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Sample records for hpv bivalent vaccine

  1. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Bivalent Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) bivalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  2. Cross-protective vaccine efficacy of the bivalent HPV vaccine against HPV31 is associated with humoral immune responses: results from the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Kemp, Troy J; Pan, David Yuanji; Porras, Carolina; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Schiffman, Mark; Cortes, Bernal; Katki, Hormuzd; Wacholder, Sholom; Schiller, John T; Gonzalez, Paula; Penrose, Kerri; Lowy, Douglas R; Quint, Wim; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Herrero, Rolando; Hildesheim, Allan; Pinto, Ligia A

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the role of antibody responses as potential mechanism for the cross-protective vaccine-efficacies (VE) observed from randomized clinical trials of the HPV16/18 bivalent vaccine. Results HPV31 cases had lower HPV16 antibody levels than controls (OR 4th quartile compared with 1st quartile = 0.63; 95%CI: 0.36-1.08; p-trend = 0.03). HPV31 cases were also less likely to have detectable HPV31 neutralization, and HPV16 avidity than controls. No statistically significant differences by HPV18 antibody or HPV45 neutralization were observed among HPV45 cases and controls. Protection against HPV58 was not associated with any of the markers, confirming the specificity of our findings. Samples are from three-dose HPV vaccine recipients from the Costa Rica HPV16/18 vaccine trial. Women with a new HPV31, HPV45, or HPV58 infections over four years of follow-up were compared with randomly selected control women--with no new infection with HPV31/45/58--with respect to HPV16 and HPV18 antibody, HPV31, HPV45, and HPV58 neutralization, and HPV16 avidity. High HPV16 levels and avidity, and the ability to neutralize HPV31 were associated with protection against newly detected HPV31 infections, suggesting that the partial VE demonstrated for HPV31 is likely to be mediated at least in part through antibodies induced by HPV16/18 vaccination.

  3. Immunogenicity of bivalent HPV vaccine among partially vaccinated young adolescent girls in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMontagne, D Scott; Mugisha, Emmanuel; Pan, Yuanji; Kumakech, Edward; Ssemaganda, Aloysius; Kemp, Troy J; Cover, Jane; Pinto, Ligia A; Safaeian, Mahboobeh

    2014-10-29

    Investigations of vaccine efficacy and immunogenicity for adult females receiving fewer than three doses of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine have suggested protection against infection and precancerous lesions. We investigated the immunogenicity of bivalent HPV vaccines among adolescent girls from Uganda who received one, two, or three vaccine doses. Young girls vaccinated through a government program in Uganda were invited to participate. HPV16- and HPV18-specific antibodies were measured at ≥24 months after the last vaccine dose using an enzyme linked immunoassay in girls who received one (n=36), two (n=145), or three (n=195) doses. Nearly all subjects (99%) were HPV16 and HPV18 seropositive at the time of blood-draw. Geometric mean antibody levels (GMTs) were: HPV16₁-dose=230 EU/mL, HPV16₂-dose=808 EU/mL, and HPV16₃-dose=1607 EU/mL; HPV18₁-dose=87 EU/mL, HPV18₂-dose=270 EU/mL, and HPV18₃-dose=296 EU/mL. The GMT ratio for 2:3 doses was 0.50 (HPV16) and 0.68 (HPV18) and did not meet the non-inferiority criteria (i.e., lower bound of 97.5% confidence interval of the GMT ratio greater than 0.50). The GMT ratio for 1:3 doses for HPV16 and HPV18 was inferior, but absolute GMTs for one dose were higher than adult women who received one dose (HPV16=124 EU/mL, HPV18=69 EU/mL) where efficacy has been demonstrated. Even though immunogenicity with less than three doses did not meet a priori non-inferiority thresholds, antibody levels measured ≥24 months after last dose were similar to those of adult women who have been followed for more than eight years for efficacy. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Introduction and sustained high coverage of the HPV bivalent vaccine leads to a reduction in prevalence of HPV 16/18 and closely related HPV types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, K; Pollock, K G J; Potts, A; Love, J; Cuschieri, K; Cubie, H; Robertson, C; Donaghy, M

    2014-05-27

    In 2008, a national human papillomavirus (HPV) immunisation programme began in Scotland for 12-13 year old females with a three-year catch-up campaign for those under the age of 18. Since 2008, three-dose uptake of bivalent vaccine in the routine cohort aged 12-13 has exceeded 90% annually, while in the catch-up cohort overall uptake is 66%. To monitor the impact of HPV immunisation, a programme of national surveillance was established (pre and post introduction) which included yearly sampling and HPV genotyping of women attending for cervical screening at age 20. By linking individual vaccination, screening and HPV testing records, we aim to determine the impact of the immunisation programme on circulating type-specific HPV infection particularly for four outcomes: (i) the vaccine types HPV 16 or 18 (ii) types considered to be associated with cross-protection: HPV 31, 33 or 45; (iii) all other high-risk types and (iv) any HPV. From a total of 4679 samples tested, we demonstrate that three doses (n=1100) of bivalent vaccine are associated with a significant reduction in prevalence of HPV 16 and 18 from 29.8% (95% confidence interval 28.3, 31.3%) to 13.6% (95% confidence interval 11.7, 15.8%). The data also suggest cross-protection against HPV 31, 33 and 45. HPV 51 and 56 emerged as the most prevalent (10.5% and 9.6%, respectively) non-vaccine high-risk types in those vaccinated, but at lower rates than HPV 16 (25.9%) in those unvaccinated. This data demonstrate the positive impact of bivalent vaccination on the prevalence of HPV 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45 in the target population and is encouraging for countries which have achieved high-vaccine uptake.

  5. Significantly Reduced Genoprevalence of Vaccine-Type HPV-16/18 Infections among Vaccinated Compared to Non-Vaccinated Young Women 5.5 Years after a Bivalent HPV-16/18 Vaccine (Cervarix®) Pilot Project in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumakech, Edward; Berggren, Vanja; Wabinga, Henry; Lillsunde-Larsson, Gabriella; Helenius, Gisela; Kaliff, Malin; Karlsson, Mats; Kirimunda, Samuel; Musubika, Caroline; Andersson, Sören

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and some predictors for vaccine and non-vaccine types of HPV infections among bivalent HPV vaccinated and non-vaccinated young women in Uganda. This was a comparative cross sectional study 5.5 years after a bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccination (Cervarix®, GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) pilot project in western Uganda. Cervical swabs were collected between July 2014-August 2014 and analyzed with a HPV genotyping test, CLART® HPV2 assay (Genomica, Madrid Spain) which is based on PCR followed by microarray for determination of genotype. Blood samples were also tested for HIV and syphilis infections as well as CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte levels. The age range of the participants was 15-24 years and mean age was 18.6(SD 1.4). Vaccine-type HPV-16/18 strains were significantly less prevalent among vaccinated women compared to non-vaccinated women (0.5% vs 5.6%, p 0.006, OR 95% CI 0.08(0.01-0.64). At type-specific level, significant difference was observed for HPV16 only. Other STIs (HIV/syphilis) were important risk factors for HPV infections including both vaccine types and non-vaccine types. In addition, for non-vaccine HPV types, living in an urban area, having a low BMI, low CD4 count and having had a high number of life time sexual partners were also significant risk factors. Our data concurs with the existing literature from other parts of the world regarding the effectiveness of bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine in reducing the prevalence of HPV infections particularly vaccine HPV- 16/18 strains among vaccinated women. This study reinforces the recommendation to vaccinate young girls before sexual debut and integrate other STI particularly HIV and syphilis interventions into HPV vaccination packages.

  6. Human Papillomavirus neutralizing and cross-reactive antibodies induced in HIV-positive subjects after vaccination with quadrivalent and bivalent HPV vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faust, Helena; Nielsen, Lars Toft; Sehr, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Ninety-one HIV-infected individuals (61 men and 30 women) were randomized to vaccination either with quadrivalent (Gardasil™) or bivalent (Cervarix™) HPV vaccine. Neutralizing and specific HPV-binding serum antibodies were measured at baseline and 12 months after the first vaccine dose. Presence...... of neutralizing and binding antibodies had good agreement (average Kappa for HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45 was 0.65). At baseline, 88% of subjects had antibodies against at least one genital HPV. Following vaccination with Cervarix™, all subjects became seropositive for HPV16 and 18. After Gardasil......™ vaccination, 96% of subjects seroconverted for HPV16 and 73% for HPV18. Levels of HPV16-specific antibodies were vaccination but >10IU in 85% of study subjects after vaccination. Antibodies against non-vaccine HPV types appeared after Gardasil...

  7. HPV vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccine - HPV; Immunization - HPV; Gardasil; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer; Genital warts - HPV vaccine; Cervical dysplasia - HPV vaccine; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine; Cancer of the cervix - HPV vaccine; Abnormal ...

  8. Evidence for single-dose protection by the bivalent HPV vaccine-Review of the Costa Rica HPV vaccine trial and future research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreimer, Aimée R; Herrero, Rolando; Sampson, Joshua N; Porras, Carolina; Lowy, Douglas R; Schiller, John T; Schiffman, Mark; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Chanock, Stephen; Jimenez, Silvia; Schussler, John; Gail, Mitchell H; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Kemp, Troy J; Cortes, Bernal; Pinto, Ligia A; Hildesheim, Allan; Gonzalez, Paula

    2018-01-20

    The Costa Rica Vaccine Trial (CVT), a phase III randomized clinical trial, provided the initial data that one dose of the HPV vaccine could provide durable protection against HPV infection. Although the study design was to administer all participants three doses of HPV or control vaccine, 20% of women did not receive the three-dose regimens, mostly due to involuntary reasons unrelated to vaccination. In 2011, we reported that a single dose of the bivalent HPV vaccine could be as efficacious as three doses of the vaccine using the endpoint of persistent HPV infection accumulated over the first four years of the trial; findings independently confirmed in the GSK-sponsored PATRICIA trial. Antibody levels after one dose, although lower than levels elicited by three doses, were 9-times higher than levels elicited by natural infection. Importantly, levels remained essentially constant over at least seven years, suggesting that the observed protection provided by a single dose might be durable. Much work has been done to assure these non-randomized findings are valid. Yet, the group of recipients who received one dose of the bivalent HPV vaccine in the CVT and PATRICIA trials was small and not randomly selected nor blinded to the number of doses received. The next phase of research is to conduct a formal randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the protection afforded by a single dose of HPV vaccine. Complementary studies are in progress to bridge our findings to other populations, and to further document the long-term durability of antibody response following a single dose. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Cervarix®: a bivalent vaccine against HPV types 16 and 18, with cross-protection against other high-risk HPV types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarewski, Anne

    2012-06-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide and often affects women under 40 years of age with young families. Vaccination against HPV is a major advancement, as it offers primary prevention against the infectious agent that is the main cause of the disease. The bivalent AS04-adjuvanted prophylactic HPV vaccine provides high efficacy against disease associated with HPV 16 and 18, as well as significant cross-protection against some HPV types not included in the vaccine. Protection against HPV 45 may be particularly important, as it is relatively more common in adenocarcinoma. The vaccine's antibody response profile suggests a long duration of immunity. Safety data have been reassuring, which is not unexpected, given that the vaccine is composed of virus-like particles, rather than being a live-virus vaccine.

  10. Use of the nonavalent HPV vaccine in individuals previously fully or partially vaccinated with bivalent or quadrivalent HPV vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Damme, Pierre; Bonanni, Paolo; Bosch, F Xavier

    2016-01-01

    With the availability of the nonavalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, vaccinees, parents and healthcare providers need guidance on how to complete an immunization course started with the bi- or quadrivalent vaccine and whether to revaccinate individuals who have completed a full immunization...... course with the bi- or quadrivalent vaccine. To answer these questions three parameters should be considered: age at the start of vaccination (9 to 14 years of age versus 15 years and older, the cut-off for 2 or 3 doses schedule), the number of doses already received and the time interval between doses....... Based on a number of scenarios, we propose that the 9-valent vaccine can be used to complete an incomplete vaccination regimen or might be added to a previous completed schedule to extend protection....

  11. Bivalent Vaccine Effectiveness Against Type-Specific HPV Positivity: Evidence for Cross-Protection Against Oncogenic Types Among Dutch STI Clinic Visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woestenberg, Petra J; King, Audrey J; van Benthem, Birgit H B; Donken, Robine; Leussink, Suzan; van der Klis, Fiona R M; de Melker, Hester E; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Hoebe, Christian J P A; Bogaards, Johannes A

    2018-01-04

    Observational postmarketing studies are important to assess vaccine effectiveness (VE). We estimated VE from the bivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine against HPV positivity of vaccine and nonvaccine types in a high-risk population. We included all vaccine-eligible women from the PASSYON study, a biennial cross-sectional survey in Dutch sexually transmitted infection clinics. Vaginal swabs were analyzed using a polymerase chain reaction-based assay (SPF10-LiPA25) able to detect the 12 high-risk HPV (hrHPV) types 16/18/31/33/35/39/45/51/52/56/58/59. We compared hrHPV positivity between self-reported vaccinated (≥1 dose) and unvaccinated women, and estimated VE by a logistic mixed model. We included 1087 women of which 53% were hrHPV positive and 60% reported to be vaccinated. The adjusted pooled VE against HPV-16/18 was 89.9% (81.7%-94.4%). Moreover, we calculated significant VE against nonvaccine types HPV-45 (91%), HPV-35 (57%), HPV-31 (50%), and HPV-52 (37%). Among women who were offered vaccination 5/6 years ago, we estimated similar VE against HPV-16/18 (92%) and all hrHPV types (35%) compared to women who were offered vaccination vaccine against HPV-16/18 and cross-protection against HPV-45/35/31/52. Protection against HPV-16/18 was sustained up to 6 years postvaccination.

  12. Seropositivity to non-vaccine incorporated genotypes induced by the bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissett, Sara L; Godi, Anna; Jit, Mark; Beddows, Simon

    2017-07-13

    Human papillomavirus vaccines have demonstrated remarkable efficacy against persistent infection and disease associated with vaccine-incorporated genotypes and a degree of efficacy against some genetically related, non-vaccine-incorporated genotypes. The vaccines differ in the extent of cross-protection against these non-vaccine genotypes. Data supporting the role for neutralizing antibodies as a correlate or surrogate of cross-protection are lacking, as is a robust assessment of the seroconversion rates against these non-vaccine genotypes. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of available data on vaccine-induced neutralizing antibody seropositivity to non-vaccine incorporated HPV genotypes. Of 304 articles screened, 9 were included in the analysis representing ca. 700 individuals. The pooled estimate for seropositivity against HPV31 for the bivalent vaccine (86%; 95%CI 78-91%) was higher than that for the quadrivalent vaccine (61%; 39-79%; p=0.011). The pooled estimate for seropositivity against HPV45 for the bivalent vaccine (50%; 37-64%) was also higher than that for the quadrivalent vaccine (16%; 6-36%; p=0.007). Seropositivity against HPV33, HPV52 and HPV58 were similar between the vaccines. Mean seropositivity rates across non-vaccine genotypes were positively associated with the corresponding vaccine efficacy data reported from vaccine trials. These data improve our understanding of vaccine-induced functional antibody specificity against non-vaccine incorporated genotypes and may help to parameterize vaccine-impact models and improve patient management in a post-vaccine setting. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of bivalent human papillomavirus vaccination on pregnancy outcomes: long term observational follow-up in the Costa Rica HPV Vaccine Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotou, Orestis A; Befano, Brian L; Gonzalez, Paula; Rodríguez, Ana Cecilia; Herrero, Rolando; Schiller, John T; Kreimer, Aimée R; Schiffman, Mark; Hildesheim, Allan; Wilcox, Allen J; Wacholder, Sholom

    2015-09-07

    To examine the effect of the bivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine on miscarriage. Observational long term follow-up of a randomized, double blinded trial combined with an independent unvaccinated population based cohort. Single center study in Costa Rica. 7466 women in the trial and 2836 women in the unvaccinated cohort enrolled at the end of the randomized trial and in parallel with the observational trial component. Women in the trial were assigned to receive three doses of bivalent HPV vaccine (n=3727) or the control hepatitis A vaccine (n=3739). Crossover bivalent HPV vaccination occurred in the hepatitis A vaccine arm at the end of the trial. Women in the unvaccinated cohort received (n=2836) no vaccination. Risk of miscarriage, defined by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as fetal loss within 20 weeks of gestation, in pregnancies exposed to bivalent HPV vaccination in less than 90 days and any time from vaccination compared with pregnancies exposed to hepatitis A vaccine and pregnancies in the unvaccinated cohort. Of 3394 pregnancies conceived at any time since bivalent HPV vaccination, 381 pregnancies were conceived less than 90 days from vaccination. Unexposed pregnancies comprised 2507 pregnancies conceived after hepatitis A vaccination and 720 conceived in the unvaccinated cohort. Miscarriages occurred in 451 (13.3%) of all exposed pregnancies, in 50 (13.1%) of the pregnancies conceived less than 90 days from bivalent HPV vaccination, and in 414 (12.8%) of the unexposed pregnancies, of which 316 (12.6%) were in the hepatitis A vaccine group and 98 (13.6%) in the unvaccinated cohort. The relative risk of miscarriage for pregnancies conceived less than 90 days from vaccination compared with all unexposed pregnancies was 1.02 (95% confidence interval 0.78 to 1.34, one sided P=0.436) in unadjusted analyses. Results were similar after adjusting for age at vaccination (relative risk 1.15, one sided P=0.17), age at conception (1.03, P=0

  14. Introduction and sustained high coverage of the HPV bivalent vaccine leads to a reduction in prevalence of HPV 16/18 and closely related HPV types

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kavanagh, K; Pollock, K G J; Potts, A; Love, J; Cuschieri, K; Cubie, H; Robertson, C; Donaghy, M

    2014-01-01

    .... By linking individual vaccination, screening and HPV testing records, we aim to determine the impact of the immunisation programme on circulating type-specific HPV infection particularly for four outcomes...

  15. High specific immune response to a bivalent anti-HPV vaccine in HIV-1-infected men in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriele Fontes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Infection with Human papillomavirus (HPV has been reported as one of the most prevalent agent sexually transmitted diseases, but its true prevalence in men is not precisely known, mainly due to the near absence of symptoms. Moreover, few studies evaluating the post-vaccination immune response have been performed to date in men, hence the hypotheses tested in this study can be important to enable a better understanding of both the immunopathogenesis and the response to vaccination in HIV-infected patients, and to help in the elaboration of strategies of vaccination against HPV in the HIV-infected population. Objectives: To analyze the specific response to antigens of HPV vaccine in HIV-infected men. Methods: A total of 25 HIV-infected male patients who met the inclusion criteria during the data collection period were vaccinated; however, six (30% had anti-HPV at baseline, and were not considered further in the analysis. Therefore, 19 HIV-infected individuals were included in the study, along with five healthy, HPV-seronegative controls. Results: Patients infected with HIV-1 were subdivided into two groups, A and B, according to their T CD4 cells count at the time of vaccination, namely: Group A: CD4>500; Group B: CD4<500. The proportion of seroconversion after immunization with three doses of a bivalent anti-HPV vaccine was 92%. Conclusion: HIV-infected patients as well as HIV negative controls responded to anti-HPV vaccination, regardless of their T CD4 cells count and HIV plasma viral load. These results demonstrate that anti-HPV immunization in HIV-infected males is effective and should be encouraged, thus helping to decrease the risk of infection, mortality and morbidity of diseases associated with HPV in men. Keywords: HIV-1, HPV, Vaccine, Immune response

  16. Sustained Antibody Responses 6 Years Following 1, 2, or 3 Doses of Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine in Adolescent Fijian Girls, and Subsequent Responses to a Single Dose of Bivalent HPV Vaccine: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Zheng Quan; Russell, Fiona M; Reyburn, Rita; Fong, James; Tuivaga, Evelyn; Ratu, Tupou; Nguyen, Cattram D; Devi, Rachel; Kama, Mike; Matanitobua, Silivia; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Garland, Suzanne M; Sinha, Rohit; Frazer, Ian; Tikoduadua, Lisi; Kado, Joseph; Rafai, Eric; Mulholland, Edward K; Licciardi, Paul V

    2017-04-01

    The duration of antibody response following reduced human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine doses has not been determined. We compared the antibody responses in girls previously vaccinated with zero, 1, 2, or 3 doses of quadrivalent HPV vaccine (4vHPV; Gardasil, Merck) 6 years previously. A prospective cohort study was undertaken in 200 Fijian girls 15-19 years of age. Approximately equal numbers of girls from 2 main ethnic groups (Fijians of Indian descent [FID] and Indigenous Fijians [iTaukei]) in Fiji were recruited for each dosage groups. Blood was drawn before and 28 days following a single dose of bivalent HPV vaccine (2vHPV; Cervarix, GlaxoSmithKline). We measured neutralizing antibodies (NAb) against HPV-6, -11, -16, and -18 using the pseudovirion-based neutralization assay. After 6 years (before a dose of 2vHPV was given), the geometric mean NAb titers for all 4 HPV types were not statistically different between 2-dose (2D) and 3-dose (3D) recipients: HPV-6 (3D: 2216 [95% confidence interval {CI},1695-2896]; 2D: 1476 [95% CI, 1019-2137]; P = .07), HPV-11 (3D: 4431 [95% CI, 3396-5783]; 2D: 2951 [95% CI, 1984-4390]; P = .09), HPV-16 (3D: 3373 [95% CI, 2511-4530]; 2D: 3275 [95% CI, 2452-4373]; P = .89); HPV-18 (3D: 628 [95% CI: 445-888]; 2D: 606 [95% CI, 462-862]; P = .89), and were higher in FID than iTaukei girls. Although 1-dose recipients had significantly lower NAb titers than 2-/3-dose recipients, their NAb titers were 5- to 30-fold higher than unvaccinated girls. Post-2vHPV NAb titers against HPV-16 and -18 were not statistically different between girls who received 1, 2, or 3 doses of 4vHPV previously. Two doses of 4vHPV provide similar NAb titers as 3 doses for 6 years, although the clinical significance is unknown. A single dose of 4vHPV elicits antibodies that persisted for at least 6 years, and induced immune memory, suggesting possible protection against HPV vaccine types after a single dose of 4vHPV.

  17. A cost-utility analysis of adding a bivalent or quadrivalent HPV vaccine to the Irish cervical screening programme.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dee, Anne

    2010-04-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, and in Ireland it is the ninth most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Almost 100% of these cancers are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Two newly developed vaccines against HPV infection have become available. This study is a cost-utility analysis of the HPV vaccine in Ireland, and it compares the cost-effectiveness profiles of the two vaccines.

  18. Spotlight on the 9-valent HPV vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Lopalco PL

    2016-01-01

    Pier Luigi Lopalco Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy Abstract: Starting in 2006, vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) has been progressively implemented in most developed countries. Two vaccines have been successfully used, a bivalent vaccine targeting HPV-related cancers (bHPV) and a quadrivalent vaccine (qHPV) targeting both HPV-related cancers and genital warts. Between December 2014 and June 2015,...

  19. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Why get vaccinated?HPV vaccine prevents infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types that are associated with cause ... at http://www.cdc.gov/hpv. HPV Vaccine (Human Papillomavirus) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health and ...

  20. Spotlight on the 9-valent HPV vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopalco PL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pier Luigi Lopalco Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy Abstract: Starting in 2006, vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV has been progressively implemented in most developed countries. Two vaccines have been successfully used, a bivalent vaccine targeting HPV-related cancers (bHPV and a quadrivalent vaccine (qHPV targeting both HPV-related cancers and genital warts. Between December 2014 and June 2015, a new nonavalent HPV vaccine (9vHPV was granted marketing authorization in the USA and Europe. The 9vHPV was developed from the qHPV and includes five additional HPV types that should increase the level of protection toward HPV-related cancers. Efficacy and/or immunogenicity of 9vHPV has been assessed in eight clinical studies. The 9vHPV vaccine induced a very robust immune response against all vaccine types, with seroconversion rates close to 100%. The safety profile of 9vHPV is comparable to that of qHPV. Local reactions, especially swelling, have been more frequently reported after 9vHPV than qHPV, and this slightly increases when the 9vHPV is coadministered with other vaccines. The additional coverage offered by the 9vHPV may prevent a significant proportion of HPV-related cancers (variable between 8% and 18% depending on the local distribution of high-risk HPV types in the population. It is impossible, at present, to anticipate the actual impact of the wide use of the 9vHPV in comparison with the bHPV or the qHPV, since it depends on many variables including duration of protection, potential cross-protection toward nonvaccine types, and herd immunity effect. Keywords: human papillomavirus vaccine, immunogenicity, vaccine safety, cervical cancer, head and neck cancer, genital warts

  1. No evidence for cross-protection of the HPV-16/18 vaccine against HPV-6/11 positivity in female STI clinic visitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woestenberg, Petra J.; King, Audrey J.; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Donken, Robine; Leussink, Suzan; van der Klis, Fiona R M; Hoebe, Christian J P A; Bogaards, Johannes A.; van Benthem, Birgit H B

    OBJECTIVES: Data from a vaccine trial and from post-vaccine surveillance in the United Kingdom have suggested that the bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine offers cross-protection against HPV-6/11 and protection against anogenital warts (AGW). We studied the effect of the bivalent vaccine on genital HPV-6/11

  2. Spotlight on the 9-valent HPV vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopalco, Pier Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Starting in 2006, vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) has been progressively implemented in most developed countries. Two vaccines have been successfully used, a bivalent vaccine targeting HPV-related cancers (bHPV) and a quadrivalent vaccine (qHPV) targeting both HPV-related cancers and genital warts. Between December 2014 and June 2015, a new nonavalent HPV vaccine (9vHPV) was granted marketing authorization in the USA and Europe. The 9vHPV was developed from the qHPV and includes five additional HPV types that should increase the level of protection toward HPV-related cancers. Efficacy and/or immunogenicity of 9vHPV has been assessed in eight clinical studies. The 9vHPV vaccine induced a very robust immune response against all vaccine types, with seroconversion rates close to 100%. The safety profile of 9vHPV is comparable to that of qHPV. Local reactions, especially swelling, have been more frequently reported after 9vHPV than qHPV, and this slightly increases when the 9vHPV is coadministered with other vaccines. The additional coverage offered by the 9vHPV may prevent a significant proportion of HPV-related cancers (variable between 8% and 18%) depending on the local distribution of high-risk HPV types in the population. It is impossible, at present, to anticipate the actual impact of the wide use of the 9vHPV in comparison with the bHPV or the qHPV, since it depends on many variables including duration of protection, potential cross-protection toward nonvaccine types, and herd immunity effect.

  3. Bacterially expressed human papillomavirus type 6 and 11 bivalent vaccine: Characterization, antigenicity and immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huirong; Li, Zhihai; Wang, Jin; Song, Shuo; Wang, Daning; Wei, Minxi; Gu, Ying; Zhang, Jun; Li, Shaowei; Xia, Ningshao

    2017-05-31

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-6 and HPV11 are the major etiological causes of condylomata acuminate. HPV neutralization by vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibodies can block viral infection and prevent subsequent disease. Currently, two commercially available HPV vaccines cover these two genotypes, expressed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we describe another HPV6/11 bivalent vaccine candidate derived from Escherichia coli. The soluble expression of N-terminally truncated L1 proteins was optimized to generate HPV6- and HPV11 L1-only virus-like particles (VLPs) as a scalable process. In a pilot scale, we used various biochemical, biophysical and immunochemical approaches to comprehensively characterize the scale and lot consistency of the vaccine candidate at 30L and 100L. Cryo-EM structure analysis showed that these VLPs form a T=7 icosahedral lattice, imitating the L1 capsid of the authentic HPV virion. This HPV6/11 bivalent vaccine confers a neutralization titer and antibody production profile in monkey that is comparable with the quadrivalent vaccine, Gardasil. This study demonstrates the robustness and scalability of a potential HPV6/11 bivalent vaccine using a prokaryotic system for vaccine production. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Enhancement of humoral and cell mediated immune response to HPV16 L1-derived peptides subsequent to vaccination with prophylactic bivalent HPV L1 virus-like particle vaccine in healthy females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokomine, Masato; Matsueda, Satoko; Kawano, Kouichiro; Sasada, Tetsuro; Fukui, Akimasa; Yamashita, Takuto; Komatsu, Nobukazu; Shichijo, Shigeki; Tasaki, Kazuto; Matsukuma, Ken; Itoh, Kyogo; Kamura, Toshiharu; Ushijima, Kimio

    2017-04-01

    Currently prophylactic HPV16/18 L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines are employed with great success for the prevention of HPV infection. However, limited information is available regarding the immune responses against human papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18 L1 subsequent to HPV16/18 L1 VLP vaccination, primarily due to the lack of widely used assays for immune monitoring. The aim of the present study was to identify HPV16 L1-derived B and T cell epitopes for monitoring the immune responses after HPV16/18 L1 VLP vaccination in healthy females. The levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgE, IgA and IgM reactive to HPV16 L1-derived peptides were measured by multiplex bead suspension assay. Following detailed B cell epitope mapping, T cell responses specific to HPV16 L1-derived peptides were evaluated by an IFN-γ ELISPOT assay. The levels of IgG, IgM and IgA reactive to 20-mer peptides (PTPSGSMVTSDAQIFNKPYW) at positions 293-312 and 300-319 of HPV16 L1 were significantly increased in the plasma after 2, 7, and 12 months after first vaccination. Detailed epitope mapping identified the amino acid sequence (TSDAQIFNKP) at position 301-310 of HPV16 L1 as an immunogenic B cell epitope. In addition, T cell responses to an HLA-A2- and HLA-A24-restricted epitope (QIFNKPYWL) at position 305-313 of HPV16 L1 were increased following immunization, suggesting that the HPV16/18 L1-VLP vaccination as able to induce specific immune responses in T and B cells simultaneously. The identified B and T cell epitopes may be useful as a biomarker for monitoring the immune responses subsequent to HPV16/18 L1 VLP vaccination. Thus, the present study may provide novel information to improve the understanding of the immune responses to HPV16 L1.

  5. HPV vaccination and allocative efficiency: regional analysis of the costs and benefits with the bivalent AS04-adjuvanted vaccine, from the perspective of public health, for the prevention of cervical cancer and its pre-cancerous lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bonanni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: by means of the decisions on whether to introduce the HPV vaccination, Public Health has already established the importance of associating the vaccination strategy to the policy of secondary prevention. The screening + vaccination strategy is more effective than the two methods taken individually. In support of this combined strategy and in order to make available per each region concrete elements for their regional planning, an assessment has been made, which also takes into account the effect of cross-protection regarding high-risk strains not contained in both vaccines, bivalent and quadrivalent, and more frequently responsible for pre-cancerous lesions and cervical cancer (CCU. This analysis evaluates the costs and benefits of screening + vaccination strategy in a 12-year-old female cohort. Furthermore, the paper provides results that may be useful to assess the opportunity to extend the vaccination to a second cohort of 24-25-year-old women. The analysis is preceded by a brief summary of CCU epidemiology available data, public health policies that give precise guidelines for vaccination strategies and analytical tools suitable to support public policy makers to efficiently allocate resources. Methods: two different models were used for two regional analyses.The vaccines may have different sustained- and cross-protection levels against non-vaccine oncogenic HPV-types. In the first analysis, a prevalence-based model estimated the potential net difference in HPV-related lesions (abnormal pap smear, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, cervical cancer (CC and genital warts (GW and associated costs generated by the two vaccines. Vaccine efficacy rates were based on published data for each vaccine. Lifetime vaccine efficacy was assumed. Results are reported over one year after reaching a steady state. Incidence and treatment costs were obtained from Italian and European sources. We also performed a cost-effectiveness analysis

  6. Reduced prevalence of vulvar HPV16/18 infection among women who received the HPV16/18 bivalent vaccine: a nested analysis within the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang Kuhs, Krystle A; Gonzalez, Paula; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Schiffman, Mark; Struijk, Linda; Chen, Sabrina; Quint, Wim; Lowy, Douglas R; Porras, Carolina; DelVecchio, Corey; Jimenez, Silvia; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Schiller, John T; Wacholder, Sholom; Herrero, Rolando; Hildesheim, Allan; Kreimer, Aimée R

    2014-12-15

    Vaccine efficacy (VE) against vulvar human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has not been reported and data regarding its epidemiology are sparse. Women (n = 5404) age 22-29 present at the 4-year study visit of the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial provided vulvar and cervical samples. A subset (n = 1044) was tested for HPV DNA (SPF10/LiPA25 version 1). VE against 1-time detection of vulvar HPV16/18 among HPV vaccinated versus unvaccinated women was calculated and compared to the cervix. Prevalence of and risk factors for HPV were evaluated in the control arm (n = 536). Vulvar HPV16/18 VE (54.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.9%-79.1%) was comparable to cervix (45.8%; 95% CI, 6.4%-69.4%). Vulvar and cervical HPV16 prevalence within the control arm was 3.0% and 4.7%, respectively. Independent risk factors for vulvar HPV were similar to cervix and included: age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.5 [95% CI, .3-.9] ≥28 vs 22-23]); marital status (aOR 2.3 [95% CI, 1.5-3.5] single vs married/living-as-married); and number of sexual partners (aOR 3.6 [95% CI, 1.9-7.0] ≥6 vs 1). In this intention-to-treat analysis, VE against vulvar and cervical HPV16/18 were comparable 4 years following vaccination. Risk factors for HPV were similar by anatomic site. NCT00128661. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. HPV Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Yourself Against HPV en español Vacuna contra el virus del papiloma humano (VPH) What Is HPV and Why Is It a Problem? Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) . HPV is the virus that causes genital warts . Besides genital warts, an ...

  8. [Developments in HPV vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melker, Hester; Kenter, Gemma; van Rossum, Tekla; Conyn-van Spaendonck, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination against the human papilloma virus (HPV) has been included in the national Vaccination Programme of the Netherlands for 12-year-old girls since 2010. Vaccination coverage for the birth cohort of 1997 was 56.; there is a gradual increase in uptake. Continuous safety monitoring brought no new unknown serious side effects to light; many girls suffered from transient symptoms such as painful arm, fatigue and headache. After the current vaccines that protect against HPV types 2 and 4 types, respectively and induce some cross protection, vaccines are being developed that can induce broader protection. HPV vaccination of 12-year-old girls is cost-effective, even for relatively low vaccination coverage. The potential protection of HPV vaccination extends beyond prevention of cervical cancer by preventing other oncological manifestations of HPV infection in women as well as men and genital warts. The preventive HPV vaccines do not appear to be effective in treating existing abnormalities.

  9. Therapeutic HPV DNA vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ken; Roosinovich, Elena; Ma, Barbara; Hung, Chien-Fu

    2010-01-01

    It is now well established that most cervical cancers are causally associated with HPV infection. This realization has led to efforts to control HPV-associated malignancy through prevention or treatment of HPV infection. Currently, commercially available HPV vaccines are not designed to control established HPV infection and associated premalignant and malignant lesions. To treat and eradicate pre-existing HPV infections and associated lesions which remain prevalent in the U.S. and worldwide, effective therapeutic HPV vaccines are needed. DNA vaccination has emerged as a particularly promising form of therapeutic HPV vaccines due to its safety, stability and ability to induce antigen-specific immunity. This review focuses on improving the potency of therapeutic HPV vaccines through modification of dendritic cells (DCs) by [1] increasing the number of antigen-expressing/antigen-loaded DCs, [2] improving HPV antigen expression, processing and presentation in DCs, and [3] enhancing DC and T cell interaction. Continued improvement in therapeutic HPV DNA vaccines may ultimately lead to an effective DNA vaccine for the treatment of HPV-associated malignancies. PMID:20066511

  10. Integrating Clinical, Community, and Policy Perspectives on HPV Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María E.; Allen, Jennifer D.; Mistry, Ritesh; Kahn, Jessica A.

    2010-01-01

    Infection with genital human papillomavirus (HPV) may cause anogenital cancers, oropharyngeal cancers, anogenital warts, and respiratory papillomas. Two prophylactic vaccines (a bivalent and a quadrivalent vaccine) are now licensed and currently in use in a number of countries. Both vaccines prevent infection with HPV-16 and HPV-18, which together cause approximately 70% of cervical cancers, and clinical trials have demonstrated 90%-100% efficacy in preventing precancerous cervical lesions attributable to HPV-16 and HPV-18. One vaccine also prevents HPV-6 and HPV-11, which cause 90% of genital warts. A growing literature describes associations between psychosocial, interpersonal, organizational, and societal factors that influence HPV vaccination acceptability. This paper summarizes the current literature and presents an integrated perspective, taking into account these diverse influences. The resulting integrated model can be used as a heuristic tool for organizing factors at multiple levels to guide intervention development and future research. PMID:20001821

  11. The HPV Vaccination Crisis

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    Following the release of a consensus statement from the NCI-Designated Cancer Centers urging HPV vaccination in the United States, Dr. Noel Brewer discusses the country’s low vaccination rates and how clinicians can help to improve them.

  12. Overview of Current Humman Papilloma Virus (HPV Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cumhur Artuk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Persistent viral infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV genotypes causes virtually all cancer of the cervix. The same HPV genotypes (“types” also cause cases of anal cancer. Cervical cancer is the third most frequent cancer in women worldwide after breast and colorectal cancers. It ranks fourth of women’s cancers according to the mortality ratio. Two vaccines have been developed against HPV infection; one is a quadrivalent vaccine (Gardasil™ and the other is a bivalent vaccine (Cervarix™. This topic will cover issues related to HPV infections, routine HPV immunization recommendations, vaccination in special patient populations, the cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination, and vaccine safety. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(3.000: 327-334

  13. Immunogenicity of bivalent human papillomavirus DNA vaccine using human endogenous retrovirus envelope-coated baculoviral vectors in mice and pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jung Lee

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus is known to be the major pathogen of cervical cancer. Here, we report the efficacy of a bivalent human papillomavirus type 16 and 18 DNA vaccine system following repeated dosing in mice and pigs using a recombinant baculovirus bearing human endogenous retrovirus envelope protein (AcHERV as a vector. The intramuscular administration of AcHERV-based HPV16L1 and HPV18L1 DNA vaccines induced antigen-specific serum IgG, vaginal IgA, and neutralizing antibodies to levels comparable to those achieved using the commercially marketed vaccine Cervarix. Similar to Cervarix, AcHERV-based bivalent vaccinations completely blocked subsequent vaginal challenge with HPV type-specific pseudovirions. However, AcHERV-based bivalent vaccinations induced significantly higher cell-mediated immune responses than Cervarix, promoting 4.5- (HPV16L1 and 3.9-(HPV18L1 fold higher interferon-γ production in splenocytes upon stimulation with antigen type-specific pseudovirions. Repeated dosing did not affect the immunogenicity of AcHERV DNA vaccines. Three sequential immunizations with AcHERV-HP18L1 DNA vaccine followed by three repeated dosing with AcHERV-HP16L1 over 11 weeks induced an initial production of anti-HPV18L1 antibody followed by subsequent induction of anti-HPV16L1 antibody. Finally, AcHERV-based bivalent DNA vaccination induced antigen-specific serum IgG immune responses in pigs. These results support the further development of AcHERV as a bivalent human papillomavirus DNA vaccine system for use in preventing the viral infection as well as treating the infected women by inducing both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Moreover, the possibility of repeated dosing indicates the utility of AcHERV system for reusable vectors of other viral pathogen vaccines.

  14. Immunogenicity of bivalent human papillomavirus DNA vaccine using human endogenous retrovirus envelope-coated baculoviral vectors in mice and pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee-Jung; Hur, Yoon-Ki; Cho, Youn-Dong; Kim, Mi-Gyeong; Lee, Hoon-Taek; Oh, Yu-Kyoung; Kim, Young Bong

    2012-01-01

    Human papillomavirus is known to be the major pathogen of cervical cancer. Here, we report the efficacy of a bivalent human papillomavirus type 16 and 18 DNA vaccine system following repeated dosing in mice and pigs using a recombinant baculovirus bearing human endogenous retrovirus envelope protein (AcHERV) as a vector. The intramuscular administration of AcHERV-based HPV16L1 and HPV18L1 DNA vaccines induced antigen-specific serum IgG, vaginal IgA, and neutralizing antibodies to levels comparable to those achieved using the commercially marketed vaccine Cervarix. Similar to Cervarix, AcHERV-based bivalent vaccinations completely blocked subsequent vaginal challenge with HPV type-specific pseudovirions. However, AcHERV-based bivalent vaccinations induced significantly higher cell-mediated immune responses than Cervarix, promoting 4.5- (HPV16L1) and 3.9-(HPV18L1) fold higher interferon-γ production in splenocytes upon stimulation with antigen type-specific pseudovirions. Repeated dosing did not affect the immunogenicity of AcHERV DNA vaccines. Three sequential immunizations with AcHERV-HP18L1 DNA vaccine followed by three repeated dosing with AcHERV-HP16L1 over 11 weeks induced an initial production of anti-HPV18L1 antibody followed by subsequent induction of anti-HPV16L1 antibody. Finally, AcHERV-based bivalent DNA vaccination induced antigen-specific serum IgG immune responses in pigs. These results support the further development of AcHERV as a bivalent human papillomavirus DNA vaccine system for use in preventing the viral infection as well as treating the infected women by inducing both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Moreover, the possibility of repeated dosing indicates the utility of AcHERV system for reusable vectors of other viral pathogen vaccines.

  15. HPV vaccines: a controversial issue?

    OpenAIRE

    Nicol, A.F.; Andrade, C.V.; Russomano, F.B.; Rodrigues, L.L.S.; Oliveira, N.S.; D.W. Provance Jr

    2016-01-01

    Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment o...

  16. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... caused by persistent infection and genital warts ( 22 ). Analyses of data from women participating in a clinical ... is to contact the insurance plan or the clinic. Most private insurance plans cover HPV vaccination. The ...

  17. 9-Valent HPV vaccine for cancers, pre-cancers and genital warts related to HPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Velicer, Christine; Luxembourg, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of nearly all cervical cancer cases as well as a substantial proportion of anal, vulvar, vaginal, penile and oropharyngeal cancers, making it responsible for approximately 5% of the global cancer burden. The first-generation HPV vaccines that is, quadrivalent HPV type 6/11/16/18 vaccine and bivalent HPV type 16/18 vaccine were licensed in 2006 and 2007, respectively. A second-generation 9-valent HPV type 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 vaccine with broader cancer coverage was initiated even before the first vaccines were approved. By preventing HPV infection and disease due to HPV31/33/45/52/58, the 9vHPV vaccine has the potential to increase prevention of cervical cancer from 70 to 90%. In addition, the 9vHPV vaccine has the potential to prevent 85-95% of HPV-related vulvar, vaginal and anal cancers. Overall, the 9vHPV vaccine addresses a significant unmet medical need, although further health economics and implementation research is needed.

  18. HPV Vaccine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breastfeeding. The father of the baby received the HPV vaccine around the time that I got pregnant. Is there a risk to the baby? No. There is no evidence that vaccines given to men will affect the sperm. In general, exposures that fathers have are unlikely ...

  19. [Anticipated efficacy of HPV vaccination in prophylaxis against nongenital cancers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehnal, B; Vojáčková, N; Driák, D; Kmoníčková, E; Vaňousová, D; Maxová, K; Neumannová, H; Sláma, J

    2014-01-01

    There is a considerable number of studies on the efficacy HPV (human papillomavirus) vaccination against different cancers but relevant information is scattered in diverse journals. This paper is a review summarizing current knowledge of the potential of HPV vaccination against all HPV related cancers. HPV infection is probably the most frequent sexually transmitted disease. At least 13 HPV genotypes are classified as carcinogenic or probably carcinogenic in respect to cervical cancer. Almost 100% of cervical cancers are linked to HPV infection. HPV 16 and HPV 18 are the most frequently involved genotypes and account together for approximately 70% of cervical cancer in the world. Persistent high risk HPV infection is responsible for a significant proportion of vulvar, vaginal, anal and penile carcinomas. The virus has also been implicated in oncogenesis of head and neck cancers, including oropharyngeal cancers. HPV infection can play an important role in cancerogenesis of lung, esophagus, breast, and colon and rectum. On the contrary, published results indicate that HPV infection is not associated with prostate oncogenesis. Strong predominance of HPV 16 has been reported for all HPV associated cancer sites. Generally, it is estimated that approximately 5.2% of all cancers are associated with oncogenic HPV infection. Currently, there are two vaccines on the market; quadrivalent Silgard® (Gardasil®) and bivalent CervarixTM. Large trials for both vaccines have shown efficacy against HPV related infection and disease. Efficacy has been very high in HPV naive subjects to vaccine related types. While HPV vaccination is currently approved for the prevention of cervical cancer, it also has the potential in the prevention of all HPV associated malignancies. The Czech republic belongs to countries that cover HPV vaccination of girls at the age of 13- 14 years by general health insurance. Overall impact of this vaccination remains to be evaluated. The new issues of the

  20. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Prevalence in Male Adolescents 4 Years After HPV-16/18 Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Tuomas; Söderlund-Strand, Anna; Petäjä, Tiina; Eriksson, Tiina; Jokiranta, Sakari; Natunen, Kari; Dillner, Joakim; Lehtinen, Matti

    2017-11-15

    We assessed human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence among HPV-16/18-vaccinated and unvaccinated Finnish male adolescents participating in chlamydia screening 4 years after vaccination with AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 vaccine in 2007-2009. Previously vaccinated (n = 395) or unvaccinated (n = 149) male adolescents were enrolled in 12 municipalities. First-void urine samples were tested for HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, and 68, and prevalence rates for HPV-16/18, and HPV-11/16/18/31/33/45 were reduced profoundly (0% vs 2.1% [P = .02] and 0.8% vs 5.3 [P = .002], respectively). Overall HPV DNA prevalence was also significantly reduced among HPV-16/18-vaccinated (4.1%) compared with unvaccinated subjects (10.1%) (P = .01). In this post hoc study, a highly significant reduction in HPV prevalence 4 years after vaccination suggests that the bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine has protective efficacy in men. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. HPV vaccines: a controversial issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, A F; Andrade, C V; Russomano, F B; Rodrigues, L L S; Oliveira, N S; Provance, D W

    2016-01-01

    Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment of peer-reviewed scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines throughout the world with focused attention on the potential adverse effects. We found that the majority of studies continue to suggest a positive risk-benefit from vaccination against HPV, with minimal documented adverse effects, which is consistent with other vaccines. However, much of the published scientific data regarding the safety of HPV vaccines appears to originate from within the financially competitive HPV vaccine market. We advocate a more independent monitoring system for vaccine immunogenicity and adverse effects to address potential conflicts of interest with regular systematic literature reviews by qualified individuals to vigilantly assess and communicate adverse effects associated with HPV vaccination. Finally, our evaluation suggests that an expanded use of HPV vaccine into more diverse populations, particularly those living in low-resource settings, would provide numerous health and social benefits.

  2. HPV vaccines: a controversial issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Nicol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment of peer-reviewed scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines throughout the world with focused attention on the potential adverse effects. We found that the majority of studies continue to suggest a positive risk-benefit from vaccination against HPV, with minimal documented adverse effects, which is consistent with other vaccines. However, much of the published scientific data regarding the safety of HPV vaccines appears to originate from within the financially competitive HPV vaccine market. We advocate a more independent monitoring system for vaccine immunogenicity and adverse effects to address potential conflicts of interest with regular systematic literature reviews by qualified individuals to vigilantly assess and communicate adverse effects associated with HPV vaccination. Finally, our evaluation suggests that an expanded use of HPV vaccine into more diverse populations, particularly those living in low-resource settings, would provide numerous health and social benefits.

  3. Impact of 2-, 4- and 9-valent HPV vaccines on morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Rebecca; Feldman, Sarah

    2016-06-02

    Cervical cancer causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most cervical cancers are associated with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV), and vaccination with any of 3 available HPV vaccines is anticipated to greatly reduce the burden of cervical cancer. This review provides an overview of the burden of HPV, the efficacy and clinical effectiveness of the bivalent (HPV 16, 18), quadrivalent (HPV 6, 11, 16, 18) and 9vHPV (HPV 6, 11, 16, 1831, 33, 45, 52, 58) vaccines in order to assess the anticipated impact on cervical cancer. All three vaccines show high efficacy in prevention of vaccine-specific HPV-type infection and associated high-grade cervical dysplasia in HPV-naïve women. Early clinical effectiveness data for the bivalent and quadrivalent vaccine demonstrate reduced rates of HPV 16 and 18 prevalence in vaccinated cohorts; data evaluating cervical dysplasia and cervical procedures as outcomes will shed further light on the clinical effectiveness of both vaccines. The bivalent vaccine has demonstrated cross-protection to non-vaccine HPV types, including the types in the 9vHPV vaccine. No clinical effectiveness data is yet available for the 9vHPV vaccine.  While HPV vaccination has great promise to reduce cervical cancer morbidity and mortality, estimated benefits are largely theoretical at present. Large population-based clinical effectiveness studies will provide long-term immunogenicity and effectiveness, as well as assessment of cervical cancer as an endpoint, particularly as young vaccinated women enter the appropriate age range to initiate screening for cervical cancer. Strengthening screening and treatment programs will likely have the greatest impact in the short-term on cervical cancer morbidity and mortality.

  4. The HPV vaccine mandate controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Gillian; Malow, Robert M; Zimet, Gregory D

    2007-12-01

    In this editorial we address the controversies surrounding human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine school-entry mandate legislation, but differentiate between the mandate debate and issues specific to the vaccine itself. Our goal is not to take a stand in favor of or opposed to mandates, but rather to critically examine the issues. We discuss the following arguments against HPV vaccine school-entry requirements: 1. The public health benefit of mandated HPV vaccination is not sufficient to warrant the intrusion on parental autonomy; 2. A vaccine that prevents a non-casually transmitted infection should not be mandated; 3. Opt-out provisions are inherently unfair to parents who oppose HPV vaccination; 4. Limited health care dollars should not be directed toward cervical cancer prevention; and 5. The vaccine is expensive and potential problems with supply suggest that mandates should not be implemented until insurance coverage and supply issues are resolved. Next, we critically evaluate the following critiques of HPV vaccination itself: 1. Giving girls HPV vaccine implies tacit consent to engage in sexual activity; 2. Giving girls this vaccine will confer a false sense of protection from sexually transmitted infections and will lead to sexual disinhibition; 3. Children already have too many vaccinations on the immunization schedule; 4. Long-term side effects of HPV vaccine are unknown; 5. The vaccine's enduring effectiveness is unknown and booster shots may be required; and 6. It is wrong to only target girls with HPV vaccine; boys should be vaccinated as well.

  5. HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Media Resources News Newsletters Events Redirect for HPV Vaccine FAQ Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... to the address below. http://www.cdc.gov/hpv/parents/questions-answers.html File Formats Help: How ...

  6. From the monovalent to the nine-valent HPV vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pils, S; Joura, E A

    2015-09-01

    An investigational monovalent human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 virus-like particle vaccine has been shown to prevent persistent infection and cervical disease related to HPV 16 and was proof of concept (2002). Designed to prevent the bulk of invasive cervical cancer, quadrivalent (HPV 6/11/16/18) and bivalent (HPV 16/18) vaccines have been available since 2006 and 2007, respectively. They are highly effective in preventing HPV 16/18-related cervical precancer; the quadrivalent version also prevents genital warts related to HPV 6/11. It has been shown that the precursors of vulvar, vaginal and anal cancer related to the vaccine types are effectively prevented. This led to a paradigm shift from a female-only cervical cancer vaccine to a vaccine for the prevention of HPV-related disease and cancer for both sexes. Vaccination before the start of sexual activity is most effective, and consequently most programs target 9- to 12-year-olds. Additionally, recent studies have proven the noninferior immunoresponse of a two-dose schedule in these age cohorts. Gender-neutral vaccination has become more common; it improves coverage and also provides protection to all males. Recently a nine-valent HPV vaccine (HPV 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) was licensed; it provides high and consistent protection against infections and diseases related to these types, with ∼90% of cervical and other HPV-related cancers and precancers potentially being avoided. Coverage is key. Efforts must be made to provide HPV vaccination in low-resource countries that lack screening programs. In countries with cervical cancer screening, HPV vaccination will greatly affect screening algorithms. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Preventing Cervical Cancer with HPV Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

  8. Young Hungarian Students' Knowledge about HPV and Their Attitude Toward HPV Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Bettina Claudia; Terebessy, András; Tóth, Emese; Balázs, Péter

    2016-12-29

    (1) Background: Hungarys's estimated cervical cancer mortality was 6.9/100,000 in 2012, above the average of the EU27 countries (3.7/100,000) in the same year. Since 2014, the bivalent HPV vaccine has been offered to schoolgirls aged 12-13. (2) Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 1022 high school seniors (492 girls, 530 boys) in 19 randomly selected schools in Budapest. Our anonymous questionnaire contained 54 items: basic socio-demographic data, knowledge about HPV infection/cervical cancer and HPV vaccination. (3) Results: 54.9% knew that HPV caused cervical cancer, and 52.1% identified HPV as an STD. Knowledge of risk factors such as promiscuity (46.9%) and early sexual activity (15.6%) was low, but higher than that of further HPV-induced diseases: genital warts (in females 9.9%, in males 9%), anal cancer (in females 2.2%, in males 1.9%), penile cancer (9.4%), and vulvar cancer (7.8%). A percentage of 14.6% feared getting infected, and 35.7% supported compulsory HPV vaccination. A percentage of 51.2% would have their future children vaccinated-significantly more girls than boys. (4) Conclusion: Our results support the findings of previous studies about young adults' HPV-related knowledge, which was poor, especially regarding pathologies in men. Despite the low level of awareness, the students' attitude was mostly positive when asked about vaccinating their future children.

  9. No evidence for cross-protection of the HPV-16/18 vaccine against HPV-6/11 positivity in female STI clinic visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woestenberg, Petra J; King, Audrey J; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Donken, Robine; Leussink, Suzan; van der Klis, Fiona R M; Hoebe, Christian J P A; Bogaards, Johannes A; van Benthem, Birgit H B

    2017-04-01

    Data from a vaccine trial and from post-vaccine surveillance in the United Kingdom have suggested that the bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine offers cross-protection against HPV-6/11 and protection against anogenital warts (AGW). We studied the effect of the bivalent vaccine on genital HPV-6/11 positivity and AGW in the Netherlands. We included all vaccine-eligible women from the PASSYON study, a biennial cross-sectional study among 16- to 24-year-old sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic attendants. Vaginal self-swabs were analyzed for type specific HPV and AGW were diagnosed at the STI-clinic. Prevalence of HPV-6 and/or HPV-11 and AGW were compared between self-reported vaccinated and unvaccinated women by log-binomial regression analysis, adjusted for demographics and risk behavior. Of the 1198 women included, 56% reported to be vaccinated at least once. Relative to unvaccinated women, the adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) for HPV-6/11 was 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74-1.43) for women vaccinated at least once. The crude PR for AGW was 0.67 (95% CI 0.22-2.07) for women vaccinated at least once. Adjustment did not change these results. We observed no cross-protective effect of the bivalent vaccine on genital HPV-6/11 positivity and a non-significant partially protective effect on AGW. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Construction of an enantiopure bivalent nicotine vaccine using synthetic peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, David F; Roque, Richard; Clegg, Christopher H

    2017-01-01

    Clinical outcomes of anti-nicotine vaccines may be improved through enhancements in serum antibody affinity and concentration. Two strategies were explored to improve vaccine efficacy in outbred mice: the use of enantiopure haptens and formulation of a bivalent vaccine. Vaccines incorporating natural (-) nicotine haptens improved relative antibody affinities >10-fold over (+) haptens, stimulated a two-fold boost in nicotine serum binding capacity, and following injection with 3 cigarette equivalents of nicotine, prevented a larger proportion of nicotine (>85%) from reaching the brain. The activity of a bivalent vaccine containing (-) 3'AmNic and (-) 1'SNic haptens was then compared to dose-matched monovalent groups. It was confirmed that antisera generated by these structurally distinct haptens have minimal cross-reactivity and stimulate different B cell populations. Equivalent antibody affinities were detected between the three groups, but the bivalent group showed two-fold higher titers and an additive increase in nicotine serum binding capacity as compared to the monovalent groups. Mice immunized with the bivalent formulation also performed better in a nicotine challenge experiment, and prevented >85% of a nicotine dose equivalent to 12 cigarettes from reaching the brain. Overall, enantiopure conjugate vaccines appear to improve serum antibody affinity, while multivalent formulations increase total antibody concentration. These findings may help improve the performance of future clinical candidate vaccines.

  11. Overview of the benefits and potential issues of the nonavalent HPV vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Luciano; Preti, Mario; Cristoforoni, Paolo; Stigliano, Carlo M; Perino, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    HPV-related diseases affect anogenital and oropharyngeal regions, heavily affecting the psychosexual dimension of both male and female individuals. HPV vaccination programs based on a bivalent or quadrivalent vaccine have opened broad perspectives for primary prevention. A nonavalent HPV vaccine (9vHPV), covering nine genotypes (HPV6, HPV11, HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, HPV33, HPV45, HPV52, and HPV58), might provide further improvement in terms of direct protection. In the present report, efficacy and safety data from 9vHPV vaccine development programs are examined. Efficacy data come from a pivotal trial, which was conducted among women aged 16-26 years randomly assigned to receive either the 9vHPV or the quadrivalent HPV (4vHPV) vaccine. The 9vHPV vaccine was shown to have potential benefits as compared with 4vHPV, increasing the overall estimated rate of prevention to 90% for cervical cancer and up to 80% for precancerous cervical lesions. For all other HPV-related pre-invasive and invasive lesions, 9vHPV showed potentially greater disease reduction, depending on the anatomic region examined. Thus, the 9vHPV vaccine shows clinical potential for the prevention of HPV-related diseases in both sexes. Future adoption of 9vHPV will depend on factors including market price, cost-effectiveness data, use of a two-dose schedule, and safety and efficacy monitoring in real-life programs. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  12. HPV Vaccine Information for Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... STD on Facebook Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) HPV Vaccine Information For Young Women Language: English Español (Spanish) ... media/releases/2016/p1020-hpv-shots.html A vaccines is available to prevent the human papillomavirus (HPV) ...

  13. HPV Vaccine PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-15

    In this 30 second public service announcement, a mother talks about the importance of protecting 11-12 year-old boys and girls with HPV vaccination. (Una madre habla sobre la importancia de proteger a los niños y las niñas de 11 a 12 años con la vacuna contra el VPH.).  Created: 1/15/2014 by National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 1/15/2014.

  14. Examining a possible association between human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination and migraine: results of a cohort study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M.S.-V. Klooster (T. M. Schurink-van’t); M.A.J. de Ridder (Maria); J.M. Kemmeren (Jeanet); J. van der Lei (Johan); F.W. Dekker (Friedo); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); H.E. de Melker (Hester)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractSince the introduction of the bivalent human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine in the Netherlands, migraine has been reported as a notable event in the passive safety surveillance system. Research on the association between HPV vaccination and migraine is needed. Therefore, potential

  15. HPV vaccine cross-protection: Highlights on additional clinical benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vincenzo, Rosa; Ricci, Caterina; Conte, Carmine; Scambia, Giovanni

    2013-09-01

    Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are administered in vaccination programs, targeted at young adolescent girls before sexual exposure, and in catch-up programs for young women in some countries. All the data indicate that HPV-virus-like particles (VLPs) effectively prevent papillomavirus infections with a high level of antibodies and safety. Since non-vaccine HPV types are responsible for about 30% of cervical cancers, cross-protection would potentially enhance primary cervical cancer prevention efforts. High levels of specific neutralizing antibodies can be generated after immunization with HPV VLPs. Immunity to HPV is type-specific. However, if we consider the phylogenetic tree including the different HPV types, we realize that a certain degree of cross-protection is possible, due to the high homology of some viral types with vaccine ones. The assessment of cross-protective properties of HPV vaccines is an extremely important matter, which has also increased public health implications and could add further value to their preventive potential. The impact of cross-protection is mostly represented by a reduction of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia CIN2-3 more than what expected. In this article we review the mechanisms and the effectiveness of Bivalent (HPV-16/-18) and Quadrivalent (HPV-6/-11/-16/-18) HPV vaccine cross-protection, focusing on the critical aspects and the potential biases in clinical trials, in order to understand how cross-protection could impact on clinical outcomes and on the new perspectives in post-vaccine era. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. HPV vaccination: the promise & problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, R

    2009-09-01

    Four-fifths of the cervical cancer burden in the world is experienced in developing countries. HPV genotypes 16 and 18 account for 70 per cent of cervical cancers and currently available vaccines targeting these two types confer a high degree of protection against HPV 16/18 infection and related cervical precancerous lesions. However, widespread implementation of HPV vaccination programs are challenged by the unaffordable high costs of the vaccines and the lack of effective vaccine delivery platforms for sexually naïve girls. Other unresolved issues include long-term protection, cross-protection against HPV types not included in the vaccine and whether booster doses will be needed. Sensitivities associated with a vaccine preventing a sexually transmitted infection in girls, lack of awareness, public demand and political will, lack of coordination between cancer control, sexual and reproductive health and vaccine delivery services are additional challenges. Reduced costs, simple vaccine regimes and strengthening vaccine delivery platforms for adolescents should eventually facilitate HPV vaccine introduction in developing countries.

  17. High human papillomavirus (HPV prevalence in South African adolescents and young women encourages expanded HPV vaccination campaigns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zizipho Z A Mbulawa

    Full Text Available The objectives of the study were to investigate prevalence of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV genotypes to inform HPV vaccination strategy in South Africa and to study factors associated with HPV prevalence. Sexually active, HIV-negative women, aged 16-22 years recruited from Soweto (n = 143 and Cape Town (n = 148 were tested for cervical HPV and other genital infections. Overall HPV prevalence was 66.7% (194/291 in young women. Cape Town women were more likely to have multiple HPV infections than the Soweto women (48.0%, 71/148 versus 35.0%, 50/143 respectively, p = 0.033 and probable HR-HPV types (34.5%, 51/148 versus 21.7%, 31/143 respectively, p = 0.022. The most frequently detected HPV types were HPV-16 (11.7%, HPV-58 (10.3%, HPV-51 (8.9%, HPV-66 (8.6%, HPV-18 and HPV-81 (7.6% each. HPV types targeted by the bivalent HPV vaccine (HPV-16/18 were detected in 18.6% (54/291 of women, while those in the quadrivalent vaccine (HPV-6/11/16/18 were detected in 24.7% (72/291 of women; and those in the nonavalent vaccine (HPV-6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 were detected in 38.5% (112/291 of women. In a multivariable analysis, bacterial vaginosis remained significantly associated with HPV infection (OR: 4.0, 95% CI: 1.4-12.6. Women were more likely to be HPV positive if they had received treatment for STI during the past 6-months (OR: 3.4, 95% CI: 1.1-12.4 or if they had ever been pregnant (OR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.1-5.5. Compared to women who reported only one sexual partner, those with increased number of lifetime sex partners were more likely to have HPV (4-10 partners: OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.1-8.0. The high prevalence of HPV types targeted by the nonavalent HPV vaccine encourages the introduction of this vaccine and catch-up HPV vaccination campaigns in South Africa. The high burden of BV and concurrent STIs also highlights the need to improve the prevention and appropriate management of sexually-acquired and other genital tract infections in South African

  18. Effectiveness of HPV vaccines against genital warts in women from Valencia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Illana, Esther; López-Lacort, Mónica; Navarro-Illana, Pedro; Vilata, Juan José; Diez-Domingo, Javier

    2017-06-05

    To assess the effectiveness of the HPV vaccines in preventing genital warts in young women. Population-based study using health databases. Valencian Community (Spain). All girls and women aged 14-19years who were registered in the Valencian Community between January 2009 and December 2014 (n=279,787). Incident cases of genital warts were defined as the first activation of diagnosis code ICD-9-CM 078.11 (Condyloma acuminatum) in primary care and outpatient clinics during the study period. There were 612 cases of genital warts. The overall incidence rate was 75.8/100,000 person-years (95% CrI 69.7-81.8). There was a decrease in genital warts when female candidates to be vaccinated with quadrivalent HPV vaccine reached the age of 18 (in 2012), compared to previous years. Incidence of genital warts in unvaccinated women and those who received the bivalent vaccine was higher than in girls and women who received the quadrivalent HPV vaccine. The effectiveness of a three-dose regimen of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine was 77% (95 CrI: 66-85%), whereas that of a single dose was 61% (95 CrI: 20-87%). No effectiveness was seen with a full vaccination course with the bivalent HPV vaccine. Three doses of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine were effective against genital warts in our population. Moreover, with low vaccine coverage the incidence of genital warts decreased only in the vaccinated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Human papillomavirus vaccines and the potential for cross-protection between related HPV types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Kevin A

    2007-11-01

    The majority of human papillomavirus (HPV) belong to the genus alpha-papillomavirus, which can be further subdivided into species and then strains. Approximately 200 strains of HPV have been identified, and the whole genomes of approximately 100 strains have been (discovered) and completely sequenced. Between 13 and 18 HPV strains have been characterized as conferring a high oncogenic risk, with 12 of these strains belonging to the HPV species 7 (HPV-18, -39, -45, -59, -68) and species 9 (HPV-16, -31, -33, -35, -52, -58, -67). While strains belonging to the same species are phylogenetically related, they may differ biologically. The available data on whether natural HPV infection infers cross protection against other related strains from the same species are equivocal. There are data to indicate that following HPV infection, there appears to be a reduced risk of contracting the same strain of HPV. However, there is also evidence to indicate that natural infection with HPV does not confer group-specific immune protection or general protection from reinfection with genital HPV mucosal types. Recent studies conducted with HPV vaccines show data on cross-protection against related HPV strains. In vitro experiments with serum from recipients of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (HPV-6/8/16/18) show neutralization of HPV 45 pseudovirions. Cross-protection following vaccination of women (n=776) with three doses of bivalent HPV vaccine (HPV-16/18) demonstrated that, over a period of up to 4.5 years, long-term vaccine efficacy was observed for HPV-16 and -18, and vaccine efficacy was also observed against incident infection with HPV-31 and -45. These findings are supported by the results of a large study (n=18,644) in women aged 15 to 25 years vaccinated with the adjuvant bivalent HPV vaccine (HPV-16/18). Over a period of 6 months, cross-protection was observed against persistent infections with HPV-45, -31 and -52, and at 12 months, modest protection was demonstrated against

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis of the bivalent and quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccines from a societal perspective in Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Aponte-González

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare costs and effectiveness of three strategies used against cervical cancer (CC and genital warts: (i Screening for CC; (ii Bivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV 16/18 vaccine added to screening; (iii Quadrivalent HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine added to screening. METHODS: A Markov model was designed in order to simulate the natural history of the disease from 12 years of age (vaccination until death. Transition probabilities were selected or adjusted to match the HPV infection profile in Colombia. A systematic review was undertaken in order to derive efficacy values for the two vaccines as well as for the operational characteristics of the cytology test. The societal perspective was used. Effectiveness was measured in number of averted Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYS. RESULTS: At commercial prices reported for 2010 the two vaccines were shown to be non-cost-effective alternatives when compared with the existing screening strategy. Sensitivity analyses showed that results are affected by the cost of vaccines and their efficacy values, making it difficult to determine with certainty which of the two vaccines has the best cost-effectiveness profile. To be 'cost-effective' vaccines should cost between 141 and 147 USD (Unite States Dollars per vaccinated girl at the most. But at lower prices such as those recommended by WHO or the price of other vaccines in Colombia, HPV vaccination could be considered very cost-effective. CONCLUSIONS: HPV vaccination could be a convenient alternative for the prevention of CC in Colombia. However, the price of the vaccine should be lower for this vaccination strategy to be cost-effective. It is also important to take into consideration the willingness to pay, budgetary impact, and program implications, in order to determine the relevance of a vaccination program in this country, as well as which vaccine should be selected for use in the program.

  1. HPV vaccines to prevent cervical cancer and genital warts: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dochez, Carine; Bogers, Johannes J; Verhelst, Rita; Rees, Helen

    2014-03-20

    Cervical cancer is an important public health problem worldwide, and especially in developing countries. The link between cervical cancer and oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been clearly established. Furthermore, non-oncogenic HPV are responsible for the majority of genital warts. Two prophylactic HPV vaccines are available, which have the potential of considerably reducing HPV-related morbidity and mortality. Both vaccines are based on virus-like particles of the L1 capsid protein, and are highly efficacious and immunogenic if given before exposure to HPV, i.e. to adolescent girls between 9 and 13 years of age in a three-dose schedule. This review describes the immunology of natural HPV infections and the immune response evoked through vaccination. The current duration of protection is 8.4 years with the bivalent vaccine (HPV16/18) and 5 years with the quadrivalent vaccine (HPV6/11/16/18). Research is on-going to evaluate the efficacy of the current vaccines in a two-dose schedule, as compared to the recommended three-dose schedule. To increase the protection, the development and testing of a nine-valent prophylactic HPV vaccine (HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) is being undertaken. Research is also directed towards therapeutic vaccines and the development of a prophylactic L2 vaccine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical cancer chemoprevention: From the hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine to the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Horng-Jyh

    2015-04-01

    Approximately 2 million new cancer cases are attributed to infectious agents each year worldwide. Vaccines for the hepatitis B virus (HBV), a risk factor of hepatocellular cancer, and human papillomavirus (HPV), a risk factor of cervical cancer, are considered major successes in clinical chemoprevention of cancer. In Taiwan, the first evidence of cancer prevention through vaccinations was provided by HBV vaccination data in infants. The Taiwanese HBV vaccination program has since become a model immunization schedule for newborns worldwide. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV is generally accepted as prerequisite for cervical cancer diagnosis; however, cervical cancer is a rare complication of HPV infections. This is due to the fact that such infections tend to be transient. The safety and efficacy of both available HPV quadrivalent vaccine and bivalent vaccine are not in doubt at the present time. Until a human cytomegalovirus (CMV) vaccine becomes available, simple hygienic practices, such as hand washing, can prevent CMV infection both before and during pregnancy. Each country should establish her official guidelines regarding which vaccines should be used to treat various conditions, the target population (i.e., universal or limited to a selected population), and the immunization schedules. After a vaccine is recommended, decisions regarding reimbursement by the public health care fund are evaluated. The guidelines become part of the immunization schedule, which is updated annually and published in the official bulletin. In conclusion, both HBV and HPV vaccines are considered major successes in the chemoprevention of cancer. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Cervical cancer screening in the era of HPV vaccination: A review of shifting paradigms in cytopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroeta, Julieta E; Adhikari-Guragain, Deepti; Grotkowski, Carolyn E

    2017-10-01

    Significant changes in cervical cancer screening practice, guidelines, and prevention of cervical cancer have taken place in recent years including the raising of initial cervical cancer screening age, changes in frequency of cytology screening, and the adoption of high risk HPV and cytology co-testing for some patients; the introduction of the bivalent, quadrivalent, and 9-valent HPV vaccines; and the recent approval of high risk HPV testing as primary screening with the use of cytology as triage in positive cases. This review discusses the significance of primary HPV screening, the impact of HPV vaccination in the prevalence of cervical cancer and its precursors, the interplay between high risk HPV testing and vaccination, and the implications for clinical and cytological management. Future strategies for cervical screening in the post-vaccination era are also discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Inclusion of the benefits of enhanced cross-protection against cervical cancer and prevention of genital warts in the cost-effectiveness analysis of human papillomavirus vaccination in the Netherlands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Westra, Tjalke A; Stirbu-Wagner, Irina; Dorsman, Sara; Tutuhatunewa, Eric D; de Vrij, Edwin L; Nijman, Hans W; Daemen, Toos; Wilschut, Jan C; Postma, Maarten J

    2013-01-01

    .... Both vaccines provide cross-protection against HPV-types not included in the vaccines. In particular, the bivalent vaccine provides additional protection against HPV 31, 33, and 45 and the quadrivalent vaccine against HPV31...

  5. Changes in the prevalence of human papillomavirus following a national bivalent human papillomavirus vaccination programme in Scotland: a 7-year cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Kimberley; Pollock, Kevin G; Cuschieri, Kate; Palmer, Tim; Cameron, Ross L; Watt, Cameron; Bhatia, Ramya; Moore, Catherine; Cubie, Heather; Cruickshank, Margaret; Robertson, Chris

    2017-12-01

    On Sept 1, 2008, Scotland launched routine vaccination for human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18, targeted at 12-13-year-old girls, of whom 92·4% were fully vaccinated in 2008-09. In this study, we report on vaccine effectiveness of the bivalent vaccine in these vaccinated women who attended for routine cervical screening at age 20-21 years. In this 7-year cross-sectional study (covering birth cohorts 1988-1995), we sampled approximately 1000 samples per year from those attending cervical screening at age 20-21 years and tested each for HPV. By linkage to vaccination records we ascertained prevalence by birth cohort and vaccination status. Estimates of vaccine effectiveness for HPV types 16 and 18, HPV types 31, 33, and 45, other high-risk types, and any HPV were calculated using logistic regression. In total, 8584 samples were HPV genotyped. Prevalence of HPV types 16 and 18 reduced substantially from 30·0% (95% CI 26·9-33·1) in the 1988 cohort to 4·5% (3·5-5·7) in the 1995 cohort, giving a vaccine effectiveness of 89·1% (85·1-92·3) for those vaccinated at age 12-13 years. All cross-protective types showed significant vaccine effectiveness (HPV type 31, 93·8% [95% CI 83·8-98·5]; HPV type 33, 79·1% [64·2-89·0]; HPV type 45, 82·6% [61·5-93·9]). Unvaccinated individuals born in 1995 had a reduced odds of HPV types 16 and 18 infection compared with those born in 1988 (adjusted odds ratio 0·13 [95% CI 0·06-0·28]) and reduced odds of HPV types 31, 33, and 45 (odds ratio 0·45 [0·23-0·89]). Bivalent vaccination has led to a startling reduction in vaccine and cross-protective HPV types 7 years after vaccination. There is also evidence of herd protection against the vaccine-specific and cross-protective types in unvaccinated individuals born in 1995. These findings should be considered in cost-effectiveness models informing vaccine choice and models to shape the future of cervical screening programmes. Scottish Government and Chief Scientists

  6. Parents' knowledge, risk perception and willingness to allow young males to receive human papillomavirus (HPV vaccines in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Winstons Muhwezi

    Full Text Available The Ministry of Health in Uganda in collaboration with the Program for Appropriate Technology for Health (PATH supported by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in 2008-2009 vaccinated approximately 10,000 girls with the bivalent humanpapilloma virus (HPV vaccine. We assessed parent's knowledge, risk perception and willingness to allow son(s to receive HPV vaccines in future through a cross-sectional survey of secondary school boys aged 10-23 years in 4 districts. 377 questionnaires were distributed per district and 870 were used in analysis. Parents that had ever heard about cervical cancer and HPV vaccines; those who would allow daughter(s to be given the vaccine and those who thought that HPV infection was associated with genital warts were more willing to allow son(s to receive the HPV vaccine. Unwilling parents considered HPV vaccination of boys unimportant (p = 0.003, believed that only females should receive the vaccine (p = 0.006, thought their son(s couldn't contract HPV (p = 0.010, didn't know about HPV sexual transmissibility (p = 0.002, knew that males could not acquire HPV (p = 0.000 and never believed that the HPV vaccines could protect against HPV (p = 0.000. Acceptance of HPV vaccination of daughters and likelihood of recommending HPV vaccines to son(s of friends and relatives predicted parental willingness to allow sons to receive HPV vaccines. Probable HPV vaccination of boys is a viable complement to that of girls. Successfulness of HPV vaccination relies on parental acceptability and sustained sensitization about usefulness of HPV vaccines even for boys is vital.

  7. Parents' Knowledge, Risk Perception and Willingness to Allow Young Males to Receive Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhwezi, Wilson Winstons; Banura, Cecily; Turiho, Andrew Kampikaho; Mirembe, Florence

    2014-01-01

    The Ministry of Health in Uganda in collaboration with the Program for Appropriate Technology for Health (PATH) supported by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in 2008–2009 vaccinated approximately 10,000 girls with the bivalent humanpapilloma virus (HPV) vaccine. We assessed parent's knowledge, risk perception and willingness to allow son(s) to receive HPV vaccines in future through a cross-sectional survey of secondary school boys aged 10–23 years in 4 districts. 377 questionnaires were distributed per district and 870 were used in analysis. Parents that had ever heard about cervical cancer and HPV vaccines; those who would allow daughter(s) to be given the vaccine and those who thought that HPV infection was associated with genital warts were more willing to allow son(s) to receive the HPV vaccine. Unwilling parents considered HPV vaccination of boys unimportant (p = 0.003), believed that only females should receive the vaccine (p = 0.006), thought their son(s) couldn't contract HPV (p = 0.010), didn't know about HPV sexual transmissibility (p = 0.002), knew that males could not acquire HPV (p = 0.000) and never believed that the HPV vaccines could protect against HPV (p = 0.000). Acceptance of HPV vaccination of daughters and likelihood of recommending HPV vaccines to son(s) of friends and relatives predicted parental willingness to allow sons to receive HPV vaccines. Probable HPV vaccination of boys is a viable complement to that of girls. Successfulness of HPV vaccination relies on parental acceptability and sustained sensitization about usefulness of HPV vaccines even for boys is vital. PMID:25203053

  8. HPV vaccine: immersed in controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohri, Linda K

    2007-11-01

    There has been substantial media coverage of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine since the Food and Drug Administration approved Gardasil (Merck & Co., Inc.) on June 8, 2006. The most vocal complaints maintain that its use will promote promiscuity among teenagers, and condemn proposed mandated use for school entry. Some also question evidence for the vaccine's safety. There have been concerns raised by both providers and patients regarding financial barriers to access. Still others argue that additional populations could benefit who have not been included in current recommendations. Clarification of these issues is essential to advance optimal use of this important new vaccine. There is strong evidence to support HPV vaccine as an effective, safe, and efficient public health measure. School mandates are valuable tools to reduce disparities in availability of immunizations. The time has come to consider universal funding as a means to improve access to all recommended vaccines.

  9. Young Hungarian Students’ Knowledge about HPV and Their Attitude Toward HPV Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Claudia Balla

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Hungarys’s estimated cervical cancer mortality was 6.9/100,000 in 2012, above the average of the EU27 countries (3.7/100,000 in the same year. Since 2014, the bivalent HPV vaccine has been offered to schoolgirls aged 12–13. (2 Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 1022 high school seniors (492 girls, 530 boys in 19 randomly selected schools in Budapest. Our anonymous questionnaire contained 54 items: basic socio-demographic data, knowledge about HPV infection/cervical cancer and HPV vaccination. (3 Results: 54.9% knew that HPV caused cervical cancer, and 52.1% identified HPV as an STD. Knowledge of risk factors such as promiscuity (46.9% and early sexual activity (15.6% was low, but higher than that of further HPV-induced diseases: genital warts (in females 9.9%, in males 9%, anal cancer (in females 2.2%, in males 1.9%, penile cancer (9.4%, and vulvar cancer (7.8%. A percentage of 14.6% feared getting infected, and 35.7% supported compulsory HPV vaccination. A percentage of 51.2% would have their future children vaccinated—significantly more girls than boys. (4 Conclusion: Our results support the findings of previous studies about young adults’ HPV-related knowledge, which was poor, especially regarding pathologies in men. Despite the low level of awareness, the students’ attitude was mostly positive when asked about vaccinating their future children.

  10. HPV vaccination and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarewski, Anne

    2012-12-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide and often affects women under 40 years with young families. Vaccination against the human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major advance, since it offers primary prevention against the infectious agent that is the main cause of the disease. Two prophylactic vaccines have shown great promise in clinical trials. One of these (Gardasil(®)) contains all four HPV types, offering protection against genital warts (types 6 and 11) as well as cervical cancer (types 16 and 18). The other (Cervarix(®)) contains types 16 and 18, targeting cervical cancer alone, but also has a degree of cross-protection against types 31 and 45, which could significantly increase the level of protection. Adolescent girls remain the primary target of vaccination programmes, but the issues of vaccinating boys and older women are increasingly debated.

  11. GTL001 and bivalent CyaA-based therapeutic vaccine strategies against human papillomavirus and other tumor-associated antigens induce effector and memory T-cell responses that inhibit tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquerré, Michaël; Momot, Marie; Goubier, Anne; Gonindard, Christophe; Leung-Theung-Long, Stéphane; Misseri, Yolande; Bissery, Marie-Christine

    2017-03-13

    GTL001 is a bivalent therapeutic vaccine containing human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 and HPV18 E7 proteins inserted in the Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase (CyaA) vector intended to prevent cervical cancer in HPV-infected women with normal cervical cytology or mild abnormalities. To be effective, therapeutic cervical cancer vaccines should induce both a T cell-mediated effector response against HPV-infected cells and a robust CD8+ T-cell memory response to prevent potential later infection. We examined the ability of GTL001 and related bivalent CyaA-based vaccines to induce, in parallel, effector and memory CD8+ T-cell responses to both vaccine antigens. Intradermal vaccination of C57BL/6 mice with GTL001 adjuvanted with a TLR3 agonist (polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid) or a TLR7 agonist (topical 5% imiquimod cream) induced strong HPV16 E7-specific T-cell responses capable of eradicating HPV16 E7-expressing tumors. Tumor-free mice also had antigen-specific memory T-cell responses that protected them against a subsequent challenge with HPV18 E7-expressing tumor cells. In addition, vaccination with bivalent vaccines containing CyaA-HPV16 E7 and CyaA fused to a tumor-associated antigen (melanoma-specific antigen A3, MAGEA3) or to a non-viral, non-tumor antigen (ovalbumin) eradicated HPV16 E7-expressing tumors and protected against a later challenge with MAGEA3- and ovalbumin-expressing tumor cells, respectively. These results show that CyaA-based bivalent vaccines such as GTL001 can induce both therapeutic and prophylactic anti-tumor T-cell responses. The CyaA platform can be adapted to different antigens and adjuvants, and therefore may be useful for developing other therapeutic vaccines. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. [Human PAPILLOMA Virus (HPV) vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safra, Tamar

    2007-10-01

    A solid tumor related to viral infection is a rare and challenging condition to the medical community raising the possibility to fight and prevent this cancer by vaccine. Cervical cancer, caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), is a major health problem worldwide. The two HPV vaccines approved lately could lead to more than a 70% reduction in cases of cervical cancer and a similar reduction in deaths from the cancer. Pap smear screening significantly (80%) reduced disease incidence and is still useful and needed. In addition to early detection, vaccination will prevent the development of precancerous and cancerous lesion and reduce morbidity, mortality and psychological and social stress as well as stressful and expensive follow-ups in women with suspicious lesions. The vaccinations described will bring to a significant reduction in genital warts incidence, a serious social and psychological burden to the infected population. Practical social and psychological issues are still to be addressed, some of them are: time and frequency of administration, use of vaccination in men, public acceptance and behavior, appropriate populations to be vaccinated, etc. Most unresolved questions will be answered over time. The new vaccines embody a big promise to humanity, although we still have to overcome the financial burden and possible late side effects of the vaccine.

  13. A comparative analysis of the epidemiological impact and disease cost-savings of HPV vaccines in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresse, Xavier; Adam, Marjorie; Largeron, Nathalie; Roze, Stephane; Marty, Remi

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to compare the epidemiological and economic impact of 16/18 bivalent and 6/11/16/18 quadrivalent HPV vaccination in France, considering differences in licensed outcomes, protection against non-vaccine HPV types and prevention of HPV-6/11-related diseases. The differential impact of the two vaccines was evaluated using a published model adapted to the French setting. The target population was females aged 14–23 y and the time horizon was 100 y. A total of eight different scenarios compared vaccination impact in terms of reduction in HPV-16/18-associated carcinomas (cervical, vulvar, vaginal, anal, penile and head and neck), HPV-6/11-related genital warts and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and incremental reduction in cervical cancer due to potential cross-protection. Quadrivalent vaccine was associated with total discounted cost savings ranging from EUR 544–1,020 million vs. EUR 177–538 million with the bivalent vaccination (100-y time horizon). Genital wart prevention thanks to quadrivalent HPV vaccination accounted for EUR 306–380 million savings (37–56% of costs saved). In contrast, the maximal assumed cross-protection against cervical cancer resulted in EUR 13–33 million savings (4%). Prevention of vulvar, vaginal and anal cancers accounted for additional EUR 71–89 million savings (13%). In France, the quadrivalent HPV vaccination would result in significant incremental epidemiological and economic benefits vs. the bivalent vaccination, driven primarily by prevention of genital. The present analysis is the first in the French setting to consider the impact of HPV vaccination on all HPV diseases and non-vaccine types. PMID:23563511

  14. A comparative analysis of the epidemiological impact and disease cost-savings of HPV vaccines in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresse, Xavier; Adam, Marjorie; Largeron, Nathalie; Roze, Stephane; Marty, Rémi

    2013-04-01

    The aim was to compare the epidemiological and economic impact of 16/18 bivalent and 6/11/16/18 quadrivalent HPV vaccination in France, considering differences in licensed outcomes, protection against non-vaccine HPV types and prevention of HPV-6/11-related diseases. The differential impact of the two vaccines was evaluated using a published model adapted to the French setting. The target population was females aged 14-23 y and the time horizon was 100 y. A total of eight different scenarios compared vaccination impact in terms of reduction in HPV-16/18-associated carcinomas (cervical, vulvar, vaginal, anal, penile and head and neck), HPV-6/11-related genital warts and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and incremental reduction in cervical cancer due to potential cross-protection. Quadrivalent vaccine was associated with total discounted cost savings ranging from EUR 544-1,020 million vs. EUR 177-538 million with the bivalent vaccination (100-y time horizon). Genital wart prevention thanks to quadrivalent HPV vaccination accounted for EUR 306-380 million savings (37-56% of costs saved). In contrast, the maximal assumed cross-protection against cervical cancer resulted in EUR 13-33 million savings (4%). Prevention of vulvar, vaginal and anal cancers accounted for additional EUR 71-89 million savings (13%). In France, the quadrivalent HPV vaccination would result in significant incremental epidemiological and economic benefits vs. the bivalent vaccination, driven primarily by prevention of genital. The present analysis is the first in the French setting to consider the impact of HPV vaccination on all HPV diseases and non-vaccine types.

  15. Parent HPV vaccine perspectives and the likelihood of HPV vaccination of adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sarah J; Cowan, Anne E; Filipp, Stephanie L; Fisher, Allison M; Stokley, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, approximately one-third of US adolescent males age 13-17 y had received ≥1 doses of HPV vaccines and only 14% had received ≥3 doses. This study used a nationally representative, online survey to explore experiences and attitudes related to HPV vaccination among parents with adolescent sons. Analyses compared the perspective of parents who do not intend to initiate HPV vaccine for ≥1 adolescent son to that of parents who are likely to initiate or continue HPV vaccination. Of 809 parents of sons age 11-17 years, half were classified as Unlikely to Initiate HPV vaccination and 39% as Likely to Vaccinate. A higher proportion of the Likely to Vaccinate group felt their son's doctor was knowledgeable about HPV vaccine, did a good job explaining its purpose, and spent more time discussing HPV vaccine; in contrast, over half of the Unlikely to Initiate group had never discussed HPV vaccine with their child's doctor. The majority of parents in both groups showed favorable attitudes to adolescent vaccination in general, with lower levels of support for HPV vaccine-specific statements. Physician-parent communication around HPV vaccine for adolescent males should build on positive attitude toward vaccines in general, while addressing parents' HPV vaccine-specific concerns.

  16. Development of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines: A Review of Literature and Clinical Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangar, Vikrant Chadrakant; Ghongane, Balasaheb; Mathur, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    The casual relationship concerning Human papillomaviruses (HPV) and cervical cancer is already established. Therefore, such HPV-associated malignancies might be prevented by prophylactic HPV vaccines. From 2009, two prophylactic HPV L1 Virus-Like Particle vaccines namely, Gardasil®; - quadrivalent (Merck) and Cervarix™ - bivalent (GlaxoSmithKline) are widely commercially available. By Aug 2014, 58 countries had introduced HPV vaccination in their national immunization program; this has led to numerous publications on safety and real world effectiveness. We have also seen long-term immunogenicity and efficacy data emerging. Data on cross-protection has also evolved. In clinical trials, it is observed that vaccinating adolescents results in higher immunological response than young adults hence to achieve best HPV vaccine efficacy it is advisable to immunize before the onset of sexual activity. Recently we have seen development of 2 dose vaccine schedule for adolescent, and emerging evidences even point that single dose of HPV vaccines can result in high efficacy, this observation is currently under consideration but if accepted will greatly impact vaccination coverage. In terms of safety, pregnancy registry did not find any unexpected patterns in fetal or maternal outcomes. This review only focuses on the efficacy and safety data of both Food and Drug Administration approved vaccines from clinical phase I to phase IV.

  17. Efficacy, duration of immunity and cross protection after HPV vaccination: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanni, Paolo; Boccalini, Sara; Bechini, Angela

    2009-05-29

    The efficacy and immunogenicity of HPV vaccines has proven excellent in several phase 2 and phase 3 trials involving tens of thousand women. A decrease in antibody titres was observed in follow-up studies of vaccinees, with initial sharp decline reaching a plateau in the longer term. Only few subjects lost their antibodies during the 5-6 years after vaccination. However, no breakthrough disease occurred even in those subjects. The administration of a challenge dose of quadrivalent vaccine at month 60 of follow-up resulted in a strong anamnestic response. The mechanism by which vaccination confers protection and the reasons for continuing vaccine efficacy remain to be elucidated. The same applies to the possibility of inducing an anamnestic response following viral challenge via genital mucosa. Data strongly suggest that both vaccines can have a variable level of cross protection against HPV types genetically and antigenically-closely related to vaccine types. Demonstration of cross protection against combined endpoints (CIN2/3 and AIS) for combined HPV types, and, as a single type, for HPV-31, has been reached for the quadrivalent vaccine, and there is evidence of cross protection against HPV 31 and 45 persistent infections (as single types) for the bivalent vaccine. Assays used for antibody detection were different for the two vaccines, and standardisation of methods for anti-HPV L1 protein detection is presently underway. The possibility to use universally accepted tests for antibody measurement would make comparison between vaccines and among different studies much easier.

  18. Young adults awareness of HPV and vaccine acceptance after introduction of the HPV vaccine in the Dutch national vaccination program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmeink, C.E.; Gosens, K.C.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Bekkers, R.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of implementation of the HPV vaccine on HPV knowledge and HPV vaccine acceptance. METHODS: From June until December 2009 in Nijmegen, the Netherlands, 698 male and female students aged 18-25 years were recruited and interviewed about HPV, cervical carcinoma and HPV

  19. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse in Galicia, Spain: HPV 16 prevalence and vaccination impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Castro, Sonia; Lorenzo-Mahía, Yolanda; Iñarrea Fernández, Amparo; Lamas-González, María José; Sarán-Díez, María Teresa; Rubio-Alarcón, Joaquín; Reboredo-Reboredo, María Consuelo; Mosteiro-Lobato, Sonia; López-Miragaya, Isabel; Torres-Piñón, Julio; Melón-García, Santiago

    2014-10-01

    The etiology of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) can influence the efficacy of Public Health preventive strategies. This study aimed to determine the high-risk papillomavirus (HR-HPV) prevalence in CIN2+ cases in unvaccinated women in Galicia (Spain), the expected impact of bivalent vaccination, and the distribution of HPV 16 in squamous lesions. Ninety-four histologically confirmed cases of CIN2+ (2009-2010) were retrospectively studied: 23 CIN2, 58 CIN3- squamous carcinoma in situ (CIN3-CIS), 5 adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), and 8 invasive squamous cervical cancer (SCC). Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany) was performed on the cervical specimens. Bivalent vaccination impact was calculated, based on regional vaccination coverage data, local HR-HPV prevalence, and reported efficacy (direct and cross-protection) of the vaccine. HR-HPV prevalence was 96.8%. The most frequent genotypes were HPV 16 (48.8-58.2%) and HPV 31 (9.3%-12.1%), considering single infections or single-multiple infections, respectively (hierarchical attribution). In squamous lesions, HPV 16 prevalence in women younger than 45 years of age increased in severe lesions (CIN3-CIS/SCC, OR 4.2), and was higher than in older women (OR 5.5). The vaccine could reduce the cumulative incidence of CIN2+ by 50.6% (direct protection), or by 62.7% (direct and cross-protection). HPV vaccination could have a great impact in women younger than 45 years of age due to the high prevalence of HPV 16 in their lesions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  20. Detection of systemic and mucosal HPV-specific IgG and IgA antibodies in adolescent girls one and two years after HPV vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherpenisse, Mirte; Mollers, Madelief; Schepp, Rutger M; Meijer, Chris J L M; de Melker, Hester E; Berbers, Guy A M; van der Klis, Fiona R M

    2013-02-01

    The bivalent HPV16/18 vaccine induces high antibody concentrations in serum while data about antibody responses in the cervix are limited. In this study, we investigated pre- and post-vaccination antibody responses against seven high-risk HPV types by detection of IgG and IgA HPV-specific antibodies in cervical secretion samples (CVS) and serum. From an HPV vaccine monitoring study CVS and serum samples were available (pre-vaccination (n = 297), one year (n = 211) and two years (n = 141) post-dose-one vaccination) from girls aged 14-16 y. The girls were vaccinated with the bivalent HPV vaccine at months 0, 1 and 6. CVS was self-sampled using a tampon. Samples were tested for HPV-specific antibodies (HPV16/18/31/33/45/52/58) by a VLP-based multiplex immunoassay. Post-vaccination, IgG and IgA antibody levels for HPV16/18 were detectable in CVS and amounted to 2% and 1% of the IgG and IgA antibody levels observed in serum, respectively. The antibody levels remained constant between one and two years after vaccination. The correlation between CVS and serum was similar for IgG and IgA vaccine-derived antibody levels for HPV16 (rs = 0.58, rs = 0.54) and HPV18 (rs = 0.50, rs = 0.55). Vaccine-derived IgG antibody levels against cross-reactive HPV types in CVS and in serum were highest for HPV45. No IgA cross-reactive antibody responses could be detected in CVS. Post-vaccination, HPV16/18 IgG and IgA antibodies are not only detectable in serum but also in CVS. The correlation of HPV16/18 IgG antibody levels between serum and CVS suggests that vaccine induced HPV antibodies transudate and/or exudate from the systemic circulation to the cervical mucosa to provide protection against HPV infections.

  1. Is HPV vaccination in pregnancy safe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Zwol, Ulla Bonde; Joergensen, J. S.; Lamont, R. F.

    2016-01-01

    Millions of doses of HPV vaccine have been administered globally. Inadvertent administration of HPV vaccine during pregnancy occurs given that the main recipients of the vaccine are fertile young women, who might be unaware of their pregnancy at the time of their vaccination. To investigate...... the subject of HPV vaccine and pregnancy , the databases of PubMed and Embase were searched to find the relevant literature published in English within the last 10 y. Most of the evidence pertaining to fetal adverse events following HPV vaccination relates to spontaneous miscarriage. None of the relevant...... studies found any significantly increased rate of spontaneous abortion in the overall analyses. There was no indication of other HPV vaccine-associated adverse events in pregnancy or immediately post-conception. © 2016 Taylor & Francis....

  2. Estimating the long-term effects of HPV vaccination in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, J; Damm, O; Kretzschmar, M E E; Deleré, Y; Wichmann, O; Kaufmann, A M; Garbe, E; Krämer, A; Greiner, W; Mikolajczyk, R T

    2013-05-01

    In Germany, vaccination against the most oncogenic HPV types 16/18 is recommended by the Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) for 12-17 year old girls since March 2007. We developed a dynamic mathematical model for the natural history and transmission of HPV infections to estimate the impact of vaccination on incidence and mortality of cervical cancer and its pre-stages, and on anogenital warts. We focused on an extensive model calibration to epidemiologic data for all stages of the natural history model as well as on a detailed implementation of cervical cancer screening modalities in Germany. Our model predicts first a substantial reduction of cervical cancer incidence and mortality over the next 30 years, which is mainly attributable to an increase in screening participation in the 1990s and not to HPV vaccination, followed by a further reduction attributable to vaccination. Over the next 100 years, HPV vaccination will prevent approximately 37% of cervical cancer cases even if vaccination coverage is only 50% (as currently observed in Germany). Consideration of cross-protection results in a further reduction of approximately 7% of all cervical cancer cases for the bivalent and about 5% for the quadrivalent vaccine in our model. Vaccination of boys was only reasonable if moderate to high vaccination coverage in girls was not achieved. Strategies should be implemented in Germany to increase HPV vaccination coverage among girls thereby making better use of the demonstrated benefits of the vaccine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. HPV Vaccine Effective at Multiple Anatomic Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study from NCI researchers finds that the HPV vaccine protects young women from infection with high-risk HPV types at the three primary anatomic sites where persistent HPV infections can cause cancer. The multi-site protection also was observed at l

  4. A comparative analysis of the epidemiological impact and disease cost-savings of HPV vaccines in France

    OpenAIRE

    Bresse, Xavier; Adam, Marjorie; Largeron, Nathalie; Roze, Stephane; Marty, Remi

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to compare the epidemiological and economic impact of 16/18 bivalent and 6/11/16/18 quadrivalent HPV vaccination in France, considering differences in licensed outcomes, protection against non-vaccine HPV types and prevention of HPV-6/11-related diseases. The differential impact of the two vaccines was evaluated using a published model adapted to the French setting. The target population was females aged 14–23 y and the time horizon was 100 y. A total of eight different scenarios ...

  5. Product news Efficacy of Quadrivalent HPV Vaccine against HPV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Product news. Efficacy of Quadrivalent HPV Vaccine against HPV Infection and Disease in Males. Anna R Giuliano, Joel M Palefsky, Stephen Goldstone, Edson D Moreira, Mary E Penny, Carlos Aranda, Eftyhia Vardas, Harald Moi, Heiko Jessen, Richard Hillman, Yen-Hwa Chang, Daron Ferris, Danielle Rouleau, Janine ...

  6. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Nonavalent Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) nonavalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  7. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Quadrivalent Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  8. Vaccine Reduces HPV Infections in Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    An international randomized clinical trial has shown that the vaccine Gardasil can reduce the incidence of anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in young men 16 to 26 years of age at the time of vaccination.

  9. Deconstructing the measure of vaccine efficacy against disease irrespective of HPV in HPV vaccine clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Oliver M; Luxembourg, Alain

    2016-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines were licensed by demonstrating prevention of anogenital disease caused by specific HPV types in clinical studies. Measuring the impact of HPV vaccination on the overall burden of anogenital disease (irrespective of HPV) is an important public health question which is ideally addressed in post-licensure epidemiological studies. Attempts were made to use clinical trial data for that purpose. However, the interpretation of vaccine efficacy on the endpoint of disease irrespective of HPV is not widely understood. We used the 9-valent HPV vaccine clinical program as a case study to determine the value of measuring vaccine efficacy in such endpoint. This assessment was rigorously performed by heuristic reasoning and through probability calculations. The measure of vaccine efficacy in the irrespective of HPV endpoint is driven simultaneously in opposite directions by the high estimate of prophylactic efficacy and a numerically negative estimate of risk reduction that is also a reflection of high prophylactic efficacy and no cross-protection. The vaccine efficacy estimate in the irrespective of HPV endpoint is ambiguous and difficult to interpret. Comparing this estimate across different HPV vaccine studies requires an understanding of the contributions of vaccine HPV type efficacy and the incidence of disease not related to vaccine HPV types for each study. Without such understanding, comparing studies and drawing conclusions from such comparison are highly misleading. Approaches are proposed to divide this endpoint in components that are easier to interpret. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Knowledge towards HPV infection and HPV vaccines among Syrian mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaad, Mohammed A; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Fadzil, Fariza

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is caused by HPV infection and can be prevented by early vaccination. To assess Syrian women's level of knowledge and determinants of good knowledge of cervical cancer, HPV infection and its vaccines. A cross sectional survey was undertaken among mothers with daughters in sixth grade classes enrolled in primary schools in Aleppo city, Syria. Samples were selected through cluster sampling and data collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Less than a third of the mothers had heard of HPV infection and vaccines against cervical cancer and levels of knowledge were generally low. Good knowledge was associated with high education level, higher family monthly income, having few--less than four children, positive history of cervical cancer screening, and working or having relatives working in the medical field. The main source of information was television and few reported health care providers as a source of knowledge on HPV infection and vaccine. Since knowledge of HPV infection and its connection with cervical cancer and its vaccine are low, more efforts must be made to educate Syrians prior to introduction of any HPV vaccination programme. Public health efforts must focus on educating mothers, the public as well as health care providers.

  11. HPV (Human Papillomavirus) vaccine - what you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in its entirety from the CDC HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/ ... hpv.html . CDC review information for HPV (Human Papillomavirus) VIS: Page last reviewed: December 2, 2016 Page ...

  12. Potential impact of a nonavalent HPV vaccine on HPV related low-and high-grade cervical intraepithelial lesions: A referral hospital-based study in Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, Giuseppina; Giovannelli, Lucia; Matranga, Domenica; Bellavia, Carmelina; Guarneri, Maria Francesca; Fasciana, Teresa; Scaduto, Giovanna; Firenze, Alberto; Vassiliadis, Alessandra; Perino, Antonio

    2017-08-03

    While bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines have been used for about 10 years, a nonavalent vaccine against HPV types 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52 and 58 has been recently approved by FDA and EMA and is now commercially available. The objective of our study was to evaluate the potential impact of the nonavalent vaccine on HPV infection and related low- and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL, HSIL), compared to the impact of the quadrivalent vaccine, in a female population living in Sicily (Italy). Low estimates of HPV vaccine impact were calculated as prevalence of HPV 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52 and 58 genotypes, alone or in association, but excluding presence of other HPV types; high estimates were calculated as prevalence of HPV 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52 and 58 genotypes alone or in association, in the presence of other HPV types. The nonavalent HPV vaccine showed increased impact, compared to the quadrivalent vaccine. Estimates of potential impact varied from 30.9% (low estimate) to 53.3% (high estimate) for LSIL, and from 56.9% to 81,0% for HSIL. The proportion of additional cases potentially prevented by the nonavalent vaccine was 14.4%-23.8% for LSIL, and 19.0%-32.8% for HSIL. The benefit of the nonavalent vaccine compared to the quadrivalent vaccine was more than 80% for both low and high impact estimates for LSIL and more than 50% for both low and high impact estimates for HSIL. The present study confirms that the switch from a first generation HPV vaccines to a nonavalent vaccine would increase the prevention of cervical HSIL in up to 90% of cases.

  13. HPV Vaccine (:30) (No Tag)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-15

    In this 30 second public service announcement, a mother talks about the importance of protecting 11-12 year-old boys and girls with HPV vaccination. (Una madre habla sobre la importancia de proteger a los niños y las niñas de 11 a 12 años con la vacuna contra el VPH.).  Created: 1/15/2014 by National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 1/15/2014.

  14. HPV Vaccine Safety PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-15

    In this 30 second public service announcement, a mother talks about the importance of protecting 11-12 year-old boys and girls with HPV vaccination. (Una madre habla sobre la importancia de proteger a los niños y las niñas de 11 a 12 años con la vacuna contra el VPH.).  Created: 1/15/2014 by National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 1/15/2014.

  15. Approaching a decade since HPV vaccine licensure: Racial and gender disparities in knowledge and awareness of HPV and HPV vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjei Boakye, Eric; Tobo, Betelihem B; Rojek, Rebecca P; Mohammed, Kahee A; Geneus, Christian J; Osazuwa-Peters, Nosayaba

    2017-08-30

      Purpose: Gaps remain in the public's knowledge of the human papillomavirus (HPV). We assessed racial/ethnic and gender disparities in knowledge and awareness of HPV and the HPV vaccine among US adults. Data from the Health Information National Trends Survey 4 Cycle 3 (September - December 2013) and Cycle 4 (August - November 2014) were analyzed for 6,862 respondents aged 18 years and older. Weighted multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate racial/ethnic and gender disparities in HPV knowledge and HPV vaccination awareness. Sixty-six percent of respondents had heard of HPV and the HPV vaccine (57% of men vs. 75% of women). In multivariable analyses, compared with men, women were 225% (95% CI: 2.60 - 4.07) more likely to have heard of HPV, and 281% (95% CI: 3.06 - 4.74) more likely to have heard of the HPV vaccine. Non-Hispanic Blacks were 33% (95% CI: 0.47 - 0.96) and 44% (95% CI: 0.39 - 0.81) less likely than non-Hispanic Whites to have heard of HPV and the HPV vaccine, respectively. Hispanics were 27% (95% CI: 0.52 - 1.02) and 53% (95% CI: 0.34 - 0.64) less likely than non-Hispanic Whites to have heard of HPV and the HPV vaccine, respectively. There was evidence of disparities in HPV and HPV vaccine awareness among men compared with women and non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics compared with non-Hispanic Whites. To foster improvements in HPV vaccine uptake and reduce disparities in HPV associated cancers, future interventions must target men and minority populations, for whom knowledge gaps exist.

  16. HPV Vaccinations in Lublin Region, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Paweł; Grządziel, Anna

    2017-02-14

    Secondary prophylaxis of cervical cancer consisting in cytology screening tests, despite its effectiveness, does not achieve the desired results. For several years, primary prophylaxis has been available in the form of protective vaccinations. At present, two vaccine preparations are available on the market, and studies conducted on these preparations confirm their almost 100% effectiveness in the prevention of types of HPV present in the vaccine. Analysis of the programmes of protective vaccinations against HPV carried out during the period 2008-2013 in the Lublin Region. The material used in the study was data obtained from the relevant organs of the territorial self-government concerning programmes of vaccinations against HPV, demographic data pertaining to girls aged 10-18 living in the Lublin Region, as well as data published by the National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene (NIZP-PZH). The method applied in the study was analysis of records. During the period 2008-2013, in the Lublin Region a total of 5,496 girls were vaccinated within the health programmes. The mean immunization coverage in Lublin is 50%, and in Radzyń Podlaski 59%. The percentage contribution of vaccinations guaranteed free by the local authorities, with relation to the total number of vaccinations performed in the Lublin Region, was from 60 to 77%. The units of territorial self-government allocated the amount of PLN 5,125,359 for the performance of projects associated with execution of free vaccinations. Among the total number of girls vaccinated against HPV, a considerable percentage were those vaccinated within the prophylactic programmes carried out by the units of territorial self-government. The programmes of free protective vaccinations against HPV began in 4 cities in the Lublin Region, and are continued only in two (Lublin and Radzyń Podlaski). Long-term observation of girls subjected to vaccinations from the aspect of maintenance of the immune response

  17. Serious adverse events after HPV vaccination: a critical review of randomized trials and post-marketing case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lavín, Manuel; Amezcua-Guerra, Luis

    2017-10-01

    This article critically reviews HPV vaccine serious adverse events described in pre-licensure randomized trials and in post-marketing case series. HPV vaccine randomized trials were identified in PubMed. Safety data were extracted. Post-marketing case series describing HPV immunization adverse events were reviewed. Most HPV vaccine randomized trials did not use inert placebo in the control group. Two of the largest randomized trials found significantly more severe adverse events in the tested HPV vaccine arm of the study. Compared to 2871 women receiving aluminum placebo, the group of 2881 women injected with the bivalent HPV vaccine had more deaths on follow-up (14 vs. 3, p = 0.012). Compared to 7078 girls injected with the 4-valent HPV vaccine, 7071 girls receiving the 9-valent dose had more serious systemic adverse events (3.3 vs. 2.6%, p = 0.01). For the 9-valent dose, our calculated number needed to seriously harm is 140 (95% CI, 79-653). The number needed to vaccinate is 1757 (95% CI, 131 to infinity). Practically, none of the serious adverse events occurring in any arm of both studies were judged to be vaccine-related. Pre-clinical trials, post-marketing case series, and the global drug adverse reaction database (VigiBase) describe similar post-HPV immunization symptom clusters. Two of the largest randomized HPV vaccine trials unveiled more severe adverse events in the tested HPV vaccine arm of the study. Nine-valent HPV vaccine has a worrisome number needed to vaccinate/number needed to harm quotient. Pre-clinical trials and post-marketing case series describe similar post-HPV immunization symptoms.

  18. Association of Older Sister's HPV Vaccination Status on HPV Vaccine Receipt by Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sarah J; Cowan, Anne E; Filipp, Stephanie L; Fisher, Allison M; Stokley, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to increase human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage rates in adolescents include finding ways to improve discussions between clinicians and parents. One potentially important piece of information for these discussions is the HPV vaccination status of older siblings. A nationally representative online panel was used to conduct a cross-sectional survey of parents of children aged 9 to 17 years in October 2012. Overall, 768 adolescents (35%) had ≥1 older sister aged 10 to 26 years. Male and female adolescents with an older sister who had received no HPV vaccine doses demonstrated higher rates of having no doses themselves, compared with those who had no older sister or those who had an older sister who had received ≥1 HPV vaccine dose. Discussing the HPV vaccination status of older sisters may be a useful strategy for providers to differentiate HPV vaccine messages to parents of unvaccinated younger siblings. © Copyright 2015 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  19. Quadrivalent HPV vaccine efficacy against disease related to vaccine and non-vaccine HPV types in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstone, Stephen E; Jessen, Heiko; Palefsky, Joel M; Giuliano, Anna R; Moreira, Edson D; Vardas, Eftyhia; Aranda, Carlos; Hillman, Richard J; Ferris, Daron G; Coutlee, Francois; Marshall, J Brooke; Vuocolo, Scott; Haupt, Richard M; Guris, Dalya; Garner, Elizabeth

    2013-08-20

    A small number of HPV types are related to a majority of HPV-related neoplastic lesions in humans. High-risk types such as HPV 16 and 18 are most often implicated, although other oncogenic and non-oncogenic HPV types can cause disease in men. The efficacy of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (qHPV) against external genital lesions and intra-anal disease related to HPV in men has been demonstrated. This report examines the vaccine's efficacy against disease due to 10 additional non-vaccine HPV types, as well as efficacy regardless of HPV detection. The data presented suggest that vaccinating males against HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18 protects them against most vaccine HPV-type related anogenital disease. However, significant efficacy against disease due to non-vaccine HPV types was not seen. In addition, the data do not provide any evidence that vaccination with qHPV vaccine will increase the likelihood of disease caused by non-vaccine types in the short term. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Are the Two Human Papillomavirus Vaccines Really Similar? A Systematic Review of Available Evidence: Efficacy of the Two Vaccines against HPV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Di Mario

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. When the bivalent and the quadrivalent HPV vaccines were marketed they were presented as having comparable efficacy against cervical cancer. Differences between the vaccines are HPV types included and formulation of the adjuvant. Method. A systematic review was conducted to assess the efficacy of the two vaccines against cervical cancer. Outcomes considered were CIN2+, CIN3+, and AIS. Results. Nine reports (38,419 women were included. At enrolment mean age of women was 20 years, 90% had negative cytology, and 80% were seronegative and/or DNA negative for HPV 16 or 18 (naïve women. In the TVC-naïve, VE against CIN2+ was 58% (95% CI: 35, 72; heterogeneity was detected, VE being 65% (95% CI: 54, 74 for the bivalent and 43% (95% CI: 23, 57 for the quadrivalent. VE against CIN3+ was 78% (95% CI: <0, 97; heterogeneity was substantial, VE being 93% (95% CI: 77, 98 for the bivalent and 43% (95% CI: 12, 63 for the quadrivalent. VE in the TVC was much lower. No sufficient data were available on AIS. Conclusions. In naïve girls bivalent vaccine shows higher efficacy, even if the number of events detected is low. In women already infected the benefit of the vaccination seems negligible.

  1. National- and state-level impact and cost-effectiveness of nonavalent HPV vaccination in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, David P; Ndeffo-Mbah, Martial L; Skrip, Laura A; Jones, Forrest K; Bauch, Chris T; Galvani, Alison P

    2016-05-03

    Every year in the United States more than 12,000 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer, a disease principally caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). Bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines protect against 66% of HPV-associated cervical cancers, and a new nonavalent vaccine protects against an additional 15% of cervical cancers. However, vaccination policy varies across states, and migration between states interdependently dilutes state-specific vaccination policies. To quantify the economic and epidemiological impacts of switching to the nonavalent vaccine both for individual states and for the nation as a whole, we developed a model of HPV transmission and cervical cancer incidence that incorporates state-specific demographic dynamics, sexual behavior, and migratory patterns. At the national level, the nonavalent vaccine was shown to be cost-effective compared with the bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines at any coverage despite the greater per-dose cost of the new vaccine. Furthermore, the nonavalent vaccine remains cost-effective with up to an additional 40% coverage of the adolescent population, representing 80% of girls and 62% of boys. We find that expansion of coverage would have the greatest health impact in states with the lowest coverage because of the decreasing marginal returns of herd immunity. Our results show that if policies promoting nonavalent vaccine implementation and expansion of coverage are coordinated across multiple states, all states benefit both in health and in economic terms.

  2. Public health value of universal HPV vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audisio, Riccardo A; Icardi, Giancarlo; Isidori, Andrea M; Liverani, Carlo A; Lombardi, Alberto; Mariani, Luciano; Mennini, Francesco Saverio; Mitchell, David A; Peracino, Andrea; Pecorelli, Sergio; Rezza, Giovanni; Signorelli, Carlo; Rosati, Giovanni Vitali; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The story of Human Papillomavirus vaccination demands reflection not only for its public health impact on the prophylactic management of HPV disease, but also for its relevant economic and social outcomes. Greater than ever data confirm the efficacy and support the urge for effective vaccination plans for both genders before sexual debut. A review of previous experience in gender-restricted vaccination programs has demonstrated a lower effectiveness. Limiting vaccination to women might increase the psychological burden on women by confirming a perceived inequality between genders; and even if all women were immunized, the HPV chain of transmission would still be maintained through men. The cost-effectiveness of including boys into HPV vaccination programs should be re-assessed in view of the progressive drop of the economic burden of HPV-related diseases in men and women due to universal vaccination. The cost of the remarkable increase in anal and oropharyngeal HPV driven cancers in both sexes has been grossly underestimated or ignored. Steps must be taken by relevant bodies to achieve the target of universal vaccination. The analysis of HPV vaccination's clinical effectiveness vs. economic efficacy are supportive of the economic sustainability of vaccination programs both in women and men. In Europe, these achievements demand urgent attention to the social equity for both genders in healthcare. There is sufficient ethical, scientific, strategic and economic evidence to urge the European Community to develop and implement a coordinated and comprehensive strategy aimed at both genders and geographically balanced, to eradicate cervical cancer and other diseases caused by HPV in Europe. Policymakers must take into consideration effective vaccination programs in the prevention of cancers. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Guidance for future HTA applications to vaccines: the HPV lesson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Torre, Giuseppe; de Waure, Chiara; Chiaradia, Giacomina; Mannocci, Alice; Capri, Stefano; Bamfi, Francesco; Ricciardi, Walter

    2011-09-01

    The HTA is a multidisciplinary approach which is increasingly applied worldwide in order to support decision-makers in the introduction of health technologies. The application of HTA to vaccines is quite recent and linked to the increasing number of vaccines available or in development, especially to those intended to non pediatric immunization. In this article a description of the HTA approach used in the evaluation of the bivalent HPV vaccine in Italy is provided; moreover the reasons for keeping HTA process "alive" and identifying new or pending Public Health issues are discussed. In fact, the project raised questions and challenges about the standardization and sharing of HTA methods in Italy. Recently the need of updating the results is starting to be seen as urgent due to the evolution of scientific knowledge, the availability of the first results after technology introduction and the observed differences in vaccination strategies among Italian regions. Moreover in these last two years after the completion of the HTA project a number of new issues have risen in the Italian context as immunization rates, regional vaccination strategies, processes for vaccine selection and health economic issues.

  4. Shift in prevalence of HPV types in cervical cytology specimens in the era of HPV vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Sonja; Bettstetter, Marcus; Becher, Andrea; Lessel, Marlene; Bank, Cyril; Krams, Matthias; Becker, Ingrid; Hartmann, Arndt; Jagla, Wolfgang; Gaumann, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present population-based cohort study was to analyze the association between the prevalence of 32 types of human papilloma virus (HPV) in 615 female patients with abnormal cervical cytopathology findings. In total, 32 HPV types were screened by DNA array technology. HPV infection was detected in 470 women (76.42%), 419 of whom (89.15%) were infected with ≥1 high-risk (HR)-HPV type. HPV16, which is recognized as the main HR-HPV type responsible for the development of cervical cancer, was observed in 32.98% of HPV+ participants, followed by HPV42 (18.09%), HPV31 (17.66%), HPV51 (13.83%), HPV56 (10.00%), HPV53 (8.72%) and HPV66 (8.72%). The prevalence of HR-HPV types, which may be suppressed directly (in the case of HPV16 and 18), or possibly via cross-protection (in the case of HPV31) following vaccination, was considerably lower in participants ≤22 years of age (HPV16, 28.57%; HPV18, 2.04%; HPV31, 6.12%), compared with participants 23-29 years of age (HPV16, 45.71%; HPV18, 7.86%; HPV31, 22.86%), who were less likely to be vaccinated. Consequently, the present study hypothesizes that there may be a continuous shift in the prevalence of HPV types as a result of vaccination. Furthermore, the percentage of non-vaccine HR-HPV types was higher than expected, considering that eight HPV types formerly classified as 'low-risk' or 'probably high-risk' are in fact HR-HPV types. Therefore, it may be important to monitor non-vaccine HPV types in future studies, and an investigation concerning several HR-HPV types as risk factors for the development of cervical cancer is required.

  5. Factors associated with the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination across three countries following vaccination introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Brooke; Dodd, Rachael H; Turner, Robin M; Waller, Jo; Marlow, Laura; Zimet, Gregory; Ostini, Remo; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2017-12-01

    Direct international comparisons which aim to understand how factors associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine initiation and attitudes towards the HPV vaccination in parents differ are scarce. Parents (n = 179) of daughters aged 9-17 years in the US, UK and Australia completed an online survey in 2011 with questions measuring daughters' HPV vaccination status, HPV knowledge, HPV vaccination knowledge, and statements assessing attitude towards the HPV vaccine. The strongest factor associated with vaccination status across all countries was parental HPV knowledge (p HPV vaccination knowledge scores intended to vaccinate their daughters (if not already vaccinated) for protective reasons (p HPV (p HPV vaccination (US: 60.5%, UK: 36.4%, AUS: 15.4%; p HPV vaccination across three countries.

  6. Age and geographic variability of human papillomavirus high-risk genotype distribution in a large unvaccinated population and of vaccination impact on HPV prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carozzi, Francesca; De Marco, Laura; Gillio-Tos, Anna; Del Mistro, Annarosa; Girlando, Salvatore; Baboci, Lorena; Trevisan, Morena; Burroni, Elena; Grasso, Stefano; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Ronco, Guglielmo

    2014-07-01

    The prevalence of infections with human papillomavirus (HPV) specific genotypes differs by age and areas. Knowledge of these differences will help predicting how prophylactic HPV vaccination and screening program could best be integrated. To investigate variations in the HPV distribution between areas and ages in Italy and the impact of vaccination on HPV prevalence. 37,367 women aged 25-60 years who attended cervical screening in eight different areas in Northern and Central Italy were tested for HPV infection with the high-risk hybrid capture (hr-HC2) assay. hr-HC2 positive samples were genotyped by an intensive integrated strategy. hr-HPV types were detected in 79.1% of HC2 positive women. HPV16 was the most frequent type, followed by HPV31, HPV18 and HPV56. A statistically significant variability in HPV type distribution between centres (overall χ84df(2)=195.86pHPV type distribution was observed in the age groups 25-34, 35-44 and 45-60 years. Considering cross-protection, overall 57.6% (95%CI 56.0-59.3) of all infections by hr-HPV types was preventable by vaccination with the bivalent vaccine and 49% (95%CI 46.9-51.1) with the quadrivalent vaccine. The variability between centres was statistically significant with both bivalent (χ7df(2)=43.8, pvaccine (χ7df(2)=32.9, pHPV genotype distribution according to centres but not to age. Results suggest that the higher proportion of HPV16/18 related high grade CIN in younger women could be the result of faster progression and not of earlier infection by these types. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. HPV testing and vaccination in Europe.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leeson, Simon C

    2014-01-01

    Current cytology-based screening has a moderate sensitivity to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN 3) and cervical cancer even in those states providing rigorous quality control of their cervical screening programs. The impact of vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 as well as the incorporation of HPV testing on the detection of CIN 3 and cancer is discussed. HPV testing used as a triage for atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, test of cure after treatment, and HPV-based primary screening may improve current cervical screening programs.HPV testing as a triage test for ASCUS seems to offer an improved sensitivity, with a similar specificity as compared to repeat cytology for diagnosing high-grade CIN and has been recommended throughout most EU states. HPV testing as a triage test for low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions has a low specificity and is not recommended in most member states. HPV test of cure offers an improved sensitivity compared to cytology for women with persistent cervical precancer after treatment. HPV-based cervical cancer screening is more effective than screening with cytology. The effects of HPV-based screening depend on the organization of the program and on adherence to algorithms for screening triage. Otherwise, it is likely that HPV-based screening will increase the referral rate to colposcopy including more women with no detectable cervical lesion. HPV vaccination will require many years to evaluate any beneficial effects on cervical cancer incidence and mortality.

  8. Inclusion of the benefits of enhanced cross-protection against cervical cancer and prevention of genital warts in the cost-effectiveness analysis of human papillomavirus vaccination in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Tjalke A.; Stirbu-Wagner, Irina; Dorsman, Sara; Tutuhatunewa, Eric D.; de Vrij, Edwin L.; Nijman, Hans W.; Daemen, Toos; Wilschut, Jan C.; Postma, Maarten J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Infection with HPV 16 and 18, the major causative agents of cervical cancer, can be prevented through vaccination with a bivalent or quadrivalent vaccine. Both vaccines provide cross-protection against HPV-types not included in the vaccines. In particular, the bivalent vaccine provides

  9. Inclusion of the benefits of enhanced cross-protection against cervical cancer and prevention of genital warts in the cost-effectiveness analysis of human papillomavirus vaccination in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, T.A.; Stirbu-Wagner, I.; Dorsman, S.; Tutuhatunewa, E.D.; Vrij, E.L. de; Nijman, H.W.; Daemen, T.; Wilschut, J.C.; Postma, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Infection with HPV 16 and 18, the major causative agents of cervical cancer, can be prevented through vaccination with a bivalent or quadrivalent vaccine. Both vaccines provide cross-protection against HPV-types not included in the vaccines. In particular, the bivalent vaccine provides

  10. Cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination in the context of high cervical cancer incidence and low screening coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Võrno, Triin; Lutsar, Katrin; Uusküla, Anneli; Padrik, Lee; Raud, Terje; Reile, Rainer; Nahkur, Oliver; Kiivet, Raul-Allan

    2017-11-01

    Estonia has high cervical cancer incidence and low screening coverage. We modelled the impact of population-based bivalent, quadrivalent or nonavalent HPV vaccination alongside cervical cancer screening. A Markov cohort model of the natural history of HPV infection was used to assess the cost-effectiveness of vaccinating a cohort of 12-year-old girls with bivalent, quadrivalent or nonavalent vaccine in two doses in a national, school-based vaccination programme. The model followed the natural progression of HPV infection into subsequent genital warts (GW); premalignant lesions (CIN1-3); cervical, oropharyngeal, vulvar, vaginal and anal cancer. Vaccine coverage was assumed to be 70%. A time horizon of 88years (up to 100years of age) was used to capture all lifetime vaccination costs and benefits. Costs and utilities were discounted using an annual discount rate of 5%. Vaccination of 12-year-old girls alongside screening compared to screening alone had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of €14,007 (bivalent), €14,067 (quadrivalent) and €11,633 (nonavalent) per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) in the base-case scenario and ranged between €5367-21,711, €5142-21,800 and €4563-18,142, respectively, in sensitivity analysis. The results were most sensitive to changes in discount rate, vaccination regimen, vaccine prices and cervical cancer screening coverage. Vaccination of 12-year-old girls alongside current cervical cancer screening can be considered a cost-effective intervention in Estonia. Adding HPV vaccination to the national immunisation schedule is expected to prevent a considerable number of HPV infections, genital warts, premalignant lesions, HPV related cancers and deaths. Although in our model ICERs varied slightly depending on the vaccine used, they generally fell within the same range. Cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination was found to be most dependent on vaccine cost and duration of vaccine immunity, but not on the type of vaccine

  11. Duration of immunity in dogs vaccinated against leptospirosis with a bivalent inactivated vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaasen, H L B M; Molkenboer, M J C H; Vrijenhoek, M P; Kaashoek, M J

    2003-08-29

    Duration of immunity in dogs induced with current commercial inactivated leptospirosis vaccines and evaluated against experimental infection, to date, has hardly been documented. The purpose of the present work was to assess the duration of immunity in dogs that is attainable with a commercial inactivated bivalent leptospirosis vaccine. For this purpose, young dogs were vaccinated twice followed by challenge with either Leptospira interrogans serovar canicola or L. interrogans serovar icterohaemorrhagiae 5 weeks, 27 weeks or 56 weeks after the second vaccination. For assessment of the duration of immunity, titres of agglutinating serum antibodies were measured before and after challenge, and the effects of challenge on a variety of parameters were determined including reisolation of challenge organisms from blood, urine and kidney. Both challenge strains induced a generalised infection in control dogs, the canicola strain being most virulent. From the results with different parameters it appeared that the two vaccinations induced a high rate of protection from generalised infection with canicola and icterohaemorrhagiae at 5, 27 and 56 weeks after the second vaccination. In addition, after 56 weeks, still a high level of immunity against renal infection with sv. canicola and, as a consequence, urinary shedding of sv. canicola bacteria, was demonstrated. It was, therefore, concluded that with this vaccine, using this vaccination schedule, a duration of immunity of 1 year can be attained against infection with both serovars.

  12. HPV vaccination acceptability in young boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Tisi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the comprehension and acceptance of HPV vaccination in parents of adolescent boys aged 11 to 15 years. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted by means of questionnaires sent directly to the homes of all families with young males aged between 11 and 15, residents of three municipalities of the Province of Brescia, Italy. The documentation also contained an informative leaflet summarizing the HPV-related disease characteristics, the burden of disease and the available strategies for prevention and treatment, illustrating the rationale of vaccination and describing the project and its phases. The questionnaire included questions on demographic data, acceptance and motivations for HPV vaccination. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. At the end of the study, parents who received the questionnaires were also offered the possibility of vaccinating their male sons for free. RESULTS: From a total of 1072 questionnaires sent, 161 where returned from the three selected municipalities (average response rate 15%; 97% of adolescent males involved in the study were Italian and 91% Catholic; 97% of parents declared themselves to be willing to vaccinate their sons: the principal motivation given (92% was prevention of the disease, cancerous or not, related to viral infection. Among the respondents not willing to vaccinate their sons, the motivation was lack of information about the vaccine and the disease. At the end of the study, around 71 boys were vaccinated. DISCUSSION: To our knowledge, this is the first survey in Italy exclusively conducted on parents of adolescent males about the acceptability and feasibility of vaccination against HPV: a very high percentage of respondents was favorable to accept the vaccination for their sons, the main motivation being the fact that parents considered protecting their sons from HPV-related diseases highly important. Of the 161 boys

  13. Effect of School-based Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Technology for Health (PATH) to evaluate different HPV vaccine delivery strategies. A school-based HPV vaccine delivery strategy was adopted in Ibanda targeting girls enrolled in primary grade five (P5). In Nakasongola, the HPV vaccine was delivered during the routine Child. Days Plus (CDP) program, targeting girls of at.

  14. Burden of HPV-caused cancers in Denmark and the potential effect of HPV-vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skorstengaard, Malene; Thamsborg, Lise Holst; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2017-01-01

    Background: Denmark is one of the countries where Human papillomavirus (HPV)-vaccination at present includes only girls. However, the burden of HPV-related cancer in men is increasing, which would argue for gender-neutral vaccination. The aim of this study was to examine the burden of HPV......-caused cancers in women and men, and to evaluate the potential of HPV-vaccination in cancer control. Methods: Data were retrieved from the literature on population prevalence of high risk (HR) HPV, on HR HPV-prevalence and genotypes in HPV-related cancers, and on number of cytology samples in cervical screening...... were preventable with HPV vaccination. However, including screening prevented cervical cancers, the burden of cancers caused by HPV-infection would be 1300–2000 in women as compared to 234 in men. Conclusion: Taking screening prevented cervical cancers into account, the cancer control potential of HPV...

  15. Immunogenicity of HPV prophylactic vaccines: Serology assays and their use in HPV vaccine evaluation and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ligia A; Dillner, Joakim; Beddows, Simon; Unger, Elizabeth R

    2018-01-17

    When administered as standard three-dose schedules, the licensed HPV prophylactic vaccines have demonstrated extraordinary immunogenicity and efficacy. We summarize the immunogenicity of these licensed vaccines and the most commonly used serology assays, with a focus on key considerations for one-dose vaccine schedules. Although immune correlates of protection against infection are not entirely clear, both preclinical and clinical evidence point to neutralizing antibodies as the principal mechanism of protection. Thus, immunogenicity assessments in vaccine trials have focused on measurements of antibody responses to the vaccine. Non-inferiority of antibody responses after two doses of HPV vaccines separated by 6 months has been demonstrated and this evidence supported the recent WHO recommendations for two-dose vaccination schedules in both boys and girls 9-14 years of age. There is also some evidence suggesting that one dose of HPV vaccines may provide protection similar to the currently recommended two-dose regimens but robust data on efficacy and immunogenicity of one-dose vaccine schedules are lacking. In addition, immunogenicity has been assessed and reported using different methods, precluding direct comparison of results between different studies and vaccines. New head-to-head vaccine trials evaluating one-dose immunogenicity and efficacy have been initiated and an increase in the number of trials relying on immunobridging is anticipated. Therefore, standardized measurement and reporting of immunogenicity for the up to nine HPV types targeted by the current vaccines is now critical. Building on previous HPV serology assay standardization and harmonization efforts initiated by the WHO HPV LabNet in 2006, new secondary standards, critical reference reagents and testing guidelines will be generated as part of a new partnership to facilitate harmonization of the immunogenicity testing in new HPV vaccine trials. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  16. A cross-sectional study to assess HPV knowledge and HPV vaccine acceptability in Mali.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle N Poole

    Full Text Available Despite a high prevalence of oncogenic human papilloma virus (HPV infection and cervical cancer mortality, HPV vaccination is not currently available in Mali. Knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer in Mali, and thereby vaccine readiness, may be limited. Research staff visited homes in a radial pattern from a central location to recruit adolescent females and males aged 12-17 years and men and women aged ≥ 18 years (N = 51 in a peri-urban village of Bamako, Mali. Participants took part in structured interviews assessing knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to HPV, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccination. We found low levels of HPV and cervical cancer knowledge. While only 2.0% of respondents knew that HPV is a sexually transmitted infection (STI, 100% said they would be willing to receive HPV vaccination and would like the HPV vaccine to be available in Mali. Moreover, 74.5% said they would vaccinate their child(ren against HPV. Men were found to have significantly greater autonomy in the decision to vaccinate themselves than women and adolescents (p = 0.005, a potential barrier to be addressed by immunization campaigns. HPV vaccination would be highly acceptable if the vaccine became widely available in Bamako, Mali. This study demonstrates the need for a significant investment in health education if truly informed consent is to be obtained for HPV vaccination. Potential HPV vaccination campaigns should provide more information about HPV and the vaccine. Barriers to vaccination, including the significantly lower ability of the majority of the target population to autonomously decide to get vaccinated, must also be addressed in future HPV vaccine campaigns.

  17. HPV - immune response to infection and vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Margaret

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HPV infection in the genital tract is common in young sexually active individuals, the majority of whom clear the infection without overt clinical disease. However most of those who develop benign lesions eventually mount an effective cell mediated immune (CMI response and the lesions regress. Failure to develop effective CMI to clear or control infection results in persistent infection and, in the case of the oncogenic HPVs, an increased probability of progression to CIN3 and invasive carcinoma. The prolonged duration of infection associated with HPV seems to be associated with effective evasion of innate immunity thus delaying the activation of adaptive immunity. Natural infections in animals show that neutralising antibody to the virus coat protein L1 is protective suggesting that this would be an effective prophylactic vaccine strategy. The current prophylactic HPV VLP vaccines are delivered i.m. circumventing the intra-epithelial immune evasion strategies. These vaccines generate high levels of antibody and both serological and B cell memory as evidenced by persistence of antibody and robust recall responses. However there is no immune correlate - no antibody level that correlates with protection. Recent data on how HPV infects basal epithelial cells and how antibody can prevent this provides a mechanistic explanation for the effectiveness of HPV VLP vaccines.

  18. Therapeutic Vaccination for HPV Induced Cervical Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeli A. Brinkman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical Cancer is the second leading cause of cancer–related deaths in women worldwide and is associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection, creating a unique opportunity to treat cervical cancer through anti-viral vaccination. Although a prophylactic vaccine may be available within a year, millions of women, already infected, will continue to suffer from HPV-related disease, emphasizing the need to develop therapeutic vaccination strategies. A majority of clinical trials examining therapeutic vaccination have shown limited efficacy due to examining patients with more advanced-stage cancer who tend to have decreased immune function. Current trends in clinical trials with therapeutic agents examine patients with pre-invasive lesions in order to prevent invasive cervical cancer. However, longer follow-up is necessary to correlate immune responses to lesion regression. Meanwhile, preclinical studies in this field include further exploration of peptide or protein vaccination, and the delivery of HPV antigens in DNA-based vaccines or in viral vectors. As long as pre-clinical studies continue to advance, the prospect of therapeutic vaccination to treat existing lesions seem good in the near future. Positive consequences of therapeutic vaccination would include less disfiguring treatment options and fewer instances of recurrent or progressive lesions leading to a reduction in cervical cancer incidence.

  19. Comparative immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 vaccine and HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Mira; Levin, Myron J; Chatterjee, Archana; Fox, Bradley; Scholar, Sofia; Rosen, Jeffrey; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Meric, Dorothée; Dessy, Francis J; Datta, Sanjoy K; Descamps, Dominique; Dubin, Gary

    2011-01-01

    In this observer-blind study (NCT00423046), women (N = 1,106), stratified by age (18–26, 27–35, 36–45 y), were randomized (1:1) to receive the HPV-16/18 vaccine (Cervarix®, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Months 0, 1, 6) or the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (Gardasil® Merck and Co., Inc., Months 0, 2, 6). Month 7 results were previously reported; we now report Month 24 results. In the according-to-protocol cohort for immunogenicity (seronegative and DNA-negative at baseline for HPV type analyzed), seropositivity rates of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) [pseudovirion-based neutralization assay] were, across all age strata, 100% (HPV-16/18 vaccine) and 97.5–100% (HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine) for HPV-16, and 99.0–100% (HPV-16/18 vaccine) and 72.3–84.4% (HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine) for HPV-18. Corresponding geometric mean titers (GMTs) were 2.4–5.8-fold higher for HPV-16 and 7.7–9.4-fold higher for HPV-18 with the HPV-16/18 vaccine vs. the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine; HPV-16 and HPV-18 GMTs were significantly higher with the HPV-16/18 vaccine than the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (p vaccinated cohort (received ≥1 vaccine dose, irrespective of baseline sero/DNA-status). Similar results were obtained using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA ). Positivity rates and GMTs of antigen-specific IgG antibodies in cervicovaginal secretions (ELISA) were not significantly different between vaccines. At Month 24, CD4+ T-cell responses for HPV-16 and HPV-18 were higher with the HPV-16/18 vaccine; memory B-cell response was higher for HPV-18 with the HPV-16/18 vaccine and similar between vaccines for HPV-16. Both vaccines were generally well tolerated. Although an immunological correlate of protection has not been defined, differences in the magnitude of immune response between vaccines may represent determinants of duration of protection. PMID:22048173

  20. Young women's decision-making process for HPV vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscarsson, Marie G; Hannerfors, Anna-Karin; Tydén, Tanja

    2012-12-01

    To explore young women's decision-making process for HPV vaccination and to identify their beliefs about HPV vaccination. This study employs a qualitative design. Data was collected by audio-taped interviews with 16 HPV vaccinated Swedish women, 17-26 years old. The data was analysed using latent content analysis. Three themes emerged from the data: "Fear of cancer", "Reliance on vaccination" and "Mother--the main motivational factor". One of the major reasons for taking the decision to be HPV vaccinated was fear of cancer: vaccination was seen as a way to protect oneself against this. The young women's decision-making surrounding HPV vaccination was based on reliance on vaccination and trust in health care. Support from the mothers of the young women and mothers' sponsorship of costs initiated HPV vaccination. Other motivational factors were advertisements and friends. Despite having been vaccinated, the young women were unaware of the relation between cervical cancer, sexual behaviour and HPV. These HPV vaccinated young women had limited knowledge about HPV. Therefore it is important that health professionals provide comprehensible information about HPV vaccination in attaining informed consent. In order to avoid misunderstandings, health care professionals in youth clinics and schools need to initiate discussion with young women, clarifying the relation between cervical cancer, HPV and sexual transmission. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Un vaccin bivalent efficace contre la maladie de Newcastle et la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Un vaccin bivalent efficace contre la maladie de Newcastle et la variole aviaire, produit au Sénégal. Ndeye Fatou Tall Ndiaye, El Hadji Traore, Mariane Aidara, Aminata Cissé Sakho, Fatou Tall Lo, Moustapha Lo, Mariame Diop, Aminata Niang Ndoye, Abdoulaye Dieng ...

  2. Deconstructing Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Knowledge: Objective and Perceived Knowledge in Males' Intentions to Receive the HPV Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Andrea; Stephenson, Ellen; Perez, Samara; Lau, Elsa; Rosberger, Zeev

    2013-01-01

    Background: The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was recently approved for men. To effectively tailor HPV education efforts toward men, it is important to understand what men know about HPV and how this knowledge relates to their decision to receive the vaccine. This study examines how objective HPV knowledge, objective HPV vaccine knowledge,…

  3. Predictors of Adults' Knowledge and Awareness of HPV, HPV-Associated Cancers, and the HPV Vaccine: Implications for Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Kimberly R.; Singh, Shipra

    2018-01-01

    High human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and low HPV vaccine uptake are significant public health concerns. Disparities in HPV-associated cancers and HPV vaccine uptake rates suggest the need for additional research examining factors associated with vaccine acceptance. This study assessed HPV awareness and knowledge and identified…

  4. HPV Vaccine Awareness and Knowledge Among Women Living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigfall, L T; Bynum, S A; Brandt, H M; Hébert, J R

    2016-03-01

    Cervical cancer risk is increased among women living with HIV (WLH). Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has been shown to be safe and immunogenic among WLH. We examined HPV vaccine awareness and HPV knowledge among WLH. This cross-sectional study collected data from 145 WLH between March 2011 and April 2012. An interviewer-administered survey assessed HPV vaccine awareness and knowledge. Stata/IC 13 was used to perform chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Our sample was 90 % non-Hispanic black and 64 % earned awareness was ten times higher among WLH who knew HPV caused cervical cancer (OR = 10.17; 95 % CI 3.82-27.06). HPV vaccine awareness is low among WLH. Cancer prevention efforts aimed at raising awareness about the HPV vaccine and increasing knowledge about HPV are necessary first steps in reducing cervical cancer disparities among WLH.

  5. Factors Associated with HPV Vaccination in Young Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Kelli M; Hinyard, Leslie

    2017-12-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) affects both men and women; however, recommendations for HPV vaccination among men were not issued in the United States until 2011. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare characteristics of men who did and did not report receiving at least one dose of the HPV vaccine. Data from the ten states that completed the HPV vaccination module in the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were included in the study. Young men ages 18-26 were included (N = 1624). Categorical variables were compared between those who did and did not receive the HPV vaccine using Chi square. Logistic regression was used to examine the odds of HPV vaccination by the above factors. Only 16.5% of men reported at least one dose of HPV vaccine. Having health insurance, having a primary doctor, and receiving an HIV test were predictive of HPV vaccination. Men in Texas were more likely to report HPV vaccination than all other states. Overall, HPV vaccination is low in men. Targeted interventions for improving HPV vaccination rates in men are warranted, especially for those without health insurance or a routine source of care.

  6. Acceptability of HPV Vaccines and Associations with Perceptions Related to HPV and HPV Vaccines Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Joseph T. F.; Wang, Zixin; Kim, Jean H.; Lau, Mason; Lai, Coco H. Y.; Mo, Phoenix K. H.

    2013-01-01

    HPV vaccines are available to men but there are few studies investigating the acceptability of HPV vaccines among men who have sex with men (MSM), a high risk group. We assessed the intention to take up HPV vaccines among MSM in Hong Kong and the associated factors related to cognitions on HPV and HPV vaccines, basing on the Health Belief Model (n = 542). The acceptability of HPV vaccines was 20% (unconditional on efficacies and price), 29.2% (conditional on efficacies and market price), 51.7% (conditional on efficacies and discounted price) and 79.1% (conditional on efficacies and free price). Adjusting for background variables, composite scores of perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived barriers and cue to actions were significantly associated with acceptability of HPV vaccines conditional on specific efficacies and the market price. Acceptability of HPV vaccines was highly price sensitive. Future studies need to use conditional measures. Implementation and translational researches are warranted. PMID:23451188

  7. Views on HPV and HPV Vaccination: The Experience at a Federal Qualified Clinic in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-López, Vivian; Toro-Mejías, Lizbeth M; Conde-Toro, Alexandra; Serra-Rivera, Michelle J; Martínez, Tania M; Rodríguez, Verónica; Ríos, Ana M; Berdiel, Luis; Villanueva, Héctor

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand through a quantitative assessment, the views of HPV and HPV vaccination among parents of sons from a FQHC in PR. A self-administered questionnaire was given to a convenience sample of 200 parents of sons 9-17 years old. Nearly 30% of the parents reported that their sons had initiated the HPV vaccine regimen. Health care provider recommendation was significantly associated with vaccine initiation. Among parents of unvaccinated sons, the main reason for not getting the HPV vaccine was they did not know that boys were allowed to get the vaccine. Future efforts should focus on multilevel interventions aimed to increase knowledge as well as other modified behavioral determinants in parents of young males about HPV and the vaccine. Capacity building efforts should be targeted also to increase health providers' education and communication skills to promote HPV vaccination effectively.

  8. Fowl Cholera and Its Control Prospect With Locally isolated Pasteurella multocida Bivalent Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tati Ariyanti

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurellosis or fowl cholera disease which associated with Pasteurella multocida group A and D infections occurred sporadically in many parts of the world, including in Indonesia. The pathogenic activity of P. multocida in chickens were based on lipopolysacharide (LPS antigens associated with group A and D capsules, and the resistance factor of complement mediated bacteriolysis in animals. In order to reduce common bacterial infections, antibiotics were routinely used as feed additive or by drinking water, but fowl cholera cases still occur. Fowl cholera control by vaccinations have been used more than a hundred years ago by means of inactive vaccine, but imported inactive vaccine was reported not effective due to lack of cross protection against heterologous serotype. At present, many local P. multocida isolates from chicken and ducks from many areas in Indonesia were characterised for their antigenicity, immunogenicity and prepared as monovalent or bivalent vaccine. Only the monovalent vaccine prepared from BCC 2331 or DY2 demonstrated the presence of immunoprotection against homologous and heterologous challenged with live bacteria. The prototype bivalent vaccine consisting of BCC 2331 + DY2 demonstrated high degree of cross protection against challenged individual with or mixed of BCC 2331 + DY2 at average of 60 – 75% and 75 – 100%, respectively. Monovalent and bivalent vaccine prepared from other isolates including imported reference strains of P. multocida demonstrated no protection in experimentally vaccinated ducks and chicken against challenged with live bacteria of neither BCC 2331 nor with DY2. From these retrospective studies, it was concluded that the local isolates P. multocida designated as BCC 2331 and DY2 could be used as candidates of prototype vaccine or master seed vaccine but their effectiveness still need to be evaluated under field conditions.

  9. Barriers and Facilitators of HPV Vaccination in the VFC Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Wayne S; Sznajder, Kristin K; Nepps, Margaret; Boktor, Sameh W

    2018-01-04

    This study determined facilitators and barriers to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination perceived by providers of healthcare in the federally funded Pennsylvania Vaccines for Children (PA VFC) program. The cross-sectional study gathered descriptive data through a survey research design. Providers of healthcare were recruited through an email containing a link to an 18-question online survey. The survey was divided into four main sections which assessed the perceived facilitators and barriers to HPV vaccination of PA VFC program-eligibles. Survey respondents represented 65 of 66 Pennsylvania counties covered by the PA VFC Program. The study recruited 772 PA VFC participating healthcare facilities for a response rate of 52%. Ninety eight percent of the responding facilities reported that they offered the HPV vaccine. The most common barriers to vaccine administration were the parental belief that HPV vaccination is associated with sexual activity and parent/patient refusal of the HPV vaccination which together accounted for (44%) of responses. The majority of respondents (75.6%) indicated counseling parents and adolescents on the benefits of HPV vaccination was a very important factor in HPV vaccination uptake. Healthcare provider facility based training (32%) and web-based training for healthcare providers (22%) were the most recommended avenues for HPV training. The most common barrier to HPV vaccination was identified as the parental misconception that HPV vaccination is associated with sexual activity. Providers believed that the best way to increase HPV vaccination is through counseling parents and adolescents on the benefits of HPV vaccination and to correct misconceptions and change attitudes. Providers are desirous of receiving HPV web-based or workplace training.

  10. HPV Vaccine May Also Prevent Cancers Affecting Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165705.html HPV Vaccine May Also Prevent Cancers Affecting Men Study ... being linked to cervical cancer, the human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause cancers in the back of the ...

  11. Towards the eradication of HPV infection through universal specific vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Crosignani, P.; Stefani, A; G.M. Fara; Isidori, A. M.; A. Lenzi; Liverani, C.A.; Lombardi, A.; Mennini, F.S.; Palu, G.; Pecorelli, S; Peracino, A.P.; Signorelli, C.; G.V. Zuccotti

    2013-01-01

    Background The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is generally recognized to be the direct cause of cervical cancer. The development of effective anti-HPV vaccines, included in the portfolio of recommended vaccinations for any given community, led to the consolidation in many countries of immunization programs to prevent HPV-related cervical cancers. In recent years, increasing evidence in epidemiology and molecular biology have supported the oncogenic role of HPV in the development of other neoplasm...

  12. Burden of HPV-caused cancers in Denmark and the potential effect of HPV-vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorstengaard, Malene; Thamsborg, Lise Holst; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2017-10-13

    Denmark is one of the countries where Human papillomavirus (HPV)-vaccination at present includes only girls. However, the burden of HPV-related cancer in men is increasing, which would argue for gender-neutral vaccination. The aim of this study was to examine the burden of HPV-caused cancers in women and men, and to evaluate the potential of HPV-vaccination in cancer control. Data were retrieved from the literature on population prevalence of high risk (HR) HPV, on HR HPV-prevalence and genotypes in HPV-related cancers, and on number of cytology samples in cervical screening. Data on annual biopsies and conisations were retrieved from the Danish National Health Service Register and the Danish National Patient Register. Incidences of HPV-related cancers in Denmark were extracted from NORDCAN. Number of HPV-caused cancers was calculated from number of HPV-related cancers and the proportion known to be caused by high-risk (HR) HPV. In cross-sectional surveys in Denmark, one fifth of women and almost one third of men were found to be positive for HR HPV. Per year, 548 HPV-caused cancer cases were diagnosed in women and 234 in men, and twice as many cancers in women as in men were preventable with HPV vaccination. However, including screening prevented cervical cancers, the burden of cancers caused by HPV-infection would be 1300-2000 in women as compared to 234 in men. Taking screening prevented cervical cancers into account, the cancer control potential of HPV-vaccination is considerably higher in women than in men. HPV-vaccination could reduce the burden of screening on women and on health care resources. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact and Cost-effectiveness of 3 Doses of 9-Valent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Among US Females Previously Vaccinated With 4-Valent HPV Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Chesson, Harrell W.; Laprise, Jean-Fran��ois; Brisson, Marc; Markowitz, Lauri E.

    2016-01-01

    Background.���We estimated the potential impact and cost-effectiveness of providing 3-doses of nonavalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (9vHPV) to females aged 13���18 years who had previously completed a series of quadrivalent HPV vaccine (4vHPV), a strategy we refer to as ���additional 9vHPV vaccination.���

  14. Human papillomavirus (HPV), HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer, and HPV vaccine in the United States--do we need a broader vaccine policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osazuwa-Peters, N

    2013-11-12

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) of global importance; it is the most prevalent STI in the United States, with strains causally linked to oropharyngeal and other cancers. Efforts to prevent HPV have been made to varying degrees by policies implemented by different state governments; however, HPV and associated oropharyngeal cancer continue to show increasing incidence rates in the US. A narrative review based on search on SciVerse, PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar, and EMBASE databases, as well as literature/documents from the World Health Organization, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, American Cancer Society, National Conference of State legislatures, and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services relevant to HPV and HPV vaccine policy in the US. Vaccination has proved to be a successful policy in the US, and an extant recommendation aimed at preventing HPV and associated cervical and other anogenital cancers is the routine use of HPV vaccines for males and females. However, HPV vaccines are presently not recommended for preventing oropharyngeal cancer, although they have been shown to be highly effective against the HPV strains that are most commonly found in the oropharynx. And while there is a history of successful vaccine mandate in the US with resulting decrease in occurrence of infectious diseases, implementing HPV vaccine mandate has proved to be very unpopular. With emerging evidence of the efficacy of the use of the HPV vaccine in preventing oral-HPV, more focus should be put on extending HPV vaccine to present oral HPV infection and oropharyngeal cancer. Also, implementing a broader HPV vaccine policy that include mandating HPV vaccines as a school-entry requirement for both sexes may increase vaccine use in the US for the greater good of the public. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of School-based Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From 2008 to 2011, schoolgirls were vaccinated against HPV in two districts in Uganda following sensitization. This study assessed girls' knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV vaccine, and their acceptance of future vaccination of friends and hypothetical daughters. The cross-sectional, mixed methods comparative study ...

  16. Control of HPV infection and related cancer through vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nam Phuong; Hung, Chien-Fu; Roden, Richard; Wu, T-C

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV), the most common sexually transmitted virus, and its associated diseases continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality in over 600 million infected individuals. Major progress has been made with preventative vaccines, and clinical data have emerged regarding the efficacy and cross-reactivity of the two FDA approved L1 virus like particle (VLP)-based vaccines. However, the cost of the approved vaccines currently limits their widespread use in developing countries which carry the greatest burden of HPV-associated diseases. Furthermore, the licensed preventive HPV vaccines only contain two high-risk types of HPV (HPV-16 and HPV-18) which can protect only up to 75 % of all cervical cancers. Thus, second generation preventative vaccine candidates hope to address the issues of cost and broaden protection through the use of more multivalent L1-VLPs, vaccine formulations, or alternative antigens such as L1 capsomers, L2 capsid proteins, and chimeric VLPs. Preventative vaccines are crucial to controlling the transmission of HPV, but there are already hundreds of millions of infected individuals who have HPV-associated lesions that are silently progressing toward malignancy. This raises the need for therapeutic HPV vaccines that can trigger T cell killing of established HPV lesions, including HPV-transformed tumor cells. In order to stimulate such antitumor immune responses, therapeutic vaccine candidates deliver HPV antigens in vivo by employing various bacterial, viral, protein, peptide, dendritic cell, and DNA-based vectors. This book chapter will review the commercially available preventive vaccines, present second generation candidates, and discuss the progress of developing therapeutic HPV vaccines.

  17. Anticipated Regret and Omission Bias in HPV Vaccination Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Holm

    2017-01-01

    heavily debated. Multivariate regression analyses revealed anticipated inaction regret as a significant positive predictor of vaccination intentions, and, anticipated action regret as a significant negative predictor of vaccination intentions. Multivariate analyses also revealed omission bias......This study investigated effects of anticipated regret on parents’ HPV vaccination intentions and effects of omission bias on HPV vaccination intentions and vaccine uptake. An online survey was completed by 851 parents of adolescent girls in Denmark, a country where HPV vaccine safety is currently...... in a hypothetical vaccination vignette as a significant negative predictor of HPV vaccination intention as well as vaccine uptake. Finally, the study tested effects of anticipated regret and omission bias on evaluations of two extisting Danish pro-vaccine campaign videos. Here, the result revealed anticipated...

  18. Bivirkninger, som formodes at skyldes HPV-vaccination in Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne; Petersen, Lone Kjeld; Rolving, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    HPV vaccination offers protection against ~70% of cervical cancers, however, serious concerns have been raised about the possible side effects from HPV vaccination. Studies have found no increased risk of neurologic disease, autoimmune disorder, thromboembolic disease, postural orthostatic...... tachycardia syndrome, or complex regional pain syndrome in HPV-vaccinated persons compared to unvaccinated persons. Affected individuals should undergo a proper clinical examination to ensure a correct diagnosis and treatment, because symptoms might arise due to a somatic, psychiatric or functional disorder....

  19. Awareness of human papillomavirus after introduction of HPV vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Louise T; Nygård, Mari; Stensen, Signe

    2017-01-01

    Using a large, population-based survey, we assessed the levels and correlates of human papillomavirus (HPV) awareness among Scandinavian women after introduction of HPV vaccination. In 2011-2012, a random sample of women aged between 18 and 45 years from Denmark, Sweden and Norway received a ques......: OR=0.86, 95% CI: 0.80-0.92). HPV awareness in Scandinavia has increased since the introduction of HPV vaccination. However, 24-38% of Scandinavian women still have never heard of HPV. Future information efforts should target groups with low HPV awareness.......Using a large, population-based survey, we assessed the levels and correlates of human papillomavirus (HPV) awareness among Scandinavian women after introduction of HPV vaccination. In 2011-2012, a random sample of women aged between 18 and 45 years from Denmark, Sweden and Norway received...

  20. Assessing mandatory HPV vaccination: who should call the shots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javitt, Gail; Berkowitz, Deena; Gostin, Lawrence O

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, many legislatures considered, and two enacted, bills mandating HPV vaccination for young girls as a condition of school attendance. Such mandates raise significant legal, ethical, and social concerns. This paper argues that mandating HPV vaccination for minor females is premature since long-term safety and effectiveness of the vaccine has not been established, HPV does not pose imminent and significant risk of harm to others, a sex specific mandate raises constitutional concerns, and a mandate will burden financially existing government health programs and private physicians. Absent careful consideration and public conversation, HPV mandates may undermine coverage rates for other vaccines.

  1. Teenagers' knowledge about HPV infection and HPV vaccination in the first year of the public vaccination programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopracordevole, F; Cigolot, F; Gardonio, V; Di Giuseppe, J; Boselli, F; Ciavattini, A

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess teens' knowledge of HPV infection and vaccination one year after the initiation of the public vaccination programme and information campaign on the disease and the opportunity of vaccination. Between 15 May and 15 June 2009, a survey was carried out on 1,105 teenagers attending high schools in a town in the northeast of Italy by means of an anonymous and unannounced questionnaire covering the knowledge of HPV infection, transmission, prevention, vaccination and post-vaccination behaviours. Only 75% of teens knew what HPV infection is (92% of girls vs 51% of boys, p HPV disease prevention (72.6% girls vs 61.5% boys, p = 0.002). About 18.8% of girls and 33.2% of boys believe that HPV can lead to AIDS (p HPV vaccination, 7.6% of girls and 21.8% of boys believe that it can prevent AIDS (p use remains useful for HPV prevention after vaccination. The need for regular pap smears after vaccination is reported by 93.3% of girls. Teens' knowledge about HPV infection and vaccination remains insufficient, despite a broad information campaign. Erroneous information may increase risky sexual behaviours. Without complete information about HPV infection and vaccination and information about other sexually-transmitted diseases, the latter might become difficult to control among teenagers, while some misunderstandings about the usefulness of secondary prevention might linger.

  2. Evaluation of an Intervention Providing HPV Vaccine in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Brenda W.; Panozzo, Catherine A.; Moss, Jennifer L.; Reiter, Paul L.; Whitesell, Dianne H.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To conduct outcome and process evaluations of school-located HPV vaccination clinics in partnership with a local health department. Methods Temporary clinics provided the HPV vaccine to middle school girls in Guilford County, North Carolina, in 2009–2010. Results HPV vaccine initiation was higher among girls attending host schools than satellite schools (6% vs. 1%, OR = 6.56, CI = 3.99–10.78). Of the girls who initiated HPV vaccine, 80% received all 3 doses. Private insurance or federal programs paid for most vaccine doses. Conclusions Lessons learned for creating more effective school-health department partnerships include focusing on host schools and delivering several vaccines to adolescents, not just HPV vaccine alone. PMID:24034684

  3. Safety profile of the 9-valent HPV vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreira, Edson D; Block, Stan L; Ferris, Daron G

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The overall safety profile of the 9-valent human papillomavirus (9vHPV) vaccine was evaluated across 7 Phase III studies, conducted in males and females (nonpregnant at entry), 9 to 26 years of age. METHODS: Vaccination was administered as a 3-dose regimen at day 1, and months 2 and 6....... More than 15 000 subjects received ≥1 dose of 9vHPV vaccine. In 2 of the studies, >7000 control subjects received ≥1 dose of quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccine. Serious and nonserious adverse events (AEs) and new medical conditions were recorded throughout the study. Subjects testing positive...... for pregnancy at day 1 were not vaccinated; those who became pregnant after day 1 were discontinued from further vaccination until resolution of the pregnancy. Pregnancies detected after study start (n = 2950) were followed to outcome. RESULTS: The most common AEs (≥5%) experienced by 9vHPV vaccine recipients...

  4. Factors Related To HPV Vaccine Practice Among Adult Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelia Perwita Sari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cervical cancer is one of most common diseases among women worldwide. Human papilloma virus (HPV is known as precursor of cervical cancer. Cervical cancer can be prevented effectively by practicing hpv vaccine. But the coverage of HPV vaccine is remain low. The objection of study was to analyze factors related to HPV vaccine pratice among adult women. This study used case control design with sample size 25 for each group. Sample case was women who took HPV vaccine in IBI Kota Kediri on 2013, while sample control was neighboor from the sample case who didn’t take HPV vaccine. The independent variabels were age, education level, marital status, income level, knowledge, family support, family history of cervical cancer and the dependent variable was HPV vaccine practice. Those variables was analyzed with chi square or Fisher’s exact with significancy level at 95%. The result showed that there were correlation between education level (p = 0.006; c = 0.346, knowledge (p = 0.001; c = 0.464, and family support (p = 0.000; c = 0.516 with HPV vaccination practice. While there were no correlation between age (p = 0.275, marital status (0.490 and income level (p = 0.098 and family history of cervical cancer (p = 1.000 with HPV vaccination practice. Based on data from this study can be concluded that family support and knowledge had average strenght correlation withHPV vaccine practice among adult women. So, the intervention should be focused in increasing knowledge among women and their family about the important of HPV vaccine as a cervical cancer prevention. Keywords: practice, preventive, HPV, vaccine, adult women

  5. Bivalent inactivated hepatitis A and recombinant hepatitis B vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Jiri

    2007-12-01

    Hepatitis A and B remain serious global public health problems. Monovalent vaccines against hepatitis A and B have been available for many years. Since 1996, licenses have been gradually introduced for different formulations and immunization schedules of the first combined vaccines against both diseases. Twinrix Adult (with conventional and accelerated schedules) is available for the immunization of individuals aged 16 years or older in Europe and 18 years or older the USA. Twinrix Pediatric, with its three-dose schedule, and AmBirix, with its two-dose schedule, are licensed in Europe for ages 1-15 years. These vaccines offer a single injection for satisfactory protection against hepatitis A and B and an excellent safety and reactogenicity profile in comparison with monovalent vaccines. This article focuses on immunogenicity of the vaccines and proposes expert opinion and future directions in this field.

  6. HPV vaccination for prevention of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinzón, Sabrina E; Rösl, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous papillomaviruses are associated with specific skin diseases, such as extensive wart formation and the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), especially in immunosuppressed patients. Hence, clinical approaches are required that prevent such lesions. Licensed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines confer type-restricted protection against HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18, responsible of 90% of genital warts and 70% of cervical cancers, respectively. However, they do not protect against less prevalent high-risk types or cutaneous HPVs. Over the past few years, several studies explored the potential of developing vaccines targeting cutaneous papillomaviruses. These vaccines showed to be immunogenic and prevent skin tumor formation in certain animal models. Furthermore, under conditions mimicking the ones found in the intended target population (i.e., immunosuppression and in the presence of an already established infection before vaccination), recent preclinical data shows that immunization can still be effective. Strategies are currently focused on finding vaccine formulations that can confer protection against a broad range of papillomavirus-associated diseases. The state-of-the-art of these approaches and the future directions in the field will be presented.

  7. Racial Differences in HPV Knowledge, HPV Vaccine Acceptability, and Related Beliefs among Rural, Southern Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Joan R.; Brewer, Noel T.; Fazekas, Karah I.; Mitchell, Cicely E.; Smith, Jennifer S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Because cervical cancer mortality in the United States is twice as high among black women as white women and higher in rural areas, providing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to rural black adolescents is a high priority. Purpose: To identify racial differences in knowledge and attitudes about HPV, cervical cancer, and the HPV vaccine…

  8. Controlled viral glycoprotein expression as a safety feature in a bivalent rabies-ebola vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaneri, Amy B; Bernbaum, John G; Blaney, Joseph E; Jahrling, Peter B; Schnell, Matthias J; Johnson, Reed F

    2015-02-02

    Using a recombinant rabies (RABV) vaccine platform, we have developed several safe and effective vaccines. Most recently, we have developed a RABV-based ebolavirus (EBOV) vaccine that is efficacious in nonhuman primates. One safety feature of this vaccine is the utilization of a live but replication-deficient RABV construct. In this construct, the RABV glycoprotein (G) has been deleted from the genome, requiring G trans complementation in order for new infectious viruses to be released from the initial infected cell. Here we analyze this safety feature of the bivalent RABV-based EBOV vaccine comprised of the G-deleted RABV backbone expressing EBOV glycoprotein (GP). We found that, while the level of RABV genome in infected cells is equivalent regardless of G supplementation, the production of infectious virus is indeed restricted by the lack of G, and most importantly, that the presence of EBOV GP does not substitute for G. These findings further support the safety profile of this replication-deficient RABV-EBOV bivalent vaccine. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination for the prevention of HPV 16/18 induced cervical cancer and its precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greiner, Wolfgang

    2009-03-01

    scenarios in the identified health economic modeling analyses range from approximately 3,000 Euro to 40,000 Euro per additional QALY (QALY = Quality-adjusted life year and approximately 9,000 Euro to 65,000 Euro per additional life year (LYG, respectively. Discussion: The included studies show that both available HPV vaccines are effective in preventing HPV 16 and HPV 18 infections and probable resulting premalignant lesions of the cervix. However, the duration of protection is currently unclear. With regard to side effects, the vaccination can be considered as secure. Nevertheless, the number of cases within the clinical studies is not sufficient to determine the occurrence of rarely occurring (severe adverse events in a reliable way. A reduction in the incidence and induced mortality through cervical cancer in Germany is not only depending on the vaccine’s clinical efficacy. Effects of the new technology on the overall participation rate in screening programs and the resulting vaccination rate and immunization status are also important factors. The results of identified health economic models vary substantially due to the heterogeneity of methodological approaches as well as chosen input parameters. However, almost all model-based analyses reached the conclusion that the implementation of a vaccination with lifelong protection can be considered as cost-effective, if the present screening practice continues. A comparison of the two vaccines shows, that the cost effectiveness ratios are more favorable with the quadrivalent vaccine than with the bivalent alternative when considering QALY as primary outcome parameter. The reason for this finding might be that in the case of the quadrivalent vaccine the prevention of genital warts can also be incorporated into the analysis. Variations of the duration of protection as well as the discounting rate were identified as the primary influencing factors of cost-effectiveness results. Conclusion: Implementation of HPV vaccination

  10. Male Undergraduates' HPV Vaccination Behavior: Implications for Achieving HPV-Associated Cancer Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Yun; Lust, Katherine; Vang, Suzanne; Desai, Jay

    2018-02-22

    Despite the availability of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine for males, uptake of the vaccine has been low, particularly among young adult males. This study aimed to investigate the levels of HPV vaccination and predictors of HPV vaccine completion in college men ages 18-26. We analyzed data from the 2015 College Student Health Survey, which was administered at 17 post-secondary institutions in Midwest areas. We included only responses from male participants who were ages 18-26 years old, resulting in a sample size of 2516. We used Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Utilization to guide our study design. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine predictors of HPV vaccine receipt. College-aged males in our sample had a HPV vaccine completion rate of 50.0%. Male students who were younger, had at least one parent who held a graduate degree, had initiated sex, and were enrolled at a private 4-year institution were more likely to have been vaccinated. These findings suggest that HPV vaccination in college-aged men are low. Efforts are needed to increase HPV vaccination in male students who are older, from lower socioeconomic statuses, have not initiated sex, and enrolled at public institutions. Findings also indicate important gender disparities in vaccine uptake that must be addressed in order to achieve optimal vaccine uptake in college-aged males.

  11. Increasing Parental Knowledge Related to the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, Joseph J; Scoloveno, Robert; Kelly, Angela

    2017-08-16

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate parental attitudes toward general vaccination protocols and increase parental knowledge of the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine. A nonprobability convenience sample (N = 75) using a pre-/postintervention study design was conducted in a pediatric office in southern New Jersey. The Parental Attitudes Module measured the general disposition toward having children receive any type of vaccine. The HPV Knowledge Survey was a second tool used to specifically measures knowledge of the HPV vaccine. A self-directed computer-based learning was part of the educational intervention. A paired t test showed that HPV Knowledge Survey postintervention scores were significantly higher than HPV Knowledge Survey preintervention scores (t = -10.585, p HPV Knowledge Survey pretest showed a positive moderate relationship (rs = .552, p HPV vaccine has been on the market, there is a continued need to increase parental knowledge about the HPV vaccine to close the gap on vaccine nonadherence. A self-directed, computer-based learning tablet appears to be an effective tool to educate parents or legal guardians about the purpose, efficacy, and safety of the HPV vaccine. Copyright © 2017 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. HPV in minority populations : Epidemiology and vaccination acceptability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberts, C.J.

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation describes the epidemiology of human papillomavirus (HPV) and the social-psychological aspects of HPV vaccination acceptability in two different minority populations. Both populations are at higher risk of developing HPV induced disease (notably cervical, penile, anal, and head and

  13. What college women know, think, and do about human papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanasiripong, Nop T; Cheng, An-Lin; Enriquez, Maithe

    2013-02-27

    This cross-sectional study, guided by Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior, aimed to identify factors that influence the decision to obtain an HPV vaccine among college women and to examine the relationships among these factors. An electronic self-administered survey was utilized to collect data. An email invitation was sent to 3074 college women attending a large, public university in southern California, aged between 18 and 26 years. The email directed the recipient to click on a link to a web-based survey if she wanted to participate in the study. Participants in this study were college women (n=384; 175 HPV non-vaccinees and 209 HPV vaccinees). Women in this study knew that a Pap test is still needed after HPV vaccination and that the HPV vaccine does not protect against other Sexually Transmitted Infections. Both non-vaccinees and vaccinees had positive attitudes about mandating HPV vaccine. Knowledge and attitudes toward the vaccine were not directly linked to the outcome predictors - intention to obtain the vaccine and vaccine uptake. Attitude about receiving HPV vaccine, subjective norms (complying with the expectations of others), and perceived behavioral control were correlated with the outcome predictors. Subjective norms consistently predicted intention to obtain HPV vaccine and vaccine uptake. A proposal to mandate the HPV vaccine among young girls/women was acceptable to this population. Vaccination promotion strategies to increase the vaccine uptake rate among the catch-up group (aged 13-26) should include attention to college women's subjective norms. Health care provider's recommendation and encouragement from significant others (i.e., mother and peers) are critical in order for the college women to obtain the vaccine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors Associated with HPV Vaccination among Cambodian American Teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeok; Kim, Minjin; Kiang, Peter; Shi, Ling; Tan, Kevin; Chea, Phala; Peou, Sonith; Grigg-Saito, Dorcas C

    2016-11-01

    Parents have general influence over their children's health and health behavior. However, given the dearth of specific literature regarding knowledge level and social and cultural factors influencing HPV vaccination behaviors among Cambodian American (CA) parent, it is difficult to develop an effective, evidence-based public health HPV vaccination program. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the HPV vaccine uptakes among CA teenagers and to examine factors influencing HPV vaccine uptakes. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey design and a combination of network and targeted sampling methods were used. CA mothers (n = 130) completed a health survey through face-to-face interviews in either English or Khmer language. Girls vaccination rates were 29% while that of boys was 16%. Awareness and knowledge of HPV among CA mothers was very low, and many believed that their daughters, who speak English and were educated in the U.S., had more knowledge about health than they did. Logistic regression analysis showed that CA girls had significantly higher odds of vaccination when their mothers possessed a higher level of English reading ability and had greater awareness and knowledge of HPV. The strikingly low rates of HPV vaccination among CA girls and boys underscore the need to improve vaccination outreach, education, and uptake. The findings can be used to develop targeted public health HPV vaccination programs for CAs, which will reduce cervical cancer disparities. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Perceptions of HPV and attitudes towards HPV vaccination amongst men who have sex with men: A qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadarzynski, Tom; Smith, Helen; Richardson, Daniel; Pollard, Alex; Llewellyn, Carrie

    2017-05-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at risk of genital warts and anal cancer due to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. This study explores MSMs' perceptions of HPV and HPV vaccination prior to the introduction of this programme. Focus groups and one-to-one interviews with self-identified MSM were conducted between November 2014 and March 2015 in Brighton, UK. Participants were recruited from community-based lesbian-gay-bisexual-transgender (LGBT) venues and organizations. Discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using framework analysis. Thirty-three men took part (median age 25 years, IQR: 21-27), most of whom (n = 25) did not know about HPV, anal cancer (31), or HPV vaccination (26). While genital warts and anal cancer were perceived as severe, men did not perceive themselves at risk of HPV. All MSM would accept the HPV vaccine if offered by a health care professional. The challenges of accessing sexual health services or openly discussing same-sex experiences with health care professionals were perceived as barriers to accessing HPV vaccination. Two participants were concerned that selective HPV vaccination could increase stigma and prejudice against MSM, comparable to the AIDS epidemic. Ten MSM were unsure about the effectiveness of HPV vaccination for sexually active men and were in favour of vaccinating all adolescent boys at school. Most MSM have poor knowledge about HPV and associated anal cancer. Despite the lack of concern about HPV, most MSM expressed willingness to receive HPV vaccination. There is a need for health education about the risks of HPV and HPV-related diseases so that MSM can appraise the benefits of being vaccinated. Concerns about HPV vaccine effectiveness in sexually active men and possible stigmatization need to be addressed to optimize HPV vaccine acceptability. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Men who have sex with men (MSM) have poor knowledge about HPV and HPV

  16. Correlates of HPV Knowledge in the Era of HPV Vaccination: A Study of Unvaccinated Young Adult Women

    OpenAIRE

    Gerend, Mary A.; Shepherd, Janet E.

    2011-01-01

    Until recently, awareness of the sexually transmitted infection human papillomavirus (HPV)—the virus that causes cervical cancer—was relatively low. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with HPV knowledge now that HPV vaccines have become widely available. Young adult women (n = 739; aged 18-26 years) attending Florida State University who had not yet initiated HPV vaccination completed a survey between March-August 2009. The survey assessed HPV awareness, HPV knowledg...

  17. Analyzing discussions on twitter: Case study on HPV vaccinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, R.; Boertjes, E.; Langley, D.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we analyze the discussions on Twitter around the Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinations. We collect a dataset consisting of tweets related to the HPV vaccinations by searching for relevant keywords, by retrieving the conversations on Twitter, and by retrieving tweets from our user

  18. HPV Vaccine (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-07-25

    Since 2006, a vaccine has been available that protects against the most frequent cancer-causing types of HPV. This podcast discusses the importance of parents talking to their children’s health care providers about getting the HPV vaccine.  Created: 7/25/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 7/25/2013.

  19. Improving HPV Vaccination Through a Diverse Multi-state Coalition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Echo L; Fowler, Brynn; Martel, Laura; Kepka, Deanna

    2017-04-09

    Rural and highly religious Intermountain West states demonstrate low levels of HPV vaccination uptake. The Intermountain West HPV Vaccination Coalition (IWHVC) was formed to improve HPV vaccination by enhancing collaborations between cancer centers, health departments, health clinics, religious groups, and community organizations. Coalition members' perceptions and experiences are described within. A cross-sectional online survey was distributed to the IWHVC. N = 86 responded to the online survey. Six subsequent focus groups were conducted (N = 36). Participant demographics, barriers, and facilitators of HPV vaccination were summarized. The first three focus groups were coded in an iterative manner based on a coding scheme. The final three focus groups were selectively coded for content related to five themes: barriers and facilitators to HPV vaccination, how the coalition has been useful, future directions of the coalition, and how to engage religious communities. Participants suggested that HPV vaccination should occur in a doctor's office (70.9%), public health clinic (64.0%), or at a community health fair (58.1%). Perceived barriers included a lack of education/low knowledge about the HPV vaccine (55.8%), concerns about sexuality/promiscuity (44.2%), and not knowing the vaccine is recommended for boys (38.4%). Participants stressed the importance of gaining buy-in from religious leaders, and felt the coalition helped them advocate for HPV vaccination through networking, idea and information sharing, and voicing their community's needs. Future goals emphasized targeted outreach, sustainable funding, expanded environmental scans, gaining religious support, and policy reforms. Targeted coalition work builds community capacity and coordinates HPV vaccination efforts. A community driven coalition approach could help improve HPV vaccination in other rural and highly religious regions.

  20. Provider communication and HPV vaccination: The impact of recommendation quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkey, Melissa B.; Calo, William A.; Moss, Jennifer L.; Shah, Parth D.; Marciniak, Macary W.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Receiving a healthcare provider’s recommendation is a strong predictor of HPV vaccination, but little is known empirically about which types of recommendation are most influential. Thus, we sought to investigate the relationship between recommendation quality and HPV vaccination among U.S. adolescents. Methods In 2014, we conducted a national, online survey of 1,495 parents of 11- to 17-year-old adolescents. Parents reported whether providers endorsed HPV vaccination strongly, encouraged same-day vaccination, and discussed cancer prevention. Using an index of these quality indicators, we categorized parents as having received no, low-quality, or high-quality recommendations for HPV vaccination. Separate multivariable logistic regression models assessed associations between recommendation quality and HPV vaccine initiation (≥1 dose), follow through (3 doses, among initiators), refusal, and delay. Results Almost half (48%) of parents reported no provider recommendation for HPV vaccination, while 16% received low-quality recommendations and 36% received high-quality recommendations. Compared to no recommendation, high-quality recommendations were associated with over nine times the odds of HPV vaccine initiation (23% vs. 74%, OR=9.31, 95% CI, 7.10–12.22) and over three times the odds of follow through (17% vs. 44%, OR=3.82, 95% CI, 2.39–6.11). Low-quality recommendations were more modestly associated with initiation (OR=4.13, 95% CI, 2.99–5.70), but not follow through. Parents who received high-versus low-quality recommendations less often reported HPV vaccine refusal or delay. Conclusions High-quality recommendations were strongly associated with HPV vaccination behavior, but only about one-third of parents received them. Interventions are needed to improve not only whether, but how providers recommend HPV vaccination for adolescents. PMID:26812078

  1. Intranasal delivery of a bivalent norovirus vaccine formulated in an in situ gelling dry powder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan P Ball

    Full Text Available The global health community is beginning to understand the burden of norovirus-associated disease, which has a significant impact in both developed and developing countries. Norovirus virus like particle (VLP-based vaccines are currently under development and have been shown to elicit systemic and mucosal immune responses when delivered intranasally. In the present study, we describe the use of a dry powder formulation (GelVac™ with an in situ gelling polysaccharide (GelSite™ extracted from Aloe vera for nasal delivery of a bivalent vaccine formulation containing both GI and GII.4 norovirus VLPs. Dose-ranging studies were performed to identify the optimal antigen dosages based on systemic and mucosal immune responses in guinea pigs and determine any antigenic interference. A dose-dependent increase in systemic and mucosal immunogenicity against each of the VLPs were observed as well as a boosting effect for each VLP after the second dosing. A total antigen dose of ≥50 μg of each GI and GII.4 VLPs was determined to be the maximally immunogenic dose in guinea pigs. The immunogenicity results of this bivalent formulation, taken together with previous work on monovalent GelVac™ norovirus vaccine formulation, provides a basis for future development of this norovirus VLP vaccine.

  2. Quadrivalent HPV vaccination reactions--more hype than harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Robert J

    2009-03-01

    The quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine Gardasil was licensed for use in June 2006. Since its approval more than 26 million doses of the vaccine have been distributed worldwide. There is ongoing debate as to the safety of the vaccine, with suggestions of a link between the vaccine and syncopal events, and the aetiology of more chronic conditions such as Guillain-Barre syndrome. A case of subcutaneous emphysema secondary to quadrivalent HPV vaccination is described, and reported adverse events to quadrivalent HPV vaccination in both Australia and the United States are examined. On the basis of published peer reviewed literature, and from data analysis conducted by reputable agencies, the conclusion is drawn that adverse events are mild and self limiting and quadrivalent HPV vaccine is safe when administered according to the manufacturer's recommendations.

  3. The impact of HPV vaccination on future cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbech, Mie Sara; Lynge, Elsebeth; Kragstrup, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore the interplay between primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer by estimating future screening outcomes in women offered human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination when they were sexually naïve. DESIGN: Estimation of outcome of liquid-based cytology screening for a post......-HPV vaccination cohort using pre-vaccination screening data combined with HPV vaccination efficacy data reported in the literature. SETTING: Denmark. DATA: The number of screening diagnoses at first screen in a pre-vaccination birth cohort was multiplied by reported risk reductions expected for women who were...... vaccinated for HPV before sexual debut. All identified studies were reviewed by two authors, and weighted pooled estimates of vaccine efficacies were used. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportions of positive and false-positive cervical cytologies and positive predictive value (PPV) were calculated using cervical...

  4. Lack of allele-specific efficacy of a bivalent AMA1 malaria vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Ruth D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive genetic diversity in vaccine antigens may contribute to the lack of efficacy of blood stage malaria vaccines. Apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA1 is a leading blood stage malaria vaccine candidate with extreme diversity, potentially limiting its efficacy against infection and disease caused by Plasmodium falciparum parasites with diverse forms of AMA1. Methods Three hundred Malian children participated in a Phase 2 clinical trial of a bivalent malaria vaccine that found no protective efficacy. The vaccine consists of recombinant AMA1 based on the 3D7 and FVO strains of P. falciparum adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide (AMA1-C1. The gene encoding AMA1 was sequenced from P. falciparum infections experienced before and after immunization with the study vaccine or a control vaccine. Sequences of ama1 from infections in the malaria vaccine and control groups were compared with regard to similarity to the vaccine antigens using several measures of genetic diversity. Time to infection with parasites carrying AMA1 haplotypes similar to the vaccine strains with respect to immunologically important polymorphisms and the risk of infection with vaccine strain haplotypes were compared. Results Based on 62 polymorphic AMA1 residues, 186 unique ama1 haplotypes were identified among 315 ama1 sequences that were included in the analysis. Eight infections had ama1 sequences identical to 3D7 while none were identical to FVO. Several measures of genetic diversity showed that ama1 sequences in the malaria vaccine and control groups were comparable both at baseline and during follow up period. Pre- and post-immunization ama1 sequences in both groups all had a similar degree of genetic distance from FVO and 3D7 ama1. No differences were found in the time of first clinical episode or risk of infection with an AMA1 haplotype similar to 3D7 or FVO with respect to a limited set of immunologically important polymorphisms found in the cluster 1 loop

  5. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine initiation in minority Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, P; Budhwani, H

    2017-03-01

    Transmission of the human papillomavirus (HPV) is a significant public health concern. HPV is preventable through a series of vaccinations; however, knowledge gaps exist as to which groups are least likely to initiate vaccination. Considering this gap, the aim of this study is to examine HPV vaccine initiation rates in racial minorities, comparing foreign-born individuals to their American-born peers. Population-based data from the 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), a repeated large-scale household interview survey of a statistically representative sample of the United States civilian non-institutionalized population, were applied. Data were derived from two survey modules: the family and summary adult modules. Sampling weights were employed to logistic regression modelling the outcome of HPV vaccine initiation. Foreign-born persons, African Americans, males, those lacking health insurance coverage and those without a medical home (usual place to receive care) held statistically lower rates of HPV vaccine initiation. Being college educated was associated with higher odds of HPV vaccine initiation. Our findings support the persistence of health disparities in racial minorities and foreign-born persons residing in the United States. Addressing these gaps will likely require both individual-level (e.g. targeted health education) and system-level (e.g. HPV vaccine promoting policies) interventions. Since health insurance coverage and having a medical home were significant associates of HPV vaccine initiation, attempts to coverage may improve HPV vaccine initiation rates. Additionally, policies which require HPV vaccination for school entry could boost coverage across all population groups, including boys, foreign-born persons and racial minorities. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhanced potency of individual and bivalent DNA replicon vaccines or conventional DNA vaccines by formulation with aluminum phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yun-Zhou; Wang, Wen-Bin; Li, Na; Wang, Shuang; Yu, Wei-Yuan; Sun, Zhi-Wei

    2010-11-01

    DNA vaccines against botulinum neurotoxin (BoNTs) induce protective humoral immune responses in mouse model, but when compared with conventional vaccines such as toxoid and protein vaccines, DNA vaccines often induce lower antibody level and protective efficacy and are still necessary to increase their potency. In this study we evaluated the potency of aluminum phosphate as an adjuvant of DNA vaccines to enhance antibody responses and protective efficacy against botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A and B in Balb/c mice. The administration of these individual and bivalent plasmid DNA replicon vaccines against botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A and B in the presence of aluminum phosphate improved both antibody responses and protective efficacy. Furthermore, formulation of conventional plasmid DNA vaccines encoding the same Hc domains of botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A and B with aluminum phosphate adjuvant increased both antibody responses and protective efficacy. These results indicate aluminum phosphate is an effective adjuvant for these two types of DNA vaccines (i.e., plasmid DNA replicon vaccines and conventional plasmid DNA vaccines), and the vaccine formulation described here may be an excellent candidate for further vaccine development against botulinum neurotoxins. Copyright © 2010 The International Association for Biologicals. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. HPV Vaccine Safety PSA (:30) (No Tag)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-15

    In this 30 second public service announcement, a mother talks about the importance of protecting 11-12 year-old boys and girls with HPV vaccination. No CDC tag at the end. (Una madre habla sobre la importancia de proteger a los niños y las niñas de 11 a 12 años con la vacuna contra el VPH.).  Created: 1/15/2014 by National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 1/15/2014.

  8. Intent to Receive an HPV Vaccine among University Men and Women and Implications for Vaccine Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Melissa; Cook, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: In 2006, the authors examined intention to receive an HPV vaccine among 340 college students. Methods: A total of 138 men and 202 women completed questionnaires. The authors measured intention by asking participants how likely they would be to accept an HPV vaccine that prevented against (1) all HPV, (2) cervical cancer…

  9. Mothers' acceptance of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for daughters in a country with a high prevalence of HPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alder, Susanna; Gustafsson, Sofia; Perinetti, Claudia; Mints, Miriam; Sundström, Karin; Andersson, Sonia

    2015-05-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in Argentina and the mortality rate is not declining despite opportunistic screening. Free-of-charge human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of 11-year-old girls was introduced in 2011. Parental acceptance of HPV vaccination is considered to be of great importance for HPV vaccine uptake. However, little is known regarding this factor in Argentina. The aim of the present study was to explore maternal HPV vaccination acceptance, willingness to pay for HPV vaccination and correlates of this willingness, awareness of HPV and HPV-associated disease and behaviors and attitudes associated with HPV vaccination acceptance. A total of 180 mothers of girls aged 9-15 years comprised this quantitative, cross-sectional, survey-based study, conducted at two hospitals in the Mendoza Province. Correlates of willingness to pay for HPV vaccination were obtained using multivariable logistic regression models. Maternal HPV vaccination acceptance was 90%, and 60% of mothers were willing to pay for HPV vaccination. Mothers who were gainfully employed and had a higher disposable household income were significantly more willing to pay for HPV vaccination [odds ratio (OR)=2.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-6.38; OR=3.28, 95% CI 1.36-7.94, respectively], as were mothers who were aware of cervical cancer prior to the study (OR=3.22, 95% CI 1.02-10.14). Only one in 10 mothers were informed that HPV vaccination does not offer complete protection against cervical cancer. In conclusion, the present study showed high maternal HPV vaccination acceptance, although acceptance decreased when vaccination was not free-of-charge. Continuous public education campaigns are needed to improve knowledge of HPV, HPV vaccines and HPV-associated disease.

  10. Social media microblogs as an HPV vaccination forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chupei; Gotsis, Marientina; Jordan-Marsh, Maryalice

    2013-11-01

    The 2006 US FDA approval of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine brought new hope for cancer prevention. Gardasil and Cervarix are widely available vaccines that can deter HPV infection, which causes 70% of cervical cancer. Acceptance of vaccination varies due to a lack of HPV awareness and HPV vaccine knowledge. Recent observations of the Chinese microblog "SinaWeibo" suggest a new approach to engage health professionals and consumer website bloggers. Websites that present the latest fashion, fitness or beauty news and ways to obtain "deals" have created informative blogs or online communities that appeal to female users. Some users raise health questions of their peers. Health professionals, as website bloggers, can introduce vaccine news or respond to conversations between bloggers and their followers. By transforming medical vocabulary into ordinary chat, microblogs may promote efficiency in vaccine education and communication. A web-based, interactive social media-microblog could offer an ideal platform to speed up information dissemination and increase targeted communication.

  11. HPV vaccines - A review of the first decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Diane M; DeMars, Leslie R

    2017-07-01

    Pre-adolescent girls (9-15years) have the option of receiving a two dose HPV vaccine series at either a six month or one year interval to provide protection from HPV 16, the most prevalent type associated with cervical cancers, as well as several other less prevalent types. This series of vaccinations is highly likely to protect her from HPV infection until she enters the routine screening program, whether that be primary HPV testing or a combination of HPV testing and cytology. The two dose program has been recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) since 2015. For women 15years and older, the three dose vaccine schedule is still recommended. The past ten years of Gardasil use has provided evidence of reduced HPV 16/18 infections in countries where there has been high coverage. Gardasil9 has replaced Gardasil. Gardasil9 has the same rapid anti-HPV 18 and HPV45 titer loss as Gardasil did. Cervarix remains equivalent to Gardasil9 in the prevention of HPV infections and precancers of any HPV type; Cervarix also has demonstrated sustained high antibody titers for at least 10years. One dose of Cervarix provides protection against HPV 16/18 infection with robust antibody titers well above natural infection titers. This may offer the easiest and most cost effective vaccination program over time, especially in low and lower middle income countries. Cervical cancer screening must continue to control cancer incidence over the upcoming decades. Future studies of prophylactic HPV vaccines, as defined by the WHO, must demonstrate protection against six month type specific persistent infections, not actual cervical cancer precursor disease endpoints, such as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN 3) or adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS). This simplifies and makes less expensive future comparative studies between existing and new generic vaccines. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Racial differences in HPV knowledge, HPV vaccine acceptability, and related beliefs among rural, southern women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Joan R; Brewer, Noel T; Fazekas, Karah I; Mitchell, Cicely E; Smith, Jennifer S

    2009-01-01

    Because cervical cancer mortality in the United States is twice as high among black women as white women and higher in rural areas, providing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to rural black adolescents is a high priority. To identify racial differences in knowledge and attitudes about HPV, cervical cancer, and the HPV vaccine that may influence uptake of the vaccine. We interviewed women (91 black and 47 white) living in a rural area of the Southern United States in 2006. Analyses controlled for socioeconomic status, age, and recruitment location. More white respondents had heard of HPV than had black respondents (57% vs 24%, P < .001), and whites had higher HPV knowledge (42% vs 29% correct responses, P < .05). Blacks were less likely than whites to think that cervical cancer would be a serious threat to their daughters' health (75% vs 96%, P < .001). More blacks than whites thought the ideal age to receive the vaccine was 17 years or older (63% vs 40%, P < .05). Blacks reported lower intentions to vaccinate their daughters than whites (M = 4.14 vs 4.55, P < .05 in unadjusted analyses, but not statistically significant in adjusted analyses). Black and white respondents had different awareness, knowledge, and beliefs related to the HPV vaccine. Communication-based interventions to maximize uptake of the HPV vaccine in the rural, Southern United States may need different messages for black parents of adolescent girls.

  13. Impact and Cost-effectiveness of 3 Doses of 9-Valent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Among US Females Previously Vaccinated With 4-Valent HPV Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Harrell W; Laprise, Jean-François; Brisson, Marc; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2016-06-01

    We estimated the potential impact and cost-effectiveness of providing 3-doses of nonavalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (9vHPV) to females aged 13-18 years who had previously completed a series of quadrivalent HPV vaccine (4vHPV), a strategy we refer to as "additional 9vHPV vaccination." We used 2 distinct models: (1) the simplified model, which is among the most basic of the published dynamic HPV models, and (2) the US HPV-ADVISE model, a complex, stochastic, individual-based transmission-dynamic model. When assuming no 4vHPV cross-protection, the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained by additional 9vHPV vaccination was $146 200 in the simplified model and $108 200 in the US HPV-ADVISE model ($191 800 when assuming 4vHPV cross-protection). In 1-way sensitivity analyses in the scenario of no 4vHPV cross-protection, the simplified model results ranged from $70 300 to $182 000, and the US HPV-ADVISE model results ranged from $97 600 to $118 900. The average cost per QALY gained by additional 9vHPV vaccination exceeded $100 000 in both models. However, the results varied considerably in sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. Additional 9vHPV vaccination is likely not as efficient as many other potential HPV vaccination strategies, such as increasing primary 9vHPV vaccine coverage. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. Promoting HPV Vaccination Online: Message Design and Media Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon J; Cho, Jieun

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the effects of message framing and online media channel on young adults' perceived severity of human papillomavirus (HPV), perceived barriers and benefits of getting HPV vaccination, and behavioral intention to get vaccinated. An experiment was conducted with 142 college students. We found an interaction effect: The loss-framed message posted on Facebook was more effective in increasing the number of people who expressed their willingness to get HPV vaccination than the gain-framed message presented on Facebook. However, this framing effect was not found when the identical message was presented on an online newspaper. People's perceptions of severity of HPV and barriers of getting HPV vaccination were also influenced, depending on which media channel the information was circulated.

  15. Towards the eradication of HPV infection through universal specific vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosignani, Piergiorgio; De Stefani, Antonella; Fara, Gaetano Maria; Isidori, Andrea M; Lenzi, Andrea; Liverani, Carlo Antonio; Lombardi, Alberto; Mennini, Francesco Saverio; Palu', Giorgio; Pecorelli, Sergio; Peracino, Andrea P; Signorelli, Carlo; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2013-07-11

    The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is generally recognized to be the direct cause of cervical cancer. The development of effective anti-HPV vaccines, included in the portfolio of recommended vaccinations for any given community, led to the consolidation in many countries of immunization programs to prevent HPV-related cervical cancers. In recent years, increasing evidence in epidemiology and molecular biology have supported the oncogenic role of HPV in the development of other neoplasm including condylomas and penile, anal, vulvar, vaginal, and oro-pharyngeal cancers. Men play a key role in the paradigm of HPV infection: both as patients and as part of the mechanisms of transmission. Data show they are affected almost as often as women. Moreover, no screening procedures for HPV-related disease prevention are applied in men, who fail to undergo routine medical testing by any medical specialist at all. They also do not benefit from government prevention strategies. A panel of experts convened to focus on scientific, medical, and economic studies, and on the achievements from health organizations' intervention programs on the matter. One of the goals was to discuss on the critical issues emerging from the ongoing global implementation of HPV vaccination. A second goal was to identify contributions which could overcome the barriers that impede or delay effective vaccination programs whose purpose is to eradicate the HPV infection both in women and men. The reviewed studies on the natural history of HPV infection and related diseases in women and men, the increasing experience of HPV vaccination in women, the analysis of clinical effectiveness vs economic efficacy of HPV vaccination, are even more supportive of the economic sustainability of vaccination programs both in women and men. Those achievements address increasing and needed attention to the issue of social equity in healthcare for both genders.

  16. Rationale and design of a long term follow-up study of women who did and did not receive HPV 16/18 vaccination in Guanacaste, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Paula; Hildesheim, Allan; Herrero, Rolando; Katki, Hormuzd; Wacholder, Sholom; Porras, Carolina; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Jimenez, Silvia; Darragh, Teresa M; Cortes, Bernal; Befano, Brian; Schiffman, Mark; Carvajal, Loreto; Palefsky, Joel; Schiller, John; Ocampo, Rebeca; Schussler, John; Lowy, Douglas; Guillen, Diego; Stoler, Mark H; Quint, Wim; Morales, Jorge; Avila, Carlos; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Kreimer, Aimée R

    2015-04-27

    The Costa Rica Vaccine Trial (CVT) was a randomized clinical trial conducted between 2004 and 2010, which randomized 7466 women aged 18 to 25 to receive the bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine or control Hepatitis-A vaccine. Participants were followed for 4 years with cross-over vaccination at the study end. In 2010 the long term follow-up (LTFU) study was initiated to evaluate the 10-year impact of HPV-16/18 vaccination, determinants of the immune response, and HPV natural history in a vaccinated population. Herein, the rationale, design and methods of the LTFU study are described, which actively follows CVT participants in the HPV-arm 6 additional years at biennial intervals (3 additional study visits for 10 years of total follow-up), or more often if clinically indicated. According to the initial commitment, women in the Hepatitis-A arm were offered HPV vaccination at cross-over; they were followed 2 additional years and exited from the study. 92% of eligible CVT women accepted participation in LTFU. To provide underlying rates of HPV acquisition and cervical disease among unvaccinated women to compare with the HPV-arm during LTFU, a new unvaccinated control group (UCG) of women who are beyond the age generally recommended for routine vaccination was enrolled, and will be followed by cervical cancer screening over 6 years. To form the UCG, 5000 women were selected from a local census, of whom 2836 women (61% of eligible women) agreed to participate. Over 90% of participants complied with an interview, blood and cervical specimen collection. Evaluation of comparability between the original (Hepatitis-A arm of CVT) and new (UCG) control groups showed that women's characteristics, as well as their predicted future risk for cervical HPV acquisition, were similar, thus validating use of the UCG. LTFU is poised to comprehensively address many important questions related to long-term effects of prophylactic HPV vaccines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. HPV vaccine acceptability in high-risk Greek men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefer, Lea; Tsikis, Savas; Bethimoutis, George; Nicolaidou, Electra; Paparizos, Vassilios; Antoniou, Christina; Kanelleas, Antonios; Chardalias, Leonidas; Stavropoulos, Georgios-Emmanouil; Schneider, John; Charnot-Katsikas, Angella

    2017-09-22

    HPV is associated with malignancy in men, yet there is a lack of data on HPV knowledge, vaccine acceptability, and factors affecting vaccine acceptability in Greek men. This study aims to identify determinants of knowledge and willingness to vaccinate against HPV among high-risk Greek men. Men (n = 298) between the ages of 18 and 55 were enrolled from the STI and HIV clinics at "Andreas Syggros" Hospital in Athens, Greece from July-October 2015. Participants completed a survey on demographics, economic factors, sexual history, HPV knowledge, and vaccine acceptability. The majority of participants were younger than 40 (76.6%) and unmarried (84.6%). Our sample was 31.2% MSM (men who have sex with men), and 20.1% were HIV-positive. Most participants (>90%) were aware that HPV is highly prevalent in both men and women; however, fewer identified that HPV causes cancers in both sexes (68%) and that vaccination protects men and women (67%). Amongst participants, 76.7% were willing to vaccinate themselves against HPV, 71.4% an adolescent son, and 69.3% an adolescent daughter. HIV-positive men were more likely to be willing to vaccinate themselves (OR 2.83, p = .015), a son (OR 3.3, p = .015) or a daughter (3.01, p = .020). Higher income levels were associated with increased willingness to vaccinate oneself (OR 1.32, p = .027), a son (1.33, p = .032) or daughter (1.34, p = .027). Although there is a HPV knowledge gap, HPV vaccine acceptability is high despite lack of vaccine promotion to Greek men. Future studies should include lower-risk men to adequately inform public health efforts.

  18. HPV Vaccine (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-07-25

    Nearly all sexually active men and women will get infected with the human papillomavirus, or HPV, at some point in their lives. HPV can lead to serious health problems later in life, including certain cancers in both men and women. Since 2006, a vaccine has been available that protects against the most frequent cancer-causing types of HPV. In this podcast, Shannon Stokley discusses the importance of getting the HPV vaccine.  Created: 7/25/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 7/25/2013.

  19. Assessment of bivalent and tetravalent dengue vaccine formulations in flavivirus-naïve adults in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Gustavo H; Galán-Herrera, Juan-Francisco; Forrat, Remi; Zambrano, Betzana; Bouckenooghe, Alain; Harenberg, Anke; Guy, Bruno; Lang, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Several ChimeriVax-Dengue (CYD)-based vaccination strategies were investigated as potential alternatives to vaccination with tetravalent CYD vaccine (CYD-TDV) in this phase IIa trial conducted in 2008-9 in 150 healthy adults. Participants were randomized and vaccinated on D0 and D105 (± 15 days). One group received bivalent CYD vaccine against serotypes 1 and 3 (CYD-1;3) on day 0 and CYD-2;4 on day 105 (± 15 days). Two groups received an injection at each timepoint of a tetravalent blend of CYD-1;3;4 and a VERO cell derived, live attenuated vaccine against serotype 2 (VDV-2), or the reference CYD-TDV. A fourth group received Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine on days -14, -7 and 0, followed by CYD-TDV on day 105. Viraemia was infrequent in all groups. CYD-4 viraemia was most frequent after tetravalent vaccination, while CYD-3 viraemia was most frequent after the first bivalent vaccination. Immunogenicity as assessed by 50% plaque reduction neutralisation test on D28 was comparable after the first injection of either tetravalent vaccine, and increased after the second injection, particularly with the blended CYD-1;3;4/ VDV-2 vaccine. In the bivalent vaccine group, immune response against serotype 3 was highest and the second injection elicited a low immune response against CYD 2 and 4. Immune responses after the first injection of CYD-TDV in the JE-primed group were in general higher than after the first injection in the other groups. All tested regimens were well tolerated without marked differences between groups. Bivalent vaccination showed no advantage in terms of immunogenicity. NCT00740155.

  20. Knowledge and Awareness of Cervical Cancer, Human Papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV Vaccine Among HPV-Infected Chinese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Zulqarnain; Yasmeen, Nafeesa; Li, Yuanyue; Zhang, Wenhui; Lu, Hongyu; Wu, Xiaomei; Xia, Xueshan; Yang, Shihua

    2017-09-04

    BACKGROUND It is important to understand the knowledge that various groups of a population have about cervical cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) and their attitudes toward HPV vaccination, as it will ultimately influence their decision-making for or against the acceptability of vaccines and other preventive methods. This study was designed to determine the level of knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer, HPV, and the HPV vaccine among Chinese women in Yunnan province. MATERIAL AND METHODS A survey was conducted in Yunnan province by the Laboratory of Molecular Virology in collaboration with the Yunnan First People's Hospital in Feb 2015. A total of 388 women were recruited and asked to participate in a questionnaire-based interview that collected information related to their awareness and knowledge about: (1) cervical cancer, (2) HPV and HPV vaccine and willingness to have their children receive vaccination, and (3) demographic characteristics. RESULTS A total of 388 HPV-positive women were included; 300/388 (73.3%) were Han, and 88/388 (22.7%) were other ethnicities. Overall, 204/388 (52.6%) of the women were aware of cervical cancer, with a significant difference between Han women and women of other ethnic groups (168/388, 56.0% and 36/88, 40.9%; P=0.015). Overall, 26.5% of the women were aware of the role of HPV in cervical cancer; 29.0% of the Han women and 18.2% of women of other ethnic groups were aware of this role of HPV (P=0.05). The knowledge that HPV infection leads to cervical cancer was higher among Han women (29.0%) compared to women of other ethnicities (18.2%). Knowledge about the HPV vaccine was very low in all ethnic groups, but the Han women were more willing to allow their children to be vaccinated before they become sexually active. A similar difference has also been found in women from various regions. CONCLUSIONS Although level of awareness and knowledge about cervical cancer was moderate, knowledge and awareness of HPV and the HPV

  1. The next generation of HPV vaccines: nonavalent vaccine V503 on the horizon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Archana

    2014-11-01

    HPV infection with 'high-risk' genotypes is associated with ano-genital and oropharyngeal cancers. Two currently licensed prophylactic HPV vaccines designed to prevent disease associated with HPV 16 and 18 are in use around the world. Both vaccines have very high efficacy for prevention of vaccine type-associated cervical precancers, preventing approximately 70% of these lesions. Quadrivalent HPV vaccine has also been shown to prevent HPV16/18-associated vaginal, vulvar and anal precancers, and HPV6/11-associated ano-genital warts. To broaden protection against HPV genotypes not in the current vaccines, 'second-generation' vaccines with additional genotypes are under development. Merck, Sharp and Dohme has submitted a Biologics License Application for its investigational nonavalent HPV vaccine V503 to the US FDA, with standard review being granted. The nonavalent HPV vaccine appears to be safe and effective in preventing persistent infection and precancerous lesions associated with HPV types 16/18/31/33/45/52/58, as well as genital warts related to HPV types 6 and 11.

  2. HPV vaccination series completion and co-vaccination: Pairing vaccines may matter for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim-Malpass, Jessica; McKim Mitchell, Emma; Camacho, Fabian

    2015-10-26

    Very little is known about the effect of concurrent co-vaccination on HPV series completion. This study utilized a retrospective review of a Clinical Data Repository to assess whether concurrent vaccination had an impact on HPV vaccination series completion, and whether there were differences based on age. 3371 patients who received the HPV vaccine at a single academic medical center between the years 2009-2013 were included in this analysis. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for effect of concurrent vaccination on series completion for the age group 9-18 was 1.32 (95% CI 1.09, 1.60). Although not statistically significant, the aOR for effect of concurrent vaccination on completion changed direction for the 19-25 age group and was 0.44 (95% CI 0.17, 1.12). This study provides preliminary evidence that pairing the HPV vaccine with one or more co-vaccines may yield a higher HPV vaccination completion rate among adolescents age 9-18. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Vaccinating Girls and Boys with Different Human Papillomavirus Vaccines: Can It Optimise Population-Level Effectiveness?

    OpenAIRE

    Mélanie Drolet; Marie-Claude Boily; Nicolas Velde; Franco, Eduardo L.; Marc Brisson

    2013-01-01

    Background Decision-makers may consider vaccinating girls and boys with different HPV vaccines to benefit from their respective strengths; the quadrivalent (HPV4) prevents anogenital warts (AGW) whilst the bivalent (HPV2) may confer greater cross-protection. We compared, to a girls-only vaccination program with HPV4, the impact of vaccinating: 1) both genders with HPV4, and 2) boys with HPV4 and girls with HPV2. Methods We used an individual-based transmission-dynamic model of heterosexual HP...

  4. Vaccine Misconceptions and Low HPV Vaccination Take-up Rates in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, S K; Tesalona, K C; Rashid, N Mohamed; Tai, E Y S; Najib, S Mohd

    2015-01-01

    HPV vaccination in Singapore is voluntary and physician prescription-based. This study investigated the current status and intention for HPV vaccination among Singapore nurses. All female nurses in a general hospital were given an anonymous questionnaire on HPV vaccination experience and intention of vaccinating their daughters. The influence of age, knowledge and perceived-risk of cervical cancer, and cultural background on mother's intention of vaccinating their daughters was analyzed. Of 2,000 nurses, 1,622 (81.1%) responded and analysis was performed on 1,611 with valid data. They showed good awareness on association of cervical cancer with multiple sexual partners (81.9%), history of sexually transmissible diseases (78.2%), and history of genital warts/HPV infection (73.5%), and on cervical cancer preventive effects of HPV vaccination (54.6%). The prevailing misconceptions of the vaccines were: investigational nature (38.9%), side effects (27.9%) and indicated for women at high risk for cervical cancer (20.5%). Misconceptions on the nature, role and safety of HPV vaccines low vaccine up-take rates and daughters. Dissemination of adequate and accurate HPV vaccine information and a review for school-based vaccination are needed for optimal delivery of HPV vaccines in Singapore.

  5. Effect of administration of ultra-corn with bivalent Foot and Mouth disease oil vaccine in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Sayed Mohamed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present work was established in order to investigate the effect of ultra-corn administration on the immune response of vaccinated calves with FMD bivalent oil vaccine. Material and Methods: Forty calves; at a private farm in EL-Fayoum Governorate (Locality A; were divided into 4 groups where the first group was vaccinated with the locally produced FMD bivalent oil vaccine alone while the 2nd, 3rd and 4th group were vaccinated with the same vaccine simultaneously with the inoculation of 1, 1.5 and 2mL/100kg body weight of ultra-corn respectively to estimate the antibody titer, the suitable dose and effect of ultra-corn as immunostimulant using SNT and ELISA. Also after that used the effective and lowest dose of ultra-corn simultaneously with the vaccine in comparison with the vaccine alone by using 26 calves (Locality B to study the efficacy of ultra-corn simultaneously with vaccine and the vaccine alone via challenge test using the virulent FMDV serotype A,O. Results: Tested serum samples obtained on week intervals post vaccination of all calve groups were subjected for estimation of induced FMD antibodies type A and O using serum neutralization test (SNT and enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA. Both tests indicate that 1.5mL, 2mL of ultra-corn enhanced the immune response of vaccinated calves exhibiting higher and longer immunity than those received the vaccine alone. In addition 26 calves housed under restrict hygienic measures at Veterinary Serum and Vaccine Research Institute, were divided into 4 groups where group-1 of 10 calves were vaccinated with the bivalent FMD vaccine alone and group-2 was vaccinated with the same vaccine simultaneously with 1.5mL of ultra-corn while group 3 and 4 were kept as control for the challenge test. On the 4th week post vaccination group 1, 2 of these animals was subdivided into 2 subgroups where the challenge test was carried out against type A in a subgroup and O in other subgroup. SNT and

  6. Knowledge of HPV, Perception of Risk, and Intent to Obtain HPV Vaccination among Male University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV), the most common sexually transmitted virus in the world, is associated with almost all cases of cervical cancer. It is also related to vulvar, vaginal, penile, anal, and oropharyngeal cancer. HPV vaccination is recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for both boys and girls. Unfortunately,…

  7. Trust and experience as predictors of HPV vaccine acceptance

    OpenAIRE

    Marlow, L.A.V.; Waller, J.; Wardle, J

    2007-01-01

    Background: Awareness of factors associated with uptake of new childhood vaccinations could help physicians focus attention on parents who are most likely to decline to help and ensure that they are fully informed before making a vaccination decision.Aim: To examine the association between general vaccine attitudes, trust in doctors and the government, past experience with vaccination and acceptance of HPV vaccination.Design: School-based survey.Setting: Questionnaires were sent through 10 sc...

  8. Interference of Monovalent, Bivalent, and Trivalent Oral Poliovirus Vaccines on Monovalent Rotavirus Vaccine Immunogenicity in Rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emperador, Devy M; Velasquez, Daniel E; Estivariz, Concepcion F; Lopman, Ben; Jiang, Baoming; Parashar, Umesh; Anand, Abhijeet; Zaman, Khalequ

    2016-01-15

    Trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) is known to interfere with monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) immunogenicity. The interference caused by bivalent and monovalent OPV formulations, which will be increasingly used globally in coming years, has not been examined. We conducted a post hoc analysis to assess the effect of coadministration of different OPV formulations on RV1 immunogenicity. Healthy infants in Matlab, Bangladesh, were randomized to receive 3 doses of monovalent OPV type 1 or bivalent OPV types 1 and 3 at either 6, 8, and 10 or 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age or trivalent OPV at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age. All infants received 2 doses of RV1 at about 6 and 10 weeks of age. Concomitant administration was defined as RV1 and OPV given on the same day; staggered administration as RV1 and OPV given ≥1 day apart. Rotavirus seroconversion was defined as a 4-fold rise in immunoglobulin A titer from before the first RV1 dose to ≥3 weeks after the second RV1 dose. There were no significant differences in baseline RV1 immunogenicity among the 409 infants included in the final analysis. Infants who received RV1 and OPV concomitantly, regardless of OPV formulation, were less likely to seroconvert (47%; 95% confidence interval, 39%-54%) than those who received both vaccines staggered ≥1 day (63%; 57%-70%; P < .001). For staggered administration, we found no evidence that the interval between RV1 and OPV administration affected RV1 immunogenicity. Coadministration of monovalent, bivalent, or trivalent OPV seems to lower RV1 immunogenicity. NCT01633216. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  9. Perceptions of HPV Vaccine amongst UK University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ellen; Senior, Naomi; Abdullah, Ammar; Brown, Janine; Collings, Suzanne; Racktoo, Sophie; Walpole, Sarah; Zeiton, Moez; Heffernan, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this small-scale focus group study is to explore the impact the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine has on attitudes towards HPV, cervical cancer and sexual risk taking amongst university students in the UK. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were recruited through advertisements placed on notice boards throughout the…

  10. HPV vaccination in Indonesia : A health-economic & comparative perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, Didik

    2017-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is an important cause of cancer, inclusive cervical cancer disease. Despite preventive efforts, the clinical and economic burden of cervical cancer remains high. With non-optimal performance of available cervical screening programs, HPV vaccination becomes an alternative

  11. Recombinant canine distemper virus serves as bivalent live vaccine against rabies and canine distemper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xijun; Feng, Na; Ge, Jinying; Shuai, Lei; Peng, Liyan; Gao, Yuwei; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu; Bu, Zhigao

    2012-07-20

    Effective, safe, and affordable rabies vaccines are still being sought. Attenuated live vaccine has been widely used to protect carnivores from canine distemper. In this study, we generated a recombinant canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccine strain, rCDV-RVG, expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG) by using reverse genetics. The recombinant virus rCDV-RVG retained growth properties similar to those of vector CDV in Vero cell culture. Animal studies demonstrated that rCDV-RVG was safe in mice and dogs. Mice inoculated intracerebrally or intramuscularly with rCDV-RVG showed no apparent signs of disease and developed a strong rabies virus (RABV) neutralizing antibody response, which completely protected mice from challenge with a lethal dose of street virus. Canine studies showed that vaccination with rCDV-RVG induced strong and long-lasting virus neutralizing antibody responses to RABV and CDV. This is the first study demonstrating that recombinant CDV has the potential to serve as bivalent live vaccine against rabies and canine distemper in animals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Newcastle Disease Virus Vectored Bivalent Vaccine against Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease and Newcastle Disease of Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohini Dey

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease virus (NDV strain F is a lentogenic vaccine strain used for primary vaccination in day-old chickens against Newcastle disease (ND in India and Southeast Asian countries. Recombinant NDV-F virus and another recombinant NDV harboring the major capsid protein VP2 gene of a very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV; namely rNDV-F and rNDV-F/VP2, respectively, were generated using the NDV F strain. The rNDV-F/VP2 virus was slightly attenuated, as compared to the rNDV-F virus, as evidenced from the mean death time and intracerebral pathogenicity index analysis. This result indicates that rNDV-F/VP2 behaves as a lentogenic virus and it is stable even after 10 serial passages in embryonated chicken eggs. When chickens were vaccinated with the rNDV F/VP2, it induced both humoral and cell mediated immunity, and was able to confer complete protection against very virulent IBDV challenge and 80% protection against virulent NDV challenge. These results suggest that rNDV-F could be an effective and inherently safe vaccine vector. Here, we demonstrate that a bivalent NDV-IBDV vaccine candidate generated by reverse genetics method is safe, efficacious and cost-effective, which will greatly aid the poultry industry in developing countries.

  13. Factors influencing uptake of HPV vaccination among girls in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schülein, Stefanie; Taylor, Katherine J; König, Jochem; Claus, Matthias; Blettner, Maria; Klug, Stefanie J

    2016-09-20

    Adequate coverage is key to the success of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programmes. There is currently no organised HPV vaccination programme in Germany. The aim of this analysis was to determine HPV vaccine uptake as well as factors associated with uptake in nine to 17 year-old girls in Germany during the first year of vaccine availability. This analysis is based on data from the Healthcare Access Panel, an established population-based household panel consisting of 55 000 representative households in Germany who were contacted between September and October 2007. A total of 4 747 households included at least one girl aged nine to 17 years. After reading a description of the HPV vaccine, these girls were asked, "Would you have yourself vaccinated against HPV?" Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate associations between vaccination status and socio-demographic characteristics of the girls and their mothers. Of the 4 747 girls in the households who received questionnaires, 2 224 (46.9 %) participated in the study and 1 906 (40.2 %) answered the vaccination question. A total of 17.4 % of the girls were already vaccinated, 61.5 % felt positively about doing so, 4.7 % said they would not be vaccinated, and 16.3 % were not sure. The probability of a girl being vaccinated increased with each additional year of age (Odds Ratio (OR): 1.6, 95 % Confidence Interval (CI) 1.5-1.7). Among the 17 year-old girls, 38.5 % (95 % CI 32.6-44.4 %) had been vaccinated. Having a mother with high education (OR: 1.5, 95 % CI 1.0-2.3) or medium education (OR: 1.5, 95 % CI 1.1-2.1) versus basic education was a significant predictor for having been vaccinated. Similarly, medium (OR: 1.5, 95 % CI 1.0-2.4) versus low SES was significantly associated with having been vaccinated. Our analysis showed that during the first year of HPV vaccine availability in Germany, vaccination uptake was low. Countries with organised HPV vaccination programmes showed

  14. Factors influencing uptake of HPV vaccination among girls in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Schülein

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adequate coverage is key to the success of human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination programmes. There is currently no organised HPV vaccination programme in Germany. The aim of this analysis was to determine HPV vaccine uptake as well as factors associated with uptake in nine to 17 year-old girls in Germany during the first year of vaccine availability. Methods This analysis is based on data from the Healthcare Access Panel, an established population-based household panel consisting of 55 000 representative households in Germany who were contacted between September and October 2007. A total of 4 747 households included at least one girl aged nine to 17 years. After reading a description of the HPV vaccine, these girls were asked, “Would you have yourself vaccinated against HPV?” Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate associations between vaccination status and socio-demographic characteristics of the girls and their mothers. Results Of the 4 747 girls in the households who received questionnaires, 2 224 (46.9 % participated in the study and 1 906 (40.2 % answered the vaccination question. A total of 17.4 % of the girls were already vaccinated, 61.5 % felt positively about doing so, 4.7 % said they would not be vaccinated, and 16.3 % were not sure. The probability of a girl being vaccinated increased with each additional year of age (Odds Ratio (OR: 1.6, 95 % Confidence Interval (CI 1.5–1.7. Among the 17 year-old girls, 38.5 % (95 % CI 32.6–44.4 % had been vaccinated. Having a mother with high education (OR: 1.5, 95 % CI 1.0–2.3 or medium education (OR: 1.5, 95 % CI 1.1–2.1 versus basic education was a significant predictor for having been vaccinated. Similarly, medium (OR: 1.5, 95 % CI 1.0–2.4 versus low SES was significantly associated with having been vaccinated. Our analysis showed that during the first year of HPV vaccine availability in Germany, vaccination uptake was low

  15. Counseling about the HPV vaccine: desexualize, educate, and advocate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Richard M; Benjamins, Laura J; Williams, Kendra L

    2013-08-01

    Information is provided for clinicians who treat adolescents and adult women to use when counseling patients about human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. A literature search was done to determine: (1) reasons for refusal of the vaccine, including cost and concerns that immunization against HPV will lead to promiscuity; (2) potential for non-sexual transmission of HPV; (3) non-genital locations of HPV; (4) non-genital cancers associated with HPV. Vaccines for Children Program and the Affordable Care Act eliminate many costs.Neither biological nor behavioral evidence supports the idea that sexual behavior changes after immunization. HPV is transmitted from person to person by non-sexual routes including mother to child at birth and apparently by touch after birth. HPV is persistent in the environment, including medical environments. It has been found on apparently sterilized instruments used in vaginal exams. Pathogenic HPV has been recovered from breast tissue, sinonasal areas, and nipples as well as from hair follicles on arms, legs, scalps, eyebrows, and pubic hair. Pathogenic HPV was found in 6.5% of the oral cavities of a random sample of Americans. HPV is known to cause anal and oral cancers. It has also been associated with skin cancers, breast tumors, and prostate cancers. It is not known if the vaccine is protective against these cancers, but it is useful to educate about these other routes of transmission and non-genital HPV linked cancers so that patients/parents do not just focus on the sexual nature of the human papillomavirus.

  16. HPV vaccination: knowledge, attitudes and beliefs in the Chinese population

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Du

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide. An estimated 62,000 cases of cervical cancer occur annually in China, accounting for 12% of global incidence. Virtually all cervical cancers are related to infection by Human Papilloma Virus (HPV): effective HPV vaccines have been developed and vaccination programmes introduced in many countries over the last decade. Given the burden of cervical cancer in China, it is imperative that effective ...

  17. Developments in L2-based human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenbacher, Christina; Roden, Richard B S; Kirnbauer, Reinhard

    2017-03-02

    Infections with sexually transmitted high-risk Human Papillomavirus (hrHPV), of which there are at least 15 genotypes, are responsible for a tremendous disease burden by causing cervical, and subsets of other ano-genital and oro-pharyngeal carcinomas, together representing 5% of all cancer cases worldwide. HPV subunit vaccines consisting of virus-like particles (VLP) self-assembled from major capsid protein L1 plus adjuvant have been licensed. Prophylactic vaccinations with the 2-valent (HPV16/18), 4-valent (HPV6/11/16/18), or 9-valent (HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) vaccine induce high-titer neutralizing antibodies restricted to the vaccine types that cause up to 90% of cervical carcinomas, a subset of other ano-genital and oro-pharyngeal cancers and 90% of benign ano-genital warts (condylomata). The complexity of manufacturing multivalent L1-VLP vaccines limits the number of included VLP types and thus the vaccines' spectrum of protection, leaving a panel of oncogenic mucosal HPV unaddressed. In addition, current vaccines do not protect against cutaneous HPV types causing benign skin warts, or against beta-papillomavirus (betaPV) types implicated in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in immunosuppressed patients. In contrast with L1-VLP, the minor capsid protein L2 contains type-common epitopes that induce low-titer yet broadly cross-neutralizing antibodies to heterologous PV types and provide cross-protection in animal challenge models. Efforts to increase the low immunogenicity of L2 (poly)-peptides and thereby to develop broader-spectrum HPV vaccines are the focus of this review. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of Louisiana's HPV Vaccine Awareness Policy on HPV Vaccination among 13- to 17-Year-Old Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre-Victor, Dudith; Trepka, Mary Jo; Page, Timothy F.; Li, Tan; Stephens, Dionne P.; Madhivanan, Purnima

    2017-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends routine human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization for 11- to 12-year-old adolescents. In 2008, Louisiana required the school boards to distribute HPV vaccine information to parents or guardian of students in Grades 6 to 12. This article investigates the impact of this policy on HPV…

  19. Elimination of Cancer Health Disparities through the Acceleration of HPV Vaccines and Vaccinations: A Simplified Version of the President’s Cancer Panel Report on HPV Vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, Eva; Harper, Hill; Ume, Adaku; Baker, Melanie; Diarra, Cheick; Uyanne, John; Afework, Sebhat; Partlow, Keosha; Tran, Lucy; Okoro, Judith; Doan, Anh; Tate, Karen; Rouse, Mechelle; Tyler, Meidrah; Evans, Kamilah; Sanchez, Tonya; Hasan, Ishmum; Smith-Joe, Enijah; Maniti, Jasmine; Zarate, Liliana; King, Camille; Alugbue, Antoinette; Opara, Chiamaka; Wissa, Bileko; Maniti, Joanne; Pattillo, Roland

    2017-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major public health concern affecting both females and males. HPV is associated with cervical, anal, head and neck cancers. About 99% of all cervical cancers are related to HPV. HPV vaccines, Gardasil, Cervarix, and Gardasil 9 are used in the primary prevention of HPV related cancers. Gardasil and Gardasil 9 are available for use in both females and males ages 9 to 26, while Cervarix is available for females ages 9 to 25. Gardasil 9 was approved by the FDA for prevention against additional HPV types. Despite the availability of this preventative measure against cervical cancer, the rate of HPV vaccination in the United States remains lower than that of other industrialized nations. The purpose of this study is to elucidate mechanisms to help increase the HPV vaccination rate by using education as a tool; by simplifying the president report so that lay person can understand the information presented in the report. Through the quantitative examination of the data from the states with the lowest and highest vaccination rates, using SPSS statistical analysis; we analyzed several factors involved with the low uptake of the vaccines. The results collected show that socioeconomic status, misconceptions about HPV, and misconceptions about the safety of the vaccines were identified as possible obstacles to the effective uptake of HPV vaccinations. The proposals made by the President’s Cancer Panel to accelerate the uptake of vaccines include, increasing coverage of the vaccines through government-sponsored programs, and the Affordable Care Act; increasing accessibility to vaccines through pharmacies, schools, and clinics; and disseminating more information on HPV to healthcare providers, parents, caregivers, and patients. Allowing greater accessibility to the vaccines for all populations regardless of income, education, and eliminating misconceptions of the vaccines would play a significant role in eliminating cancer. PMID:28845336

  20. HPV vaccination to prevent oropharyngeal carcinoma : What can be learned from anogenital vaccination programs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takes, Robert P.; Wierzbicka, Malgorzata; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Jackowska, Joanna; Silver, Carl E.; Rodrigo, Juan P.; Dikkers, Frederik G.; Olsen, Kerry D.; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Brakenhoff, Ruud H.; Ferlito, Alfio

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are well known causes of anogenital cancers. Recent studies show that HPV also plays a role in oropharyngeal cancer (OPC). A review on the role of HPV vaccination in the prevention of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with special emphasis on OPC was

  1. Safety and immunogenicity of a 9-valent HPV vaccine in females 12-26 years of age who previously received the quadrivalent HPV vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Suzanne M; Cheung, Tak-Hong; McNeill, Shelly; Petersen, Lone Kjeld; Romaguera, Josefina; Vazquez-Narvaez, Jorge; Bautista, Oliver; Shields, Christine; Vuocolo, Scott; Luxembourg, Alain

    2015-11-27

    To assess the safety and immunogenicity of the investigational 9-valent (6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) HPV (9vHPV) vaccine in prior recipients of a 3-dose regimen of quadrivalent (6/11/16/18) HPV (qHPV) vaccine. V503-006 was a randomized, double-blinded, safety/tolerability and immunogenicity study of the 9vHPV vaccine in females 12-26 years of age who were previously vaccinated with qHPV vaccine. Subjects were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive 3 doses of 9vHPV vaccine (n=618) or saline placebo (n=306) at day 1, month 2, and month 6. Systemic, injection-site and serious adverse experiences (AEs) were monitored. Serum samples were collected at day 1, month 2, and month 7. Anti-HPV 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 titers were measured using the 9-valent HPV competitive Luminex Immunoassay (cLIA). The frequency of injection-site AEs (days 1-5 following any vaccination) was higher in the 9vHPV vaccine group than in the placebo group (91.1% and 43.9%, respectively). The frequencies of vaccine-related systemic AEs (days 1-15 following any vaccination) were generally comparable between the 2 groups (30.6% in the 9vHPV vaccine group, and 25.9% in the placebo group). One vaccine-related serious AE was reported in each of the 9vHPV vaccine and placebo groups. Few subjects (9vHPV=0.5%; placebo=0%) discontinued due to an AE. At 4 weeks post-dose 3, over 98% of subjects in the 9vHPV vaccine group were seropositive for HPV types 31/33/45/52/58, with marked elevations in cLIA geometric mean titers (GMTs) to these HPV types. Anti-HPV 31/33/45/52/58 GMTs were lower than in subjects administered 9vHPV vaccine who had not previously received qHPV vaccine (based on cross-study analyses); the clinical significance of this difference is unknown. Administration of a 3-dose regimen of 9vHPV vaccine to adolescent girls and young women 12-26 years of age who are prior qHPV vaccine recipients is highly immunogenic with respect to HPV types 31/33/45/52/58 and generally well tolerated. Copyright

  2. Influence of evidence type and narrative type on HPV risk perception and intention to obtain the HPV vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Xiaoli; Dahlstrom, Michael F; Richards, Adam; Rangarajan, Sarani

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the influence of evidence type (statistical, narrative, or hybrid) and narrative type (first-person or third-person) on risk perception about human papillomavirus (HPV) and behavioral intention to get the HPV vaccine. In total, 174 college students who had not received the HPV vaccine participated in a controlled experiment. Results show that the hybrid message containing both statistical and narrative descriptions of HPV resulted in greater perceived risk of getting HPV than either of the messages containing just one type of evidence--statistical or narrative. Moreover, the first-person narrative message led to greater risk perception about HPV than the third-person narrative message. Both evidence type and narrative type had an indirect effect on intention to get the HPV vaccine free of cost through HPV risk perception. Implications of the findings for vaccine risk communication are discussed.

  3. The Switch From Trivalent to Bivalent Oral Poliovirus Vaccine in the South-East Asia Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Sunil; Hasman, Andreas; Eltayeb, Abu Obeida; James Noble, Douglas; Thapa, Arun

    2017-07-01

    This analysis describes an innovative and successful approach to risk identification and mitigation in relation to the switch from trivalent to bivalent oral polio vaccine (OPV) in the 11 countries of the World Health Organization's (WHO's) South-East Asia Region (SEAR) in April 2016.The strong commitment of governments and immunization professionals to polio eradication and an exemplary partnership between the WHO, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and other partners and stakeholders in the region and globally were significant contributors to the success of the OPV switch in the SEAR. Robust national switch plans were developed and country-specific innovations were planned and implemented by the country teams. Close monitoring and tracking of the activities and milestones through dashboards and review meetings were undertaken at the regional level to ensure that implementation time lines were met, barriers identified, and solutions for overcoming challenges were discussed and implemented.The SEAR was the first WHO Region globally to complete the switch and declare the successful withdrawal of trivalent OPV from all countries on 17 May 2016.A number of activities implemented during the switch process are likely to contribute positively to existing immunization practices and to similar initiatives in the future. These activities include better vaccine supply chain management, improved mechanisms for disposal of vaccination-related waste materials, and a closer collaboration with drug regulators, vaccine manufacturers, and the private sector for immunization-related initiatives. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  4. Immunogenicity of next-generation HPV vaccines in non-human primates: Measles-vectored HPV vaccine versus Pichia pastoris recombinant protein vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Gaurav; Giannino, Viviana; Rishi, Narayan; Glueck, Reinhard

    2016-09-07

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide. HPVs are oncogenic small double-stranded DNA viruses that are the primary causal agent of cervical cancer and other types of cancers, including in the anus, oropharynx, vagina, vulva, and penis. Prophylactic vaccination against HPV is an attractive strategy for preventing cervical cancer and some other types of cancers. However, there are few safe and effective vaccines against HPV infections. Current first-generation commercial HPV vaccines are expensive to produce and deliver. The goal of this study was to develop an alternate potent HPV recombinant L1-based vaccines by producing HPV virus-like particles into a vaccine that is currently used worldwide. Live attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccines have a well-established safety and efficacy record, and recombinant MV (rMV) produced by reverse genetics may be useful for generating candidate HPV vaccines to meet the needs of the developing world. We studied in non-human primate rMV-vectored HPV vaccine in parallel with a classical alum adjuvant recombinant HPV16L1 and 18L1 protein vaccine produced in Pichia pastoris. A combined prime-boost approach using both vaccines was evaluated, as well as immune interference due to pre-existing immunity against the MV. The humoral immune response induced by the MV, Pichia-expressed vaccine, and their combination as priming and boosting approaches was found to elicit HPV16L1 and 18L1 specific total IgG and neutralizing antibody titres. Pre-existing antibodies against measles did not prevent the immune response against HPV16L1 and 18L1. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Value for money from HPV vaccination and cervical screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Toni; Sopina, Elizaveta

    2012-06-01

    Introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programs raises some important questions about the future organization of cervical screening programs. Two studies--from NZ and Canada--have addressed the question of what combination of vaccination and screening strategies might be most cost-effective in preventing cervical cancer. Both studies indicate that some modifications to existing screening programs may be desirable as immunized females enter these programs. Variables in HPV vaccination that are likely to be particularly important for determining the future cost-effectiveness of cervical screening programs include: vaccine uptake rate, compliance with full doses, timely completion of doses, duration of protection, male vaccination and HPV infection rate. If value for money is to be achieved, it is important that the appropriate data are collected so that policy makers can consider the combined impact of these two programs on costs and health outcomes.

  6. Value for money from HPV vaccination and cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashton, Toni; Sopina, Elizaveta (Liza)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programs raises some important questions about the future organization of cervical screening programs. Two studies - from NZ and Canada - have addressed the question of what combination of vaccination and screening strategies might be most cost......-effective in preventing cervical cancer. Both studies indicate that some modifications to existing screening programs may be desirable as immunized females enter these programs. Variables in HPV vaccination that are likely to be particularly important for determining the future cost-effectiveness of cervical screening...... programs include: vaccine uptake rate, compliance with full doses, timely completion of doses, duration of protection, male vaccination and HPV infection rate. If value for money is to be achieved, it is important that the appropriate data are collected so that policy makers can consider the combined...

  7. Two Novel Salmonella Bivalent Vaccines Confer Dual Protection against Two Salmonella Serovars in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinxin; Dai, Qinlong; Jia, Renyong; Zhu, Dekang; Liu, Mafeng; Wang, Mingshu; Chen, Shun; Sun, Kunfeng; Yang, Qiao; Wu, Ying; Cheng, Anchun

    2017-01-01

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella includes thousands of serovars that are leading causes of foodborne diarrheal illness worldwide. In this study, we constructed three bivalent vaccines for preventing both Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Newport infections by using the aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (Asd)-based balanced-lethal vector-host system. The constructed Asd+ plasmid pCZ11 carrying a subset of the Salmonella Newport O-antigen gene cluster including the wzx-wbaR-wbaL-wbaQ-wzy-wbaW-wbaZ genes was introduced into three Salmonella Typhimurium mutants: SLT19 (Δasd) with a smooth LPS phenotype, SLT20 (Δasd ΔrfbN) with a rough LPS phenotype, and SLT22 (Δasd ΔrfbN ΔpagL::T araC PBAD rfbN) with a smooth LPS phenotype when grown with arabinose. Immunoblotting demonstrated that SLT19 harboring pCZ11 [termed SLT19 (pCZ11)] co-expressed the homologous and heterologous O-antigens; SLT20 (pCZ11) exclusively expressed the heterologous O-antigen; and when arabinose was available, SLT22 (pCZ11) expressed both types of O-antigens, while in the absence of arabinose, SLT22 (pCZ11) expressed only the heterologous O-antigen. Exclusive expression of the heterologous O-antigen in Salmonella Typhimurium decreased the swimming ability of the bacterium and its susceptibility to polymyxin B. Next, the crp gene was deleted from the three recombinant strains for attenuation purposes, generating the three bivalent vaccine strains SLT25 (pCZ11), SLT26 (pCZ11), and SLT27 (pCZ11), respectively. Groups of BALB/c mice (12 mice/group) were orally immunized with 109 CFU of each vaccine strain twice at an interval of 4 weeks. Compared with a mock immunization, immunization with all three vaccine strains induced significant serum IgG responses against both Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Newport LPS. The bacterial loads in the mouse tissues were significantly lower in the three vaccine-strain-immunized groups than in the mock group after either Salmonella Typhimurium or Salmonella

  8. Two Novel Salmonella Bivalent Vaccines Confer Dual Protection against Two Salmonella Serovars in Mice

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    Xinxin Zhao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-typhoidal Salmonella includes thousands of serovars that are leading causes of foodborne diarrheal illness worldwide. In this study, we constructed three bivalent vaccines for preventing both Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Newport infections by using the aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (Asd-based balanced-lethal vector-host system. The constructed Asd+ plasmid pCZ11 carrying a subset of the Salmonella Newport O-antigen gene cluster including the wzx-wbaR-wbaL-wbaQ-wzy-wbaW-wbaZ genes was introduced into three Salmonella Typhimurium mutants: SLT19 (Δasd with a smooth LPS phenotype, SLT20 (Δasd ΔrfbN with a rough LPS phenotype, and SLT22 (Δasd ΔrfbN ΔpagL::T araC PBADrfbN with a smooth LPS phenotype when grown with arabinose. Immunoblotting demonstrated that SLT19 harboring pCZ11 [termed SLT19 (pCZ11] co-expressed the homologous and heterologous O-antigens; SLT20 (pCZ11 exclusively expressed the heterologous O-antigen; and when arabinose was available, SLT22 (pCZ11 expressed both types of O-antigens, while in the absence of arabinose, SLT22 (pCZ11 expressed only the heterologous O-antigen. Exclusive expression of the heterologous O-antigen in Salmonella Typhimurium decreased the swimming ability of the bacterium and its susceptibility to polymyxin B. Next, the crp gene was deleted from the three recombinant strains for attenuation purposes, generating the three bivalent vaccine strains SLT25 (pCZ11, SLT26 (pCZ11, and SLT27 (pCZ11, respectively. Groups of BALB/c mice (12 mice/group were orally immunized with 109 CFU of each vaccine strain twice at an interval of 4 weeks. Compared with a mock immunization, immunization with all three vaccine strains induced significant serum IgG responses against both Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Newport LPS. The bacterial loads in the mouse tissues were significantly lower in the three vaccine-strain-immunized groups than in the mock group after either Salmonella Typhimurium or

  9. Psychosocial correlates of HPV vaccine acceptability in college males: A cross-sectional exploratory study

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    Ovidiu Tatar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most college males are not immunized against the human papillomavirus (HPV and are at high risk of HPV infection. Most research of correlates of HPV vaccine acceptability in college males has assessed vaccine acceptability as a binary outcome, e.g., vaccinated or not vaccinated, without considering that some students may not even be aware that the HPV vaccine can be given to males. Our objective was to evaluate the psychosocial correlates of HPV acceptability in college males, based on multiple stages of HPV decision-making. Methods: We used an online questionnaire to collect data from college men aged 18–26 enrolled at three Canadian universities between September 2013 and April 2014. Vaccine acceptability assessment was informed by the six-stage decision-making Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM. We sought information on socio-demographics, health behaviors, HPV vaccine benefits and barriers, worry, susceptibility, severity related to HPV infection and social norms. HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge was measured with validated scales. Psychosocial correlates of HPV vaccine acceptability were assessed with bivariate and multivariate multinomial logistic regression. Actual and perceived HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge scores were calculated. Results: The final sample size was 428. Most male college students were unaware that the HPV vaccine could be given to males, unengaged or undecided about getting the HPV vaccine. Significant correlates of higher HPV vaccine acceptability were: increased HPV knowledge, having discussed the HPV vaccine with a healthcare provider, and social norms. Being in an exclusive sexual relationship was significantly associated with lower HPV vaccine acceptability. Students' actual HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge was low and positively correlated to their perception about their HPV knowledge. Conclusions: We provided a fine-tuned analysis of psychosocial correlates of HPV vaccine acceptability in college

  10. HPV vaccine acceptability in Africa: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Melissa S; Davison, Colleen; Aronson, Kristan J

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature on the factors associated with HPV vaccine acceptability among adults in African countries. A systematic search was conducted across five electronic databases: EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, Global Health and Ovid MEDLINE, to identify studies related to HPV vaccination acceptability in African countries (August 2013). The Health Belief Model was used to guide data abstraction and synthesis. Fourteen unique studies representing ten sub-Saharan African countries were identified, with more than half published within the last two years. Acceptability of the HPV vaccine for daughters was high (range 59-100%); however, vaccine-related awareness and knowledge were low. Perceived barriers including accessibility and cost concerns were important for acceptance, as were cues to action from healthcare providers and governments. This review suggests that acceptability of the HPV vaccine in countries in this region will be high. Broad knowledge gaps were highlighted regarding HPV and cervical cancer and these should be addressed. Education on the vaccine's effectiveness and reducing perceived barriers to vaccination would also be useful. Public endorsement by governments and healthcare providers will likely also increase acceptance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. HPV awareness and willingness to HPV vaccination among high-risk men attending an STI clinic in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-López, Vivian; Del Toro-Mejías, Lizbeth M; Ortiz, Ana P; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Palefsky, Joel M

    2012-12-01

    An HPV vaccine has been approved for men aged 9 to 26 in the US for the prevention of genital warts and anal cancer. The purpose of this study is to describe 1) HPV vaccine awareness, 2) willingness to get the HPV vaccine and 3) perceived susceptibility to HPV-related cancers and genital warts among men 18-26 years old who attend an STI clinic in San Juan, Puerto Rico (PR). A cross-sectional pilot study consisting of 206 HIV+/HIV- men. For purpose of this analysis, only those participants aged vaccinated against HPV. Fewer than a third knew about the HPV vaccine (28.3%). However, more than half (76.9%) were willing to be vaccinated against HPV. Information sources about the HPV vaccine included their female sexual partners (13.0%), a female sexual partner who received the vaccine (8.7%) and a male sexual partner (2.2%). Most participants'reported that the main reason that would increase their willingness to get vaccinated was if a physician recommend the vaccine (95.7%). Perceived susceptibility was low, particularly for anal and oral cancer. This pilot study shows poor awareness of the HPV vaccine, although willingness to getting the HPV vaccine was high among those who knew about the vaccine. Future studies should try to evaluate this paradox and study in depth willingness and barriers to vaccination among male sub-groups, such as men who have sex with men (MSM). These studies should also evaluate predictors of uptake of the HPV vaccine among men in this and other STI clinics in PR, in order to develop interventions to increase male vaccination.

  12. Prevalence of HPV 16 and 18 and attitudes toward HPV vaccination trials in patients with cervical cancer in Mali.

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    Ibrahima Téguété

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is one of the most common and lethal cancers in West Africa. Even though vaccines that protect against the most common Human papillomavirus (HPV strains, 16 and 18, are currently in use in developed countries, the implementation of these vaccines in developing countries has been painfully slow, considering the pre-eminence of HPV-associated cervical cancer among women in those countries.We performed serological and PCR-based assessment of blood and tissue specimens obtained from women undergoing cervical cancer-related surgery at a major urban hospital in Bamako. Since several therapeutic HPV vaccines are currently in clinical trials, we also assessed willingness to participate in HPV cancer vaccine trials.Blood and biopsy samples of 240 women were evaluated for HPV types 16 and 18 by serology and PCR. Knowledge regarding the HPV vaccine and autonomy to decide to vaccinate their own child was assessed with a standardized questionnaire.HPV 16 and 18 were identified in 137/166 (82.5% cervical cancer biopsy samples by PCR. Co-infection with both HPV 16 and 18 was significantly more frequent in women over 50 years of age than in younger women (63.0% vs. 37.0%. 44% of study participants said they would be willing to vaccinate their child with HPV vaccine. Only 39% of women participating in this study reported that they would be able to make an autonomous decision to receive HPV vaccination. Permission from a male spouse or head of household was identified as important for participation by 59% of the women.This study provides strong support for the introduction of currently available HPV vaccines in Mali, and also provides key information about conditions for obtaining informed consent for HPV vaccine trials and HPV vaccination in Mali.

  13. Prevalence of HPV 16 and 18 and attitudes toward HPV vaccination trials in patients with cervical cancer in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téguété, Ibrahima; Dolo, Amadou; Sangare, Kotou; Sissoko, Abdoulaye; Rochas, Mali; Beseme, Sarah; Tounkara, Karamoko; Yekta, Shahla; De Groot, Anne S; Koita, Ousmane A

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common and lethal cancers in West Africa. Even though vaccines that protect against the most common Human papillomavirus (HPV) strains, 16 and 18, are currently in use in developed countries, the implementation of these vaccines in developing countries has been painfully slow, considering the pre-eminence of HPV-associated cervical cancer among women in those countries. We performed serological and PCR-based assessment of blood and tissue specimens obtained from women undergoing cervical cancer-related surgery at a major urban hospital in Bamako. Since several therapeutic HPV vaccines are currently in clinical trials, we also assessed willingness to participate in HPV cancer vaccine trials. Blood and biopsy samples of 240 women were evaluated for HPV types 16 and 18 by serology and PCR. Knowledge regarding the HPV vaccine and autonomy to decide to vaccinate their own child was assessed with a standardized questionnaire. HPV 16 and 18 were identified in 137/166 (82.5%) cervical cancer biopsy samples by PCR. Co-infection with both HPV 16 and 18 was significantly more frequent in women over 50 years of age than in younger women (63.0% vs. 37.0%). 44% of study participants said they would be willing to vaccinate their child with HPV vaccine. Only 39% of women participating in this study reported that they would be able to make an autonomous decision to receive HPV vaccination. Permission from a male spouse or head of household was identified as important for participation by 59% of the women. This study provides strong support for the introduction of currently available HPV vaccines in Mali, and also provides key information about conditions for obtaining informed consent for HPV vaccine trials and HPV vaccination in Mali.

  14. US assessment of HPV types in cancers: implications for current and 9-valent HPV vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiya, Mona; Unger, Elizabeth R; Thompson, Trevor D; Lynch, Charles F; Hernandez, Brenda Y; Lyu, Christopher W; Steinau, Martin; Watson, Meg; Wilkinson, Edward J; Hopenhayn, Claudia; Copeland, Glenn; Cozen, Wendy; Peters, Edward S; Huang, Youjie; Saber, Maria Sibug; Altekruse, Sean; Goodman, Marc T

    2015-06-01

    This study sought to determine the prevaccine type-specific prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers in the United States to evaluate the potential impact of the HPV types in the current and newly approved 9-valent HPV vaccines. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention partnered with seven US population-based cancer registries to obtain archival tissue for cancers diagnosed from 1993 to 2005. HPV testing was performed on 2670 case patients that were fairly representative of all participating cancer registry cases by age and sex. Demographic and clinical data were evaluated by anatomic site and HPV status. Current US cancer registry data and the detection of HPV types were used to estimate the number of cancers potentially preventable through vaccination. HPV DNA was detected in 90.6% of cervical, 91.1% of anal, 75.0% of vaginal, 70.1% of oropharyngeal, 68.8% of vulvar, 63.3% of penile, 32.0% of oral cavity, and 20.9% of laryngeal cancers, as well as in 98.8% of cervical cancer in situ (CCIS). A vaccine targeting HPV 16/18 potentially prevents the majority of invasive cervical (66.2%), anal (79.4%), oropharyngeal (60.2%), and vaginal (55.1%) cancers, as well as many penile (47.9%), vulvar (48.6%) cancers: 24 858 cases annually. The 9-valent vaccine also targeting HPV 31/33/45/52/58 may prevent an additional 4.2% to 18.3% of cancers: 3944 cases annually. For most cancers, younger age at diagnosis was associated with higher HPV 16/18 prevalence. With the exception of oropharyngeal cancers and CCIS, HPV 16/18 prevalence was similar across racial/ethnic groups. In the United States, current vaccines will reduce most HPV-associated cancers; a smaller additional reduction would be contributed by the new 9-valent vaccine. Published by Oxford University Press 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  15. Ethics and reproductive health: The issue of HPV vaccination

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    Matejić Bojana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethics of reproductive health covers a wide field of different issues, from the ethical dimensions of assisted reproduction, life of newborns with disabilities to the never-ending debate on the ethical aspects of abortion. Furthermore, increasing attention is paid to the ethical dimensions of using stem cells taken from human embryos, the creation of cloned embryos of patients for possible self-healing, and the increasingly present issue of reproductive cloning. Development of vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV has introduced new ethical aspects related to reproductive health and the need for a consensus of clinical and public-healthcare population. Today immunization with HPV vaccine is a measure for the primary prevention of cervical cancer and it provides effective protection against certain types of viruses included in the vaccine. The most often mentioned issues of discussions on ethical concerns about HPV vaccination are the recommended age of girls who should be informed and vaccinated (12-14 years, attitudes and fears of parents concerning discussion with their preadolescent daughters on issues important for their future sexual behavior, dilemma on the vaccination of boys and the role of the chosen pediatrician in providing information on the vaccination. In Serbia, two HPV vaccines have been registered but the vaccination is not compulsory. Up-till-now there has been no researches on the attitudes of physicians and parents about HPV vaccination. Nevertheless, it is very important to initiate education of general and medical public about the fact that the availability of vaccine, even if we disregard all aforementioned dilemmas, does not lead to the neglect of other preventive strategies against cervical cancer, primarily screening. The National Program for Cervical Cancer Prevention involves organized screening, i.e. regular cytological examinations of the cervical smear of all women aged 25-69 years, every three years

  16. The impact and cost-effectiveness of nonavalent HPV vaccination in the United States: Estimates from a simplified transmission model

    OpenAIRE

    Chesson, Harrell W.; Markowitz, Lauri E.; Hariri, Susan; Ekwueme, Donatus U.; Saraiya, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to assess the incremental costs and benefits of the 9-valent HPV vaccine (9vHPV) compared with the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (4vHPV). Like 4vHPV, 9vHPV protects against HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18. 9vHPV also protects against 5 additional HPV types 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58. Methods: We adapted a previously published model of the impact and cost-effectiveness of 4vHPV to include the 5 additional HPV types in 9vHPV. The vaccine strategies we examined w...

  17. Knowledge about Human Papilloma Virus (HPV and HPV Vaccine at Reproductive Age in Primary Care

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    Ozde Onder

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify the knowledge and awareness about human papilloma virus (HPV and human papilloma virus (HPV vaccine of women in reproductive age. Material and Methods: The study covered 294 women aged between 15 and 49. A questionnaire was prepared by the researchers based on the literature review. Results: The mean age of the participants was 30.5+/-8.9 years. Only 24.5% had heard about HPV infection and 28.2% had heard HPV vaccine. Of the participants, 188 (63.9% got zero point from the knowledge questions. Conclusion: This study indicates that the women who apply primary care units have low knowledge levels; it is apperent that personal and social education is needed. Paying importance to patient education on HPV and cervical cancer in primary care health politics will increase knowledge and awareness for HPV infection and HPV vaccination. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(3.000: 517-524

  18. Relationship between Humoral Immune Responses against HPV16, HPV18, HPV31 and HPV45 in 12-15 Year Old Girls Receiving Cervarix® or Gardasil® Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godi, Anna; Bissett, Sara L; Miller, Elizabeth; Beddows, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines confer protection against the oncogenic genotypes HPV16 and HPV18 through the generation of type-specific neutralizing antibodies raised against virus-like particles (VLP) representing these genotypes. The vaccines also confer a degree of cross-protection against HPV31 and HPV45, which are genetically-related to the vaccine types HPV16 and HPV18, respectively, although the mechanism is less certain. There are a number of humoral immune measures that have been examined in relation to the HPV vaccines, including VLP binding, pseudovirus neutralization and the enumeration of memory B cells. While the specificity of responses generated against the vaccine genotypes are fairly well studied, the relationship between these measures in relation to non-vaccine genotypes is less certain. We carried out a comparative study of these immune measures against vaccine and non-vaccine genotypes using samples collected from 12-15 year old girls following immunization with three doses of either Cervarix® or Gardasil® HPV vaccine. The relationship between neutralizing and binding antibody titers and HPV-specific memory B cell levels for the vaccine genotypes, HPV16 and HPV18, were very good. The proportion of responders approached 100% for both vaccines while the magnitude of these responses induced by Cervarix® were generally higher than those following Gardasil® immunization. A similar pattern was found for the non-vaccine genotype HPV31, albeit at a lower magnitude compared to its genetically-related vaccine genotype, HPV16. However, both the enumeration of memory B cells and VLP binding responses against HPV45 were poorly related to its neutralizing antibody responses. Purified IgG derived from memory B cells demonstrated specificities similar to those found in the serum, including the capacity to neutralize HPV pseudoviruses. These data suggest that pseudovirus neutralization should be used as the preferred humoral immune measure for

  19. Young Women’s Sexual and Reproductive Health Post HPV Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Ports, Katie A.; Barnack-Tavlaris, Jessica L; Mosavel, Maghboeba; Murithi, Lydia Karuta

    2014-01-01

    In the present study the authors sought to explore, in greater depth, the impact that HPV vaccination has on college-aged women’s reproductive and sexual health. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 HPV-vaccinated, college women and analyzed for reoccurring themes. Although findings revealed that women’s HPV-related knowledge was suboptimal, most women correctly believed that they were still at risk for HPV after having received the vaccination. Women indicated that having the HPV va...

  20. HPV16/18 L1 VLP Vaccine Induces Cross-Neutralizing Antibodies that May Mediate Cross-Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp, Troy J; Hildesheim, Allan; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Dauner, Joseph G.; Pan, Yuanji; Porras, Carolina; Schiller, John T.; Lowy, Douglas R.; Herrero, Rolando; Pinto, Ligia A

    2011-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 VLP-based vaccines are protective against HPV vaccine-related types; however, the correlates of protection have not been defined. We observed that vaccination with Cervarix™ induced cross-neutralizing antibodies for HPV types for which evidence of vaccine efficacy has been demonstrated (HPV31/45) but not for other types (HPV52/58). In addition, HPV31/45 cross-neutralizing titers showed a significant increase with number of doses (HPV31, p

  1. The safety and immunogenicity of Quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccine in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, J Patricia; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Dhar, Renee; Magee, Ardella; Ager, Joel; Sokol, Robert J

    2017-05-09

    This study evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of qHPV vaccine in SLE. Subjects: 34 women ages 19-50years (yrs.) with mild to moderate SLE & minimally active or inactive SLE received qHPV vaccine at the standard dosing schedule. active SLE disease (SELENA-SLEDAI>2), history of severe SLE disease, deep venous thrombosis, on >400mg/day of hydroxychloroquine, on >15mg/day of prednisone, or active infections. Patients were monitored for adverse events (AE), SLE flare, generation of thrombogenic antibodies and thrombosis. Antibody (Ab) levels to HPV 6, 11, 16 & 18 were measured by HPV competitive Luminex Immunoassay and Geometric Mean Titers (GMTs) were calculated for each HPV type. Seroconversion was assessed for those seronegative at baseline. The women in the study: African-American (79%), mean age=38.1years, mean age at diagnosis of SLE=28.6years, 35.3% had a history of smoking, 91% had 4 or more sexual partners, 50% had a history of sexually transmitted diseases, and 27.3% used condoms on a regular basis. Vaccine site reactions (VSRs) occurred in 62%, all mild. Ninety-seven percent experienced at least 1 non vaccine adverse event (nvAE) with a total of 493 nvAEs in 33 patients, of which 90% were mild and none were related to vaccine or SLE. There were 9 serious AEs, none were related to vaccine or SLE, all resolved. No patient experienced an SLE flare, thrombosis, or generation of thrombogenic antibodies. Seroconversion rate was 100% with mean GMTs comparable to Gardasil® package insert data. In this SLE vaccine study, qHPV vaccine was generally safe, well tolerated, and highly immunogenic. This clinical trial is registered on Clinical Trials.gov under number, NCT01741012 and was conducted under the FDA IND BB14113. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Knowledge and Awareness of HPV Vaccine and Acceptability to Vaccinate in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Stacey; Wamai, Richard G.; Bain, Paul A.; Welty, Thomas; Welty, Edith; Ogembo, Javier Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We assessed the knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer, HPV and HPV vaccine, and willingness and acceptability to vaccinate in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. We further identified countries that fulfill the two GAVI Alliance eligibility criteria to support nationwide HPV vaccination. Methods We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed studies on the knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer, HPV and HPV vaccine, and willingness and acceptability to vaccinate. Trends in Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP3) vaccine coverage in SSA countries from 1990–2011 were extracted from the World Health Organization database. Findings The review revealed high levels of willingness and acceptability of HPV vaccine but low levels of knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer, HPV or HPV vaccine. We identified only six countries to have met the two GAVI Alliance requirements for supporting introduction of HPV vaccine: 1) the ability to deliver multi-dose vaccines for no less than 50% of the target vaccination cohort in an average size district, and 2) achieving over 70% coverage of DTP3 vaccine nationally. From 2008 through 2011 all SSA countries, with the exception of Mauritania and Nigeria, have reached or maintained DTP3 coverage at 70% or above. Conclusion There is an urgent need for more education to inform the public about HPV, HPV vaccine, and cervical cancer, particularly to key demographics, (adolescents, parents and healthcare professionals), to leverage high levels of willingness and acceptability of HPV vaccine towards successful implementation of HPV vaccination programs. There is unpreparedness in most SSA countries to roll out national HPV vaccination as per the GAVI Alliance eligibility criteria for supporting introduction of the vaccine. In countries that have met 70% DTP3 coverage, pilot programs need to be rolled out to identify the best practice and strategies for delivering HPV vaccines to adolescents and also to qualify for GAVI

  3. Knowledge and awareness of HPV vaccine and acceptability to vaccinate in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey Perlman

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We assessed the knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer, HPV and HPV vaccine, and willingness and acceptability to vaccinate in sub-Saharan African (SSA countries. We further identified countries that fulfill the two GAVI Alliance eligibility criteria to support nationwide HPV vaccination. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed studies on the knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer, HPV and HPV vaccine, and willingness and acceptability to vaccinate. Trends in Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP3 vaccine coverage in SSA countries from 1990-2011 were extracted from the World Health Organization database. FINDINGS: The review revealed high levels of willingness and acceptability of HPV vaccine but low levels of knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer, HPV or HPV vaccine. We identified only six countries to have met the two GAVI Alliance requirements for supporting introduction of HPV vaccine: 1 the ability to deliver multi-dose vaccines for no less than 50% of the target vaccination cohort in an average size district, and 2 achieving over 70% coverage of DTP3 vaccine nationally. From 2008 through 2011 all SSA countries, with the exception of Mauritania and Nigeria, have reached or maintained DTP3 coverage at 70% or above. CONCLUSION: There is an urgent need for more education to inform the public about HPV, HPV vaccine, and cervical cancer, particularly to key demographics, (adolescents, parents and healthcare professionals, to leverage high levels of willingness and acceptability of HPV vaccine towards successful implementation of HPV vaccination programs. There is unpreparedness in most SSA countries to roll out national HPV vaccination as per the GAVI Alliance eligibility criteria for supporting introduction of the vaccine. In countries that have met 70% DTP3 coverage, pilot programs need to be rolled out to identify the best practice and strategies for delivering HPV vaccines to adolescents and also to

  4. Ethics and the HPV Vaccine: Considerations for School Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Mary P.

    2008-01-01

    School nurses are at the forefront of health care providers for many families of junior high and high school students and are used as primary sources of information and guidance about recommended student vaccinations. In the case of the relatively new vaccine for human papillomavirus (HPV), school nurses must be both knowledgeable about the…

  5. The HPV Vaccine - What the Family Practitioner Needs to Know ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reviews the impact of human papilloma virus infection on the development of cervical cancer and the efficacy of newly developed HPV vaccines. These vaccines may have a major impact on the reduction of these common malignancies. South African Journal of Family Practice Vol. 50 (4) 2008: pp. 22-24 ...

  6. HPV vaccination: Background information for the Dutch Health Council

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink TM; de Melker HE; RVP; I&V

    2017-01-01

    Much (young) sexual active women and men are infected with the human papillomavirus (HPV). Since 2010, 12-year-old girls are vaccinated through the National Immunisation Programme to prevent cervical cancer. Nowadays, we know more about the vaccination; it prevents not only against cancer in the

  7. Parental acceptance of HPV vaccine in Peru: a decision framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario M Bartolini

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer affecting women worldwide and it is an important cause of death, especially in developing countries. Cervical cancer is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV and can be prevented by HPV vaccine. The challenge is to expand vaccine availability to countries where it is most needed. In 2008 Peru's Ministry of Health implemented a demonstration project involving 5(th grade girls in primary schools in the Piura region. We designed and conducted a qualitative study of the decision-making process among parents of girls, and developed a conceptual model describing the process of HPV vaccine acceptance. RESULTS: We found a nonlinear HPV decision-making process that evolved over time. Initially, the vaccine's newness, the requirement of written consent, and provision of information were important. If information was sufficient and provided by credible sources, many parents accepted the vaccine. Later, after obtaining additional information from teachers, health personnel, and other trusted sources, more parents accepted vaccination. An understanding of the issues surrounding the vaccine developed, parents overcome fears and rumors, and engaged in family negotiations-including hearing the girl's voice in the decision-making process. The concept of prevention (cancer as danger, future health, and trust in vaccines combined with pragmatic factors (no cost, available at school and the credibility of the offer (information in the media, recommendation of respected authority figure were central to motivations that led parents to decide to vaccinate their daughters. A lack of confidence in the health system was the primary inhibitor of vaccine acceptance. CONCLUSIONS: Health personnel and teachers are credible sources of information and can provide important support to HPV vaccination campaigns.

  8. Development of a Live Attenuated Bivalent Oral Vaccine Against Shigella sonnei Shigellosis and Typhoid Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun; Chakravarty, Sumana; Li, Minglin; Wai, Tint T; Hoffman, Stephen L; Sim, B Kim Lee

    2017-01-15

    Shigella sonnei and Salmonella Typhi cause significant morbidity and mortality. We exploited the safety record of the oral, attenuated S. Typhi vaccine (Ty21a) by using it as a vector to develop a bivalent oral vaccine to protect against S. sonnei shigellosis and typhoid fever. We recombineered the S. sonnei form I O-antigen gene cluster into the Ty21a chromosome to create Ty21a-Ss, which stably expresses S. sonnei form I O antigen. To enhance survivability in the acid environment of the stomach, we created an acid-resistant strain, Ty21a-AR-Ss, by inserting Shigella glutaminase-glutamate decarboxylase systems coexpressed with S. sonnei form I O-antigen gene. Mice immunized intranasally with Ty21a-AR-Ss produced antibodies against S. sonnei and S. Typhi, and survived lethal intranasal S. sonnei challenge. This paves the way for proposed good manufacturing practices manufacture and clinical trials intended to test the clinical effectiveness of Ty21a-AR-Ss in protecting against S. sonnei shigellosis and typhoid fever, as compared with the current Ty21a vaccine. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Parents who refuse or delay HPV vaccine: Differences in vaccination behavior, beliefs, and clinical communication preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkey, Melissa B; Calo, William A; Marciniak, Macary W; Brewer, Noel T

    2017-03-04

    We sought to estimate the national prevalence of HPV vaccine refusal and delay in a nationally-representative sample of parents of adolescents. We also compared parents who refused versus delayed HPV vaccine in terms of their vaccination beliefs and clinical communication preferences. In 2014 to 2015, we conducted an online survey of 1,484 US parents who reported on an 11- to 17-year-old child in their household. We used weighted multinomial logistic regression to assess correlates of HPV vaccine refusal and delay. Overall, 28% of parents reported that they had ever "refused or decided not to get" HPV vaccine for their child, and an additional 8% of parents reported that they had "delayed or put off getting" HPV vaccine. Compared to no refusal/delay, refusal was associated with lower confidence in adolescent vaccination (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48-0.91), lower perceived HPV vaccine effectiveness (RRR = 0.68, 95% CI, 0.50-0.91), and higher perceived harms (RRR = 3.49, 95% CI, 2.65-4.60). In contrast, delay was associated with needing more information (RRR = 1.76, 95% CI, 1.08-2.85). Most parents rated physicians and information sheets as helpful for making decisions about HPV vaccination, although parents who reported refusal endorsed these resources less often. Our findings suggest that HPV vaccine refusal is common among parents of adolescents and may have increased relative to previous estimates. Because the vaccination beliefs and communication preferences of parents who refuse appear to differ from those who delay, targeted communication strategies may be needed to effectively address HPV vaccine hesitancy.

  10. Fewer Doses of HPV Vaccine Result in Immune Response Similar to Three-Dose Regimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Press Releases NCI News Note Fewer doses of HPV vaccine result in immune response similar to three- ... report that two doses of a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, trademarked as Cervarix, resulted in similar serum ...

  11. A Review of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection and HPV Vaccine-Related Attitudes and Sexual Behaviors among College-Aged Women in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanasiripong, Nop T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV vaccine-related attitudes among college-aged women and the relationship between HPV vaccine uptake and subsequent sexual behaviors. Methods: PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Google Scholar searches were performed from 2006, the date after the first HPV vaccine became available, to…

  12. Barriers, facilitators, and potential strategies for increasing HPV vaccination: A statewide assessment to inform action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartmell, Kathleen B; Young-Pierce, Jennifer; McGue, Shannon; Alberg, Anthony J; Luque, John S; Zubizarreta, Maria; Brandt, Heather M

    2017-12-07

    The objective was to investigate how state level strategies in South Carolina could maximize HPV vaccine uptake. An environmental scan identified barriers, facilitators, and strategies for improving HPV vaccination in South Carolina. Interviews were conducted with state leaders from relevant organizations such as public health agencies, medical associations, K-12 schools, universities, insurers, and cancer advocacy organizations. A thematic content analysis design was used. Digital interview files were transcribed, a data dictionary was created and data were coded using the data dictionary. Thirty four interviews were conducted with state leaders. Barriers to HPV vaccination included lack of HPV awareness, lack of provider recommendation, HPV vaccine concerns, lack of access and practice-level barriers. Facilitators included momentum for improving HPV vaccination, school-entry Tdap requirement, pharmacy-based HPV vaccination, state immunization registry, HEDIS measures and HPV vaccine funding. Strategies for improving HPV vaccination fell into three categories: 1) addressing lack of awareness about the importance of HPV vaccination among the public and providers; 2) advocating for policy changes around HPV vaccine coverage, vaccine education, and pharmacy-based vaccination; and 3) coordination of efforts. A statewide environmental scan generated a blueprint for action to be used to improve HPV vaccination in the state. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. HPV Vaccination: Preventing More with Less

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas Lowy is acting director of the National Cancer Institute and Chief of the intramural Laboratory of Cellular Oncology in the Center for Cancer Research at the NCI. He received his medical degree from New York University School of Medicine, and trained in internal medicine at Stanford University and dermatology at Yale University. His research includes papillomaviruses and the regulation of normal and neoplastic growth. The papillomavirus research is carried out in close collaboration with John Schiller, with whom he has co-authored more than 100 papers over the past 25 years. In the 1980s, he studied the genetic organization of papillomaviruses and identified the oncogenes encoded by the virus. More recently, he has worked on papillomavirus vaccines and the papillomavirus life cycle. Their laboratory was involved in the initial development, characterization, and clinical testing of the preventive virus-like particle-based HPV vaccines that have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and many other countries. It is for this body of work that Drs. Lowy and Schiller received the 2007 Federal Employee of the Year Award from the Partnership for Public Service, the 2007 Dorothy P. Landon-American Association for Cancer Research Prize for Translational Cancer Research, the Sabin Gold Medal in 2011, and the National Medal of Technology and Innovation from President Obama in 2014. Dr. Lowy also received the 2007 Medal of Honor for basic research from the American Cancer Society. He is listed by the Institute for Scientific Information as one of the most highly cited authors in microbiology, and is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine of the NAS.

  14. Overcoming barriers in HPV vaccination and screening programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Vorsters

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Human Papillomavirus Prevention and Control Board brought together experts to discuss optimizing HPV vaccination and screening programs.Board members reviewed the safety profile of licensed HPV vaccines based on clinical and post-marketing data, reaching a consensus that current safety data is reassuring.Successful vaccination programs used well-coordinated communication campaigns, integrating (social media to spread awareness. Communication of evidence supporting vaccine effectiveness had beneficial effects on the perception of the vaccine. However, anti-vaccination campaigns have threatened existing programs in many countries.Measurement and monitoring of HPV vaccine confidence over time could help understand the nature and scale of waning confidence, define issues and intervene appropriately using context-specific evidence-based strategies. Finally, a broad group of stakeholders, such as teachers, health care providers and the media should also be provided with accurate information and training to help support prevention efforts through enhanced understanding of the risks and benefits of vaccination.Similarly, while cervical cancer screening through population-based programs is highly effective, barriers to screening exist: awareness in countries with population-based screening programs, access for vulnerable populations, and access and affordability in low- and middle-income countries. Integration of primary and secondary prevention has the potential to accelerate the decrease in cervical cancer incidence. Keywords: (max 6 Human papillomavirus, Vaccine, Screening, Barriers, Vaccine confidence

  15. HPV vaccine acceptability among men: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, Peter A; Logie, Carmen H; Doukas, Nick; Asakura, Kenta

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand rates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine acceptability and factors correlated with HPV vaccine acceptability. Design Meta-analyses of cross-sectional studies. Data sources We used a comprehensive search strategy across multiple electronic databases with no date or language restrictions to locate studies that examined rates and/or correlates of HPV vaccine acceptability. Search keywords included vaccine, acceptability and all terms for HPV. Review methods We calculat...

  16. Partnering With Middle School Students to Design Text Messages About HPV Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Cates, Joan R; Ortiz, Rebecca R.; North, Steve; Martin, Amanda; Smith, Richalle; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is routinely recommended for U.S. adolescents ages 11 to 12 years, yet vaccine coverage remains low. Text message HPV immunization reminders to parents have been effective with increasing uptake, but text messages directly to adolescents in order to increase HPV vaccination uptake are unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the acceptability of text messages about HPV vaccination and message preferences among adolescents. Middle school students...

  17. Changing HPV vaccination rates in bisexual and lesbian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polek, Carolee; Hardie, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates continue to be below national targets for women and lower in some sexual minorities. HPV is a primary causal agent in cervical cancer, from which members of the lesbian and bisexual community mistakenly believe they are at low risk. This study characterized rates of HPV vaccination in women based on their sexual orientation. Data were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Health Interview Survey 2013-2014. This survey evaluated 5695 women-113 (2%) lesbian, 135 (2.4%) bisexual, and 5446 (95.6%) heterosexual women ages 18-26 in 2006-using logistic regression. A dependent variable of having had HPV vaccination and independent variable of sexual orientation was used. Significant differences were found in vaccine uptake based on sexual orientation. Bisexual women were most likely to be vaccinated, and differed significantly from heterosexual and lesbians which did not differ significantly from each other. The results suggest improvement in sexual minority rates but this finding is tempered by the low rates of vaccination in adult women. The low vaccination rates in adult women and sexual minorities merit further study. The low rates may be a function of the transition from pediatric to adult care and/or practice barriers perceived by sexual minorities. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  18. EFFICACY OF VACCINE PREVENTION OF HPV-ASSOCIATED DISEASES AND CERVICAL CANCER IN THE MOSCOW REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Krasnopol'skiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on high prevalence of papilloma virus infection and associated disorders in adults as well as in adolescents are becoming more and more frequently published in the world and domestic literature. The most severe outcome of the infection is cervical cancer which takes the second place in women of reproductive age. At present, the armamentarium of obstetricians, gynecologists, pediatricians and oncologists is enriched by a recombinant vaccine protecting against human papilloma virus and representing one of effective methods of prevention of HPV-associated disorders. There are two prophylactic vaccines in the world (quadrivalent Gardasil® and bivalent Cervarix®, which are used in 44 countries. One of the first results proving efficacy of vaccination is a decrease of incidence of anogenital warts that is well described in foreign literature. In the Moscow region, as a result of vaccination performed from 2008 to 2013, a decrease of incidence of anogenital warts in girls is also observed.

  19. Comparison of the immunogenicity of Cervarix® and Gardasil® human papillomavirus vaccines for oncogenic non-vaccine serotypes HPV-31, HPV-33, and HPV-45 in HIV-infected adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toft, Lars; Tolstrup, Martin; Müller, Martin; Sehr, Peter; Bonde, Jesper; Storgaard, Merete; Østergaard, Lars; Søgaard, Ole S

    2014-01-01

    Individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have excess risk of developing human papillomavirus (HPV)-related disease. A substantial fraction of HPV-associated cancers is caused by HPV serotypes not included in the currently available vaccines. Among healthy women, both Cervarix(®) (HPV-16/18, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, GSK) and Gardasil(®) (HPV-6/11/16/18, Merck) have demonstrated partial cross-protection against certain oncogenic non-vaccine HPV-types. Currently, there are no available data on vaccine-induced cross-protection in men and little is known about cross-reactive immunity after HPV-vaccination of HIV-infected individuals. In an investigator-initiated trial, we randomized 91 HIV-positive men and women to receive vaccination with Cervarix(®) or Gardasil(®). The HPV-DNA status of the participants was determined with pcr before and after immunization. Cross-reactive antibody responses against HPV-31, HPV-33, and HPV-45 were evaluated for up to 12 months using a pseudovirion-based neutralization assay (PBNA). Geometric mean antibody titers (GMTs) were compared among vaccine groups and genders at 7 and 12 months.: Both vaccines induced anti-HPV-31, -33, and -45 neutralizing antibodies in participants who were seronegative and HPV-DNA negative for those types at study entry. Geometric mean antibody titers were comparable between vaccine groups. Interestingly, anti-HPV-31 and -33 antibody titers were higher among women compared with men at 7 and 12 months.: In conclusion, both licensed HPV-vaccines induced cross-neutralizing antibodies against frequent oncogenic non-vaccine serotypes HPV-31, HPV-33, and HPV-45 in HIV-infected adults, and women had greater serological responses against HPV-31 and -33 compared with men.

  20. Identifying Health Beliefs Influencing Hispanic College Men's Willingness to Vaccinate against HPV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Dionne P.; Thomas, Tami L.; Eaton, Asia

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies health beliefs influencing Hispanic college men's human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake decision making processes. Hispanic college men were interviewed about their HPV vaccine knowledge, and information seeking behaviors. Overall, participants did not view HPV infection or vaccination as an immediate concern or priority;…

  1. Sexual behaviour and HPV in young women. The pre-vaccine era.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenselink, C.H.

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide mass vaccination with HPV vaccines will most certainly change HPV epidemiology. Monitoring these changes on a population level may prove crucial in assessing overall HPV vaccine efficacy. To provide a basis for understanding possible future shifts in genotypes, as well as to provide

  2. Evaluation of quadrivalent HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine efficacy against cervical and anogenital disease in subjects with serological evidence of prior vaccine type HPV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Sven-Eric; Kjaer, Susanne K; Sigurdsson, Kristján

    2009-01-01

    In the quadrivalent (types 6/11/16/18) HPV vaccine (GARDASIL/SILGARD) clinical program, 73% of women aged 16-26 were naïve to all vaccine HPV types. In these women, prophylactic administration of the vaccine was highly effective in preventing HPV 6/11/16/18-related cervical disease....... Of the remaining women, 15% of had evidence of past infection with one or more vaccine HPV types (seropositive and DNA negative) at the time of enrollment. Here we present an analysis in this group of women to determine the efficacy of the HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine against new cervical and external anogenital disease...... related to the same vaccine HPV type which had previously been cleared. Vaccine tolerability in this previously infected population was also assessed....

  3. Evaluation of quadrivalent HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine efficacy against cervical and anogenital disease in subjects with serological evidence of prior vaccine type HPV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Sven-Eric; Kjaer, Susanne K; Sigurdsson, Kristján

    2009-01-01

    Objective: In the quadrivalent (types 6/11/16/18) HPV vaccine (GARDASIL((R))/SILGARD((R))) clinical program, 73% of women aged 16-26 were naïve to all vaccine HPV types. In these women, prophylactic administration of the vaccine was highly effective in preventing HPV 6/11/16/18-related cervical...... disease. Of the remaining women, 15% of had evidence of past infection with one or more vaccine HPV types (seropositive and DNA negative) at the time of enrollment. Here we present an analysis in this group of women to determine the efficacy of the HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine against new cervical and external...... anogenital disease related to the same vaccine HPV type which had previously been cleared. Vaccine tolerability in this previously infected population was also assessed. Results: Subjects were followed for an average of 40 months. Seven subjects in the placebo group developed cervical disease, and eight...

  4. Vaccinating Girls and Boys with Different Human Papillomavirus Vaccines: Can It Optimise Population-Level Effectiveness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Drolet

    Full Text Available Decision-makers may consider vaccinating girls and boys with different HPV vaccines to benefit from their respective strengths; the quadrivalent (HPV4 prevents anogenital warts (AGW whilst the bivalent (HPV2 may confer greater cross-protection. We compared, to a girls-only vaccination program with HPV4, the impact of vaccinating: 1 both genders with HPV4, and 2 boys with HPV4 and girls with HPV2.We used an individual-based transmission-dynamic model of heterosexual HPV infection and diseases. Our base-case scenario assumed lifelong efficacy of 100% against vaccine types, and 46,29,8,18,6% and 77,43,79,8,0% efficacy against HPV-31,-33,-45,-52,-58 for HPV4 and HPV2, respectively.Assuming 70% vaccination coverage and lifelong cross-protection, vaccinating boys has little additional benefit on AGW prevention, irrespective of the vaccine used for girls. Furthermore, using HPV4 for boys and HPV2 for girls produces greater incremental reductions in SCC incidence than using HPV4 for both genders (12 vs 7 percentage points. At 50% vaccination coverage, vaccinating boys produces incremental reductions in AGW of 17 percentage points if both genders are vaccinated with HPV4, but increases female incidence by 16 percentage points if girls are switched to HPV2 (heterosexual male incidence is incrementally reduced by 24 percentage points in both scenarios. Higher incremental reductions in SCC incidence are predicted when vaccinating boys with HPV4 and girls with HPV2 versus vaccinating both genders with HPV4 (16 vs 12 percentage points. Results are sensitive to vaccination coverage and the relative duration of protection of the vaccines.Vaccinating girls with HPV2 and boys with HPV4 can optimize SCC prevention if HPV2 has higher/longer cross-protection, but can increase AGW incidence if vaccination coverage is low among boys.

  5. The Role of Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-Related Stigma on HPV Vaccine Decision-Making among College Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Georden; Perez, Samara; Huta, Veronika; Rosberger, Zeev; Lebel, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The goals of the present study are (1) to identify sociodemographic and psychosocial predictors of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related stigma and (2) to examine the relationship between HPV-related stigma in predicting HPV vaccine decision-making among college males. Participants: Six hundred and eighty college males aged 18--26 from 3…

  6. Comparison of the immunogenicity of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 vaccine and the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine for oncogenic non-vaccine types HPV-31 and HPV-45 in healthy women aged 18–45 years

    OpenAIRE

    Einstein, Mark H.; Baron, Mira; Levin, Myron J.; Chatterjee, Archana; Fox, Bradley; Scholar, Sofia; Rosen, Jeffrey; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Lebacq, Marie; van der Most, Robbert; Moris, Philippe; Giannini, Sandra L.; Schuind, Anne; Datta, Sanjoy K; Descamps, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Protection against oncogenic non-vaccine types (cross-protection) offered by human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines may provide a significant medical benefit. Available clinical efficacy data suggest the two licensed vaccines [HPV-16/18 vaccine, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals (GSK), and HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine, Merck and Co., Inc.,] differ in terms of protection against oncogenic non-vaccine HPV types -31/45. The immune responses induced by the two vaccines against these two non-vaccine HPV types (c...

  7. HPV vaccination among lesbian and bisexual women: Findings from a national survey of young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRee, Annie-Laurie; Katz, Mira L.; Paskett, Electra D.; Reiter, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and associated cervical disease are common among all women, regardless of sexual identity, yet limited research has examined HPV vaccination among lesbian and bisexual women. Methods A national sample of lesbian and bisexual women ages 18-26 (n=543) completed our online survey during Fall 2013. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify correlates of HPV vaccine initiation (receipt of at least 1 dose) and completion (receipt of all 3 recommended doses among initiators). Results Overall, 45% of respondents had initiated HPV vaccine, and 70% of initiators reported completing the series. HPV vaccine initiation was higher among respondents who: were students, had received a healthcare provider's recommendation, perceived greater positive social vaccination norms, or anticipated greater regret if they did not get vaccinated and later got HPV. Initiation was lower among those who perceived greater HPV vaccine harms or greater barriers to getting the vaccine (all pHPV vaccine completion was higher among initiators who had a college degree while it was lower among those who perceived a greater likelihood of acquiring HPV or who anticipated greater regret if they got the vaccine and fainted (all pHPV vaccine initiators who had not yet completed the series, about half (47%) intended to get the remaining doses. Conclusions Many lesbian and bisexual women are not getting vaccinated against HPV. Healthcare provider recommendations and women's health beliefs may be important leverage points for increasing vaccination among this population. PMID:25038312

  8. Motivational and contextual determinants of HPV-vaccination uptake: A longitudinal study among mothers of girls invited for the HPV-vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pot, Mirjam; van Keulen, Hilde M; Ruiter, Robert A C; Eekhout, Iris; Mollema, Liesbeth; Paulussen, Theo W G M

    2017-07-01

    In the Netherlands, HPV-vaccination uptake among 12-year-old girls remains to be lower (61% in 2016) than expected. The present study is about 1) replicating the extent to which social-psychological determinants found in earlier cross-sectional studies explain HPV-vaccination intention, and 2) testing whether HPV-vaccination intention, as well as other social-psychological determinants, are good predictors of future HPV-vaccination uptake in a longitudinal design. A random sample of mothers of girls invited for the vaccination in 2015 was drawn from the Dutch vaccination register (Praeventis) (N=36,000) and from three online panels (N=2483). Two months prior to the vaccination of girls, their mothers were requested to complete a web-based questionnaire by letter (Praeventis sample) or by e-mail (panel samples). HPV-vaccination uptake was derived from Praeventis. Backward linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine most dominant predictors of HPV-vaccination intention and uptake, respectively. The total sample used for data analyses consisted of 8062 mothers. Response rates were 18% for the Praeventis sample and 47% for the panel samples. HPV-vaccination intention was best explained by attitude, beliefs, subjective norms, habit, and perceived relative effectiveness of the vaccination; they explained 83% of the variance in HPV-vaccination intention. Intention appeared to be the only stable predictor of HPV-vaccination uptake and explained 43% of the variance in HPV-vaccination uptake. These results confirm what was found by earlier cross-sectional studies, and provide strong leads for selecting relevant targets in the planning of future communication strategies aiming to improve HPV-vaccination uptake. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Human Papillomavirus Prevalence and Herd Immunity after Introduction of Vaccination Program, Scotland, 2009–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Kimberley; Pan, Jiafeng; Love, John; Cuschieri, Kate; Robertson, Chris; Ahmed, Syed; Palmer, Timothy; Pollock, Kevin G.J.

    2016-01-01

    In 2008, a national human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization program using a bivalent vaccine against HPV types 16 and 18 was implemented in Scotland along with a national surveillance program designed to determine the longitudinal effects of vaccination on HPV infection at the population level. Each year during 2009–2013, the surveillance program conducted HPV testing on a proportion of liquid-based cytology samples from women undergoing their first cervical screening test for precancerous cervical disease. By linking vaccination, cervical screening, and HPV testing data, over the study period we found a decline in HPV types 16 and 18, significant decreases in HPV types 31, 33, and 45 (suggesting cross-protection), and a nonsignificant increase in HPV 51. In addition, among nonvaccinated women, HPV types 16 and 18 infections were significantly lower in 2013 than in 2009. Our results preliminarily indicate herd immunity and sustained effectiveness of the bivalent vaccine on virologic outcomes at the population level. PMID:26692336

  10. Human Papillomavirus Prevalence and Herd Immunity after Introduction of Vaccination Program, Scotland, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Ross L; Kavanagh, Kimberley; Pan, Jiafeng; Love, John; Cuschieri, Kate; Robertson, Chris; Ahmed, Syed; Palmer, Timothy; Pollock, Kevin G J

    2016-01-01

    In 2008, a national human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization program using a bivalent vaccine against HPV types 16 and 18 was implemented in Scotland along with a national surveillance program designed to determine the longitudinal effects of vaccination on HPV infection at the population level. Each year during 2009-2013, the surveillance program conducted HPV testing on a proportion of liquid-based cytology samples from women undergoing their first cervical screening test for precancerous cervical disease. By linking vaccination, cervical screening, and HPV testing data, over the study period we found a decline in HPV types 16 and 18, significant decreases in HPV types 31, 33, and 45 (suggesting cross-protection), and a nonsignificant increase in HPV 51. In addition, among nonvaccinated women, HPV types 16 and 18 infections were significantly lower in 2013 than in 2009. Our results preliminarily indicate herd immunity and sustained effectiveness of the bivalent vaccine on virologic outcomes at the population level.

  11. HPV vaccine acceptability in HIV-infected and HIV negative men who have sex with men (MSM) in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadlier, C; Lynam, A; O'Dea, S; Delamere, S; Quinlan, M; Clarke, S; Sheils, O; Bergin, C

    2016-06-02

    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly HIV-infected MSM are disproportionately affected by HPV infection and associated disease. The HPV vaccine has potential to greatly reduce the burden of HPV-associated disease including anal cancer in MSM. The efficacy of the HPV vaccine is dependent on high levels of vaccine uptake. The aim of this study was to examine HPV vaccine acceptability and factors influencing vaccine acceptability in MSM in Ireland. Methods A self-administered survey was distributed to HIV-infected and HIV negative MSM examining HPV vaccine acceptability and factors associated with vaccine acceptability. Logistic regression was used to identify key variables and predictors of HPV vaccine acceptability. Results 302 MSM participated in the study. Acceptability of HPV vaccine was 31% (unconditional), 51% (conditional on stated efficacy and a cost of €300), 65% (conditional on stated efficacy and a cost of €100) and 78% (conditional on stated efficacy and no cost). Cost was negatively associated with HPV vaccine acceptability (pHPV vaccine efficacy was significantly associated with vaccine acceptability, even in the context of associated cost (pHPV vaccine in MSM in Ireland is high based on no cost vaccine and on stated vaccine efficacy (78%). Cost is negatively associated with vaccine acceptability. Understanding levels of knowledge of HPV infection, HPV associated disease and attitudes toward HPV vaccination are important as they will contribute to HPV vaccine acceptability among MSM and will help guide effective preventive programs.

  12. Individual- and regional-level determinants of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine refusal: the Ontario Grade 8 HPV vaccine cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remes, Olivia; Smith, Leah M; Alvarado-Llano, Beatriz E; Colley, Lindsey; Lévesque, Linda E

    2014-10-08

    Studies on the determinants of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine use have generally focused on individual-level characteristics, despite the potentially important influence of regional-level characteristics. Therefore, we undertook a population-based, retrospective cohort study to identify individual- and regional-level determinants of HPV vaccine refusal (non-receipt) in Ontario's (Canada) Grade 8 HPV Immunization Program. Ontario's administrative health and immunization databases were used to identify girls eligible for free HPV vaccination in 2007-2011 and to ascertain individual-level characteristics of cohort members (socio-demographics, vaccination history, health care utilization, medical history). The social and material characteristics of the girl's region (health unit) were derived from the 2006 Canadian Census. Generalized estimating equations (binomial distribution, logit link) were used to estimate the population-average effects of individual- and regional-level characteristics on HPV vaccine refusal. Our cohort consisted of 144,047 girls, 49.3% of whom refused HPV vaccination. Factors associated with refusal included a previous diagnosis of Down's syndrome (OR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.16-1.63) or autism (OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.34-1.90), few physician visits (OR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.35-1.55), and previous refusal of mandatory (OR = 2.23, 95% CI 2.07-2.40) and optional (OR = 3.96, 95% CI 3.87-4.05) vaccines. Refusal was highest among the lowest and highest income levels. Finally, a previous diagnosis of obesity and living in an area of high deprivation were associated with lower refusal (OR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.83-0.92 and OR = 0.82 95%, CI 0.79-0.86, respectively). Studies on HPV vaccine determinants should consider regional-level factors. Efforts to increase HPV vaccine acceptance should include vulnerable populations (such as girls of low income) and girls with limited contact with the healthcare system.

  13. Duration of protective immunity after a single vaccination with a live attenuated bivalent bluetongue vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhugunissov, Kuandyk; Yershebulov, Zakir; Barakbayev, Kainar; Bulatov, Yerbol; Taranov, Dmitriy; Amanova, Zhanat; Abduraimov, Yergali

    2015-12-01

    The prevention of bluetongue is typically achieved with mono- or polyvalent modified- live-attenuated virus (MLV) vaccines. MLV vaccines typically elicit a strong antibody response that correlates directly with their ability to replicate in the vaccinated animal. They are inexpensive, stimulate protective immunity after a single inoculation, and have been proven effective in preventing clinical bluetongue disease. In this study, we evaluated the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of a bluetongue vaccine against Bluetongue virus serotypes 4 and 16 in sheep. All the animals remained clinically healthy during the observation period. The vaccinated animals showed no clinical signs except fever (>40.8 °C) for 2-4 days. Rapid seroconversion was observed in the sheep, with the accumulation of high antibody titers in the vaccinated animals. No animal became ill after the challenge, indicating that effective protection was achieved. Therefore, this vaccine, prepared from attenuated bluetongue virus strains, is safe, immunogenic, and efficacious.

  14. A systematic review of literature about women's knowledge and attitudes toward human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Zenobia C Y; Chan, Tak Sing; Ng, Ka Kui; Wong, Man Lai

    2012-11-01

    A systematic review was conducted to examine and describe women's knowledge of and attitudes toward HPV vaccination. Electronic databases, including MEDLINE, Ovid, CINAHL, the ISI Web of Science and the British Nursing Index, were systematically searched to locate empirical research studies about women''s knowledge of and attitudes toward HPV vaccination. All empirical studies published in English between January 2005 and January 2010 that aimed at examining and describing women's knowledge of and attitudes toward HPV vaccination were included. Studies were assessed based on the inclusion criteria. The Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) tool was used to evaluate the methodological quality of these studies. Key themes and concepts were extracted and synthesized. A total of 36 articles were retrieved and reviewed. Four main themes relating to HPV and HPV vaccination were identified, including "attitudes toward HPV vaccination", "factors affecting the acceptance of HPV vaccination", "intention to receive HPV vaccination" and "knowledge toward HPV or cervical cancer". Most women have positive attitudes and high intentions toward HPV vaccination. Factors affecting women's acceptance of HPV vaccination include knowledge, safety, cost and the efficacy of the vaccine. Many women lack knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Fraction of high-grade cervical intraepithelial lesions attributable to genotypes targeted by a nonavalent HPV vaccine in Galicia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, S; Iñarrea, A; Pérez-Tanoira, R; Gil, M; López-Díez, E; Valenzuela, O; Porto, M; Alberte-Lista, L; Peteiro-Cancelo, M A; Treinta, A; Carballo, R; Reboredo, M C; Alvarez-Argüelles, M E; Purriños, M J

    2017-11-06

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines have been widely implemented in worldwide organized immunization programs. A nonavalent HPV vaccine is now available in several countries. The objective was to describe the fraction of squamous non-invasive high-grade cervical intraepithelial lesions attributable to genotypes targeted by bi-quadrivalent vaccines and by nonavalent vaccine according to age and diagnosis in women living in the city of Vigo (Galicia, Spain). Cervical scrapings (2009-2014) of women with histological diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2, n = 145) and grade 3-carcinoma in situ (CIN3-CIS, n = 244) were tested with Linear Array HPV Genotyping test (Roche diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany). Hierarchical estimation of the fraction attributable to HPV 16/18 or HPV 31/33/45/52/58 detected alone or in combination was calculated. Absolute additional fraction attributable to genotypes targeted by nonavalent vaccine compared to genotypes targeted by bi-quadrivalent vaccines was calculated as the increment of attributable cases with respect to all studied cases. Age group 1, 2 and 3 included women 18 to 34, 35-44 and ≥45 years old, respectively. EPIDAT 3.1 was used. Fraction attributable to genotypes targeted by bi-quadrivalent vaccines was 59% CIN2 vs. 69% CIN3-CIS (p < 0.001). It was 63/51/50% of CIN2 and 78/66/45% of CIN3-CIS in age group 1, 2, 3, respectively. Fraction attributable to genotypes targeted by nonavalent vaccine was 86% CIN2 and 86% CIN3-CIS. It was 87/91/75% of CIN2 and 90/86/76% of CIN3-CIS in age group 1, 2, 3, respectively. Fraction attributable to genotypes targeted by these vaccines tended to decrease as age increased (p-trend <0.05). Globally, absolute additional attributable fraction was 16%, 26% and 29% in age group 1, 2 and 3, respectively (p < 0.005). Absolute additional fraction of CIN2 and CIN3-CIS attributable to genotypes targeted by nonavalent vaccine was observed in women

  16. Immunogenicity and specificity of norovirus Consensus GII.4 virus-like particles in monovalent and bivalent vaccine formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Gabriel I; Bok, Karin; Taylor, Ross; Haynes, Joel R; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V; Richardson, Charles; Green, Kim Y

    2012-05-21

    Noroviruses, a major cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide, present antigenic diversity that must be considered for the development of an effective vaccine. In this study, we explored approaches to increase the broad reactivity of virus-like particle (VLP) norovirus vaccine candidates. The immunogenicity of a GII.4 "Consensus" VLP that was engineered from sequences of three genetically distinct naturally occurring GII.4 strains was examined for its ability to induce cross-reactive immune responses against different clusters of GII.4 noroviruses. Rabbits immunized with GII.4 Consensus VLPs developed high serum antibody titers against VLPs derived from a number of distinct wild-type GII.4 viruses, including some that had been circulating over 30 years ago. Because the sera exhibited low cross-reactivity with antigenically distinct GI norovirus strains, we investigated the serum antibody response to a bivalent vaccine formulation containing GI.1 (Norwalk virus) and GII.4 Consensus VLPs that was administered to animals under varying conditions. In these studies, the highest homologous and heterologous antibody titers to the bivalent vaccine were elicited following immunization of animals by the intramuscular route using Alhydrogel (Al(OH)(3)) as adjuvant. Our data indicate that the use of both genetically engineered norovirus VLPs that incorporate relevant epitopes from multiple strains and multivalent vaccine formulations increase the breadth of the immune response to diverse variants within a genotype and, thus, prove helpful in the rational design of VLP-based vaccines against human noroviruses. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. The sexual ethics of HPV vaccination for boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyten, Jeroen; Engelen, Bart; Beutels, Philippe

    2014-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. It is a leading cause of cervical cancer in women but the virus is increasingly being linked to several other cancers in men and women alike. Since the introduction of safe and effective but also expensive vaccines, many developed countries have implemented selective vaccination programs for girls. Some however argue that these programs should be expanded to include boys, since (1) HPV constitutes non-negligible health risks for boys as well and (2) protected boys will indirectly also protect girls. In this paper we approach this discussion from an ethical perspective. First, on which moral grounds can one justify not reimbursing vaccination for the male sex? We develop an ethical framework to evaluate selective vaccination programs and conclude that, in the case of HPV, efficiency needs to be balanced against non-stigmatization, non-discrimination and justice. Second, if vaccination programs were to be expanded to boys as well, do the latter then also have a moral duty to become immunized? Two arguments in favor of such a moral duty are well known in vaccination ethics: the duty not to harm others and to contribute to the public good of public health. However, we argue that these are not particularly convincing in the context of HPV. In contrast, we believe a third, more powerful but also more controversial argument is possible. In our view, the sexual mode of transmission of HPV constitutes an additional reason to believe that boys in fact may have a moral obligation to accept vaccination.

  18. The feminization of HPV: How science, politics, economics and gender norms shaped U.S. HPV vaccine implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Ellen M; Vamos, Cheryl A; Thompson, Erika L; Zimet, Gregory D; Rosberger, Zeev; Merrell, Laura; Kline, Nolan S

    2017-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause a number of anogenital cancers (i.e., cervical, penile, anal, vaginal, vulvar) and genital warts. A decade ago, the HPV vaccine was approved, and has been shown to be a public health achievement that can reduce the morbidity and mortality for HPV-associated diseases. Yet, the mistaken over-identification of HPV as a female-specific disease has resulted in the feminization of HPV and HPV vaccines. In this critical review, we trace the evolution of the intersection of science, politics, economics and gender norms during the original HPV vaccine approval, marketing era, and implementation. Given the focus on cervical cancer screening, women were identified as bearing the burden of HPV infection and its related illnesses, and the group responsible for prevention. We also describe the consequences of the feminization of HPV, which has resulted primarily in reduced protection from HPV-related illnesses for males. We propose a multilevel approach to normalizing HPV vaccines as an important aspect of overall health for both genders. This process must engage multiple stakeholders, including providers, parents, patients, professional organizations, public health agencies, policymakers, researchers, and community-based organizations. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Individual and bivalent vaccines against botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A and B using DNA-based Semliki Forest virus vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yunzhou; Yu, Jiyu; Li, Na; Wang, Shuang; Yu, Weiyuan; Sun, Zhiwei

    2009-10-19

    We evaluated individual and bivalent replicon vaccines against Clostridiumbotulinum neurotoxin serotypes A (BoNT/A) or B (BoNT/B). The DNA replicon vaccine (pSCARSBHc) encoding the Hc domain of BoNT/B (BHc) induced better responses and protection against BoNT/B mouse challenge than conventional DNA vaccine. The dual-expressing DNA vaccine (pSCARSA/BHc) protected similarly to a DNA replicon vaccine mixture (pSCARSAHc+pSCARSBHc). Additionally, recombinant SFV particles, VRP-AHc or VRP-BHc, protected mice from high-dose BoNT/A or BoNT/B challenge, respectively. Mice given either dual-expressing VRP-A/BHc or mixture of VRP-AHc and VRP-BHc were protected from challenge with serotype A/B mixtures. These data justify further testing in other animals or humans.

  20. HPV vaccine acceptance, utilization and expected impacts in the U.S.: Where are we now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Amanda F; Patel, Divya A

    2010-09-16

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines represent a remarkable opportunity for the primary prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases. With almost four years of vaccine availability now accrued in the United States (U.S.), data are beginning to accumulate about vaccine utilization patterns and how these may be affected by public opinions about the vaccines. This article describes the burden of HPV infection and related disease in the U.S., and reviews what is currently known about HPV vaccine utilization among adolescent and young adult females in this country. In addition, we report on emerging data on the personal and attitudinal factors that appear to influence HPV vaccine utilization and discuss how these data may be useful for designing future interventions to improve uptake of these vaccines. Finally, we re-examine cost-effectiveness studies of HPV vaccines, taking into account updated information on utilization of, and public attitudes about, these vaccines.

  1. Implementing HPV vaccines: public knowledge, attitudes, and the need for education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Amrita

    This article reviews qualitative research on public knowledge and attitudes to HPV vaccines, focusing on socio-economically challenged populations. Keyword searches were conducted on MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science for relevant peer-reviewed literature in English. A high acceptance of HPV vaccines was found despite low knowledge about HPV (types, prevalence, transmission, health risks, and cervical screening). Facilitators of HPV vaccine uptake included fear of cancer and desire to protect children's health. Barriers included low knowledge levels, perception of HPV vaccines as potential causes of sexual disinhibition, concerns about vaccine costs, social stigma, adverse effects, and parental unwillingness to permit vaccination of pre-adolescent children. Despite acceptance of HPV vaccines, implementation in low-resource settings faces social and economic difficulties. To pursue and strengthen cervical screening in these settings, public education about HPV is key.

  2. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and subsequent sexual behaviour: Evidence from a large survey of Nordic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bo T.; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Arnheim-Dahlstrom, Lisen

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether recipients and non-recipients of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine subsequently differ in terms of sexual risk taking behaviour. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. Sequential analyses constructed from self-reported age at vaccination, age at first intercourse and age...... received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut versus women who did not receive the HPV vaccine. RESULTS: HPV vaccination did not result in younger age at first intercourse. Women who received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut did not have more sexual partners...... than did non-vaccinees. Non-use of contraception during first intercourse was more common among non-vaccinees than among HPV vaccinees. The results were similar for organized catch-up and opportunistic vaccinees. CONCLUSION: Women who received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut...

  3. Comparison of the immunogenicity of Cervarix(®) and Gardasil(®) human papillomavirus vaccines for oncogenic non-vaccine serotypes HPV-31, HPV-33, and HPV-45 in HIV-infected adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Lars; Tolstrup, Martin; Müller, Martin

    2014-01-01

    (®) (HPV-16/18, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, GSK) and Gardasil(®) (HPV-6/11/16/18, Merck) have demonstrated partial cross-protection against certain oncogenic non-vaccine HPV-types. Currently, there are no available data on vaccine-induced cross-protection in men and little is known about cross......Individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have excess risk of developing human papillomavirus (HPV)-related disease. A substantial fraction of HPV-associated cancers is caused by HPV serotypes not included in the currently available vaccines. Among healthy women, both Cervarix......-reactive immunity after HPV-vaccination of HIV-infected individuals. In an investigator-initiated trial, we randomized 91 HIV-positive men and women to receive vaccination with Cervarix(®) or Gardasil(®). The HPV-DNA status of the participants was determined with pcr before and after immunization. Cross...

  4. Vaccine-related internet search activity predicts H1N1 and HPV vaccine coverage: implications for vaccine acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, Seth C; Kegler, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The Internet is a primary source for health-related information, and Internet search activity is associated with infectious disease outbreaks. The authors hypothesized that Internet search activity for vaccine-related information would predict vaccination coverage. They examined Internet search activity for H1N1 and human papilloma virus (HPV) disease and vaccine information in relation to H1N1 and HPV vaccine uptake. Google Insight for Search was used to assess the volume of Internet search queries for H1N1- and vaccine-related terms in the United States in 2009, the year of the H1N1 pandemic. Vaccine coverage data were also obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention at the state level for H1N1 vaccinations in 2009. These same measures were collected at the state level for HPV- and vaccine-related search terms in 2010 as well as HPV vaccine uptake in that year. Analyses showed that the search terms H1N1 and vaccine were correlated with H1N1 vaccine uptake; ordinal regression found the H1N1 search term was independently associated with H1N1 vaccine coverage. Similarly, the correlation between vaccine search volume and HPV coverage was significant; ordinal regression showed the search term vaccine independently predicted HPV vaccination coverage. This is among the first studies to show that Internet search activity is associated with vaccination coverage. The Internet should be exploited as an opportunity to dispel vaccine misinformation by providing accurate information to support vaccine decision making.

  5. The HPV Vaccine: Framing the Arguments "for" and "against" Mandatory Vaccination of All Middle School Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamos, Cheryl A.; McDermott, Robert J.; Daley, Ellen M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV), the virus responsible for cervical cancer, is the most common viral sexually transmitted infection in the United States. A vaccine was approved in 2006 that is effective in preventing the types of HPV responsible for 70% of cervical cancers and 90% of genital warts. Proposals for routine and mandatory HPV…

  6. HPV Vaccination of College Males: Strategizing against HPV Infection in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham-Erves, Jennifer; Talbott, Laura L.

    2015-01-01

    The disease burden of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) among females and its associated sequelae have been widely studied by social and behavioral science researchers and medical professionals. Approved for administration to males as young as nine years old, the vaccination of males continues to spark much debate when older age groups are brought…

  7. Efficacy of an inactivated bivalent vaccine against the prevalent strains of Newcastle disease and H9N2 avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Yang, Huiming; Xu, Hongjun; Ma, Zengbin; Zhang, Guozhong

    2017-03-16

    Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza subtype H9N2 (H9N2 AI) are two of the most important diseases of poultry, causing severe economic losses in the global poultry industry. Vaccination is an effective way to prevent and control the spread of ND virus (NDV) and H9N2 AI virus (AIV), but the antigenic differences between the current circulating strains and the vaccine strains might account for recent ND and H9N2 AI outbreaks in vaccinated poultry flocks. We developed an inactivated bivalent H9N2 and NDV vaccine based on the current prevalent strains of H9N2 AIV and NDV in China and evaluated its efficacy in chickens in this study. The results indicated that the inactivated bivalent vaccine could induce a fast antibody response in vaccinated chickens. The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titer in the sera increased rapidly, and the highest HI titer was observed at 4 weeks post-vaccination (wpv) with a mean titre of 8.6 log2 for NDV and 9.5 log2 for H9N2. Up until 15 wpv, HI titers were still detectable at a high level of over 6 log2. The immunized chickens showed no signs of disease after challenge at 3 wpv with the prevalent strains of NDV and H9N2 AIV isolated in 2012-2014. Moreover, viral shedding was completely inhibited in vaccinated chickens after challenge with H9N2 AIV and inhibited by at least 90% with NDV compared to the controls at 5dpc. Our findings suggest that the inactivated NDV and H9N2 vaccine induces a fast and strong antibody response in vaccinated chickens and is efficacious in poultry against NDVs and H9N2 AIVs.

  8. Discussions of Adolescent Sexuality in News Media Coverage of the HPV Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casciotti, Dana M.; Smith, Katherine C.; Tsui, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Given the sexually transmitted nature of human papillomavirus (HPV), some worry the HPV vaccine will create a false sense of security and promote adolescent sexual activity. Media coverage of vaccines can influence social norms, parental attitudes, and vaccine acceptance; in this paper we examine U.S. news media messages related to sexuality and HPV vaccination. Drawing on a structured analysis of 447 articles published during 2005-2009, we qualitatively analyzed a purposive sample of 49 articles discussing adolescent health behaviors related to HPV vaccination. Commonly, articles discussed vaccination in the context of abstinence-only versus comprehensive sexual health education; cited research findings to support vaccination or sex education; argued against connecting vaccination to promiscuous behavior; but included fear-inducing messages. Media messages concerning health behaviors related to HPV vaccination tended to support government and parental involvement in sex education, and dismiss concerns linking vaccination to sexual activity, while also presenting the vaccine as lifesaving. PMID:24439619

  9. HPV vaccine completion and dose adherence among commercially insured females aged 9 through 26 years in the US

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Guodong; Kong, Lan; Du, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although HPV vaccination has been recommended for use in girls and young women since 2007, HPV vaccine uptake is low in the US. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the 2008–2011 MarketScan data to examine HPV vaccine completion and dose adherence among commercially insured females aged 9–26 years. We performed multivariable logistic regression models to examine factors related to HPV vaccine completion and HPV vaccine dose adherence. Results: Among 378,484 fem...

  10. HPV vaccine acceptability in HIV-infected and HIV negative men who have sex with men (MSM) in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    C. Sadlier; Lynam, A.; O'Dea, S; Delamere, S.; Quinlan, M.; Clarke, S.; Sheils, O; Bergin, C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly HIV-infected MSM are disproportionately affected by HPV infection and associated disease. The HPV vaccine has potential to greatly reduce the burden of HPV-associated disease including anal cancer in MSM. The efficacy of the HPV vaccine is dependent on high levels of vaccine uptake. The aim of this study was to examine HPV vaccine acceptability and factors influencing vaccine acceptability in MSM in Ireland. Methods A self-administered ...

  11. HPV vaccine acceptance among African-American mothers and their daughters: an inquiry grounded in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith-Gyan, Kayoll V; Lechuga, Julia; Jenerette, Coretta M; Palmer, Mary H; Moore, Angelo D; Hamilton, Jill B

    2017-05-29

    Much of the research on African-Americans' HPV vaccine acceptance has largely focused on racial/ethnic differences related to cognitive, socio-economical, and structural factors that contribute to differences in HPV vaccine acceptance and completion. A growing body of literature suggest that cultural factors, such as mistrust of healthcare providers (HCPs) and the healthcare system, religion, and social norms related to appropriate sexual behaviors, also plays a prominent role in their HPV vaccine acceptance. However, these studies were limited in their use of theoretical approaches necessary to conceptualize and operationalize culture. To explore the influence of culture on African-American mothers' and daughters' HPV vaccine acceptance using the PEN-3, a culturally-centered conceptual framework. Grounded theory techniques were used to explore cultural factors that influenced the acceptance of the HPV vaccine among African-American mothers (n = 28) and their daughters (n = 34). Positive attitudes towards vaccination stemmed from beliefs that the HPV vaccine has cancer prevention benefits and that vaccinations in general protected against infectious diseases. Negative attitudes stemmed from beliefs that the HPV vaccine was too new, not effective, daughters were too young, and that vaccines were not a one-size-fits-all intervention. Majority of mothers and daughters indicated that their religious doctrine did not impede their HPV vaccination decisions. For a few mothers, religious beliefs could not be separated from their HPV vaccination decisions and ultimately deterred HPV vaccine acceptance. HCP recommendations were valued however mothers were often dissatisfied with the detail of information communicated. Support networks provided both positive and negative types of social support to mothers and daughters. The media highlighted the cancer prevention benefits of the HPV vaccine and unintentionally communicated negative information of the HPV vaccine

  12. Estimation of the epidemiological burden of HPV-related anogenital cancers, precancerous lesions, and genital warts in women and men in Europe: Potential additional benefit of a nine-valent second generation HPV vaccine compared to first generation HPV vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Hartwig

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A second generation HPV vaccine has been developed for the prevention of anogenital cancers and precancerous lesions of the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus and of genital warts due to nine HPV types.We estimated the annual burden of these diseases attributable to the nine HPV types compared to HPV types from first generation vaccines in women and men in Europe. Material and methods: Incidence rates from the IARC database, cancer registries, the literature and Eurostat population data were used.The burden attributable to the HPV types targeted by both vaccines was estimated by applying the relative contribution of the respective HPV types from epidemiological studies. Results: In 2013, the number of new anogenital HPV-attributable cancers was 44,480 with 39,494 of these cases related to second vs. 33,285 to first generation vaccine types.Among the 284,373 to 541,621 new HPV-attributable anogenital precancerous lesions 235,364–448,423 and 135,025–256,830 were estimated to be related to second and first generation vaccine types, respectively.The annual number of new genital warts was 753,608–935,318, with 90% related to HPV6/11. Conclusions: These data demonstrate how the large public health impact that was achieved by the first generation HPV vaccines could be further increased by second generation vaccines. Keywords: HPV, Burden of disease, Cancer, Precancerous lesions, Genital warts, HPV vaccine

  13. HPV vaccine: Why the rush? | van Bogaert | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 104, No 8 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. HPV vaccine: Why the rush? LJ van Bogaert. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text ...

  14. HPV Knowledge and Vaccine Acceptability among Hispanic Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfeld, Julie; Byrne, Margaret M.; Vanderpool, Robin; Shin, Sarah; Kobetz, Erin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge and vaccine acceptability in a convenience sample of immigrant Hispanic men, many of whom are parents of adolescents. Data on 189 male callers were collected from the National Cancer Institute's Cancer Information Service Spanish-language call center. Most participants…

  15. model hpv vaccine recommendations for sub-saharan africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MEMBERS OF THE SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA CERVICAL CANCER WORKING GROUP. (Manucript N° ... of genital wart cases.[22]. Decreasing the incidence of. HPV-related cancers, in particular cervical cancer morbidity and mortality, by means such as vaccination ... lesions which are amenable to treatment and hence.

  16. Comparison of the immunogenicity of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 vaccine and the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine for oncogenic non-vaccine types HPV-31 and HPV-45 in healthy women aged 18-45 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Mark H; Baron, Mira; Levin, Myron J; Chatterjee, Archana; Fox, Bradley; Scholar, Sofia; Rosen, Jeffrey; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Lebacq, Marie; van der Most, Robbert; Moris, Philippe; Giannini, Sandra L; Schuind, Anne; Datta, Sanjoy K; Descamps, Dominique

    2011-12-01

    Protection against oncogenic non-vaccine types (cross-protection) offered by human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines may provide a significant medical benefit. Available clinical efficacy data suggest the two licensed vaccines (HPV-16/18 vaccine, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals (GSK), and HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine, Merck & Co., Inc.) differ in terms of protection against oncogenic non-vaccine HPV types -31/45. The immune responses induced by the two vaccines against these two non-vaccine HPV types (cross-reactivity) was compared in an observer-blind study up to Month 24 (18 mo post-vaccination), in women HPV DNA-negative and seronegative prior to vaccination for the HPV type analyzed (HPV-010 [NCT00423046]). Geometric mean antibody titers (GMTs) measured by pseudovirion-based neutralization assay (PBNA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were similar between vaccines for HPV-31/45. Seropositivity rates for HPV-31 were also similar between vaccines; however, there was a trend for higher seropositivity with the HPV-16/18 vaccine (13.0-16.7%) versus the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (0.0-5.0%) for HPV-45 with PBNA, but not ELISA. HPV-31/45 cross-reactive memory B-cell responses were comparable between vaccines. Circulating antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell frequencies were higher for the HPV-16/18 vaccine than the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (HPV-31 [geometric mean ratio [GMR] =2.0; p=0.0002] and HPV-45 [GMR=2.6; p=0.0092]), as were the proportion of T-cell responders (HPV-31, p=0.0009; HPV-45, p=0.0793). In conclusion, immune response to oncogenic non-vaccine HPV types -31/45 was generally similar for both vaccines with the exception of T-cell response which was higher with the HPV-16/18 vaccine. Considering the differences in cross-protective efficacy between the two vaccines, the results might provide insights into the underlying mechanism(s) of protection.

  17. Immunological response to quadrivalent HPV vaccine in treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjon Pian Gi, Robin E. A.; San Giorgi, Michel R. M.; Pawlita, Michael; Michel, Angelika; van Hemel, Bettien M.; Schuuring, Ed M. D.; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; van der Laan, Bernard F. A. M.; Dikkers, Frederik G.

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this study was to explore influence of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (Gardasil(A (R))) on the immune status of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) patients. In retrospective observational study, six RRP patients who received the quadrivalent HPV vaccine and whose HPV seroreactivity was

  18. HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Gardasil® Vaccine - what you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in its entirety from the CDC HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Vaccine - Gardasil® Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc. ... WHAT IS HPV? Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common ... United States. More than half of sexually active men and women ...

  19. HPV vaccine (Human Papillomavirus) Cervarix® - what you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in its entirety from the CDC HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Cervarix® Vaccine Information Statement: www.cdc.gov/vaccines/ ... WHAT IS HPV? Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common ... United States. More than half of sexually active men and women ...

  20. HPV Vaccine Acceptance in a Clinic-Based Sample of Women in the Rural South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Heather M.; Sharpe, Patricia A.; McCree, Donna H.; Wright, Marcie S.; Davis, Jennifer; Hutto, Brent E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a very common sexually transmitted infection linked to cervical disease. Vaccines for some types of HPV were in development at the time of the study. Purpose: The study examined HPV vaccine acceptability among underserved women in a rural region of the southeastern U.S. with high rates of cervical cancer…

  1. Women have a preference for their male partner to be HPV vaccinated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Diane Medved; Alexander, Natalie Marya; Ahern, Debra Ann; Comes, Johanna Claire; Smith, Melissa Smith; Heutinck, Melinda Ann; Handley, Sandra Martin

    2014-01-01

    Peer influence and social networking can change female adolescent and young adult behavior. Peer influence on preferences for male human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has not been documented. The primary aim of this study was to determine if women had preferences about male sexual partner HPV vaccination receipt. A prospective survey of women 18-26 years of age was conducted at an urban university student health clinic. Education about the two HPV vaccines, cervical cancer and genital warts was provided. Women self-reported their demographic and medical history data, as well as their own preferences for HPV vaccine and their preferences for their male partner HPV vaccine using a 5 point Likert scale. 601 women, mean age of 21.5 years (SD 2.4), participated between 2011 and 2012. Nearly 95% of respondents were heterosexual; condoms and contraceptives were used in over half of the population. Regardless of the woman's vaccination status, women had significantly higher (strongly agree/agree) preferences for the male partner being vaccinated with HPV4 than not caring if he was vaccinated (63.6% vs. 13.1%, pWomen who received HPV4 compared to those choosing HPV2 had a significantly lower proportion of preferences for not caring if the male partner was vaccinated (13% vs. 22%, p = 0.015). Women preferred a HPV vaccinated male partner. Peer messaging might change the male HPV vaccination uptake.

  2. Biopower, Normalization, and HPV: A Foucauldian Analysis of the HPV Vaccine Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Kimberly S

    2016-09-01

    This article utilizes the Foucauldian concepts of biopower and normalization to give an analysis of the debate surrounding the controversial administration of the HPV vaccine to adolescents. My intention is not to solve the problem, rather to utilize a Foucauldian framework to bring various facets of the issue to light, specifically the way the vaccine contributes to strategies of power in reference to how young adults develop within relationships of power. To begin, the article provides an overview of the Foucauldian concepts of biopower and normalization, including how these two strategies of power were present in the administration of the smallpox vaccine in the 19th century. Next, information about HPV and the history of the current controversy in the United States is presented. Lastly, the article presents an analysis of the strategies of biopower and normalization present in the debate on HPV, including an emphasis on how the vaccination is similar to, and different from, 19th century smallpox vaccination. It also explores the way that mechanisms of disease control affect and are affected by individual subjects, in this case, adolescents.

  3. Knowledge, attitudes, practices and willingness to vaccinate in preparation for the introduction of HPV vaccines in Bamako, Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groot, Anne S; Tounkara, Karamoko; Rochas, Mali; Beseme, Sarah; Yekta, Shahla; Diallo, Fanta Siby; Tracy, J Kathleen; Teguete, Ibrahima; Koita, Ousmane A

    2017-01-01

    Although screening for pre-cancerous cervical lesions and human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination are accepted and effective means to prevent cervical cancer, women in Mali have limited access to these interventions. In addition, cervical cancer prevention by HPV vaccination has been controversial in some settings. To reduce cervical cancer prevalence and increase HPV vaccine uptake, it is important to understand the level of knowledge about cervical cancer screening and practices related to vaccination in at-risk populations. In this study, the level of knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer and attitudes towards vaccination were assessed among 301 participants (male and female, adults and adolescents) in a house-to-house survey in two urban neighborhoods in Bamako, Mali. The survey was combined with a brief educational session on HPV. Prior to the education session, overall knowledge of HPV infection and cervical cancer was very low: only 8% knew that HPV is a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Less than 20% of women had ever consulted a gynecologist and less than 3% had ever had cervical cancer screening. After hearing a description of HPV vaccine, more than 80% would accept HPV vaccination; fathers and husbands were identified as primary decisions makers and local clinics or the home as preferred sites for vaccination. This study provides information on STI knowledge and vaccine acceptance in Bamako, Mali in 2012, prior to the introduction of HPV vaccination.

  4. Knowledge, attitudes, practices and willingness to vaccinate in preparation for the introduction of HPV vaccines in Bamako, Mali.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne S De Groot

    Full Text Available Although screening for pre-cancerous cervical lesions and human papilloma virus (HPV vaccination are accepted and effective means to prevent cervical cancer, women in Mali have limited access to these interventions. In addition, cervical cancer prevention by HPV vaccination has been controversial in some settings. To reduce cervical cancer prevalence and increase HPV vaccine uptake, it is important to understand the level of knowledge about cervical cancer screening and practices related to vaccination in at-risk populations. In this study, the level of knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer and attitudes towards vaccination were assessed among 301 participants (male and female, adults and adolescents in a house-to-house survey in two urban neighborhoods in Bamako, Mali. The survey was combined with a brief educational session on HPV. Prior to the education session, overall knowledge of HPV infection and cervical cancer was very low: only 8% knew that HPV is a sexually transmitted infection (STI. Less than 20% of women had ever consulted a gynecologist and less than 3% had ever had cervical cancer screening. After hearing a description of HPV vaccine, more than 80% would accept HPV vaccination; fathers and husbands were identified as primary decisions makers and local clinics or the home as preferred sites for vaccination. This study provides information on STI knowledge and vaccine acceptance in Bamako, Mali in 2012, prior to the introduction of HPV vaccination.

  5. College women, HPV genotyping and sexual behavior before HPV vaccination: Results from samples stored for a long time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Ortiz, Antonia; Conde-Glez, Carlos Jesús; Olamendi-Portugal, Ma Leonidez; García-Cisneros, Santa; Plett-Torres, Tanya; Sánchez-Alemán, Miguel A

    2017-10-06

    HPV is the sexually transmitted agent most common among young people, like college students. The aim of study was to associate sexual behavior characteristics of women with HPV, detected in genital samples taken before the introduction of the HPV vaccine. Female students during 2001-2005 donated genital samples and the samples were re-analyzed in 2013 for HPV genotyping by RT-PCR. The frozen storage of the students' genital samples allowed the detection of HPV DNA and its genotyping after years of sample collection. HPV prevalence was 22%, HPV16 3.9%, and HPV18 1.1%. Age, multiple sexual partners and the partner's age at first sexual intercourse were significantly associated to HPV. Students with ≥ 3 sexual partners and who did not use condom had 12.8 higher odds of being HPV positive. These results made possible the analysis of HPV prevalence changes, before HPV vaccine introduction. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. HPV vaccination rate in French adolescent girls: an example of vaccine distrust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Hervé; Schrimpf, Cécile; Moro, Marie Rose; Lachal, Jonathan

    2017-12-08

    To explore the clinical issues of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination to develop explanatory hypotheses for the low level of vaccination among adolescent girls in France where the full course coverage is low (vaccine, represented several medical specialties (paediatrics, general practice, internal medicine, gynaecology), with hospitalist or private practices. The results connect three superordinate themes grouping three concentric levels: within society, during the consultation and in the individual doctor's feelings. The modalities and contents of the information about HPV vaccination raise questions about the limitations of the information doctors receive. The ineluctable association between sexuality and HPV vaccination explains their reluctance to raise topics considered to be private. The reasons for HPV vaccination illustrate the difficulty of arguing in favour of it. In view of the frequent parental reluctance, which weakens the parent-physician alliance, physicians must take responsibility for defending the benefits of vaccination. They nonetheless remain citizens whose opinions may implicitly echo the general reluctance, promoted by disinformation. In delaying or avoiding the subject of vaccination, they involuntarily become an instrument of anti-vaccination discourse. It is imperative to improve the distribution of credible information about vaccination, unbiased and scientifically supported by a strong institutional position and to rethink the place of the clinician in the system of adolescent health and disease prevention in France. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. HPV vaccine acceptance, utilization and expected impacts in the U.S.: Where are we now?

    OpenAIRE

    Dempsey, Amanda F.; Patel, Divya A.

    2010-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines represent a remarkable opportunity for the primary prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases. With almost four years of vaccine availability now accrued in the United States (US), data are beginning to accumulate about vaccine utilization patterns and how these may be affected by public opinions about the vaccines. This article describes the burden of HPV infection and related disease in the US, and reviews what is currently known about H...

  8. Nationwide Survey of Knowledge and Health Beliefs regarding Human Papillomavirus among HPV-Vaccinated Female Students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping; Raja Muhammad Yusoff, Raja Nur Amalina; Edib, Zobaida; Sam, I-Ching; Zimet, Gregory D

    The National HPV Immunization Programme, which offers free human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines to teenaged female students, was launched in Malaysia in 2010. HPV vaccination paired with adequate knowledge about HPV infection provides the best protection against cervical cancer. To identify the level of knowledge and the health beliefs towards HPV and the HPV vaccine among HPV-vaccinated female students in Malaysia. A nationwide cross-sectional survey among 14 years old female students who had received three doses of the HPV vaccine was conducted in 32 randomly selected schools from 13 states and 3 federal territories in Malaysia between February 2013 and April 2013. Among 2482 respondents, knowledge about HPV infection and the HPV vaccine was extremely poor. The mean total knowledge score was only 3.56 (SD ± 1.76), out of a possible score of 10. The majority of respondents were unaware that vaccinating boys with HPV can help protect girls against HPV infection (91.6%), HPV cannot be cured (81.6%) and that HPV is a sexually transmitted infection (70.3%). Most of the respondents had the misconception that only females get HPV (95.1%), and that the HPV vaccine eliminates the need for Pap smear tests (68.3%). Most respondents (91.6%) believed that they would not get an HPV infection. Almost half of the respondents (42.9%) held the misconception that HPV infection could not lead to serious illness. Findings revealed poor knowledge about both HPV and the HPV vaccine, low perceived susceptibility to HPV infection and misinformation about HPV infection among HPV-vaccinated girls. Therefore, it is essential to increase the knowledge and awareness of health risks regarding HPV infection among teenaged girls who have received the HPV vaccine.

  9. Investigating Reports of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: An Analysis of HPV-16/18-Adjuvanted Vaccine Post-Licensure Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Huygen

    2015-09-01

    There is not sufficient evidence to suggest an increased risk of developing CRPS following vaccination with HPV-16/18-adjuvanted vaccine. Post-licensure safety surveillance confirms the acceptable benefit-risk of HPV-16/18 vaccination.

  10. Trends and predictors of HPV vaccination among U.S. College women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Erika L; Vamos, Cheryl A; Vázquez-Otero, Coralia; Logan, Rachel; Griner, Stacey; Daley, Ellen M

    2016-05-01

    HPV vaccination was recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for young adult females in 2006 and males in 2011 to prevent HPV-related cancers and genital warts. As this prevention mechanism continues to disseminate, it is necessary to monitor the uptake of this vaccine. College students represent an important population for HPV vaccination efforts and surveillance due to increased risk for HPV infection and representing a priority population for catch-up HPV vaccination. The purpose of this study was to assess the trends in HPV vaccination among U.S. college females and males from 2009 to 2013, and to examine whether predictors for HPV vaccination differ between males and females. The National College Health Assessment-II (Fall 2009-2013) was used to assess trends in HPV vaccination using hierarchical logistic regression across genders and demographics. Data from 2013 were used to assess demographic variables associated with HPV vaccination for males and females, respectively. The analysis was conducted in 2015. Females had nearly double the rates of HPV vaccination compared to males over time. All demographic sub-groups had significant increases in vaccine rates over time, with select male sub-groups having more accelerated increases (e.g., gay). Young age (18-21 vs. 22-26years) was a significant predictor for HPV vaccination among males and females, while race/ethnicity was a predictor of vaccination among females only. These findings identified specific demographic sub-groups that need continued support for HPV vaccination. Campus health centers may be rational settings to facilitate clinical opportunities for HPV vaccination among unvaccinated college students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Introduction of a National HPV vaccination program into Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorji, Tandin; Tshomo, Ugyen; Phuntsho, Sangay; Tamang, Tshewang Dorji; Tshokey, Tshokey; Baussano, Iacopo; Franceschi, Silvia; Clifford, Gary

    2015-07-17

    Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in Bhutanese women. To help prevent the disease, the Ministry of Health (MoH) developed a national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine program. MoH considerations included disease incidence, the limited reach of cervical screening, poor outcomes associated with late diagnosis of the disease, and Bhutan's ability to conduct the program. For national introduction, it was decided to implement routine immunization for 12 year-old girls with the quadrivalent HPV6/11/16/18 (QHPV) vaccine and a one-time catch-up campaign for 13-18 year-old girls in the first year of the program (2010). Health workers would administer the vaccine in schools, with out-of-school girls to receive the vaccine at health facilities. From 2011, HPV vaccination would enter into the routine immunization schedule using health-center delivery. During the initial campaign in 2010, over 130,000 doses of QHPV were administered and QHPV 3-dose vaccination coverage was estimated to be around 99% among 12 year-olds and 89% among 13-18 year-olds. QHPV vaccine was well tolerated and no severe adverse events were reported. In the three following years, QHPV vaccine was administered routinely to 12 year-olds primarily through health centers instead of schools, during which time the population-level 3-dose coverage decreased to 67-69%, an estimate which was confirmed by individual-level survey data in 2012 (73%). In 2014, when HPV delivery was switched back to schools, 3-dose coverage rose again above 90%. The rapid implementation and high coverage of the national HPV vaccine program in Bhutan were largely attributable to the strength of political commitment, primary healthcare and support from the education system. School-based delivery appeared clearly superior to health centers in achieving high-coverage among 12 year-olds. Bhutan's lessons for other low/middle-income countries include the superiority of school-based vaccination and the feasibility of a broad catch

  12. "Is It Like One of Those Infectious Kind of Things?" The Importance of Educating Young People about HPV and HPV Vaccination at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Cristyn; Skinner, Susan Rachel; Stoney, Tanya; Marshall, Helen Siobhan; Collins, Joanne; Jones, Jane; Hutton, Heidi; Parrella, Adriana; Cooper, Spring; McGeechan, Kevin; Zimet, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    The National Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination Program in Australia commenced in 2007 for girls and in 2013 for boys, using the quadrivalent HPV [4vHPV] vaccine. In Australia, students are primarily vaccinated en masse, on school grounds, after parental/ guardian consent is obtained. Students most often receive little, or no, education at…

  13. Rapid Response to a College Outbreak of Meningococcal Serogroup B Disease: Nation's First Widespread Use of Bivalent rLP2086 Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorito, Theresa M.; Bornschein, Suzanne; Mihalakos, Alysia; Kelleher, Catherine M.; Alexander-Scott, Nicole; Kanadanian, Koren V.; Raymond, Patricia; Sicard, Kenneth; Dennehy, Penelope H.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To outline the reasoning behind use of bivalent rLP2086 in a Rhode Island college meningococcal B disease outbreak, highlighting the timeline from outbreak declaration to vaccination clinic, emphasizing that these two time points are vaccination.…

  14. Rapid Response to a College Outbreak of Meningococcal Serogroup B Disease: Nation's First Widespread Use of Bivalent rLP2086 Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorito, Theresa M.; Bornschein, Suzanne; Mihalakos, Alysia; Kelleher, Catherine M.; Alexander-Scott, Nicole; Kanadanian, Koren V.; Raymond, Patricia; Sicard, Kenneth; Dennehy, Penelope H.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To outline the reasoning behind use of bivalent rLP2086 in a Rhode Island college meningococcal B disease outbreak, highlighting the timeline from outbreak declaration to vaccination clinic, emphasizing that these two time points are <3 days apart. Participants: Staff, faculty, and students at College X eligible for vaccination.…

  15. Advertisements promoting HPV vaccine for adolescent males: Does source matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Jessica K.; Reiter, Paul L.; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Brewer, Noel T.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Many parents recall hearing of HPV vaccine through drug company advertisements. We sought to examine whether parents accurately recall the source (i.e., sponsor) of ads promoting HPV vaccine and the impact of drug company ads. Methods A U.S. national sample of 544 parents of adolescent males ages 11–17 participated in an online between-subjects experiment. Parents viewed an advertisement encouraging HPV vaccination for boys with a logo from a randomly assigned source. Parents rated trust, likability, and motivation for vaccination while viewing the ad and later indicated who they believed sponsored it. Results Nearly half (43%) of parents who viewed a hypothetical advertisement containing a logo incorrectly identified the ad source. More parents correctly identified the source of drug company ads than ads from other sources (62% vs. 25%, OR 4.93, 95% CI 3.26–7.46). The majority of parents who saw a logo-free ad believed a drug company created it (60%). Among parents who correctly identified the ad source, drug company ads decreased motivation to vaccinate their sons, an association mediated by reduced liking of and trust in the ads. Conclusions Parents were more accurate in identifying drug company ads, primarily because they tended to assume any ad was from a drug company. Public health organizations may need to take special measures to ensure their messages are not perceived as sponsored by drug companies. PMID:22223814

  16. Do correlates of HPV vaccine initiation differ between adolescent boys and girls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkey, Melissa B; Moss, Jennifer L; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Brewer, Noel T

    2012-09-07

    Guidelines now recommend that adolescents routinely receive human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. Because little is known about uptake among boys, we assessed HPV vaccine initiation in a population-based sample of adolescent boys and girls. We analyzed weighted data from 751 parents who reported on an 11- to 17-year-old son or daughter for the 2010 North Carolina Child Health Assessment and Monitoring Program survey. Stratified multivariate logistic regression analyses identified correlates of HPV vaccine initiation separately for boys and girls. Only 14% of sons had received one or more doses of HPV vaccine compared to 44% of daughters (pvaccine initiation correlated with age and having received meningococcal vaccine. Among sons, initiation of HPV vaccine was lower for those living in high income households (odds ratio [OR]=0.22, 95% CI, 0.09-0.53) and higher for those whose race was neither white nor black (OR=3.26, 95% CI, 1.06-10.04). When asked to give the main reason for not vaccinating their child against HPV, parents of unvaccinated sons were more likely than those of daughters to report not getting a provider's recommendation or not being aware that the vaccine was available for their child, but less likely to report concern about safety (pHPV vaccine. HPV vaccine correlates and concerns varied for parents of boys and girls. To improve very low levels of uptake among boys, providers should recommend HPV vaccine concomitant with other adolescent vaccines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Attitude, Acceptability and Knowledge of HPV Vaccination among Local University Students in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vico Chung Lim Chiang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccine has the great potential to prevent HPV-related infections for millions of women and men worldwide. However, the success of the vaccine is highly dependent on the vaccination rate. Factors influencing the attitudes of undergraduate students towards HPV vaccination should be studied. This is a cross-sectional survey that was conducted to estimate the HPV vaccination rate among undergraduate students in Hong Kong, and to identify the predictors of their attitude towards HPV vaccination. The results showed that the HPV vaccination rate was 13.3%. Factors related to knowledge of vaccination were the main predictors of the students’ attitude towards vaccination (there were seven predictors, with B = 1.36 to 2.30; p < 0.05, followed by gender (B = −1.40; p < 0.05, acceptable maximum price (B = 0.35; p < 0.05, and willingness to receive the HPV vaccine if it can protect against cervical/anal cancer and genital warts (B = −1.90; p < 0.001. The regression model that was developed based on the predictors had a moderate effect size (adj-R2 = 0.33. To conclude, the HPV vaccination rate among undergraduate students in Hong Kong was low. They should be provided with more active education and activities to promote HPV vaccination to improve their knowledge on the subject.

  18. Attitude, Acceptability and Knowledge of HPV Vaccination among Local University Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Vico Chung Lim; Wong, Ho Ting; Yeung, Pui Chun Au; Choi, Yuk Ki; Fok, Michelle Sum Yue; Mak, Oi In; Wong, Hing Yu; Wong, Kim Ho; Wong, Shui Yan; Wong, Yee Shan; Wong, Eugene Ying Yeung

    2016-01-01

    The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has the great potential to prevent HPV-related infections for millions of women and men worldwide. However, the success of the vaccine is highly dependent on the vaccination rate. Factors influencing the attitudes of undergraduate students towards HPV vaccination should be studied. This is a cross-sectional survey that was conducted to estimate the HPV vaccination rate among undergraduate students in Hong Kong, and to identify the predictors of their attitude towards HPV vaccination. The results showed that the HPV vaccination rate was 13.3%. Factors related to knowledge of vaccination were the main predictors of the students’ attitude towards vaccination (there were seven predictors, with B = 1.36 to 2.30; p HPV vaccine if it can protect against cervical/anal cancer and genital warts (B = −1.90; p HPV vaccination rate among undergraduate students in Hong Kong was low. They should be provided with more active education and activities to promote HPV vaccination to improve their knowledge on the subject. PMID:27187424

  19. Monitoring vaccine and non-vaccine HPV type prevalence in the post-vaccination era in women living in the Basilicata region, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carozzi, Francesca; Puliti, Donella; Ocello, Cristina; Anastasio, Pasquale Silvio; Moliterni, Espedito Antonio; Perinetti, Emilia; Serradell, Laurence; Burroni, Elena; Confortini, Massimo; Mantellini, Paola; Zappa, Marco; Dominiak-Felden, Géraldine

    2018-01-15

    A large free-of-charge quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccination program, covering four cohorts annually (women 11, 14, 17 and 24 years), has been implemented in Basilicata since 2007. This study evaluated vaccine and non-vaccine HPV prevalence 5-7 years post-vaccination program implementation in vaccinated and unvaccinated women. This population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in the public screening centers of the Local Health Unit in Matera between 2012 and 2014. Cervical samples were obtained for Pap and HPV testing (HC2, LiPA Extra® assay) and participants completed a sociodemographic and behavioral questionnaire. Detailed HPV vaccination status was retrieved from the official HPV vaccine registry. HPV prevalence was described overall, by type and vaccination status. The association between HPV type-detection and risk/protective factors was studied. Direct vaccine protection (qHPV vaccine effectiveness [VE]), cross-protection, and type-replacement were evaluated in cohorts eligible for vaccination, by analyzing HPV prevalence of vaccine and non-vaccine types according to vaccination status. Overall, 2793 women (18-50 years) were included, 1314 of them having been in birth cohorts eligible for the HPV vaccination program (18- to 30-year-old women at enrolment). Among the latter, qHPV vaccine uptake was 59% (at least one dose), with 94% completing the schedule; standardized qHPV type prevalence was 0.6% in vaccinated versus 5.5% in unvaccinated women (P vaccine type infections was 90% (95% CI: 73%-96%) for all fully vaccinated women and 100% (95% CI not calculable) in women vaccinated before sexual debut. No statistically significant difference in overall high-risk HPV, high-risk non-vaccine HPV, or any single non-vaccine type prevalence was observed between vaccinated and unvaccinated women. These results, conducted in a post-vaccine era, suggest a high qHPV VE and that a well-implemented catch-up vaccination program may be efficient in reducing vaccine

  20. Characterization of protection afforded by a bivalent virus-like particle vaccine against bluetongue virus serotypes 1 and 4 in sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Pérez de Diego

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bluetongue virus (BTV is an economically important, arthropod borne, emerging pathogen in Europe, causing disease mainly in sheep and cattle. Routine vaccination for bluetongue would require the ability to distinguish between vaccinated and infected individuals (DIVA. Current vaccines are effective but are not DIVA. Virus-like particles (VLPs are highly immunogenic structural mimics of virus particles, that only contain a subset of the proteins present in a natural infection. VLPs therefore offer the potential for the development of DIVA compatible bluetongue vaccines. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Merino sheep were vaccinated with either monovalent BTV-1 VLPs or a bivalent mixture of BTV-1 VLPs and BTV-4 VLPs, and challenged with virulent BTV-1 or BTV-4. Animals were monitored for clinical signs, antibody responses, and viral RNA. 19/20 animals vaccinated with BTV-1 VLPs either alone or in combination with BTV-4 VLPs developed neutralizing antibodies to BTV-1, and group specific antibodies to BTV VP7. The one animal that showed no detectable neutralizing antibodies, or group specific antibodies, had detectable viral RNA following challenge but did not display any clinical signs on challenge with virulent BTV-1. In contrast, all control animals' demonstrated classical clinical signs for bluetongue on challenge with the same virus. Six animals were vaccinated with bivalent vaccine and challenged with virulent BTV-4, two of these animals had detectable viral levels of viral RNA, and one of these showed clinical signs consistent with BTV infection and died. CONCLUSIONS: There is good evidence that BTV-1 VLPs delivered as monovalent or bivalent immunogen protect from bluetongue disease on challenge with virulent BTV-1. However, it is possible that there is some interference in protective response for BTV-4 in the bivalent BTV-1 and BTV-4 VLP vaccine. This raises the question of whether all combinations of bivalent BTV vaccines are

  1. Characterization of Protection Afforded by a Bivalent Virus-Like Particle Vaccine against Bluetongue Virus Serotypes 1 and 4 in Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez de Diego, Ana Cristina; Athmaram, Thimmasandra N.; Stewart, Meredith; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Belén; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel; Noad, Robert; Roy, Polly

    2011-01-01

    Background Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an economically important, arthropod borne, emerging pathogen in Europe, causing disease mainly in sheep and cattle. Routine vaccination for bluetongue would require the ability to distinguish between vaccinated and infected individuals (DIVA). Current vaccines are effective but are not DIVA. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are highly immunogenic structural mimics of virus particles, that only contain a subset of the proteins present in a natural infection. VLPs therefore offer the potential for the development of DIVA compatible bluetongue vaccines. Methodology/Principal Findings Merino sheep were vaccinated with either monovalent BTV-1 VLPs or a bivalent mixture of BTV-1 VLPs and BTV-4 VLPs, and challenged with virulent BTV-1 or BTV-4. Animals were monitored for clinical signs, antibody responses, and viral RNA. 19/20 animals vaccinated with BTV-1 VLPs either alone or in combination with BTV-4 VLPs developed neutralizing antibodies to BTV-1, and group specific antibodies to BTV VP7. The one animal that showed no detectable neutralizing antibodies, or group specific antibodies, had detectable viral RNA following challenge but did not display any clinical signs on challenge with virulent BTV-1. In contrast, all control animals' demonstrated classical clinical signs for bluetongue on challenge with the same virus. Six animals were vaccinated with bivalent vaccine and challenged with virulent BTV-4, two of these animals had detectable viral levels of viral RNA, and one of these showed clinical signs consistent with BTV infection and died. Conclusions There is good evidence that BTV-1 VLPs delivered as monovalent or bivalent immunogen protect from bluetongue disease on challenge with virulent BTV-1. However, it is possible that there is some interference in protective response for BTV-4 in the bivalent BTV-1 and BTV-4 VLP vaccine. This raises the question of whether all combinations of bivalent BTV vaccines are possible, or if

  2. HPV Prophylactic Vaccination in Males Improves the Clearance of Semen Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Foresta

    2015-10-01

    Discussion: Humoral immunity has a major role in healing from HPV infection. Elder ART patients with HPV semen infection may benefit by the union of both specific counselling and available prophylactic vaccination.

  3. Comparison of the immunogenicity of Cervarix® and Gardasil® human papillomavirus vaccines for oncogenic non-vaccine serotypes HPV-31, HPV-33, and HPV-45 in HIV-infected adults

    OpenAIRE

    Toft, Lars; Tolstrup, Martin; Müller, Martin; Sehr, Peter; Bonde, Jesper; Storgaard, Merete; Østergaard, Lars; Søgaard, Ole S.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have excess risk of developing human papillomavirus (HPV)-related disease. A substantial fraction of HPV-associated cancers is caused by HPV serotypes not included in the currently available vaccines. Among healthy women, both Cervarix® (HPV-16/18, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, GSK) and Gardasil® (HPV-6/11/16/18, Merck) have demonstrated partial cross-protection against certain oncogenic non-vaccine HPV-types. Currently, there are no...

  4. Motivational and contextual determinants of HPV-vaccination uptake: A longitudinal study among mothers of girls invited for the HPV-vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, M.; Keulen, H.M. van; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Eekhout, I.; Mollema, L.; Paulussen, T.W.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background In the Netherlands, HPV-vaccination uptake among 12-year-old girls remains to be lower (61% in 2016) than expected. The present study is about 1) replicating the extent to which social-psychological determinants found in earlier cross-sectional studies explain HPV-vaccination intention,

  5. A Population-Based Evaluation of a Publicly Funded, School-Based HPV Vaccine Program in British Columbia, Canada: Parental Factors Associated with HPV Vaccine Receipt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Gina; Anderson, Maureen; Marra, Fawziah; McNeil, Shelly; Pielak, Karen; Dawar, Meena; McIvor, Marilyn; Ehlen, Thomas; Dobson, Simon; Money, Deborah; Patrick, David M.; Naus, Monika

    2010-01-01

    Background Information on factors that influence parental decisions for actual human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine receipt in publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine programs for girls is limited. We report on the level of uptake of the first dose of the HPV vaccine, and determine parental factors associated with receipt of the HPV vaccine, in a publicly funded school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada. Methods and Findings All parents of girls enrolled in grade 6 during the academic year of September 2008–June 2009 in the province of British Columbia were eligible to participate. Eligible households identified through the provincial public health information system were randomly selected and those who consented completed a validated survey exploring factors associated with HPV vaccine uptake. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to calculate adjusted odds ratios to identify the factors that were associated with parents' decision to vaccinate their daughter(s) against HPV. 2,025 parents agreed to complete the survey, and 65.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 63.1–67.1) of parents in the survey reported that their daughters received the first dose of the HPV vaccine. In the same school-based vaccine program, 88.4% (95% CI 87.1–89.7) consented to the hepatitis B vaccine, and 86.5% (95% CI 85.1–87.9) consented to the meningococcal C vaccine. The main reasons for having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were the effectiveness of the vaccine (47.9%), advice from a physician (8.7%), and concerns about daughter's health (8.4%). The main reasons for not having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were concerns about HPV vaccine safety (29.2%), preference to wait until the daughter is older (15.6%), and not enough information to make an informed decision (12.6%). In multivariate analysis, overall attitudes to vaccines, the impact of the HPV vaccine on sexual practices, and childhood vaccine history were predictive of parents having a

  6. A population-based evaluation of a publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada: parental factors associated with HPV vaccine receipt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Ogilvie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Information on factors that influence parental decisions for actual human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine receipt in publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine programs for girls is limited. We report on the level of uptake of the first dose of the HPV vaccine, and determine parental factors associated with receipt of the HPV vaccine, in a publicly funded school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada. METHODS AND FINDINGS: All parents of girls enrolled in grade 6 during the academic year of September 2008-June 2009 in the province of British Columbia were eligible to participate. Eligible households identified through the provincial public health information system were randomly selected and those who consented completed a validated survey exploring factors associated with HPV vaccine uptake. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to calculate adjusted odds ratios to identify the factors that were associated with parents' decision to vaccinate their daughter(s against HPV. 2,025 parents agreed to complete the survey, and 65.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 63.1-67.1 of parents in the survey reported that their daughters received the first dose of the HPV vaccine. In the same school-based vaccine program, 88.4% (95% CI 87.1-89.7 consented to the hepatitis B vaccine, and 86.5% (95% CI 85.1-87.9 consented to the meningococcal C vaccine. The main reasons for having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were the effectiveness of the vaccine (47.9%, advice from a physician (8.7%, and concerns about daughter's health (8.4%. The main reasons for not having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were concerns about HPV vaccine safety (29.2%, preference to wait until the daughter is older (15.6%, and not enough information to make an informed decision (12.6%. In multivariate analysis, overall attitudes to vaccines, the impact of the HPV vaccine on sexual practices, and childhood vaccine history were predictive of parents having

  7. An exploratory study of Japanese fathers' knowledge of and attitudes towards HPV and HPV vaccination: does marital status matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Sharon Janet Bruce; Yoshioka, Eiji; Ito, Yoshiya; Konno, Ryo; Sasaki, Yuri; Kishi, Reiko; Sakuragi, Noriaki

    2014-01-01

    No studies on male attitudes towards HPV and HPV vaccination have been conducted in Japan, and little is known globally whether attitudes of single fathers differ to those living with a female partner. This exploratory study assessed whether Japanese fathers were likely to have their daughter vaccinated against HPV in a publically funded program and whether any differences existed regarding attitudes and knowledge about HPV according to marital status. Subjects were 27 fathers (16 single; 11 married) who took part in a study on HPV vaccine acceptability aimed at primary caregivers of girls aged 11-14 yrs in three Japanese cities between July and December 2010. Knowledge about HPV was extremely poor (mean score out of 13 being 2.74 ± 3.22) with only one (3.7%) participant believing he had been infected with HPV and most (81.4%) believing they had no or low future risk. No difference existed regarding knowledge or awareness of HPV according to marital status. Concerning perceived risk for daughters, single fathers were significantly more likely to believe their daughter was at risk for both HPV (87.5% versus 36.4%; p=0.01) and cervical cancer (75.0% versus 27.3%; p=0.02). Acceptability of free HPV vaccination was high at 92% with no difference according to marital status, however single fathers were significantly more likely (p=0.01) to pay when vaccination came at a cost. Concerns specific to single fathers included explaining the sexual nature of HPV and taking a daughter to a gynecologist to be vaccinated. Knowledge about HPV among Japanese fathers is poor, but HPV vaccine acceptability is high and does not differ by marital status. Providing sexual health education in schools that addresses lack of knowledge about HPV as well as information preferences expressed by single fathers, may not only increase HPV vaccine acceptance, but also actively involve men in cervical cancer prevention strategies. However, further large-scale quantitative studies are needed.

  8. Providers' time spent and tools used when discussing the HPV vaccine with parents of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Amanda F; Lockhart, Steven; Campagna, Elizabeth J; Pyrzanowski, Jennifer; Barnard, Juliana; O' Leary, Sean T

    2016-12-07

    Little is known about HPV vaccine communication tools currently used by primary care providers of adolescents, or how such tools impact the quality of HPV vaccine recommendations, which some have defined as using a "presumptive" communication style, continuing to offer vaccines despite resistance, and strongly recommending vaccines at the appropriate ages. We surveyed primary care providers to assess their current use of HPV vaccine communication tools, and how these related to their HPV vaccine recommendation quality. Cross sectional survey of 183 pediatrics and family medicine primary care providers in the Denver metro area. Response rate was 82% (n=150). Most (59%) providers used a presumptive vaccine recommendation >75% of the time, and 76% reported continuing to offer the HPV vaccine even after parent refusal. However, less than two-thirds of providers "strongly" recommended the vaccine to 11-12year olds (60% for females, 55% for males, p=0.02). The HPV vaccine information sheet from the Centers from Disease Control and Prevention was the most frequently used communication tool during clinical visits (64% used at least 75% of the time) and directing parents to preferred websites was the most frequently used between-visit communication tool (21% used >50% of visits). Use of tools was not associated with any measure of HPV vaccine recommendation quality but was associated with longer HPV vaccine discussion times. Providers use only limited types of adolescent HPV vaccine communication tools, and frequently do not use preferred vaccine communication strategies. Better engagement with existing HPV vaccine communication tools, and/or the creation of new tools may be needed to enhance providers' ability to provide high quality HPV vaccine recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Parent perceptions important for HPV vaccine initiation among low income adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staras, Stephanie A S; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Patel, Roshni P; Shenkman, Elizabeth A

    2014-10-21

    The study aims were to assess the influence of provider recommendations on parental vaccine perceptions and identify the most potent parent vaccine perceptions for HPV vaccine series initiation considering provider recommendation strength. We administered a questionnaire and assessed HPV vaccine claims among a stratified-random sample of parents of 9-17 year old girls enrolled in Florida's Medicaid and the Children's Health Insurance Program. Using multivariate analyses, we evaluated the associations between: (1) parent vaccine perceptions and provider recommendation strength, and (2) parent vaccine perceptions and HPV vaccine series initiation (≥1 vaccine claim or positive parental report) controlling for provider recommendation strength. The majority of the 2422 participating parents agreed that the HPV vaccine was safe (61%), would not make girls more likely to have sex (69%), and prevented cervical cancer (71%). About half (44%) reported receiving a strong provider recommendation. Compared to parents without recommendations, parents with strong recommendations had 2 to 7 times higher odds of agreeing that: vaccines are safe, the HPV vaccine is safe, not concerned about side effects, and the vaccine prevents cervical cancer. Even when considering provider recommendation strength, HPV vaccine series initiation was more likely among girls of parents who agreed rather than disagreed that the HPV vaccine was safe [odds ratio (OR)=5.8, 95% confidence interval (CI)=3.1, 11.1], does not cause sex (OR=2.0, 95% CI=1.2, 3.4), prevents cervical cancer (OR=2.0, 95% CI=1.0, 3.4), and prevents HPV infections (OR=1.8, 95% CI=1.0, 3.0). Parent concerns about HPV vaccine are similar to their concerns about other vaccines. Providers should focus HPV vaccine discussions with parents on vaccine safety and illness prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Human Papillomavirus Prevalence and Herd Immunity after Introduction of Vaccination Program, Scotland, 2009?2013

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Ross L.; Kavanagh, Kimberley; Pan, Jiafeng; Love, John; Cuschieri, Kate; Robertson, Chris; Ahmed, Syed; Palmer, Timothy; Pollock, Kevin G.J.

    2016-01-01

    In 2008, a national human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization program using a bivalent vaccine against HPV types 16 and 18 was implemented in Scotland along with a national surveillance program designed to determine the longitudinal effects of vaccination on HPV infection at the population level. Each year during 2009?2013, the surveillance program conducted HPV testing on a proportion of liquid-based cytology samples from women undergoing their first cervical screening test for precancerous ce...

  11. Revisiting the cost-effectiveness of universal HPV-vaccination in Denmark accounting for all potentially vaccine preventable HPV-related diseases in males and females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jens; Jørgensen, Tine Rikke

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the consequences of a national immunization program with HPV vaccine for both boys and girls in Denmark, including the prophylactic effects on all potentially vaccine preventable HPV-associated diseases in male and female. Methods: The study...... focussed on the quadrivalent vaccine which protects against HPV type 6, 11, 16 and 18, and the vaccine's protection against genital warts, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, cervical cancer, anogenital cancer (anal, penile, vaginal and vulvar cancer) and head and neck cancer (oral cavity, oropharyngeal......, hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer) were included in the analyses. In general, the analysis was performed in two phases. First, an agent-based transmission model that described the HPV transmission without and with HPV vaccination was applied. Second, an analysis of the incremental costs and effects...

  12. A bivalent live-attenuated influenza vaccine for the control and prevention of H3N8 and H3N2 canine influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Laura; Nogales, Aitor; Murcia, Pablo R; Parrish, Colin R; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis

    2017-08-03

    Canine influenza viruses (CIVs) cause a contagious respiratory disease in dogs. CIV subtypes include H3N8, which originated from the transfer of H3N8 equine influenza virus (EIV) to dogs; and the H3N2, which is an avian-origin virus adapted to infect dogs. Only inactivated influenza vaccines (IIVs) are currently available against the different CIV subtypes. However, the efficacy of these CIV IIVs is not optimal and improved vaccines are necessary for the efficient prevention of disease caused by CIVs in dogs. Since live-attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) induce better immunogenicity and protection efficacy than IIVs, we have combined our previously described H3N8 and H3N2 CIV LAIVs to create a bivalent vaccine against both CIV subtypes. Our findings show that, in a mouse model of infection, the bivalent CIV LAIV is safe and able to induce, upon a single intranasal immunization, better protection than that induced by a bivalent CIV IIV against subsequent challenge with H3N8 or H3N2 CIVs. These protection results also correlated with the ability of the bivalent CIV LAIV to induce better humoral immune responses. This is the first description of a bivalent LAIV for the control and prevention of H3N8 and H3N2 CIV infections in dogs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Immunogenicity and safety of the 9-valent HPV vaccine in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellsagué, X; Giuliano, A R; Goldstone, S; Guevara, A; Mogensen, O; Palefsky, J M; Group, T; Shields, C; Liu, K; Maansson, R; Luxembourg, A; Kaplan, S S

    2015-11-27

    This study was designed to evaluate the immunogenicity and tolerability of a prophylactic 9-valent HPV (types 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) VLP (9vHPV) vaccine in young men 16-26 years of age in comparison to young women 16-26 years of age (the population that was used to establish 9vHPV vaccine efficacy). Safety and immunogenicity data from this study will be used to bridge 9vHPV vaccine efficacy findings in 16-26 year old women to 16-26 year old men. This study enrolled 1106 heterosexual men (HM) and 1101 women who had not yet received HPV vaccination. In addition, 313 men having sex with men (MSM) were enrolled and were evaluated separately for immunogenicity because previous results showed that antibody responses to quadrivalent HPV (types 6/11/16/18) VLP (qHPV) vaccine were lower in MSM than in HM. All subjects were administered a 3-dose regimen (Day 1, Month 2, Month 6) of 9vHPV vaccine. Serum samples were collected for anti-HPV assays. Safety information was collected for ∼ 12 months. The geometric mean titers (GMTs) for HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 for HM were non-inferior to those of women at Month 7. For all vaccine HPV types, Month 7 GMTs were numerically lower in MSM than in HM. Over 99.5% of subjects were seropositive at Month 7 for each vaccine HPV type. Administration of 9vHPV vaccine to both 16-26 year old men and women was generally well tolerated. These results support bridging the efficacy findings with 9vHPV vaccine in young women 16-26 years of age to men 16-26 years of age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Knowledge, attitudes, practices and willingness to vaccinate in preparation for the introduction of HPV vaccines in Bamako, Mali

    OpenAIRE

    De Groot, Anne S.; Tounkara, Karamoko; Rochas, Mali; Beseme, Sarah; Yekta, Shahla; Diallo, Fanta Siby; Tracy, J. Kathleen; Teguete, Ibrahima; Koita, Ousmane A.

    2017-01-01

    Although screening for pre-cancerous cervical lesions and human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination are accepted and effective means to prevent cervical cancer, women in Mali have limited access to these interventions. In addition, cervical cancer prevention by HPV vaccination has been controversial in some settings. To reduce cervical cancer prevalence and increase HPV vaccine uptake, it is important to understand the level of knowledge about cervical cancer screening and practices related to ...

  15. The impact and cost-effectiveness of nonavalent HPV vaccination in the United States: Estimates from a simplified transmission model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Harrell W; Markowitz, Lauri E; Hariri, Susan; Ekwueme, Donatus U; Saraiya, Mona

    2016-06-02

    The objective of this study was to assess the incremental costs and benefits of the 9-valent HPV vaccine (9vHPV) compared with the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (4vHPV). Like 4vHPV, 9vHPV protects against HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18. 9vHPV also protects against 5 additional HPV types 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58. We adapted a previously published model of the impact and cost-effectiveness of 4vHPV to include the 5 additional HPV types in 9vHPV. The vaccine strategies we examined were (1) 4vHPV for males and females; (2) 9vHPV for females and 4vHPV for males; and (3) 9vHPV for males and females. In the base case, 9vHPV cost $13 more per dose than 4vHPV, based on available vaccine price information. Providing 9vHPV to females compared with 4vHPV for females (assuming 4vHPV for males in both scenarios) was cost-saving regardless of whether or not cross-protection for 4vHPV was assumed. The cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained by 9vHPV for both sexes (compared with 4vHPV for both sexes) was cross-protection for 4vHPV and $8,600 when assuming cross-protection for 4vHPV. Compared with a vaccination program of 4vHPV for both sexes, a vaccination program of 9vHPV for both sexes can improve health outcomes and can be cost-saving.

  16. Knowledge on HPV Vaccine and Cervical Cancer Facilitates Vaccine Acceptability among School Teachers in Kitui County, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masika, Moses Muia; Ogembo, Javier Gordon; Chabeda, Sophie Vusha; Wamai, Richard G; Mugo, Nelly

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) infection have the potential to reduce the burden of cervical cancer. School-based delivery of HPV vaccines is cost-effective and successful uptake depends on school teachers' knowledge and acceptability of the vaccine. The aim of this study is to assess primary school teachers' knowledge and acceptability of HPV vaccine and to explore facilitators and barriers of an ongoing Gavi Alliance-supported vaccination program in Kitui County, Kenya. This was a cross-sectional, mixed methods study in Central Division of Kitui County where the Ministry of Health is offering the quadrivalent HPV vaccine to grade four girls. Data on primary school teachers' awareness, knowledge and acceptability of HPV vaccine as well as facilitators and barriers to the project was collected through self-administered questionnaires and two focus group discussions. 339 teachers (60% female) completed the survey (62% response rate) and 13 participated in 2 focus group discussions. Vaccine awareness among teachers was high (90%), the level of knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer among teachers was moderate (48%, SD = 10.9) and females scored higher than males (50% vs. 46%, p = 0.002). Most teachers (89%) would recommend the vaccine to their daughter or close relatives. Those who would recommend the vaccine had more knowledge than those who would not (p = vaccine, poor accessibility of schools, absenteeism of girls on vaccine days, and fear of side effects. Despite low to moderate levels of knowledge about HPV vaccine among school teachers, vaccine acceptability is high. Teachers with little knowledge on HPV vaccine are less likely to accept the vaccine than those who know more; this may affect uptake if not addressed. Empowering teachers to be vaccine champions in their community may be a feasible way of disseminating information about HPV vaccine and cervical cancer.

  17. Knowledge on HPV Vaccine and Cervical Cancer Facilitates Vaccine Acceptability among School Teachers in Kitui County, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Muia Masika

    Full Text Available Vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV infection have the potential to reduce the burden of cervical cancer. School-based delivery of HPV vaccines is cost-effective and successful uptake depends on school teachers' knowledge and acceptability of the vaccine. The aim of this study is to assess primary school teachers' knowledge and acceptability of HPV vaccine and to explore facilitators and barriers of an ongoing Gavi Alliance-supported vaccination program in Kitui County, Kenya.This was a cross-sectional, mixed methods study in Central Division of Kitui County where the Ministry of Health is offering the quadrivalent HPV vaccine to grade four girls. Data on primary school teachers' awareness, knowledge and acceptability of HPV vaccine as well as facilitators and barriers to the project was collected through self-administered questionnaires and two focus group discussions.339 teachers (60% female completed the survey (62% response rate and 13 participated in 2 focus group discussions. Vaccine awareness among teachers was high (90%, the level of knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer among teachers was moderate (48%, SD = 10.9 and females scored higher than males (50% vs. 46%, p = 0.002. Most teachers (89% would recommend the vaccine to their daughter or close relatives. Those who would recommend the vaccine had more knowledge than those who would not (p = <0.001. The main barriers were insufficient information about the vaccine, poor accessibility of schools, absenteeism of girls on vaccine days, and fear of side effects.Despite low to moderate levels of knowledge about HPV vaccine among school teachers, vaccine acceptability is high. Teachers with little knowledge on HPV vaccine are less likely to accept the vaccine than those who know more; this may affect uptake if not addressed. Empowering teachers to be vaccine champions in their community may be a feasible way of disseminating information about HPV vaccine and cervical cancer.

  18. Impact of vaccine protection against multiple HPV types on the cost-effectiveness of cervical screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupé, Veerle M H; Bogaards, Johannes A; Meijer, Chris J L M; Berkhof, Johannes

    2012-02-27

    Cross-protection against non-HPV16/18 types and the emergence of broad spectrum vaccines protecting against multiple HPV types will influence the cost-effectiveness of future screening. To assess this influence we used an individual-based simulation model describing the relation between 14 HPV types and cervical disease, allowing the occurrence of multiple type infections. Screening scenarios for vaccinated women were evaluated, firstly for HPV16/18 vaccination with partial cross-protection against HPV 31, 33, 45 and 58 and secondly, for broad spectrum vaccination against 5-13 HPV types. The vaccine-induced incidence reduction of type-specific infection was varied from 0 to 95% in the cross-protection setting and set at 100% in the setting of broad spectrum vaccines. Scenarios of either cytology or HPV DNA screening were considered under varying lifetime number of screening rounds. At a cost-effectiveness threshold of €20,000/QALY, four times HPV DNA screening between 30 and 60 years was the selected scenario in addition to HPV16/18 vaccination, whether or not cross-protection was conferred (€6707 and €9994/QALY, respectively). In the absence of cross-protection, a fifth screening round might be considered (ICER €22,967/QALY). In addition to broad spectrum vaccination, one screen during lifetime was cost-effective up to an 11-valent vaccine. If the vaccine-induced type-specific incidence reduction was lowered to 99%, one screen during lifetime was cost-effective even in addition to 13-valent vaccination. In conclusion, in a cohort of HPV16/18 vaccinated women, four rounds of HPV DNA screening is cost-effective. One screen during lifetime remains cost-effective in addition to broad spectrum vaccination offering protection against many high-risk HPV types. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Issues surrounding HPV vaccine delivery in a multi-ethnic country in Asia: the physician's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping

    2011-02-01

    The study was conducted to investigate issues surrounding human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine delivery in a multi-ethnic, multi-religious and multi-cultural society. A qualitative in-depth interview study was conducted with a sample of 20 physicians. Physicians described the success of HPV vaccines recommendation as very poor. Many expressed reluctance to offer the vaccine to preadolescents. The most notable barrier to vaccination was the vaccine's high cost. Parents of eligible vaccinees were concerned about the efficacy and side effects of the new vaccine, while adult women have low risk perception for HPV infection. Promoters and inhibitors of HPV vaccination in our multi-ethnic, multi-religious and multi-cultural community were identified. This study suggests the need to strengthen the infrastructure necessary for HPV vaccine delivery and to specifically target poor underserved women.

  20. Implementation of HPV vaccination guidelines in a diverse population in Los Angeles: Results from an environmental scan of local HPV resources and needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Lienemann, Brianna A; Robles, Marisela; Johnson, Ethel; Sanchez, Kathleen; Singhal, Rita; Steinberg, Jane; Jaque, Jenny M; Pentz, Mary Ann; Gruber, Stephen

    2017-09-05

    Research shows that vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is one of the most effective methods for reducing risk for cervical cancer; it also protects against other HPV-related cancers. Controversies exist regarding HPV vaccination in several communities; which may in part explain why although rates of HPV vaccination are increasing nationwide, Los Angeles County (LAC) data show that many adolescents are still not vaccinated. These adolescents remain at high-risk for infection. Using community-based participatory principles, we conducted an environmental scan that included a literature review, the development of a community advisory board, community feedback from HPV community meetings, and interviews with stakeholders to understand attitudes toward HPV vaccination and their impact in follow through with HPV vaccines. Twenty-eight key stakeholders participated in our coalition comprised of community organizations and clinics with strong ties to the local community. This is the only coalition dedicated exclusively to improving HPV vaccine uptake in LAC. Of these, twenty-one participated in an environmental scan via qualitative interviews about HPV vaccination programs, service delivery priorities, and proposed steps to increase HPV vaccination uptake in LAC. The environmental scan revealed targets for future efforts, barriers to HPV uptake, and next steps for improving local HPV vaccination uptake rates. The environmental scan also identified local HPV vaccination interventions and resources. Although LAC has developed important efforts for vaccination, some interventions are no longer being implemented due to lack of funds; others have not been evaluated with sufficient outcome data. The risk for cervical and other HPV-related cancers could be greatly reduced in LAC if a multilevel, multicultural, and multilingual approach is taken to better understand rates of HPV vaccination uptake, particularly among racial/ethnic minorities and LGBTQ youth

  1. HPV Vaccine Decision-Making among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheldon, Christopher W.; Daley, Ellen M.; Buhi, Eric R.; Baldwin, Julie A.; Nyitray, Alan G.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination is recommended for all men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA until the age of 26 years. Despite this recommendation, vaccine uptake remains low. The purpose of this study was to (1) describe salient beliefs related to HPV vaccination among young MSM; (2) determine factors that underlie these…

  2. Promoting Uptake of the HPV Vaccine: The Knowledge and Views of School Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Sally B.; Lanumata, Tolotea; Lawton, Beverley A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: School-based human papillomavirus (HPV)/cervical cancer vaccination programs have been implemented widely, but few studies have investigated the knowledge and views of school staff about this new vaccine. Methods: Prior to the introduction of the HPV vaccine in 2009, we surveyed staff at 14 socioeconomically diverse schools to assess…

  3. Meningococcal serogroup C serum and salivary antibody responses to meningococcal quadrivalent conjugate vaccine in Saudi Arabian adolescents previously vaccinated with bivalent and quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohamed; Al-Mazrou, Yagob; Findlow, Helen; Chadha, Helen; Bosch Castells, Valerie; Oster, Philipp; Borrow, Ray

    2014-09-29

    Following repeated polysaccharide vaccination, reduced immune responses have been reported, but there are limited data on the mucosal response of meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PSV) or meningococcal conjugate vaccination. Saudi Arabian adolescents (aged 16-19 years) who had previously been vaccinated with ≥1 dose of bivalent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine and 1 dose of quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide (MPSV4) were enrolled in a controlled, randomised, and modified observer-blind study (collectively termed the PSV-exposed group). The PSV-exposed group was randomised to receive either quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4) (PSV-exposed/MCV4 group) or MPSV4 (PSV-exposed/MPSV4 group), and a PSV-naïve group received MCV4. Serum and saliva samples were collected pre-vaccination and 28 days post-vaccination. Serum serogroup-specific A, C, W and Y IgG were quantified as were salivary serogroup-specific C IgG and IgA together with total salivary IgG and IgA. For each serogroup, the post-vaccination serum geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were significantly higher in the PSV-naïve and the PSV-exposed/MCV4 group than in the PSV-exposed/PSV4 group. For serogroup C, serum serogroup-specific IgG for the PSV-naïve group was significantly higher than both the PSV exposed groups. Higher levels of salivary serogroup C-specific IgG were found in the PSV-naïve group than those who had received two doses of polysaccharide but no significant differences were noted with regards to serogroup-specific IgA. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Tracking the global spread of vaccine sentiments: the global response to Japan's suspension of its HPV vaccine recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Heidi J; Wilson, Rose; Hanley, Sharon; Parys, Astrid; Paterson, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    In June 2013 the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare (MHLW) suspended its HPV vaccination recommendation after a series of highly publicized alleged adverse events following immunization stoked public doubts about the vaccine's safety. This paper examines the global spread of the news of Japan's HPV vaccine suspension through online media, and takes a retrospective look at non-Japanese media sources that were used to support those claiming HPV vaccine injury in Japan. Two searches were conducted. One searched relevant content in an archive of Google Alerts on vaccines and vaccine preventable diseases. The second search was conducted using Google Search on January 6th 2014 and on July 18th 2014, using the keywords, "HPV vaccine Japan" and "cervical cancer vaccine Japan." Both searches were used as Google Searches render more (and some different) results than Google Alerts. Online media collected and analyzed totalled 57. Sixty 3 percent were published in the USA, 23% in Japan, 5% in the UK, 2% in France, 2% in Switzerland, 2% in the Philippines, 2% in Kenya and 2% in Denmark. The majority took a negative view of the HPV vaccine, the primary concern being vaccine safety. The news of Japan's suspension of the HPV vaccine recommendation has traveled globally through online media and social media networks, being applauded by anti-vaccination groups but not by the global scientific community. The longer the uncertainty around the Japanese HPV vaccine recommendation persists, the further the public concerns are likely to travel.

  5. Human Papilloma Virus and HPV vaccine knowledge among Mustafa Kemal University Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raziye Keskin Kurt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human papilloma virus (HPV is regarded as the main cause in the etiology of cervical cancer. The purpose of our study is to assess the knowledge of medical students about HPV vaccine and to evaluate their opinion on this subject.   Material and Method: The study population consisted of 488 medical students. The survey was composed of questions intended   to obtain information about transmission route of HPV, types of HPV, role of HPV in cervical cancer, whether HPV is treatable or not, which types of HPV the HPV vaccine prevents, the age groups HPV vaccine is administered, the opinions on HPV vaccine and sufficiency of public health, whether female students have underwent vaccination and if not what their drawbacks are.   Results: Mean age of the students participating in the study was 21±4 and 58 % of the patients were female. Out of 448 medical students, 60% of them did not know that HPV was a sexually transmitted disease. Only 55% students knew about the association of HPV with cervical cancer and 52% participants stated that HPV vaccine could not be preventive against cervical cancer. None of female students had been immunized and 67% of female students did not consider getting immunized. Among those who did not consider getting immunized, 70% said they had worries about the safety of the vaccine. Conclusion: Our study results revealed that the knowledge of medical students about HPV is satisfactory, however their knowledge about HPV vaccine, immunization status and desire to be immunized were little.

  6. Understanding Public Perceptions of the HPV Vaccination Based on Online Comments to Canadian News Articles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Feinberg

    Full Text Available Given the variation in human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine coverage across Canada, and debate regarding delivery of HPV vaccines in Catholic schools, we studied online comments on Canadian news websites to understand public perceptions of HPV and HPV vaccine.We searched English- and French-language Canadian news websites for 2012 articles that contained the terms "HPV" or "human papillomavirus." Articles about HPV vaccinations that contained at least one comment were included. Two researchers independently coded comments, analyzing them for emerging themes.We identified 3073 comments from 1198 individuals in response to 71 news articles; 630 (52.6% individuals expressed positive sentiments about HPV vaccination (2.5 comments/individual, 404 (33.7% were negative (3.0 comments/individual, 34 (2.8% were mixed (1.5 comments/individual and 130 (10.8% were neutral (1.6 comments/individual. Vaccine-supportive commenters believed the vaccine is safe and effective. Common themes in negative comments included concerns regarding HPV vaccine safety and efficacy, distrust of pharmaceutical companies and government, and belief that school-age children are too young for HPV vaccine. Many comments focused on whether the Catholic Church has the right to inform health policy for students, and discussion often evolved into debates regarding HPV and sexual behaviour. We noted that many individuals doubted the credibility of vaccine safety information.The majority of commenters do not appear to be against HPV vaccination, but public health messaging that focuses on both the vaccine's safety profile, and its use as a means to prevent cancer rather than sexually transmitted HPV infection may facilitate its acceptance.

  7. Understanding Public Perceptions of the HPV Vaccination Based on Online Comments to Canadian News Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Yael; Pereira, Jennifer A; Quach, Susan; Kwong, Jeffrey C; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Wilson, Sarah E; Guay, Maryse; Lei, Yang; Deeks, Shelley L

    2015-01-01

    Given the variation in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage across Canada, and debate regarding delivery of HPV vaccines in Catholic schools, we studied online comments on Canadian news websites to understand public perceptions of HPV and HPV vaccine. We searched English- and French-language Canadian news websites for 2012 articles that contained the terms "HPV" or "human papillomavirus." Articles about HPV vaccinations that contained at least one comment were included. Two researchers independently coded comments, analyzing them for emerging themes. We identified 3073 comments from 1198 individuals in response to 71 news articles; 630 (52.6%) individuals expressed positive sentiments about HPV vaccination (2.5 comments/individual), 404 (33.7%) were negative (3.0 comments/individual), 34 (2.8%) were mixed (1.5 comments/individual) and 130 (10.8%) were neutral (1.6 comments/individual). Vaccine-supportive commenters believed the vaccine is safe and effective. Common themes in negative comments included concerns regarding HPV vaccine safety and efficacy, distrust of pharmaceutical companies and government, and belief that school-age children are too young for HPV vaccine. Many comments focused on whether the Catholic Church has the right to inform health policy for students, and discussion often evolved into debates regarding HPV and sexual behaviour. We noted that many individuals doubted the credibility of vaccine safety information. The majority of commenters do not appear to be against HPV vaccination, but public health messaging that focuses on both the vaccine's safety profile, and its use as a means to prevent cancer rather than sexually transmitted HPV infection may facilitate its acceptance.

  8. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage achievements in low and middle-income countries 2007–2016

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Katherine E.; Howard, Natasha; Kabakama, Severin; Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Burchett, Helen E.D.; LaMontagne, D. Scott; Watson-Jones, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Since 2007, HPV vaccine has been available to low and middle income countries (LAMIC) for small-scale âdemonstration projectsâ, or national programmes. We analysed coverage achieved in HPV vaccine demonstration projects and national programmes that had completed at least 6 months of implementation between January 2007â2016. Methods: A mapping exercise identified 45 LAMICs with HPV vaccine delivery experience. Estimates of coverage and factors influencing coverage were obtained f...

  9. Nurses' Knowledge and Opinions on HPV Vaccination: a Cross-Sectional Study from Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasu, Ayse Filiz Gokmen; Adanir, Ilknur; Aydin, Serdar; Ilhan, Gulsah Keskin; Ofli, Tugba

    2017-08-18

    Implementing a HPV vaccination program is currently under evaluation by the Turkish health ministry. For screening and vaccination programs to be successful, the cooperation of nurses is essential. We aimed to evaluate (1) basic knowledge of nurses and nursing interns regarding HPV infection and cervical cancer, (2) their attitudes towards smear testing and HPV vaccination, and (3) their viewpoint on vaccination of school age children. This cross-sectional study was undertaken at Bezmialem Vakif University. The survey was designed to assess knowledge about HPV infection, Pap smear testing, cervical cancer, HPV vaccine, attitudes towards HPV vaccination, and school-based vaccination programs. Validity content was determined by expert gynecologists, and a pilot study was performed on 10 nurses. A total of 550 questionnaires were handed out; 499 were completed. Our response rate was 90.7%. Fifty-nine participants answered all the knowledge questions correctly. The calculated knowledge score of the female participants was 6.99 ± 2.22, the male participants was 5.89 ± 2.92. Female participants were more knowledgeable (p HPV. The leading answer for not having a HPV vaccine was "I'm not at risk for a HPV infection" (n = 106, 34.9%). There was a statistical relationship between "HPV knowledge score" and answering "Yes" to "Do you want your children/future children to be vaccinated? (p = 0.001) and "Do you think including the vaccine in the Turkish immunization program is necessary?" (p = 0.001). Nurses in our cohort seem to have satisfactory basic knowledge regarding HPV infection; however, their viewpoints on vaccination were not favorable. Strategies and intervention materials for HPV vaccination will be necessary if a national immunization program will be initiated.

  10. Summer peaks in uptake of human papillomavirus (HPV) and other adolescent vaccines in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Jennifer L.; Reiter, Paul L.; Rimer, Barbara K.; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Seasonality in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination could have a large impact on national cancer prevention efforts. We hypothesized that uptake of HPV vaccine and other adolescent vaccines in the United States would be highest in the summer. Methods Data came from healthcare provider-verified vaccination records for 70,144 adolescents (ages 13–17) from the 2008–2012 versions of the National Immunization Survey-Teen. Using the Edwards method for testing annual trends, we examined seasonal patterns in uptake of HPV and other recommended adolescent vaccines (tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (Tdap) booster and meningococcal vaccine). HPV vaccine initiation (receipt of the first of the three-dose series) data were for female adolescents. Results Uptake for HPV and other adolescent vaccines peaked in the summer across years and states (all p<.001). Uptake was 5 times as frequent at the peak as at the trough for HPV vaccine, and HPV vaccine initiation was highest in June, July, and August (percent of doses delivered in these months: 38.7%). The same pattern existed for Tdap booster and meningococcal vaccine. Concomitant (same-day) vaccination of HPV vaccine with other adolescent vaccines also demonstrated summer peaks each year nationally (all p<.001). Conclusion Uptake of adolescent vaccines increased dramatically in summer months. These summer peaks are an important opportunity for interventions focused on concomitant vaccination. Impact The potential cancer prevention impact of HPV vaccination programs could be increased, for example, by delivering messages about concomitant vaccination during the summer, when adolescents and their parents might be most open to them. PMID:26677211

  11. Programmatic issues in the implementation of an HPV vaccination program to prevent cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Kevin; Reisinger, Keith

    2007-11-01

    Cervical cancer remains an important health problem even in countries with effective cervical screening programs. HPV vaccines offer great potential for primary prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases. Eventual implementation of an HPV vaccination program raises several key issues, including universal vs. targeted vaccinations, the age and gender of vaccine recipients, the acceptability of this vaccine to health care providers, adolescents, and parents, and the effect of this vaccine on cervical cancer screening. These issues were explored among symposium attendees during an interactive question-and-answer session using computerized voting pads. Preventative HPV vaccination programs should ideally be executed universally in both women and men with an emphasis on children and adolescents prior to their first sexual experience. Parent education on HPV disease and vaccine efficacy and safety will be critical to the acceptability of HPV vaccination for their children. HPV vaccination will not eliminate the need for Pap screening. Further research will be needed to develop rational and cost-effective cervical surveillance programs for women protected by HPV vaccines.

  12. HPV as a model for the development of prophylactic and therapeutic cancer vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Raed N; Khleif, Samir N

    2009-08-01

    HPV has been linked to many human malignancies and, as such, represents a major public health crisis. The understanding of HPV biology, however, has helped tremendously in developing prophylactic vaccines, which should help in decreasing mortality due to HPV infections. Understanding HPV biology has allowed researchers to use the virus as a model for the development of not only prophylactic vaccines, but also therapeutic ones. The advantages of HPV as a model stem from the limited number of proteins encoded by the HPV genome that can be targeted by vaccines, and also from the restricted expression of certain viral proteins during different stages of infection. In this review, we discuss how HPV can be used as a model for the development of both prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines.

  13. Partnering With Middle School Students to Design Text Messages About HPV Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Joan R.; Ortiz, Rebecca R.; North, Steve; Martin, Amanda; Smith, Richalle; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera

    2017-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is routinely recommended for U.S. adolescents ages 11 to 12 years, yet vaccine coverage remains low. Text message HPV immunization reminders to parents have been effective with increasing uptake, but text messages directly to adolescents in order to increase HPV vaccination uptake are unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the acceptability of text messages about HPV vaccination and message preferences among adolescents. Middle school students (n = 43) assisted in designing text messages to promote HPV vaccine among their peers. Through seven focus groups and two in-class surveys, we assessed students’ knowledge of HPV vaccine, use of texting, and preferences for text messages and sources. The average age of participants was 13 years, and all were White (17 males, 26 females) in this rural setting. More than 70% used text messaging with a cell phone. The text message with the best composite score (M = 2.33, SD = 0.72) for likeability, trustworthiness, and motivation to seek more information was a gain frame emphasizing reduction in HPV infection if vaccinated against HPV. Text messages with lower scores emphasized threats of disease if not vaccinated. Participants (68%) preferred doctors as their information source. Text messaging to adolescents may be a strategy to improve HPV knowledge and vaccination. PMID:25258431

  14. Age at HPV vaccine initiation and completion among US adolescent girls: trend from 2008 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mahbubur; McGrath, Christine J; Hirth, Jacqueline M; Berenson, Abbey B

    2015-01-29

    To examine the trend of provider-verified HPV vaccine initiation (≥1 dose) and completion (≥3 doses) among adolescent girls at the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended age (11-12 years). We analyzed National Immunization Survey of Teens 2008-2012 data and examined the trend of provider-verified HPV vaccine initiation and completion among HPV vaccine initiation and completion were available for 24,466 and 15,972 girls, respectively. The weighted proportion of girls who initiated the vaccine at HPV vaccine initiation and completion (pHPV vaccine uptake among adolescent girls as only half of them receive this vaccine at ACIP recommended age. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. HPV induced cervical carcinogenesis: molecular basis and vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, A M; Backsch, C; Schneider, A; Dürst, M

    2002-11-01

    Association of infection with papillomavirus and dysplasia of the cervix uteri has been firmly established. There are only few cervical cancers where no HPV DNA is detectable. The mechanism of epithelial cell immortalization by interaction with tumour suppressor genes p53 and pRb by viral oncogenes E6 and E7 is elucidated. Progression of the HPV infected cell to a malignant phenotype involves further modification of host gene expression and/or mutations. The appearance of chromosomal aberrations can lead to mutational inactivation or loss of tumour suppressor genes (TSG), activation and amplification of oncogenes, with importance for the process of carcinogenesis. Oncogene amplification, with exception of few reports, seems not to be a major mechanism in cervical carcinogenesis. In contrast, cytogenetic and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) results from CIN and invasive cancer demonstrate alterations at specific chromosomal regions, pointing at localisation of TSG. Genetic alterations at chromosomes 3p, 6p, 1lq were frequently found early in tumour development Primary invasive carcinoma showed additional allelic losses at chromosome arms 6q, 17p and 18q. Useful biological diagnostic and prognostic markers for high-risk HPV infection and malignant progression may be p16NK4 p27Kip, and NET-I/C4.8. Putative senescence genes relevant for HPV-induced carcinogenesis are localized on chromosomes 2, 4 and 10. Genes for Telomerase suppression are presumably located on chromosomes 3, 4 and 6. Natural immune responses to HPV infection exist Therefore, immune therapy is an attractive possibility for prevention and therapy of HPV infection. To date, vaccine development has reached clinical evaluation. Prophylaxis aims at the induction of virus neutralizing antibodies to capsid proteins. Virus-like particle vaccines are currently tested in clinical trials. Due to the long lag period between infection and clinical manifestation trials will take a long time until conclusive results are

  16. Impact of human papillomavirus (HPV)-6/11/16/18 vaccine on all HPV-associated genital diseases in young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Nubia; Kjaer, Susanne K; Sigurdsson, Kristján

    2010-01-01

    The impact of the prophylactic vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16, and 18 (HPV6/11/16/18) on all HPV-associated genital disease was investigated in a population that approximates sexually naive women in that they were "negative to 14 HPV types" and in a mixed population...

  17. Efficacy of the HPV-16/18 vaccine: final according to protocol results from the blinded phase of the randomized Costa Rica HPV-16/18 vaccine trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildesheim, Allan; Wacholder, Sholom; Catteau, Gregory; Struyf, Frank; Dubin, Gary; Herrero, Rolando

    2014-09-03

    A community-based randomized trial was conducted in Costa Rica to evaluate the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (NCT00128661). The primary objective was to evaluate efficacy of the vaccine to prevent cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or more severe disease (CIN2+) associated with incident HPV-16/18 cervical infections. Secondary objectives were to evaluate efficacy against CIN2+ associated with incident cervical infection by any oncogenic HPVs and to evaluate duration of protection against incident cervical infection with HPV-16/18. Vaccine safety and immunogenicity over the 4-year follow-up were also evaluated. We randomized (3727 HPV arm; 3739 control arm), vaccinated (HPV-16/18 or Hepatitis A) and followed (median 53.8 months) 7466 healthy women aged 18-25 years. 5312 women (2635 HPV arm; 2677 control arm) were included in the according to protocol analysis for efficacy. The full cohort was evaluated for safety. Immunogenicity was considered on a subset of 354 (HPV-16) and 379 (HPV-18) women. HPV type was assessed by PCR on cervical specimens. Immunogenicity was assessed using ELISA and inhibition enzyme immunoassays. Disease outcomes were histologically confirmed. Vaccine efficacy and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were computed. Vaccine efficacy was 89.8% (95% CI: 39.5-99.5; N=11 events total) against HPV-16/18 associated CIN2+, 59.9% (95% CI: 20.7-80.8; N=39 events total) against CIN2+ associated with non-HPV-16/18 oncogenic HPVs and 61.4% (95% CI: 29.5-79.8; N=51 events total) against CIN2+ irrespective of HPV type. The vaccine had an acceptable safety profile and induced robust and long-lasting antibody responses. Our findings confirm the high efficacy and immunogenicity of the HPV-16/18 vaccine against incident HPV infections and cervical disease associated with HPV-16/18 and other oncogenic HPV types. These results will serve as a benchmark to which we can compare future findings from the ongoing extended follow-up of participants in the Costa Rica

  18. Efficacy of the HPV-16/18 Vaccine: Final according to protocol results from the blinded phase of the randomized Costa Rica HPV-16/18 Vaccine Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildesheim, Allan; Wacholder, Sholom; Catteau, Gregory; Struyf, Frank; Dubin, Gary; Herrero, Rolando

    2014-01-01

    Background A community-based randomized trial was conducted in Costa Rica to evaluate the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (NCT00128661). The primary objective was to evaluate efficacy of the vaccine to prevent cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or more severe disease (CIN2+) associated with incident HPV-16/18 cervical infections. Secondary objectives were to evaluate efficacy against CIN2+ associated with incident cervical infection by any oncogenic HPVs and to evaluate duration of protection against incident cervical infection with HPV-16/18. Vaccine safety and immunogenicity over the 4-year follow-up were also evaluated. Methods We randomized (3,727 HPV arm; 3,739 Control arm), vaccinated (HPV-16/18 or Hepatitis A) and followed (median 53.8 months) 7,466 healthy women aged 18-25 years. 5,312 women (2,635 HPV arm; 2,677 Control arm) were included in the according to protocol analysis for efficacy. The full cohort was evaluated for safety. Immunogenicity was considered on a subset of 354 (HPV-16) and 379 (HPV-18) women. HPV type was assessed by PCR on cytology specimens. Immunogenicity was assessed using ELISA and inhibition enzyme immunoassays. Disease outcomes were histologically confirmed. Vaccine efficacy and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were computed. Results Vaccine efficacy was 89.8% (95% CI: 39.5 - 99.5; N=11 events total) against HPV-16/18 associated CIN2+, 59.9% (95% CI: 20.7 - 80.8; N=39 events total) against CIN2+ associated with non-HPV-16/18 oncogenic HPVs and 61.4% (95% CI: 29.5-79.8; N=51 events total) against CIN2+ irrespective of HPV type. The vaccine had an acceptable safety profile and induced robust and long-lasting antibody responses. Conclusions Our findings confirm the high efficacy and immunogenicity of the HPV-16/18 vaccine against incident HPV infections and cervical disease associated with HPV-16/18 and other oncogenic HPV types. These results will serve as a benchmark to which we can compare future findings from ongoing extended

  19. Awareness and Knowledge Levels of 18-Year-Old and Older Individuals Regarding Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV Vaccine in Hatay, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, Ebru; Cetin, Sirin; Cetin, Meryem; Abacigil, Fatma

    2017-10-23

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and awareness levels of 18-year-old and older women and men on HPV infection, HPV vaccine, and the potential risk factors in Hatay, Turkey. In our study, it was found that overall 27.0 and 23.2% of the participants reported having heard of HPV infection and HPV vaccine. The rate of participants who had heard of HPV infection and HPV vaccine was higher in women than in men (p HPV triggers cervical cancer, 10.2% penile cancer, and 16.7% genital warts, respectively. The overall vaccination rate of the participants was 2.7%. When the total knowledge score of the participants about HPV infection and HPV vaccine was evaluated according to independent variables, it was found that being a woman, urbanization, and having a high level of education had a positive effect on knowledge score, while never having heard of HPV infection and HPV vaccine had a negative effect on knowledge score (p HPV infection before influenced knowledge levels. It was determined that the relation between these variables and the total knowledge scores of the participants was statistically significant (p HPV infection before had higher knowledge levels. The level of knowledge of the participants about HPV infection and HPV vaccine was found to be very low. Having adequate knowledge about HPV infection and increasing the acceptance of HPV vaccination in public will play an important role in decreasing the rate of mortality and morbidity of the different HPV-associated cancers in women and men.

  20. A 9-valent HPV vaccine against infection and intraepithelial neoplasia in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joura, Elmar A; Giuliano, Anna R; Iversen, Ole-Erik

    2015-01-01

    of the efficacy and immunogenicity of the 9vHPV vaccine in women 16 to 26 years of age. METHODS: We performed a randomized, international, double-blind, phase 2b-3 study of the 9vHPV vaccine in 14,215 women. Participants received the 9vHPV vaccine or the qHPV vaccine in a series of three intramuscular injections......HPV vaccine and those not included) in the modified intention-to-treat population (which included participants with and those without prevalent infection or disease) was 14.0 per 1000 person-years in both vaccine groups. The rate of high-grade cervical, vulvar, or vaginal disease related to HPV-31, 33, 45, 52......, and 58 in a prespecified per-protocol efficacy population (susceptible population) was 0.1 per 1000 person-years in the 9vHPV group and 1.6 per 1000 person-years in the qHPV group (efficacy of the 9vHPV vaccine, 96.7%; 95% confidence interval, 80.9 to 99.8). Antibody responses to HPV-6, 11, 16, and 18...

  1. The HPV Vaccine | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two researchers leveraged CCR’s unique environment of investigator-driven inquiry to pursue studies of two cancer-causing genes that eventually led to the development of a vaccine against two forms of human papillomavirus.

  2. HPV vaccine acceptance among adolescent males and their parents in two suburban pediatric practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Shalinee; Sipsma, Heather L; Caskey, Rachel N

    2015-03-24

    To measure HPV vaccine acceptance among unvaccinated adolescent males and parents and correlate acceptance with knowledge, awareness, and personal experience. Adolescent males ages 11-21 years old and their parents completed questionnaires measuring attitudes and knowledge about HPV vaccination and personal experience. Acceptance was defined as wanting the vaccine and conditional acceptance as wanting the vaccine if it would protect against genital warts or cervical cancer. Adolescent (n=154) and parent (n=121) vaccine acceptance was low (16% and 34%, respectively); however, conditional acceptance was higher. While adolescents had similar conditional acceptance for a vaccine against genital warts and cervical cancer, parents reported higher conditional acceptance for protection against genital warts. Independent predictors of acceptance included personal experience and demographic variables. HPV vaccine acceptance among adolescents and parents was low. Conditional acceptance levels highlight the importance of education about a few important benefits of HPV vaccination, which may increase vaccination rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Society of behavioral medicine supports increasing HPV vaccination uptake: an urgent opportunity for cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Caryn E; Dykens, J Andrew; Brewer, Noel T; Buscemi, Joanna; Watson, Karriem; Comer-Hagans, DeLawnia; Ramamonjiarivelo, Zo; Fitzgibbon, Marian

    2016-12-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage remains low in the USA. The Society for Behavioral Medicine (SBM) supports the goals outlined by Healthy People 2020, the President's Cancer Panel, and the National Vaccine Advisory Committee to increase vaccination coverage among both males and females. SBM makes the following recommendations in support of efforts to reduce structural and other barriers to HPV vaccination services in order to increase rates of series completion. We encourage legislators and other policymakers to improve administration authority, insurance coverage, and reimbursement rates to healthcare providers who make the HPV vaccine available to adolescents; provide instrumental support to fund the development of school curricula on HPV vaccination; and increase public awareness that HPV vaccination can prevent cancer. We urge healthcare providers and healthcare systems to increase the strength, quality, and consistency of HPV vaccination recommendations for all eligible patients; to treat HPV vaccination as a routine preventive service; employ culturally appropriate communication strategies in clinical settings to educate eligible patients, parents, and guardians about the importance, effectiveness, and safety of HPV vaccination; and to strengthen and better coordinate the use of electronic medical records and immunization information systems.

  4. Race-specific trends in HPV vaccinations and provider recommendations: persistent disparities or social progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdette, Amy M; Webb, Noah S; Hill, Terrence D; Jokinen-Gordon, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    Although racial and ethnic differences in HPV vaccination initiation are well established, it is unclear whether these disparities have changed over time. The role of health provider recommendations in reducing any racial and ethnic inequalities is also uncertain. This study addresses these gaps in the literature. Repeated cross-sectional design. Using data from the National Immunization Survey-Teen (2008-2013), we estimated a series of binary logistic regressions to model race-specific trends in (1) provider recommendations to vaccinate against HPV and (2) HPV vaccine initiation for males (n = 56,632) and females (n = 77,389). Provider recommendations to vaccinate and HPV vaccination uptake have increased over time for adolescent males and females and across all racial and ethnic groups. Among girls, minority youths have seen a sharper increase in provider recommendations and HPV vaccination uptake than their White counterparts. Among boys, minority teens maintain higher overall rates of HPV vaccine uptake, however, Hispanics have lagged behind non-Hispanic Whites in the rate of increase in provider recommendations and HPV vaccinations. Our results suggest that racial and ethnic disparities in provider recommendations and HPV vaccinations have waned over time among males and females. While these trends are welcomed, additional interventions are warranted to increase overall rates of vaccination across race, ethnicity, and gender. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Communication and US-Somali Immigrant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Phokeng M; Krieger, Janice L

    2017-09-01

    The current study uses a multiple goal theoretical perspective to explore how Somali immigrant families living in Ohio, USA, make decisions regarding whether to vaccinate their children against human papillomavirus (HPV)-a leading cause of cervical cancer. A focus was placed on the communication goals of parents in HPV vaccine discussions with their child and health care provider. Semi-structured interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Key themes are the implications of the vaccine for early sexual activity, confusion between HPV and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), the perception that the HPV vaccine is unnecessary, uncertainty about the vaccine's efficacy and side effects, avoidance of parent-child communication about the vaccine, and a preference for framing the vaccine as a health promotion behavior. Framing the threat of HPV in the context of initiation of sexual activity, uncertainty regarding vaccine efficacy, and anticipated regret account for the inconsistency in HPV vaccine uptake among Somali parents. Clinicians should consider talking about HPV as a distal versus an immediate threat and HPV vaccine uptake as a health-promotion behavior rather than a sexually transmitted infection prevention behavior.

  6. HPV Genotypes distribution in Indian women with and without cervical carcinoma: Implication for HPV vaccination program in Odisha, Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senapati, Rashmirani; Nayak, Bhagyalaxmi; Kar, Shantanu Kumar; Dwibedi, Bhagirathi

    2017-01-05

    Considering the limited cross protection offered by the current HPV vaccines, understanding the HPV genotype distribution among the different population is essential in predicting the efficacy of current vaccine and devising new vaccine strategy. The present work aimed at investigating the HPV genotypes distribution among women with and without cervical carcinoma in Odisha, Eastern India. A total of 607 participants have been enrolled between January 2014 and June 2016. L1-PCR, sequencing, and E6/E7 nested multiplex type- specific PCR were performed for HPV detection and genotyping. Cytological distribution of 440 cases includes invasive cervical carcinoma or ICC (n = 210), inflammatory smear (n = 162), normal cytology (n = 68). Statistical analyses were performed by using SPSS version 20.0 software and MediCal version 14.10.2(7). A p-value of ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The overall prevalence of HPV infection was (359/595) 60.33%. Prevalence of HPV infection was 93.80% (197/210) in invasive cervical cancer (ICC) cases, 54.32% (88/162) in inflammatory smear and 19.11% (13/68) in normal cervical cytology. The most prevalent genotype was HPV16 (87.28%) followed by HPV18 (24.56%) and HPV 51(3.46%). The overall prevalence of single type was 76.58% and highest (78.9%) among ICC cases. The most frequent genotype combination after HPV16 + 18(9.4%) was HPV16 + 66 + 68(2.7%) which was frequently observed in inflammatory cytology. Age > 45years, parity ≥3, low socio-economic condition, rural residential area and post menopause state were significantly associated with HPV infection. Multiple infections did not have a significant association with any of the clinicopathological variables (stage, LN metastasis, cell type) except tumor size ≥ 2cm in ICC cases. The impact of 2v, 4v, and 9v vaccines in preventing cervical cancer in Odisha were 89.99, 91.65, and 92.16% respectively. This data would help planning an

  7. Uptake of HPV vaccine: demographics, sexual history and values, parenting style, and vaccine attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Susan L; Rupp, Richard; Zimet, Gregory D; Meza, Heather M; Loza, Melissa L; Short, Mary B; Succop, Paul A

    2008-09-01

    To examine the relationships of demographics, parenting, and vaccine attitudes with the acceptance of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine or to the intent to vaccinate in the next 12 months. Mothers (n = 153) with daughters ages 11 to 17 years were recruited through the pediatric clinic waiting room/announcements to complete a questionnaire. Eighteen percent of the daughters had not received the vaccine, although it had been offered; 34% had not been offered the vaccine and did not intend to get it in the next 12 months; 22% had not been offered the vaccine but intended to get it in the next 12 months; 26% had started vaccination or completed the series. In a multinomial, multivariable logistic regression model, those mothers who had less than a high school degree, had a history of a sexually transmitted infection, supervised their daughter more when she was with peers, and whose daughter would not mind three shots were more likely to be favorable about their daughter being vaccinated. The following variables were not related to their attitudes about getting the vaccine: mothers' and daughters' ages, race/ethnicity, mothers' self-reported history of HPV disease and age of sexual initiation, daughters' dating status and anticipated age of sexual initiation, the number of sexual topics discussed and level of comfort, mother's sexual values, and the family environment. Mothers' decisions about the HPV vaccine were not related to their sexual values or their daughters' sexual behavior, but rather their parenting, sense of vulnerability, and vaccine attitudes. Mothers who were not planning to vaccinate did not appear to not feel an urgency given the newness of the vaccine, and many planned to vaccinate eventually.

  8. Prevalence of cervical infection with HPV type 16 and 18 in Vietnam: implications for vaccine campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Lan T H; Bui, Dieu; Le, Ha T T

    2013-02-04

    The Expanded Program on Immunization currently considers offering Human Papilomavirus vaccine on a routine basis in Vietnam. However, as the current available vaccine can prevent only two types HPV 16 and 18, before implementing a large-scale vaccine campaign we need information about the prevalence of infection with only HPV 16 and 18 in Viet Nam. This study was done in 5 large cities in Vietnam to estimate the prevalence of HPV 16 and/or 18 infections and to explore the distribution of other high risk types of HPV among married women in these provinces. The study employed a cross-sectional design with multistage sampling. The sample size included 4500 married women in two rounds (aged ranged from 18-69 years old, median age: 40 year old). Participant were randomly selected, interviewed and given gynaecological examinations. HPV infection status (by real-time PCR kit using TaqMan probe) and HPV genotyping test (by Reverse dot blot) were done for all participants. The prevalence of cervical infection with HPV type 16 and/or 18 among married women in this study ranged from 3.1% to 7.4%. Many positive HPV cases (ranged from 24.5% to 56.8%) were infected with other type of high risk HPV which can lead to cervical cancer and cannot prevented by currently available vaccines. In addition to HPV 16 and/or 18, most common types of high risk HPV were types 58, 52, 35 and 45. Awareness about HPV and HPV vaccines was still low in the study samples. While it is relevant to implement an HPV vaccine campaign in Viet Nam, it is important to note that one can be infected with multiple types of HPV. Vaccination does not protected against all type of high risk HPV types. Future vaccine campaigns should openly disclose this information to women receiving vaccines. High prevalence of infection with HPV high risk types was observed in this study. As HPV infection has a high correlation with cervical cancer, this study emphasizes the need for both primary prevention of cervical cancer

  9. Prevalence of cervical infection with HPV type 16 and 18 in Vietnam: implications for vaccine campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Lan TH

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Expanded Program on Immunization currently considers offering Human Papilomavirus vaccine on a routine basis in Vietnam. However, as the current available vaccine can prevent only two types HPV 16 and 18, before implementing a large-scale vaccine campaign we need information about the prevalence of infection with only HPV 16 and 18 in Viet Nam. This study was done in 5 large cities in Vietnam to estimate the prevalence of HPV 16 and/or 18 infections and to explore the distribution of other high risk types of HPV among married women in these provinces. Methods The study employed a cross-sectional design with multistage sampling. The sample size included 4500 married women in two rounds (aged ranged from 18-69 years old, median age: 40 year old. Participant were randomly selected, interviewed and given gynaecological examinations. HPV infection status (by real-time PCR kit using TaqMan probe and HPV genotyping test (by Reverse dot blot were done for all participants. Results The prevalence of cervical infection with HPV type 16 and/or 18 among married women in this study ranged from 3.1% to 7.4%. Many positive HPV cases (ranged from 24.5% to 56.8% were infected with other type of high risk HPV which can lead to cervical cancer and cannot prevented by currently available vaccines. In addition to HPV 16 and/or 18, most common types of high risk HPV were types 58, 52, 35 and 45. Awareness about HPV and HPV vaccines was still low in the study samples. Discussion While it is relevant to implement an HPV vaccine campaign in Viet Nam, it is important to note that one can be infected with multiple types of HPV. Vaccination does not protected against all type of high risk HPV types. Future vaccine campaigns should openly disclose this information to women receiving vaccines. Conclusion High prevalence of infection with HPV high risk types was observed in this study. As HPV infection has a high correlation with cervical cancer, this

  10. Cervical, anal and oral HPV in an adolescent inner-city health clinic providing free vaccinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas F Schlecht

    Full Text Available Published human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine trials indicate efficacy is strongest for those naive to the vaccine-types. However, few high-risk young women have been followed and cervical HPV has been the predominant outcome measure.We collected cervical and anal swabs, as well as oral rinse specimens from 645 sexually active inner-city young females attending a large adolescent health-clinic in New York City that offers free care and HPV vaccination. Specimens were tested for HPV-DNA using a MY09/MY11-PCR system. Type-specific prevalence of HPV at each anatomic site was compared for individuals by vaccination dose using generalized estimating equation logistic regression models.The majority of subjects reported being of non-Caucasian (92% and/or Hispanic ethnicity (61%. Median age was 18 years (range:14-20. All had practiced vaginal sex, a third (33% practiced anal sex, and most (77% had also engaged in oral sex. At enrollment, 21% had not received the vaccine and 51% had received three doses. Prevalent HPV infection at enrollment was detected in 54% of cervical, 42% of anal and 20% of oral specimens, with vaccine types present in 7%, 6% and 1% of specimens, respectively. Comparing prevalence for vaccine types, the detection of HPV in the cervix of vaccinated compared to unvaccinated adolescents was significantly reduced: HPV6/11 (odds ratio [OR] = 0.19, 95%CI:0.06-0.75, HPV16 (OR = 0.31, 95%CI:0.11-0.88 and HPV18 (OR = 0.14, 95%CI:0.03-0.75. For anal HPV, the risk of detecting vaccine types HPV6/11 (OR = 0.27, 95%CI:0.10-0.72 and HPV18(OR = 0.12, 95%CI:0.01-1.16 were significantly reduced for vaccinated adolescents however, the risk for HPV16 was not significantly decreased (OR = 0.63, 95%CI:0.18-2.20.HPV Prevalence is extremely high in inner-city female adolescents. Administration of the HPV vaccine reduced the risk for cervical HPV; however continued follow-up is required to assess the protection for HPV at all sites

  11. HPV-vaccination af drenge - Effekt på anogenitale infektioner og cancere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Michelle S.; Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen; Aabenhus, Rune Munck

    2013-01-01

    HPV-vaccination tilbydes alle piger, men skal HPV-vaccinationen også tilbydes drenge? Det undersøger forfatterne i denne artikel ved at kigge litteraturen igennem. Konklusionen er, at der nok også er effekt på en række af de HPV-relaterede sygdomme hos drenge/mænd. Der mangler imidlertid fortsat...

  12. College Women's Attitudes, Behaviors, and Beliefs Regarding the HPV Vaccine: Translation to Health Education Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Rosemary M.; Kispert, Elisabeth; McGrath, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is primarily caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV) and is the second most common cause of cancer-related mortality among women. Purpose: College women may be at risk for contracting HPV based on their sexual behavior. An exploratory analysis was conducted, following the release of the HPV vaccine, Gardasil[R], to (1)…

  13. Exploring the role of ethnic identity on the attitudes towards HPV vaccine advertising among Puerto Ricans: A qualitative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calo, William A.; Fernández, Maria E.; Fernández-Espada, Natalie; Colón-López, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    Despite the existence of guidelines recommending vaccination against the human papillomavirus (HPV) and widespread availability of the vaccine through the Vaccines for Children program, HPV vaccination rates among island Puerto Ricans are suboptimal. Advertising plays a central role in promoting HPV vaccination by increasing awareness of and knowledge about the vaccine; however, little is known about the influence of cultural factors on the impact of HPV messages delivered through the media. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the role of ethnic identity on the attitudes towards HPV vaccine advertising among island Puerto Ricans. Five focus groups (n=23) were conducted with parents and non-vaccinated females. Our analysis found several themes that may influence attitudes towards HPV vaccine advertising among this population: physical ethnic similarity, relevance of information, and sociocultural congruence. Findings may assist in developing culturally appropriate health promotion programs and media to promote HPV vaccination among Puerto Ricans. PMID:24052477

  14. Exploring the role of ethnic identity on the attitudes towards HPV vaccine advertising among Puerto Ricans: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calo, William A; Fernández, Maria E; Fernández-Espada, Natalie; Colón-López, Vivian

    2015-02-01

    Despite the existence of guidelines recommending vaccination against the human papillomavirus (HPV) and widespread availability of the vaccine through the Vaccines for Children program, HPV vaccination rates among island Puerto Ricans are suboptimal. Advertising plays a central role in promoting HPV vaccination by increasing awareness of and knowledge about the vaccine; however, little is known about the influence of cultural factors on the impact of HPV messages delivered through the media. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the role of ethnic identity on the attitudes towards HPV vaccine advertising among island Puerto Ricans. Five focus groups (n = 23) were conducted with parents and non-vaccinated females. Our analysis found several themes that may influence attitudes towards HPV vaccine advertising among this population: physical ethnic similarity, relevance of information, and sociocultural congruence. Findings may assist in developing culturally appropriate health promotion programs and media to promote HPV vaccination among Puerto Ricans.

  15. Modeling the impact of the difference in cross-protection data between a human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine and a human papillomavirus (HPV)-6/11/16/18 vaccine in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Kohli Michele; Lawrence Donna; Haig Jennifer; Anonychuk Andrea; Demarteau Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Background In Canada, two vaccines that have demonstrated high efficacy against infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types −16 and −18 are available. The HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine provides protection against genital warts (GW) while the HPV-16/18 vaccine may provide better protection against other oncogenic HPV types. In this analysis, the estimated clinical and economic benefit of each of these vaccines was compared in the Canadian setting. Methods A Markov model of the natural history of ...

  16. Perception of human papillomavirus infection, cervical cancer and HPV vaccination in North Indian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Showket Hussain

    Full Text Available Human Papillomavirus (HPV -associated cervical cancer is the second-most common cancer in women worldwide but it is the most frequent gynaecological cancer and cancer associated death in India women. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge about cervical cancer, HPV, HPV vaccine, HPV vaccine acceptance among school and undergraduates students and their parent's perception about acceptance of HPV vaccine in Northern part of India (Delhi and NCR regions.A qualitative questionnaire based survey among 2500 urban/rural students aged 12-22 years was conducted.Overall, a low frequency (15% of HPV and cervical cancer awareness was observed in students and their parents. However, the awareness was much higher in females belonging to urban setup compared to boys with a perception that HPV causes cervical cancer in women only. Additionally, only (13% participants who were aware of cervical cancer and HPV were willing to accept HPV vaccination. Apparently, parents of female students were two times more willing to accept HPV vaccination for their ward than male students (p<0.001; OR 95%CI = 2.09 (1.58-2.76.Cervical cancer and HPV awareness among school, undergraduate students and also to their parents was found to be very low in this part of India. The level of awareness and education appears to be insignificant determinants in rural compared to urban setup. Better health education will be needed to maximize public awareness for cervical cancer prevention.

  17. A 9-valent HPV vaccine against infection and intraepithelial neoplasia in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joura, Elmar A; Giuliano, Anna R; Iversen, Ole-Erik; Bouchard, Celine; Mao, Constance; Mehlsen, Jesper; Moreira, Edson D; Ngan, Yuen; Petersen, Lone Kjeld; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Restrepo, Jaime Alberto; Stuart, Gavin; Woelber, Linn; Yang, Yuh Cheng; Cuzick, Jack; Garland, Suzanne M; Huh, Warner; Kjaer, Susanne K; Bautista, Oliver M; Chan, Ivan S F; Chen, Joshua; Gesser, Richard; Moeller, Erin; Ritter, Michael; Vuocolo, Scott; Luxembourg, Alain

    2015-02-19

    The investigational 9-valent viruslike particle vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) includes the HPV types in the quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccine (6, 11, 16, and 18) and five additional oncogenic types (31, 33, 45, 52, and 58). Here we present the results of a study of the efficacy and immunogenicity of the 9vHPV vaccine in women 16 to 26 years of age. We performed a randomized, international, double-blind, phase 2b-3 study of the 9vHPV vaccine in 14,215 women. Participants received the 9vHPV vaccine or the qHPV vaccine in a series of three intramuscular injections on day 1 and at months 2 and 6. Serum was collected for analysis of antibody responses. Swabs of labial, vulvar, perineal, perianal, endocervical, and ectocervical tissue were obtained and used for HPV DNA testing, and liquid-based cytologic testing (Papanicolaou testing) was performed regularly. Tissue obtained by means of biopsy or as part of definitive therapy (including a loop electrosurgical excision procedure and conization) was tested for HPV. The rate of high-grade cervical, vulvar, or vaginal disease irrespective of HPV type (i.e., disease caused by HPV types included in the 9vHPV vaccine and those not included) in the modified intention-to-treat population (which included participants with and those without prevalent infection or disease) was 14.0 per 1000 person-years in both vaccine groups. The rate of high-grade cervical, vulvar, or vaginal disease related to HPV-31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 in a prespecified per-protocol efficacy population (susceptible population) was 0.1 per 1000 person-years in the 9vHPV group and 1.6 per 1000 person-years in the qHPV group (efficacy of the 9vHPV vaccine, 96.7%; 95% confidence interval, 80.9 to 99.8). Antibody responses to HPV-6, 11, 16, and 18 were noninferior to those generated by the qHPV vaccine. Adverse events related to injection site were more common in the 9vHPV group than in the qHPV group. The 9vHPV vaccine prevented infection and disease

  18. Genital Warts (HPV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Growth Problems Cervical Cap HPV Vaccine Genital Warts (HPV) KidsHealth > For Teens > Genital Warts (HPV) Print A ... HPV infection. How Do People Know They Have HPV? Most HPV infections have no signs or symptoms. ...

  19. Human Papillomavirus Awareness in Haiti: Preparing for a National HPV Vaccination Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gichane, Margaret W; Calo, William A; McCarthy, Schatzi H; Walmer, Kathy A; Boggan, Joel C; Brewer, Noel T

    2017-02-01

    Cervical cancer morbidity and mortality are pressing public health issues that affect women in Haiti. To inform efforts to develop a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program in Haiti, we sought to understand HPV awareness and willingness to get HPV vaccination in Haiti. We interviewed a convenience sample of 475 women and men in 2 clinical settings in Port-au-Prince and Léogâne, Haiti between April and July 2014. HPV awareness and willingness to get HPV vaccine for daughters. Few participants (27%, 130/475) had heard of HPV. Awareness of HPV was higher among respondents with a previous sexually transmitted infection compared with those without a previous sexually transmitted infection (odds ratio, 2.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-5.13). Adults who had heard of genital warts were also more likely to be aware of HPV compared with those who had not (odds ratio, 4.37; 95% confidence interval, 2.59-7.38). Only 10% (24/250) of parents had previously heard of HPV vaccine; however, after researchers explained the purpose of the vaccine, nearly all (96%, 240/250) said they would be willing to get HPV vaccine for their daughters if it were available. Despite low awareness of HPV in Haiti, interest in HPV vaccination was nearly universal in our study of health care-seeking adults. This high acceptability suggests that HPV vaccination programs instituted in Haiti would be well received. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Revisiting the cost-effectiveness of universal HPV-vaccination in Denmark accounting for all potentially vaccine preventable HPV-related diseases in males and females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jens; Jørgensen, Tine Rikke

    2015-01-01

    focussed on the quadrivalent vaccine which protects against HPV type 6, 11, 16 and 18, and the vaccine's protection against genital warts, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, cervical cancer, anogenital cancer (anal, penile, vaginal and vulvar cancer) and head and neck cancer (oral cavity, oropharyngeal......, hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer) were included in the analyses. In general, the analysis was performed in two phases. First, an agent-based transmission model that described the HPV transmission without and with HPV vaccination was applied. Second, an analysis of the incremental costs and effects...... that would lead to a faster prevention of cancers, cancer precursors and genital warts in men and women....

  1. Who's Not Protected in the Herd? Factors Associated with Vaccine-Type HPV in Unvaccinated Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C; Ding, L; Gorbach, P M; Franco, E L; Kahn, J A

    2017-09-21

    Evidence suggests that vaccine-type human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence may decrease in unvaccinated women after HPV vaccine introduction, indicating herd protection. The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with vaccine-type HPV (i.e. absence of herd protection) after vaccine introduction. We conducted three cross-sectional studies from 2006-2014 (n = 1180): wave 1 (2006-2007), wave 2 (2009-2010), and wave 3 (2013-2014). Participants were recruited from a hospital-based teen health center and a community health department. We recruited 13-26 year-old young women; those included in this analysis had not received an HPV vaccine. The outcome measure was infection with at least one vaccine-type HPV (HPV6, 11, 16, 18). Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated that in wave 1 (before vaccine introduction), history of anal intercourse (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.1-3.0), age 18-21 vs 13-17 years (OR = 2.1, CI = 1.2-3.6), and Black/multiracial vs White race (OR = 1.8, CI = 1.1-3.0) were associated with vaccine-type HPV in unvaccinated women. In wave 2, no variables were associated with HPV. In wave 3, sexually transmitted infection history (OR = 3.6, CI = 1.3-9.7) was associated with HPV. We did not identify a consistent set of modifiable risk factors associated with vaccine-type HPV after vaccine introduction across the three study waves, underscoring the urgency of vaccination for primary HPV prevention and the limitations of relying on herd protection. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 gene DNA possibly bound to particulate aluminum adjuvant in the HPV vaccine Gardasil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sin Hang

    2012-12-01

    Medical practitioners in nine countries submitted samples of Gardasil (Merck & Co.) to be tested for the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA because they suspected that residual recombinant HPV DNA left in the vaccine might have been a contributing factor leading to some of the unexplained post-vaccination side effects. A total of 16 packages of Gardasil were received from Australia, Bulgaria, France, India, New Zealand, Poland, Russia, Spain and the United States. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method using the MY09/MY11 degenerate primers for initial amplification and the GP5/GP6-based nested PCR primers for the second amplification were used to prepare the template for direct automated cycle DNA sequencing of a hypervariable segment of the HPV L1 gene which is used for manufacturing of the HPV L1 capsid protein by a DNA recombinant technology in vaccine production. Detection of HPV DNA and HPV genotyping of all positive samples were finally validated by BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) analysis of a 45-60 bases sequence of the computer-generated electropherogram. The results showed that all 16 Gardasil samples, each with a different lot number, contained fragments of HPV-11 DNA, or HPV-18 DNA, or a DNA fragment mixture from both genotypes. The detected HPV DNA was found to be firmly bound to the insoluble, proteinase-resistant fraction, presumably of amorphous aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate (AAHS) nanoparticles used as adjuvant. The clinical significance of these residual HPV DNA fragments bound to a particulate mineral-based adjuvant is uncertain after intramuscular injection, and requires further investigation for vaccination safety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Who Is to Blame? Framing HPV to Influence Vaccination Intentions among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorpahl, McKenzie M; Yang, Janet Z

    2017-03-10

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a prevalent sexually transmitted infection (STI) among college students. Although previous research has studied HPV-related health communication strategies using various framing techniques, the goal of this study is to test how two unique message frames-whether mentioning HPV as an STI and whether to attribute the cause of infection as external or internal-would influence young adults' intentions to receive the recommended HPV vaccine. Results indicate that gender and causal attribution framing influenced participants' intentions to receive the HPV vaccine.

  4. Associations of trust and healthcare provider advice with HPV vaccine acceptance among African American parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Linda Y; Zimet, Gregory D; Latkin, Carl A; Joseph, Jill G

    2017-02-01

    Healthcare providers (HCPs) are advised to give all parents a strong recommendation for HPV vaccination. However, it is possible that strong recommendations could be less effective at promoting vaccination among African Americans who on average have greater mistrust in the healthcare system. This study examines the associations of parental trust in HCPs and strength of HCP vaccination recommendation on HPV vaccine acceptance among African American parents. Participants were recruited from an urban, academic medical center between July 2012 and July 2014. We surveyed 400 African American parents of children ages 10-12years who were offered HPV vaccine by their HCPs to assess sociodemographic factors, vaccine beliefs, trust in HCPs, and the HPV vaccine recommendation received. Medical records were reviewed to determine vaccination receipt. In multivariable analysis, children whose parents were "very strongly" recommended the HPV vaccine had over four times higher odds of vaccine receipt compared with those whose parents were "not very strongly" recommended the vaccine. Having a parent with "a lot of" versus "none" or only "some" trust in HCPs was associated with over twice the odds of receiving HPV vaccine. Very strong HCP recommendations were associated with higher odds of vaccination among all subgroups, including those with more negative baseline attitudes toward HPV vaccine and those with lower levels of trust. Adding the variables strength of HCP recommendation and parental trust in HCPs to a multivariable model already adjusted for sociodemographic factors and parental vaccine beliefs improved the pseudo R2 from 0.52 to 0.55. Among participants, receiving a strong vaccine recommendation and having a higher level of trust in HCPs were associated with higher odds of HPV vaccination, but did not add much to the predictive value of a model that already adjusted for baseline personal beliefs and sociodemographic factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  5. Influence of parent characteristics and disease outcome framing on HPV vaccine acceptability among rural, Southern women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperber, Nina R; Brewer, Noel T; Smith, Jennifer S

    2008-02-01

    A new prophylactic vaccine protects against infection with HPV types that cause many cervical cancers and genital warts. This study explored the impact of framing the vaccine's benefits, with respect to the disease outcome being prevented, on women's HPV vaccination intentions for themselves and for an adolescent daughter. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural North Carolina area with a high cervical cancer mortality rate. A questionnaire was administered among female attendees of a low-income public clinic and a private OB/GYN office. Data were analyzed using a generalized estimable model. Women reported high intentions to vaccinate against HPV. Women reported higher intentions to vaccinate adolescent daughters than themselves, and this relationship varied by how the HPV vaccine was framed (preventing HPV, cervical cancer, or genital warts). Older women reported lower vaccination intentions than younger women. Rural women, especially those who are younger, may be more accepting of the HPV vaccine when it is framed as a cervical cancer vaccine. Messages to mothers about the HPV vaccine for their daughters might be made more effective by framing the vaccine in terms of cancer and sexually transmitted disease prevention.

  6. Knowledge, attitudes, and communication around human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination amongst urban Asian mothers and physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Song-Nan; Soon, Ruey; Park, Jong Sup; Pancharoen, Chitsanu; Qiao, You Lin; Basu, Partha; Ngan, Hextan Yuen Sheung

    2010-05-14

    To determine why HPV vaccination uptake is low in Asia, we surveyed attitudes, knowledge and communication about cervical cancer and HPV vaccination amongst 480 physicians and 1617 randomly selected urban mothers who could afford HPV vaccines in Korea, Malaysia, Taiwan and Thailand. HPV vaccine rejection by mothers was linked with poor knowledge and low perceptions of self-relevance. Physicians' likelihood of raising the subject and/or recommending vaccination was linked to how proactively they advocate preventive health, their attitude to the subject's sensitivity and their knowledge levels. Because most Asian mothers seek doctors' advice and prefer them to take the initiative, physicians should be more proactive in discussing and recommending HPV vaccination. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. HPV vaccines: their pathology-based discovery, benefits, and adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Alcina F; de Andrade, Cecilia V; Russomano, Fabio B; Rodrigues, Luana S L; Oliveira, Nathalia S; Provance, David William; Nuovo, Gerard J

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine illustrates the power of in situ-based pathologic analysis in better understanding and curing diseases. The 2 available HPV vaccines have markedly reduced the incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasias, genital warts, and cervical cancer throughout the world. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, health care officials, and parents to refuse providing the recommended vaccination to the target population. The aims of the study were to discuss the discovery of HPV vaccine and review scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines. The strong type-specific immunity against HPV in humans has been known for more than 25 years. Multiple studies confirm the positive risk benefit of HPV vaccination with minimal documented adverse effects. The most common adverse effect, injection site pain, occurred in about 10% of girls and was less than the rate reported for other vaccines. Use of HPV vaccine should be expanded into more diverse populations, mainly in low-resource settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Attitudes Regarding HPV Vaccinations of Children among Mothers with Adolescent Daughters in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyong No; Chang, Kylie Hae Jin; Cho, Seong Sik; Park, Sung Ho; Park, Sung Taek

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study, carried out before the beginning of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinations as a National Immunization Program (NIP) in Korea in 2016, is to assess the ranges of perceptions and personal experience and their influences on attitudes regarding HPV vaccinations of children, among mothers of adolescent (9-14 years of age) daughters in Korea. From November 2015 to February 2016, we distributed a written questionnaire to mothers who had daughters aged 9-14 years. The questionnaire consisted of several questions, related to knowledge of HPV, personal experiences of HPV vaccination, and attitudes toward HPV vaccinations of their adolescent daughters. Of the 260 questionnaires distributed, 140 participants returned answered ones. And although only 51% of participants were aware that cervical cancer is highly related with HPV infection, 70% said they were willing to vaccinate their daughters, showing that awareness does not coincide with intention to vaccinate. Among the participants showing negative attitudes, 50% were concerned about the vaccination side effects. The more the participants' pre-knowledge about HPV infection, and about the relationship of HPV to cervical cancer, the more positive their attitudes (P = 0.002, P vaccinating their adolescent daughters rose as well. Thus, the provision of correct education by health care providers and accurate information through active advertising may play an important role in increasing the vaccination rate among adolescent girls in Korea.

  9. Health professional feedback on HPV vaccination roll-out in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturas, Collette; Umeh, Kanayo

    2017-04-04

    Worldwide, Zambia has the highest cervical cancer incidence rates (58.4/100,000 per year) and mortality rates (36.2/100,000 per year). The human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine is considered a vital preventative measure against cervical cancer, particularly in sub-Saharan countries, such as Zambia. Past research suggests health professionals' experiences with HPV vaccination rollout can have practical implications for effective delivery. To explore health professionals' perspectives on the HPV vaccination programme in Zambia. Researcher travelled to Zambia and conducted semi-structured interviews with fifteen health professionals working in private, government, and missionary clinics/hospitals. Observation was conducted for triangulation purposes. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Five main themes emerged; medical misconceptions about the HPV vaccination, particularly with regards to infertility; fear of the unknown, including possible side effects and inadequate empirical research; need for prior desensitisation to resolve cultural barriers prior to vaccination rollout; a rural-urban divide in health awareness, particularly in relation to cancer vaccines; and economic concerns associated with access to the HPV vaccination for most of the Zambian population. Overall, the findings indicate that an essential avenue for facilitating HPV vaccination rollout in Zambia is by implementing a pre-rollout community effort that removes or softens cultural barriers, particularly in rural areas. It is also essential to correct erroneous HPV presumptions health professionals may have around infertility. Affordability remains a seemingly intractable hindrance that hampers HPV vaccination rollout in Zambia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Community Awareness of HPV Screening and Vaccination in Odisha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niharika Khanna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A number of new technologies including cervical cancer screening and vaccination have introduced new tools in the fight against cervical cancer. Methods. This study was set in Odisha, India, at the Acharya Harihar Regional Cancer Center and study research infrastructure at the Asian Institute of Public Health. IRB approvals were obtained and a research assistant recruited 286 women aged 18–49 years, who provided informed consent and completed a survey tool. Data were entered into EpiData software and statistical analysis was conducted. Results. 76.3% women participants were married, 45.5% had sexual debut at age 21 or greater, 60.5% used contraception, 12.2% reported having a Pap smear in the past, and 4.9% reported having prior genital warts. Most, 68.8% had never heard of HPV and 11.9% were aware that HPV is the main cause of cervical cancer. 82.9% women thought that vaccinations prevent disease, and 74.8% said they make the decision to vaccinate their children. Conclusion. The Odisha community demonstrated a low level of knowledge about cervical cancer prevention, accepted vaccinations in the prevention of disease and screening, and identified mothers/guardians as the key family contacts.

  11. “Saving lives”: Adapting and adopting Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Katharina T.

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination against the sexually transmitted Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), a necessary agent for the development of cervical cancer, has triggered much debate. In Austria, HPV policy turned from “lagging behind” in 2008 into “Europe's frontrunner” by 2013. Drawing on qualitative research, the article shows how the vaccine was transformed and made “good enough” over the course of five years. By means of tinkering and shifting storylines, policy officials and experts disassociated the vaccine from gender, vaccine manufacturers, and youth sexuality. Ultimately, the HPV vaccine functioned to strengthen the national immunization program. To this end, preventing an effective problematization of the extant screening program was essential. PMID:26921834

  12. Debate Revives Old Arguments on HPV Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi

    2011-01-01

    The author reports on a Republican presidential debate which revives the contention over requiring middle school girls to be vaccinated against the virus that causes cervical cancer. At the September 12 debate, U.S. Representative Michele Bachmann, of Minnesota, and Rick Santorum, a former U.S. senator from Pennsylvania, attacked Texas Governor…

  13. Cutaneous lesions in pet rabbits following subcutaneous administration of a novel bivalent vaccine against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selleri, Paolo; Di Girolamo, Nicola; Vögtlin, Andrea; Fileccia, Ivan; Hoop, Richard; Bongiovanni, Laura

    2014-12-01

    A novel bivalent vaccine to protect against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease is commercially available for pet rabbits. To describe the appearance of cutaneous lesions arising in pet rabbits positive for myxoma virus (MV) by RT-PCR evaluation shortly after vaccination. Four pet rabbits presenting with papular, crusting skin lesions ~10 days after vaccination. Histological evaluation of formalin-fixed skin biopsies obtained from lesional skin (case 1). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) evaluation of paraffin-embedded tissue from skin biopsies (case 1) and crusts obtained from the lesion surface (cases 2-4) for myxoma virus are reported as cycle threshold (Ct ) values. Lesions affecting the ear pinna, dorsal aspect of the nose, vulva and/or conjunctiva are reported. Histopathological findings included severe ulcerative, necrotizing dermatitis and intralesional cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in myxoma cells. DNA was amplified from all the paraffin-embedded skin biopsies (Ct  = 34-35) and crusts (Ct  = 20-24). Although a wild virus challenge cannot be definitively excluded, veterinarians and pet-owners should be aware that cutaneous lesions have been observed after vaccination with this novel vaccine in low numbers of rabbits. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  14. HPV vaccine for teen boys: Dyadic analysis of parents' and sons' beliefs and willingness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Jennifer L; Reiter, Paul L; Brewer, Noel T

    2015-09-01

    Parents and adolescents often decide together whether the child should receive human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. However, few studies have investigated the dyadic nature of beliefs that affect this process. Data came from the 2010 HPV Immunization in Sons (HIS) Study, a national sample of 412 parents and their adolescent sons. We conducted dyadic multivariate logistic regression to examine the relationships between parents' and sons' HPV vaccine beliefs and their willingness to have the son receive the vaccine. Less than half of parents and sons were willing to have the sons receive HPV vaccine (43% and 29%, respectively). Willing parents and sons anticipated greater regret if the son did not receive HPV vaccine but later contracted an HPV infection (parent odds ratio [OR]=1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.24-2.40; son OR=1.51, 95% CI=1.04-2.19) (both pParents and sons were more willing to have the son receive HPV vaccine if they had higher anticipated regret about potential HPV infection and lower concerns about side effects. Communication campaigns may be able to target these beliefs to increase parents' and sons' willingness to seek HPV vaccination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Modeling the impact of the difference in cross-protection data between a human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine and a human papillomavirus (HPV)-6/11/16/18 vaccine in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In Canada, two vaccines that have demonstrated high efficacy against infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types −16 and −18 are available. The HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine provides protection against genital warts (GW) while the HPV-16/18 vaccine may provide better protection against other oncogenic HPV types. In this analysis, the estimated clinical and economic benefit of each of these vaccines was compared in the Canadian setting. Methods A Markov model of the natural history of HPV infection among women, cervical cancer (CC) and GW was used to estimate the impact of vaccinating a cohort of 100,000 12-year-old females on lifetime outcomes and healthcare system costs (no indirect benefit in males included). A budget impact model was used to estimate the impact of each vaccine by province. Results In the base case, vaccination with the HPV-16/18 vaccine was predicted to prevent 48 additional CC cases, and 16 additional CC deaths, while vaccination with the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine was predicted to prevent 6,933 additional GW cases. Vaccination with the HPV-16/18 vaccine was estimated to save 1 additional discounted quality adjusted life year (QALY) at an overall lower lifetime cost to the healthcare system compared to the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (assuming vaccine price parity). In sensitivity analyses, the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine was associated with greater QALYs saved when the cross-protection efficacy of the HPV-16/18 vaccine was reduced, or the burden of GW due to HPV-6/11 was increased. In most scenarios with price parity, the lifetime healthcare cost of the strategy with the HPV-16/18 vaccine was predicted to be lower than the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine. In the probabilistic sensitivity analyses, the HPV-16/18 vaccine provided more QALY benefit than the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine in 49.2% of scenarios, with lower relative lifetime costs in 83.5% of scenarios. Conclusions Overall, the predicted lifetime healthcare costs and QALYs saved by implementing each

  16. Modeling the impact of the difference in cross-protection data between a human papillomavirus (HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine and a human papillomavirus (HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohli Michele

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background In Canada, two vaccines that have demonstrated high efficacy against infection with human papillomavirus (HPV types −16 and −18 are available. The HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine provides protection against genital warts (GW while the HPV-16/18 vaccine may provide better protection against other oncogenic HPV types. In this analysis, the estimated clinical and economic benefit of each of these vaccines was compared in the Canadian setting. Methods A Markov model of the natural history of HPV infection among women, cervical cancer (CC and GW was used to estimate the impact of vaccinating a cohort of 100,000 12-year-old females on lifetime outcomes and healthcare system costs (no indirect benefit in males included. A budget impact model was used to estimate the impact of each vaccine by province. Results In the base case, vaccination with the HPV-16/18 vaccine was predicted to prevent 48 additional CC cases, and 16 additional CC deaths, while vaccination with the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine was predicted to prevent 6,933 additional GW cases. Vaccination with the HPV-16/18 vaccine was estimated to save 1 additional discounted quality adjusted life year (QALY at an overall lower lifetime cost to the healthcare system compared to the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (assuming vaccine price parity. In sensitivity analyses, the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine was associated with greater QALYs saved when the cross-protection efficacy of the HPV-16/18 vaccine was reduced, or the burden of GW due to HPV-6/11 was increased. In most scenarios with price parity, the lifetime healthcare cost of the strategy with the HPV-16/18 vaccine was predicted to be lower than the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine. In the probabilistic sensitivity analyses, the HPV-16/18 vaccine provided more QALY benefit than the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine in 49.2% of scenarios, with lower relative lifetime costs in 83.5% of scenarios. Conclusions Overall, the predicted lifetime healthcare costs and QALYs saved by

  17. Modeling the impact of the difference in cross-protection data between a human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine and a human papillomavirus (HPV)-6/11/16/18 vaccine in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Michele; Lawrence, Donna; Haig, Jennifer; Anonychuk, Andrea; Demarteau, Nadia

    2012-10-13

    In Canada, two vaccines that have demonstrated high efficacy against infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types -16 and -18 are available. The HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine provides protection against genital warts (GW) while the HPV-16/18 vaccine may provide better protection against other oncogenic HPV types. In this analysis, the estimated clinical and economic benefit of each of these vaccines was compared in the Canadian setting. A Markov model of the natural history of HPV infection among women, cervical cancer (CC) and GW was used to estimate the impact of vaccinating a cohort of 100,000 12-year-old females on lifetime outcomes and healthcare system costs (no indirect benefit in males included). A budget impact model was used to estimate the impact of each vaccine by province. In the base case, vaccination with the HPV-16/18 vaccine was predicted to prevent 48 additional CC cases, and 16 additional CC deaths, while vaccination with the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine was predicted to prevent 6,933 additional GW cases. Vaccination with the HPV-16/18 vaccine was estimated to save 1 additional discounted quality adjusted life year (QALY) at an overall lower lifetime cost to the healthcare system compared to the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (assuming vaccine price parity). In sensitivity analyses, the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine was associated with greater QALYs saved when the cross-protection efficacy of the HPV-16/18 vaccine was reduced, or the burden of GW due to HPV-6/11 was increased. In most scenarios with price parity, the lifetime healthcare cost of the strategy with the HPV-16/18 vaccine was predicted to be lower than the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine. In the probabilistic sensitivity analyses, the HPV-16/18 vaccine provided more QALY benefit than the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine in 49.2% of scenarios, with lower relative lifetime costs in 83.5% of scenarios. Overall, the predicted lifetime healthcare costs and QALYs saved by implementing each of the vaccines are similar. Vaccination

  18. Modelling the effects of quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Ana Patricia; Ortiz-Ortiz, Karen J; Ríos, Moraima; Laborde, José; Kulkarni, Amit; Pillsbury, Matthew; Lauschke, Andreas; Monsanto, Homero A; Marques-Goyco, Cecile

    2017-01-01

    No study has estimated the potential impact of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in Puerto Rico, a population with considerable burden of HPV-related morbidities. We evaluated the health and economic impacts of implementing a vaccination strategy for females and males in Puerto Rico, with the quadrivalent HPV (HPV4) vaccine, under different vaccination scenarios. We adapted a mathematical model which estimates the direct and indirect health benefits and costs of HPV4 vaccination in a dynamic population. The model compared three vaccination scenarios against screening only (no-vaccination) for three doses of HPV4 vaccine among individuals aged 11-15 years in Puerto Rico: 1) 34% for females and 13% for males (34%F/13%M), 2) 50% for females and 40% for males (50%F/40%M), and 3) 80% for female and 64% for male (80%F/64%M). Data specific to Puerto Rico was used. When not available, values from the United States were used. Input data consisted of demographic, behavioral, epidemiological, screening, and economic parameters. The model predicted decreases in: 1) HPV infection prevalence for females and males, 2) cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer incidence for females, 3) genital warts incidence for females and males, and 4) cervical cancer deaths among females, when various vaccination program scenarios were considered. In addition, when the vaccination percentage was increased in every scenario, the reduction was greater and began earlier. The analysis also evidenced an incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $1,964 per quality-adjusted life year gained for the 80%F/64%M uptake scenario. HPV vaccine can prove its cost effectiveness and substantially reduce the burden and costs associated to various HPV-related conditions when targeted to the adequate population together with an organized HPV vaccination program.

  19. Modelling the effects of quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccination in Puerto Rico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Patricia Ortiz

    Full Text Available No study has estimated the potential impact of Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccination in Puerto Rico, a population with considerable burden of HPV-related morbidities. We evaluated the health and economic impacts of implementing a vaccination strategy for females and males in Puerto Rico, with the quadrivalent HPV (HPV4 vaccine, under different vaccination scenarios.We adapted a mathematical model which estimates the direct and indirect health benefits and costs of HPV4 vaccination in a dynamic population. The model compared three vaccination scenarios against screening only (no-vaccination for three doses of HPV4 vaccine among individuals aged 11-15 years in Puerto Rico: 1 34% for females and 13% for males (34%F/13%M, 2 50% for females and 40% for males (50%F/40%M, and 3 80% for female and 64% for male (80%F/64%M. Data specific to Puerto Rico was used. When not available, values from the United States were used. Input data consisted of demographic, behavioral, epidemiological, screening, and economic parameters.The model predicted decreases in: 1 HPV infection prevalence for females and males, 2 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer incidence for females, 3 genital warts incidence for females and males, and 4 cervical cancer deaths among females, when various vaccination program scenarios were considered. In addition, when the vaccination percentage was increased in every scenario, the reduction was greater and began earlier. The analysis also evidenced an incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER of $1,964 per quality-adjusted life year gained for the 80%F/64%M uptake scenario.HPV vaccine can prove its cost effectiveness and substantially reduce the burden and costs associated to various HPV-related conditions when targeted to the adequate population together with an organized HPV vaccination program.

  20. Quality measurement and benchmarking of HPV vaccination services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurici, Massimo; Paulon, Luca; Campolongo, Alessandra; Meleleo, Cristina; Carlino, Cristiana; Giordani, Alessandro; Perrelli, Fabrizio; Sgricia, Stefano; Ferrante, Maurizio; Franco, Elisabetta; Group, The QuaVaTAR

    2014-01-01

    Background: A new measurement process based upon a well-defined mathematical model was applied to evaluate the quality of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination centers in 3 of 12 Local Health Units (ASLs) within the Lazio Region of Italy. The quality aspects considered for evaluation were communicational efficiency, organizational efficiency and comfort. Results: The overall maximum achievable value was 86.10%, while the HPV vaccination quality scores for ASL1, ASL2 and ASL3 were 73.07%, 71.08%, and 67.21%, respectively. Conclusions: With this new approach it is possible to represent the probabilistic reasoning of a stakeholder who evaluates the quality of a healthcare provider. All ASLs had margins for improvements and optimal quality results can be assessed in terms of better performance conditions, confirming the relationship between the resulting quality scores and HPV vaccination coverage. Methods: The measurement process was structured into three steps and involved four stakeholder categories: doctors, nurses, parents and vaccinated women. In Step 1, questionnaires were administered to collect different stakeholders’ points of view (i.e., subjective data) that were elaborated to obtain the best and worst performance conditions when delivering a healthcare service. Step 2 of the process involved the gathering of performance data during the service delivery (i.e., objective data collection). Step 3 of the process involved the elaboration of all data: subjective data from step 1 are used to define a “standard” to test objective data from step 2. This entire process led to the creation of a set of scorecards. Benchmarking is presented as a result of the probabilistic meaning of the evaluated scores. PMID:24084361

  1. Message Framing, Perceived Susceptibility, and Intentions to Vaccinate Children against HPV among African American Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Xiaoli; Madden, Kelly; Richards, Adam; Holt, Cheryl; Wang, Min Qi; Tracy, Kate

    2017-01-01

    This research examines the interaction effect of message framing (gain vs. loss) and perceived susceptibility (i.e., perceived likelihood that one’s child is at risk of contracting HPV) on African American parents’ intentions to vaccinate their children against HPV. Results of an experiment (N = 193), in which parents were exposed to either a gain-framed or loss-framed message about HPV vaccination, revealed a significant interaction between message framing and perceived susceptibility when parents were required to pay for the vaccine. The specific pattern of interaction suggested that parents who perceived their children to be at high risk of contracting HPV were more persuaded by the gain-framed message, whereas those who believed their children to be at low risk of contracting HPV were more persuaded by the loss-framed message. Implications of the findings for HPV vaccination messaging are discussed. PMID:26646190

  2. A study of physicians' experiences with recommending HPV vaccines to adolescent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping; Edib, Zobaida; Alias, Haridah; Mohamad Shakir, Sharina M; Raja Muhammad Yusoff, Raja N A; Sam, I-Ching; Zimet, Gregory D

    2017-10-01

    Assessing physicians' experiences in HPV vaccine recommendation and delivery to adolescent boys is essential to providing an understanding of the issues of vaccine acceptance and an insight for policymakers to enhance HPV vaccinations among adolescent boys. Between January and April 2014 a mail survey was conducted using physicians in Malaysia known to provide either one or both HPV vaccine (Gardasil and Cervarix) immunisation services. A total of 357 completed questionnaires were received (response rate 22.5%). Of these, 335 physicians see adolescent boys aged 11 to 18 years old in their practice. Only 26.3% (n = 88) recommended the HPV vaccine to these boys. A total of 46.6% (n = 41) have successfully given the HPV vaccine to adolescent boys. A lack of proper guidelines from the health authorities regarding the recommendation of HPV vaccine to the boys (37.2%) and a lack of awareness of the availability of the vaccine for boys (32.8%) were the most commonly cited reasons for non-recommendation. Impact statement Recommending the HPV vaccine for adolescent boys remains a challenge for physicians. Our study provides evidence of challenges and barriers faced by Malaysian physicians who recommend the HPV vaccines (Gardasil and Cervarix) in their practices. In this study, physicians reported HPV vaccine uptake by adolescent boys was very poor. A lack of proper guidelines from the health authorities regarding the recommendation of HPV vaccine to boys and a lack of awareness of the availability of the vaccine for boys were the most commonly cited reasons for non-recommendation. Physicians viewed that support and encouragement from the health authorities are needed to promote the recommendation of the HPV vaccine to adolescent boys. Physicians were also of the opinion that the lay public should be educated about the availability of the HPV vaccine for boys, and its benefits, safety and efficacy, and the high susceptibility of boys to getting HPV infections. The

  3. HPV vaccines for circumpolar health: summary of plenary session, “Opportunities for Prevention: Global HPV Vaccine” and “Human Papillomavirus Prevention: The Nordic Experience”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen F. Dunne

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this publication, we provide an overview of the presentations, “Opportunities for Prevention: Global HPV Vaccine” and “Human Papillomavirus Prevention: The Nordic Experience” as a part of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, held at Anchorage, Alaska, on August 8, 2012. We provide an overview of HPV, HPV vaccines and policy as well as the Nordic experience with HPV vaccine introduction.

  4. HPV Vaccination Status and Mandate Support for School-Aged Adolescents among College Females: A Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kelly L.; Smith, Matthew Lee; Rosen, Brittany L.; Pulczinski, Jairus C.; Ory, Marcia G.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe college-aged females' human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge and beliefs, perceptions and perceived benefits of the HPV vaccine, and identify characteristics associated with vaccination status and support for HPV vaccine mandates. Data were collected from 1,105 females by an Internet-delivered questionnaire…

  5. Cervical Cancer Prevention Through HPV Vaccination in Low- and Middle-Income Countries in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Zheng Quan; Licciardi, Paul V; Russell, Fiona M; Garland, Suzanne M; Batmunkh, Tsetsegsaikhan; Mulholland, Edward K

    2017-09-27

    Cervical cancer is ranked the first or second most common cancer in women of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in Asia. Cervical cancer is almost exclusively caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), and majority of the cases can be prevented with the use of HPV vaccines. The HPV vaccines have demonstrated high vaccine efficacies against HPV infection and cervical cancer precursors in clinical and post-marketing studies, and are in use in most high-income countries. However, their use in LMICs are limited mainly due to the high costs and logistics in delivering multiple doses of the vaccine. Other issues such as the safety of the vaccines, social and cultural factors, as well as poor knowledge and awareness of the virus have also contributed to the low uptake of the vaccine. This mini-review focuses on the need for HPV vaccine implementation in Asia given the substantial disease burden and underuse of HPV vaccines in LMICs in this region. In addition, the progress towards HPV vaccine introduction, and barriers preventing further rollout of these essential, life-saving vaccines are also discussed in this article. Creative Commons Attribution License

  6. Human papillomavirus: current status and issues of vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Heena; Khan, Fahim H; Ahsan, Haseeb

    2014-02-01

    An association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the development of cervical cancer was initially suggested over 30 years ago, and today there is clear evidence that certain subtypes of HPV are the causative agents of such malignancies. Papillomaviruses make up a vast family that comprises hundreds of different viruses. These viruses infect epithelia in humans and animals and cause benign hyperproliferative lesions, commonly called warts or papillomas, which can occasionally progress to squamous cell cancer. HPV infections are considered the most common among sexually transmitted diseases. One of the most prevalent cancer types induced by HPV (mostly types 16 and 18) is cervical cancer. Vaccination is the most effective means of preventing this infectious disease. These prophylactic vaccines, based on virus-like particles (VLPs), are extremely effective in providing protection from infection in almost 100 % of cases. VLP vaccines of HPV are subunit vaccines consisting only of the major viral capsid protein of HPV. There are two types of vaccine available: bivalent vaccine (against HPV-16/18) and quadrivalent vaccine (against HPV-6/11/16/18). Second-generation prophylactic HPV vaccines, currently in clinical trials, may hold several merits over the current bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines, such as protection against additional oncogenic HPV types, less dependence on cold-chain storage and distribution, and non-invasive methods of delivery.

  7. Revisiting the cost-effectiveness of universal HPV-vaccination in Denmark accounting for all potentially vaccine preventable HPV-related diseases in males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Jens; Jørgensen, Tine Rikke

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the consequences of a national immunization program with HPV vaccine for both boys and girls in Denmark, including the prophylactic effects on all potentially vaccine preventable HPV-associated diseases in male and female. The study focussed on the quadrivalent vaccine which protects against HPV type 6, 11, 16 and 18, and the vaccine's protection against genital warts, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, cervical cancer, anogenital cancer (anal, penile, vaginal and vulvar cancer) and head and neck cancer (oral cavity, oropharyngeal, hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer) were included in the analyses. In general, the analysis was performed in two phases. First, an agent-based transmission model that described the HPV transmission without and with HPV vaccination was applied. Second, an analysis of the incremental costs and effects was performed. The model did not include naturally-acquired immunity to HPV in the simulations. In the base case result (i.e. vaccination of girls only, 85% vaccination rate, private market price at € 123 per dose ex. VAT) an ICER of 3583 €/QALY (3-dose regime) is estimated when all HPV-related diseases are taken into account. Vaccination of girls & boys vs. vaccination of girls only an ICER of 28,031 €/QALY (2-dose regime) and 41,636 €/QALY (3-dose regime) is estimated. Extension of the current HPV programme in Denmark to include boys and girls is a cost effective preventive intervention that would lead to a faster prevention of cancers, cancer precursors and genital warts in men and women.

  8. Impact of human papillomavirus (HPV)-6/11/16/18 vaccine on all HPV-associated genital diseases in young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Nubia; Kjaer, Susanne K; Sigurdsson, Kristján

    2010-01-01

    The impact of the prophylactic vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16, and 18 (HPV6/11/16/18) on all HPV-associated genital disease was investigated in a population that approximates sexually naive women in that they were "negative to 14 HPV types" and in a mixed population...... of HPV-exposed and -unexposed women (intention-to-treat group)....

  9. Parental decisional strategies regarding HPV vaccination before media debates: a focus group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, R.; Empelen, P. van; Vogel, I.; Raat, H.; Ballegooijen, M. van; Korfage, I.J.

    2013-01-01

    Before the introduction of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, decisional strategies and factors that could guide HPV vaccination intentions were explored. The authors conducted 4 focus group discussions with 36 parents of children 8-15 years of age. Three groups consisted primarily of Dutch

  10. The Evidence for Efficacy of HPV Vaccines: Investigations in Categorical Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Alison L.; Goossens, Emery T.

    2013-01-01

    Recent approval of HPV vaccines and their widespread provision to young women provide an interesting context to gain experience with the application of statistical methods in current research. We demonstrate how we have used data extracted from a meta-analysis examining the efficacy of HPV vaccines in clinical trials with students in applied…

  11. Using a Reasoned Action Approach to Examine US College Women's Intention to Get the HPV Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozkowski, Kristen N.; Geshnizjani, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although at high risk of contracting the human papillomavirus (HPV), less than one-half of US college women have been vaccinated. The purpose of this study was to identify underlying factors influencing college women's intention to get the HPV vaccine via developing an instrument using the Reasoned Action Approach (RAA). Setting: Data…

  12. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Mothers' Intentions to Vaccinate Their Daughters against HPV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askelson, Natoshia M.; Campo, Shelly; Lowe, John B.; Smith, Sandi; Dennis, Leslie K.; Andsager, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed mothers' intentions to vaccinate their daughters against human papillomavirus (HPV) using the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Experience with sexually transmitted infections (STIs), beliefs about the vaccine encouraging sexual activity, and perception of daughters' risk for HPV were also examined for a relationship with…

  13. An assessment of the readiness for introduction of the HPV vaccine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formative research assessing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine readiness in Uganda was conducted in 2007. The objective was to generate evidence for government decision-making and operational planning for HPV vaccine introduction. Qualitative research methods with children, parents, teachers, community ...

  14. One Dose of HPV Vaccine May Protect against Cervical Cancer | FNLCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    A single dose of the cancer-fighting human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine Cervarix™ appears to induce an immune response that remains stable in the blood four years after vaccination. This may be enough to protect women from two strains of HPV and, u

  15. Influences on parental acceptance of HPV vaccination in demonstration projects in Uganda and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galagan, Sean R; Paul, Proma; Menezes, Lysander; LaMontagne, D Scott

    2013-06-26

    This study investigates the effect of communication strategies on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake in HPV vaccine demonstration projects in Uganda and Vietnam. Secondary analysis was conducted on data from surveys of a representative sample of parents and guardians of girls eligible for HPV vaccine, measuring three-dose coverage achieved in demonstration projects in 2008-2010. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis calculated the unadjusted and adjusted odds of receiving at least one dose of HPV vaccine depending on exposure to community influencers; information, education, and communication (IEC) channels; and demographic factors. This study found that exposure to community influencers was associated with HPV vaccine uptake in a multivariate model controlling for other factors. Exposure to non-interactive IEC channels was only marginally associated with HPV vaccine uptake. These results underscore the need of HPV vaccine programs in low- and middle-income countries to involve and utilize key community influencers and stakeholders to maximize HPV vaccine uptake. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. HPV vaccination intention among male clients of a large STI outpatient clinic in Amsterdam, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marra, E.; Alberts, C.J.; Zimet, G.D.; Paulussen, T.G.W.M.; Heijman, T.; Hogewoning, A.A.; Sonder, G.J.B.; Fennema, J.S.; Vries, H.J.C. de; Schim van der Loeff, M.F.

    2016-01-01

    We explored HPV vaccination intention and its determinants among male clients of the sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinic in Amsterdam. In 2015, male clients aged ≥18 years were invited to complete a web-based questionnaire regarding HPV vaccination intention and socio-psychological

  17. Demographic and High-Risk Behaviors associated with HPV and HPV Vaccine Awareness among Persons Aged 15-74 Years in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Juan Carlos; Sánchez-Díaz, Carola T; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Colón, Hector M; Ortiz, Ana Patricia

    2015-12-01

    Studies of human papillomavirus (HPV) awareness in Puerto Rico (PR) are limited and are of interest given low HPV vaccine uptake in this population. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine factors associated to HPV and HPV vaccine awareness among persons aged 15-74 years living in Puerto Rico. We analysed data from a sub-sample of 1,476 men and women who participated in a 2008 population-based island-wide household survey and who completed an HPV module. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine factors associated with HPV and HPV vaccine awareness. Overall, 37.2% of participants had heard about HPV and 33.4% had heard of the vaccine. Multivariate logistic regression showed that women were more likely to have heard of HPV (OR adjusted: 4.54; 95% CI=3.45, 5.98) or of the HPV vaccine (OR adjusted: 6.15; 95% CI=4.50, 8.40) as compared to men. HPV awareness was also lower among older adults, persons with lower income and with lower educational attainment, those without children and smokers (p < 0.05). In 2008, two years after the introduction of the first HPV vaccine in PR and the US, public awareness about HPV infection and the HPV vaccine was lower in Hispanics in PR as compared to other populations. Identified high-risk populations should be targeted in preventive care strategies. Future efforts should increase HPV knowledge and vaccine use in this population in order to maximize the impact of vaccination programs.

  18. Fusion of CTLA-4 with HPV16 E7 and E6 enhanced the potency of therapeutic HPV DNA vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Gan

    Full Text Available Preventive anti-HPV vaccines are effective against HPV infection but not against existing HPV-associated diseases, including cervical cancer and other malignant diseases. Therefore, the development of therapeutic vaccines is urgently needed. To improve anti-tumor effects of therapeutic vaccine, we fused cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4 with HPV16 E7 and E6 as a fusion therapeutic DNA vaccine (pCTLA4-E7E6. pCTLA4-E7E6 induced significantly higher anti-E7E6 specific antibodies and relatively stronger specific CTL responses than the nonfusion DNA vaccine pE7E6 in C57BL/6 mice bearing with TC-1 tumors. pCTLA4-E7E6 showed relatively stronger anti-tumor effects than pE7E6 in therapeutic immunization. These results suggest that fusing CTLA-4 with E7E6 is a useful strategy to develop therapeutic HPV DNA vaccines. In addition, fusing the C-terminal of E7 with the N-terminal of E6 impaired the functions of both E7 and E6.

  19. Fusion of CTLA-4 with HPV16 E7 and E6 enhanced the potency of therapeutic HPV DNA vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Lili; Jia, Rong; Zhou, Lili; Guo, Jihua; Fan, Mingwen

    2014-01-01

    Preventive anti-HPV vaccines are effective against HPV infection but not against existing HPV-associated diseases, including cervical cancer and other malignant diseases. Therefore, the development of therapeutic vaccines is urgently needed. To improve anti-tumor effects of therapeutic vaccine, we fused cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) with HPV16 E7 and E6 as a fusion therapeutic DNA vaccine (pCTLA4-E7E6). pCTLA4-E7E6 induced significantly higher anti-E7E6 specific antibodies and relatively stronger specific CTL responses than the nonfusion DNA vaccine pE7E6 in C57BL/6 mice bearing with TC-1 tumors. pCTLA4-E7E6 showed relatively stronger anti-tumor effects than pE7E6 in therapeutic immunization. These results suggest that fusing CTLA-4 with E7E6 is a useful strategy to develop therapeutic HPV DNA vaccines. In addition, fusing the C-terminal of E7 with the N-terminal of E6 impaired the functions of both E7 and E6.

  20. Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Induces HPV-Specific Antibodies in the Oral Cavity: Results From the Mid-Adult Male Vaccine Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ligia A.; Kemp, Troy J.; Torres, B. Nelson; Isaacs-Soriano, Kimberly; Ingles, Donna; Abrahamsen, Martha; Pan, Yuanji; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Salmeron, Jorge; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Human papillomavirus virus type 16 (HPV-16) and HPV-18 cause a large proportion of oropharyngeal cancers, which are increasing in incidence among males, and vaccine efficacy against oral HPV infections in men has not been previously evaluated. Methods. Sera and saliva collected in mouthwash and Merocel sponges at day 1 and month 7 were obtained from 150 men aged 27–45 years from Tampa, Florida, and Cuernavaca, Mexico, who received Gardasil at day 1 and months 2 and 6. Specimens were tested for anti–HPV-16 and anti–HPV-18 immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels by an L1 virus-like particle–based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. All participants developed detectable serum anti–HPV-16 and anti–HPV-18 antibodies, and most had detectable antibodies in both oral specimen types at month 7 (HPV-16 was detected in 93.2% of mouthwash specimens and 95.7% of sponge specimens; HPV-18 was detected in 72.1% and 65.5%, respectively). Antibody concentrations in saliva were approximately 3 logs lower than in serum. HPV-16– and HPV-18–specific antibody levels, normalized to total IgG levels, in both oral specimen types at month 7 were significantly correlated with serum levels (for HPV-16, ρ was 0.90 for mouthwash specimens and 0.92 for sponge specimens; for HPV-18, ρ was 0.89 and 0.86, respectively). Conclusions. This is the first study demonstrating that vaccination of males with Gardasil induces HPV antibody levels at the oral cavity that correlate with circulating levels. PMID:27511896

  1. Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Induces HPV-Specific Antibodies in the Oral Cavity: Results From the Mid-Adult Male Vaccine Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ligia A; Kemp, Troy J; Torres, B Nelson; Isaacs-Soriano, Kimberly; Ingles, Donna; Abrahamsen, Martha; Pan, Yuanji; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Salmeron, Jorge; Giuliano, Anna R

    2016-10-15

    Human papillomavirus virus type 16 (HPV-16) and HPV-18 cause a large proportion of oropharyngeal cancers, which are increasing in incidence among males, and vaccine efficacy against oral HPV infections in men has not been previously evaluated. Sera and saliva collected in mouthwash and Merocel sponges at day 1 and month 7 were obtained from 150 men aged 27-45 years from Tampa, Florida, and Cuernavaca, Mexico, who received Gardasil at day 1 and months 2 and 6. Specimens were tested for anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels by an L1 virus-like particle-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All participants developed detectable serum anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 antibodies, and most had detectable antibodies in both oral specimen types at month 7 (HPV-16 was detected in 93.2% of mouthwash specimens and 95.7% of sponge specimens; HPV-18 was detected in 72.1% and 65.5%, respectively). Antibody concentrations in saliva were approximately 3 logs lower than in serum. HPV-16- and HPV-18-specific antibody levels, normalized to total IgG levels, in both oral specimen types at month 7 were significantly correlated with serum levels (for HPV-16, ρ was 0.90 for mouthwash specimens and 0.92 for sponge specimens; for HPV-18, ρ was 0.89 and 0.86, respectively). This is the first study demonstrating that vaccination of males with Gardasil induces HPV antibody levels at the oral cavity that correlate with circulating levels. © 2016 World Health Organization; licensee Oxford Journals.

  2. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine knowledge, attitudes, and uptake in college students: Implications from the Precaution Adoption Process Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Marie; George, Phillis; Perryman, Mandy L; Wolff, Lori A

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine human papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV vaccine knowledge, attitudes, and uptake in college students and to identify factors associated with vaccination status utilizing the Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM). The sample included 383 undergraduates from a public university who participated in February and March 2015. Students were emailed an anonymous online survey assessing knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions related to HPV and HPV vaccination, as well as their stage in the PAPM regarding vaccination completion. Significantly more females (47.3%) than males (15.8%) were vaccinated. While most students had basic knowledge of HPV, they had low perceptions of their susceptibility to contract HPV. Most unvaccinated students were in the early stages of decision-making related to vaccination. Campus health centers have an opportunity to increase HPV vaccination rates. This study indicates that students need prompts from providers, as well as education regarding susceptibility to HPV.

  3. Prevalence and predictors of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among young women surviving childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosky, James L; Favaro, Brianne; Peck, Kelly R; Simmons, Jessica L; Russell, Kathryn M; Green, Daniel M; Hudson, Melissa M

    2016-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted infection and the cause of cervical and other cancers. Vaccination is available to protect against genital HPV and is recommended for individuals aged 9-26 years. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of HPV vaccination among childhood cancer survivors and to identify factors associated with vaccine outcomes. Young adult females with (n = 114; M age = 21.18 years, SD = 2.48) and without (n = 98; M age = 20.65 years, SD = 2.29) a childhood cancer history completed surveys querying HPV vaccination initiation/completion, as well as sociodemographic, medical, and health belief factors. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for vaccine outcomes. Among survivors, 38.6 % (44/114) and 26.3 % (30/114) initiated or completed vaccination compared to 44.9 % (44/98) and 28.6 % (28/98) among controls, respectively. In the combined survivor/control group, physician recommendation (OR = 11.24, 95 % CI 3.15-40.14) and familial HPV communication (OR = 7.28, 95 % CI 1.89-28.05) associated with vaccine initiation. Perceptions of vaccine benefit associated with vaccine completion (OR = 10.55, 95 % CI 1.59-69.92), whereas perceptions of HPV-related severity associated with non-completion (OR = 0.14, 95 % CI 0.03-0.71). Despite their increased risk for HPV-related complication, a minority of childhood cancer survivors have initiated or completed HPV vaccination. Modifiable factors associated with vaccine outcomes were identified. HPV vaccination is a useful tool for cancer prevention in survivorship, and interventions to increase vaccine uptake are warranted.

  4. Pros, cons, and ethics of HPV vaccine in teens-Why such controversy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mark Donald

    2014-12-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection remains one of the most commonly sexually transmitted infections in both females and males. HPV viruses are associated with several manifestations including genital warts, but more importantly for urology practitioners, cervical and penile carcinomas and recurrent genital condylomata in both sexes. The incidence of HPV-related carcinomas has increased in cervical, oropharyngeal, vulvar, penile, and anal cancers. Effective vaccines have been available for almost a decade, but widespread adoption of vaccine administration has been problematic for multiple reasons. Many countries (over 100) have adopted vaccine programs for females and an increasing number of countries are extending the indications to include males between the ages of 9-26. There still seems to be controversy surrounding these universal vaccination programs as well as some ethical and practical concerns regarding the administration of a vaccine for diseases that are associated with sexual contact in both sexes, especially during the early adolescent years. The objective was to provide a review of the available literature so pediatric and adult urologists may be more aware of the issues related to HPV vaccination in order to more effectively counsel patients and parents regarding the risks, benefits, and public health issues regarding HPV vaccination. This topic is especially relevant to pediatric urologists who see patients in the target age group for the HPV vaccine. There has been an explosion of literature regarding HPV vaccination programs and the relative difficulty in adopting the vaccine series with a completion rate of under 50% of patients in the recommended age ranges for vaccination. Articles were obtained from an extensive Medline literature search (1998-present) to evaluate the current HPV vaccination regimens for teenagers with special emphasis on the urologically focused disease burden. The adoption of universal HPV vaccination has been difficult

  5. Pros, cons, and ethics of HPV vaccine in teens—Why such controversy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection remains one of the most commonly sexually transmitted infections in both females and males. HPV viruses are associated with several manifestations including genital warts, but more importantly for urology practitioners, cervical and penile carcinomas and recurrent genital condylomata in both sexes. The incidence of HPV-related carcinomas has increased in cervical, oropharyngeal, vulvar, penile, and anal cancers. Effective vaccines have been available for almost a decade, but widespread adoption of vaccine administration has been problematic for multiple reasons. Many countries (over 100) have adopted vaccine programs for females and an increasing number of countries are extending the indications to include males between the ages of 9-26. There still seems to be controversy surrounding these universal vaccination programs as well as some ethical and practical concerns regarding the administration of a vaccine for diseases that are associated with sexual contact in both sexes, especially during the early adolescent years. Objective The objective was to provide a review of the available literature so pediatric and adult urologists may be more aware of the issues related to HPV vaccination in order to more effectively counsel patients and parents regarding the risks, benefits, and public health issues regarding HPV vaccination. This topic is especially relevant to pediatric urologists who see patients in the target age group for the HPV vaccine. There has been an explosion of literature regarding HPV vaccination programs and the relative difficulty in adopting the vaccine series with a completion rate of under 50% of patients in the recommended age ranges for vaccination. Methods Articles were obtained from an extensive Medline literature search (1998-present) to evaluate the current HPV vaccination regimens for teenagers with special emphasis on the urologically focused disease burden. Results The adoption of universal

  6. Intervention effects from a social marketing campaign to promote HPV vaccination in preteen boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Joan R; Diehl, Sandra J; Crandell, Jamie L; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera

    2014-07-16

    Adoption of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in the US has been slow. In 2011, HPV vaccination of boys was recommended by CDC for routine use at ages 11-12. We conducted and evaluated a social marketing intervention with parents and providers to stimulate HPV vaccination among preteen boys. We targeted parents and providers of 9-13 year old boys in a 13 county NC region. The 3-month intervention included distribution of HPV vaccination posters and brochures to all county health departments plus 194 enrolled providers; two radio PSAs; and an online CME training. A Cox proportional hazards model was fit using NC immunization registry data to examine whether vaccination rates in 9-13 year old boys increased during the intervention period in targeted counties compared to control counties (n=15) with similar demographics. To compare with other adolescent vaccines, similar models were fit for HPV vaccination in girls and meningococcal and Tdap vaccination of boys in the same age range. Moderating effects of age, race, and Vaccines for Children (VFC) eligibility on the intervention were considered. The Cox model showed an intervention effect (β=0.29, HR=1.34, p=.0024), indicating that during the intervention the probability of vaccination increased by 34% in the intervention counties relative to the control counties. Comparisons with HPV vaccination in girls and Tdap and meningococcal vaccination in boys suggest a unique boost for HPV vaccination in boys during the intervention. Model covariates of age, race and VFC eligibility were all significantly associated with vaccination rates (pSocial marketing techniques can encourage parents and health care providers to vaccinate preteen boys against HPV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Explaining variation in the uptake of HPV vaccination in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whynes David K

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In England, two national programmes of HPV vaccination for girls have been instituted, a routine programme for 12- and 13-year-olds and a catch-up programme for 17- and 18-year-olds. Uptake rates across the country have been far from uniform, and this research sought to identify factors explaining the variation in uptake by locality. Methods An association between uptake, deprivation and ethnic background had been established in pilot research. The present analysis was conducted at an aggregate, Primary Care Trust (PCT, level for the first year of the programmes. Published measures of HPV vaccination uptake, material deprivation, ethnic composition of PCT populations, primary care quality, and uptake of cervical screening and of other childhood immunisations were collated. Strong evidence of collinearity amongst the explanatory variables required a factor analysis to be undertaken. This provided four independent factors, used thereafter in regression models to explain uptake by PCT. Results The factor analysis revealed that ethnic composition was associated with attitudes towards cervical screening and other childhood vaccinations, whilst material deprivation and quality of primary care were orthogonal. Ethnic composition, early childhood vaccination, cervical screening and primary care quality were found to be influential in predicting uptake in both the routine and the catch-up cohorts, although with a lower degree of confidence in the case of the last two independent variables. Lower primary care quality was significant in explaining a greater fall in vaccination uptake between the first two doses in the catch-up cohort. Greater deprivation was a significant explanatory factor for both uptake and the fall in uptake between doses for the catch-up cohort but not for uptake in the routine cohort. Conclusion These results for uptake of the first year of the national programme using aggregate data corroborate findings from

  8. Are the Currently Existing Anti‑Human Papillomavirus Vaccines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moreover, the subtypes of HPV involved in cervical pathology, their associations, and natural history (clearance and persistence rates) differ from the industrialized world. Therefore, the current bivalent and quadrivalent anti‑HPV vaccines are unlikely to achieve their target in the developing world. It follows from published ...

  9. Prevalence of HPV After Introduction of the Vaccination Program in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Lauri E; Liu, Gui; Hariri, Susan; Steinau, Martin; Dunne, Eileen F; Unger, Elizabeth R

    2016-03-01

    Since mid-2006, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has been recommended for females aged 11 to 12 years and through 26 years if not previously vaccinated. HPV DNA prevalence was analyzed in cervicovaginal specimens from females aged 14 to 34 years in NHANES in the prevaccine era (2003-2006) and 4 years of the vaccine era (2009-2012) according to age group. Prevalence of quadrivalent HPV vaccine (4vHPV) types (HPV-6, -11, -16, and -18) and other HPV type categories were compared between eras. Prevalence among sexually active females aged 14 to 24 years was also analyzed according to vaccination history. Between the prevacccine and vaccine eras, 4vHPV type prevalence declined from 11.5% to 4.3% (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR]: 0.36 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.21-0.61]) among females aged 14 to 19 years and from 18.5% to 12.1% (aPR: 0.66 [95% CI: 0.47-0.93]) among females aged 20 to 24 years. There was no decrease in 4vHPV type prevalence in older age groups. Within the vaccine era, among sexually active females aged 14 to 24 years, 4vHPV type prevalence was lower in vaccinated (≥1 dose) compared with unvaccinated females: 2.1% vs 16.9% (aPR: 0.11 [95% CI: 0.05-0.24]). There were no statistically significant changes in other HPV type categories that indicate cross-protection. Within 6 years of vaccine introduction, there was a 64% decrease in 4vHPV type prevalence among females aged 14 to 19 years and a 34% decrease among those aged 20 to 24 years. This finding extends previous observations of population impact in the United States and demonstrates the first national evidence of impact among females in their 20s. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. HPV awareness and vaccine acceptability in hispanic women living along the US-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molokwu, Jennifer; Fernandez, Norma P; Martin, Charmaine

    2014-06-01

    Despite advances in prevention of cervical cancer in the US, women of Hispanic origin still bear an unequal burden in cervical cancer incidence, morbidity and mortality. Our objective was to determine the HPV vaccine knowledge and acceptability in a group of mostly Hispanic females. In this cross sectional survey, 62 % of participants heard of HPV; 34.9 % identified HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. 63 % of participants reported willingness to receive vaccine and 77 % were willing to vaccinate daughters. Those with previous abnormal PAPs were more likely to have heard of HPV and Vaccine. No other factors examined showed association with willingness to get vaccine or administer to daughters. Knowledge level remains low in this high risk population. Willingness to receive vaccine is high despite lack of access to care. Increased targeted community based education and vaccination programs may be useful in closing disparity in cervical cancer morbidity.

  11. Attitudes, Knowledge and Factors Associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Uptake in Adolescent Girls and Young Women in Victoria, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Tung, Iris L. Y.; Machalek, Dorothy A.; Garland, Suzanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination targets high-risk HPV16/18 that cause 70% of all cancers of the cervix. In Australia there is a fully-funded, school-based National HPV Vaccination Program which has achieved vaccine initiation rate of 82% among age-eligible females. Improving HPV vaccination rates is important in the prevention of morbidity and mortality associated with HPV-related disease. This study aimed to identify factors and barriers associated with uptake of the HPV va...

  12. Knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among Puerto Rican mothers and daughters, 2010: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María E; Le, Yen-Chi L; Fernández-Espada, Natalie; Calo, William A; Savas, Lara S; Vélez, Camille; Aragon, Angela Pattatucci; Colón-López, Vivian

    2014-12-04

    The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer can be reduced by increasing vaccination for HPV. Yet vaccination uptake and completion of the 3-dose series remain low among Puerto Rican females. This study explored psychosocial factors associated with HPV vaccination uptake decisions among Puerto Rican mothers and daughters. We conducted 7 focus groups with young women aged 16 to 24 (n = 21) and their mothers (n = 9) to assess knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs related to cervical cancer, HPV, and HPV vaccination. We analyzed the focus group transcripts and identified themes by using a constant comparison method of qualitative data analysis and interpretation, guided by a grounded theory approach. The analysis identified several emergent themes related to vaccine uptake: 1) low knowledge about cervical cancer, HPV, and the HPV vaccine; 2) inconsistent beliefs about susceptibility to HPV infection and cervical cancer; 3) vaccine effectiveness; 4) vaccine safety and side effects; 5) concerns that the vaccine promotes sexual disinhibition; and 6) availability of insurance coverage and overall cost of the vaccine. Our study found that adolescent girls and young women in Puerto Rico have low levels of knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer, low perceived susceptibility to HPV, and concerns about the safety and efficacy of the vaccine, and these factors may influence uptake and completion of HPV vaccination. Interventions are needed for both mothers and daughters that address these psychosocial factors and increase access to vaccination.

  13. A Multiple Streams analysis of the decisions to fund gender-neutral HPV vaccination in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Gilla K; Guichon, Juliet; Prue, Gillian; Perez, Samara; Rosberger, Zeev

    2017-07-01

    In Canada, the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is licensed and recommended for females and males. Although all Canadian jurisdictions fund school-based HPV vaccine programs for girls, only six jurisdictions fund school-based HPV vaccination for boys. The research aimed to analyze the factors that underpin government decisions to fund HPV vaccine for boys using a theoretical policy model, Kingdon's Multiple Streams framework. This approach assesses policy development by examining three concurrent, but independent, streams that guide analysis: Problem Stream, Policy Stream, and Politics Stream. Analysis from the Problem Stream highlights that males are affected by HPV-related diseases and are involved in transmitting HPV infection to their sexual partners. Policy Stream analysis makes clear that while the inclusion of males in HPV vaccine programs is suitable, equitable, and acceptable; there is debate regarding cost-effectiveness. Politics Stream analysis identifies the perspectives of six different stakeholder groups and highlights the contribution of government officials at the provincial and territorial level. Kingdon's Multiple Streams framework helps clarify the opportunities and barriers for HPV vaccine policy change. This analysis identified that the interpretation of cost-effectiveness models and advocacy of stakeholders such as citizen-advocates and HPV-affected politicians have been particularly important in galvanizing policy change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Acceptance of the HPV vaccine among women, parents, community leaders, and healthcare providers in Ohio Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Mira L; Reiter, Paul L; Heaner, Sarah; Ruffin, Mack T; Post, Douglas M; Paskett, Electra D

    2009-06-19

    To assess HPV vaccine acceptability, focus groups of women (18-26 years), parents, community leaders, and healthcare providers were conducted throughout Ohio Appalachia. Themes that emerged among the 23 focus groups (n=114) about the HPV vaccine were: barriers (general health and vaccine specific), lack of knowledge (cervical cancer and HPV), cultural attitudes, and suggestions for educational materials and programs. Important Appalachian attitudes included strong family ties, privacy, conservative views, and lack of trust of outsiders to the region. There are differences in HPV vaccine acceptability among different types of community members highlighting the need for a range of HPV vaccine educational materials/programs to be developed that are inclusive of the Appalachian culture.

  15. To Consent or Decline HPV Vaccination: A Pilot Study at the Start of the National School-Based Vaccination Program in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandahl, Maria; Tydén, Tanja; Westerling, Ragnar; Nevéus, Tryggve; Rosenblad, Andreas; Hedin, Erik; Oscarsson, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Parents' beliefs about human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination influence whether they allow their daughters to be vaccinated. We examined the association between parents' refusal and sociodemographic background, knowledge and beliefs about HPV, and the HPV vaccination in relation to the Health Belief Model. Methods: The sample consisted…

  16. Clinical and economic impact of school-based nonavalent human papillomavirus vaccine on women in Singapore: a transmission dynamic mathematical model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, S K; Hsu, T-Y; Pavelyev, A; Walia, A; Kulkarni, A S

    2018-03-01

    To examine the epidemiological and economic impact of a nine-valent (nonavalent) human papillomavirus (HPV) 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 vaccine programme for young teenagers in Singapore. Mathematical modelling. Pharmaco-economic simulation projection. Singapore demography. Clinical, epidemiological and financial data from Singapore were used in a validated HPV transmission dynamic mathematical model to analyse the impact of nonavalent HPV vaccination over quadrivalent and bivalent vaccines in a school-based 2-dose vaccination for 11- to 12-year-old girls in the country. The model assumed routine cytology screening in the current rate (50%) and vaccine coverage rate of 80%. Changes over a 100-year time period in the incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer, case load of genital warts, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Compared with bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccination programmes, nonavalent HPV universal vaccination resulted in an additional reduction of HPV31/33/45/52/58 related CIN1 of 40.5%, CIN 2/3 of 35.4%, cervical cancer of 23.5%, and cervical cancer mortality of 20.2%. Compared with bivalent HPV vaccination, there was an additional reduction in HPV-6/11 related CIN1 of 75.7%, and genital warts of 78.9% in women and 73.4% in men. Over the 100 years, after applying a discount of 3%, disease management cost will be reduced by 32.5% (versus bivalent) and 7.5% (versus quadrivalent). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) per quality-adjusted life-year gained was SGD 929 compared with bivalent vaccination and SGD 9864 compared with quadrivalent vaccination. Universal two-dose nonavalent HPV vaccination for 11- to 12-year-old adolescent women is very cost-effective in Singapore. Nonavalent HPV vaccination of 11- to 12-year-old girls is cost-effective in Singapore. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  17. Evaluating the Early Benefit of Quadrivalent HPV Vaccine on Genital Warts in Belgium: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominiak-Felden, Geraldine; Gobbo, Corrado; Simondon, François

    2015-01-01

    Genital warts (GWs) are common, with about 5% to 10% of people having at least one episode in their lifetime. They develop about 2-3 months after infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes 6 and 11. The prophylactic quadrivalent HPV vaccine (qHPV), protects against HPV6/11 infections and diseases. In Belgium, HPV vaccines started to be reimbursed in 2007 and have been fully reimbursed since December 2008 for women 12 to 18 years old. This study aimed at evaluating the real-life benefit of qHPV vaccine introduction in Belgium on GWs by measuring both vaccine impact (VI) at a population level and the direct effect of the qHPV vaccine at an individual level (vaccine effectiveness (VE)), using data from a large sick-fund (MLOZ) reimbursement database. A first reimbursement for imiquimod (most common first-line GWs treatment in Belgium) was used as a surrogate for a first GWs episode; reimbursement of qHPV vaccine was used as surrogate for vaccination. VI was estimated by comparing the incidence of GWs before and after qHPV vaccine introduction in Belgium (ecologic evaluation). VE was assessed by comparing GWs incidences in vaccinated vs. unvaccinated women, among women eligible for HPV vaccination. VI was evaluated in 9,223,384 person-years. Overall, GWs incidence rates decreased significantly between the pre- and post-vaccination periods (-8.1% (95% CI: -15.3; -0.3) for men and women aged 18-59 years. This decrease was highest in women targeted by the HPV vaccination programme (-72.1% (95% CI: -77.9; -64.7) in women aged 16-22 years, with a 43% vaccine uptake in 2013). A significant decrease was also observed in men aged 16-22 years (-51.1%, 95%CI: -67.6; -26.2), suggesting herd-protection. VE was evaluated in 369,881 person-years. Age-adjusted VE for fully vaccinated women was 88.0% (95% CI: 79.4; 93.0). VE was higher when the first dose was given younger and remained high for over 4 years post-vaccination in all ages. High VI and VE of the qHPV vaccine were

  18. Evaluating the Early Benefit of Quadrivalent HPV Vaccine on Genital Warts in Belgium: A Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Dominiak-Felden

    Full Text Available Genital warts (GWs are common, with about 5% to 10% of people having at least one episode in their lifetime. They develop about 2-3 months after infection with human papillomavirus (HPV genotypes 6 and 11. The prophylactic quadrivalent HPV vaccine (qHPV, protects against HPV6/11 infections and diseases. In Belgium, HPV vaccines started to be reimbursed in 2007 and have been fully reimbursed since December 2008 for women 12 to 18 years old. This study aimed at evaluating the real-life benefit of qHPV vaccine introduction in Belgium on GWs by measuring both vaccine impact (VI at a population level and the direct effect of the qHPV vaccine at an individual level (vaccine effectiveness (VE, using data from a large sick-fund (MLOZ reimbursement database. A first reimbursement for imiquimod (most common first-line GWs treatment in Belgium was used as a surrogate for a first GWs episode; reimbursement of qHPV vaccine was used as surrogate for vaccination. VI was estimated by comparing the incidence of GWs before and after qHPV vaccine introduction in Belgium (ecologic evaluation. VE was assessed by comparing GWs incidences in vaccinated vs. unvaccinated women, among women eligible for HPV vaccination. VI was evaluated in 9,223,384 person-years. Overall, GWs incidence rates decreased significantly between the pre- and post-vaccination periods (-8.1% (95% CI: -15.3; -0.3 for men and women aged 18-59 years. This decrease was highest in women targeted by the HPV vaccination programme (-72.1% (95% CI: -77.9; -64.7 in women aged 16-22 years, with a 43% vaccine uptake in 2013. A significant decrease was also observed in men aged 16-22 years (-51.1%, 95%CI: -67.6; -26.2, suggesting herd-protection. VE was evaluated in 369,881 person-years. Age-adjusted VE for fully vaccinated women was 88.0% (95% CI: 79.4; 93.0. VE was higher when the first dose was given younger and remained high for over 4 years post-vaccination in all ages. High VI and VE of the qHPV

  19. Dispelling the myth: Exploring associations between the HPV vaccine and inconsistent condom use among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Otero, Coralia; Thompson, Erika L; Daley, Ellen M; Griner, Stacey B; Logan, Rachel; Vamos, Cheryl A

    2016-12-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is safe and effective in preventing anogenital cancers and warts. However, myths have surrounded the HPV vaccine since its approval, including the possibility that HPV vaccinated young people are more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between HPV vaccination and engaging in inconsistent condom use in a sample of U.S. college students. A secondary data analysis of the National College Health Assessment-II (Fall 2013) was conducted in 2015. Risky sexual activity was operationalized as inconsistent condom use for oral, vaginal or anal sexual activity. Logistic regression models were stratified by sexual activity and gender, and controlled for socio-demographics and history of STIs. Inconsistent condom use was reported among females for vaginal (47%), oral (94%), and anal sex (75%); while males reported levels of inconsistency for vaginal (38%), oral (94%), and anal sex (58%). Sixty-nine percent of females reported receiving the HPV vaccine compared to 43% of males. Among females, there was no significant association between HPV vaccination and inconsistent condom use in any of the sexual activities. Among males, there was no significant association between HPV vaccination and inconsistent condom use in oral or vaginal sex. HPV-vaccinated males were less likely to report inconsistent condom use during anal sexual activity. This study contributes to the increasing evidence that HPV vaccination is not associated with risky sexual behavior. Dispelling this myth is important to facilitate uptake and completion of the HPV vaccine in the U.S. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Facebook for Health Promotion: Female College Students' Perspectives on Sharing HPV Vaccine Information Through Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ni; Tsark, JoAnn; Campo, Shelly; Teti, Michelle

    2015-04-01

    Facebook, a social network site, has been widely used among young adults. However, its potential to be used as a health promotion medium has not been fully examined. This study explored Facebook's potential for sharing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine information among female college students in Hawai'i. Culturally tailored flyers and handouts were developed and distributed at one large university in Hawai'i to recruit female college students between the age of 18 and 26 having an active Facebook account. Three focus group meetings were conducted to gather student perspectives about how information about HPV vaccine may be best shared via Facebook. We found that students believed Facebook is a good awareness tool but they needed more knowledge about the HPV vaccine to feel comfortable sharing the information. Participants preferred forwarding information to chatting about HPV. Some participants expressed concern that their Facebook friends would think the HPV vaccine information they forwarded on Facebook is spam. Participants suggested prefacing the posted HPV vaccine information with a personal note in their own words to make the message more interesting and relevant to their Facebook friends. Future interventions using Facebook to promote HPV vaccine could provide students with HPV vaccine information from credible sources and ask students to attach personal testimonials or endorsements while forwarding the information on Facebook.

  1. What Drives Health Professionals to Tweet About the HPV Vaccine?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-02-20

    This podcast features Philip Massey, PhD, MPH, an assistant professor at Drexel University and one of the authors of a recent study that looks at what motivates health professionals to tweet about the HPV vaccine. Philip answers questions about his research and what impact social media can have on public health and health care communication.  Created: 2/20/2018 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/20/2018.

  2. Human rights in health equity: cervical cancer and HPV vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, Joanna N

    2009-01-01

    This article seeks to demonstrate that health equity, as an empirical and normative concept, is reflected in the human rights to health and equality under international law. The obligations on government that flow from health equity as a human right are then examined. These include the obligation to act in pursuit of health equity as a policy objective, and the obligation to enact measures to ensure health equity as a policy outcome. These obligations are considered in relation to a promising remedial measure for social disparities in cervical cancer: HPV vaccines.

  3. Progress in prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in 2016: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maver, Polona J; Poljak, Mario

    2017-08-08

    Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine represents a revolutionary step forward in preventing HPV-related cancers, especially cervical carcinoma. Alongside appropriate screening, it has the potential to dramatically reduce cervical cancer incidence and even eradicate it. Following extensive evaluations in clinical trials, the first decade of routine HPV vaccine use provides overwhelming evidence of the vaccines' safety and their real-life effectiveness. In 2016, further clinical trials showed high vaccine efficacy in adult women, especially those that were HPV DNA-negative at baseline, and indicated possible protection from HPV-related diseases after treatment of precancerous cervical lesions. The recommendation for a two-dose schedule in individuals under 15 is further supported for all three licensed vaccines by immunogenicity studies that show non-inferior immune responses and similar clinical efficacy compared to the three-dose schedule. So far, natural competition between HPV types has not been confirmed and therefore vaccine-induced clinically significant type replacement is unlikely. The real-world effectiveness data showed cross-sectional reduction in the prevalence/incidence of vaccine-related HPV types, genital warts and precancerous cervical lesions in countries and regions with HPV vaccination coverage. These declines were evident not only in vaccinated females, but also in unvaccinated females and males, strongly suggesting herd protection. Despite an excellent safety profile consistently demonstrated in clinical trials and confirmed in real-life settings, recently invented controversial syndromes allegedly linked to HPV vaccines temporarily compromised some previously very successful vaccination programs and significantly contributed to the failure of HPV vaccine implementation in some countries with the highest prevalence of cervical cancer. However, several safety studies failed to confirm any association of these syndromes with HPV

  4. Chimeric L2-Based Virus-Like Particle (VLP) Vaccines Targeting Cutaneous Human Papillomaviruses (HPV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Bettina; Schellenbacher, Christina; Shafti-Keramat, Saeed; Jindra, Christoph; Christensen, Neil

    2017-01-01

    Common cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) types induce skin warts, whereas species beta HPV are implicated, together with UV-radiation, in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in immunosuppressed patients. Licensed HPV vaccines contain virus-like particles (VLP) self-assembled from L1 major capsid proteins that provide type-restricted protection against mucosal HPV infections causing cervical and other ano-genital and oro-pharyngeal carcinomas and warts (condylomas), but do not target heterologous HPV. Experimental papillomavirus vaccines have been designed based on L2 minor capsid proteins that contain type-common neutralization epitopes, to broaden protection to heterologous mucosal and cutaneous HPV types. Repetitive display of the HPV16 L2 cross-neutralization epitope RG1 (amino acids (aa) 17–36) on the surface of HPV16 L1 VLP has greatly enhanced immunogenicity of the L2 peptide. To more directly target cutaneous HPV, L1 fusion proteins were designed that incorporate the RG1 homolog of beta HPV17, the beta HPV5 L2 peptide aa53-72, or the common cutaneous HPV4 RG1 homolog, inserted into DE surface loops of HPV1, 5, 16 or 18 L1 VLP scaffolds. Baculovirus expressed chimeric proteins self-assembled into VLP and VLP-raised NZW rabbit immune sera were evaluated by ELISA and L1- and L2-based pseudovirion (PsV) neutralizing assays, including 12 novel beta PsV types. Chimeric VLP displaying the HPV17 RG1 epitope, but not the HPV5L2 aa53-72 epitope, induced cross-neutralizing humoral immune responses to beta HPV. In vivo cross-protection was evaluated by passive serum transfer in a murine PsV challenge model. Immune sera to HPV16L1-17RG1 VLP (cross-) protected against beta HPV5/20/24/38/96/16 (but not type 76), while antisera to HPV5L1-17RG1 VLP cross-protected against HPV20/24/96 only, and sera to HPV1L1-4RG1 VLP cross-protected against HPV4 challenge. In conclusion, RG1-based VLP are promising next generation vaccine candidates to target cutaneous

  5. Chimeric L2-Based Virus-Like Particle (VLP Vaccines Targeting Cutaneous Human Papillomaviruses (HPV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Huber

    Full Text Available Common cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV types induce skin warts, whereas species beta HPV are implicated, together with UV-radiation, in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC in immunosuppressed patients. Licensed HPV vaccines contain virus-like particles (VLP self-assembled from L1 major capsid proteins that provide type-restricted protection against mucosal HPV infections causing cervical and other ano-genital and oro-pharyngeal carcinomas and warts (condylomas, but do not target heterologous HPV. Experimental papillomavirus vaccines have been designed based on L2 minor capsid proteins that contain type-common neutralization epitopes, to broaden protection to heterologous mucosal and cutaneous HPV types. Repetitive display of the HPV16 L2 cross-neutralization epitope RG1 (amino acids (aa 17-36 on the surface of HPV16 L1 VLP has greatly enhanced immunogenicity of the L2 peptide. To more directly target cutaneous HPV, L1 fusion proteins were designed that incorporate the RG1 homolog of beta HPV17, the beta HPV5 L2 peptide aa53-72, or the common cutaneous HPV4 RG1 homolog, inserted into DE surface loops of HPV1, 5, 16 or 18 L1 VLP scaffolds. Baculovirus expressed chimeric proteins self-assembled into VLP and VLP-raised NZW rabbit immune sera were evaluated by ELISA and L1- and L2-based pseudovirion (PsV neutralizing assays, including 12 novel beta PsV types. Chimeric VLP displaying the HPV17 RG1 epitope, but not the HPV5L2 aa53-72 epitope, induced cross-neutralizing humoral immune responses to beta HPV. In vivo cross-protection was evaluated by passive serum transfer in a murine PsV challenge model. Immune sera to HPV16L1-17RG1 VLP (cross- protected against beta HPV5/20/24/38/96/16 (but not type 76, while antisera to HPV5L1-17RG1 VLP cross-protected against HPV20/24/96 only, and sera to HPV1L1-4RG1 VLP cross-protected against HPV4 challenge. In conclusion, RG1-based VLP are promising next generation vaccine candidates to target

  6. Ten years of anti-HPV vaccinations: what do we know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Jach

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is one of the most important carcinogens in humans. Vaccines against HPV are now considered the first anti-cancer vaccinations. Since 2007, in many developed countries, there have been recommendations present for preventive vaccines against HPV. At present, the degree of implementation of these recommendations depends on a number of country-specific factors such as the health care system organization or the ways of funding. HPV vaccines are primarily to prevent the development of cervical cancer and other genital cancers. Therefore, only their long-term effectiveness can be measured, when a correspondingly large cohort of vaccinated teenagers reaches the age of the greatest incidence of these cancers. However, great care should be taken in assessing the results of vaccinations due to the possibility of misinterpretation and possible erroneous data. Undoubtedly, teenagers are the target population of HPV vaccines. However, vaccinating young sexually active women is also justified from an individual point of view. A 9-valent vaccine has been registered in the USA and in Europe – including Poland – as one of the three preventive vaccines. It is recommended to vaccinate women between 13 and 26 and men between 13 and 21, previously unvaccinated. It is also recommended to vaccinate men aged 26 years or less who have sexual relations with other men and people with reduced immunity, including HIV-positive people who have not been vaccinated previously.

  7. Vaccine against human Papilloma Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Cesar Reina; Nubia Muñoz

    2014-01-01

    At present two prophylactic human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccines are commercially available. The Tetravalent vaccine against infection with four VPH types (6, 11, 16, and 18) distributed in the national program in Colombia and the Bivalent vaccine against the VPH types 16 and 18, respectively.  The efficacy and safety of both vaccines has periodically been assessed and they have been declared efficacious and safe by the health authorities of several countries and the Global Advisory Committee...

  8. A Bivalent Heterologous DNA Virus-Like-Particle Prime-Boost Vaccine Elicits Broad Protection against both Group 1 and 2 Influenza A Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenbo; Wang, Shuangshuang; Chen, Honglin; Ren, Huanhuan; Huang, Xun; Wang, Guiqin; Chen, Ze; Chen, Ling; Chen, Zhiwei; Zhou, Paul

    2017-05-01

    Current seasonal influenza vaccines are efficacious when vaccine strains are matched with circulating strains. However, they do not protect antigenic variants and newly emerging pandemic and outbreak strains. Thus, there is a critical need for developing so-called "universal" vaccines that protect against all influenza viruses. In the present study, we developed a bivalent heterologous DNA virus-like particle prime-boost vaccine strategy. We show that mice immunized with this vaccine were broadly protected against lethal challenge from group 1 (H1, H5, and H9) and group 2 (H3 and H7) viruses, with 94% aggregate survival. To determine the immune correlates of protection, we performed passive immunizations and in vitro assays. We show that this vaccine elicited antibody responses that bound HA from group 1 (H1, H2, H5, H6, H8, H9, H11, and H12) and group 2 (H3, H4, H7, H10, H14, and H15) and neutralized homologous and intrasubtypic H5 and H7 and heterosubtypic H1 viruses and hemagglutinin-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell responses. As a result, passive immunization with immune sera fully protected mice against H5, H7, and H1 challenge, whereas with both immune sera and T cells the mice survived heterosubtypic H3 and H9 challenge. Thus, it appears that (i) neutralizing antibodies alone fully protect against homologous and intrasubtypic H5 and H7 and (ii) neutralizing and binding antibodies are sufficient to protect against heterosubtypic H1, (iii) but against heterosubtypic H3 and H9, binding antibodies and T cells are required for complete survival. We believe that this vaccine regimen could potentially be a candidate for a "universal" influenza vaccine. IMPORTANCE Influenza virus infection is global health problem. Current seasonal influenza vaccines are efficacious only when vaccine strains are matched with circulating strains. However, these vaccines do not protect antigenic variants and newly emerging pandemic and outbreak strains. Because of this, there is an urgent

  9. Attitudes to HPV vaccination among mothers in the British Jewish community: reasons for accepting or declining the vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Daniel; Waller, Jo; Marlow, Laura A V

    2011-10-06

    This study aimed to explore attitudes to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and reasons for accepting or declining the vaccine in the British Jewish community. A qualitative approach was used to explore maternal attitudes towards HPV vaccination. Participants were mothers of girls who had been offered HPV vaccination and were purposively sampled through Jewish secondary schools. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with vaccine-accepting (n=10) and vaccine-declining (n=10) mothers. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using a framework approach. HPV and cervical cancer knowledge varied, with poor knowledge attributed to lack of contact with the disease. Although mothers thought HPV vaccination was a good idea in general, many did not perceive it as necessary for their daughter, citing Jewish religious laws governing family purity and abstinence until marriage as reasons for daughter's low susceptibility. These beliefs combined with concerns about the novelty of the vaccination were the main reasons given for declining the vaccine. Mothers who accepted the vaccine generally did so to protect their daughters health and because they felt unable to predict their daughters future behaviour and HPV susceptibility. Many mothers expressed a wish to wait until their daughter was older and the vaccine was more established before consenting. Among some mothers there was disappointment in the information they had received and a feeling that the concerns and questions of the Jewish community had not been addressed. Attitudes to HPV vaccine in religious communities may lead to reduced vaccine coverage. The development of community-specific information about the importance of the vaccine may help address concerns. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Association of both consistency and strength of self-reported clinician recommendation for HPV vaccination and HPV vaccine uptake among 11- to 12-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney Rutten, Lila J; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Beebe, Timothy J; Wilson, Patrick M; Jacobson, Debra J; Fan, Chun; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Vadaparampil, Susan T; MacLaughlin, Kathy L; Jacobson, Robert M

    2017-10-27

    We tested the hypotheses that consistency and strength