective of the environment, there must be good understanding of the drivers of these key investment criteria. This paper will examine these investment criteria as they relate to exploration business and address the peculiarity of exploration in mature basin. Mature basins are unique environment that lends themselves a mix of fears, paradigms and realities, particularly with respect to the perception of value. To sustain exploration activities in a mature basin, we need to understand these perceptions relative to the true drivers of profitability. Exploration in the mature basins can be as profitable as exploration in emerging basins if the dynamics of value definition-strategic and fiscal values are understood by operators, regulators and co ventures alike. Some suggestions are made in this presentation on what needs to be done in addressing these dynamic investment parameters and sustaining exploration activities in mature basins

  5. Public Sector IS Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinner Henriksen, Helle; Andersen, Kim Normann; Medaglia, Rony

    2011-01-01

    Online applications and processing of tax forms, driver licenses, and construction permits are examples of where policy attention and research have been united in efforts aiming to categorize the maturity level of e-services. Less attention has been attributed to policy areas with continuous online...... citizenpublic interaction, such as in public education. In this paper we use a revised version of the Public Sector Process Rebuilding (PPR) maturity model for mapping 200 websites of public primary schools in Denmark. Findings reveal a much less favorable picture of the digitization of the Danish public sector...... compared to the high ranking it has received in the international benchmark studies. This paper aims at closing the gap between the predominant scope of maturity models and the frequency of citizen-public sector interaction, and calls for increased attention to the activities of government where the scale...

  6. Bicarbonate Transport During Enamel Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kaifeng; Paine, Michael L

    2017-11-01

    Amelogenesis (tooth enamel formation) is a biomineralization process consisting primarily of two stages (secretory stage and maturation stage) with unique features. During the secretory stage, the inner epithelium of the enamel organ (i.e., the ameloblast cells) synthesizes and secretes enamel matrix proteins (EMPs) into the enamel space. The protein-rich enamel matrix forms a highly organized architecture in a pH-neutral microenvironment. As amelogenesis transitions to maturation stage, EMPs are degraded and internalized by ameloblasts through endosomal-lysosomal pathways. Enamel crystallite formation is initiated early in the secretory stage, however, during maturation stage the more rapid deposition of calcium and phosphate into the enamel space results in a rapid expansion of crystallite length and mineral volume. During maturation-stage amelogenesis, the pH value of enamel varies considerably from slightly above neutral to acidic. Extracellular acid-base balance during enamel maturation is tightly controlled by ameloblast-mediated regulatory networks, which include significant synthesis and movement of bicarbonate ions from both the enamel papillary layer cells and ameloblasts. In this review we summarize the carbonic anhydrases and the carbonate transporters/exchangers involved in pH regulation in maturation-stage amelogenesis. Proteins that have been shown to be instrumental in this process include CA2, CA6, CFTR, AE2, NBCe1, SLC26A1/SAT1, SLC26A3/DRA, SLC26A4/PDS, SLC26A6/PAT1, and SLC26A7/SUT2. In addition, we discuss the association of miRNA regulation with bicarbonate transport in tooth enamel formation.

  7. Survival and maturation rates of the African rodent Mastomys natalensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sluydts, Vincent; Crespin, Laurent; Davis, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    the model fit. On the other hand we showed that maturation rates were correlated negatively with density the previous month and positively to cumulative rainfall over the past three months. Survival estimates of both adults and subadults varied seasonally, with higher estimates during the increase phase......Survival and maturation rates of female Mastomys natalensis were analysed based on a ten-year onthly capture-recapture data set. We investigated whether direct and delayed density dependent and independent (rainfall) variables accounted for the considerable variation in demographic traits....... It was estimated that seasonal and annual covariates accounted for respectively 29 and 26% of the total variation in maturation rates and respectively 17 and 11% of the variation in survival rates. Explaining the between-year differences in maturation rates with annual past rainfall or density did not improve...

  8. Motivational Maturity and Helping Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymes, Michael; Green, Logan

    1977-01-01

    Maturity in conative development (type of motivation included in Maslow's needs hierarchy) was found to be predictive of helping behavior in middle class white male college students. The effects of safety and esteem needs were compared, and the acceptance of responsibility was also investigated. (GDC)

  9. Regulators of growth plate maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emons, Joyce Adriana Mathilde

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen is known to play an important role in longitudinal bone growth and growth plate maturation, but the mechanism by which estrogens exert their effect is not fully understood. In this thesis this role is further explored. Chapter 1 contains a general introduction to longitudinal bone growth

  10. Effects of mixing and covering with mature compost on gaseous emissions during composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wen Hai; Yuan, Jing; Luo, Yi Ming; Li, Guo Xue; Nghiem, Long D; Price, William E

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated effects of mature compost on gaseous emissions during composting using pig manure amended with corn stalks. Apart from a control treatment, three treatments were conducted with the addition of 5% (wet weight of raw materials) of mature compost: (a) mixing raw materials with mature compost at the beginning of composting; (b) covering raw materials with mature compost throughout the experimental period; and (c) covering raw materials with mature compost at the start of composting, but incorporating it into composting pile on day 6 of composting. Mature compost used for the last treatment was inoculated with 2% (wet weight) of raw materials of strain M5 (a methanotrophic bacterium) solution. During 30-d of composting, three treatments with the addition of mature compost could reduce CH4 emission by 53-64% and N2O emission by 43-71%. However, covering with mature compost throughout the experimental period increased cumulative NH3 emission by 61%, although it could reduce 34% NH3 emission in the first 3d. Inoculating strain M5 in mature compost covered on the top of composting pile within first 6d enhanced CH4 oxidation, but simultaneously increased N2O emission. In addition, mixing with mature compost could improve compost maturity. Given the operational convenience in practice, covering with mature compost and then incorporating it into composting pile is a suitable approach to mitigate gaseous emissions during composting. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Melatonin in maturation media fails to improve oocyte maturation, embryo development rates and DNA damage of bovine embryos Melatonina no meio de maturação não melhorou as taxas de maturação dos ovócitos, de desenvolvimento embrionário e a fragmentação do DNA dos embriões bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Takada

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin (MEL acts as a powerful scavenger of free radicals and direct gonadal responses to melatonin have been reported in the literature. Few studies, however, have evaluated the effect of MEL during in vitro maturation (IVM on bovine embryos. This study tested the addition of MEL to maturation medium (MM with no gonadotropins on nuclear maturation and embryo development rates and the incidence of DNA damage in resulting embryos. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were aspirated from abattoir ovaries and cultured in MM (TCM-199 medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum - FCS at 39ºC and 5% CO2 in air. After 24 hours of culture in MM with 0.5 µg mL-1 FSH and 5.0 µg mL-1 LH; 10-9 M MEL or 10-9 M MEL, 0.5 µg mL-1 FSH and 5.0 µg mL-1 LH, the oocytes were stained with Hoechst 33342 to evaluate nuclear maturation rate. After in vitro fertilization and embryo culture, development rates were evaluated and the blastocysts were assessed for DNA damage by Comet assay. There was no effect of melatonin added to the MM, alone or in combination with gonadotropins, on nuclear maturation, cleavage and blastocyst rates. These rates ranged between 88% to 90%, 85% to 88% and 42% to 46%, respectively. The extent of DNA damage in embryos was also not affected by MEL supplementation during IVM. The addition of 10-9 M MEL to the MM failed to improve nuclear maturation and embryo development rates and the incidence of DNA damage in resulting embryos, but was able to properly substitute for gonadotropins during IVM.Melatonin (MEL atua como um potente redutor de radicais livres. Efeito direto da MEL na função gonadal também foi observado. Existem poucos estudos relacionados ao efeito da MEL durante a maturação no desenvolvimento embrionário in vitro. Avaliou-se a adição de MEL no meio de maturação (sem gonadotrofinas nas taxas de maturação nuclear e de desenvolvimento embrionário e na incidência de fragmentação do DNA nos embriões produzidos in vitro

  12. Assessment of skeletal maturation using mandibular second molar maturation stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, S; Goyal, S; Gugnani, N

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between cervical vertebrae maturation and mandibular second molar calcification stages. The study was designed as a retrospective, descriptive and crosssectional research project. Pre-treatment lateral cephalograms and panoramic radiographs of 99 males and 110 females in the age range of 7 to 18 years 7 months were evaluated with Demirjian Index (DI) and cervical vertebrae maturation indicators (CVMI) of Hassel and Farman. A null hypothesis was proposed that there is no relation between CVMI and DI. A highly significant association (Pearson's contingency coefficient 0.713 for males and 0.863 for females) was found between DI and CVMI. In males, the DI stage E corresponded to stage 2 of CVMI (pre-peak of pubertal growth spurt) and DI stages F and G corresponded to stages 3 and 4 of CVMI (peak of pubertal growth spurt). DI stage H was associated with stages 5 and 6 of CVMI (end of pubertal growth spurt). In females, the DI stages C, D corresponded to CVMI stages 1, 2; DI stages E, F with CVMI stages 3, 4; DI stages G, H with CVMI stages 5, 6. Mandibular second molar calcification stages can be used as indicators for assessment of skeletal maturity.

  13. Cervical vertebral maturation as a biologic indicator of skeletal maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Rodrigo César; de Miranda Costa, Luiz Felipe; Vitral, Robert Willer Farinazzo; Fraga, Marcelo Reis; Bolognese, Ana Maria; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2012-11-01

    To identify and review the literature regarding the reliability of cervical vertebrae maturation (CVM) staging to predict the pubertal spurt. The selection criteria included cross-sectional and longitudinal descriptive studies in humans that evaluated qualitatively or quantitatively the accuracy and reproducibility of the CVM method on lateral cephalometric radiographs, as well as the correlation with a standard method established by hand-wrist radiographs. The searches retrieved 343 unique citations. Twenty-three studies met the inclusion criteria. Six articles had moderate to high scores, while 17 of 23 had low scores. Analysis also showed a moderate to high statistically significant correlation between CVM and hand-wrist maturation methods. There was a moderate to high reproducibility of the CVM method, and only one specific study investigated the accuracy of the CVM index in detecting peak pubertal growth. This systematic review has shown that the studies on CVM method for radiographic assessment of skeletal maturation stages suffer from serious methodological failures. Better-designed studies with adequate accuracy, reproducibility, and correlation analysis, including studies with appropriate sensitivity-specificity analysis, should be performed.

  14. Predictive Capability Maturity Model for computational modeling and simulation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberkampf, William Louis; Trucano, Timothy Guy; Pilch, Martin M.

    2007-10-01

    The Predictive Capability Maturity Model (PCMM) is a new model that can be used to assess the level of maturity of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) efforts. The development of the model is based on both the authors experience and their analysis of similar investigations in the past. The perspective taken in this report is one of judging the usefulness of a predictive capability that relies on the numerical solution to partial differential equations to better inform and improve decision making. The review of past investigations, such as the Software Engineering Institute's Capability Maturity Model Integration and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Department of Defense Technology Readiness Levels, indicates that a more restricted, more interpretable method is needed to assess the maturity of an M&S effort. The PCMM addresses six contributing elements to M&S: (1) representation and geometric fidelity, (2) physics and material model fidelity, (3) code verification, (4) solution verification, (5) model validation, and (6) uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis. For each of these elements, attributes are identified that characterize four increasing levels of maturity. Importantly, the PCMM is a structured method for assessing the maturity of an M&S effort that is directed toward an engineering application of interest. The PCMM does not assess whether the M&S effort, the accuracy of the predictions, or the performance of the engineering system satisfies or does not satisfy specified application requirements.

  15. Maturation of the adolescent brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arain M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mariam Arain, Maliha Haque, Lina Johal, Puja Mathur, Wynand Nel, Afsha Rais, Ranbir Sandhu, Sushil Sharma Saint James School of Medicine, Kralendijk, Bonaire, The Netherlands Abstract: Adolescence is the developmental epoch during which children become adults – intellectually, physically, hormonally, and socially. Adolescence is a tumultuous time, full of changes and transformations. The pubertal transition to adulthood involves both gonadal and behavioral maturation. Magnetic resonance imaging studies have discovered that myelinogenesis, required for proper insulation and efficient neurocybernetics, continues from childhood and the brain's region-specific neurocircuitry remains structurally and functionally vulnerable to impulsive sex, food, and sleep habits. The maturation of the adolescent brain is also influenced by heredity, environment, and sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone, which play a crucial role in myelination. Furthermore, glutamatergic neurotransmission predominates, whereas gamma-aminobutyric acid neurotransmission remains under construction, and this might be responsible for immature and impulsive behavior and neurobehavioral excitement during adolescent life. The adolescent population is highly vulnerable to driving under the influence of alcohol and social maladjustments due to an immature limbic system and prefrontal cortex. Synaptic plasticity and the release of neurotransmitters may also be influenced by environmental neurotoxins and drugs of abuse including cigarettes, caffeine, and alcohol during adolescence. Adolescents may become involved with offensive crimes, irresponsible behavior, unprotected sex, juvenile courts, or even prison. According to a report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the major cause of death among the teenage population is due to injury and violence related to sex and substance abuse. Prenatal neglect, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption may also

  16. Clerkship maturity: does the idea of training clinical skills work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stosch, Christoph; Joachim, Alexander; Ascher, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    With the reformed curriculum "4C", the Medical Faculty of the University of Cologne has started to systematically plan practical skills training, for which Clerkship Maturity is the first step. The key guidelines along which the curriculum was development were developed by experts. This approach has now been validated. Both students and teachers were asked to fill in a questionnaire regarding preclinical practical skills training to confirm the concept of Clerkship Maturity. The Cologne training program Clerkship Maturity can be validated empirically overall through the activities of the students awaiting the clerkship framework and through the evaluation by the medical staff providing the training. The subjective ratings of the advantages of the training by the students leave room for improvement. Apart from minor improvements to the program, the most likely solution providing sustainable results will involve an over-regional strategy for establishing skills training planned as part of the curriculum.

  17. Capability maturity models in engineering companies: case study analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titov Sergei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the conditions of the current economic downturn engineering companies in Russia and worldwide are searching for new approaches and frameworks to improve their strategic position, increase the efficiency of the internal business processes and enhance the quality of the final products. Capability maturity models are well-known tools used by many foreign engineering companies to assess the productivity of the processes, to elaborate the program of business process improvement and to prioritize the efforts to optimize the whole company performance. The impact of capability maturity model implementation on cost and time are documented and analyzed in the existing research. However, the potential of maturity models as tools of quality management is less known. The article attempts to analyze the impact of CMM implementation on the quality issues. The research is based on a case study methodology and investigates the real life situation in a Russian engineering company.

  18. Maturing Technologies for Stirling Space Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Scott D.; Nowlin, Brentley C.; Dobbs, Michael W.; Schmitz, Paul C.; Huth, James

    2016-01-01

    Stirling Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) are being developed as an option to provide power on future space science missions where robotic spacecraft will orbit, flyby, land or rove. A Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) could offer space missions a more efficient power system that uses one fourth of the nuclear fuel and decreases the thermal footprint of the current state of the art. The RPS Program Office, working in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), manages projects to develop thermoelectric and dynamic power systems, including Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRGs). The Stirling Cycle Technology Development (SCTD) Project, located at Glenn Research Center (GRC), is developing Stirling-based subsystems, including convertors and controllers. The SCTD Project also performs research that focuses on a wide variety of objectives, including increasing convertor temperature capability to enable new environments, improving system reliability or fault tolerance, reducing mass or size, and developing advanced concepts that are mission enabling. Research activity includes maturing subsystems, assemblies, and components to prepare them for infusion into future convertor and generator designs. The status of several technology development efforts are described here. As part of the maturation process, technologies are assessed for readiness in higher-level subsystems. To assess the readiness level of the Dual Convertor Controller (DCC), a Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA) was performed and the process and results are shown. Stirling technology research is being performed by the SCTD Project for NASA's RPS Program Office, where tasks focus on maturation of Stirling-based systems and subsystems for future space science missions.

  19. PROJECT MANAGEMENT MATURITY: AN ASSESSMENT OF MATURITY FOR DEVELOPING PILOT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Mittermaier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Despite the current economic climate, the South African mining and engineering industry is experiencing a very promising future, with a large number of capital projects in the offing. It is inevitable that pilot plant development will form part of this future as a risk mitigation technique. This study found that, even though the terms ‘pilot plant’ and ‘project management maturity’ are familiar within the industry, no link between these two could be found in the literature. A number of maturity models exist; and one developed by PMSolutions was selected to perform an assessment of the current level of project management maturity within the South African mining and engineering industry pertaining to the development of pilot plants. The Delphi technique was used to determine the views of experts in the South African mining, mineral processing, petrochemical, nuclear, and mechanical sectors regarding this maturity. A significant difference was observed between the current level of maturity and the required level of maturity in all but one of the nine knowledge areas defined by the Project Management Institute. The two knowledge areas of project time and risk management showed significant differences between current and required maturity levels, and were identified as key areas for improvement.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Ten spyte van die huidige ekonomiese klimaat ondervind die Suid-Afrikaanse mynbou- en ingenieursbedryf ’n baie bemoedigende toekoms, met ’n groot aantal kapitaalprojekte in die vooruitsig. Ten einde risiko’s te verlaag, sal die ontwikkeling van loodsaanlegte noodwendig deel van hierdie toekoms uitmaak. Daar is gevind dat, alhoewel die terme ‘loodsaanleg’ en ‘projekbestuur volwassenheid’ in die nywerheid bekend is, geen skakeling van hierdie twee terme in die literatuur opgespoor kon word nie. ’n Aantal volwassenheid modelle bestaan; en een wat deur PMSolutions ontwikkel is, is gekies om

  20. Analyzing Project Management Maturity Level in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliot Simangunsong

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Project management has been generally known and increasingly used by many organizations to gain competitive advantage. In this context, many studies have proposed maturity models to evaluate how project management knowledge has been deployed effectively and efficiently in organization. As a developing country, Indonesia needs many development projects managed by government and private companies in different industries. Here, a study to assess project management maturity level in Indonesian businesses may bring insight about current business practices, which is important to speed up country development and business sustainability.  Adapting the Project Management Maturity Model (ProMMM, a survey instrument has been developed and applied to professionals from Jakarta and surrounding area.  The result of analysis shows that construction and primary industry have a higher maturity level compare to manufacturing and services.  It is to be noted, however, that the level of project management understanding is low across industries.  This indicates that more quality project management training or certification is required to improve overall project management knowledge in Indonesia. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  1. 7 CFR 51.1904 - Maturity classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity classification. 51.1904 Section 51.1904... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Size and Maturity Classification § 51.1904 Maturity classification. Tomatoes which are characteristically red when ripe, but are not overripe or soft...

  2. Effect of maturity stage and processing on chemical composition, in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of maturity stage and processing on chemical composition, in vitro gas production and preference of Panicum maximum and Pennisetum purpureum. ... It is concluded that in order to optimize DM intake farmers should consider the type of grasses and their age at harvest particularly for Muturu. Pelleting improves ...

  3. E-Learning Capability Maturity Level in Kingdom of Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ammary, Jaflah; Mohammed, Zainab; Omran, Fatima

    2016-01-01

    Despite the effectiveness of using e-learning, educational institutions are still facing many challenges with the e-learning infrastructure and technical aspects, practices and capabilities, and improvement in learning outcome. Hence, a need for framework to benchmark the e-learning capability maturity level and measure the extent to what it is…

  4. Academic Achievement of High School Students in Relation to Their Anxiety, Emotional Maturity and Social Maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puar, Surjit Singh

    2013-01-01

    The present study has been designed to investigate the non-cognitive variables like anxiety, emotional maturity and social maturity and their relationship with academic achievement and also to see the locale-wise differences on the basis of their anxiety, emotional maturity and social maturity. The study was conducted over a sample of 400 (200…

  5. Maturity models in supply chain sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Correia, Elisabete; Carvalho, Helena; Azevedo, Susana G.

    2017-01-01

    A systematic literature review of supply chain maturity models with sustainability concerns is presented. The objective is to give insights into methodological issues related to maturity models, namely the research objectives; the research methods used to develop, validate and test them; the scope...... of maturity levels. The comprehensive review, analysis, and synthesis of the maturity model literature represent an important contribution to the organization of this research area, making possible to clarify some confusion that exists about concepts, approaches and components of maturity models...

  6. Maturity Models Development in IS Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann

    2015-01-01

    Maturity models are widespread in IS research and in particular, IT practitioner communities. However, theoretically sound, methodologically rigorous and empirically validated maturity models are quite rare. This literature review paper focuses on the challenges faced during the development...... literature reveals that researchers have primarily focused on developing new maturity models pertaining to domain-specific problems and/or new enterprise technologies. We find rampant re-use of the design structure of widely adopted models such as Nolan’s Stage of Growth Model, Crosby’s Grid, and Capability...... Maturity Model (CMM). Only recently have there been some research efforts to standardize maturity model development. We also identify three dominant views of maturity models and provide guidelines for various approaches of constructing maturity models with a standard vocabulary. We finally propose using...

  7. Product Maturation Guide - A Digital Simulation Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boorla, Srinivasa Murthy; Howard, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    . Tolerance analysis tools, those optimizing the individual part tolerances at the time of design can generate a product maturation guide that eliminates many problem solving procedures and saves time on root cause analysis. Assume a first product built on a new assembly line was found to need improvements....... To conclude the actions we need information about all the dimensions of child parts and processes involved and their influence. At the time of product design, the tolerance analysis system works with the same variables with a given range of variations virtually. For a practical build, instead of variation...... range, it has to consider one fixed value measured from initial parts. By adding information about process characteristics, like speed, cost, etc. to all the dimensions, the system can directly guide the manufacturing team, on which parameter to modify, which direction and how much. At the same time...

  8. Effect of Kaempferol on in vitro Maturation of Porcine Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Orlovschi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of kaempferol on porcine oocytes in vitro maturation. Kaempferol is one the most studied flavonoids and is in research attention on animal cells until 1979. Flavonoids are known as polyphenolic compounds synthesized by the plants. Cumulus-oocyte complexes aspirated from the ovaries were maturated in vitro, fertilized and embryos were cultured in a defined conditioned medium with 5, 15, 25, 35 µg/ml or without kaempferol supplementation. During in vitro maturation with highest kaempferol concentration (35 µg/ml distinct significantly increase the rate of cumulus cell expansion in grad 4 (42.74 vs. 50.96%, p<0.01. The same, addition of 5 µg/ml kaempferol to the in vitro maturation medium increase significantly the rate of expansion compared to 25 µg/ml (42.20 vs. 48.67%, p<0.05 and increase distinct significantly the rate of expansion compared to 35 µg/ml (42.20 vs. 50.96%, p<0.01. Kaempferol supplementation (15 µg/ml vs. 35 µg/ml of the in vitro fertilization medium led to a significant increase in the rate of 4-8 cells formation (0.69 vs. 4.96%, p<0.05. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that supplementation with kaempferol during in vitro maturation improved the developmental competence of porcine oocytes.

  9. E-learning process maturity level: a conceptual framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmah, A.; Santoso, H. B.; Hasibuan, Z. A.

    2018-03-01

    ICT advancement is a sure thing with the impact influencing many domains, including learning in both formal and informal situations. It leads to a new mindset that we should not only utilize the given ICT to support the learning process, but also improve it gradually involving a lot of factors. These phenomenon is called e-learning process evolution. Accordingly, this study attempts to explore maturity level concept to provide the improvement direction gradually and progression monitoring for the individual e-learning process. Extensive literature review, observation, and forming constructs are conducted to develop a conceptual framework for e-learning process maturity level. The conceptual framework consists of learner, e-learning process, continuous improvement, evolution of e-learning process, technology, and learning objectives. Whilst, evolution of e-learning process depicted as current versus expected conditions of e-learning process maturity level. The study concludes that from the e-learning process maturity level conceptual framework, it may guide the evolution roadmap for e-learning process, accelerate the evolution, and decrease the negative impact of ICT. The conceptual framework will be verified and tested in the future study.

  10. Inheritance of Early Maturity in Some Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. Genotypes under Rain Fed Conditions in Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Yaw Owusu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted at Savanna Agricultural Research Institute in 2015 cropping season to examine the inheritance of early maturity among an extra-early maturing landrace Sanzi and a medium maturing variety Padi-Tuya and their progenies. The results indicated highly significant (P0.05 were observed between F1 and RF1, implying absence of maternal effect. The segregation ratio in the F2 population for early and medium maturity fitted into the ratio 3 : 1, indicating single dominant gene mode of inheritance. Significant positive correlations were found between DNPM, DFFI, DFF, and DFPM; hence selection criteria to improve early maturity of cowpea should focus on these traits. Grain yield also had significant positive correlations with maturity indices indicating high grain yield is associated with late maturity; therefore, high grain yield should be considered alongside early maturity when selecting progenies for earliness.

  11. Fundamental aspects of bovine oocyte maturation : the role of estradiol, VIP and GHRH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beker van Woudenberg, A.R.C.L. (Anna Rita Costa Lage)

    2004-01-01

    Chapter 1 presents an overview on the aspects of oocyte maturation. Growth hormone (GH), released from the pituitary by the stimulus of GHRH, increases cumulus expansion and improves cytoplasmic maturation in bovine oocytes. GHRH is also expressed in extraneural tissues suggesting that GHRH also

  12. Study on the maturity model of nuclear power project management in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Changbing; Li Huiqiang; Zheng Yanguo

    2009-01-01

    Based on the general project management maturity model, this paper discussed the establishment of nuclear power engineering project management maturity model in China, and proposed a basic framework in order to provide a way for improving and evaluating the ability of nuclear power project management in China. (authors)

  13. Business process maturity assessment : state of the art and key characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarhan, A.; Turetken, O.; Ilisu, F.

    2015-01-01

    Business processes are basic enablers in sustaining an organization's existence in delivering high-quality products and services. A maturity model is an instrument to assess and continually improve business processes. For example, Capability Maturity Model Integration for Development (CMMI-Dev) in

  14. Maturity group classification and maturity locus genotyping of early-maturing soybean varieties from high-latitude cold regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hongchang; Jiang, Bingjun; Wu, Cunxiang; Lu, Wencheng; Hou, Wensheng; Sun, Shi; Yan, Hongrui; Han, Tianfu

    2014-01-01

    With the migration of human beings, advances of agricultural sciences, evolution of planting patterns and global warming, soybeans have expanded to both tropical and high-latitude cold regions (HCRs). Unlike other regions, HCRs have much more significant and diverse photoperiods and temperature conditions over seasons or across latitudes, and HCR soybeans released there show rich diversity in maturity traits. However, HCR soybeans have not been as well classified into maturity groups (MGs) as other places. Therefore, it is necessary to identify MGs in HCRs and to genotype the maturity loci. Local varieties were collected from the northern part of Northeast China and the far-eastern region of Russia. Maturity group reference (MGR) soybeans of MGs MG000, MG00, and MG0 were used as references during field experiments. Both local varieties and MGR soybeans were planted for two years (2010-2011) in Heihe (N 50°15', E 127°27', H 168.5 m), China. The days to VE (emergence), R1 (beginning bloom) and R7 (beginning maturity) were recorded and statistically analyzed. Furthermore, some varieties were further genotyped at four molecularly-identified maturity loci E1, E2, E3 and E4. The HCR varieties were classified into MG0 or even more early-maturing. In Heihe, some varieties matured much earlier than MG000, which is the most early-maturing known MG, and clustered into a separate group. We designated the group as MG0000, following the convention of MGs. HCR soybeans had relatively stable days to beginning bloom from emergence. The HCR varieties diversified into genotypes of E1, E2, E3 and E4. These loci had different effects on maturity. HCRs diversify early-maturing MGs of soybean. MG0000, a new MG that matures much earlier than known MGs, was developed. HCR soybean breeding should focus more on shortening post-flowering reproductive growth. E1, E2, E3, and E4 function differentially.

  15. Proteomic Profiling Reveals That Resveratrol Inhibits HSP27 Expression and Sensitizes Breast Cancer Cells to Doxorubicin Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    D?az-Ch?vez, Jos?; Fonseca-S?nchez, Miguel A.; Arechaga-Ocampo, Elena; Flores-P?rez, Ali; Palacios-Rodr?guez, Yadira; Dom?nguez-G?mez, Guadalupe; Marchat, Laurence A.; Fuentes-Mera, Lizeth; Mendoza-Hern?ndez, Guillermo; Gariglio, Patricio; L?pez-Camarillo, C?sar

    2013-01-01

    The use of chemopreventive natural compounds represents a promising strategy in the search for novel therapeutic agents in cancer. Resveratrol (3,4',5-trans-trihydroxystilbilene) is a dietary polyphenol found in fruits, vegetables and medicinal plants that exhibits chemopreventive and antitumor effects. In this study, we searched for modulated proteins with preventive or therapeutic potential in MCF-7 breast cancer cells exposed to resveratrol. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis we found s...

  16. Down-regulation of HSP27 sensitizes TRAIL-resistant tumor cell to TRAIL-induced apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Hongqin; Jiang, Weiwei; Cheng, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has recently emerged as a cancer therapeutic agent because it preferentially induces apoptosis in human cancer over normal cells. Most tumor cells, including lung cancer cell line A549, unfortunately, are resistant to TRAIL tre...

  17. The maturity of Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Favini, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    The ever-increasing use of atomic energy since 1950 has generated a set of rules called for practical reasons Nuclear Law. This branch of law covers a wide scope of related activities and, specialized studies have apparently foreseen all conceivable hypotheses. The international character of Nuclear Law explains the basic harmony of international legislation. The methods of comparative Law and International Private Law as well as the joint, indepth work of scientists and jurists will bring about steady progress towards legislative unity and prompt solution to conflicts. The expectable revitalization of nuclear-electric programs early in the 21st. century will give rise to a Nuclear juridical community which can already be perceived through the maturity Nuclear Law has reached. (Author) [es

  18. The Effects of Progesterone on Oocyte Maturation and Embryo Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Zavareh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oocyte maturation and embryo development are controlled by intra-ovarian factors suchas steroid hormones. Progesterone (P4 exists in the follicular fluid that contributes tonormal mammalian ovarian function and has several critical functions during embryodevelopment and implantation, including endometrial receptivity, embryonic survivalduring gestation and transformation of the endometrial stromal cells to decidual cells.It is well known that the physiological effects of P4 during the pre-implantation stages ofsome mammal’s embryos are mediated by P4 receptors and their gene expression is determined.The effects of P4 on oocytes and embryo development have been assessed bysome investigations, with contradictory results. P4, a dominant steroid in follicular fluidat approximately 18 hours after the luteinizing hormone (LH surge may have a criticalrole in maturation of oocytes at the germinal stage. However, it has been shown that differentconcentrations of P4 could not improve in vitro maturation rates of germinal vesicles(GV in cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs and cumulus denuded oocytes (CDOs.Culture media supplemented with P4 significantly improved mouse embryo development.In addition, an in vivo experimental design has shown high blastocyst survival andimplantation rates in P4-treated mice.In this review we explain some of the findings that pertain to the effects of P4 onoocyte maturation and embryo development both in vitro and in vivo.

  19. A maturity model for blockchain adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Huaiqing; Chen, Kun; Xu, Dongming

    2016-01-01

    Background: The rapid development of the blockchain technology and its various applications has rendered it important to understand the guidelines for adopting it. Methods: The comparative analysis method is used to analyze different dimensions of the maturity model, which is mainly based on the commonly used capability maturity model. Results: The blockchain maturity model and its adoption process have been discussed and presented. Conclusions: This study serves as a guide to institutions to...

  20. A Set Theoretical Approach to Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann

    2016-01-01

    characterized by equifinality, multiple conjunctural causation, and case diversity. We prescribe methodological guidelines consisting of a six-step procedure to systematically apply set theoretic methods to conceptualize, develop, and empirically derive maturity models and provide a demonstration......Maturity Model research in IS has been criticized for the lack of theoretical grounding, methodological rigor, empirical validations, and ignorance of multiple and non-linear paths to maturity. To address these criticisms, this paper proposes a novel set-theoretical approach to maturity models...

  1. Small-vessel Survey and Auction Sampling to Estimate Growth and Maturity of Eteline Snappers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Small-vessel Survey and Auction Sampling to Estimate Growth and Maturity of Eteline Snappers and Improve Data-Limited Stock Assessments. This biosampling project...

  2. Changes in gene expression during follicle maturation in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Failure to successfully complete ovarian follicle maturation is one of the most common reproductive problems in captive female broodstock, often requiring the use of reproductive assistance technologies. An improved understanding of how requisite environmental and social conditions translate in...

  3. The maturing of microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Thomas M

    2006-09-01

    A.J. Kluyver and C.B. van Niel introduced many scientists to the exceptional metabolic capacity of microbes and their remarkable ability to adapt to changing environments in The Microbe's Contribution to Biology. Beyond providing an overview of the physiology and adaptability of microbes, the book outlined many of the basic principles for the emerging discipline of microbial ecology. While the study of pure cultures was highlighted, provided a unifying framework for understanding the vast metabolic potential of microbes and their roles in the global cycling of elements, extrapolation from pure cultures to natural environments has often been overshadowed by microbiologists inability to culture many of the microbes seen in natural environments. A combination of genomic approaches is now providing a culture-independent view of the microbial world, revealing a more diverse and dynamic community of microbes than originally anticipated. As methods for determining the diversity of microbial communities become increasingly accessible, a major challenge to microbial ecologists is to link the structure of natural microbial communities with their functions. This article presents several examples from studies of aquatic and terrestrial microbial communities in which culture and culture-independent methods are providing an enhanced appreciation for the microbe's contribution to the evolution and maintenance of life on Earth, and offers some thoughts about the graduate-level educational programs needed to enhance the maturing field of microbial ecology.

  4. Motivational maturity and helping behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymes, M; Green, L

    1977-12-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the independent influences of conative development (the Maslow needs hierarchy) upon behavioral aspects of prosocial orientations. It provides a behavioral demonstration of conative effects in a helping paradigm, among college-age men. A comparison of the conative data across the ages of 15-22 provided a cross-sectional view of conative development itself. Conative maturity was found to be predictive of greater helping among college-age men. Situational demands were demonstrated which tended to mask, but not override, these predispositional influences on helping. The cross-sectional data on conative development point to probable movement to early esteem concerns among high school men who have reached the conative level of love and belonging. On the other hand, the stability across the years of 15-22 of proportion of safety concerns suggests fixation of such concerns in those exhibiting them in high school. Results are discussed in terms of conative growth for development of prosocial orientations.

  5. Antenatal assessment of fetal maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstner, G.; Reinold, E.; Wolf, G.

    1979-01-01

    334 ultrasound-cephalometries and 231 X-ray fetographies were performed for antenatal assessment of fetal maturity as well as for exact estimation of gestational age in women with unknown date of confinement. The accuracy of the predictions was compared. Ultrasound-cephalometry gave best results when performed until the 20th week of gestation. A correct prediction was obtained in 80.4% of cases. After the 20th week of gestation, the accuracy of prediction decreased. Radiology on the contrary gave optimal results at the end of pregnancy. A correct prediction of the date of confinement was obtained in 73.8% of cases, when the X-ray fetography was performed between the 37th and 40th week of gestation. At the end of gestation radiography should be performed, if there is a discrepancy between ultrasound and clinical estimation or if ultrasound-cephalometry was not carried out in early pregnancy - especially if induction of labour is necessary. (author)

  6. Digital Maturity of the Firm's Business Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groskovs, Sergejs; Vemula, Sreekanth

    We propose a digital maturity assessment model as an instrument for researchers and a strategic tool for managers. Existing literature lacks a conceptually clear way to measure the construct of digital maturity at the level of the firms business model. Our proposed instrument thus opens avenues f...

  7. A maturity model for industrial supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hameri, A.P.; McKay, K.N.; Wiers, V.C.S.

    2013-01-01

    This article takes an evolutionary view of supply chains to suggest a series of distinct, contextual phases for supply chain execution and what maturity might mean at each phase. For example, what is best practice in a mature industry might not be best practice in a pioneering situation.Three

  8. 7 CFR 1421.101 - Maturity dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... filed and disbursed except, for transferred marketing assistance loan collateral. The maturity date for transferred marketing assistance loan collateral will be the maturity date applicable to the original loan... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRAINS AND SIMILARLY HANDLED COMMODITIES-MARKETING...

  9. Cone and Seed Maturation of Southern Pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Barnett

    1976-01-01

    If slightly reduced yields and viability are acceptable, loblolly and slash cone collections can begin 2 to 3 weeks before maturity if the cones are stored before processing. Longleaf(P. palestris Mill.) pine cones should be collected only when mature, as storage decreased germination of seeds from immature cones. Biochemical analyses to determine reducing sugar...

  10. POSTTREATMENT NEUROBLASTOMA MATURATION TO GANGLIONIC CELL TUMOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Ryzhova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor cells can differentiate into more mature forms in undifferentiated or poorly differentiated tumors, such as medulloblastomas with increased nodularity, as well as neuroblastomas. The authors describe 2 cases of neuroblastoma maturation into ganglioneuroblastoma 5 months after chemotherapy in a 2-year-old girl and 3 years after radiotherapy in a 16-year-old girl.

  11. Moving towards maturity in business model definitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Lund, Morten; Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    2014-01-01

    The field of business models has, as is the case with all emerging fields of practice, slowly matured through the development of frameworks, models, concepts and ideas over the last 15 years. New concepts, theories and models typically transcend a series of maturity phases. For the concept of Bus...

  12. Assessing the Harvest Maturity of Brazilian Mangoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, T.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Vanoli, M.; Rizzolo, A.; Eccher Zerbini, P.C.; Torricelli, A.; Filgueiras, H.; Spinelli, L.

    2010-01-01

    No clear criterion exists to determine the optimum time to harvest mango. Some empirical relations are used to assess maturity, such as shoulder development. Moreover, as a result of the typical growing conditions in tropical climates, a huge variation in maturity and ripeness exists, seriously

  13. Decision-Making Style and Vocational Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Susan D.; Strohmer, Douglas C.

    1982-01-01

    Examined the relationship between decision-making style, scholastic achievement, and vocational maturity for college students (N=64). Results did not support the hypothesized relationship between rationality and attitudinal and cognitive maturity. Scholastic achievement and lack of dependent decision style were found to be moderately predictive of…

  14. Set-Theoretic Approach to Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan

    Despite being widely accepted and applied, maturity models in Information Systems (IS) have been criticized for the lack of theoretical grounding, methodological rigor, empirical validations, and ignorance of multiple and non-linear paths to maturity. This PhD thesis focuses on addressing...... these criticisms by incorporating recent developments in configuration theory, in particular application of set-theoretic approaches. The aim is to show the potential of employing a set-theoretic approach for maturity model research and empirically demonstrating equifinal paths to maturity. Specifically...... methodological guidelines consisting of detailed procedures to systematically apply set theoretic approaches for maturity model research and provides demonstrations of it application on three datasets. The thesis is a collection of six research papers that are written in a sequential manner. The first paper...

  15. Space Mission Concept Development Using Concept Maturity Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessen, Randii R.; Borden, Chester; Ziemer, John; Kwok, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    Over the past five years, pre-project formulation experts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has developed and implemented a method for measuring and communicating the maturity of space mission concepts. Mission concept development teams use this method, and associated tools, prior to concepts entering their Formulation Phases (Phase A/B). The organizing structure is Concept Maturity Level (CML), which is a classification system for characterizing the various levels of a concept's maturity. The key strength of CMLs is the ability to evolve mission concepts guided by an incremental set of assessment needs. The CML definitions have been expanded into a matrix form to identify the breadth and depth of analysis needed for a concept to reach a specific level of maturity. This matrix enables improved assessment and communication by addressing the fundamental dimensions (e.g., science objectives, mission design, technical risk, project organization, cost, export compliance, etc.) associated with mission concept evolution. JPL's collaborative engineering, dedicated concept development, and proposal teams all use these and other CML-appropriate design tools to advance their mission concept designs. This paper focuses on mission concept's early Pre-Phase A represented by CMLs 1- 4. The scope was limited due to the fact that CMLs 5 and 6 are already well defined based on the requirements documented in specific Announcement of Opportunities (AO) and Concept Study Report (CSR) guidelines, respectively, for competitive missions; and by NASA's Procedural Requirements NPR 7120.5E document for Projects in their Formulation Phase.

  16. Effects of Crocin Supplementation during In Vitro Maturation of Mouse Oocytes on Glutathione Synthesis and Cytoplasmic Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Mokhber Maleki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Crocin is an active ingredient of saffron (Crocus sativus L. and its antioxidant properties have been previously investigated. This carotenoid scavenges free radicals and stimulates glutathione (GSH synthesis; consequently, it may protect cells against oxidative stress. The aim of this research is to protect oocytes from oxidative stress by the addition of a natural source antioxidant. Materials and Methods: In the present in vitro experimental study, we collected cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs from mouse ovaries of euthanized, 6-8 week-old female Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI mice. Oocytes were subjected to in vitro maturation (IVM in the presence of either crocin (5 or 10 μg/ml, 5 mM buthionine-[S-R]- sulfoximine (BSO, or the combination of crocin plus BSO. Oocytes that matured in vitro in a medium without crocin or BSO supplements were considered as controls. Following 16-18 hours of IVM, matured oocytes (n=631 were fertilized by capacitated sperm from NMRI male mice, and cultured in vitro for up to 96 hours to assess preimplantation embryonic development. The levels of GSH in metaphase II (MII oocytes after IVM (n=240 were also assessed by the 5, 5-dithio-bis (2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB-GSH reductase recycling assay. Results: Supplementation of IVM media with 10 μg/ml crocin significantly (P<0.05 increased nuclear maturation, preimplantation development and GSH concentrations compared with the control group. Maturation of oocytes in IVM medium supplemented with BSO alone or the combination of 5 μg/ml crocin and BSO drastically decreased GSH concentrations and subsequently resulted in low rates of maturation, fertilization and blastocyst development. However, the combination of 10 μg/ml crocin with 5 mM BSO increased the level of nuclear maturation which was comparable to the control group. Conclusion: Supplementation of IVM media with crocin can improve nuclear maturation rates and subsequent developmental potential

  17. A strategy to tialor performance interventions based on the nature of organisational maturity of south manufacturing firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim, Zahier

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The South African automotive component manufacturing sector is facing global pressure to remain competitive. Performance improvement interventions are often deployed in manufacturing companies that are aimed at improving competitiveness. The high failure rate of these performance improvement interventions should be considered when developing a programme strategy for implementation. Consideration should be given to the organisation’s maturity and current performance when deciding which performance improvement intervention to select. The research objective was to establish the role of the organisational maturity variables in tailoring an integrated performance improvement intervention that develops organisational maturity and performance.

  18. Low-level laser irradiation promotes the proliferation and maturation of keratinocytes during epithelial wound repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperandio, Felipe F.; Simões, Alyne; Corrêa, Luciana; Aranha, Ana Cecília C.; Giudice, Fernanda S.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Sousa, Suzana C.O.M.

    2015-01-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been extensively employed to improve epithelial wound healing, though the exact response of epithelium maturation and stratification after LLLT is unknown. Thus, this study aimed to assess the in vitro growth and differentiation of keratinocytes (KCs) and in vivo wound healing response when treated with LLLT. Human KCs (HaCaT cells) showed an enhanced proliferation with all the employed laser energy densities (3, 6 and 12 J/cm2, 660nm, 100mW), together with an increased expression of Cyclin D1. Moreover, the immunoexpression of proteins related to epithelial proliferation and maturation (p63, CK10, CK14) all indicated a faster maturation of the migrating KCs in the LLLT-treated wounds. In that way, an improved epithelial healing was promoted by LLLT with the employed parameters; this improvement was confirmed by changes in the expression of several proteins related to epithelial proliferation and maturation. PMID:25411997

  19. Reliability of cervical vertebral maturation staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Billie-Jean; Burnside, Girvan; Harrison, Jayne E

    2016-07-01

    Growth and its prediction are important for the success of many orthodontic treatments. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method for the assessment of mandibular growth. A group of 20 orthodontic clinicians, inexperienced in CVM staging, was trained to use the improved version of the CVM method for the assessment of mandibular growth with a teaching program. They independently assessed 72 consecutive lateral cephalograms, taken at Liverpool University Dental Hospital, on 2 occasions. The cephalograms were presented in 2 different random orders and interspersed with 11 additional images for standardization. The intraobserver and interobserver agreement values were evaluated using the weighted kappa statistic. The intraobserver and interobserver agreement values were substantial (weighted kappa, 0.6-0.8). The overall intraobserver agreement was 0.70 (SE, 0.01), with average agreement of 89%. The interobserver agreement values were 0.68 (SE, 0.03) for phase 1 and 0.66 (SE, 0.03) for phase 2, with average interobserver agreement of 88%. The intraobserver and interobserver agreement values of classifying the vertebral stages with the CVM method were substantial. These findings demonstrate that this method of CVM classification is reproducible and reliable. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Game Maturity Model for Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Jan C; Adriani, Paul; van Houwelingen, Jan Willem; Geerts, A

    2016-04-01

    This article introduces the Game Maturity Model for the healthcare industry as an extension to the general Game Maturity Model and describes the usage by two case studies of applied health games. The Game Maturity Model for healthcare provides a practical and value-adding method to assess existing games and to determine strategic considerations for application of applied health games. Our forecast is that within 5 years the use and development of applied games will have a role in our daily lives and the way we organize health care that will be similar to the role social media has today.

  1. Maturity Model of Software Product with Educational Maturity Model

    OpenAIRE

    R.Manjula; J.Vaideeswaran

    2011-01-01

    Software product line engineering is an inter-disciplinary concept. It spans the dimensions of business, architecture, process,and the organization. Similarly, Education System engineering is also an inter-disciplinary concept, which spans the dimensions of academic, infrastructure, facilities, administration etc. Some of the potential benefits of this approach includecontinuous improvements in System quality and adhering to global standards. The increasing competency in IT and Educational Se...

  2. 7 CFR 1710.115 - Final maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Basic Policies § 1710.115 Final maturity. (a) RUS is authorized to make loans and loan guarantees with a... due, in part, to obsolescence. Operating loans to finance working capital required for the initial...

  3. Geospatial Information System Capability Maturity Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    To explore how State departments of transportation (DOTs) evaluate geospatial tool applications and services within their own agencies, particularly their experiences using capability maturity models (CMMs) such as the Urban and Regional Information ...

  4. Pristipomoides filamentosus Size at Maturity Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains information used to help determine median size at 50% maturity for the bottomfish species, Pristipomoides filamentosus in the Main Hawaiian...

  5. Maturing safety in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debenham, A.; Kovan, D.

    1994-01-01

    AEA Technology provides UK nuclear industry with technical services and R+D support, concentrating on plant performance, safety and environmental issues. Today, safety has a new set of priorities, reflected by a more demanding regulatory regime which takes account of concerns such as human factors, severe accidents, risks during plant outages, the need for improving safety culture, etc

  6. Mature teratoma of the posterior mediastinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosaki, Y.; Tanaka, Y.O.; Itai, Y. [Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken 305 (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    The vast majority of germ cell tumors in the thorax arise at or near the thymus. We report a case of a 41-year-old man with mature teratoma of the posterior mediastinum. He was asymptomatic and was incidentally found to have a posterior mediastinal mass. Computed tomography was helpful in suggesting a diagnosis of mature teratoma by demonstrating the presence of fat and calcification. The differential diagnosis included neurogenic tumors, liposarcoma, and extramedullary hematopoiesis. (orig.) With 2 figs., 18 refs.

  7. Mature teratoma of the posterior mediastinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosaki, Y.; Tanaka, Y.O.; Itai, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The vast majority of germ cell tumors in the thorax arise at or near the thymus. We report a case of a 41-year-old man with mature teratoma of the posterior mediastinum. He was asymptomatic and was incidentally found to have a posterior mediastinal mass. Computed tomography was helpful in suggesting a diagnosis of mature teratoma by demonstrating the presence of fat and calcification. The differential diagnosis included neurogenic tumors, liposarcoma, and extramedullary hematopoiesis. (orig.)

  8. Radiation induced early maturing mutants in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Chauhan, S.V.S.; Sharma, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    In M 2 generation, two early maturing plants were screened from a single spike progeny of a plant obtained from 20 kR of gamma-ray irradiation of a six-rowed barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. Jyoti). Their true breeding nature was confirmed in M 3 generation. These mutants flower and mature 38 and 22 days earlier than those of control. (auth.)

  9. Intra-follicular interactions affecting mammalian oocyte maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tol, H.T.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313871817

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear oocyte maturation is defined as reinitiation and progression of the first meiotic division and subsequently formation of the methaphase II (MII) plate. Concomitantly with nuclear maturation, cytoplasmic maturation which is essential for proper fertilization and early embryo development is

  10. Effect of melatonin on maturation capacity and fertilization of Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Nagina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of melatonin supplementation of in vitro maturation media on in vitro maturation (IVM and in vitro fertilization (IVF rate of buffalo oocytes. Cumulus oocytes complexes (COCs were aspirated from follicles of 2-8 mm diameter. In experiment I, COCs were matured in IVM medium supplemented with 0 (control, 250, 500, and 1000 μM melatonin for 22-24 hours in CO2 incubator at 38.5°C with 5% CO2 and at 95% relative humidity. The maturation rate did not differ in media supplemented with melatonin at 250 μM, 500 μM, 1000 μM and control (0 μM. In experiment II, the matured oocytes were fertilized in 50 μl droplets of Tyrode’s Albumin Lactate Pyruvate (TALP medium having 10 ug/ml heparin for sperm (2 million/ml capacitation. The fertilization droplets were then kept for incubation at 5% CO2, 39°C and at 95% relative humidity for 18 hours. The fertilization rate was assessed by sperm penetration and pronuclear formation. Fertilization rate was improved when maturation medium was supplemented with 250 μM melatonin compared to control. In conclusion, melatonin supplementation to serum free maturation media at 250 μM improved the fertilization rate of buffalo oocytes.

  11. Water relations in culture media influence maturation of avocado somatic embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Martín, Belén; Sesmero, Rafael; Quesada, Miguel A; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Sánchez-Romero, Carolina

    2011-11-15

    Application of transformation and other biotechnological tools in avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is hampered by difficulties in obtaining mature somatic embryos capable of germination at an acceptable rate. In this work, we evaluated the effect of different compounds affecting medium water relations on maturation of avocado somatic embryos. Culture media were characterized with respect to gel strength, water potential and osmotic potential. Improved production of mature somatic embryos was achieved with gelling agent concentrations higher than those considered standard. The osmotic agents such as sorbitol and PEG did not have positive effects on embryo maturation. The number of w-o mature somatic embryos per culture was positively correlated with medium gel strength. Gel strength was significantly affected by gelling agent type as well as by gelling agent and PEG concentration. Medium water potential was influenced by sorbitol concentration; incorporation of PEG to a culture medium did not affect medium water potential. The highest maturation results were achieved on a medium gelled with 10 gl(-1) agar. Moreover, these somatic embryos had improved germination rates. These results corroborate the role of water restriction as a key factor controlling maturation of somatic embryos. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Climbing the ladder: capability maturity model integration level 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Bryce; Lutteroth, Christof

    2011-02-01

    This article details the attempt to form a complete workflow model for an information and communication technologies (ICT) company in order to achieve a capability maturity model integration (CMMI) maturity rating of 3. During this project, business processes across the company's core and auxiliary sectors were documented and extended using modern enterprise modelling tools and a The Open Group Architectural Framework (TOGAF) methodology. Different challenges were encountered with regard to process customisation and tool support for enterprise modelling. In particular, there were problems with the reuse of process models, the integration of different project management methodologies and the integration of the Rational Unified Process development process framework that had to be solved. We report on these challenges and the perceived effects of the project on the company. Finally, we point out research directions that could help to improve the situation in the future.

  13. Framework Proposal for DevOps Maturity Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos de Amorim Levita

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a framework for evaluating the DevOps maturity in organizations. The methodology was based on a literature review from which a theory was developed that sought to relate the main DevOps practices. For each of them, some research constructs were defined, which are precisely the objects to be measured by this model. Through a structure based on questions with graded answers, it is possible to indicate how much the unit of analysis that is being evaluated adheres to a DevOps approach in the development and implementation of applications. Therefore, the main contribution of this work is the DevOps maturity evaluation framework that can be easily replicated and, because of that, may be used by several companies to map possible improvement points in their implementation of the DevOps perspective for software development.

  14. The Logistic Maturity Model: Application to a Fashion Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Battista

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the structure of the logistic maturity model (LMM in detail and shows the possible improvements that can be achieved by using this model in terms of the identification of the most appropriate actions to be taken in order to increase the performance of the logistics processes in industrial companies. The paper also gives an example of the LMM’s application to a famous Italian female fashion firm, which decided to use the model as a guideline for the optimization of its supply chain. Relying on a 5-level maturity staircase, specific achievement indicators as well as key performance indicators and best practices are defined and related to each logistics area/process/sub-process, allowing any user to easily and rapidly understand the more critical logistical issues in terms of process immaturity.

  15. Color back projection for fruit maturity evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Lee, Dah-Jye; Desai, Alok

    2013-12-01

    In general, fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes and dates are harvested before they fully ripen. After harvesting, they continue to ripen and their color changes. Color is a good indicator of fruit maturity. For example, tomatoes change color from dark green to light green and then pink, light red, and dark red. Assessing tomato maturity helps maximize its shelf life. Color is used to determine the length of time the tomatoes can be transported. Medjool dates change color from green to yellow, and the orange, light red and dark red. Assessing date maturity helps determine the length of drying process to help ripen the dates. Color evaluation is an important step in the processing and inventory control of fruits and vegetables that directly affects profitability. This paper presents an efficient color back projection and image processing technique that is designed specifically for real-time maturity evaluation of fruits. This color processing method requires very simple training procedure to obtain the frequencies of colors that appear in each maturity stage. This color statistics is used to back project colors to predefined color indexes. Fruit maturity is then evaluated by analyzing the reprojected color indexes. This method has been implemented and used for commercial production.

  16. Breeding of cocksfoot cultivars with different maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Snežana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important criteria in breeding process of perennial grasses is maturity. Cultivars with different maturity play a very important role in utilization of perennial grasses, by providing the ability to create a mixture of different aspects utilization and time. The first grass species in Serbia whose breeding program involved this criterion was cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L.. In general cocksfoot is early to medium-early in maturity in comparison with other grasses and legumes, and that is mayor problem since in the optimum phase for cutting, cocksfoot is often earlier then other species in mixtures. As a result of this work, in the previous period, two cultivars of different maturity were released, Kruševačka 24 (K-24 and Kruševačka 25 (K-25. K-24 is medium and K-25 is late in maturity. New material is adapted to local agro-ecological conditions and productive in the same time. In breeding process of both cultivars initial material originated from autochthonous populations collected in eastern and central Serbia. Material from the wild flora is selected based on medium and late maturity which is already adapted and has good productivity. We applied the standard method of phenotypic recurrent selection with the creation of synthetic varieties by polycross.

  17. Improvement of maturation and conversion of horse chestnut androgenic embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćalić-Dragosavac, D.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L., Hippocastanaceae is a relict species of the tertiary flora and endemit of Balkan peninsula. It has enormous horticultular and medical important. Horse chestnut trees are native to the Balkan peninsula, but grow as ornamental trees in parks and avenues throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Because of the slow and difficult reproduction of great importance to be fast and cheap in vitro multiplication. Possible solution is regenerated by androgenesis. Microspore culture has been used in recent years as a tool for producing haploid plants in a varyety of higher plants, but the low frequencies of microspore-derived plants restrict the use of the technique in plant breeding.

  18. Assessment of cortical maturation with prenatal MRI. Part I: normal cortical maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogliarini, Celine; Chaumoitre, Katia; Chapon, Frederique; Levrier, Olivier; Girard, Nadine; Fernandez, Carla; Figarella-Branger, Dominique

    2005-01-01

    Cortical maturation, especially gyral formation, follows a temporospatial schedule and is a good marker of fetal maturation. Although ultrasonography is still the imaging method of choice to evaluate fetal anatomy, MRI has an increasingly important role in the detection of brain abnormalities, especially of cortical development. Knowledge of MRI techniques in utero with the advantages and disadvantages of some sequences is necessary, in order to try to optimize the different magnetic resonance sequences to be able to make an early diagnosis. The different steps of cortical maturation known from histology represent the background necessary for the understanding of maturation in order to be then able to evaluate brain maturation through neuroimaging. Illustrations of the normal cortical maturation are given for each step accessible to MRI for both the cerebral hemispheres and the posterior fossa. (orig.)

  19. Assessment of cortical maturation with prenatal MRI. Part I: normal cortical maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogliarini, Celine [Faculte Timone, Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale, Marseille (France); Chaumoitre, Katia [Hopital Nord, Department of Radiology, Marseille (France); Chapon, Frederique; Levrier, Olivier; Girard, Nadine [Hopital Timone, Department of Neuroradiology, Marseille Cedex 5 (France); Fernandez, Carla; Figarella-Branger, Dominique [Hopital Timone, Department of Pathology, Marseille (France)

    2005-08-01

    Cortical maturation, especially gyral formation, follows a temporospatial schedule and is a good marker of fetal maturation. Although ultrasonography is still the imaging method of choice to evaluate fetal anatomy, MRI has an increasingly important role in the detection of brain abnormalities, especially of cortical development. Knowledge of MRI techniques in utero with the advantages and disadvantages of some sequences is necessary, in order to try to optimize the different magnetic resonance sequences to be able to make an early diagnosis. The different steps of cortical maturation known from histology represent the background necessary for the understanding of maturation in order to be then able to evaluate brain maturation through neuroimaging. Illustrations of the normal cortical maturation are given for each step accessible to MRI for both the cerebral hemispheres and the posterior fossa. (orig.)

  20. The beneficial effects of cumulus cells and oocyte-cumulus cell gap junctions depends on oocyte maturation and fertilization methods in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Jie Zhou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cumulus cells are a group of closely associated granulosa cells that surround and nourish oocytes. Previous studies have shown that cumulus cells contribute to oocyte maturation and fertilization through gap junction communication. However, it is not known how this gap junction signaling affects in vivo versus in vitro maturation of oocytes, and their subsequent fertilization and embryonic development following insemination. Therefore, in our study, we performed mouse oocyte maturation and insemination using in vivo- or in vitro-matured oocyte-cumulus complexes (OCCs, which retain gap junctions between the cumulus cells and the oocytes, in vitro-matured, denuded oocytes co-cultured with cumulus cells (DCs, which lack gap junctions between the cumulus cells and the oocytes, and in vitro-matured, denuded oocytes without cumulus cells (DOs. Using these models, we were able to analyze the effects of gap junction signaling on oocyte maturation, fertilization, and early embryo development. We found that gap junctions were necessary for both in vivo and in vitro oocyte maturation. In addition, for oocytes matured in vivo, the presence of cumulus cells during insemination improved fertilization and blastocyst formation, and this improvement was strengthened by gap junctions. Moreover, for oocytes matured in vitro, the presence of cumulus cells during insemination improved fertilization, but not blastocyst formation, and this improvement was independent of gap junctions. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that the beneficial effect of gap junction signaling from cumulus cells depends on oocyte maturation and fertilization methods.

  1. Maturity analysis of the innovation system in the livestock industries of West Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresti, A.; Dinata, U. G. S.; Wati, R.

    2018-02-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyse the ANIS of Livestock industry in West Sumatera according to its main determinants. This research aims to know and understand the maturity level of the regional innovationsystem of West Sumatra livestock industries, including recommendation for improvements. The maturity level of the regional innovation system was analyzed with the ANIS method by using an opinion survey to some experts from businessmen, government and universities. This expert opinion survey was conducted to measure expert perceptions on the implementations of determinants of west Sumatera regional innovations systems on livestock industries on macro level (innovations policy), mezzo level (innovation institutions and programs) and micro level (innovation capacity). By using Likert method, the result showed maturity level for the West Sumatra livestock industries innovation system was still develop. This is caused by low maturity in the macro and meso determinants which are at the central and regional government side. This research result may be useful as recommendations for the government for improving the maturity level and may be a basic for incoming researches to identify regional innovation system determinants with low maturity to improve.

  2. The effects of platelet lysate on maturation, fertilization and embryo development of NMRI mouse oocytes at germinal vesicle stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazoki, Hassan; Eimani, Hussein; Farokhi, Farah; Shahverdi, Abdol-Hossein; Tahaei, Leila Sadat

    2016-04-01

    Improving in vitro maturation could increase the rate of pregnancy from oocytes matured in vitro. Consequently, patients will be prevented from using gonadotropin with its related side effects. In this study, the maturation medium was enriched by platelet lysate (PL), then maturation and subsequent developments were monitored. Oocytes at germinal vesicle stage with cumulus cells (cumulus-oocyte complex) and without cumulus cells (denuded oocytes) were obtained from mature female mice. The maturation medium was enriched by 5 and 10 % PL and 5 % PL + 5 % fetal bovine serum (FBS) as experimental groups; the control groups' media consisted of 5 and 10 % FBS. After 18 h, the matured oocytes were collected and, after fertilization, subsequent development was monitored. The rates of maturation, fertilization and 2-cell embryo development for the denuded oocyte groups in experimental media 5 % PL and 5 % PL + 5 % FBS were significantly higher than those of the control groups ( P platelet lysate could improve the maturation rate in the absence of granulosa cells compared to media with FBS. This extract also had positive effects on fertilization and embryo development.

  3. A review of performance measurement’s maturity models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Paula Bertolli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In a context as dynamic as today, SMEs need performance measurement systems (PMS that are able to generate useful, relevant and reliable information to manage. Measuring the maturity of PMS is an essential step to achieve its evolution to an ideal state that allows a better control of the results and to act consequently, improving management and decision making. Objective: To develop a bibliographic review to identify and characterize PMS maturity models, recognizing between them the most feasible models to apply in SMEs, in order to generate a contribution for the strengthening of such systems, facilitating effective and timely decision making in organizations. Methodology: The research question defined is: which existing PMS maturity model can be used by industrial SMEs? Google Scholar database was consulted for searching information, using certain search parameters. Based on a previous criteria definition, the selected models are compared. Finally, the conclusions about these models are elaborated. Results: From the results obtained through the bibliographic search in Google Scholar, different criteria were used to select the models to be characterized and compared. The four models selected were the proposed by Wettstein and Kueng, Van Aken, Tangen and Aho. Conclusions: The models considered most adequate are those proposed by Wettstein and Kueng (2002 and Aho (2012, due to their easy application and the low requirement of resource use. However, as such models do not have an evaluation tool, it has to be defined by the company.

  4. Investigations of oocyte in vitro maturation within a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Alexis Heng Boon; Chye, Ng Soon

    2004-02-01

    This study attempted to develop a 'less meiotically competent' murine model for oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM), which could more readily be extrapolated to human clinical assisted reproduction. Oocyte meiotic competence was drastically reduced upon shortening the standard duration of in vivo gonadotrophin stimulation from 48 h to 24 h, and by selecting only naked or partially naked germinal vesicle oocytes, instead of fully cumulus enclosed oocyte complexes. With such a less meiotically competent model, only porcine granulosa coculture significantly enhanced the oocyte maturation rate in vitro, whereas no significant enhancement was observed with macaque and murine granulosa coculture. Increased serum concentrations and the supplementation of gonadotrophins, follicular fluid and extracellular matrix gel within the culture medium did not enhance IVM under either cell-free or coculture conditions. Culture medium conditioned by porcine granulosa also enhanced the maturation rate, and this beneficial effect was not diminished upon freeze-thawing. Enhanced IVM in the presence of porcine granulosa coculture did not, however, translate into improved developmental competence, as assessed by in vitro fertilization and embryo culture to the blastocyst stage.

  5. Spent fuel reprocessing system security engineering capability maturity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yachun; Zou Shuliang; Yang Xiaohua; Ouyang Zigen; Dai Jianyong

    2011-01-01

    In the field of nuclear safety, traditional work places extra emphasis on risk assessment related to technical skills, production operations, accident consequences through deterministic or probabilistic analysis, and on the basis of which risk management and control are implemented. However, high quality of product does not necessarily mean good safety quality, which implies a predictable degree of uniformity and dependability suited to the specific security needs. In this paper, we make use of the system security engineering - capability maturity model (SSE-CMM) in the field of spent fuel reprocessing, establish a spent fuel reprocessing systems security engineering capability maturity model (SFR-SSE-CMM). The base practices in the model are collected from the materials of the practice of the nuclear safety engineering, which represent the best security implementation activities, reflect the regular and basic work of the implementation of the security engineering in the spent fuel reprocessing plant, the general practices reveal the management, measurement and institutional characteristics of all process activities. The basic principles that should be followed in the course of implementation of safety engineering activities are indicated from 'what' and 'how' aspects. The model provides a standardized framework and evaluation system for the safety engineering of the spent fuel reprocessing system. As a supplement to traditional methods, this new assessment technique with property of repeatability and predictability with respect to cost, procedure and quality control, can make or improve the activities of security engineering to become a serial of mature, measurable and standard activities. (author)

  6. The role of psychological maturity in direct and indirect aggressiveness in Spanish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Vives, Fabia; Camps, Elisa; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Vigil-Colet, Andreu

    2014-01-01

    Understanding which factors are related to different kinds of aggressive behaviors in adolescents might help to improve violence-prevention programs for schools and families. Although some studies show that adolescents who are less psychologically mature tend to display more behavioral problems, few studies have been performed on the relationship between aggressive behavior and psychological maturity in adolescence, and no studies have focused specifically on indirect aggression. For this reason, the current research tests the role of psychological maturity in direct and indirect aggressiveness in a sample of 193 Spanish adolescents (49% boys and 51% girls) between 14 and 18 years old (M = 16.1, SD = 1.18). The results show that psychological maturity is related to both kinds of aggressiveness. In fact, less mature adolescents tend to show higher levels of direct aggression (r = -.22, p self-reliance and identity: self-reliance is the main predictor of indirect aggression (p < .01) and identity is the main predictor of direct aggression (p < .01). Moreover, overall psychological maturity is more related to indirect aggression in men than in women (p < .05), so the increase in psychological maturity implies a greater decrease of indirect aggression in men.

  7. Maturity acceleration of Italian dried sausage by Staphylococcus carnosus - Relationship between maturity and flavor compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Louise Heller; Holck, A.; Jensen, Anni

    2002-01-01

    . Sausages with S. carnosus 833 matured more than 2 wk faster than control sausages. Maturity correlated significantly with higher amounts of branched-chain aldehydes and alcohols and both branched- and straight-chain methyl ketones-compounds arising from the breakdown of the amino acids leucine, isoleucine...

  8. IT Governance Maturity: Developing a Maturity Model Using the Delphi Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Daniël; van Hillegersberg, Jos

    2015-01-01

    To advance in maturity, organizations should pay attention to both the hard and soft sides of IT governance (ITG). The hard side is related to processes and structure, the soft side to social aspects like behavior and organizational culture. This paper describes a study to develop an ITG maturity

  9. Commercial Space with Technology Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, Carey M.; Rhodes, Russell E.; Robinson, John W.

    2013-01-01

    To provide affordable space transportation we must be capable of using common fixed assets and the infrastructure for multiple purposes simultaneously. The Space Shuttle was operated for thirty years, but was not able to establish an effective continuous improvement program because of the high risk to the crew on every mission. An unmanned capability is needed to provide an acceptable risk to the primary mission. This paper is intended to present a case where a commercial space venture could share the large fixed cost of operating the infrastructure with the government while the government provides new advanced technology that is focused on reduced operating cost to the common launch transportation system. A conceivable commercial space venture could provide educational entertainment for the country's youth that would stimulate their interest in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) through access at entertainment parks or the existing Space Visitor Centers. The paper uses this example to demonstrate how growing public-private space market demand will re-orient space transportation industry priorities in flight and ground system design and technology development, and how the infrastructure is used and shared.

  10. [Maturation diagnosis in full term hypotrophic fetuses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharnke, H D; Gartzke, J; Fleischer, G; Isbruch, E

    1977-01-01

    Foam-Test by Clements is a valuable method for determining the foetus maturity of lungs. We introduce this test along with other parameters for the maturity-diagnosis since one year. In 15% result, the Foam-Test was not applicable because of blood, or meconic amniotic fluid, other wise wrong negative and in 0% wrong positive results. By unmatured child, there was doubtable results with Foam-Test. Since it is important to determine the early delivery of unmatured children, particularly the case of foetus maturity of lungs must be exact, we therefore decided to use the Lecithin/Sphingomyelinquotients in some cases. The results of Lecithin/Sphingomyelinquotient in unmatured children are almost with the approximated date under two. From this, one must deduce from these children, that the intrauterine unmatured lungs lately took place.

  11. Genetic transformation of mature citrus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, Magdalena; Juárez, José; Navarro, Luis; Peña, Leandro

    2005-01-01

    Most woody fruit species have long juvenile periods that drastically prolong the time required to analyze mature traits. Evaluation of characteristics related to fruits is a requisite to release any new variety into the market. Because of a decline in regenerative and transformation potential, genetic transformation procedures usually employ juvenile material as the source of plant tissue, therefore resulting in the production of juvenile plants. Direct transformation of mature material could ensure the production of adult transgenic plants, bypassing in this way the juvenile phase. Invigoration of the source adult material, establishment of adequate transformation and regeneration conditions, and acceleration of plant development through grafting allowed us to produce transgenic mature sweet orange trees flowering and bearing fruits in a short time period.

  12. Vegetative propagation of mature and juvenile northern red oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    James J. Zaczek; K. C. Steiner; C. W., Jr. Heuser

    1993-01-01

    Rooting trials were established to evaluate rooting success of cuttings from mature and juvenile, grafted and ungrafted northern red oak (NRO). Buds from 4 mature NRO ortets and juvenile seedlings were grafted onto juvenile and mature rootstock. Cuttings were collected from the grafts and from juvenile and mature shoots developed in situ and...

  13. Adult maturational processes and the facilitating environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acklin, M W

    1986-09-01

    The psychoanalytic theory of religion has been seriously limited in its development, largely owing to Freud's emphasis on religion's neurotic elements and an overemphasis on the infantile origins of religious development. This paper offers a conceptual framework and advances the thesis, based on contemporary psychoanalytic, developmental theory, that 1) Erikson's concept of epigenesis has applicability across the life span; 2) that beyond-the-self identity is constituent to human maturation and self-completion; 3) that successful adult maturation requires a mirroring-facilitating environment; and 4) that religious values, meanings, images, and communities play an essential role-as-elements of the facilitating environment of later life.

  14. Digital Maturity of the Firm's Business Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groskovs, Sergejs; Vemula, Sreekanth

    We propose a digital maturity assessment model as an instrument for researchers and a strategic tool for managers. Existing literature lacks a conceptually clear way to measure the construct of digital maturity at the level of the firms business model. Our proposed instrument thus opens avenues...... for research into questions related to antecedents, process, and performance outcomes of the digitalization of business activities. The assessment follows the logic of first decomposing the business model into the underlying value creation activities and then evaluating the levels of automation...

  15. Posttesticular sperm maturation, infertility, and hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Whitfield

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is a key molecule in the mammalian physiology of especial particular importance for the reproductive system as it is the common precursor for steroid hormone synthesis. Cholesterol is also a recognized modulator of sperm functions, not only at the level of gametogenesis. Cholesterol homeostasis regulation is crucial for posttesticular sperm maturation, and imbalanced cholesterol levels may particularly affect these posttesticular events. Metabolic lipid disorders (dyslipidemia affect male fertility but are most of the time studied from the angle of endocrine/testicular consequences. This review will focus on the deleterious effects of a particular dyslipidemia, i.e., hypercholesterolemia, on posttesticular maturation of mammalian spermatozoa.

  16. Endothelium-targeted overexpression of heat shock protein 27 ameliorates blood–brain barrier disruption after ischemic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Lili; Pu, Hongjian; Hu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Wenting; Cai, Wei; Gao, Yanqin; Leak, Rehana K.; Keep, Richard F.; Bennett, Michael V. L.; Chen, Jun

    2017-01-01

    The damage borne by the endothelial cells (ECs) forming the blood–brain barrier (BBB) during ischemic stroke and other neurological conditions disrupts the structure and function of the neurovascular unit and contributes to poor patient outcomes. We recently reported that structural aberrations in brain microvascular ECs—namely, uncontrolled actin polymerization and subsequent disassembly of junctional proteins, are a possible cause of the early onset BBB breach that arises within 30–60 min of reperfusion after transient focal ischemia. Here, we investigated the role of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) as a direct inhibitor of actin polymerization and protectant against BBB disruption after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Using in vivo and in vitro models, we found that targeted overexpression of HSP27 specifically within ECs—but not within neurons—ameliorated BBB impairment 1–24 h after I/R. Mechanistically, HSP27 suppressed I/R-induced aberrant actin polymerization, stress fiber formation, and junctional protein translocation in brain microvascular ECs, independent of its protective actions against cell death. By preserving BBB integrity after I/R, EC-targeted HSP27 overexpression attenuated the infiltration of potentially destructive neutrophils and macrophages into brain parenchyma, thereby improving long-term stroke outcome. Notably, early poststroke administration of HSP27 attached to a cell-penetrating transduction domain (TAT-HSP27) rapidly elevated HSP27 levels in brain microvessels and ameliorated I/R-induced BBB disruption and subsequent neurological deficits. Thus, the present study demonstrates that HSP27 can function at the EC level to preserve BBB integrity after I/R brain injury. HSP27 may be a therapeutic agent for ischemic stroke and other neurological conditions involving BBB breakdown. PMID:28137866

  17. Westinghouse AP1000 licensing maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, T.; Vijuk, R.P.

    2005-01-01

    The Westinghouse AP1000 Program is aimed at making available a nuclear power plant that is economical in the U.S deregulated electrical power industry in the near-term. The AP1000 is two-loop 1000 MWe pressurizer water reactor (PWR). It is an up rated version of the AP600. The AP1000 uses passive safety systems to provide significant and measurable improvements in plant simplification, safety, reliability, investment protection and plant costs. The AP1000 uses proven technology, which builds on over 35 years of operating PWR experience. The AP1000 received Final Design Approval by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S. NRC) in September 2004. The AP1000 meets the US utility requirements. The AP1000 and its sister plant the AP600 have gone through a very through and complete licensing review. This paper describes the U.S. NRC review efforts of both the AP600 and the AP1000. The detail of the review and the independent calculations, evaluations and testing is discussed. The AP600 licensing documentation was submitted in 1992. The U.S. NRC granted Final Design Approval in 1999. During the intervening 7 years, the U.S. NRC asked thousands of questions, performed independent safety analysis, audited Westinghouse calculations and analysis, and performed independent testing. The more significant areas of discussion will be described. For the AP1000 Westinghouse first engaged the U.S. NRC in pre-certification discussions to define the extent of the review required, since the design is so similar to the AP600. The AP1000 licensing documentation was submitted in March 2002. The U.S. NRC granted Final Design Approval in September 2004. During the intervening 2 1/2 years, the U.S. NRC asked hundreds of questions, performed independent safety analysis, audited Westinghouse calculations and analysis, and performed independent testing. The more significant areas of discussion will be described. The implications of this review and approval on AP1000 applications in

  18. Mature use of casemix - are we there yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balnave, Lai-Mun; Reid, Beth A

    2007-04-01

    In this paper we consider the progress made in using casemix in Australia. We argue that while the casemix infrastructure has been highly developed and the casemix-based funding systems of some states are mature, there is still more development needed to use the data for clinical questions such as quality improvement activities. Further research is needed to establish what is needed to describe the impact of casemix on clinicians and hospitals in a context of increasing accountability and transparency and where questions of efficiency cannot be ignored.

  19. Trade-Offs of Flowering and Maturity Synchronisation for Pineapple Quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Nicodème Fassinou Hotegni

    Full Text Available In the pineapple sector of Benin, poor fruit quality prevents pineapple producers to enter the European market. We investigated effects of common cultural practices, flowering and maturity synchronisation, (1 to quantify the trade-offs of flowering and maturity synchronisation for pineapple quality and the proportion of fruits exportable to European markets, and (2 to determine the effect of harvesting practice on quality attributes. Four on-farm experiments were conducted during three years using cultivars Sugarloaf and Smooth Cayenne. A split-split plot design was used in each experiment, with flowering induction practice as main factor (artificial or natural flowering induction, maturity induction practice as split factor (artificial or natural maturity induction and harvesting practice as the split-split factor (farmers' harvest practice or individual fruit harvesting at optimum maturity. Artificial flowering induction gave fruits with lower infructescence weight, higher ratio crown: infructescence length, and a lower proportion of fruits exportable to European markets than natural flowering induction. The costs of the improvements by natural flowering induction were huge: the longer durations from planting to flowering induction and harvesting, the higher number of harvestings of the fruits increasing the labour cost and the lower proportion of plants producing fruits compared with crops from artificially flowering-induced plants. Artificial maturity induction decreased the total soluble solids concentration in the fruits compared with natural maturity induction thus decreasing the proportion of fruits exportable to European markets, at a benefit of only a slightly shorter time from flowering induction to harvesting. Harvesting individual fruits at optimum maturity gave fruits with higher total soluble solids in naturally maturity induced fruits compared with the farmers' harvest practice. Given the huge costs of natural flowering induction

  20. Project maturity evaluation model for SMEs from the software development sub-sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÁLVARO JULIO CUADROS LÓPEZ

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to present a project management maturity model for SMEs oriented to software development. The proposal is based on CMMI capability maturity model, and the SCAMPI evaluation method. The proposal includes a quantitative satisfaction scale, redundant evidence assessment, and multiple criteria for selecting experts. The proposal was validated with a case study carried out in a medium-sized company from the Information and Communications Technology sector. The model concluded that the company did not reach maturity level 2; however it showed that 92% of the processes from maturity level 2 and 77% of the total process had already been implemented, which allows the company to adopt a specific orientation for its improvement efforts.

  1. ENHANCING LEAN SUPPLY CHAIN MATURITY WITH BUSINESS PROCESS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurij Jaklic

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In today’s global market the main focus of competition is not only between different companies but also between supply chains. Technological changes and organizational improvements are important for effective supply chain management (SCM, however, the main cause of SCM improvements is not the implementation of an information system (IS itself, but rather a change and an integration of business processes. The paper summarizes the most important concepts of SCM and specifically concentrates on the importance of business process management (BPM in supply chains, because full advantages can be realized when business processes in the supply chain are well defined, integrated and managed. The main purpose of this paper is to show that successful SCM calls for the maturity of supply chain processes in all involved companies and at the supply chain level, which can be realized by using effective BPM methods. A necessary condition for growing of SCM in terms of supply chain process maturity levels is an inter-organizational information system development and process renovation. Yet, BPM should not be considered as a one-time project of IS implementation and process change, but as a permanent process performance measurement, analysis and continuous improvement of the supply chain processes. The concepts are illustrated with a case study of fuel supply process.

  2. Impact of ensemble learning in the assessment of skeletal maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Pedro; Moura, Daniel C; Guevara López, Miguel Angel; Guerra, Conceição; Pinto, Daniela; Ramos, Isabel

    2014-09-01

    The assessment of the bone age, or skeletal maturity, is an important task in pediatrics that measures the degree of maturation of children's bones. Nowadays, there is no standard clinical procedure for assessing bone age and the most widely used approaches are the Greulich and Pyle and the Tanner and Whitehouse methods. Computer methods have been proposed to automatize the process; however, there is a lack of exploration about how to combine the features of the different parts of the hand, and how to take advantage of ensemble techniques for this purpose. This paper presents a study where the use of ensemble techniques for improving bone age assessment is evaluated. A new computer method was developed that extracts descriptors for each joint of each finger, which are then combined using different ensemble schemes for obtaining a final bone age value. Three popular ensemble schemes are explored in this study: bagging, stacking and voting. Best results were achieved by bagging with a rule-based regression (M5P), scoring a mean absolute error of 10.16 months. Results show that ensemble techniques improve the prediction performance of most of the evaluated regression algorithms, always achieving best or comparable to best results. Therefore, the success of the ensemble methods allow us to conclude that their use may improve computer-based bone age assessment, offering a scalable option for utilizing multiple regions of interest and combining their output.

  3. Elevated Social Anxiety among Early Maturing Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W.; Babson, Kimberly A.; Gahr, Jessica L.; Trainor, Casey D.; Frala, Jamie L.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a key period in terms of the development of anxiety psychopathology. An emerging literature suggests that early pubertal maturation is associated with enhanced vulnerability for anxiety symptomatology, although few studies have examined this association with regard to social anxiety. Accordingly, the current study was designed to…

  4. Mature cystic teratomas: Relationship between histopathological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... tumor size, symptoms related to MCT and laterality of the tumor did not differ among the patients according to the MCT contents. Conclusions: Our findings suggest no relationship between the clinical features and histopathological contents of MCTs. Key words: Histopathological contents, mature cystic teratoma, ovarian, ...

  5. Intraovarian markers of follicular and oocyte maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer, A; Diamond, M P; DeCherney, A H; Naftolin, F

    1987-08-01

    The use of ovulation induction for multiple follicular growth in in vitro fertilization (IVF) has introduced the problem of follicular asynchrony. As a consequence of the asynchrony, the parameters most commonly used by IVF groups to assess follicular and oocyte quality within those follicles are not sufficiently sensitive or specific. Thus, each follicle must be considered separately, and specific markers of follicular and/or oocyte maturation must be sought from within the follicle. In this review we analyze previous reports of potential markers of follicular and oocyte maturation. In regards to the follicular fluid constituents, the level of estradiol in follicular fluid correlates with fertilization and pregnancy in stimulated cycles. Other steroids are only helpful when specific stimulation protocols are used. The level of some follicular proteins such as alpha-1-antitrypsin and fibrinogen also correlates with fertilization and pregnancy outcome. Cyclic AMP levels in follicular fluid are significantly reduced in follicles leading to conception. Regulators of oocyte maturation, such as the Oocyte Maturation Inhibitor (OMI) or the Meiosis Inducing Substance (MIS) have also been correlated with IVF outcome, but their exact structure remains still unknown. In addition, other sophisticated parameters, such as chemotactic activity of human leukocytes, or simple methods, such as the presence of intrafollicular echoes, have also been used as successful markers in predicting IVF outcome.

  6. Teaching Copywriting Students about the Mature Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewniany, Bonnie

    Advertising educators have a responsibility to make students aware of the importance of the mature market (older people) and to teach them methods to reach this group. An assignment in a copywriting class asked students to write and design ads to promote blue jeans to adults over 50. The assignment accomplished three things: (1) helped students…

  7. Plant regeneration in wheat mature embryo culture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kamil Haliloğlu

    2011-11-09

    Nov 9, 2011 ... Success in genetic engineering of cereals depends on the callus formation and efficient plant regeneration system. Callus formation and plant regeneration of wheat mature embryos ... compiled by modification of methods previously mentioned in ..... of more and readily available nutrition than artificial cul-.

  8. GROWTH PATTERNS AND MATURATION OF CHILDREN WITH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GROWTH PATTERNS AND MATURATION OF CHILDREN WITH SICKLE CELL DISEASE IN RELATION TO PLASMA ZINC STATUS. Dr. Salwa R. El Batrawy, Dr. Mervat Tawfik M. Tantawi. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  9. 7 CFR 51.2841 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... considered mature when harvested in accordance with good commercial practice at a stage which will not result...

  10. The influence of biological maturation on anthropometric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine whether biological maturation would significantly influence the anthropometric determinants of talent identification among U-14 provincial girl tennis players. Twenty-six of the top thirty-two provincial female players (mean age = 13.21± 0.72 years) from the Northern Gauteng and the ...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1823 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Industry, Part 1, Chapter 20-13 Market Classification, Maturity Standards and Processing or Packing... Independence Ave., Washington, DC 20250 or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov...

  12. 7 CFR 51.767 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Florida Citrus Industry, Part 1, Chapter 20-13 Market Classification, Maturity Standards and Processing or... 2065-S, 14th and Independence Ave., Washington, DC 20250 or at the National Archives and Records...: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. ...

  13. 7 CFR 51.1158 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Citrus Industry, Part 1, Chapter 20-13 Market Classification, Maturity Standards and Processing or... 2065-S, 14th and Independence Ave., Washington, DC 20250 or at the National Archives and Records...: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. ...

  14. Sexual maturation effect on physical fitness in girls: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Volver

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present longitudinal study was to find associations between sexual maturation dynamics and improvement in performance of fitness tests. 34 11- to 13- year-old girls performed standing long jump, 20 m dash, shuttle run 4 x is related to 9 m, trunk forward flexion, squats in 30 s, sit-ups in 30 s, and Cooper 12-min running test at the beginning of observation, a year later, and two years later. Sexual maturation was assessed with the aid of breast development stages. When during a year girls transferred from the sexual maturation stage 2 to the stage 3, standing long jump results improved significantly. Transfer from the stage 4 to the stage 5 associated with the improvement of the trunk forward flexion.

  15. Maturation of human oocytes in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Čižek-Sajko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immature oocyte retrieval followed by in vitro maturation is a promising infertility treatment option. In patients with morphologically normal ovaries and regular menstrual cycles and in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS we attempted to assess the success of oocyte in vitro maturation in in vitro fertilization (IVF procedures.Methods: Retrospectively we analyzed 87 IVF procedures with in vitro maturation of oocytes carried out in 73 infertile couples treated at the Maribor Teaching Hospital. We compared the success following three different hormone priming protocols: regular cycling patients with normal ovaries and without hormone priming (Group A, n = 27; patients with PCOS and hormone priming with follitropin (follicle stimulating hormone, FSH (Group B, n = 22; patients with PCOS and hormone priming with human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG (Group C, n = 38. Success of the procedure was evaluated on the basis of the ability of oocytes to mature, fertilize and develop into embryos, and on the basis of the quality of embryos and their ability to implant in the uterus.Results: In regular cycling patients with normal ovaries (n = 27 we obtained a significantly lower number of immature oocytes (3.2 ± 2.5 compared with patients with PCOS and FSH priming (11.7 ± 7.2 or those with PCOS and hCG priming (10.4 ± 7.2. The oocyte maturation rate, the fertilization rate and the embryo cleavage rate were as follows: in Group A 57.7 %, 63.2 % and 91.7 %, in Group B 57.6 %, 66.2 % and 90.0 %, and in Group C 58.0 %, 66.2 % and 91.0 % (the differences between groups were not statistically significant. Six pregnancies were recorded only in patients with PCOS. The pregnancy rate per embryo transfer was 1/20 (5.0 % in patients with FSH priming, and 5/33 (15.2 % in patients with hCG priming.Conclusions: Oocyte in vitro maturation is successful in patients with normal ovaries and regular menstrual cycle as well as in those with polycystic

  16. A Drosophila Model to Image Phagosome Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas A. Brooks

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Phagocytosis involves the internalization of extracellular material by invagination of the plasma membrane to form intracellular vesicles called phagosomes, which have functions that include pathogen degradation. The degradative properties of phagosomes are thought to be conferred by sequential fusion with endosomes and lysosomes; however, this maturation process has not been studied in vivo. We employed Drosophila hemocytes, which are similar to mammalian professional macrophages, to establish a model of phagosome maturation. Adult Drosophila females, carrying transgenic Rab7-GFP endosome and Lamp1-GFP lysosome markers, were injected with E. coli DH5α and the hemocytes were collected at 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after infection. In wild-type females, E. coli were detected within enlarged Rab7-GFP positive phagosomes at 15 to 45 minutes after infection; and were also observed in enlarged Lamp1-GFP positive phagolysosomes at 45 minutes. Two-photon imaging of hemocytes in vivo confirmed this vesicle morphology, including enlargement of Rab7-GFP and Lamp1-GFP structures that often appeared to protrude from hemocytes. The interaction of endosomes and lysosomes with E. coli phagosomes observed in Drosophila hemocytes was consistent with that previously described for phagosome maturation in human ex vivo macrophages. We also tested our model as a tool for genetic analysis using 14-3-3e mutants, and demonstrated altered phagosome maturation with delayed E. coli internalization, trafficking and/or degradation. These findings demonstrate that Drosophila hemocytes provide an appropriate, genetically amenable, model for analyzing phagosome maturation ex vivo and in vivo.

  17. Analysis of the 314th Contracting Squadrons Contract Management Capability Using the Contract Management Maturity Model (CMMM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, Jr, Carl J

    2007-01-01

    .... The purpose of this research project is to analyze the 314th Contracting Squadron contracting processes and requirement target areas for improvement efforts by the application of the Contract Management Maturity Model (CMMM...

  18. Leveraging People-Related Maturity Issues for Achieving Higher Maturity and Capability Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buglione, Luigi

    During the past 20 years Maturity Models (MM) become a buzzword in the ICT world. Since the initial Crosby's idea in 1979, plenty of models have been created in the Software & Systems Engineering domains, addressing various perspectives. By analyzing the content of the Process Reference Models (PRM) in many of them, it can be noticed that people-related issues have little weight in the appraisals of the capabilities of organizations while in practice they are considered as significant contributors in traditional process and organizational performance appraisals, as stressed instead in well-known Performance Management models such as MBQA, EFQM and BSC. This paper proposes some ways for leveraging people-related maturity issues merging HR practices from several types of maturity models into the organizational Business Process Model (BPM) in order to achieve higher organizational maturity and capability levels.

  19. Transcriptional Programs Controlling Perinatal Lung Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Yanhua; Besnard, Valérie; Ikegami, Machiko; Wert, Susan E.; Heffner, Caleb; Murray, Stephen A.; Donahue, Leah Rae; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    The timing of lung maturation is controlled precisely by complex genetic and cellular programs. Lung immaturity following preterm birth frequently results in Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) and Broncho-Pulmonary Dysplasia (BPD), which are leading causes of mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. Mechanisms synchronizing gestational length and lung maturation remain to be elucidated. In this study, we designed a genome-wide mRNA expression time-course study from E15.5 to Postnatal Day 0 (PN0) using lung RNAs from C57BL/6J (B6) and A/J mice that differ in gestational length by ∼30 hr (B6controlling lung maturation. We identified both temporal and strain dependent gene expression patterns during lung maturation. For time dependent changes, cell adhesion, vasculature development, and lipid metabolism/transport were major bioprocesses induced during the saccular stage of lung development at E16.5–E17.5. CEBPA, PPARG, VEGFA, CAV1 and CDH1 were found to be key signaling and transcriptional regulators of these processes. Innate defense/immune responses were induced at later gestational ages (E18.5–20.5), STAT1, AP1, and EGFR being important regulators of these responses. Expression of RNAs associated with the cell cycle and chromatin assembly was repressed during prenatal lung maturation and was regulated by FOXM1, PLK1, chromobox, and high mobility group families of transcription factors. Strain dependent lung mRNA expression differences peaked at E18.5. At this time, mRNAs regulating surfactant and innate immunity were more abundantly expressed in lungs of B6 (short gestation) than in A/J (long gestation) mice, while expression of genes involved in chromatin assembly and histone modification were expressed at lower levels in B6 than in A/J mice. The present study systemically mapped key regulators, bioprocesses, and transcriptional networks controlling lung maturation, providing the basis for new therapeutic strategies to enhance lung function in preterm

  20. Use of Rat Estrus Serum for in Vitro Maturation of Bovine Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Rafati

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Superovulation produces complications in some patients, so invitro maturation of oocytes is used to decrease or eliminate these complications and improve IVF. Moreover, IVM is used for different aspects of reproductive researches. Slaughterhouse ovaries are the main source of oocytes for IVM and IVF studies. Different media has been introduced and experimented for in vitro maturation of oocytes. Animal's serum at estrus stage contains different hormones and proteins which are essential for oocyte maturation. The aim of this study was to compare three culture media for in vitro maturation (IVM of bovine oocytes; 1(controlTCM-199, 2HCG and follicular fluid (FF and 3 antibiotic. Methods: Rat estrus serum (RSS or fetal bovine serum (FBS was added to control medium. Total of 1789 compact cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs were aspirated from ovaries of slaughtered animals. Oocytes were randomly cultured in mentioned media and incubated in 38.5◦c, 5% CO2 and 95% humidity for 24 hours. The maturation of oocytes was judged according to cumulus cell expansion or randomly orcein stained oocytes and observation of polar bodies. Results: The results showed that maturation rate was significantly higher in second and third group (90.2%, 78.7% as compared to the control group (p<0.001. There was no significant difference between second and third groups (90.2 % vs. 86.6%. Conclusion: RSS is as effective as FBS for IVM of bovine oocytes and can be used as an alternative.

  1. Ethical considerations in investigating youth alcohol norms and behaviours: a case for mature minor consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, J; Maycock, B; Comfort, J; Burns, S; Adams, E; Howat, P

    2015-12-01

    Mature minor consent only became available in Australia in 2007. There is neither an explicitly defined protocol, nor a clear definition evident in the literature relating to use of the mature minor concept in health research. Due to difficulties in defining fixed age ranges to varying levels of maturity and vulnerability, there is a lack of clarity surrounding when it might be reasonable and ethical to apply for or grant a waiver for parental consent. This paper describes the challenges faced and solutions created when gaining approval for use of mature minor consent in a respondent-driven sampling (RDS) study to explore the social norms and alcohol consumption among 14-17-year-old adolescents (n = 1012) in the community. The University's Human Research Ethics Committee granted mature minor consent for this study, and the techniques applied enabled recruitment of adolescents from community-based settings through use of RDS to achieve the required sample. This paper has relevance for research that requires a waiver for parental consent; it presents a case study for assessing mature minors and makes recommendations on how ethical guidelines can be improved to assist human research ethics application processes.

  2. Diagnostic assessment of skeletal maturity through dental maturation in Hispanic growing individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Cisternas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to explore dental maturation as a diagnostic test for skeletal maturation. Materials and Methods: Six hundred and fifty-seven growing individuals were classified according to their cervical vertebral maturity and dental maturity, both determined in lateral cephalograms and panoramic radiographs, respectively. The correlation between cervical and dental stages was established for each gender. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was made, and sensitivity and specificity values were established. Results: Correlation was found between cervical and dental maturation for females (r = 0.73; P<0.001 and males (r = 0.60; P<0.001. Sensitivity for dental Stage F, as an indicator of a postmaturation peak stage, was 87.21% for females and 97.1% for males, whereas specificity for the same stage was 82.92% and 72.3% for females and males, respectively. Conclusions: Dental maturation evaluation could contribute determining whether a patient is in a pre- or post-growth spurt stage.

  3. Maturity and medical students' ease of transition into the clinical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacklady, Jaine; Holmes, Eileen; Mason, Graham; Davies, Ioan; Dornan, Tim

    2009-07-01

    Medical education has been characterized in terms of points of transition, which are accentuated by lack of relevant prior experience and can lead to extreme positive and negative emotions. Quantify the effect of maturity on medical students' transitions into the clinical environment and identify how experiences of transition might be improved. Eleven weeks after entering the clinical environment, 29 mature students (age over 21 at entry, median age 22) in a horizontally-integrated, predominantly undergraduate entry, problem-based curriculum offering little early clinical exposure and 58 matched non-mature students (median age 18 years) rated their experiences of transition and wrote free text comments about them. 62% of mature students compared with 24% of controls described 'good transitions' (odds ratio [OR] for a good transition 6.1; p = 0.002) and mature students were more likely than controls to describe how they drew on their previous years in medical school (OR 2.7, p = 0.04) and their wider life experiences in making the transition (OR 3.9, p = 0.01). They were less likely to feel confused or daunted. Whether mature or not, prior workplace experience, having learned the theory of medicine by PBL, and being confident in their knowledge and skills helped students' transitions. Both mature and non-mature students valued the support of teachers and peers and would have valued clinical experience earlier. The fact that just a few extra years of life experience made such a large difference to students' experiences of transition illustrates how important social factors are in the personal development of medical students. In respondents' views, early clinical experience and early skills training could ease students' passage into the clerkship phase of their education.

  4. Growth goals, maturity, and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jack J; McAdams, Dan P

    2004-01-01

    In 2 studies (125 college students and 51 adults), 2 forms of growth goals (exploratory and intrinsic) were compared with 2 forms of personality development (social-cognitive maturity and social-emotional well-being). Participants whose narratives of major life goals emphasized conceptual exploration were especially likely to have high levels of maturity (measured as ego development; J. Loevinger, 1976), whereas those whose goals emphasized intrinsic interests (K. M. Sheldon & T. Kasser, 1995) were especially likely to have high levels of well-being. Participants who had coherent hierarchies of growth goals on the levels of major life goals and everyday goals were especially likely to have high levels of personality development. Finally, growth goals accounted for some relationships between age and personality development. Growth goals are discussed in terms of intentional self-development and specific developmental paths. (c) 2003 APA

  5. DNA damage response during mouse oocyte maturation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mayer, Alexandra; Baran, Vladimír; Sakakibara, Y.; Brzáková, Adéla; Ferencová, Ivana; Motlík, Jan; Kitajima, T.; Schultz, R. M.; Šolc, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 4 (2016), s. 546-558 ISSN 1538-4101 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12057; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : double strand DNA breaks * DNA damage * MRE11 * meiotic maturation * mouse oocytes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.530, year: 2016

  6. Regulation of oocyte maturation in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahama, Yoshitaka; Yamashita, Masakane

    2008-06-01

    A period of oocyte growth is followed by a process called oocyte maturation (the resumption of meiosis) which occurs prior to ovulation and is a prerequisite for successful fertilization. Our studies using fish models have revealed that oocyte maturation is a three-step induction process involving gonadotropin (LH), maturation-inducing hormone (MIH), and maturation-promoting factor (MPF). LH acts on the ovarian follicle layer to produce MIH (17alpha, 20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one, 17alpha, 20beta-DP, in most fishes). The interaction of ovarian thecal and granulosa cell layers (two-cell type model), is required for the synthesis of 17alpha,20beta-DP. The dramatic increase in the capacity of postvitellogenic follicles to produce 17alpha,20beta-DP in response to LH is correlated with decreases in P450c17 (P450c17-I) and P450 aromatase (oP450arom) mRNA and increases in the novel form of P450c17 (P450c17-II) and 20beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20beta-HSD) mRNA. Transcription factors such as Ad4BP/SF-1, Foxl2, and CREB may be involved in the regulation of expression of these steroidogenic enzymes. A distinct family of G-protein-coupled membrane-bound MIH receptors has been shown to mediate non-genomic actions of 17alpha, 20beta-DP. The MIH signal induces the de novo synthesis of cyclin B from the stored mRNA, which activates a preexisting 35 kDa cdc2 kinase via phosphorylation of its threonine 161 by cyclin-dependent kinase activating kinase, thus producing the 34 kDa active cdc2 (active MPF). Upon egg activation, MPF is inactivated by degradation of cyclin B. This process is initiated by the 26S proteasome through the first cut in its NH(2) terminus at lysine 57.

  7. Measuring interoperability maturity in government networks.

    OpenAIRE

    Huijsman, K.L.L.G.; Plomp, M.G.A.; Batenburg, R.S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to create a model that describes the development of interorganisational collaboration in government networks that apply eGovernment. Contrary to several models that describe eGovernment from a government-to-citizen perspective, and primarily emphasise on the front office of eGovernment services, this paper focuses on the collaboration that takes place in the back office to enable successful eGovernment services. A maturity model was developed to describe and asses...

  8. Barley HvPAPhy_a as transgene provides high and stable phytase activities in mature barley straw and in grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Madsen, Claus Krogh

    2017-01-01

    The phytase purple acid phosphatase (HvPAPhy_a) expressed during barley seed development was evaluated as transgene for overexpression in barley. The phytase was expressed constitutively driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S-promoter, and the phytase activity was measured in the mature grains......, the green leaves and in the dry mature vegetative plant parts left after harvest of the grains. The T2-generation of HvPAPhy_a transformed barley showed phytase activity increases up to 19-fold (29 000 phytase units (FTU) per kg in mature grains). Moreover, also in green leaves and mature dry straw, phytase...... activities were increased significantly by 110-fold (52 000 FTU/kg) and 57-fold (51 000 FTU/kg), respectively. The HvPAPhy_a-transformed barley plants with high phytase activities possess triple potential utilities for the improvement of phosphate bioavailability. First of all, the utilization of the mature...

  9. MatureBayes: a probabilistic algorithm for identifying the mature miRNA within novel precursors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Gkirtzou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small, single stranded RNAs with a key role in post-transcriptional regulation of thousands of genes across numerous species. While several computational methods are currently available for identifying miRNA genes, accurate prediction of the mature miRNA remains a challenge. Existing approaches fall short in predicting the location of mature miRNAs but also in finding the functional strand(s of miRNA precursors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we present a computational tool that incorporates a Naive Bayes classifier to identify mature miRNA candidates based on sequence and secondary structure information of their miRNA precursors. We take into account both positive (true mature miRNAs and negative (same-size non-mature miRNA sequences examples to optimize sensitivity as well as specificity. Our method can accurately predict the start position of experimentally verified mature miRNAs for both human and mouse, achieving a significantly larger (often double performance accuracy compared with two existing methods. Moreover, the method exhibits a very high generalization performance on miRNAs from two other organisms. More importantly, our method provides direct evidence about the features of miRNA precursors which may determine the location of the mature miRNA. We find that the triplet of positions 7, 8 and 9 from the mature miRNA end towards the closest hairpin have the largest discriminatory power, are relatively conserved in terms of sequence composition (mostly contain a Uracil and are located within or in very close proximity to the hairpin loop, suggesting the existence of a possible recognition site for Dicer and associated proteins. CONCLUSIONS: This work describes a novel algorithm for identifying the start position of mature miRNA(s produced by miRNA precursors. Our tool has significantly better (often double performance than two existing approaches and provides new insights about the potential use

  10. Mature consumers’ relationship with their perfume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey DRYLIE-CAREY

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Glamorous and stylish, perfume is an evocative product that provokes a stimulus of the senses. It is suggested that the basis for consumer choice for this product should be based on olfactory preference, however the process related decision-making has been shown to be more complex. The mature consumer purchase decision making in this product category is often associated with long standing, established, luxury fragrance brands. In addition, at the frontline of the perfume sales process are fragrance consultants, who possess invaluable information on consumer involvement with perfume products and brands. Hence, this paper investigates CBR (consumer brand relationship and the subsequent perfume purchase behaviour of mature female consumers from a dual (industry and consumer perspective. Results indicate that important perceptual differences related to brand relationships with perfume exist between fragrance consultants and experts on one hand and consumers on the other. This research promotes a deeper understanding of current consumer approach and issues surrounding female mature purchasing behaviour for this unique category of product, and complements the growing body of literature related to luxury brands.

  11. The AGU Data Management Maturity Model Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    In September 2014, the AGU Board of Directors approved two initiatives to help the Earth and space sciences community address the growing challenges accompanying the increasing size and complexity of data. These initiatives are: 1) Data Science Credentialing: development of a continuing education and professional certification program to help scientists in their careers and to meet growing responsibilities and requirements around data science; and 2) Data Management Maturity (DMM) Model: development and implementation of a data management maturity model to assess process maturity against best practices, and to identify opportunities in organizational data management processes. Each of these has been organized within AGU as an Editorial Board and both Boards have held kick off meetings. The DMM model Editorial Board will recommend strategies for adapting and deploying a DMM model to the Earth and space sciences create guidance documents to assist in its implementation, and provide input on a pilot appraisal process. This presentation will provide an overview of progress to date in the DMM model Editorial Board and plans for work to be done over the upcoming year.

  12. Interventions for Hip Pain in the Maturing Athlete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberawalla, M. Mustafa; Kelly, Bryan T.; Bedi, Asheesh

    2014-01-01

    Context: Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) alters hip mechanics, results in hip pain, and may lead to secondary osteoarthritis (OA) in the maturing athlete. Hip impingement can be caused by osseous abnormalities in the proximal femur or acetabulum. These impingement lesions may cause altered loads within the hip joint, which result in repetitive collision damage or sheer forces to the chondral surfaces and acetabular labrum. These anatomic lesions and resultant abnormal mechanics may lead to early osteoarthritic changes. Evidence Acquisition: Relevant articles from the years 1995 to 2013 were identified using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the bibliographies of reviewed publications. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: Improvements in hip arthroscopy have allowed FAI to be addressed utilizing the arthroscope. Adequately resecting the underlying osseous abnormalities is essential to improving hip symptomatology and preventing further chondral damage. Additionally, preserving the labrum by repairing the damaged tissue and restoring the suction seal may theoretically help normalize hip mechanics and prevent further arthritic changes. The outcomes of joint-preserving treatment options may be varied in the maturing athlete due to the degree of underlying OA. Irreversible damage to the hip joint may have already occurred in patients with moderate to advanced OA. In the presence of preexisting arthritis, these patients may only experience fair or even poor results after hip arthroscopy, with early conversion to hip replacement. For patients with advanced hip arthritis, total hip arthroplasty remains a treatment option to reliably improve symptoms with good to excellent outcomes and return to low-impact activities. Conclusion: Advances in the knowledge base and treatment techniques of intra-articular hip pain have allowed surgeons to address this complex clinical problem with promising outcomes. Traditionally, open surgical dislocations for hip preservation surgery have shown good

  13. Correlation between Cervical Vertebral Maturation Stages and Dental Maturation in a Saudi Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayef H Felemban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to compare the cervical vertebra maturation stages method and dental maturity using tooth calcification stages. Methods: The current study comprised of 405 subjects selected from orthodontic patients of Saudi origin coming to clinics of the specialized dental centers in western region of Saudi Arabia. Dental age was assessed according to the developmental stages of upper and lower third molars and skeletal maturation according to the cervical vertebrae maturation stage method. Statistical analysis was done using Kruskal-Wallis H, Mann-Whitney U test, Chi-Square test; t-test and Spearman correlation coefficient for inter group comparison. Results: The females were younger than males in all cervical stages. The CS1-CS2 show the period before the peak of growth, during CS3-CS5 it’s the pubertal growth spurt and CS6 is the period after the peak of the growth. The mean age and standard deviation for cervical stages of CS2, CS3 and CS4 were 12.09 ±1.72 years, 13.19 ±1.62 and 14.88 ±1.52 respectively. The Spearman correlation coefficients between cervical vertebrae and dental maturation were between 0.166 and 0.612, 0.243 and 0.832 for both sexes for upper and lower third molars. The significance levels for all coefficients were equal at 0.01 and 0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the skeletal maturity increased with the increase in dental ages for both genders. An early rate of skeletal maturation stage was observed in females. This study needs further analysis using a larger sample covering the entire dentition.

  14. Correlation between chronological age, cervical vertebral maturation and Fishman's skeletal maturity indicators in southern Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhal, Hessa Abdulla; Wong, Ricky W K; Rabie, A Bakr M

    2008-07-01

    To investigate the correlation between chronological age, cervical vertebral maturation (CVM), and Fishman's hand-wrist skeletal maturity indicators in southern Chinese. Four hundred contemporary hand-wrist and lateral cephalometric radiographs of southern Chinese subjects were randomly selected and analyzed. The female subjects were between 10 and 15 years of age, and the male subjects were between 12 and 17 years of age; all subjects were within the circumpubertal period. The CVM was assessed using the method developed by Baccetti and coworkers, but the hand-wrist maturation was assessed using the method developed by Fishman. These two methods and the chronological age were correlated using the Spearman rank correlation analysis. The CVM was significantly correlated with the hand-wrist skeletal age (Spearman r male = 0.9206, female = 0.9363). All patients in the cervical maturation stage (CS3) of CVM were discovered to be in the skeletal maturational indicator (SMI2 or SMI3) stages of hand-wrist maturation (HWM), which was around the peak of the growth spurt. Low correlations were found between the CVM and chronological age (male r = 0.7577; female r = 0.7877) and between the HWM and chronological age (male r = 0.7492; female r = 0.7758). CVM is a valid indicator of skeletal growth during the circumpubertal and has a high correlation with the HWM for the southern Chinese population. However, the low correlations found between the chronological age and both CVM and HWM showed that the chronological age was not suitable to measure skeletal maturity.

  15. Best practices show the way to information security maturity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lessing, MM

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A Security Maturity Model (SMM) provides an organisation with a distinct Information Security framework. Organisations that conform to these models are likely to pursue satisfactory Information Security. Additionally, the use of Security Maturity...

  16. Towards a Sustainable Design for Maturity Measurement Marketplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester; Vatrapu, Ravi; Kærsgaard, Henrik Bjerre

    2016-01-01

    In this research-in-progress paper, we propose a solution in form of an IT artefact to address both theoretical and practical challenges faced by maturity model designers. We identify and list out the existing challenges & criticisms of maturity models research through an extensive literature...... review, followed by semi-structured interviews with four maturity model designers. We also explore different motivations of building a maturity model, and using them further scope the boundaries of our solution....

  17. MD3M: The Master Data Management Maturity Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit, Marco|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/297391879; Pietzka, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to assess the master data maturity of an organization. It is based on thorough literature study to derive the main concepts and best practices in master data maturity assessment. A maturity matrix relating 13 focus areas and 65 capabilities was designed and validated. Furthermore,

  18. Induction and inhibition of oocyte maturation by EDCs in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokumoto Mika

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oocyte maturation in lower vertebrates is triggered by maturation-inducing hormone (MIH, which acts on unidentified receptors on the oocyte surface and induces the activation of maturation-promoting factor (MPF in the oocyte cytoplasm. We previously described the induction of oocyte maturation in fish by an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC, diethylstilbestrol (DES, a nonsteroidal estrogen. Methods In this study, stimulatory and inhibitory effects of EDCs and natural steroids on oocyte maturation were examined in zebrafish. For effective agents, some details about the mechanism in induction or inhibition of maturation were examined. Possible groups of DES interacting with the MIH receptor are discussed based on relative potency of steroids to induce maturation. Results Among agents tested, tamoxifen (TAM and its metabolite 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT showed stimulatory activity similar to DES. The time courses of the change in germinal vesicle breakdown and an intracellular molecular event (the synthesis of cyclin B induced by TAM were indistinguishable from those induced by MIH. In contrast, pentachlorophenol (PCP had a potent inhibitory effect on MIH-induced oocyte maturation. PCP inhibited not only MIH-induced maturation but also DES- and TAM-induced maturation. Methoxychlor also inhibited maturation when oocytes were pre-treated with this agent. Conclusion These results suggest that EDCs act as agonists or antagonists in the induction of oocyte maturation in fish.

  19. Detection of optimum maturity of maize using image processing and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A CCD camera for image acquisition of the different green colorations of the maize leaves at maturity was used. Different color features were extracted from the image processing system (MATLAB) and used as inputs to the artificial neural network that classify different levels of maturity. Keywords: Maize, Maturity, CCD ...

  20. Effect of melatonin on maturation capacity and fertilization of Nili ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effect of melatonin supplementation of in vitro maturation media on in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) rate of buffalo oocytes. Cumulus oocytes complexes (COCs) were aspirated from follicles of 2-8 mm diameter. In experiment I, COCs were matured in IVM medium supplemented ...

  1. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427.174 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION... Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31 following...

  2. Correlation between cervical vertebral and dental maturity in Iranian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heravi, Farzin; Imanimoghaddam, Mahrokh; Rahimi, Hoda

    2011-12-01

    Determination of the skeletal maturation is extremely important in clinical orthodontics. Cervical vertebral maturation is an effective diagnostic tool for determining the adolescent growth spurt. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the stages of calcification of teeth and the cervical vertebral maturity stages.

  3. Results of the Software Process Improvement Efforts of the Early Adopters in NAVAIR 4.0

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saint-Amand, David C; Hodgins, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    .... The process improvement efforts described in this paper began in the 1990s and early 2000s. Their process improvement tool sets included the Capability Maturity Model, the Capability Maturity Model (CMM...

  4. The Relationship Between Fine Motor Skills and Social Development and Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Dehghan

    2017-11-01

    Discussion: According to the results, there is a significant association between fine motor skills with respect to visual-motor skills of hands and social competence and maturity in children, and it can be used as impact factor for to improve in children’s social growth.

  5. (Br-SCMM) Brazilian Smart City Maturity Model: A Perspective from the Health Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Ricardo Alexandre; dos Santos Brito, Kellyton; Holanda do Nascimento, Clóvis; Campos da Costa, Luciana; Álvaro, Alexandre; Cardoso Garcia, Vinicius

    2015-01-01

    The term definition "Smart City" still allows various interpretations, and this causes some difficulty in establishing parameters to measure how smart the cities can be. This paper presents a Maturity Model that uses a set of minimum domains and indicators that aim to encourage cities of different sizes to identify their potential and improve processes and public policies.

  6. Understanding Growth and Maturation in the Context of Ballet: A Biocultural Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Siobhan B.; Haase, Anne M.; Cumming, Sean P.; Malina, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    The pubertal transition can present an interesting paradox for the young dancer, with growth and maturation leading to improvements in some areas such as strength and power and detriment to others, such as flexibility and co-ordination. These challenges highlight the need to consider the interactions among biological, psychological and…

  7. Information Security Maturity as an Integral Part of ISMS based Risk Management Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fetler, Ben; Harpes, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the continuous improvement of Information Security Management Systems (ISMS) is often neglected as most organizations do not know how to extract key-indicators that could be used for this purpose. The underlying work presents a six-level maturity model which can be fully integrated in a

  8. Transcriptional maturation of the mouse auditory forebrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Troy A; Guo, Yan; Clause, Amanda; Hackett, Nicholas J; Garbett, Krassimira; Zhang, Pan; Polley, Daniel B; Mirnics, Karoly

    2015-08-14

    The maturation of the brain involves the coordinated expression of thousands of genes, proteins and regulatory elements over time. In sensory pathways, gene expression profiles are modified by age and sensory experience in a manner that differs between brain regions and cell types. In the auditory system of altricial animals, neuronal activity increases markedly after the opening of the ear canals, initiating events that culminate in the maturation of auditory circuitry in the brain. This window provides a unique opportunity to study how gene expression patterns are modified by the onset of sensory experience through maturity. As a tool for capturing these features, next-generation sequencing of total RNA (RNAseq) has tremendous utility, because the entire transcriptome can be screened to index expression of any gene. To date, whole transcriptome profiles have not been generated for any central auditory structure in any species at any age. In the present study, RNAseq was used to profile two regions of the mouse auditory forebrain (A1, primary auditory cortex; MG, medial geniculate) at key stages of postnatal development (P7, P14, P21, adult) before and after the onset of hearing (~P12). Hierarchical clustering, differential expression, and functional geneset enrichment analyses (GSEA) were used to profile the expression patterns of all genes. Selected genesets related to neurotransmission, developmental plasticity, critical periods and brain structure were highlighted. An accessible repository of the entire dataset was also constructed that permits extraction and screening of all data from the global through single-gene levels. To our knowledge, this is the first whole transcriptome sequencing study of the forebrain of any mammalian sensory system. Although the data are most relevant for the auditory system, they are generally applicable to forebrain structures in the visual and somatosensory systems, as well. The main findings were: (1) Global gene expression

  9. Effects of posttreatment skeletal maturity measured with the cervical vertebral maturation method on incisor alignment relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudalej, Piotr; Rothe, Laura E; Bollen, Anne-Marie

    2008-08-01

    Our aim was to test the hypothesis that relapse of incisor alignment is associated with skeletal maturity at the end of treatment, as assessed with the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method. This was a case-control study with information from the postretention database at the University of Washington. Mandibular incisor irregularity (II) at least 10 years out of retention (T3) was used to define the subjects (II >6 mm, relapse group) and the controls (II 0.05). Pretreatment II and postretention time were found to be correlated with long-term incisor stability (P = 0.007 and 0.034, respectively). Sex was not related to relapse (P = 0.33). Maturity of craniofacial structures at the end of treatment evaluated with the CVM method is not associated with long-term stability of incisor alignment.

  10. The Development of Marital Maturity Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed YILDIZ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, validity, reliability and item analysis studies of the Marital Maturity Scale prepared to test whether individuals are ready for marriage have been done. Studies of the development of the scale were made on 623 individuals, consisting of single adults. In the validity studies of the scale, explanatory and confirmatory factor analyses and criterion related validity studies were performed. Factor analysis revealed that the scale had four dimensions. The four factors in the measurement account for 60.91% of the total variance. The factor loadings of the items in the scale range from 0.42 to 0.86. Inonu Marriage Attitude Scale was used in the criterion related validity studies. Correlation value of the two scales r=0.72 (p=0.000 was found significant. It was determined that the subscales of the scale had a significant correlation with the total scale. The cronbach alpha value of the first dimension of the scale was 0.85, the cronbach alpha value of the second dimension of the scale was 0.68, the cronbach alpha value of the third dimension of the scale was 0.80, the cronbach alpha value of the fourth dimension of the scale was 0.91 and the cronbach alpha value of the total scale was 0.90. Test retest results r=0.70, (p=0.000 were found significant. In the item analysis studies, it was revealed that in the lower 27% group, the individuals in the upper 27% group were significantly different in all items (p=0.000. The item total correlation value of the items in the scale was between 0.40 and 0.63. As a result of the assessments, it was concluded that the Marital Maturity Scale was a reliable and valid instrument to measure marital maturity of single adults

  11. [Maturation of cerebral somatosensory evoked potentials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadilhac, J; Zhu, Y; Georgesco, M; Echenne, B; Rodiere, M

    1985-07-01

    Cerebral somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were elicited by stimulation of the median nerve and/or posterior tibial nerve in 117 children of 1 day to 16 years old. A major negative wave (N) was consistently recorded from the parietal region of the scalp when the arm was stimulated. The peak latency, the onset latency, the rising time and the duration of H wave are closely correlated with age and body length. The latencies are shortest in the subjects of 1-3 years old. SEPs to lower extremity stimulation were inconstant in the infants before the age of one. The major positive wave (P) has a variable topographic distribution along the middle line, over the scalp. The latencies are also very variable in the different subjects of the same age as well as in the same subject with different locations of active electrode. Among the parameters studied as for N wave, only the rising time of P wave is significantly correlated with age. The latencies of P wave have the shortest value in the subjects of 1-3 years old. The comparison of SEPs to upper and to lower limb stimulations shows that there is no relationship between them in respect to their morphology and amplitude. The minimum value of the latencies of N and P waves was observed at the same age but the difference between the peak latencies of P and N waves in the same subject increases considerably after 2 years of age and reaches the adult value after 5 years of age. These resultats indicate that the maturation of the peripheral somatosensory pathways proceeds at a higher rate than that of the central somatosensory pathways, that the maturation of the somatosensory pathways of the upper limb precedes that of the lower limb, and that the rising time of N or P waves is a good index of cortical maturation. The clinical utility of these SEPs in pediatrics is discussed.

  12. A PACS maturity model: a systematic meta-analytic review on maturation and evolvability of PACS in the hospital enterprise.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetering, R. van de; Batenburg, R.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: With PACS and medical imaging technology maturing, the importance of organizational maturity and effective deployment of PACS in the hospital enterprise are becoming significant. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is twofold. Firstly, PACS literature on maturity and evolvability in

  13. The socioeconomic scenario and opportunities for mature production regions; O cenario socioeconomico e oportunidades de desenvolvimento para regioes produtoras maduras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Andrea Campos; Lima, Regina Celia Palacio

    2009-07-01

    It is shown that production of oil and gas in mature fields provides good conditions for the economic and social development of the producing regions. This article presents the current social-economic scenery in areas of mature production. The authors provide a comparison between collected royalties and human development indicator in some countries with analysis of socio-economic data and comparison of results with and without the collection of royalties. Additionally, this papers offers a study of the socio-economic motivations for production in mature fields and describes several initiatives for improving living conditions for the local population. (author)

  14. Digital Marketing Maturity Models: Overview and Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Elina Bakhtieva

    2017-01-01

    The variety of available digital tools, strategies and activities might confuse and disorient even an experienced marketer. This applies in particular to B2B companies, which are usually less flexible in uptaking of digital technology than B2C companies. B2B companies are lacking a framework that corresponds to the specifics of the B2B business, and which helps to evaluate a company’s capabilities and to choose an appropriate path. A B2B digital marketing maturity model helps to fill this gap...

  15. The Homo Energeticus: maturity, inheritance, identity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    In this letter, modern society’s intimate bond to the convenience and reliability of delivered energy services results in a form of identification I call the Homo Energeticus. The Homo Energeticus relies upon a mature system of services for achieving an equivalency of status and prestige that is historically similar to the morality of a noble class. I describe the uniqueness of this identity by its imperative for acquiring experience through an invisibility of energy expenditures. In this way, the Homo Energeticus cultivates a highly individualized life whose ambience of perfection, while created personally, is only successful insofar as it conceals energy expenditures in labor and supply. (letter)

  16. Ovarian Mature Cystic Teratoma Containing Multiple Mobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hyun Sun; Yoon, Seong Eon; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Hye Won; Yoon, Kwon Ha [Wonkwang University Hospital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong Hoon [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    A 48-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a palpable mass in her lower abdomen. A left ovarian, cystic mass containing multiple mobile globules was seen on CT and MR images. The outer portion of the globules showed fat components on CT and fat-saturated T1-weighted MR images. Ultrasonography showed multiple echogenic, mobile globules with some sound attenuation and hyper echoic lines and dots within the cystic mass, which corresponded with the presence of lipid globules and hair shafts of ovarian mature cystic teratoma, respectively

  17. Ovarian Mature Cystic Teratoma Containing Multiple Mobile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hyun Sun; Yoon, Seong Eon; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Hye Won; Yoon, Kwon Ha; Park, Seong Hoon

    2006-01-01

    A 48-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a palpable mass in her lower abdomen. A left ovarian, cystic mass containing multiple mobile globules was seen on CT and MR images. The outer portion of the globules showed fat components on CT and fat-saturated T1-weighted MR images. Ultrasonography showed multiple echogenic, mobile globules with some sound attenuation and hyper echoic lines and dots within the cystic mass, which corresponded with the presence of lipid globules and hair shafts of ovarian mature cystic teratoma, respectively

  18. Asset Stripping in a Mature Market Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov Jeppesen, Kim; Møller, Ulrik Gorm

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to document a Danish fraud scheme, in which a large number of limited companies were stripped of their assets leaving them with nothing but tax debt, eventually causing the Danish Tax and Customs Administration to lose large sums. Furthermore, the purpose...... indicates that asset stripping may take place in mature market economies to the extent that perpetrators are able to circumvent the corporate governance system by giving lawyers, public accountants and banks incentives to act less critically towards dubious business transactions. Research limitations...

  19. A Comparison of Skeletal Maturation assessed from MP3 and Its Correlation with Dental Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu Vardhan Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To compare the various ossification stages of middle phalanges of third finger (MP3 and developmental stages of 2nd mandibular molar during the entire process of pubertal growth spurt. Evaluate the feasibility of recording MP3 stages using standard dental X-ray film. The mandibular 2nd molar exhibited highly significant correlation for both the males and females. This study showed a good correlation between the MP3 and dental maturity indicators. Therefore, 2nd molar tooth could be used as maturity indicator for the entire period of pubertal growth spurt. It can be used as an adjunct to the hand and wrist radiograph.

  20. Sequential Analysis of Global Gene Expression Profiles in Immature and In vitro Matured Bovine Oocytes: Potential Molecular Markers of Oocyte Maturation

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mamo, Solomon

    2011-03-16

    for studies concerned with the molecular mechanisms controlling oocyte meiotic maturation in cattle, addresses the existing conflicting issue of transcription during meiotic maturation and contributes to the global goal of improving assisted reproductive technology.

  1. Maturation arrest of human oocytes at germinal vesicle stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Qin Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Maturation arrest of human oocytes may occur at various stages of the cell cycle. A total failure of human oocytes to complete meiosis is rarely observed during assisted conception cycles. We describe here a case of infertile couples for whom all oocytes repeatedly failed to mature at germinal vesicle (GV stage during in vitro fertilization/Intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI. The patient underwent controlled ovarian stimulation followed by oocyte retrieval and IVF/ICSI. The oocytes were stripped off cumulus cells prior to the ICSI procedure and their maturity status was defined. The oocyte maturation was repeatedly arrested at the GV. Oocyte maturation arrest may be the cause of infertility in this couple. The recognition of oocyte maturation arrest as a specific medical condition may contribute to the characterization of the currently known as "oocyte factor." The cellular and genetic mechanisms causing oocyte maturation arrest should be the subject for further investigation.

  2. eQETIC: a Maturity Model for Online Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Rossi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Digital solutions have substantially contributed to the growth and dissemination of education. The distance education modality has been presented as an opportunity for worldwide students in many types of courses. However, projects of digital educational platforms require different expertise including knowledge areas such as pedagogy, psychology, computing, and digital technologies associated with education that allow the correct development and application of these solutions. To support the evolution of such solutions with satisfactory quality indicators, this research presents a model focused on quality of online educational solutions grounded in an approach aimed to continuous process improvement. The model considers of three maturity levels and six common entities that address the specific practices for planning and developing digital educational solutions, targeting quality standards that satisfy their users, such as students, teachers, tutors, and other people involved in development and use of these kinds of educational solutions.

  3. Application of Cervical Vertebral Maturation Stages Index in Orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.Dalili

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of skeletal age and determination of growth status had important and special roie in orthodontic treatment planning (such as functional orthopedic treatment and orthognatic surgery and also in stability of it. There were several biologic indicators for the detection of the peak in mandibular growth. Due to the limitations of biological indicators application, idea of new indicators was seemed importantly. Cervical vertebral maturation (CVM method is one of them. At first the detection of the peak in mandibular growth was based on the analysis of the second through sixth cervical vertebrae in six developmental stages. But a few improvements of the original CVM analysis were still needed. In this method, the peak in mandibular growth was determined based on the analysis of the second through fourth cervical vertebrae in five developmental stages. This method is easy, applicable and more valid than hand-wrist analysis method.

  4. Mediastinal Mature Teratoma Revealed by Empyema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Raoufi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Teratomas are germ cell tumors, manifested with a great variety of clinical features; the most common extragonadal site is the anterior mediastinum. In this case, we report the patient with a large mature mediastinal teratoma with several components of ectodermal and endothermal epithelium. A 24-year-old female patient presented with history of persistent chest pain and progressively aggravating dyspnea for the previous 3 months. A chest X-ray showed a large opacity of the entire left hemithorax. Transcutaneous needle aspiration revealed a purulent fluid. The tube thoracostomy was introduced and the effusion was evacuated. Some weeks later, patient was seen in emergency for persistent cough and lateral chest pain. CT scan revealed a mass of the left hemithorax. The mass showed heterogeneous density, without compressing mediastinum great vessels and left hilar structures. Lipase value was elevated in needle aspiration. The patient underwent a total resection of the mediastinum mass via a left posterolateral thoracotomy. Microscopy revealed a mature teratoma with cystic structures. The patient subsequently made a full recovery. This case provide benign mediastinal teratoma with total atelectasis of left lung and elevated lipase value in needle transcutaneous aspiration; this event is explained by pancreatic component in the cystic tumor. Total removal of the tumor is adequate treatment for this type of teratoma and the prognosis is excellent.

  5. Pitch perception prior to cortical maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Bonnie K.

    Pitch perception plays an important role in many complex auditory tasks including speech perception, music perception, and sound source segregation. Because of the protracted and extensive development of the human auditory cortex, pitch perception might be expected to mature, at least over the first few months of life. This dissertation investigates complex pitch perception in 3-month-olds, 7-month-olds and adults -- time points when the organization of the auditory pathway is distinctly different. Using an observer-based psychophysical procedure, a series of four studies were conducted to determine whether infants (1) discriminate the pitch of harmonic complex tones, (2) discriminate the pitch of unresolved harmonics, (3) discriminate the pitch of missing fundamental melodies, and (4) have comparable sensitivity to pitch and spectral changes as adult listeners. The stimuli used in these studies were harmonic complex tones, with energy missing at the fundamental frequency. Infants at both three and seven months of age discriminated the pitch of missing fundamental complexes composed of resolved and unresolved harmonics as well as missing fundamental melodies, demonstrating perception of complex pitch by three months of age. More surprisingly, infants in both age groups had lower pitch and spectral discrimination thresholds than adult listeners. Furthermore, no differences in performance on any of the tasks presented were observed between infants at three and seven months of age. These results suggest that subcortical processing is not only sufficient to support pitch perception prior to cortical maturation, but provides adult-like sensitivity to pitch by three months.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF A MATURITY MODEL FOR TELEMEDICINE#

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Van Dyk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: For more than a decade, the South African National Department of Health (DoH has recognised the potential benefit of information and communication technology (ICT in the delivery of health care to rural areas. Despite generous funding and proven technology, not many telemedicine systems have proved sustainable after the pilot phase. The purpose of this paper is to develop a maturity model that can be implemented to measure and manage the capability of a health system, for use in the delivery of sustainable health care after the pilot phase of a telemedicine project. The validity of the telemedicine maturity model (TMMM is tested within the context of the South African public health sector.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die Suid Afrikaanse Nasionale Departement van Gesondheid het reeds meer as ’n dekade gelede die voordeel besef wat inligtings- en kommunikasietegnologie kan bied ten opsigte van die lewering van gesondheidsorg in afgeleë gebiede. Ten spyte van ruim befondsing en bewese tegnologie, is daar egter min volgehoue telegeneeskundedienste in die publieke gesondheidstelsel van Suid Afrika. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om ’n volwassenheids-model te ontwikkel wat gebruik kan word om die vermoë van ’n gesondheidstelsel te bepaal en bestuur, ten einde telegeneeskunde loodsprojekte vol te hou. Die geldigheid van hierdie telegeneeskunde volwassenheidsmodel (TMMM is getoets binne konteks van die publieke gesondheidsektor van Suid Afrika.

  7. Developmental Plasticity in Child Growth and Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze'ev eHochberg

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability of a given genotype to produce different phenotypes in response to different environments is termed "plasticity", and is part of the organism's "adaptability" to environmental cues. The expressions of suites of genes, particularly during development or life-history transitions, probably underlie the fundamental plasticity of an organism. Plasticity in developmental programming has evolved in order to provide the best chances of survival and reproductive success to organisms under changing environments. Environmental conditions that are experienced in early life can profoundly influence human biology, child growth and maturation, and long-term health and longevity. Developmental origins of health and disease and life history transitions are purported to use placental, nutritional, and endocrine cues for setting long-term biological, mental, and behavioral strategies for child growth and maturation in response to local ecological and/or social conditions. The window of developmental plasticity extends from conception to early childhood, and even beyond to the transition from juvenility to adoelscence, and could be transmitted transgenerationally. It involves epigenetic responses to environmental changes, which exert their effects during life history phase-transitions.

  8. Service quality and maturity of health care organizations through the lens of Complexity Leadership Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, Ana; Filipovic, Jovan

    2018-02-01

    This research focuses on Complexity Leadership Theory and the relationship between leadership-examined through the lens of Complexity Leadership Theory-and organizational maturity as an indicator of the performance of health organizations. The research adopts a perspective that conceptualizes organizations as complex adaptive systems and draws upon a survey of opinion of 189 managers working in Serbian health organizations. As the results indicate a dependency between functions of leadership and levels of the maturity of health organizations, we propose a model that connects the two. The study broadens our understanding of the implications of complexity thinking and its reflection on leadership functions and overall organizational performance. The correlations between leadership functions and maturity could have practical applications in policy processing, thus improving the quality of outcomes and the overall level of service quality. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Conjoint utility analysis of technical maturity and project progress of construction project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, taking construction project as the research object, the relationship between the project maturity index calculated by the construction project technical risks with different fine degree and the project progress index is studied, and the equilibrium relationship between the Party A’s utility curve and the Party B’s cost curve of using project maturity index and project progress index as the research variables is analyzed. The results show that, when the construction project technical risk division is more precise, the conjoint utility of the project's technical maturity index and the project progress is higher, and the project’s Party A and Party B two sides are closer to the optimal equilibrium. This shows that the construction project technical risk must be finely divided, and managed and controlled respectively, which will help to improve the conjoint utility of the project Party A and Party B two sides.

  10. Radiologic differences in white matter maturation between preterm and full-term infants: TBSS study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ah Young; Jang, Sung Ho; Ahn, Sang Ho; Cho, Hee Kyung; Jo, Hae Min; Son, Su Min [Yeungnam University, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eunsil [Yeungnam University, Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Widespread white matter (WM) pathology in preterm children has been proposed. The purpose of this study was to investigate maturational differences of WM between preterm infants with thinning of the corpus callosum and full-term infants. A total of 18 preterm children and 18 full-term children were divided into three subgroups according to the corrected age at the time of diffusion tensor imaging scanning. Tract-based spatial statistics was used for assessing differences in fractional anisotropy (FA) between preterm and full-term children, and between each age-related subgroup in preterm and in full-term children. In the preterm group, FA values of overall WM showed an increase with age. This trend indicates that WM maturation is a gradual occurrence during a child's first 2 years. In the full-term group, most WM structures had reached maturation at around 1 year of age; however, centrum semiovale level showed sustained maturation during the first 2 years. Results of our study demonstrate radiologic maturational differences of WM and provide evidence of the need for therapeutic intervention within 2 years of birth to prevent specific functional impairment and to improve clinical outcome in preterm children. (orig.)

  11. Product quality and microbial dynamics during vermicomposting and maturation of compost from pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Iria; Alves, David; Mato, Salustiano

    2017-11-01

    This research evaluates, through microbial dynamics, the use of earthworms Eisenia andrei for maturation of pre-composted pig manure in comparison with maturation under static conditions and with vermicomposting of fresh pig manure. Therefore, two substrates were used (fresh and pre-composted pig manure) and four treatments were developed: fresh manure vermicomposting, control of fresh manure without earthworms, pre-composting followed by vermicomposting and static maturation of pre-composted manure. In order to determine the microbial dynamics, the enzymatic activities and profiles of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) were evaluated over a 112-days period. Physicochemical and biological parameters of the obtained products were also analyzed. The presence of earthworms significantly reduced (pquality values, it is necessary to optimize the vermicompost aging phase period to improve the stability. Static maturation presented stability on microbial dynamics that indicated a slow degradation of organic compounds so that, maturation of pre-composted manure through vermicomposting is better option. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of maturation on physico-chemical and sensory quality characteristics of custard apple wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers have taken a shift to utilize the custard apple for wine preparation besides its major use in ice cream, confectionary and milk products. In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the effect of maturation on physico-chemical and sensory quality characteristics of custard apple wine. Custard apple wine was prepared as per the earlier standardized method. The wine so prepared was matured for six months. The physico-chemical analysis was conducted at every three months interval for six months and sensory evaluation was performed after six months of storage. With the maturation, a decrease in total soluble solids, total sugars, titratable acidity, ethanol, total phenols and tannins was observed, whereas, an increase in reducing sugars and pH was observed. All the sensory quality characteristics of custard apple wine increased with advancement of the maturation period except astringency. Cluster analysis of the data obtained from physico-chemical analysis revealed that there was no difference between three months and six months of storage. Physico-chemical characteristics of custard apple wine were reduced to two principal components using principal component analysis which accounted for 100% variation. In general, maturation for six months improved the quality of custard apple wine considerably.

  13. A correlative study of dental age and skeletal maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachan, Kiran; Sharma, Vijay Prakash; Tandon, Pradeep

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal age had been assessed by comparison between maturation of hand-wrist with stages of cervical vertebrae or canine calcification stages in past and this had been closely related to craniofacial growth. The importance of pubertal growth spurt in various types of orthodontic therapies is already established. Hence, this study was aimed to evaluate the relationship of skeletal maturity by hand-wrist with cervical vertebral maturation indicators and canine calcification stages. The study consisted of randomly selected 90 children from Lucknow population with 45 males (age range 10-13 years) and 45 females (age range 9-12 years). Lateral Cephalogram, hand-wrist x-ray, and periapical x-rays of maxillary and mandibular right canines were taken. Mean, standard deviation was calculated of different groups. Correlation was made among cervical vertebral maturation, hand wrist maturation, and canine calcification stages at various age groups. There was strong correlation between skeletal maturation indicator and cervical vertebral maturation indicator for both male (0.849) and female (0.932), whereas correlation between skeletal maturation indicator and canine calcification was good for both male and female (0.635, 0.891). It was concluded that cervical vertebral maturation indicator and canine calcification stages can also be used for assessing skeletal maturity.

  14. Melatonin improves placental efficiency and birth weight and increases the placental expression of antioxidant enzymes in undernourished pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Hans G; Hansell, Jeremy A; Raut, Shruti; Giussani, Dino A

    2009-05-01

    Melatonin participates in circadian, seasonal and reproductive physiology. Melatonin also acts as a potent endogenous antioxidant by scavenging free radicals and upregulating antioxidant pathways. The placenta expresses melatonin receptors and melatonin protects against oxidative damage induced in rat placenta by ischemia-reperfusion. One of the most common complications in pregnancy is a reduction in fetal nutrient delivery, which is known to promote oxidative stress. However, whether melatonin protects placental function and fetal development in undernourished pregnancy is unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of maternal treatment with melatonin on placental efficiency, fetal growth, birth weight and protein expression of placental oxidative stress markers in undernourished pregnancy. On day 15 of pregnancy, rats were divided into control and undernourished pregnancy (35% reduction in food intake), with and without melatonin treatment (5 microg/mL drinking water). On day 20 of gestation, fetal biometry was carried out, the placenta was weighed and subsequently analyzed by Western blot for xanthine oxidase, heat shock protein (HSP) 27 and 70, catalase, manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx-1). A separate cohort was allowed to deliver to assess effects on birth weight. Maternal undernutrition led to a fall in placental efficiency, disproportionate intrauterine growth retardation and a reduction in birth weight. Maternal treatment with melatonin in undernourished pregnancy improved placental efficiency and restored birth weight, and it increased the expression of placental Mn-SOD and catalase. The data show that in pregnancy complicated by undernutrition, melatonin may improve placental efficiency and birth weight by upregulating placental antioxidant enzymes.

  15. Chromatin Regulation of Neuronal Maturation and Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, David A; Chan, Urann; Chen, Liang-Fu; West, Anne E

    2018-05-01

    Neurons are dynamic cells that respond and adapt to stimuli throughout their long postmitotic lives. The structural and functional plasticity of neurons requires the regulated transcription of new gene products, and dysregulation of transcription in either the developing or adult brain impairs cognition. We discuss how mechanisms of chromatin regulation help to orchestrate the transcriptional programs that underlie the maturation of developing neurons and the plasticity of adult neurons. We review how chromatin regulation acts locally to modulate the expression of specific genes and more broadly to coordinate gene expression programs during transitions between cellular states. These data highlight the importance of epigenetic transcriptional mechanisms in postmitotic neurons. We suggest areas where emerging methods may advance understanding in the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Developmental "roots" in mature biological knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert F; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2009-04-01

    Young children tend to claim that moving artifacts and nonliving natural kinds are alive, but neglect to ascribe life to plants. This research tested whether adults exhibit similar confusions when verifying life status in a speeded classification task. Experiment 1 showed that undergraduates encounter greater difficulty (reduced accuracy and increased response times) in determining life status for plants, relative to animals, and for natural and moving nonliving things, relative to artifacts and non-moving things. Experiment 2 replicated these effects in university biology professors. The professors showed a significantly reduced effect size for living things, as compared with the students, but still showed greater difficulty for plants than animals, even as no differences from the students were apparent in their responses to nonliving things. These results suggest that mature biological knowledge relies on a developmental foundation that is not radically overwritten or erased with the profound conceptual changes that accompany mastery of the domain.

  17. Maturation curves of sweet sorghum genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Silva e Souza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] stands out as a complementary crop to sugarcane Saccharum spp. for the production of ethanol, since it has juicy stems with directly fermentable sugars. Due to this fact, there is a need for the analysis of sweet sorghum properties in order to meet the agro-industry demand. This work aimed to develop and study the maturation curves of seven sweet sorghum cultivars in ten harvest dates. The results showed a significant difference between cultivars and harvest dates for all parameters analysed (p≤0.01. Regarding the sugar content, the cultivars BRS508, XBWS80147 and CMSX629 showed the highest means for the total reducing sugars (TRS and recoverable sugar (RS. In the production of ethanol per tonne of biomass (EP, the cultivars BRS508 and CMSX629 presented the best results.

  18. A Maturity Analysis of Big Data Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu BONCEA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years Big Data technologies have been developed at faster pace due to increase in demand from applications that generate and process vast amount of data. The Cloud Computing and the Internet of Things are the main drivers for developing enterprise solutions that support Business Intelligence which in turn, creates new opportunities and new business models. An enterprise can now collect data about its internal processes, process this data to gain new insights and business value and make better decisions. And this is the reason why Big Data is now seen as a vital component in any enterprise architecture. In this article the maturity of several Big Data technologies is put under analysis. For each technology there are several aspects considered, such as development status, market usage, licensing policies, availability for certifications, adoption, support for cloud computing and enterprise.

  19. Intracranial hemorrhage of the mature newborn infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemine, Hisao

    1983-01-01

    Concerning four mature newborn infants with intracranial hemorrhage diagnosed by CT, the labour course, treatment, and prognoses were discussed. Of intracranial hemorrhage, 70.7% was small hemorrhage along the cerebellar tentorium and the falx cerebri, 12.2% subdural hemorrhage in the posterior cranial fossa, and 9.8% subdural hemorrhage in the fornex. Intraventricular or extradural hemorrhage was rarely found. The prognosis is determined by severeness of neurotic symptoms due to cerebral hypoxia. Subdural hemorrhage of the posterior cranial fossa resulted in cerebral palsy in one fifth of the cases, and in slight enlargement of the ventricle in three fifths. Subdural hematoma left porencephaly in one fourth of the patients, but the remaining recovered to normal. (Ueda, J.)

  20. Formation and maturation of the murine meniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamer, Laura W; Xiang, Lin; Rosen, Vicki

    2017-08-01

    Meniscal injuries are commonplace, but current surgical repair procedures do not prevent degenerative joint changes that occur after meniscal injury and often lead to osteoarthritis. Successful tissue regeneration in adults often recapitulates events that occur during embryogenesis, suggesting that understanding the regulatory pathways controlling these early processes may provide clues for developing strategies for tissue repair. While the mouse is now widely used to study joint diseases, detailed knowledge of the basic biology of murine meniscus is not readily available. Here, we examine meniscal morphogenesis in mice from embryonic day 13.5 (E13.5) to 6 months of age using histology, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. We find that the meniscus is a morphologically distinct structure at E16 when it begins to regionalize. At birth, the meniscus has a distinguishable inner, avascular, round chondrocyte cell region, an outer, vascularized, fibroblast cell region, and a surface superficial zone. Maturation begins at 2 weeks of age when the meniscus expresses type I collagen, type II collagen, type X collagen, and MMP-13 in specific patterns. By 4 weeks of age, small areas of ossification are detected in the anterior meniscal horn, a common feature seen in rodents. Maturation appears complete at 8 weeks of age, when the meniscus resembles the adult structure complete with ossifying tissue that contains bone marrow like areas. Our results provide, the first systematic study of mouse meniscal development and will be a valuable tool for analyzing murine models of knee joint formation and disease. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1683-1689, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. On the occurrence of nuclei in mature sieve elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Event, R F; Davis, J D; Tucker, C M; Alfieri, F J

    1970-12-01

    The secondary phloem of 3 species of the Taxodiaceae and 13 species of woody dicotyledons was examined for the occurrence of nuclei in mature sieve elements. Nuclei were found in all mature sieve cells of Metasequoia glyptostroboides, Sequoia sempervirens and Taxodium distichum, and in some mature sieve-tube members in 12 of the 13 species of woody dicotyledons. Except for nuclei of sieve cells undergoing cessation of function, the nuclei in mature sieve cells of M. glyptostroboides, S. sempervirens and T. distichum were normal in appearance. The occurrence and morphology of nuclei in mature sieve-tube members of the woody dicotyledons were quite variable. Only 3 species, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus americana and Vitis riparia, contained some mature sieve elements with apparently normal nuclei.

  2. Maturity of hospital information systems: Most important influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal Carvalho, João; Rocha, Álvaro; Abreu, António

    2017-07-01

    Maturity models facilitate organizational management, including information systems management, with hospital organizations no exception. This article puts forth a study carried out with a group of experts in the field of hospital information systems management with a view to identifying the main influencing factors to be included in an encompassing maturity model for hospital information systems management. This study is based on the results of a literature review, which identified maturity models in the health field and relevant influencing factors. The development of this model is justified to the extent that the available maturity models for the hospital information systems management field reveal multiple limitations, including lack of detail, absence of tools to determine their maturity and lack of characterization for stages of maturity structured by different influencing factors.

  3. The relation between maturity and sophistication shall be properly dealt with in nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongjiang

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses the advantages and disadvantages of the second generation improved technologies and third generation technologies mainly developed in China in terms of safety and economy. The paper also discusses the maturity of the second generation improved technologies and the sophistication of the third generation technologies respectively. Meanwhile, the paper proposes that the advantage and disadvantage of second generation improved technologies and third generation technologies should be carefully taken into consideration and the relationship between the maturity and sophistication should be properly dealt with in the current stage. A two-step strategy shall be taken as a solution to solve the problem of insufficient capacity of nuclear power, trace and develop the third generation technologies, so as to ensure the sound and fast development of nuclear power. (authors)

  4. No Amelioration of Uromodulin Maturation and Trafficking Defect by Sodium 4-Phenylbutyrate in Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemter, Elisabeth; Sklenak, Stefanie; Rathkolb, Birgit; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Wolf, Eckhard; Aigner, Bernhard; Wanke, Ruediger

    2014-01-01

    Uromodulin (UMOD)-associated kidney disease (UAKD) belongs to the hereditary progressive ER storage diseases caused by maturation defects of mutant UMOD protein. Current treatments of UAKD patients are symptomatic and cannot prevent disease progression. Two in vitro studies reported a positive effect of the chemical chaperone sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) on mutant UMOD maturation. Thus, 4-PBA was suggested as a potential treatment for UAKD. This study evaluated the effects of 4-PBA in two mouse models of UAKD. In contrast to previous in vitro studies, treatment with 4-PBA did not increase HSP70 expression or improve maturation and trafficking of mutant UMOD in vivo. Kidney function of UAKD mice was actually deteriorated by 4-PBA treatment. In transfected tubular epithelial cells, 4-PBA did not improve maturation but increased the expression level of both mutant and wild-type UMOD protein. Activation of NF-κB pathway in thick ascending limb of Henle's loop cells of UAKD mice was detected by increased abundance of RelB and phospho-IκB kinase α/β, an indirect activator of NF-κB. Furthermore, the abundance of NF-κB1 p105/p50, NF-κB2 p100/p52, and TRAF2 was increased in UAKD. NF-κB activation was identified as a novel disease mechanism of UAKD and might be a target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:24567330

  5. Use of computer technologies in physical education of women of the first mature age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Tomilina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the improvement of process of physical education of women of the first mature age by means of Pilates with use of information technologies. Material & Methods: the experience of development and deployment of computer technologies in the process of physical education of women of mature age was systematized by means of the analysis of scientific and methodical and special literature and the best pedagogical and coach's practices, which is presented in mass media. The ways of application of computer programs were revealed, and the computer program ‘’Pilates’’ was developed by means of programming in the system Visual Basic. Results: the computer program ‘’Pilates’’, which consists of directory, settlement and recreational blocks, is offered for the purpose of improvement of the process of physical education of women of the first mature age by means of Pilates and increase in their motivation to classes by physical exercises. Conclusions: it is revealed that application of the computer programs has the positive effect in practice of physical education of women of the first mature age. The computer program ‘’Pilates’’ is submitted.

  6. Comparative effects of mature coconut water (Cocos nucifera and glibenclamide on some biochemical parameters in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Preetha

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, comparative effects of mature coconut water (Cocos nucifera L., Arecaceae and glibenclamide in alloxan induced diabetic rats were evaluated. Diabetes mellitus was induced in Sprague-Dawly rats using alloxan monohydrate (150 mg kg-1 body weight. Treatment with lyophilized form of mature coconut water and glibenclamide in diabetic rats reduced the blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin along with improvement in plasma insulin level. Elevated levels of liver function enzymes markers like alkaline phosphatase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase in diabetic rats were significantly reduced on treatment with mature coconut water. In addition to this, diabetic rats showed altered levels of blood urea, serum creatinine, albumin, albumin/globulin ratio which were significantly improved by treatment with mature coconut water and glibenclamide. Activities of nitric oxide synthase in liver and plasma L-arginine were reduced significantly in alloxan induced diabetic rats while treatment with mature coconut water reversed these changes. The overall results show that mature coconut water has significant beneficial effects in diabetic rats and its effects were comparable to that of glibenclamide, a well known antidiabetic drug.

  7. Effect of oocyte selection, estradiol and antioxidant treatment on in vitro maturation of oocytes collected from prepubertal Boer goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George W. Smith

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Development of improved procedures for in vitro maturation of oocytes collected from prepubertal goats has applications for in vitro embryo production and accompanying strategies for genetic improvement. The objective of described studies was to determine the effects of oocyte grade, in vitro maturation time, antioxidant supplementation and concentrations of estradiol in the maturation medium on in vitro maturation of oocytes harvested from 1-6 mm follicles present on the ovaries (obtained from an abattoir of 1-6 month-old prepubertal Boer goats. Rates of progression to metaphase II were greater for grade 1 oocytes (>3 compact layers of cumulus cells and evenly granulated cytoplasm than grade 2 oocytes (in vitro maturation in the presence of high concentrations of estradiol (10 and 100 mg/mL on progression to metaphase II was observed, and no effect was observed in response to 1 mg/mL estradiol treatment as compared with control. Results suggest that oocyte selection and beta-mercaptoethanol supplementation can positively influence progression to metaphase II of oocytes harvested from ovaries of prepubertal goats, whereas high concentrations of estradiol are inhibitory to in vitro maturation.

  8. Comparison of Emotional Maturity in Boys adolescents with Down Syndrome(Research in Normal and Exceptional Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sahel Hemmati

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research is compromised emotional maturity in boys’ adolescents with Down syndrome (12-18 years that study in formal and exceptional schools. Materials & Methods: At first 15 boy’s students with DS that study in formal school matched with 15 students in Exceptional school (IQ, , age, family education and socioeconomic state were same . Then EMS (Emotional Maturity Scale was tested by researchers. Results: Adolescents with DS in formal schools are significantly different and have better scale in emotional maturity and their fields. (P<0.001 Conclusion: Emotional maturity in adolescents with DS in formal schools is positive and better than peers in Exceptional classs This result is helpful for improvement integrated education system. .

  9. Determinants of relative skeletal maturity in South African children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Nicola L; Rousham, Emily K; Johnson, William; Norris, Shane A; Pettifor, John M; Cameron, Noël

    2012-01-01

    The variation of skeletal maturity about chronological age is a sensitive indicator of population health. Age appropriate or advanced skeletal maturity is a reflection of adequate environmental and social conditions, whereas delayed maturation suggests inadequate conditions for optimal development. There remains a paucity of data, however, to indicate which specific biological and environmental factors are associated with advancement or delay in skeletal maturity. The present study utilises longitudinal data from the South African Birth to Twenty (Bt20) study to indentify predictors of relative skeletal maturity (RSM) in early adolescence. A total of 244 black South African children (n=131 male) were included in this analysis. Skeletal maturity at age 9/10 years was assessed using the Tanner and Whitehouse III RUS technique. Longitudinal data on growth, socio-economic position and pubertal development were entered into sex-specific multivariable general linear regression models with relative skeletal maturity (skeletal age-chronological age) as the outcome. At 9/10 years of age males showed an average of 0.66 years delay in skeletal maturation relative to chronological age. Females showed an average of 1.00 year delay relative to chronological age. In males, being taller at 2 years (pdetermining the rate of skeletal maturation during childhood independently of current stature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ovarian follicle maturation and ovulation: An integrated perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, R.; Thomas, P.; Yoshizaki, G.

    2003-01-01

    Numerous studies with teleosts have addressed the regulation and mechanisms of oocyte maturation, but largely at the exclusion of ovulation. A smaller but still considerable number of studies have focused on ovulation, and ignored maturation. Consequently, little is known about the mechanistic linkages between these two events. New information is presented here indicating that luteinizing hormone regulates the acquisition not only of oocyte maturational competence, but also ovulatory competence. The thesis is presented that maturation and ovulation are closely integrated and overlapping events that are best viewed conceptually and experimentally as parts of a functional whole. ?? 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  11. Relationship between cervical vertebral maturation and mandibular growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Gina; Woodside, Donald; Tompson, Bryan; Hunter, W Stuart; Posluns, James

    2011-05-01

    The cervical vertebrae have been proposed as a method of determining biologic maturity. The purposes of this study were to establish a pattern of mandibular growth and to relate this pattern to the stages of cervical vertebral maturation. Cephalometric radiographs, taken annually from ages 9 to 18 years, were evaluated for 90 boys from the Burlington Growth Center, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Mandibular lengths were measured from articulare to gnathion, and incremental growth was determined. Cervical vertebral maturation stages were assessed by using a 6-stage method. Advanced, average, and delayed maturation groups were established. The prepubertal mandibular growth minimum velocity occurred during cervical stages 1 through 4 (P = 0.7327). Peak mandibular growth velocity occurred most frequently during stage 4 in all 3 maturation groups, with a statistical difference in the average and delayed groups (P cervical stages 1 through 6 does not occur annually; time spent in each stage varies depending on the stage and the maturation group. Cervical vertebral maturation stages cannot accurately identify the mandibular prepubertal growth minimum and therefore cannot predict the onset of the peak in mandibular growth. The cervical vertebral maturation stages should be used with other methods of biologic maturity assessment when considering both dentofacial orthopedic treatment and orthognathic surgery. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Maturity In The Petrochemical Industry Features, Motives And Combating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, H.; El Messirie, A.

    2004-01-01

    Petrochemicals give the highest value from crude oil and natural gas but suffers from maturity like any other business. Petrochemicals companies are promoting their business in the direction from oil and gas commodities. Specialities and life science. Reasons of maturity are expired patents, low demand, over capacity, intense competition. Actions to combat maturity are to restructure capacity achieving mega sizes, do downstream, and restructuring business practices. Strategies followed by some companies to combat maturity include exit, focus on core business and exploit a competitive advantage

  13. Correlation between Dental Maturity by Demirjian Method and Skeletal Maturity by Cervical Vertebral Maturity Method using Panoramic Radiograph and Lateral Cephalogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudhanan Mallika Mini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Radiographs are effective tools in assessing the stages of bone maturation in dentistry. The cervical vertebral maturation method is a proven effective tool in assessing the adolescent growth spurt than hand-wrist radiographs in an individual. Assessment of dental calcification stages are a reliable method for determining dental maturity. Panoramic imaging can be used as the primary imaging modality for assessing maturity if a correlation can be found out between tooth calcification stages and cervical vertebral maturation stages. This study was conducted to determine the correlation between dental maturity stage and cervical vertebral maturity stage and to estimate predictor variables for cervical vertebral maturation stages (CVMS stratified by gender in a tertiary hospital setting. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted among patients accessing orthodontic care in radiology outpatient clinic, Oral Medicine and Radiology department, Government Dental College Thiruvananthapuram for a period of 15 months. Participants were selected between the ages of 8 and 16 years. Panoramic radiographs and lateral cephalograms were used to determine dental maturity stages using Demirjian method and CVMS using Bacetti and Franchi method, respectively. Results: One hundred patients (males = 46, females = 54 were included in the study; the spearman rank order correlation revealed significant relationship. The correlation ranged from 0.61 to 0.74 for females and 0.48 to 0.51 for males. Second premolar showed highest correlation and canine the lowest for both females and males. Stage G of mandibular second premolar signifies the pubertal growth period in this study population. By ordinal regression model, G stage of second premolar was found to be a significant predictor in males and stage H followed by G and F in females for the age group of 12–14 years. Conclusion: Dental maturation stages were significantly correlated with CVMS

  14. MRI quantitative assessment of brain maturation and prognosis in premature infants using total maturation score

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Ying; Wang Xiaoming

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To quantitatively assess brain maturation and prognosis in premature infants on conventional MRI using total maturation score (TMS). Methods: Nineteen cases of sequelae of white matter damage (WMD group )and 21 cases of matched controls (control group) in premature infants confirmed by MRI examinations were included in the study. All cases underwent conventional MR imaging approximately during the perinatal period after birth. Brain development was quantitatively assessed using Childs AM's validated scoring system of TMS by two sophisticated radiology physicians. Interobserver agreement and reliability was evaluated by using intraclass correlation (ICC). Linear regression analysis between TMS and postmenstrual age (PMA) was made(Y: TMS, X: PMA). Independent-sample t test of the two groups' TMS was made. Results: Sixteen of 19 cases revealed MRI abnormalities. Lesions showing T 1 and T 2 shortening tended to occur in clusters or a linear pattern in the deep white matter of the centrum semiovale, periventricular white matter. Diffusion-weighted MR image (DWI) showed 3 cases with greater lesions and 4 cases with new lesions in corpus callosum. There was no abnormality in control group on MRI and DWI. The average numbers of TMS between the two observers were 7.13±2.27, 7.13±2.21. Interobservcer agreement was found to be high (ICC=0.990, P 2 =0.6401,0.5156 respectively, P 0.05). Conclusion: Conventional MRI is able to quantify the brain maturation and prognosis of premature infants using TMS. (authors)

  15. Defined MicroRNAs Induce Aspects of Maturation in Mouse and Human Embryonic-Stem-Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes

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    Desy S. Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pluripotent-cell-derived cardiomyocytes have great potential for use in research and medicine, but limitations in their maturity currently constrain their usefulness. Here, we report a method for improving features of maturation in murine and human embryonic-stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes (m/hESC-CMs. We found that coculturing m/hESC-CMs with endothelial cells improves their maturity and upregulates several microRNAs. Delivering four of these microRNAs, miR-125b-5p, miR-199a-5p, miR-221, and miR-222 (miR-combo, to m/hESC-CMs resulted in improved sarcomere alignment and calcium handling, a more negative resting membrane potential, and increased expression of cardiomyocyte maturation markers. Although this could not fully phenocopy all adult cardiomyocyte characteristics, these effects persisted for two months following delivery of miR-combo. A luciferase assay demonstrated that all four miRNAs target ErbB4, and siRNA knockdown of ErbB4 partially recapitulated the effects of miR-combo. In summary, a combination of miRNAs induced via endothelial coculture improved ESC-CM maturity, in part through suppression of ErbB4 signaling.

  16. Atorvastatin attenuates contrast-induced nephropathy by modulating inflammatory responses through the regulation of JNK/p38/Hsp27 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuyu He

    2016-05-01

    Our study demonstrates that high-dosage atorvastatin treatment attenuates both the inflammatory processes and apoptosis in contrast-induced acute kidney injury, and that the JNK/p38 MAPK pathway participates in the contrast-induced apoptosis of renal tubular cells. Finally, atorvastatin reduces CIN by suppression of apoptosis, which may be through inhibition of JNK/p38 MAPK pathways.

  17. Maturity Models in Supply Chain Sustainability: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Correia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic literature review of supply chain maturity models with sustainability concerns is presented. The objective is to give insights into methodological issues related to maturity models, namely the research objectives; the research methods used to develop, validate and test them; the scope; and the main characteristics associated with their design. The literature review was performed based on journal articles and conference papers from 2000 to 2015 using the SCOPUS, Emerald Insight, EBSCO and Web of Science databases. Most of the analysed papers have as main objective the development of maturity models and their validation. The case study is the methodology that is most widely used by researchers to develop and validate maturity models. From the sustainability perspective, the scope of the analysed maturity models is the Triple Bottom Line (TBL and environmental dimension, focusing on a specific process (eco-design and new product development and without a broad SC perspective. The dominant characteristics associated with the design of the maturity models are the maturity grids and a continuous representation. In addition, results do not allow identifying a trend for a specific number of maturity levels. The comprehensive review, analysis, and synthesis of the maturity model literature represent an important contribution to the organization of this research area, making possible to clarify some confusion that exists about concepts, approaches and components of maturity models in sustainability. Various aspects associated with the maturity models (i.e., research objectives, research methods, scope and characteristics of the design of models are explored to contribute to the evolution and significance of this multidimensional area.

  18. Association between frontal sinus morphology and cervical vertebral maturation for the assessment of skeletal maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Hafiz Taha; Shaikh, Attiya; Fida, Mubassar

    2016-10-01

    Various methods have been proposed to evaluate a patient's developmental status. However, most of them lacked precision and failed to give a reliable estimate of skeletal maturity. The aims of this study were to evaluate the association between frontal sinus morphology and cervical vertebral maturation for the assessment of skeletal maturity and to determine its validity in assessing the different stages of the adolescent growth spurt. A cross-sectional study was performed on the pretreatment lateral cephalograms of 252 subjects aged 8 to 21 years. The sample was divided into 6 groups based on the cervical vertebral maturation stages. The frontal sinus index was calculated by dividing the frontal sinus height and width, and the cervical stages were evaluated on the same radiograph. The Kruskal-Wallis test was applied to compare frontal sinus index values at different cervical stages, and the post hoc Dunnett T3 test was applied to compare frontal sinus index values between adjacent cervical stages for each sex. The Kendall tau-b values were computed to assess the correlation between the cervical stages and the sinus index. A P value of ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. The height and width of the frontal sinus were significantly larger in the male subjects than in the females. A significant association was found between the frontal sinus height and width and cervical stages (P ≤0.001) in both sexes. However, the changes in the frontal sinus index across the different cervical stages were found to be significant (P ≤0.001) in male subjects only. Similarly, a weak negative correlation was found between the sinus index and the cervical stages in male subjects (tau-b = -0.271; P cervical stages. The frontal sinus index cannot be used to identify the prepubertal, pubertal, and postpubertal stages of the adolescent growth spurt. Therefore, it cannot be used as a reliable maturity indicator. Copyright © 2016 American Association of

  19. Gamma-ray-induced bold seeded early maturing groundnut selections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoharan, V; Thangavelu, S [Regional Research Station, Vriddhachalam, Tamil Nadu (India)

    1990-07-01

    Full text: ''Chico'' is an early maturing (85-90 days) erect groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genotype utilised in groundnut improvement to incorporate earliness in high yielding varieties. Though it has high shelling out-turn, its yield potential is low since it has small seeds. Mutation breeding was started with the objective of improving the seed size. In a preliminary experiment, dry seeds were treated with 20, 30, 40 or 50 kR of gamma rays. The M{sub 1} generation was grown during the post rainy season of 1988-1989. The M{sub 2} generation was planted as individual plant progeny rows during the rainy season of 1989. 105 progeny rows were studied, the total number of M{sub 2} plants being 1,730. All the M{sub 2} plants were harvested 90 days after sowing. Seven mutants with bold seed size were obtained. The mutants had 100 kernel weight ranging from 22.2 to 40.4 g compared to 21.1 g of control. The study is in progress. (author)

  20. Gamma-ray-induced bold seeded early maturing groundnut selections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoharan, V.; Thangavelu, S.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: ''Chico'' is an early maturing (85-90 days) erect groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genotype utilised in groundnut improvement to incorporate earliness in high yielding varieties. Though it has high shelling out-turn, its yield potential is low since it has small seeds. Mutation breeding was started with the objective of improving the seed size. In a preliminary experiment, dry seeds were treated with 20, 30, 40 or 50 kR of gamma rays. The M 1 generation was grown during the post rainy season of 1988-1989. The M 2 generation was planted as individual plant progeny rows during the rainy season of 1989. 105 progeny rows were studied, the total number of M 2 plants being 1,730. All the M 2 plants were harvested 90 days after sowing. Seven mutants with bold seed size were obtained. The mutants had 100 kernel weight ranging from 22.2 to 40.4 g compared to 21.1 g of control. The study is in progress. (author)

  1. Delayed visual maturation is not from lead pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulson, B.L.; Howarth, D.

    2000-01-01

    Delayed visual maturation, a term introduced by Illingworth (1961), was first described by Beauvieux in 1926. Patients with delayed visual maturation are found to be blind soon after birth and, if it is the only defect, the vision improves by the time the child is 6 months of age. Since first described, numerous cases have been reported but so far no cause has been found. The diagnosis of three infants with delayed visual maturation in a period of 19 months, in the lead mining community of Broken Hill, raised the possibility of a common cause. Two of the families lived in the most heavily polluted area of the town and were renovating their lead-contaminated houses while the wife was pregnant. The diagnosis of delayed visual maturation was made on the following characteristics:(1) poor visual attention at or soon after birth; (2) normal ocular examination; (3) visual response occurring by 5 to 6 months of age. Once the diagnosis was established, the parents were requested to retain any teeth the children lost for lead isotope and lead concentration analysis. Gulson and Wilson (1994) and Gulson (1996) demonstrated the use of the lead isotope technique, combined with the well-established histology of teeth, in evaluating in utero and early childhood lead exposure from slices of deciduous teeth. In this approach, analysis of the enamel provides evidence of in utero exposure. Analysis of dentine provides evidence of exposure during the early childhood years, when hand-to-mouth activity is usually an important contributor to lead body burden, and potentially up to the time of tooth loss. The lead isotope technique uses the four isotopes of lead. Three are the stable end products of radioactive decay of uranium and thorium: 238 U to 206 Pb, 235 U to 207 Pb, and 232 Th to 208 Pb. The abundance of the fourth, 204 Pb, has been essentially constant since the Earth began and this isotope is commonly used as a reference isotope. Because three isotopes of lead are produced by

  2. Novel maturity parameters for mature to over-mature source rocks and oils based on the distribution of phenanthrene series compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zixiang Wang

    2016-03-01

    Two additional novel and an optimized maturation parameters based on the distribution of phenanthrene series compounds are proposed and their relationships to EasyRo% (x are established: log(MPs/P = 0.19x + 0.08 (0.9% < EasyRo% < 2.1%; log(MPs/P = 0.64x − 0.86 (2.1% < EasyRo% < 3.4%; log(DMPs/TMPs = 0.71x − 0.55 (0.9% < EasyRo% < 3.4%; log(MTR = 0.84x − 0.75 (0.9% < EasyRo% < 3.4%. These significant positive correlations are strong argument for using log(MPs/P, log(DMPs/TMPs and log(MTR as maturity parameters, especially for mature to over-mature source rocks.

  3. Maintaining ancient organelles: mitochondrial biogenesis and maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Rick B; Horton, Julie L; Kelly, Daniel P

    2015-05-22

    The ultrastructure of the cardiac myocyte is remarkable for the high density of mitochondria tightly packed between sarcomeres. This structural organization is designed to provide energy in the form of ATP to fuel normal pump function of the heart. A complex system comprised of regulatory factors and energy metabolic machinery, encoded by both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, is required for the coordinate control of cardiac mitochondrial biogenesis, maturation, and high-capacity function. This process involves the action of a transcriptional regulatory network that builds and maintains the mitochondrial genome and drives the expression of the energy transduction machinery. This finely tuned system is responsive to developmental and physiological cues, as well as changes in fuel substrate availability. Deficiency of components critical for mitochondrial energy production frequently manifests as a cardiomyopathic phenotype, underscoring the requirement to maintain high respiration rates in the heart. Although a precise causative role is not clear, there is increasing evidence that perturbations in this regulatory system occur in the hypertrophied and failing heart. This review summarizes current knowledge and highlights recent advances in our understanding of the transcriptional regulatory factors and signaling networks that serve to regulate mitochondrial biogenesis and function in the mammalian heart. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Human development: from conception to maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdemiro Carlos Sgarbieri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The main objective of this review was to describe and emphasize the care that a woman must have in the period prior to pregnancy, as well as throughout pregnancy and after the birth of the baby, cares and duties that should continue to be followed by mother and child throughout the first years of the child’s life. Such cares are of nutritional, behavioral and lifestyle natures, and also involve the father and the whole family. Human development, from conception to maturity, consists of a critical and important period due to the multitude of intrinsic genetic and environmental factors that influence, positively or negatively, the person's entire life. The human being, who originated and passed his/her first phase of development in the womb, receives influence from different factors: a of parental origin (father and mother, including health and lifestyle of the father and mother, genetic inheritance, nutrition of the mother prior to and during pregnancy; b events that affected the mother and hence the child under development in intrauterine life, at birth (delivery, during perinatal period, and throughout the early years of life. The fragility of development continues throughout the preschool, school and adolescent periods during which proper nutrition with a balanced lifestyle is essential and depends on guidance from the parents, caregivers and teachers.

  5. Arnold Gesell and the maturation controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Thomas C

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the work of Arnold Lucius Gesell and argues that he not only paved the way for contemporary research in motor development, but that he and colleagues anticipated fundamental issues about growth that must be addressed by psychologists and neuroscientists who are committed to the advancement of developmental science. Arnold Lucius Gesell was a pioneer in developmental psychology when the field was in its infancy. He worked diligently for the rights of physically and mentally handicapped children to receive special education that would enable them to find gainful employment. Gesell's writings in books and popular magazines increased public awareness of and support for preschool education and better foster care for orphans. Despite these achievements, many of his successors have questioned his views about infant development. Developmental psychologists have criticized Gesell for proposing a stage theory of infant growth that has fallen into disfavor among contemporary researchers. His conception of development as a maturational process has been challenged for allegedly reducing complex behavioral, perceptual, and learning processes to genetic factors. The author rejects this overly simplistic interpretation and contends that Gesell's work continues to stand the test of time.

  6. Optimum harvest maturity for Leymus chinensis seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixiang Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Timely harvest is critical to achieve maximum seed viability and vigour in agricultural production. However, little information exists concerning how to reap the best quality seeds of Leymus chinensis, which is the dominant and most promising grass species in the Songnen Grassland of Northern China. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate possible quality indices of the seeds at different days after peak anthesis. Seed quality at different development stages was assessed by the colours of the seed and lemmas, seed weight, moisture content, electrical conductivity of seed leachate and germination indices. Two consecutive years of experimental results showed that the maximum seed quality was recorded at 39 days after peak anthesis. At this date, the colours of the seed and lemmas reached heavy brown and yellow, respectively. The seed weight was highest and the moisture content and the electrical conductivity of seed leachate were lowest. In addition, the seed also reached its maximum germination percentage and energy at this stage, determined using a standard germination test (SGT and accelerated ageing test (AAT. Thus, Leymus chinensis can be harvested at 39 days after peak anthesis based on the changes in parameters. Colour identification can be used as an additional indicator to provide a more rapid and reliable measure of optimum seed maturity; approximately 10 days after the colour of the lemmas reached yellow and the colour of the seed reached heavy brown, the seed of this species was suitable for harvest.

  7. Optimizing development projects in mature basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swan, P.J. [BP Exploration, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    1995-08-01

    BP Exploration wishes to grow its gas business substantially and the Southern North Sea area expects to be a significant contributor to this growth. The Southern North Sea gas basin is characterised by a relatively large number of small prospects and discoveries lying within the catchment areas of existing pipeline systems serving larger fields currently in production. This growth will be achieved through expansion of production from existing large mature fields and new satellite developments, connected to existing pipeline systems. Significant modification to existing infrastructure will be required to bring the new production on stream. The low materiality of many of these new developments means that, based on current cost paradigms, they are sub-economic or do not offer returns commensurate with the risk. Also, implementation based on classical approaches tends to be resource-intensive in terms of key skills. Critical areas of concern in delivering growth objectives therefore relate to management of cost, implementation time and productivity of key human resources. The general approach adopted in pursuit of high performance includes a number of features: Innovative approaches to the service industries; simplification of equipment; streamlining of methodologies; application of novel technology; alignment of motivation of all contributors to overall objectives; and shifting the paradigm of risk. BP believes that this approach is a major breakthrough in extending and expanding the life of its assets in the Southern North Sea and is representative of the trend of optimization in the extended life of the Basin in general.

  8. Smart Grid Interoperability Maturity Model Beta Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widergren, Steven E.; Drummond, R.; Giroti, Tony; Houseman, Doug; Knight, Mark; Levinson, Alex; longcore, Wayne; Lowe, Randy; Mater, J.; Oliver, Terry V.; Slack, Phil; Tolk, Andreas; Montgomery, Austin

    2011-12-02

    The GridWise Architecture Council was formed by the U.S. Department of Energy to promote and enable interoperability among the many entities that interact with the electric power system. This balanced team of industry representatives proposes principles for the development of interoperability concepts and standards. The Council provides industry guidance and tools that make it an available resource for smart grid implementations. In the spirit of advancing interoperability of an ecosystem of smart grid devices and systems, this document presents a model for evaluating the maturity of the artifacts and processes that specify the agreement of parties to collaborate across an information exchange interface. You are expected to have a solid understanding of large, complex system integration concepts and experience in dealing with software component interoperation. Those without this technical background should read the Executive Summary for a description of the purpose and contents of the document. Other documents, such as checklists, guides, and whitepapers, exist for targeted purposes and audiences. Please see the www.gridwiseac.org website for more products of the Council that may be of interest to you.

  9. Reticulocyte maturity indices in iron deficiency anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Wollmann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the reticulocyte maturity indices (low, medium, and high fluorescence ratios in iron deficient 1- to 6-year-old children, and identify the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in this population. Methods: The present study included 39 subjects, divided into two groups: control subjects (n = 33, and subjects with iron deficiency anemia (n = 6. The results were analyzed by Student's t-test for comparison of means. Differences were considered significant when two-tailed p-value < 0.05. Results: Subjects with iron deficiency anemia presented increases in the proportion of mean (10.3 ± 4.7% vs. 6.0 ± 3.4%; p-value = 0.003, and high fluorescence reticulocytes (2.3 ± 0.87% vs. 0.9 ± 0.9%; p-value = 0.03 compared to the control group. The prevalence of anemia in this population was 15% (n = 6. Conclusion: The indices related to immaturity of reticulocytes are higher in the presence of iron deficiency, thus demonstrating a deficiency in the raw material to form hemoglobin and are, therefore, possible early markers of iron deficiency and anemia. We emphasize the need to standardize these indices for use in clinical practice and lab test results.

  10. Regeneration of tropical maize lines ( Zea mays l .) from mature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of immature zygotic embryos as an explant for maize regeneration has been hampered by the strictly limited suitable duration of immature embryos for culture. In contrast, mature zygotic embryos harvested from dry seeds are ubiquitous. However, generally mature embryos and especially tropical maize genotypes ...

  11. Age of biological maturity of Malaysian girls by ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor Laily Abu Bakar; Prasanta K Majumdar; Tan Boon Ann

    1983-01-01

    This study estimates the age of biological maturity, defined as the end of adolescent sterility, of Malaysian girls by employing an indiredt methodology. Biological maturity usually occurs about 3 years after puberty. Adolescent subfecundity is due to anovulatory cycles or to short luteal phases among menarchial girls. In this study, age at biological maturity is estimated by considering retrospective fertility and family survey data on marriage, 1st birt, and contraceptive use. The waiting time for the biologically mature females to conceive is 3.0 months; 3.2 months among the Malays, 2.7 months among the Chinese, and 2.8 months among the Indians. The maximum age of attaining biological maturity is 20 for all ethnic groups except Indians (19 years). The maximum age is estimated by considering females whose 1st pregnancy ended in a live birth and who have been living most of the time with their husbands since marriage, with no contraceptive usage. The expected age of biological maturity at birth is 15.6 years; 15.3 years for the Malays, 15.4 years for the Chinese, and 14.8 years for the Indians. The means age of attaining biological maturity coincides with the expected age of attaining biological maturity at birth.

  12. Methodology for Diagnostics of the Company Management and Technological Maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Martynyuk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Approaches to the measurement and assessment of the company technological maturity level and management maturity apart, formulated in scientific researches and practical recommendations, significantly differ according to their purpose, content and depth of the factors analysis. Studies of the company technological maturity and possibility for implementing business processes and certain IT technologies have become more advanced in some degree. The general idea of forming a model of diagnostics of the management and technological maturity is based on the determination of prevailing company system influence components. Management techniques are a nucleus of the model, and the innovation level of management techniques is an energy impulse inciting to development. Basing on the analysis performed, the author created a concept of levels of the company management and technological maturity considering the main parameters of the company management and technological maturity. A composite algorithm was proposed for determining the level of managerial technological maturity (LMTM, end exposition of a complex of management techniques to ensure the company dynamic progress based on determining a level of the management and technological maturity. The advantages and disadvantages are determined by the methodology. The performed approbation has confirmed the approach validity and its usefulness. The approbation shows the reliability and unambiguity of interpreting results. To use it for bigger enterprises and corporations, it is not even necessary to change identification parameters.

  13. Pricing constant maturity credit default swaps under jumo dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jönsson, H.; Schoutens, W.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the pricing of Constant Maturity Credit Default Swaps (CMCDS) under single sided jump models. The CMCDS offers default protection in exchange for a floating premium which is periodically reset and indexed to the market spread on a CDS with constant maturity tenor written on

  14. Revaluation of maturity and stability indices for compost ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BOD/COD ratio of compost was studied in conjunction with C/N ratio as commonly maturity index. Carbonaceous materials as well as nitrogenous materials declined in open-air conditions during 20 weeks. C/N ratio was correlated with BOD/COD, a couple parameters to qualify the compost was mature and stable.

  15. Pharmaceutical Options for Triggering of Final Oocyte Maturation in ART

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Juan Carlos; Humaidan, Peter; Bernabéu, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Since the pioneering days of in vitro fertilization, hCG has been the gold standard to induce final follicular maturation. We herein reviewed different pharmaceutical options for triggering of final oocyte maturation in ART. The new upcoming agent seems to be GnRHa with its potential advantages o...

  16. The Self--The Global Factor of Emotional Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Erika

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between emotional maturity and the developing self in the gifted individual is examined. Emotional maturity is seen to involve the integration of intrapersonal and interpersonal aspects of the personality. The developing self is thought to be more than the sum of its components and becomes a global factor in the development of a…

  17. Self-Esteem and Emotional Maturity in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Jupian J.; Sand, Margaret C.

    1981-01-01

    Determined if self-esteem is related to emotional maturity. Scores from 200 male and female college students on Coopersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory and on the Washburne Social-Adjustment Inventory were correlated. Students high in self-esteem were found to be more emotionally mature than students low in self-esteem. (Author)

  18. Tomato seeds maturity detection system based on chlorophyll fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiling; Wang, Xiu; Meng, Zhijun

    2016-10-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence intensity can be used as seed maturity and quality evaluation indicator. Chlorophyll fluorescence intensity of seed coats is tested to judge the level of chlorophyll content in seeds, and further to judge the maturity and quality of seeds. This research developed a detection system of tomato seeds maturity based on chlorophyll fluorescence spectrum technology, the system included an excitation light source unit, a fluorescent signal acquisition unit and a data processing unit. The excitation light source unit consisted of two high power LEDs, two radiators and two constant current power supplies, and it was designed to excite chlorophyll fluorescence of tomato seeds. The fluorescent signal acquisition unit was made up of a fluorescence spectrometer, an optical fiber, an optical fiber scaffolds and a narrowband filter. The data processing unit mainly included a computer. Tomato fruits of green ripe stage, discoloration stage, firm ripe stage and full ripe stage were harvested, and their seeds were collected directly. In this research, the developed tomato seeds maturity testing system was used to collect fluorescence spectrums of tomato seeds of different maturities. Principal component analysis (PCA) method was utilized to reduce the dimension of spectral data and extract principal components, and PCA was combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to establish discriminant model of tomato seeds maturity, the discriminant accuracy was greater than 90%. Research results show that using chlorophyll fluorescence spectrum technology is feasible for seeds maturity detection, and the developed tomato seeds maturity testing system has high detection accuracy.

  19. Mature Students Speak Up: Career Exploration and the Working Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, Terilyn

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study was undertaken to learn more about how mature students perceive the career counselling process in a post-secondary institution. Through the use of critical incident technique this study examined how three mature students interpret their relationship between themselves and their counsellors. Significant factors identified as…

  20. Evaluation of sexual maturity among adolescent male sickle cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanner staging and testicular volume assessment were both used as models for evaluating stages of sexual maturation among SCA patients and their normal counterparts matched for age and socioeconomic status. Results. SCA patients showed delayed onset and completion of sexual maturation. TV of subjects was ...

  1. Comparative study of the nutritional composition of matured green ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    peppery fruit”. The fruit serve as a stimulant and eaten raw. It is still green when matured and turn from yellow to red if left for sometime after reaching maturity. Dennettia tripetala is one of the most cherished stimulants. However, there is lack of ...

  2. Relationship between Problem-Solving Ability and Career Maturity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relationship between problem-solving ability and career maturity of secondary school students in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. 230 final year secondary school students completed self-report measures of problem solving and career maturity. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyse the data ...

  3. Five-Factor Personality Traits as Predictor of Career Maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atli, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to determine the predictive strength of personality traits based on the five-factor theory on the level of career maturity Research Methods: The sample of the study included a total of 429 high school students, 248 females (57.8%) and 181 males (42.2%). The study utilized the "Career Maturity Scale" to determine…

  4. Mature age job seekers : The role of proactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Bock, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - In the context of demographic and economic changes, helping mature age job seekers find employment is imperative. The purpose of this paper is to examine mature age job seekers' proactive personality as a moderator of the relationship between age and job search intensity; and to examine

  5. Assessing organisational governance maturity: A retail industry case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Marius Wessels

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For any business to operate effectively, a governance framework that operates at the relevant maturity level is required. An organisational governance maturity framework is a tool that leadership can use to determine governance maturity. This study aims to determine whether the organisational governance maturity framework (developed by Wilkinson can be applied to the selected retail industry organisation to assess the maturity of the organisation’s governance, limited to the ‘leadership’ attribute. Firstly, a high-level literature review on ethical leadership, ethical decision-making, ethical foundation and culture (‘tone at the top’, and organisational governance and maturity was conducted. Secondly, a Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE listed South African-based company was selected for the empirical part of the study using a single case study research design. The empirical results confirmed that the organisational governance maturity framework can be used to determine the maturity level of organisational governance for the selected attribute of ‘leadership’

  6. Vision-based judgment of tomato maturity under growth conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the picking time of tomato and design the control strategy for the harvesting robot, the judgment of tomato maturity under natural conditions is ... Hue-mean and red-green color-difference image mean can be used as a criterion for the judgment of tomato maturity, and the tests indicated that the redgreen mean ...

  7. Measuring chain digitisation maturity: an assessment of Dutch retail branches.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, M.; Batenburg, R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to develop a validated measurement model and typology for chain digitisation maturity, defined as the degree of interorganisational collaboration through ICT. Design/methodology/approach: Through a literature (meta) study, 22 existing maturity models are found and

  8. Experiences with the Capability Maturity Model in a research environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velden, van der M.J.; Vreke, J.; Wal, van der B.; Symons, A.

    1996-01-01

    The project described here was aimed at evaluating the Capability Maturity Model (CMM) in the context of a research organization. Part of the evaluation was a standard CMM assessment. It was found that CMM could be applied to a research organization, although its five maturity levels were considered

  9. 7 CFR 915.332 - Florida avocado maturity regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Florida avocado maturity regulation. 915.332 Section... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Container and Pack Regulations § 915.332 Florida avocado maturity regulation. (a...

  10. 7 CFR 944.31 - Avocado import maturity regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Avocado import maturity regulation. 944.31 Section 944...; IMPORT REGULATIONS § 944.31 Avocado import maturity regulation. (a) Pursuant to section 8e [7 U.S.C. 608e...—Fruits; Import Regulations, the importation into the United States of any avocados, except the Hass...

  11. The maturation and germination of Phytophthora ramorum Chlamydospores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron L. Smith; Everett M. Hansen

    2008-01-01

    Chlamydospores are a distinctive feature of Phytophthora ramorum. They are formed quickly in agar, and within colonized leaves. We followed their development and maturation in vitro and in vivo, and studied conditions affecting their germination. Cell walls of mature P. ramorum chlamydospores...

  12. Variations in fatty acid composition during maturation of cumin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in fatty acids were studied during maturation of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds cultivated in the North-Eastern region of Tunisia (Menzel Temim). The fruits matured in 49 Days after flowering (DAF). The first results show a rapid oil accumulation started in newly formed fruits (8.2%) and continued until their full ...

  13. Mature neurons dynamically restrict apoptosis via redundant premitochondrial brakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annis, Ryan P; Swahari, Vijay; Nakamura, Ayumi; Xie, Alison X; Hammond, Scott M; Deshmukh, Mohanish

    2016-12-01

    Apoptotic cell death is critical for the early development of the nervous system, but once the nervous system is established, the apoptotic pathway becomes highly restricted in mature neurons. However, the mechanisms underlying this increased resistance to apoptosis in these mature neurons are not completely understood. We have previously found that members of the miR-29 family of microRNAs (miRNAs) are induced with neuronal maturation and that overexpression of miR-29 was sufficient to restrict apoptosis in neurons. To determine whether endogenous miR-29 alone was responsible for the inhibition of cytochrome c release in mature neurons, we examined the status of the apoptotic pathway in sympathetic neurons deficient for all three miR-29 family members. Unexpectedly, we found that the apoptotic pathway remained largely restricted in miR-29-deficient mature neurons. We therefore probed for additional mechanisms by which mature neurons resist apoptosis. We identify miR-24 as another miRNA that is upregulated in the maturing cerebellum and sympathetic neurons that can act redundantly with miR-29 by targeting a similar repertoire of prodeath BH3-only genes. Overall, our results reveal that mature neurons engage multiple redundant brakes to restrict the apoptotic pathway and ensure their long-term survival. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  14. Physical state of the second mature age men working as teachers of higher educational establishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Penzie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available It is presented characteristic of physical state of the second mature age men working as teachers of higher educational establishments. The experiment involved 46 teachers - men second mature age.The investigation shows that the studied people have most data of cardiovascular and respiratory system of a low level. It indicates the necessity of improvement of body’s functional systems and increasing a hypoxia tolerance level. Planning of selection of physical education means in the sphere of preventive and sanitary classes with male – teachers of higher educational establishments is substantiated. It is marked that in the system prophylactic health-improvement employments it is necessary to utillize individual approach for men with the high, middle and low level of physical preparedness. The necessity of account of motivational priorities, decisions of the personal aims and tasks, specifics of pedagogical activity, is marked, selection of facilities which have a high health effect.

  15. A model-independent view of the mature organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, M.; Langston, D.

    1996-12-31

    Over the last 10 years, industry has been dealing with the issues of process and organizational maturity. This focus on process is driven by the success that manufacturing organizations have had implementing the management principles of W. Edwards Deming and Joseph M. Juran. The organizational-maturity focus is driven by organizations striving to be ISO 9000 compliant or to achieve a specific level on one of the maturity models. Unfortunately, each of the models takes a specific view into what is a very broad arena. That is to say, each model addresses only a specific subset of the characteristics of maturity. This paper attempts to extend beyond these specific views to answer the general question, What is a mature organization and its relationship to Quantitative management and statistical process control?

  16. Patterns of pulmonary maturation in normal and abnormal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldkrand, J W; Slattery, D S

    1979-03-01

    Fetal pulmonary maturation may be a variable event depending on various feto-maternal environmental and biochemical influences. The patterns of maturation were studied in 211 amniotic fluid samples from 123 patients (normal 55; diabetes 23; Rh sensitization 19; preeclampsia 26). The phenomenon of globule formation from the amniotic fluid lipid extract and is relation to pulmonary maturity was utilized for this analysis. Validation of this technique is presented. A normal curve was constructed from 22 to 42 weeks; gestation and compared to the abnormal pregnancies. Patients with class A, B, and C diabetes and Rh-sensitized pregnancies had delayed pulmonary maturation. Patients with class D diabetes and preclampsia paralleled the normal course of maturation. A discussion of these results and their possible cause is presented.

  17. early maturing mutants in Indica rice and their traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiulan; He Zhentian; Han Yuepeng; Liu Xueyu; Yang Hefeng; Xu Chenwu; Gu Shiliang

    1998-01-01

    The correlation and genetic parameters of eleven agronomic characters of 50 early mature lines induced from late mature cultivar, IR 1529-68-3-2 were studied by morphological classification and correlation and regression analysis. The results showed that: 1. The early mutants could be divided into two ecotype: early mature type and medium mature type of mid-maturity rice. 2. The 1000-grain weight of early mutants negatively correlated with the length of growing period. 3. According to direct path coefficients, the relation with heading period of early mutants was in order of 1000-grain-weight>plant height>seed sterility. 4.The higher heritability in broad sense were found in plant height, 1000 grain weight and heading period of the early mutants

  18. Maturity level of local productive arrangements (LPA: a diagnosis of the caps LPA in Apucarana – PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Reinaldo Petter

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the maturity level of a Caps cluster, capable to analyze the points on which the cluster is the need to make improvements. This research is classified as an applied research, aimed at generating knowledge for practical application in the crowded universe of research, also useful in solving specific problems, in this case the approach is little in the literature of maturity in production clusters, in contrast to the importance this practice in the management of productive agglomerations. This research also ranks on his way to as qualitative and quantitative approach. Data collection took place through the application of a questionnaire developed by Pietrobon (2009, at a Caps Cluster located in Apucarana – Brazil. This search tool maps the maturity of productive clusters through 14 qualitative dimensions, where each has subdivisions that are deployed on specific issues. They still have a numerical weight assigned to you which subsequently generate a score for assessing the maturity level of APL. As results were known information that will be useful as a basis for necessary improvements to the management of APL, which must be shaped according to the specifics of the arrangement, but that foster progress toward this. The score was considered positive, but this points to a broad range of necessary improvements to the maturity level of agglomeration studied.

  19. Arteriovenous fistula maturation in patients with permanent access created prior to or after hemodialysis initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Juan C; Martinez, Laisel; Tabbara, Marwan; Dvorquez, Denise; Mehandru, Sushil K; Asif, Arif; Vazquez-Padron, Roberto I; Salman, Loay H

    2017-05-15

    Multiple factors and comorbidities have been implicated in the ability of arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) to mature, including vessel anatomy, advanced age, and the presence of coronary artery disease or peripheral vascular disease. However, little is known about the role of uremia on AVF primary failure. In this study, we attempt to evaluate the effect of uremia on AVF maturation by comparing AVF outcomes between pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage five patients and those who had their AVF created after hemodialysis (HD) initiation. We included 612 patients who underwent AVF creation between 2003 and 2015 at the University of Miami Hospital and Jackson Memorial Hospital. Effects of uremia on primary failure were evaluated using univariate statistical comparisons and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Primary failure occurred in 28.1% and 26.3% of patients with an AVF created prior to or after HD initiation, respectively (p = 0.73). The time of HD initiation was not associated with AVF maturation in multivariate logistic regression analysis (p = 0.57). In addition, pre-operative blood urea nitrogen (p = 0.78), estimated glomerular filtration rate (p = 0.66), and serum creatinine levels (p = 0.14) were not associated with AVF primary failure in pre-dialysis patients. Our results show that clearance of uremia with regular HD treatments prior to AVF creation does not improve the frequency of vascular access maturation.

  20. Effect of gonadotropins on oocyte maturation in vitro: an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Wei; Xu, Bao-Zeng; Li, Mo; Liu, Di; Feng, Huai L; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2010-03-15

    Analysis of the effects of human-derived gonadotropin drugs, FSH and LH (Repronex) and hCG (Novarel), on oocyte maturation, using a porcine oocyte in vitro maturation system as a culture model. Randomized research experimental study. Academic basic research laboratory. Prepubertal gilts that were slaughtered in the local slaughter house. Oocytes will be exposed to immunofluorescent staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy: Western blot analysis on cumulus-oocyte-complexes following treatment with different concentrations of the gonadotropin drugs Repronex, Novarel, and a Repronex and Novarel combination. Analysis of porcine oocyte spindle and chromosomal configuration with alpha-tubulin-fluorescein isothiocyanate antibody and propidium iodide staining. Porcine oocyte mitochondrial distribution and aggregation pattern staining was assessed with Mito Tracker Red CMXRox probe. Porcine oocyte cortical granule distribution was observed via peanut agglutinin-fluorescein isothiocyannate staining; Western blot analysis detected extra-cellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation in cumulus cells. An increase of gonadotropin concentration in the culture medium resulted in an increase in the following: the percentage of oocytes reaching metaphase II, normal configuration of the spindle, normal chromosomal alignment, cortical granule migration, and mitochondrial aggregation. Levels of nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation peaked as the concentration of gonadotropins approached its threshold level. Addition of a threshold concentration of the gonadotropin drugs Repronex, Novarel, and a combination of the two can significantly improve porcine oocyte maturation in vitro. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Maturity index on reliability: covering non-technical aspects of IEC61508 reliability certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brombacher, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    One of the more recent developments in the field of reliability and safety is the realisation that these aspects are not only a function of the product itself, but also of the organisation realising this product. A second development is a trend from an often predominantly qualitative analysis towards a quantitative analysis. In contrast to the (older) DIN 0801, the (more recent) IEC61508 requires, on product level, also a quantitative analysis and, on organisational level, an assessment of the lifecycle of a product by analysing the (maturity of the) relevant business processes (DIN V VDE 0801. Grundsaetze fuer Rechner in Systemen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben, 1990; DIN V 0801. Grundlegende Sicherheitsbetrachtungen fuer MSR-Schutzeinrichtungen, 1994; DIN V VDE 0801 A1. Grundsaetze fuer Rechner in Systemen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben, Aenderung A1, 1994; IEC 61508 Functional Safety of electrical/electronic/programmable electronic safety-related systems, draft 4.0, 1997). The IEC standard 61508 covers: (i) technical aspects, both on a quantitative and a qualitative level; (ii) organisational aspects, both on aspects of maturity of business processes (quantitative) and on aspects of the definition and application of procedures (qualitative). This paper shows the necessity for an analysis on all aspects in a safety certification process, and presents an overview of the available tools and techniques for the various quadrants. As methods and tools for especially quadrant C are currently unavailable, this paper will propose a method to assess and improve the maturity of an organisation on reliability management: the maturity index on reliability (MIR)

  2. In Vitro Maturation and Embryo Development to blastocyst Mouse Germinal Vesicle Oocytes after Vitrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nikseresht

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Vitrification is a simple and ultra rapid technique for the conservation of fertility. Improving pregnancy rate associate with the use of cryopreserved oocytes would be an important advanced in human assisted reproductive technology (ART. The purpose of this study was to evaluate survival, oocytes maturation and embryo development to the blastocyst stage after vitrification of oocytes germinal vesicle-stage and multi stage Methods: In the present experimental study, germinal vesicle oocytes with or without cumulus cells were transferred to vitrification solution containing 30% (v/v ethylene glycol, 18% (w/v Ficoll-70, and 0.3 M sucrose, either by single step or in a step-wise way. After vitrification and storage in liquid nitrogen, the oocytes were thawed and washed twice in culture medium TCM119, and then subjected to in vitro maturation, fertilization, and culture. Data analysis was performed by using One-way variance and Tukey tests. Results: Oocytes survival, metaphase 2 stage oocyte maturation, fertilization and embryo formed blastocyst in vitrification methods multistage were significantly higher than the single step procedure (P<0/05 Conclusion: The Germinal vesicle stage oocytes vitrified with cumulus cells and stepwise procedure had positive effect on the survival, maturation and developmental rate on blastocyst compared to oocytes without cumulus cell and single step procedure. Key words: Germinal Vesicle Oocyte, Blastocyst, Vitrification, Ethylene glycol

  3. Lysophosphatidic acid-functionalised titanium as a superior surface for supporting human osteoblast (MG63 maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JP Mansell

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Covalent modifications of titanium with small molecules known to promote human osteoblast maturation are especially attractive in developing superior biomaterials. An important step in securing competent bone formation at implant sites is promoting the formation of mature osteoblasts, either from committed pre-osteoblasts or from their mesenchymal progenitors. To this end our research has focussed on identifying molecules that enhance human osteoblast formation and maturation and to develop ways of covalently attaching these molecules to implant surfaces so that they are more likely to withstand the rigors of the implantation process whilst still retaining their bioactivity. Herein we report the novel production of lipid-functionalised titanium using lysophosphatidic acid or a related compound, (3S 1-fluoro-3-hydroxy-4-butyl-1-phosphonate. Both lipids were especially effective at co-operating with calcitriol to promote human osteoblast maturation at these modified Ti surfaces in vitro. The novel findings presented offer enticing new developments towards the fabrication of next-generation implant devices with the potential to significantly enhance the osseointegration process and with it improvements in future prosthesis performance and longevity.

  4. A Management Maturity Model (MMM for project-based organisational performance assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Langston

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Common sense suggests that organisations are more likely to deliver successful projects if they have systems in place that reflect a mature project environment based on a culture of continuous improvement. This paper develops and discusses a Management Maturity Model (MMM to assess the maturity of project management organisations through a customisable, systematic, strategic and practical methodology inspired from the seminal work of Darwin, Deming, Drucker and Daniel. The model presented is relevant to organisations, such as construction and engineering companies, that prefer to use the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK™ Guide published by the Project Management Institute (PMI, but without the disadvantages of excessive time and cost commitments and a ‘one size fits all’ approach linked to rigid increments of maturity. It offers a game-changing advance in the application of project-based organisational performance assessment compared to existing market solutions that are unnecessarily complex. The feasibility of MMM is field-tested using a medium-sized data centre infrastructure firm in Tehran.

  5. Next generation software process improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Turnas, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Software is often developed under a process that can at best be described as ad hoc. While it is possible to develop quality software under an ad hoc process, formal processes can be developed to help increase the overall quality of the software under development. The application of these processes allows for an organization to mature. The software maturity level, and process improvement, of an organization can be measured with the Cap...

  6. Periostin in Mature Stage Localized Scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Woo; Park, Jung Tae; Kim, Jung Ho; Koh, Seong-Joon; Yoon, Hyun-Sun; Cho, Soyun; Park, Hyun-Sun

    2017-06-01

    Periostin is a novel matricellular protein expressed in many tissues, including bone, periodontal ligament, and skin. Although its expression is prominent in various fibrotic conditions, studies of periostin in localized scleroderma are rare. To investigate the expression of periostin and other molecules in localized scleroderma. A retrospective study of 14 patients with confirmed mature stage localized scleroderma was undertaken. Fourteen age-matched and biopsy site-matched subjects with normal skin were included as controls. Collagen fiber deposition, periostin, procollagen, transforming growth factor-β, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 expression were assessed and compared between the two groups. Co-localization of α-smooth muscle actin and periostin was evaluated using confocal microscopy. Periostin was predominantly expressed along the dermo-epidermal junction in the controls. Conversely, patients with localized scleroderma demonstrated increased collagen fiber deposition and periostin expression that was more widely distributed along the entire dermis. MMP-1 staining showed increased expression in the epidermis and dermis of patients compared to scanty expression in the controls. A semi-quantitative evaluation showed a higher proportion of excessive collagen bundle deposition (57.1% vs. 7.1%, p =0.013), diffuse periostin positivity (42.9% vs. 0%, p =0.016), and moderate MMP-1 positivity (71.4% vs. 7.1%, p =0.001) in patients than in the controls. Compared to the controls, patients with localized scleroderma had enhanced periostin expression corresponding to increased collagen fiber deposition and unexpected overexpression of MMP-1. The results of this human in vivo study may implicate the pathogenesis of localized scleroderma.

  7. Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) Technology Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wayne A.; Wilson, Scott; Collins, Josh; Wilson, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) development effort was initiated by NASA Glenn Research Center with contractor Sunpower, Inc., to develop high-efficiency thermal-to-electric power conversion technology for NASA Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs). Early successful performance demonstrations led to the expansion of the project as well as adoption of the technology by the Department of Energy (DOE) and system integration contractor Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company as part of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) flight project. The ASRG integrates a pair of ASCs to convert the heat from a pair of General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules into electrical power. The expanded NASA ASC effort included development of several generations of ASC prototypes or engineering units to help prepare the ASC technology and Sunpower for flight implementation. Sunpower later had two parallel contracts allowing the last of the NASA engineering units called ASC-E3 to serve as pathfinders for the ASC-F flight convertors being built for DOE. The ASC-E3 convertors utilized the ASC-F flight specifications and were built using the ASC-F design and process documentation. Shortly after the first ASC-F pair achieved initial operation, due to budget constraints, the DOE ASRG flight development contract was terminated. NASA continues to invest in the development of Stirling RPS technology including continued production of the ASC-E3 convertors, seven of which have been delivered with one additional unit in production. Starting in fiscal year 2015, Stirling Convertor Technology Maturation has been reorganized as an element of the RPS Stirling Cycle Technology Development (SCTD) Project and long-term plans for continued Stirling technology advancement are in reformulation. This paper provides a status on the ASC project, an overview of advancements made in the design and production of the ASC at Sunpower, and a summary of acceptance tests, reliability tests, and tactical

  8. Melatonin accelerates maturation inducing hormone (MIH): induced oocyte maturation in carps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattoraj, Asamanja; Bhattacharyya, Sharmistha; Basu, Dipanjan; Bhattacharya, Shelley; Bhattacharya, Samir; Maitra, Saumen Kumar

    2005-02-01

    The present communication is an attempt to demonstrate the influence of melatonin on the action of maturation inducing hormone (MIH) on the maturation of oocytes in carps. The oocytes from gravid female major carp Labeo rohita were isolated and incubated separately in Medium 199 containing (a) only MIH (1 microg/ml), (b) only melatonin (at concentrations of 50, 100 or 500 pg/ml), and (c) both melatonin and MIH, but at different time intervals. In the latter group, melatonin was added to the incubating medium either (i) 4 h before addition of MIH, (ii) 2 h before addition of MIH, (iii) co-administered with MIH (0 h interval) or (iv) 2 h after addition of MIH. In each case, oocytes were further incubated for 4, 8, 12 or 16 h post- administration of MIH, and the effects of treatment on oocyte maturation were evaluated by considering the rate (%) of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). Incubation of oocytes in a medium containing only melatonin did not result in GVBD of any oocyte. Nearly all the oocytes underwent GVBD when incubated with MIH for 16 h. Administration of melatonin along with MIH (at 0 h interval) or 2 h after addition of MIH did not result in any significant change in the rate of GVBD compared to that in a medium containing only MIH. However, it was quite interesting to observe that incubation of oocytes with melatonin especially 4 h prior to addition of MIH in the medium, led to an accelerated rate of GVBD in the oocytes. Experiments with the oocytes of another major carp Cyprinus carpio following an identical schedule depicted similar results except a difference in the optimum melatonin dose. In L. rohita, 50 pg/ml melatonin had maximum acceleratory effect on MIH-induced GVBD of oocytes, while it was 100 pg/ml in C. carpio. Further study revealed that pre-incubation with melatonin accelerates the action of MIH on the formation of a complex of two proteins (MPF), a regulatory component called cyclin B and the catalytic component protein kinase known as

  9. Stability of the cytoskeleton of matured buffalo oocytes pretreated with cytochalasin B prior to vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C L; Xu, H Y; Xie, L; Lu, Y Q; Yang, X G; Lu, S S; Lu, K H

    2016-06-01

    Stabilizing the cytoskeleton system during vitrification can improve the post-thaw survival and development of vitrified oocytes. The cytoskeleton stabilizer cytochalasin B (CB) has been used in cryopreservation to improve the developmental competence of vitrified oocytes. To assess the effect of pretreating matured buffalo oocytes with CB before vitrification, we applied 0, 4, 8, or 12 μg/mL CB for 30 min. The optimum concentration of CB treatment (8 μg/mL for 30 min) was then used to evaluate the distribution of microtubules and microfilaments, the expression of the cytoskeleton proteins actin and tubulin, and the developmental potential of matured oocytes that were vitrified-warmed by the Cryotop method. Western blotting demonstrated that vitrification significantly decreased tubulin expression, but that the decrease was attenuated for oocytes pretreated with 8 μg/mL CB before vitrification. After warming and intracytoplasmic sperm injection, oocytes that were pretreated with 8 μg/mL CB before vitrification yielded significantly higher 8-cell and blastocyst rates than those that were vitrified without CB pretreatment. The values for the vitrified groups in all experiments were significantly lower (P < 0.01) than those of the control groups. In conclusion, pretreatment with 8 μg/mL CB for 30 min significantly improves the cytoskeletal structure, expression of tubulin, and development capacity of vitrified matured buffalo oocytes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Surgical management of complete diaphyseal third metacarpal and metatarsal bone fractures: clinical outcome in 10 mature horses and 11 foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischofberger, A S; Fürst, A; Auer, J; Lischer, C

    2009-05-01

    Osteosynthesis of third metacarpal (McIII) and third metatarsal (MtIII) bone fractures in horses is a surgical challenge and complications surrounding the repair are common. Retrospective studies evaluating surgical repair, complications and outcome are necessary to increase knowledge and improve success of long bone fracture repair in the horse. To evaluate clinical findings, surgical repair, post operative complications and outcome of 10 mature horses and 11 foals with McIII or MtIII fractures that were treated with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). Medical records were reviewed and follow-up information obtained by means of radiographs and/or telephone questionnaire. Survival was achieved in 62% of the horses (3 mature/10 foals). On long-term evaluation (> 6 months) 11 horses (2 mature/9 foals) were fit for their intended activity, one mature horse had a chronic low grade lameness, and one foal was lost to follow-up because it was sold. The main fracture types were simple transverse (333%) or simple oblique (28.6%) and 71.4% of the fractures were open, 3 Type I (one mature/2 foals) and 12 type II (7 mature/5 foals). The preoperative assessment revealed inadequate emergency treatment in 10 horses (5 mature/5 foals; 47.6%). Survival rate of horses with open fractures was 12.5% (1/8) in mature and 85.7% (6/7) in foals. Post operative incisional infection (4 mature, 3 foals) was only managed successfully in 2 foals. Fracture instability related to inadequate fracture fixation technique occurred in 4 horses (all mature) and was always associated with unsuccessful outcome. Age, bodyweight and infection are strongly associated with outcome in treatment of complete McIII/MtIII fractures. Rigid fixation using plates and screws can be successful in treatment of closed or open, complete diaphyseal McIII/MtIII fractures in mature horses and foals. Instable fixation, infection and a bodyweight > 320 kg are major risk factors for unsuccessful outcome.

  11. Improving Project Portfolio Management (PPM) for Improvement Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Jakobsen, Peter M.; Korsaa, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Project Portfolio Management (PPM) focus on the integration and alignment of projects with the business operation in order to achieve most value and cost-efficiency for the investment in projects. PPM is often a challenge and especially so for improvement projects where PPM is considerably...... of evaluating a portfolio of improvement projects and combine this evaluation with the effect they have on the CMMI maturity level. Further, the paper demonstrates how the combination of a strong senior management requirement for improved maturity and the focus on getting the most value out of PPM made...

  12. A maturity model for care pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schriek, M.; Turetken, O.; Kaymak, U.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last recent decades, increasing the quality of healthcare services while reducing costs has been among the top concerns in the healthcare landscape. Several healthcare institutions have initiated improvement programs and invested considerably in process orientation and management. Care

  13. Analysis of business process maturity and organisational performance relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinowski T. Bartosz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to present results of the study on business process maturity in relation to organisational performance. A two-phase methodology, based on literature review and survey was used. The literature is a source of knowledge about business process maturity and organisational performance, whereas the research on process maturity vs organisational performance in Polish Enterprises provides findings based on 84 surveyed companies. The main areas of the research covered: identification and analysis of maturity related variables and identification of organisational performance perspectives and its relation to process maturity. The study shows that there is a significant positive relation between process maturity and organisational performance. Although there are research on such relation available, they are scarce and have some significant limitations in terms of research sample or the scope of maturity or organisational performance covered. This publication is part of a project funded by the National Science Centre awarded by decision number DEC-2011/01/D/HS4/04070.

  14. Physical activity and biological maturation: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Denise Araújo Bacil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between physical activity (PA and biological maturation in children and adolescents. DATA SOURCE: We performed a systematic review in April 2013 in the electronic databases of PubMed/MEDLINE, SportDiscus, Web of Science and LILACS without time restrictions. A total of 628 potentially relevant articles were identified and 10 met the inclusion criteria for this review: cross-sectional or longitudinal studies, published in Portuguese, English or Spanish, with schoolchildren aged 9-15 years old of both genders. DATA SYNTHESIS: Despite the heterogeneity of the studies, there was an inverse association between PA and biological maturation. PA decreases with increased biological and chronological age in both genders. Boys tend to be more physically active than girls; however, when controlling for biological age, the gender differences disappear. The association between PA and timing of maturation varies between the genders. Variation in the timing of biological maturation affects the tracking of PA in early adolescent girls. This review suggests that mediators (BMI, depression, low self-esteem, and concerns about body weight can explain the association between PA and biological maturation. CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between PA and biological maturation. PA decreases with increasing biological age with no differences between genders. As for the timing of biological maturation, this association varies between genders.

  15. Skeletal maturity assessment using mandibular canine calcification stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vildana Džemidžić

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aims of this study were: to investigate the relationship between mandibular canine calcification stages and skeletal maturity; and to evaluate whether the mandibular canine calcification stages may be used as a reliable diagnostic tool for skeletal maturity assessment. Materials and methods. This study included 151 subjects: 81 females and 70 males, with ages ranging from 9 to 16 years (mean age: 12.29±1.86 years. The inclusion criteria for subjects were as follows: age between 9 and 16 years; good general health without any hormonal, nutritional, growth or dental development problems. Subjects who were undergoing or had previously received orthodontic treatment were not included in this study. The calcification stages of the left permanent mandibular canine were assessed according to the method of Demirjian, on panoramic radiographs. Assessment of skeletal maturity was carried out using the cervical vertebral maturation index (CVMI, as proposed by the Hassel-Farman method, on lateral cephalograms. The correlation between the calcification stages of mandibular canine and skeletal maturity was estimated separately for male and female subjects. Results. Correlation coefficients between calcification stages of mandibular canine and skeletal maturity were 0.895 for male and 0.701 for female subjects. Conclusions. A significant correlation was found between the calcification stages of the mandibular canine and skeletal maturity. The calcification stages of the mandibular canine show a satisfactory diagnostic performance only for assessment of pre-pubertal growth phase.

  16. Mall shopping preferences and patronage of mature shoppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel G. Rousseau

    2014-04-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the buying behaviour of mature consumers (older than 55 in Port Elizabeth shopping malls. Motivation for the study: The perception of mature shoppers as old people with limited financial resources is untrue. This study investigates the behaviours of mature shoppers. Research design, approach and method: A model guided the investigation. The authors facilitated four focus groups to gain insight into mature consumers’ buying behaviours. A field survey followed with a sample of mall shoppers (n = 680. The authors performed content analysis of the focus group material and used SPSS and AMOS programs to analyse the data quantitatively. Main findings: Focus group interviews revealed specific buying behaviours of mature shoppers. The survey showed significant relationships between various determinants that influence respondents’ buying behaviours with adequate model fit indices. These results confirmed the convergent and discriminant validity of the model that comprises mall shopping anticipation, experience and patronage. Practical/managerial implications: Mature shoppers’ expectations exceeded their experiences, suggesting dissatisfaction with some aspects of their experiences. Retailers and shopping mall managers need to redesign malls if they wish to cater for the segment of ageing shoppers and their spending power. Contribution/value-add: The study contributes to the research available in South Africa on service at shopping malls that cater for mature consumers.

  17. Relationship between viticultural climatic indices and grape maturity in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, C.; Barlow, E.; Darbyshire, R.; Eckard, R.; Goodwin, I.

    2017-10-01

    Historical temperature data and maturity records were analyzed for 45 vineyard blocks in 15 winegrowing regions across Australia in order to evaluate the suitability of common viticultural indices to estimate date of grape maturity. Five temperature-based viticultural indices (mean January temperature, mean growing season temperature, growing degree days, biologically effective degree days, Huglin Index) along with four springtime temperature indices (mean and maximum temperature summations for September, October, and November; growing degree days and biologically effective degree days modified to include September) were compared to maturity data in order to investigate index relationship to observed maturity timing. Daily heat summations for the months of September, October, and November showed the best correlation to day of year of maturity, suggesting that springtime temperatures are important relative to the timing of grape maturity. Mean January temperature, a commonly used index, had the poorest correlation with day of year of maturity of all the indices included in this study. Indices that included the month of April had poorer correlation than indices that shifted the months included in the growing season to be from September to March inclusive. Calculated index values for the past 30 years for every region included in this study showed increasing temporal trends to various degrees, indicating that all regions studied are experiencing warming temperatures during the growing season. These results emphasize the need to reevaluate viticultural indices in the context of a changing climate.

  18. Insulin-like growth factor I: a biologic maturation indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Ramy Abdul Rahman; Soliman, Sanaa Abou Zeid; Foda, Manal Yehya; Fayed, Mona Mohamed Salah

    2012-11-01

    Determination of the maturation level and the subsequent evaluation of growth potential during preadolescence and adolescence are important for optimal orthodontic treatment planning and timing. This study was undertaken to evaluate the applicability of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) blood level as a maturation indicator by correlating it to the cervical vertebral maturation index. The study was conducted with 120 subjects, equally divided into 60 males (ages, 10-18 years) and 60 females (ages, 8-16 years). A lateral cephalometric radiograph and a blood sample were taken from each subject. For each subject, cervical vertebral maturation and IGF-I serum level were assessed. Mean values of IGF-I in each stage of cervical vertebral maturation were calculated, and the means in each stage were statistically compared with those of the other stages. The IGF-I mean value at each cervical vertebral maturation stage was statistically different from the mean values at the other stages. The highest mean values were observed in stage 4, followed by stage 5 in males and stage 3 in females. IGF-I serum level is a reliable maturation indicator that could be applied in orthodontic diagnosis. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN DENTAL AND SKELETAL MATURATION STAGES IN CROATIAN SUBJECTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srkoc, Tamara; Mestrović, Senka; Anić-Milosević, Sandra; Slaj, Mladen

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the relationships between the stages of calcification of teeth and cervical vertebral maturation. The sample consisted of 295 subjects (129 male and 166 female), mean age 13.36 ± 2.65 (range 7-18) years. Dental age was evaluated from panoramic radiographs according to the method of Demirjian. Cervical vertebral maturation was determined on lateral cephalometric radiographs using cervical vertebrae maturation stages (CVS). For assessing the relationship between cervical vertebral and dental maturation, percentage distributions of the stages of calcification for each studied tooth were calculated. Only in the first CVS stage, boys and girls were of the same age. In all other stages (CVS 2-CVS 6) girls were by 0.98 (range 0.23-1.86) younger than boys. Gender differences in the mineralization pattern were also observed. It was found that dental maturation was finished earlier in female subjects. The highest correlation coefficient between dental and skeletal maturity was found for second premolars. Mineralization pattern of second premolars could be considered as a guideline for prediction of the pubertal growth spurt. Dental maturation stages might be clinically useful as a reliable indicator of facial growth.

  20. Late effects of radiation on mature and growing bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramuz, O.; Mornex, F.; Bourhis, J.

    1997-01-01

    The physiopathology of radiation-induced bone damage is no completely elucidated. Ionizing radiation may induce an inhibition or an impairment of growing bone. This fact is of particular importance in children, and represents one of the most important dose-limiting factors in the radiotherapeutic management of children with malignant diseases. Scoliosis, epiphyseal slippage, avascular necrosis, abnormalities of craniofacial growth may be observed after radiation. Child's age at the time of treatment, location of irradiated bone and irradiation characteristics may influence the radiation related observed effects. In adults, pathological analysis of mature bone after ionizing radiation exposure are rare, suggesting that it is difficult to draw a clear feature of the action of radiation on the bone. Osteoporosis, medullary fibrosis and cytotoxicity on bone cells lead to fracture or necrosis. Various factors can influence bone tolerance to radiation such as bone involvement by tumor cells or infection, which is frequent is mandibulary osteoradionecrosis. Technical improvements in radiation techniques have also decreased radio-induced bone complications : the volume, fractionation and total dose are essential to consider. The absence of a consistent radiation-induced late effects evaluation scale has hampered efforts to analyze the influence of various therapeutic maneuvers and the comparison of results from different reported series. The currently proposed evaluation scale may help harmonizing the classification of radiation-induced bone late effects. (author)

  1. Towards the maturity model for feature oriented domain analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Javed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the quality of a model has always been a challenge for researchers in academia and industry. The quality of a feature model is a prime factor because it is used in the development of products. A degraded feature model leads the development of low quality products. Few efforts have been made on improving the quality of feature models. This paper is an effort to present our ongoing work i.e. development of FODA (Feature Oriented Domain Analysis maturity model which will help to evaluate the quality of a given feature model. In this paper, we provide the quality levels along with their descriptions. The proposed model consists of four levels starting from level 0 to level 3. Design of each level is based on the severity of errors, whereas severity of errors decreases from level 0 to level 3. We elaborate each level with the help of examples. We borrowed all examples from the material published by the research community of Software Product Lines (SPL for the application of our framework.

  2. Microcracks induce osteoblast alignment and maturation on hydroxyapatite scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yutian

    Physiological bone tissue is a mineral/collagen composite with a hierarchical structure. The features in bone, such as mineral crystals, fibers, and pores can range from the nanometer to the centimeter in size. Currently available bone tissue scaffolds primarily address the chemical composition, pore size, and pore size distribution. While these design parameters are extensively investigated for mimicking bone function and inducing bone regeneration, little is known about microcracks, which is a prevalent feature found in fractured bone in vivo and associated with fracture healing and repair. Since the purpose of bone tissue engineering scaffold is to enhance bone regeneration, the coincidence of microcracks and bone densification should not be neglected but rather be considered as a potential parameter in bone tissue engineering scaffold design. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that microcracks enhance bone healing. In vitro studies were designed to investigate the osteoblast (bone forming cells) response to microcracks in dense (94%) hydroxyapatite substrates. Microcracks were introduced using a well-established Vickers indentation technique. The results of our study showed that microcracks induced osteoblast alignment, enhanced osteoblast attachment and more rapid maturation. These findings may provide insight into fracture healing mechanism(s) as well as improve the design of bone tissue engineering orthopedic scaffolds for more rapid bone regeneration.

  3. Antibody Maturation in Trypanosoma cruzi-Infected Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcipar, Iván S.; Risso, Marikena G.; Silber, Ariel M.; Revelli, Silvia; Marcipar, Alberto J.

    2001-01-01

    The study of antibody avidity changes during infection has improved the understanding of the pathologic processes involved in several infectious diseases. In some infections, like toxoplasmosis, this information is being used for diagnostic purposes. Results of the evolution of antibody avidity for different specific antigens in Trypanosome cruzi-infected rats are presented. A Western blotting technique, combined with avidity analysis to identify antigens that elicit high-avidity antibodies, is suggested. In this system, antibodies showed high avidity values only during the chronic phase of infection and only in relation to antibodies against 21-, 33-, 41-, 42-, 56-, 58-, 66-, and 72-kDa antigens. Finally, a 97-kDa T. cruzi antigen, which was recognized by high-avidity antibodies and occurred in noninfected rats, was identified. These results allow us to evaluate the different antigens in chagasic infection. Our results show that with the correct choice of antigen it is possible to detect differences in maturation of antibodies and to discriminate, in an experimental model, between recent (acute) and chronic infections. PMID:11427430

  4. Maturity of natural gas industry and viability of competitive regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    1992-01-01

    The access of natural gas industries to maturity, which is characterized by the high density of the pipeline networks and the relative saturation of needs, would allow the introduction of the competitive regime and the questioning of the common organizational model of vertical quasi-integration and regulated territorial monopoly. In the new model, the industries could be organized around a wholesale market, with direct transactions between producers and distributors or buyers, such as the American experiment of deregulation of the access to the pipelines shows it. But the cost-benefit balance of this experiment is quite mitigated, by referring to efficiency and fiability criteria. Improvements in flexibility and in rationalized behaviour on the short run can be observed. But the agents being faced to the difficulty to appreciate the investment risk, nothing seems to guarantee the adaptation of the supply to the demand on the long run. In Europe, less favorable basic conditions (highly capital intensive supply sources, fewer producers, fragmented political space) in a context of a renewed growth of the market require to identify carefully the acceptable forms of competition. 27 refs., 2 tabs

  5. Bazhen Fm matured reservoir evaluation (West Siberia, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnachev, S.; Skripkin, A.; Baranov, V.; Zakharov, S.

    2015-02-01

    The depletion of the traditional sources of hydrocarbons leads to the situation when the biggest players of the oil and gas production market turn to unconventional reserves. Commercial shale oil and gas production levels in the USA have largely determined world prospects for oil and gas industry development. Russia takes one of the leading place in the world in terms of shale oil resources. The main source rock of the West Siberia, the biggest oil and gas basin in Russia under development, the Bazhen Fm and its stratigraphic and lithologic analogs, is located in the territory of over 1,000,000 square kilometers. Provided it has similar key properties (organic carbon content, porosity, permeability) with the deposits of the Bakken Fm and Green River Fm, USA, it is still extremely poorly described with laboratory methods. We have performed the laboratory analysis of core samples from a well drilled in Bazhen Fm deposits with matured organic matter (Tmax>435 °C). It was demonstrated the applicability of the improved steady-state gas flow method to evaluate the permeability of nanopermeable rocks. The role of natural fracturing in forming voids was determided that allows regarding potential Bazhen Fm reservoirs as systems with dual porosity and dual permeability.

  6. Bazhen Fm matured reservoir evaluation (West Siberia, Russia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parnachev, S; Skripkin, A; Baranov, V; Zakharov, S

    2015-01-01

    The depletion of the traditional sources of hydrocarbons leads to the situation when the biggest players of the oil and gas production market turn to unconventional reserves. Commercial shale oil and gas production levels in the USA have largely determined world prospects for oil and gas industry development. Russia takes one of the leading place in the world in terms of shale oil resources. The main source rock of the West Siberia, the biggest oil and gas basin in Russia under development, the Bazhen Fm and its stratigraphic and lithologic analogs, is located in the territory of over 1,000,000 square kilometers. Provided it has similar key properties (organic carbon content, porosity, permeability) with the deposits of the Bakken Fm and Green River Fm, USA, it is still extremely poorly described with laboratory methods. We have performed the laboratory analysis of core samples from a well drilled in Bazhen Fm deposits with matured organic matter (T max >435 °C). It was demonstrated the applicability of the improved steady-state gas flow method to evaluate the permeability of nanopermeable rocks. The role of natural fracturing in forming voids was determided that allows regarding potential Bazhen Fm reservoirs as systems with dual porosity and dual permeability

  7. Effects of sorbitol on porcine oocyte maturation and embryo development in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Zhang, Jin Yu; Diao, Yun Fei; Kang, Jung Won; Jin, Dong-Il

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, a porcine system was supplemented with sorbitol during in vitro maturation (IVM) or in vitro culture (IVC), and the effects of sorbitol on oocyte maturation and embryonic development following parthenogenetic activation were assessed. Porcine immature oocytes were treated with different concentrations of sorbitol during IVM, and the resultant metaphase II stage oocytes were activated and cultured in porcine zygote medium-3 (PZM-3) for 7 days. No significant difference was observed in cumulus expansion and the nuclear maturation between the control and sorbitol-treated groups, with the exception of the 100 mM group, which showed significantly decreased nuclear maturation and cumulus expansion. There was no significant difference in the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels between oocytes matured with 10 or 20 mM sorbitol and control groups, but 50 and 100 mM groups had significantly higher ROS levels than other groups. The 20 mM group showed significant increases in intracellular glutathione and subsequent blastocyst formation rates following parthenogenetic activation compared with the other groups. During IVC, supplementation with sorbitol significantly reduced blastocyst formation and increased the apoptotic index compared with the control. The apoptotic index of blastocysts from the sorbitol-treated group for entire culture period was significantly higher than those of the partially sorbitol-exposed groups. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that the addition of a low concentration of sorbitol (20 mM) during IVM of porcine oocytes benefits subsequent blastocyst development and improves embryo quality, whereas sorbitol supplement during IVC has a negative effect on blastocyst formation.

  8. Age at maturity of Mediterranean marine fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. TSIKLIRAS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this review we collected data on the age at maturity (tm and maximum reported age (tmax for 235 stocks of Mediterranean marine fishes, belonging to 82 species, 37 families, 12 orders and 2 classes (Actinopterygii and Elasmobranchii. Among Actinopterygii (mean tm ± SD = 2.20 ± 1.43 y, n = 215, tm ranged from 0.3 y, for the common goby Pomatoschistus microps, to 12 y, for dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus, while among Elasmobranchii (mean tm ± SD = 5.94 ± 2.47 y, n = 20, tm ranged between 2.7 y, for brown ray Raja miraletus, and 12 y for picked dogfish Squalus acanthias. Overall, the tmax ranged between 1 y, for transparent goby Aphia minuta, and 70 y, for wreckfish Polyprion americanus. The mean tmax of Actinopterygii (tmax ± SD = 10.14 ± 9.42 y was lower than that of Elasmobranchii (tmax ± SD = 14.05 ± 8.47 y. The tm exhibited a strong positive linear relation with tmax for both Actinopterygii (logtm = 0.58 ´ logtmax – 0.25, r2 = 0.51, P < 0.001 and Elasmobranchii (logtm = 0.67 ´ logtmax – 0.006, r2 = 0.51, P = 0.007. The mean tm/tmax did not differ significantly with sex within Actinopterygii (ANOVA: F = 0.27, P = 0.60, n = 90; females: mean ± SD = 0.276 ± 0.143; males: mean ± SD = 0.265 ± 0.138 and Elasmobranchii (ANOVA: F = 1.44, P = 0.25, n = 10; females: mean ± SD = 0.499 ± 0.166; males: mean ± SD = 0.418 ± 0.133. Finally, the dimensionless ratio tm/tmax was significantly lower (ANOVA: F = 31.04, P < 0.001 for Actinopterygii (mean ± SD = 0.270 ± 0.135, n = 180 than for Elasmobranchii, (mean ± SD = 0.458 ± 0.152, n = 20, when stocks with combined sexes were excluded from the analysis.

  9. Applying the High Reliability Health Care Maturity Model to Assess Hospital Performance: A VA Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Jennifer L; Rivard, Peter E; Shin, Marlena H; Rosen, Amy K

    2016-09-01

    The lack of a tool for categorizing and differentiating hospitals according to their high reliability organization (HRO)-related characteristics has hindered progress toward implementing and sustaining evidence-based HRO practices. Hospitals would benefit both from an understanding of the organizational characteristics that support HRO practices and from knowledge about the steps necessary to achieve HRO status to reduce the risk of harm and improve outcomes. The High Reliability Health Care Maturity (HRHCM) model, a model for health care organizations' achievement of high reliability with zero patient harm, incorporates three major domains critical for promoting HROs-Leadership, Safety Culture, and Robust Process Improvement ®. A study was conducted to examine the content validity of the HRHCM model and evaluate whether it can differentiate hospitals' maturity levels for each of the model's components. Staff perceptions of patient safety at six US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals were examined to determine whether all 14 HRHCM components were present and to characterize each hospital's level of organizational maturity. Twelve of the 14 components from the HRHCM model were detected; two additional characteristics emerged that are present in the HRO literature but not represented in the model-teamwork culture and system-focused tools for learning and improvement. Each hospital's level of organizational maturity could be characterized for 9 of the 14 components. The findings suggest the HRHCM model has good content validity and that there is differentiation between hospitals on model components. Additional research is needed to understand how these components can be used to build the infrastructure necessary for reaching high reliability.

  10. EMOTIONAL MATURITY OF PERSONALITY: THE PRACTICAL PROBLEM OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    O. I. Afonina

    2013-01-01

    In the dif?cult conditions of the contemporary society which are far from being favorable to maintain one’s emotional and physical health the problem of development and achievement of emotional maturity as a factor of the well-being is getting more signi?cant. Based on the theoretical concepts of different scientists who de?ned the construct of emotional maturity three groups of psychological methods for assessing emotional maturity are analyzed. The ?rst group includes the methods that are u...

  11. Predicting technology operational availability using technical maturity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenley, C.R.; Creque, T.R.

    1998-01-01

    A technical maturity assessment method was performed by systems engineers in collaboration with an advisory panel composed of team members from different Department of Energy sites and from different engineering and science disciplines. Various stabilization technologies were assessed annually as to their relative maturity and availability for use in stabilizing nuclear materials. After three years of assessments, several of the technologies are now components of operational systems. A regression analysis of the historical assessments was performed, and it was concluded that the numerical technical maturity score produced by a team of experts can provide a powerful predictor of the time remaining until the operational application of technologies

  12. Amniocentesis for fetal lung maturity: will it become obsolete?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Stephen; Sherman, Craig; Lewis, David; Owens, Sheri; Bodie, Frankie; McCathran, C Eric; Holliday, Nicolette

    2013-01-01

    AMNIOCENTESIS FOR FETAL LUNG MATURITY HAS HISTORICALLY BEEN PERFORMED FOR MANY REASONS: uterine and placental complications, maternal comorbidities, fetal issues, and even obstetric problems. Even though the risks associated with third trimester amniocentesis are extremely low, complications have been documented, including preterm labor, placental abruptions, intrauterine rupture, maternal sepsis, fetal heart rate abnormalities, and fetal-maternal hemorrhage. This review presents the types of tests for fetal lung maturity, presents the indications and tests utilized, and discusses recommendations for when amniocentesis for fetal lung maturity may be appropriate.

  13. The Influence of Debt Maturity Structure on Accounting Conservatism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Huiqing; Chen Xinguo

    2015-01-01

    According to the related data of A-share listed companies in 2009-2013,through extension model based on Basu's surplus - the stock return rate model ,this paper studies that the debt maturity structure influences on accounting conservatism. The empirical study finds that the amount of debt affects significantly the prudence,that is,the greater the amount of the debt contract con- cluded, the stronger role of accounting conservatism is ; Debt maturity have significant relationship with accounting conservatism. For the shorter debt maturity, the enterprise is easier to choose more prudent accounting policy, and when the period is longer, accounting conservatism is relatively weaker.

  14. Molecular signatures of maturing dendritic cells: implications for testing the quality of dendritic cell therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dendritic cells (DCs are often produced by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF and interleukin-4 (IL-4 stimulation of monocytes. To improve the effectiveness of DC adoptive immune cancer therapy, many different agents have been used to mature DCs. We analyzed the kinetics of DC maturation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS and interferon-γ (IFN-γ induction in order to characterize the usefulness of mature DCs (mDCs for immune therapy and to identify biomarkers for assessing the quality of mDCs. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected from 6 healthy subjects by apheresis, monocytes were isolated by elutriation, and immature DCs (iDCs were produced by 3 days of culture with GM-CSF and IL-4. The iDCs were sampled after 4, 8 and 24 hours in culture with LPS and IFN-γ and were then assessed by flow cytometry, ELISA, and global gene and microRNA (miRNA expression analysis. Results After 24 hours of LPS and IFN-γ stimulation, DC surface expression of CD80, CD83, CD86, and HLA Class II antigens were up-regulated. Th1 attractant genes such as CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11 and CCL5 were up-regulated during maturation but not Treg attractants such as CCL22 and CXCL12. The expression of classical mDC biomarker genes CD83, CCR7, CCL5, CCL8, SOD2, MT2A, OASL, GBP1 and HES4 were up-regulated throughout maturation while MTIB, MTIE, MTIG, MTIH, GADD45A and LAMP3 were only up-regulated late in maturation. The expression of miR-155 was up-regulated 8-fold in mDCs. Conclusion DCs, matured with LPS and IFN-γ, were characterized by increased levels of Th1 attractants as opposed to Treg attractants and may be particularly effective for adoptive immune cancer therapy.

  15. An assessment system for the system safety engineering capability maturity model in the case of spent fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaohua; Liu Zhenghai; Liu Zhiming; Wan Yaping; Bai Xiaofeng

    2012-01-01

    We can improve the processing, the evaluation of capability and promote the user's trust by using system security engineering capability maturity model (SSE-CMM). SSE-CMM is the common method for organizing and implementing safety engineering, and it is a mature method for system safety engineering. Combining capability maturity model (CMM) with total quality management and statistic theory, SSE-CMM turns systems security engineering into a well-defined, mature, measurable, advanced engineering discipline. Lack of domain knowledge, the size of data, the diversity of evidences, the cumbersomeness of processes, and the complexity of matching evidences with problems are the main issues that SSE-CMM assessment has to face. To improve effectively the efficiency of assessment of spent fuel reprocessing system security engineering capability maturity model (SFR-SSE-CMM), in this paper we de- signed an intelligent assessment software based on domain ontology and that uses methods such as ontology, evidence theory, semantic web, intelligent information retrieval and intelligent auto-matching techniques. This software includes four subsystems, which are domain ontology creation and management system, evidence auto collection system, and a problem and evidence matching system. The architecture of the software is divided into five layers: a data layer, an oncology layer, a knowledge layer, a service layer arid a presentation layer. (authors)

  16. RESEARCH ON REDUCING THE LENGTH OF MATURATION IN USING ELECTROSTIMULATION OF BEEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELICIA DIMA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available From technological point of view in the food industry has been obtained meat maturation using different methods: storage under controlled conditions, the use of enzymes or mechanical equipment tenderization musculature. Was also reported that electrical stimulation of carcasses immediately after slaughter procedure can increase the degree of maturation of the meat. Meat and meat products are subjected to reduce during chilling and freezing temperatures principal for reasons of conservation or meat packing. Particular attention must be paid to temperature control, especially before rigor mortis, knowing that too rapid cooling could lead to a cold shortening or thaw rigor during the thaw. During application of the electrostimulation process, occur physical and biochemical changes, meaning that this one has some effect on the technological properties of meat. It has obtained a reduction of maturation of beef with the electrostimulation of half-carcasses of cattle, verified by the increase of non-protein nitrogen in meat. The same time it has been considerably improved the texture and firmness of the muscles, which allows the use of beef in fast food products (ready to cook. Researches have revealed the conclusion that the use of the portable device for electrostimulation, in the described conditions, has induced positive transformations improving meat quality of adult beef.

  17. Crop load and harvest maturity effects on consumer preferences for apricots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jill; Feng, Jinquan; Olsson, Shane

    2015-03-15

    Improving apricot fruit quality delivered to consumers is key to ensuring a successful apricot industry. Previous studies have focused on effects of either soluble solids content (SSC) or fruit firmness on consumer preferences, and results have been equivocal. This study evaluated the effects of crop load and harvest maturity how they affected on fruit SSC and firmness, and on subsequent consumer preferences. SSC of apricots was an important factor only when fruit were firmer than 15 N and not immature. When fruit were softer than 15 N, SSC had little influence on consumer liking. In general, consumers preferred fruit that were grown on trees thinned to approximately 10-20% less than typical commercial crop loads and were harvested in a more mature condition. Consumers also preferred fruit that had a higher sugar/acid ratio or BrimA value, which is the °Brix - k × titratable acidity, where k is a constant that varies between species and cultivars depending on the specific acids and sugars present. High apricot flavour and juiciness were associated with greater sweetness. Management practices that increase fruit SSC and sugar/acid ratio, such as reducing crop load, will improve consumer satisfaction as long as fruit are harvested at an adequate maturity stage and are maintained in storage so that they do not soften too quickly. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Fruit maturation and in vitro germination of macaw palm embryos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -industrial potential. Seed dormancy in palm species may be due to embryo immaturity, which could result from delayed embryogenesis. We evaluated the correspondence between the visual characteristics of maturing fruits and their ...

  19. THE GOAL OF MATURITY IN EPHESIANS 4:13-16

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I interpret Ephesians 4:13 to obtain the meaning of maturity. I critique the ...... divine powers and attributes as eternal, infinite, unchangeable in existence, in knowledge .... sea and its storms, false teachings are described as having the potential.

  20. Cortex Matures Faster in Youths With Highest IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIH Cortex Matures Faster in Youths With Highest IQ Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... on. Photo: Getty image (StockDisc) Youths with superior IQ are distinguished by how fast the thinking part ...

  1. Coping with cultural and maturity inequality in offshore outsourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Pries-Heje, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Many companies consider and undertake outsourcing of their software-development activities. Often information systems development is outsourced to vendors in different cultures or with a different level of software-process maturity. Recommendations for managing such outsourcing arrangements...

  2. A Case of Post Obstructive Pneumonia Complicating Mature Teratoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mediastinal teratomas are rare germ cell tumors in children accounting for only 4.3% of all germ cell tumours.[1] Mature ... from two or more embryonic layers. Patients ... dehydrogenase and beta human chorionic gonadotropins were normal.

  3. Antibody Affinity Maturation in Fishes—Our Current Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad G. Magor

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It has long been believed that fish lack antibody affinity maturation, in part because they were thought to lack germinal centers. Recent research done on sharks and bony fishes indicates that these early vertebrates are able to affinity mature their antibodies. This article reviews the functionality of the fish homologue of the immunoglobulin (Ig mutator enzyme activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID. We also consider the protein and molecular evidence for Ig somatic hypermutation and antibody affinity maturation. In the context of recent evidence for a putative proto-germinal center in fishes we propose some possible reasons that observed affinity maturation in fishes often seems lacking and propose future work that might shed further light on this process in fishes.

  4. IMMUNE SYSTEM MATURITY AND SENSITIVITY TO CHEMICAL EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is well established that human diseases associated with abnormal immune function, including some common infectious diseases and asthma, are considerably more prevalent at younger ages. The immune system continues to mature after birth, and functional immaturity accounts for m...

  5. Regeneration of tropical maize lines (Zea mays l.) from mature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... 1Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopian Agricultural Research Institute, P. O. Box 192, Jimma, ... MATERIALS AND METHOD .... Sterilization of mature seeds: a) Soaking sterilized seeds in sterile dH2O overnight without.

  6. Indeks Penilaian Kematangan (Maturity Manajemen Keamanan Layanan TI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farroh Sakinah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pemanfaatan Teknologi Informasi (TI dalam mendukung terselenggaranya pelayanan yang optimal menjadi kebutuhan utama organisasi saat ini. Jaminan pengelolaan layanan dan keamanan yang baik menjadi salah satu tolok ukurnya. Pengimplementasian sebuah standar menjadi salah satu solusinya meskipun penggunaan satu buah standar dirasa belum maksimal melihat cakupan yang disediakan kurang luas sehingga diadakannya upaya penggabungan beberapa standar dengan harapan standar-standar tersebut dapat saling melengkapi. Pengimplementasian beberapa standar ini dapat dimonitoring tingkat kematangannya (maturity dengan menggunakan alat ukur penilaian kematangan (maturity. Alat ukur kematangan (maturity manajemen keamanan layanan ini merupakan gabungan pemetaan dari control objective IT Governance COBIT 4.1 yang dipenuhi kebutuhan manajemen layanannya sesuai dengan Service Management di dalam ITIL v3 (Information Technology Infrastructure Library. Selanjutnya kebutuhan manajemen layanan ini diukur dengan maturity level COBIT 4.1 dan disesuaikan dengan framework ISO 27000 untuk memaksimalkan manajemen keamanan informasi.

  7. CMMI High Maturity Measurement and Analysis Workshop Report: March 2008

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stoddard, II, Robert W; Goldenson, Dennis R; Zubrow, Dave; Harper, Erin

    2008-01-01

    .... In response to the need for clarification and guidance on implementing measurement and analysis in the context of high maturity processes, members of the SEI s Software Engineering Measurement and Analysis (SEMA...

  8. Enabling Front End of Innovation in a Mature Development Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum, Louise; Clausen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Many mature development organizations find it difficult to handle radical and incremental innovations within the same organizational structures. We examine how organizational structures, management, development mindsets and cultures represent a constitution of development for the thinking...

  9. AFSC/REFM: Flatfish maturity near Kodiak, 2012-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset is comprised of individual fish records from collections made during port sampling at Kodiak Alaska for the purpose of updating maturity estimates for...

  10. Evaluation of sexual maturity among adolescent male sickle cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional case-control study evaluating sexual maturation of male patients with sickle cell anaemia and those .... statistical location were calculated for continuous data and ..... Butterworth's Medical Dictionary.

  11. Torrefied biomass. The perfect CO{sub 2} neutral coal substitute is maturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, Michael [Wild and Partner LLC, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-10-01

    Biomass upgrading to a coal-like fuel is long a topic of R and D. Today, the torrefaction technology is mature allowing industrial-scale production and cost competitive large-scale supply of CO{sub 2} neutral fuel. Torrefaction exposes lingo-cellulosic biomass to 250 to 350 C. Approximately 30 % increase in energy density, improved combustion particulars, 1/10 of milling energy requirement and improved water resistance are achieved results. Various torrefaction technologies are available. Pelleting or briquetting is obligatory for torrefied product transport. Numerous plants of app 1t/h are in operation; industrial-scale torrefaction lines are under construction.

  12. Roentgenographic indicators of skeletal maturity in marine mammals (Cetacea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogden, J.A.; Conlogue, G.J.; Rhodin, A.G.J.; Yale Univ., New Haven, CT

    1981-01-01

    A new roentgenographic classification (grading) scheme is presented for utilization in studies of skeletal development and maturation in marine mammals, particularly cetaceans. This is based on adequate description of the extent of development and maturation of the various secondary ossification centers, their eventual patterns of fusion, and subsequent remodeling with the metaphysis. The six stages are illustrated schematically and roentgenographically. This scheme may be applied to any cetacean longitudinal bone developing proximal and distal epiphyseal ossification centers. (orig.)

  13. Results of measurement procedure of innovation maturity of business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Kozlova

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article the basic approaches of innovation maturity of business has been applied. The realization procedure of innovation maturity as an example of organizations of Perm’s region has been call attention. The preliminary potential assessments of perception of plans innovations will give optimize selection innovative strategy for organization and increase the effectiveness of business for microeconomics and region’s level.

  14. EMOTIONAL MATURITY OF PERSONALITY: THE PRACTICAL PROBLEM OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Afonina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the dif?cult conditions of the contemporary society which are far from being favorable to maintain one’s emotional and physical health the problem of development and achievement of emotional maturity as a factor of the well-being is getting more signi?cant. Based on the theoretical concepts of different scientists who de?ned the construct of emotional maturity three groups of psychological methods for assessing emotional maturity are analyzed. The ?rst group includes the methods that are used to assess emotional maturity explicitly and have a theoretical or empirical veri?cation. The second group includes the methods that are intended to assess emotional maturity as a separate scale complimented by other scales, related to evaluating other aspects of emotionality in  the  structure  of  the  personality.  The  third  group  includes  the  methods  in  which  emotional maturity is mentioned in the description of other psychic phenomena, or in the interpretation of certain factors (scales. Psychodiagnostic methods studying different parameters depending on the theoretical concepts of the authors about the structure and content of the emotional maturity of the personality make references to concepts of emotional development, consciousness, cognitive and volitional capacities of the personality and the coping strategies the individual prefer to use. The problem of developing valid and reliable psychodiagnostic methods of studying emotional maturity of the adult personality as a holistic phenomenon still awaits attention and retains its signi?cance.

  15. Guidelines for assessing the knowledge management maturity of organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Kruger

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In a recent article Kruger and Snyman hypothesized that progressions in knowledge management maturity (from a strategic perspective are directly related to an increased ability to speed up the strategic cycle of imitation, consolidation and innovation. The arguments proposed, however, neglected to supply the reader with a practical toolkit or even a roadmap (a time-related matrix, or questionnaire to successfully measure succession in knowledge management maturity. This article builds on the previous one and proposes a questionnaire consisting of six sections, containing 101 descriptive questions, to enable organizations to test and assess their knowledge management maturity empirically. The development of an instrument to measure knowledge management maturity required adhering to a research design that combined theoretical propositions with practical experimentation. As a point of departure, a knowledge management maturity matrix consisting of seven maturity levels was formulated. All questions contained within the matrix were benchmarked against a survey questionnaire developed by the public management service of the OECD (PUMA and were also pre-tested and validated. This process of refinement led to the formulation of the Knowledge Management Maturity Questionnaire. To avoid any taint of this research being based only on theoretical propositions, the questionnaire was tested by 178 master students of the University of Pretoria, South Africa, in nine different industries. The proposed questionnaire provides a bridge between theoretical propositions and practical usability, not only enabling knowledge management practitioners to assess the level of knowledge management maturity reached successfully but, more importantly, also serving as a guideline to institutionalize further and future knowledge management endeavours.

  16. Toward the Decision Tree for Inferring Requirements Maturation Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Takako; Kondo, Narihito; Shirogane, Junko; Kaiya, Haruhiko; Hori, Shozo; Katamine, Keiichi

    Requirements are elicited step by step during the requirements engineering (RE) process. However, some types of requirements are elicited completely after the scheduled requirements elicitation process is finished. Such a situation is regarded as problematic situation. In our study, the difficulties of eliciting various kinds of requirements is observed by components. We refer to the components as observation targets (OTs) and introduce the word “Requirements maturation.” It means when and how requirements are elicited completely in the project. The requirements maturation is discussed on physical and logical OTs. OTs Viewed from a logical viewpoint are called logical OTs, e.g. quality requirements. The requirements of physical OTs, e.g., modules, components, subsystems, etc., includes functional and non-functional requirements. They are influenced by their requesters' environmental changes, as well as developers' technical changes. In order to infer the requirements maturation period of each OT, we need to know how much these factors influence the OTs' requirements maturation. According to the observation of actual past projects, we defined the PRINCE (Pre Requirements Intelligence Net Consideration and Evaluation) model. It aims to guide developers in their observation of the requirements maturation of OTs. We quantitatively analyzed the actual cases with their requirements elicitation process and extracted essential factors that influence the requirements maturation. The results of interviews of project managers are analyzed by WEKA, a data mining system, from which the decision tree was derived. This paper introduces the PRINCE model and the category of logical OTs to be observed. The decision tree that helps developers infer the maturation type of an OT is also described. We evaluate the tree through real projects and discuss its ability to infer the requirements maturation types.

  17. Non-Destructive Technique for Determining Mango Maturity

    OpenAIRE

    Salengke; Mursalim

    2013-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is an important tropical fruit that has great potential in international markets. Currently, major markets for mango include North America, Europe, and Japan. The acceptance of exported mango in destination countries depends largely on eating quality, which is affected by maturity at harvest. Mango maturity can be judged visually, based on skin color, or determined chemically based on soluble solids content, acid content, and solids:acid ratio....

  18. Correlation Between Dental and Cervical Vertebral Maturation in Iranian Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, Solmaz; Eil, Nakissa; Ehsani, Sara; Bakhshandeh, Hooman

    2012-01-01

    Background Considerable variations in the development stage among patients of the same chronological age have led to introduce the concept of the developmental age based on the maturation of different organs such as cervical vertebrae or teeth. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between the stages of tooth calcification and the cervical vertebral maturation in Iranian females. Patients and Methods Four hundred females (age range, 8 to 14 years) participated in the study. To determine the dental maturational stage, calcification of the mandibular teeth except for third molars were rated according to the method suggested by Demirjian et al. To evaluate the stage of skeletal maturation, cervical vertebral morphologic changes were assessed on lateral cephalometric radiographs according to the method explained by Baccetti et al. Correlations between bone maturation and teeth calcification were showed by Spearman's correlation and Kendall’s tau-b coefficients. The relevant associations were investigated by ordinal logistic regression models. Results Correlations between the two stages were observed in the first and second premolars, canine and central incisors. All these correlations were significant. The association between cervical vertebral maturation and tooth calcification was greatest in the lateral incisor (odds ratio (OR) = 11, 95% confidence interval (CI): 6.6-18.3). However, considering the 95% CI for OR, no significant difference was detected among the second molar, first molar and lateral incisor. Conclusion The relationship between calcification of teeth and maturation of cervical bones was significant. Bone maturation can be predicted by using teeth calcification stages, especially in the second molar, first molar and lateral incisor. PMID:23599706

  19. Debt Maturity: Is Long-Term Debt Optimal?

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Alfaro; Fabio Kanczuk

    2007-01-01

    We model and calibrate the arguments in favor and against short-term and long-term debt. These arguments broadly include: maturity premium, sustainability, and service smoothing. We use a dynamic equilibrium model with tax distortions and government outlays uncertainty, and model maturity as the fraction of debt that needs to be rolled over every period. In the model, the benefits of defaulting are tempered by higher future interest rates. We then calibrate our artificial economy and solve fo...

  20. Analysis of Big Data Maturity Stage in Hospitality Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Shabani, Neda; Munir, Arslan; Bose, Avishek

    2017-01-01

    Big data analytics has an extremely significant impact on many areas in all businesses and industries including hospitality. This study aims to guide information technology (IT) professionals in hospitality on their big data expedition. In particular, the purpose of this study is to identify the maturity stage of the big data in hospitality industry in an objective way so that hotels be able to understand their progress, and realize what it will take to get to the next stage of big data matur...

  1. Correlation Between Dental and Cervical Vertebral Maturation in Iranian Females

    OpenAIRE

    Valizadeh, Solmaz; Eil, Nakissa; Ehsani, Sara; Bakhshandeh, Hooman

    2012-01-01

    Background Considerable variations in the development stage among patients of the same chronological age have led to introduce the concept of the developmental age based on the maturation of different organs such as cervical vertebrae or teeth. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between the stages of tooth calcification and the cervical vertebral maturation in Iranian females. Patients and Methods Four hundred females (age range, 8 to 14 years) participate...

  2. Correlation between dental and cervical vertebral maturation in Iranian females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, Solmaz; Eil, Nakissa; Ehsani, Sara; Bakhshandeh, Hooman

    2012-12-01

    Considerable variations in the development stage among patients of the same chronological age have led to introduce the concept of the developmental age based on the maturation of different organs such as cervical vertebrae or teeth. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between the stages of tooth calcification and the cervical vertebral maturation in Iranian females. Four hundred females (age range, 8 to 14 years) participated in the study. To determine the dental maturational stage, calcification of the mandibular teeth except for third molars were rated according to the method suggested by Demirjian et al. To evaluate the stage of skeletal maturation, cervical vertebral morphologic changes were assessed on lateral cephalometric radiographs according to the method explained by Baccetti et al. Correlations between bone maturation and teeth calcification were showed by Spearman's correlation and Kendall's tau-b coefficients. The relevant associations were investigated by ordinal logistic regression models. Correlations between the two stages were observed in the first and second premolars, canine and central incisors. All these correlations were significant. The association between cervical vertebral maturation and tooth calcification was greatest in the lateral incisor (odds ratio (OR) = 11, 95% confidence interval (CI): 6.6-18.3). However, considering the 95% CI for OR, no significant difference was detected among the second molar, first molar and lateral incisor. The relationship between calcification of teeth and maturation of cervical bones was significant. Bone maturation can be predicted by using teeth calcification stages, especially in the second molar, first molar and lateral incisor.

  3. Mature cystic teratoma of the pancreas in a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.W.; Liu, K.L.; Li, Y.W.; Lin, W.C.

    2003-01-01

    A cystic pancreatic tumour is rare in a child and a mature cystic teratoma of the pancreas is even rarer. This is the first demonstration of the CT appearance of such a tumour in a child. We present a 2-year-old boy who presented with a palpable abdominal mass. Abdominal CT revealed a huge cystic mass in the upper abdomen. Pathology disclosed a mature cystic teratoma originating from the pancreas. (orig.)

  4. Effect of cysteine supplementation on in vitro maturation of bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B Rahim, S Jalal, N Yosef ... Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) from abattoir ovaries were matured in vitro in Hepes-TCM 199 supplemented with 0.2 mM sodium pyruvate, 1 μg/ml 17-β-estradiol, 10% fetal calf serum (FCS), 0.5 μg/ml bFSH and 0 (control) and 100 or 500 μM/ml of cysteine for 24 h. When COCs matured in ...

  5. How Enterprise Architecture Maturity Enables Post-merger IT Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Törmer, Robert Lorenz; Henningsson, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    advances the argument that a company’s pre-existing Enterprise Architecture decisively shapes the capability to implement post-merger IT integration and subsequently realize benefits from M&A. Our multiple-case study investigates three acquisition cases and develops an explanatory theory of how Enterprise...... Architecture maturity enables the implementation of distinct integration strategies. The results do not only enrich the academic literature on M&A, but also show the strategic value of Enterprise Architecture maturity....

  6. A Proteomics Sample Preparation Method for Mature, Recalcitrant Leaves of Perennial Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Zhang; Chengying, Lao; Bo, Wang; Dingxiang, Peng; Lijun, Liu

    2014-01-01

    Sample preparation is key to the success of proteomics studies. In the present study, two sample preparation methods were tested for their suitability on the mature, recalcitrant leaves of six representative perennial plants (grape, plum, pear, peach, orange, and ramie). An improved sample preparation method was obtained: Tris and Triton X-100 were added together instead of CHAPS to the lysis buffer, and a 20% TCA-water solution and 100% precooled acetone were added after the protein extraction for the further purification of protein. This method effectively eliminates nonprotein impurities and obtains a clear two-dimensional gel electrophoresis array. The method facilitates the separation of high-molecular-weight proteins and increases the resolution of low-abundance proteins. This method provides a widely applicable and economically feasible technology for the proteomic study of the mature, recalcitrant leaves of perennial plants. PMID:25028960

  7. Unmet demand for training among mature age Australians: Prevalence, differentials and perceived causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Tim; Lourey, Emma; Taylor, Philip

    2016-03-01

    To explore the prevalence of unmet demand for training by mature age Australians and to identify the main barriers to accessing training. A total of 3007 Australians aged 45-74 years were surveyed using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing. The sample frame was randomly selected and stratified based on the capital city and the rest of the state, and data were weighted to be nationally representative. Over one-third (37%) of respondents who had worked in the past five years reported wanting to attend some form of training but were unable to; these were most likely women and those aged 45-54 year. Commonly cited reasons for not being able to attend training included not being able to fit it in with work commitments, affordability and employer reluctance. Reduction of these barriers to workplace training can improve mature age people's ability to remain engaged in the workforce. © 2015 AJA Inc.

  8. Breeding of Hangtian 36-an early-maturing variety of japonica rice by space mutation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junmin; Luo Rongting; Bao Genliang; Zhang Mingxian; Xu Jianlong; Wu Wei

    2007-01-01

    Hangtian 36; an early-maturing late Japonica rice variety with high grain quality and disease resistance was developed from the mutagenesis progeny of Bing 1067 carried by the recoverable satellite. Hangtian 36 has advantages over the original variety Bing 1067 in mature duration, grain quality and blast resistance. It has strong tolerant ability to late sow, varying from sowing date of single cropping to the end of July. So it is an ideal variety suitable for the use of emergency situation, such as in the natural disaster year resulting from typhoon. This variety was officially registered by Zhejiang Committee on Variety Registration in 2006, and is adaptable in the region of Zhejiang province and the Yangtze River delta. The successful breeding of Hangtian 36 showed that space mutation is an effective method of simultaneous improvement for multiple traits of rice. (authors)

  9. The Role of the Super User in Achieving Business Process Management Maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizoto-Vidala-Pesoa Laila Māra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Many process improvement initiatives and companies’ strategic projects do not have their benefits reached in its full potential for different reasons. First, there is a weak or inexistent understanding of the company’s level of Maturity in Business Process Management (BPM. Second, the organisation is not ready to deal with most “soft” aspects of process-related initiatives: change management, internalisation of new knowledge and people’s willingness to apply new solutions to everyday work. The paper presents two ways for the companies to resolve these issues. The first is a self-assessment model of BPM Maturity measurement, the model BPM 6×5 (6 by 5. The second is the concept of Super User role with an extended scope of work: it is not only support to the users of the system, but also a deep understanding of the process and knowledge management within the department.

  10. System of physical training of persons of age mature and old.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iermakov Sergii Sidorovich

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It is shown the results of the development of exercise for people of mature-aged and elderly, which contains three lines. The first trend is associated with the use of aerobic exercise of moderate intensity. The second direction is connected with employment in some kind of sport, including - in the veteran sports. The third area involves the use of special exercises. There are some exercises improving the system owned by the school Huashanskoy dao. A variant of autogenic training, which is to render natural images that promote relaxation and recovery is introduced in the article. Theoretically justified, that the use of exercise activates the sense of youth, is of great importance for increasing vitality, health and working capacity of older and mature.

  11. Enhancing nutrient recovery and compost maturity of coconut husk by vermicomposting technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarnam, T P; Velmurugan, A; Pandey, Sanjay Kumar; Dam Roy, S

    2016-05-01

    Vermicompost was prepared by five different treatments from relatively resistant coconut husk mixed with either pig slurry or poultry manure. The recovery of vermicompost varied from 35% to 43% and it resulted in significant increase in pH, microbial biomass carbon, macro and micro nutrients concentration. Among the treatments highest relative N (1.6) and K (1.3) recovery were observed for 20% feedstock substitution by pig slurry while poultry manure substitution recorded highest P recovery (2.4). Compost maturity parameters significantly differed and well correlated. The characteristics of different treatments established the maturity indices as C/N 15-20; Cw1.5 and HI>15.0. The manurial value of the coconut husk compost was improved by feedstock substitution with pig slurry (80:20). The results revealed the technical feasibility of converting coconut husk into valuable compost by feedstock substitution with pig slurry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A proteomics sample preparation method for mature, recalcitrant leaves of perennial plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Gang

    Full Text Available Sample preparation is key to the success of proteomics studies. In the present study, two sample preparation methods were tested for their suitability on the mature, recalcitrant leaves of six representative perennial plants (grape, plum, pear, peach, orange, and ramie. An improved sample preparation method was obtained: Tris and Triton X-100 were added together instead of CHAPS to the lysis buffer, and a 20% TCA-water solution and 100% precooled acetone were added after the protein extraction for the further purification of protein. This method effectively eliminates nonprotein impurities and obtains a clear two-dimensional gel electrophoresis array. The method facilitates the separation of high-molecular-weight proteins and increases the resolution of low-abundance proteins. This method provides a widely applicable and economically feasible technology for the proteomic study of the mature, recalcitrant leaves of perennial plants.

  13. Information system maturity and the hospitality enterprise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Garbin Pranicevic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to empirically evaluate the relationship between the maturity of hotels’ information systems and their performance. This study uses customized models of information system (IS maturity and hotel performance measurement. Since we wanted to include the intangible aspects of performance, we opted for an adapted application of the Balanced Scorecard model. In the empirical part of the paper, fundamental constructs of the model are verified, while the individual items are further evaluated by employing discriminant analysis to distinguish hotels with relatively low and high performance levels. The findings demonstrate the existence of a significant and positive relationship between IS maturity and two dimensions of performance in the hospitality industry – process quality and guest relationships. The level of employee development and financial performance do not seem to be related to IS maturity. Although representative, the sample is relatively small, and the primary data were collected in a single country. The paper provides a framework of IS maturity items in the hospitality industry which seem to contribute to hotels’ business performances. As such, it can serve as a practical framework relevant for IT management in tourism and hospitality. The paper addresses a topic already discussed in a range of industries, although it does not seem to have been empirically evaluated by many studies of the tourism and hospitality industry. In addition, a new theoretical model of IT maturity in tourism and hospitality is proposed.

  14. Developing the Value Management Maturity Model (VM3©

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saipol Bari Abd Karim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Value management (VM practices have been expanded and became a well-received technique globally. Organisations are now progressing towards a better implementation of VM and should be assessing their strengths and weaknesses in order to move forward competitively. There is a need to benchmark the existing VM practices to reflect their maturing levels which is currently not available. This paper outlines the concept of Value Management Maturity Model (VM3' as a structured plan of maturity and performance growth for businesses. It proposes five levels of maturity and each level has its own criteria or attributes to be achieved before progressing to a higher level. The framework for VM3' has been developed based on the review of literatures related to VM and maturity models (MM. Data is collected through questionnaire surveys to organisations that have implemented VM methodology. Additionally, semi-structured interviews were conducted to select individuals involved in implementing VM. The questions were developed to achieve the research objectives; investigating the current implementation of VM and, exploring the organisation's MM knowledge and practices. However, this research was limited to VM implementation in the Malaysian government's projects and programmes. VM3' introduces a new paradigm in VM as it provides a rating method for capabilities or performance. It is advocated that this VM3' framework is still being refined in the advance stage in order to provide a comprehensive and well accepted method to provide ratings for organisations' maturity.

  15. Maturity Gonad Sea Cucumber Holothuria scabra Under The Month Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penina Tua Rahantoknam, Santi

    2017-10-01

    Gonad maturity level of the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra is important to note for selection of parent ready spawn. Sea cucumbers are giving a reaction to the treatment of excitatory spawn mature individuals only. For the determination of the level of maturity of gonads of sea cucumbers, the necessary observation of the gonads are microscopic, macroscopic and gonad maturity gonado somatic indeks (GSI). GSI value is important to know the changes that occur in the gonads quantitatively, so that time can be presumed spawning (Effendie, 1997). Reproductive cycle can be determined by observing the evolution of GSI. The study of sea cucumbers Holothuria scabra gonad maturity conducted in Langgur, Southeast Maluku. Observations were made at every cycle of the moon is the full moon phase (BP) and new moon (BB) in the period January 29, 2017 until July 23, 2017. Observations H. scabra gonad maturity level is done with surgery, observation and calculation GSI gonad histology. GSI highest value obtained in May that full moon cycle at 90% of individuals that are in the spawning stage (phase 5), then 70% of the individuals that are in the spawning stage (phase 5) in March that the full moon cycle. The results obtained show that the peak spawning H. scabra period January 2017 to July 2017 occurred on the full moon cycle in May.

  16. Determinants of loan maturity in small business lending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashiqur Rahman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the determinants of loan maturity of small and medium enterprises (SMEs in the context of Visegrad countries: Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Poland, and Hungary. The data of instead of for this paper was obtained from the Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey (BEEPS, which is a joint project of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the World Bank. By using a binary logistic model, we have found that loan maturity is shorter for older and mature firms, firms owned by female and firms experiencing a shortage of liquidity. At the same time, we have also found that firms having concentrated ownership structure and more tangible assets can borrow for a longer period. In addition to that, we have found evidence that loan maturity is longer for the firms located closer to a bank branch. We also provide empirical support for the assumption that bank low competition is associated with longer maturity. From the obtained results, we may recommend SMEs to borrow from banks that are within their vicinity since this may increase the maturity of loans. Policy makers are recommended to implement policies so that to alleviate gender-related discrimination and take initiatives to moderate the level of competition at this market.

  17. Evaluating the Organizational Interoperability Maturity Level in ICT Research Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manijeh Haghighinasab

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Interoperability refers to the ability to provide services and to accept services from other systems or devices. Collaborative enterprises face additional challenges to interoperate seamlessly within a networked organization. The major task here is to assess the maturity level of interoperating organizations. For this purpose the maturity models for enterprise were reviewed based on vendors’ reliability and advantages versus disadvantages. Interoperability maturity model was deduced from ATHENA project as European Integrated Project in 2005, this model named as EIMM was examined in Iran information and Communication Institute as a leading Telecommunication organization. 115 questionnaires were distributed between staff of 4 departments: Information Technology, Communication Technology, Security and Strategic studies regarding six areas of concern: Enterprise Modeling, Business Strategy Process, Organization and Competences, Products and Services, Systems and Technology, Legal Environment, Security and Trust at five maturity levels: Performed, Modeled , Integrated, Interoperable and Optimizing maturity. The findings showed different levels of maturity in this Institute. To achieve Interoperability level, appropriate practices are proposed for promotion to the higher levels.

  18. Quercetin Efficacy on in vitro Maturation of Porcine Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Orlovschi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study proposed to examine the effects of a polyphenol (quercetin on in vitro maturated parameters. Quercetin it has been extensively studied by researchers on animals over the 35 years. It is a plant derived flavonoid from fruits and vegetables that has antioxidant action as a free radical scavenger. Immature porcine oocytes were untreated and treated with 5, 15, 25, 35 µg/ml quercetin during in vitro maturation. After then the mature oocytes were fertilized. It was observed that cumulus cell expansion of COCs cultured in maturation media supplemented with 5 µg/ml quercetin in grad 3 could be very significantly increased (p<0.001. In grad 4 could be significantly between different levels of quercetin (5 vs. 25, 5 vs. 35, p<0.001. The rates of embryos cultured in medium supplemented with different levels of quercetin did not presented significantly statistically different. The presence of 25 µg/ml quercetin in the maturation medium increased the percentage of embryos in the morula stage compared with the control. In the morula stage all the concentrations of quercetin resulted percentages increased to control. This results shows that quercetin added during in vitro maturation has a positive effect on future embryos development.

  19. Enterprise Cloud Adoption - Cloud Maturity Assessment Model

    OpenAIRE

    Conway, Gerry; Doherty, Eileen; Carcary, Marian; Crowley, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    The introduction and use of cloud computing by an organization has the promise of significant benefits that include reduced costs, improved services, and a pay-per-use model. Organizations that successfully harness these benefits will potentially have a distinct competitive edge, due to their increased agility and flexibility to rapidly respond to an ever changing and complex business environment. However, as cloud technology is a relatively new ph...

  20. Maturation of the human fetal startle response: Evidence for sex-specific maturation of the human fetus1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Claudia; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Class, Quetzal A.; Gierczak, Matt; Pattillo, Carol; Glynn, Laura M.; Sandman, Curt A.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the evidence for early fetal experience exerting programming influences on later neurological development and health risk, very few prospective studies of human fetal behavior have been reported. In a prospective longitudinal study, fetal nervous system maturation was serially assessed by monitoring fetal heart rate (FHR) responses to vibroacoustic stimulation (VAS) in 191 maternal/fetal dyads. Responses were not detected at 26 weeks gestational age (GA). Sex-specific, age-characteristic changes in the FHR response to VAS were observed by 31 weeks’ GA. Males showed larger responses and continued to exhibit maturational changes until 37 weeks’ GA, females however, presented with a mature FHR startle response by 31 weeks’ GA. The results indicate that there are different rates of maturation in the male and female fetus that may have implications for sex-specific programming influences. PMID:19726143

  1. Maturation of the human fetal startle response: evidence for sex-specific maturation of the human fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Claudia; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Class, Quetzal A; Gierczak, Matt; Pattillo, Carol; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt A

    2009-10-01

    Despite the evidence for early fetal experience exerting programming influences on later neurological development and health risk, very few prospective studies of human fetal behavior have been reported. In a prospective longitudinal study, fetal nervous system maturation was serially assessed by monitoring fetal heart rate (FHR) responses to vibroacoustic stimulation (VAS) in 191 maternal/fetal dyads. Responses were not detected at 26 weeks gestational age (GA). Sex-specific, age-characteristic changes in the FHR response to VAS were observed by 31 weeks' GA. Males showed larger responses and continued to exhibit maturational changes until 37 weeks' GA, females however, presented with a mature FHR startle response by 31 weeks' GA. The results indicate that there are different rates of maturation in the male and female fetuses that may have implications for sex-specific programming influences.

  2. QTLs for resistance to Phomopsis seed decay are associated with days to maturity in soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Suli; Kim, Moon Young; Van, Kyujung; Lee, Yin-Won; Li, Baodu; Lee, Suk-Ha

    2013-08-01

    Phomopsis seed decay (PSD), primarily caused by Phomopsis longicolla, is a major contributor to poor soybean seed quality and significant yield loss, particularly in early maturing soybean genotypes. However, it is not yet known whether PSD resistance is associated with early maturity. This study was conducted to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for resistance to PSD and days to maturity using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between the PSD-resistant Taekwangkong and the PSD-susceptible SS2-2. Based on a genetic linkage map incorporating 117 simple sequence repeat markers, QTL analysis revealed two and three QTLs conferring PSD resistance and days to maturity, respectively, in the RIL population. Two QTLs (PSD-6-1 and PSD-10-2) for PSD resistance were identified in the intervals of Satt100-Satt460 and Sat_038-Satt243 on chromosomes 6 and 10, respectively. Two QTLs explained phenotypic variances in PSD resistance of 46.3 and 14.1 %, respectively. At the PSD-6-1 QTL, the PSD-resistant cultivar Taekwangkong contributed the allele with negative effect decreasing the infection rate of PSD and this QTL does not overlap with any previously reported loci for PSD resistance in other soybean genotypes. Among the three QTLs for days to maturity, two (Mat-6-2 and Mat-10-3) were located at positions similar to the PSD-resistance QTLs. The identification of the QTLs linked to both PSD resistance and days to maturity indicates a biological correlation between these two traits. The newly identified QTL for resistance to PSD associated with days to maturity in Taekwangkong will help improve soybean resistance to P. longicolla.

  3. Software Maintenance Management Evaluation and Continuous Improvement

    CERN Document Server

    April, Alain

    2008-01-01

    This book explores the domain of software maintenance management and provides road maps for improving software maintenance organizations. It describes full maintenance maturity models organized by levels 1, 2, and 3, which allow for benchmarking and continuous improvement paths. Goals for each key practice area are also provided, and the model presented is fully aligned with the architecture and framework of software development maturity models of CMMI and ISO 15504. It is complete with case studies, figures, tables, and graphs.

  4. Changes in primary metabolites and polyphenols in the peel of "Braeburn" apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) during advanced maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizjak, Jan; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert

    2013-10-30

    During the two growing seasons the evolution of primary metabolites and wide range of polyphenols in the "Braeburn" apple peel during advanced maturation were investigated. During the five weeks sucrose significantly increased, whereas fructose and glucose fluctuated around the same level in one season and decreased in another. Regarding malic and citric acids, an expected decrease was recorded. The concentrations of hydroxycinnamic acids, dihydrochalcones, and flavanols remained quite constant or slightly decreased during advanced apple ripening. On the contrary an intensive accumulation of quercetin glycosides and anthocyanins took place during this period, starting with the onset of rapid formation approximately 3 weeks before the technological maturity of apples. Total phenolic content was relatively constant or slightly increased. The present results suggest that measures designed to improve the apple color and quality of "Braeburn" apples should be performed approximately 3-4 weeks before the expected technological maturity of apples.

  5. MANAGEMENT OF THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPMENT OF PRODUCTS: STUDY OF THE LEVELS OF MATURITY IN FOOD INDUSTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Greef, Melisa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of new products is an essential activity for the survival and competitiveness of companies. This process involves different stages, from the identification of consumers needs to the launch, follow-up and recall of the product in the market. At food producing industries, Product Development Process Management has an important role, due to the competitive environment in which they operate. However, in these companies’ different levels of the process systematization are perceived. In this sense, Maturity Level provides guidelines to observe which best practices are institutionalized and become effective in the organization. Selected literature recognizes five maturity levels: Basic, Intermediate, Measurable, Controlled and Continuous Improvement. This paper presents a diagnosis of the maturity level of Product Development Process Management on food companies Santa Fe (Argentina. Eleven companies belonging to three sectors of economic activity, selected according to their importance for the region (dairy products, inputs and meat are selected. A descriptive study is carried out through the application of a semi-structured questionnaire. Among the main conclusions, it is observed that companies interviewed have Basic and Intermediate Maturity Levels. Particularly, there are remarkable differences in relation to the company size (to a larger size, larger degree of PDP process systematization and higher maturity level.

  6. A review of maturation diets for mud crab genus Scylla broodstock: Present research, problems and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azra, Mohamad N; Ikhwanuddin, Mhd

    2016-03-01

    Study of broodstock maturation diets is important in order to increase the quality of berried females, which indirectly improve the larval quantity in the hatchery production of cultured species. This paper reviewed the studies on the maturation diets for mud crab broodstock, genus Scylla and compared independently to identify their effect on reproductive performance and larval quality. The broodstock is usually caught from the wild and held in the spawning or maturation tank for further use of hatchery seed production. Mud crab broodstock was fed either natural diet, artificial diet or mixed diet. Trash fishes were commonly used as a natural feed for mud crab broodstock; meanwhile artificial diets are from formulated fish meal and various kinds of feed. The results indicated that mud crab broodstock has a high dietary requirement for lipids, fatty acids and protein which are to be used during the maturation and breeding processes. However, the natural diet produce better larval quality compared to the artificial diet. The mixed diet is the better diet which resulted in better reproductive performances such as growth, survival, fecundity and maturation processes. This review also discusses the problems in the previous studies for the potential future research to develop very high quality and cost-effective formulated diet for the enhancement of broodstock and seed production technology. Information from this review can be useful in developing a better quality of crustacean broodstock's diet for commercial hatchery production.

  7. Barley HvPAPhy_a as transgene provides high and stable phytase activities in mature barley straw and in grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Inger Baeksted; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Madsen, Claus Krogh; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2017-04-01

    The phytase purple acid phosphatase (HvPAPhy_a) expressed during barley seed development was evaluated as transgene for overexpression in barley. The phytase was expressed constitutively driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S-promoter, and the phytase activity was measured in the mature grains, the green leaves and in the dry mature vegetative plant parts left after harvest of the grains. The T 2 -generation of HvPAPhy_a transformed barley showed phytase activity increases up to 19-fold (29 000 phytase units (FTU) per kg in mature grains). Moreover, also in green leaves and mature dry straw, phytase activities were increased significantly by 110-fold (52 000 FTU/kg) and 57-fold (51 000 FTU/kg), respectively. The HvPAPhy_a-transformed barley plants with high phytase activities possess triple potential utilities for the improvement of phosphate bioavailability. First of all, the utilization of the mature grains as feed to increase the release of bio-available phosphate and minerals bound to the phytate of the grains; secondly, the utilization of the powdered straw either directly or phytase extracted hereof as a supplement to high phytate feed or food; and finally, the use of the stubble to be ploughed into the soil for mobilizing phytate-bound phosphate for plant growth. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. How to manage sustainable supply chain? The issue of maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Rudnicka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The issue of managing sustainability in supply chain seems to be more and more complex. There are many aspects that need to be taken into consideration when planning, implementing and monitoring environmental and social conditions of supply chains. Despite many works, already published, on the concept of sustainable development (SD is seems that the issue of assessment and especially the issue of maturity in the light of the SD concept is still not developed enough. Methods: The general aim of the paper is the analysis of the maturity issue in the context of sustainability. The main objective is to conceptualize the idea of maturity in sustainable supply chain. Beside the literature research the own proposition of theoretical model was described. Results: The article describes the issue of maturity as an element of managing sustainable development in the supply chain. The author presented a theoretical model of the maturity. Moreover the author gave some recommendations how to manage the sustainability issues in supply chain in more mature approach and introduced some useful tools among which are: certification, code of conduct and code of ethics, audits, projects etc. Conclusions: The issue of maturity seems to be very useful for proper understanding the idea of sustainable development in supply chain. The developed model can be used as self-assessment method to check at which level of implementation the idea of SD is analyzed in supply chain. Furthermore, the next phase of the planned research in form of practical verification of the model was advised as well as a research of identification of new factors and tools in analyzed area.

  9. Engaged Research in Process Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This keynote initiates from an example of engaged research; a Danish software house that made it from maturity level 1 to 5 in eight years. The organizational change implied at each step is discussed and a design theory of process improvement and change derived.......This keynote initiates from an example of engaged research; a Danish software house that made it from maturity level 1 to 5 in eight years. The organizational change implied at each step is discussed and a design theory of process improvement and change derived....

  10. Promotion of Myogenic Maturation by Timely Application of Electric Field Along the Topographical Alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ung Hyun; Park, Sukhee; Bang, Hyunseung; Kim, Mina; Shin, Hyunjun; Shin, Jennifer H

    2018-05-01

    Engineered muscular substitutes can restore the impaired muscle functions when integrated properly into the host tissue. To generate functional muscles with sufficient contractility at the site of transplant, the in vitro construction of fully differentiated muscle fibers would be desired. Many previous reports have identified either topographical alignment or electrical stimulation as an effective tool to promote myogenic differentiation. However, optimization of spatial and temporal arrangement of these two physical cues for better differentiation and maturation of skeletal muscles has not been investigated. In this article, we introduce a novel cell culture system that allows simultaneous application of these two independent directional cues at both orthogonal and parallel arrangements. We then show that the parallel arrangement of the aligned topography and the electric field synergistically facilitates better differentiation and maturation of C2C12, generating myotubes with more fused nuclei. Addition of the electric stimulation at the late stage of myogenic differentiation is found to further improve cell fusion to form multinucleate myotubes through a phosphatidylinositol-3-OH-kinase-dependent pathway. As such, we successfully demonstrated that the combined stimulation of topographical and electrical cues could effectively enhance both myogenic differentiation and maturation in a temporal and orientation-dependent manner, providing the basis for therapeutic strategies for regenerative tissue engineering.

  11. Hanging drop monoculture for selection of optimal antioxidants during in vitro maturation of porcine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, S; Machida, R; Hiraga, K; Hiradate, Y; Suda, Y; Tanemura, K

    2014-04-01

    We analysed the effect of three antioxidants that have different functional mechanisms on the in vitro maturation (IVM) of porcine oocytes. Single oocyte monoculture using the hanging drop (HD) system has some advantages such as improving analysis efficiency brought by the smaller number of samples than the number of oocytes cultured in one drop. Direct effects of ligands on single oocytes could also be detected without considering the effects of paracrine factors from other oocytes. After 22 h of pre-culture, denuded oocytes were cultured for 22 h with 0.01 and 0.1 μg/ml of L-carnitine (LC), lactoferrin (LF) or sulforaphane (SF) in the presence/non-presence of oxidant stress induced by H2O2 supplementation to evaluate the reducing effects against oxidative stress on nuclear maturation. As a result, compared with LC and SF, LF showed effective reduction in oxidative stress at a lower concentration (0.01 μg/ml), suggesting that LF is a more effective antioxidant in porcine oocyte IVM. Additionally, LF also increased maturation rate even in culture without H2O2. Our results clearly suggest that the HD monoculture system is useful for screening the substances that affect porcine oocyte culture. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Maturation of polarization and luminance contrast sensitivities in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartron, Lelia; Dickel, Ludovic; Shashar, Nadav; Darmaillacq, Anne-Sophie

    2013-06-01

    Polarization sensitivity is a characteristic of the visual system of cephalopods. It has been well documented in adult cuttlefish, which use polarization sensitivity in a large range of tasks such as communication, orientation and predation. Because cuttlefish do not benefit from parental care, their visual system (including the ability to detect motion) must be efficient from hatching to enable them to detect prey or predators. We studied the maturation and functionality of polarization sensitivity in newly hatched cuttlefish. In a first experiment, we examined the response of juvenile cuttlefish from hatching to the age of 1 month towards a moving, vertically oriented grating (contrasting and polarized stripes) using an optomotor response apparatus. Cuttlefish showed differences in maturation of polarization versus luminance contrast motion detection. In a second experiment, we examined the involvement of polarization information in prey preference and detection in cuttlefish of the same age. Cuttlefish preferentially chose not to attack transparent prey whose polarization contrast had been removed with a depolarizing filter. Performances of prey detection based on luminance contrast improved with age. Polarization contrast can help cuttlefish detect transparent prey. Our results suggest that polarization is not a simple modulation of luminance information, but rather that it is processed as a distinct channel of visual information. Both luminance and polarization sensitivity are functional, though not fully matured, in newly hatched cuttlefish and seem to help in prey detection.

  13. Anatomy and Cytogenetic Identification of a Wheat-Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng Line with Early Maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangming Wang

    Full Text Available In previous studies, our research team successfully transferred the Ns genome from Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng into Triticum aestivum (common wheat cv. 7182 using embryo culture. In the present study, one of these lines, i.e., hybrid progeny 25-10-3, which matured about 10-14 days earlier than its wheat parent, was assessed using sequenced characterized amplified region (SCAR analysis, EST-SSR and EST-STS molecular markers, and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH. We found that this was a stable wheat-P. huashanica disomic addition line (2n = 44 = 22 II and the results demonstrated that it was a 6Ns disomic chromosome addition line, but it exhibited many different features compared with previously characterized lines, i.e., a longer awn, early maturation, and no twin spikelets. It was considered to be an early-maturing variety based on the early stage of inflorescence initiation in field experiments and binocular microscope observations over three consecutive years. This characteristic was distinct, especially from the single ridge stage and double ridge stage until the glume stage. In addition, it had a higher photosynthesis rate and economic values than common wheat cv. 7182, i.e., more spikelets per spike, more florets per spikelet, more kernels per spike, and a higher thousand-grain weight. These results suggest that this material may comprise a genetic pool of beneficial genes or chromosome segments, which are suitable for introgression to improve the quality of common wheat.

  14. Blood pressure and sexual maturity in adolescents: the Heartfelt Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, S D; Mueller, W H; Meininger, J C; Liehr, P; Chan, W

    2001-01-01

    This study investigates sexual maturity as a predictor of resting blood pressures independent of other known predictors, in 179 boys and 204 girls 11-16 years of age from the Heartfelt Study. The sample included youth of African (n = 140), Mexican (n = 117), and European and "other" (n = 126) backgrounds. Sexual maturity was assessed during clinical examination of three standard indicators for each sex. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were higher in children of maturity stages IV and V, compared to stages I-III, in each gender/ethnic group (P maturity for their age group, had significantly higher systolic blood pressures (but not diastolic) than the less advanced in linear models that included height, body mass index (BMI), ethnicity, and age as co-predictors. Diastolic blood pressures were predicted by height in boys and by age and the BMI in girls. This analysis, using a very conservative approach, suggests that sexual maturity provides important and independent information on systolic blood pressure in adolescents. Further investigation of its role in 24-hr blood pressures and in blood pressures taken during physical and emotional stress, is recommended.

  15. As Technologies for Nucleotide Therapeutics Mature, Products Emerge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beierlein, Jennifer M; McNamee, Laura M; Ledley, Fred D

    2017-12-15

    The long path from initial research on oligonucleotide therapies to approval of antisense products is not unfamiliar. This lag resembles those encountered with monoclonal antibodies, gene therapies, and many biological targets and is consistent with studies of innovation showing that technology maturation is a critical determinant of product success. We previously described an analytical model for the maturation of biomedical research, demonstrating that the efficiency of targeted and biological development is connected to metrics of technology growth. The present work applies this model to characterize the advance of oligonucleotide therapeutics. We show that recent oligonucleotide product approvals incorporate technologies and targets that are past the established point of technology growth, as do most of the oligonucleotide products currently in phase 3. Less mature oligonucleotide technologies, such as miRNAs and some novel gene targets, have not passed the established point and have not yielded products. This analysis shows that oligonucleotide product development has followed largely predictable patterns of innovation. While technology maturation alone does not ensure success, these data show that many oligonucleotide technologies are sufficiently mature to be considered part of the arsenal for therapeutic development. These results demonstrate the importance of technology assessment in strategic management of biomedical technologies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Role of WNT signaling in epididymal sperm maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jin-Mei; Tang, Ji-Xin; Li, Jian; Wang, Yu-Qian; Wang, Xiu-Xia; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Su-Ren; Liu, Yi-Xun

    2018-02-01

    Spermatozoa maturation, a process required for spermatozoa to acquire progressive motility and the ability to fertilize ova, primarily occurs in the caput and corpus of the epididymis. Despite considerable efforts, the factor(s) promoting epididymal sperm maturation remains unclear. Recently, WNT signaling has been implicated in epididymal sperm maturation. To further investigate WNT signaling function in epididymal sperm maturation, we generated Wntless conditional knockout mice (Wls cKO), Wls flox/flox ; Lcn5-Cre. In these mice, WNTLESS (WLS), a conserved membrane protein required for all WNT protein secretion, was specifically disrupted in the principal cells of the caput epididymidis. Immunoblot analysis showed that WLS was significantly reduced in the caput epididymidis of Wls cKO mice. In the caput epididymidis of Wls cKO mice, WNT 10A and WNT 2b, which are typically secreted by the principal cells of the caput epididymis, were not secreted. Interestingly, sperm motility analysis showed that the WLS deficiency in the caput epididymidis had no effect on sperm motility. Moreover, fertility tests showed that Wls cKO male mice had normal fertility. These results indicate that the disruption of WLS in principal cells of the caput epididymidis inhibits WNT protein secretion but has no effect on sperm motility and male fertility, suggesting that WNT signaling in the caput epididymidis may be dispensable for epididymal sperm maturation in mice.

  17. CT findings of overian teratomas : mature versus immature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Chul; Kim, Young Wol

    1996-01-01

    To differentiate mature and immature ovarian teratomas, using CT findings. The CT findings of ten mature ovarian teratomas (in one patient, bilateral) and ten which were immature were compared, using statistical analysis. Images were evaluated for size, margins, architecture, contents (mural nodules, fat, calcification), septa, local invasion and distant metastasis. These findings were compared with pathologic findings. Of the ten mature tumors, nine were well defined and predominantly cystic in internal architecture, and one was mixed. Mural nodules were found in six tumor, fat in all, distinct calcification in seven, and regular septa in three lesions. Of the ten immature humors, eight had irregular margins. Seven were predominantly solid in internal architecture and irregularly enhanced, two were mixed, and one was mainly cystic. Fat was detected in five lesions, indistinct scattered calcification in six, irregular septa in three, and local invasion of distant metastasis in four patients. Compared with mature ovarian teratomas, those that are immature tend to show CT findings of marginal irregularity, solid mass with irregular enhacement, scattered indistinct calcifications, septal irregularity, local invasion or distant metastasis. Our experience suggests that these findings may be helpful in differentiation of mature and immature ovarian teratomas

  18. Structural and Maturational Covariance in Early Childhood Brain Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiujuan; Li, Gang; Lu, Zhaohua; Gao, Wei; Wang, Li; Shen, Dinggang; Zhu, Hongtu; Gilmore, John H

    2017-03-01

    Brain structural covariance networks (SCNs) composed of regions with correlated variation are altered in neuropsychiatric disease and change with age. Little is known about the development of SCNs in early childhood, a period of rapid cortical growth. We investigated the development of structural and maturational covariance networks, including default, dorsal attention, primary visual and sensorimotor networks in a longitudinal population of 118 children after birth to 2 years old and compared them with intrinsic functional connectivity networks. We found that structural covariance of all networks exhibit strong correlations mostly limited to their seed regions. By Age 2, default and dorsal attention structural networks are much less distributed compared with their functional maps. The maturational covariance maps, however, revealed significant couplings in rates of change between distributed regions, which partially recapitulate their functional networks. The structural and maturational covariance of the primary visual and sensorimotor networks shows similar patterns to the corresponding functional networks. Results indicate that functional networks are in place prior to structural networks, that correlated structural patterns in adult may arise in part from coordinated cortical maturation, and that regional co-activation in functional networks may guide and refine the maturation of SCNs over childhood development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Effect of fertilization on the physiological maturation of sesame seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erivan Isídio Ferreira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fertilization and harvest time may influence the formation and maturation processes, as well as the physiological quality of seeds. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of fertilization on the physiological maturation of sesame seeds. The following variables were evaluated: fruit color, dry mass and water content of fruits and seeds, germination, first germination count, germination speed, emergence and emergence speed. No significant fertilization effect was observed on fruit maturation for water content or dry mass. However, there was significance for these variables in the seeds. The harvest time had a significant effect on water content and dry mass of fruits and seeds. For the variables that evaluated the seed viability and vigor, both the fertilization and harvest time influenced the physiological maturation. The physiological maturity of the sesame seeds, whose plants were grown with and without fertilization, was reached between 52 and 54 days after anthesis, when the fruits were classified as yellow-greenish 7.5 Y 8/6 and yellow to yellow-red 10.R 4/6.

  20. Maturation evolution of chardonnay grape for juice preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bender Angelica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the evolution of the maturation of the “Chardonnay” grape variety for the preparation of juices and its adequacy to the current legislation. Grapes from the 2015 harvest from São Lourenço do Sul-RS were used. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial design, with the treatment factor being the maturation stages. The physicochemical analysis of titratable acidity, soluble solids, relative density, total sugar, alcohol content, volatile acidity and SS/TA ratio were carried out in EPAGRI – Agricultural Research and Rural Extension Company of Santa Catarina, in the Videira Experimental Station (Videira SC/Brazil. Statistical analysis of the maturation stages was given by linear regression models. When comparing the maturation points of 17∘Brix and 19∘Brix to 15∘Brix, volatile acidity and alcohol content did not fit to the model, while the other tested variables fit properly. Elaborated juices had a decrease in titratable acidity and percentage increments for soluble solids, SS/TA ratio and total sugars for the harvest points at 17 and 19∘Brix. For 15∘Brix and 17∘Brix, nonconformity was observed with the identity and quality standards in relation to soluble solids and SS/TA ratio and relative density. At maturation point 19∘Brix all variables were found to be consistent.

  1. In vitro maturation of human oocytes for assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurema, Marcus W; Nogueira, Daniela

    2006-11-01

    To describe and evaluate the current practice of in vitro maturation of oocytes for assisted reproduction. Review of the available and relevant literature regarding in vitro maturation of oocytes. In vitro maturation of human oocytes retrieved from antral ovarian follicles is an emerging procedure quickly being incorporated into the realm of assisted reproductive technologies. This new technology has several potential advantages over traditional controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for IVF, such as reduction of costs by minimizing gonadotropin and GnRH analogue use, elimination of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, and simplicity of protocol. In vitro maturation of oocytes for assisted reproduction in human beings still is undergoing refinement but currently is providing efficacy and safety outcome comparable to that of traditional IVF in recent selected studies. Implementing in vitro maturation into an established IVF practice is feasible and requires only a few simple adjustments. Crucial to the advancement and optimization of the technology is a better understanding of how to maximize immature oocyte developmental competence and endometrial receptivity.

  2. Pharmaceutical Options for Triggering of Final Oocyte Maturation in ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Castillo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the pioneering days of in vitro fertilization, hCG has been the gold standard to induce final follicular maturation. We herein reviewed different pharmaceutical options for triggering of final oocyte maturation in ART. The new upcoming agent seems to be GnRHa with its potential advantages over hCG trigger. GnRHa triggering elicits a surge of gonadotropins resembling the natural midcycle surge of gonadotropins, without the prolonged action of hCG, resulting in the retrieval of more mature oocytes and a significant reduction in or elimination of OHSS as compared to hCG triggering. The induction of final follicular maturation using GnRHa represents a paradigm shift in the ovulation triggering concept in ART and, thus, a way to develop a safer IVF procedure. Kisspeptins are key central regulators of the neuroendocrine mechanisms of human reproduction, who have been shown to effectively elicit an LH surge and to induce final oocyte maturation in IVF cycles. This new trigger concept may, therefore, offer a completely new, “natural” pharmacological option for ovulation induction. Whether kisspeptins will be the future agent to trigger ovulation remains to be further explored.

  3. Cervical vertebral and dental maturity in Turkish subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başaran, Güvenç; Ozer, Törün; Hamamci, Nihal

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between the stages of calcification of teeth and the cervical vertebral maturity stages in Turkish subjects. A retrospective cross-sectional study was designed. The final study population consisted of 590 Turkish subjects. Statistical analysis of the data was performed with computer software. Spearman rank order correlation coefficients were used to assess the relationship between cervical vertebral and dental maturation. For a better understanding of the relationship between cervical vertebral maturation indexes and dental age, percentage distributions of the studied teeth were also calculated. Strict correlations were found between dental and cervical vertebral maturation of Turkish subjects. For males, the sequence from lowest to the highest was third molar, central incisor, canine, first premolar, second premolar, first molar, and second molar. For females, the sequence from lowest to the highest was third molar, canine, second premolar, first premolar, central incisor, first molar, and second molar. Dental maturation stages can be used as a reliable indicator of facial growth.

  4. A lack of cerebral lateralization in schizophrenia is within the normal variation in brain maturation but indicates late, slow maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saugstad, L F

    1999-10-19

    The planum temporale (PT) bias, PT leftward, PT symmetry, and PT rightward reversal and sidedness preference, consistent right-handedness, ambilaterality, and consistent left-handedness are placed on a continuum mirroring the normal variation in rate of brain maturation. Maturational rate declines as we pass from PT leftward bias and consistent right-handedness to PT reversal and consistent left-handedness. Concomitantly, we expect an increased prevalence of males due to their pubertal age being about 2 years later than that of females, and a shift in cognitive profile from higher verbal scores than performance scores on the WAIS to higher performance than verbal scores. Three disorders fulfilling the criteria of late CNS maturation apart from the corresponding cognitive profile were studied: infantile autism (IA), schizophrenia (S), and developmental dyslexia (DD). These disorders have in common deficits in cognition, perception, and somatomotor function. The deficits range from an arrest in brain development (which is evident in infancy superimposed on late maturation in IA) to overall delayed brain and somatic development in S (culminating in postpubertal psychotic episodes and persistent and generalized residual deficits). Finally, reading inability, problems in perception (vision and hearing) and in motor coordination, particularly between the two hemispheres, characterize DD. Enhancing brain maturation and the prevalence of 'normal' cerebral asymmetry--laterality is preferable if we want to reduce the risk of developing the above-mentioned disorders. It is suggested that in the past environmental challenges have favored early maturation, with its abundant neuronal population, arborization and excessive density of synapses and cerebral excitability which has powered evolution through the mechanism of natural selection. Early maturation is obtainable through optimal nutrition, including a satisfactory amount of marine fat (PUFA), before and during pregnancy and

  5. Human dendritic cells sequentially matured with CD4+ T cells as a secondary signal favor CTL and long-term T memory cell responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Simon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are professional antigen-presenting cells involved in the control and initiation of immune responses. In vivo, DCs exposed at the periphery to maturation stimuli migrate to lymph nodes, where they receive secondary signals from CD4+ T helper cells. These DCs become able to initiate CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL responses. However, in vitro investigations concerning human monocyte-derived DCs have never focused on their functional properties after such sequential maturation. Here, we studied human DC phenotypes and functions according to this sequential exposure to maturation stimuli. As first signals, we used TNF-α/polyI:C mimicking inflammatory and pathogen stimuli and, as second signals, we compared activated CD4+ T helper cells to a combination of CD40-L/ IFN-γ. Our results show that a sequential activation with activated CD4+ T cells dramatically increased the maturation of DCs in terms of their phenotype and cytokine secretion compared to DCs activated with maturation stimuli delivered simultaneously. Furthermore, this sequential maturation led to the induction of CTL with a long-term effector and central memory phenotypes. Thus, sequential delivery of maturation stimuli, which includes CD4+ T cells, should be considered in the future to improve the induction of long-term CTL memory in DC-based immunotherapy.

  6. Human dendritic cells sequentially matured with CD4(+) T cells as a secondary signal favor CTL and long-term T memory cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Thomas; Tanguy-Royer, Séverine; Royer, Pierre-Joseph; Boisgerault, Nicolas; Frikeche, Jihane; Fonteneau, Jean-François; Grégoire, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells involved in the control and initiation of immune responses. In vivo, DCs exposed at the periphery to maturation stimuli migrate to lymph nodes, where they receive secondary signals from CD4+ T helper cells. These DCs become able to initiate CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. However, in vitro investigations concerning human monocyte-derived DCs have never focused on their functional properties after such sequential maturation. Here, we studied human DC phenotypes and functions according to this sequential exposure to maturation stimuli. As first signals, we used TNF-α/polyI:C mimicking inflammatory and pathogen stimuli and, as second signals, we compared activated CD4+ T helper cells to a combination of CD40-L/ IFN-γ. Our results show that a sequential activation with activated CD4+ T cells dramatically increased the maturation of DCs in terms of their phenotype and cytokine secretion compared to DCs activated with maturation stimuli delivered simultaneously. Furthermore, this sequential maturation led to the induction of CTL with a long-term effector and central memory phenotypes. Thus, sequential delivery of maturation stimuli, which includes CD4+ T cells, should be considered in the future to improve the induction of long-term CTL memory in DC-based immunotherapy.

  7. Physeal growth arrest after tibial lengthening in achondroplasia: 23 children followed to skeletal maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sang-Heon; Agashe, Mandar Vikas; Huh, Young-Jae; Hwang, Soon-Young; Song, Hae-Ryong

    2012-06-01

    Bilateral tibial lengthening has become one of the standard treatments for upper segment-lower segment disproportion and to improve quality of life in achondroplasia. We determined the effect of tibial lengthening on the tibial physis and compared tibial growth that occurred at the physis with that in non-operated patients with achondroplasia. We performed a retrospective analysis of serial radiographs until skeletal maturity in 23 achondroplasia patients who underwent bilateral tibial lengthening before skeletal maturity (lengthening group L) and 12 achondroplasia patients of similar height and age who did not undergo tibial lengthening (control group C). The mean amount of lengthening of tibia in group L was 9.2 cm (lengthening percentage: 60%) and the mean age at the time of lengthening was 8.2 years. The mean duration of follow-up was 9.8 years. Skeletal maturity (fusion of physis) occurred at 15.2 years in group L and at 16.0 years in group C. The actual length of tibia (without distraction) at skeletal maturity was 238 mm in group L and 277 mm in group C (p = 0.03). The mean growth rates showed a decrease in group L relative to group C from about 2 years after surgery. Physeal closure was most pronounced on the anterolateral proximal tibial physis, with relative preservation of the distal physis. Our findings indicate that physeal growth rate can be disturbed after tibial lengthening in achondroplasia, and a close watch should be kept for such an occurrence-especially when lengthening of more than 50% is attempted.

  8. Towards a theory of PACS deployment: an integrative PACS maturity framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wetering, Rogier; Batenburg, Ronald

    2014-06-01

    Owing to large financial investments that go along with the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) deployments and inconsistent PACS performance evaluations, there is a pressing need for a better understanding of the implications of PACS deployment in hospitals. We claim that there is a gap in the research field, both theoretically and empirically, to explain the success of the PACS deployment and maturity in hospitals. Theoretical principles are relevant to the PACS performance; maturity and alignment are reviewed from a system and complexity perspective. A conceptual model to explain the PACS performance and a set of testable hypotheses are then developed. Then, structural equation modeling (SEM), i.e. causal modeling, is applied to validate the model and hypotheses based on a research sample of 64 hospitals that use PACS, i.e. 70 % of all hospitals in the Netherlands. Outcomes of the SEM analyses substantiate that the measurements of all constructs are reliable and valid. The PACS alignment-modeled as a higher-order construct of five complementary organizational dimensions and maturity levels-has a significant positive impact on the PACS performance. This result is robust and stable for various sub-samples and segments. This paper presents a conceptual model that explains how alignment in deploying PACS in hospitals is positively related to the perceived performance of PACS. The conceptual model is extended with tools as checklists to systematically identify the improvement areas for hospitals in the PACS domain. The holistic approach towards PACS alignment and maturity provides a framework for clinical practice.

  9. Maturational delay in ADHD: Evidence from CPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itai eBerger

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available While data from behavioural, neuropsychological, and brain studies suggested that Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is related to a developmental lag that reduces with age, other studies have proposed that ADHD represents a deviant brain function. The present study used a cross-sectional approach to examine whether ADHD children show a developmental delay in cognitive performance measured by continuous performance test (CPT. We thus compared six age groups of ADHD children (N=559 and their unaffected peers (N=365, aged 6-11, in four parameters of MOXO-CPT performance: Attention, Timing, Hyperactivity and Impulsivity. Results have shown that despite improvement in CPT performance with age, ADHD children continued to demonstrate impaired performance as compared to controls. In most parameters, CPT performance of ADHD children matched that of 1-3 years younger normal controls, with a delay most prominent in older children. However, in the Hyperactivity parameter, ADHD children’s performance resembled that of much younger healthy children, with almost no evidence for a developmental catch up. This study suggests that while some cognitive functions develop slower but normally, other functions (e.g., inhibitory control show a different sequel.

  10. MATURING ECRF TECHNOLOGY FOR PLASMA CONTROL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CALLIS, R.W.; CARY, W.P.; CHU, S.; LOANE, J.L.; ELLIS, R.A.; FELCH, K.; GORELOV, Y.A.; GRUNLOH, H.J.; HOSEA, J.; KAJIWARA, K.; LOHR, J.; LUCE, T.C.; PEAVY, J.J.; PINSKER, R.I.; PONCE, D.; PRATER, R.; SHAPIRO, M.; TEMKIN, R.J.; TOOKER, J.F.

    2002-01-01

    OAK A271 MUTURING ECRF TECHNOLOGY FOR PLASMA CONTROL. Understanding of the physics of internal transport barriers (ITBs) is being furthered by analysis and comparisons of experimental data from many different tokamaks worldwide. An international database consisting of scalar and 2-D profile data for ITB plasmas is being developed to determine the requirements for the formation and sustainment of ITBs and to perform tests of theory-based transport models in an effort to improve the predictive capability of the models. Analysis using the database indicates that: (a) the power required to form ITBs decreases with increased negative magnetic shear of the target plasma, and: (b) the E x B flow shear rate is close to the linear growth rate of the ITG modes at the time of barrier formation when compared for several fusion devices. Tests of several transport models (JETTO, Weiland model) using the 2-D profile data indicate that there is only limited agreement between the model predictions and the experimental results for the range of plasma conditions examined for the different devices (DIII-D, JET, JT-60U). Gyrokinetic stability analysis (using the GKS code) of the ITB discharges from these devices indicates that the ITG/TEM growth rates decrease with increased negative magnetic shear and that the E x B shear rate is comparable to the linear growth rates at the location of the ITB

  11. Failure of Neuronal Maturation in Alzheimer Disease Dentate Gyrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Tatebayashi, Yoshitaka; Shafit-Zagardo, Bridget; Tanimukai, Hitoshi; Chen, She; Iqbal, Khalid; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge

    2011-01-01

    The dentate gyrus, an important anatomic structure of the hippocampal formation, is one of the major areas in which neurogenesis takes place in the adult mammalian brain. Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus is thought to play an important role in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Neurogenesis has been reported to be increased in the dentate gyrus of patients with Alzheimer disease, but it is not known whether the newly generated neurons differentiate into mature neurons. In this study, the expression of the mature neuronal marker high molecular weight microtubule-associated protein (MAP) isoforms MAP2a and b was found to be dramatically decreased in Alzheimer disease dentate gyrus, as determined by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. The total MAP2, including expression of the immature neuronal marker, the MAP2c isoform, was less affected. These findings suggest that newly generated neurons in Alzheimer disease dentate gyrus do not become mature neurons, although neuroproliferation is increased. PMID:18091557

  12. Primordial Pb, radiogenic Pb and lunar soil maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, G.W. Jr.; Jovanovic, S.

    1978-01-01

    The soil maturity index I/sub s//FeO does not apply to either 204 Pb/sub r/ or C/sub hyd/; both are directly correlated with the submicron Fe 0 (I/sub s/) content. They act as an index of soil maturity which is independent of soil composition. In contrast to primordial Pb, radiogenic Pb is lost during soil maturation. Radiogenic Pb is present in mineral grains and may be lost by solar wind sputtering (or volatilization) and not resupplied. 204 Pb coating grain surfaces acts as a reservoir to provide the 204 Pb being extracted in the Fe 0 formation process. Venting or some other volatile source may replenish the surface 204 Pb. 1 figure

  13. Development and maturation of Escherichia coli K-12 biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisner, A.; Haagensen, J.A.J.; Schembri, Mark

    2003-01-01

    The development and maturation of E. coli biofilms in flow-chambers was investigated. We found that the presence of transfer constitutive IncF plasmids induced biofilm development forming structures resembling those reported for Pseudomonas aeruginosa . The development occurred in a step...... occurred in conjugation pilus proficient plasmid-carrying strains. The final shapes of the expanding structures in the mature biofilm seem to be determined by the pilus configuration, as various mutants affected in the processing and activity of the transfer pili displayed differently structured biofilms....... We further provide evidence that flagella, type 1 fimbriae, curli and Ag43 are all dispensable for the observed biofilm maturation. In addition, our results indicate that cell-to-cell signalling mediated by autoinducer 2 (AI-2) is not required for differentiation of E. coli within a biofilm community...

  14. Ergonomic sustainability based on the ergonomic maturity level measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Mario Cesar; Guizze, Carmen Lucia Campos; Bonfatti, Renato José; Silva e Santos, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at the application of an ergonomic maturity model (EMM), in order to assess the ergonomic sustainability outreach of ergonomic actions. This proposition was motivated by the widespread sensation that the development of the discipline, its educational devices and related practices depends on the attitude of ergonomics practitioners rather than environmental macroergonomic conditions. Maturity modeling in this paper is undertaken as a tool for ergonomic practitioners. Thus, its foundations were uprooted from diverse fields: Clinic Psychology, Quality Management and Project Management. The paper brings about a detailled explanation of this ergonomic maturity tool. The empirical part is fulfilled by the examination - using the EMM - of four emblematic cases excerpted from our research lab ergonomic portfolio.

  15. Social and moral maturity of high-school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Gasar

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The level of social and moral maturity of high-school students was examined. There were almost no significant differences between the students of two different educational programs. In general, the students' level of social and moral maturity is satisfyingly high, but their social skills are not quite appropriately developed. The results of behaviour in school situations reveal a quite unpleasant picture of interpersonal relations, which is probably a reflection of social relations in society. The absence of correlations between both components of maturity and social skills shows the gap between human's reasoning and behaviour. Students know, which behaviour is moral and socially adapted, but they do not always act in congruence with that, because existing social relations often encourage different behaviour.

  16. Zulliger (CS in Assessing the Relational Maturity of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Elisa Villemor-Amaral

    Full Text Available Abstract Relational maturity is an important aspect to be considered in the evaluation of children. Its development in children is considered related to sex and chronological age. The present study aimed to seek evidence of validity for the Zulliger test (Comprehensive System - CS in the evaluation of maturity for interpersonal relationships in children. A total of 566 children, both sexes, of which 52.8% were girls, were submitted to the Zulliger test (CS. For comparison according to age, a subsample was extracted, composed of two groups of six and 12-year-olds, totaling 115 children. The analysis revealed statistically significant differences in the variables H, (H, A, Ad, (A, M, FC and AG. Results show findings in favor of using the Zulliger test (CS in the evaluation of maturity for interpersonal relationships in children.

  17. Facilitating Oak and Hickory Regeneration in Mature Central Hardwood Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Holzmueller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Advanced oak and hickory regeneration is often absent in mature oak-hickory forests in the Central Hardwood Region of the United States. Prescribed fire and thinning, alone and combined, are commonly prescribed silvicultural treatments that are recommended to initiate the regeneration process. This study examined the regeneration response in three mature oak stands following four treatments: (1 thin, (2 burn, (3 thinning and burning, or (4 no treatment (control. Ten years after initial treatment, results indicate that oak and hickory seedlings had greater height and diameter in the thinning and burning treatment compared to the control and that this treatment may help facilitate desirable regeneration in mature oak-hickory forests.

  18. The Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) Maturity Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahl, Bernd; Obach, Michael; Yaghmaei, Emad

    2017-01-01

    Responsible research and innovation (RRI) is an approach to research and innovation governance aiming to ensure that research purpose, process and outcomes are acceptable, sustainable and even desirable. In order to achieve this ambitious aim, RRI must be relevant to research and innovation...... in industry. In this paper, we discuss a way of understanding and representing RRI that resonates with private companies and lends itself to practical implementation and action. We propose the development of an RRI maturity model in the tradition of other well-established maturity models, linked...... with a corporate research and development (R&D) process. The foundations of this model lie in the discourse surrounding RRI and selected maturity models from other domains as well as the results of extensive empirical investigation. The model was tested in three industry environments and insights from these case...

  19. Cigarette Smoke Decreases the Maturation of Lung Myeloid Dendritic Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Arellano-Orden

    Full Text Available Conflicting data exist on the role of pulmonary dendritic cells (DCs and their maturation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Herein, we investigated whether disease severity and smoking status could affect the distribution and maturation of DCs in lung tissues of patients undergoing elective pneumectomy or lobectomy for suspected primary lung cancer.A total of 75 consecutive patients were included. Spirometry testing was used to identify COPD. Lung parenchyma sections anatomically distant from the primary lesion were examined. We used flow cytometry to identify different DCs subtypes-including BDCA1-positive myeloid DCs (mDCs, BDCA3-positive mDCs, and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs-and determine their maturation markers (CD40, CD80, CD83, and CD86 in all participants. We also identified follicular DCs (fDCs, Langerhans DCs (LDCs, and pDCs in 42 patients by immunohistochemistry.COPD was diagnosed in 43 patients (16 current smokers and 27 former smokers, whereas the remaining 32 subjects were classified as non-COPD (11 current smokers, 13 former smokers, and 8 never smokers. The number and maturation of DCs did not differ significantly between COPD and non-COPD patients. However, the results of flow cytometry indicated that maturation markers CD40 and CD83 of BDCA1-positive mDCs were significantly decreased in smokers than in non-smokers (P = 0.023 and 0.013, respectively. Immunohistochemistry also revealed a lower number of LDCs in COPD patients than in non-COPD subjects.Cigarette smoke, rather than airflow limitation, is the main determinant of impaired DCs maturation in the lung.

  20. Aerobic fitness, maturation, and training experience in youth basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Humberto M; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel J; Eisenmann, Joey C; Malina, Robert M

    2013-07-01

    Relationships among chronological age (CA), maturation, training experience, and body dimensions with peak oxygen uptake (VO2max) were considered in male basketball players 14-16 y of age. Data for all players included maturity status estimated as percentage of predicted adult height attained at the time of the study (Khamis-Roche protocol), years of training, body dimensions, and VO2max (incremental maximal test on a treadmill). Proportional allometric models derived from stepwise regressions were used to incorporate either CA or maturity status and to incorporate years of formal training in basketball. Estimates for size exponents (95% CI) from the separate allometric models for VO2max were height 2.16 (1.23-3.09), body mass 0.65 (0.37-0.93), and fat-free mass 0.73 (0.46-1.02). Body dimensions explained 39% to 44% of variance. The independent variables in the proportional allometric models explained 47% to 60% of variance in VO2max. Estimated maturity status (11-16% of explained variance) and training experience (7-11% of explained variance) were significant predictors with either body mass or estimated fat-free mass (P ≤ .01) but not with height. Biological maturity status and training experience in basketball had a significant contribution to VO2max via body mass and fat-free fat mass and also had an independent positive relation with aerobic performance. The results highlight the importance of considering variation associated with biological maturation in aerobic performance of late-adolescent boys.