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Sample records for hpv-16 e6e7 promoter

  1. Design, Immune Responses and Anti-Tumor Potential of an HPV16 E6E7 Multi-Epitope Vaccine.

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    Liliane Maria Fernandes de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a common type of cancer among women worldwide and infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPVs types represents the major risk factor for the etiopathogenesis of the disease. HPV-16 is the most frequently identified HPV type in cervical lesions and expression of E6 and E7 oncoproteins is required for the uncontrolled cellular proliferation. In the present study we report the design and experimental testing of a recombinant multi-epitope protein containing immunogenic epitopes of HPV-16 E6 and E7. Tumor preventive assays, based on the engraftment of TC-1 cells in mice, showed that the E6E7 multi-epitope protein induced a full preventive anti-tumor protection in wild-type mice, as well as in mice deficient in expression of CD4+ T cells and TLR4 receptor. Nonetheless, no anti-tumor protection was observed in mice deficient in CD8+ T cells. Also, the vaccine promoted high activation of E6/E7-specific T cells and in a therapeutic-approach, E6E7 protein conferred full anti-tumor protection in mice. These results show a potential use of this E6E7 multi-epitope antigen as a new and promising antigen for the development of a therapeutic vaccine against tumors induced by HPV.

  2. Smokeless tobacco increases aneuploidy in oral HPV16 E6/E7-transformed keratinocytes in vitro.

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    Merne, Marina; Rautava, Jaana; Ruutu, Merja; Syrjänen, Stina

    2014-10-01

    The scope of this work was to study synergism between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and tobacco in vitro, both known to be independent risk factors for oral cancer. HPV-positive and HPV-negative oral keratinocytes and oral HPV-negative fibroblasts were exposed to smokeless tobacco extract (STE) prepared from the Scandinavian (STE1) and US-type (STE2) snuff. Cell cycle profiles were determined with flow cytometry, and HPV E6/E7 mRNA expression in HPV-positive cells was assayed using RT-qPCR. The exposure of HPV-positive keratinocytes with STE2 increased the number of aneuploid cells from 27% to 80% of which 44% were in S-phase, while none of the diploid cells were in S-phase. The changes after STE1 exposure were less than seen after STE2: from 27% to 31% of which 34% were in S-phase. STE had no effect on HPV16 E6/E7 expression in HPV-positive keratinocytes. In oral spontaneously transformed, HPV-negative keratinocytes, the number of aneuploid cells at G2-M stage increased after STE1 and STE2 exposure from 3% to 9% and 7%, respectively. In HPV-negative oral fibroblasts, the number of cells at G2-M phase increased from 11% to 21% after STE1 and 29% after STE2 exposure. The effect of STE varied in the cell lines studied. STE2 increased significantly the proportion of aneuploid cells in HPV-positive oral keratinocytes, but not HPV16 E6/E7 expression. This indicates that tobacco products may enhance the effects of HPV 16 and the risk of DNA aneuploidy increasing risk to malignant transformation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Pericentromeric regions are refractory to prompt repair after replication stress-induced breakage in HPV16 E6E7-expressing epithelial cells.

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    Wen Deng

    Full Text Available Chromosomal instability is the major form of genomic instability in cancer cells. Amongst various forms of chromosomal instability, pericentromeric or centromeric instability remains particularly poorly understood. In the present study, we found that pericentromeric instability, evidenced by dynamic formation of pericentromeric or centromeric rearrangements, breaks, deletions or iso-chromosomes, was a general phenomenon in human cells immortalized by expression of human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E7 (HPV16 E6E7. In particular, for the first time, we surprisingly found a dramatic increase in the proportion of pericentromeric chromosomal aberrations relative to total aberrations in HPV16 E6E7-expressing cells 72 h after release from aphidicolin (APH-induced replication stress, with pericentromeric chromosomal aberrations becoming the predominant type of structural aberrations (~70% of total aberrations. In contrast, pericentromeric aberrations accounted for only about 20% of total aberrations in cells at the end of APH treatment. This increase in relative proportion of pericentromeric aberrations after release from APH treatment revealed that pericentromeric breaks induced by replication stress are refractory to prompt repair in HPV16 E6E7-expressing epithelial cells. Telomerase-immortalized epithelial cells without HPV16 E6E7 expression did not exhibit such preferential pericentromeric instability after release from APH treatment. Cancer development is often associated with replication stress. Since HPV16 E6 and E7 inactivate p53 and Rb, and p53 and Rb pathway defects are common in cancer, our finding that pericentromeric regions are refractory to prompt repair after replication stress-induced breakage in HPV16 E6E7-expressing cells may shed light on mechanism of general pericentromeric instability in cancer.

  4. Generation and evaluation of a human corneal model cell system for ophthalmologic issues using the HPV16 E6/E7 oncogenes as uniform immortalization platform.

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    Schulz, Simon; Steinberg, Thorsten; Beck, David; Tomakidi, Pascal; Accardi, Rosita; Tommasino, Massimo; Reinhard, Thomas; Eberwein, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed at employing the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) E6/E7 gene platform, to create a uniform authentic in vitro model cell system of the human cornea for ophthalmologic issues and here especially for prospective biomaterial evaluations for therapeutic regenerative approaches. Therefore, HPV16 E6/E7 genes were employed as uniform platform to immortalize primary human corneal keratinocytes (IHCK), fibroblasts (IHCF), and endothelial (IHCE) cells. qPCR revealed that E6/E7 mRNA transcription persisted at rising passages and FISH detection of the chromosome portfolio 1, 8, 10 and 18 showed fairly the disomic cytogenetic status. Hot spot passages proved oscillation of aneuploidies in the entire passage spectrum under study, while hot spot aneuploidies annotated prevalence for distinct chromosomes. Though IIF revealed general endurance, tissue-innate corneal biomarkers were modulated, i.e. expressed in a temporal-confluence, temporal-spatial or passage-dependent manner. In summary, by the fairly normal chromosomal status, and expression of tissue-innate biomarkers, we created for the first time a uniform authentic in vitro model cell system of the human cornea, by application of the HPV16 E6/E7 immortalization platform only. This system renders a precious tool for prospective iterative in vitro studies on issues such as corneal tissue homeostasis, pharmaceutical generics, and/or evaluation of new biomaterials for clinical corneal applications. Copyright © 2013 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. High Levels of EBV-Encoded RNA 1 (EBER1) Trigger Interferon and Inflammation-Related Genes in Keratinocytes Expressing HPV16 E6/E7

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    Aromseree, Sirinart; Middeldorp, Jaap M.; Pientong, Chamsai; van Eijndhoven, Monique; Ramayanti, Octavia; Lougheed, Sinéad M.; Pegtel, D. Michiel; Steenbergen, Renske D. M.; Ekalaksananan, Tipaya

    2017-01-01

    Different types of cells infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) can release exosomes containing viral components that functionally affect neighboring cells. Previously, we found that EBV was localized mostly in infiltrating lymphocytes within the stromal layer of cervical lesions. In this study, we aimed to determine effects of exosome-transferred EBV-encoded RNAs (EBERs) on keratinocytes expressing human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 E6/E7 (DonorI-HPV16 HFKs). Lipid transfection of in vitro-transcribed EBER1 molecules (ivt EBER1) into DonorI-HPV16 HFKs caused strong induction of interferon (IFN)-related genes and interleukin 6 (IL-6). To gain insights into the physiological situation, monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs), low passage DonorI-HPV16 HFKs and primary keratinocytes were used as recipient cells for internalization of exosomes from wild-type EBV (wt EBV) or B95-8 EBV-infected lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). qRT-PCR was used to determine the expression of EBER1, HPV16 E6/E7, IFN-related genes and IL-6 in recipient cells. The secretion of inflammatory cytokines was investigated using cytometric bead array. Wt EBV-modified exosomes induced both IFN-related genes and IL-6 upon uptake into moDCs, while exosomes from B95-8 EBV LCLs induced only IL-6 in moDCs. Internalization of EBV–modified exosomes was demonstrated in DonorI-HPV16 HFKs, yielding only EBER1 but not EBER2. However, EBER1 transferred by exosomes did not induce IFN-related genes or IL-6 expression and inflammatory cytokine secretion in DonorI-HPV16 HFKs and primary keratinocytes. EBER1 copy numbers in exosomes from wt EBV-infected LCLs were 10-fold higher than in exosomes from B95-8 LCLs (equal cell equivalent), whereas ivt EBER1 was used at approximately 100-fold higher concentration than in exosomes. These results demonstrated that the induction of IFN-related genes and IL-6 by EBER1 depends on quantity of EBER1 and type of recipient cells. High levels of EBER1 in cervical cells or

  6. Characterization of Epithelial Progenitors in Normal Human Palatine Tonsils and Their HPV16 E6/E7-Induced Perturbation

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    Sung Yoon Catherine Kang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human palatine tonsils are oropharyngeal lymphoid tissues containing multiple invaginations (crypts in which the continuity of the outer surface epithelium is disrupted and the isolated epithelial cells intermingle with other cell types. We now show that primitive epithelial cells detectable in vitro in 2D colony assays and in a 3D culture system are CD44+NGFR+ and present in both surface and crypt regions. Transcriptome analysis indicated a high similarity between CD44+NGFR+ cells in both regions, although those isolated from the crypt contained a higher proportion of the most primitive (holoclonogenic cells. Lentiviral transduction of CD44+NGFR+ cells from both regions with human papillomavirus 16-encoded E6/E7 prolonged their growth in 2D cultures and caused aberrant differentiation in 3D cultures. Our findings therefore reveal a shared, site-independent, hierarchical organization, differentiation potential, and transcriptional profile of normal human tonsillar epithelial progenitor cells. They also introduce a new model for investigating the mechanisms of their transformation.

  7. In situ hybridization detection methods for HPV16 E6/E7 mRNA in identifying transcriptionally active HPV infection of oropharyngeal carcinoma: an updating.

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    Volpi, Chiara C; Ciniselli, Chiara M; Gualeni, Ambra V; Plebani, Maddalena; Alfieri, Salvatore; Verderio, Paolo; Locati, Laura; Perrone, Federica; Quattrone, Pasquale; Carbone, Antonino; Pilotti, Silvana; Gloghini, Annunziata

    2017-10-06

    The aim of this study is comparing two in situ hybridization (ISH) detection methods for human papilloma virus (HPV) 16 E6/E7 mRNA, i.e. the RNAscope® 2.0 High Definition (HD) and the upgraded RNAscope® 2.5 HD version. The RNAscope® 2.5 HD has recently replaced the RNAscope® 2.0 HD detection kit. Therefore, this investigation starts from the need to analytically validate the new mRNA ISH assay and, possibly, to refine the current algorithm for HPV detection in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) with the final goal to apply it to daily laboratory practice. The study was based on HPV status and on generated data, interpreted by a scoring algorithm. The results highlighted that the compared RNAscope HPV tests had a good level of interchangeability and enabled to identify OSCC that are truly driven by high risk-HPV infection. This was also supported by the comparison of the RNAscope HPV test with HPV E6/E7 mRNA real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), in a fraction of cases where material for HPV E6/E7 mRNA real time RT-PCR was available. Furthermore, the algorithm that associates p16 immunohistochemistry (IHC) with the identification of HPV mRNA by RNAscope was more effective than the one that associated p16 IHC with the identification of HPV DNA by ISH. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. A comparative study of three different nucleic acid amplification techniques combined with microchip electrophoresis for HPV16 E6/E7 mRNA detection.

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    Liu, Quanli; Lin, Xuexia; Lin, Luyao; Yi, Linglu; Li, Haifang; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2015-10-07

    Research towards nucleic acid amplification technologies for detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 E6/E7 mRNA was carried out in combination with microchip electrophoresis (MCE). The approaches of nucleic acid sequence based amplification (NASBA), one-step RT-PCR and two-step RT-PCR were successfully developed. NASBA was a simple enzymatic reaction, which directly amplified HPV16 mRNA by isothermal amplification, leaving out the complex and tedious operation. One-step RT-PCR simplified the amplification step, while two-step RT-PCR was more sensitive and less vulnerable to the interference. Furthermore, instead of gel electrophoresis, microchip electrophoresis (MCE) for RNA assay was employed to realize high-throughput and rapid analysis. Finally, the results show that PCR-based or NASBA-based mRNA tests are valuable for HPV mRNA assay, which can be potentially applied for clinical diagnosis and prognosis of cervical and other anogenital carcinoma.

  9. Performance of the HPV-16 L1 methylation assay and HPV E6/E7 mRNA test for the detection of squamous intraepithelial lesions in cervical cytological samples.

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    Qiu, Cui; Zhi, Yanfang; Shen, Yong; Gong, Jiaomei; Li, Ya; Rong, Shouhua; Okunieff, Paul; Zhang, Lulu; Li, Xiaofu

    2015-11-01

    HPV-16 L1 methylation and E6/E7 mRNA have suggested that they had close relationship with cervical neoplastic progression. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical performance of the HPV-16 L1 methylation assay and E6/E7 mRNA test for detecting high-grade cervical lesions (CIN2+). A total of 81 women with liquid-based cytology (LBC) samples, histological results, and positive HPV-DNA test for HPV type 16 only were included in this study. HPV-16 L1 methylation and E6/E7 mRNA levels were measured using methylation-sensitive high resolution melting (MS-HRM) analysis and Quantivirus®HPV E6/E7 RNA 3.0 assay (bDNA), respectively, in the same residue of LBC samples. The current date showed a positive correlation between the HPV-16 L1 methylation and the E6/E7 mRNA levels. The L1 methylation and mRNA levels both increased with disease severity. The mRNA test method showed higher sensitivity and NPV (98.0 and 91.7% vs. 89.8 and 80.8%), while lower specificity and PPV (34.4 and 69.6% vs. 65.6 and 80.0%), than the L1 methylation assay for detecting histology-confirmed CIN2+. When using the detection method of mRNA test combined with L1 methylation assay, we obtained a sensitivity of 89.8% and a specificity of 71.9%. These findings suggest that assessment of HPV-16 L1 methylation testing combined with E6/E7 mRNA testing may be a promising method for the triage of women with HPV type 16 only. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of the detection of HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 by type-specific DNA- and E6/E7 mRNA-based assays of HPV DNA positive women with abnormal Pap smears.

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    Salimović-Bešić, Irma; Tomić-Čiča, Anja; Smailji, Admir; Hukić, Mirsada

    2013-12-01

    This study compares the type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test with E6/E7 mRNA detection assay because of their importance in cervical cancer screening programs. A total of 105 women with positive high-risk Hybrid Capture 2 or Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV screening test and an abnormal cervical Pap smear were enrolled in the study. HPV typing was performed by multiplex real-time PCR (HPV High Risk Typing Real-TM test). HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 E6/E7 mRNAs were determined by type-specific real-time NASBA assay (NucliSENS EasyQ HPV v1.1). Infections caused by HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 types increased with severity of cervical cytology (p=0.008). Global positivity of five HPV E6/E7 mRNAs was lower than DNA positivity within women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (p=0.016; p=0.008). High agreement of the tests was found in the groups of women with low-grade (p=1.000; p=0.063) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (p=0.250; p=0.125). Type-specific agreement of both diagnostic approaches was high regardless of cytology. Based on the found differences between HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 E6/E7 mRNA and DNA positivity, further study is needed to test the role of mRNA testing in the triage of women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance in Pap smear. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Design of a highly effective therapeutic HPV16 E6/E7-specific DNA vaccine: optimization by different ways of sequence rearrangements (shuffling.

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    Fahad N Almajhdi

    Full Text Available Persistent infection with the high-risk Human Papillomavirus type 16 (HPV 16 is the causative event for the development of cervical cancer and other malignant tumors of the anogenital tract and of the head and neck. Despite many attempts to develop therapeutic vaccines no candidate has entered late clinical trials. An interesting approach is a DNA based vaccine encompassing the nucleotide sequence of the E6 and E7 viral oncoproteins. Because both proteins are consistently expressed in HPV infected cells they represent excellent targets for immune therapy. Here we report the development of 8 DNA vaccine candidates consisting of differently rearranged HPV-16 E6 and E7 sequences within one molecule providing all naturally occurring epitopes but supposedly lacking transforming activity. The HPV sequences were fused to the J-domain and the SV40 enhancer in order to increase immune responses. We demonstrate that one out of the 8 vaccine candidates induces very strong cellular E6- and E7- specific cellular immune responses in mice and, as shown in regression experiments, efficiently controls growth of HPV 16 positive syngeneic tumors. This data demonstrates the potential of this vaccine candidate to control persistent HPV 16 infection that may lead to malignant disease. It also suggests that different sequence rearrangements influence the immunogenecity by an as yet unknown mechanism.

  12. Identification and characterization of enhancer agonist human cytotoxic T-cell epitopes of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) E6/E7.

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    Tsang, Kwong Y; Fantini, Massimo; Fernando, Romaine I; Palena, Claudia; David, Justin M; Hodge, James W; Gabitzsch, Elizabeth S; Jones, Frank R; Schlom, Jeffrey

    2017-05-02

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with the etiology of cervical carcinoma, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and several other cancer types. Vaccines directed against HPV virus-like particles and coat proteins have been extremely successful in the prevention of cervical cancer through the activation of host HPV-specific antibody responses; however, HPV-associated cancers remain a major public health problem. The development of a therapeutic vaccine will require the generation of T-cell responses directed against early HPV proteins (E6/E7) expressed in HPV-infected tumor cells. Clinical studies using various vaccine platforms have demonstrated that both HPV-specific human T cells can be generated and patient benefit can be achieved. However, no HPV therapeutic vaccine has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration to date. One method of enhancing the potential efficacy of a therapeutic vaccine is the generation of agonist epitopes. We report the first description of enhancer cytotoxic T lymphocyte agonist epitopes for HPV E6 and E7. While the in silico algorithm revealed six epitopes with potentially improved binding to human leukocyte antigen-A2 allele (HLA-A2)-Class I, 5/6 demonstrated enhanced binding to HLA-Class I in cell-based assays and only 3/6 had a greater ability to activate HPV-specific T cells which could lyse tumor cells expressing native HPV, compared to their native epitope counterparts. These agonist epitopes have potential for use in a range of HPV therapeutic vaccine platforms and for use in HPV-specific adoptive T- or natural killer-cell platforms. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Comparison of HPV detection technologies: Hybrid capture 2, PreTect HPV-Proofer and analysis of HPV DNA viral load in HPV16, HPV18 and HPV33 E6/E7 mRNA positive specimens.

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    Keegan, Helen

    2012-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing using molecular methods in liquid based cytology (LBC) specimens may be useful as an adjunct to cervical screening by cytology. We compared the positivity rate of the commercially available HPV DNA method hybrid capture 2 (hc2) and the commercially available E6\\/E7 mRNA method PreTect HPV-Proofer in cytological specimens (n=299). LBC specimens collected (n=299) represented the following cervical cytological disease categories: Normal (n=60), borderline nuclear abnormalities (BNA) (n=34), CIN1 (n=121), CIN2 (n=60), CIN3 (n=24). Overall, 69% (205\\/299) of the cases were positive by hc2 and 38% (112\\/299) of the cases were positive by PreTect HPV-Proofer. Concordance rates between the two tests were highest in the high-grade cytology cases (CIN2: 67% and CIN3: 83%) and the normal cytology cases (88%) and lowest in the BNA and CIN1 categories (56% and 52%). HPV DNA viral load analyses were carried out on HPV16 (n=55), HPV18 (n=9) and HPV33 (n=13) samples that were positive by PreTect HPV-Proofer. The sensitivity and specificity of PreTect HPV-Proofer and the hc2 DNA test for the detection of high-grade cytology (i.e. CIN2+) were 71.4% and 75.8% vs 100% and 43.7%, respectively. The relatively low detection rate observed by PreTect HPV-Proofer in the whole range of cytological positive cases, combined with a relatively higher specificity and PPV, suggests that PreTect HPV-Proofer may be more useful than hc2 for triage and in predicting high-grade disease.

  14. HPV16 oncogenes E6 or/and E7 may influence the methylation status of RASSFIA gene promoter region in cervical cancer cell line HT-3.

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    Yin, Fufen; Wang, Ning; Wang, Shanshan; Yu, Fengsheng; Sun, Xin; Yu, Xiao; Luo, Bing; Zhao, Chengquan; Wang, Yankui

    2017-04-01

    Both human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the aberrant Ras associated domain family gene 1A (RASSF1A) promoter methylation status participate in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. Some studies suggest that E6, and E7 are involved in the pathogenetic mechanisms of RASSF1A. We mainly explored a possible involvement of HPV16 oncogenes E6 or/and E7 in RASSF1A promoter methylation status and possible roles of RASSF1A gene methylation in cervical cancer. Bisulfite genomic sequencing (BGS) PCR combined with TA clone, methylation-specific PCR (MSP) were used to analyze methylation status of the RASSF1A gene promoter in HPV16/18-positive and HPV-negative cervical cancer cell lines; ectopically expressed HPV16 E6, E7 and E6/E7 cervical cancer cell lines; normal cervical and cervical cancer tissues. The mRNA and protein expression of RASSF1A was detected by RT-PCR and western blotting. Re-expression and downregulated promoter methylation status were detected in the ectopically expressed HPV16 E6 and E7 cervical cancer cell line HT-3. The methylation status and expression of RASSF1A could be downregulated or reactivated by 5-Aza-dc in HT-3 and C33A cells. Additionally, statistics showed significant hypermethylation of RASSF1A in cervical cancer samples compared to that in normal cervical samples (PHPV detection combining the MY09/11, GP5+/6+ and SPF1/2 methods. The ectopic expression of HPV16 E6 and/or E7 may be involved in aberrant methylation and expression of the RASSF1A gene. RASSF1A gene expression could be regulated by its promoter methylation status. Additionally, the false negativity of the HPV detection may contribute to the uncertain relationship between HPV infection and aberrant RASSF1A promoter methylation.

  15. Assessment of human papillomavirus E6/E7 oncogene expression as cervical disease biomarker

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    Fontecha, Nerea; Basaras, Miren; Hern?ez, Silvia; And?a, Daniel; Cisterna, Ram?n

    2016-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to detect HPV E6/E7 mRNA expression in women with high-risk genotypes (HPV-16, -18, -31, -33 and -45) analysing its relationship with tissue pathology and 2) 2-year follow-up of E6/E7 mRNA tested group. Methods Our samples were genotyped and classified by pathologists according to Bethesda system. After RNA extraction, E6/E7 oncogene mRNA detection was performed by NucliSens? EasyQ? HPV v1 Test (bioM?rieux). Results The results of the present study showe...

  16. [Construction and identification of non-replication recombinant vaccinia virus co-expressing human papillomavirus type 16 L1/L2/E6/E7 proteins].

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    Huang, Wei; Tian, Hou-wen; Ren, Jiao; Fan, Jiang-tao; Zhao, Li; Bian, Tao; Lu, Zhen-hua; Ruan, Li

    2005-09-01

    To generate a human papillomavirus (HPV16) prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine candidate for cervical cancer. HPV16 major capsid protein L1 gene/minor capsid protein L2 gene and HPV16 early E6/E7 genes were inserted into a vaccinia virus expression vector. A strain of non-recombinant vaccinia virus containing the sequences was obtained through a homologous recombination and identified. DNA hybridization confirmed that the HPV16L1/L2/E6/E7 genes were integrated into vaccinia virus DNA. Western Blot result showed that full-length L1/L2/E6/E7 proteins were co-expressed in CEF cells infected with the recombinant virus. NTVJE6E7CKL1L2 could be taken as a candidate of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine for HPV-associated tumors and their precancerous transformations.

  17. Assessment of human papillomavirus E6/E7 oncogene expression as cervical disease biomarker.

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    Fontecha, Nerea; Basaras, Miren; Hernáez, Silvia; Andía, Daniel; Cisterna, Ramón

    2016-11-05

    The aims of this study were to detect HPV E6/E7 mRNA expression in women with high-risk genotypes (HPV-16, -18, -31, -33 and -45) analysing its relationship with tissue pathology and 2) 2-year follow-up of E6/E7 mRNA tested group. Our samples were genotyped and classified by pathologists according to Bethesda system. After RNA extraction, E6/E7 oncogene mRNA detection was performed by NucliSens® EasyQ® HPV v1 Test (bioMérieux). The results of the present study showed that E6/E7 mRNA positivity rate was 68.29 % in women tested once and 69.56 % in women tested twice. According to tissue pathology, all samples with high-grade lesions were positive for mRNA. Among women with low-grade lesions varied over the years from 89.28 to 84 % in women tested once and from 77.77 to 70 % in tested twice. Among women without lesion, positivity rate maintained in women tested once (from 50 to 41.38 %) and decreased in tested twice, from 63.63 to 44.44 %. Regarding lesion evolution, mRNA positivity was higher in women with lesion progression (53.13 %) and in women with positive results in two tested samples (83.33 %). HPV E6/E7 mRNA detection may be an effective screening test and biomarker for cervical cancer in women infected with these five genotypes. Nonetheless, further studies are needed to standardize as routine triage test.

  18. Adenovirus-mediated transfer of human papillomavirus 16 E6/E7 antisense RNA and induction of apoptosis in cervical cancer.

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    Hamada, Katsuyuki; Shirakawa, Toshiro; Gotoh, Akinobu; Roth, Jack A; Follen, Michele

    2006-12-01

    In most cervical cancers, human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are identified. The E6 and E7 genes of HPVs encode proteins, that interfere with the function of the tumor suppressor proteins p53 and Rb. We are exploring the potential use of antisense HPV RNA transcripts for gene therapy for HPV-positive cervical cancers. Via a recombinant adenoviral vector, Ad5CMV-HPV 16 AS, we introduced the antisense RNA transcripts of the E6 and E7 genes of HPV type 16 into human cervical cancer SiHa cells harboring HPV 16. We then analyzed the effects of expression of these genes on cell and tumor growth. HPV 16 E6/E7 antisense RNA was detected for 14 days in Ad5CMV-HPV 16 AS-infected cells. After infection, E6 and E7 protein expression was suppressed, and p53 and Rb protein expression increased. The Ad5CMV-HPV 16 AS-infected cells underwent apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Cell growth and tumorigenicity were greatly suppressed. Ad5CMV-HPV 16 AS treatment significantly reduced the volumes of established subcutaneous tumors. Transfection of cervical cancer cells with HPV 16 E6/E7 antisense RNA in a form such as Ad5CMV-HPV 16 AS might be a potentially useful approach to the therapy of HPV 16-positive cervical cancer.

  19. In Vitro and In Vivo Synergistic Therapeutic Effect of Cisplatin with Human Papillomavirus16 E6/E7 CRISPR/Cas9 on Cervical Cancer Cell Line

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    Shuai Zhen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Human papillomavirus (HPV type 16 is one of the major etiologic factors of cervical cancer. Our study aims to investigate the potentiality of the antiviral clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated Cas9 system (CRISPR/Cas9 targeting the E6 and E7 oncogenes of HPV16 as a potential chemosensitizer of cisplatin (cis-diaminedichloroplatinum II; CDDP for cervical cancer. METHODS: Specifically, the therapeutic efficacy of combination of CDDP and HPV16 E6 + E7-CRISPR/Cas9 was assessed in cervical cancer cells and cervical cancer xenograft models. RESULTS: In vitro experiments showed that long-term exposure of SiHa cells to the HPV16 E6 + E7-CRISPR/Cas9 induced apoptosis, and its pro-apoptosis effect became more obvious when combined with CDDP. In vivo study found the efficacy of the combination of HPV16 E6 + E7-CRISPR/Cas9 and CDDP were superior to either of the treatments in term of apoptosis induction and metastasis inhibition. CONCLUSION: Collectively, our results suggested that HPV16 E6 + E7-CRISPR/Cas9 could be an effective sensitizer of CDDP chemotherapy in cervical cancer.

  20. Photon-induced cell migration and integrin expression promoted by DNA integration of HPV16 genome

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    Rieken, Stefan; Simon, Florian; Habermehl, Daniel; Dittmar, Jan Oliver; Combs, Stephanie E.; Weber, Klaus; Debus, Juergen; Lindel, Katja [University Hospital of Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Therapy and Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Persistent human papilloma virus 16 (HPV16) infections are a major cause of cervical cancer. The integration of the viral DNA into the host genome causes E2 gene disruption which prevents apoptosis and increases host cell motility. In cervical cancer patients, survival is limited by local infiltration and systemic dissemination. Surgical control rates are poor in cases of parametrial infiltration. In these patients, radiotherapy (RT) is administered to enhance local control. However, photon irradiation itself has been reported to increase cell motility. In cases of E2-disrupted cervical cancers, this phenomenon would impose an additional risk of enhanced tumor cell motility. Here, we analyze mechanisms underlying photon-increased migration in keratinocytes with differential E2 gene status. Isogenic W12 (intact E2 gene status) and S12 (disrupted E2 gene status) keratinocytes were analyzed in fibronectin-based and serum-stimulated migration experiments following single photon doses of 0, 2, and 10 Gy. Quantitative FACS analyses of integrin expression were performed. Migration and adhesion are increased in E2 gene-disrupted keratinocytes. E2 gene disruption promotes attractability by serum components, therefore, effectuating the risk of local infiltration and systemic dissemination. In S12 cells, migration is further increased by photon RT which leads to enhanced expression of fibronectin receptor integrins. HPV16-associated E2 gene disruption is a main predictor of treatment-refractory cancer virulence. E2 gene disruption promotes cell motility. Following photon RT, E2-disrupted tumors bear the risk of integrin-related infiltration and dissemination. (orig.) [German] Persistierende Infektionen mit humanen Papillomaviren 16 (HPV16) sind ein Hauptausloeser des Zervixkarzinoms. Die Integration der viralen DNS in das Wirtszellgenom fuehrt zum Integritaetsverlust des E2-Gens, wodurch in der Wirtszelle Apoptose verhindert und Motilitaet gesteigert werden. In

  1. Photon-induced cell migration and integrin expression promoted by DNA integration of HPV16 genome.

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    Rieken, Stefan; Simon, Florian; Habermehl, Daniel; Dittmar, Jan Oliver; Combs, Stephanie E; Weber, Klaus; Debus, Jürgen; Lindel, Katja

    2014-10-01

    Persistent human papilloma virus 16 (HPV16) infections are a major cause of cervical cancer. The integration of the viral DNA into the host genome causes E2 gene disruption which prevents apoptosis and increases host cell motility. In cervical cancer patients, survival is limited by local infiltration and systemic dissemination. Surgical control rates are poor in cases of parametrial infiltration. In these patients, radiotherapy (RT) is administered to enhance local control. However, photon irradiation itself has been reported to increase cell motility. In cases of E2-disrupted cervical cancers, this phenomon would impose an additional risk of enhanced tumor cell motility. Here, we analyze mechanisms underlying photon-increased migration in keratinocytes with differential E2 gene status. Isogenic W12 (intact E2 gene status) and S12 (disrupted E2 gene status) keratinocytes were analyzed in fibronectin-based and serum-stimulated migration experiments following single photon doses of 0, 2, and 10 Gy. Quantitative FACS analyses of integrin expression were performed. Migration and adhesion are increased in E2 gene-disrupted keratinocytes. E2 gene disruption promotes attractability by serum components, therefore, effectuating the risk of local infiltration and systemic dissemination. In S12 cells, migration is further increased by photon RT which leads to enhanced expression of fibronectin receptor integrins. HPV16-associated E2 gene disruption is a main predictor of treatment-refractory cancer virulence. E2 gene disruption promotes cell motility. Following photon RT, E2-disrupted tumors bear the risk of integrin-related infiltration and dissemination.

  2. RNA extraction method is crucial for human papillomavirus E6/E7 oncogenes detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontecha, Nerea; Nieto, Maria Carmen; Andía, Daniel; Cisterna, Ramón; Basaras, Miren

    2017-03-09

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing plays a main role in the management of cervical cancer, however to improve the specificity in cervical screening, there is a need to develop and validate different approaches that can identify women at risk for progressive disease. Nowadays, mRNA expression of viral E6 and E7 HPV oncogenes stands up as a potential biomarker to improve cervical screening. We aimed to validate a method for RNA extraction, detect HPV mRNA expression and, assess the relationship between E6/E7 mRNA expression and pathology of patients' lesions and progression. This study included 50 specimens that had been previously genotyped as HPV16, 18, 31, 33 and/or 45. Cervical swabs were extracted with three different RNA extraction methods -Nuclisens manual extraction kit (bioMérieux), High Pure Viral RNA Kit (Roche) and RNeasy Plus Mini kit (Qiagen)-, and mRNA was detected with NucliSens EasyQ HPV version 1 test (bioMérieux) afterwards. Association of oncogene expression with pathology and lesion progression was analyzed for each extraction method. E6/E7 mRNA positivity rate was higher in samples analyzed with bioMérieux (62%), followed by Roche (24%) and Qiagen (6%). Women with lesions and lesion progression showed a higher prevalence of viral RNA expression than women that had not lesions or with lesion persistence. While bioMérieux revealed a higher sensitivity (77.27%), Roche presented a higher PPV (75%) and an increased specificity (89.28%). Extraction methods based on magnetic beads provided better RNA yield than those based in columns. Both Nuclisens manual extraction kit (bioMérieux) and High Pure Viral RNA Kit (Roche) seemed to be adequate for E6/E7 mRNA detection. However, none of them revealed both high sensitivity and specificity values. Further studies are needed to obtain and validate a standard gold method for RNA expression detection, to be included as part of the routine cervical screening program.

  3. Folate deficiency and FHIT hypermethylation and HPV 16 infection promote cervical cancerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Li-Xia; Wang, Jin-Tao; Ding, Ling; Jiang, Shi-Wen; Kang, Hui-Jie; Gao, Chen-Fei; Chen, Xiao; Chen, Chen; Zhou, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Fragile histidine triad (FHIT) is a suppressor gene related to cervical cancer through CpG island hypermethylation. Folate is a water-soluble B-vitamin and an important cofactor in one-carbon metabolism. It may play an essential role in cervical lesions through effects on DNA methylation. The purpose of this study was to observe effects of folate and FHIT methylation and HPV 16 on cervical cancer progression. In this study, DNA methylation of FHIT, serum folate level and HPV16 status were measured using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP), radioimmunoassay (RIA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively, in 310 women with a diagnosis of normal cervix (NC, n=109), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, n=101) and squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix (SCC, n=101). There were significant differences in HPV16 status (χ2=36.64, Pcancer progression. This suggests that FHIT may be an effective target for prevention and treatment of cervical cancer.

  4. Human papillomavirus genotype distribution and E6/E7 oncogene expression in Turkish women with cervical cytological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezcan, Seda; Ozgur, Didem; Ulger, Mahmut; Aslan, Gonul; Gurses, Iclal; Serin, Mehmet Sami; Giray, Burcu Gurer; Dilek, Saffet; Emekdas, Gurol

    2014-01-01

    Infection with certain human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes is the most important risk factor related with cervical cancer. The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV infection, the distribution of HPV genotypes and HPV E6/E7 oncogene mRNA expression in Turkish women with different cervical cytological findings in Mersin province, Southern Turkey. A total of 476 cytological samples belonging to women with normal and abnormal cervical Pap smears were enrolled in the study. For the detection and genotyping assay, a PCR/direct cycle sequencing approach was used. E6/E7 mRNA expression of HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 was determined by type-specific real-time NASBA assay (NucliSENS EasyQ(®)HPV v1.1). Of the 476 samples, 106 (22.3%) were found to be positive for HPV DNA by PCR. The presence of HPV was significantly more common (p16 (20.8%), 6 (14.2%), 31 (11.3%), 53 (5.7%), and 83 (4.7%). HPV E6/E7 oncogene mRNA positivity (12/476, 2.5%) was lower than DNA positivity (38/476, 7.9%). Our data present a wide distribution of HPV genotypes in the analyzed population. HPV genotypes 66, 16, 6, 31, 53 and 83 were the predominant types and most of them were potential carcinogenic types. Because of the differences between HPV E6/E7 mRNA and DNA positivity, further studies are required to test the role of mRNA testing in the triage of women with abnormal cervical cytology or follow up of HPV DNA positive and cytology negative. These epidemiological data will be important to determine the future impact of vaccination on HPV infected women in our region.

  5. Inhibition of cervical cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo by lentiviral-vector mediated shRNA targeting the common promoter of HPV16 E6 and E7 oncogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiansong; Li, Baohua; Peng, Chanjuan; Wang, Fenfen; Fu, Zhiqin; Zhou, Caiyun; Hong, Die; Ye, Feng; Lü, Weiguo; Xie, Xing

    2013-05-01

    Deregulated expression of high-risk human papillomavirus oncogenes (E6 and E7) is a pivotal event for pathogenesis and progression in cervical cancer. Both viral oncogenes are therefore regarded as ideal therapeutic targets. Small interfering RNAs (siRNA) or double-stranded RNAs can knock down target genes effectively through siRNA-induced transcriptional gene silencing (TGS). Here, we established lentiviral-vector mediated shRNA (LV-shRNA) targeting common promoter of HPV16 E6/E7 and targeting E6 transcript, transduced the lentiviral construct into cervical HPV16-positive cell lines Siha and Caski, then selected and established stably transduced monoclonal cell lines. The results showed that LV-shRNA targeting promoter, as well as targeting E6 transcript, effectively knocked down E6 and E7 expression, resulted in accumulation of p53 and pRB protein and decrease of MCM7 and p16 protein, and consequently remarkably reduced the abilities of proliferation and invasiveness of cervical cancers cells in vitro. Then we inoculated subcutaneously those monoclonal cells into nude mice to establish the transplanted tumor animal models, and found dramatically inhibited tumorigenesis and growth, as well as prolonged survival time of mice incubated by cells with LV-shRNA targeting promoter and E6 transcript. Our results may provide evidence for application of LV-shRNA targeting HR-HPV key oncogenes, as a new treatment strategy, in cervical and other HPV-associated cancer therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Involvement of aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling in the development of small cell lung cancer induced by HPV E6/E7 oncoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossini Mara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancers consist of four major types that and for clinical-pathological reasons are often divided into two broad categories: small cell lung cancer (SCLC and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. All major histological types of lung cancer are associated with smoking, although the association is stronger for SCLC and squamous cell carcinoma than adenocarcinoma. To date, epidemiological studies have identified several environmental, genetic, hormonal and viral factors associated with lung cancer risk. It has been estimated that 15-25% of human cancers may have a viral etiology. The human papillomavirus (HPV is a proven cause of most human cervical cancers, and might have a role in other malignancies including vulva, skin, oesophagus, head and neck cancer. HPV has also been speculated to have a role in the pathogenesis of lung cancer. To validate the hypothesis of HPV involvement in small cell lung cancer pathogenesis we performed a gene expression profile of transgenic mouse model of SCLC induced by HPV-16 E6/E7 oncoproteins. Methods Gene expression profile of SCLC has been performed using Agilent whole mouse genome (4 × 44k representing ~ 41000 genes and mouse transcripts. Samples were obtained from two HPV16-E6/E7 transgenic mouse models and from littermate's normal lung. Data analyses were performed using GeneSpring 10 and the functional classification of deregulated genes was performed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (Ingenuity® Systems, http://www.ingenuity.com. Results Analysis of deregulated genes induced by the expression of E6/E7 oncoproteins supports the hypothesis of a linkage between HPV infection and SCLC development. As a matter of fact, comparison of deregulated genes in our system and those in human SCLC showed that many of them are located in the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Signal transduction pathway. Conclusions In this study, the global gene expression of transgenic mouse model of SCLC induced by HPV-16 E

  7. Detection of E6/E7 HPV oncogene transcripts as biomarker of cervical intaepithelial displasia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mauro Carcheri; Caterina Oliveri; Anna Fusco; Ilaria Chiossone; Paola Milano; Annamaria Ferretti; Anna Alabiso; Licia Muselli; Rossana Cirillo; Roberto Capuzzo

    2009-01-01

    ...) is a significant risk factor for the development of an invasive squamous cervical cancer. The overexpression of viral oncogenes E6/E7 of HPV is considered a necessary process for incurring in a malignant...

  8. Activation of Wnt signaling pathway by human papillomavirus E6 and E7 oncogenes in HPV16-positive oropharyngeal squamous carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampias, Theodore; Boutati, Eleni; Pectasides, Eirini; Sasaki, Clarence; Kountourakis, Panteleimon; Weinberger, Paul; Psyrri, Amanda

    2010-03-01

    We sought to determine the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncogenes in nuclear beta-catenin accumulation, a hallmark of activated canonical Wnt signaling pathway. We used HPV16-positive oropharyngeal cancer cell lines 147T and 090, HPV-negative cell line 040T, and cervical cell lines SiHa (bearing integrated HPV16) and HeLa (bearing integrated HPV18) to measure the cytoplasmic and nuclear beta-catenin levels and the beta-catenin/Tcf transcriptional activity before and after E6/E7 gene silencing. Repression of HPV E6 and E7 genes induced a substantial reduction in nuclear beta-catenin levels. Luciferase assay showed that transcriptional activation of Tcf promoter by beta-catenin was lower after silencing. The protein levels of beta-catenin are tightly regulated by the ubiquitin/proteasome system. We therefore performed expression analysis of regulators of beta-catenin degradation and nuclear transport and showed that seven in absentia homologue (Siah-1) mRNA and protein levels were substantially upregulated after E6/E7 repression. Siah-1 protein promotes the degradation of beta-catenin through the ubiquitin/proteasome system. To determine whether Siah-1 is important for the proteasomal degradation of beta-catenin in HPV16-positive oropharyngeal cancer cells, we introduced a Siah-1 expression vector into 147T and 090 cells and found substantial reduction of endogenous beta-catenin in these cells. Thus, E6 and E7 are involved in beta-catenin nuclear accumulation and activation of Wnt signaling in HPV-induced cancers. In addition, we show the significance of the endogenous Siah-1-dependent ubiquitin/proteasome pathway for beta-catenin degradation and its regulation by E6/E7 viral oncoproteins in HPV16-positive oropharyngeal cancer cells.

  9. Global effects of human papillomavirus type 18 E6/E7 in an organotypic keratinocyte culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner-Hamrick, Peggy A; Fostel, J M; Chien, Wei-Ming; Banerjee, N Sanjib; Chow, Louise T; Broker, Thomas R; Fisher, Chris

    2004-09-01

    The effects of human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV-18) E6 and E7 proteins on global patterns of host gene expression in primary human keratinocytes grown in organotypic raft culture system were assessed. Primary human keratinocytes were infected with retroviruses that express the wild-type HPV-18 E6 and E7 genes from the native differentiation-dependent HPV enhancer-promoter. Total RNA was isolated from raft cultures and used to generate probes for querying Affymetrix U95A microarrays, which contain >12,500 human gene sequences. Quadruplicate arrays of each E6/E7-transduced and empty vector-transduced samples were analyzed by 16 pairwise comparisons. Transcripts altered in > or =12 comparisons were selected for further analysis. With this approach, HPV-18 E6/E7 expression significantly altered the expression of 1,381 genes. A large increase in transcripts associated with DNA and RNA metabolism was observed, with major increases noted for transcription factors, splicing factors, and DNA replication elements, among others. Multiple genes associated with protein translation were downregulated. In addition, major alterations were found in transcripts associated with the cell cycle and cell differentiation. Our study provides a systematic description of transcript changes brought about by HPV-18 E6/E7 in a physiologically relevant model and should furnish a solid source of information to guide future studies.

  10. PreTect HPV-Proofer: real-time detection and typing of E6/E7 mRNA from carcinogenic human papillomaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molden, Tor; Kraus, Irene; Skomedal, Hanne; Nordstrøm, Trine; Karlsen, Frank

    2007-06-01

    Monitoring human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 mRNA expression may provide an accurate and informative diagnostic approach for detection of oncogene activity related to the development of severe dysplasia or cervical carcinoma. A multiplex nucleic acid sequence based amplification (NASBA) assay, utilizing molecular beacon probes for real-time detection was developed for the identification of E6/E7 mRNA from HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45. The assay is called PreTect HPV-Proofer and this report describes the development and the analytical performance of the assay. The reproducibility of PreTect HPV-Proofer with regard to a positive result was found to be between 96 and 100%, depending on HPV type. The melting temperature for the different molecular beacons was in the range of 48-55 degrees C, indicating conformational stability, i.e. the molecular beacons will not get activated by the 41 degrees C annealing temperature, but will be activated by the annealing to the target itself. The limit of detection for HPV 16 was ten SiHa or CaSki cells and for HPV 18 one HeLa cell. No cross reactivity was observed with E6/E7 mRNA from the other tested HPV types. mRNA from cervical cells was also successfully amplified after more than one year of storage. In conclusion, the PreTect HPV-Proofer assay, individually identifying E6/E7 mRNA expression from five carcinogenic HPV types, is a reproducible assay that may serve as a valuable tool in monitoring HPV infections producing proteins with a transforming potential.

  11. Expression of E6/E7 mRNA from 'high risk' human papillomavirus in relation to CIN grade, viral load and p16INK4a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Sonia; Hansson, Berit; Norman, Ingrid; Gaberi, Vera; Mints, Miriam; Hjerpe, Anders; Karlsen, Frank; Johansson, Bo

    2006-09-01

    Detection of E6/E7 mRNA expression with real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification assay (NASBA) method (PreTect HPV-Proofer) from high-risk types of human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) were compared with the presence of viral load, determined with quantitative real-time PCR in 80 cervical samples. Results regarding positivity and typing were in agreement using the two methods. However, there was no correlation between viral loads for HPV 16 or 18/45 and oncogene expression. Among 15 women with low grade atypia detected at a population-based cytology screening, and scored as 'within normal limits' according to histopathology, 14% were positive for oncogene expression, whereas 71% were HR-HPV positive. A correlation was observed between HR-HPV oncogene expression and high scores of p16(INK4a) positivity. Since HPV-Proofer detects full-length E6/E7 mRNA, a positive result should correlate with presence of integrated HPV, loss of HPV replication and stabilized E6/E7 full-length mRNA expression. Such expression from integrated HR-HPV generates a high and stable expression of full-length E6 proteins, which explains why a positive HPV-Proofer result was independent of viral load and correlate with high expression of p16(INK4a). Thus, E6/E7 oncogene expression analysis yielded information, which is consistent with and will complement the results from a real-time PCR method in a clinical prognostic procedure.

  12. HPV-16 E2 physical status and molecular evolution in vivo in cervical carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahla, Saloua; Kochbati, Lotfi; Chanoufi, Mohamed Badis; Maalej, Mongi; Oueslati, Ridha

    2014-03-24

    A key event in the development of cervical carcinoma is the deregulated expression of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) oncogenes, most commonly due to HPV integration into host DNA. Here we explored whether HPV-16 E2 gene integrity is a biomarker of progressive disease with oncogenes expression. HPV-16 genome disruption was assessed by amplification of the entire E2 gene, while mRNA expression patterns of the E1, E2, E6, and E7 genes were evaluated by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). As expected, E2 disruption was significantly higher among patients with cervical cancers than subjects with benign lesions (p=0.02). The status of the E2 gene correlated with tumorogenesis, and seemed also to correlate with the stage of the carcinomas, since integrated HPV-16 DNA was frequently detected in patients with advanced cancer stages (75% of stage III vs 60% stages I and II). In bivariate analysis, the lesions’ grade was most significantly associated with HPV-16 DNA disruption (p<0.05). In cervical carcinoma the deletion pattern involved more frequently the E2 gene rather than the E1 gene (62.5% vs 45.8%). The prevalence of the E6/E7 HPV-16 transcripts in cervical carcinoma specimens and in benign cervical lesions were detected with frequencies of, respectively, 91.6% and 45.4%. The mRNA levels of the HPV-16 E6/E7 genes were expressed at approximately the same levels in each physical state. We consistently observed that E6/E7 were absent or weakly detectable in the presence of E2. However, in the absence of E2 the levels of E6/E7 markedly increased (p<0.05). This study underscores the significance of investigating alternative mechanisms of E2 expression and oncogenes E6/E7 transcripts in vivo as biomarkers for disease severity in cervical carcinomas.

  13. Detection of E6/E7 HPV oncogene transcripts as biomarker of cervical intaepithelial displasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Carcheri

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that only persistent infection with high risk types of Human Papillomavirus (HPV HR is a significant risk factor for the development of an invasive squamous cervical cancer. The overexpression of viral oncogenes E6/E7 of HPV is considered a necessary process for incurring in a malignant phenotype.A HPV infection can be identified by detection of HPV DNA in biological samples, but the DNAbased tests cannot delineate between transient or persistent and potentially transforming infection. Instead there is many evidence to suggest that detection of HPV gene expression may constitute a more specific approach to highlight a clinically significant infection. Especially seems that the detection of E6/E7 transcripts can be usefully used for identify the women with a persistent HPV infection that will can induce a future cervical cancer. The aim of our study is to investigate if the detection of oncogenic viral gene activity by detecting transcripts of the E6 and E7 genes can be most usefull of HPV-DNA test in the triage of ASCUS or low grade cervical lesions. Our results confirm that HPV E6/E7 mRNA test can be considered a promising method to stratify HPV positive women for risk of future high-grade cervical lesions or cervical intaepithelial neoplasia.

  14. Analysis of HPV-16 early gene regulationin cellular differentiation, includingcharacterisation of the possiblerole of CPEB proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christina Neigaard

    E6/E7 expression. HPV-16 preferably infects the proliferating cells of the continually renewing stratified epithelium lining the genital tract. These proliferating cells will differentiate as they are pushed upwards in the epithelium by newly produced daughter cells. The virus life cycle is tightly...

  15. HPV DNA, E6/E7 mRNA, and p16INK4a detection in head and neck cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, Cathy; Mena, Marisa; Alemany, Laia; Arbyn, Marc; Castellsagué, Xavier; Laporte, Louise; Bosch, F Xavier; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Trottier, Helen

    2014-11-01

    We aimed to provide updated information about the global estimates of attributable fraction and type distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas by doing a systematic review and meta-analysis. We did a literature search on PubMed to identify studies that used PCR for detection of HPV DNA in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas with information about HPV genotype distribution. We included studies that tested 20 or more biopsies per cancer site and were published between July 15, 1990, and Feb 29, 2012. We collected information about sex, risk factors, HPV detection methods, and biomarkers of potentially HPV-induced carcinogenesis (E6/E7 mRNA and p16(INK4a)). If it was not possible to abstract the required information directly from the paper, we contacted the authors. We did a meta-analysis to produce pooled prevalence estimates including a meta-regression to explore sources of heterogeneity. 148 studies were included, contributing data for 12 163 cases of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma from 44 countries. HPV DNA was detected in 3837 cases. HPV16 accounted for 82·2% (95% CI 77·7-86·4) of all HPV DNA positive cases. By cancer site, pooled HPV DNA prevalence estimates were 45·8% (95% CI 38·9-52·9) for oropharynx, 22·1% (16·4-28·3) for larynx (including hypopharynx), and 24·2% (18·7-30·2) for oral cavity. The percent positivity of p16(INK4a) positive cases in HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer cases was 86·7% (95% CI 79·2-92·9) and of E6/E7 mRNA positive cases was 86·9% (73·2-96·8). The estimate of HPV attributable fraction in oropharyngeal cancer defined by expression of positive cases of E6/E7 mRNA was 39·8% and of p16(INK4a) was 39·7%. Of subsites, tonsils (53·9%, 95% CI 46·4-61·3) had the highest HPV DNA prevalence. HPV DNA prevalence varied significantly by anatomical site, geographic region, but not by sex or tobacco or alcohol consumption. The contribution of HPV prevalence in head and neck

  16. Multiple ASF/SF2 sites in the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E4-coding region promote splicing to the most commonly used 3'-splice site on the HPV-16 genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somberg, Monika; Schwartz, Stefan

    2010-08-01

    Our results presented here demonstrate that the most abundant human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) mRNAs expressing the viral oncogenes E6 and E7 are regulated by cellular ASF/SF2, itself defined as a proto-oncogene and overexpressed in cervical cancer cells. We show that the most frequently used 3'-splice site on the HPV-16 genome, site SA3358, which is used to produce primarily E4, E6, and E7 mRNAs, is regulated by ASF/SF2. Splice site SA3358 is immediately followed by 15 potential binding sites for the splicing factor ASF/SF2. Recombinant ASF/SF2 binds to the cluster of ASF/SF2 sites. Mutational inactivation of all 15 sites abolished splicing to SA3358 and redirected splicing to the downstream-located, late 3'-splice site SA5639. Overexpression of a mutant ASF/SF2 protein that lacks the RS domain, also totally inhibited the usage of SA3358 and redirected splicing to the late 3'-splice site SA5639. The 15 ASF/SF2 binding sites could be replaced by an ASF/SF2-dependent, HIV-1-derived splicing enhancer named GAR. This enhancer was also inhibited by the mutant ASF/SF2 protein that lacks the RS domain. Finally, silencer RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of ASF/SF2 caused a reduction in spliced HPV-16 mRNA levels. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the major HPV-16 3'-splice site SA3358 is dependent on ASF/SF2. SA3358 is used by the most abundantly expressed HPV-16 mRNAs, including those encoding E6 and E7. High levels of ASF/SF2 may therefore be a requirement for progression to cervical cancer. This is supported by our earlier findings that ASF/SF2 is overexpressed in high-grade cervical lesions and cervical cancer.

  17. Oxytocin stimulates cell proliferation in vaginal cell line Vk2E6E7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallak, Theodora K; Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin

    2017-03-01

    Objective During and after menopause, the symptoms of vaginal atrophy cause great discomfort and necessitate effective treatment options. Currently, vaginally applied oxytocin is being investigated as a treatment for the symptoms of vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women. To clarify the mechanisms behind oxytocins effects on vaginal atrophy, the present study investigated the effects of oxytocin on cell proliferation in the cells of the Vk2E6E7 line, a non-tumour vaginal cell line. The study also compared the effects of oxytocin with those of estradiol (E2). Study design The effects of both oxytocin and E2 on the proliferation of Vk2E6E7 cells were investigated using Cell Proliferation ELISA BrdU Colorimetric Assay. The expression of both oxytocin and oxytocin receptor was studied in Vk2E6E7 cells using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescent staining. Main outcome measures Cell proliferation and gene expression. Results Oxytocin increased cell proliferation both time dependently and dose dependently. This differed from the effect pattern observed in cells treated with E2. In addition, in oxytocin-treated cells, the oxytocin receptor was found to be co-localized with caveolin-1, indicating pro-proliferative signalling within the cell. Conclusions Oxytocin stimulates cell proliferation and the co-localization of oxytocin receptor with caveolin-1 in oxytocin-treated cells, supporting the role of oxytocin signalling in cell proliferation. In addition, these findings suggest that increased cell proliferation is one mechanism by which local vaginal oxytocin treatment increases vaginal thickness and relieves vaginal symptoms in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy.

  18. [Transformation activity and antigenicity of the human papillomavirus type 58 E6E7 fusion gene mutant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He; Yu, Ji-yun; Li, Li

    2013-07-01

    To develop a prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) type 58-associated cervical carcinoma, and explore its transformation activity and antigenicity. The E6 and E7 three amino acid codons in the HPV 58 virus were modified respectively and fused. The modified and fused gene was named HPV58 mE6E7. The recombinant HPV58 mE6E7 gene was inserted into pIRES-neo vector to generate plasmid pIRES-neo-HPV58 mE6E7. Then NIH/3T3 cell line was transfected with plasmid pIRES-neo-HPV58 mE6E7. The pIRES-neo-HPV58 mE6E7-transfected cells were the experimental group, pIRES-neo-HPV58 E6E7-transfected cells were the positive control group, and pIRES-neo empty vector-transfected cells were the negative control group. The expression of HPV58 mE6E7 protein in the experimental cells was detected by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and Western blot. The transformation activity of HPV58 mE6E7 was tested by soft agar colony formation assay and subcutaneously tumors in nude mice. Finally, DNA vaccine was constructed with HPV58 mE6E7 fusion antigen and used to immunize C57BL/6 mice with the vaccine plasmids. The specific serum antibodies were detected by EIISA, and the number of splenic specific CD8(+) T cells secreting IFN-γ of the immunized mice was detected by ELISPOT assay. Sequencing confirmed the expected mutation and a 100% homogeneity of the HPV58 E6E7 fusion gene. Stable transfected NIH/3T3 cells expressing HPV58 mE6E7 and HPV58 E6E7 gene were 70.3% and 84.1%, respectively. The relative expressions of HPV58 mE6E7 and HPV58 E6E7 fusion protein in 3T3-HPV58 mE6E7 experimental cells and 3T3-HPV58 E6E7 positive control cells were 2.1 ± 1.7 and 3.8 ± 1.4, respectively, and were negative in the negative control group. No colony formation was found in the experimental and 3T3-neo negative control cell groups, and 31 colonies were found in the positive control cell group, among them 10 colonies were consisted of more than 50 cells. No tumor mass was formed

  19. Multiple ASF/SF2 Sites in the Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV-16) E4-Coding Region Promote Splicing to the Most Commonly Used 3′-Splice Site on the HPV-16 Genome▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somberg, Monika; Schwartz, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Our results presented here demonstrate that the most abundant human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) mRNAs expressing the viral oncogenes E6 and E7 are regulated by cellular ASF/SF2, itself defined as a proto-oncogene and overexpressed in cervical cancer cells. We show that the most frequently used 3′-splice site on the HPV-16 genome, site SA3358, which is used to produce primarily E4, E6, and E7 mRNAs, is regulated by ASF/SF2. Splice site SA3358 is immediately followed by 15 potential binding sites for the splicing factor ASF/SF2. Recombinant ASF/SF2 binds to the cluster of ASF/SF2 sites. Mutational inactivation of all 15 sites abolished splicing to SA3358 and redirected splicing to the downstream-located, late 3′-splice site SA5639. Overexpression of a mutant ASF/SF2 protein that lacks the RS domain, also totally inhibited the usage of SA3358 and redirected splicing to the late 3′-splice site SA5639. The 15 ASF/SF2 binding sites could be replaced by an ASF/SF2-dependent, HIV-1-derived splicing enhancer named GAR. This enhancer was also inhibited by the mutant ASF/SF2 protein that lacks the RS domain. Finally, silencer RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of ASF/SF2 caused a reduction in spliced HPV-16 mRNA levels. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the major HPV-16 3′-splice site SA3358 is dependent on ASF/SF2. SA3358 is used by the most abundantly expressed HPV-16 mRNAs, including those encoding E6 and E7. High levels of ASF/SF2 may therefore be a requirement for progression to cervical cancer. This is supported by our earlier findings that ASF/SF2 is overexpressed in high-grade cervical lesions and cervical cancer. PMID:20519389

  20. Diagnostic Performance of HPV E6/E7 mRNA and HPV DNA Assays for the Detection and Screening of Oncogenic Human Papillomavirus Infection among Woman with Cervical Lesions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hye-young; Lee, Dongsup; Park, Sunyoung; Kim, Geehyuk; Kim, Sunghyun; Han, Lin; Yubo, Ren; Li, Yingxue; Park, Kwang Hwa; Lee, Hyeyoung

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide and it is responsible for most cases of cervical uterine cancer. Although HPV infections of the cervix do not always progress to cancer, 90% of cervical cancer cases have been found to be associated with high risk HPV (HR- HPV) infection. HPV DNA testing is widely used, along with Papanicolaou (Pap) testing, to screen for cervical abnormalities. However, there are no data on the prevalence of genotype-specific HPV infections assessed by measuring HPV E6/E7 mRNA in women representative of the Chinese population across a broad age range. In the present study, we compared the results with the CervicGen HPV RT-qDx assay, which detects 16 HR-HPV genotypes (Alpha-9: HPV 16, 31, 33, 35, 52, and 58; Alpha-7: HPV 18, 39, 45, 51, 59, and 68; and Alpha-5, 6: HPV 53, 56, 66, and 69), and the REBA HPV-ID assay, which detects 32 HPV genotypes based on the reverse blot hybridization assay (REBA) for the detection of oncogenic HPV infection according to cytological diagnosis. We also investigated the prevalence and genotype distribution of HPV infection with a total of 324 liquid-based cytology samples collected in western Shandong province, East China. The overall HPV prevalences determined by HPV DNA and HPV E6/E7 mRNA assays in this study were 79.9% (259/324) and 55.6% (180/324), respectively. Although the positivity of HPV E6/E7 mRNA expression was significantly lower than HPV DNA positivity, the HPV E6/E7 mRNA assay showed greater specificity than the HPV DNA assay (88.6% vs. 48.1%) in normal cytology samples. The prevalence of Alpha-9 (HPV 16, 31, 33, 35, 52, and 58) HPV infection among these women accounted for up to 80.3% and 76.1% of the high-grade lesions detected in the HPV mRNA and DNA tests, respectively. The HR-HPV genotype distribution, based on HPV DNA and E6/E7 mRNA expression by age group in patients with cytologically confirmed lesions, was highest in women aged 40 to 49 years

  1. [Diagnostic value of human papillomavirus E6/E7 mRNA for residue and recurrence after cervical conization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hua; Shao, Huajiang

    2016-06-28

    To explore the diagnostic value of human papillomavirus E6/E7 mRNA for residue and recurrence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) patients after cervical conization.
 A total of 154 patients, who underwent cervical conization and possessed complete follow-up data of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CINII, III), were subjected to thin-prep cytology test (TCT), HPV-DNA typing and HPV E6/E7 mRNA test in 3-6 months and 12 months after cervical conization. Abnormal cytology (≥ASC-US) or high-risk HPV-DNA (+) or HPV E6/E7 mRNA (+) cases were found by colposcopy and cervical biopsy pathological diagnosis.
 Nine patients had residue and 22 recurred. HPV-DNA detections after cervical conization in 57 patients were positive. Among them, 30 patients had residual/recurrent lesions. HPV E6/E7 mRNA detections in 26 patients were positive. Among them, 24 patients had residual/recurrent lesions. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of diagnosis in the detection of HPV-DNA were 96.8%, 78%, 52.6%, 99%, and 81.8%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of diagnosis in the detection of HPV E6/E7 mRNA were 77.4%, 98.4%, 92.3%, 94.5%, and 94.2%, respectively. The specificity and positive predictive value of HPV E6/E7 mRNA test were greater than those of HPV-DNA typing test. There was a significant difference between the two groups (PDetection of HPV E6/E7 mRNA during the follow-up period could timely and effectively forecast the risk of residue and recurrence of CIN after cervical conization, and reduce excessive examination and treatment.

  2. [Correlation between high risk type human papillomavirus E6/E7 mRNA and cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X H; Qian, Y M; Miao, L; Le, Y; Du, J

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the correlation between the positive rate of high risk human papillomavirus(HPV)mRNA E6/E7 and cervical cancer, and provide evidence for the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer. A total of 100 cervical cancer cases and 100 healthy controls were selected in our hospital from January 2015 to December 2015. The fluorescence quantitative PCR and pathological examination on HPV E6/E7 mRNA were carried out. The correlation between HPV E6/E7 mRNA and cervical squamous epithelial lesions were analyzed. In case group, the positive rate of HPV E6/E7 mRNA was 76.0%(76/100). In control group, the positive rate was 13.0%(13/100). The positive rate in case group was significantly higher than that in control group, and the difference was statistically significant(χ(2)=24.522, P0.05). The positive rate of HPV E6/E7 mRNA was significantly higher than high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion(SIL)rate(26.1%), low-grade SIL rate(17.6%)and atypical squamous cell hyperplasia rate(6.7%), the difference was statistically significant(χ(2)=7.615, P= 0.001; χ(2) =9.114, P=0.001; χ(2)=18.241, Pdetection rate of HPV E6/E7 mRNA in cervical cancer patients was high. And with the increased severity of cervical squamous epithelial lesions, the positive rate of HPV E6/E7 mRNA increased.

  3. Diagnostic validity of human papillomavirus E6/E7 mRNA test in cervical cytological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong-Yu; Xie, Rong; Luo, Li; Reilly, Kathleen H; He, Cheng; Lin, Yu-Zhen; Chen, Gang; Zheng, Xiong-Wei; Zhang, Lu-Lu; Wang, Hai-Bo

    2014-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA tests tend to show high sensitivity, but poor specificity in detecting high-grade cervical lesions. This study aimed to explore the clinical performance of QuantiVirus(®) HPV E6/E7 mRNA in identifying ≥Grade 2 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Thin-prep(®) liquid based cytology test (LBC) samples were collected from October 2009 to October 2011 from women who underwent outpatient hospital-based gynecological screening. LBC samples were processed for E6/E7 mRNA detection and HPV DNA detection. Of 335 patients, 135 (40.3%) were HPV E6/E7 mRNA positive for high-risk HPV subtypes. The positivity rate of HPV E6/E7 mRNA increased with the severity of cytological and histological evaluation. An optimal cut-off value of ≥567copies/ml was determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and positive predictive value and negative predictive value of cut-off value (≥567copies/ml) were higher than those of E6/E7 mRNA positivity only, but not significant. QuantiVirus(®) HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing may be a valuable tool in triage for identifying ≥Grade 2 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. A high specificity and a low positivity rate of E6/E7mRNA testing as a triage test in HPV DNA-positive women can be translated into a low referral for colposcopy. Studies composed of large population-based samples of women and with rigorous disease ascertainment, are needed to establish the optimal cut-off point based on ROC curve analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Selective p300 inhibitor C646 inhibited HPV E6-E7 genes, altered glucose metabolism and induced apoptosis in cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongpeng; Lai, Yongwei; Hao, Yunpeng; Liu, Yupeng; Zhang, Zijiang; Liu, Xiang; Guo, Chenhong; Zhang, Mengmeng; Zhou, Hao; Wang, Nan; Luo, Xue-Gang; Huo, Lihong; Ma, Wenjian; Zhang, Tong-Cun

    2017-10-05

    High risk HPV infection is a causative factor of cervical cancer. The constitutive expression of HPV E6-E7 genes is important for the maintenance of cancer phenotypes. The cellular transcription co-activator p300 plays a crucial role in the regulation of HPV genes thus it was targeted for the inhibition of HPV-associated cervical cancer. In the present study, HPV positive cervical cells were treated with C646, a selective inhibitor of p300, to investigate its influence on HPV E6-E7 expression and cancer cell growth. Results of RT-qPCR, Western-blot and promoter activity assays showed that C646 inhibited the transcription of HPV E6-E7, which was accompanied with the accumulation of p53 protein. Meanwhile, cell proliferation was suppressed, glucose metabolism was disrupted and apoptosis was induced via the intrinsic pathway. Generally, the anti-cervical cancer potential of C646 was demonstrated and a novel mechanism was proposed in this study. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Triage of women with minor cervical lesions: data suggesting a "test and treat" approach for HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sveinung Wergeland Sørbye

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV testing is included in the cervical cancer screening program in the triage of women with equivocal (ASC-US or low-grade (LSIL cytological lesions. These women have an increased risk for developing high grade dysplasia and cancer (CIN2+ compared to women with normal cytology. However, in order to avoid unnecessary follow-up, as well as overtreatment, a high positive predictive value (PPV of the triage test is important. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The HPV test PreTect HPV-Proofer, detecting E6/E7 mRNA from the HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45, is used as triage test together with repeat cytology. PPV data for HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing during the period from January 2006 up to June 2009 are reported. In total, 406 of 2099 women (19.3% had a positive HPV test result. Of the women with a positive test result and with a histological diagnosis (n = 347, 243 women had histological high-grade dysplasia or cancer (CIN2+, giving a PPV of 70.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 65.2%-74.8%. For HPV 16 or HPV 33 positive women above 40 years of age, the PPV was 83.7% (95% CI, 73.3%-94.0% and 84.6% (95% CI, 65.0%-100.0% respectively. The PPV of test positive women with HSIL cytology was 94.2% (95% CI, 88.7%-99.7%. CONCLUSIONS: When the result in triage is HPV mRNA positive, our data suggest direct treatment for women above 40 years of age or for women with a concurrent cytological HSIL diagnosis, contributing to better clinical safety for these women. In addition, by decreasing the time to treatment, thereby reducing the number of recalls, the patient management algorithm will be considerably improved, in turn reducing follow-up costs as well as unnecessary psychological stress among patients.

  6. Development of an IP-Free Biotechnology Platform for Constitutive Production of HPV16 L1 Capsid Protein Using the Pichia pastoris PGK1 Promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariz, F C; Coimbra, E C; Jesus, A L S; Nascimento, L M; Torres, F A G; Freitas, A C

    2015-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 major capsid protein, which forms the basis of the currently available vaccines against cervical cancer, self-assembles into virus-like particles (VLPs) when expressed heterologously. We report the development of a biotechnology platform for HPV16 L1 protein expression based on the constitutive PGK1 promoter (PPGK1) from the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. The L1 gene was cloned under regulation of PPGK1 into pPGKΔ3 expression vector to achieve intracellular expression. In parallel, secretion of the L1 protein was obtained through the use of an alternative vector called pPGKΔ3α, in which a codon optimized α-factor signal sequence was inserted. We devised a work-flow based on the detection of the L1 protein by dot blot, colony blot, and western blot to classify the positive clones. Finally, intracellular HPV VLPs assembly was demonstrated for the first time in yeast cells. This study opens up perspectives for the establishment of an innovative platform for the production of HPV VLPs or other viral antigens for vaccination purposes, based on constitutive expression in P. pastoris.

  7. Development of an IP-Free Biotechnology Platform for Constitutive Production of HPV16 L1 Capsid Protein Using the Pichia pastoris PGK1 Promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Mariz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The human papillomavirus (HPV L1 major capsid protein, which forms the basis of the currently available vaccines against cervical cancer, self-assembles into virus-like particles (VLPs when expressed heterologously. We report the development of a biotechnology platform for HPV16 L1 protein expression based on the constitutive PGK1 promoter (PPGK1 from the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. The L1 gene was cloned under regulation of PPGK1 into pPGKΔ3 expression vector to achieve intracellular expression. In parallel, secretion of the L1 protein was obtained through the use of an alternative vector called pPGKΔ3α, in which a codon optimized α-factor signal sequence was inserted. We devised a work-flow based on the detection of the L1 protein by dot blot, colony blot, and western blot to classify the positive clones. Finally, intracellular HPV VLPs assembly was demonstrated for the first time in yeast cells. This study opens up perspectives for the establishment of an innovative platform for the production of HPV VLPs or other viral antigens for vaccination purposes, based on constitutive expression in P. pastoris.

  8. HPV16 E6 regulates annexin 1 (ANXA1) protein expression in cervical carcinoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmon, Marilia Freitas [Department of Biology, Institute of Bioscience, Language and Exact Science, São Paulo State University, São Jose do Rio Preto (Brazil); Sichero, Laura [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Centre for Translational Research in Oncology, Instituto do Câncer do Estado de São Paulo (ICESP), São Paulo (Brazil); Boccardo, Enrique [Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo., São Paulo (Brazil); Villa, Luisa Lina [Department of Radiology and Oncology, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Rahal, Paula, E-mail: rahalp@yahoo.com.br [Department of Biology, Institute of Bioscience, Language and Exact Science, São Paulo State University, São Jose do Rio Preto (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    Annexin 1 (ANXA1) is a substrate for E6AP mediated ubiquitylation. It has been hypothesized that HPV 16 E6 protein redirects E6AP away from ANXA1, increasing its stability and possibly contributing to viral pathogenesis. We analyzed ANXA1 expression in HPV-positive and negative cervical carcinoma-derived cells, in cells expressing HPV-16 oncogenes and in cells transduced with shRNA targeting E6AP. We observed that ANXA1 protein expression increased in HPV-16-positive tumor cells, in keratinocytes expressing HPV-16 E6wt (wild-type) or E6/E7 and C33 cells expressing HPV-16 E6wt. ANXA1 protein expression decreased in cells transfected with E6 Dicer-substrate RNAs (DsiRNA) and C33 cells cotransduced with HPV-16 E6wt and E6AP shRNA. Moreover, colony number and proliferation rate decreased in HPV16-positive cells transduced with ANXA1 shRNA. We observed that in cells infected with HPV16, the E6 binds to E6AP to degrade p53 and upregulate ANXA1. We suggest that ANXA1 may play a role in HPV-mediated carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • ANXA1 upregulation requires the presence of E6 and E6AP and is dependent on E6 integrity. • E6 binds to E6AP to degrade p53 and upregulate ANXA1 in cells infected with HPV16. • ANXA1 plays a role in cell proliferation in HPV-positive cervical cells.

  9. Tandemly Integrated HPV16 Can Form a Brd4-Dependent Super-Enhancer-Like Element That Drives Transcription of Viral Oncogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine E. Dooley

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In cancer cells associated with human papillomavirus (HPV infections, the viral genome is very often found integrated into the cellular genome. The viral oncogenes E6 and E7 are transcribed from the viral promoter, and integration events that alter transcriptional regulation of this promoter contribute to carcinogenic progression. In this study, we detected highly enriched binding of the super-enhancer markers Brd4, MED1, and H3K27ac, visible as a prominent nuclear focus by immunofluorescence, at the tandemly integrated copies of HPV16 in cells of the cervical neoplasia cell line W12 subclone 20861. Tumor cells are often addicted to super-enhancer-driven oncogenes and are particularly sensitive to disruption of transcription factor binding to the enhancers. Treatment of 20861 cells with bromodomain inhibitors displaced Brd4 from the HPV integration site, greatly decreased E6/E7 transcription, and inhibited cellular proliferation. Thus, Brd4 activates viral transcription at this integration site, and strong selection for E6/E7 expression can drive the formation of a super-enhancer-like element to promote oncogenesis.

  10. Genomic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowsky, Robert; Lhaki, Pema; Wiener, Howard W; Bhatta, Madhav P; Cullen, Michael; Johnson, Derek C; Perry, Rodney T; Lama, Mingma; Boland, Joseph F; Yeager, Meredith; Ghimire, Sarita; Broker, Thomas R; Shrestha, Sadeep

    2016-12-01

    Sequence variants in HPV16 confer differences in oncogenic potential; however, to date there have not been any HPV sequence studies performed in Nepal. The objective of this study was to characterize HPV16 viral genome sequences from Nepal compared to a reference sequence in order to determine their lineages. Additionally, we sought to determine if five High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (HSIL) subjects were genetically distinct from the non-HSIL subjects. DNA was isolated from exfoliated cervical cells from 17 individuals in Nepal who were previously identified to be HPV16-positive. A custom HPV16 Ion Ampliseq panel of multiplexed degenerate primers was designed that generated 47 overlapping amplicons and covered 99% of the viral genome for all known HPV16 variant lineages. All sequence data were processed through a custom quality control and analysis pipeline of sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis. There were high similarities across the genomes, with two major indels observed in the non-coding region between E5 and L2. Compared to the PAVE reference HPV16 genome, there were up to 9, 4, 38, 27, 8, 7, 52, and 32 nucleotide variants in the E6, E7, E1, E2, E4, E5, L2, and L1 genes in the Nepalese samples, respectively. Based on sequence variation, HPV16 from Nepal falls across the A, C, and D lineages in this study. We found no evidence of genetic distinctness between HSIL and non-HSIL subjects. The evolutionary and pathological characteristics of the representative HPV16 genomes from Nepal seem similar to results from other parts of the world and provide the basis for further studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Generation of affibody molecules specific for HPV16 E7 recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiangyang; Wang, Bingbing; Du, Wangqi; Zhang, Chanqiong; Song, Yiling; Cai, Yiqi; Cen, Danwei; Wang, Ledan; Xiong, Yirong; Jiang, Pengfei; Zhu, Shanli; Zhao, Kong-Nan; Zhang, Lifang

    2016-11-08

    Cervical cancer caused by infection with high-risk human papillomavirus remains to be the most deadly gynecologic malignancy worldwide. It is well documented that persistent expression of two oncogenes (E6/E7) plays the key roles in cervical cancer. Thus, in vivo detection of the oncoproteins is very important for the diagnosis of the cancer. Recently, affibody molecules have been demonstrated to be a powerful targeting probe for tumor-targeted imaging and diagnosis. In this study, four HPV16 E7-binding affibody molecules (Z HPV16 E7127, Z HPV16E7301, Z HPV16E7384 and Z HPV16E7745) were screened from a phage-displayed peptide library and used for molecular imaging in tumor-bearing mice. Biosensor binding analyses showed first that the four affibody molecules bound to HPV16 E7 with very high affinity and specificity. They co-localized with E7 protein only in two HPV16-positive cancer cells (SiHa and CaSki). Furthermore, affibody ZHPV16E7384 was conjugated with Dylight755 and used for in vivo tumor-imaging. Strongly high-contrast tumor retention of this affibody only occurred in HPV16-derived tumors of mice as early as 30 min post-injection, not in HPV-negative and HPV18-derived tumors. The accumulation of Dylight755-conjugated ZHPV16E7384 in tumor was achieved over a longer time period (24 h). The data here provide strong evidence that E7-specific affibody molecules have great potential used for molecular imaging and diagnosis of HPV-induced cancers.

  12. Characterization of Intra-Type Variants of Oncogenic Human Papillomaviruses by Next-Generation Deep Sequencing of the E6/E7 Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Lavezzo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Different human papillomavirus (HPV types are characterized by differences in tissue tropism and ability to promote cell proliferation and transformation. In addition, clinical and experimental studies have shown that some genetic variants/lineages of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV types are characterized by increased oncogenic activity and probability to induce cancer. In this study, we designed and validated a new method based on multiplex PCR-deep sequencing of the E6/E7 region of HR-HPV types to characterize HPV intra-type variants in clinical specimens. Validation experiments demonstrated that this method allowed reliable identification of the different lineages of oncogenic HPV types. Advantages of this method over other published methods were represented by its ability to detect variants of all HR-HPV types in a single reaction, to detect variants of HR-HPV types in clinical specimens with multiple infections, and, being based on sequencing of the full E6/E7 region, to detect amino acid changes in these oncogenes potentially associated with increased transforming activity.

  13. Characterization of Intra-Type Variants of Oncogenic Human Papillomaviruses by Next-Generation Deep Sequencing of the E6/E7 Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavezzo, Enrico; Masi, Giulia; Toppo, Stefano; Franchin, Elisa; Gazzola, Valentina; Sinigaglia, Alessandro; Masiero, Serena; Trevisan, Marta; Pagni, Silvana; Palù, Giorgio; Barzon, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Different human papillomavirus (HPV) types are characterized by differences in tissue tropism and ability to promote cell proliferation and transformation. In addition, clinical and experimental studies have shown that some genetic variants/lineages of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) types are characterized by increased oncogenic activity and probability to induce cancer. In this study, we designed and validated a new method based on multiplex PCR-deep sequencing of the E6/E7 region of HR-HPV types to characterize HPV intra-type variants in clinical specimens. Validation experiments demonstrated that this method allowed reliable identification of the different lineages of oncogenic HPV types. Advantages of this method over other published methods were represented by its ability to detect variants of all HR-HPV types in a single reaction, to detect variants of HR-HPV types in clinical specimens with multiple infections, and, being based on sequencing of the full E6/E7 region, to detect amino acid changes in these oncogenes potentially associated with increased transforming activity. PMID:26985902

  14. Immunization with an HPV-16 L1-based chimeric virus-like particle containing HPV-16 E6 and E7 epitopes elicits long-lasting prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy in an HPV-16 tumor mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy-García, Alberto; Gómez-Lim, Miguel Angel; Weiss-Steider, Benny; Hernández-Montes, Jorge; Huerta-Yepez, Sara; Rangel-Santiago, Jesús F; Santiago-Osorio, Edelmiro; Mora García, María de Lourdes

    2014-02-01

    HPV L1-based virus-like particles vaccines (VLPs) efficiently induce temporary prophylactic activity through the induction of neutralizing antibodies; however, VLPs that can provide prophylactic as well as therapeutic properties for longer periods of time are needed. For this purpose, we generated a novel HPV 16 L1-based chimeric virus-like particle (cVLP) produced in plants that contains a string of T-cell epitopes from HPV 16 E6 and E7 fused to its C-terminus. In the present study, we analyzed the persistence of specific IgG antibodies with neutralizing activity induced by immunization with these cVLPs, as well as their therapeutic potential in a tumor model of C57BL/6 mice. We observed that these cVLPs induced persistent IgG antibodies for over 12 months, with reactivity and neutralizing activity for VLPs composed of only the HPV-16 L1 protein. Efficient protection for long periods of time and inhibition of tumor growth induced by TC-1 tumor cells expressing HPV-16 E6/E7 oncoproteins, as well as significant tumor reduction (57 %), were observed in mice immunized with these cVLPs. Finally, we discuss the possibility that chimeric particles of the type described in this work may be the basis for developing HPV prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines with high efficacy.

  15. HPV positive neuroendocrine cervical cancer cells are dependent on Myc but not E6/E7 viral oncogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hang; Krawczyk, Ewa; Blancato, Jan; Albanese, Christopher; Zhou, Dan; Wang, Naidong; Paul, Siddartha; Alkhilaiwi, Faris; Palechor-Ceron, Nancy; Dakic, Aleksandra; Fang, Shuang; Choudhary, Sujata; Hou, Tung-Wei; Zheng, Yun-Ling; Haddad, Bassem R.; Usuda, Yukari; Hartmann, Dan; Symer, David; Gillison, Maura; Agarwal, Seema; Wangsa, Danny; Ried, Thomas; Liu, Xuefeng; Schlegel, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Using conditional cell reprogramming, we generated a stable cell culture of an extremely rare and aggressive neuroendocrine cervical cancer. The cultured cells contained HPV-16, formed colonies in soft agar and rapidly produced tumors in immunodeficient mice. The HPV-16 genome was integrated adjacent to the Myc gene, both of which were amplified 40-fold. Analysis of RNA transcripts detected fusion of the HPV/Myc genes, arising from apparent microhomologous recombination. Spectral karyotyping (SKY) and fluorescent-in-situ hybridization (FISH) demonstrated coordinate localization and translocation of the amplified Myc and HPV genes on chromosomes 8 and 21. Similar to the primary tumor, tumor cell cultures expressed very high levels of the Myc protein and, in contrast to all other HPV-positive cervical cancer cell lines, they harbored a gain-of-function mutation in p53 (R273C). Unexpectedly, viral oncogene knockdown had no effect on the growth of the cells, but it did inhibit the proliferation of a conventional HPV-16 positive cervical cancer cell line. Knockdown of Myc, but not the mutant p53, significantly inhibited tumor cell proliferation. On the basis of these data, we propose that the primary driver of transformation in this aggressive cervical cancer is not HPV oncogene expression but rather the overexpression of Myc. PMID:28378747

  16. Human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 mRNA detection in cervical exfoliated cells: a potential triage for HPV-positive women*

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Ye-li; Tian, Qi-fang; CHENG, BEI; Cheng, Yi-fan; Ye, Jing; Lu, Wei-Guo

    2017-01-01

    Cytology triage has been generally recommended for human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive women, but is highly dependent on well-trained cytologists. The present study was designed to explore whether HPV E6/E7 mRNA detection in cervical exfoliated cells can be a potential triage for HPV-positive women from a clinic-based population. Both the primary HPV testing and Papanicolaou (Pap) test were performed on all eligible HPV-positive women. HPV E6/E7 mRNA was detected by QuantiVirus? HPV E6/E7 mRN...

  17. HPV 16 E5 oncoprotein is expressed in early stage carcinogenesis and can be a target of immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, Francesca; Curzio, Gianfranca; Cordeiro, Marcelo Nazario; Massa, Silvia; Mariani, Luciano; Pimpinelli, Fulvia; de Freitas, Antonio Carlos; Franconi, Rosella; Venuti, Aldo

    2017-02-01

    HPV16 persistent infection is a well-known condition that precedes human cancer development. High risk HPV E5 proteins cooperate with E6/E7 oncogenes to promote hyper-proliferation of infected cells leading to possible cancer progression. Thus, presence of E5 viral transcripts could be a key marker of active infection and, in turn, a target of immunotherapy. Purpose of the study is to detect E5 transcripts in clinical samples and to explore the activity of novel anti-HPV16 E5 DNA vaccines. HPV transcripts were detected by PCR with specific primers encompassing the splice-donor sites of E5 transcript. For E5-based immunotherapies, 2 E5-based versions of DNA vaccines carrying whole E5 gene or a synthetic multiepitope gene were improved by fusion to sequence of PVX coat protein. These vaccines were challenged with a new luminescent animal model based on C3-Luc cell line. E5 transcripts were detected in clinical samples of women with HPV positive low-grade SIL, demonstrating the validity of our test. In C3 pre-clinical mouse model, vaccine candidates were able to induce a strong cellular immunity as indicated by ELISPOT assays. In addition, E5-CP vaccines elicited strong anti-tumor effects as showed by decreased tumor growth monitored by animal imaging. The tumor growth inhibition was comparable to those obtained with anti-E7 DNA vaccines. In conclusion, detection of E5 transcripts in clinical samples indicates that E5 is a possible target of immunotherapy. Data from pre-clinical model demonstrate that E5 genetic immunization is feasible, efficacious and could be utilized in clinical trials.

  18. Dependence of intracellular and exosomal microRNAs on viral E6/E7 oncogene expression in HPV-positive tumor cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Honegger, Anja; Schilling, Daniela; Bastian, Sandra; Sponagel, Jasmin; Kuryshev, Vladimir; Sültmann, Holger; Scheffner, Martin; Hoppe-Seyler, Karin; Hoppe-Seyler, Felix

    2015-01-01

    ...) expression patterns. By genome-wide analyses, we investigate whether the intracellular and exosomal miRNA compositions of HPV-positive cancer cells are dependent on endogenous E6/E7 oncogene expression...

  19. E6/E7 mRNA expression analysis: a test for the objective assessment of cervical adenocarcinoma in clinical prognostic procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, Siri; Muller, Susanne; Skomedal, Hanne; Mints, Michael; Bergström, Jakob; Wallin, Keng-Ling; Karlsen, Frank; Johansson, Bo; Andersson, Sonia

    2010-06-01

    Detection of E6/E7 mRNA expression using the real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification assay (NASBA) PreTect HPV-Proofer was compared with results of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA detection in 98 paraffin-embedded samples from patients with cervical adenocarcinoma. HR-HPV DNA was detected in 61 (62%), while HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA was detected in 63 (64%) of the samples. Correlation between results from DNA analyses and the E6/E7 mRNA assay showed consistent results in 87% of samples (47 of 54). The results from these two methods in detecting presence of HPV infection of any type agreed in 77%. Overall agreement between the methods was seen in 82 of the 98 cases (84%). When evaluating change in sensitivity for detection of HPV positives by adding more HPV types to the HPV DNA assay, maximum sensitivity was reached by targeting four HPV types. The coverage of HPV DNA presence was 76.9%, while the E6/E7 mRNA assay achieved a maximum coverage of 80.8% using only three HPV types. Thus, E6/E7 oncogene expression analysis may provide a more objective test for assessment of neoplastic glandular cells. Further studies may reveal whether the clinical performance of the E6/E7 mRNA assay will be of prognostic value in management of cervical adenocarcinoma.

  20. Oncogene lineages of human papillomavirus type 16 E6, E7 and E5 in preinvasive and invasive cervical squamous cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, X.; Pang, T.; Guo, Z.; Pontén, J.; Nistér, M.; Afink, G. Bernard

    2001-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)16 accounts for about 60% of the HPV infections in invasive cervical cancer (ICC). There are many sequence variations within HPV16, some of which have been associated with different biological properties, although no definite correlations have yet been established. However,

  1. A DNA vaccine encoding mutated HPV58 mE6E7-Fc-GPI fusion antigen and GM-CSF and B7.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang H

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available He Wang,1 Jiyun Yu,2 Li Li1 1Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, 2Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Background: Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV is a predominant cause of cervical cancer, and HPV58 is the third most common virus detected in the patients with cervical cancer in Asia. E6 and E7 are the viral oncogenes which are constitutively expressed in HPV-associated tumor cells and can be used as target antigens for related immunotherapy. In this study, we modified the HPV58 E6 and E7 oncogenes to eliminate their oncogenic potential and constructed a recombinant DNA vaccine that coexpresses the sig-HPV58 mE6E7-Fc-GPI fusion antigen in addition to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF and B7.1 as molecular adjuvants (PVAX1-HPV58 mE6E7FcGB for the treatment of HPV58 (+ cancer. Methods: PVAX1-HPV58 mE6E7FcGB recombinant DNA vaccine was constructed to express a fusion protein containing a signal peptide, a modified HPV58 mE6E7 gene, and human IgG Fc and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI-anchoring sequences using the modified DNA vaccine vector PVAX1-IRES-GM/B7.1 that coexpresses GM-CSF, and B7.1. C57BL/6 mice were challenged by HPV58 E6E7-expressing B16-HPV58 E6E7 cells, followed by immunization by PVAX1-HPV58 mE6E7FcGB vaccine on days 7, 14, 21 after tumor challenge. The cellular immune responses in immunized mice were assessed by measuring IFN-γ production in splenocytes upon stimulation by HPV58 E6E7-GST protein and the lysis of B16-HPV58 E6E7 target cells by splenocytes after restimulation with HPV58 E6E7-GST protein. The antitumor efficacy was evaluated by monitoring the growth of the tumor. Results: PVAX1-HPV58 mE6E7FcGB elicited varying levels of IFN-lsgdB58onn T-cell immune responses and lysis of target cell in mice in response to the

  2. Diagnosis of 25 genotypes of human papillomaviruses for their physical statuses in cervical precancerous/cancerous lesions: a comparison of E2/E6E7 ratio-based vs. multiple E1-L1/E6E7 ratio-based detection techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; He, Yi-feng; Chen, Mo; Chen, Chun-mei; Zhu, Qiu-jing; Lu, Huan; Wei, Zhen-hong; Li, Fang; Zhang, Xiao-xin; Xu, Cong-jian; Yu, Long

    2014-10-02

    Cervical lesions caused by integrated human papillomavirus (HPV) infection are highly dangerous because they can quickly develop into invasive cancers. However, clinicians are currently hampered by the lack of a quick, convenient and precise technique to detect integrated/mixed infections of various genotypes of HPVs in the cervix. This study aimed to develop a practical tool to determine the physical status of different HPVs and evaluate its clinical significance. The target population comprised 1162 women with an HPV infection history of > six months and an abnormal cervical cytological finding. The multiple E1-L1/E6E7 ratio analysis, a novel technique, was developed based on determining the ratios of E1/E6E7, E2/E6E7, E4E5/E6E7, L2/E6E7 and L1/E6E7 within the viral genome. Any imbalanced ratios indicate integration. Its diagnostic and predictive performances were compared with those of E2/E6E7 ratio analysis. The detection accuracy of both techniques was evaluated using the gold-standard technique "detection of integrated papillomavirus sequences" (DIPS). To realize a multigenotypic detection goal, a primer and probe library was established. The integration rate of a particular genotype of HPV was correlated with its tumorigenic potential and women with higher lesion grades often carried lower viral loads. The E1-L1/E6E7 ratio analysis achieved 92.7% sensitivity and 99.0% specificity in detecting HPV integration, while the E2/E6E7 ratio analysis showed a much lower sensitivity (75.6%) and a similar specificity (99.3%). Interference due to episomal copies was observed in both techniques, leading to false-negative results. However, some positive results of E1-L1/E6E7 ratio analysis were missed by DIPS due to its stochastic detection nature. The E1-L1/E6E7 ratio analysis is more efficient than E2/E6E7 ratio analysis and DIPS in predicting precancerous/cancerous lesions, in which both positive predictive values (36.7%-82.3%) and negative predictive values (75

  3. Transcriptional activity of HPV in inverted papilloma demonstrated by in situ hybridization for E6/E7 mRNA.

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    Stoddard, David G; Keeney, Michael G; Gao, Ge; Smith, David I; García, Joaquín J; O'Brien, Erin K

    2015-04-01

    Assess human papilloma virus (HPV) transcriptional activity in inverted Schneiderian papillomas (IPs). Case series with chart review. Academic tertiary care center. Retrospective clinicopathologic review of 19 cases of IP in patients undergoing surgical excision from 1995 to 2013 at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. Surgical pathology archival material was histopathologically reviewed using hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material from each case was evaluated for p16 expression using immunohistochemistry as well as HPV DNA and E6/E7 messenger RNA (mRNA) transcription using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in situ hybridization (via RNAscope technology), respectively. Eight patients were female (42%), with an average age of 53 years (range, 23-82 years). Three demonstrated malignancy, and 5 subsequently recurred. Average follow-up was 49 months (range, 0-200 months), and 1 patient died from squamous cell carcinoma arising from the IP. RNAscope detected HPV mRNA transcripts exclusively within IP in 100% of cases; however, in 11 patients (58%), less than 1% of cells exhibited transcriptional activity. Only 2 of 19 cases (11%) demonstrated mRNA activity in 50% or more cells. HPV DNA was detected in only 2 specimens by PCR. This study reveals wide prevalence but limited transcriptional activity of HPV in IP. No correlation between HPV transcriptional activity and progression, recurrence, or malignant transformation was identified. These data suggest that transcription of HPV may contribute to the pathogenesis of IP, but prospective data are needed to definitively demonstrate this connection. These results also suggest that RNAscope may be more sensitive than PCR in detecting HPV activity in IP. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  4. Towards a “Sample-In, Answer-Out” Point-of-Care Platform for Nucleic Acid Extraction and Amplification: Using an HPV E6/E7 mRNA Model System

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    Anja Gulliksen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the development of a “proof-of-principle” hands-free and self-contained diagnostic platform for detection of human papillomavirus (HPV E6/E7 mRNA in clinical specimens. The automated platform performs chip-based sample preconcentration, nucleic acid extraction, amplification, and real-time fluorescent detection with minimal user interfacing. It consists of two modular prototypes, one for sample preparation and one for amplification and detection; however, a common interface is available to facilitate later integration into one single module. Nucleic acid extracts (n=28 from cervical cytology specimens extracted on the sample preparation chip were tested using the PreTect HPV-Proofer and achieved an overall detection rate for HPV across all dilutions of 50%–85.7%. A subset of 6 clinical samples extracted on the sample preparation chip module was chosen for complete validation on the NASBA chip module. For 4 of the samples, a 100% amplification for HPV 16 or 33 was obtained at the 1 : 10 dilution for microfluidic channels that filled correctly. The modules of a “sample-in, answer-out” diagnostic platform have been demonstrated from clinical sample input through sample preparation, amplification and final detection.

  5. HPV types and E6/E7 mRNA expression in cervical samples from Turkish women with abnormal cytology in Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüney, İpek; Altay, Aylin; Ergünay, Koray; Önder, Sevgen Çelik; Usubütün, Alp; Salman, Mehmet Coşkun; Bozdayi, Gülendam; Karabulut, Erdem; Badur, Osman Selim; Yüce, Kunter; Pinar, Ahmet

    2017-02-27

    Human papillomaviruses have been established as a risk factor for invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix. HPV E6/E7 oncogene expression has recently emerged as a promising biomarker to determine the risk for progression to high-grade cervical lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate HPV mRNA and DNA detection in samples with abnormal cytology. Cervical specimens were obtained at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology via cervical brushes during January-October 2011. Liquid-based cytology slides were evaluated according to the 2001 Bethesda System. Cytology specimens from a total of 81 women with abnormal cytology were included. Real-time PCR and NASBA assays were performed to detect HPV DNA and E6/E7 mRNA, respectively. HPV DNA was identified in 73 samples (90.1%). HPV E6/E7 mRNA expression was observed in 45 samples (55.6%). A statistically significant difference was observed among cytological diagnosis groups. In 25 patients, a biopsy was performed during the follow-up. HPV DNA was detected in all of these patients. HPV E6/E7 expression was present only in CIN I-III diagnosed patients. The E6/E7 mRNA test is a robust indicator of cytological atypia and correlates better with progressive lesions than DNA assays.

  6. Decreased Migration of Langerhans Precursor-Like Cells in Response to Human Keratinocytes Expressing HPV-16 E6/E7 is Related to Reduced Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-3Alpha Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    keratinocytes and its role in atopic dermatitis . Int Immunol 13:95-103. 47. Pahl, H. L. 1999. Activators and target genes of Rel/NF-kappaB transcription...neonatal foreskins and cultured in EpiLife medium supplemented with human keratinocyte growth supplement (bovine pituitary extract , bovine insulin...were cultured in EpiLife medium supplemented without bovine pituitary extract and hydrocortisone (hereafter called minimal EpiLife) when culture

  7. Patterns of Cellular and HPV 16 Methylation as Biomarkers for Cervical Neoplasia

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    Patel, Divya A.; Rozek, Laura S.; Colacino, Justin A.; Van Zomeren-Dohm, Adrienne; Ruffin, Mack T.; Unger, Elizabeth R.; Dolinoy, Dana C.; Swan, David C.; Onyekwuluje, Juanita; DeGraffinreid, Cecilia R.; Paskett, Electra D.

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant promoter methylation of biologically relevant genes in cervical cancer and uneven CpG distribution within the human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) enhancer region have been reported. Cervical samples and questionnaires from 151 women screened for cervical cancer in Appalachian Ohio were analyzed. Methylation was measured by bisulfite sequencing in candidate gene sites in ESR1, DCC, p16, and LINE1 elements. Among 89 HPV16-positive women, CpG sites in the E6 promoter and enhancer regions and the L1 region of the HPV16 genome were measured. Methylation levels were compared by cervical cytology and HPV16 status. HPV methylation was low regardless of cytology status, however E6 methylation was significantly higher in women with normal cytology. ESR1 and DCC methylation were significantly higher in HPV16-positive women. Increased methylation at sites in the E6 promoter region was associated with lower odds of abnormal cytology. Increased methylation in candidate genes was associated with higher odds of abnormal cytology, particularly DCC region 2.4, DCC region 2.6, ESR1 region 3.2, and LINE1 site 1.2. HPV16 genome CpG methylation was low except for the L1 region. In general, lower HPV16 methylation and higher candidate gene methylation levels were associated with higher odds of abnormal cytology. PMID:22664184

  8. HPV E6/E7 mRNA versus HPV DNA biomarker in cervical cancer screening of a group of Macedonian women.

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    Duvlis, Sotirija; Popovska-Jankovic, Katerina; Arsova, Zorica Sarafinovska; Memeti, Shaban; Popeska, Zaneta; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana

    2015-09-01

    High risk types of human papillomaviruses E6/E7 oncogenes and their association with tumor suppressor genes products are the key factors of cervical carcinogenesis. This study proposed them as specific markers for cervical dysplasia screening. The aim of the study is to compare the clinical and prognostic significance of HPV E6/E7 mRNA as an early biomarker versus HPV DNA detection and cytology in triage of woman for cervical cancer. The study group consists of 413 women: 258 NILM, 26 ASC-US, 81 LSIL, 41 HSIL, and 7 unsatisfactory cytology. HPV4AACE screening, real-time multiplex PCR and MY09/11 consensus PCR primers methods were used for the HPV DNA detection. The real-time multiplex nucleic acid sequence-based assay (NucliSENS EasyQ HPV assay) was used for HPV E6/E7 mRNA detection of the five most common high risk HPV types in cervical cancer (16, 18, 31, 33, and 45). The results show that HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing had a higher specificity 50% (95% CI 32-67) and positive predictive value (PPV) 62% (95% CI 46-76) for CIN2+ compared to HPV DNA testing that had specificity of 18% (95% CI 7-37) and PPV 52% (95% CI 39-76) respectively. The higher specificity and PPV of HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing are valuable in predicting insignificant HPV DNA infection among cases with borderline cytological finding. It can help in avoiding aggressive procedures (biopsies and over-referral of transient HPV infections) as well as lowering patient's anxiety and follow up period. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Multilineage differentiation of adult human bone marrow progenitor cells transduced with human papilloma virus type 16 E6/E7 genes.

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    Osyczka, A M; Nöth, U; O'Connor, J; Caterson, E J; Yoon, K; Danielson, K G; Tuan, R S

    2002-11-01

    We have established a new adult human bone marrow-derived cell line hMPC 32F, stably transduced with human papilloma virus type 16 E6/E7 genes, that displays mesenchymal multilineage differentiation ability in vitro. The hMPC 32F cells exhibited a population doubling time of 22 h and have been maintained in culture for about 20 passages. When cultured in conditions promoting osteogenic, adipogenic, or chondrogenic differentiation, hMPC 32F cells expressed mature differentiated phenotypes. These include (1) osteoblastic phenotype characterized by upregulated alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression and extracellular matrix mineralization, (2) adipocytic phenotype with the presence of intracellular lipid droplets, and (3) chondrocytic phenotype of round cells surrounded by a sulfated proteoglycan-rich matrix. In addition, the hMPC 32F cells expressed differentiation lineage-specific genes, as detected by RT-PCR. Furthermore, osteogenic and adipogenic cultures responded to regulatory factors such as transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and 1alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3). Thus, continuous treatment of osteogenic cultures for 2 weeks with TGF-beta1 decreased ALP activity and mRNA expression and inhibited osteocalcin mRNA expression and matrix mineralization, whereas l,25(OH)2D3 had an additive, stimulatory effect. In adipogenic cultures, treatment with TGF-beta1 for 2 weeks markedly inhibited adipogenesis whereas 1,25(OH)2D3 had no obvious effect. Finally, clonal analysis of hMPC 32F cells revealed a high percentage of multipotent clones, although clones of more restricted differentiation potential were also present. These characteristics of the hMPC 32F cell line suggest their pluripotent, progenitor, and nontransformed nature and indicate their potential application for studying the mechanisms governing developmental potential of adult human bone marrow mesenchymal progenitor cells.

  10. A comparison of human papillomavirus genotype-specific DNA and E6/E7 mRNA detection to identify anal precancer among HIV-infected men who have sex with men.

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    Castle, Philip E; Follansbee, Stephen; Borgonovo, Sylvia; Tokugawa, Diane; Schwartz, Lauren M; Lorey, Thomas S; LaMere, Brandon; Gage, Julia C; Fetterman, Barbara; Darragh, Teresa M; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) RNA detection is reportedly more specific for the detection of anogenital precancer than HPV DNA but it is unknown whether this is due to detection of RNA or due to HPV genotype restriction. A total of 363 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men had two anal cytology samples taken and were evaluated using high-resolution anoscopy and biopsies of visible lesions. Anal specimens were tested for E6/E7 RNA for five carcinogenic HPV genotypes (HPV16, 18, 31, 33, and 45) and tested for the DNA of 13 carcinogenic HPV genotypes. DNA testing was more likely to be positive than RNA testing (53% vs. 48%; P = 0.02) for the same five HPV genotypes in aggregate. When restricted to five HPV genotypes targeted by the RNA test, the sensitivity to detect anal precancer was the same for DNA and RNA (81%), whereas RNA was more specific than DNA (65% vs. 58%; P = 0.007). In comparison, DNA detection of all 13 carcinogenic HPV genotypes was more sensitive (96% vs. 81%; P = 0.001) but much less specific (65% vs. 33%; P < 0.001) as compared with RNA detection of the five HPV genotypes. After controlling for HPV genotypes, RNA was only slightly more specific than DNA detection for anal precancer. DNA or RNA testing for a subset of the most carcinogenic HPV genotypes may be useful for distinguishing between those HPV-positive men at higher and lower risk of anal precancer and cancer.

  11. The presence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 mRNA transcripts in a subset of sinonasal carcinomas is evidence of involvement of HPV in its etiopathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laco, Jan; Sieglová, Kateřina; Vošmiková, Hana; Dundr, Pavel; Němejcová, Kristýna; Michálek, Jaroslav; Čelakovský, Petr; Chrobok, Viktor; Mottl, Radovan; Mottlová, Alena; Tuček, Luboš; Slezák, Radovan; Chmelařová, Marcela; Sirák, Igor; Vošmik, Milan; Ryška, Aleš

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection in sinonasal carcinomas by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and polymerase chain reaction, detecting p16(INK4a) protein (p16) expression and presence of both HPV DNA and HPV E6/E7 messenger RNA (mRNA). The study comprised 47 males and 26 females, aged 23-83 years (median 62 years), mostly (67 %) with a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Of the tumors, 53 % arose in the nasal cavity, 42 % in the maxillary sinus, and 5 % in the ethmoid complex. The follow-up period ranged 1-241 months (median 19 months). HPV16, HPV18, or HPV35 were detected in 18/73 (25 %) tumors, 17 SCCs, and 1 small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. There was a strong correlation between results of HPV detection methods and p16 expression (p < 0.005). HPV-positive SCCs occurred more frequently in smokers (p = 0.04) and were more frequently p16-positive (p < 0.0001) and nonkeratinizing (p = 0.02), the latter occurring more commonly in nasal cavity (p = 0.025). Median survival for HPV-positive SCC patients was 30 months, while for HPV-negative SCC patients was 14 months (p = 0.23). In summary, we confirm that HR-HPV is actively involved in the etiopathogenesis of a significant subset of sinonasal SCCs. p16 may be used as a reliable surrogate marker for determination of HPV status also in sinonasal SCCs. Although we observed a trend toward better overall survival in HPV-positive SCCs, the prognostic impact of HPV status in sinonasal carcinomas needs to be elucidated by further studies.

  12. Oncogenes E6-E7 de los Papilomavirus Humanos de alto riesgo detectados por PCR en Biopsias de pene incluidas en parafina

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    I Guerrero

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available La alta prevalencia del papilomavirus humano (PVH, referida a nivel mundial, en lesiones genitales de ambos sexos, el rol del varón como reservorio pasivo del virus, y el incremento de la mortalidad por cáncer genital en la mujer en nuestro país, motiva la detección y correlación de los oncogenes de los PVH de alto riesgo con la neoplasia de pene. Informamos de diez casos de biopsias de carcinoma escamoso de pene, incluidos en parafina, los cuales fueron investigados para la presencia de los oncogenes E6-E7 de PVH de alto riesgo, utilizando cebadores tipo específico para los PVH -16 y 18, mediante la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR. El 40% de los casos mostró un producto de amplificación ADN E6-E7 de los PVH estudiados, correspondiendo el 75% de ellos a detección simple por PVH-18 y el 25% presentó detección mixta ADN E6 - E7 del PVH-16 y 18 simultáneamente. El producto de amplificación fue sometido a comprobación por análisis de restricción específico. La prevalencia obtenida de los oncogenes E6-E7 de los PVH de alto riesgo, usando un método tan sensible como la PCR, apoya el rol de estos virus en el proceso de carcinogénesis de la neoplasia de pene.

  13. Marine Streptomyces sp. derived antimycin analogues suppress HeLa cells via depletion HPV E6/E7 mediated by ROS-dependent ubiquitin–proteasome system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiyi; Che, Qian; Tan, Hongsheng; Qi, Xin; Li, Jing; Li, Dehai; Gu, Qianqun; Zhu, Tianjiao; Liu, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Four new antimycin alkaloids (1–4) and six related known analogs (5–10) were isolated from the culture of a marine derived Streptomyces sp. THS-55, and their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. All of the compounds exhibited potent cytotoxicity in vitro against HPV-transformed HeLa cell line. Among them, compounds 6–7 were derived as natural products for the first time, and compound 5 (NADA) showed the highest potency. NADA inhibited the proliferation, arrested cell cycle distribution, and triggered apoptosis in HeLa cancer cells. Our molecular mechanic studies revealed NADA degraded the levels of E6/E7 oncoproteins through ROS-mediated ubiquitin-dependent proteasome system activation. This is the first report that demonstrates antimycin alkaloids analogue induces the degradation of high-risk HPV E6/E7 oncoproteins and finally induces apoptosis in cervical cancer cells. The present work suggested that these analogues could serve as lead compounds for the development of HPV-infected cervical cancer therapeutic agents, as well as research tools for the study of E6/E7 functions. PMID:28176847

  14. Prognostic value of HPV E6/E7 mRNA assay in women with negative colposcopy or CIN1 histology result: a follow-up study.

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    Paolo Giorgi Rossi

    Full Text Available Pap test, and especially HPV DNA test, identify a large group of women who do not have any clinically relevant lesions, i.e., CIN2+ (Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia grade 2 or worse, but who are at greater risk of getting lesions in the future. The follow up of these women needs new biomarkers with prognostic value. The objective of this study is to evaluate the prognostic value of E6/E7 mRNA over-expression assay (PreTect HPV-Proofer, Norchip for 5 HR-HPV types (16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 for progression to CIN2+ after a negative colposcopy. This prospective study, conducted at four Italian centres, enrolled 673 women with either a negative colposcopy or a negative or CIN1 histology. The clinical end-point was histological confirmation of CIN2+. Women were classified at baseline according to mRNA results and managed according to local colposcopy protocols. At least one conclusive follow-up test was obtained for 347 women (25 months average lapse since recruitment, range 5-74. Only seven CIN2+ were detected during follow up, three among the 82 women positive for mRNA at baseline, two among the 250 negative (Fisher exact test, p = 0.02, and two among the 12 with an invalid test. Absolute CIN2+ risk was 6.7/1,000 person/years in the whole cohort. The absolute CIN2+ risk was 18.4/1,000 person/years and 3.6/1,000 person/years in mRNA-positive and mRNA-negative women, respectively. In conclusion, E6/E7 mRNA over-expression appears to be a good candidate as a prognostic biomarker to manage HR-HPV DNA-positive women with negative colposcopy or histology, particularly in order to decrease follow-up intensity in those who are negative.

  15. Expressions of HPV 16-E6 in Esophageal Carcinoma and its Clinical Significance

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    Xing Zhao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The role of (Human Papilloma Virus HPV in cancer of certain anatomical location, such as cervix, has been widely recognized. The present study was conducted to explore the association between HPV 16-E6 protein and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Methods: SP immunohistochemical method was used to examine the expression of HPV 16-E6 in 50 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, 10 cases of normal esophageal squamous cell and 10 cases of adjacent tissue. Results: The expression of HPV 16-E6 was significantly higher in esophageal carcinoma than in normal esophageal mucosa and in adjacent tissue. The expressions of HPV 16-E6 had significant correlation with invasive depth (P<0.05, but not with patient age, lymph node metastasis, tumor size (P>0.05. Conclusion: HPV 16-E6 can promote the growth and metastasis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and can be a prognostic factor of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v10i4.12970 JCMS Nepal 2014; 10(4:1-5 

  16. HPV16 E6 seropositivity among cancer-free men with oral, anal or genital HPV16 infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beachler, Daniel C.; Waterboer, Tim; Campbell, Christine M. Pierce; Ingles, Donna J.; Kuhs, Krystle A. Lang; Nyitray, Alan G.; Hildesheim, Allan; Pawlita, Michael; Kreimer, Aimée R.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies against the Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) E6 oncoprotein appear years prior to clinical diagnosis of anal and oropharyngeal cancer, but whether they develop around the time of HPV infection is unclear. Serum samples from 173 cancer-free men from the Human Papillomavirus Infection in Men (HIM) Study were tested for HPV antibodies and DNA. HPV16 E6 seropositivity was low among men with oral HPV16-infection (1/28; 3.6%, 95%CI=0.0%-18.4%), anal HPV16-infection (1/61; 1.6%, 95%CI=0.0%-8.8%), and 24-month persistent genital HPV16-infection (1/84; 1.2%, 0.0-6.5%). This suggests E6 seroconversion may not occur around the time of oral, anal, or genital HPV16 acquisition. PMID:28239675

  17. HPV16 E6 seropositivity among cancer-free men with oral, anal or genital HPV16 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beachler, Daniel C; Waterboer, Tim; Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Ingles, Donna J; Kuhs, Krystle A Lang; Nyitray, Alan G; Hildesheim, Allan; Pawlita, Michael; Kreimer, Aimée R; Giuliano, Anna R

    2016-12-01

    Antibodies against the Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) E6 oncoprotein appear years prior to clinical diagnosis of anal and oropharyngeal cancer, but whether they develop around the time of HPV infection is unclear. Serum samples from 173 cancer-free men from the Human Papillomavirus Infection in Men (HIM) Study were tested for HPV antibodies and DNA. HPV16 E6 seropositivity was low among men with oral HPV16-infection (1/28; 3.6%, 95%CI=0.0%-18.4%), anal HPV16-infection (1/61; 1.6%, 95%CI=0.0%-8.8%), and 24-month persistent genital HPV16-infection (1/84; 1.2%, 0.0-6.5%). This suggests E6 seroconversion may not occur around the time of oral, anal, or genital HPV16 acquisition.

  18. HPV E6/E7 RNA In Situ Hybridization Signal Patterns as Biomarkers of Three-Tier Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mark F.; Peng, Zhihua; Clark, Kelli M.; Adamson, Christine S.-C.; Ma, Xiao-Jun; Wu, Xingyong; Wang, Hongwei; Luo, Yuling; Cooper, Kumarasen

    2014-01-01

    Cervical lesion grading is critical for effective patient management. A three-tier classification (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] grade 1, 2 or 3) based on H&E slide review is widely used. However, for reasons of considerable inter-observer variation in CIN grade assignment and for want of a biomarker validating a three-fold stratification, CAP-ASCCP LAST consensus guidelines recommend a two-tier system: low- or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL or HSIL). In this study, high-risk HPV E6/E7 and p16 mRNA expression patterns in eighty-six CIN lesions were investigated by RNAscope chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH). Specimens were also screened by immunohistochemistry for p16INK4a (clone E6H4), and by tyramide-based CISH for HPV DNA. HPV genotyping was performed by GP5+/6+ PCR combined with cycle-sequencing. Abundant high-risk HPV RNA CISH signals were detected in 26/32 (81.3%) CIN 1, 22/22 (100%) CIN 2 and in 32/32 (100%) CIN 3 lesions. CIN 1 staining patterns were typified (67.7% specimens) by abundant diffusely staining nuclei in the upper epithelial layers; CIN 2 lesions mostly (66.7%) showed a combination of superficial diffuse-stained nuclei and multiple dot-like nuclear and cytoplasmic signals throughout the epithelium; CIN 3 lesions were characterized (87.5%) by multiple dot-like nuclear and cytoplasmic signals throughout the epithelial thickness and absence/scarcity of diffusely staining nuclei (trend across CIN grades: PHPV infections exemplifying CIN 1, transformative phase infections CIN 3, whereas CIN 2 shows both productive and transformative phase elements. Three-tier data correlation was not found for the other assays examined. The dual discernment of diffuse and/or dot-like signals together with the assay’s high sensitivity for HPV support the use of HPV E6/E7 RNA CISH as an adjunct test for deciding lesion grade when CIN 2 grading may be beneficial (e.g. among young women) or when ‘LSIL vs. HSIL’ assignment is

  19. Cervical cancer screening cotesting with cytology and MRNA HPV E6/E7 yields high rates of CIN2+ lesions in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, Rosario; Tellez-Safina, Hilda; Solis, Isabel; Mateos, Francisco; Rodriguez-Barbero, Jose Maria; Aramburu, Jose Antonio; Huertas, Miguel Angel; Bajo, Paloma; Camarmo, Encarnacion; Corrales, Teresa; Medina, Pedro; Calvo, Beatriz; Martin, Esther; Anta, Laura; Zamora, Manuel; Alcaide, Teresa

    2017-12-01

    European guidelines recommend primary HPV testing for cervical cancer screening. However, the starting age remains to be defined, with an undecided window between 30 and 35 years. This pilot study compares the effectiveness of primary HPV testing to that of cytology for the detection of high-grade (CIN2+) lesions stratified by age. Cotesting with LBC cytology and APTIMA® HPV (AHPV) was performed in 5053 women aged 25-65 in an opportunistic screening program in Madrid. AHPV-positive cases were referred to colposcopy and genotyped for HPV16 and 18/45 (AHPV-GT). Results were analyzed stratified in four age groups. 454 cases (9.0%) were AHPV-positive. Women under 35 had a 30.2% CIN2+ rate, compared to 21.9% and 20.4% for women aged 35-44 or 45-54. There was a significant increase (P < .05) in the rate of CIN2+ in AHPV-GT-positive women when compared to that for other HPV types (AHPV-other), being 43.3% versus 15.7%. AHPV-GT-positive women under 35 had significantly higher rates of CIN2+ lesions than any other age-group. The sensitivity of cytology for cervical CIN2+ in APHV-positive women was 60.6%. All 4 carcinomas, including one AHPV-negative endometrial adenocarcinoma, had abnormal cytology. All cervical CIN2+ lesions biopsied were AHPV-positive. Aptima HPV shows a significantly higher sensitivity for cervical CIN2+ lesions than cytology alone. Unexpectedly, AHPV-positive women under 35 had the highest incidence of CIN2+ lesions, particularly when they are HPV16/18/45-positive. Reconsidering HPV primary screening before the recommended age of 35 is warranted. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Presence of high risk HPV DNA but indolent transcription of E6/E7 oncogenes in invasive ductal carcinoma of breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Depu; Fu, Ling; Shah, Walayat; Zhang, Jingwen; Yan, Yan; Ge, Xinhong; He, Jianjun; Wang, Yili; Li, Xu

    2016-12-01

    The causative role of high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) in breast cancer development is controversial, though a number of reports have identified HR-HPV DNA in breast cancer specimens. Nevertheless, most studies to date have focused primarily on viral DNA rather than the viral transcription. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of HR-HPV in breast cancer tissues at HPV DNA level and HPV oncogenes mRNA level by in situ hybridization (ISH). One hundred and forty six (146) cases of breast invasive ductal carcinoma(IDC) and 83 cases of benign breast lesions were included in the study. Type specific oligonucleotide probes were used for the DNA detection of HPV 16,18 and 58 by ISH. HR-HPV oncogenes mRNA was assayed by novel RNAscope HR-HPV HR7 assay ISH. p16 protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC). HR-HPV 16,18 and 58 DNA were detected in 52 out of 146 (35.6%) IDC and in 3 out of 83 (3.6%) benign breast lesions by ISH. The HR-HPV mRNAs was detected only in a few specimens with strong HPV DNA positivity(4/25) in a few scattered cancer cells with very weak punctate nuclear and/or cytoplasmic staining. p16 over-expression did not correlate with the HPV DNA positive breast cancer samples(17/52 HPVDNA+ vs 28/94 HPV DNA-, p=0.731). HR-HPVs certainly exist in breast cancer tissue with less active transcription, which implies that the causal role of HPV in breast cancer development need further study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Sequence imputation of HPV16 genomes for genetic association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Smith

    Full Text Available Human Papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16 causes over half of all cervical cancer and some HPV16 variants are more oncogenic than others. The genetic basis for the extraordinary oncogenic properties of HPV16 compared to other HPVs is unknown. In addition, we neither know which nucleotides vary across and within HPV types and lineages, nor which of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs determine oncogenicity.A reference set of 62 HPV16 complete genome sequences was established and used to examine patterns of evolutionary relatedness amongst variants using a pairwise identity heatmap and HPV16 phylogeny. A BLAST-based algorithm was developed to impute complete genome data from partial sequence information using the reference database. To interrogate the oncogenic risk of determined and imputed HPV16 SNPs, odds-ratios for each SNP were calculated in a case-control viral genome-wide association study (VWAS using biopsy confirmed high-grade cervix neoplasia and self-limited HPV16 infections from Guanacaste, Costa Rica.HPV16 variants display evolutionarily stable lineages that contain conserved diagnostic SNPs. The imputation algorithm indicated that an average of 97.5±1.03% of SNPs could be accurately imputed. The VWAS revealed specific HPV16 viral SNPs associated with variant lineages and elevated odds ratios; however, individual causal SNPs could not be distinguished with certainty due to the nature of HPV evolution.Conserved and lineage-specific SNPs can be imputed with a high degree of accuracy from limited viral polymorphic data due to the lack of recombination and the stochastic mechanism of variation accumulation in the HPV genome. However, to determine the role of novel variants or non-lineage-specific SNPs by VWAS will require direct sequence analysis. The investigation of patterns of genetic variation and the identification of diagnostic SNPs for lineages of HPV16 variants provides a valuable resource for future studies of HPV16

  2. AKT1 loss correlates with episomal HPV16 in vulval intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arucha L Ekeowa-Anderson

    Full Text Available Anogenital malignancy has a significant association with high-risk mucosal alpha-human papillomaviruses (alpha-PV, particularly HPV 16 and 18 whereas extragenital SCC has been linked to the presence of cutaneous beta and gamma-HPV types. Vulval skin may be colonised by both mucosal and cutaneous (beta-, mu-, nu- and gamma- PV types, but there are few systematic studies investigating their presence and their relative contributions to vulval malignancy. Dysregulation of AKT, a serine/threonine kinase, plays a significant role in several cancers. Mucosal HPV types can increase AKT phosphorylation and activity whereas cutaneous HPV types down-regulate AKT1 expression, probably to weaken the cornified envelope to promote viral release. We assessed the presence of mucosal and cutaneous HPV in vulval malignancy and its relationship to AKT1 expression in order to establish the corresponding HPV and AKT1 profile of normal vulval skin, vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN and vulval squamous cell carcinoma (vSCC. We show that HPV16 is the principle HPV type present in VIN, there were few detectable beta types present and AKT1 loss was not associated with the presence of these cutaneous HPV. We show that HPV16 early gene expression reduced AKT1 expression in transgenic mouse epidermis. AKT1 loss in our VIN cohort correlated with presence of high copy number, episomal HPV16. Maintained AKT1 expression correlated with low copy number, an increased frequency of integration and increased HPV16E7 expression, a finding we replicated in another untyped cohort of vSCC. Since expression of E7 reflects tumour progression, these findings suggest that AKT1 loss associated with episomal HPV16 may have positive prognostic implications in vulval malignancy.

  3. High prevalence of oncogenic HPV-16 in cervical smears of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Significant association of HPV with non-vegetarian diet ( < 0.05) and rural residential areas ( < 0.01) were observed. High prevalence of HPV-16 in asymptomatic women of this population, a frequency comparable to invasive cervical cancers, highlights an urgent need for a therapeutic HPV vaccine covering HPV-16 and ...

  4. Diagnostic performance of HPV E6/E7 mRNA assay for detection of cervical high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer among women with ASCUS Papanicolaou smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chenchen; Zhu, Yuanhang; Yang, Li; Zhang, Xiaoan; Liu, Ling; Ren, Chunying

    2017-11-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical performance of high risk (HR) HPV E6/E7 mRNA assay in detecting cervical high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer among women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) Papanicolaou (Pap) smears. A total of 160 patients with ASCUS who underwent HR-HPV DNA assay, HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA assay and colposcopy biopsy at Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, China, from December 2015 to March 2017, were enrolled. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between pathological results with clinical biologic factors. Univariate analysis showed that the qualitative results of HR-HPV DNA, qualitative results of HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA and expression levels of HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA were risk factors of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer (all P mRNA was associated with high-grade CIN and cervical cancer (OR = 8.971, 95% CI = 2.572-31.289, P = 0.001). An optimal cut-off value of ≥ 558.26 copies/ml was determined using receiver operating characteristic curve, and specificity of cut-off value were higher than E6/E7 mRNA qualitative assay and DNA qualitative assay. HPV E6/E7 mRNA quantitative assay may be a valuable tool in triage of ASCUS pap smears. A high specificity of E6/E7 mRNA quantitative assay as a triage test in women with ASCUS can be translated into a low referral for colposcopy.

  5. Performance of HPV E6/E7 mRNA RT-qPCR for screening and diagnosis of cervical cancer with ThinPrep Pap test samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkhdelger, Jijgee; Kim, Geehyuk; Wang, Hye-young; Lee, Dongsup; Kim, Sunghyun; Choi, Yeonim; Choi, Eunhee; Park, Sunyoung; Jin, Hyunwoo; Park, Kwang Hwa; Lee, Hyeyoung

    2014-10-01

    Recent research has shown that oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA, which is currently used in the screening and diagnosis of cervical cancer, can be detected not only in high-grade cervical lesions, but also in low-grade cervical lesions and normal tissues. For this reason, HPV tests targeting the E6 and E7 mRNA of five oncogenic HPV strains (HPV genotypes 16, 18, 31, 33, and 45), which are known to be responsible for the oncogenesis of cervical cancer, have been commercialized using a real-time nucleic acid sequence based amplification (NASBA) assay. Previous data has shown that the real-time NASBA assay has higher clinical specificity than HPV DNA testing (97.1% vs. 53.7%). However, the sensitivity of the real-time NASBA assay was lower than that of HPV DNA testing (41.1% vs. 100%). Despite the fact that there are more than 16 oncogenic HPV genotypes known to cause cervical cancer (HPV genotypes 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68, and 69), the commercialized real-time NASBA kit was designed to detect only five genotypes (16, 18, 31, 33, and 45). Therefore, in the present study, CervicGen HPV RT-qDX (Optipharm), a commercial diagnostic kit targeting a HPV E6/E7 mRNA based on RT-qPCR assay was evaluated with RNA extracted from ThinPrep Pap samples, and the results were compared to real-time NASBA data. The sensitivity and specificity of the RT-qPCR assay were 91% and 98.6%, respectively, for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia CIN2(+) high-grade cervical lesions. Therefore, the CervicGen HPV RT-qDX assay showed a significantly higher sensitivity (91.1%) compared to the real-time NASBA assay (41.1%). In normal cytohistology cases, the specificity was 98.6% and 53.7% for HPV mRNA RT-qPCR and HPV DNA testing, respectively. These results demonstrate that HPV mRNA RT-qPCR better reflects clinical diagnosis. In conclusion, it is suggested that HPV mRNA RT-qPCR overcomes the shortcomings of lower specificity seen in the DNA

  6. HPV E6/E7 mRNA Testing Is More Specific than Cytology in Post-Colposcopy Follow-Up of Women with Negative Cervical Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørbye, Sveinung Wergeland; Arbyn, Marc; Fismen, Silje; Gutteberg, Tore Jarl; Mortensen, Elin Synnøve

    2011-01-01

    Background In Norway, women with negative or low-grade cervical biopsies (normal/CIN1) are followed up after six months in order to decide on further follow-up or recall for screening at three-year intervals. A high specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) of the triage test is important to avoid unnecessary diagnostic and therapeutic procedures whereas a low risk of high-grade disease among triage negative women assures safety. Materials and Methods At the University Hospital of North Norway, cytology and the HPV mRNA test PreTect HPV-Proofer, detecting E6/E7 mRNA from HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45, are used in post-colposcopy follow-up of women with negative or low-grade biopsy. In this study, women with negative biopsy after high grade cytology (ASC-H/HSIL) and/or positive HPV mRNA test in the period 2005–2009 were included (n = 520). Histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) was used as study endpoint. Results Of 520 women with negative or low-grade biopsy, 124 women (23.8%) had CIN2+ in follow-up biopsy. The sensitivity and specificity of the HPV mRNA test were 89.1% (95% CI, 80.1–98.1) and 92.5% (95% CI, 88.2–96.7), respectively. The ratios of sensitivity, specificity and PPV of HPV mRNA testing compared to repeat cytology for finding CIN2+ was 1.05 (95% CI: 0.92–1.21), 1.21 (95% CI: 1.12–1.32), and 1.49 (95% CI: 1.20–1.86), respectively. The PPV of mRNA was 77.3% (95% CI, 59.8–94.8) in women aged 40 or older. Conclusion Women with negative cervical biopsy require follow-up before resumption of routine screening. Post-colposcopy HPV mRNA testing was as sensitive but more specific than post-colposcopy cytology. In addition, the HPV mRNA test showed higher PPV. A positive mRNA test post-colposcopy could justify treatment in women above 40 years. PMID:21998748

  7. The clinical application of HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing in triaging women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or low-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion Pap smear: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yang

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: A positive HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing result suggested the women with ASCUS, or LSIL Pap smear was in a truly dangerous position, which is an adverse prognostic factor. It suggested that cervical lesions stay in a progressing status and these women should be referred for colposcopy and strengthen follow-up promptly. Whereas, women with a negative HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing result can increase follow-up interval, by comprehensively considering their situation, thus, avoiding unnecessary colposcopy and reducing the rate of colposcopy and biopsy.

  8. Use of hTERT and HPV E6/E7 mRNA RT-qPCR TaqMan Assays in Combination for Diagnosing High-Grade Cervical Lesions and Malignant Tumors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Hye-Young; Park, Sunyoung; Kim, Sunghyun; Lee, Dongsup; Kim, Geehyuk; Kim, Yeun; Park, Kwang Hwa; Lee, Hyeyoung

    2015-01-01

    ...) Papanicolaou samples. Results: The positivity for the HPV E6/E7 messenger RNA (mRNA) assay was 94.4%, 95.2%, 82.4%, 46.5%, 25.0%, and 1.1% in squamous cell carcinomas, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions...

  9. The HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein induces centriole multiplication through deregulation of Polo-like kinase 4 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duensing Stefan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs such as HPV-16 is intimately associated with squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs of the anogenital tract and a subset of oropharyngeal carcinomas. Such lesions, including pre-invasive precursors, frequently show multipolar mitoses and aneuploidy. The high-risk HPV-16-encoded E7 oncoprotein has been shown to rapidly induce centrosome abnormalities thereby causing the formation of supernumerary mitotic spindle poles and increasing the risk for chromosome missegregation. HPV-16 E7 has been found to rapidly induce centriole overduplication, in part, through the simultaneous formation of more than one daughter centriole at single maternal centrioles (centriole multiplication. The precise molecular mechanism that underlies HPV-16 E7-induced centriole multiplication, however, remains poorly understood. Findings Here, we show that human keratinocytes engineered to stably express the HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein exhibit aberrant Polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4 protein expression at maternal centrioles. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase (qRT-PCR analysis of these cells revealed an increase of PLK4 mRNA levels compared to control cells. Importantly, the ability of the HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein to induce centriole multiplication was found to correlate with its ability to activate the PLK4 promoter and to up-regulate PLK4 mRNA. Conclusions These results highlight the critical role of PLK4 transcriptional deregulation in centriole multiplication in HPV-16 E7-expressing cells. Our findings encourage further experiments to test transcriptional inhibitors or small molecules targeting PLK4 to prevent centriole abnormalities, mitotic infidelity and malignant progression in HPV-associated neoplasms and other tumors in which PLK4 regulation is disrupted.

  10. Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16 enhances tumor growth and cancer stemness of HPV-negative oral/oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma cells via miR-181 regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Hee Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available High-risk human papillomaviruses (e. g., HPV16, HPV18 are closely associated with the development of head and neck cancers including oral/oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. We previously demonstrated immortalization of normal human oral keratinocytes by introducing high-risk HPV whole genome, suggesting that HPV infection plays an important role in the early stage of oral carcinogenesis. Although HPV infection may occur in different stages of cancer development, roles of HPV in exacerbating malignant phenotypes in already-transformed cells in the context of cancer stemness are not clearly defined. In this study, we investigated the role of HPV16 in promoting the virulence of HPV-negative OSCC. Introducing HPV16 whole genome in HPV-negative OSCC increased malignant growth and self-renewal capacity, a key characteristic of cancer stem cells (CSCs. HPV16 also enhanced other CSC properties, including aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1 activity, migration/invasion, and CSC-related factor expression. Mechanistically, we found that HPV16 inhibited the expression of miR-181a and miR-181d (miR-181a/d at the transcriptional level. Ectopic expression of miR-181a/d decreased anchorage independent growth and CSC phenotype of HPV16-transfected OSCC. Furthermore, silencing of miR-181a/d target genes, i. e., K-ras and ALDH1, abrogated the effects of HPV16 in HPV16-transfected OSCC, supporting the functional importance of HPV16/miR-181a/d axis in HPV-mediated oral carcinogenesis. Our study suggests that high-risk HPV infection further promotes malignancy in HPV-negative OSCC by enhancing cancer stemness via miR-181a/d regulation. Consequently, miR-181a/d may represent a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of HPV-positive OSCC. Keywords: HPV, OSCC, cancer stem cells, miR-181

  11. Effects of ALA-PDT on HPV16-immortalized cervical epithelial cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S X; Ren, X Y; Pan, Y L; Guan, D D; Liu, S; Zou, X Y; Shi, C G; Li, Y Z; Zhang, Y Z

    2017-01-01

    Current treatments for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) type are mainly surgical interventions. However, such treatments are associated with adverse side effects and pose risks for future pregnancies. In order to reduce the requirement for excisional procedures, an effective and noninvasive therapy is needed for women at reproductive age. ALA-PDT has proved to be effective in the treatment of HPV-associated disease in several clinical investigations. In this study, the anti-proliferative effect of ALA-PDT was investigated in HPV16-immortalized cervical epithelial H8 cells. CCK-8 assay was used to measure cytotoxicity in H8 cells. The IC50 of ALA-PDT on H8 cells was about 120.75 ± 1.18 µM. We have now evaluated the mechanism by which ALA-PDT induces cell death. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining showed a significant dose-dependent induction of apoptosis by ALA-PDT in H8 cells, associated with accumulation of the tumor suppressor protein p53 and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. Furthermore, ALA-PDT down-regulates expression of HPV E6/E7 oncogene as well as up-regulate tumor suppressor RbAp48 protein. Together, our data provides a basis for understanding and developing ALA-PDT as a cure for HPV infection-associated diseases and prevention of cervical cancer.

  12. The clinical application of HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing in triaging women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or low-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion Pap smear: A meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Li Yang; Yuanhang Zhu; Yang Bai; Xiaoan Zhang; Chenchen Ren

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim is to evaluate the clinical application value and correlation with cervical lesions' progression of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 mRNA test in women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS/borderline) or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs/mild dyskaryosis) cytological abnormalities. Methods: A meta-analysis was conduct by searching China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1979–2016), Wanfang Date (1998–2016), VIP (1989–2016), Pu...

  13. High prevalence of oncogenic HPV-16 in cervical smears of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-01-27

    Jan 27, 2012 ... HPV-6 (5.4%), HPV-81 (4.6%) and HPV-33 (4.2%). Significant association of HPV with non-vegetarian diet (P<0.05) and rural residential areas (P<0.01) were observed. High prevalence of HPV-16 in asymptomatic women of this population, a frequency comparable to invasive cervical cancers, highlights ...

  14. The HPV16 E5 oncogene inhibits endocytic trafficking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, P; van Deurs, B; Norrild, B

    2000-01-01

    The small hydrophobic E5 protein of Human Papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) binds to the 16-kDa subunit of the V-H+-ATPase. This binding has been suggested to interfere with acidification of late endocytic structures. We here used video microscopy, ratio imaging and confocal microscopy of living C127...

  15. Chromogenic In Situ Hybridization and p16/Ki67 Dual Staining on Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Cervical Specimens: Correlation with HPV-DNA Test, E6/E7 mRNA Test, and Potential Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Zappacosta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although HPV-DNA test and E6/E7 mRNA analyses remain the current standard for the confirmation of human papillomavirus (HPV infections in cytological specimens, no universally adopted techniques exist for the detection of HPV in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples. Particularly, in routine laboratories, molecular assays are still time-consuming and would require a high level of expertise. In this study, we investigated the possible use of a novel HPV tyramide-based chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH technology to locate HPV on tissue specimens. Then, we evaluate the potential usefulness of p16INK4a/Ki-67 double stain on histological samples, to identify cervical cells expressing HPV E6/E7 oncogenes. In our series, CISH showed a clear signal in 95.2% of the specimens and reached a sensitivity of 86.5%. CISH positivity always matched with HPV-DNA positivity, while 100% of cases with punctated signal joined with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+. p16/Ki67 immunohistochemistry gave an interpretable result in 100% of the cases. The use of dual stain significantly increased the agreement between pathologists, which reached 100%. Concordance between dual stain and E6/E7 mRNA test was 89%. In our series, both CISH and p16INK4a/Ki67 dual stain demonstrated high grade of performances. In particular, CISH would help to distinguish episomal from integrated HPV, in order to allow conclusions regarding the prognosis of the lesion, while p16INK4a/Ki67 dual stain approach would confer a high level of standardization to the diagnostic procedure.

  16. Chromogenic in situ hybridization and p16/Ki67 dual staining on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical specimens: correlation with HPV-DNA test, E6/E7 mRNA test, and potential clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappacosta, Roberta; Colasante, Antonella; Viola, Patrizia; D'Antuono, Tommaso; Lattanzio, Giuseppe; Capanna, Serena; Gatta, Daniela Maria Pia; Rosini, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Although HPV-DNA test and E6/E7 mRNA analyses remain the current standard for the confirmation of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in cytological specimens, no universally adopted techniques exist for the detection of HPV in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples. Particularly, in routine laboratories, molecular assays are still time-consuming and would require a high level of expertise. In this study, we investigated the possible use of a novel HPV tyramide-based chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) technology to locate HPV on tissue specimens. Then, we evaluate the potential usefulness of p16(INK4a)/Ki-67 double stain on histological samples, to identify cervical cells expressing HPV E6/E7 oncogenes. In our series, CISH showed a clear signal in 95.2% of the specimens and reached a sensitivity of 86.5%. CISH positivity always matched with HPV-DNA positivity, while 100% of cases with punctated signal joined with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+). p16/Ki67 immunohistochemistry gave an interpretable result in 100% of the cases. The use of dual stain significantly increased the agreement between pathologists, which reached 100%. Concordance between dual stain and E6/E7 mRNA test was 89%. In our series, both CISH and p16(INK4a)/Ki67 dual stain demonstrated high grade of performances. In particular, CISH would help to distinguish episomal from integrated HPV, in order to allow conclusions regarding the prognosis of the lesion, while p16(INK4a)/Ki67 dual stain approach would confer a high level of standardization to the diagnostic procedure.

  17. Comparison of the performance of the NucliSENS EasyQ HPV E6/E7 mRNA assay and HPV DNA chip for testing squamous cell lesions of the uterine cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkhdelger, Jijgee; Choi, Yeonim; Lee, Dongsup; Kim, Sunghyun; Kim, Geehyuk; Park, Sangjung; Choi, Eunhee; Jin, Hyunwoo; Jeon, Bo-Young; Lee, Hyeyoung; Park, Kwang Hwa

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to evaluate the clinical performance of the NucliSENS EasyQ assay and compare it with HPV DNA genotyping for the detection of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and cancer in a Korean population. In 188 total thin prep samples, the remaining fluid after cytology slide preparation was tested with Goodgene HPV DNA chips and the NucliSENS EasyQ HPV E6/E7 messenger RNA (mRNA) assay. The sensitivity and specificity of each test were calculated with HSIL and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) as the disease endpoint. Out of the 188 samples, 139 (74%) were positive for DNA of 14 HPV types, while 57 (30%) cases were positive for E6/E7 mRNA. The DNA test was positive in cytology cases of SCC, HSIL, and atypical squamous cell. The mRNA test yielded results of 75%, 74%, 60%, 56%, and 29% positivity in abnormal cytology cases of SCC, HSIL, atypical squamous cells - cannot exclude HSIL, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, respectively. In normal cytology cases, the positivity rates were 9% and 53% for the mRNA and DNA tests, respectively. For detection of HSIL and SCC, the sensitivity of the mRNA test was 74.36% and that of the DNA test was 100%, while the specificities of the tests were 85% and 40.83%, respectively. These findings suggest that the HPV E6/E7 mRNA assay can overcome the shortcoming of low specificity of DNA assays for clinical detection of high-grade cervical lesions and malignancies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of E6/E7 mRNA test in the diagnostic algorithm of HPV-positive patients showing ASCUS and LSIL: clinical and economic implications in a publicly financed healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappacosta, Roberta; Gatta, Daniela Maria Pia; Marinucci, Pierluigi; Capanna, Serena; Lattanzio, Giuseppe; Caraceni, Donatella; Rosini, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Colposcopy is widely used to triage women with mild cervical abnormalities. However, this approach is associated with low specificity and predictive value. The efficacy of E6/E7 mRNA test for this purpose has been demonstrated, but studies estimating its cost-effectiveness are still lacking. Given the limited healthcare financial resources, such an evaluation is a priority. We analyzed the clinical history of 432 women referred to colposcopy and colposcopy-directed biopsy for persisting ASCUS and LSIL, and compared three alternative triage protocols: immediate colposcopy; reflex HPV DNA testing and HPV DNA plus mRNA tests in sequence. Molecular tests in sequence significantly reduce colposcopy referral, cost for assessed women, and cost for CIN2 detected. On the other hand, incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of this protocol was the highest. Our preliminary data, providing an estimation of the economic burden deriving from the introduction of E6/E7 mRNA test in the triage algorithm of patients with mild cervical abnormalities, may be useful for future healthcare policy.

  19. High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (hrHPV) E6/E7 mRNA Testing by PreTect HPV-Proofer for Detection of Cervical High-Grade Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Cancer among hrHPV DNA-Positive Women with Normal Cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijkaart, D. C.; Heideman, D. A. M.; Coupe, V. M. H.; Brink, A. A. T. P.; Verheijen, R. H. M.; Skomedal, H.; Karlsen, F.; Morland, E.; Snijders, P. J. F.

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether high-risk HPV (hrHPV) mRNA detection by PreTect HPV-Proofer can be used to stratify hrHPV DNA-positive women of different cytology classes for risk of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or worse (cervical precancer or cancer, i.e., cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or higher [≥CIN2]). A total of 375 women participating in population-based screening, with a GP5+/6+-PCR hrHPV DNA-positive cervical scrape with normal cytology (n = 202), borderline or mild dyskaryosis (BMD) (n = 88), or moderate dyskaryosis or worse (>BMD) (n = 85), were enrolled. Cervical scrapes were additionally subjected to HPV16/18/31/33/45 E6/E7 mRNA analysis by PreTect HPV-Proofer (mRNA test). Referral and follow-up policies were based on cytology, hrHPV DNA, and mRNA testing. The primary study endpoint was the number of ≥CIN2 detected within 3 years of follow-up. The mRNA positivity increased with the severity of cytological abnormality, ranging from 32% (64/202) in hrHPV DNA-positive women with normal cytology to 47% (41/88) in BMD and 68% (58/85) in >BMD groups (P cytology, i.e., 0.55 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.34 to 0.76) in mRNA-positive versus 0.20 (95% CI, 0.07 to 0.33) in mRNA-negative women. In hrHPV DNA-positive women with BMD or >BMD, the result of the mRNA test did not influence the ≥CIN2 risk. In conclusion, mRNA testing by PreTect HPV-Proofer might be of value to select hrHPV DNA-positive women with normal cytology in need of immediate referral for colposcopy. PMID:22553244

  20. Lack of association of alcohol and tobacco with HPV16-associated head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applebaum, Katie M; Furniss, C Sloane; Zeka, Ariana; Posner, Marshall R; Smith, Judith F; Bryan, Janine; Eisen, Ellen A; Peters, Edward S; McClean, Michael D; Kelsey, Karl T

    2007-12-05

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) seropositivity and alcohol and tobacco use have been associated with risk of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, it is less clear whether HPV16 influences HNSCC risk associated with alcohol and tobacco use. Incident cases of HNSCC diagnosed between December 1999 and December 2003 were identified from nine medical facilities in Greater Boston, MA. Control subjects were frequency matched to case subjects on age, sex, and town of residence. A total of 485 case subjects and 549 control subjects reported information on lifetime smoking and alcohol consumption and provided sera, which was used to determine presence of HPV16 antibodies. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of HNSCC risk by alcohol consumption (drinks per week: or = 25) and smoking (pack-years: none, > 0 to or = 45), adjusting for age, sex, race, education, and HPV16 serology. Polytomous logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association of HPV16 serology, alcohol consumption, and tobacco use in site-specific analyses. All statistical tests were two-sided. The strongest risk factors by tumor site were smoking for laryngeal cancer, alcohol for cancer of the oral cavity, and HPV16 for pharyngeal cancer. For pharyngeal cancer, risk increased with increasing alcohol consumption (OR(> or = 25 versus or = 45 pack-years versus never smoker) = 6.9, 95% CI = 3.1 to 15.1) among HPV16-seronegative subjects but not among HPV16-seropositive subjects (P(interaction, HPV16 serology and alcohol) = .002; P(interaction, HPV16 serology and smoking) = .007). Among light drinkers or never smokers, HPV16 seropositivity was associated with a 30-fold increased risk of pharyngeal cancer. Alcohol or tobacco use does not further increase risk of HPV16-associated pharyngeal cancer. HNSCC risk associated with smoking, alcohol, and HPV16 differs by tumor site.

  1. Evolution and taxonomic classification of human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16-related variant genomes: HPV31, HPV33, HPV35, HPV52, HPV58 and HPV67.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zigui Chen

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16 species group (alpha-9 of the Alphapapillomavirus genus contains HPV16, HPV31, HPV33, HPV35, HPV52, HPV58 and HPV67. These HPVs account for 75% of invasive cervical cancers worldwide. Viral variants of these HPVs differ in evolutionary history and pathogenicity. Moreover, a comprehensive nomenclature system for HPV variants is lacking, limiting comparisons between studies.DNA from cervical samples previously characterized for HPV type were obtained from multiple geographic regions to screen for novel variants. The complete 8 kb genomes of 120 variants representing the major and minor lineages of the HPV16-related alpha-9 HPV types were sequenced to capture maximum viral heterogeneity. Viral evolution was characterized by constructing phylogenic trees based on complete genomes using multiple algorithms. Maximal and viral region specific divergence was calculated by global and pairwise alignments. Variant lineages were classified and named using an alphanumeric system; the prototype genome was assigned to the A lineage for all types.The range of genome-genome sequence heterogeneity varied from 0.6% for HPV35 to 2.2% for HPV52 and included 1.4% for HPV31, 1.1% for HPV33, 1.7% for HPV58 and 1.1% for HPV67. Nucleotide differences of approximately 1.0% - 10.0% and 0.5%-1.0% of the complete genomes were used to define variant lineages and sublineages, respectively. Each gene/region differs in sequence diversity, from most variable to least variable: noncoding region 1 (NCR1 /noncoding region 2 (NCR2 >upstream regulatory region (URR> E6/E7 > E2/L2 > E1/L1.These data define maximum viral genomic heterogeneity of HPV16-related alpha-9 HPV variants. The proposed nomenclature system facilitates the comparison of variants across epidemiological studies. Sequence diversity and phylogenies of this clinically important group of HPVs provides the basis for further studies of discrete viral evolution, epidemiology, pathogenesis and

  2. Risk of progression of early cervical lesions is associated with integration and persistence of HPV-16 and expression of E6, Ki-67, and telomerase

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    Arianna Vega-Peña

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL are the earliest lesions of the uterine cervix, the persistence and integration of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV as type 16, which promotes the development of more aggressive lesions. Aim: To select more aggressive lesions with tendency to progress to invasive cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 cytological specimens in liquid base (Liqui-PREP were analyzed: 25 specimens were with no signs of SIL (NSIL and without HPV; 25 NSIL with HPV-16, and 25 with both LSIL and HPV-16. The expression of Ki-67, telomerase, and viral E6 was evaluated by immunocytochemistry; and the detection of viral DNA was done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLPs for genotyping or sequencing of HPV-16. The physical state of HPV-16 was evaluated by in situ hybridization with amplification with tyramide. Results: Of the total group, 58.6% had LSIL associated with persistence and of these 59.3% was associated with integrated state of HPV as intense expression of E6, Ki-67 (P = 0.013, P = 0.055 has except for the expression of telomerase present a non-significant association (P<0.341. Conclusions: Overexpression of E6 and Ki-67 is associated with the integration of HPV-16, favoring viral persistence, and increasing the risk of progression in women with NSIL and LSIL.

  3. Depletion of HPV16 early genes induces autophagy and senescence in a cervical carcinogenesis model, regardless of viral physical state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanning, Jennifer E; Saini, Harpreet K; Murray, Matthew J; Caffarel, Maria M; van Dongen, Stijn; Ward, Dawn; Barker, Emily M; Scarpini, Cinzia G; Groves, Ian J; Stanley, Margaret A; Enright, Anton J; Pett, Mark R; Coleman, Nicholas

    2013-11-01

    In cervical carcinomas, high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) may be integrated into host chromosomes or remain extra-chromosomal (episomal). We used the W12 cervical keratinocyte model to investigate the effects of HPV16 early gene depletion on in vitro cervical carcinogenesis pathways, particularly effects shared by cells with episomal versus integrated HPV16 DNA. Importantly, we were able to study the specific cellular consequences of viral gene depletion by using short interfering RNAs known not to cause phenotypic or transcriptional off-target effects in keratinocytes. We found that while cervical neoplastic progression in vitro was characterized by dynamic changes in HPV16 transcript levels, viral early gene expression was required for cell survival at all stages of carcinogenesis, regardless of viral physical state, levels of early gene expression or histology in organotypic tissue culture. Moreover, HPV16 early gene depletion induced changes in host gene expression that were common to both episome-containing and integrant-containing cells. In particular, we observed up-regulation of autophagy genes, associated with enrichment of senescence and innate immune-response pathways, including the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). In keeping with these observations, HPV16 early gene depletion induced autophagy in both episome-containing and integrant-containing W12 cells, as evidenced by the appearance of autophagosomes, punctate expression of the autophagy marker LC3, conversion of LC3B-I to LC3B-II, and reduced levels of the autophagy substrate p62. Consistent with the reported association between autophagy and senescence pathways, HPV16 early gene depletion induced expression of the senescence marker beta-galactosidase and increased secretion of the SASP-related protein IGFBP3. Together, these data indicate that depleting HR-HPV early genes would be of potential therapeutic benefit in all cervical carcinogenesis pathways, regardless of viral

  4. Analytical performance of cervista HPV 16/18 in SurePath pap specimens.

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    Guo, Ming; Khanna, Abha; Feng, Jie; Patel, Shobha; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Yun; Huo, Lei; Staerkel, Gregg

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the performance of Cervista HPV 16/18 in SurePath specimens, we compared the analytical sensitivity of Cervista HPV 16/18 with that of a previously validated PCR-based, commercially available HPV genotyping assay, EasyChip HPV Blot, in residual specimens collected after routine Pap tests at our cancer center. We retrospectively selected 79 consecutive Cervista HPV HR (high risk)-positive SurePath residual Pap specimens. The cytology results for these specimens comprised 42 negative, 22 ASC-US/ASC-H, 10 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and 5 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. HPV 16/18 genotypes of the 79 specimens were analyzed by Cervista HPV 16/18 assay and EasyChip genotyping assay and compared with the patient's follow-up results. Of the 79 cases, 33 (42%) were positive for HPV16/18 by Cervista HPV 16/18 and 37 (47%) were positive by EasyChip. The overall agreement between the 2 assays, at 85% (67/79), was good (kappa = 0.698, 95% CI: 0.541-0.855). In the 65 patients with follow-up results, the sensitivity for predicting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or higher (CIN2+) was 77% for Cervista HPV 16/18 assay and 69% for EasyChip. The predictive values for CIN2+ in cases stratified by Pap results were highly consistent between the Cervista HPV16/18 and EasyChip assays; there was one false negative HPV16 result, in a specimen identified as NILM by EasyChip. Our findings support use of the Cervista HPV 16/18 assay for HPV16/18 genotyping in SurePath Pap specimens. However, further studies of larger cohorts with clinical follow-up data are required to verify the efficacy of Cervista HPV16/18 assay in SurePath Pap specimens. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Combined effects of smoking and HPV16 in oropharyngeal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anantharaman, Devasena; Muller, David C; Lagiou, Pagona

    2016-01-01

    is not understood. METHODS: Using HPV serology as a marker of HPV-related cancer, we examined the interaction between smoking and HPV16 in 459 oropharyngeal (and 1445 oral cavity and laryngeal) cancer patients and 3024 control participants from two large European multi-centre studies. Odds ratios and credible...... intervals [CrI], adjusted for potential confounders, were estimated using Bayesian logistic regression. RESULTS: Both smoking [odds ratio (OR [CrI]: 6.82 [4.52, 10.29]) and HPV seropositivity (OR [CrI]: 235.69 [99.95, 555.74]) were independently associated with oropharyngeal cancer. The joint association......BACKGROUND: Although smoking and HPV infection are recognized as important risk factors for oropharyngeal cancer, how their joint exposure impacts on oropharyngeal cancer risk is unclear. Specifically, whether smoking confers any additional risk to HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer...

  6. Sensitivity, Specificity, and Clinical Value of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 mRNA Assay as a Triage Test for Cervical Cytology and HPV DNA Test ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevolo, Maria; Vocaturo, Amina; Caraceni, Donatella; French, Deborah; Rosini, Sandra; Zappacosta, Roberta; Terrenato, Irene; Ciccocioppo, Lucia; Frega, Antonio; Rossi, Paolo Giorgi

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence that testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 mRNA is more specific than testing for HPV DNA. A retrospective study was carried out to evaluate the performance of the PreTect HPV-Proofer E6/E7 mRNA assay (Norchip) as a triage test for cytology and HPV DNA testing. This study analyzed 1,201 women, 688 of whom had a colposcopy follow-up and 195 of whom had histology-confirmed high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia or worse (CIN2+). The proportion of positive results and the sensitivity and specificity for CIN2+ were determined for HPV mRNA in comparison to HPV DNA and cytology. All data were adjusted for follow-up completeness. Stratified by cytological grades, the HPV mRNA sensitivity was 83% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 63 to 94%) in ASC-US (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance), 62% (95% CI = 47 to 75%) in L-SIL (low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion), and 67% (95% CI = 57 to 76%) in H-SIL (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion). The corresponding figures were 99, 91, and 96%, respectively, for HPV DNA. The specificities were 82, 76, and 45%, respectively, for HPV mRNA and 29, 13, and 4%, respectively, for HPV DNA. Used as a triage test for ASC-US and L-SIL, mRNA reduced colposcopies by 79% (95% CI = 74 to 83%) and 69% (95% CI = 65 to 74%), respectively, while HPV DNA reduced colposcopies by 38% (95% CI = 32 to 44%) and by 15% (95% CI = 12 to 19%), respectively. As a HPV DNA positivity triage test, mRNA reduced colposcopies by 63% (95% CI = 60 to 66%), having 68% sensitivity (95% CI = 61 to 75%), whereas cytology at the ASC-US+ threshold reduced colposcopies by 23% (95% CI = 20 to 26%), showing 92% sensitivity (95% CI = 87 to 95%). In conclusion, PreTect HPV-Proofer mRNA can serve as a better triage test than HPV DNA to reduce colposcopy referral in both ASC-US and L-SIL. It is also more efficient than cytology for the triage of HPV DNA-positive women. Nevertheless, its low sensitivity demands a strict follow-up of

  7. Synthesis of 4-((1E, 6E)-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3, 5-dioxohepta-1, 6-dienyl)-2-methoxyphenyl 4-fluorobenzoate, a novel monoester derivative of curcumin, its experimental and theoretical (DFT) studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sangeeta; Gupta, Preeti; Amandeep; Singh, Ranvijay Pratap

    2016-04-01

    Curcumin (1), isolated as a major component from the chloroform extract of Curcuma longa was converted to its ester derivative 4-((1E, 6E)-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3,5-dioxohepta-1,6-dienyl)-2-methoxyphenyl 4-fluorobenzoate (2). The compound has been characterized with the help of 1H, 13C NMR, UV, IR and mass spectrometry. The molecular geometry of synthesized compound was calculated in ground state by Density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) using 6-31G (d,p) basis set. 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts were calculated in ground state by using Gauge-Including Atomic Orbital (GIAO) approach and these values were correlated with experimental observations. The electronic properties such as HOMO and LUMO energies were calculated using time dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT). Stability of the molecule as a result of hyper conjugative interactions and electron delocalization were analysed using Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Intramolecular interactions were analysed by AIM (Atom in molecule) approach. Global reactivity descriptors were calculated to study the reactive site within molecule. The vibrational wavenumbers were calculated using DFT method and assigned with the help of potential energy distribution (PED). First hyperpolarizability values have been calculated to describe the nonlinear optical (NLO) property of the synthesized compounds. Molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) analysis has also been carried out.

  8. Sensitivity of APTIMA HPV E6/E7 mRNA test in comparison with hybrid capture 2 HPV DNA test for detection of high risk oncogenic human papillomavirus in 396 biopsy confirmed cervical cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Partha; Banerjee, Dipanwita; Mittal, Srabani; Dutta, Sankhadeep; Ghosh, Ishita; Chowdhury, Nilarun; Abraham, Priya; Chandna, Puneet; Ratnam, Sam

    2016-07-01

    The sensitivity of E6/E7 mRNA-based Aptima HPV test (AHPV; Hologic, Inc.) for detection of cervical cancer has been reported based on only a small number of cases. We determined the sensitivity of AHPV in comparison with the DNA-based Hybrid Capture 2 HPV test (HC2; Qiagen) for the detection of oncogenic HPV in a large number of cervical cancers at the time of diagnosis using cervical samples obtained in ThinPrep (Hologic). Samples yielding discordant results were genotyped using Linear Array assay (LA; Roche). Of 396 cases tested, AHPV detected 377 (sensitivity, 95.2%; 95%CI: 93.1-97.3), and HC2 376 (sensitivity, 94.9%; 95%CI: 92.7-97.1) with an agreement of 97.2% (kappa 0.7; 95%CI: 0.54-0.87). Among six AHPV+/HC2- cases, LA identified oncogenic HPV types in four including a type 73 and was negative in two. Among five AHPV-/HC2+ cases, LA detected oncogenic HPV types in two including a type 73 and was negative in three. Of 14 AHPV-/HC2- cases, 13 were genotyped. LA detected oncogenic HPV types in six, non-oncogenic types in three, and was negative in four. This is the largest study to demonstrate the sensitivity of AHPV for the detection of invasive cervical cancer and this assay showed equal sensitivity to HC2. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. HPV16 E6 polymorphism and physical state of viral genome in relation to the risk of cervical cancer in women from the south of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostek, Slawa; Zawilinska, Barbara; Klimek, Malgorzata; Kosz-Vnenchak, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the correlation between HPV16 E6 variants and the physical status of viral genome (integrated, mixed, episomal) among patients with cervical cancer (n=40) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions - LSIL (n=40). The study was performed on 80 HPV16 positive samples. HPV16 E6 variants were identified using PCR and DNA sequencing. Nucleotide sequences of E6 were compared with the prototype sequence (EUR-350T). The physical state of HPV DNA was determined as the ratio of E2/E6 copy number per cell. Twelve different intratypic variants were identified as belonging to European (in 77 samples) and North-American 1 (in 3 samples) sublineages. The most prevalent non-synonymous variant was EUR-350G, which occurred with similar frequency in cervical cancer and LSIL. The frequencies of additional mutations in variants with EUR-350T or EUR-350G sequences differed significantly. For the first time, missense mutations G122A, C153T and G188A were discovered in EUR-350G variant. The integrated viral genome was predominant in women with cervical cancer. The EUR-350T prototype and EUR-350G without additional mutations variants were prevalent in cervical cancer samples with the HPV16 characterized by integrated DNA. In summary, European variants of HPV16 E6 dominated in both cancer and LSIL group. The presence of EUR-350G favoured the occurrence of additional nucleotide changes. We showed that nucleotide changes occur significantly more often in the mixed form of viral DNA and in LSIL group and that the variants without additional mutations may promote integration of HPV16 genome.

  10. Methylation at 3'LCR of HPV16 can be affected by patient age and disruption of E1 or E2 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Sérgio Menezes Amaro; Bertoni, Neilane; Brant, Ayslan Castro; Vidal, João Paulo Castello Branco; Felix, Shayany Pinto; Cavalcanti, Silvia Maria Baeta; Carestiato, Fernanda N; Martins, Luís Felipe Leite; Almeida, Liz Maria de; Moreira, Miguel Angelo Martins

    2017-03-15

    CpG methylation at early promoter of HPV16 DNA, in the 3' end of the Long Control Region (3'LCR), has been associated to the presence of episomal forms of viral genome and, consequently, intact E1 and E2 ORFs. The DNA methylation would block the access of E2 viral protein to the E2 binding sites at early-promoter. However, is still unclear if methylation at 3'LCR of HPV16 DNA can also vary depending of other tumor characteristics in addition to viral DNA physical state. In this study, we evaluate whether the methylation level at the five CpG located at 3'LCR of HPV16 is associated to patient age and E1 and/or E2 ORFs integrity. DNA pyrosequencing was used to measure the methylation level in 69 invasive cervical cancer samples obtained from biopsies of patients attended at Brazilian National Institute of Cancer (INCA). PCR amplifications were performed to assess disruption status of E1 and E2 genes of HPV16. The methylation average per sample ranged widely, from frames was associated with high levels of DNA methylation, and older patients showed higher levels of methylation than younger ones independently of viral genome disruption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigating Reports of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: An Analysis of HPV-16/18-Adjuvanted Vaccine Post-Licensure Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Huygen

    2015-09-01

    There is not sufficient evidence to suggest an increased risk of developing CRPS following vaccination with HPV-16/18-adjuvanted vaccine. Post-licensure safety surveillance confirms the acceptable benefit-risk of HPV-16/18 vaccination.

  12. Efficacy of the HPV-16/18 vaccine: final according to protocol results from the blinded phase of the randomized Costa Rica HPV-16/18 vaccine trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildesheim, Allan; Wacholder, Sholom; Catteau, Gregory; Struyf, Frank; Dubin, Gary; Herrero, Rolando

    2014-09-03

    A community-based randomized trial was conducted in Costa Rica to evaluate the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (NCT00128661). The primary objective was to evaluate efficacy of the vaccine to prevent cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or more severe disease (CIN2+) associated with incident HPV-16/18 cervical infections. Secondary objectives were to evaluate efficacy against CIN2+ associated with incident cervical infection by any oncogenic HPVs and to evaluate duration of protection against incident cervical infection with HPV-16/18. Vaccine safety and immunogenicity over the 4-year follow-up were also evaluated. We randomized (3727 HPV arm; 3739 control arm), vaccinated (HPV-16/18 or Hepatitis A) and followed (median 53.8 months) 7466 healthy women aged 18-25 years. 5312 women (2635 HPV arm; 2677 control arm) were included in the according to protocol analysis for efficacy. The full cohort was evaluated for safety. Immunogenicity was considered on a subset of 354 (HPV-16) and 379 (HPV-18) women. HPV type was assessed by PCR on cervical specimens. Immunogenicity was assessed using ELISA and inhibition enzyme immunoassays. Disease outcomes were histologically confirmed. Vaccine efficacy and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were computed. Vaccine efficacy was 89.8% (95% CI: 39.5-99.5; N=11 events total) against HPV-16/18 associated CIN2+, 59.9% (95% CI: 20.7-80.8; N=39 events total) against CIN2+ associated with non-HPV-16/18 oncogenic HPVs and 61.4% (95% CI: 29.5-79.8; N=51 events total) against CIN2+ irrespective of HPV type. The vaccine had an acceptable safety profile and induced robust and long-lasting antibody responses. Our findings confirm the high efficacy and immunogenicity of the HPV-16/18 vaccine against incident HPV infections and cervical disease associated with HPV-16/18 and other oncogenic HPV types. These results will serve as a benchmark to which we can compare future findings from the ongoing extended follow-up of participants in the Costa Rica

  13. Efficacy of the HPV-16/18 Vaccine: Final according to protocol results from the blinded phase of the randomized Costa Rica HPV-16/18 Vaccine Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildesheim, Allan; Wacholder, Sholom; Catteau, Gregory; Struyf, Frank; Dubin, Gary; Herrero, Rolando

    2014-01-01

    Background A community-based randomized trial was conducted in Costa Rica to evaluate the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (NCT00128661). The primary objective was to evaluate efficacy of the vaccine to prevent cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or more severe disease (CIN2+) associated with incident HPV-16/18 cervical infections. Secondary objectives were to evaluate efficacy against CIN2+ associated with incident cervical infection by any oncogenic HPVs and to evaluate duration of protection against incident cervical infection with HPV-16/18. Vaccine safety and immunogenicity over the 4-year follow-up were also evaluated. Methods We randomized (3,727 HPV arm; 3,739 Control arm), vaccinated (HPV-16/18 or Hepatitis A) and followed (median 53.8 months) 7,466 healthy women aged 18-25 years. 5,312 women (2,635 HPV arm; 2,677 Control arm) were included in the according to protocol analysis for efficacy. The full cohort was evaluated for safety. Immunogenicity was considered on a subset of 354 (HPV-16) and 379 (HPV-18) women. HPV type was assessed by PCR on cytology specimens. Immunogenicity was assessed using ELISA and inhibition enzyme immunoassays. Disease outcomes were histologically confirmed. Vaccine efficacy and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were computed. Results Vaccine efficacy was 89.8% (95% CI: 39.5 - 99.5; N=11 events total) against HPV-16/18 associated CIN2+, 59.9% (95% CI: 20.7 - 80.8; N=39 events total) against CIN2+ associated with non-HPV-16/18 oncogenic HPVs and 61.4% (95% CI: 29.5-79.8; N=51 events total) against CIN2+ irrespective of HPV type. The vaccine had an acceptable safety profile and induced robust and long-lasting antibody responses. Conclusions Our findings confirm the high efficacy and immunogenicity of the HPV-16/18 vaccine against incident HPV infections and cervical disease associated with HPV-16/18 and other oncogenic HPV types. These results will serve as a benchmark to which we can compare future findings from ongoing extended

  14. Deep sequencing of HPV16 genomes: A new high-throughput tool for exploring the carcinogenicity and natural history of HPV16 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cullen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For unknown reasons, there is huge variability in risk conferred by different HPV types and, remarkably, strong differences even between closely related variant lineages within each type. HPV16 is a uniquely powerful carcinogenic type, causing approximately half of cervical cancer and most other HPV-related cancers. To permit the large-scale study of HPV genome variability and precancer/cancer, starting with HPV16 and cervical cancer, we developed a high-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS whole-genome method. We designed a custom HPV16 AmpliSeq™ panel that generated 47 overlapping amplicons covering 99% of the genome sequenced on the Ion Torrent Proton platform. After validating with Sanger, the current “gold standard” of sequencing, in 89 specimens with concordance of 99.9%, we used our NGS method and custom annotation pipeline to sequence 796 HPV16-positive exfoliated cervical cell specimens. The median completion rate per sample was 98.0%.Our method enabled us to discover novel SNPs, large contiguous deletions suggestive of viral integration (OR of 27.3, 95% CI 3.3–222, P=0.002, and the sensitive detection of variant lineage coinfections. This method represents an innovative high-throughput, ultra-deep coverage technique for HPV genomic sequencing, which, in turn, enables the investigation of the role of genetic variation in HPV epidemiology and carcinogenesis. Keywords: HPV16, HPV epidemiology, HPV genomics

  15. HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA In Situ Hybridization: Validation Against PCR, DNA In Situ Hybridization, and p16 Immunohistochemistry in 102 Samples of Cervical, Vulvar, Anal, and Head and Neck Neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Anne M; Dirks, Dawn C; Poulter, Melinda D; Mills, Stacey E; Stoler, Mark H

    2017-05-01

    Dysregulated expression of oncogenic types of E6 and E7 is necessary for human papillomavirus (HPV)-driven carcinogenesis. An HPV E6/E7 mRNA in situ hybridization (ISH) assay covering 18 common high-risk types ("HR-RISH," aka HR-HPV RNA18 ISH) has not been extensively studied in the anogenital tract or validated on automated technology. We herein compare HR-RISH to DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR), p16 immunohistochemistry, and a previously available HPV DNA ISH assay in HPV-related anogenital and head and neck (H&N) neoplasia. A total of 102 squamous intraepithelial lesions (16 CIN1, 25 CIN3, 3 AIN1, 12 AIN3, 9 VIN3)/invasive squamous cell carcinomas (17 cervical, 2 anal, 18 H&N) as well as 10 normal and 15 reactive cervix samples were collected. HR-RISH, DNA ISH, and p16 immunohistochemistry were performed on whole formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections. RNA ISH for 6 low-risk HPV types (LR-RISH) was also performed. RNA and DNA ISH assays used automated systems. HR-HPV PCR was performed on morphology-directed formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded punches. HR-RISH was ≥97% sensitive for PCR+ and p16+ neoplasia, as well as morphologically defined anogenital high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion/invasive squamous cell carcinoma. HR-RISH was also positive in 78% of anogenital low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, including 81% of CIN1. Furthermore, a subset of PCR-negative/invalid and p16-negative lesions was positive for HR-RISH. Only 1 problematic reactive cervix sample and no normal cervix samples stained. These results demonstrate that HR-RISH is a robust method for the detection of HR-HPV-related neoplasia and provides insight into HPV pathobiology. Performance meets or exceeds that of existing assays in anogenital and H&N lesions and may play a role in resolving diagnostically challenging CIN1 versus reactive cases.

  16. Genome wide expression analysis in HPV16 Cervical Cancer: identification of altered metabolic pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Vázquez-Ortiz, Guelaguetza; López-Romero, Ricardo; Piña-Sanchez, Patricia; Moreno, José; Salcedo, Mauricio

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Cervical carcinoma (CC) is a leading cause of death among women worldwide. Human papilloma virus (HPV) is a major etiological factor in CC and HPV 16 is the more frequent viral type present. Our aim was to characterize metabolic pathways altered in HPV 16 tumor samples by means of transcriptome wide analysis and bioinformatics tools for visualizing expression data in the context of KEGG biological pathways. Results We found 2,067 genes significantly up or down-modulated (a...

  17. Definition of linear antigenic regions of the HPV16 L1 capsid protein using synthetic virion-like particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J; Sun, X Y; Davies, H; Crawford, L; Park, D; Frazer, I H

    1992-08-01

    Mice of three haplotypes (H-2d, H-2b, and H-2d/b) were immunized with synthetic HPV16 virus-like particles (VLPs), produced using a vaccinia virus doubly recombinant for the L1 and L2 proteins of HPV16. The resultant anti-VLP antisera recognized HPV16 capsids by ELISA assay and baculovirus recombinant HPV16 L1 and L2 protein on immunoblot. Overlapping peptides corresponding to the HPV16 L1 amino acid sequence were used to define the immunoreactive regions of the L1 protein. The majority of the L1 peptides were reactive with IgG from the mice immunized with the synthetic HPV16 capsids. A computer algorithm predicted seven B epitopes in HPV16 L1, five of which lay within peptides strongly reactive with the murine antisera. The murine anti-VLP antisera failed to react with the two peptides recognized by anti-HPV16L1 monoclonal antibodies raised by others against recombinant L1 fusion protein. We conclude that the immunoreactive epitopes of HPV16 defined using virus-like particles differ significantly from those defined using recombinant HPV16 L1 fusion proteins, which implies that such fusion proteins may not be the antigens to look for HPV16L1 specific immune responses in HPV-infected patients.

  18. Frequency of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 16 and 18 Detection in Paraffin- Embedded Laryngeal Carcinoma Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Zinab; Makvandi, Manoochehr; Samarbafzade, Alireza; Timori, Ali; Ranjbar, Nastaran; Saki, Nader; Nisi, Nilofar; Shahani, Toran; Varnaseri, Mehran; Ahmadi, Kambiz Angali

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objective: Human papilloma virus (HPV) 16 and HPV18 have been detected in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) and there is evidence that detection of HPVs would have better prognostic value than patients with HNSCC negative for HPVs. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate frequency of HPV 16 and HPV 18 genotypes in patients with laryngeal carcinoma. Materials and methods: Fifty formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue blocks of laryngeal cancers were collected. Sections were prepared at 5 µm and DNA was extracted from each sample and subjected to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect HPV-16/18 DNA s. Results: All samples were squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Overall 14/50 (28%) were positive for HPVs, 8 (18%) with HPV-16 and 6 (12%) with HPV-18. Additionally, 2 (4%) mixed infections of HPV 16 and 18 genotypes were observed among these cases. Conclusions: Overall, 28% of HNSCC samples proved positive for HPV16 and HPV18 genotypes, two high-risk HPV types. It is important to further assess whether such viral infection, could be a risk factor in HNSCC progression. PMID:28545184

  19. Signature sequence validation of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) in clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sin Hang; Vigliotti, Veronica S; Pappu, Suri

    2010-03-01

    Persistent infection indicated by detection of human papillomavirus 16 (HPV-16) on repeat testing over a period of time poses the greatest cervical cancer risk. However, variants of HPV-16, HPV-31 and HPV-33 may share several short sequence homologies in the hypervariable L1 gene commonly targeted for HPV genotyping. The purpose of this study was to introduce a robust laboratory procedure to validate HPV-16 detected in clinical specimens, using the GenBank sequence database as the standard reference for genotyping. A nested PCR with two pairs of consensus primers was used to amplify the HPV DNA released in crude proteinase K digest of the cervicovaginal cells in liquid-based Papanicolaou cytology specimens. The positive nested PCR products were used for direct automated DNA sequencing. A 48-base sequence downstream of the GP5+ priming site, or a 34-base sequence upstream thereof, was needed for unequivocal validation of an HPV-16 isolate. Selection of a 45-base, or shorter, sequence immediately downstream of the GP5+ site for Basic Local Alignment Search Tool sequence analysis invariably led to ambiguous genotyping results. DNA sequence analysis may be used for differential genotyping of HPV-16, HPV-31 and HPV-33 in clinical specimens. However, selection of the signature sequence for Basic Local Alignment Search Tool algorithms is crucial to distinguish certain HPV-16 variants from other closely related HPV genotypes.

  20. Different Challenges in Eliminating HPV16 Compared to Other Types: A Modeling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baussano, Iacopo; Lazzarato, Fulvio; Ronco, Guglielmo; Lehtinen, Matti; Dillner, Joakim; Franceschi, Silvia

    2017-08-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is still not reaching many high-risk populations. HPV16/18 vaccines offer cross-protection against other types, for example, HPV45. Both direct vaccine efficacy and indirect herd protection contribute to vaccination effectiveness. We used a dynamic transmission model, calibrated to cervical screening data from Italy, to estimate vaccination effectiveness against HPV16 and HPV45 infection, assuming for HPV45 either 95% or lower cross-protection. Basic reproductive number was smaller (2.1 vs 4.0) and hence vaccine effectiveness and herd protection stronger for HPV45 than for HPV16. The largest difference in the reduction of infection prevalence in women vaccination programs (99% vs 83% for total protection for HPV45 and HPV16, respectively, mainly owing to stronger herd protection, ie, 37% vs 16%). In gender-neutral vaccination, the largest difference was at 40% coverage (herd protection, 54% vs 28% for HPV16 and HPV45, respectively). With ≥80% coverage, even 50% cross-protection would reduce HPV45 by ≥94%. The characteristics of individual high-risk HPV types strongly influence herd protection and determine the level of coverage and cross-protection required to reduce or eliminate the infection through HPV vaccination. HPV16 infection and related cancers are the most difficult to eliminate.

  1. HPV16 E2 could act as down-regulator in cellular genes implicated in apoptosis, proliferation and cell differentiation

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    Valencia-Hernández Armando

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Papillomavirus (HPV E2 plays several important roles in the viral cycle, including the transcriptional regulation of the oncogenes E6 and E7, the regulation of the viral genome replication by its association with E1 helicase and participates in the viral genome segregation during mitosis by its association with the cellular protein Brd4. It has been shown that E2 protein can regulate negative or positively the activity of several cellular promoters, although the precise mechanism of this regulation is uncertain. In this work we constructed a recombinant adenoviral vector to overexpress HPV16 E2 and evaluated the global pattern of biological processes regulated by E2 using microarrays expression analysis. Results The gene expression profile was strongly modified in cells expressing HPV16 E2, finding 1048 down-regulated genes, and 581 up-regulated. The main cellular pathway modified was WNT since we found 28 genes down-regulated and 15 up-regulated. Interestingly, this pathway is a convergence point for regulating the expression of genes involved in several cellular processes, including apoptosis, proliferation and cell differentiation; MYCN, JAG1 and MAPK13 genes were selected to validate by RT-qPCR the microarray data as these genes in an altered level of expression, modify very important cellular processes. Additionally, we found that a large number of genes from pathways such as PDGF, angiogenesis and cytokines and chemokines mediated inflammation, were also modified in their expression. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that HPV16 E2 has regulatory effects on cellular gene expression in HPV negative cells, independent of the other HPV proteins, and the gene profile observed indicates that these effects could be mediated by interactions with cellular proteins. The cellular processes affected suggest that E2 expression leads to the cells in to a convenient environment for a replicative cycle of the virus.

  2. Disruption of HPV16-E7 by CRISPR/Cas System Induces Apoptosis and Growth Inhibition in HPV16 Positive Human Cervical Cancer Cells

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    Zheng Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV has been recognized as a major causative agent for cervical cancer. Upon HPV infection, early genes E6 and E7 play important roles in maintaining malignant phenotype of cervical cancer cells. By using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats- (CRISPR- associated protein system (CRISPR/Cas system, a widely used genome editing tool in many organisms, to target HPV16-E7 DNA in HPV positive cell lines, we showed for the first time that the HPV16-E7 single-guide RNA (sgRNA guided CRISPR/Cas system could disrupt HPV16-E7 DNA at specific sites, inducing apoptosis and growth inhibition in HPV positive SiHa and Caski cells, but not in HPV negative C33A and HEK293 cells. Moreover, disruption of E7 DNA directly leads to downregulation of E7 protein and upregulation of tumor suppressor protein pRb. Therefore, our results suggest that HPV16-E7 gRNA guided CRISPR/Cas system might be used as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cervical cancer.

  3. The Subcellular Localisation of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV 16 E7 Protein in Cervical Cancer Cells and Its Perturbation by RNA Aptamers

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    Özlem Cesur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is the most common viral infection of the reproductive tract, affecting both men and women. High-risk oncogenic types are responsible for almost 90% of anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers including cervical cancer. Some of the HPV “early” genes, particularly E6 and E7, are known to act as oncogenes that promote tumour growth and malignant transformation. Most notably, HPV-16 E7 interacts with the tumour suppressor protein pRb, promoting its degradation, leading to cell cycle dysregulation in infected cells. We have previously shown that an RNA aptamer (termed A2 selectively binds to HPV16 E7 and is able to induce apoptosis in HPV16-transformed cervical carcinoma cell lines (SiHa through reduction of E7 levels. In this study, we investigated the effects of the A2 aptamer on E7 localisation in order to define its effects on E7 activity. We demonstrate for the first time that E7 localised to the plasma membrane. In addition, we show that A2 enhanced E7 localisation in the ER and that the A2-mediated reduction of E7 was not associated with proteasomal degradation. These data suggest that A2 perturbs normal E7 trafficking through promoting E7 ER retention.

  4. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Prevalence in Male Adolescents 4 Years After HPV-16/18 Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Tuomas; Söderlund-Strand, Anna; Petäjä, Tiina; Eriksson, Tiina; Jokiranta, Sakari; Natunen, Kari; Dillner, Joakim; Lehtinen, Matti

    2017-11-15

    We assessed human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence among HPV-16/18-vaccinated and unvaccinated Finnish male adolescents participating in chlamydia screening 4 years after vaccination with AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 vaccine in 2007-2009. Previously vaccinated (n = 395) or unvaccinated (n = 149) male adolescents were enrolled in 12 municipalities. First-void urine samples were tested for HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, and 68, and prevalence rates for HPV-16/18, and HPV-11/16/18/31/33/45 were reduced profoundly (0% vs 2.1% [P = .02] and 0.8% vs 5.3 [P = .002], respectively). Overall HPV DNA prevalence was also significantly reduced among HPV-16/18-vaccinated (4.1%) compared with unvaccinated subjects (10.1%) (P = .01). In this post hoc study, a highly significant reduction in HPV prevalence 4 years after vaccination suggests that the bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine has protective efficacy in men. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Genetic diversity of HPV16 and HPV18 in Brazilian patients with invasive cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Joao Paulo C B; Felix, Shayany Pinto; Chaves, Cláudia B P; Patury, Patrícia; Franco, Vanessa F; de Morais, Evaneide A; de Carvalho, Neile A; Carvalho, Aurenice C L; Almeida Neto, Olimpio F; Vieira, Lina Maria T M; Correa, Flavia Miranda; Martins, Luís Felipe Leite; Negrão, Antonio; de Almeida, Liz Maria; Moreira, Miguel Angelo Martins

    2016-07-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women, and ∼70-80% of these cancers are associated with two human papillomavirus types: HPV16 and HPV18. Several studies have reported that intra-type diversity is associated with the progression of infection to invasive cancer. Herein, we report the genetic diversity of HPV16 and HPV18 in a cohort of 594 Brazilian women with invasive cervical cancer and describe the prevalence of lineages and intra-type diversity prior to the implementation of the public immunization program in Brazil. HPV detection and genotyping were performed using PCR, PGMY/GP primers, and DNA extracted from fresh tumors. The HPV16 (378 women) and HPV18 (80 women) lineages were identified by PCR and sequencing of the LCR and E6 fragments, followed by SNV comparison and phylogenetic analysis. In our cohort, was found a higher frequency of the lineage A (in 217 women), followed by lineage D (in 97 women) and lineages B and C (in 10 women each) for HPV16; and a higher frequency of lineage A (in 56 women) followed by lineage B (in 15 women) in HPV18. The genetic diversity of HPV16 indicated a recent expansion of specific variants or a selective advantage that is associated with invasive cancer; this pattern was not observed for HPV18. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. An HPV 16 L1-based chimeric human papilloma virus-like particles containing a string of epitopes produced in plants is able to elicit humoral and cytotoxic T-cell activity in mice

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    Weiss-Steider Benny

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even though two prophylactic vaccines against HPV are currently licensed, infections by the virus continue to be a major health problem mainly in developing countries. The cost of the vaccines limits wide-scale application in poor countries. A promising strategy for producing affordable and efficient vaccines involves the expression of recombinant immunogens in plants. Several HPV genes have been expressed in plants, including L1, which can self-assemble into virus-like particles. A plant-based, dual prophylactic/therapeutic vaccine remains an attractive possibility. Results We sought to express in tomato plants chimeric HPV 16 VLPs containing L1 fused to a string of epitopes from HPV 16 E6 and E7 proteins. The L1 employed had been modified to eliminate a strong inhibitory region at the 5' end of the molecule to increase expression levels. Several tomato lines were obtained expressing either L1 alone or L1-E6/E7 from 0.05% to 0.1% of total soluble protein. Stable integration of the transgenes was verified by Southern blot. Northern and western blot revealed successful expression of the transgenes at the mRNA and protein level. The chimeric VLPs were able to assemble adequately in tomato cells. Intraperitoneal administration in mice was able to elicit both neutralizing antibodies against the viral particle and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes activity against the epitopes. Conclusion In this work, we report for the first time the expression in plants of a chimeric particle containing the HPV 16 L1 sequence and a string of T-cell epitopes from HPV 16 E6 and E7 fused to the C-terminus. The particles were able to induce a significant antibody and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes response. Experiments in vivo are in progress to determine whether the chimeric particles are able to induce regression of disease and resolution of viral infection in mice. Chimeric particles of the type described in this work may potentially be the basis for developing

  7. HPV16E6-Dependent c-Fos Expression Contributes to AP-1 Complex Formation in SiHa Cells

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    Feixin Liang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, the major role of HPV16E6 in cancer has been considered to be its ability to inhibit the p53 tumor-suppressor protein, thereby thwarting p53-mediated cytotoxic responses to cellular stress signals. Here, we show that HPV16E6-dependent c-fos oncogenic protein expression contributes to AP-1 complex formation under oxidative stress in SiHa cells (HPV16-positive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. In addition, we examined the role of HPV16E6 in TGF-α-induced c-fos expression and found that the c-fos protein expression induced by TGF-α is HPV16E6 dependent. Thus, our results provide the first evidence that HPV16E6 contributes to AP-1 complex formation after both ligand-dependent and independent EGFR activation, suggesting a new therapeutic approach to the treatment of HPV-associated tumors.

  8. [Effects of folate deficiency with HPV16 infection on cervix cancerization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuesong; Ding, Ling; Chen, Fang; Wu, Tingting; Wang, Jintao

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the relationship between folate in serum, red blood cell (RBC), cervix cancerization, as well as the interaction between folate deficiency and HPV16 infection in cervix cancerization. 254 samples were selected from the patients who were newly pathologically diagnosed of having cervix inflammation (CI), low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN I), high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN II/III) and cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). PCR and microbiological assay were adopted to detect HPV infection and folate concentration. Rates of HPV16 infection increased with the severity of cervix cancerization (tend: χ² = 34.96, P cancerization. Both serum and RBC folate deficiency could increase the risk of cervix cancerization, and folate deficiency might have a synergic action with HPV16 in this procession.

  9. HPV16 L2 improves HPV16 L1 gene delivery as an important approach for vaccine design against cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namvar, A; Bolhassani, A; Hashemi, M

    2016-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections have been associated with the development of cervical cancer. HPV16 is the most dominant high-risk types of HPV worldwide. L1 and L2 are the major and minor capsid proteins of HPV, respectively. Both proteins are able to self-assemble as a virus-like particle (VLP). In the current study, the human embryonic kidney cells were transfected with the plasmid DNA encoding HPV 16 L1 or L1-L2 genes and their expression was compared using different transfection reagents. Our data showed that the recombinant L1-L2 DNAs were expressed in a high efficiency compared to L1 DNAs as detected by western blotting, fluorescent microscopy, and flow cytometry. In addition, Lipofectamine and Turbofect as the transfection reagents conferred more potent delivery than PEI 25 kDa indicating high toxicity of this system on HEK-293 cells. These results suggest the use of the full length of L2 as an efficient agent for overcoming the cell barriers and poor uptake of DNA in vitro and in vivo. The high expression of HPV16 L1-L2 in HEK-293 cells using different delivery systems opens the way for new studies concerning to the use of L2 for DNA delivery via covalent linkage with the gene of interest (Fig. 5, Ref. 20).

  10. Comparative analysis of HPV16 gene expression profiles in cervical and in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerasuolo, Andrea; Annunziata, Clorinda; Tortora, Marianna; Starita, Noemy; Stellato, Giovanni; Greggi, Stefano; Maglione, Maria Grazia; Ionna, Franco; Losito, Simona; Botti, Gerardo; Buonaguro, Luigi; Buonaguro, Franco M.; Tornesello, Maria Lina

    2017-01-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) is the major cause of cervical cancer and of a fraction of oropharyngeal carcinoma. Few studies compared the viral expression profiles in the two types of tumor. We analyzed HPV genotypes and viral load as well as early (E2/E4, E5, E6, E6*I, E6*II, E7) and late (L1 and L2) gene expression of HPV16 in cervical and oropharyngeal cancer biopsies. The study included 28 cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and ten oropharyngeal SCC, along with pair-matched non-tumor tissues, as well as four oropharynx dysplastic tissues and 112 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia biopsies. Viral load was found higher in cervical SCC (<1 to 694 copies/cell) and CIN (<1 to 43 copies/cell) compared to oropharyngeal SCC (<1 to 4 copies/cell). HPV16 E2/E4 and E5 as well as L1 and L2 mRNA levels were low in cervical SCC and CIN and undetectable in oropharynx cases. The HPV16 E6 and E7 mRNAs were consistently high in cervical SCC and low in oropharyngeal SCC. The analysis of HPV16 E6 mRNA expression pattern showed statistically significant higher levels of E6*I versus E6*II isoform in cervical SCC (p = 0.002) and a slightly higher expression of E6*I versus E6*II in oropharyngeal cases. In conclusion, the HPV16 E5, E6, E6*I, E6*II and E7 mRNA levels were more abundant in cervical SCC compared to oropharyngeal SCC suggesting different carcinogenic mechanisms in the two types of HPV-related cancers. PMID:28423662

  11. Comparative analysis of HPV16 gene expression profiles in cervical and in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerasuolo, Andrea; Annunziata, Clorinda; Tortora, Marianna; Starita, Noemy; Stellato, Giovanni; Greggi, Stefano; Maglione, Maria Grazia; Ionna, Franco; Losito, Simona; Botti, Gerardo; Buonaguro, Luigi; Buonaguro, Franco M; Tornesello, Maria Lina

    2017-05-23

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) is the major cause of cervical cancer and of a fraction of oropharyngeal carcinoma. Few studies compared the viral expression profiles in the two types of tumor. We analyzed HPV genotypes and viral load as well as early (E2/E4, E5, E6, E6*I, E6*II, E7) and late (L1 and L2) gene expression of HPV16 in cervical and oropharyngeal cancer biopsies. The study included 28 cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and ten oropharyngeal SCC, along with pair-matched non-tumor tissues, as well as four oropharynx dysplastic tissues and 112 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia biopsies. Viral load was found higher in cervical SCC (<1 to 694 copies/cell) and CIN (<1 to 43 copies/cell) compared to oropharyngeal SCC (<1 to 4 copies/cell). HPV16 E2/E4 and E5 as well as L1 and L2 mRNA levels were low in cervical SCC and CIN and undetectable in oropharynx cases. The HPV16 E6 and E7 mRNAs were consistently high in cervical SCC and low in oropharyngeal SCC. The analysis of HPV16 E6 mRNA expression pattern showed statistically significant higher levels of E6*I versus E6*II isoform in cervical SCC (p = 0.002) and a slightly higher expression of E6*I versus E6*II in oropharyngeal cases. In conclusion, the HPV16 E5, E6, E6*I, E6*II and E7 mRNA levels were more abundant in cervical SCC compared to oropharyngeal SCC suggesting different carcinogenic mechanisms in the two types of HPV-related cancers.

  12. Prognostic impact of human papilloma virus (HPV) genotyping and HPV-16 subtyping in vaginal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Gabriella Lillsunde; Helenius, Gisela; Andersson, Sören; Sorbe, Bengt; Karlsson, Mats G

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of this study are to investigate the human papilloma virus (HPV) distribution in vaginal cancer and to evaluate HPV-genotype as well as HPV16-variant impact on prognosis. Sixty-nine patients diagnosed with primary vaginal carcinoma (1975-2002) were included in the study. Detection of twelve high-risk HPV (hr HPV) and two low-risk HPV (lr HPV) was performed with realtime-PCR. Samples positive for HPV-16 were analyzed for variants in the E6-gene with PCR and pyrosequencing. 53.6% (37/69) of the tumors were found to be HPV-positive, mostly for HPV-16 (N=26). Other HPV-types were HPV-18 (N=2), HPV-31 (N=2), HPV-33 (N=2), HPV-45 (N=1), HPV-52 (N=2), HPV-56 (N=1) and HPV-58 (N=1). Only European subtypes of HPV-16 were represented and the two most common HPV-16-variants were E-p (N=13) and E-G350 (N=11). Patients with HPV-positive tumors (N=37) had a significantly (log-rank test=3.341; p=0.0008) superior 5-year overall survival rate as well as cancer-specific survival rate and progression-free survival rate (p=0.0002; p=0.0004), compared with patients with HPV-negative tumors (N=32). Interestingly, patients with HPV-16-positive tumors had a superior overall survival compared with patients with tumors containing other HPV-genotypes. In a Cox proportional multivariate analysis age, tumor size, and HPV-status were independent and significant prognostic factors with regard to overall survival rate. HPV-status is of prognostic importance in vaginal carcinoma and varies with viral genotype. In this era of HPV-vaccination, genotypes other than those included in the vaccination program could still lead to vaginal carcinoma with unfavorable prognosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Rejection of large HPV-16 expressing tumors in aged mice by a single immunization of VacciMax® encapsulated CTL/T helper peptides

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    MacDonald Lisa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The incidence of cancer increases significantly in later life, yet few pre-clinical studies of cancer immunotherapy use mice of advanced age. A novel vaccine delivery platform (VacciMax®,VM is described that encapsulates antigens and adjuvants in multilamellar liposomes in a water-in-oil emulsion. The therapeutic potential of VM-based vaccines administered as a single dose was tested in HLA-A2 transgenic mice of advanced age (48–58 weeks old bearing large palpable TC1/A2 tumors. The VM-based vaccines contained one or more peptides having human CTL epitopes derived from HPV 16 E6 and E7. VM formulations contained a single peptide, a mixture of four peptides or the same four peptides linked together in a single long peptide. All VM formulations contained PADRE and CpG as adjuvants and ISA51 as the hydrophobic component of the water-in-oil emulsion. VM-formulated vaccines containing the four peptides as a mixture or linked together in one long peptide eradicated 19-day old established tumors within 21 days of immunization. Peptide-specific cytotoxic cellular responses were confirmed by ELISPOT and intracellular staining for IFN-γ producing CD8+ T cells. Mice rendered tumor-free by vaccination were re-challenged in the opposite flank with 10 million HLF-16 tumor cells, another HLA-A2/E6/E7 expressing tumor cell line. None of these mice developed tumors following the re-challenge. In summary, this report describes a VM-formulated therapeutic vaccine with the following unprecedented outcome: a eradication of large tumors (> 700 mm3 b in mice of advanced age c in less than three weeks post-immunization d following a single vaccination.

  14. Production of recombinant proteins GST L1, E6 and E7 tag HPV 16 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coding sequences for L1tag, E6tag and E7tag of HPV 16 respectively were mobilized by digestion with enzymes and ligated into digested plasmids downstream of the GST domain. An expression plasmid for GST tag was constructed by inserting a fragment coding for the tag epitope. Data showed that the lysates were ...

  15. Generation and characterization of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against baculo-expressed HPV 16 VLPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyasagar, P; Sridevi, V N; Rajan, S; Praveen, A; Srikanth, A; Abhinay, G; Siva Kumar, V; Verma, R R; Rajendra, L

    2014-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the well-known second most cause of cervical cancer in women worldwide. According to the WHO survey, 70% of the total cervical cancers are associated with types HPV 16 and 18. Presently used prophylactic vaccine for HPV contains mainly capsid protein of L1 virus like particles (VLPs). Correct folding of VLPs and display of neutralizing epitopes are the major constraint for VLP-based vaccines. Further, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) play a vital role in developing therapeutics and diagnostics. mAbs are also useful for the demonstration of VLP conformation, virus typing and product process assessment as well. In the present study, we have explored the usefulness of mAbs generated against sf-9 expressed HPV 16 VLPs demonstrated as type-specific and conformational dependent against HPV 16 VLPs by ELISA. High affinity and high pseudovirion neutralization titer of mAbs indicated their potential for the development of prophylactic vaccines for HPV. Also, the type-specific and conformational reactivity of the mAbs to HPV 16 VLPs in sf-9 cells by immunofluorescence assay proved their diagnostic potential.

  16. Sustained efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naud, Paulo S; Roteli-Martins, Cecilia M; De Carvalho, Newton S; Teixeira, Julio C; de Borba, Paola C; Sanchez, Nervo; Zahaf, Toufik; Catteau, Gregory; Geeraerts, Brecht; Descamps, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    HPV-023 (NCT00518336; ClinicalTrial.gov) is a long-term follow-up of an initial double-blind, randomized (1:1), placebo-controlled study (HPV-001, NCT00689741) evaluating the efficacy against human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 infection and associated cyto-histopathological abnormalities, persistence of immunogenicity, and safety of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine. Among the women, aged 15–25 years, enrolled in HPV-001 and who participated in the follow-up study HPV-007 (NCT00120848), a subset of 437 women from five Brazilian centers participated in this 36-month long-term follow-up (HPV-023) for a total of 113 months (9.4 years). During HPV-023, anti-HPV-16/18 antibodies were measured annually by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and pseudovirion-based neutralisation assay (PBNA). Cervical samples were tested for HPV DNA every 6 months, and cyto-pathological examinations were performed annually. During HPV-023, no new HPV-16/18-associated infections and cyto-histopathological abnormalities occurred in the vaccine group. Vaccine efficacy (VE) against HPV-16/18 incident infection was 100% (95%CI: 66.1, 100). Over the 113 months (9.4 years), VE was 95.6% (86.2, 99.1; 3/50 cases in vaccine and placebo groups, respectively) against incident infection, 100% (84·1, 100; 0/21) against 6-month persistent infection (PI); 100% (61·4, 100; 0/10) against 12-month PI; 97·1% (82.5, 99.9; 1/30) against ≥ ASC-US; 95·0% (68.0, 99.9; 1/18) against ≥ LSIL; 100% (45.2, 100; 0/8) against CIN1+; and 100% (–128.1, 100; 0/3) against CIN2+ associated with HPV-16/18. All vaccinees remained seropositive to HPV-16/18, with antibody titers remaining several folds above natural infection levels, as measured by ELISA and PBNA. There were no safety concerns. To date, these data represent the longest follow-up reported for a licensed HPV vaccine. PMID:25424918

  17. Detection of HPV-16 DNA by PCR in histologically cancer free lymph nodes from patients with cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F.D. Baay (Marc); J. Koudstaal; H. Hollema; J.M. Duk; M.P.M. Burger; W.G.V. Quint (Wim); E. Stolz (Ernst); P. Herbrink (Paul)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe prognostic value of detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 DNA in histologically cancer free lymph nodes was assessed in left obturator lymph nodes from cervical cancer patients with HPV-16 positive primary tumours. HPV-16 DNA was detected by

  18. Scalable Production of HPV16 L1 Protein and VLPs from Tobacco Leaves.

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    Maryam Zahin

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the most common malignancy among women particularly in developing countries, with human papillomavirus (HPV 16 causing 50% of invasive cervical cancers. A plant-based HPV vaccine is an alternative to the currently available virus-like particle (VLP vaccines, and would be much less expensive. We optimized methods to express HPV16 L1 protein and purify VLPs from tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana leaves transfected with the magnICON deconstructed viral vector expression system. L1 proteins were extracted from agro-infiltrated leaves using a series of pH and salt mediated buffers. Expression levels of L1 proteins and VLPs were verified by immunoblot and ELISA, which confirmed the presence of sequential and conformational epitopes, respectively. Among three constructs tested (16L1d22, TPL1d22, and TPL1F, TPL1F, containing a full-length L1 and chloroplast transit peptide, was best. Extraction of HPV16 L1 from leaf tissue was most efficient (> 2.5% of total soluble protein with a low-salt phosphate buffer. VLPs were purified using both cesium chloride (CsCl density gradient and size exclusion chromatography. Electron microscopy studies confirmed the presence of assembled forms of HPV16 L1 VLPs. Collectively; our results indicated that chloroplast-targeted transient expression in tobacco plants is promising for the production of a cheap, efficacious HPV16 L1 VLP vaccine. Studies are underway to develop plant VLPs for the production of a cervical cancer vaccine.

  19. Análisis de variantes de HPV-16 como marcador molecular antropólogico

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    Badano, Ines

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El Virus Papiloma Humano tipo 16 (HPV16 es el principal responsable del desarrollo del cáncer de cuello uterino. Además de su significado clínico, el estudio de la variación genética en las regiones E6, L1 y LCR de este virus ha permitido identificar variantes específicas de diferentes áreas geográficas. Este descubrimiento sugiere una antigua propagación del HPV16 y su coevolución con el género humano. En este contexto, las variantes podrían servir como marcador molecular antropológico, aportando nuevos datos al análisis de patrones migratorios humanos. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar las variantes de HPV16 en las regiones genéticas E6 y L1 que infectan mujeres guaraníes de Misiones. Para ello se analizaron 39 muestras de cepillados cervicales de mujeres guaraníes infectadas con HPV16. Las variantes en E6 y L1 se identificaron por PCR e hibridación en dot blot. Los resultados obtenidos fueron: el 77% de las variantes Europeas, 20% Africanas y 3% Asiático Americanas. La baja prevalencia de variantes Asiático Americanas coincide con lo reportado por Picconi y col, 2002 para mujeres quechuas, y haría suponer una limitada diseminación del HPV16 durante la época prehispánica. El predominio de las variantes Europeas podría ser resultado de la colonización española y la inmigración europea, mientras que el tráfico de esclavos negros explicaría la presencia de variantes Africanas. Por otra parte, la hipótesis de competencia viral tampoco puede ser descartada.

  20. Retrospective analysis of HPV 16/18-related disease burden using archival clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilahi, Naureen Ehsan; Hashmi, Shoaib Naiyar; Anwar, Sobia; Murad, Sheeba

    2016-11-01

    Estimation of HPV-related disease burden lies at the core of effective disease management. HPV testing is heavily reliant on its retrospective detection in archival clinical cancer samples, especially in parts of the world where HPV screening is not routinely practiced. During the last decade, valuable insights were gained through regional reports based on occasional screening of cervical smears or biopsy sections for the presence of high-risk HPV. HPV 16 and 18 were found to be predominant high-risk HPV subtypes with some regional differences and incidences of co-infections, detected mostly through PCR-based methods. In cases of multiple infections, the presence of viral DNA may not signify its etiologic involvement. The current study, therefore, combines PCR-based detection method with the immunohistochemical (IHC) detection of early viral protein E6 expression, in order to obtain a reliable read out for the disease causing viral subtype, especially in cases of co-infections with oncogenic subtypes other than HPV 16 and 18. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and PCR-based methods are routinely used laboratory techniques in local hospitals. The concordance between IHC and PCR-based analyses may be useful for determining effective method for the retrospective testing of HPV 16 and 18 disease-related burden. A total of 49 paraffin-embedded cervical cancer biopsy sections representing patients from the northwest region of the country were collected from the tertiary care hospital for this study. Genotyping for HPV 16 and 18 was carried out through PCR. The HPV 16/18 E6 protein expression was evaluated by IHC and was compared with the clinicopathological features of cervical cancer. Molecular analysis of 33 (67 %), E6-expressing paraffin-embedded cervical cancer biopsy sections revealed the presence of HPV 16 (n = 23; 47 %), HPV 18 (n = 6; 12 %) and co-infection (n = 4; 8 %) in 49 tumors through PCR. Despite the PCR-based detection of viral DNA in 37 cervical cancer

  1. Eight Nucleotide Substitutions Inhibit Splicing to HPV-16 3′-Splice Site SA3358 and Reduce the Efficiency by which HPV-16 Increases the Life Span of Primary Human Keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoze; Johansson, Cecilia; Cardoso Palacios, Carlos; Mossberg, Anki; Dhanjal, Soniya; Bergvall, Monika; Schwartz, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The most commonly used 3′-splice site on the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) genome named SA3358 is used to produce HPV-16 early mRNAs encoding E4, E5, E6 and E7, and late mRNAs encoding L1 and L2. We have previously shown that SA3358 is suboptimal and is totally dependent on a downstream splicing enhancer containingmultiple potential ASF/SF2 binding sites. Here weshow that only one of the predicted ASF/SF2 sites accounts for the majority of the enhancer activity. We demonstrate that single nucleotide substitutions in this predicted ASF/SF2 site impair enhancer function and that this correlates with less efficient binding to ASF/SF2 in vitro. We provide evidence that HPV-16 mRNAs that arespliced to SA3358 interact with ASF/SF2 in living cells. In addition,mutational inactivation of the ASF/SF2 site weakened the enhancer at SA3358 in episomal forms of the HPV-16 genome, indicating that the enhancer is active in the context of the full HPV-16 genome.This resulted in induction of HPV-16 late gene expression as a result of competition from late splice site SA5639. Furthermore, inactivation of the ASF/SF2 site of the SA3358 splicing enhancer reduced the ability of E6- and E7-encoding HPV-16 plasmids to increase the life span of primary keratinocytes in vitro, demonstrating arequirement for an intact splicing enhancer of SA3358 forefficient production of the E6 and E7 mRNAs. These results link the strength of the HPV-16 SA3358 splicing enhancer to expression of E6 and E7 and to the pathogenic properties of HPV-16. PMID:24039800

  2. Eight nucleotide substitutions inhibit splicing to HPV-16 3'-splice site SA3358 and reduce the efficiency by which HPV-16 increases the life span of primary human keratinocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoze Li

    Full Text Available The most commonly used 3'-splice site on the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16 genome named SA3358 is used to produce HPV-16 early mRNAs encoding E4, E5, E6 and E7, and late mRNAs encoding L1 and L2. We have previously shown that SA3358 is suboptimal and is totally dependent on a downstream splicing enhancer containingmultiple potential ASF/SF2 binding sites. Here weshow that only one of the predicted ASF/SF2 sites accounts for the majority of the enhancer activity. We demonstrate that single nucleotide substitutions in this predicted ASF/SF2 site impair enhancer function and that this correlates with less efficient binding to ASF/SF2 in vitro. We provide evidence that HPV-16 mRNAs that arespliced to SA3358 interact with ASF/SF2 in living cells. In addition,mutational inactivation of the ASF/SF2 site weakened the enhancer at SA3358 in episomal forms of the HPV-16 genome, indicating that the enhancer is active in the context of the full HPV-16 genome.This resulted in induction of HPV-16 late gene expression as a result of competition from late splice site SA5639. Furthermore, inactivation of the ASF/SF2 site of the SA3358 splicing enhancer reduced the ability of E6- and E7-encoding HPV-16 plasmids to increase the life span of primary keratinocytes in vitro, demonstrating arequirement for an intact splicing enhancer of SA3358 forefficient production of the E6 and E7 mRNAs. These results link the strength of the HPV-16 SA3358 splicing enhancer to expression of E6 and E7 and to the pathogenic properties of HPV-16.

  3. Efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in women aged 15-25 years with and without serological evidence of previous exposure to HPV-16/18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarewski, A; Poppe, W A J; Skinner, S R; Wheeler, C M; Paavonen, J; Naud, P; Salmeron, J; Chow, S-N; Apter, D; Kitchener, H; Castellsagué, X; Teixeira, J C; Hedrick, J; Jaisamrarn, U; Limson, G; Garland, S; Romanowski, B; Aoki, F Y; Schwarz, T F; Bosch, F X; Harper, D M; Hardt, K; Zahaf, T; Descamps, D; Struyf, F; Lehtinen, M; Dubin, G

    2012-07-01

    In the Phase III PATRICIA study (NCT00122681), the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (Cervarix(®), GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) was highly efficacious against HPV-16/18 infections and precancerous lesions in women HPV-16/18 deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) negative and seronegative at baseline. We present further data on vaccine efficacy (VE) against HPV-16/18 in the total vaccinated cohort including women who may have been exposed to HPV-16/18 infection before vaccination. In women with no evidence of current or previous HPV-16/18 infection (DNA negative and seronegative), VE was 90.3% (96.1% confidence interval: 87.3-92.6) against 6-month persistent infection (PI), 91.9% (84.6-96.2) against cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)1+ and 94.6% (86.3-98.4) against CIN2+ [97.7% (91.1-99.8) when using the HPV type assignment algorithm (TAA)]. In women HPV-16/18 DNA negative but with serological evidence of previous HPV-16/18 infection (seropositive), VE was 72.3% (53.0-84.5) against 6-month PI, 67.2% (10.9-89.9) against CIN1+, and 68.8% (-28.3-95.0) against CIN2+ [88.5% (10.8-99.8) when using TAA]. In women with no evidence of current HPV-16/18 infection (DNA negative), regardless of their baseline HPV-16/18 serological status, VE was 88.7% (85.7-91.1) against 6-month PI, 89.1% (81.6-94.0) against CIN1+ and 92.4% (84.0-97.0) against CIN2+ [97.0% (90.6-99.5) when using TAA]. In women who were DNA positive for one vaccine type, the vaccine was efficacious against the other vaccine type. The vaccine did not impact the outcome of HPV-16/18 infections present at the time of vaccination. Vaccination was generally well tolerated regardless of the woman's HPV-16/18 DNA or serological status at entry. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  4. Multifocal Epithelial Hyperplasia of Oral Cavity Expressing HPV 16 Gene: A Rare Entity

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    M. P. V. Prabhat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare contagious disease caused by human papilloma virus. Usually HPV involves either cutaneous or mucosal surfaces, whereas concomitant mucocutaneous involvement is extremely rare. We report such a unique case of multifocal epithelial hyperplasia involving multiple sites of oral cavity along with skin lesions in a 65-year-old female. We also discuss the probable multifactorial etiology and variable clinical presentations of the lesions, including evidence of HPV 16 expression, as detected by polymerase chain reaction. The present report illustrates the need for careful examination and prompt diagnosis of the disease, as it might be associated with high risk genotypes such as HPV 16 and 18.

  5. Use of human papillomavirus DNA, E6/E7 mRNA, and p16 immunocytochemistry to detect and predict anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nittaya Phanuphak

    Full Text Available Men who have sex with men (MSM are at high risk of having anal cancer. Anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL is the precursor of anal cancer. We explored the use of different biomarkers associated with human papillomavirus (HPV infection and HPV-mediated cell transformation to detect and predict HSIL among HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM.A total of 123 HIV-positive and 123 HIV-negative MSM were enrolled and followed for 12 months. High-resolution anoscopy (HRA with biopsies were performed at every visit along with anal sample collection for cytology, high-risk HPV DNA genotyping, HPV E6/E7 mRNA, and p16 immunocytochemistry. Performance characteristics and area under the receiver operator characteristics curve were calculated for these biomarkers at baseline, and Cox regression compared the usefulness of these biomarkers in predicting incident HSIL. High-risk HPV DNA, E6/E7 mRNA, and p16 immunocytochemistry each identified 43-46% of MSM whose baseline test positivity would trigger HRA referral. E6/E7 mRNA had the highest sensitivity (64.7% and correctly classified the highest number of prevalent HSIL cases. With the exception of p16 immunochemistry, most tests showed significant increases in sensitivity but decreases specificity versus anal cytology, while the overall number of correctly classified cases was not significantly different. Baseline or persistent type 16 and/or 18 HPV DNA was the only test significantly predicting incident histologic HSIL within 12 months in models adjusted for HIV status and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions at baseline.Countries with a high HIV prevalence among MSM and limited HRA resources may consider using biomarkers to identify individuals at high risk of HSIL. E6/E7 mRNA had the highest sensitivity for prevalent HSIL detection regardless of HIV status, whereas type 16 and/or 18 HPV DNA performed best in predicting development of incident HSIL within 12 months.

  6. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse in Galicia, Spain: HPV 16 prevalence and vaccination impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Castro, Sonia; Lorenzo-Mahía, Yolanda; Iñarrea Fernández, Amparo; Lamas-González, María José; Sarán-Díez, María Teresa; Rubio-Alarcón, Joaquín; Reboredo-Reboredo, María Consuelo; Mosteiro-Lobato, Sonia; López-Miragaya, Isabel; Torres-Piñón, Julio; Melón-García, Santiago

    2014-10-01

    The etiology of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) can influence the efficacy of Public Health preventive strategies. This study aimed to determine the high-risk papillomavirus (HR-HPV) prevalence in CIN2+ cases in unvaccinated women in Galicia (Spain), the expected impact of bivalent vaccination, and the distribution of HPV 16 in squamous lesions. Ninety-four histologically confirmed cases of CIN2+ (2009-2010) were retrospectively studied: 23 CIN2, 58 CIN3- squamous carcinoma in situ (CIN3-CIS), 5 adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), and 8 invasive squamous cervical cancer (SCC). Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany) was performed on the cervical specimens. Bivalent vaccination impact was calculated, based on regional vaccination coverage data, local HR-HPV prevalence, and reported efficacy (direct and cross-protection) of the vaccine. HR-HPV prevalence was 96.8%. The most frequent genotypes were HPV 16 (48.8-58.2%) and HPV 31 (9.3%-12.1%), considering single infections or single-multiple infections, respectively (hierarchical attribution). In squamous lesions, HPV 16 prevalence in women younger than 45 years of age increased in severe lesions (CIN3-CIS/SCC, OR 4.2), and was higher than in older women (OR 5.5). The vaccine could reduce the cumulative incidence of CIN2+ by 50.6% (direct protection), or by 62.7% (direct and cross-protection). HPV vaccination could have a great impact in women younger than 45 years of age due to the high prevalence of HPV 16 in their lesions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 vaccine and HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Mira; Levin, Myron J; Chatterjee, Archana; Fox, Bradley; Scholar, Sofia; Rosen, Jeffrey; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Meric, Dorothée; Dessy, Francis J; Datta, Sanjoy K; Descamps, Dominique; Dubin, Gary

    2011-01-01

    In this observer-blind study (NCT00423046), women (N = 1,106), stratified by age (18–26, 27–35, 36–45 y), were randomized (1:1) to receive the HPV-16/18 vaccine (Cervarix®, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Months 0, 1, 6) or the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (Gardasil® Merck and Co., Inc., Months 0, 2, 6). Month 7 results were previously reported; we now report Month 24 results. In the according-to-protocol cohort for immunogenicity (seronegative and DNA-negative at baseline for HPV type analyzed), seropositivity rates of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) [pseudovirion-based neutralization assay] were, across all age strata, 100% (HPV-16/18 vaccine) and 97.5–100% (HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine) for HPV-16, and 99.0–100% (HPV-16/18 vaccine) and 72.3–84.4% (HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine) for HPV-18. Corresponding geometric mean titers (GMTs) were 2.4–5.8-fold higher for HPV-16 and 7.7–9.4-fold higher for HPV-18 with the HPV-16/18 vaccine vs. the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine; HPV-16 and HPV-18 GMTs were significantly higher with the HPV-16/18 vaccine than the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (p vaccinated cohort (received ≥1 vaccine dose, irrespective of baseline sero/DNA-status). Similar results were obtained using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA ). Positivity rates and GMTs of antigen-specific IgG antibodies in cervicovaginal secretions (ELISA) were not significantly different between vaccines. At Month 24, CD4+ T-cell responses for HPV-16 and HPV-18 were higher with the HPV-16/18 vaccine; memory B-cell response was higher for HPV-18 with the HPV-16/18 vaccine and similar between vaccines for HPV-16. Both vaccines were generally well tolerated. Although an immunological correlate of protection has not been defined, differences in the magnitude of immune response between vaccines may represent determinants of duration of protection. PMID:22048173

  8. Human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E 7 proteins alter NF-kB in cultured cervical epithelial cells and inhibition of NF-kB promotes cell growth and immortalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandermark, Erik R.; Deluca, Krysta A.; Gardner, Courtney R.; Marker, Daniel F.; Schreiner, Cynthia N.; Strickland, David A.; Wilton, Katelynn M. [Department of Biology, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5805 (United States); Mondal, Sumona [Department of Mathematics, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5805 (United States); Woodworth, Craig D., E-mail: woodworth@clarkson.edu [Department of Biology, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5805 (United States)

    2012-03-30

    The NF-kB family of transcription factors regulates important biological functions including cell growth, survival and the immune response. We found that Human Papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E7 and E6/E7 proteins inhibited basal and TNF-alpha-inducible NF-kB activity in human epithelial cells cultured from the cervical transformation zone, the anatomic region where most cervical cancers develop. In contrast, HPV-16 E6 regulated NF-kB in a cell type- and cell growth-dependent manner. NF-kB influenced immortalization of cervical cells by HPV16. Inhibition of NF-kB by an IkB alpha repressor mutant increased colony formation and immortalization by HPV-16. In contrast, activation of NF-kB by constitutive expression of p65 inhibited proliferation and immortalization. Our results suggest that inhibition of NF-kB by HPV-16 E6/E7 contributes to immortalization of cells from the cervical transformation zone.

  9. HPV16 E6 Controls the Gap Junction Protein Cx43 in Cervical Tumour Cells

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    Peng Sun

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16 causes a range of cancers including cervical and head and neck cancers. HPV E6 oncoprotein binds the cell polarity regulator hDlg (human homologue of Drosophila Discs Large. Previously we showed in vitro, and now in vivo, that hDlg also binds Connexin 43 (Cx43, a major component of gap junctions that mediate intercellular transfer of small molecules. In HPV16-positive non-tumour cervical epithelial cells (W12G Cx43 localised to the plasma membrane, while in W12T tumour cells derived from these, it relocated with hDlg into the cytoplasm. We now provide evidence that E6 regulates this cytoplasmic pool of Cx43. E6 siRNA depletion in W12T cells resulted in restoration of Cx43 and hDlg trafficking to the cell membrane. In C33a HPV-negative cervical tumour cells expressing HPV16 or 18 E6, Cx43 was located primarily in the cytoplasm, but mutation of the 18E6 C-terminal hDlg binding motif resulted in redistribution of Cx43 to the membrane. The data indicate for the first time that increased cytoplasmic E6 levels associated with malignant progression alter Cx43 trafficking and recycling to the membrane and the E6/hDlg interaction may be involved. This suggests a novel E6-associated mechanism for changes in Cx43 trafficking in cervical tumour cells.

  10. HPV 16 Is Related to the Progression of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2: A Case Series

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    Maria Gabriela Loffredo D’Ottaviano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe the acquisition, persistence, and clearance of HPV infection in women with CIN 2 followed up for 12 months. Methods. Thirty-seven women with CIN 2 biopsy, who have proven referral to cervical smear showing low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and tested for HPV, were followed up for one year with cervical smear, colposcopy, and HPV test every three months. HPV DNA was detected by the polymerase chain reaction and genotyping by reverse line blot hybridization assay. Results. CIN 2 regression rate was 49% (18/37, persistence as CIN 1 or CIN 2 was 22% (8/37, and progression to CIN 3 was 29% (11/37. Multiple HPV types were observed at admission in 41% (15/37 of cases. HPV 16 was detected at admission in 58% (11/19 of the cases that persisted/progressed and in 39% (7/18 of the cases that regressed. HPV 16 was considered possibly causal in 67% (10/15 of the cases that persisted or progressed and in 10% (1/10 of the cases that regressed (P=0.01. Conclusion. Multiple HPV infections were frequently detected among women with CIN 2 at admission and during the followup. The CIN 2 associated with HPV 16 was more likely to persist or to progress to CIN 3.

  11. Involvement of the p53 and HPV-16 early 3'UTRs in mRNA regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glahder, Jacob-Andreas Harald

    Genregulering forekommer på mange niveauer og elementer både i og udenfor genets læseramme er vigtige. I denne afhandling analyseres elementer i den tidlige 3' ikke-translaterede region (3'UTR) af Human Papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) genomet og også af p53 3'UTR. Elementer er blevet fundet i både...... HPV-16 og p53 3'UTR der eventuelt kan være involveret i post-transkriptionel regulering af messenger RNA (mRNA) kodet af disse gener. Elementerne med konsensus sekvensen UUUUUAU har tidligere været vist at påvirke reguleringen af maternelle mRNA i oogenese og tidlig udvikling. Elementerne kaldes...... cytoplasmatisk polyadenylerings elementer (CPE) da mRNA indeholdende disse bliver deadenyleret efter eksport fra kernen hvorefter de ligger inaktive i cytoplasma, men kan polyadenyleres og blive translationelt aktive. I denne afhandling viser vi at CPE elementer i den tidlige 3'UTR af HPV-16 hæmmer translationen...

  12. Genome wide expression analysis in HPV16 Cervical Cancer: identification of altered metabolic pathways

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    Salcedo Mauricio

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical carcinoma (CC is a leading cause of death among women worldwide. Human papilloma virus (HPV is a major etiological factor in CC and HPV 16 is the more frequent viral type present. Our aim was to characterize metabolic pathways altered in HPV 16 tumor samples by means of transcriptome wide analysis and bioinformatics tools for visualizing expression data in the context of KEGG biological pathways. Results We found 2,067 genes significantly up or down-modulated (at least 2-fold in tumor clinical samples compared to normal tissues, representing ~3.7% of analyzed genes. Cervical carcinoma was associated with an important up-regulation of Wnt signaling pathway, which was validated by in situ hybridization in clinical samples. Other up-regulated pathways were those of calcium signaling and MAPK signaling, as well as cell cycle-related genes. There was down-regulation of focal adhesion, TGF-β signaling, among other metabolic pathways. Conclusion This analysis of HPV 16 tumors transcriptome could be useful for the identification of genes and molecular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of cervical carcinoma. Understanding the possible role of these proteins in the pathogenesis of CC deserves further studies.

  13. Correlation between levels of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 and 18 antibodies in serum and cervicovaginal secretions in girls and women vaccinated with the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Tino F; Kocken, Mariëlle; Petäjä, Tiina

    2010-01-01

    This pooled analysis of data from four Phase III clinical trials was undertaken to assess the correlation between levels of anti-human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 antibodies in serum and cervicovaginal secretions (CVS) in girls and women vaccinated with the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine. Serum...... and CVS samples were collected from a subset of women aged 10-65 years (N=350) at pre-specified time-points from 7 to 36 months post-vaccination. Anti-HPV-16/18 antibody levels in serum and CVS were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pearson correlation coefficients between serum and CVS...... antibody levels, standardized for total immunoglobulin G, were calculated at each time-point in women with detectable antibodies in both serum and CVS. All subjects had seroconverted at Month 7 and remained seropositive through Month 36 for both antigens. Geometric mean titers of anti-HPV-16/18 antibodies...

  14. Prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV-16 genotyping by real-time PCR in patients with several cervical pathologies

    OpenAIRE

    Dinc,Bedia; Rota, Seyyal; Onan, Anil; Bozdayi,Gulendam; Taskiran,Cagatay; Biri,Aydan; Güner,Haldun

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: this study was planned to evaluate the prevalence of HPV (excepting type 16) and HPV 16 by real-time PCR in colposcopy patients and to interprete the results with age, age of first sexual intercourse (FSI), parity and Pap smear results. METHODS: one hundred and two colposcopy patients (50 and 52 of the patients were classified as colposcopy positive and negative, respectively) applying to Gynecology clinic were included. HPV (excepting type 16) and HPV 16 were detected by realtime PC...

  15. Ski protein levels increase during in vitro progression of HPV16-immortalized human keratinocytes and in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Pirisi, Lucia; Creek, Kim E

    2013-09-01

    We compared the levels of the Ski oncoprotein, an inhibitor of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling, in normal human keratinocytes (HKc), HPV16 immortalized HKc (HKc/HPV16), and differentiation resistant HKc/HPV16 (HKc/DR) in the absence and presence of TGF-β. Steady-state Ski protein levels increased in HKc/HPV16 and even further in HKc/DR, compared to HKc. TGF-β treatment of HKc, HKc/HPV16, and HKc/DR dramatically decreased Ski. TGF-β-induced Ski degradation was delayed in HKc/DR. Ski and phospho-Ski protein levels are cell cycle dependent with maximal Ski expression and localization to centrosomes and mitotic spindles during G2/M. ShRNA knock down of Ski in HKc/DR inhibited cell proliferation. More intense nuclear and cytoplasmic Ski staining and altered Ski localization were found in cervical cancer samples compared to adjacent normal tissue in a cervical cancer tissue array. Overall, these studies demonstrate altered Ski protein levels, degradation and localization in HPV16-transformed human keratinocytes and in cervical cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV-16 genotyping by real-time PCR in patients with several cervical pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinc, Bedia; Rota, Seyyal; Onan, Anil; Bozdayi, Gulendam; Taskiran, Cagatay; Biri, Aydan; Güner, Haldun

    2010-01-01

    this study was planned to evaluate the prevalence of HPV (excepting type 16) and HPV 16 by real-time PCR in colposcopy patients and to interprete the results with age, age of first sexual intercourse (FSI), parity and Pap smear results. one hundred and two colposcopy patients (50 and 52 of the patients were classified as colposcopy positive and negative, respectively) applying to Gynecology clinic were included. HPV (excepting type 16) and HPV 16 were detected by realtime PCR using the L1 region. Real-time nested amplifications of MY09/11 products were done by GP5+/GP6+ primers and Cyanine-5 labeled HPV and HPV 16 DNA specific probe after HPV DNA extraction by phenol chloroform isoamylalcohol. HPV (excepting type 16) and HPV 16 were positive in 12% and 18% of the colposcopy positive patients respectively. HPV (excepting type 16) and HPV 16 were positive in 5.7% and 3.8% of the colposcopy negative patients, respectively. there was a statistically significant difference between colposcopy positive and colposcopy negative patients comparing HPV 16 with total HPV positivity (p = 0.021 for type 16 and p = 0.010 for total HPV) but there was not a statistically significant difference between colposcopy positive and colposcopy negative patients when we compared HPV (excepting type 16) positivity (p = 0.314). In conclusion, HPV detection and typing may be helpful for cervical cancer screening and prevention.

  17. Prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV and HPV-16 genotyping by real-time PCR in patients with several cervical pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedia Dinc

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: this study was planned to evaluate the prevalence of HPV (excepting type 16 and HPV 16 by real-time PCR in colposcopy patients and to interprete the results with age, age of first sexual intercourse (FSI, parity and Pap smear results. METHODS: one hundred and two colposcopy patients (50 and 52 of the patients were classified as colposcopy positive and negative, respectively applying to Gynecology clinic were included. HPV (excepting type 16 and HPV 16 were detected by realtime PCR using the L1 region. Real-time nested amplifications of MY09/11 products were done by GP5+/GP6+ primers and Cyanine-5 labeled HPV and HPV 16 DNA specific probe after HPV DNA extraction by phenol chloroform isoamylalcohol. RESULTS: HPV (excepting type 16 and HPV 16 were positive in 12% and 18% of the colposcopy positive patients respectively. HPV (excepting type 16 and HPV 16 were positive in 5.7% and 3.8% of the colposcopy negative patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: there was a statistically significant difference between colposcopy positive and colposcopy negative patients comparing HPV 16 with total HPV positivity (p = 0.021 for type 16 and p = 0.010 for total HPV but there was not a statistically significant difference between colposcopy positive and colposcopy negative patients when we compared HPV (excepting type 16 positivity (p = 0.314. In conclusion, HPV detection and typing may be helpful for cervical cancer screening and prevention.

  18. The Relationship between the Antitumor Effect of the IL-12 Gene Therapy and the Expression of Th1 Cytokines in an HPV16-Positive Murine Tumor Model

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    Flor García Paz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effect of IL-12 expressed in plasmid on the Th1 cytokine profile in an experimental HPV16-positive murine tumor model and the association with the IL-12’s antitumor effect. Methods. Mice were injected with BMK-16/myc cells to establish HPV16-positive tumor and then pNGVL3-mIL-12 plasmid; pcDNA3 plasmid or PBS was injected directly into tumor site. The antitumor effect of the treatment was evaluated and the cytokines expression profile in each tumor tissue was analyzed. Results. Treatment with pNGVL3-mIL-12 plasmid had a significant antitumor effect, and a Th2-Th3-type cytokines prolife was detected in the murine tumor model with expression of the cytokines IL-10, IL-4, and TGF-β1. However, after the tumor was treated with three intratumoral injections of plasmid containing IL-12 cDNA, it showed a cytokine profile associated with Th1 with expression of IL-2, IL-12, and IFN-γ cytokines and reduced expression of IL-10, IL-4, and TGF-β1. Conclusions. The treatment with the IL-12 gene in the experimental HPV16-positive tumor model promoted the activation of the cellular immune response via expression of a Th1-type cytokine profile and was associated with the inhibition of tumor growth. Thus, IL-12 treatment represents a novel approach for gene therapy against cervical cancer.

  19. DETEKSI INFEKSI Human palillomavirus (HPV 16/18 PADA KARSINOMA SEL SKUAMOSA RONGGA MULUT DENGAN NESTED PCR

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    Siti Hamidatul Aliyah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTHead and neck cancer ranks fourth nationally cancer incidence in Indonesia. Oral SCC is one of Head and neck cancer incidence. Oral SCC related to several factors, including  smoking, alcohol, viral infection human papillomavirus (HPV 16/18 and genetic On the other hand, HPV E6 oncoprotein binds and inactivates TP53, and result in loss of control of the cell cycle. This study aimed to detect HPV 16/18 infection in oral SCC. Detection of HPV serotypes 16 and 18 performed on FFPE DNA isolates oral SCC with the method of nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. Nested PCR was performed in two stages, namely amplification with L1 primer, followed by specific PCR E6 HPV-16 and HPV-18. A total of 33% (11/33 FFPE samples showed positive for HPV 18 infection (single-sized DNA bands 415bp and not detected the presence of infection with HPV 16. It can be concluded that the type of FFPE biosampel can be used for studies related to HPV infection. Furthermore, it should be tested on different types biosampel by a larger amount so as to represent the prevalence of oncogenic HPV infection in Indonesia.Keyword: Oral SCC, HPV 16/18, PCR, FFPE ABSTRAKKanker kepala dan leher menempati urutan kejadian kanker keempat di Indonesia. KSS rongga mulut merupakan salah satu kejadian kepala dan kanker leher. KSS rongga mulut terkait dengan beberapa faktor, termasuk merokok, alkohol, infeksi virus human papillomavirus (HPV 16/18 dan genetik Di sisi lain, HPV E6 mengikat onkoprotein dan menginaktivasi TP53, dan mengakibatkan hilangnya kontrol dari siklus sel. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeteksi HPV 16/18 infeksi pada KSS rongga mulut Deteksi HPV serotipe 16 dan 18 dilakukan pada FFPE DNA isolat SCC lisan dengan metode bersarang Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. Nested PCR dilakukan dalam dua tahap, yaitu amplifikasi dengan L1 primer, diikuti dengan PCR spesifik E6 HPV-16 dan HPV-18. Sebanyak 33% (11/33 sampel FFPE menunjukkan hasil positif untuk HPV 18 infeksi

  20. Correlation between ebv co-infection and HPV16 genome integrity in Tunisian cervical cancer patients

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    Saloua Kahla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Infection with high risk Human papillomavirus (HR-HPV is necessary but not sufficient to cause cervical carcinoma. This study explored whether multiple HR-HPV or coinfection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV influence the integration status of HPV16 genome. The presence and typing of HPV in a series of 125 cervical specimens were assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using the specific primers for the HPV L1 region. As for EBV infection, the viral EBNA1 gene was used for its detection through PCR amplification. Disruption of the HPV E2 gene was assessed by amplification of the entire E2 gene with single set of primers, while E2 transcripts were evaluated by a reverse transcription PCR method (RT-PCR. The overall prevalence of HPVDNA was of 81.8% in cervical cancers versus 26.9% in benign lesions. In HPV positive cases, HPV16 and HPV18 were the most prevalent types, followed by HPV types 33, 31. EBV EBNA1 prevalence was statistically more frequent in cervical carcinomas than in benign lesions (29.5%, vs 9.6%; P=0.01. No viral infection was detected in healthy control women. The uninterrupted E2 gene was correlated with the presence of E2 transcripts originating from the HPV episomal forms. It was observed that integration was more common in HPV18 and EBV coinfection. The presence of EBV caused a five-fold [OR= 5; CI= 1.15-21.8; P = 0.04] increase in the risk of HPV16 genome integration in the host genome. This study indicates that EBV infection is acting as a cofactor for induction of cervical cancer by favoring HPVDNA integration.

  1. Correlation between ebv co-infection and HPV16 genome integrity in Tunisian cervical cancer patients.

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    Kahla, Saloua; Oueslati, Sarra; Achour, Mongia; Kochbati, Lotfi; Chanoufi, Mohamed Badis; Maalej, Mongi; Oueslati, Ridha

    2012-04-01

    Infection with high risk Human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is necessary but not sufficient to cause cervical carcinoma. This study explored whether multiple HR-HPV or coinfection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) influence the integration status of HPV16 genome. The presence and typing of HPV in a series of 125 cervical specimens were assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the specific primers for the HPV L1 region. As for EBV infection, the viral EBNA1 gene was used for its detection through PCR amplification. Disruption of the HPV E2 gene was assessed by amplification of the entire E2 gene with single set of primers, while E2 transcripts were evaluated by a reverse transcription PCR method (RT-PCR). The overall prevalence of HPVDNA was of 81.8% in cervical cancers versus 26.9% in benign lesions. In HPV positive cases, HPV16 and HPV18 were the most prevalent types, followed by HPV types 33, 31. EBV EBNA1 prevalence was statistically more frequent in cervical carcinomas than in benign lesions (29.5%, vs 9.6%; P=0.01). No viral infection was detected in healthy control women. The uninterrupted E2 gene was correlated with the presence of E2 transcripts originating from the HPV episomal forms. It was observed that integration was more common in HPV18 and EBV coinfection. The presence of EBV caused a five-fold [OR= 5; CI= 1.15-21.8; P = 0.04] increase in the risk of HPV16 genome integration in the host genome. This study indicates that EBV infection is acting as a cofactor for induction of cervical cancer by favoring HPVDNA integration.

  2. Correlation between ebv co-infection and HPV16 genome integrity in Tunisian cervical cancer patients

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    Kahla, Saloua; Oueslati, Sarra; Achour, Mongia; Kochbati, Lotfi; Chanoufi, Mohamed Badis; Maalej, Mongi; Oueslati, Ridha

    2012-01-01

    Infection with high risk Human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is necessary but not sufficient to cause cervical carcinoma. This study explored whether multiple HR-HPV or coinfection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) influence the integration status of HPV16 genome. The presence and typing of HPV in a series of 125 cervical specimens were assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the specific primers for the HPV L1 region. As for EBV infection, the viral EBNA1 gene was used for its detection thro...

  3. Genetic Diversity in the Major Capsid L1 Protein of HPV-16 and HPV-18 in the Netherlands.

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    Audrey J King

    Full Text Available Intratypic molecular variants of human papillomavirus (HPV type-16 and -18 exist. In the Netherlands, a bivalent vaccine, composed of recombinant L1 proteins from HPV-16 and -18, is used to prevent cervical cancer since 2009. Long-term vaccination could lead to changes in HPV-16 and -18 virus population, thereby hampering vaccination strategies. We determined the genetic diversity of the L1 gene in HPV-16 and -18 viral strains circulating in the Netherlands at the start of vaccination in order to understand the baseline genetic diversity in the Dutch population.DNA sequences of the L1 gene were determined in HPV-16 (n = 241 and HPV-18 (n = 108 positive anogenital samples collected in 2009 and 2011 among Dutch 16- to 24-year old female and male attendees of the sexually transmitted infection (STI clinics. Phylogenetic analysis was performed and sequences were compared to reference sequences HPV-16 (AF536179 and HPV-18 (X05015 using BioNumerics 7.1.For HPV-16, ninety-five single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs were identified, twenty-seven (28% were non-synonymous variations. For HPV-18, seventy-one SNPs were identified, twenty-nine (41% were non-synonymous. The majority of the non-silent variations were located in sequences encoding alpha helix, beta sheet or surface loops, in particular in the immunodominant FG loop, and may influence the protein secondary structure and immune recognition.This study provides unique pre-vaccination/baseline data on the genetic L1 diversity of HPV-16 and -18 viruses circulating in the Netherlands among adolescents and young adults.

  4. An RNA Aptamer Targets the PDZ-Binding Motif of the HPV16 E6 Oncoprotein

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    Tamara A. Belyaeva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16 is a high-risk DNA tumour virus which is the primary causative agent of cervical cancer. Cell transformation arises from deregulated expression of the E6 and E7 oncogenes. E6 has been shown to bind a number of cellular proteins, including p53 and proteins containing a PDZ domain. This study reports the first RNA aptamers to E6. These have been employed as molecular tools to further investigate E6-p53 and E6-PDZ interactions. This study is focussed on two aptamers (termed F2 and F4 which induced apoptosis in cells derived from an HPV16-transformed cervical carcinoma. The molecules were able to inhibit the interaction between E6 and PDZ1 from Magi1, with F2 being the most effective inhibitor. Neither of the aptamers inhibited E6-p53 interaction or p53 degradation. This study shows the specificity of this approach and highlights the potential benefits of the E6 aptamers as potential therapeutic or diagnostic agents in the future.

  5. An RNA Aptamer Targets the PDZ-Binding Motif of the HPV16 E6 Oncoprotein

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    Belyaeva, Tamara A.; Nicol, Clare; Cesur, Özlem [School of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences and Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Travé, Gilles [UMR 7242 CNRS-Université de Strasbourg, Ecole Supérieure de Biotechnologie, Boulevard Sébastien Brant, Illkirch 67412 (France); Blair, George Eric; Stonehouse, Nicola J., E-mail: n.j.stonehouse@leeds.ac.uk [School of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences and Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-24

    Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) is a high-risk DNA tumour virus which is the primary causative agent of cervical cancer. Cell transformation arises from deregulated expression of the E6 and E7 oncogenes. E6 has been shown to bind a number of cellular proteins, including p53 and proteins containing a PDZ domain. This study reports the first RNA aptamers to E6. These have been employed as molecular tools to further investigate E6-p53 and E6-PDZ interactions. This study is focussed on two aptamers (termed F2 and F4) which induced apoptosis in cells derived from an HPV16-transformed cervical carcinoma. The molecules were able to inhibit the interaction between E6 and PDZ1 from Magi1, with F2 being the most effective inhibitor. Neither of the aptamers inhibited E6-p53 interaction or p53 degradation. This study shows the specificity of this approach and highlights the potential benefits of the E6 aptamers as potential therapeutic or diagnostic agents in the future.

  6. Ovarian cancer gene therapy using HPV-16 pseudovirion carrying the HSV-tk gene.

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    Chien-Fu Hung

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from all gynecological cancers and conventional therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy usually fail to control advanced stages of the disease. Thus, there is an urgent need for alternative and innovative therapeutic options. We reason that cancer gene therapy using a vector capable of specifically delivering an enzyme-encoding gene to ovarian cancer cells will allow the cancer cell to metabolize a harmless prodrug into a potent cytotoxin, which will lead to therapeutic effects. In the current study, we explore the use of a human papillomavirus (HPV pseudovirion to deliver a herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk gene to ovarian tumor cells. We found that the HPV-16 pseudovirion was able to preferentially infect murine and human ovarian tumor cells when administered intraperitoneally. Furthermore, intraperitoneal injection of HPV-16 pseudovirions carrying the HSV-tk gene followed by treatment with ganciclovir led to significant therapeutic anti-tumor effects in murine ovarian cancer-bearing mice. Our data suggest that HPV pseudovirion may serve as a potential delivery vehicle for ovarian cancer gene therapy.

  7. Investigating Reports of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: An Analysis of HPV-16/18-Adjuvanted Vaccine Post-Licensure Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huygen, Frank; Verschueren, Kristin; McCabe, Candida; Stegmann, Jens-Ulrich; Zima, Julia; Mahaux, Olivia; Van Holle, Lionel; Angelo, Maria-Genalin

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain disorder that typically follows trauma or surgery. Suspected CRPS reported after vaccination with human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines led to temporary suspension of proactive recommendation of HPV vaccination in Japan. We investigated the potential CRPS signal in relation to HPV-16/18-adjuvanted vaccine (Cervarix®) by database review of CRPS cases with independent expert confirmation; a disproportionality analysis and analyses of temporality; an observed versus expected analysis using published background incidence rates; systematic reviews of aggregate safety data, and a literature review. The analysis included 17 case reports of CRPS: 10 from Japan (0.14/100,000 doses distributed) and seven from the United Kingdom (0.08/100,000). Five cases were considered by independent experts to be confirmed CRPS. Quantitative analyses did not suggest an association between CRPS and HPV-16/18-adjuvanted vaccine. Observed CRPS incidence after HPV-16/18 vaccination was statistically significantly below expected rates. Systematic database reviews using search terms varying in specificity and sensitivity did not identify new cases. No CRPS was reported during clinical development and no unexpected results found in the literature. There is not sufficient evidence to suggest an increased risk of developing CRPS following vaccination with HPV-16/18-adjuvanted vaccine. Post-licensure safety surveillance confirms the acceptable benefit-risk of HPV-16/18 vaccination. PMID:26501109

  8. Investigating Reports of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: An Analysis of HPV-16/18-Adjuvanted Vaccine Post-Licensure Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huygen, Frank; Verschueren, Kristin; McCabe, Candida; Stegmann, Jens-Ulrich; Zima, Julia; Mahaux, Olivia; Van Holle, Lionel; Angelo, Maria-Genalin

    2015-09-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain disorder that typically follows trauma or surgery. Suspected CRPS reported after vaccination with human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines led to temporary suspension of proactive recommendation of HPV vaccination in Japan. We investigated the potential CRPS signal in relation to HPV-16/18-adjuvanted vaccine (Cervarix®) by database review of CRPS cases with independent expert confirmation; a disproportionality analysis and analyses of temporality; an observed versus expected analysis using published background incidence rates; systematic reviews of aggregate safety data, and a literature review. The analysis included 17 case reports of CRPS: 10 from Japan (0.14/100,000 doses distributed) and seven from the United Kingdom (0.08/100,000). Five cases were considered by independent experts to be confirmed CRPS. Quantitative analyses did not suggest an association between CRPS and HPV-16/18-adjuvanted vaccine. Observed CRPS incidence after HPV-16/18 vaccination was statistically significantly below expected rates. Systematic database reviews using search terms varying in specificity and sensitivity did not identify new cases. No CRPS was reported during clinical development and no unexpected results found in the literature. There is not sufficient evidence to suggest an increased risk of developing CRPS following vaccination with HPV-16/18-adjuvanted vaccine. Post-licensure safety surveillance confirms the acceptable benefit-risk of HPV-16/18 vaccination.

  9. Analysis of E2 gene integrity in HPV16 and HPV58 viruses isolated from women with cervical pathology

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    María del R González-Losa

    Full Text Available Integration of human papillomavirus (HPV DNA into human cells accompanied by the disruption of the viral genome has been described as a prerequisite for cancer development. This study aimed to investigate E2 gene integrity of HPV16 and HPV58 viruses isolated from infected women with cervical lesions. Forty-two HPV16- and 31 HPV58-positive samples were analysed. E2 integrity was assumed when all fragments covering the E2 gene were amplified with specific polymerase chain reaction primers. Overall, in 59% of the samples, at least one fragment was not amplified in HPV16- (57% and HPV58-positive samples (61%. Samples from high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions had the highest frequency of E2 gene disruptions (73%, followed by samples from low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (63% and, finally, samples from invasive cervical cancer (35%. Association between the integrity status of the E2 gene, and lesion grade was assessed by the chi-squared test applied to the combined set of viruses (p = 0.6555 or to populations of the same virus type (HPV58, p = 0.3101; HPV16, p = 0.3024. In conclusion, in this study, no association was found between the presence of E2 gene disruptions and the grade of cervical lesions caused by HPV16 and HPV58.

  10. Analysis of E2 gene integrity in HPV16 and HPV58 viruses isolated from women with cervical pathology.

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    González-Losa, María Del R; Puerto-Solis, Marylin; Tenorio Ruiz, Juan; Rosado-López, Ariel I; Hau-Aviles, Oscar; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe; Cisneros-Cutz, Isidro; Conde-Ferráez, Laura

    2016-12-01

    Integration of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA into human cells accompanied by the disruption of the viral genome has been described as a prerequisite for cancer development. This study aimed to investigate E2 gene integrity of HPV16 and HPV58 viruses isolated from infected women with cervical lesions. Forty-two HPV16- and 31 HPV58-positive samples were analysed. E2 integrity was assumed when all fragments covering the E2 gene were amplified with specific polymerase chain reaction primers. Overall, in 59% of the samples, at least one fragment was not amplified in HPV16- (57%) and HPV58-positive samples (61%). Samples from high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions had the highest frequency of E2 gene disruptions (73%), followed by samples from low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (63%) and, finally, samples from invasive cervical cancer (35%). Association between the integrity status of the E2 gene, and lesion grade was assessed by the chi-squared test applied to the combined set of viruses (p = 0.6555) or to populations of the same virus type (HPV58, p = 0.3101; HPV16, p = 0.3024). In conclusion, in this study, no association was found between the presence of E2 gene disruptions and the grade of cervical lesions caused by HPV16 and HPV58.

  11. Specific Magnetic Isolation of E6 HPV16 Modified Magnetizable Particles Coupled with PCR and Electrochemical Detection.

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    Jimenez Jimenez, Ana Maria; Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Dostalova, Simona; Krejcova, Ludmila; Michalek, Petr; Richtera, Lukas; Adam, Vojtech

    2016-05-05

    The majority of carcinomas that were developed due to the infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) are caused by high-risk HPV types, HPV16 and HPV18. These HPV types contain the E6 and E7 oncogenes, so the fast detection of these oncogenes is an important point to avoid the development of cancer. Many different HPV tests are available to detect the presence of HPV in biological samples. The aim of this study was to design a fast and low cost method for HPV identification employing magnetic isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and electrochemical detection. These assays were developed to detect the interactions between E6-HPV16 oncogene and magnetizable particles (MPs) using commercial Dynabeads M-280 Streptavidin particles and laboratory-synthesized "homemade" particles called MANs (MAN-37, MAN-127 and MAN-164). The yields of PCR amplification of E6-HPV16 oncogene bound on the particles and after the elution from the particles were compared. A highest yield of E6-HPV16 DNA isolation was obtained with both MPs particles commercial M-280 Streptavidin and MAN-37 due to reducing of the interferents compared with the standard PCR method. A biosensor employing the isolation of E6-HPV16 oncogene with MPs particles followed by its electrochemical detection can be a very effective technique for HPV identification, providing simple, sensitive and cost-effective analysis.

  12. Specific Magnetic Isolation of E6 HPV16 Modified Magnetizable Particles Coupled with PCR and Electrochemical Detection

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    Ana Maria Jimenez Jimenez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The majority of carcinomas that were developed due to the infection with human papillomavirus (HPV are caused by high-risk HPV types, HPV16 and HPV18. These HPV types contain the E6 and E7 oncogenes, so the fast detection of these oncogenes is an important point to avoid the development of cancer. Many different HPV tests are available to detect the presence of HPV in biological samples. The aim of this study was to design a fast and low cost method for HPV identification employing magnetic isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR and electrochemical detection. These assays were developed to detect the interactions between E6-HPV16 oncogene and magnetizable particles (MPs using commercial Dynabeads M-280 Streptavidin particles and laboratory-synthesized “homemade” particles called MANs (MAN-37, MAN-127 and MAN-164. The yields of PCR amplification of E6-HPV16 oncogene bound on the particles and after the elution from the particles were compared. A highest yield of E6-HPV16 DNA isolation was obtained with both MPs particles commercial M-280 Streptavidin and MAN-37 due to reducing of the interferents compared with the standard PCR method. A biosensor employing the isolation of E6-HPV16 oncogene with MPs particles followed by its electrochemical detection can be a very effective technique for HPV identification, providing simple, sensitive and cost-effective analysis.

  13. A novel trivalent HPV 16/18/58 vaccine with anti-HPV 16 and 18 neutralizing antibody responses comparable to those induced by the Gardasil quadrivalent vaccine in rhesus macaque model

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    Fei Yin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Persistent infection with human papillomavirus (HPV is a key factor in the development of precancerous lesions and invasive cervical cancer. Prophylactic vaccines to immunize against HPV are an effective approach to reducing HPV related disease burden. In this study, we investigated the immunogenicity and dosage effect of a trivalent HPV 16/18/58 vaccine (3vHPV produced in Escherichia coli (E.coli, with Gardasil quadrivalent vaccine (4vHPV, Merck & Co. as a positive control. Sera collected from rhesus macaques vaccinated with three dosage formulations of 3vHPV (termed low-, mid-, and high-dosage formulations, respectively, and the 4vHPV vaccine were analyzed by both Pseudovirus-Based Neutralization Assay (PBNA and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. Strong immune responses against HPV 16/18/58 were successfully elicited, and dosage-dependence was observed, with likely occurrence of immune interference between different L1-VLP antigens. HPV 16/18 specific neutralizing antibody (nAb and total immunoglobulin G (IgG antibody responses in rhesus macaques receiving 3vHPV at the three dosages tested were generally non-inferior to those observed in rhesus macaques receiving 4vHPV throughout the study period. Particularly, HPV 18 nAb titers induced by the mid-dosage formulation that contained the same amounts of HPV 16/18 L1-VLPs as Gardasil 4vHPV were between 7.3 to 12.7-fold higher compared to the positive control arm from weeks 24–64. The durability of antibody responses specific to HPV 16/18 elicited by 3vHPV vaccines was also shown to be non-inferior to that associated with Gardasil 4vHPV. Keywords: Human papillomavirus, HPV 16/18/58, GMTs, Trivalent, Immunogenicity

  14. A novel HPV 16 L1-based chimeric virus-like particle containing E6 and E7 seroreactive epitopes permits highly specific detection of antibodies in patients with CIN 1 and HPV-16 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy-García, Alberto; Gómez-Lim, Miguel A; Weiss-Steider, Benny; la Rosa, Georgina Paz-de; Hernández-Montes, Jorge; Pérez-Saldaña, Karyna; Tapia-Guerrero, Yessica S; Toledo-Guzmán, Mariel E; Santiago-Osorio, Edelmiro; Sanchez-Peña, Héctor I; Mora-García, María de Lourdes

    2011-02-09

    The presence of IgG antibodies to HPV-16 L1-virus like particles (VLPs) in serum has been reported as a result of persistent exposure to the virus and as a marker of disease progression. However, detection of VLP-specific antibodies in sera does not always indicate a malignant lesion as positive results may also be due to a nonmalignant viral infection. Furthermore, malignant lesions are associated with an increased antibody titer for E6 and E7 proteins. The aim of this study was to develop an ELISA using a novel chimeric virus-like particle (cVLP) encoding an L1 protein fused with a string of HPV-16 E6 and E7 seroreactive epitopes to its C-terminus to be used for detection of HPV-16 specific antibodies in patients with cervical intraepithelial lesion grade 1 (CIN 1). The sera of 30 patients with CIN 1 who also tested positive for HPV-16 DNA and of 30 age-matched normal donors negative for HPV infection were tested for the presence of IgG antibodies specific for either VLP-L1 (HPV-16 L1), gVLP (derived from Gardasil), or cVLP by ELISA. The cVLP-reactive sera yielded two distinct groups of results: (H) reactivity levels that presented very strong cVLP-specific titers, and (L) reactivity levels with significantly lower titers similar to those obtained with VLP-L1 and gVLP antigens. Additionally, the sera that presented the higher cVLP titers closely matched those that had significantly stronger reactivity to E6 and E7 epitopes. Interestingly, the samples with the highest titers corresponded to patients with the higher numbers of sexual partners and pregnancies. On the other hand only 4 out of the 12 sera that harbored antibodies with VLP neutralizing ability corresponded to the group with high cVLP antibody titers. We report for the first time that chimeric particles containing HPV-16 L1 protein fused with E6 and E7 seroreactive epitopes enable much better detection of IgG antibodies in the sera of CIN 1 patients positive for HPV-16 infection than those obtained with

  15. Critical evaluation of HPV16 gene copy number quantification by SYBR green PCR

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    Pett Mark R

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papilloma virus (HPV load and physical status are considered useful parameters for clinical evaluation of cervical squamous cell neoplasia. However, the errors implicit in HPV gene quantification by PCR are not well documented. We have undertaken the first rigorous evaluation of the errors that can be expected when using SYBR green qPCR for quantification of HPV type 16 gene copy numbers. We assessed a modified method, in which external calibration curves were generated from a single construct containing HPV16 E2, HPV16 E6 and the host gene hydroxymethylbilane synthase in a 1:1:1 ratio. Results When testing dilutions of mixed HPV/host DNA in replicate runs, we observed errors in quantifying E2 and E6 amplicons of 5–40%, with greatest error at the lowest DNA template concentration (3 ng/μl. Errors in determining viral copy numbers per diploid genome were 13–53%. Nevertheless, in cervical keratinocyte cell lines we observed reasonable agreement between viral loads determined by qPCR and Southern blotting. The mean E2/E6 ratio in episome-only cells was 1.04, but with a range of 0.76–1.32. In three integrant-only lines the mean E2/E6 ratios were 0.20, 0.72 and 2.61 (values confirmed by gene-specific Southern blotting. When E2/E6 ratios in fourteen HPV16-positive cervical carcinomas were analysed, conclusions regarding viral physical state could only be made in three cases, where the E2/E6 ratio was ≤ 0.06. Conclusion Run-to-run variation in SYBR green qPCR produces unavoidable inaccuracies that should be allowed for when quantifying HPV gene copy number. While E6 copy numbers can be considered to provide a useable indication of viral loads, the E2/E6 ratio is of limited value. Previous studies may have overestimated the frequency of mixed episomal/integrant HPV infections.

  16. Health and economic outcomes of HPV 16,18 vaccination in 72 GAVI-eligible countries.

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    Goldie, Sue J; O'Shea, Meredith; Campos, Nicole Gastineau; Diaz, Mireia; Sweet, Steven; Kim, Sun-Young

    2008-07-29

    The risk of dying from cervical cancer is disproportionately borne by women in developing countries. Two new vaccines are highly effective in preventing HPV 16,18 infection, responsible for approximately 70% of cervical cancer, in girls not previously infected. The GAVI Alliance (GAVI) provides technical assistance and financial support for immunization in the world's poorest countries. Using population-based and epidemiologic data for 72 GAVI-eligible countries we estimate averted cervical cancer cases and deaths, disability-adjusted years of life (DALYs) averted and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (I$/DALY averted) associated with HPV 16,18 vaccination of young adolescent girls. In addition to vaccine coverage and efficacy, relative and absolute cancer reduction depended on underlying incidence, proportion attributable to HPV types 16 and 18, population age-structure and competing mortality. With 70% coverage, mean reduction in the lifetime risk of cancer is below 40% in some countries (e.g., Nigeria, Ghana) and above 50% in others (e.g., India, Uganda, Kenya). At I$10 per vaccinated girl (approximately $2.00 per dose assuming three doses, plus wastage, administration, program support) vaccination was cost-effective in all countries using a per capita GDP threshold; for 49 of 72 countries, the cost per DALY averted was less than I$100 and for 59 countries, it was less than I$200. Taking into account country-specific assumptions (per capita GNI, DPT3 coverage, percentage of girls who are enrolled in fifth grade) for the year of introduction, percent coverage achieved in the first year, and years to maximum coverage, a 10-year modeled scenario prevented the future deaths of approximately 2 million women vaccinated as adolescents. Despite favorable cost-effectiveness, assessment of financial costs raised concerns about affordability; as the cost per vaccinated girl was increased from I$10 to I$25 (approximately $2 to $5 per dose), the financial costs for the

  17. Seroepidemiology of Human Papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) L2 and Generation of L2-Specific Human Chimeric Monoclonal Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joshua W; Jagu, Subhashini; Wu, Wai-Hong; Viscidi, Raphael P; Macgregor-Das, Anne; Fogel, Jessica M; Kwak, Kihyuck; Daayana, Sai; Kitchener, Henry; Stern, Peter L; Gravitt, Patti E; Trimble, Cornelia L; Roden, Richard B S

    2015-07-01

    Presently, the seroprevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) minor capsid antigen L2-reactive antibody is not well understood, and no serologic standard exists for L2-specific neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, we screened a total of 1,078 serum samples for HPV16 L2 reactivity, and these were obtained from four prior clinical studies: a population-based (n = 880) surveillance study with a high-risk HPV DNA prevalence of 10.8%, a cohort study of women (n = 160) with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and two phase II trials in women with high-grade vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) receiving imiquimod therapy combined with either photodynamic therapy (PDT) (n = 19) or vaccination with a fusion protein comprising HPV16 L2, E7, and E6 (TA-CIN) (n = 19). Sera were screened sequentially by HPV16 L2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and then Western blot. Seven of the 1,078 serum samples tested had L2-specific antibodies, but none were detectably neutralizing for HPV16. To develop a standard, we substituted human IgG1 sequences into conserved regions of two rodent monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for neutralizing epitopes at HPV16 L2 residues 17 to 36 and 58 to 64, creating JWW-1 and JWW-2, respectively. These chimeric MAbs retained neutralizing activity and together reacted with 33/34 clinically relevant HPV types tested. In conclusion, our inability to identify an HPV16 L2-specific neutralizing antibody response even in the sera of patients with active genital HPV disease suggests the subdominance of L2 protective epitopes and the value of the chimeric MAbs JWW-1 and JWW-2 as standards for immunoassays to measure L2-specific human antibodies. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Cross-sectional study of HPV-16 infection in a population-based subsample of Hispanic adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, A P; Unger, E R; Muñoz, C; Panicker, G; Tortolero-Luna, G; Soto-Salgado, M; Otero, Y; Suárez, E; Pérez, C M

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and correlates of seropositivity to human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 in a subsample of adults who participated in the parent study Epidemiology of Hepatitis C in the adult population of Puerto Rico (PR). Setting The parent study was a population-based household survey aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of hepatitis C and other viral infections (hepatitis A, hepatitis B, HIV, and herpes simplex type 2) in PR (n=1654) between 2005 and 2008. Participants A subsample of the last 450 consecutive adults aged 21–64 years, recruited between February 2007 and January 2008, who participated in the parent study and agreed to participate in HPV testing. Primary and secondary outcome measures The samples were tested by ELISA for HPV-16 viral-like particle-specific immunoglobulin G. Information on sociodemographic, health, and lifestyle characteristics was collected. Logistic regression modelling was used to estimate the prevalence odds ratio (POR) to assess factors associated to HPV-16 seropositivity. Results Prevalence of seropositivity to HPV-16 was 11.3%. Seroprevalence was higher in women (15.8%) than men (5.6%; p=0.001). After adjusting for age and sex, ever smokers (POR 2.06, 95% CI 1.08 to 3.92) and participants with at least five lifetime sexual partners (POR 2.91, 95% CI 1.24 to 6.81) were more likely to be HPV-16 seropositive. Conclusions HPV-16 seropositivity is similar to that reported in the USA (10.4%) for NHANES 2003–2004 participants, although different assays were used in these studies. While future studies should evaluate HPV seroprevalence using a larger population-based sample, our results highlight the need to further understand the burden of HPV infection and HPV-related malignancies in PR, population with a low vaccine uptake. PMID:24496698

  19. Analysis of E2 gene integrity in HPV16 and HPV58 viruses isolated from women with cervical pathology

    OpenAIRE

    González-Losa,María del R; Puerto-Solis,Marylin; Tenorio Ruiz,Juan; Rosado-López,Ariel I; Hau-Aviles,Oscar; Ayora-Talavera,Guadalupe; Cisneros-Cutz,Isidro; Conde-Ferráez,Laura

    2016-01-01

    Integration of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA into human cells accompanied by the disruption of the viral genome has been described as a prerequisite for cancer development. This study aimed to investigate E2 gene integrity of HPV16 and HPV58 viruses isolated from infected women with cervical lesions. Forty-two HPV16- and 31 HPV58-positive samples were analysed. E2 integrity was assumed when all fragments covering the E2 gene were amplified with specific polymerase chain reaction primers. Ove...

  20. Abrogation of radiation-inducible telomerase upregulation in HPV16 E6 transfectants of human lymphoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhof, D.; Auberger, F.; Ruess, A.; Weber, K.J. [Radiobiology Research Lab., Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany); Wenz, F. [Section for Radiation Oncology, Univ. Clinic Mannheim (Germany)

    2004-01-01

    Background: telomerase activity in a human lymphoblastoid cell line with wild-type p53 status (TK6) was previously shown to be rapidly induced by ionizing radiation doses as low as 10 cgy. Since this low-dose response was absent in a closely related cell line overexpressing a mutant form of p53 (WTK1), the putative involvement of p53 was further investigated using stable human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) E6 transfectants of these cell lines. The E6 product mediates rapid degradation of wild-type p53, but has also been found to upregulate telomerase. Material and methods: telomerase activity in HPV16 E6 transfectants of the human lymphoblastoid cell lines TK6 and WTK1 was measured by PCR/ELISA and was quantified using internal standards (titration by cell number) run within each separate assay. Mean telomere length was determined by southern hybridization of terminal restriction fragments with a biotin-labeled telomeric DNA probe. Results: the TK6E6 and the WTK1E6 cells exhibited higher baseline telomerase activities than the parental cells. This was also accompanied by increased telomere lengths. Radiation exposure (up to 10 gy) was unable to significantly further enhance telomerase activities, although the dynamic range of the assay would have allowed to record higher signals. Conclusion: the lacking radiation induction of telomerase activities in the E6 transfectants could reflect saturation, if E6 and radiation would share a common pathway of telomerase upregulation. Present evidence from the literature, however, suggests that E6 mediates telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) subunit transcriptional activation, whereas radiation signals to posttranscriptional/posttranslational control of telomerase activity. Therefore, the present data enforce the previous hypothesis of a p53 dependence of telomerase upregulation by low doses of radiation and its abrogation, likely due to p53 degradation, in E6-expressing cells. (orig.)

  1. Significantly Reduced Genoprevalence of Vaccine-Type HPV-16/18 Infections among Vaccinated Compared to Non-Vaccinated Young Women 5.5 Years after a Bivalent HPV-16/18 Vaccine (Cervarix®) Pilot Project in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumakech, Edward; Berggren, Vanja; Wabinga, Henry; Lillsunde-Larsson, Gabriella; Helenius, Gisela; Kaliff, Malin; Karlsson, Mats; Kirimunda, Samuel; Musubika, Caroline; Andersson, Sören

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and some predictors for vaccine and non-vaccine types of HPV infections among bivalent HPV vaccinated and non-vaccinated young women in Uganda. This was a comparative cross sectional study 5.5 years after a bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccination (Cervarix®, GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) pilot project in western Uganda. Cervical swabs were collected between July 2014-August 2014 and analyzed with a HPV genotyping test, CLART® HPV2 assay (Genomica, Madrid Spain) which is based on PCR followed by microarray for determination of genotype. Blood samples were also tested for HIV and syphilis infections as well as CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte levels. The age range of the participants was 15-24 years and mean age was 18.6(SD 1.4). Vaccine-type HPV-16/18 strains were significantly less prevalent among vaccinated women compared to non-vaccinated women (0.5% vs 5.6%, p 0.006, OR 95% CI 0.08(0.01-0.64). At type-specific level, significant difference was observed for HPV16 only. Other STIs (HIV/syphilis) were important risk factors for HPV infections including both vaccine types and non-vaccine types. In addition, for non-vaccine HPV types, living in an urban area, having a low BMI, low CD4 count and having had a high number of life time sexual partners were also significant risk factors. Our data concurs with the existing literature from other parts of the world regarding the effectiveness of bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine in reducing the prevalence of HPV infections particularly vaccine HPV- 16/18 strains among vaccinated women. This study reinforces the recommendation to vaccinate young girls before sexual debut and integrate other STI particularly HIV and syphilis interventions into HPV vaccination packages.

  2. A novel trivalent HPV 16/18/58 vaccine with anti-HPV 16 and 18 neutralizing antibody responses comparable to those induced by the Gardasil quadrivalent vaccine in rhesus macaque model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fei; Wang, Yajun; Chen, Na; Jiang, Dunquan; Qiu, Yefeng; Wang, Yan; Yan, Mei; Chen, Jianping; Zhang, Haijiang; Liu, Yongjiang

    2017-06-01

    Persistent infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is a key factor in the development of precancerous lesions and invasive cervical cancer. Prophylactic vaccines to immunize against HPV are an effective approach to reducing HPV related disease burden. In this study, we investigated the immunogenicity and dosage effect of a trivalent HPV 16/18/58 vaccine (3vHPV) produced in Escherichia coli (E.coli), with Gardasil quadrivalent vaccine (4vHPV, Merck & Co.) as a positive control. Sera collected from rhesus macaques vaccinated with three dosage formulations of 3vHPV (termed low-, mid-, and high-dosage formulations, respectively), and the 4vHPV vaccine were analyzed by both Pseudovirus-Based Neutralization Assay (PBNA) and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Strong immune responses against HPV 16/18/58 were successfully elicited, and dosage-dependence was observed, with likely occurrence of immune interference between different L1-VLP antigens. HPV 16/18 specific neutralizing antibody (nAb) and total immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody responses in rhesus macaques receiving 3vHPV at the three dosages tested were generally non-inferior to those observed in rhesus macaques receiving 4vHPV throughout the study period. Particularly, HPV 18 nAb titers induced by the mid-dosage formulation that contained the same amounts of HPV 16/18 L1-VLPs as Gardasil 4vHPV were between 7.3 to 12.7-fold higher compared to the positive control arm from weeks 24-64. The durability of antibody responses specific to HPV 16/18 elicited by 3vHPV vaccines was also shown to be non-inferior to that associated with Gardasil 4vHPV. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Human papillomavirus type distribution and HPV16 intratype diversity in southern Brazil in women with and without cervical lesions

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    Gisele R de Oliveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Increasing evidence suggests that human papillomavirus (HPV intratype variants (specific lineages and sublineages are associated with pathogenesis and progression from HPV infection to persistence and the development of cervical cancer. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to verify the prevalence of HPV infection and distribution of HPV types and HPV16 variants in southern Brazil in women with normal cytology or intraepithelial lesions. METHODS HPV typing was determined by L1 gene sequencing. To identify HPV16 variants, the LCR and E6 regions were sequenced, and characteristic single nucleotide variants were identified. FINDINGS A total of 445 samples were studied, with 355 from cervical scrapes and 90 from cervical biopsies. HPV was detected in 24% and 91% of these samples, respectively. The most prevalent HPV types observed were 16 (cervical, 24%; biopsies, 57% and 58 (cervical, 12%; biopsies, 12%. Seventy-five percent of the HPV16-positive samples were classified into lineages, with 88% defined as lineage A, 10% as lineage D, and 2% as lineage B. MAIN CONCLUSIONS This study identified a high frequency of European and North American HPV16 lineages, consistent with the genetic background of the human population in southern Brazil.

  4. Vaccination against Oncoproteins of HPV16 for Noninvasive Vulvar/Vaginal Lesions : Lesion Clearance Is Related to the Strength of the T-Cell Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Poelgeest, Mariette I. E.; Welters, Marij J. P.; Vermeij, Renee; Stynenbosch, Linda F. M.; Loof, Nikki M.; Berends-van der Meer, Dorien M. A.; Lowik, Margriet J. G.; Hamming, Ineke L. E.; van Esch, Edith M. G.; Hellebrekers, Bart W. J.; van Beurden, Marc; Schreuder, Henk W.; Kagie, Marjolein J.; Trimbos, J. Baptist M. Z.; Fathers, Lorraine M.; Daemen, Toos; Hollema, Harry; Valentijn, A. Rob P. M.; Oostendorp, Jaap; Oude Elberink, J. Hanneke N. G.; Fleuren, Gertjan J.; Bosse, Tjalling; Kenter, Gemma G.; Stijnen, Theo; Nijman, Hans W.; Melief, Cornelis J. M.; van der Burg, Sjoerd H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Therapeutic vaccination with human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) E6 and E7 synthetic long peptides (SLP) is effective against HPV16-induced high-grade vulvar and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN/VaIN). However, clinical non-responders displayed weak CD8(+) T-cell reactivity. Here, we

  5. Vaccination against Oncoproteins of HPV16 for Noninvasive Vulvar/Vaginal Lesions : Lesion Clearance Is Related to the Strength of the T-Cell Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Poelgeest, Mariëtte I E; Welters, Marij J P; Vermeij, Renee; Stynenbosch, Linda F M; Loof, Nikki M; Berends-van der Meer, Dorien M A; Löwik, Margriet J G; Hamming, Ineke L E; van Esch, Edith M G; Hellebrekers, Bart W J; van Beurden, Marc; Schreuder, Henk W; Kagie, Marjolein J; Trimbos, J Baptist M Z; Fathers, Lorraine M; Daemen, Toos; Hollema, Harry; Valentijn, A Rob P M; Oostendorp, Jaap; Oude Elberink, J Hanneke N G; Fleuren, Gertjan J; Bosse, Tjalling; Kenter, Gemma G; Stijnen, Theo; Nijman, Hans W; Melief, Cornelis J M; van der Burg, Sjoerd H

    PURPOSE: Therapeutic vaccination with human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) E6 and E7 synthetic long peptides (SLP) is effective against HPV16-induced high-grade vulvar and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN/VaIN). However, clinical nonresponders displayed weak CD8(+) T-cell reactivity. Here, we

  6. C3-Luc Cells Are an Excellent Model for Evaluation of Cellular Immunity following HPV16L1 Vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Li

    Full Text Available C3 and TC-1 are the two model cell lines most commonly used in studies of vaccines and drugs against human papillomavirus (HPV infection. Because C3 cells contain both the HPV16 E and L genes, but TC-1 cells contain only the HPV16 E genes, C3 cells are usually used as the model cell line in studies targeting the HPV16 L protein. However, expression of the L1 protein is difficult to detect in C3 cells using common methods. In our study, Short tandem repeat analysis (STR was used to demonstrate that C3 cells are indeed derived from mice, PCR results show that HPV16 L1, E6 and E7 genes were detected in C3 genomic DNA, and RT-PCR results demonstrated that L1 transcription had occurred in C3 cells. However, the expression of C3 protein was not found in the results of western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC. Growth and proliferation of C3 were inhibited by mice spleen lymphocytes that had been immunized with a vaccine against HPV16L1. The luciferase gene was integrated into C3 cells, and it was confirmed that addition of the exogenous gene had no effect on C3 cells by comparing cell growth and tumor formation with untransformed cells. Cells stably expressing luciferase (C3-luc were screened and subcutaneously injected into the mice. Tumors became established and were observed using a Spectrum Pre-clinical in Vivo Imaging System. Tumor size of mice in the different groups at various time points was calculated by counting photons. The sensitivity of the animals to the vaccine was quantified by statistical comparison. Ten or 30 days following injection of the C3-luc cells, tumor size differed significantly between the PBS and vaccine groups, indicating that C3 cells were susceptible to vaccination even after tumors were formed in vivo.

  7. Molecular detection of HPV 16 and 18 in cervical samples of patients from Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil Detecção molecular de HPV 16 e 18 em amostras cervicais de pacientes de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Taíse Palmeiras Freitas

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of HPV infection and the types 16 and 18 in cervical samples from patients attended at two public health services of the city of Belo Horizonte, MG. METHODS: Cervical samples from 174 patients were collected for cytopathological and molecular tests. HPV infection was searched by PCR utilizing MY09 and MY11 primers or HPV 16 and HPV 18 specific primers. RESULTS: Amongst the 174 samples analyzed, 20.7% presented squamous intraepithelial and/or invasive lesions detected on cytopathological analysis and of those, 94.4% were infected by HPV. HPV 16 was found in 20% of the cases of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and in 40% and 50% of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and squamous invasive carcinoma, respectively. HPV 18 was detected in 6.7% of the low-grade lesion samples and in two HPV16 co-infected samples. In 50% of the cases of high-grade lesion, the HPV type was not determined. CONCLUSION: The HPV 16 was the virus type more frequently detected. However, more than 50% of the positive samples at the cytopathological analysis were negative for HPV 16 and 18, indicating that possibly other virus types are present in relative high frequencies in the studied population.OBJETIVOS: O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a freqüência da infecção por HPV e dos tipos 16 e 18 em amostras cervicais de pacientes atendidas em dois serviços públicos da cidade de Belo Horizonte-MG. MÉTODOS: Amostras cervicais de 174 pacientes foram coletadas para estudo citopatológico e molecular. A pesquisa da infecção por HPV foi feita através da PCR utilizando os oligonucleotídeos MY09/MY11. Os tipos virais 16 e 18 foram pesquisados através da utilização de oligonucleotídeos específicos. RESULTADOS: Dentre as 174 amostras analisadas, 20,7% apresentaram lesões escamosas intra-epiteliais e/ou invasoras detectadas na análise citopatológica, das quais 94,4% mostraram infec

  8. Detection of HPV16 in Esophageal Cancer in a High-Incidence Region of Malawi

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    Anja Lidwina Geßner

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to explore the role of human papillomavirus (HPV in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC. Fifty-five patients receiving diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at Zomba Central Hospital or Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Blantyre (Malawi in 2010, were included in our study. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsies were collected for histopathological diagnosis. HPV DNA was detected using multiplex Quantitative PCR (qPCR and in situ hybridization (ISH. p16INK4a staining served as a surrogate marker for HPV oncogene activity. Cell proliferation was determined by Ki-67 staining. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV status was evaluated by serology. Data on the consumption of alcohol and tobacco, and history of tuberculosis (TBC, oral thrush, and Herpes zoster, were obtained by questionnaire. Forty patients displayed ESCC, three displayed dysplastic epithelium, and 12 displayed normal epithelium. HPV16 was detected in six ESCC specimens and in one dysplastic lesion. Among HPV-positive patients, viral load varied from 0.001 to 2.5 copies per tumor cell. HPV DNA presence could not be confirmed by ISH. p16INK4a positivity correlated with the presence of HPV DNA (p = 0.03. Of particular note is that the Ki-67 proliferation index, in areas with diffuse nuclear or cytoplasmatic p16INK4a staining ≥50%, was significantly higher in HPV-positive tumors compared to the corresponding p16INK4a stained areas of HPV-negative tumors (p = 0.004. HPV infection in ESCC was not associated with the consumption of tobacco or alcohol, but there were significantly more patients drinking locally brewed alcohol among HPV-positive tumor patients compared to non-tumor patients (p = 0.02 and compared to HPV-negative tumor patients (p = 0.047. There was no association between HIV infection, history of TBC, Herpes zoster, oral thrush, or HPV infection, in ESCC patients. Our indirect evidence for viral oncogene activity is restricted to single tumor

  9. AAV-2 Rep78 and HPV-16 E1 interact in vitro, modulating their ATPase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Sarmistha; Raney, Kevin D; Liu, Yong; Hermonat, Paul L

    2008-01-15

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a nonpathogenic single-stranded human parvovirus which usually requires the presence of a "helper" virus for strong DNA replication. In addition to adeno- and herpes viruses, human papillomavirus (HPV) can serve as an AAV helper. We recently published that HPV type 16 (HPV-16) E1 protein contributes significantly as an individual helper gene for AAV-2 DNA replication and transcription. As Rep78 and E1 are the corresponding DNA helicase/replication proteins of AAV and HPV, respectively, and Rep78 and E1 have a degree of homology, we assayed whether these two proteins interact physically. The full length proteins were purified from bacteria as GST-E1 and MBP-Rep78 and used in five assays to observe Rep78-E1 interactions. All five assays (pull-down, coimmunoprecipitation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), chemical cross-linking, and ATPase activity) provided evidence consistent with Rep78-E1 interaction. Most intriguing, an overall decrease in ATPase activity was observed when both proteins were present together. These data strongly suggest that E1 and Rep78 interact and that this interaction modulates at least some of their individual biochemical functions. This study adds to our understanding of AAV-HPV interaction biology, E1's modulation of Rep78 biochemistry, Rep78's modulation of E1 biochemistry and provides initial clues which may lead to the underlying mechanism of HPV E1 helper function for AAV DNA replication.

  10. Temperature variable and the efficiency of sperm mediated transfection of HPV16 DNA into cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadze, Ruslana; Chan, Philip J; Jacobson, John D; Corselli, Johannah U; King, Alan

    2002-09-01

    To pretreat sperm at various temperatures before exposure to human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 DNA fragments and to assess the efficiency of HPV carrier sperm to transfect cumulus cells. Cumulus cells from follicular aspirates were obtained, pooled and divided into culture dishes containing Sybr Gold-stained HPV DNA carrying sperm that were either pretreated at 4 degree C, 37 degree C or 40 degree C (n = 5). The cells were incubated in 5% CO(2) in air mixture at 37 degree C for 24 hours. The efficiency of sperm to take up fluorescent HPV DNA was determined at hour 0. After incubation, cumulus cell viability was assessed using the eosin method and the percentages of fluorescent cumulus cells determined. Over half of all the cumulus cells became fluorescent with the highest percentage in the 37 degree C group. Sperm pretreated at 4 degree C had the greatest amount of HPV DNA fragments. Total sperm motility was similar for the 3 pretreatment groups. There were no differences in cumulus viability among the groups. Sperm pretreated at 37 degree C transferred the greatest amount of fluorescent HPV DNA fragments to the cumulus cells. The HPV DNA was observed in the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments. The data suggested the possibility of sperm as a vector for the transmission of HPV DNA to the cumulus cells surrounding ovulated oocytes, which might lead to early implantation failures.

  11. Clinicopathological implications of human papilloma virus (HPV) L1 capsid protein immunoreactivity in HPV16-positive cervical cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Jong; Lee, Ah-Won; Kang, Chang-Suk; Park, Jong-Sup; Park, Dong-Choon; Ki, Eun-Young; Lee, Keun-Ho; Yoon, Joo-Hee; Hur, Soo-Young; Kim, Tae-Jung

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of human papilloma virus (HPV) L1 capsid protein in abnormal cervical cytology with HPV16 infection and analyze its association with cervical histopathology in Korean women. We performed immunocytochemistry for HPV L1 in 475 abnormal cervical cytology samples from patients with HPV16 infections using the Cytoactiv(®) HPV L1 screening set. We investigated the expression of HPV L1 in cervical cytology samples and compared it with the results of histopathological examination of surgical specimens. Of a total of 475 cases, 188 (39.6%) were immunocytochemically positive and 287 (60.4%) negative for HPV L1. The immunocytochemical expression rates of HPV L1 in atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), and cancer were 21.8%, 59.7%, 19.1%, and 0.0%, respectively. LSIL exhibited the highest rate of HPV L1 positivity. Of a total of 475 cases, the multiple-type HPV infection rate, including HPV16, in HPV L1-negative cytology samples was 27.5%, which was significantly higher than that in HPV L1-positive cytology samples (p = 0.037). The absence of HPV L1 expression in ASCUS and LSIL was significantly associated with high-grade (≥ cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] 2) than low-grade (≤ CIN1) histopathology diagnoses (p HPV16 single and multiple-type HPV infections (p > 0.05). On the other hand, among 188 HPV L1-positive cases, 30.6% of multiple-type HPV infections showed high-grade histopathology diagnoses (≥ CIN3), significantly higher than the percentage of HPV16 single infections (8.6%) (p = 0.0004) CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that the expression of HPV L1 is low in advanced dysplasia. Furthermore, the absence of HPV L1 in HPV16-positive low-grade cytology (i.e., ASCUS and LSIL) is strongly associated with high-grade histopathology diagnoses. The multiplicity of HPV infections

  12. Reduced prevalence of vulvar HPV16/18 infection among women who received the HPV16/18 bivalent vaccine: a nested analysis within the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang Kuhs, Krystle A; Gonzalez, Paula; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Schiffman, Mark; Struijk, Linda; Chen, Sabrina; Quint, Wim; Lowy, Douglas R; Porras, Carolina; DelVecchio, Corey; Jimenez, Silvia; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Schiller, John T; Wacholder, Sholom; Herrero, Rolando; Hildesheim, Allan; Kreimer, Aimée R

    2014-12-15

    Vaccine efficacy (VE) against vulvar human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has not been reported and data regarding its epidemiology are sparse. Women (n = 5404) age 22-29 present at the 4-year study visit of the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial provided vulvar and cervical samples. A subset (n = 1044) was tested for HPV DNA (SPF10/LiPA25 version 1). VE against 1-time detection of vulvar HPV16/18 among HPV vaccinated versus unvaccinated women was calculated and compared to the cervix. Prevalence of and risk factors for HPV were evaluated in the control arm (n = 536). Vulvar HPV16/18 VE (54.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.9%-79.1%) was comparable to cervix (45.8%; 95% CI, 6.4%-69.4%). Vulvar and cervical HPV16 prevalence within the control arm was 3.0% and 4.7%, respectively. Independent risk factors for vulvar HPV were similar to cervix and included: age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.5 [95% CI, .3-.9] ≥28 vs 22-23]); marital status (aOR 2.3 [95% CI, 1.5-3.5] single vs married/living-as-married); and number of sexual partners (aOR 3.6 [95% CI, 1.9-7.0] ≥6 vs 1). In this intention-to-treat analysis, VE against vulvar and cervical HPV16/18 were comparable 4 years following vaccination. Risk factors for HPV were similar by anatomic site. NCT00128661. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  13. Changes in global gene expression profiles induced by HPV 16 E6 oncoprotein variants in cervical carcinoma C33-A cells

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    Zacapala-Gómez, Ana Elvira, E-mail: zak_ana@yahoo.com.mx [Laboratorio de Biomedicina Molecular, Unidad Académica de Ciencias Químico Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero, Chilpancingo, Gro., México (Mexico); Del Moral-Hernández, Oscar, E-mail: odelmoralh@gmail.com [Laboratorio de Biomedicina Molecular, Unidad Académica de Ciencias Químico Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero, Chilpancingo, Gro., México (Mexico); Villegas-Sepúlveda, Nicolás, E-mail: nvillega@cinvestav.mx [Departamento de Biomedicina Molecular, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CINVESTAV-IPN), México, D.F., México (Mexico); Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo, E-mail: ahidalgo@inmegen.gob.mx [Laboratorio de Genómica del Cáncer, Instituto Nacional de Medicina Genómica (INMEGEN), México, D.F., México (Mexico); Romero-Córdoba, Sandra Lorena, E-mail: sromero_cordoba@hotmail.com [Laboratorio de Genómica del Cáncer, Instituto Nacional de Medicina Genómica (INMEGEN), México, D.F., México (Mexico); and others

    2016-01-15

    We analyzed the effects of the expression of HPV 16 E6 oncoprotein variants (AA-a, AA-c, E-A176/G350, E-C188/G350, E-G350), and the E-Prototype in global gene expression profiles in an in vitro model. E6 gene was cloned into an expression vector fused to GFP and was transfected in C33-A cells. Affymetrix GeneChip Human Transcriptome Array 2.0 platform was used to analyze the expression of over 245,000 coding transcripts. We found that HPV16 E6 variants altered the expression of 387 different genes in comparison with E-Prototype. The altered genes are involved in cellular processes related to the development of cervical carcinoma, such as adhesion, angiogenesis, apoptosis, differentiation, cell cycle, proliferation, transcription and protein translation. Our results show that polymorphic changes in HPV16 E6 natural variants are sufficient to alter the overall gene expression profile in C33-A cells, explaining in part the observed differences in oncogenic potential of HPV16 variants. - Highlights: • Amino acid changes in HPV16 E6 variants modulate the transciption of specific genes. • This is the first comparison of global gene expression profile of HPV 16 E6 variants. • Each HPV 16 E6 variant appears to have its own molecular signature.

  14. Investigating Reports of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: An Analysis of HPV-16/18-Adjuvanted Vaccine Post-Licensure Data

    OpenAIRE

    Huygen, Frank; Verschueren, Kristin; McCabe, Candida; Stegmann, Jens-Ulrich; Zima, Julia; Mahaux, Olivia; Van Holle, Lionel; Angelo, Maria-Genalin

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain disorder that typically follows trauma or surgery. Suspected CRPS reported after vaccination with human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines led to temporary suspension of proactive recommendation of HPV vaccination in Japan. We investigated the potential CRPS signal in relation to HPV-16/18-adjuvanted vaccine (Cervarix®) by database review of CRPS cases with independent expert confirmation; a disproportionality analysis and analyses of tempora...

  15. Long-term persistence of systemic and mucosal immune response to HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in preteen/adolescent girls and young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petäjä, T; Pedersen, Court; Poder, A

    2011-01-01

    Vaccination against oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types is one key intervention for cervical cancer prevention. This follow-up study assessed the persistence of the systemic and mucosal immune responses together with the safety profile of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered...... of transudation or exudation of serum IgG antibodies through the cervical epithelium. The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine had a clinically acceptable safety profile. In conclusion, this follow-up study shows that the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered to preteen/adolescents girls and young women...

  16. Genotyping for Human Papillomavirus (HPV 16/18/52/58 Has a Higher Performance than HPV16/18 Genotyping in Triaging Women with Positive High-risk HPV Test in Northern Thailand.

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    Surapan Khunamornpong

    Full Text Available Testing for high-risk human papillomavirus DNA (HPV test has gained increasing acceptance as an alternative method to cytology in cervical cancer screening. Compared to cytology, HPV test has a higher sensitivity for the detection of histologic high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worse (HSIL+, but this could lead to a large colposcopy burden. Genotyping for HPV16/18 has been recommended in triaging HPV-positive women. This study was aimed to evaluate the screening performance of HPV testing and the role of genotyping triage in Northern Thailand.A population-based cervical screening program was performed in Chiang Mai (Northern Thailand using cytology (conventional Pap test and HPV test (Hybrid Capture 2. Women who had abnormal cytology or were HPV-positive were referred for colposcopy. Cervical samples from these women were genotyped using the Linear Array assay.Of 5,456 women, 2.0% had abnormal Pap test results and 6.5% tested positive with Hybrid Capture 2. Of 5,433 women eligible for analysis, 355 with any positive test had histologic confirmation and 57 of these had histologic HSIL+. The sensitivity for histologic HSIL+ detection was 64.9% for Pap test and 100% for Hybrid Capture 2, but the ratio of colposcopy per detection of each HSIL+ was more than two-fold higher with Hybrid Capture 2 than Pap test (5.9 versus 2.8. Genotyping results were available in 316 samples. HPV52, HPV16, and HPV58 were the three most common genotypes among women with histologic HSIL+. Performance of genotyping triage using HPV16/18/52/58 was superior to that of HPV16/18, with a higher sensitivity (85.7% versus 28.6% and negative predictive value (94.2% versus 83.9%.In Northern Thailand, HPV testing with genotyping triage shows better screening performance than cervical cytology alone. In this region, the addition of genotyping for HPV52/58 to HPV16/18 is deemed necessary in triaging women with positive HPV test.

  17. The Prevalence and pattern of HPV-16 immunostaining in uterine cervical carcinomas in Ethiopian women: a pilot study

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    Mona M Rashed

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cancer of the cervix uteri is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. The association of human papillomavirus (HPV infection with cervical carcinogenesis is well documented. This is a pilot study aiming to studying the prevalence and the pattern of Human Papilloma Virus Type 16 (HPV16 by immunostaining in the tissues of cervical carcinomas of Ethiopian women. METHODS: 20 specimens of uterine cervical carcinomas were studied histopathologically and immunohistochemically for HPV16. RESULTS: Histologically the specimens were classified as: Ten cases were Non Keratinized Squamous cell carcinoma (NKSCC, six cases were Keratinized Squamous Cell Carcinoma (KSCC and four cases were Adenocarcinoma (ADC. Immunohistochemistry study showed positivity in eleven cases (55%; seven cases (35% were non-keratinized squamous cell carcinoma; three cases (15% were keratinized squamous cell carcinoma and one case (5% belonged to the adenocarcinomas. CONCLUSION: This study reveals a significant detection of HPV in Ethiopian women by the use of advanced techniques such as Immunohistochemistry (IHC. The data of this study suggested that the marked expression of the HPV 16 was in the less differentiated uterine cervix carcinomas

  18. E1^E4-mediated keratin phosphorylation and ubiquitylation: a mechanism for keratin depletion in HPV16-infected epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Pauline B.; Laskey, Peter; Sullivan, Kate; Davy, Clare; Wang, Qian; Jackson, Deborah J.; Griffin, Heather M.; Doorbar, John

    2010-01-01

    The keratin IF network of epidermal keratinocytes provides a protective barrier against mechanical insult, it is also a major player in absorbing stress in these cells. The human papilloma virus (HPV) type 16 E1^E4 protein accumulates in the upper layers of HPV16-infected epithelium and is known to associate with and reorganise the keratin IF network in cells in culture. Here, we show that this function is conserved amongst a number of HPV alpha-group E1^E4 proteins and that the differentiation-dependent keratins are also targeted. Using time-lapse microscopy, HPV16 E1^E4 was found to effect a dramatic cessation of keratin IF network dynamics by associating with both soluble and insoluble keratin. Network disruption was accompanied by keratin hyperphosphorylation at several sites, including K8 S73, which is typically phosphorylated in response to stress stimuli. Keratin immunoprecipitated from E1^E4-expressing cells was also found to be ubiquitylated, indicating that it is targeted for proteasomal degradation. Interestingly, the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated, ubiquitylated E1^E4-keratin structures was found to result in an impairment of proteasomal function. These observations shed new light on the mechanism of keratin IF network reorganisation mediated by HPV16 E1^E4 and provide an insight into the depletion of keratin co-incident with E1^E4 accumulation observed in HPV-infected epithelium. PMID:20663917

  19. PCR based detection of HPV 16 and 18 genotypes in normal oral mucosa of tobacco users and non-users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanshetty, S; Kotrashetti, V S; Nayak, R; Bhat, K; Somannavar, P; Babji, D

    2014-08-01

    There is increasing evidence of a causal association between human papillomavirus (HPV) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Several studies have shown that HPV is associated with increased risk of oral cancer independent of exposure to tobacco and alcohol. The association is valid for HPVs 16 and 18, which generally are considered high risk types, because they have been detected in oral dysplastic lesions and cancers. We determined the baseline prevalence of HPVs 16 and 18 in normal oral mucosa of individuals with and without tobacco habit. PCR was used for DNA collected by oral smears to detect HPV 16/18 DNA in normal oral mucosa of 60 healthy individuals who were assigned to two groups of 30 subjects each. One group had a tobacco habit, the other did not. The tobacco user group comprised individuals who were tobacco chewers only. Sixty-five percent of individuals were positive for HPV 16/18 DNA, but HPV 16/18 positivity was less in individuals with tobacco habit than in those without tobacco habit. No significant association was found between the presence of HPVs and gender, age or duration of chewing habit, or between groups with and without a tobacco habit. We propose that HPVs16 and 18 commonly are present in normal oral mucosa and emphasize the importance of distinguishing clinical, subclinical and latent HPV infections when investigating HPVs and OSCC.

  20. HPV16-E2 protein modifies self-renewal and differentiation rate in progenitor cells of human immortalized keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Catzín, Victoria; Reveles-Espinoza, Alicia-María; Sánchez-Ramos, Janet; Cruz-Cadena, Raúl; Lemus-Hernández, Diana; Garrido, Efraín

    2017-04-03

    Cervical cancer is the fourth cause of death worldwide by cancer in women and is a disease associated to persistent infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), particularly from two high-risk types HPV16 and 18. The virus initiates its replicative cycle infecting cells located in the basal layer of the epithelium, where a small population of epithelial stem cells is located performing important functions of renewal and maintenance of the tissue. Viral E2 gene is one of the first expressed after infection and plays relevant roles in the replicative cycle of the virus, modifying fundamental processes in the infected cells. Thus, the aim of the present study was to demonstrate the presence of hierarchic subpopulations in HaCaT cell line and evaluate the effect of HPV16-E2 expression, on their biological processes. HaCaT-HPV16-E2 cells were generated by transduction of HaCaT cell line with a lentiviral vector. The α6-integrin-CD71 expression profile was established by immunostaining and flow cytometric analysis. After sorting, cell subpopulations were analyzed in biological assays for self-renewal, clonogenicity and expression of stemness factors (RT-qPCR). We identified in HaCaT cell line three different subpopulations that correspond to early differentiated cells (α6-integrindim), transitory amplifying cells (α6-integrinbri/CD71bri) and progenitor cells (α6-integrinbri/CD71dim). The last subpopulation showed stem cell characteristics, such as self-renewal ability, clonogenicity and expression of the well-known stem cell factors SOX2, OCT4 and NANOG, suggesting they are stem-like cells. Interestingly, the expression of HPV16-E2 in HaCaT cells changed its α6-integrin-CD71 immunophenotype modifying the relative abundance of the cell subpopulations, reducing significantly the percentage of α6-integrinbri/CD71dim cells. Moreover, the expression of the stem cell markers was also modified, increasing the expression of SOX2 and NANOG, but decreasing notably the

  1. Long-term persistence of systemic and mucosal immune response to HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in preteen/adolescent girls and young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petäjä, T; Pedersen, C; Andersen, Anne Poder

    2010-01-01

    Vaccination against oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types is one key intervention for cervical cancer prevention. This follow-up study assessed the persistence of the systemic and mucosal immune responses together with the safety profile of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered...... induces long-term systemic and mucosal immune response and has a clinically acceptable safety profile up to four years after the first vaccine dose....... seropositive for serum anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies. As previously observed, anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibody levels (ELISA Units/mL) were higher in subjects vaccinated at the age of 10-14 years (2862.2 and 940.8) compared to subjects vaccinated at the age of 15-25 years (1186.2 and 469.8). Moreover, anti-HPV-16...

  2. Identification of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 DNA integration and the ensuing patterns of methylation in HPV-associated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Takashi; Sano, Daisuke; Takahashi, Hideaki; Hyakusoku, Hiroshi; Isono, Yasuhiro; Shimada, Shoko; Sawakuma, Kae; Takada, Kentaro; Oikawa, Ritsuko; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Itoh, Fumio; Myers, Jeffrey N; Oridate, Nobuhiko

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies showed that human papillomavirus (HPV) integration contributes to the genomic instability seen in HPV-associated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HPV-HNSCC). However, the epigenetic alterations induced after HPV integration remains unclear. To identify the molecular details of HPV16 DNA integration and the ensuing patterns of methylation in HNSCC, we performed next-generation sequencing using a target-enrichment method for the effective identification of HPV16 integration breakpoints as well as the characterization of genomic sequences adjacent to HPV16 integration breakpoints with three HPV16-related HNSCC cell lines. The DNA methylation levels of the integrated HPV16 genome and that of the adjacent human genome were also analyzed by bisulfite pyrosequencing. We found various integration loci, including novel integration sites. Integration loci were located predominantly in the intergenic region, with a significant enrichment of the microhomologous sequences between the human and HPV16 genomes at the integration breakpoints. Furthermore, various levels of methylation within both the human genome and the integrated HPV genome at the integration breakpoints in each integrant were observed. Allele-specific methylation analysis suggested that the HPV16 integrants remained hypomethylated when the flanking host genome was hypomethylated. After integration into highly methylated human genome regions, however, the HPV16 DNA became methylated. In conclusion, we found novel integration sites and methylation patterns in HPV-HNSCC using our unique method. These findings may provide insights into understanding of viral integration mechanism and virus-associated carcinogenesis of HPV-HNSCC. © 2016 UICC.

  3. Analysis of peripheral blood immune cells after prophylactic immunization with HPV-16/18 ASO4-adjuvanted vaccine

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    Iwona Hus

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Persistent infection with oncogenic types of human papillomavirus (HPV is a causal factor for more than 99% of cervical cancers. Recently, prophylactic vaccines have been developed to prevent infections with cancer-associated HPV types (HPV16 and HPV18. The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in the immune system that occur within four weeks of the first dose of HPV-16/18 ASO4-adjuvanted vaccine. Assessment of the percentages of selected cell populations in peripheral blood of 20 healthy volunteers vaccinated with Cervarix was performed using flow cytometry. The analysis revealed an increase in the proportion of activated B and CD4+ T helper cells and an absence of significant differences in cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes, indicating activation of the humoral response after vaccination, without a significant effect on cellular response. There were no significant changes in the NK cell population, and there was a reduction of the percentage of NKT-like cells, which may result from expiry of the primary response at the time of analysis. The presented results are preliminary, and in the context of the increasing use of the anti-HPV vaccine, it would be worth continuing the study in larger groups of patients and at earlier and later time points in combination with the measurement of specific anti-HPV16 and -HPV18 antibody levels. Such an assessment could therefore contribute not only to better understanding of the exact mechanism of action of the vaccine, but also to defining the immunological parameters that determine its effectiveness.

  4. Analysis of peripheral blood immune cells after prophylactic immunization with HPV-16/18 ASO4-adjuvanted vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hus, Iwona; Gonet-Sebastianka, Joanna; Surdacka, Agata; Bojarska-Junak, Agnieszka; Roliński, Jacek

    2015-04-28

    Persistent infection with oncogenic types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is a causal factor for more than 99% of cervical cancers. Recently, prophylactic vaccines have been developed to prevent infections with cancer-associated HPV types (HPV16 and HPV18). The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in the immune system that occur within four weeks of the first dose of HPV-16/18 ASO4-adjuvanted vaccine. Assessment of the percentages of selected cell populations in peripheral blood of 20 healthy volunteers vaccinated with Cervarix was performed using flow cytometry. The analysis revealed an increase in the proportion of activated B and CD4+ T helper cells and an absence of significant differences in cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes, indicating activation of the humoral response after vaccination, without a significant effect on cellular response. There were no significant changes in the NK cell population, and there was a reduction of the percentage of NKT-like cells, which may result from expiry of the primary response at the time of analysis. The presented results are preliminary, and in the context of the increasing use of the anti-HPV vaccine, it would be worth continuing the study in larger groups of patients and at earlier and later time points in combination with the measurement of specific anti-HPV16 and -HPV18 antibody levels. Such an assessment could therefore contribute not only to better understanding of the exact mechanism of action of the vaccine, but also to defining the immunological parameters that determine its effectiveness.

  5. Búsquedas de epitopes conformacionales en la proteína HPV16-E7 del virus de papiloma humano

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    Julio C. Calvo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available El virus de papiloma humano tipo 16 (HPV-16 es la principal causa de cáncer entre las mujeres en Colombia. Es importante desarrollar pruebas de bajo costo y confiables para detectar la presencia de este virus en las primeras etapas de la enfermedad. Los péptidos pueden ser usados para detectar anticuerpos en sueros, pero a menudo no son activos. Sin embargo, péptidos restringidos que imiten epitopes conformacionales pueden ser más efectivos.

  6. An RNA aptamer provides a novel approach for the induction of apoptosis by targeting the HPV16 E7 oncoprotein.

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    Clare Nicol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16 is a high-risk DNA tumour virus, which is a major causative agent of cervical cancer. Cellular transformation is associated with deregulated expression of the E6 and E7 oncogenes. E7 has been shown to bind a number of cellular proteins, including the cell cycle control protein pRb. In this study, RNA aptamers (small, single-stranded oligonucleotides selected for high-affinity binding to HPV16 E7 were employed as molecular tools to further investigate these protein-protein interactions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study is focused on one aptamer (termed A2. Transfection of this molecule into HPV16-transformed cells resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation (shown using real-time cell electronic sensing and MTT assays due to the induction of apoptosis (as demonstrated by Annexin V/propidium iodide staining. GST-pull down and bead binding assays were used to demonstrate that the binding of A2 required N-terminal residues of E7 known to be involved in interaction with the cell cycle control protein, pRb. Using a similar approach, A2 was shown to disrupt the interaction between E7 and pRb in vitro. Furthermore, transfection of HPV16-transformed cells with A2 appeared to result in the loss of E7 and rise in pRb levels, as observed by immunoblotting. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This paper includes the first characterisation of the effects of an E7 RNA aptamer in a cell line derived from a cervical carcinoma. Transfection of cells with A2 was correlated with the loss of E7 and the induction of apoptosis. Aptamers specific for a number of cellular and viral proteins have been documented previously; one aptamer (Macugen is approved for clinical use and several others are in clinical trials. In addition to its role as a molecular tool, A2 could have further applications in the future.

  7. Epidemiology of HPV 16 and cervical cancer in Finland and the potential impact of vaccination: mathematical modelling analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruanne V Barnabas

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Candidate human papillomavirus (HPV vaccines have demonstrated almost 90%-100% efficacy in preventing persistent, type-specific HPV infection over 18 mo in clinical trials. If these vaccines go on to demonstrate prevention of precancerous lesions in phase III clinical trials, they will be licensed for public use in the near future. How these vaccines will be used in countries with national cervical cancer screening programmes is an important question. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed a transmission model of HPV 16 infection and progression to cervical cancer and calibrated it to Finnish HPV 16 seroprevalence over time. The model was used to estimate the transmission probability of the virus, to look at the effect of changes in patterns of sexual behaviour and smoking on age-specific trends in cancer incidence, and to explore the impact of HPV 16 vaccination. We estimated a high per-partnership transmission probability of HPV 16, of 0.6. The modelling analyses showed that changes in sexual behaviour and smoking accounted, in part, for the increase seen in cervical cancer incidence in 35- to 39-y-old women from 1990 to 1999. At both low (10% in opportunistic immunisation and high (90% in a national immunisation programme coverage of the adolescent population, vaccinating women and men had little benefit over vaccinating women alone. We estimate that vaccinating 90% of young women before sexual debut has the potential to decrease HPV type-specific (e.g., type 16 cervical cancer incidence by 91%. If older women are more likely to have persistent infections and progress to cancer, then vaccination with a duration of protection of less than 15 y could result in an older susceptible cohort and no decrease in cancer incidence. While vaccination has the potential to significantly reduce type-specific cancer incidence, its combination with screening further improves cancer prevention. CONCLUSIONS: HPV vaccination has the potential to

  8. E1^E4-mediated keratin phosphorylation and ubiquitylation: a mechanism for keratin depletion in HPV16-infected epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    McIntosh, Pauline B.; Laskey, Peter; Sullivan, Kate; Davy, Clare; Wang, Qian; Jackson, Deborah J.; Griffin, Heather M.; Doorbar, John

    2010-01-01

    The keratin IF network of epidermal keratinocytes provides a protective barrier against mechanical insult, it is also a major player in absorbing stress in these cells. The human papilloma virus (HPV) type 16 E1^E4 protein accumulates in the upper layers of HPV16-infected epithelium and is known to associate with and reorganise the keratin IF network in cells in culture. Here, we show that this function is conserved amongst a number of HPV alpha-group E1^E4 proteins and that the differentiati...

  9. Efficacy of fewer than three doses of an HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine: combined analysis of data from the Costa Rica Vaccine and PATRICIA Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreimer, Aimée R; Struyf, Frank; Del Rosario-Raymundo, Maria Rowena; Hildesheim, Allan; Skinner, S Rachel; Wacholder, Sholom; Garland, Suzanne M; Herrero, Rolando; David, Marie-Pierre; Wheeler, Cosette M; González, Paula; Jiménez, Silvia; Lowy, Douglas R; Pinto, Ligia A; Porras, Caroline; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Schiffman, Mark; Schiller, John T; Schussler, John; Sherman, Mark E; Bosch, F Xavier; Castellsague, Xavier; Chatterjee, Archana; Chow, Song-Nan; Descamps, Dominique; Diaz-Mitoma, Francisco; Dubin, Gary; Germar, Maria Julieta; Harper, Diane M; Lewis, David J M; Limson, Genara; Naud, Paulo; Peters, Klaus; Poppe, Willy A J; Ramjattan, Brian; Romanowski, Barbara; Salmeron, Jorge; Schwarz, Tino F; Teixeira, Julio C; Tjalma, Wiebren A A

    2015-07-01

    There is some evidence to suggest that one or two doses of the HPV vaccine provides similar protection to the three-dose regimen. The main aim of the study was to ascertain HPV-16/18 vaccine efficacy in both full and naive cohorts and to explore protection conferred against non-vaccine HPV types, by number of doses received. Summary data from the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial (CVT; NCT00128661) and ~the PATRICIA trial (NCT001226810), two phase 3, double-blind, randomised controlled clinical trials of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in young women, were combined in a post-hoc analysis (GlaxoSmithKline [GSK] e-track number 202142) to investigate the efficacy of fewer than three doses of the HPV-16/18 vaccine after 4 years of follow-up. Women were randomly assigned to receive three doses of the HPV-16/18 vaccine or to a control vaccine; yet, some received fewer doses. After exclusion of women with less than 12 months of follow-up or those who were HPV-16/18 DNA-positive at enrolment (for the HPV-16/18 endpoint), we calculated vaccine efficacy against one-time detection of incident HPV infections after three, two, and one dose(s). The primary study endpoint was one-time detection of first incident HPV-16/18 infections accumulated during the follow-up phase. We assessed vaccine efficacy against incident HPV-16/18 infection in the modified total vaccinated cohort (22 327 received three doses, 1185 two doses, 543 one dose). Vaccine efficacy against incident HPV-16/18 infections for three doses was 77·0% (95% CI 74·7-79·1), two doses was 76·0% (62·0-85·3), and one dose was 85·7% (70·7-93·7). Vaccine efficacy against incident HPV-31/33/45 infections for three doses was 59·7% (56·0-63·0), two doses was 37·7% (12·4-55·9), and one dose was 36·6% (-5·4 to 62·2). Vaccine efficacy against incident HPV-16/18 infection for two-dose women who received their second dose at 1 month was 75·3% (54·2-87·5) and 82·6% (42·3-96·1) for those who received the second

  10. [Effect of extracellular signal-regulated kinas 1/2 expression and HPV16 infection and their interaction in progression of cervical cancerization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, S L; Ding, L; Ren, Z Y; Chen, X; Sun, X S; Li, C C; Liu, C L; Jia, W L; Li, Q L; Wang, J T

    2017-01-10

    Objective: To investigate the effect of ERK1/2 protein expression and HPV16 infection, as well as their interaction in the cervical carcinogenesis. Methods: A total of 176 patients, including 34 cases with normal cervix (NC), 26 cases with cervical intraepithelial neoplasm Ⅰ (CIN Ⅰ), 57 cases with cervical intraepithelial neoplasm Ⅱ/Ⅲ (CIN Ⅱ/Ⅲ) and 59 cases with cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), were enrolled from Shanxi Tumor Hospital, Shanxi Maternal and Child Health Center, Jincheng Coal General Hospital from September 2013 to March 2014. The information about their demographic characteristics and risk factors associated with cervical cancer was collected with structural questionnaire, and cervical tissue samples were collected from each subject. HPV16 infection was detected by PCR, and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2) protein expression levels were detected by immunohistochemistry. Meanwhile, cervical cancer cell lines Siha (HPV16 positive) and C33A (HPV negative) were treated with ERK inhibitor U0126 in vitro. Cell proliferation was determined by living cell count, cell cycle and apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. Results: The HPV16 infection rate (trend χ(2)=17.99, Pcancer. And there might be synergistic actions between the two factors in the progression of cervical cancer. The effect of ERK1/2 activation to HPV16 infection cells might be more significant in the process of cervical cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis.

  11. Immunohistochemical characteristic of expression levels of Kі-67, p16INK4a, HPV16 in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer

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    V. A. Tumanskiy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cervical cancer (SCC is a common tumor in women, which is preceded by the series of pathological processes, among which the key role is played by cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN. Aim. To study the characteristics of immunohistochemical (IHC expression of Ki-67, p16INK4a, HPV16 in squamous cervical epithelium (SCE with dysplastic changes of varying degree (CIN I–III and also in the tumor cells of SCC. Materials and methods. Pathohistological and IHC studies of uterine cervix biopsies from 53 patients (the age ranged from 18 to 45 years were performed. Results. It was found that SCE with CIN I is characterized by the low Ki-67 expression level (Me = 17.87 % (13.76, 22.44 and the extremely low p16INK4a expression level (Me = 0.00 CUOD (0.00; 29.64. The proportion of HPV16-positive patients with CIN I is 27.27 %. CIN II is characterized by the average proliferation level in SCE (Me = 44.96 % (34.91, 55.41 and the moderate p16INK4a expression level (Me = 75.71 CUOD (51.24, 82, 41. The proportion of HPV16-positive patients with CIN II is 71.43 %. CIN III is characterized by the high proliferation level (Me = 74.62 % (68.50, 84.67 and by the high p16INK4a expression level of in SCE (Me = 117.47 CUOD (95.38, 123, 93; the proportion of HPV16-positive patients with CIN III is 77.78%. In all the patients with SСС, nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of HPV16 was detected in the tumor cells. High expression levels of Ki-67 and p16INK4a were detected in the tumor cells. There are direct correlations between the expression levels of Ki-67, p16INK4a, HPV16 and CIN degree. Conclusions. These data indicate that the expression levels of Ki-67, p16INK4a and HPV16 increase with the increasing of CIN grade. The absence of statistically significant differences between the expression levels of Ki-67, p16INK4a and HPV16 in CIN III and the same levels in the tumor cells of SCC indicates that these markers cannot be used for differential diagnosis

  12. Induction of human papilloma virus E6/E7-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity in immune-tolerant, E6/E7-transgenic mic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezebos-Brilman, A; Regts, J; Freyschmidt, EJ; Dontje, B; Wilschut, J; Daemen, T

    Despite promising preclinical results of various therapeutic anticancer immunization strategies, these approaches may not be effective enough to eradicate tumors in cancer patients. While most animal models are based on fast-growing transplantable tumors, malignancies in, for example, cervical

  13. Prevalence of HPV 16 and 18 and attitudes toward HPV vaccination trials in patients with cervical cancer in Mali.

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    Ibrahima Téguété

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is one of the most common and lethal cancers in West Africa. Even though vaccines that protect against the most common Human papillomavirus (HPV strains, 16 and 18, are currently in use in developed countries, the implementation of these vaccines in developing countries has been painfully slow, considering the pre-eminence of HPV-associated cervical cancer among women in those countries.We performed serological and PCR-based assessment of blood and tissue specimens obtained from women undergoing cervical cancer-related surgery at a major urban hospital in Bamako. Since several therapeutic HPV vaccines are currently in clinical trials, we also assessed willingness to participate in HPV cancer vaccine trials.Blood and biopsy samples of 240 women were evaluated for HPV types 16 and 18 by serology and PCR. Knowledge regarding the HPV vaccine and autonomy to decide to vaccinate their own child was assessed with a standardized questionnaire.HPV 16 and 18 were identified in 137/166 (82.5% cervical cancer biopsy samples by PCR. Co-infection with both HPV 16 and 18 was significantly more frequent in women over 50 years of age than in younger women (63.0% vs. 37.0%. 44% of study participants said they would be willing to vaccinate their child with HPV vaccine. Only 39% of women participating in this study reported that they would be able to make an autonomous decision to receive HPV vaccination. Permission from a male spouse or head of household was identified as important for participation by 59% of the women.This study provides strong support for the introduction of currently available HPV vaccines in Mali, and also provides key information about conditions for obtaining informed consent for HPV vaccine trials and HPV vaccination in Mali.

  14. Prevalence of HPV 16 and 18 and attitudes toward HPV vaccination trials in patients with cervical cancer in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téguété, Ibrahima; Dolo, Amadou; Sangare, Kotou; Sissoko, Abdoulaye; Rochas, Mali; Beseme, Sarah; Tounkara, Karamoko; Yekta, Shahla; De Groot, Anne S; Koita, Ousmane A

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common and lethal cancers in West Africa. Even though vaccines that protect against the most common Human papillomavirus (HPV) strains, 16 and 18, are currently in use in developed countries, the implementation of these vaccines in developing countries has been painfully slow, considering the pre-eminence of HPV-associated cervical cancer among women in those countries. We performed serological and PCR-based assessment of blood and tissue specimens obtained from women undergoing cervical cancer-related surgery at a major urban hospital in Bamako. Since several therapeutic HPV vaccines are currently in clinical trials, we also assessed willingness to participate in HPV cancer vaccine trials. Blood and biopsy samples of 240 women were evaluated for HPV types 16 and 18 by serology and PCR. Knowledge regarding the HPV vaccine and autonomy to decide to vaccinate their own child was assessed with a standardized questionnaire. HPV 16 and 18 were identified in 137/166 (82.5%) cervical cancer biopsy samples by PCR. Co-infection with both HPV 16 and 18 was significantly more frequent in women over 50 years of age than in younger women (63.0% vs. 37.0%). 44% of study participants said they would be willing to vaccinate their child with HPV vaccine. Only 39% of women participating in this study reported that they would be able to make an autonomous decision to receive HPV vaccination. Permission from a male spouse or head of household was identified as important for participation by 59% of the women. This study provides strong support for the introduction of currently available HPV vaccines in Mali, and also provides key information about conditions for obtaining informed consent for HPV vaccine trials and HPV vaccination in Mali.

  15. Development of a simple and quick immunochromatography method for detection of anti-HPV-16/-18 antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Fumiko; Tabata, Tsutomu; Sadato, Daichi; Kawamura, Machiko; Ando, Noriyuki; Oboki, Keisuke; Ukaji, Masako; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Yukuharu; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Shibasaki, Futoshi

    2017-01-01

    Immunochromatography (IC) is widely used to detect target molecules in biological fluids. Since this method can be performed without a special technique or device, IC is a convenient way to assess the existence of antibodies or pathogens such as viruses and bacteria, simply and quickly. In this study, we established an IC method to detect serum antibodies against oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 and HPV-18 L1 proteins using recombinant L1 proteins produced by silkworms as antigens. Infection of oncogenic HPVs is a major risk factor of cervical cancer, which is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide. We first measured blood sera of two groups by magnetic beads enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MB-ELISA). For the first group, sera were collected prospectively from young women who planned to receive HPV vaccination. The second group consisted of children under 20 years of age, non-vaccinated healthy women, vaccinated healthy women, dysplasia, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia III, and cervical cancer patients. We confirmed that standard vaccination doses significantly increased serum HPV antibody concentrations, and the level was sustained at least more than 30 months after vaccination. In contrast, an increase in antibody concentration was not observed in patients with precancerous cervical changes and cervical cancer. We next measured the samples in both groups using the IC method we originally developed, and found that the measurement values of IC highly correlated with those of MB-ELISA. The simple and quick IC method would be a useful tool for rapid monitoring of L1 specific antibody levels in a non-laboratory environment. With less than one drop of serum, our IC can easily detect serum HPV-16/-18 antibodies within 15 minutes, without the need for electronic devices or techniques.

  16. HPV 16 and cigarette smoking as risk factors for high-grade cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, G Y; Kadish, A S; Burk, R D; Basu, J; Palan, P R; Mikhail, M; Romney, S L

    1998-10-29

    Although genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is well established as the etiologic agent for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), little is known about the cofactors involved in the development of high-grade lesions or the progression of low-grade to high-grade lesions. In our study of HPV-infected women with CIN (163 CIN I, 51 CIN II and 44 CIN III), women with CIN II or III were compared with those with CIN I for risk factors associated with high-grade lesions. After controlling for age, education, ethnicity and frequency of Pap smear screening, infection with HPV 16, but not high viral load or infection with multiple types, was associated with high-grade lesions (OR for CIN II = 11.96, OR for CIN III = 23.74). Risk of CIN III, but not CIN II, increased with number of cigarettes smoked per day (ORs = 1.49 and 3.35 for 10 cigarettes per day, respectively) and decreased with frequency of condom use during sex (ORs = 0.60 and 0.32 for women who used condoms occasionally/sometimes and most/all of the time, respectively). There were no associations between high-grade lesions and plasma levels of micronutrients (retinol, beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol and reduced ascorbic acid). Our results indicate that infection with HPV 16 is associated with high-grade lesions. Additional cofactors, such as cigarette smoking, may be required as a carcinogen to advance HPV-infected cells toward neoplastic progression.

  17. Development of a simple and quick immunochromatography method for detection of anti-HPV-16/-18 antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiko Endo

    Full Text Available Immunochromatography (IC is widely used to detect target molecules in biological fluids. Since this method can be performed without a special technique or device, IC is a convenient way to assess the existence of antibodies or pathogens such as viruses and bacteria, simply and quickly. In this study, we established an IC method to detect serum antibodies against oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV-16 and HPV-18 L1 proteins using recombinant L1 proteins produced by silkworms as antigens. Infection of oncogenic HPVs is a major risk factor of cervical cancer, which is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide. We first measured blood sera of two groups by magnetic beads enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MB-ELISA. For the first group, sera were collected prospectively from young women who planned to receive HPV vaccination. The second group consisted of children under 20 years of age, non-vaccinated healthy women, vaccinated healthy women, dysplasia, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia III, and cervical cancer patients. We confirmed that standard vaccination doses significantly increased serum HPV antibody concentrations, and the level was sustained at least more than 30 months after vaccination. In contrast, an increase in antibody concentration was not observed in patients with precancerous cervical changes and cervical cancer. We next measured the samples in both groups using the IC method we originally developed, and found that the measurement values of IC highly correlated with those of MB-ELISA. The simple and quick IC method would be a useful tool for rapid monitoring of L1 specific antibody levels in a non-laboratory environment. With less than one drop of serum, our IC can easily detect serum HPV-16/-18 antibodies within 15 minutes, without the need for electronic devices or techniques.

  18. Therapeutic silencing of HPV 16 E7 by systemic administration of siRNA-neutral DOPC nanoliposome in a murine cervical cancer model with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapoy-Villanueva, Hector; Martinez-Carlin, Ivonne; Lopez-Berestein, G; Chavez-Reyes, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a neutral DOPC nanoliposome system for the delivery of siRNA to tumor cells in an obese murine cervical cancer model. In vitro silencing of E6-E7 mRNA and E7 protein using siRNAE6 or siRNAE7 was analyzed in TC-1 cells by RT-PCR and Western blot. Silencing and antitumor capacities of siRNAE7-DOPC-nanoparticles (NP) were tested in vivo in both normal and obese mice using qPCR. These NPs were administered twice a week for 15 days and tumor volume and weight were recorded. Levels of in vitro E6-E7 silencing were 90% for mRNA and 60% for protein when siRNAE7 was used. On the other hand when siRNAE6 was used, the levels of silencing were 50% for E6-E7 mRNA and only 20% for protein. In vivo E7 mRNA silencing by siRNAE7-DOPC-NP was similar (60%) in both non-obese and obese mouse models. The therapeutic study showed a 65% decrease in tumor volume and a 57% reduction in tumor weight as compared to the control groups. There was no negative impact of obesity on the antitumor activity of siRNA-DOPC-NP in obese mice.

  19. Route of sexual exposure is independently associated with seropositivity to HPV-16 and HPV-18 among clients of an STI clinic in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiligenberg, Marlies; Alberts, Catharina J.; Waterboer, Tim; Speksnijder, Arjen G. C. L.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Pawlita, Michael; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the route of sexual exposure as a determinant for human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 and HPV-18 seropositivity. At the Amsterdam sexually transmitted infections clinic we recruited 4 risk groups: (1) men who have sex with women only (MSW; n = 751); (2) women who have sex with men (WSM; n

  20. Threshold cost-effectiveness analysis for a therapeutic vaccine against HPV-16/18-positive cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttjeboer, Jos; Setiawan, Didik; Cao, Qi; Daemen, Toos CAHH; Postma, Maarten J.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the potential price for a therapeutic vaccine against Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)-16 & 18 (pre)-malignant cervical lesions is examined. A decision tree model was built in the context of the new Dutch cervical cancer-screening program and includes a primary test for the presence of

  1. Transition of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia to micro-invasive carcinoma is characterized by integration of HPV 16/18 and numerical chromosome abnormalities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman, A.H.N.; Smedts, F.; Dignef, W.; Ummelen, M.; Sonke, G.; Mravunac, M.; Vooijs, G.P.; Speel, E.J.; Ramaekers, F.C.S.

    2004-01-01

    Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN I, II, and III) and cases of CIN III associated with micro-invasive cervical carcinoma (CIN III & mCA) were analysed for evidence of episomal or integrated human papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18 DNA by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In parallel,

  2. No evidence for cross-protection of the HPV-16/18 vaccine against HPV-6/11 positivity in female STI clinic visitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woestenberg, Petra J.; King, Audrey J.; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Donken, Robine; Leussink, Suzan; van der Klis, Fiona R M; Hoebe, Christian J P A; Bogaards, Johannes A.; van Benthem, Birgit H B

    OBJECTIVES: Data from a vaccine trial and from post-vaccine surveillance in the United Kingdom have suggested that the bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine offers cross-protection against HPV-6/11 and protection against anogenital warts (AGW). We studied the effect of the bivalent vaccine on genital HPV-6/11

  3. The nuclear retention signal of HPV16 L2 protein is essential for incoming viral genome to transverse the trans-Golgi network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiGiuseppe, Stephen; Bienkowska-Haba, Malgorzata; Hilbig, Lydia; Sapp, Martin, E-mail: msapp1@lsuhsc.edu

    2014-06-15

    The Human papillomavirus (HPV) capsid is composed of the major and minor capsid proteins, L1 and L2, respectively. Infectious entry requires a complex series of conformational changes in both proteins that lead to uptake and allow uncoating to occur. During entry, the capsid is disassembled and host cyclophilins dissociate L1 protein from the L2/DNA complex. Herein, we describe a mutant HPV16 L2 protein (HPV16 L2-R302/5A) that traffics pseudogenome to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) but fails to egress. Our data provide further evidence that HPV16 traffics through the TGN and demonstrates that L2 is essential for TGN egress. Furthermore, we show that cyclophilin activity is required for the L2/DNA complex to be transported to the TGN which is accompanied by a reduced L1 protein levels. - Highlights: • mNLS mutant HPV16 L2 protein traffics pseudogenome to the TGN but fails to egress. • Cyclophilin activity is required for trafficking of the L2/DNA complex to the TGN. • Majority of L1 protein is shed from the L2/DNA complex prior to reaching the TGN.

  4. Impact of an HPV6/11/16/18 L1 virus-like particle vaccine on progression to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in seropositive women with HPV16/18 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haupt, Richard M; Wheeler, Cosette M; Brown, Darron R

    2011-01-01

    prevaccination. Incidence is expressed as the number of women with an endpoint per 100 person-years-at-risk. In total, 419 vaccine and 446 placebo recipients were both seropositive and DNA positive to HPV16 or HPV18 prevaccination and had at least one follow-up visit. In Protocol 013, the incidence of HPV16...

  5. Comparing the performance of FAM19A4 methylation analysis, cytology and HPV16/18 genotyping for the detection of cervical (pre)cancer in high-risk HPV-positive women of a gynecologic outpatient population (COMETH study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttmer, Roosmarijn; De Strooper, Lise M A; Berkhof, Johannes; Snijders, Peter J F; Dijkstra, Maaike G; Uijterwaal, Margot H; Steenbergen, Renske D M; van Kemenade, Folkert J; Rozendaal, Lawrence; Helmerhorst, Theo J M; Verheijen, Rene H M; Ter Harmsel, W Abraham; Van Baal, W Marchien; Graziosi, Peppino G C M; Quint, Wim G V; Heideman, Daniëlle A M; Meijer, Chris J L M

    2016-02-15

    Recently, DNA methylation analysis of FAM19A4 in cervical scrapes has been shown to adequately detect high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer (≥ CIN3) in high-risk HPV (hrHPV)-positive women. Here, we compared the clinical performance of FAM19A4 methylation analysis to cytology and HPV16/18 genotyping, separately and in combination, for ≥ CIN3 detection in hrHPV-positive women participating in a prospective observational multi-center cohort study. The study population comprised hrHPV-positive women aged 18-66 years, visiting a gynecological outpatient clinic. From these women, cervical scrapes and colposcopy-directed biopsies (for histological confirmation) were obtained. Cervical scrapes were analyzed for FAM19A4 gene promoter methylation, cytology and HPV16/18 genotyping. Methylation analysis was performed by quantitative methylation-specific PCR (qMSP). Sensitivities and specificities for ≥ CIN3 were compared between tests. Stratified analyses were performed for variables that potentially influence marker performance. Of all 508 hrHPV-positive women, the sensitivities for ≥ CIN3 of cytology, FAM19A4 methylation analysis, and cytology combined with HPV16/18 genotyping were 85.6, 75.6 and 92.2%, respectively, with corresponding specificities of 49.8, 71.1 and 29.4%, respectively. Both sensitivity and specificity of FAM19A4 methylation analysis were associated with age (p ≤ 0.001 each). In women ≥ 30 years (n = 287), ≥ CIN3 sensitivity of FAM19A4 methylation analysis was 88.3% (95%CI: 80.2-96.5) which was noninferior to that of cytology [85.5% (95%CI: 76.0-94.0)], at a significantly higher specificity [62.1% (95%CI: 55.8-68.4) compared to 47.6% (95%CI: 41.1-54.1)]. In conclusion, among hrHPV-positive women from an outpatient population aged ≥ 30 years, methylation analysis of FAM19A4 is an attractive marker for the identification of women with ≥ CIN3. © 2015 UICC.

  6. HPV16 E7 DNA tattooing: safety, immunogenicity, and clinical response in patients with HPV-positive vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Sanne; Marijne Heeren, A; Zijlmans, Henry J M A A; Welters, Marij J P; van den Berg, Joost H; Philips, Daisy; Kvistborg, Pia; Ehsan, Ilina; Scholl, Suzy M E; Nuijen, Bastiaan; Schumacher, Ton N M; van Beurden, Marc; Jordanova, Ekaterina S; Haanen, John B A G; van der Burg, Sjoerd H; Kenter, Gemma G

    2017-09-01

    Usual type vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (uVIN) is caused by HPV, predominantly type 16. Several forms of HPV immunotherapy have been studied, however, clinical results could be improved. A novel intradermal administration route, termed DNA tattooing, is superior in animal models, and was tested for the first time in humans with a HPV16 E7 DNA vaccine (TTFC-E7SH). The trial was designed to test safety, immunogenicity, and clinical response of TTFC-E7SH in twelve HPV16 + uVIN patients. Patients received six vaccinations via DNA tattooing. The first six patients received 0.2 mg TTFC-E7SH and the next six 2 mg TTFC-E7SH. Vaccine-specific T-cell immunity was evaluated by IFNγ-ELISPOT and multiparametric flow cytometry. Only grade I-II adverse events were observed upon TTFC-E7SH vaccination. The ELISPOT analysis showed in 4/12 patients a response to the peptide pool containing shuffled E7 peptides. Multiparametric flow cytometry showed low CD4 + and/or CD8 + T-cell responses as measured by increased expression of PD-1 (4/12 in both), CTLA-4 (2/12 and 3/12), CD107a (5/12 and 4/12), or the production of IFNγ (2/12 and 1/12), IL-2 (3/12 and 4/12), TNFα (2/12 and 1/12), and MIP1β (3/12 and 6/12). At 3 months follow-up, no clinical response was observed in any of the twelve vaccinated patients. DNA tattoo vaccination was shown to be safe. A low vaccine-induced immune response and no clinical response were observed in uVIN patients after TTFC-E7SH DNA tattoo vaccination. Therefore, a new phase I/II trial with an improved DNA vaccine format is currently in development for patients with uVIN.

  7. Retinoblastoma-independent antiproliferative activity of novel intracellular antibodies against the E7 oncoprotein in HPV 16-positive cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banks Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background "High risk" Human Papillomavirus strains are the causative agents of the vast majority of carcinomas of the uterine cervix. In these tumors, the physical integration of the HPV genome is a frequent, though not invariable occurrence, but the constitutive expression of the E6 and E7 viral genes is always observed, suggesting key roles for the E6 and E7 oncoproteins in the process of malignant transformation. The "intracellular antibody" technology using recombinant antibodies in single-chain format offers the possibility of targeting a protein in its intracellular environment even at the level of definite domains thus representing a valuable strategy to "knock out" the function of specific proteins. Methods In this study, we investigate the in vitro activity of two single-chain antibody fragments directed against the "high-risk" HPV 16 E7 oncoprotein, scFv 43M2 and scFv 51. These scFvs were expressed by retroviral system in different cell compartments of the HPV16-positive SiHa cells, and cell proliferation was analyzed by Colony Formation Assay and EZ4U assay. The binding of these scFvs to E7, and their possible interference with the interaction between E7 and its main target, the tumor suppressor pRb protein, were then investigated by immunoassays, PepSet™technology and Surface Plasmon Resonance. Results The expression of the two scFvs in the nucleus and the endoplasmic reticulum of SiHa cells resulted in the selective growth inhibition of these cells. Analysis of binding showed that both scFvs bind E7 via distinct but overlapping epitopes not corresponding to the pRb binding site. Nevertheless, the binding of scFv 43M2 to E7 was inhibited by pRb in a non-competitive manner. Conclusions Based on the overall results, the observed inhibition of HPV-positive SiHa cells proliferation could be ascribed to an interaction between scFv and E7, involving non-pRb targets. The study paves the way for the employment of specific sc

  8. Enhancement of humoral and cell mediated immune response to HPV16 L1-derived peptides subsequent to vaccination with prophylactic bivalent HPV L1 virus-like particle vaccine in healthy females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokomine, Masato; Matsueda, Satoko; Kawano, Kouichiro; Sasada, Tetsuro; Fukui, Akimasa; Yamashita, Takuto; Komatsu, Nobukazu; Shichijo, Shigeki; Tasaki, Kazuto; Matsukuma, Ken; Itoh, Kyogo; Kamura, Toshiharu; Ushijima, Kimio

    2017-04-01

    Currently prophylactic HPV16/18 L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines are employed with great success for the prevention of HPV infection. However, limited information is available regarding the immune responses against human papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18 L1 subsequent to HPV16/18 L1 VLP vaccination, primarily due to the lack of widely used assays for immune monitoring. The aim of the present study was to identify HPV16 L1-derived B and T cell epitopes for monitoring the immune responses after HPV16/18 L1 VLP vaccination in healthy females. The levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgE, IgA and IgM reactive to HPV16 L1-derived peptides were measured by multiplex bead suspension assay. Following detailed B cell epitope mapping, T cell responses specific to HPV16 L1-derived peptides were evaluated by an IFN-γ ELISPOT assay. The levels of IgG, IgM and IgA reactive to 20-mer peptides (PTPSGSMVTSDAQIFNKPYW) at positions 293-312 and 300-319 of HPV16 L1 were significantly increased in the plasma after 2, 7, and 12 months after first vaccination. Detailed epitope mapping identified the amino acid sequence (TSDAQIFNKP) at position 301-310 of HPV16 L1 as an immunogenic B cell epitope. In addition, T cell responses to an HLA-A2- and HLA-A24-restricted epitope (QIFNKPYWL) at position 305-313 of HPV16 L1 were increased following immunization, suggesting that the HPV16/18 L1-VLP vaccination as able to induce specific immune responses in T and B cells simultaneously. The identified B and T cell epitopes may be useful as a biomarker for monitoring the immune responses subsequent to HPV16/18 L1 VLP vaccination. Thus, the present study may provide novel information to improve the understanding of the immune responses to HPV16 L1.

  9. HPV16-E7 Expression Causes Fluorodeoxyuridine-mediated Radiosensitization in SW620 Human Colon Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Axelson

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available We have reported that HT29 colon cancer cells, which are radiosensitized by fluorodeoxyuridine (FdUrd, exhibit a greater increase in cyclin E—dependent kinase activity and progress further into S phase in the presence of FdUrd than do SW620 colon cancer cells, which are only minimally sensitized by this drug (Cancer Res 56: 3203, 1996. Although these findings suggested that the ability to progress into S phase in the presence of FdUrd permits cells to be radiosensitized, we wished to test this hypothesis by attempting to drive SW620 human colon cells into S phase by transducing them with the HPV16-E7 gene. Two-parameter flow cytometry showed that E7-transduced cells progressed through S phase after radiation and FdUrd treatment more rapidly than SW620 parental cells. We found that E7-transduced SW620 cells were significantly radiosensitized by FdUrd (100 nmol/L, 14 hours with an enhancement ratio for 2 clones of 1.47±0.03 and 1.51±0.14, compared with 1.24±0.04 in SW620 parental cells. These data strongly support the hypothesis that dysregulation of S-phase progression is an important factor in FdUrd-mediated radiosensitization.

  10. Effect of HPV16 L1 virus-like particles on the aggregation of non-functionalized gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino-Vizcaino, Giovanni; Valencia Reséndiz, Diana Gabriela; Benítez-Hess, María Luisa; Martínez-Acuña, Natalia; Tapia-Vieyra, Juana Virginia; Bahena, Daniel; Díaz-Sánchez, Mauricio; García-González, Octavio Patricio; Alvarez-Sandoval, Brenda Arizaí; Alvarez-Salas, Luis Marat

    2018-02-15

    Colorimetric assays based on gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are of considerable interest for diagnostics because of their simplicity and low-cost. Nevertheless, a deep understanding of the interaction between the GNPs and the intended molecular target is critical for the development of reliable detection technologies. The present report describes the spontaneous interaction between HPV16 L1 virus-like particles (VLPs) and non-functionalized GNPs (nfGNPs) resulting in the inhibition of nfGNPs salt-induced aggregation and the stabilization of purified VLPs. Ionic-competition experiments suggested that the nature of nfGNPs-VLPs interaction is non-covalent. Adsorption of an RNA aptamer on nfGNPs surface showed an additive aggregation-inhibitory effect. The use of mutant VLPs confirmed that the interaction nfGNPs-VLPs is not mediated by the opposing superficial electrostatic charges, suggesting that non-electrostatic forces participate in the arrangement of nfGNPs on the VLPs surface. Competition experiments using increasing ethanol concentrations on nfGNPs-VLPs complexes suggested hydrophobic interactions as the main stabilizing force. Therefore, the nfGNPs-VLPs interaction described here should facilitate the development of adsorption assays based on nfGNPs for HPV detection and cervical cancer prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Induction of MAGE-A3 and HPV-16 immunity by Trojan vaccines in patients with head and neck carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskens, Caroline J; Sewell, Duane; Hertzano, Ronna; DeSanto, Jennifer; Rollins, Sandra; Lee, Myounghee; Taylor, Rodney; Wolf, Jeffrey; Suntharalingam, Mohan; Gastman, Brian; Papadimitriou, John C; Lu, Changwan; Tan, Ming; Morales, Robert; Cullen, Kevin; Celis, Esteban; Mann, Dean; Strome, Scott E

    2012-12-01

    We performed a pilot study using Trojan vaccines in patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). These vaccines are composed of HLA-I and HLA-II restricted melanoma antigen E (MAGE)-A3 or human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 derived peptides, joined by furin-cleavable linkers, and linked to a "penetrin" peptide sequence derived from HIV-TAT. Thirty-one patients with SCCHN were screened for the trial and 5 were enrolled. Enrolled patients were treated with 300 μg of Trojan peptide supplemented with Montanide and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) at 4-week intervals for up to 4 injections. Following vaccination, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 4 of 5 patients recognized both the full Trojan constructs and constituent HLA-II peptides, whereas responses to HLA-I restricted peptides were less pronounced. This treatment regimen seems to have acceptable toxicity and elicits measurable systemic immune responses against HLA-II restricted epitopes in a subset of patients with advanced SCCHN. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Fusion of CTLA-4 with HPV16 E7 and E6 enhanced the potency of therapeutic HPV DNA vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Gan

    Full Text Available Preventive anti-HPV vaccines are effective against HPV infection but not against existing HPV-associated diseases, including cervical cancer and other malignant diseases. Therefore, the development of therapeutic vaccines is urgently needed. To improve anti-tumor effects of therapeutic vaccine, we fused cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4 with HPV16 E7 and E6 as a fusion therapeutic DNA vaccine (pCTLA4-E7E6. pCTLA4-E7E6 induced significantly higher anti-E7E6 specific antibodies and relatively stronger specific CTL responses than the nonfusion DNA vaccine pE7E6 in C57BL/6 mice bearing with TC-1 tumors. pCTLA4-E7E6 showed relatively stronger anti-tumor effects than pE7E6 in therapeutic immunization. These results suggest that fusing CTLA-4 with E7E6 is a useful strategy to develop therapeutic HPV DNA vaccines. In addition, fusing the C-terminal of E7 with the N-terminal of E6 impaired the functions of both E7 and E6.

  13. Fusion of CTLA-4 with HPV16 E7 and E6 enhanced the potency of therapeutic HPV DNA vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Lili; Jia, Rong; Zhou, Lili; Guo, Jihua; Fan, Mingwen

    2014-01-01

    Preventive anti-HPV vaccines are effective against HPV infection but not against existing HPV-associated diseases, including cervical cancer and other malignant diseases. Therefore, the development of therapeutic vaccines is urgently needed. To improve anti-tumor effects of therapeutic vaccine, we fused cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) with HPV16 E7 and E6 as a fusion therapeutic DNA vaccine (pCTLA4-E7E6). pCTLA4-E7E6 induced significantly higher anti-E7E6 specific antibodies and relatively stronger specific CTL responses than the nonfusion DNA vaccine pE7E6 in C57BL/6 mice bearing with TC-1 tumors. pCTLA4-E7E6 showed relatively stronger anti-tumor effects than pE7E6 in therapeutic immunization. These results suggest that fusing CTLA-4 with E7E6 is a useful strategy to develop therapeutic HPV DNA vaccines. In addition, fusing the C-terminal of E7 with the N-terminal of E6 impaired the functions of both E7 and E6.

  14. Status of carcinoma cervix and high risk HPV 16 DNA in women with postmenopausal uterine bleeding (PMB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Kashyap

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Postmenopausal bleeding (PMB is a discharge that occurs following the firm diagnosis of menopause, which is at least six months from the end of women’s menstrual cycle but not to be confused with infrequent or irregular periods occurring around the time of menopause. It is a common problem representing 5% of all gynecology outpatient attendances which are to eliminate endometrial cancer as the cause of bleed and PMB should be reported urgently to the gynecologist. Uterine bleeding in postmenopausal women is highly indicative clinically of malignancy originating from cervix or endometrium and Human papilloma virus (HPV is one of the causative agent for carcinoma cervix. Incidence of carcinoma cervix increases with the age in mature women, however, incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV infection reduces as menopause sets in. The presence of the virus could be used as an early indication of disease potential. Because the Pap test can only detect clinical evidence of cervical disease, molecular-based diagnostic tools are being used more frequently to detect the virus before abnormal cell growth can be observed. This study was aimed to determine the status of cervical cancer and HPV 16 DNA positivity in relation to postmenopausal bleeding.

  15. Physicochemical characterization and immunological properties of Pichia pastoris based HPV16L1 and 18L1 virus like particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Gaurav; Glueck, Reinhard; Rishi, Narayan

    2017-03-01

    There continues to be an urgent need for cost-effective prophylaxis for HPV-associated cancers in socio-economically underdeveloped nations. Presently HPV vaccines, which are commercially available, are adjuvanted virus-like particles (VLPs) expressed from various recombinant expression systems. They have been characterized by different methods as safe, pure, and potent HPV vaccine antigens. We cloned and expressed L1 proteins of HPV16 & 18 in Pichia pastoris and tested their immunogenicity. We observed that HPVL1 proteins (16L1 and 18L1) are expressed in Pichia pastoris at high levels. Critical physicochemical parameters of these HPV recombinant L1 proteins were characterized by SDS PAGE, western blotting, peptide mapping, glycosylation pattern, mass spectrometry, host cell DNA and protein analysis, electron microscopy, and immunogenicity analysis. These data establish a blueprint of HPV recombinant protein antigens for standardizing & developing an alternative high-quality, cost-effective vaccine for HPV as well as similar recombinant protein-based vaccines. Copyright © 2016 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. E6D25E, HPV16 Asian variant shows specific proteomic pattern correlating in cells transformation and suppressive innate immune response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopjitt, Peechanika; Pientong, Chamsai; Sunthamala, Nuchsupha [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002 (Thailand); HPV & EBV and Carcinogenesis Research Group, Khon Kaen University (Thailand); Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002 (Thailand); Haonon, Ornuma; Boonmars, Thidarut [Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002 (Thailand); Kikawa, Satomi; Nakahara, Tomomi [Division of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, 104-0045 (Japan); Kiyono, Tohru, E-mail: tkiyono@ncc.go.jp [Division of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, 104-0045 (Japan); Ekalaksananan, Tipaya, E-mail: tipeka@kku.ac.th [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002 (Thailand); HPV & EBV and Carcinogenesis Research Group, Khon Kaen University (Thailand)

    2016-09-09

    HPV16 Asian variant (HPV16As) containing E6D25E oncogene, is commonly associated with cervical cancers of Asian populations. To explore a mechanism of E6D25E oncoprotein in carcinogenesis, we compared protein profiles in human keratinocytes expressing E6D25E with E6 of HPV16 prototype (E6Pro). A human cervical keratinocyte cell line, HCK1T, was transduced with retroviruses containing E6D25E or E6Pro genes. Biological properties of E6D25E or E6Pro transduced HCK1T cells were characterized. Protein profiles of the transduced HCK1T cells were analyzed using 2D-PAGE and characterized by mass spectrometry and western blotting. Reactomes of modulated proteins were analyzed by using the Reactome Knowledgebase. The E6D25E and E6Pro oncoproteins were comparable for their abilities to degrade p53 and suppress the induction of p21, and induce cell proliferation. Interestingly, the protein profiles of the HCK1T cells transduced with E6D25E showed specific proteomic patterns different from those with E6Pro. Among altered proteins, more than 1.5-fold up- or down- regulation was observed in E6D25E-expressing cells for gp96 and keratin7 which involved in activation of TLR signaling and transformation of squamocolumnar junction cells, respectively. This report describes new cellular proteins specifically targeted by E6D25E oncoprotein that may contribute to impair immune response against viral infection and cell transformation associated with oncogenic property of HPV16As variant. - Highlights: • E6D25E HPV16 specifically modulates protein profile of human keratinocytes. • E6D25E HPV16 modulates protein profile which involves in TLR signalling and transformation of squamocolumnar junction cells. • E6D25E oncoprotein may correlate to impair of immune response against viral infection and cells transformation.

  17. HPV16 E6 and E6AP differentially cooperate to stimulate or augment Wnt signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sominsky, Sophia, E-mail: sophia.tab@gmail.com [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Kuslansky, Yael, E-mail: ykuslansky@gmail.com [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Shapiro, Beny, E-mail: benyshap@gmail.com [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Jackman, Anna, E-mail: jackman@post.tau.ac.il [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Haupt, Ygal, E-mail: ygal.haupt@petermac.org [Research Division, The Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Rosin-Arbesfeld, Rina, E-mail: arina@post.tau.ac.il [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Sherman, Levana, E-mail: lsherman@post.tau.ac.il [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2014-11-15

    The present study investigated the roles of E6 and E6AP in the Wnt pathway. We showed that E6 levels are markedly reduced in cells in which Wnt signaling is activated. Coexpression of wild-type or mutant E6AP (C820A) in Wnt-activated cells stabilized E6 and enhanced Wnt/β-catenin/TCF transcription. Expression of E6AP alone in nonstimulated cells elevated β-catenin level, promoted its nuclear accumulation, and activated β-catenin/TCF transcription. A knockdown of E6AP lowered β-catenin levels. Coexpression with E6 intensified the activities of E6AP. Further experiments proved that E6AP/E6 stabilize β-catenin by protecting it from proteasomal degradation. This function was dependent on the catalytic activity of E6AP, the kinase activity of GSK3β and the susceptibility of β-catenin to GSK3β phosphorylation. Thus, this study identified E6AP as a novel regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway, capable of cooperating with E6 in stimulating or augmenting Wnt/β-catenin signaling, thereby possibly contributing to HPV carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • The roles of E6 and E6AP in the Wnt pathway were investigated. • E6AP stabilizes E6 and enhances E6 activity in augmentation of Wnt signaling. • E6AP cooperates with E6 to stabilize β-catenin and stimulate Wnt/β-catenin signaling. • E6AP and E6 act through different mechanisms to augment or stimulate Wnt signaling.

  18. Determination of human papillomavirus type 16 genotype and construction of cloning vector pTZ57R encoding HPV16 E7 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkat, Zahra; Soleimanjahi, Hoorieh; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Mirshahabi, Hessam; Hassan, Zuhair M; Ghaffari, Saeed R; Sabokbar, Tayebeh

    2007-10-01

    To isolate and construct a cloning vector containing the human papillomavirus (HPV)16-E7 gene as a target for application as a DNA vaccine. The study was performed in 2005 in Iran. The E7 gene, one of the most important HPV oncoproteins and a target molecule for therapeutic vaccines, was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR product was cloned into a suitable cloning vector and confirmed by colony-PCR, restriction enzyme analysis, and sequenced. The desired plasmid was sequenced and indicated 99% homology with those mentioned in the Genbank. The Iranian HPV16 E7 gene sequence is very similar to other sequences in the Genbank, and it can be used as a candidate gene in a therapeutic vaccine for Iranian patients with cervical cancer.

  19. Human papillomavirus (HPV types 16, 18, 31, 45 DNA loads and HPV-16 integration in persistent and transient infections in young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenczy Alex

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HPV burden is a predictor for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer. The natural history of HPV load in young women being recently exposed to HPV is described in this paper. Methods A total of 636 female university students were followed for 2 years. Cervical specimens with HPV-16, -18, -31, or -45 DNA by consensus PCR were further evaluated with type-specific and β-globin real-time PCR assays. Proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR of infection clearance. Generalized estimating equations assessed whether HPV loads was predictive of HPV infection at the subsequent visit. Results HPV loads were consistently higher among women Conclusions The association between HPV load and persistence is not uniform across high-risk genital genotypes. HPV-16 integration was only rarely demonstrated in young women.

  20. Route of sexual exposure is independently associated with seropositivity to HPV-16 and HPV-18 among clients of an STI clinic in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiligenberg, Marlies; Alberts, Catharina J; Waterboer, Tim; Speksnijder, Arjen G C L; De Vries, Henry J C; Pawlita, Michael; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the route of sexual exposure as a determinant for human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 and HPV-18 seropositivity. At the Amsterdam sexually transmitted infections clinic we recruited 4 risk groups: (1) men who have sex with women only (MSW; n = 751); (2) women who have sex with men (WSM; n = 749); (3) men who have sex with men (MSM) reporting insertive anal sex only (insMSM; n = 156); and (4) MSM reporting receptive anal sex (recMSM; n = 415). In multivariable analyses, HPV-16 seropositivity was significantly more common in WSM vs MSW, recMSM vs MSW, and recMSM vs insMSM. HPV-18 results were similar. Route of sexual exposure is independently associated with HPV seropositivity.

  1. Reduction in HPV 16/18-associated high grade cervical lesions following HPV vaccine introduction in the United States - 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri, Susan; Bennett, Nancy M; Niccolai, Linda M; Schafer, Sean; Park, Ina U; Bloch, Karen C; Unger, Elizabeth R; Whitney, Erin; Julian, Pamela; Scahill, Mary W; Abdullah, Nasreen; Levine, Diane; Johnson, Michelle L; Steinau, Martin; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2015-03-24

    Prevention of pre-invasive cervical lesions is an important benefit of HPV vaccines, but demonstrating impact on these lesions is impeded by changes in cervical cancer screening. Monitoring vaccine-types associated with lesions can help distinguish vaccine impact from screening effects. We examined trends in prevalence of HPV 16/18 types detected in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2, 3, and adenocarcinoma in situ (CIN2+) among women diagnosed with CIN2+ from 2008 to 2012 by vaccination status. We estimated vaccine effectiveness against HPV 16/18-attributable CIN2+ among women who received ≥1 dose by increasing time intervals between date of first vaccination and the screening test that led to detection of CIN2+ lesion. Data are from a population-based sentinel surveillance system to monitor HPV vaccine impact on type-specific CIN2+ among adult female residents of five catchment areas in California, Connecticut, New York, Oregon, and Tennessee. Vaccination and cervical cancer screening information was retrieved. Archived diagnostic specimens were obtained from reporting laboratories for HPV DNA typing. From 2008 to 2012, prevalence of HPV 16/18 in CIN2+ lesions statistically significantly decreased from 53.6% to 28.4% among women who received at least one dose (Ptrendvaccination status (55.0% vs 50.5%; Ptrend=.71). Estimated vaccine effectiveness for prevention of HPV 16/18-attributable CIN2+ was 21% (95% CI: 1-37), 49% (95% CI: 28-64), and 72% (95% CI: 45-86) in women who initiated vaccination 25-36 months, 37-48 months, and >48 months prior to the screening test that led to CIN2+ diagnosis. Population-based data from the United States indicate significant reductions in CIN2+ lesions attributable to types targeted by the vaccines and increasing HPV vaccine effectiveness with increasing interval between first vaccination and earliest detection of cervical disease. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Anti-HPV16 E2 protein T-cell responses and viral control in women with usual vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia and their healthy partners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Jacobelli

    Full Text Available T-cell responses (proliferation, intracellular cytokine synthesis and IFNγ ELISPOT against human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16 E2 peptides were tested during 18 months in a longitudinal study in eight women presenting with HPV16-related usual vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN and their healthy male partners. In six women, anti-E2 proliferative responses and cytokine production (single IFNγ and/or dual IFNγ/IL2 and/or single IL2 by CD4+ T lymphocytes became detectable after treating and healing of the usual VIN. In the women presenting with persistent lesions despite therapy, no proliferation was observed. Anti-E2 proliferative responses were also observed with dual IFNγ/IL2 production by CD4+ T-cells in six male partners who did not exhibit any genital HPV-related diseases. Ex vivo IFNγ ELISPOT showed numerous effector T-cells producing IFNγ after stimulation by a dominant E2 peptide in all men and women. Since the E2 protein is absent from the viral particles but is required for viral DNA replication, these results suggest a recent infection with replicative HPV16 in male partners. The presence of polyfunctional anti-E2 T-cell responses in the blood of asymptomatic men unambiguously establishes HPV infection even without detectable lesions. These results, despite the small size of the studied group, provide an argument in favor of prophylactic HPV vaccination of young men in order to prevent HPV16 infection and viral transmission from men to women.

  3. Anti-HPV16 E2 protein T-cell responses and viral control in women with usual vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia and their healthy partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobelli, Simon; Sanaa, Fedoua; Moyal-Barracco, Micheline; Pelisse, Monique; Berville, Sophie; Villefroy, Pascale; North, Marie Odile; Figueiredo, Suzanne; Charmeteau, Bénédicte; Clerici, Thierry; Plantier, Françoise; Arnold, Françoise; Touzé, Antoine; Dupin, Nicolas; Avril, Marie-Françoise; Guillet, Jean-Gérard; Cheynier, Rémi; Bourgault-Villada, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    T-cell responses (proliferation, intracellular cytokine synthesis and IFNγ ELISPOT) against human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) E2 peptides were tested during 18 months in a longitudinal study in eight women presenting with HPV16-related usual vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) and their healthy male partners. In six women, anti-E2 proliferative responses and cytokine production (single IFNγ and/or dual IFNγ/IL2 and/or single IL2) by CD4+ T lymphocytes became detectable after treating and healing of the usual VIN. In the women presenting with persistent lesions despite therapy, no proliferation was observed. Anti-E2 proliferative responses were also observed with dual IFNγ/IL2 production by CD4+ T-cells in six male partners who did not exhibit any genital HPV-related diseases. Ex vivo IFNγ ELISPOT showed numerous effector T-cells producing IFNγ after stimulation by a dominant E2 peptide in all men and women. Since the E2 protein is absent from the viral particles but is required for viral DNA replication, these results suggest a recent infection with replicative HPV16 in male partners. The presence of polyfunctional anti-E2 T-cell responses in the blood of asymptomatic men unambiguously establishes HPV infection even without detectable lesions. These results, despite the small size of the studied group, provide an argument in favor of prophylactic HPV vaccination of young men in order to prevent HPV16 infection and viral transmission from men to women.

  4. HPV 16-associated tumours: IL-12 can repair the absence of cytotoxic and proliferative responses of tumour infiltrating cells after chemotherapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Indrová, Marie; Bieblová, Jana; Rossowska, J.; Kuropka, P.; Pajtasz-Piasecka, E.; Bubeník, Jan; Reiniš, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 1 (2009), s. 173-180 ISSN 1019-6439 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/06/0774 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 18933 - CLINIGENE Grant - others:Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education(PL) N401 235334 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : HPV 16 * vaccine s * tumour-infiltrating cells Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.447, year: 2009

  5. Introduction and sustained high coverage of the HPV bivalent vaccine leads to a reduction in prevalence of HPV 16/18 and closely related HPV types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, K; Pollock, K G J; Potts, A; Love, J; Cuschieri, K; Cubie, H; Robertson, C; Donaghy, M

    2014-05-27

    In 2008, a national human papillomavirus (HPV) immunisation programme began in Scotland for 12-13 year old females with a three-year catch-up campaign for those under the age of 18. Since 2008, three-dose uptake of bivalent vaccine in the routine cohort aged 12-13 has exceeded 90% annually, while in the catch-up cohort overall uptake is 66%. To monitor the impact of HPV immunisation, a programme of national surveillance was established (pre and post introduction) which included yearly sampling and HPV genotyping of women attending for cervical screening at age 20. By linking individual vaccination, screening and HPV testing records, we aim to determine the impact of the immunisation programme on circulating type-specific HPV infection particularly for four outcomes: (i) the vaccine types HPV 16 or 18 (ii) types considered to be associated with cross-protection: HPV 31, 33 or 45; (iii) all other high-risk types and (iv) any HPV. From a total of 4679 samples tested, we demonstrate that three doses (n=1100) of bivalent vaccine are associated with a significant reduction in prevalence of HPV 16 and 18 from 29.8% (95% confidence interval 28.3, 31.3%) to 13.6% (95% confidence interval 11.7, 15.8%). The data also suggest cross-protection against HPV 31, 33 and 45. HPV 51 and 56 emerged as the most prevalent (10.5% and 9.6%, respectively) non-vaccine high-risk types in those vaccinated, but at lower rates than HPV 16 (25.9%) in those unvaccinated. This data demonstrate the positive impact of bivalent vaccination on the prevalence of HPV 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45 in the target population and is encouraging for countries which have achieved high-vaccine uptake.

  6. Investigating a cluster of vulvar cancers in young women: distribution of human papillomavirus and HPV-16 variants in vulvar dysplastic or neoplastic biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sarah E; Garland, Suzanne M; Rumbold, Alice R; Zardawi, Ibrahim; Taylor-Thomson, Debbie; Condon, John R; Tabrizi, Sepehr N

    2013-03-01

    A high incidence of vulvar cancer, and its precursor lesion, high-grade vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) has been identified in young Indigenous women living in the Arnhem Land region of the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia. This clustering is restricted to women aged biopsies were assessed from Arnhem Land along with 24 high-grade VIN and 10 invasive cancer biopsies from other regions of NT. Biopsies from Arnhem Land were similar to those from other regions in the detection of high-risk (HR) or possible HR HPV (VIN: 95% and 84% respectively for Arnhem Land and other regions, P=0.356; invasive cancer: 100% and 80%, P=0.473), HPV-16 (VIN: 60% and 80%, P=0.364; invasive cancer: 70% and 70%, P=1.0) and p16(INK4a) expression (VIN: 90% and 84%, P=0.673; invasive cancer: 100% and 80%, P=0.474). All HPV-16 variants were of the European prototype. Comparison of biopsies revealed no significant difference in the frequency of oncogenic HPVs or HPV-16 variant types between Arnhem Land and other regions, suggesting another cofactor in this cluster.

  7. Influence of HPV16 E6/7 on the expression of FGF2 and FGFR type B in cervical carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ya-Min; Chou, Cheng-Yang; Hsu, Yi-Chiang; Chen, Ming-Jenn

    2012-06-01

    This study investigates the influence of fibroblast growth factor receptor type B (FGFRb) and fibroblast growth factor on cervical carcinogenesis associated with HPV16 E6/7 infection, using primary cancer cells isolated from Taiwanese patients with cervical cancer. Functional interaction between FGFRb in Cx cells and HPV16 E6/7 transfected Cx cells (CxWJ cells) following treatment with FGF-7, according to cell growth, invasive ability, and tumor growth in SCID mice. Our results indicate that the downregulation of FGFRb gene expression in CxWJ cells partially represses proliferation and the invasive ability provided by FGF-7 stimulation. In SCID mice, the FGF2 and FGFR1 gene expression ascend in CxWJ tumor nodule. These data provide evidence of a functional interaction between HPV16 E6/7 in FGFRb and FGF2, suggesting that cooperative stimulation of HPV E6/7 in inactivated FGFRb and the upregulation of FGF2 may be necessary to completely overcome the oncogenic function associated with the progression of cervical carcinogenesis.

  8. Cleavage of the HPV16 Minor Capsid Protein L2 during Virion Morphogenesis Ablates the Requirement for Cellular Furin during De Novo Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Cruz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Infections by high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV are the causative agents for the development of cervical cancer. As with other non-enveloped viruses, HPVs are taken up by the cell through endocytosis following primary attachment to the host cell. Through studies using recombinant pseudovirus particles (PsV, many host cellular proteins have been implicated in the process. The proprotein convertase furin has been demonstrated to cleave the minor capsid protein, L2, post-attachment to host cells and is required for infectious entry by HPV16 PsV. In contrast, using biochemical inhibition by a furin inhibitor and furin-negative cells, we show that tissue-derived HPV16 native virus (NV initiates infection independent of cellular furin. We show that HPV16 L2 is cleaved during virion morphogenesis in differentiated tissue. In addition, HPV45 is also not dependent on cellular furin, but two other alpha papillomaviruses, HPV18 and HPV31, are dependent on the activity of cellular furin for infection.

  9. A Live Vector Expressing HPV16 L1 Generates an Adjuvant-Induced Antibody Response In-vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirbaghaee, Zeinab; Bolhassani, Azam; Mirshafiey, Abbas; Motevalli, Fatemeh; Zohrei, Negar

    2015-12-01

    The association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and cervical cancer has suggested the design of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines against genital warts. The HPV capsid has made of two L1 and L2 coat proteins that have produced late in viral infections. Regarding to the recent studies, two commercial prophylactic vaccines have based on L1 viral like particles (VLPs) could strongly induce antibody responses, and protect human body from HPV infections. However, the use of these HPV vaccines has hindered due to their high cost and some limitations. Currently, among various vaccination strategies, live vector-based vaccines have attracted a great attention. Herein, a non-pathogenic strain of the protozoan organism known as Leishmania tarentolae has utilized to induce potent humoral immunity in mice model. At first, cloning of HPV16 L1 gene into Leishmania expression vector has performed and confirmed by PCR and digestion with restriction enzymes. The promastigotes of Leishmania tarentolae (L.tar) have transfected with linearized DNA construct by electroporation. Protein expression has analyzed by SDS-PAGE and western blotting. Then, the immunogenicity of leishmania expressing L1 protein (L.tar-L1) has assessed in mice model. Our data has indicated that subcutaneous immunization of mice with the recombinant L.tar-L1 has led to enhance the levels of IgG1 and lgG2a in comparison with control groups. Furthermore, there was no significant increase in antibody levels between two and three times of immunizations. The recombinant live vector was able to induce humoral immunity in mice without need of any adjuvant. However, further studies have required to increase its efficiency.

  10. HPV16 E7 protein and hTERT proteins defective for telomere maintenance cooperate to immortalize human keratinocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Miller

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that wild-type human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT protein can functionally replace the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16 E6 protein, which cooperates with the viral E7 protein in the immortalization of primary keratinocytes. In the current study, we made the surprising finding that catalytically inactive hTERT (hTERT-D868A, elongation-defective hTERT (hTERT-HA, and telomere recruitment-defective hTERT (hTERT N+T also cooperate with E7 in mediating bypass of the senescence blockade and effecting cell immortalization. This suggests that hTERT has activities independent of its telomere maintenance functions that mediate transit across this restriction point. Since hTERT has been shown to have a role in gene activation, we performed microarray studies and discovered that E6, hTERT and mutant hTERT proteins altered the expression of highly overlapping sets of cellular genes. Most important, the E6 and hTERT proteins induced mRNA and protein levels of Bmi1, the core subunit of the Polycomb Group (PcG complex 1. We show further that Bmi1 substitutes for E6 or hTERT in cell immortalization. Finally, tissue array studies demonstrated that expression of Bmi1 increased with the severity of cervical dysplasia, suggesting a potential role in the progression of cervical cancer. Together, these data demonstrate that hTERT has extra-telomeric activities that facilitate cell immortalization and that its induction of Bmi1 is one potential mechanism for mediating this activity.

  11. Human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination for the prevention of HPV 16/18 induced cervical cancer and its precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greiner, Wolfgang

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Essential precondition for the development of cervical cancer is a persistent human papillomavirus (HPV infection. The majority - approximately 70% - of cervical carcinomas is caused by two high-risk HPV types (16 and 18. Recently, two vaccines have been approved to the German market with the potential to induce protection against HPV 16 and HPV 18 among additional low-risk virus types. Objectives: To analyse whether HPV vaccination is effective with regard to the reduction of cervical cancer and precursors of cervical carcinoma (CIN, respectively? Does HPV vaccination represent a cost-effective alternative or supplement to present screening practice? Are there any differences concerning cost-effectiveness between the two available vaccines? Should HPV vaccination be recommended from a health economic point of view? If so, which recommendations can be conveyed with respect to a (reorganization of the German vaccination strategy? Which ethical, social and legal implications have to be considered? Methods: Based on a systematic literature review, randomized controlled trials (RCT looking at the effectiveness of HPV vaccination for the prevention of cervical carcinoma and its precursors - cervical intraepithelial neoplasia - have been identified. In addition, health economic models were identified to address the health economic research questions. Quality assessment of medical and economic literature was assured by application of general assessment standards for the systematic and critical appraisal of scientific studies. Results: Vaccine efficacy in prevention of CIN 2 or higher lesions in HPV 16 or HPV 18 negative women, who received all vaccination doses, ranges between 98% and 100%. Side effects of the vaccination are mainly associated with injection site reactions (redness, turgor, pain. No significant differences concerning serious complications between the vaccination- and the placebo-groups were reported. Results of base case

  12. Human Papillomavirus 16 (HPV-16), HPV-18, and HPV-31 E6 Override the Normal Phosphoregulation of E6AP Enzymatic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatte, Jayashree; Banks, Lawrence

    2017-11-15

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 oncoproteins recruit the cellular ubiquitin ligase E6AP/UBE3A to target cellular substrates for proteasome-mediated degradation, and one consequence of this activity is the E6 stimulation of E6AP autoubiquitination and degradation. Recent studies identified an autism-linked mutation within E6AP at T485, which was identified as a protein kinase A phosphoacceptor site and which could directly regulate E6AP ubiquitin ligase activity. In this study, we have analyzed how T485-mediated regulation of E6AP might affect E6 targeting of some of its known substrates. We show that modulation of T485 has no effect on the ability of E6 to direct either p53 or Dlg for degradation. Furthermore, T485 regulation has no effect on HPV-16 or HPV-31 E6-induced autodegradation of E6AP but does affect HPV-18 E6-induced autodegradation of E6AP. In cells derived from cervical cancers, we find low levels of both phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated E6AP in the nucleus. However, ablation of E6 results in a dramatic accumulation of phospho-E6AP in the cytoplasm, whereas nonphosphorylated E6AP accumulates primarily in the nucleus. Interestingly, E6AP phosphorylation at T485 confers association with 14-3-3 proteins, and this interaction seems to be important, in part, for the ability of E6 to recruit phospho-E6AP into the nucleus. These results demonstrate that HPV E6 overrides the normal phosphoregulation of E6AP, both in terms of its enzymatic activity and its subcellular distribution.IMPORTANCE Recent reports demonstrate the importance of phosphoregulation of E6AP for its normal enzymatic activity. Here, we show that HPV E6 is capable of overriding this regulation and can promote degradation of p53 and Dlg regardless of the phosphorylation status of E6AP. Furthermore, E6 interaction with E6AP also significantly alters how E6AP is subject to autodegradation and suggests that this is not a simple stimulation of an already-existing activity but rather a

  13. RNA extraction method is crucial for human papillomavirus E6/E7 oncogenes detection

    OpenAIRE

    Fontecha, Nerea; Nieto, Maria Carmen; And?a, Daniel; Cisterna, Ram?n; Basaras, Miren

    2017-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing plays a main role in the management of cervical cancer, however to improve the specificity in cervical screening, there is a need to develop and validate different approaches that can identify women at risk for progressive disease. Nowadays, mRNA expression of viral E6 and E7 HPV oncogenes stands up as a potential biomarker to improve cervical screening. We aimed to validate a method for RNA extraction, detect HPV mRNA expression and, assess t...

  14. The expression of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16 E7) induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in radiation and hypoxia resistant glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sung-Ung; Choi, Soo Kyoung; Kim, Han Jo; Kumar Bokara, Kiran; Park, Kyung Ah; Lee, Won Taek; Lee, Jong-Eun

    2011-01-01

    p53 is a widely known tumor-suppressor gene product that plays a key role in apoptotic cell death induced by DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agents. Human glioma cells with functional p53 are known to be more resistant to γ-radiation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the mutant glioblastoma cells (U87MG) transfected with human papilloma virus-type 16 E7 (HPV16 E7) genes were capable of increasing sensitivity towards irradiation and hypoxia-induced cell death. The pLXSN retroviral vector expressed HPV-16E7 genes and was infected into the p53 mutated U87MG cell line. A specific amplification band of HPV16 E7 genes was detected in E7 genes and transfected in the U87MG cell line using a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The experimental groups included the mutant glioblastoma cell line (U87MG), empty vector (pLXSN) transfected to mutant glioblastoma cell line (U87MG-LXSN), and retrovirus carrying HPV16 E7 genes transfected to the mutant glioblastoma cell line (U87MG-E7). Hypoxic conditions were optimized using LDH assay and the subjects were exposed to hypoxia (16 and 20 h) and irradiation (9 h). Hoechst-propidium iodide (PI) staining results showed that hypoxia and irradiation increased the number of dead cells in the U87MG-E7 cells compared to U87MG and U87MG-LXSN cells. Results of the FACS analysis showed a similar pattern and recorded 80.44 and 58.94% of apoptotic cells in U87MG-E7 and U87MG cells, respectively. Cell cycle analysis by FACS revealed that, following irradiation and hypoxia, cells showed G2-M arrest. Additionally, the Western blot analysis results showed altered expression of E2F-1, Rb and p53 in the irradiation- and hypoxia-induced U87MG-E7 cells compared to U87MG and U87MG LXSN cells. In conclusion, the over-expression of HPV16 E7 genes in U87MG cell lines increasd cell apoptosis and E2F1 expression compared to the HPV non-infected U87MG cells following irradiation and hypoxia. These results indicate that tumor

  15. Suppression of HPV-16 late L1 5′-splice site SD3632 by binding of hnRNP D proteins and hnRNP A2/B1 to upstream AUAGUA RNA motifs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoze; Johansson, Cecilia; Glahder, Jacob; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Schwartz, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) 5′-splice site SD3632 is used exclusively to produce late L1 mRNAs. We identified a 34-nt splicing inhibitory element located immediately upstream of HPV-16 late 5′-splice site SD3632. Two AUAGUA motifs located in these 34 nt inhibited SD3632. Two nucleotide substitutions in each of the HPV-16 specific AUAGUA motifs alleviated splicing inhibition and induced late L1 mRNA production from episomal forms of the HPV-16 genome in primary human keratinocytes. The AUAGUA motifs bind specifically not only to the heterogeneous nuclear RNP (hnRNP) D family of RNA-binding proteins including hnRNP D/AUF, hnRNP DL and hnRNP AB but also to hnRNP A2/B1. Knock-down of these proteins induced HPV-16 late L1 mRNA expression, and overexpression of hnRNP A2/B1, hnRNP AB, hnRNP DL and the two hnRNP D isoforms hnRNP D37 and hnRNP D40 further suppressed L1 mRNA expression. This inhibition may allow HPV-16 to hide from the immune system and establish long-term persistent infections with enhanced risk at progressing to cancer. There is an inverse correlation between expression of hnRNP D proteins and hnRNP A2/B1 and HPV-16 L1 production in the cervical epithelium, as well as in cervical cancer, supporting the conclusion that hnRNP D proteins and A2/B1 inhibit HPV-16 L1 mRNA production. PMID:24013563

  16. Clinical Performance of APTIMA Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 16 18/45 mRNA Genotyping Testing for the Detection of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 3 (CIN3) or Cancer in a Select Group of Chinese Women.

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    Guo, Yan-Li; You, Ke; Geng, Li; Qiao, Jie

    2016-07-01

    HPV type was evaluated in a select group of Chinese women that were positive with hybrid capture, and correlations were performed between the pathology found, the type of virus and a semiquantitation from the hybrid capture results. Totally 394 referred high-risk-HPV-positive women evaluated by Hybrid Capture 2 (HC-2) assay were enrolled. Before colposcopy, cervical specimens were collected from all participants and suspended into PreservCytcollection medium (Hologic Inc., Marlborough, MA), and tested with the APTIMA HPV16 18/45 mRNA assay. Colposcopy and diagnostic biopsies were done on all participants. Viral load was assessed by HC2 assay. Totally 55 women were diagnosed as CIN 3 plus cancer (≥CIN3), and the prevalence of HPV16/18/45 was 65.5 % (95 % confidence interval [CI], 52.9-78.0 %) among these ≥CIN3 women. Compared with the group with positive HC2 but negative HPV16/18/45, the odds ratio (OR) to identify ≥CIN3 was 6.3 (95 % CI, 3.2-12.3) for HPV16 and 3.2 (95 % CI, 1.4-7.2) for HPV18/45. When using ≥CIN3 as an endpoint, the sensitivity and specificity was 65.5 % (95 % CI, 52.9-78.0 %) and 72.0 % (95 % CI, 67.2-76.8 %). In the case of HPV16/18/45 negative, no high HPV load had a statistically significant increased risk for the prevalence of ≥CIN3. HPV16, 18 and 45 infection is a major cause for ≥CIN3 in Chinese women. Women with positive HPV16/18/45 should be referred to colposcopy immediately. HPV load was not suitable for the further triaged of the HPV16/18/45 negative cases.

  17. Radioimmunotherapy with an antibody to HPV16 E6 oncoprotein is effective in experimental cervical tumor expressing low levels of E6

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    Jiang, Zewei; Wang, Xing Guo; Einstein, Mark H; Goldberg, Gary L; Casadevall, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose HPV16 is associated with ∼50% of all cervical cancers worldwide. The E6 and E7 genes of oncogenic HPV types, such as HPV16, are necessary for the HPV transforming function and tumorogenesis making them ideal targets for novel treatments. Radioimmunotherapy employs systemically administered radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind to tumor-associated antigens. Previously we demonstrated in mice that radioimmunotherapy targeting viral antigens with mAb to HPV16 E6 suppressed CasKi cervical tumors expressing high levels of E6 (∼600 copies of HPV per cell). However, that study opened the question whether radioimmunotherapy can suppress the growth of cervical tumors with low E6 and E7 expression, such as may be seen in patients. Experimental Design We evaluated the expression of E6 in patients' tumors and in the SiHa cell line expressing low levels of E6 and E7 (1–2 copies of HPV per cell) and found them comparable. We initiated SiHa tumors in nude mice, radiolabeled C1P5 mAb to E6 with a beta-emitter 188-Rhenium (188Re) and treated tumor-bearing mice with: (1) 200 µCi 188Re-C1P5 alone; (2) proteasome inhibitor MG132 alone; (3) MG132 followed by 200 µCi 188Re-C1P5; (4) unlabeled C1P5; (5) 200 µCi 188Re-18B7 (isotype-matching control mAb); (6) no treatment. 188Re-C1P5 alone and in combination with MG-132 significantly retarded tumor growth compared to all control groups. Conclusions Our data demonstrate the possibility to suppress tumor growth by targeting viral antigens even in cervical tumors with low E6 expression and provide additional evidence for the potential usefulness of radioimmunotherapy targeting HPV-related antigens in the clinic. PMID:20861673

  18. Comparison of cervical cancer screening strategies incorporating different combinations of cytology, HPV testing, and genotyping for HPV 16/18: results from the ATHENA HPV study.

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    Cox, J Thomas; Castle, Phillip E; Behrens, Catherine M; Sharma, Abha; Wright, Thomas C; Cuzick, Jack

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the study was to compare 9 cervical cancer screening strategies to the current screening standard (cytology with human papillomavirus [HPV] triage of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance) for the detection of high-grade cervical disease. Women (n = 34,254) aged 30 years or older from the Addressing the Need for Advanced HPV Diagnostics (ATHENA) study underwent screening with cytology and HPV testing with simultaneous HPV16/18 genotyping; those with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance cytology or greater or HPV-positive status were referred for colposcopy. In general, screening strategies that offered greater sensitivity also required more referral to colposcopy. HPV testing was more sensitive than cytology for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or greater, but strategies that depended on cytology for triage of HPV-positive women decreased this sensitivity. Various strategies of cotesting with cytology increased sensitivity but did so by increasing testing. Strategies that included integrated HPV16/18 testing provided more efficient referral to colposcopy. Strategies that maximize detection of women at greatest risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or greater by immediate referral to colposcopy, with follow-up testing of women at intermediate risk, maximize the benefits of cervical cancer screening while decreasing the potential harm. Incorporating screening with HPV and triage of HPV-positive women by a combination of genotyping for HPV16/18 and cytology provided a good balance between maximizing sensitivity (benefit) and specificity by limiting the number of colposcopies (potential harm). Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Some novel insights on HPV16 related cervical cancer pathogenesis based on analyses of LCR methylation, viral load, E7 and E2/E4 expressions.

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    Damayanti Das Ghosh

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to decipher the interdependent roles of (i methylation within E2 binding site I and II (E2BS-I/II and replication origin (nt 7862 in the long control region (LCR, (ii expression of viral oncogene E7, (iii expression of the transcript (E7-E1/E4 that encodes E2 repressor protein and (iv viral load, in human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16 related cervical cancer (CaCx pathogenesis. The results revealed over-representation (p<0.001 of methylation at nucleotide 58 of E2BS-I among E2-intact CaCx cases compared to E2-disrupted cases. Bisulphite sequencing of LCR revealed overrepresentation of methylation at nucleotide 58 or other CpGs in E2BS-I/II, among E2-intact cases than E2-disrupted cases and lack of methylation at replication origin in case of both. The viral transcript (E7-E1/E4 that produces the repressor E2 was analyzed by APOT (amplification of papillomavirus oncogenic transcript-coupled-quantitative-RT-PCR (of E7 and E4 genes to distinguish episomal (pure or concomitant with integrated from purely integrated viral genomes based on the ratio, E7 C(T/E4 C(T. Relative quantification based on comparative C(T (threshold cycle method revealed 75.087 folds higher E7 mRNA expression in episomal cases over purely integrated cases. Viral load and E2 gene copy numbers were negatively correlated with E7 C(T (p = 0.007 and E2 C(T (p<0.0001, respectively, each normalized with ACTB C(T, among episomal cases only. The k-means clustering analysis considering E7 C(T from APOT-coupled-quantitative-RT-PCR assay, in conjunction with viral load, revealed immense heterogeneity among the HPV16 positive CaCx cases portraying integrated viral genomes. The findings provide novel insights into HPV16 related CaCx pathogenesis and highlight that CaCx cases that harbour episomal HPV16 genomes with intact E2 are likely to be distinct biologically, from the purely integrated viral genomes in terms of host genes and/or pathways involved in cervical

  20. Primary screening for cervical cancer based on high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) detection and HPV 16 and HPV 18 genotyping, in comparison to cytology.

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    Agorastos, Theodoros; Chatzistamatiou, Kimon; Katsamagkas, Taxiarchis; Koliopoulos, George; Daponte, Alexandros; Constantinidis, Theocharis; Constantinidis, Theodoros C

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to assess the performance of a high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) DNA test with individual HPV-16/HPV-18 genotyping as a method for primary cervical cancer screening compared with liquid-based cytology (LBC) in a population of Greek women taking part in routine cervical cancer screening. The study, conducted by the "HEllenic Real life Multicentric cErvical Screening" (HERMES) study group, involved the recruitment of 4,009 women, aged 25-55, who took part in routine cervical screening at nine Gynecology Departments in Greece. At first visit cervical specimens were collected for LBC and HPV testing using the Roche Cobas 4800 system. Women found positive for either cytology or HPV were referred for colposcopy, whereas women negative for both tests will be retested after three years. The study is ongoing and the results of the first screening round are reported herein. Valid results for cytology and HPV testing were obtained for 3,993 women. The overall prevalence of HR-HPV was 12.7%, of HPV-16 2.7% and of HPV-18 1.4%. Of those referred for colposcopy, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) was detected in 41 women (1.07%). At the threshold of CIN2+, cytology [atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or worse] and HPV testing showed a sensitivity of 53.7% and 100% respectively, without change between age groups. Cytology and HPV testing showed specificity of 96.8% and 90.3% respectively, which was increased in older women (≥30) in comparison to younger ones (25-29). Genotyping for HPV16/18 had similar accuracy to cytology for the detection of CIN2+ (sensitivity: 58.5%; specificity 97.5%) as well as for triage to colposcopy (sensitivity: 58.5% vs 53.7% for cytology). HPV testing has much better sensitivity than cytology to identify high-grade cervical lesions with slightly lower specificity. HPV testing with individual HPV-16/HPV-18 genotyping could represent a more accurate

  1. Primary Screening for Cervical Cancer Based on High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Detection and HPV 16 and HPV 18 Genotyping, in Comparison to Cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinidis, Theocharis; Constantinidis, Theodoros C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objective of the present study is to assess the performance of a high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) DNA test with individual HPV-16/HPV-18 genotyping as a method for primary cervical cancer screening compared with liquid-based cytology (LBC) in a population of Greek women taking part in routine cervical cancer screening. Methods The study, conducted by the “HEllenic Real life Multicentric cErvical Screening” (HERMES) study group, involved the recruitment of 4,009 women, aged 25–55, who took part in routine cervical screening at nine Gynecology Departments in Greece. At first visit cervical specimens were collected for LBC and HPV testing using the Roche Cobas 4800 system. Women found positive for either cytology or HPV were referred for colposcopy, whereas women negative for both tests will be retested after three years. The study is ongoing and the results of the first screening round are reported herein. Results Valid results for cytology and HPV testing were obtained for 3,993 women. The overall prevalence of HR-HPV was 12.7%, of HPV-16 2.7% and of HPV-18 1.4%. Of those referred for colposcopy, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) was detected in 41 women (1.07%). At the threshold of CIN2+, cytology [atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or worse] and HPV testing showed a sensitivity of 53.7% and 100% respectively, without change between age groups. Cytology and HPV testing showed specificity of 96.8% and 90.3% respectively, which was increased in older women (≥30) in comparison to younger ones (25–29). Genotyping for HPV16/18 had similar accuracy to cytology for the detection of CIN2+ (sensitivity: 58.5%; specificity 97.5%) as well as for triage to colposcopy (sensitivity: 58.5% vs 53.7% for cytology). Conclusion HPV testing has much better sensitivity than cytology to identify high-grade cervical lesions with slightly lower specificity. HPV testing with individual HPV-16/HPV-18

  2. Digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) for the detection and quantification of HPV 16, 18, 33 and 45 - a short report.

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    Lillsunde Larsson, Gabriella; Helenius, Gisela

    2017-07-26

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is associated with several anogenital malignancies. Here, we set out to evaluate digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) as a tool for HPV 16, 18, 33 and 45 viral load quantification and, in addition, to compare the efficacy of the ddPCR assay for HPV 16 detection with that of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Clinical samples, positive for HPV genotypes 16, 18, 33 and 45 were analyzed for viral load using ddPCR. Sample DNA was cleaved before droplet generation and PCR. Droplets positive for VIC and FAM fluorescence were read in a QX200 Droplet reader™ (BIO-RAD) after which the viral load was calculated using Quantasoft software. We found that DNAs extracted from formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue samples yielded lower amplification signals compared to those obtained from liquid based cytology (LBC) samples, but they were clearly distinguishable from negative background signals. The viral limit of detection was 1.6 copies of HPV 16, 2.8 copies of HPV 18, 4.6 copies of HPV 33 and 1.6 copies of HPV 45. The mean inter-assay coefficients of variability (CV) for the assays ranged from 3.4 to 7.0%, and the mean intra-assay CV from 2.6 to 8.2%. The viral load in the different cohorts of tumor samples ranged from 154 to 340,200 copies for HPV 16, 244 to 31,300 copies for HPV 18 and 738 to 69,100 copies for HPV 33. One sample positive for HPV 45 contained 1331 viral copies. When comparing qPCR data with ddPCR copy number data, the qPCR values were found to be 1 to 31 times higher. Separation of fragments in nanodroplets may facilitate the amplification of fragmented human and viral DNA. The method of digital droplet PCR may, thus, provide a new and promising tool for evaluating the HPV viral load in clinical samples.

  3. Focal epithelial hyperplasia by human papillomavirus (HPV)-32 misdiagnosed as HPV-16 and treated with combination of retinoids, imiquimod and quadrivalent HPV vaccine.

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    Gemigniani, Franco; Hernández-Losa, Javier; Ferrer, Berta; García-Patos, Vicente

    2015-12-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck's disease is a rare, benign and asymptomatic mucosal proliferation associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, mainly with genotypes 13 and 32. We report a florid case of FEH in an 11-year-old Haitian girl with systemic lupus erythematosus receiving immunosuppressive therapy. Cryotherapy was previously performed on numerous occasions with no results. We decided to prescribe a non-invasive and more comfortable treatment. A combination of topical retinoid and imiquimod cream was well tolerated and led to an important improvement. The evidence of infection by HPV-16 detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, prompted us to prescribe the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (types 6, 11,16 and 18). Subsequent PCR sequencing with generic primers GP5-GP6 and further BLAST comparative analysis confirmed that genomic viral sequence in our case truly corresponded with HPV-32. This molecular misdiagnosis can be explained by the similarity between genomic sequences of both HPV-16 and -32 genotypes. At the 1-year follow up, we observed total clinical improvement and no recurrences of the disease. Complete healing in this case may correspond to a potential action of topical retinoid, imiquimod and the cross-protection mechanism of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  4. Human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine for the prevention of cervical cancer and HPV-related diseases.

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    Skinner, S Rachel; Apter, Dan; De Carvalho, Newton; Harper, Diane M; Konno, Ryo; Paavonen, Jorma; Romanowski, Barbara; Roteli-Martins, Cecilia; Burlet, Nansa; Mihalyi, Attila; Struyf, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Vaccines are available against human papillomavirus (HPV), the causal agent of cervical and other cancers. Efficacy data from the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine clinical trial program were reviewed. Six randomized, controlled phase II/III trials evaluating cervical endpoints enrolled women from diverse populations and geographical locations. The program analyzed extensively the cohorts most relevant from a public health perspective: the total vaccinated cohort (TVC), approximating a general population including those with existing or previous HPV infection, and TVC-naïve, approximating a population of young women before sexual debut. Results show that the vaccine reduces HPV-16/18 infection and associated cervical endpoints in women regardless of age, location, or sexual experience. It provides cross-protection against some non-vaccine oncogenic HPV types and types causing genital warts, and may be effective against vulvar, oral, and anal HPV infection. Early epidemiology data following its introduction suggest a decline in the prevalence of vaccine and some non-vaccine HPV types.

  5. Elimination of high-risk human papillomavirus type HPV16 infection by 'Praneem' polyherbal tablet in women with early cervical intraepithelial lesions.

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    Shukla, Shirish; Bharti, Alok C; Hussain, Showket; Mahata, Sutapa; Hedau, Suresh; Kailash, Uma; Kashyap, Veena; Bhambhani, Suresh; Roy, Meera; Batra, Swaraj; Talwar, G P; Das, Bhudev C

    2009-12-01

    'Praneem', a polyherbal formulation developed by us, has successfully completed Phase II efficacy study for treatment of abnormal vaginal discharge due to reproductive tract infections that act as co-factors for HPV persistence. In the present study we evaluated potential anti-HPV activity of Praneem in women infected with high risk HPV type 16. Twenty women molecularly diagnosed positive for HPV16 infection without or with low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) or inflammation were assigned to receive intra-vaginal, topical application of either Praneem tablet or placebo for 30 days excluding the days of menstrual period and were evaluated for persistence of HPV infection using HPV L1 consensus and HPV type 16-specific PCR as primary outcome. One course of Praneem treatment resulted in elimination of HPV in 6 out of 10 (60%) cases. A repeat treatment of four patients with persisting HPV infection resulted in clearance of HPV in two additional cases resulting in an overall 80% clearance of HPV 16 as against a spontaneous clearance of 10% (1/10) seen in the placebo arm. The elimination of HPV DNA was found to be accompanied by marked improvement in clinical symptoms and cytological abnormalities of Praneem-treated patients. Our results showed for the first time that a 30-day intra-vaginal application of the Praneem can result in elimination of HPV infection from the uterine cervix.

  6. Ten-year immune persistence and safety of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in females vaccinated at 15-55 years of age.

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    Schwarz, Tino F; Galaj, Andrzej; Spaczynski, Marek; Wysocki, Jacek; Kaufmann, Andreas M; Poncelet, Sylviane; Suryakiran, Pemmaraju V; Folschweiller, Nicolas; Thomas, Florence; Lin, Lan; Struyf, Frank

    2017-11-01

    Women remain at risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection for most of their lives. The duration of protection against HPV-16/18 from prophylactic vaccination remains unknown. We investigated the 10-year immune response and long-term safety profile of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine) in females aged between 15 and 55 years at first vaccination. Females who received primary vaccination with three doses of AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine in the primary phase-III study (NCT00196937) were invited to attend annual evaluations for long-term immunogenicity and safety. Anti-HPV-16/18 antibodies in serum and cervico-vaginal secretions (CVS) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Serious adverse events (SAEs) were recorded throughout the follow-up period. Seropositivity rates for anti-HPV-16 remained high (≥96.3%) in all age groups 10 years after first vaccination. It was found that 99.2% of 15-25-year olds remained seropositive for anti-HPV-18 compared to 93.7% and 83.8% of 26-45-year olds and 45-55-year olds, respectively. Geometric mean titers (GMT) remained above natural infection levels in all age groups. Anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 titers were at least 5.3-fold and 3.1-fold higher than titers observed after natural infection, respectively, and were predicted to persist above natural infection levels for ≥30 years in all age groups. At Year 10, anti-HPV-16/18 antibody titers in subjects aged 15-25 years remained above plateau levels observed in previous studies. Correlation coefficients for antibody titers in serum and CVS were 0.64 (anti-HPV-16) and 0.38 (anti-HPV-18). This study concluded that vaccinated females aged 15-55 years elicited sustained immunogenicity with an acceptable safety profile up to 10 years after primary vaccination, suggesting long-term protection against HPV. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Association of the plasma and tissue riboflavin levels with C20orf54 expression in cervical lesions and its relationship to HPV16 infection.

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    Aixingzi Aili

    Full Text Available Riboflavin deficiency can cause a variety of metabolic problems that lead to skin and mucosal disorders. Limited evidence suggests that high intake of riboflavin may reduce overall risks of cancer. However, association of this deficiency with cervical cancer and precancerous lesions are still not definitively known. In this study, we characterized the relationship between plasma and tissue riboflavin levels and C20orf54 protein expression in patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC as well as the relationship of these levels with human papillomavirus virus 16, 18 (HPV16/18 infections. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to measure blood riboflavin levels in patients with CIN and CSCC, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to determine tissue riboflavin levels in patients with CSCC and matched normal mucous epithelia. The expression of C20orf54 in fresh CSCC and matched tissues were detected by qRT-PCR and western blot, respectively. And it was further confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHC with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded CIN and CSCC. An HPV genotyping chip was used to analyze HPV infection and typing. The results showed that patients with CIN and CSCC had decreased plasma riboflavin levels as compared with normal controls. There was also significantly decreased riboflavin in tissues from CSCC patients, when compared with normal cervical epithelia. C20orf54 expression were significantly up-regulated in CSCC compared to matched control on both mRNA and protein level. Tissue riboflavin levels were significantly lower in HPV16/18 positive tissue compared with HPV16/18-negative tissue, and an inverse association was found between tissue riboflavin levels and C20orf54 mRNA and protein expression in CSCC. Additionally, C20orf54 was significantly correlated with tumor stages. In conclusion, C20orf54 tend to play a protective role in Uyghur cervical

  8. Efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in Chinese women aged 18-25 years: event-triggered analysis of a randomized controlled trial.

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    Zhu, Feng-Cai; Hu, Shang-Ying; Hong, Ying; Hu, Yue-Mei; Zhang, Xun; Zhang, Yi-Ju; Pan, Qin-Jing; Zhang, Wen-Hua; Zhao, Fang-Hui; Zhang, Cheng-Fu; Yang, Xiaoping; Yu, Jia-Xi; Zhu, Jiahong; Zhu, Yejiang; Chen, Feng; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Hong; Wang, Changrong; Bi, Jun; Xue, Shiyin; Shen, Lingling; Zhang, Yan-Shu; He, Yunkun; Tang, Haiwen; Karkada, Naveen; Suryakiran, Pemmaraju; Bi, Dan; Struyf, Frank

    2017-01-01

    We previously reported the results of a phase II/III, double-blind, randomized controlled study in Chinese women (NCT00779766) showing a 94.2% (95% confidence interval: 62.7-99.9) HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine efficacy (VE) against cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 or higher (CIN1+) and/or 6-month (M) persistent infection (PI) with a mean follow-up of HPV-16/18 vaccine or Al(OH)3 (control) at M0, 1, 6. VE against HPV-16/18-associated CIN2+, and cross-protective VE against infections with nonvaccine oncogenic HPV types, immunogenicity, and safety were assessed. In the according-to-protocol efficacy cohort, in initially seronegative/DNA-negative women (vaccine group: N = 2524; control group: N = 2535), VE against HPV-16/18-associated CIN2+ was 87.3% (5.3-99.7); VE against incident infection or against 6-month persistent infection associated with HPV-31/33/45 was 50.1% (34.3-62.3) or 52.6% (24.5-70.9), respectively. At least, 99.6% of HPV-16/18-vaccines remained seropositive for anti-HPV-16/18 antibodies; anti-HPV-16 and -18 geometric mean titers were 1271.1 EU/mL (1135.8-1422.6) and 710.0 EU/ml (628.6-801.9), respectively. Serious adverse events were infrequent (1.7% vaccine group [N = 3026]; 2.5% control group [N = 3026]). Of the 1595 reported pregnancies, nine had congenital anomalies (five live infants, three elective terminations, one stillbirth) that were unlikely vaccination-related (blinded data). VE against HPV-16/18-associated CIN2+ was demonstrated and evidence of cross-protective VE against oncogenic HPV types was shown. The vaccine was immunogenic and had an acceptable safety profile. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The E6AP binding pocket of the HPV16 E6 oncoprotein provides a docking site for a small inhibitory peptide unrelated to E6AP, indicating druggability of E6.

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    Katia Zanier

    Full Text Available The HPV E6 oncoprotein maintains the malignant phenotype of HPV-positive cancer cells and represents an attractive therapeutic target. E6 forms a complex with the cellular E6AP ubiquitin ligase, ultimately leading to p53 degradation. The recently elucidated x-ray structure of a HPV16 E6/E6AP complex showed that HPV16 E6 forms a distinct binding pocket for E6AP. This discovery raises the question whether the E6AP binding pocket is druggable, i. e. whether it provides a docking site for functional E6 inhibitors. To address these issues, we performed a detailed analysis of the HPV16 E6 interactions with two small peptides: (i E6APpep, corresponding to the E6 binding domain of E6AP, and (ii pep11**, a peptide that binds to HPV16 E6 and, in contrast to E6APpep, induces apoptosis, specifically in HPV16-positive cancer cells. Surface plasmon resonance, NMR chemical shift perturbation, and mammalian two-hybrid analyses coupled to mutagenesis indicate that E6APpep contacts HPV16 E6 amino acid residues within the E6AP pocket, both in vitro and intracellularly. Many of these amino acids were also important for binding to pep11**, suggesting that the binding sites for the two peptides on HPV16 E6 overlap. Yet, few E6 amino acids were differentially involved which may contribute to the higher binding affinity of pep11**. Data from the HPV16 E6/pep11** interaction allowed the rational design of single amino acid exchanges in HPV18 and HPV31 E6 that enabled their binding to pep11**. Taken together, these results suggest that E6 molecular surfaces mediating E6APpep binding can also accommodate pro-apoptotic peptides that belong to different sequence families. As proof of concept, this study provides the first experimental evidence that the E6AP binding pocket is druggable, opening new possibilities for rational, structure-based drug design.

  10. Rationale and design of a long term follow-up study of women who did and did not receive HPV 16/18 vaccination in Guanacaste, Costa Rica.

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    Gonzalez, Paula; Hildesheim, Allan; Herrero, Rolando; Katki, Hormuzd; Wacholder, Sholom; Porras, Carolina; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Jimenez, Silvia; Darragh, Teresa M; Cortes, Bernal; Befano, Brian; Schiffman, Mark; Carvajal, Loreto; Palefsky, Joel; Schiller, John; Ocampo, Rebeca; Schussler, John; Lowy, Douglas; Guillen, Diego; Stoler, Mark H; Quint, Wim; Morales, Jorge; Avila, Carlos; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Kreimer, Aimée R

    2015-04-27

    The Costa Rica Vaccine Trial (CVT) was a randomized clinical trial conducted between 2004 and 2010, which randomized 7466 women aged 18 to 25 to receive the bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine or control Hepatitis-A vaccine. Participants were followed for 4 years with cross-over vaccination at the study end. In 2010 the long term follow-up (LTFU) study was initiated to evaluate the 10-year impact of HPV-16/18 vaccination, determinants of the immune response, and HPV natural history in a vaccinated population. Herein, the rationale, design and methods of the LTFU study are described, which actively follows CVT participants in the HPV-arm 6 additional years at biennial intervals (3 additional study visits for 10 years of total follow-up), or more often if clinically indicated. According to the initial commitment, women in the Hepatitis-A arm were offered HPV vaccination at cross-over; they were followed 2 additional years and exited from the study. 92% of eligible CVT women accepted participation in LTFU. To provide underlying rates of HPV acquisition and cervical disease among unvaccinated women to compare with the HPV-arm during LTFU, a new unvaccinated control group (UCG) of women who are beyond the age generally recommended for routine vaccination was enrolled, and will be followed by cervical cancer screening over 6 years. To form the UCG, 5000 women were selected from a local census, of whom 2836 women (61% of eligible women) agreed to participate. Over 90% of participants complied with an interview, blood and cervical specimen collection. Evaluation of comparability between the original (Hepatitis-A arm of CVT) and new (UCG) control groups showed that women's characteristics, as well as their predicted future risk for cervical HPV acquisition, were similar, thus validating use of the UCG. LTFU is poised to comprehensively address many important questions related to long-term effects of prophylactic HPV vaccines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Potentiation of human papilloma vaccine candidate using naloxone/alum mixture as an adjuvant: increasing immunogenicity of HPV-16E7d vaccine.

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    Yasaghi, Mahsa; Mahdavi, Mehdi

    2016-09-01

    Many types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have been identified, with some leading to cancer and others to skin lesions such as anogenital warts. Studies have demonstrated an association between oncogenic HPV and cervical cancer and many researchers have focused on therapeutic vaccines development. At present, the modulatory effect of opioids on the innate and acquired immune system is characterized. Antagonists of opioid receptors such as naloxone (NLX) can contribute to the shifting Th2 response toward Th1. Herein; we studied the adjuvant activity of NLX/Alum mixture for improvement of the immunogenicity of HPV-16E7d vaccine. The mice were administered different regimens of vaccine; E7d, E7d-NLX, E7d-Alum, E7d-NLX-Alum, NLX, alum and PBS via subcutaneous route for three times with two weeks interval. Two weeks after the last immunization, the sera were assessed for total antibody, IgG1 and IgG2a with an optimized ELISA method. The splenocytes culture supernatant was analyzed by ELISA for the presence of IL-4, IFN-γ and IL-17 cytokines and lymphocyte proliferation was evaluated with Brdu method. Immunization of mice with HPV-16 E7d vaccine formulated in NLX/Alum mixture significantly increased lymphocyte proliferation and Th1 and Th17 cytokines responses compared to other experimental groups. Analysis of humoral immune responses revealed that administration of vaccine with NLX/Alum mixture significantly increased specific IgG responses and also isotypes compared to control groups. NLX/Alum mixture as an adjuvant could improve cellular and humoral immune responses and the adjuvant maybe useful for HPV vaccines model for further studies in human clinical trial.

  12. Association of p16 (CDKN2A) polymorphisms with the development of HPV16-related precancerous lesions and cervical cancer in the Greek population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakogiannis, Dimitris; Moschonas, George D; Bella, Evangelia; Kyriakopoulou, Zaharoula; Amoutzias, Grigoris D; Dimitriou, Tilemachos G; Kottaridi, Christine; Markoulatos, Panayotis

    2017-11-23

    The tumor suppressor protein p16 plays a fundamental role in cell cycle regulation and exerts a protective effect against tumor growth. Two different polymorphisms at positions 540 and 580 at the 3'UTR of exon 3 of p16 gene are implicated in several types of cancer, while their role in cervical cancer development remains rather vague. In the present study, we investigated for the impact of p16 genotypes/haplotypes on patients' vulnerability to cervical disease and examined whether these factors can be used as progression markers in the Greek population. A total of 96 HPV16 positive samples and histologically confirmed as LSIL (42 samples), HSIL (44 samples), and cervical cancer cases (10 samples) along with 50 control cases were tested. The identification of p16 polymorphisms was performed by PCR-RFLP methodology. The present analysis revealed that women with p16 540 CG/GG genotype are at a 2.7-fold higher risk of developing HPV16-associated HSIL (OR = 2.7, 95%CI: 1.01-6.6, P = 0.028). The G allele can be regarded as a risk factor of developing HSIL in the Greek population (OR = 2.7, 95%CI: 1.2-5.9, P = 0.012). Moreover, p16 polymorphism C580T is not associated with the growth of cervical lesion in Greek patients, while 540G/580C haplotype can be regarded as a risk haplotype of developing HSIL (OR = 3.67, 95%CI: 1.56-8.6, P = 0.0019). Our results demonstrated that p16 C540G polymorphism influence patients' susceptibility to more severe dysplasia and consequently this polymorphism could potentially emerge as a valuable biomarker for HSIL development in the Greek population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Rationale and design of a community-based double-blind randomized clinical trial of an HPV 16 and 18 vaccine in Guanacaste, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Rolando; Hildesheim, Allan; Rodríguez, Ana C; Wacholder, Sholom; Bratti, Concepción; Solomon, Diane; González, Paula; Porras, Carolina; Jiménez, Silvia; Guillen, Diego; Morales, Jorge; Alfaro, Mario; Cyr, Jean; Morrisey, Kerrygrace; Estrada, Yenory; Cortés, Bernal; Morera, Lidia Ana; Freer, Enrique; Schussler, John; Schiller, John; Lowy, Douglas; Schiffman, Mark

    2008-09-02

    We report the rationale, design, methods and details of participation of a community-based, double-blind, randomized clinical trial of an HPV 16 and 18 vaccine conducted in two provinces of Costa Rica to investigate the efficacy and population impact of the vaccine in the prevention of cervical cancer precursors. More than 24,000 women between 18 and 25 years of age were invited to participate and pre-screened for eligibility, with recruitment of 7466 women (30% of those pre-screened, 59% of those eligible) who were randomized to receive 3 doses of the HPV vaccine or hepatitis A vaccine as control. A complex protocol of data and specimen collection was applied, including an interview, pelvic exam for sexually active women, blood for serology and cell-mediated immunity, cervical secretions for local immunity and cells for HPV, Chlamydia trachomatis and gonorrhea testing. Eighty percent of the women received three doses, 12.4% two doses and 7.4% one dose. At visits, compliance with data and specimen collection was close to 100%. Baseline characteristics and age-specific prevalence of HPV and cervical neoplasia are reported. Overall prevalence of HPV was high (50%), with 8.3% of women having HPV 16 and 3.2% HPV 18. LSIL was detected in 12.7% of women at baseline and HSIL in 1.9%. Prevalence of Chlamydia was 14.2%. There was very good agreement in HPV detection between clinician-collected and self- collected specimens (89.4% agreement for all types, kappa 0.59). Follow up will continue with yearly or more frequent examinations for at least 4 years for each participant.

  14. Utility of gene methylation analysis, cytological examination, and HPV-16/18 genotyping in triage of high-risk human papilloma virus-positive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yan; Yuan Wu, Na-Yi; Liou, Yu-Ligh; Yeh, Ching-Tung; Cao, Lanqin; Kang, Ya-Nan; Wang, Huei-Jen; Li, Yichen; Chu, Tang-Yuan; Li, Wei; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Honghao; Zhang, Yu

    2017-09-22

    In 2015, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology and the Society of Gynecologic Oncology issued interim guidance for the use of a human papillomavirus (HPV) test for primary screening, suggesting triage of women positive for high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) by HPV-16/18 genotyping and cytology for women positive for non-16/18 hrHPV. The design of the present study was based on this interim guidance and analysis of the methylation status of specific candidate genes, which has been proposed as a tool to reduce unnecessary referral following primary HPV screening for cervical cancer. We performed a hospital-based case-control study including 312 hrHPV-positive women. hrHPV genotyping was performed by nested multiplex PCR assay with type-specific primers.Residual cervical cells from liquid-based cytology were used for extraction of genomic DNA for assessment of the methylation status of PAX1, ZNF582, SOX1, and NKX6-1 and HPV genotyping. Combined with HPV-16/18 genotyping, both a dual methylation test for PAX1/ZNF582 and testing for ZNF582 methylation demonstrated 100% association of methylation with pathology results, indicating carcinoma in situ or squamous cell carcinoma. The sensitivity and specificity of the dual methylation test for PAX1/ZNF582 as a reflex test for identification of CIN3+ lesions were 78.85% and 73.55% (odds ratio = 10.37, 95% confidence interval = 4.76-22.58), respectively. This strategy could reduce the number of patients referred for colposcopic examination by 31.3% compared with cytology, and thus provide a feasible follow-up solution in regions where colposcopy is not readily available. This strategy could also prevent unnecessary anxiety in women with hrHPV infection.

  15. Highly potent and specific siRNAs against E6 or E7 genes of HPV16- or HPV18-infected cervical cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J T-C; Kuo, T-F; Chen, Y-J; Chiu, C-C; Lu, Y-C; Li, H-F; Shen, C-R; Cheng, A-J

    2010-12-01

    Infection with high-risk types (type 16 or type 18) of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) increases a patient's risk of cervical cancer. Given the importance of the cervix and the severe side effects resulting from traditional cancer therapies, this study aimed to achieve targeted inhibition of viral oncogenes in tumor cells using small interfering RNAs (siRNA). To accomplish this, we developed nine siRNAs against either the E6 or E7 genes of HPV-16 or HPV-18 in several combinations, yielding siRNAs targeting 16E6, 16E7, 18E6 and 18E7. We measured the effectiveness of the siRNAs by examining E6 or E7 mRNA expression after transfection of the siRNAs into HPV-positive CaSki (HPV-16) or HeLa (HPV-18) cell lines. We found that the HPV-siRNAs significantly reduced cell growth and colony formation in both cell lines. Flow cytometry analysis revealed a significant increase in apoptosis. The siRNAs had no effect on cell growth, colony formation or apoptosis in HPV-negative C33A cells, demonstrating a lack of off-target effects. In addition, an in vivo xenograft study showed that intra-tumoral injection of the siRNAs reduced tumor growth in BALB/c nude mice. In conclusion, we have developed highly specific and potent HPV-siRNAs that successfully suppress tumor growth and induce apoptosis in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells. siRNA treatment has potential for further development as an adjuvant therapy for cervical cancer.

  16. Rationale and design of a community-based double-blind randomized clinical trial of an HPV 16 and 18 vaccine in Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Rolando; Hildesheim, Allan; Rodríguez, Ana C; Wacholder, Sholom; Bratti, Concepción; Solomon, Diane; González, Paula; Porras, Carolina; Jiménez, Silvia; Guillen, Diego; Morales, Jorge; Alfaro, Mario; Cyr, Jean; Morrisey, Kerrygrace; Estrada, Yenory; Cortés, Bernal; Morera, Lidia Ana; Freer, Enrique; Schussler, John; Schiller, John; Lowy, Douglas; Schiffman, Mark

    2008-01-01

    We report the rationale, design, methods and details of participation of a community-based, double blind, randomized clinical trial of an HPV 16 and 18 vaccine conducted in two provinces of Costa Rica to investigate the efficacy and population impact of the vaccine in the prevention of cervical cancer precursors. More than 24,000 women between 18 and 25 years of age were invited to participate and pre-screened for eligibility, with recruitment of 7,466 women (30% of those prescreened, 59% of those eligible) who were randomized to receive 3 doses of the HPV vaccine or hepatitis A vaccine as control. A complex protocol of data and specimen collection was applied, including an interview, pelvic exam for sexually active women, blood for serology and cell-mediated immunity, cervical secretions for local immunity and cells for HPV, Chlamydia trachomatis and Gonorrhea testing. Eighty percent of the women received 3 doses, 12.4% two doses and 7.4% one dose. At visits, compliance with data and specimen collection was close to 100%. Baseline characteristics and age-specific prevalence of HPV and cervical neoplasia are reported. Overall prevalence of HPV was high (50%), with 8.3% of women having HPV 16 and 3.2% HPV 18. LSIL was detected in 12.7% of women at baseline and HSIL in 1.9%. Prevalence of Chlamydia was 14.2%. There was very good agreement in HPV detection between clinician-collected and self-collected specimens (89.4% agreement for all types, kappa 0.59). Follow up will continue with yearly or more frequent examinations for at least 4 years for each participant. PMID:18640170

  17. Efficacy of Fewer than Three Doses of an HPV-16/18 AS04 adjuvanted Vaccine: Combined Analysis of Data from the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial and the PATRICIA Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreimer, Aimée R; Struyf, Frank; Del Rosario-Raymundo, Maria Rowena; Hildesheim, Allan; Skinner, S Rachel; Wacholder, Sholom; Garland, Suzanne M; Herrero, Rolando; David, Marie-Pierre; Wheeler, Cosette M

    2015-01-01

    Background Limited data suggest one or two doses of the HPV vaccines confer similar protection to the three-dose regimen. This study aimed to further evaluate the question of reduced-dose efficacy of the HPV-16/18 vaccine. Methods Summary-level data from the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial (CVT; NCT00128661) and the PApilloma TRIal against Cancer In young Adults (PATRICIA; NCT001226810), two phase III controlled, randomized, double-blind, clinical trials of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine among young women, were combined in a post-hoc analysis (GSK e-track 202142) to investigate efficacy of fewer doses of the HPV-16/18 vaccine after four years of follow-up. Women were randomly assigned to receive three doses of the HPV-16/18 vaccine or to a control vaccine; yet some received fewer doses. After excluding women with Costa Rica. Vaccine was provided for CVT by GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals SA, under a Clinical Trials Agreement with the NCI. GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals SA provided support for aspects of the trial associated with regulatory submission needs of the company under US Food and Drug Administration BB-IND 7920. The PATRICIA trial was sponsored by GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals SA. PMID:26071347

  18. Interferon-Tau has Antiproliferative effects, Represses the Expression of E6 and E7 Oncogenes, Induces Apoptosis in Cell Lines Transformed with HPV16 and Inhibits Tumor Growth In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Quirarte, Herbey Oswaldo; Trejo-Moreno, Cesar; Fierros-Zarate, Geny; Castañeda, Jhoseline Carnalla; Palma-Irizarry, Marie; Hernández-Márquez, Eva; Burguete-Garcia, Ana Isabel; Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar; Madrid-Marina, Vicente; Torres-Poveda, Kirvis; Bermúdez-Morales, Victor Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Interferon tau (IFN-τ) is a promising alternative antiviral and immunotherapeutic agent in a wide variety of diseases including infectious, neurodegenerative, autoimmune and cancer due to its low toxicity in comparison with other type I interferon´s. The objective of our study was established the effect of the bovine IFN-τ on human (SiHa) and murine (BMK-16/myc) cells transformed with HPV 16 and evaluates the antitumor effect in a murine tumor model HPV 16 positive. We determine that bovine IFN-τ has antiproliferative effects, pro-apoptotic activity and induces repression of viral E6 and E7 oncogenes (time- and dose-dependent) on human and murine cells transformed with HPV 16 similar to the effects of IFN-β. However, IFN-τ induces greater antiproliferative effect, apoptosis and repression of both oncogenes in BMK-16/myc cells compared to SiHa cells. The differences were explained by the presence and abundance of the type I interferon receptor (IFNAR) in each cell line. On the other hand, we treated groups of tumor-bearing mice (HPV16 positive) with IFN-τ and showed the inhibition tumor growth effect in vivo. Our finding indicates that bovine IFN-τ may be a good candidate for immunotherapy against cervical cancer. PMID:27994659

  19. Serum antibody response to Human papillomavirus (HPV infections detected by a novel ELISA technique based on denatured recombinant HPV16 L1, L2, E4, E6 and E7 proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariani Luciano

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomaviruses (HPVs are the primary etiological agents of cervical cancer and are also involved in the development of other tumours (skin, head and neck. Serological survey of the HPV infections is important to better elucidate their natural history and to disclose antigen determinants useful for vaccine development. At present, the analysis of the HPV-specific antibodies has not diagnostic value for the viral infections, and new approaches are needed to correlate the antibody response to the disease outcome. The aim of this study is to develop a novel ELISA, based on five denatured recombinant HPV16 proteins, to be used for detection HPV-specific antibodies. Methods The HPV16 L1, L2, E4, E6 and E7 genes were cloned in a prokaryotic expression vector and expressed as histidine-tagged proteins. These proteins, in a denatured form, were used in ELISA as coating antigens. Human sera were collected from women with abnormal PAP smear enrolled during an ongoing multicenter HPV-PathogenISS study in Italy, assessing the HPV-related pathogenetic mechanisms of progression of cervical cancer precursor lesions. Negative human sera were collected from patients affected by other infectious agents. All the HPV-positive sera were also subjected to an avidity test to assess the binding strength in the antigen-antibody complexes. Results Most of the sera showed a positive reactivity to the denatured HPV16 proteins: 82% of the sera from HPV16 infected women and 89% of the sera from women infected by other HPV genotypes recognised at least one of the HPV16 proteins. The percentages of samples showing reactivity to L1, L2 and E7 were similar, but only a few serum samples reacted to E6 and E4. Most sera bound the antigens with medium and high avidity index, suggesting specific antigen-antibody reactions. Conclusion This novel ELISA, based on multiple denatured HPV16 antigens, is able to detect antibodies in women infected by HPV16 and it

  20. Modeling the impact of the difference in cross-protection data between a human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine and a human papillomavirus (HPV)-6/11/16/18 vaccine in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In Canada, two vaccines that have demonstrated high efficacy against infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types −16 and −18 are available. The HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine provides protection against genital warts (GW) while the HPV-16/18 vaccine may provide better protection against other oncogenic HPV types. In this analysis, the estimated clinical and economic benefit of each of these vaccines was compared in the Canadian setting. Methods A Markov model of the natural history of HPV infection among women, cervical cancer (CC) and GW was used to estimate the impact of vaccinating a cohort of 100,000 12-year-old females on lifetime outcomes and healthcare system costs (no indirect benefit in males included). A budget impact model was used to estimate the impact of each vaccine by province. Results In the base case, vaccination with the HPV-16/18 vaccine was predicted to prevent 48 additional CC cases, and 16 additional CC deaths, while vaccination with the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine was predicted to prevent 6,933 additional GW cases. Vaccination with the HPV-16/18 vaccine was estimated to save 1 additional discounted quality adjusted life year (QALY) at an overall lower lifetime cost to the healthcare system compared to the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (assuming vaccine price parity). In sensitivity analyses, the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine was associated with greater QALYs saved when the cross-protection efficacy of the HPV-16/18 vaccine was reduced, or the burden of GW due to HPV-6/11 was increased. In most scenarios with price parity, the lifetime healthcare cost of the strategy with the HPV-16/18 vaccine was predicted to be lower than the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine. In the probabilistic sensitivity analyses, the HPV-16/18 vaccine provided more QALY benefit than the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine in 49.2% of scenarios, with lower relative lifetime costs in 83.5% of scenarios. Conclusions Overall, the predicted lifetime healthcare costs and QALYs saved by implementing each

  1. Modeling the impact of the difference in cross-protection data between a human papillomavirus (HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine and a human papillomavirus (HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohli Michele

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background In Canada, two vaccines that have demonstrated high efficacy against infection with human papillomavirus (HPV types −16 and −18 are available. The HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine provides protection against genital warts (GW while the HPV-16/18 vaccine may provide better protection against other oncogenic HPV types. In this analysis, the estimated clinical and economic benefit of each of these vaccines was compared in the Canadian setting. Methods A Markov model of the natural history of HPV infection among women, cervical cancer (CC and GW was used to estimate the impact of vaccinating a cohort of 100,000 12-year-old females on lifetime outcomes and healthcare system costs (no indirect benefit in males included. A budget impact model was used to estimate the impact of each vaccine by province. Results In the base case, vaccination with the HPV-16/18 vaccine was predicted to prevent 48 additional CC cases, and 16 additional CC deaths, while vaccination with the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine was predicted to prevent 6,933 additional GW cases. Vaccination with the HPV-16/18 vaccine was estimated to save 1 additional discounted quality adjusted life year (QALY at an overall lower lifetime cost to the healthcare system compared to the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (assuming vaccine price parity. In sensitivity analyses, the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine was associated with greater QALYs saved when the cross-protection efficacy of the HPV-16/18 vaccine was reduced, or the burden of GW due to HPV-6/11 was increased. In most scenarios with price parity, the lifetime healthcare cost of the strategy with the HPV-16/18 vaccine was predicted to be lower than the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine. In the probabilistic sensitivity analyses, the HPV-16/18 vaccine provided more QALY benefit than the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine in 49.2% of scenarios, with lower relative lifetime costs in 83.5% of scenarios. Conclusions Overall, the predicted lifetime healthcare costs and QALYs saved by

  2. Modeling the impact of the difference in cross-protection data between a human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine and a human papillomavirus (HPV)-6/11/16/18 vaccine in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Michele; Lawrence, Donna; Haig, Jennifer; Anonychuk, Andrea; Demarteau, Nadia

    2012-10-13

    In Canada, two vaccines that have demonstrated high efficacy against infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types -16 and -18 are available. The HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine provides protection against genital warts (GW) while the HPV-16/18 vaccine may provide better protection against other oncogenic HPV types. In this analysis, the estimated clinical and economic benefit of each of these vaccines was compared in the Canadian setting. A Markov model of the natural history of HPV infection among women, cervical cancer (CC) and GW was used to estimate the impact of vaccinating a cohort of 100,000 12-year-old females on lifetime outcomes and healthcare system costs (no indirect benefit in males included). A budget impact model was used to estimate the impact of each vaccine by province. In the base case, vaccination with the HPV-16/18 vaccine was predicted to prevent 48 additional CC cases, and 16 additional CC deaths, while vaccination with the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine was predicted to prevent 6,933 additional GW cases. Vaccination with the HPV-16/18 vaccine was estimated to save 1 additional discounted quality adjusted life year (QALY) at an overall lower lifetime cost to the healthcare system compared to the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (assuming vaccine price parity). In sensitivity analyses, the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine was associated with greater QALYs saved when the cross-protection efficacy of the HPV-16/18 vaccine was reduced, or the burden of GW due to HPV-6/11 was increased. In most scenarios with price parity, the lifetime healthcare cost of the strategy with the HPV-16/18 vaccine was predicted to be lower than the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine. In the probabilistic sensitivity analyses, the HPV-16/18 vaccine provided more QALY benefit than the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine in 49.2% of scenarios, with lower relative lifetime costs in 83.5% of scenarios. Overall, the predicted lifetime healthcare costs and QALYs saved by implementing each of the vaccines are similar. Vaccination

  3. A review of cross-protection against oncogenic HPV by an HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine: importance of virological and clinical endpoints and implications for mass vaccination in cervical cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David

    2008-09-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV)-16 and -18 are responsible for approximately 70% of invasive cervical cancers worldwide. Other oncogenic HPV types account for almost all the remainder. Importantly, HPV-45 and -31 account for approximately 10%. HPV-18 and -45, along with HPV-16, are found in over 90% of endocervical adenocarcinomas. HPV-45 is the third most frequent HPV type in cervical carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The AS04-adjuvanted vaccine Cervarix was developed against HPV-16 and -18 focusing on preventing cervical cancer by inducing durable protection against new infection. In clinical trials, it shows evidence of cross-protection against other important oncogenic HPV types using a range of clinicopathological and virological endpoints. The current evidence suggesting the cross-protective effect comes from its overall impact on precancerous lesions and on 12-month or more persistent oncogenic HPV infection, together with specific evidence of protection against incident and new persistent infection lasting 6 months or more with individual HPV types. The use of virological endpoints for such studies is discussed, in particular for cross-protection evaluation, in view of the lower frequency of many important oncogenic HPV types other than HPV-16 or -18 in precancerous lesions and the frequent presence of multiple HPV infections. Both of these factors complicate the interpretation of type-specific, vaccine-induced protection against cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) lesions, in which other HPV DNA types are found along with HPV-16 and -18. The observed high level of overall protection against clinicopathological lesions, including CIN2+ in the vaccinated subjects (regardless of their HPV DNA status), predicts a potentially broader impact of the vaccine in the prevention of HPV-related precancers that goes beyond HPV-16 and -18. The prevention of persistent infections by individual types such as HPV-45 provides specific information on the protection against that

  4. Safety of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in adolescents aged 12-15 years: Interim analysis of a large community-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Matti; Eriksson, Tiina; Apter, Dan; Hokkanen, Mari; Natunen, Kari; Paavonen, Jorma; Pukkala, Eero; Angelo, Maria-Genalin; Zima, Julia; David, Marie-Pierre; Datta, Sanjoy; Bi, Dan; Struyf, Frank; Dubin, Gary

    2016-12-01

    This community-randomized controlled trial was initiated to assess the overall and herd effects of 2 different human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization strategies in over 80,000 girls and boys aged 12-15 y in 33 communities in Finland (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00534638). Overall, 14,838 adolescents received HPV-16/18 vaccine (2,440 boys and 12,398 girls) and 17,338 received hepatitis-B virus (HBV) vaccine (9,221 boys and 8,117 girls). In an interim analysis, vaccine safety was assessed by active monitoring and surveillance via health registry linkage. Active monitoring showed that the HPV-16/18 vaccine has acceptable safety and reactogenicity in boys. In all study participants, the observed incidences (per 100,000 person-years) of serious adverse events (SAEs) possibly related to vaccination were 54.3 (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 34.0-82.1) in the HPV-16/18 group and 64.0 (95% CI: 43.2-91.3) in the HBV group. During the follow-up period for this interim analysis, the most common new-onset autoimmune diseases (NOADs; with incidence rate ≥15 per 100,000) in any group based on hospital discharge registry (HILMO) download were ulcerative colitis, juvenile arthritis, celiac disease, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and Crohn's disease. No increased NOAD incidences were observed in HPV-16/18 vaccine recipients compared to HBV vaccine recipients. In both the SAE possibly related- and HILMO-analyses, a lower incidence of IDDM was observed in HPV-16/18 vaccinees compared to HBV vaccinees (relative risks, 0.26 [95% CI: 0.03-1.24] and 0.16 [95% CI: 0.03-0.55], respectively).

  5. More than 97% of human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV-16) was found with chrysotile asbestos & relatively smooth round tumor outline, and less than 3% was found with HPV-18 and tremolite asbestos & irregular sawtooth-like zigzag outline in breast cancer tissues in over 500 mammograms of female patients: their implications in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Jones, Marilyn K; Nihrane, Abdallah; Duvvi, Harsha; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu

    2013-01-01

    In the past, Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV-16) was considered to be the main cause of cancer in the oropharynx and genital organs. Cervical cancer of the uterus is the most well-known cancer associated with HPV-16. Among the oncogenic HPVs, types 16 and 18 are most responsible for the majority of the HPV-caused cancers. Recently, using EMF Resonance Phenomenon between 2 identical substances, we non-invasively measured HPV-16 and HPV-18 among 25 physicians and 25 dentists and found that all 50 have HPV-16 in oral cavities and oropharynx but not HPV-18. However most dentists have a stronger infection than physicians. Among them were 2 female dentists with breast cancer containing HPV-16 and strong infections of HPV-16 in the oral cavities and oropharynx. When the author checked their breast cancer positive areas as well as the mammograms of cancer positive areas, Chrysotile Asbestos co-existed with an infection of HPV-16. We then examined over 500 published mammograms of women with malignant breast cancer published by other institutes, and we found HPV-16 in more than 97% and HPV-18 in less than 3% of the breast cancer mammograms examined. Less than 0.4% of cases were found as a variety of combination of HPV-16 & HPV-18. We also discovered that breast cancer with HPV-16 always co-exists with increased Chrysotile Asbestos deposits, and the outline of the breast cancer positive area is a relatively smooth and round or oval shape, and breast cancer with HPV-18 always co-exists with increased Tremolite Asbestos, where the tumor outline is an irregular saw-tooth like zigzag pattern. Based on these findings, better methods of diagnosis, treatment and prevention with a vaccine can be developed.

  6. A Genetically Modified attenuated Listeria Vaccine Expressing HPV16 E7 Kill Tumor Cells in Direct and Antigen-Specific Manner

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    Yan Yan Jia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Attenuated Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes, LM induces specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses, and has been identified as a promising cancer vaccine vector. Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide, with human papillomavirus (HPV, particularly type 16, being the main etiological factor. The therapeutic HPV vaccines are urgently needed. The E7 protein of HPV is necessary for maintaining malignancy in tumor cells. Here, a genetically modified attenuated LM expressing HPV16 E7 protein was constructed. Intraperitoneal vaccination of LM4Δhly::E7 significantly reduced tumor size and even resulted in complete regression of established tumors in a murine model of cervical cancer. We provided evidence that recombinant LM strains could enter the tumor tissue and induce non-specific tumor cell death, probably via activation of reactive oxygen species and increased intracellular Ca2+ levels. LM4Δhly::E7 effectively triggered a strong antigen-specific cellular immunity in tumor-bearing mice, and elicited significant infiltration of T cells in the intratumoral milieu. In summary, these data showed LM4Δhly::E7 to be effective in a cervical cancer model and LM4Δhly::E7 induced an antitumor effect by antigen-specific cellular immune responses and direct killing of tumor cells, indicating a potential application against cervical cancer.

  7. Expression of HPV-16 L1 capsomeres with glutathione-S-transferase as a fusion protein in tobacco plastids: an approach for a capsomere-based HPV vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Syed Waqas; Waheed, Mohammad Tahir; Müller, Martin; Clarke, Jihong Liu; Shinwari, Zabta Khan; Lössl, Andreas Günter

    2014-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer, which is the second most severe cancer of women worldwide, particularly in developing countries. Although vaccines against HPV infection are commercially available, they are neither affordable nor accessible to women in low income countries e.g. Africa. Thus, alternative cost-effective vaccine production approaches need to be developed. This study uses tobacco plants to express pentameric capsomeres of HPV that have been reported to generate elevated immune responses against HPV. A modified HPV-16 L1 (L1_2xCysM) protein has been expressed as a fusion protein with glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in tobacco chloroplasts following biolistic transformation. In total 7 transplastomic lines with healthy phenotypes were generated. Site specific integration of the GST-L1_2xCysM and aadA genes was confirmed by PCR. Southern blot analysis verified homogenous transformation of all transplastomic lines. Antigen capture ELISA with the conformation-specific antibody Ritti01, showed protein expression as well as the retention of immunogenic epitopes of L1 protein. In their morphology, GST-L1 expressing tobacco plants were identical to wild type plants and yielded fertile flowers. Taken together, these data enrich knowledge for future development of cost-effective plant-made vaccines against HPV.

  8. mRNA sequencing of novel cell lines from human papillomavirus type-16 related vulval intraepithelial neoplasia: consequences of expression of HPV16 E4 and E5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Dean; Onions, Tiffany; Raybould, Rachel; Flynn, Áine; Tristram, Amanda; Meyrick, Sian; Giles, Peter; Ashelford, Kevin; Hibbitts, Samantha; Fiander, Alison; Powell, Ned

    2014-09-01

    Vulval intraepithelial neoplasia is a precursor of vulval cancer and is commonly caused by infection with Human Papillomavirus (HPV). Development of topical treatments for vulval intraepithelial neoplasia requires appropriate in vitro models. This study evaluated the feasibility of primary culture of vulval intraepithelial neoplasia biopsy tissue to produce cell lines for use as in vitro models. A potentially immortal cell line was produced which gave rise to three monoclonal lines. These lines were characterized for HPV genomic integration and for viral gene expression using ligation-mediated PCR and quantitative PCR. Distinct patterns of viral integration and gene expression were observed among the three lines. Integration and expression data were validated using deep sequencing of mRNA. Gene ontology analyses of these data also demonstrated that expression of the HPV16 E4 and E5 proteins resulted in substantial changes in the composition of the cell membrane and extracellular space, associated with alterations in cell adhesion and differentiation. These data illustrate the diverse patterns of HPV gene expression potentially present within a single lesion. The derived cell lines provide useful models to investigate the biology of vulval intraepithelial neoplasia and the interactions between different HPV gene products and potential therapeutic agents. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. No evidence for cross-protection of the HPV-16/18 vaccine against HPV-6/11 positivity in female STI clinic visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woestenberg, Petra J; King, Audrey J; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Donken, Robine; Leussink, Suzan; van der Klis, Fiona R M; Hoebe, Christian J P A; Bogaards, Johannes A; van Benthem, Birgit H B

    2017-04-01

    Data from a vaccine trial and from post-vaccine surveillance in the United Kingdom have suggested that the bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine offers cross-protection against HPV-6/11 and protection against anogenital warts (AGW). We studied the effect of the bivalent vaccine on genital HPV-6/11 positivity and AGW in the Netherlands. We included all vaccine-eligible women from the PASSYON study, a biennial cross-sectional study among 16- to 24-year-old sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic attendants. Vaginal self-swabs were analyzed for type specific HPV and AGW were diagnosed at the STI-clinic. Prevalence of HPV-6 and/or HPV-11 and AGW were compared between self-reported vaccinated and unvaccinated women by log-binomial regression analysis, adjusted for demographics and risk behavior. Of the 1198 women included, 56% reported to be vaccinated at least once. Relative to unvaccinated women, the adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) for HPV-6/11 was 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74-1.43) for women vaccinated at least once. The crude PR for AGW was 0.67 (95% CI 0.22-2.07) for women vaccinated at least once. Adjustment did not change these results. We observed no cross-protective effect of the bivalent vaccine on genital HPV-6/11 positivity and a non-significant partially protective effect on AGW. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of the sensitivity and specificity of real-time PCR and in situ hybridization in HPV16 and 18 detection in archival cervical cancer specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Biesaga

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between real-time PCR (RT-PCR treated as a reference method and in situ hybridization with tyramide amplification system (ISH-TSA in the detection of HPV16 and 18 infection and the assessment of viral genome status. The study was performed on cervical cancer biopsies fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin and embedded in paraffin obtained from 85 women. TaqMan-based 5’exonuclease RT-PCR with type-specific primers was used to assess HPV16 and 18 infections and genome status. Viral infection and genome status was also assessed by ISH-TSA. RT-PCR revealed 76 (89.4%, and ISH-TSA 81 (95.3% cancers with HPV16 and 18 infections. The ISH-TSA sensitivity and specificity were: 96.1% and 11.1% compared to RT-PCR. The difference between these techniques in HPV detection was significant (p = 0.000. Among 76 HPV16/18 positive cancers in RT-PCR, there were 30 (39.5% with integrated and 46 (60.5% with mixed viral genome form. According to ISH-TSA, there were 39 (51.3% samples with integrated and 37 with mixed form (48.7%. The sensitivity and specificity of ISH-TSA in genome status assessment were 70.0% and 60.9%, respectively. The difference between RT-PCR and ISH-TSA in genome state detection was not statistically significant (p = 0.391. These results suggest that ISH-TSA shows insufficient specificity in HPV detection for use in clinical practice. However, this assay could be applied for viral genome status assessment.

  11. Promiscuous Behavior of HPV16E6 Specific T Cell Receptor Beta Chains Hampers Functional Expression in TCR Transgenic T Cells, Which Can Be Restored in Part by Genetic Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten B. J. Scholten

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: T cell receptor gene transfer is a promising strategy to treat patients suffering from HPV induced malignancies. Therefore we isolated the TCRαβ open reading frames of an HPV16E6 specific CTL clone and generated TCR transgenic T cells. In general low level expression of the transgenic TCR in recipient human T cells is observed as well as the formation of mixed TCRs dimers. Here we addressed both issues employing three different expression platforms.

  12. DNA vaccine encoding HPV-16 E7 with mutation in L-Y-C-Y-E pRb-binding motif induces potent anti-tumor responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Armina Alagheband; Ghaemi, Amir; Tabarraei, Alijan; Sajadian, Azadeh; Gorji, Ali; Soleimanjahi, Hoorieh

    2014-09-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide and remains a clinical problem despite improvements in early detection and therapy. The human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 (HPV16) E7 oncoprotein expressed in cervical carcinoma cells are considered as attractive tumor-specific antigen targets for immunotherapy. Since the transformation potential of the oncogenes, vaccination based of these oncogenes is not safe. In present study, DNA vaccine expressing the modified variant with mutation in pRb-binding motif of the HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein was generated. A novel modified E7 gene with mutation in LYCYE motif was designed and constructed and the immunogenicity and antitumor effect of therapeutic DNA vaccines encoding the mutant and wild type of E7 gene were investigated. The L-Y-C-Y-E pRb-binding motif of E7 proteins has been involved in the immortalization and transformation of the host cell. The results showed that the mutant and wild type HPV-16 E7 vectors expressed the desired protein. Furthermore, the immunological mechanism behind mutant E7 DNA vaccine can be attributed at least partially to increased cytotoxic T lymphocyte, accompanied by the up-regulation of Th1-cytokine IFN-γ and TNF-β and down-regulation of Th3-cytokine TGF-β. Immunized mice with mutant plasmid demonstrated significantly stronger cell immune responses and higher levels of tumor protection than wild-type E7 DNA vaccine. The results exhibit that modified E7 DNA vaccine may be a promising candidate for development of therapeutic vaccine against HPV-16 cancers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Modeling the impact of the difference in cross-protection data between a human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine and a human papillomavirus (HPV)-6/11/16/18 vaccine in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Kohli Michele; Lawrence Donna; Haig Jennifer; Anonychuk Andrea; Demarteau Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Background In Canada, two vaccines that have demonstrated high efficacy against infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types −16 and −18 are available. The HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine provides protection against genital warts (GW) while the HPV-16/18 vaccine may provide better protection against other oncogenic HPV types. In this analysis, the estimated clinical and economic benefit of each of these vaccines was compared in the Canadian setting. Methods A Markov model of the natural history of ...

  14. Relationship between Humoral Immune Responses against HPV16, HPV18, HPV31 and HPV45 in 12-15 Year Old Girls Receiving Cervarix® or Gardasil® Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godi, Anna; Bissett, Sara L; Miller, Elizabeth; Beddows, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines confer protection against the oncogenic genotypes HPV16 and HPV18 through the generation of type-specific neutralizing antibodies raised against virus-like particles (VLP) representing these genotypes. The vaccines also confer a degree of cross-protection against HPV31 and HPV45, which are genetically-related to the vaccine types HPV16 and HPV18, respectively, although the mechanism is less certain. There are a number of humoral immune measures that have been examined in relation to the HPV vaccines, including VLP binding, pseudovirus neutralization and the enumeration of memory B cells. While the specificity of responses generated against the vaccine genotypes are fairly well studied, the relationship between these measures in relation to non-vaccine genotypes is less certain. We carried out a comparative study of these immune measures against vaccine and non-vaccine genotypes using samples collected from 12-15 year old girls following immunization with three doses of either Cervarix® or Gardasil® HPV vaccine. The relationship between neutralizing and binding antibody titers and HPV-specific memory B cell levels for the vaccine genotypes, HPV16 and HPV18, were very good. The proportion of responders approached 100% for both vaccines while the magnitude of these responses induced by Cervarix® were generally higher than those following Gardasil® immunization. A similar pattern was found for the non-vaccine genotype HPV31, albeit at a lower magnitude compared to its genetically-related vaccine genotype, HPV16. However, both the enumeration of memory B cells and VLP binding responses against HPV45 were poorly related to its neutralizing antibody responses. Purified IgG derived from memory B cells demonstrated specificities similar to those found in the serum, including the capacity to neutralize HPV pseudoviruses. These data suggest that pseudovirus neutralization should be used as the preferred humoral immune measure for

  15. Comparative immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine and 4vHPV vaccine administered according to two- or three-dose schedules in girls aged 9-14 years: Results to month 36 from a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ting Fan; Liu, Anthony Pak-Yin; Lim, Fong Seng; Thollot, Franck; Oh, Helen May Lin; Lee, Bee Wah; Rombo, Lars; Tan, Ngiap Chuan; Rouzier, Roman; De Simoni, Stéphanie; Suryakiran, Pemmaraju; Hezareh, Marjan; Thomas, Florence; Folschweiller, Nicolas; Struyf, Frank

    2018-01-02

    This observer-blind study (clinicaltrials.gov NCT01462357) compared the immunogenicity and safety of two doses (2D) of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (2D of AS04-HPV-16/18) vs. two or three doses of the 4vHPV vaccine [2D or 3D of 4vHPV] in 1075 healthy girls aged 9-14 years. Girls were randomized (1:1:1) to receive 2D of AS04-HPV-16/18 at months (M) 0, 6 (N = 359), 2D of 4vHPV at M0, 6 (N = 358) or 3D of 4vHPV at M0, 2, 6 (N = 358). 351, 339 and 346 girls, respectively, returned for the concluding visit at M36. Superiority was demonstrated at M7 and M12; comparison of the immune response to both vaccine antigens was made between 2D of AS04-HPV-16/18 and 2D or 3D of 4vHPV at subsequent time points in the according-to-protocol immunogenicity cohort (ATP-I; N = 958 at M36) and the total vaccinated cohort (TVC: N = 1036 at M36). HPV-16/18-specific T-cell- and B-cell-mediated immune responses and safety were also investigated. At M36, anti-HPV-16/18 ELISA responses in the 2D AS04-HPV-16/18 group remained superior to those of the 2D and 3D 4vHPV groups. In the M36 TVC, geometric mean titers were 2.78-fold (HPV-16) and 6.84-fold (HPV-18) higher for 2D of AS04-HPV-16/18 vs. 2D of 4vHPV and 2.3-fold (HPV-16) and 4.14-fold (HPV-18) higher vs. 3D of 4vHPV. Results were confirmed by vaccine pseudovirion-based neutralisation assay. Numbers of circulating CD4+ T cells and B cells appeared similar across groups. Safety was in line with the known safety profiles of both vaccines. In conclusion, superior HPV-16/18 antibody responses were elicited by 2D of the AS04-HPV-16/18 compared with 2D or 3D of the 4vHPV vaccine in girls aged 9-14 years. NCT0146235. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. HPV16 DNA status is a strong prognosticator of loco-regional control after postoperative radiochemotherapy of locally advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma: results from a multicentre explorative study of the German Cancer Consortium Radiation Oncology Group (DKTK-ROG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohaus, Fabian; Linge, Annett; Tinhofer, Inge; Budach, Volker; Gkika, Eleni; Stuschke, Martin; Balermpas, Panagiotis; Rödel, Claus; Avlar, Melanie; Grosu, Anca-Ligia; Abdollahi, Amir; Debus, Jürgen; Bayer, Christine; Belka, Claus; Pigorsch, Steffi; Combs, Stephanie E; Mönnich, David; Zips, Daniel; von Neubeck, Cläre; Baretton, Gustavo B; Löck, Steffen; Thames, Howard D; Krause, Mechthild; Baumann, Michael

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the impact of HPV status in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), who received surgery and cisplatin-based postoperative radiochemotherapy. For 221 patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the hypopharynx, oropharynx or oral cavity treated at the 8 partner sites of the German Cancer Consortium, the impact of HPV DNA, p16 overexpression and p53 expression on outcome were retrospectively analysed. The primary endpoint was loco-regional tumour control; secondary endpoints were distant metastases and overall survival. In the total patient population, univariate analyses revealed a significant impact of HPV16 DNA positivity, p16 overexpression, p53 positivity and tumour site on loco-regional tumour control. Multivariate analysis stratified for tumour site showed that positive HPV 16 DNA status correlated with loco-regional tumour control in patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma (p=0.02) but not in the oral cavity carcinoma group. Multivariate evaluation of the secondary endpoints in the total population revealed a significant association of HPV16 DNA positivity with overall survival (ploco-regional tumour control after postoperative cisplatin-based radiochemotherapy of locally advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma and is now being explored in a prospective validation trial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. LALF32-51 -E7, a HPV-16 therapeutic vaccine candidate, forms protein body-like structures when expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanez, Romana J R; Lamprecht, Renate; Granadillo, Milaid; Torrens, Isis; Arcalís, Elsa; Stöger, Eva; Rybicki, Edward P; Hitzeroth, Inga I

    2017-07-22

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause cervical cancer, and while there are good prophylactic vaccines on the market, these are ineffective against established infections, creating a clear need for therapeutic vaccines. The HPV E7 protein is one of the essential oncoproteins for the onset and maintenance of malignancy and is therefore an ideal therapeutic vaccine target. We fused the HPV-16 E7 protein to the Limulus polyphemus antilipopolysaccharide factor (LALF32-51 ), a small hydrophobic peptide that can penetrate cell membranes and that has immunomodulatory properties. LALF32-51 -E7 was transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana, and we previously determined that it accumulated better when targeted to chloroplasts compared to being localized in the cytoplasm. Subsequently, we aimed to prove whether LALF32-51 -E7 was indeed associated with the chloroplasts by determining its subcellular localization. The LALF32-51 -E7 gene was fused to one encoding enhanced GFP to generate a LG fusion protein, and localization was determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The fluorescence observed from chloroplast-targeted LG was distinctively different from that of the cytoplasmic LG. Small spherical structures resembling protein bodies (PBs) were seen that clearly localized with the chloroplasts. Larger but less abundant PB-like structures were also seen for the cytoplasmic LG. PB-like structure formation was confirmed for both LG and LALF32-51 -E7 by TEM. LALF32-51 -E7 was indeed targeted to the chloroplasts by the chloroplast transit peptide used in this study, and it formed aggregated PB-like structures. This study could open a new avenue for the use of LALF32-51 as a PB-inducing peptide. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Specific interaction between hnRNP H and HPV16 L1 proteins: Implications for late gene auto-regulation enabling rapid viral capsid protein production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Zi-Zheng; Sun, Yuan-Yuan; Zhao, Min; Huang, Hui [National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Zhang, Jun; Xia, Ning-Shao [National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Miao, Ji, E-mail: jmiao@xmu.edu.cn [National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Zhao, Qinjian, E-mail: qinjian_zhao@xmu.edu.cn [National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2013-01-18

    Highlights: ► The RNA-binding hnRNP H regulates late viral gene expression. ► hnRNP H activity was inhibited by a late viral protein. ► Specific interaction between HPV L1 and hnRNP H was demonstrated. ► Co-localization of HPV L1 and hnRNP H inside cells was observed. ► Viral capsid protein production, enabling rapid capsid assembly, was implicated. -- Abstract: Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs), including hnRNP H, are RNA-binding proteins that function as splicing factors and are involved in downstream gene regulation. hnRNP H, which binds to G triplet regions in RNA, has been shown to play an important role in regulating the staged expression of late proteins in viral systems. Here, we report that the specific association between hnRNP H and a late viral capsid protein, human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 protein, leads to the suppressed function of hnRNP H in the presence of the L1 protein. The direct interaction between the L1 protein and hnRNP H was demonstrated by complex formation in solution and intracellularly using a variety of biochemical and immunochemical methods, including peptide mapping, specific co-immunoprecipitation and confocal fluorescence microscopy. These results support a working hypothesis that a late viral protein HPV16 L1, which is down regulated by hnRNP H early in the viral life cycle may provide an auto-regulatory positive feedback loop that allows the rapid production of HPV capsid proteins through suppression of the function of hnRNP H at the late stage of the viral life cycle. In this positive feedback loop, the late viral gene products that were down regulated earlier themselves disable their suppressors, and this feedback mechanism could facilitate the rapid production of capsid proteins, allowing staged and efficient viral capsid assembly.

  19. Cancer immunotherapy using a DNA vaccine encoding a single-chain trimer of MHC class I linked to an HPV-16 E6 immunodominant CTL epitope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C-H; Peng, S; He, L; Tsai, Y-C; Boyd, D A K; Hansen, T H; Wu, T-C; Hung, C-F

    2005-08-01

    The potency of DNA vaccines may be affected by the efficiency of intracellular processing and MHC class I presentation of encoded antigens. Since a single-chain trimer (SCT) composed of peptide, beta2-microglobulin (beta2m), and MHC class I heavy chain has been shown to bypass antigen processing and lead to stable presentation of peptides, we investigated the efficacy of a DNA vaccine encoding a SCT composed of an immunodominant CTL epitope of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E6 antigen, beta2m, and H-2Kb MHC class I heavy chain (pIRES-E6-beta2m-Kb). Transfection of 293 cells with pIRES-E6-beta2m-Kb can bypass antigen processing and lead to stable presentation of E6 peptide. Furthermore, C57BL/6 mice vaccinated with pIRES-E6-beta2m-Kb exhibited significantly increased E6 peptide-specific CD8+ T-cell immune responses compared to mice vaccinated with DNA encoding wild-type E6. Most importantly, 100% of mice vaccinated with pIRES-E6-beta2m-Kb DNA were protected against a lethal challenge of E6-expressing TC-1 tumor cells. In contrast, all mice vaccinated with wild-type E6 DNA or control plasmid DNA grew tumors. Our data indicate that a DNA vaccine encoding a SCT can lead to stable enhanced MHC class I presentation of encoded antigenic peptide and may be useful for improving DNA vaccine potency to control tumors or infectious diseases.

  20. A new multiparameter assay to assess HPV 16/18, viral load and physical status together with gain of telomerase genes in HPV-related cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theelen, Wendy; Reijans, Martin; Simons, Guus; Ramaekers, Frans C S; Speel, Ernst-Jan M; Hopman, Anton H N

    2010-02-15

    Oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most important risk factor for cancer of the uterine cervix and a subgroup of head and neck cancers. Viral load has been associated with persistence of infection, whereas integration of HPV into the host cell genome is associated with transition to invasive disease. Viral integration is frequently correlated with loss of viral E2 and gain of the telomerase-related genes TERC and TERT. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid and sensitive multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay for the simultaneous analysis of viral load, integration and copy number gain of TERC and TERT in HPV16/18-associated lesions. The performance of the assay was tested for HPV vs. human gene copy number ratios ranging from 0.1 to 100 and for percentages of integration ranging from 0 to 100%. The model systems used include plasmid mixtures and the HPV-positive cell lines SiHa, HeLa and CaSki described to contain a range of 2-600 viral copies per cell. In samples with low-viral load, viral integration can be reliably determined when more than 30% of the virus is integrated. Gain of the telomerase-related genes in the cell lines as determined by our MLPA assay was in accordance with data reported in the literature. Our study demonstrates that within a single MLPA-reaction viral type, load, integration and gain of TERC and TERT can be reliably determined, which will improve risk assessment for patients suspected for HPV infection.

  1. The HPV16 E6 oncoprotein and UVB irradiation inhibit the tumor suppressor TGFβ pathway in the epidermis of the K14E6 transgenic mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoca-Cuaya, Marco; Diaz-Chavez, Jose; Hernandez-Monge, Jesus; Alvarez-Rios, Elizabeth; Lambert, Paul F; Gariglio, Patricio

    2015-06-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs) are the causative agents of cervical cancer, and they are also associated with a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. In addition, HPVs have also been postulated in the development of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC). In these cancers, the oncogene E6 is best known for its ability to inactivate the tumor suppressor p53 protein. Interestingly, in transgenic mice for HPV16 E6 (K14E6), it was reported that E6 alone induced epithelial hyperplasia and delay in differentiation in skin epidermis independently of p53 inactivation. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) is an important regulator of cell growth/differentiation and apoptosis, and this pathway is often lost during tumorigenesis. Ultraviolet radiation B (UVB) exposure activates diverse cellular responses, including DNA damage and apoptosis. In this study, we investigated whether the E6 oncogene alone or in combination with UVB dysregulate some components of the TGFβ pathway in the epidermis of K14E6 mice. We used 8-day-old K14E6 and non-transgenic mice irradiated and unirradiated with a single dose of UVB. We found that the E6 oncogene and UVB irradiation impair the TGFβ pathway in epidermis of K14E6 mice by downregulation of the TGFβ type II receptor (TβRII). This loss of TβRII prevents downstream activation of Smad2 and target genes as p15, an important regulator of cell cycle progression. In summary, the TGFβ signalling in cells of the epidermis is downregulated in our mouse model by both the E6 oncoprotein and the UVB irradiation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Detecção sorológica de anti-HPV 16 e 18 e sua associação com os achados do papanicolaou em adolescentes e mulheres jovens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama Cristina Helena

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a taxa de anticorpos neutralizantes anti-HPV 16 e/ou 18, e a sua associação com os achados da citologia oncológica do colo uterino em adolescentes e mulheres jovens. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídas, neste estudo transversal, 541 mulheres de 15 a 25 anos de idade, saudáveis, sexualmente ativas, que apresentaram exame ginecológico normal, no período de setembro a novembro de 2000. Foi obtida uma amostra cervical para citologia em meio líquido e uma amostra de sangue para identificação dos anticorpos anti-HPV 16 e/ou 18, por meio do método ELISA. As amostras foram encaminhadas para um laboratório de referência na Bélgica. Para análise estatística, foram estimadas a prevalência e a razão de prevalência (RP, com intervalo de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: Entre as mulheres incluídas, 150 (27,7% apresentaram resultados positivos da sorologia sendo: 79 (14,6% por anticorpos anti-HPV 16, 35 (6,4% anti-HPV 18 e 36 (6,6% anti-HPV 16 e 18. Foram detectadas anormalidades citológicas em 107 casos (20,5%, sendo 63 classificadas como atipias celulares de significado indeteminado (ASCUS, 41 casos sugestivos de lesões de baixo (LSIL e três casos sugestivos de lesões de alto grau (HSIL. A prevalência de citologias anormais quando a sorologia foi positiva foi apenas 1,75 vez a prevalência de citologias positivas observadas com sorologia negativa. Nesta amostra não houve evidência de associação entre os resultados anormais da citologia e a positividade da sorologia. CONCLUSÃO: O resultado deste estudo indica uma alta prevalência de sorologia positiva para o HPV 16 e 18 em mulheres jovens sadias sem relação com os achados anormais da colpocitologia.

  3. Transcriptional regulation of genes involved in keratinocyte differentiation by human papillomavirus 16 oncoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyöngyösi, Eszter; Szalmás, Anita; Ferenczi, Annamária; Póliska, Szilárd; Kónya, József; Veress, György

    2015-02-01

    The life cycle of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is strictly linked to the differentiation of their natural host cells. The HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins can delay the normal differentiation program of keratinocytes; however, the exact mechanisms responsible for this have not yet been identified. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of HPV16 oncoproteins on the expression of genes involved in keratinocyte differentiation. Primary human keratinocytes transduced by LXSN (control) retroviruses or virus vectors expressing HPV16 E6, E7 or E6/E7 genes were subjected to gene expression profiling. The results of microarray analysis showed that HPV 16 E6 and E7 have the capacity to downregulate the expression of several genes involved in keratinocyte differentiation. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays were performed to confirm the microarray data. To investigate the effects of the HPV oncoproteins on the promoters of selected keratinocyte differentiation genes, luciferase reporter assays were performed. Our results suggest that the HPV 16 E6 and/or E7 oncogenes are able to downregulate the expression of several genes involved in keratinocyte differentiation (such as desmocollin 1, keratin 4, S100 calcium-binding protein A8 and small proline-rich protein 1A), at least partially by downregulating their promoter activity. This activity of the HPV oncoproteins may have a role in the productive virus life cycle, and also in virus-induced carcinogenesis.

  4. In vitro and in vivo growth suppression of human papillomavirus 16-positive cervical cancer cells by CRISPR/Cas9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhen, Shuai, E-mail: usa_2002@163.com [Baoji Maternal and Child Health Hospital, 2 Xinjian Road East, WeiBin District, Baoji City, 721000, Shanxi Province (China); Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an (China); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Hua, Ling [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Takahashi, Y.; Narita, S. [Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Liu, Yun-Hui [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Li, Yan [Baoji Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, No 43, BaoFu Road, Baoji City, Shanxi Province (China)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Established CRISPR/Cas9 targeting promoter of HPV 16 and targeting E6, E7 transcript. • CRISPR/Cas9 resulted in accumulation of p53 and p21, reduced the proliferation of cervical cancer cells. • Finding inhibited tumorigenesis and growth of mice incubated by cells with CRISPR/Cas9. • CRISPR/Cas9 will be a new treatment strategy, in cervical and other HPV-associated cancer therapy. - Abstract: Deregulated expression of high-risk human papillomavirus oncogenes (E6 and E7) is a pivotal event for pathogenesis and progression in cervical cancer. Both viral oncogenes are therefore regarded as ideal therapeutic targets. In the hope of developing a gene-specific therapy for HPV-related cancer, we established CRISPR/Cas9 targeting promoter of HPV 16 E6/E7 and targeting E6, E7 transcript, transduced the CRISPR/Cas9 into cervical HPV-16-positive cell line SiHa. The results showed that CRISPR/Cas9 targeting promoter, as well as targeting E6 and E7 resulted in accumulation of p53 and p21 protein, and consequently remarkably reduced the abilities of proliferation of cervical cancer cells in vitro. Then we inoculated subcutaneously cells into nude mice to establish the transplanted tumor animal models, and found dramatically inhibited tumorigenesis and growth of mice incubated by cells with CRISPR/Cas9 targeting (promoter+E6+E7)-transcript. Our results may provide evidence for application of CRISPR/Cas9 targeting HR-HPV key oncogenes, as a new treatment strategy, in cervical and other HPV-associated cancer therapy.

  5. The human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncoprotein induces a transcriptional repressor complex on the Toll-like receptor 9 promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Uzma A; Zannetti, Claudia; Parroche, Peggy; Goutagny, Nadège; Malfroy, Marine; Roblot, Guillaume; Carreira, Christine; Hussain, Ishraq; Müller, Martin; Taylor-Papadimitriou, Joyce; Picard, Didier; Sylla, Bakary S; Trinchieri, Giorgio; Medzhitov, Ruslan; Tommasino, Massimo

    2013-07-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) and other oncogenic viruses have been reported to deregulate immunity by suppressing the function of the double-stranded DNA innate sensor TLR9. However, the mechanisms leading to these events remain to be elucidated. We show that infection of human epithelial cells with HPV16 promotes the formation of an inhibitory transcriptional complex containing NF-κBp50-p65 and ERα induced by the E7 oncoprotein. The E7-mediated transcriptional complex also recruited the histone demethylase JARID1B and histone deacetylase HDAC1. The entire complex bound to a specific region on the TLR9 promoter, which resulted in decreased methylation and acetylation of histones upstream of the TLR9 transcriptional start site. The involvement of NF-κB and ERα in the TLR9 down-regulation by HPV16 E7 was fully confirmed in cervical tissues from human patients. Importantly, we present evidence that the HPV16-induced TLR9 down-regulation affects the interferon response which negatively regulates viral infection. Our studies highlight a novel HPV16-mediated mechanism that combines epigenetic and transcriptional events to suppress a key innate immune sensor.

  6. One-prime multi-boost strategy immunization with recombinant DNA, adenovirus, and MVA vector vaccines expressing HPV16 L1 induces potent, sustained, and specific immune response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Li; Wang, He-Rong; Zhou, Zhi-Yi; Luo, Jing; Xiao, Xiang-Qian; Wang, Xiao-Li; Li, Jin-Tao; Zhou, Yu-Bai; Zeng, Yi

    2016-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with various human diseases, including cancer, and developing vaccines is a cost-efficient strategy to prevent HPV-related disease. The major capsid protein L1, which an increasing number of studies have confirmed is typically expressed early in infection, is a promising antigen for such a vaccine, although the E6 and E7 proteins have been characterized more extensively. Thus, the L1 gene from HPV16 was inserted into a recombinant vector, AdHu5, and MVA viral vectors, and administered by prime-boost immunization. Virus-like particles were used as control antigens. Our results indicate that prime-boost immunization with heterologous vaccines induced robust and sustained cellular and humoral response specific to HPV16 L1. In particular, sera obtained from mice immunized with DNA + DNA + Ad + MVA had excellent antitumor activity in vivo. However, the data also confirm that virus-like particles can only elicit low levels cellular immunity and not be long-lasting, and are therefore unsuitable for treatment of existing HPV infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Overall efficacy of HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine against grade 3 or greater cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: 4-year end-of-study analysis of the randomised, double-blind PATRICIA trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Matti; Paavonen, Jorma; Wheeler, Cosette M; Jaisamrarn, Unnop; Garland, Suzanne M; Castellsagué, Xavier; Skinner, S Rachel; Apter, Dan; Naud, Paulo; Salmerón, Jorge; Chow, Song-Nan; Kitchener, Henry; Teixeira, Júlio C; Hedrick, James; Limson, Genara; Szarewski, Anne; Romanowski, Barbara; Aoki, Fred Y; Schwarz, Tino F; Poppe, Willy A J; De Carvalho, Newton S; Germar, Maria Julieta V; Peters, Klaus; Mindel, Adrian; De Sutter, Philippe; Bosch, F Xavier; David, Marie-Pierre; Descamps, Dominique; Struyf, Frank; Dubin, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or greater (CIN2+) is the surrogate endpoint used in licensure trials of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines. Vaccine efficacy against CIN3+, the immediate precursor to invasive cervical cancer, is more difficult to measure because of its lower incidence, but provides the most stringent evidence of potential cancer prevention. We report vaccine efficacy against CIN3+ and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) in the end-of-study analysis of PATRICIA (PApilloma TRIal against Cancer In young Adults). Healthy women aged 15-25 years with no more than six lifetime sexual partners were included in PATRICIA, irrespective of their baseline HPV DNA status, HPV-16 or HPV-18 serostatus, or cytology. Women were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive an HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine or a control hepatitis A vaccine via an internet-based central randomisation system using a minimisation algorithm to account for age ranges and study sites. The patients and study investigators were masked to allocated vaccine. The primary endpoint of PATRICIA has been reported previously. In the present end-of-study analysis, we focus on CIN3+ and AIS in the populations of most clinical interest, the total vaccinated cohort (TVC) and the TVC-naive. The TVC comprised all women who received at least one vaccine dose, approximating catch-up populations and including sexually active women (vaccine n=9319; control=9325). The TVC-naive comprised women with no evidence of oncogenic HPV infection at baseline, approximating early adolescent HPV exposure (vaccine n=5824; control=5820). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00122681. Vaccine efficacy against CIN3+ associated with HPV-16/18 was 100% (95% CI 85·5-100) in the TVC-naive and 45·7% (22·9-62·2) in the TVC. Vaccine efficacy against all CIN3+ (irrespective of HPV type in the lesion and including lesions with no HPV DNA detected) was 93·2% (78·9-98·7) in the TVC-naive and 45·6% (28·8-58

  8. Six-year multi-centre, observational, post-marketing surveillance of the safety of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in women aged 10-25 years in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chul-Jung; Song, Rok; Chen, Jing; Tavares Da Silva, Fernanda; Gopala, Kusuma B; Kim, Joon Hyung; Bi, Dan; Park, Jong Sup

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the safety of HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine when administered as per the PI in Korea. A total of 3084 women aged 10-25 years were enrolled in this post-marketing surveillance from 2008 to 2014. Subjects were invited to receive three doses of the vaccine (0, 1 and 6 months), and participants who received at least one dose were included in the analysis. Adverse events (AEs), adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and serious AEs (SAEs) were recorded after each dose. All AEs, ADRs and SAEs were presented with exact 95% confidence intervals (CI) (NCT01101542). Injection-site pain was the most frequent AE and ADR reported by 322 subjects (10.4% [95%CI: 9.4-11.6]); the local pain was transient and lasted 4-7 days in most cases. Dysmenorrhoea and vaginitis were the most common unexpected AEs reported by 30 (1.0% [95%CI: 0.7-1.4]) and 16 subjects (0.7% [95%CI: 0.3-0.8]), respectively. Pain (toe pain, leg pain and body pain [one case each]; foot pain [two cases]) was the most common unexpected ADR reported by five subjects (0.2% [95%CI: 0.1-0.4]). Four subjects reported a single SAE (one case each of exostosis, gastroenteritis, abortion and tonsillitis); none were fatal. All SAEs were assessed as unlikely to be related to vaccination; gastroenteritis, exostosis and tonsillitis resolved during the study period. This is the first post-marketing surveillance study in Korea that provides 6-year safety data for HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine. The vaccine showed an acceptable safety profile and favourable benefit/risk ratio when given to women aged 10-25 years in Korea. © 2017 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2017 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Screening and detection of human papillomavirus (HPV high-risk strains HPV16 and HPV18 in saliva samples from subjects under 18 years old in Nevada: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flake Colton

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomaviruses (HPV are oncogenic and mainly associated with cervical cancers. Recent evidence has demonstrated HPV infection in other tissues, including oral epithelia and mucosa. Although a recent pilot study provided new information about oral HPV status in healthy adults from Nevada, no information was obtained about oral HPV prevalence among children or teenagers, therefore, the goal of this study is to provide more detailed information about oral prevalence of high-risk HPV among children and teenagers in Nevada. Methods This retrospective study utilized previously collected saliva samples, obtained from pediatric dental clinic patients (aged 2 – 11 and local school district teenagers (aged 12-17 for high-risk HPV screening (n=118 using qPCR for quantification and confirmation of analytical sensitivity and specificity. Results A small subset of saliva samples were found to harbor high-risk HPV16 (n=2 and HPV18 (n=1, representing a 2.5% of the total. All three were obtained from teenage males, and two of these three samples were from White participants. Conclusions Although this retrospective study could not provide correlations with behavioral or socioeconomic data, this project successfully screened more than one hundred saliva samples for high-risk HPV, confirming both HPV16 and HPV18 strains were present in a small subset. With increasing evidence of oral HPV infection in children, this study provides critical information of significant value to other dental, medical, oral and public health professionals who seek to further an understanding of oral health and disease risk in pediatric populations.

  10. Performance of carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and HPV16 or HPV18 genotyping for cervical cancer screening of women aged 25 years and older: a subanalysis of the ATHENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Philip E; Stoler, Mark H; Wright, Thomas C; Sharma, Abha; Wright, Teresa L; Behrens, Catherine M

    2011-09-01

    The ATHENA study was designed to assess the performance of carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and HPV16 or HPV18 genotyping compared with liquid-based cytology for cervical cancer screening in a large US population aged 21 years and older. We did a subanalysis of this population to compare the screening performance of the cobas HPV test versus liquid-based cytology in women aged 25 years and older, and assess management strategies for HPV-positive women. Women aged 25 years or older who were attending routine cervical screening were enrolled from 61 clinical centres in 23 US states. Cervical specimens were obtained for liquid-based cytology and HPV DNA testing with two first-generation assays (Amplicor HPV test and Linear Array HPV genotyping test) and the second-generation cobas HPV test (with individual HPV16 and HPV18 detection). Colposcopy and diagnostic biopsies were done on women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or worse cytology, those who tested positive with either first-generation HPV test, and a random sample of women who tested negative for HPV and cytology. All women not selected for colposcopy received their results and exited the study. Participants and colposcopists were masked to cytology and HPV test results until the colposcopy visit was completed. The primary endpoint for this substudy was histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) or worse. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00709891; the study is in the follow-up phase, which is due to be completed in December, 2012. From May 27, 2008, to Aug 27, 2009, 47,208 women were enrolled, of whom 41,955 met our eligibility criteria. Valid cobas HPV and liquid-based cytology test results were available for 40,901 women (97%), who were included in this analysis. Of these, 4275 women (10%) tested cobas HPV positive and 2617 (6%) had abnormal cytology. 431 women were diagnosed with CIN2 or worse and 274

  11. Genetic stability of a recombinant adenovirus vaccine vector seed library expressing human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E7 proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Chen, Ke-DA; Gao, Meng; Chen, Gang; Jin, Su-Feng; Zhuang, Fang-Cheng; Wu, Xiao-Hong; Jiang, Yun-Shui; Li, Jian-Bo

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to understand the genetic stability of a master seed bank (MSB) and a working seed bank (WSB) of an adenovirus vector vaccine expressing the human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 E6 and E7 fusion proteins (Ad-HPV16E6E7). Microscopic examination and viral infectious efficacy were used to measure the infectious titers of the Ad-HPV16E6E7 MSB and WSB. Polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze the stability of the Ad-HPV16E6E7 target gene insertion, while western blot analysis and immunofluorescence were used to assess the expression levels of the Ad-HPV16E6E7 target protein. A C57BL/6 mouse TC-1 tumor cell growth inhibition model was used to evaluate the biological effect of Ad-HPV16E6E7 administration. The infectious titers of the Ad-HPV16E6E7 MSB and WSB were 6.31×109 IU/ml and 3.0×109 IU/ml, respectively. In addition, the expression levels of the inserted target genes and target proteins were found to be stable. In the mouse TC-1 tumor inhibition analysis, when the virus titers of the Ad-HPV16E6E7 MSB and WSB were 109 IU/ml, the tumor inhibition rate was 100%, which was significantly different when compared with the control group (χ2MSB=20.00 and χ2WSB=20.00; P<0.01). Therefore, the Ad-HPV16E6E7 vaccine seed bank is genetically stable and meets the requirements for vaccine development.

  12. A promoter within the E6 ORF of human papillomavirus type 16 contributes to the expression of the E7 oncoprotein from a monocistronic mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glahder, Jacob-Andreas Harald; Hansen, Christina N; Vinther, Jeppe

    2003-01-01

    RNA that encodes E7 as the first open reading frame (ORF) has been identified. We recently identified a transcription initiation site within the E6 ORF of HPV-16 at nt 542. In the present study we have characterized the P542 promoter, which putatively controls monocistronic expression of E7. The monocistronic m...

  13. Human papillomavirus type 16 E2 protein transcriptionally activates the promoter of a key cellular splicing factor, SF2/ASF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mole, Sarah; Milligan, Steven G; Graham, Sheila V

    2009-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) gene expression is regulated in concert with the epithelial differentiation program. In particular, expression of the virus capsid proteins L1 and L2 is tightly restricted to differentiated epithelial cells. For HPV16, the capsid proteins are encoded by 13 structurally different mRNAs that are produced by extensive alternative splicing. Previously, we demonstrated that upon epithelial differentiation, HPV16 infection upregulates hnRNP A1 and SF2/ASF, both key factors in alternative splicing regulation. Here we cloned a 1-kb region upstream of and including the transcriptional start site of the SF2ASF gene and used it in in vivo transcription assays to demonstrate that the HPV16 E2 transcription factor transactivates the SF2/ASF promoter. The transactivation domain but not the DNA binding domain of the protein is necessary for this. Active E2 association with the promoter was demonstrated using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicated that E2 interacted with a region 482 to 684 bp upstream of the transcription initiation site in vitro. This is the first time that HPV16 E2 has been shown to regulate cellular gene expression and the first report of viral regulation of expression of an RNA processing factor. Such E2-mediated control during differentiation of infected epithelial cells may facilitate late capsid protein expression and completion of the virus life cycle.

  14. The aqueous extract of Ficus religiosa induces cell cycle arrest in human cervical cancer cell lines SiHa (HPV-16 Positive and apoptosis in HeLa (HPV-18 positive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit S Choudhari

    Full Text Available Natural products are being extensively explored for their potential to prevent as well as treat cancer due to their ability to target multiple molecular pathways. Ficus religiosa has been shown to exert diverse biological activities including apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines. In the present study, we report the anti-neoplastic potential of aqueous extract of F. religiosa (FRaq bark in human cervical cancer cell lines, SiHa and HeLa. FRaq altered the growth kinetics of SiHa (HPV-16 positive and HeLa (HPV-18 positive cells in a dose-dependent manner. It blocked the cell cycle progression at G1/S phase in SiHa that was characterized by an increase in the expression of p53, p21 and pRb proteins with a simultaneous decrease in the expression of phospho Rb (ppRb protein. On the other hand, in HeLa, FRaq induced apoptosis through an increase in intracellular Ca(2+ leading to loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome-c and increase in the expression of caspase-3. Moreover, FRaq reduced the migration as well as invasion capability of both the cervical cancer cell lines accompanied with downregulation of MMP-2 and Her-2 expression. Interestingly, FRaq reduced the expression of viral oncoproteins E6 and E7 in both the cervical cancer cell lines. All these data suggest that F. religiosa could be explored for its chemopreventive potential in cervical cancer.

  15. Comparison of the Novel Human Papillomavirus 4 Auto-capillary Electrophoresis Test with the Hybrid Capture 2 Assay and with the PCR HPV Typing Set Test in the Detection of High-Risk HPV Including HPV 16 and 18 Genotypes in Cervical Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jin Hwa; Song, Seung Hun; Kim, Jong Kee; Han, Jeong Hyun

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the novel human papillomavirus (HPV) detection method, the HPV 4 Auto-capillary Electrophoresis (ACE) test with the hybrid capture (HC) 2 assay for the detection of high-risk HPVs. In addition, we compared the HPV 4 ACE test with the polymerase chain reaction HPV Typing Set test for the detection of HPV 16 and HPV 18 genotypes. One hundred ninety-nine cervical swab samples obtained from women with previous abnormal Pap smears were subjected to testing with the three HPV tests. The HPV 4 ACE test and the HC 2 assay showed substantial agreement for detection of high-risk HPVs (85.4%, kappa=0.71). The HPV 4 ACE test also showed substantial agreement with the PCR HPV Typing Set test in the detection of HPV 16 and HP V 18 genotypes (89.9%, kappa=0.65). In correlation with cytologic results, the sensitivities and specificities of the HPV 4 ACE test and HC 2 assay were 92.9% vs. 92.9% and 48.1% vs. 50.8%, respectively, when high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were regarded as abnormal cytologies. The novel HPV 4 ACE test is a valuable tool for the detection of high-risk HPVs and for genotyping of HPV 16 and HPV 18. PMID:19654936

  16. The Curcumin Analogue 1,5-Bis(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1,4-pentadiene-3-one Induces Apoptosis and Downregulates E6 and E7 Oncogene Expression in HPV16 and HPV18-Infected Cervical Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulraj, Felicia; Abas, Faridah; Lajis, Nordin H; Othman, Iekhsan; Hassan, Sharifah Syed; Naidu, Rakesh

    2015-06-29

    In an effort to study curcumin analogues as an alternative to improve the therapeutic efficacy of curcumin, we screened the cytotoxic potential of four diarylpentanoids using the HeLa and CaSki cervical cancer cell lines. Determination of their EC50 values indicated relatively higher potency of 1,5-bis(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1,4-pentadiene-3-one (MS17, 1.03 ± 0.5 μM; 2.6 ± 0.9 μM) and 1,5-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,4-pentadiene-3-one (MS13, 2.8 ± 0.4; 6.7 ± 2.4 μM) in CaSki and HeLa, respectively, with significantly greater growth inhibition at 48 and 72 h of treatment compared to the other analogues or curcumin. Based on cytotoxic and anti-proliferative activity, MS17 was selected for comprehensive apoptotic studies. At 24 h of treatment, fluorescence microscopy detected that MS17-exposed cells exhibited significant morphological changes consistent with apoptosis, corroborated by an increase in nucleosomal enrichment due to DNA fragmentation in HeLa and CaSki cells and activation of caspase-3 activity in CaSki cells. Quantitative real-time PCR also detected significant down-regulation of HPV18- and HPV16-associated E6 and E7 oncogene expression following treatment. The overall data suggests that MS17 treatment has cytotoxic, anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing potential in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells. Furthermore, its role in down-regulation of HPV-associated oncogenes responsible for cancer progression merits further investigation into its chemotherapeutic role for cervical cancer.

  17. Establishment of an immortalized human extravillous trophoblast cell line by retroviral infection of E6/E7/hTERT and its transcriptional profile during hypoxia and reoxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omi, Hiroko; Okamoto, Aikou; Nikaido, Takashi; Urashima, Mitsuyoshi; Kawaguchi, Rie; Umehara, Nagayoshi; Sugiura, Kentaro; Saito, Misato; Kiyono, Tohru; Tanaka, Tadao

    2009-02-01

    Investigation into the function of human trophoblasts has been largely restricted by a lack of suitable cell models. We aimed to produce normal human trophoblast cell lines with a long lifespan and to provide an ideal in vitro cell model. Primary human trophoblast cells were derived from a placenta that had undergone elective abortion at the 7th week of gestation. The cells were immortalized by infection with retroviral expression vectors containing the type 16 human papillomaviruses E6 and E7 in combination with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). Characterization of the cell line was performed by immunocytochemistry using a panel of antibodies, Western blotting, real-time RT-PCR, an invasion assay, gelatin zymography, karyotype analysis and a nude mouse assay. Gene expression profiles under hypoxia (1% O2, 1 h) and subsequent reoxygenation (20% O2, 6 h) were analyzed using cDNA microarray. Immunocytochemistry revealed an extravillous trophoblastic phenotype by positive staining for hCGbeta, cytokeratin 7, HLA-G and CD9. A transwell insert invasion assay showed the invasiveness of this cell line and gelatin zymography detected the secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Karyotype analysis exhibited an almost normal chromosomal number which ranged from 46 to 48 and the cells showed no tumorigenecity in a nude mouse assay. Forty-three genes showing reversible up- or down-regulation during hypoxia were detected using an oligonucleotide array. This newly immortalized cell line, HChEpC1b, is a useful model for the study of extravillous trophoblast function.

  18. Cross-protective efficacy of HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine against cervical infection and precancer caused by non-vaccine oncogenic HPV types: 4-year end-of-study analysis of the randomised, double-blind PATRICIA trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Cosette M; Castellsagué, Xavier; Garland, Suzanne M; Szarewski, Anne; Paavonen, Jorma; Naud, Paulo; Salmerón, Jorge; Chow, Song-Nan; Apter, Dan; Kitchener, Henry; Teixeira, Júlio C; Skinner, S Rachel; Jaisamrarn, Unnop; Limson, Genara; Romanowski, Barbara; Aoki, Fred Y; Schwarz, Tino F; Poppe, Willy A J; Bosch, F Xavier; Harper, Diane M; Huh, Warner; Hardt, Karin; Zahaf, Toufik; Descamps, Dominique; Struyf, Frank; Dubin, Gary; Lehtinen, Matti

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of the human papillomavirus HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine against non-vaccine oncogenic HPV types in the end-of-study analysis after 4 years of follow-up in PATRICIA (PApilloma TRIal against Cancer In young Adults). Healthy women aged 15-25 years with no more than six lifetime sexual partners were included in PATRICIA irrespective of their baseline HPV DNA status, HPV-16 or HPV-18 serostatus, or cytology. Women were randomly assigned (1:1) to HPV-16/18 vaccine or a control hepatitis A vaccine, via an internet-based central randomisation system using a minimisation algorithm to account for age ranges and study sites. The study was double-blind. The primary endpoint of PATRICIA has been reported previously; the present analysis evaluates cross-protective vaccine efficacy against non-vaccine oncogenic HPV types in the end-of-study analysis. Analyses were done for three cohorts: the according-to-protocol cohort for efficacy (ATP-E; vaccine n=8067, control n=8047), total vaccinated HPV-naive cohort (TVC-naive; no evidence of infection with 14 oncogenic HPV types at baseline, approximating young adolescents before sexual debut; vaccine n=5824, control n=5820), and the total vaccinated cohort (TVC; all women who received at least one vaccine dose, approximating catch-up populations that include sexually active women; vaccine n=9319, control=9325). Vaccine efficacy was evaluated against 6-month persistent infection, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or greater (CIN2+) associated with 12 non-vaccine HPV types (individually or as composite endpoints), and CIN3+ associated with the composite of 12 non-vaccine HPV types. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00122681. Consistent vaccine efficacy against persistent infection and CIN2+ (with or without HPV-16/18 co-infection) was seen across cohorts for HPV-33, HPV-31, HPV-45, and HPV-51. In the most conservative analysis of vaccine efficacy against CIN2+, where all

  19. A novel self-assembled nanoparticle vaccine with HIV-1 Tat₄₉₋₅₇/HPV16 E7₄₉₋₅₇ fusion peptide and GM-CSF DNA elicits potent and prolonged CD8⁺ T cell-dependent anti-tumor immunity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jun; Yin, Rui; Tian, Yi; Huang, Zeming; Shi, Jinglei; Fu, Xiaolan; Wang, Li; Wu, Yuzhang; Hao, Fei; Ni, Bing

    2012-02-01

    Peptide-based vaccines derived from the E7 protein of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 were developed to induce effective T cell responses against established cervical cancer, but have met with limited clinical success. It is necessary to develop novel peptide-based strategies to substantially improve the immune response against HPV16-related cancer. In this study, we aimed to design a novel peptide-based self-assembled nanoparticle HPV16 vaccine by combining the cell-penetrating peptide HIV-1 Tat(49-57) that was fused with the HPV16 E7(49-57) cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope and the granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene, and to investigate how it improves the immune response and the therapeutic outcome ex vivo and in vivo. Nanoparticles were prepared and identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), gel retardation and DNase I protection assays. This type of vaccine formulation formed the 20-80 nm nanoparticles, and greatly improved epitope-specific immunity both ex vivo and in vivo. Importantly, this vaccine type was associated with decreased tumor growth and enhanced long-term survival in the prophylactic and therapeutic mouse models. The underlying mechanisms were determined to involve priming of enhanced frequency of CD8(+) memory T subtype cells. These results suggest that the nanoparticle Tat-E7/pGM-CSF represents a promising novel approach to enhance the potency of peptide-based cervical cancer vaccines, and this vaccine design strategy may act as a useful reference for research of virus-associated diseases and specific tumor immunotherapies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of the immunogenicity of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 vaccine and the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine for oncogenic non-vaccine types HPV-31 and HPV-45 in healthy women aged 18-45 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Mark H; Baron, Mira; Levin, Myron J; Chatterjee, Archana; Fox, Bradley; Scholar, Sofia; Rosen, Jeffrey; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Lebacq, Marie; van der Most, Robbert; Moris, Philippe; Giannini, Sandra L; Schuind, Anne; Datta, Sanjoy K; Descamps, Dominique

    2011-12-01

    Protection against oncogenic non-vaccine types (cross-protection) offered by human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines may provide a significant medical benefit. Available clinical efficacy data suggest the two licensed vaccines (HPV-16/18 vaccine, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals (GSK), and HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine, Merck & Co., Inc.) differ in terms of protection against oncogenic non-vaccine HPV types -31/45. The immune responses induced by the two vaccines against these two non-vaccine HPV types (cross-reactivity) was compared in an observer-blind study up to Month 24 (18 mo post-vaccination), in women HPV DNA-negative and seronegative prior to vaccination for the HPV type analyzed (HPV-010 [NCT00423046]). Geometric mean antibody titers (GMTs) measured by pseudovirion-based neutralization assay (PBNA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were similar between vaccines for HPV-31/45. Seropositivity rates for HPV-31 were also similar between vaccines; however, there was a trend for higher seropositivity with the HPV-16/18 vaccine (13.0-16.7%) versus the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (0.0-5.0%) for HPV-45 with PBNA, but not ELISA. HPV-31/45 cross-reactive memory B-cell responses were comparable between vaccines. Circulating antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell frequencies were higher for the HPV-16/18 vaccine than the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (HPV-31 [geometric mean ratio [GMR] =2.0; p=0.0002] and HPV-45 [GMR=2.6; p=0.0092]), as were the proportion of T-cell responders (HPV-31, p=0.0009; HPV-45, p=0.0793). In conclusion, immune response to oncogenic non-vaccine HPV types -31/45 was generally similar for both vaccines with the exception of T-cell response which was higher with the HPV-16/18 vaccine. Considering the differences in cross-protective efficacy between the two vaccines, the results might provide insights into the underlying mechanism(s) of protection.

  1. Comparison of the immunogenicity of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 vaccine and the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine for oncogenic non-vaccine types HPV-31 and HPV-45 in healthy women aged 18–45 years

    OpenAIRE

    Einstein, Mark H.; Baron, Mira; Levin, Myron J.; Chatterjee, Archana; Fox, Bradley; Scholar, Sofia; Rosen, Jeffrey; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Lebacq, Marie; van der Most, Robbert; Moris, Philippe; Giannini, Sandra L.; Schuind, Anne; Datta, Sanjoy K; Descamps, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Protection against oncogenic non-vaccine types (cross-protection) offered by human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines may provide a significant medical benefit. Available clinical efficacy data suggest the two licensed vaccines [HPV-16/18 vaccine, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals (GSK), and HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine, Merck and Co., Inc.,] differ in terms of protection against oncogenic non-vaccine HPV types -31/45. The immune responses induced by the two vaccines against these two non-vaccine HPV types (c...

  2. Regulation of human papillomavirus transcription by the differentiation-dependent epithelial factor Epoc-1/skn-1a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukawa, K; Butz, K; Yasui, T; Kikutani, H; Hoppe-Seyler, F

    1996-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) early gene expression is closely linked to the differentiation status of infected epithelial cells. Typically, HPV type 16 (HPV16) or HPV18 E6 and E7 transcripts are only barely detectable within the undifferentiated basal cell layer, but their levels increase concomitantly with higher degrees of epithelial cell differentiation in suprabasal cells. A similar differentiation-dependent distribution of expression has been reported for the recently cloned epithelial cell specific transcription factor Epoc-1/skn-1a. We therefore examined whether Epoc-1/skn-1a may be directly involved in the activation of HPV E6/E7 transcription. Transient transfection studies showed that Epoc-1/skn-1a specifically stimulated the HPV16 and HPV18 E6/E7 promoters. Moreover, ectopically expressed Epoc-1/skn-1a was sufficient to stimulate HPV transcription also in nonepithelial cells. By deletion analyses, the Epoc-1/skn-1a-responsive element was mapped to the promoter-proximal portion of the HPV18 transcriptional control region. Footprint analyses and gel retardation assays demonstrated direct binding of Epoc-1/skn-1a to a hitherto uncharacterized site within this region. Mutation of the Epoc-1/skn-1a recognition site within the context of the complete HPV18 upstream regulatory region inhibited Epoc-1/skn-1a-mediated transactivation. These results show that Epoc-1/skn-1a can directly activate the E6/E7 promoter by binding to the viral transcriptional control region. Thus, Epoc-1/skn-1a may be involved in the differentiation-dependent regulation of HPV transcription.

  3. Molecular analyses of unselected head and neck cancer cases demonstrates that human papillomavirus transcriptional activity is positively associated with survival and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Liam; Winder, David M; Ball, Siolian L R; Vaughan, Katie; Lehmann, Martin; Scholtz, Lars-Uwe; Sterling, Jane C; Sudhoff, Holger H; Goon, Peter K C

    2016-06-13

    Human papillomavirus DNA detection in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma has been linked to improved patient prognosis. The main aims of the study was to test the hypotheses that HPV16 E6/E7 oncogene and p53 function within tumours were associated with the widely reported improved patient survival and prognosis in head and neck cancer. HPV16 DNA, mRNA and p53 mRNA presence were analysed in a prospective study of 42 unselected HNSCC patients; correlating the data with patient age, tumour staging/grade, treatment response, disease recurrence and survival. HPV16 DNA and HPV16 mRNA were present in 45.2 % and 21.4 % of patients, respectively. There was a significant positive association between the detection of HPV16 E6/E7 mRNA and p53 mRNA (p = 0.032), but this was not replicated for HPV16 DNA. Five-year disease free survival for the whole cohort was 63 % (CI 52.5-73.5 %). Multivariable analysis revealed only HPV16 E6/E7 mRNA expression to have significant prognostic influence (p = 0.04). Our study suggests that HPV16 oncogenic transcriptional activity within HNSCC tumours is associated with improved patient survival and better prognosis in a German population. Simple HPV DNA detection alone did not demonstrate this association. The significant association of full-length (wild-type) p53 with HPV16 E6/E7 mRNA is further evidence for a functional relationship, which could contribute to the widely reported improved survival and prognosis. Larger studies are required to validate the frequency of HPV16 mRNA expression in HNSCC.

  4. Study of association and molecular analysis of human papillomavirus in breast cancer of Indian patients: Clinical and prognostic implication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saimul Islam

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV causes tumors primarily Cervical cancer. Recently, inconsistent reports came up in Breast cancer (BC too. In India, despite treatment 70,218 BC patients die each year. So, we explored the association of HPV, if any, with BC prognosis in Indian pre-therapeutic (PT and Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NACT patients with subsequent analysis of HPV profile.HPV prevalence was checked and analysis of physical status, copy number, genome variation, promoter methylation and expression (mRNA and protein of the prevalent subtype was done.High prevalence of HPV was observed in both PT (64.0% and NACT (71.0% cases with significant association with younger (20-45 yrs PT patients. Interestingly, HPV infection was significantly increased from adjacent normal breast (9.5%, 2/21, fibro adenomas (30%, 3/10 to tumors (64.8%, 203/313 samples. In both PT and NACT cases, HPV16 was the most prevalent subtype (69.0% followed by HPV18 and HPV33. Survival analysis illustrated hrHPV infected PT patients had worst prognosis. So, detailed analysis of HPV16 profile was done which showed Europian-G350 as the most frequent HPV16 variant along with high rate of integration. Moreover, low copy number and hyper-methylation of P97 early promoter were concordant with low HPV16 E6 and E7 mRNA and protein expression. Notably, four novel variations (KT020838, KT020840, KT020841 and KT020839 in the LCR region and two (KT020836 and KT020837 in the E6 region were identified for the first time along with two novel E6^E7*I (KU199314 and E6^E7*II (KU199315 fusion transcript variants.Thus, significant association of hrHPV with prognosis of Indian BC patients led to additional investigation of HPV16 profile. Outcomes indicated a plausible role of HPV in Indian BC patients.

  5. Modulation of microRNA-mRNA Target Pairs by Human Papillomavirus 16 Oncoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallory E. Harden

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The E6 and E7 proteins are the major oncogenic drivers encoded by high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs. While many aspects of the transforming activities of these proteins have been extensively studied, there are fewer studies that have investigated how HPV E6/E7 expression affects the expression of cellular noncoding RNAs. The goal of our study was to investigate HPV16 E6/E7 modulation of cellular microRNA (miR levels and to determine the potential consequences for cellular gene expression. We performed deep sequencing of small and large cellular RNAs in primary undifferentiated cultures of human foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs with stable expression of HPV16 E6/E7 or a control vector. After integration of the two data sets, we identified 51 differentially expressed cellular miRs associated with the modulation of 1,456 potential target mRNAs in HPV16 E6/E7-expressing HFKs. We discovered that the degree of differential miR expression in HFKs expressing HPV16 E6/E7 was not necessarily predictive of the number of corresponding mRNA targets or the potential impact on gene expression. Additional analyses of the identified miR-mRNA pairs suggest modulation of specific biological activities and biochemical pathways. Overall, our study supports the model that perturbation of cellular miR expression by HPV16 E6/E7 importantly contributes to the rewiring of cellular regulatory circuits by the high-risk HPV E6 and E7 proteins that contribute to oncogenic transformation.

  6. Early Detection of Autism (ASD) by a Non-invasive Quick Measurement of Markedly Reduced Acetylcholine & DHEA and Increased β-Amyloid (1-42), Asbestos (Chrysotile), Titanium Dioxide, Al, Hg & often Coexisting Virus Infections (CMV, HPV 16 and 18), Bacterial Infections etc. in the Brain and Corresponding Safe Individualized Effective Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Lu, Dominic; Jones, Marilyn K; Nihrane, Ahdallah; Duvvi, Harsha; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu

    2015-01-01

    A brief historical background on Autism & some of the important symptoms associated with Autism are summarized. Using strong Electro Magnetic Field Resonance Phenomenon between 2 identical molecules with identical weight (which received U.S. Patent) non-invasively & rapidly we can detect various molecules including neurotransmitters, bacteria, virus, fungus, metals & abnormal molecules. Simple non- invasive measurement of various molecules through pupils & head of diagnosed or suspected Autism patients indicated that in Autism patients following changes were often found: 1) Acetylcholine is markedly reduced; 2) Alzheimer's disease markers (i.e. β-Amyloid (1-42), Tau Protein, Apolipoprotein (Apo E4)) are markedly increased; 3) Chrysotile Asbestos is increased; 4) Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) is moderately increased; 5) Al is moderately increased; 6) Hg is moderately increased; 7) Dopamine, Serotonin & GABA are significantly reduced (up to about 1/10 of normal); 8) Often viral infections (such as CMV, HHV-6, HPV-16, HPV-18, etc.), and Bacterial infections (such as Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycobacterium TB, Borrelia Burgdorferi, etc.) coexist. Research by others on Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) shows that it is a group of complex neurodevelopmental disorders, with about 70% of ASD patients also suffering from gastro-intestinal problems. While Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by formation of 1) Amyloid plaques, 2) Neurofibrillary tangles inside of neurons, and 3) Loss of connections between neurons. More than 90% of AD develops in people over the age of 65. These 3 characteristics often progressively worsen over time. Although Autism Spectrum Disorder and Alzheimer's disease are completely different diseases they have some similar biochemical changes. Eight examples of such measurement & analysis are shown for comparison. Most of Autism patients improved significantly by removing the source or preventing intake of Asbestos, TiO2, Al & Hg or enhancing urinary output

  7. Post Hoc Analysis of the PATRICIA Randomized Trial of the Efficacy of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV-16)/HPV-18 AS04-Adjuvanted Vaccine against Incident and Persistent Infection with Nonvaccine Oncogenic HPV Types Using an Alternative Multiplex Type-Specific PCR Assay for HPV DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colau, Brigitte; Wheeler, Cosette M.; Naud, Paulo; Garland, Suzanne; Quint, Wim; Chow, Song-Nan; Salmerón, Jorge; Lehtinen, Matti; Del Rosario-Raymundo, M. Rowena; Paavonen, Jorma; Teixeira, Júlio C.; Germar, Maria Julieta; Peters, Klaus; Skinner, S. Rachel; Limson, Genara; Castellsagué, Xavier; Poppe, Willy A. J.; Ramjattan, Brian; Klein, Terry D.; Schwarz, Tino F.; Chatterjee, Archana; Tjalma, Wiebren A. A.; Diaz-Mitoma, Francisco; Lewis, David J. M.; Harper, Diane M.; Molijn, Anco; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; David, Marie-Pierre; Dubin, Gary

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16)/HPV-18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine against cervical infections with HPV in the Papilloma Trial against Cancer in Young Adults (PATRICIA) was evaluated using a combination of the broad-spectrum L1-based SPF10 PCR-DNA enzyme immunoassay (DEIA)/line probe assay (LiPA25) system with type-specific PCRs for HPV-16 and -18. Broad-spectrum PCR assays may underestimate the presence of HPV genotypes present at relatively low concentrations in multiple infections, due to competition between genotypes. Therefore, samples were retrospectively reanalyzed using a testing algorithm incorporating the SPF10 PCR-DEIA/LiPA25 plus a novel E6-based multiplex type-specific PCR and reverse hybridization assay (MPTS12 RHA), which permits detection of a panel of nine oncogenic HPV genotypes (types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, 58, and 59). For the vaccine against HPV types 16 and 18, there was no major impact on estimates of vaccine efficacy (VE) for incident or 6-month or 12-month persistent infections when the MPTS12 RHA was included in the testing algorithm versus estimates with the protocol-specified algorithm. However, the alternative testing algorithm showed greater sensitivity than the protocol-specified algorithm for detection of some nonvaccine oncogenic HPV types. More cases were gained in the control group than in the vaccine group, leading to higher point estimates of VE for 6-month and 12-month persistent infections for the nonvaccine oncogenic types included in the MPTS12 RHA assay (types 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, 58, and 59). This post hoc analysis indicates that the per-protocol testing algorithm used in PATRICIA underestimated the VE against some nonvaccine oncogenic HPV types and that the choice of the HPV DNA testing methodology is important for the evaluation of VE in clinical trials. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00122681.) PMID:25540273

  8. Evaluation of immunological cross-reactivity between clade A9 high-risk human papillomavirus types on the basis of E6-Specific CD4+ memory T cell responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hende, Muriel; Redeker, Anke; Kwappenberg, Kitty M. C.; Franken, Kees L. M. C.; Drijfhout, Jan W.; Oostendorp, Jaap; Valentijn, A. Rob P. M.; Fathers, Loraine M.; Welters, Marij J. P.; Melief, Cornelis J. M.; Kenter, Gemma G.; van der Burg, Sjoerd H.; Offringa, Rienk

    2010-01-01

    CD4(+) T cell responses against the E6 oncoprotein of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 and 5 closely related members of clade A9 (HPV31, 33, 35, 52, and 58) were charted in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures from healthy subjects and patients who underwent HPV16 E6/E7-specific vaccination.

  9. Altering the balance between immune activation versus regulation in the skin to promote CD8+ T-cell activity within epithelial cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bridge, Jennifer A.; Overgaard, Nana Haahr; Steptoe, Raymond

    The Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) 16 is a high-risk HPV known to be a causative agent in numerous cancers including cervical cancer. While prophylactic vaccines exist to combat the spread of HPV16, successful therapeutic vaccines to combat established HPV16-associcated disease remain elusive...

  10. 17β-estradiol and progesterone effect on human papillomavirus 16 positive cells grown as spheroid co-cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruutu, Merja; Rautava, Jaana; Turunen, Aaro; Tirri, Teemu; Syrjänen, Stina

    2017-10-05

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the key epidemiologic factor of cervical cancer, but additional cofactors are mandatory. Estrogen has been considered as one of those. Here, the aim was to study the effects of steroid hormones on HPV16 E6-E7, estradiol receptors ERα and ERβ, and progesterone receptor (PR) in HPV16-positive cervical carcinoma cell lines SiHa and CaSki grown as epithelial and fibroblast spheroid co-cultures. The spheroid co-cultures were exposured to 17β-estradiol or progesterone from day 7 onwards. mRNA levels of HPV16 E6-E7, ERα, ERβ and PR normalized against GAPDH were analyzed with quantitative reverse transcription-qPCR (RT-qPCR). 17β-estradiol and progesterone decreased HPV16 E6-E7 mRNA expression in CaSki and increased in SiHA co-cultures. In CaSki co-cultures, ERβ expression was blocked after 17β-estradiol exposure while in SiHa cells it slightly increased ERβ expression. PR expression was seen only in CaSki spheroids and it vanished after exposure to steroid hormones. Fibroblasts expressed all three hormone receptors as monolayers but ERβ expression decreased and ERα and PR vanished after co-culturing. Cell culturing platform changes both oncogene and hormone receptor expression in HPV16 positive cervical cancer cell lines. This needs to be considered when in vitro results are extrapolated to in vivo situations.

  11. The prevalence and pattern of HPV-16 immunostaining in uterine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Immunohistochemistry study showed positivity in eleven cases (55%); seven cases (35%) were nonkeratinized squamous cell carcinoma; three cases (15%) were keratinized squamous cell carcinoma and one case (5%) belonged to the adenocarcinomas. Conclusion: This study reveals a significant detection of HPV in ...

  12. Combined effects of smoking and HPV16 in oropharyngeal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anantharaman, Devasena; Muller, David C; Lagiou, Pagona; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Holcátová, Ivana; Merletti, Franco; Kjærheim, Kristina; Polesel, Jerry; Simonato, Lorenzo; Canova, Cristina; Castellsague, Xavier; Macfarlane, Tatiana V; Znaor, Ariana; Thomson, Peter; Robinson, Max; Conway, David I; Healy, Claire M; Tjønneland, Anne; Westin, Ulla; Ekström, Johanna; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Kaaks, Rudolf; Overvad, Kim; Drogan, Dagmar; Hallmans, Göran; Laurell, Göran; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Peeters, Petra H; Agudo, Antonio; Larrañaga, Nerea; Travis, Ruth C; Palli, Domenico; Barricarte, Aurelio; Trichopoulou, Antonia; George, Saitakis; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Quirós, J Ramón; Grioni, Sara; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Navarro, Carmen; Sánchez, María-José; Tumino, Rosario; Severi, Gianluca; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Panico, Salvatore; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lund, Eiliv; Gram, Inger T; Riboli, Elio; Pawlita, Michael; Waterboer, Tim; Kreimer, Aimée R; Johansson, Mattias; Brennan, Paul

    BACKGROUND: Although smoking and HPV infection are recognized as important risk factors for oropharyngeal cancer, how their joint exposure impacts on oropharyngeal cancer risk is unclear. Specifically, whether smoking confers any additional risk to HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer is not

  13. A comparison of human papillomavirus genotype-specific DNA and E6/E7 mRNA detection to identify anal precancer among HIV-infected men who have sex with men

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Castle, Philip E; Follansbee, Stephen; Borgonovo, Sylvia; Tokugawa, Diane; Schwartz, Lauren M; Lorey, Thomas S; LaMere, Brandon; Gage, Julia C; Fetterman, Barbara; Darragh, Teresa M; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) RNA detection is reportedly more specific for the detection of anogenital precancer than HPV DNA but it is unknown whether this is due to detection of RNA or due to HPV genotype restriction...

  14. Paxillin promotes tumor progression and predicts survival and relapse in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma by microRNA-218 targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, De-Wei; Chuang, Chun-Yi; Lin, Wea-Long; Sung, Wen-Wei; Cheng, Ya-Wen; Lee, Huei

    2014-08-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) 16-infected oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) differs significantly from non-HPV-infected OCSCC. However, the molecular pathogenesis of HPV-infected OCSCC remains unclear. Paxillin (PXN) has been reported to promote lung tumor progression by miR-218 targeting. In addition, expression of miR-218 has been shown to be reduced by HPV16 E6 in cervical cancer. We thus asked whether PXN can promote tumor progression by E6-reduced miR-218 in OCSCC, especially in HPV-infected OCSCC. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that PXN expression increased markedly upon E6-mediated reductions in miR-218, resulting in increased colony formation and invasion capabilities in HPV-infected OCSCC cells. Among tumor specimens, HPV16/18 infection was negatively associated with miR-218 expression and positively associated with PXN expression. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models demonstrated that patients with low-miR-218 tumors or high-PXN tumors exhibited shorter overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) than those with high-miR-218 tumors or low-PXN tumors. Interestingly, HPV-infected patients with low-miR-218, high-PXN tumors and both combinations exhibited the worst OS and RFS compared with patients in their counterparts. These observations in patients were consistent with the findings from the cell model. Therefore, we suggest that PXN might be targeted to suppress tumor progression and consequently to improve outcomes in OCSCC, especially in HPV-infected OCSCC. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The Asian-American variant of human papillomavirus type 16 exhibits higher activation of MAPK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, transformation, migration and invasion of primary human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochmann, Jimena; Sobrinho, João S; Villa, Luisa L; Sichero, Laura

    2016-05-01

    Asian-American (AA) HPV-16 variants are associated with higher risk of cancer. Abnormal activation of intracellular signaling play a critical role in cancer development and progression. Our aim was to elucidate mechanisms underlying the higher oncogenic potential attributed to AA variant. We evaluated activation of MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways in primary human keratinocytes (PHKs) transduced with E6/E7 of three HPV-16 variants: E-P, AA, E-350G. Phenotypes examined included migration, anchorage independent growth and invasion. AA PHKs presented the highest levels of active proteins involved in all cascades analyzed: MAPK-ERK, MAPK-p38 and PI3K-AKT. AA PHKs were more efficient in promoting anchorage independent growth, and in stimulating cell migration and invasion. MEK1 inhibition decreased migration. The mesenchymal phenotype marker vimentin was increased in AA PHKs. Our results suggest that MEK1, ERK2, AKT2 hyperactivation influence cellular behavior by means of GSK-3b inactivation and EMT induction prompting AA immortalized PHKs to more efficiently surpass carcinogenesis steps. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Functional interaction between human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins and cigarette smoke components in lung epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Muñoz

    Full Text Available The smoking habit is the most important, but not a sufficient cause for lung cancer development. Several studies have reported the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16 presence and E6 and E7 transcripts expression in lung carcinoma cases from different geographical regions. The possible interaction between HPV infection and smoke carcinogens, however, remains unclear. In this study we address a potential cooperation between tobacco smoke and HPV16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins for alterations in proliferative and tumorigenic properties of lung epithelial cells. A549 (alveolar, tumoral and BEAS-2B (bronchial, non-tumoral cell lines were stably transfected with recombinant pLXSN vectors expressing HPV16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins and exposed to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC at different concentrations. HPV16 E6 and E7 expression was associated with loss of p53 stability, telomerase (hTERT and p16(INK4A overexpression in BEAS-2B cells as demonstrated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and western blotting (WB. In A549 cells we observed downregulation of p53 but not a significant increase of hTERT transcripts. In addition, the HPV16 E6/E7 transfected cell lines showed an increased proliferation rate and anchorage-independent growth in a HPV16 E6 and E7 expression-dependent manner. Moreover, both HPV16 E6/E7 and mock transfected cells showed an increased proliferation rate and anchorage-independent growth in the presence of 0.1 and 10 µg/mL CSC. However, this increase was significantly greater in HPV16 E6/E7 transfected cells (p<0.001. Data were confirmed by FCSE proliferation assay. The results obtained in this study are suggestive of a functional interaction between tobacco smoke and HPV16 E6/E7 oncoproteins for malignant transformation and tumorigenesis of lung epithelial cells. More studies are warranted in order to dissect the molecular mechanisms involved in this cooperation.

  17. The human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 oncoproteins promotes nuclear localization of active caspase 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzo-Merino, Joaquin [Unidad de Investigación Biomédica en Cáncer, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, México/Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Av. San Fernando No. 22, Col. Sección XVI, Tlalpan 14080 (Mexico); Massimi, Paola [International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Padriciano 99, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Lizano, Marcela, E-mail: lizanosoberon@gmail.com [Unidad de Investigación Biomédica en Cáncer, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, México/Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Av. San Fernando No. 22, Col. Sección XVI, Tlalpan 14080 (Mexico); Banks, Lawrence, E-mail: banks@icgeb.org [International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Padriciano 99, I-34149 Trieste (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    The HPV-16 E6 and E6{sup ⁎} proteins have been shown previously to be capable of regulating caspase 8 activity. We now show that the capacity of E6 to interact with caspase 8 is common to diverse HPV types, being also seen with HPV-11 E6, HPV-18 E6 and HPV-18 E6{sup ⁎}. Unlike most E6-interacting partners, caspase 8 does not appear to be a major proteasomal target of E6, but instead E6 appears able to stimulate caspase 8 activation, without affecting the overall apoptotic activity. This would appear to be mediated in part by the ability of the HPV E6 oncoproteins to recruit active caspase 8 to the nucleus. - Highlights: • Multiple HPV E6 oncoproteins interact with the caspase 8 DED domain. • HPV E6 stimulates activation of caspase 8. • HPV E6 promotes nuclear accumulation of caspase 8.

  18. Oncogenic potential diverge among human papillomavirus type 16 natural variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sichero, Laura, E-mail: lsichero@gmail.com [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Center of Translational Oncology, Instituto do Cancer do Estado de Sao Paulo-ICESP, Sao Paulo 01246-000 (Brazil); Department of Virology, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Sao Paulo 01323-903 (Brazil); Simao Sobrinho, Joao [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Center of Translational Oncology, Instituto do Cancer do Estado de Sao Paulo-ICESP, Sao Paulo 01246-000 (Brazil); Department of Virology, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Sao Paulo 01323-903 (Brazil); Lina Villa, Luisa [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Center of Translational Oncology, Instituto do Cancer do Estado de Sao Paulo-ICESP, Sao Paulo 01246-000 (Brazil); Department of Virology, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Sao Paulo 01323-903 (Brazil); Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-10-10

    We compared E6/E7 protein properties of three different HPV-16 variants: AA, E-P and E-350G. Primary human foreskin keratinocytes (PHFK) were transduced with HPV-16 E6 and E7 and evaluated for proliferation and ability to grow in soft agar. E-P infected keratinocytes presented the lowest efficiency in colony formation. AA and E-350G keratinocytes attained higher capacity for in vitro transformation. We observed similar degradation of TP53 among HPV-16 variants. Furthermore, we accessed the expression profile in early (p5) and late passage (p30) transduced cells of 84 genes commonly involved in carcinogenesis. Most differences could be attributed to HPV-16 E6/E7 expression. In particular, we detected different expression of ITGA2 and CHEK2 in keratinocytes infected with AA and AA/E-350G late passage cells, respectively, and higher expression of MAP2K1 in E-350G transduced keratinocytes. Our results indicate differences among HPV-16 variants that could explain, at least in part, differences in oncogenic potential attributed to these variants.

  19. Molecular analyses of unselected head and neck cancer cases demonstrates that human papillomavirus transcriptional activity is positively associated with survival and prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Masterson, Liam; Winder, David M; Ball, Siolian L. R.; Vaughan, Katie; Lehmann, Martin; Scholtz, Lars-Uwe; Sterling, Jane C; Sudhoff, Holger H; Goon, Peter K C

    2016-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus DNA detection in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma has been linked to improved patient prognosis. The main aims of the study was to test the hypotheses that HPV16 E6/E7 oncogene and p53 function within tumours were associated with the widely reported improved patient survival and prognosis in head and neck cancer. Methods HPV16 DNA, mRNA and p53 mRNA presence were analysed in a prospective study of 42 unselected HNSCC patients; correlating the data with pat...

  20. Human Papillomavirus E2 Regulates SRSF3 (SRp20) To Promote Capsid Protein Expression in Infected Differentiated Keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymenko, T; Hernandez-Lopez, H; MacDonald, A I; Bodily, J M; Graham, S V

    2016-05-15

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) life cycle is tightly linked to differentiation of the infected epithelial cell, suggesting a sophisticated interplay between host cell metabolism and virus replication. Previously, we demonstrated in differentiated keratinocytes in vitro and in vivo that HPV type 16 (HPV16) infection caused increased levels of the cellular SR splicing factors (SRSFs) SRSF1 (ASF/SF2), SRSF2 (SC35), and SRSF3 (SRp20). Moreover, the viral E2 transcription and replication factor that is expressed at high levels in differentiating keratinocytes could bind and control activity of the SRSF1 gene promoter. Here, we show that the E2 proteins of HPV16 and HPV31 control the expression of SRSFs 1, 2, and 3 in a differentiation-dependent manner. E2 has the greatest transactivation effect on expression of SRSF3. Small interfering RNA depletion experiments in two different models of the HPV16 life cycle (W12E and NIKS16) and one model of the HPV31 life cycle (CIN612-9E) revealed that only SRSF3 contributed significantly to regulation of late events in the virus life cycle. Increased levels of SRSF3 are required for L1 mRNA and capsid protein expression. Capsid protein expression was regulated specifically by SRSF3 and appeared independent of other SRSFs. Taken together, these data suggest a significant role of the HPV E2 protein in regulating late events in the HPV life cycle through transcriptional regulation of SRSF3 expression. Human papillomavirus replication is accomplished in concert with differentiation of the infected epithelium. Virus capsid protein expression is confined to the upper epithelial layers so as to avoid immune detection. In this study, we demonstrate that the viral E2 transcription factor activates the promoter of the cellular SRSF3 RNA processing factor. SRSF3 is required for expression of the E4(^)L1 mRNA and so controls expression of the HPV L1 capsid protein. Thus, we reveal a new dimension of virus-host interaction crucial for production

  1. Modulation of microRNA-mRNA Target Pairs by Human Papillomavirus 16 Oncoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Mallory E; Prasad, Nripesh; Griffiths, Anthony; Munger, Karl

    2017-01-03

    The E6 and E7 proteins are the major oncogenic drivers encoded by high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs). While many aspects of the transforming activities of these proteins have been extensively studied, there are fewer studies that have investigated how HPV E6/E7 expression affects the expression of cellular noncoding RNAs. The goal of our study was to investigate HPV16 E6/E7 modulation of cellular microRNA (miR) levels and to determine the potential consequences for cellular gene expression. We performed deep sequencing of small and large cellular RNAs in primary undifferentiated cultures of human foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) with stable expression of HPV16 E6/E7 or a control vector. After integration of the two data sets, we identified 51 differentially expressed cellular miRs associated with the modulation of 1,456 potential target mRNAs in HPV16 E6/E7-expressing HFKs. We discovered that the degree of differential miR expression in HFKs expressing HPV16 E6/E7 was not necessarily predictive of the number of corresponding mRNA targets or the potential impact on gene expression. Additional analyses of the identified miR-mRNA pairs suggest modulation of specific biological activities and biochemical pathways. Overall, our study supports the model that perturbation of cellular miR expression by HPV16 E6/E7 importantly contributes to the rewiring of cellular regulatory circuits by the high-risk HPV E6 and E7 proteins that contribute to oncogenic transformation. High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the causative agents of almost all cervical cancers and many other cancers, including anal, vaginal, vulvar, penile, and oropharyngeal cancers. Despite the availability of efficacious HPV vaccines, it is critical to determine how HPVs cause cancer, as many people remain unvaccinated and the vaccine does not prevent cancer development in individuals who are already infected. Two HPV proteins, E6 and E7, are the major drivers of cancer development, and much remains

  2. [Realgar nanometer suspension inducing apoptosis of Siha cell and its effect on expression of HPVE6/E7 oncogene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Pu, De-Min; Zhao, Li-Bo; Cheng, Yan-Xiang; Yin, Ling; Li, Tian

    2008-01-01

    To study the growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects of realgar nanometer suspension in human carcinoma cervical cell Siha line, and the effect on HPV16E6/E7 oncogene expression. A " micro-jet efflux" strategy was used for the preparation of realgar nanometer suspension. Siha cells were treated with various concentrations (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 mg x L(-1)) of realgar nanometer suspension for different hours (12, 24, 48, 72 h). The effect of realgar nanometer suspension on Siha cell growth suppression was detected by MTT method. Special morphological changes of apoptosis were observed by light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and DNA fragments electrophoresis. The apoptotic rates were quantified by flow cytometry (FCM). The expression of HPV16E6/E7 mRNA was assayed by RT-PCR. After being treated with 25-50 mg x L(-1) realgar nanometer suspension for 48, 72 h, the survival of Siha cells decreased, and the rate of apoptosis markedly increased. With TEM and DNA electrophoresis, the special morphological changes were found. The apoptotic rates of Siha cells treated with realgar nanometer suspension were significantly higher than those in the control group (P realgar nanometer suspension in 25 and 50 mg x L(-1) 48 h. RT-PCR assay revealed that realgar nanometer suspension reduced HPV16E6/E7 gene expression. Realgar nanometer suspension can inhibit the proliferation of human carcinoma cervical cell Siha line and induce the cell apoptosis. The mechanism may be related to the down-regulation of HPV16E6/E7 oncogene expression.

  3. Induction of SiHa cells apoptosis by nanometer realgar suspension and its mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Pu, Demin; Liu, Yan; Cheng, Yanxiang; Yin, Ling; Li, Tian; Zhao, Libo

    2008-06-01

    The effects of nanometer realgar suspension on proliferation and apoptosis of human uterine cervix cancer cell line SiHa cells and oncogenic genes HPV16E6/E7 were investigated. A "micro-jet efflux" strategy was used for the preparation of nanometer realgar suspension. SiHa cells were treated with nanometer Realgar suspension in various concentrations (6.25, 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/L) for different durations (12, 24, 48 and 72 h). The inhibitive effect of nanometer realgar suspension on growth of SiHa cells was detected by MTT method. Special morphological changes of apoptosis were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and DNA fragments electrophoresis. The apoptotic rate was quantified by flow cytometry (FCM). The expression of HPV16E6/E7 mRNA and protein was assayed by RT-PCR and Western blot respectively. The results showed after being treated with 25 50 mg/L nanometer realgar suspension for 48 h, the survival rate of SiHa cells was decreased, and apoptotic rate markedly increased in a time-and concentration-dependent manner. TEM and DNA electrophoresis revealed the special morphological changes of apoptosis. The apoptotic rate of SiHa cells treated with nanometer realgar suspension was significantly higher than in the control group (Prealgar suspension in 25 and 50 mg/L for 48 h. RT-PCR and Western blot assay indicated that nanometer realgar suspension reduced the HPV16E6/E7 gene expression. Nanometer realgar suspension could inhibit the proliferation and induce apoptosis of SiHa cells. The mechanism may be related to the down-regulation of the HPV16E6/E7 gene expression.

  4. Genetic immunization against cervical carcinoma: induction of cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity with a recombinant alphavirus vector expressing human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daemen, T; Pries, F; Bungener, L; Kraak, M; Regts, J; Wilschut, J

    2000-11-01

    Infection of genital epithelial cells with human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 is closely associated with the development of cervical carcinoma. The transforming potential of these high-risk HPVs depends on the expression of the E6 and E7 early viral gene products. Since the expression of E6 and E7 is selectively maintained in premalignant and malignant cervical lesions these proteins are attractive candidates for immunotherapeutic and prophylactic strategies. This report describes the construction, characterization and the in vivo immunotherapeutic potential of recombinant Semliki Forest virus (SFV) expressing the HPV16 E6 and E7 proteins (SFV-E6E7). Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining demonstrated expression of E6 and E7 in BHK cells infected with SFV-E6E7. Immunization of mice with SFV-E6E7 resulted in an efficient in vivo priming of HPV-specific CTL activity. The induced CTL lysed murine tumor cells transformed with the HPV16 genome and EL4 cells loaded with an immunodominant class I-binding HPV E7 peptide. CTLs could reproducibly be induced by immunization with three injections of as few as 10(5) infectious units of SFV-E6E7. Protection from tumor challenge was studied using the tumor cell line TC-1. Immunization with 5 x 10(6) SFV-E6E7 particles protected 40% of the mice from tumor challenge. These results indicate that E6E7 expression by the efficient and safe recombinant SFV system represents a promising strategy for immunotherapy or immunoprophylaxis of cervical carcinoma.

  5. Human papillomavirus types detected in skin warts and cancer differ in their transforming properties but commonly counteract UVB induced protective responses in human keratinocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shterzer, Naama; Heyman, Dariya; Shapiro, Beny; Yaniv, Abraham; Jackman, Anna [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Serour, Francis [Department of Pediatric Surgery, The E. Wolfson Medical Center, Holon (Israel); Chaouat, Malka [Laboratory of Experimental Surgery, Hadassah University Hospital, Ein Karem, Jerusalem (Israel); Gonen, Pinhas [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Tommasino, Massimo [International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization, Lyon (France); Sherman, Levana [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel)

    2014-11-15

    In the present study, E6E7 and E6 proteins of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) associated with skin warts and cancer were compared for their transforming and carcinogenic abilities in primary human keratinocytes (PHKs). We show that E6E7 of cancer associated beta HPV types, notably 49 and 24, were able to extend the life span and enhance the clonogenic efficiency of PHKs when maintained in serum free/low calcium medium. Activities of the beta HPV E6E7 were lower than those of HPV16 E6E7. In contrast, E6 proteins from HPV types detected in skin warts or cancer, notably 10, 49 and 38, attenuated UVB induced protective responses in PHKs including cell death, proliferation arrest and accumulation of the proapoptotic proteins, p53, bax or bak. Together, this investigation revealed functional differences and commonalities between HPVs associated with skin warts and cancer, and allowed the identification of specific properties of beta HPVs supporting their involvement in skin carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Primary keratinocytes were used to evaluate transforming and carcinogenic abilities of cutaneous HPVs. • E6E7 of cancer associated β HPV types transform primary human keratinocytes. • E6 proteins of cancer and wart associated HPVs inhibit UVB induced cell death. • E6s of cancer and wart associated HPVs attenuate UVB induced proliferation arrest. • E6s of cancer and wart associated HPVs attenuate UVB induced apoptosis signaling.

  6. Detection of human papillomavirus type 16 in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma using droplet digital polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biron, Vincent L; Kostiuk, Morris; Isaac, Andre; Puttagunta, Lakshmi; O'Connell, Daniel A; Harris, Jeffrey; Côté, David W J; Seikaly, Hadi

    2016-05-15

    The incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma caused by oncogenic HPV (HPV-OPSCC) is rising worldwide. HPV-OPSCC is commonly diagnosed by RT-qPCR of HPV-16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins or by cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, multiple tumor suppressor 1 (p16) immunohistochemistry (IHC). Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) has been recently reported as ultra-sensitive and highly precise method of nucleic acid quantification for biomarker analysis. We aimed to validate this method for the detection of HPV-16 E6 and E7 in HPV-OPSCC. Participants were recruited from January 2015-November 2015 at initial presentation to the University of Alberta Head and Neck Oncology Clinic. RNA was extracted, purified and quantified from prospectively collected participant tissues, and ddPCR was performed with fluorescent probes detecting HPV-16 E6 and E7. Results from ddPCR were compared with p16 IHC performed by clinical pathology as standard of care. Head and neck tissues were prospectively obtained from 68 participants including 29 patients with OPSCC, 29 patients with non-OPSCC and 10 patients without carcinoma. 79.2% of patients with OPSCC were p16 positive. The sensitivity and specificity of ddPCR HPV E6/E7 compared with p16 IHC in OPSCC was 91.3 and 100%, respectively. The amount of target RNA used was ≤1 ng, 20-50 times lower than reported by other for RT-qPCR HPV E6/E7. The ddPCR of HPV E6/E7 is a novel and highly specific method of detecting HPV-16 in OPSCC. Cancer 2016;122:1544-51. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  7. Human papillomavirus 16 E6 and E7 oncoprotein expression alters microRNA expression in extracellular vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Mallory E; Munger, Karl

    2017-08-01

    Extracellular vesicles released by cancer cells are mediators of intercellular communication that have been reported to contribute to carcinogenesis. Since they are readily detected in bodily fluids, they may also be used as cancer biomarkers. The E6/E7 oncoproteins drive human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers, which account for approximately 5% of all human cancers worldwide. Here, we investigate how HPV16 E6/E7 oncogene expression in primary human epithelial cells alters miR expression in extracellular vesicles and compare these to changes in intracellular miR expression. Examining a panel of 68 cancer related miRs revealed that many miRs had similar expression patterns in cells and in extracellular vesicles, whereas some other miRs had different expression patterns and may be selectively packaged into extracellular vesicles. Interestingly, the set of miRs that may be selectively packaged in HPV16 E6/E7 extracellular vesicles is predicted to inhibit necrosis and apoptosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Production of recombinant proteins GST L1, E6 and E7 tag HPV 16 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-04

    1*, Ben Younes, R.1, Kochbati, L.2, Kahla, S.1, Zeghal, D.3, Maalej, M.2, Zouari, F.3 ... Key words: T-antigen, LUMINEX, cervical cancer, HPV type 16, L1, E6 and E7. ... skin or mucosa and induce proliferative diseases. HPV.

  9. High HPV 16 viral load is associated with increased cervical dysplasia in Honduran women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabora, N.; Ferrera, A.; Bakkers, J.M.J.E.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Melchers, W.J.G.

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer is believed to have a co-factorial etiology in which high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are considered an essential factor and other elements play an ancillary role. Besides the importance of specific HPV genotypes, other viral cofactors as viral load may influence the

  10. Production of recombinant proteins GST L1, E6 and E7 tag HPV 16 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-04

    Feb 4, 2009 ... Data showed that the lysates were stable for detection and they were used in Luminex for detection of antibodies in female ... Key words: T-antigen, LUMINEX, cervical cancer, HPV type 16, L1, E6 and E7. INTRODUCTION. On a global level, human papillomavirus (HPV) is estimated to cause almost half a ...

  11. Genetically modified tumour vaccines producing IL-12 augment chemotherapy of HPV16-associated tumours with gemcitabine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikyšková, Romana; Indrová, Marie; Šímová, Jana; Bieblová, Jana; Bubeník, Jan; Reiniš, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 6 (2011), s. 1683-1689 ISSN 1021-335X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/09/1024; GA ČR GA301/07/1410 Grant - others:EK(XE) EU-FP6-NOE018933 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : gemcitabine * human papilloma virus * interleukin 12 * lung metastases * cellular vaccine s * immunotherapy Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.835, year: 2011

  12. Alga-based HPV16 E7 vaccine elicits specific immune response in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlasák, Josef; Bříza, Jindřich; Ryba, Š.; Ludvíková, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 1 (2013), s. 141-148 ISSN 2249-7412 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500960903 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Chlamydomonas reinhardtii * chloroplast transformation * human papillomaviruses * E7 oncogene Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology http://pelagiaresearchlibrary.com/asian-journal-of-plant-science/vol3-iss1/AJPSR-2013-3-1-141-148.pdf

  13. Targeting and retention of HPV16 E7 to the endoplasmic reticulum enhances immune tumour protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loera-Arias, MJ; Martínez-Pérez, AG; Barrera-Hernández, A; Ibarra-Obregón, ER; González-Saldívar, G; Martínez-Ortega, JI; Rosas-Taraco, A; Villanueva-Olivo, A; Esparza-González, SC; Villatoro-Hernandez, J; Saucedo-Cárdenas, O; Montes-de-Oca-Luna, R

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is where the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules are loaded with epitopes to cause an immune cellular response. Most of the protein antigens are degraded in the cytoplasm to amino acids and few epitopes reach the ER. Antigen targeting of this organelle by Calreticulin (CRT) fusion avoids this degradation and enhances the immune response. We constructed a recombinant adenovirus to express the E7 antigen with an ER-targeting signal peptide (SP) plus an ER retention signal (KDEL sequence). In cell-culture experiments we demonstrated that this new E7 antigen, SP-E7-KDEL, targeted the ER. Infection of mice with this recombinant adenovirus that expresses SP-E7-KDEL showed interferon induction and tumour-protection response, similar to that provided by an adenovirus expressing the E7 antigen fused to CRT. This work demonstrated that just by adding a SP and the KDEL sequence, antigens can be targeted and retained in the ER with a consequent enhancement of immune response and tumour protection. These results will have significant clinical applications. PMID:19818090

  14. Multifocal Epithelial Hyperplasia of Oral Cavity Expressing HPV 16 Gene: A Rare Entity

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhat, M. P. V.; Chintamaneni Raja Lakshmi; Sai Madhavi, N.; Sujana Mulk Bhavana; Gummadapu Sarat; Kodali Ramamohan

    2013-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare contagious disease caused by human papilloma virus. Usually HPV involves either cutaneous or mucosal surfaces, whereas concomitant mucocutaneous involvement is extremely rare. We report such a unique case of multifocal epithelial hyperplasia involving multiple sites of oral cavity along with skin lesions in a 65-year-old female. We also discuss the probable multifactorial etiology and variable clinical presentations of the lesions, including evidence of...

  15. Triage of HR-HPV Positive Women with Minor Cytological Abnormalities: A Comparison of mRNA Testing, HPV DNA Testing, and Repeat Cytology Using a 4-Year Follow-Up of a Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Maria; Elfström, K. Miriam; Brismar Wendel, Sophia; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Andersson, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Objective Expression of the viral E6/E7 oncogenes of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) is necessary for malignant conversion and maintenance in cervical tissue. In order to determine whether HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing more effectively predicts precancerous lesions and invasive cervical cancer than HR-HPV DNA testing, we aimed to compare triage using HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing by APTIMA HPV Assay (APTIMA) to HPV16 DNA testing, HPV16/18 DNA testing, and repeat cytology. Methods Liquid-based (PreservCyt) cell samples were obtained from HR-HPV-positive women diagnosed with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) within the framework of the population-based cervical cancer screening program in Stockholm, Sweden. Samples were tested for HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA by APTIMA (Gene-Probe Inc., San Diego, CA, USA). Women were followed up for 4 years after the index cytology via medical and laboratory records, and the Stockholm Oncology Center. Results Nine of 25 (36%) women in the ASCUS group, and 64 of 180 (36%) women in the LSIL group developed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or worse during 4 years of follow-up. 162 (74%) women were APTIMA-positive, and APTIMA had the highest sensitivity to predict CIN2 or worse and CIN3 or worse in the ASCUS (77.8% and 100%) and LSIL (78.1 and 75.8%) groups, although specificity was insufficient (ASCUS. More focused investigation is required for women with LSIL. PMID:24587193

  16. Triage of HR-HPV positive women with minor cytological abnormalities: a comparison of mRNA testing, HPV DNA testing, and repeat cytology using a 4-year follow-up of a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Maria; Elfström, K Miriam; Brismar Wendel, Sophia; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Andersson, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Expression of the viral E6/E7 oncogenes of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) is necessary for malignant conversion and maintenance in cervical tissue. In order to determine whether HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing more effectively predicts precancerous lesions and invasive cervical cancer than HR-HPV DNA testing, we aimed to compare triage using HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing by APTIMA HPV Assay (APTIMA) to HPV16 DNA testing, HPV16/18 DNA testing, and repeat cytology. Liquid-based (PreservCyt) cell samples were obtained from HR-HPV-positive women diagnosed with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) within the framework of the population-based cervical cancer screening program in Stockholm, Sweden. Samples were tested for HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA by APTIMA (Gene-Probe Inc., San Diego, CA, USA). Women were followed up for 4 years after the index cytology via medical and laboratory records, and the Stockholm Oncology Center. Nine of 25 (36%) women in the ASCUS group, and 64 of 180 (36%) women in the LSIL group developed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or worse during 4 years of follow-up. 162 (74%) women were APTIMA-positive, and APTIMA had the highest sensitivity to predict CIN2 or worse and CIN3 or worse in the ASCUS (77.8% and 100%) and LSIL (78.1 and 75.8%) groups, although specificity was insufficient (cytology were more specific than APTIMA. The results of this population-based study with comprehensive follow-up support the use of APTIMA as a triage test for women with ASCUS. More focused investigation is required for women with LSIL.

  17. Comparison of Onclarity Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Assay with Hybrid Capture II HPV DNA Assay for Detection of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2 and 3 Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bottari, F; Sideri, M; Gulmini, C

    2015-01-01

    that the BD Onclarity HPV assay has sensitivity comparable to that of the HC2 assay, with a trend to an increased specificity. Moreover, as Onclarity gives the chance to discriminate between the different genotypes, we calculated the genotype prevalence and the absolute risk of CIN2+: HPV 16 was the most......Analytical and clinical performance validation is essential before introduction of a new human papillomavirus (HPV) assay into clinical practice. This study compares the new BD Onclarity HPV assay, which detects E6/E7 DNA from 14 high-risk HPV types, to the Hybrid Capture II (HC2) HPV DNA test...

  18. High-risk HPV is not associated with epithelial ovarian cancer in a Caucasian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Kasper; Hogdall, Estrid; Skovrider-Ruminski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) has been suspected to play a role in the carcinogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). However, results from previous studies are conflicting. In most of these studies, the number of tissue samples was small. The current study was therefore...... undertaken to examine the prevalence of high-risk HPV DNA in EOC in a large series of patients. METHOD: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-imbedded tumor tissue samples from 198 cases consecutively included in the Danish Pelvic Mass Study were analyzed. The material included 163 serous adenocarcinomas, 15 endometrioid...... adenocarcinomas, 11 mucinous adenocarcinomas and nine clear-cell carcinomas. Genotyping for high-risk HPV DNA was performed by real-time Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using an in-house TaqMan singleplex assay targeting the E6/E7 region of the HPV 16 and 18 genomes. Additionally, 20 random samples without HPV 16...

  19. In vivo transcriptional targeting into the retinal vasculature using recombinant baculovirus carrying the human flt-1 promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaca Luis

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelial cells are a target for gene therapy because they are implicated in a number of vascular diseases. Recombinant baculovirus have emerged as novel gene delivery vectors. However, there is no information available concerning the use of endothelial-specific promoters in the context of the baculovirus genome. In the present study, we have generated a recombinant baculovirus containing the human flt-1 promoter (BacFLT-GFP driving the expression of the green fluorescent protein. Transcriptional gene targeting was analyzed in vitro in different mammalian cell lines and in vivo in adult rat retinal vasculature. Results BacFLT-GFP evoked the highest levels of expression in the endothelial cell line BUVEC-E6E7-1, similar to those reached by recombinant baculovirus carrying the CMV promoter (112% relative to BacCMV-GFP, n = 4. Interestingly, BacFLT-GFP directed high levels of expression in rat glioma C6 and in human glioblastoma CH235 cells (34.78% and 47.86% relative to BacCMV-GFP, respectively. Histone deacetylase inhibitors such as butyrate or trichostatin A enhanced the transcriptional activity of both BacCMV-GFP and BacFLT-GFP. Thus, in this study histone deacetylation appears to be a central mechanism for the silencing of baculovirus, independently of the promoter utilized. In vivo transcriptional targeting was demonstrated in adult rat retinal vasculature by intravitreal delivery of BacFLT-GFP and immunohistochemical staining with von Willebrand factor (vWF. Analysis by fluorescence microscopy and deconvolved three-dimensional confocal microscopy of retinal whole mounts obtained after 3 days of baculovirus injection showed that most GFP-expressing cells localized to the inner limiting membrane (ILM and ganglion cell layer (GCL and colocalize with vWF (70%, n = 10 in blood vessels, confirming the endothelial phenotype of the transduced cells. Conclusion Taken together, our results indicate that the restricted expression

  20. hTERT promoter activity and CpG methylation in HPV-induced carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snijders Peter JF

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activation of telomerase resulting from deregulated hTERT expression is a key event during high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV-induced cervical carcinogenesis. In the present study we examined hTERT promoter activity and its relation to DNA methylation as one of the potential mechanisms underlying deregulated hTERT transcription in hrHPV-transformed cells. Methods Using luciferase reporter assays we analyzed hTERT promoter activity in primary keratinocytes, HPV16- and HPV18-immortalized keratinocyte cell lines and cervical cancer cell lines. In the same cells as well as cervical specimens we determined hTERT methylation by bisulfite sequencing analysis of the region spanning -442 to +566 (relative to the ATG and quantitative methylation specific PCR (qMSP analysis of two regions flanking the hTERT core promoter. Results We found that in most telomerase positive cells increased hTERT core promoter activity coincided with increased hTERT mRNA expression. On the other hand basal hTERT promoter activity was also detected in telomerase negative cells with no or strongly reduced hTERT mRNA expression levels. In both telomerase positive and negative cells regulatory sequences flanking both ends of the core promoter markedly repressed exogenous promoter activity. By extensive bisulfite sequencing a strong increase in CpG methylation was detected in hTERT positive cells compared to cells with no or strongly reduced hTERT expression. Subsequent qMSP analysis of a larger set of cervical tissue specimens revealed methylation of both regions analyzed in 100% of cervical carcinomas and 38% of the high-grade precursor lesions, compared to 9% of low grade precursor lesions and 5% of normal controls. Conclusions Methylation of transcriptionally repressive sequences in the hTERT promoter and proximal exonic sequences is correlated to deregulated hTERT transcription in HPV-immortalized cells and cervical cancer cells. The detection of DNA

  1. Metazoan promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenhard, Boris; Sandelin, Albin Gustav; Carninci, Piero

    2012-01-01

    Promoters are crucial for gene regulation. They vary greatly in terms of associated regulatory elements, sequence motifs, the choice of transcription start sites and other features. Several technologies that harness next-generation sequencing have enabled recent advances in identifying promoters ...

  2. Health Promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povlsen, Lene; Borup, I.

    2015-01-01

    In 1953 when the Nordic School of Public Health was founded, the aim of public health programmes was disease prevention more than health promotion. This was not unusual, since at this time health usually was seen as the opposite of disease and illness. However, with the Ottawa Charter of 1986......, the World Health Organization made a crucial change to view health not as a goal in itself but as the means to a full life. In this way, health promotion became a first priority and fundamental action for the modern society. This insight eventually reached NHV and in 2002 - 50 years after the foundation...... - an associate professorship was established with a focus on health promotion. Nevertheless, the concept of health promotion had been integrated with or mentioned in courses run prior to the new post. Subsequently, a wide spectrum of courses in health promotion was introduced, such as Empowerment for Child...

  3. Activities of E7 promoters in the human papillomavirus type 16 genome during cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christina Neigaard; Nielsen, Lone; Norrild, Bodil

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, one of the most common cancer forms diagnosed in women is cervical cancer induced by infections with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) with HPV type 16 (HPV-16) being the most frequently identified. The oncogenicity is caused mainly by expression of the oncogenes E6 and E7 leading...

  4. Health promotion is peace promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, J D

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the effects of the arms race on health, in the absence of nuclear war. High levels of military expenditure are inextricably linked to unemployment, poverty, starvation and ill health. Alternatives to the escalation of military expenditure are possible; health promotion can be involved in wider public health initiatives towards economic and industrial conversion to peaceful, socially useful production. The interests of the health and scientific communities have traditionally transcended narrow chauvinism and nationalism. World Health Organization activities such as work towards primary health care and the Expanded Programme on Immunization actively involve international co-operation, demystify potential enemies and promote health and peace.

  5. RNAscope for in situ detection of transcriptionally active human papillomavirus in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Mindy Xiao-Ming; Su, Nan; Wang, Li-Chong; Wu, Xingyong; Bui, Son; Nielsen, Allissa; Vo, Hong-Thuy; Nguyen, Nina; Luo, Yuling; Ma, Xiao-Jun

    2014-03-11

    The 'gold standard' for oncogenic HPV detection is the demonstration of transcriptionally active high-risk HPV in tumor tissue. However, detection of E6/E7 mRNA by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) requires RNA extraction which destroys the tumor tissue context critical for morphological correlation and has been difficult to be adopted in routine clinical practice. Our recently developed RNA in situ hybridization technology, RNAscope, permits direct visualization of RNA in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue with single molecule sensitivity and single cell resolution, which enables highly sensitive and specific in situ analysis of any RNA biomarker in routine clinical specimens. The RNAscope HPV assay was designed to detect the E6/E7 mRNA of seven high-risk HPV genotypes (HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 52, and 58) using a pool of genotype-specific probes. It has demonstrated excellent sensitivity and specificity against the current 'gold standard' method of detecting E6/E7 mRNA by qRT-PCR. HPV status determined by RNAscope is strongly prognostic of clinical outcome in oropharyngeal cancer patients.

  6. A human cancer xenograft model utilizing normal pancreatic duct epithelial cells conditionally transformed with defined oncogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagawa, Yuki; Yamada, Kenji; Yugawa, Takashi; Ohno, Shin-ichi; Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi; Esaki, Minoru; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Aoki, Kazunori; Saya, Hideyuki; Kiyono, Tohru

    2014-08-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) are considered to arise through neoplastic transformation of human pancreatic duct epithelial cells (HPDECs). In order to evaluate the biological significance of genetic and epigenetic alterations in PDACs, we isolated primary HPDECs and established an in vitro carcinogenesis model. Firstly, lentivirus-mediated transduction of KRAS(G12V), MYC and human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) E6/E7 under the control of a tetracyclin-inducible promoter efficiently immortalized and transformed primary HPDECs, which gave rise to adenocarcinomas subcutaneously in an immune-deficient mouse xenograft model, depending on expression of the four genes. The tumors regressed promptly upon shutting-off the oncogenes, and the remaining tissues showed histological features corresponding to normal ductal structures with simple columnar epithelium. Reexpression of the oncogenes resulted in development of multiple PDACs through pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-like structures. We also succeeded in efficient immortalization of primary HPDECs with transduction of mutant CDK4, cyclin D1 and TERT. The cells maintained a normal diploid status and formed duct-like structures in a three-dimensional culture. In combination with p53 silencing, KRAS(G12V) alone was sufficient to fully transform the immortalized HPDECs, and MYC markedly accelerated the development of tumors. Our PDAC model supports critical roles of KRAS mutations, inactivation of the p53 and p16-pRB pathways, active telomerase and MYC expression in pancreatic carcinogenesis and thus recapitulates many features of human PDAC development. The present system with reversible control of oncogene expression enabled de novo development of PDAC from quasinormal human tissues preformed subcutaneously in mice and might be applicable to carcinogenesis models in many organ sites. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Oncogenic Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Type Distribution and HPV Type 16 E6 Variants in Two Spanish Population Groups with Different Levels of HPV Infection Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, M.; Torres, M.; Muñoz, L.; Fernández-García, E.; Canals, J.; Cabornero, A. I.; Aguilar, E.; Ballesteros, J.; del Amo, J.; García-Sáiz, A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types and HPV type 16 (HPV16) variant distribution in two Spanish population groups, commercial sex workers and imprisoned women (CSW/IPW) and the general population. A multicenter cross-sectional study of 1,889 women from five clinical settings in two Spanish cities was conducted from May to November 2004. Oncogenic HPV infection was tested by an Hybrid Capture II (HC2) test, and positive samples were genotyped by direct sequencing using three different primer sets in L1 (MY09/11 and GP5+/GP6+) and E6/E7. HPV16 variants were identified by sequencing the E6, E2, and L1 regions. Four hundred twenty-five samples were positive for the HC2 test, 31.5% from CSW/IPW and 10.7% from the general population. HPV16 was the most frequent type. Distinct profiles of oncogenic HPV type prevalence were observed across the two populations. In order of decreasing frequency, HPV types 16, 31, 58, 66, 56, and 18 were most frequent in CSW/IPW women, and types 16, 31, 52, 68, 51, and 53 were most frequent in the general population. We analyzed HPV16 intratype variants, and a large majority (78.7%) belonged to the European lineage. AA variants were detected in 16.0% of cases. African variants belonging to classes Af1 (4.0%) and Af2 (1.3%) were detected. Different HPV types and HPV16 intratype variants are involved in oncogenic HPV infections in our population. These results suggest that HPV type distribution differs in CSW/IPW women and in the general population, although further analysis is necessary. PMID:16597872

  8. Investigating Reports of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: An Analysis of HPV-16/18-Adjuvanted Vaccine Post-Licensure Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J.P.M. Huygen (Frank); K. Verschueren (Kristin); C. McCabe (Candida); J.-U. Stegmann (Jens-Ulrich); J. Zima (Julia); O. Mahaux (Olivia); L. Van Holle (Lionel); M.-G. Angelo (Maria-Genalin)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractComplex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain disorder that typically follows trauma or surgery. Suspected CRPS reported after vaccination with human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines led to temporary suspension of proactive recommendation of HPV vaccination in Japan. We

  9. Evidences of Changes in Surface Electrostatic Charge Distribution during Stabilization of HPV16 Virus-Like Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Juan F; Vicente-Alique, Ernesto; Núñez-Ramírez, Rafael; Wang, Yang; Martínez-Salazar, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The stabilization of human papillomavirus type 16 virus-like particles has been examined by means of different techniques including dynamic and static light scattering, transmission electron microscopy and electrophoretic mobility. All these techniques provide different and often complementary perspectives about the aggregation process and generation of stabilized virus-like particles after a period of time of 48 hours at a temperature of 298 K. Interestingly, static light scattering results point towards a clear colloidal instability in the initial systems, as suggested by a negative value of the second virial coefficient. This is likely related to small repulsive electrostatic interactions among the particles, and in agreement with relatively small absolute values of the electrophoretic mobility and, hence, of the net surface charges. At this initial stage the small repulsive interactions are not able to compensate binding interactions, which tend to aggregate the particles. As time proceeds, an increase of the size of the particles is accompanied by strong increases, in absolute values, of the electrophoretic mobility and net surface charge, suggesting enhanced repulsive electrostatic interactions and, consequently, a stabilized colloidal system. These results show that electrophoretic mobility is a useful methodology that can be applied to screen the stabilization factors for virus-like particles during vaccine development.

  10. Evidences of Changes in Surface Electrostatic Charge Distribution during Stabilization of HPV16 Virus-Like Particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F Vega

    Full Text Available The stabilization of human papillomavirus type 16 virus-like particles has been examined by means of different techniques including dynamic and static light scattering, transmission electron microscopy and electrophoretic mobility. All these techniques provide different and often complementary perspectives about the aggregation process and generation of stabilized virus-like particles after a period of time of 48 hours at a temperature of 298 K. Interestingly, static light scattering results point towards a clear colloidal instability in the initial systems, as suggested by a negative value of the second virial coefficient. This is likely related to small repulsive electrostatic interactions among the particles, and in agreement with relatively small absolute values of the electrophoretic mobility and, hence, of the net surface charges. At this initial stage the small repulsive interactions are not able to compensate binding interactions, which tend to aggregate the particles. As time proceeds, an increase of the size of the particles is accompanied by strong increases, in absolute values, of the electrophoretic mobility and net surface charge, suggesting enhanced repulsive electrostatic interactions and, consequently, a stabilized colloidal system. These results show that electrophoretic mobility is a useful methodology that can be applied to screen the stabilization factors for virus-like particles during vaccine development.

  11. Molecular Probing of the HPV-16 E6 Protein Alpha Helix Binding Groove with Small Molecule Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietz, Anne; Petrov, Dino P; Bartolowits, Matthew; DeSmet, Marsha; Davisson, V Jo; Androphy, Elliot J

    2016-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) HPV E6 protein has emerged as a central oncoprotein in HPV-associated cancers in which sustained expression is required for tumor progression. A majority of the E6 protein interactions within the human proteome use an alpha-helix groove interface for binding. The UBE3A/E6AP HECT domain ubiquitin ligase binds E6 at this helix-groove interface. This enables formation of a trimeric complex with p53, resulting in destruction of this tumor suppressor. While recent x-ray crystal structures are useful, examples of small molecule probes that can modulate protein interactions at this interface are limited. To develop insights useful for potential structure-based design of ligands for HPV E6, a series of 2,6-disubstituted benzopyranones were prepared and tested as competitive antagonists of E6-E6AP helix-groove interactions. These small molecule probes were used in both binding and functional assays to evaluate recognition features of the E6 protein. Evidence for an ionic functional group interaction within the helix groove was implicated by the structure-activity among the highest affinity ligands. The molecular topographies of these protein-ligand interactions were evaluated by comparing the binding and activities of single amino acid E6 mutants with the results of molecular dynamic simulations. A group of arginine residues that form a rim-cap over the E6 helix groove offer compensatory roles in binding and recognition of the small molecule probes. The flexibility and impact on the overall helix-groove shape dictated by these residues offer new insights for structure-based targeting of HPV E6.

  12. Molecular Probing of the HPV-16 E6 Protein Alpha Helix Binding Groove with Small Molecule Inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Rietz

    Full Text Available The human papillomavirus (HPV HPV E6 protein has emerged as a central oncoprotein in HPV-associated cancers in which sustained expression is required for tumor progression. A majority of the E6 protein interactions within the human proteome use an alpha-helix groove interface for binding. The UBE3A/E6AP HECT domain ubiquitin ligase binds E6 at this helix-groove interface. This enables formation of a trimeric complex with p53, resulting in destruction of this tumor suppressor. While recent x-ray crystal structures are useful, examples of small molecule probes that can modulate protein interactions at this interface are limited. To develop insights useful for potential structure-based design of ligands for HPV E6, a series of 2,6-disubstituted benzopyranones were prepared and tested as competitive antagonists of E6-E6AP helix-groove interactions. These small molecule probes were used in both binding and functional assays to evaluate recognition features of the E6 protein. Evidence for an ionic functional group interaction within the helix groove was implicated by the structure-activity among the highest affinity ligands. The molecular topographies of these protein-ligand interactions were evaluated by comparing the binding and activities of single amino acid E6 mutants with the results of molecular dynamic simulations. A group of arginine residues that form a rim-cap over the E6 helix groove offer compensatory roles in binding and recognition of the small molecule probes. The flexibility and impact on the overall helix-groove shape dictated by these residues offer new insights for structure-based targeting of HPV E6.

  13. Development of a simple and quick immunochromatography method for detection of anti-HPV-16/-18 antibodies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Endo, Fumiko; Tabata, Tsutomu; Sadato, Daichi; Kawamura, Machiko; Ando, Noriyuki; Oboki, Keisuke; Ukaji, Masako; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Yukuharu; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Shibasaki, Futoshi

    2017-01-01

    .... Since this method can be performed without a special technique or device, IC is a convenient way to assess the existence of antibodies or pathogens such as viruses and bacteria, simply and quickly...

  14. Suppression of Innate Immune Response by Primary Human Keratinocytes Expressing HPV-16 E6 and E7

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    its role against infections. Annals of Allergy, Asthma , & Immunology 88:253-64. 105. Viac, J., I. Guerin-Reverchon, Y. Chardonnet, and A. Bremond...S. Murakami. 2002. IL-15 up-regulates iNOS expression and NO production by gingival epithelial cells. Biochemical & Biophysical Research

  15. Studies towards the potential of poliovirus as a vector for the expression of HPV 16 virus-like-particles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuppeveld, F.J.M. van; Jong, A.S. de; Dijkman, H.B.P.M.; Andino, R.; Melchers, W.J.G.

    2002-01-01

    Development of human cervical carcinomas is associated with infection by certain human papillomavirus (HPV) types. Thus, protection against HPV infection through vaccination may prevent development of cervical cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of using a poliovirus

  16. Suppression of Innate Immune Response by Primary Human Keratinocytes Expressing HPV-16 E6 and E7

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guess, Jennifer L

    2005-01-01

    Human papillomavims (HPV) types infect the skin and mucosal epithelium. Lesions resulting from HPV infection can linger for months or years suggesting that HPV - presence goes unnoticed by the host immune system...

  17. Anal HPV 16 and 18 viral load: A comparison between HIV-negative and -positive MSM and association with persistence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marra, Elske; King, Audrey; van Logchem, Elske; van der Weele, Pascal; Mooij, Sofie H.; Heijman, Titia; Meijer, Chris J. L. M.; Verhagen, Dominique W. M.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.

    2018-01-01

    Does anal HPV viral load explain the difference in anal HPV persistence between HIV-negative and -positive men who have sex with men (MSM)? MSM 18 years were recruited in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, in 2010-2011. Anal self-swabs were collected every 6 months and genotyped

  18. Roles of the PDZ-binding motif of HPV 16 E6 protein in oncogenic transformation of human cervical keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimatsu, Yuki; Nakahara, Tomomi; Tanaka, Katsuyuki; Inagawa, Yuki; Narisawa-Saito, Mako; Yugawa, Takashi; Ohno, Shin-Ichi; Fujita, Masatoshi; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Kiyono, Tohru

    2017-07-01

    The high-risk human papillomavirus E6 proteins have been shown to interact with and lead to degradation of PDZ-domain-containing proteins through its carboxy-terminal motif. This PDZ-binding motif plays important roles in transformation of cultured cells and carcinogenesis of E6-transgenic mice. However, its biological effects on the natural host cells have not been elucidated. We have examined its roles in an in vitro carcinogenesis model for cervical cancer, in which E6 and E7 together with activated HRAS (HRASG12V ) can induce tumorigenic transformation of normal human cervical keratinocytes. In this model, E6Δ151 mutant, which is defective in binding to PDZ domains, almost lost tumorigenic ability, whereas E6SAT mutant, which is defective in p53 degradation showed activity close to wild-type E6. Interestingly, we found decreased expression of PAR3 in E6-expressing cells independently of E6AP, which has not been previously recognized. Therefore, we knocked down several PDZ-domain containing proteins including PAR3 in human cervical keratinocytes expressing E7, HRASG12V and E6Δ151 to examine whether depletion of these proteins can restore the tumorigenic ability. Single knockdown of SCRIB, MAGI1 or PAR3 significantly but partially restored the tumorigenic ability. The combinatorial knockdown of SCRIB and MAGI1 cooperatively restored the tumorigenic ability, and additional depletion of PAR3 further enhanced the tumorigenic ability surpassing that induced by wild-type E6. These data highlight the importance of the carboxy-terminal motif of the E6 protein and downregulation of PAR3 in tumorigenic transformation of human cervical keratinocytes. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  19. Immunotherapy augments the effect of 5-azacytidine on HPV16-associated tumours with different MHC class I-expression status

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šímová, Jana; Polláková, Veronika; Indrová, Marie; Mikyšková, Romana; Bieblová, Jana; Štěpánek, Ivan; Bubeník, Jan; Reiniš, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 10 (2011), s. 1533-1541 ISSN 0007-0920 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/07/1410; GA ČR GAP301/10/2174; GA ČR GA301/09/1024 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 18933 - CLINIGENE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : 5-azacytidine * MHC class I downregulation * tumour chemoimmunotherapy Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.042, year: 2011

  20. HPV16/18 L1 VLP Vaccine Induces Cross-Neutralizing Antibodies that May Mediate Cross-Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp, Troy J; Hildesheim, Allan; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Dauner, Joseph G.; Pan, Yuanji; Porras, Carolina; Schiller, John T.; Lowy, Douglas R.; Herrero, Rolando; Pinto, Ligia A

    2011-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 VLP-based vaccines are protective against HPV vaccine-related types; however, the correlates of protection have not been defined. We observed that vaccination with Cervarix™ induced cross-neutralizing antibodies for HPV types for which evidence of vaccine efficacy has been demonstrated (HPV31/45) but not for other types (HPV52/58). In addition, HPV31/45 cross-neutralizing titers showed a significant increase with number of doses (HPV31, p

  1. A potent replicative delta-24 adenoviral vector driven by the promoter of human papillomavirus 16 that is highly selective for associated neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Enciso, Iván; Cervantes-García, Daniel; Martínez-Dávila, Irma A; Ortiz-López, Rocío; Alemany-Bonastre, Ramón; Silva-Platas, Christian I; Lugo-Trampe, Angel; Barrera-Saldaña, Hugo A; Galván-Salazar, Héctor R; Coronel-Tene, Christian G; Sánchez-Santillán, Carlos F; Rojas-Martínez, Augusto

    2007-10-01

    Several human epithelial neoplasms are associated with high-risk strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) such as cervical, anorectal, and other carcinomas. For some tumor types the current therapeutic tools are only palliative. Conditionally replicative adenoviruses (CRAds) are promising antineoplastic agents, which also can trigger confined antitumor effects. We constructed a series of CRAds driven by the upstream regulatory promoter region (URR) of an Asian-American variant of HPV-16, which contained different mutations at the E1A region (dl1015 and/or Delta24) and wild-type. All vectors were tested in vitro for viral replication and cytotoxicity. Viral DNA replication and E1A expression were also assessed by quantitative PCR. Finally, we confirmed the antitumoral efficacy of this vector in injected and non-injected xenotransplanted cervical tumors in a murine model for tumor regression and survival studies. A vector denominated Ad-URR/E1ADelta24 displayed a potent cytopathic effect associated with high selectivity for HPV+ cell lines. We found that the oncolytic effect of this CRAd was comparable to Ad-wt or Ad-Delta24, but this efficacy was significantly attenuated in HPV- cell lines, an effect that was contributed by the URR promoter. Ad-URR/E1ADelta24 was very effective to control tumor growth, in both, injected and non-injected tumors generated with two different HPV+ cell lines. CRAd Ad-URR/E1ADelta24 is a highly selective vector for HPV+ cell lines and tumors that preserves the oncolytic efficacy of Ad-wt and Ad-Delta24. Our preclinical data suggest that this vector may be useful and safe for the treatment of tumors induced by HPV, like cervical cancers. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Perceptions of health promoters about health promotion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-02-11

    Feb 11, 2013 ... care level workers such as caregivers to render health promotion and education in the homes and communities. .... Health promotion:defined byO'Donnel as 'the science and art ..... Trinity Hospice and Palliative Care Services.

  3. Detection of human papillomavirus 16, 18, and 45 in women with ASC-US cytology and the risk of cervical precancer: results from the CLEAR HPV study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Phillip E; Cuzick, Jack; Stoler, Mark H; Wright, Thomas C; Reid, Jennifer L; Dockter, Janel; Giachetti, Cristina; Getman, Damon

    2015-02-01

    The Aptima human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 18/45 Genotype (GT) assay (AHPV-GT) is a qualitative E6/ E7 oncogene messenger RNA test that detects HPV 16 and a pool of HPV 18 and 45. The CLEAR (Clinical Evaluation of APTIMA mRNA) study was the pivotal, prospective, multicenter US clinical study to validate the Aptima HPV (AHPV) assays. In this analysis, we evaluated the clinical performance of AHPV and AHPV-GT assays for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or more severe (CIN2 +) and grade 3 (CIN3) or adenocarcinoma in situ in 912 women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) Papanicolaou result. The AHPV-GT assay was performed on high-risk HPV (hrHPV) positives as determined by the AHPV assay. Overall, the percent positive for hrHPV was 38.8% (354/912), of which 34.2% (121/354) were GT positive. Among hrHPV-positive women, the risks of CIN2 + were 37.0% for HPV 16 positives, 15.9% for HPV 18/45 positives, 14.3% for other hrHPV positives, and 2.2% for AHPV negatives. The risks of CIN3 + were 20.5% for HPV 16 positives, 9.1% for HPV 18/45 positives, 4.3% for other hrHPV positives, and 0.7% for HPV negatives. We demonstrated that AHPV-GT is a reliable and effective test for cervical cancer risk stratification in women with an ASC-US cytology diagnosis. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  4. Perceptions of health promoters about health promotion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceptions of health promoters about health promotion programmes for families with adolescents orphaned as a result of AIDS in the rural Hammanskraal region in ... education by using the community and national media, providing information material and providing access to the internet in order to allow more people, ...

  5. What do health-promoting schools promote?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka

    2012-01-01

    for Health in Europe Research Group were invited to submit their work addressing processes and outcomes in school health promotion to this special issue of Health Education. Additionally, an open call for papers was published on the Health Education web site. Following the traditional double blind peer......-promotion interventions. Directly or indirectly the articles reiterate the idea that health promotion in schools needs to be linked with the core task of the school – education, and to the values inherent to education, such as inclusion, democracy, participation and influence, critical literacy and action competence...

  6. Human Papillomavirus E2 Regulates SRSF3 (SRp20) To Promote Capsid Protein Expression in Infected Differentiated Keratinocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Klymenko, Tetyana; Hernandez-Lopez, H.; MacDonald, A.I; Bodily, J. M.; Graham, S. V.; Beemon, K L

    2016-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) life cycle is tightly linked to differentiation of the infected epithelial cell, suggesting a sophisticated interplay between host cell metabolism and virus replication. Previously, we demonstrated in differentiated keratinocytes in vitro and in vivo that HPV type 16 (HPV16) infection caused increased levels of the cellular SR splicing factors (SRSFs) SRSF1 (ASF/SF2), SRSF2 (SC35), and SRSF3 (SRp20). Moreover, the viral E2 transcription and replication factor th...

  7. Developing a Promotional Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epley, Hannah K.

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for Extension professionals to show clientele the benefits of their program. This article shares how promotional videos are one way of reaching audiences online. An example is given on how a promotional video has been used and developed using iMovie software. Tips are offered for how professionals can create a promotional video and…

  8. Low prevalence of transcriptionally active human papilloma virus in Indian patients with HNSCC and leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhosale, Priyanka G; Pandey, Manishkumar; Desai, Rajiv S; Patil, Asawari; Kane, Shubhada; Prabhash, Kumar; Mahimkar, Manoj B

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, we comprehensively analyzed the prevalence of transcriptionally active human papilloma virus (HPV) in tissue samples of Indian patients with leukoplakia, predominantly hyperplastic lesions and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In addition, saliva samples from patients with HNSCC were screened for HPV detection. P16 overexpression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Tissue samples of leukoplakia (n = 121) and HNSCC (n = 427) and saliva from patients with HNSCC (n = 215) were tested for HPV using nested polymerase chain reaction. Positive samples were sequenced for subtyping. The presence of HPV E6/E7 mRNA was confirmed by RNA in situ hybridization. P16 expression and HPV DNA were not detected in any of the leukoplakia specimens. Of the 427 HNSCC tumors, 9 showed p16 overexpression and 7/427 cases were positive for HPV16 DNA, in saliva or tissue. E6/E7 mRNA positivity was observed in 8 HNSCC samples, primarily from patients with no habit of tobacco consumption. The prevalence of high-risk HPV was restricted to oropharynx and larynx, with very little concordance between p16 overexpression and HPV positivity. All patients with HPV-positive saliva samples had transcriptionally active HPV present in their tumors. The presence of HPV DNA does not necessarily reflect transcriptionally active virus in tumors; hence, it is important to consider this fact while categorizing HPV-associated tumors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in 45 Greek Patients with Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kouvousi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The relation between HPV and head and neck cancer has recently and extensively been investigated. The purpose of this study was to indentify HPV genotypes, as well as E6/E7 mRNA expression of high-risk HPVs (16, 18, 31, 33 and 45 in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs from 45 Greek patients. The overall prevalence of HPV DNA positive OSCCs was 11.1% (5/45, while high-risk HPV DNA was found in 6.7% (3/45 of OSCCs. E6/E7 mRNA expression was detected in 8.9% (4/45 of the oral cavity samples. Our data indicated that HPV 16 was the commonest genotype identified in HPV-positive OSCCs by both DNA and RNA tests. This study confirms the prevalence of HPV infections among patients with OSCCs. Future analysis and followup of more OSCCs will enable us to correlate HPV detection and clinical outcome.

  10. Repression of human papillomavirus oncogenes in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells causes the orderly reactivation of dormant tumor suppressor pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, E C; DiMaio, D

    2000-11-07

    Most cervical carcinomas express high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) E6 and E7 proteins, which neutralize cellular tumor suppressor function. To determine the consequences of removing the E6 and E7 proteins from cervical cancer cells, we infected HeLa cells, a cervical carcinoma cell line that contains HPV18 DNA, with a recombinant virus that expresses the bovine papillomavirus E2 protein. Expression of the E2 protein resulted in rapid repression of HPV E6 and E7 expression, followed approximately 12 h later by profound inhibition of cellular DNA synthesis. Shortly after E6/E7 repression, there was dramatic posttranscriptional induction of p53. Two p53-responsive genes, mdm2 and p21, were induced with slightly slower kinetics than p53 and appeared to be functional, as assessed by inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase activity and p53 destabilization. There was also dramatic posttranscriptional induction of p105(Rb) and p107 after E6/E7 repression, followed shortly thereafter by induction of p130. By 24 h after infection, only hypophosphorylated p105(Rb) was detectable and transcription of several Rb/E2F-regulated genes was dramatically repressed. Constitutive expression of the HPV16 E6/E7 genes alleviated E2-induced growth inhibition and impaired activation of the Rb pathway and repression of E2F-responsive genes. This dynamic response strongly suggests that the p53 and Rb tumor suppressor pathways are intact in HeLa cells and that repression of HPV E6 and E7 mobilizes these pathways in an orderly fashion to deliver growth inhibitory signals to the cells. Strikingly, the major alterations in the cell cycle machinery underlying cervical carcinogenesis can be reversed by repression of the endogenous HPV oncogenes.

  11. SPORT PROMOTION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In sport marketing, the word promotion covers a range of interrelated activities. All of these activities are designed to attract attention, stimulate the interest and awareness of consumers, and of course, encourage them to purchase a sport product. Promotion is about communicating with and educating consumers. The purpose of a sport promotional strategy is to build brand loyalty and product credibility, develop image, and position the brand. A promotional strategy is similar to a marketing strategy, but the promotional strategy seeks short-term objectives, both direct and indirect. Promotional objectives usually include increased sales, stimulate impulse buying, raise customer traffic, and present and reinforce image. It also provides information about products and services, publicizes new stores or websites, and creates and enhances customer satisfaction.

  12. Health promotion in globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Franco-Giraldo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to unravel some theoretical and factual elements required to implement more effective health promotion strategies and practices in the field of health services whilst following the great challenges that globalization has imposed on the health systems, which are inevitably expressed in the local context (glocalization. Methodology: a narrative review taking into account the concepts of globalization and health promotion in relation to health determinants. The authors approach some courses of action and strategies for health promotion based on the social principles and universal values that guide health promotion, health service reorientation and primary healthcare, empowerment, social participation, and inter-sectoral and social mobilization. Discussion: the discussion focuses on the redirection of health promotion services in relation to the wave of health reforms that has spread throughout the world under the neoliberal rule. The author also discusses health promotion, its ineffectiveness, and the quest for renewal. Likewise, the author sets priorities for health promotion in relation to social determinants. Conclusion: the current global order, in terms of international relations, is not consistent with the ethical principles of health promotion. In this paper, the author advocates for the implementation of actions to change the social and physical life conditions of people based on changes in the use of power in society and the appropriate practice of politics in the context of globalization in order to achieve the effectiveness of the actions of health promotion.

  13. Perceptions of health promoters about health promotion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-02-11

    Feb 11, 2013 ... care level workers such as caregivers to render health promotion and education in the homes and communities. The caregivers ..... to perform their duties: '…no increment on what we are earning, any incentives or .... namely distribution of educational materials; showing of educational videos; delivery of ...

  14. High expression Zymomonas promoters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitanen, Paul V [West Chester, PA; Tao, Luan [Havertown, PA; Zhang, Yuying [New Hope, PA; Caimi, Perry G [Kennett Square, PA; McCole, Laura : Zhang, Min; Chou, Yat-Chen [Lakewood, CO; McCutchen, Carol M [Wilmington, DE; Franden, Mary Ann [Centennial, CO

    2011-08-02

    Identified are mutants of the promoter of the Z. mobilis glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene, which direct improved expression levels of operably linked heterologous nucleic acids. These are high expression promoters useful for expression of chimeric genes in Zymomonas, Zymobacter, and other related bacteria.

  15. Health-promoting schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwan, Stella Y L; Petersen, Poul Erik; Pine, Cynthia M

    2005-01-01

    Schools provide an important setting for promoting health, as they reach over 1 billion children worldwide and, through them, the school staff, families and the community as a whole. Health promotion messages can be reinforced throughout the most influential stages of children's lives, enabling...... Health Initiative and the potential for setting up oral health programmes in schools using the health-promoting school framework are discussed. The challenges faced in promoting oral health in schools in both developed and developing countries are highlighted. The importance of using a validated...... them to develop lifelong sustainable attitudes and skills. Poor oral health can have a detrimental effect on children's quality of life, their performance at school and their success in later life. This paper examines the global need for promoting oral health through schools. The WHO Global School...

  16. Promoting promotions: Does showcasing free gifts backfire?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raghubir, Priya; Celly, Kirti Sawhney

    2011-01-01

    ..., Raghubir, 2005 , Study 2), and even a multiple of the price that a consumer needs to pay to buy a product to get the free gift. The question is: Is there a drawback to showcasing a free gift rather than a company product in a free gift promotion? This paper attempts to answer this question, starting with the simple model: P r o m o t i o n P e ...

  17. 77 FR 47820 - Invention Promoters/Promotion Firms Complaints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Invention Promoters/Promotion Firms Complaints ACTION: Proposed... concerning invention promoters and responses from the invention promoters to these complaints. An individual may submit a complaint concerning an invention promoter to the USPTO, which will forward the complaint...

  18. Quantitative screening of single copies of human papilloma viral DNA without amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiangwei; Lee, Ji-Young; Yeung, Edward S

    2006-09-15

    We describe a novel quantitative viral screening method based on single-molecule detection that does not require amplification. DNA of human papilloma virus (HPV), the major etiological agent of cervical cancer, served as the screening target in this study. Eight 100-nucleotide single-stranded DNA probes were designed complementary to the E6-E7 gene of HPV-16 DNA. The probes were covalently stained with Alexa Fluor 532 and hybridized to the target in solution. The individual hybridized molecules were imaged with an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) in two ways. In the single-color mode, target molecules were detected via fluorescence from hybridized probes only. This system could detect HPV-16 DNA in the presence of human genomic DNA down to 0.7 copy/cell and had a linear dynamic range of over 6 orders of magnitude. In the dual-color mode, we employed fluorescence resonance energy transfer and added YOYO-3 dye as the acceptor. The two colors from Alexa Fluor 532 and YOYO-3 were dispersed by a transmission grating located in front of the ICCD. With this reinforced criterion for identifying the hybridized molecules, zero false-positive count was achieved. We also showed that DNA extracts from Pap test specimens did not interfere with the measurements.

  19. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 3. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria - Potential Microbes for Sustainable Agriculture. Jay Shankar Singh. General Article Volume 18 Issue 3 March 2013 pp 275-281 ...

  20. Researching health promotion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Platt, Stephen David; Watson, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    ... the progress towards developing and implementing health promotion interventions that: * * * * are theoretically grounded, socio-culturally appropriate and sustainable involve the redistribution of resources towards those most in need reflect the principles of equity, participation and empowerment incorporate rigorous, methodologically ...

  1. Health Promotion Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehn-Christiansen, Sine

    The paper discusses the implications of health promotion in education. The paper is based on my PhD project entitled “Health promotion education seen through a power/knowledge and subjectification perspective” (in prep). The PhD project explores how professional health promotion skills...... are conceived in a specific educational setting; namely the Danish social and health education programme. Here, health promotion is formally conceived as a qualification aimed at citizens and patients - and not at the students themselves. However, as the paper will demonstrate, conceptions of student......’s and citizen’s health, health habits and health concerns merge within the educational framework. Through empirical findings, based on 20 qualitative interviews and participatory observation studies from four schools, I show that there are widespread ideas, among teachers as well as students, that professional...

  2. Health promotion in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivo de Carvalho, Antonio; Westphal, Marcia Faria; Pereira Lima, Vera Lucia Góes

    2007-01-01

    Brazil, a Latin American country of continental proportions and contrasts, demographic inequalities, and social inequities, concomitantly faces the challenge of preventing and controlling infectious diseases, injuries, and non-communicable diseases. The loss of strength of the biomedical paradigm, the change in epidemiological profile, and the sociopolitical and cultural challenges of recent decades have fostered the emergence of new formulations about public health thinking and practice. Among them, are the paradigms of Brazilian Collective Health and Health Promotion. The former provides philosophical support for Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS). The aim of this article is to discuss the development of public health within the country's history, and to analyze and compare the theoretical assumptions of Health Promotion and Collective Health. We conclude that health promotion, based on the principles and values disseminated by the international Charters and concerned with social actors and social determinants of the health-disease process, has significant potential to promote the improvement of living and health conditions of the population. This frame of reference guided the formulation of the National Policy of Health Promotion within the Unified Health System, which was institutionalized by a ministerial decree. The importance and application of evaluating the effectiveness of health promotion processes and methodologies in Brazil have been guided by various frames of reference, which we clarify in this article through describing historical processes.

  3. Platelets are a possible regulator of human endometrial re-epithelialization during menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suginami, Koh; Sato, Yukiyasu; Horie, Akihito; Matsumoto, Hisanori; Kyo, Satoru; Araki, Yoshihiko; Konishi, Ikuo; Fujiwara, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The human endometrium periodically breaks down and regenerates. As platelets have been reported to contribute to the tissue remodeling process, we examined the possible involvement of platelets in endometrial regeneration. The distribution of extravasating platelets throughout the menstrual cycle was immunohistochemically examined using human endometrial tissues. EM-E6/E7/hTERT cells, a human endometrial epithelial cell-derived immortalized cell line, were co-cultured with platelets, and the effects of platelets on the epithelialization response of EM-E6/E7/hTERT cells were investigated by attachment and permeability assays, immunohistochemical staining, and Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical study showed numerous extravasated platelets in the subluminar stroma during the menstrual phase. The platelets promoted the cell-to-matrigel attachment of EM-E6/E7/hTERT cells concomitantly with the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase. They also promoted cell-to-cell contact among EM-E6/E7/hTERT cells in parallel with E-cadherin expression. These results indicate the possible involvement of platelets in the endometrial epithelial re-epithelialization process. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. PCR and Genotyping for HPV in Cervical Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Pradyot; Patne, Shashikant C U; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Kumar, Mohan; Mishra, Mukti Nath; Gulati, Anil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    To devise nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction (NMPCR) protocol for detection of mucosal human papilloma viruses (HPVs) and typing of HPV-16 and -18 in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues of carcinoma cervix (CaCx). Cross-sectional observational study. NMPCR was done for simultaneous detection of HPV, targeting 134 bp L1 capsid gene employing GP+/mGP+ primers and typing of genotypes-16 and -18, targeting E6/E7 gene from 34 FFPE tissue blocks of CaCx and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Detection of 142 bp consensus sequence of L1 capsid gene was performed by nested PCR employing MY/GP+ primers. Sequencing of selected PCR amplicons of the later protocol obtained from control cell line DNA and 5 select samples were done for validation of the NMPCR protocol. Calculation of percentage from the Microsoft Excel Software. Of 26 FFPE samples of CaCx, 17 (65.3%) samples were found positive for HPV by NMPCR. Amplicons of 142 bp L1 capsid gene employing MY/GP+ primers were observed in 11 (42.3%) samples of CaCx. Nearly 25% samples of CIN were positive for HPV. On sequence analysis, it was observed that the sample typed as HPV-16 by NMPCR was found to be the same on sequencing of amplicons obtained after MY/GP+ nested PCR. This study indicates the usefulness of our NMPCR protocol for detection of mucosal HPVs and typing of HPV-16 and -18 from FFPE tissue samples of CaCx. The NMPCR protocol may be used to detect HPV and type common genotypes-16 and -18 in fresh tissue of cervical biopsy or scrape samples for screening of CaCx.

  5. PCR and genotyping for HPV in cervical cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradyot Prakash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To devise nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction (NMPCR protocol for detection of mucosal human papilloma viruses (HPVs and typing of HPV-16 and -18 in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues of carcinoma cervix (CaCx. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Materials and Methods: NMPCR was done for simultaneous detection of HPV, targeting 134 bp L1 capsid gene employing GP+/mGP+ primers and typing of genotypes-16 and -18, targeting E6/E7 gene from 34 FFPE tissue blocks of CaCx and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN. Detection of 142 bp consensus sequence of L1 capsid gene was performed by nested PCR employing MY/GP+ primers. Sequencing of selected PCR amplicons of the later protocol obtained from control cell line DNA and 5 select samples were done for validation of the NMPCR protocol. Statistical Analysis Used: Calculation of percentage from the Microsoft Excel Software. Results: Of 26 FFPE samples of CaCx, 17 (65.3% samples were found positive for HPV by NMPCR. Amplicons of 142 bp L1 capsid gene employing MY/GP+ primers were observed in 11 (42.3% samples of CaCx. Nearly 25% samples of CIN were positive for HPV. On sequence analysis, it was observed that the sample typed as HPV-16 by NMPCR was found to be the same on sequencing of amplicons obtained after MY/GP+ nested PCR. Conclusions: This study indicates the usefulness of our NMPCR protocol for detection of mucosal HPVs and typing of HPV-16 and -18 from FFPE tissue samples of CaCx. The NMPCR protocol may be used to detect HPV and type common genotypes-16 and -18 in fresh tissue of cervical biopsy or scrape samples for screening of CaCx.

  6. Comparison of detection methods for HPV status as a prognostic marker for loco-regional control after radiochemotherapy in patients with HNSCC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linge, Annett; Schötz, Ulrike; Löck, Steffen; Lohaus, Fabian; Neubeck, Cläre von; Gudziol, Volker; Nowak, Alexander; Tinhofer, Inge; Budach, Volker; Sak, Ali; Stuschke, Martin; Balermpas, Panagiotis; Rödel, Claus; Bunea, Hatice; Grosu, Anca-Ligia; Abdollahi, Amir; Debus, Jürgen; Ganswindt, Ute; Lauber, Kirsten; Pigorsch, Steffi; Combs, Stephanie E; Mönnich, David; Zips, Daniel; Baretton, Gustavo B; Buchholz, Frank; Krause, Mechthild; Belka, Claus; Baumann, Michael

    2017-12-30

    To compare six HPV detection methods in pre-treatment FFPE tumour samples from patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) who received postoperative (N = 175) or primary (N = 90) radiochemotherapy. HPV analyses included detection of (i) HPV16 E6/E7 RNA, (ii) HPV16 DNA (PCR-based arrays, A-PCR), (iii) HPV DNA (GP5+/GP6+ qPCR, (GP-PCR)), (iv) p16 (immunohistochemistry, p16 IHC), (v) combining p16 IHC and the A-PCR result and (vi) combining p16 IHC and the GP-PCR result. Differences between HPV positive and negative subgroups were evaluated for the primary endpoint loco-regional control (LRC) using Cox regression. Correlation between the HPV detection methods was high (chi-squared test, p < 0.001). While p16 IHC analysis resulted in several false positive classifications, A-PCR, GP-PCR and the combination of p16 IHC and A-PCR or GP-PCR led to results comparable to RNA analysis. In both cohorts, Cox regression analyses revealed significantly prolonged LRC for patients with HPV positive tumours irrespective of the detection method. The most stringent classification was obtained by detection of HPV16 RNA, or combining p16 IHC with A-PCR or GP-PCR. This approach revealed the lowest rate of recurrence in patients with tumours classified as HPV positive and therefore appears most suited for patient stratification in HPV-based clinical studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The impact of human papillomavirus type on colposcopy performance in women offered HPV immunisation in a catch-up vaccine programme: a two-centre observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, A; Gillespie, C; Cotton, S; Busby-Earle, C; Kavanagh, K; Cuschieri, K; Cubie, H; Robertson, C; Smart, L; Pollock, K; Moore, C; Palmer, T; Cruickshank, M E

    2017-08-01

    To determine whether human papillomavirus (HPV) immunisation has affected the prevalence of HPV genotypes and colposcopic features of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in young women referred for colposcopy. A two-centre observational study including vaccinated and unvaccinated women. Colposcopy clinics serving two health regions in Scotland, UK. A total of 361 women aged 20-25 years attending colposcopy following an abnormal cervical cytology result at routine cervical screening. Cervical samples were obtained from women for HPV DNA genotyping and mRNA E6/E7 expression of HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, and 45. Demographic data, cytology, and histology results and colposcopic features were recorded. Chi-square analysis was conducted to identify associations between vaccine status, HPV genotypes, and colposcopic features. Colposcopic features, HPV genotypes, mRNA expression, and cervical histology. The prevalence of HPV 16 was significantly lower in the vaccinated group (8.6%) compared with the unvaccinated group (46.7%) (P = 0.001). The number of cases of CIN2+ was significantly lower in women who had been vaccinated (P = 0.006). The HPV vaccine did not have a statistically significant effect on commonly recognised colposcopic features, but there was a slight reduction in the positive predictive value (PPV) of colposcopy for CIN2+, from 74% (unvaccinated) to 66.7% (vaccinated). In this group of young women with abnormal cytology referred to colposcopy, HPV vaccination via a catch-up programme reduced the prevalence of CIN2+ and HPV 16 infection. The reduced PPV of colposcopy for the detection of CIN2+ in women who have been vaccinated is at the lower acceptable level of the UK national cervical screening programme guidelines. Reduction of hrHPV positivity and CIN in immunised women consistent with lower PPV of colposcopy for CIN2+. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  8. Eradication of established HPV16-transformed tumours after immunisation with recombinant Semliki Forest virus expressing a fusion protein of E6 and E7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daemen, T; Riezebos-Brilman, A; Bungener, L; Regts, J; Dontje, B; Wischut, J

    2003-01-01

    Previously, we described the efficacy of immunisation with recombinant Semliki Forest virus (SFV), expressing the human papillomavirus 16 (HPV) oncoproteins E6 and E7, in inducing HPV-specific CTLs and anti-tumour responses. Recently, we developed a novel recombinant SFV construct encoding a

  9. ESTRUCTURA MOLECULAR Y ANTIGÉNICA DE LA VACUNA CONTRA EL VIRUS DEL PAPILOMA HUMANO 16 (VPH 16 Antigenic and Molecular Structure of Human Papillomavirus (HPV 16 Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VÍCTOR ANDRÉS VANEGAS

    Full Text Available La proteína L1 del Virus del Papiloma Humano (VPH constituye el 80% de la cápside viral. Las vacunas profilácticas contra el VPH son sintetizadas a partir de la proteína L1 ensamblada en Partículas similares al Virus (del inglés VLP, las cuales son altamente inmunogénicas generando anticuerpos específicos de tipo y en algunos casos pueden presentar reacción cruzada entre tipos de VPH filogenéticamente próximos. La estructura de la proteína L1 del VPH es importante porque confiere estabilidad a la cápside mediante el establecimiento de interacciones intra e intercapsoméricas lo que asegura la integridad viral y antigénicamente porque contiene los epítopes que inducen la respuesta inmune protectora. En estudios en los que se evaluó la antigenicidad de la proteína L1 se determinó que los epítopes inmunodominantes de la cápside viral se encuentran en los bucles B-C, D-E, F-G, H-I y en el extremo C-terminal. Estos bucles son poco conservados entre los diferentes genotipos y se encuentran en segmentos de la proteína expuestos en la superficie de la cápside. Los aminoácidos situados en los bucles B-C, F-G y H-I son primordiales para el reconocimiento por los anticuerpos neutralizantes. Los diferentes subtipos y variantes presentan cambios en estos aminoácidos o en residuos que conforman otros epítopes. En esta revisión se presentará un estado del arte de la proteína L1 del VPH genotipo 16, la estructura y su importancia en el desarrollo de vacunas contra la infección producida por este virus.Human Papillomavirus L1 protein makes up 80% of the viral capsid and self assembles in Virus-like Particles (VLP; these particles are immunogenic, generate type-specific antibodies and can induce very limited cross-reactivity among highly homologous HPV types. In addition to its structural function, it confers the stability to the capsid by establishing disulfide bonds and other intra and intercapsomeric interactions, and also contains the epitopes that induce the protective immune response of prophylactic vaccines. Immunological studies of this protein have concluded that the main epitopes of the HPV viral capsid are found in the loops B-C, D-E, F-G, H-I and the C-terminal arm. These loops are exposed on the surface of the viral capsid and have a low degree of conservation among the different genotypes. Specifically, amino acid 50 located on loop B-C and aminoacids 266, 271 and 288 located on loop F-G are important for the recognition on neutralizing antibodies. The different genotypes and variants exhibit mutations on these residues.

  10. Induction of protective immunity against MHC class I-deficient, HPV16-associated tumours with peptide and dendritic cell-based vaccines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reiniš, Milan; Štěpánek, Ivan; Šímová, Jana; Bieblová, Jana; Přibylová, Hana; Indrová, Marie; Bubeník, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 3 (2010), s. 545-551 ISSN 1019-6439 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500520605; GA AV ČR IAA500520807 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 18933 - CLINIGENE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : MHC class I-deficient tumours * CpG oligodeoxynucleotides * human papilloma virus Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.571, year: 2010

  11. Introduction and sustained high coverage of the HPV bivalent vaccine leads to a reduction in prevalence of HPV 16/18 and closely related HPV types

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kavanagh, K; Pollock, K G J; Potts, A; Love, J; Cuschieri, K; Cubie, H; Robertson, C; Donaghy, M

    2014-01-01

    .... By linking individual vaccination, screening and HPV testing records, we aim to determine the impact of the immunisation programme on circulating type-specific HPV infection particularly for four outcomes...

  12. ROMANIAN TOURISM PROMOTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru-Mircea NEDELEA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The tourism industry is unlike any other because, instead of a product, you are selling a place and all the things it has to offer. You are competing with the entire world every time you promote tourism in a given destination, and this high level of competition demands a creative and unique approach. To be successful, your marketing should constantly put forth the best possible image of your destination, while creating interest on a broad scale in as many ways as possible. Romania has to conceive an efficient promotional mix in order to attract more tourists.

  13. Promoting tourism destination image

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Govers (Robert); F.M. Go (Frank); K. Kumar (Kuldeep)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis article examines the role of tourism promotion as a component of destination image formation. It reports the findings of a study in which 1,100 respondents from around the globe described their previsit perceived image of seven sample destinations, as well as the information sources

  14. Promoting La Cultura Hispana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluviose, David

    2007-01-01

    Launched in 1985 at Arizona State University, the Hispanic Research Center's (HRC) efforts to promote Latino and Chicano art and issues have flourished in recent years. In 2004, the HRC hosted the Arizona International Latina/o Arts Festival in collaboration with the Mesa Southwest Museum. The HRC has also founded a mentoring institute for…

  15. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Crop parameters. Rhizobium leguminosarum. Direct growth promotion of canola and lettuce. Pseudomonas putida. Early developments of canola seedlings, growth stimulation of tomato plant. Azospirillum brasilense andA. irakense. Growth of wheat and maize plants. P. flurescens. Growth of pearl millet, increase in growth, ...

  16. Promoting Linguistic Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daryai-Hansen, Petra Gilliyard

    2005-01-01

    To face up to the omnipresence of ‘Anglo-American’, conferences on language policy today address the issue of promoting linguistic diversity. This especially applies to contemporary Europe. Nevertheless, these conferences, which can be regarded as a kind of laboratories or academic microcosm, do...

  17. Developing Mechanisms to Promote

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Sociological Review, 5(1) 2001, pp.l7-35. Michael J. Kahn. Developing Mechanisms to ... Arguably this is a suite of thrusts that promote knowledge development and transfer, but the historical .... is at the level of feasibility studies into mining, ore processing, instrumentation and process control, and recovery of metals ...

  18. Commentary: Promoting Systems Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Clark A.

    2017-01-01

    This commentary on the special issue, entitled "Models and Tools for Systems Learning and Instruction," highlights the accomplishments of the papers in this collection. It also points to some avenues for further strengthening research on promoting systems understanding. Collectively, the papers make advances in our understanding of how…

  19. Buying time promotes happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whillans, Ashley; Dunn, Elizabeth; Smeets, Paul M.; Bekkers, R.H.F.P.; Norton, M.I.

    2017-01-01

    Around the world, increases in wealth have produced an unintended consequence: a rising sense of time scarcity. We provide evidence that using money to buy time can provide a buffer against this time famine, thereby promoting happiness. Using large, diverse samples from the United States, Canada,

  20. Promoting Renewable Energy Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ole Jess; Skytte, Klaus

    % of its annual electricity production. In this paper, we present and discuss the Danish experience as a case of promoting renewable energy technologies. The development path of the two technologies has been very different. Wind power is considered an outright success with fast deployment to decreasing...... technology and its particular context, it is possible to formulate some general principles that can help to create an effective and efficient policy for promoting new renewable energy technologies.......Wind power and combined heat and power (CHP) using biomass (for combustion, gasification or fermentation) are two of the most promising renewable technologies for generation of electricity. Denmark has a long and well-established tradition for these technologies that now account for approx. 25...

  1. ADVANCEMENT & PROMOTION REVIEW: 2002

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Advancement, exceptional advancement and promotion decisions were made at the beginning of July, under the new career structure scheme and following the procedures published in Weekly Bulletin No. 11/2002. These decisions were included, where applicable, in the salaries for the month of July 2002. The award of the periodic step was communicated to staff by the salary shown on the July salary slip. All other decisions are communicated by separate notification. The names of staff receiving exceptional advancements or promotions will be published this year on the HR Division website and are accessible for consultation only at the following address : http://cern.ch/hr-div/internal/personnel/advlist.asp It is recalled that change of career path proposals submitted to the Technical Engineers and Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) or to Human Resources Division are being examined with a view to preparing the latters' recommendations by the end of September 2002. Final decisions will be applied retroactivel...

  2. Guarded Type Promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)