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Sample records for hplc-fluorescence detection method

  1. [Development of Determination Method of Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics in Sludge Based on Solid Phase Extraction and HPLC-Fluorescence Detection Analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiao-hu; Xue, Yong-gang; Liu, Hua-jie; Dai, Ling-ling; Yan, Han; Li, Ning

    2016-04-15

    Fluoroquinolone antibiotics (FQs), as the common pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), are widespread in the environment. FQs contained in wastewater would be ultimately enriched in sludge, posing a potential threat to the consequent sludge utilization. To optimize the analytical method applicable to the determination of FQs in sludge, the authors selected ofloxacin (OFL), norfioxacin (NOR), ciprofloxacin (CIP) and lomefloxacin (LOM) as the target FQs, and established a method which was based on cell lysis, FQs extraction with triethylamine/methanol/water solution, Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) and HPLC-Fluorescence Detection (FLD) determination. After the investigation, phosphoric acid-triethylamine was decided to be the buffer salt, and methanol was chosen as the organic mobile phase. The gradient fluorescence scanning strategy was proved to be necessary for the optimal detection as well. Furthermore, by the designed orthogonal experiments, the effects of the extraction materials, pH, and the eluents on the efficiency of SPE extraction were evaluated, by which the optimal extraction conditions were determined. As a result, FQs in liquid samples could be analyzed by utilizing HLB extraction cartridge, and the recovery rates of the four FQs were in the range of 82%-103%. As for solid samples, the recovery rates of the four FQs contained reached up to 71%-101%. Finally, the adsorptivity of the sludge from the different tanks ( anaerobic, anoxic and oxic tanks) was investigated, showing gradual decrease in the adsorption capacity, but all adsorbed over 90% of the EQs. This conclusion also confirmed that 50% removal of FQs in the domestic wastewater treatment plant was realized by sludge adsorption.

  2. A simple HPLC-fluorescence method for the measurement of R,S-sotalol in the plasma of patients with life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias

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    S.R. Santos

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available R,S-sotalol, a ß-blocker drug with class III antiarrhythmic properties, is prescribed to patients with ventricular, atrial and supraventricular arrhythmias. A simple and sensitive method based on HPLC-fluorescence is described for the quantification of R,S-sotalol racemate in 500 µl of plasma. R,S-sotalol and its internal standard (atenolol were eluted after 5.9 and 8.5 min, respectively, from a 4-micron C18 reverse-phase column using a mobile phase consisting of 80 mM KH2PO4, pH 4.6, and acetonitrile (95:5, v/v at a flow rate of 0.5 ml/min with detection at lex = 235 nm and lem = 310 nm, respectively. This method, validated on the basis of R,S-sotalol measurements in spiked blank plasma, presented 20 ng/ml sensitivity, 20-10,000 ng/ml linearity, and 2.9 and 4.8% intra- and interassay precision, respectively. Plasma sotalol concentrations were determined by applying this method to investigate five high-risk patients with atrial fibrillation admitted to the Emergency Service of the Medical School Hospital, who received sotalol, 160 mg po, as loading dose. Blood samples were collected from a peripheral vein at zero, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 12.0 and 24.0 h after drug administration. A two-compartment open model was applied. Data obtained, expressed as mean, were: CMAX = 1230 ng/ml, TMAX = 1.8 h, AUCT = 10645 ng h-1 ml-1, Kab = 1.23 h-1, a = 0.95 h-1, ß = 0.09 h-1, t(1/2ß = 7.8 h, ClT/F = 3.94 ml min-1 kg-1, and Vd/F = 2.53 l/kg. A good systemic availability and a fast absorption were obtained. Drug distribution was reduced to the same extent in terms of total body clearance when patients and healthy volunteers were compared, and consequently elimination half-life remained unchanged. Thus, the method described in the present study is useful for therapeutic drug monitoring purposes, pharmacokinetic investigation and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic sotalol studies in patients with tachyarrhythmias.

  3. A Rapid and Sensitive HPLC-Fluorescence Method for Determination of Mirtazapine and Its two Major Metabolites in Human Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavasani, Hoda; Giorgi, Mario; Sheikholeslami, Behjat; Hedayati, Mohammadhasan; Rouini, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive HPLC method has been developed for the quantification of mirtazapine (MRZ), a noradrenergic and specific serotonergic inhibitor antidepressant (NaSSA) and its two major metabolites N-desmethyl mirtazapine (NDM) and 8-hydroxymirtazapine (8-OHM) in human plasma. The separation was achieved using Chromolith C18 column and a mobile phase of acetonitrile: phosphate buffer (pH = 3, 20:80, v/v) in isocratic mode at a flow rate of 2 mL/min. A fluorescence detector was set at 290 and 350 nm for excitation and emission, respectively. Zolpidem was used as the internal standard. Liquid-liquid extraction was applied for sample clean up. All analytes were eluted in less than 5 minutes with LOQ of 1 ng/mL for MRZ and 2 ng/mL for both NDM and 8-OHM. The developed method was successfully applied to quantify MRZ and its metabolites in plasma of a healthy volunteer.

  4. Response surface optimization of microwave-assisted extraction for HPLC-fluorescence determination of puerarin and daidzein in Radix Puerariae thomsonii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Kun Liu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Microwave-assisted extraction was optimized with response surface methodology for HPLC-fluorescence determination of puerarin and daidzein in Radix Puerariae thomsonii. The optimized extraction procedure was achieved by soaking the sample with 70% methanol (1:15, v/v for 30 min, and then microwave irradiation for 11 min at a power of 600 W. Coupling the extraction process with HPLC-fluorescence presented good recovery, satisfactory precision, and good linear relation. Compared with a method from the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, the proposed method enables higher extraction efficiency and more aecurate analytical results. It can be of Potential value in quality assessment of Radix Puerariae thomsonii medicinal materials. Keywords: microwave-assisted extraction (MAE, response surface methodology (RSM, puerarin, daidzein, HPLC-fluorescence detection, Radix Puerariae thomsonii

  5. Separation and determination of citrinin in corn using HPLC fluorescence detection assisted by molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction clean-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    A liquid chromatography based method to detect citrinin in corn was developed using molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) sample clean-up. Molecularly imprinted polymers were synthesized using 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid as the template and an amine functional monomer. Density func...

  6. Zirconium (IV)-based metal organic framework (UIO-67) as efficient sorbent in dispersive solid phase extraction of plant growth regulator from fruits coupled with HPLC fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lijie; Xia, Lian; Wu, Chuanxiang; Qu, Fengli; Li, Guoliang; Sun, Zhiwei; You, Jinmao

    2016-07-01

    A stable zirconium (Ⅳ)-based metal organic frameworks (UIO-67) material possessing good chemical, thermal and water stability was synthesized and applied as a sorbent for the dispersive solid phase extraction (DSPE) of 8 plant growth regulators (PGRs) in fruit samples. Fluorescence labeling combined with high performance liquid chromatography fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD), was used to quantify the target analytes. Characterization of the UIO-67 material was performed by X-ray diffraction(XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental parameters, such as amount of UIO-67, type and volume of eluting solvent, adsorption and desorption time, were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, good linearity was observed in the range of 10-1000 pmol/mL with R(2)>0.9989. The limits of detection and limits of quantification were in the range of 0.21-0.57ng/mL and 0.81-1.91ng/mL, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precisions (based on the relative standard deviation, n=3) of the PGR derivatives were under 3.1% and 5.3% respectively and the accuracies of the method for the PGRs were in the range from 89.3% to 102.3%. The developed method was successfully applied to analyze PGRs residues in fruit samples. The proposed method is proved to be simple, environment-friendly and inexpensive and it is feasible to directly use UIO-67 as sorbent to extract targets by varying conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Determination of Capsaicin and Dihydrocapsaicin in Some Chilli Varieties using Accelerated Solvent Extraction Associated with Solid-Phase Extraction Methods and RP-HPLC-Fluorescence

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    Saksit Chanthai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reversed phase-HPLC with fluorescence detection of two major capsaicinoids was described. Isocratic elution using a ratio of methanol and deionized water (66:34, v/v as mobile phase was used at a flow rate of 0.9 mL/min with well achieved separation within 6 min. Under optimum conditions, their analytical figures of merit for the HPLC method were validated. The linearity was in the range of 1.0-25.0 μg/mL with multiple determination coefficients of higher than 0.995. The limit of detection was ranged of 0.008-0.01 μg/mL. The repeatability and reproducibility of the retention time and peak area for these compounds were in good precision with their relative standard deviations (RSDs lower than 1% and 5%, respectively. Both capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were extracted using an accelerated solvent extraction (ASE of methanol as an extraction solvent for 5 min static time with 3 cycles. The methanolic extracts were subjected to clean up with C18 solid-phase extraction (SPE with its recoveries ranking of 90.2-98.0%. The method recoveries of real samples were found to be 60.7-98.6%. The optimized extraction method were applied for the determination of the two capsaicinoids in ten vareities of hot chilli pepper samples. Total contents of capsaicinoids were found in the range of 2,307.0-9047.3 μg/g DW with their corresponding Scoville heat unit (SHU of 34,600-135,700. Additionally, the contents of capsaicinoids using external calibration method comparing with those of standard addition were not significantly different, indicating accuracy of the method. Mostly, the contents of capsaicin found in these real samples were rather higher than those of dihydrocapsaicin.

  8. Development and validation of a method for the determination of low-ppb levels of macrocyclic lactones in butter, using HPLC-fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Fabio; Marsico, Eliane Teixeira; Conte-Júnior, Carlos Adam; de Resende, Michele Fabri; Brasil, Taila Figueiredo; Pereira Netto, Annibal Duarte

    2015-07-15

    An analytical method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of four macrocyclic lactones (ML) (abamectin, doramectin, ivermectin and moxidectin) in butter, using liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The method employed heated liquid-liquid extraction and a mixture of acetonitrile, ethyl acetate and water, with preconcentration and derivatization, to produce stable fluorescent derivatives. The chromatographic run time was butter samples. The figures of merit obtained, e.g. recovery (72.4-106.5%), repeatability (8.8%), within-laboratory reproducibility (15.7%) and limits of quantification (0.09-0.16 μg kg(-1)) were satisfactory for the desired application. The application of the method to real samples showed that ML residues were present in six of the ten samples evaluated. The method proved to be simple, easy and appropriate for simultaneous determination of ML residues in butter. To our knowledge, this is the first method described for the evaluation of ML in butter. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Development of an HPLC fluorescence method for determination of boldine in plasma, bile and urine of rats and identification of its major metabolites by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hroch, Miloš; Mičuda, Stanislav; Cermanová, Jolana; Chládek, Jaroslav; Tomšík, Pavel

    2013-10-01

    Boldine belongs to the group of aporphine alkaloids isolated from Boldo tree. In contrast with numerous reports on the pharmacological effects of boldine, the data about its pharmacokinetics and biotransformation are scarce. No validated bioanalytical method of sufficient sensitivity has so far been described in the literature which could be used for quantification of boldine in various body fluids collected in pharmacokinetic studies. This work presents, for the first time, the assay for boldine in the plasma, bile and urine of rats. It includes liquid-liquid extraction/back-extraction of boldine, its chromatographic separation and sensitive fluorescence detection. Separation was carried out on a pentafluorophenyl core-shell column (Kinetex PFP, 150×3mm, 2.6μm) in gradient elution mode with solvent system consisting of an acetonitrile-ammonium formate buffer (5mM, pH=3.8). Fluorimetric detection (λEX=320nm, λEM=370nm) was used for quantitative work. Validation according to the EMEA guideline proved the assay LLOQ (0.1μmolL(-1)), linearity over a broad range of 0.1-50μmolL(-1), precision (intra- and inter-day CVs less than 4.5% and 6.1%, respectively) and accuracy (relative errors between -5.8% and 4.8%). In a pilot pharmacokinetic experiment, the concentration-time profiles were described for boldine (single i.v. bolus 50mgkg(-1)) in plasma and bile and cumulative excretion in urine was investigated. The major metabolites identified by means of LC-MS(n) were boldine-O-glucuronide, boldine-O-sulphate and disulphate, boldine-O-glucuronide-O-sulphate and N-demethyl-boldine-O-sulphate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Extração por fluido supercrítico de alguns inseticidas carbamatos em amostras de batata, com determinação por HPLC/fluorescência e confirmação por HPLC/espectrometria de massas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunes Gilvanda Silva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Six supercritical fluid extraction (SFE methods were tested, by varying the following operational parameters: CO2 pressure, time and temperature of extraction, type and proportion of static modifier, and Hydromatrix®/sample rate into cell. Firstly, insecticide carbamates were extracted from spiked potatoes samples (fortification level of 0,5 mg.Kg-1 by using SPE procedures, and then final extracts were analyzed HPLC/fluorescence. Good performance was observed with SFE methods that operated with values of temperature and CO2 pressure of 50 ºC and 350 bar, respectively. Best efficiency was obtained when it was used acetonitrile as a modifier (3% on the cell volume, and Hydromatrix®/sample rate of 2:1. Static time was of 1 min; total extraction time was of 35 min; dynamic extraction was performed with 15 mL of CO2, and it was used methanol (2 mL for the dissolution of the final residue. In such conditions, pesticide recoveries varied from 72 to 94%, depending on the analyzed compound. In higher extraction temperatures, a rapid degradation was observed for some compounds, such as aldicarb and carbaryl; presence of their metabolites was further confirmed by HPLC-APCI/MS in positive mode. Detection limits for chromatographic analysis varied from 0,2 to 1,3 ng.

  11. Soybean allergen detection methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mona H; Holzhauser, Thomas; Bisson, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Soybean containing products are widely consumed, thus reliable methods for detection of soy in foods are needed in order to make appropriate risk assessment studies to adequately protect soy allergic patients. Six methods were compared using eight food products with a declared content of soy...

  12. Methods of Melanoma Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leachman, Sancy A; Cassidy, Pamela B; Chen, Suephy C; Curiel, Clara; Geller, Alan; Gareau, Daniel; Pellacani, Giovanni; Grichnik, James M; Malvehy, Josep; North, Jeffrey; Jacques, Steven L; Petrie, Tracy; Puig, Susana; Swetter, Susan M; Tofte, Susan; Weinstock, Martin A

    2016-01-01

    Detection and removal of melanoma, before it has metastasized, dramatically improves prognosis and survival. The purpose of this chapter is to (1) summarize current methods of melanoma detection and (2) review state-of-the-art detection methods and technologies that have the potential to reduce melanoma mortality. Current strategies for the detection of melanoma range from population-based educational campaigns and screening to the use of algorithm-driven imaging technologies and performance of assays that identify markers of transformation. This chapter will begin by describing state-of-the-art methods for educating and increasing awareness of at-risk individuals and for performing comprehensive screening examinations. Standard and advanced photographic methods designed to improve reliability and reproducibility of the clinical examination will also be reviewed. Devices that magnify and/or enhance malignant features of individual melanocytic lesions (and algorithms that are available to interpret the results obtained from these devices) will be compared and contrasted. In vivo confocal microscopy and other cellular-level in vivo technologies will be compared to traditional tissue biopsy, and the role of a noninvasive "optical biopsy" in the clinical setting will be discussed. Finally, cellular and molecular methods that have been applied to the diagnosis of melanoma, such as comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), will be discussed.

  13. Nonlinear Multiantenna Detection Methods

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    Chen Sheng

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear detection technique designed for multiple-antenna assisted receivers employed in space-division multiple-access systems is investigated. We derive the optimal solution of the nonlinear spatial-processing assisted receiver for binary phase shift keying signalling, which we refer to as the Bayesian detector. It is shown that this optimal Bayesian receiver significantly outperforms the standard linear beamforming assisted receiver in terms of a reduced bit error rate, at the expense of an increased complexity, while the achievable system capacity is substantially enhanced with the advent of employing nonlinear detection. Specifically, when the spatial separation expressed in terms of the angle of arrival between the desired and interfering signals is below a certain threshold, a linear beamformer would fail to separate them, while a nonlinear detection assisted receiver is still capable of performing adequately. The adaptive implementation of the optimal Bayesian detector can be realized using a radial basis function network. Two techniques are presented for constructing block-data-based adaptive nonlinear multiple-antenna assisted receivers. One of them is based on the relevance vector machine invoked for classification, while the other on the orthogonal forward selection procedure combined with the Fisher ratio class-separability measure. A recursive sample-by-sample adaptation procedure is also proposed for training nonlinear detectors based on an amalgam of enhanced -means clustering techniques and the recursive least squares algorithm.

  14. Methods of DNA methylation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Wusi Chen (Inventor); Filanoski, Brian John (Inventor); Mishra, Nirankar (Inventor); Rastogi, Shiva (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides for methods of DNA methylation detection. The present invention provides for methods of generating and detecting specific electronic signals that report the methylation status of targeted DNA molecules in biological samples.Two methods are described, direct and indirect detection of methylated DNA molecules in a nano transistor based device. In the direct detection, methylated target DNA molecules are captured on the sensing surface resulting in changes in the electrical properties of a nano transistor. These changes generate detectable electronic signals. In the indirect detection, antibody-DNA conjugates are used to identify methylated DNA molecules. RNA signal molecules are generated through an in vitro transcription process. These RNA molecules are captured on the sensing surface change the electrical properties of nano transistor thereby generating detectable electronic signals.

  15. A Voltage Quality Detection Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Wei, Mu

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a voltage quality detection method based on a phase-locked loop (PLL) technique. The technique can detect the voltage magnitude and phase angle of each individual phase under both normal and fault power system conditions. The proposed method has the potential to evaluate various...... power quality disturbances, such as interruptions, sags and imbalances. Simulation studies have been performed. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been demonstrated under the simulated typical power disturbances....

  16. Local method for detecting communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagrow, James P.; Bollt, Erik M.

    2005-10-01

    We propose a method of community detection that is computationally inexpensive and possesses physical significance to a member of a social network. This method is unlike many divisive and agglomerative techniques and is local in the sense that a community can be detected within a network without requiring knowledge of the entire network. A global application of this method is also introduced. Several artificial and real-world networks, including the famous Zachary karate club, are analyzed.

  17. Adjunct methods for caries detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Axelsson, Susanna Bihari; Dahlén, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To assess the diagnostic accuracy of adjunct methods used to detect and quantify dental caries. Study design. A systematic literature search for relevant papers was conducted with pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Abstracts and full text articles were assessed...

  18. Survey of Anomaly Detection Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, B

    2006-10-12

    This survey defines the problem of anomaly detection and provides an overview of existing methods. The methods are categorized into two general classes: generative and discriminative. A generative approach involves building a model that represents the joint distribution of the input features and the output labels of system behavior (e.g., normal or anomalous) then applies the model to formulate a decision rule for detecting anomalies. On the other hand, a discriminative approach aims directly to find the decision rule, with the smallest error rate, that distinguishes between normal and anomalous behavior. For each approach, we will give an overview of popular techniques and provide references to state-of-the-art applications.

  19. Outlier Detection Method Use for the Network Flow Anomaly Detection

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    Rimas Ciplinskas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available New and existing methods of cyber-attack detection are constantly being developed and improved because there is a great number of attacks and the demand to protect from them. In prac-tice, current methods of attack detection operates like antivirus programs, i. e. known attacks signatures are created and attacks are detected by using them. These methods have a drawback – they cannot detect new attacks. As a solution, anomaly detection methods are used. They allow to detect deviations from normal network behaviour that may show a new type of attack. This article introduces a new method that allows to detect network flow anomalies by using local outlier factor algorithm. Accom-plished research allowed to identify groups of features which showed the best results of anomaly flow detection according the highest values of precision, recall and F-measure.

  20. Method for detection of trichinellae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, P.M.

    1975-11-11

    A process for rapid detection of trichinellae in samples of meat by compressing the said sample by means of a simple mechanical or hand press in a solution of glycerol or ethylene glycol, mounting the compressed sample between glass plates, and projecting this sample onto a standard projection screen. 4 claims, 1 drawing figure.

  1. Neutron detection apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derzon, Mark S.; Borek, III, Theodore T.

    2017-08-15

    An apparatus for neutron detection is provided. The apparatus comprises a sensor medium in electrical contact with an electrode arrangement conformed to collect radiation-generated charge from the sensor medium. The sensor medium comprises a borazine and/or a borazine-based polymer.

  2. Rapid methods for detection of bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Andersen, B.Ø.; Miller, M.

    2006-01-01

    Traditional methods for detection of bacteria in drinking water e.g. Heterotrophic Plate Counts (HPC) or Most Probable Number (MNP) take 48-72 hours to give the result. New rapid methods for detection of bacteria are needed to protect the consumers against contaminations. Two rapid methods...

  3. Comparison of Methods for Oscillation Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Trangbæk, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    This paper compares a selection of methods for detecting oscillations in control loops. The methods are tested on measurement data from a coal-fired power plant, where some oscillations are occurring. Emphasis is put on being able to detect oscillations without having a system model and without...

  4. Method for detecting coliform organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, K.; Nibley, D. A.; Jeffers, E. L.; Brooks, R. L. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for determining the concentration of coliform bacteria in a sample. The sample containing the coliform bacteria is cultured in a liquid growth medium. The cultured bacteria produce hydrogen and the hydrogen is vented to a second cell containing a buffer solution in which the hydrogen dissolves. By measuring the potential change in the buffer solution caused by the hydrogen, as a function of time, the initial concentration of bacteria in the sample is determined. Alternatively, the potential change in the buffer solution can be compared with the potential change in the liquid growth medium to verify that the potential change in the liquid growth medium is produced primarily by the hydrogen gas produced by the coliform bacteria.

  5. Spectral analysis method for detecting an element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, Larry G [Idaho Falls, ID; Edwards, Andrew J [Idaho Falls, ID; Jewell, James K [Idaho Falls, ID; Reber, Edward L [Idaho Falls, ID; Seabury, Edward H [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-02-12

    A method for detecting an element is described and which includes the steps of providing a gamma-ray spectrum which has a region of interest which corresponds with a small amount of an element to be detected; providing nonparametric assumptions about a shape of the gamma-ray spectrum in the region of interest, and which would indicate the presence of the element to be detected; and applying a statistical test to the shape of the gamma-ray spectrum based upon the nonparametric assumptions to detect the small amount of the element to be detected.

  6. GMDD: a database of GMO detection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wei; Yang, Litao; Shen, Kailin; Kim, Banghyun; Kleter, Gijs A; Marvin, Hans JP; Guo, Rong; Liang, Wanqi; Zhang, Dabing

    2008-01-01

    Background Since more than one hundred events of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been developed and approved for commercialization in global area, the GMO analysis methods are essential for the enforcement of GMO labelling regulations. Protein and nucleic acid-based detection techniques have been developed and utilized for GMOs identification and quantification. However, the information for harmonization and standardization of GMO analysis methods at global level is needed. Results GMO Detection method Database (GMDD) has collected almost all the previous developed and reported GMOs detection methods, which have been grouped by different strategies (screen-, gene-, construct-, and event-specific), and also provide a user-friendly search service of the detection methods by GMO event name, exogenous gene, or protein information, etc. In this database, users can obtain the sequences of exogenous integration, which will facilitate PCR primers and probes design. Also the information on endogenous genes, certified reference materials, reference molecules, and the validation status of developed methods is included in this database. Furthermore, registered users can also submit new detection methods and sequences to this database, and the newly submitted information will be released soon after being checked. Conclusion GMDD contains comprehensive information of GMO detection methods. The database will make the GMOs analysis much easier. PMID:18522755

  7. GMDD: a database of GMO detection methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Rong

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since more than one hundred events of genetically modified organisms (GMOs have been developed and approved for commercialization in global area, the GMO analysis methods are essential for the enforcement of GMO labelling regulations. Protein and nucleic acid-based detection techniques have been developed and utilized for GMOs identification and quantification. However, the information for harmonization and standardization of GMO analysis methods at global level is needed. Results GMO Detection method Database (GMDD has collected almost all the previous developed and reported GMOs detection methods, which have been grouped by different strategies (screen-, gene-, construct-, and event-specific, and also provide a user-friendly search service of the detection methods by GMO event name, exogenous gene, or protein information, etc. In this database, users can obtain the sequences of exogenous integration, which will facilitate PCR primers and probes design. Also the information on endogenous genes, certified reference materials, reference molecules, and the validation status of developed methods is included in this database. Furthermore, registered users can also submit new detection methods and sequences to this database, and the newly submitted information will be released soon after being checked. Conclusion GMDD contains comprehensive information of GMO detection methods. The database will make the GMOs analysis much easier.

  8. GMDD: a database of GMO detection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wei; Yang, Litao; Shen, Kailin; Kim, Banghyun; Kleter, Gijs A; Marvin, Hans J P; Guo, Rong; Liang, Wanqi; Zhang, Dabing

    2008-06-04

    Since more than one hundred events of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been developed and approved for commercialization in global area, the GMO analysis methods are essential for the enforcement of GMO labelling regulations. Protein and nucleic acid-based detection techniques have been developed and utilized for GMOs identification and quantification. However, the information for harmonization and standardization of GMO analysis methods at global level is needed. GMO Detection method Database (GMDD) has collected almost all the previous developed and reported GMOs detection methods, which have been grouped by different strategies (screen-, gene-, construct-, and event-specific), and also provide a user-friendly search service of the detection methods by GMO event name, exogenous gene, or protein information, etc. In this database, users can obtain the sequences of exogenous integration, which will facilitate PCR primers and probes design. Also the information on endogenous genes, certified reference materials, reference molecules, and the validation status of developed methods is included in this database. Furthermore, registered users can also submit new detection methods and sequences to this database, and the newly submitted information will be released soon after being checked. GMDD contains comprehensive information of GMO detection methods. The database will make the GMOs analysis much easier.

  9. New Eavesdropper Detection Method in Quantum Cryptograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Anghel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ecurity of quantum cryptographic algorithms is one of the main research directions in quantum cryptography. Security growth of the quantum key distribution systems can be realized by detecting the eavesdropper quickly, precisely and without letting any secret information in the hands of the enemy. This paper proposes a new method, named QBTT, to detect the enemy who try to tap the communication channel. The QBTT method can be implemented in every type of quantum key distribution scheme.

  10. Automated Methods for Multiplexed Pathogen Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straub, Tim M.; Dockendorff, Brian P.; Quinonez-Diaz, Maria D.; Valdez, Catherine O.; Shutthanandan, Janani I.; Tarasevich, Barbara J.; Grate, Jay W.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.

    2005-09-01

    Detection of pathogenic microorganisms in environmental samples is a difficult process. Concentration of the organisms of interest also co-concentrates inhibitors of many end-point detection methods, notably, nucleic acid methods. In addition, sensitive, highly multiplexed pathogen detection continues to be problematic. The primary function of the BEADS (Biodetection Enabling Analyte Delivery System) platform is the automated concentration and purification of target analytes from interfering substances, often present in these samples, via a renewable surface column. In one version of BEADS, automated immunomagnetic separation (IMS) is used to separate cells from their samples. Captured cells are transferred to a flow-through thermal cycler where PCR, using labeled primers, is performed. PCR products are then detected by hybridization to a DNA suspension array. In another version of BEADS, cell lysis is performed, and community RNA is purified and directly labeled. Multiplexed detection is accomplished by direct hybridization of the RNA to a planar microarray. The integrated IMS/PCR version of BEADS can successfully purify and amplify 10 E. coli O157:H7 cells from river water samples. Multiplexed PCR assays for the simultaneous detection of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Shigella on bead suspension arrays was demonstrated for the detection of as few as 100 cells for each organism. Results for the RNA version of BEADS are also showing promising results. Automation yields highly purified RNA, suitable for multiplexed detection on microarrays, with microarray detection specificity equivalent to PCR. Both versions of the BEADS platform show great promise for automated pathogen detection from environmental samples. Highly multiplexed pathogen detection using PCR continues to be problematic, but may be required for trace detection in large volume samples. The RNA approach solves the issues of highly multiplexed PCR and provides ''live vs. dead

  11. Parallel evaluation of broad virus detection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrof, Jens; Berting, Andreas; Kreil, Thomas R

    2014-01-01

    The testing for adventitious viruses is of critical importance during development and production of biological products. The recent emergence and ongoing development of broad virus detection methods calls for an evaluation of whether these methods can appropriately be implemented into current adventitious agent testing procedures. To assess the suitability of several broad virus detection methods, a comparative experimental study was conducted: four virus preparations, which were spiked at two different concentrations each into two different cell culture media, were sent to four investigators in a blinded fashion for analysis with broad virus detection methods such as polymerase chain reaction-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR-ESI/MS), microarray, and two approaches utilizing massively parallel sequencing. The results that were reported by the investigators revealed that all methods were able to identify the majority of samples correctly (mean 83%), with a surprisingly narrow range among the methods, that is, between 72% (PCR-ESI/MS) and 95% (microarray). In addition to the correct results, a variety of unexpected assignments were reported for a minority of samples, again with little variation regarding the methods used (range 20-45%), while false negatives were reported for 0-25% of the samples. Regarding assay sensitivity, the viruses were detected by all methods included in this study at concentrations of about 4-5 log10 quantitative PCR copies/mL, and probably with higher sensitivity in some cases. In summary, the broad virus detection methods investigated were shown to be suitable even for detection of relatively low virus concentrations. However, there is also some potential for the production of false-positive as well as false-negative assignments, which indicates the requirement for further improvements before these methods can be considered for routine use. © PDA, Inc. 2014.

  12. [Luminescent cytochemical methods of detecting microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovskaia, N P; Osin, N S; Khramov, E N; Zlobin, V N

    1999-01-01

    The paper shows that the luminescence cytochemical technique can be used for identification of microorganisms and microbiological synthesis products. The method is based on the interaction of specific fluorescence probes (ANS, terbium ions, and beta-diketonate complexes of europium, as well as metal-containing porphyrines) with major microbial intracellular components and toxins. Unlike classical microbiological, immunochemical or biochemical methods of detection, the proposed method has a reasonable versatility, specificity, sensitivity, rapid action, and possible automation.

  13. Novel methods for detecting buried explosive devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kercel, S.W.; Burlage, R.S.; Patek, D.R.; Smith, C.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hibbs, A.D.; Rayner, T.J. [Quantum Magnetics, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Quantum Magnetics, Inc. (QM) are exploring novel landmine detection technologies. Technologies considered here include bioreporter bacteria, swept acoustic resonance, nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), and semiotic data fusion. Bioreporter bacteria look promising for third-world humanitarian applications; they are inexpensive, and deployment does not require high-tech methods. Swept acoustic resonance may be a useful adjunct to magnetometers in humanitarian demining. For military demining, NQR is a promising method for detecting explosive substances; of 50,000 substances that have been tested, none has an NQR signature that can be mistaken for RDX or TNT. For both military and commercial demining, sensor fusion entails two daunting tasks, identifying fusible features in both present-day and emerging technologies, and devising a fusion algorithm that runs in real-time on cheap hardware. Preliminary research in these areas is encouraging. A bioreporter bacterium for TNT detection is under development. Investigation has just started in swept acoustic resonance as an approach to a cheap mine detector for humanitarian use. Real-time wavelet processing appears to be a key to extending NQR bomb detection into mine detection, including TNT-based mines. Recent discoveries in semiotics may be the breakthrough that will lead to a robust fused detection scheme.

  14. Novel methods for detecting buried explosive devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kercel, Stephen W.; Burlage, Robert S.; Patek, David R.; Smith, Cyrus M.; Hibbs, Andrew D.; Rayner, Timothy J.

    1997-07-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Quantum Magnetics, Inc. are exploring novel landmine detection technologies. Technologies considered here include bioreporter bacteria, swept acoustic resonance, nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), and semiotic data fusion. Bioreporter bacteria look promising for third-world humanitarian applications; they are inexpensive, and deployment does not require high-tech methods. Swept acoustic resonance may be a useful adjunct to magnetometers in humanitarian demining. For military demining, NQR is a promising method for detecting explosive substances; of 50,000 substances that have been tested, one has an NQR signature that can be mistaken for RDX or TNT. For both military and commercial demining, sensor fusion entails two daunting tasks, identifying fusible features in both present-day and emerging technologies, and devising a fusion algorithm that runs in real-time on cheap hardware. Preliminary research in these areas is encouraging. A bioreporter bacterium for TNT detection is under development. Investigation has just started in swept acoustic resonance as an approach to a cheap mine detector for humanitarian use. Real-time wavelet processing appears to be a key to extending NQR bomb detection into mine detection, including TNT-based mines. Recent discoveries in semiotics may be the breakthrough that will lead to a robust fused detection scheme.

  15. Illumination methods for optical wear detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Jindang; Regtien, Paulus P.L.

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents some results of a study on optical wear detection. The focus of the paper is on the illumination, to optimize the contrast of the images. Various illumination methods are compared: bright field versus dark field illumination, and various kind of light sources: laser light, diffuse

  16. Method for detecting gas turbine engine flashback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kapil Kumar; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2012-09-04

    A method for monitoring and controlling a gas turbine, comprises predicting frequencies of combustion dynamics in a combustor using operating conditions of a gas turbine, receiving a signal from a sensor that is indicative of combustion dynamics in the combustor, and detecting a flashback if a frequency of the received signal does not correspond to the predicted frequencies.

  17. Detection methods for centrifugal microfluidic platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burger, Robert; Amato, Letizia; Boisen, Anja

    2016-01-01

    , have been developed and allow automation and integration of complex assay protocols in lab-on-a-disc systems. Besides liquid handling, the detection strategy for reading out the assay is crucial for developing a fully integrated system. In this review, we focus on biosensors and readout methods...

  18. GMDD: a database of GMO detection methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, W.; Yang, L.; Shen, K.; Kim, B.; Kleter, G.A.; Marvin, H.J.P.; Guo, R.; Liang, W.; Zhang, D.

    2008-01-01

    Since more than one hundred events of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been developed and approved for commercialization in global area, the GMO analysis methods are essential for the enforcement of GMO labelling regulations. Protein and nucleic acid-based detection techniques have been

  19. Analytical methods for the detection of clenbuterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Maria K; Opfermann, Georg; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2009-05-01

    Clenbuterol is therapeutically used for the treatment of pulmonary diseases such as bronchial asthma or for tocolytic reasons. In cattle feeding as well as in sports it is illicitly misused due to its anabolic properties to promote muscle growth. Sample preparation procedures and analytical techniques used for the detection of clenbuterol are manifold and vary with the objectives of the investigation. Methods for its detection in biological specimens, drug preparations, the environment, food and feed products are reported. They are mainly based on immunochemical, chromatographic and mass spectrometric techniques, or on capillary electrophoresis. Sample preparation primarily includes liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction. Depending on the aim of the method clenbuterol can be determined in single- or multi-analyte methods. In biological and environmental samples concentrations are generally low due to the potency of the drug. Thus, highly sensitive procedures are required for expedient analyses.

  20. Bayesian Methods for Radiation Detection and Dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Groer, Peter G

    2002-01-01

    We performed work in three areas: radiation detection, external and internal radiation dosimetry. In radiation detection we developed Bayesian techniques to estimate the net activity of high and low activity radioactive samples. These techniques have the advantage that the remaining uncertainty about the net activity is described by probability densities. Graphs of the densities show the uncertainty in pictorial form. Figure 1 below demonstrates this point. We applied stochastic processes for a method to obtain Bayesian estimates of 222Rn-daughter products from observed counting rates. In external radiation dosimetry we studied and developed Bayesian methods to estimate radiation doses to an individual with radiation induced chromosome aberrations. We analyzed chromosome aberrations after exposure to gammas and neutrons and developed a method for dose-estimation after criticality accidents. The research in internal radiation dosimetry focused on parameter estimation for compartmental models from observed comp...

  1. Intrusion detection using pattern recognition methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Yu, Li

    2007-09-01

    Today, cyber attacks such as worms, scanning, active attackers are pervasive in Internet. A number of security approaches are proposed to address this problem, among which the intrusion detection system (IDS) appears to be one of the major and most effective solutions for defending against malicious users. Essentially, intrusion detection problem can be generalized as a classification problem, whose goal is to distinguish normal behaviors and anomalies. There are many well-known pattern recognition algorithms for classification purpose. In this paper we describe the details of applying pattern recognition methods to the intrusion detection research field. Experimenting on the KDDCUP 99 data set, we first use information gain metric to reduce the dimensionality of the original feature space. Two supervised methods, the support vector machine as well as the multi-layer neural network have been tested and the results display high detection rate and low false alarm rate, which is promising for real world applications. In addition, three unsupervised methods, Single-Linkage, K-Means, and CLIQUE, are also implemented and evaluated in the paper. The low computational complexity reveals their application in initial data reduction process.

  2. Need for new caries detection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Douglas A.; Featherstone, John D. B.

    1999-05-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) continues to be a major problems for adults as well as children, even though great advances have been made in preventive methods in the last 20 years. New methods for the management of caries will work best if lesions can be detected at an early stage and chemical rather than physical intervention can take place, thereby preserving the natural tooth structure and helping the saliva to heal, or remineralize, the areas of early decay. Clinical detection of caries in the US relies on visual examination, tactile with hand held explorer, and conventional radiographs, all of which are inadequate for the occlusal (biting) surfaces of the teeth where most of the decay now occurs. The dentist often has to explore by drilling with a dental bur to confirm early decay in these areas. New method that can determine the extent and degree of subsurface lesions in these surfaces non-destructively are essential for further advances in the clinical management of dental caries. Optical methods, which exploit the differences between sound and carious enamel and dentin, show great promise for the accurate detection of these lesions. Two or three- dimensional images, which include a measure of severity will be needed.

  3. A novel method for detection of apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagariya, Alexander M., E-mail: zagariya@uic.edu

    2012-04-15

    There are two different Angiotensin II (ANG II) peptides in nature: Human type (ANG II) and Bovine type (ANG II*). These eight amino acid peptides differ only at position 5 where Valine is replaced by Isoleucine in the Bovine type. They are present in all species studied so far. These amino acids are different by only one atom of carbon. This difference is so small, that it will allow any of ANG II, Bovine or Human antibodies to interact with all species and create a universal method for apoptosis detection. ANG II concentrations are found at substantially higher levels in apoptotic, compared to non-apoptotic, tissues. ANG II accumulation can lead to DNA damage, mutations, carcinogenesis and cell death. We demonstrate that Bovine antiserum can be used for universal detection of apoptosis. In 2010, the worldwide market for apoptosis detection reached the $20 billion mark and significantly increases each year. Most commercially available methods are related to Annexin V and TUNNEL. Our new method based on ANG II is more widely known to physicians and scientists compared to previously used methods. Our approach offers a novel alternative for assessing apoptosis activity with enhanced sensitivity, at a lower cost and ease of use.

  4. System and method for anomaly detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Chad

    2010-06-15

    A system and method for detecting one or more anomalies in a plurality of observations is provided. In one illustrative embodiment, the observations are real-time network observations collected from a stream of network traffic. The method includes performing a discrete decomposition of the observations, and introducing derived variables to increase storage and query efficiencies. A mathematical model, such as a conditional independence model, is then generated from the formatted data. The formatted data is also used to construct frequency tables which maintain an accurate count of specific variable occurrence as indicated by the model generation process. The formatted data is then applied to the mathematical model to generate scored data. The scored data is then analyzed to detect anomalies.

  5. Metagenomic Detection Methods in Biopreparedness Outbreak Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Oskar Erik; Hansen, Trine; Knutsson, Rickard

    2013-01-01

    of a clinical sample, creating a metagenome, in a single week of laboratory work. As new technologies emerge, their dissemination and capacity building must be facilitated, and criteria for use, as well as guidelines on how to report results, must be established. This article focuses on the use of metagenomics......, gaps in research, and future directions. Examples of metagenomic detection, as well as possible applications of the methods, are described in various biopreparedness outbreak scenarios....

  6. Detection Method of TOXOPLASMA GONDII Tachyzoites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eassa, Souzan; Bose, Chhanda; Alusta, Pierre; Tarasenko, Olga

    2011-06-01

    Tachyzoites are considered to be the most important stage of Toxoplasma gondii which causes toxoplasmosis. T. gondii is, an obligate intracellular parasite which infects a wide range of cells. The present study was designed to develop a method for an early detection of T. gondii tachyzoites. The method comprised of a binding assay which was analyzed using principal component and cluster analysis. Our data showed that glycoconjugates GC1, GC2, GC3 and GC10 exhibit a significantly higher binding affinity for T. gondii tachyzoites as compared to controls (T. gondii only, PAA only, GC 1, 2, 3, and 10 only).

  7. Method for the detection of aquaretic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for detecting an aquaretic compound. In one embodiment, the method includes administering to a mammal a candidate compound that modulates a nociceptin receptor. Biological material is isolated from the mammal and expression of aquaporin-2 is measured. Modulation of the aquap...... of the aquaporin-2 is taken to be indicative of a candidate compound having aquaretic activity. The invention has a wide spectrum of uses including helping to identify new diuretics that spare unwanted loss of sodium and potassium ions....

  8. An AVAF inversion method for detecting hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chunmei; Sen, Mrinal K.; Wang, Shangxu; Yuan, Sanyi

    2017-10-01

    Rock physics studies have shown that velocity dispersion is often associated with hydrocarbon deposit, which results in P-wave reflection coefficients varying with frequency. This effect is often neglected in the conventional amplitude versus angle or offset inversion, and thus error is introduced. Here we propose a method for inverting for dispersive velocity from the frequency-dependent P-wave reflection coefficients; the method is called amplitude variation with angle and frequency AVAF inversion. We employ forward modeling based on propagator matrices that include frequency-dependent elastic coefficients and a variant of the simulated annealing method called the heat-bath algorithm for inversion of layer parameters. In our application, the thickness of the dispersive layer is inverted for simultaneously. Synthetic and field data examples demonstrate the ability and usefulness of this method for detecting hydrocarbon bearing formations.

  9. Sensing Methods for Detecting Analog Television Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Azizur; Song, Chunyi; Harada, Hiroshi

    This paper introduces a unified method of spectrum sensing for all existing analog television (TV) signals including NTSC, PAL and SECAM. We propose a correlation based method (CBM) with a single reference signal for sensing any analog TV signals. In addition we also propose an improved energy detection method. The CBM approach has been implemented in a hardware prototype specially designed for participating in Singapore TV white space (WS) test trial conducted by Infocomm Development Authority (IDA) of the Singapore government. Analytical and simulation results of the CBM method will be presented in the paper, as well as hardware testing results for sensing various analog TV signals. Both AWGN and fading channels will be considered. It is shown that the theoretical results closely match with those from simulations. Sensing performance of the hardware prototype will also be presented in fading environment by using a fading simulator. We present performance of the proposed techniques in terms of probability of false alarm, probability of detection, sensing time etc. We also present a comparative study of the various techniques.

  10. Waterborne Pathogens: Detection Methods and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Castillo, Flor Yazmín; Loera-Muro, Abraham; Jacques, Mario; Garneau, Philippe; Avelar-González, Francisco Javier; Harel, Josée; Guerrero-Barrera, Alma Lilián

    2015-01-01

    Waterborne pathogens and related diseases are a major public health concern worldwide, not only by the morbidity and mortality that they cause, but by the high cost that represents their prevention and treatment. These diseases are directly related to environmental deterioration and pollution. Despite the continued efforts to maintain water safety, waterborne outbreaks are still reported globally. Proper assessment of pathogens on water and water quality monitoring are key factors for decision-making regarding water distribution systems’ infrastructure, the choice of best water treatment and prevention waterborne outbreaks. Powerful, sensitive and reproducible diagnostic tools are developed to monitor pathogen contamination in water and be able to detect not only cultivable pathogens but also to detect the occurrence of viable but non-culturable microorganisms as well as the presence of pathogens on biofilms. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is a helpful tool to evaluate the scenarios for pathogen contamination that involve surveillance, detection methods, analysis and decision-making. This review aims to present a research outlook on waterborne outbreaks that have occurred in recent years. This review also focuses in the main molecular techniques for detection of waterborne pathogens and the use of QMRA approach to protect public health. PMID:26011827

  11. A new method for FMRI activation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jianing; Talavage, Thomas M.; Pollak, Ilya

    2009-02-01

    The objective of fMRI data analysis is to detect the region of the brain that gets activated in response to a specific stimulus presented to the subject. We develop a new algorithm for activation detection in event-related fMRI data. We utilize a forward model for fMRI data acquisition which explicitly incorporates physiological noise, scanner noise and the spatial blurring introduced by the scanner. After slice-by-slice image restoration procedure that independently restores each data slice corresponding to each time index, we estimate the parameters of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) model for each pixel of the restored data. In order to enforce spatial regularity in our estimates, we model the prior distribution of the HRF parameters as a generalized Gaussian Markov random field (GGMRF) model. We develop an algorithm to compute the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimates of the parameters. We then threshold the amplitude parameters to obtain the final activation map. We illustrate our algorithm by comparing it with the widely used general linear model (GLM) method. In synthetic data experiments, under the same probability of false alarm, the probability of correct detection for our method is up to 15% higher than GLM. In real data experiments, through anatomical analysis and benchmark testing using block paradigm results, we demonstrate that our algorithm produces fewer false alarms than GLM.

  12. Bayesian Methods for Radiation Detection and Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter G. Groer

    2002-09-29

    We performed work in three areas: radiation detection, external and internal radiation dosimetry. In radiation detection we developed Bayesian techniques to estimate the net activity of high and low activity radioactive samples. These techniques have the advantage that the remaining uncertainty about the net activity is described by probability densities. Graphs of the densities show the uncertainty in pictorial form. Figure 1 below demonstrates this point. We applied stochastic processes for a method to obtain Bayesian estimates of 222Rn-daughter products from observed counting rates. In external radiation dosimetry we studied and developed Bayesian methods to estimate radiation doses to an individual with radiation induced chromosome aberrations. We analyzed chromosome aberrations after exposure to gammas and neutrons and developed a method for dose-estimation after criticality accidents. The research in internal radiation dosimetry focused on parameter estimation for compartmental models from observed compartmental activities. From the estimated probability densities of the model parameters we were able to derive the densities for compartmental activities for a two compartment catenary model at different times. We also calculated the average activities and their standard deviation for a simple two compartment model.

  13. TLC bioautographic method for detecting lipase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Abdel Moniem Sadek

    2012-01-01

    Bioautographic assays using TLC play an important role in the search for active compounds from plants. A TLC bioautographic assay has previously been established for the detection of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors but not for lipases. Development of a TLC bioautographic method for detecting lipase inhibitors in plant extracts. After migration of the plant extracts, the TLC plate was sprayed with α-naphtyl acetate and enzyme solutions before incubation at 37°C for 20 min. Finally, the solution of Fast Blue B salt was sprayed onto the TLC plate giving a purple background colouration. Lipase inhibitors were visualised as white spots on the TLC plates. Orlistat (a known lipase inhibitor) inhibited lipase down to 0.01 µg. Methanolic extracts of Camellia sinensis (L.) kuntz and Rosmarinus officinalis L after migration on TLC gave enzymatic inhibition when applied in amounts of 82 and 56 µg, respectively. On the other hand the methanolic extract of Morus alba leaves did not exhibit any lipase inhibitory activity. The screening test was able to detect lipase inhibition by pure reference substances and by compounds present in complex matrices, such as plant extracts. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Lagrangian based methods for coherent structure detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allshouse, Michael R., E-mail: mallshouse@chaos.utexas.edu [Center for Nonlinear Dynamics and Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Peacock, Thomas, E-mail: tomp@mit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    There has been a proliferation in the development of Lagrangian analytical methods for detecting coherent structures in fluid flow transport, yielding a variety of qualitatively different approaches. We present a review of four approaches and demonstrate the utility of these methods via their application to the same sample analytic model, the canonical double-gyre flow, highlighting the pros and cons of each approach. Two of the methods, the geometric and probabilistic approaches, are well established and require velocity field data over the time interval of interest to identify particularly important material lines and surfaces, and influential regions, respectively. The other two approaches, implementing tools from cluster and braid theory, seek coherent structures based on limited trajectory data, attempting to partition the flow transport into distinct regions. All four of these approaches share the common trait that they are objective methods, meaning that their results do not depend on the frame of reference used. For each method, we also present a number of example applications ranging from blood flow and chemical reactions to ocean and atmospheric flows.

  15. Modern Community Detection Methods in Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Chesnokov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Social network structure is not homogeneous. Groups of vertices which have a lot of links between them are called communities. A survey of algorithms discovering such groups is presented in the article.A popular approach to community detection is to use an graph clustering algorithm.  Methods based on inner metric optimization are common. 5 groups of algorithms are listed: based on optimization, joining vertices into clusters by some closeness measure, special subgraphs discovery, partitioning graph by deleting edges,  and based on a dynamic process or generative model.Overlapping community detection algorithms are usually just modified graph clustering algorithms. Other approaches do exist, e.g. ones based on edges clustering or constructing communities around randomly chosen vertices. Methods based on nonnegative matrix factorization are also used, but they have high computational complexity. Algorithms based on label propagation lack this disadvantage. Methods based on affiliation model are perspective. This model claims that communities define the structure of a graph.Algorithms which use node attributes are considered: ones based on latent Dirichlet allocation, initially used for text clustering, and CODICIL, where edges of node content relevance are added to the original edge set. 6 classes are listed for algorithms for graphs with node attributes: changing egdes’ weights, changing vertex distance function, building augmented graph with nodes and attributes, based on stochastic  models, partitioning attribute space and others.Overlapping community detection algorithms which effectively use node attributes are just started to appear. Methods based on partitioning attribute space,  latent Dirichlet allocation,  stochastic  models and  nonnegative matrix factorization are considered. The most effective algorithm on real datasets is CESNA. It is based on affiliation model. However, it gives results which are far from ground truth

  16. Nucleic acid detection system and method for detecting influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hong; Song, Jian

    2015-03-17

    The invention provides a rapid, sensitive and specific nucleic acid detection system which utilizes isothermal nucleic acid amplification in combination with a lateral flow chromatographic device, or DNA dipstick, for DNA-hybridization detection. The system of the invention requires no complex instrumentation or electronic hardware, and provides a low cost nucleic acid detection system suitable for highly sensitive pathogen detection. Hybridization to single-stranded DNA amplification products using the system of the invention provides a sensitive and specific means by which assays can be multiplexed for the detection of multiple target sequences.

  17. Thermoluminescence method for detection of irradiated food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinnioja, S

    1998-12-31

    A method of thermoluminescence (TL) analysis was developed for the detection of irradiated foods. The TL method is based on the determination of thermoluminescence of adhering or contaminating minerals separated from foods by wet sieving and treatment with high density liquid. Carbon tetrachloride provided a suitable alternative for foods that form gels with water. Thermoluminescence response of minerals in a first TL measurement is normalised with a second TL measurement of the same mineral sample after calibration irradiation to a dose of 5 kGy. The decision about irradiation is made on the basis of a comparison of the two TL spectra: if the two TL glow curves match in shape and intensity the sample has been irradiated, and if they are clearly different it has not been irradiated. An attractive feature of TL analysis is that the mineral material itself is used for calibration; no reference material is required. Foods of interest in the investigation were herbs, spices, berries and seafood. The presence of minerals in samples is a criterion for application of the method, and appropriate minerals were found in all herbs, spices and berries. The most common minerals in terrestrial food were tecto-silicates - quartz and feldspars - which with their intense and stable thermoluminescence were well suited for the analysis. Mica proved to be useless for detection purposes, whereas carbonate in the form of calcite separated from intestines of seafood was acceptable. Fading of the TL signal is considerable in the low temperature part of the glow curve during a storage of several months after irradiation. However, spices and herbs could easily be identified as irradiated even after two years storage. Conditions for seafood, which is stored in a freezer, are different, and only slight fading was observed after one year. The effect of mineral composition and structure on TL was studied for feldspars. Feldspars originating from subtropical and tropical regions exhibit lower TL

  18. PROTOTYPE OF VEHICLES POTHOLES DETECTION BASED BLOB DETECTION METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    Djamaluddin, Dewiani

    2017-01-01

    Potholes on road causes majority of traffic incidents. It happens with driver???s unawareness to potholes on the road, while potholes location data mining is still performed manually by technician nowadays. This issues drives these following research and prototyping to be performed. This paper presents a prototype of a pothole detection system using image processing. The system will detect the potholes by assuming potholes as a blob, using blob detection. Live feed from a camera module will b...

  19. SCREENING METHODS FOR THE DETECTION OF CARTELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail BUŞU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During their everyday activities, the economic operators conclude a multitude of agreements in tacit or written form, such as: contracts or conventions. Some of these arrangements are absolutely necessary for the development of their current activities. These are agreements which, by respecting the rules of competition, are able to bring benefits to consumers and to the entire economy, as a whole. On the other hand, the economic operators often conclude agreements which are harmful to the economy as well as to the consumers, violating the competition rules. Some examples in this respect are: operators’ agreements on price fixing, on market or customers sharing. Before investigating the violation of competition rules, the relevant authorities should identify the possibility of the existence of such illegalities. The theoretical models for detecting the cartels do represent a proactive tool concerning the antitrust activity of competition authorities. The present paper furnishes a review of the methods for detecting cartels as well as a part of their practical application.

  20. A Method to Detect AAC Audio Forgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhong Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Advanced Audio Coding (AAC, a standardized lossy compression scheme for digital audio, which was designed to be the successor of the MP3 format, generally achieves better sound quality than MP3 at similar bit rates. While AAC is also the default or standard audio format for many devices and AAC audio files may be presented as important digital evidences, the authentication of the audio files is highly needed but relatively missing. In this paper, we propose a scheme to expose tampered AAC audio streams that are encoded at the same encoding bit-rate. Specifically, we design a shift-recompression based method to retrieve the differential features between the re-encoded audio stream at each shifting and original audio stream, learning classifier is employed to recognize different patterns of differential features of the doctored forgery files and original (untouched audio files. Experimental results show that our approach is very promising and effective to detect the forgery of the same encoding bit-rate on AAC audio streams. Our study also shows that shift recompression-based differential analysis is very effective for detection of the MP3 forgery at the same bit rate.

  1. Solar cell anomaly detection method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Emmett L. (Inventor); Shumka, Alex (Inventor); Gauthier, Michael K. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A method is provided for detecting cracks and other imperfections in a solar cell, which includes scanning a narrow light beam back and forth across the cell in a raster pattern, while monitoring the electrical output of the cell to find locations where the electrical output varies significantly. The electrical output can be monitored on a television type screen containing a raster pattern with each point on the screen corresponding to a point on the solar cell surface, and with the brightness of each point on the screen corresponding to the electrical output from the cell which was produced when the light beam was at the corresponding point on the cell. The technique can be utilized to scan a large array of interconnected solar cells, to determine which ones are defective.

  2. Systems and methods for detecting neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bross, Alan D.; Mellott, Kerry L.; Pla-Dalmau, Anna

    2005-08-09

    Systems and methods for detecting neutrons. One or more neutron-sensitive scintillators can be configured from a plurality of nano-sized particles, dopants and an extruded plastic material, such as polystyrene. The nano-sized particles can be compounded into the extruded plastic material with at least one dopant that permits the plastic material to scintillate. One or more plastic light collectors can be associated with a neutron-sensitive scintillator, such that the plastic light collector includes a central hole thereof. A wavelength-shifting fiber can then be located within the hole. The wavelength shifting (WLS) fiber absorbs scintillation light having a wavelength thereof and re-emits the light at a longer wavelength.

  3. Liquid chromatography detection unit, system, and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Moses, William W.

    2015-10-27

    An embodiment of a liquid chromatography detection unit includes a fluid channel and a radiation detector. The radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of a radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along the fluid channel. An embodiment of a liquid chromatography system includes an injector, a separation column, and a radiation detector. The injector is operable to inject a sample that includes a radiolabeled compound into a solvent stream. The position sensitive radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of the radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along a fluid channel. An embodiment of a method of liquid chromatography includes injecting a sample that comprises radiolabeled compounds into a solvent. The radiolabeled compounds are then separated. A position sensitive radiation detector is employed to image distributions of the radiolabeled compounds as the radiolabeled compounds travel along a fluid channel.

  4. Two different hematocrit detection methods: Different methods, different results?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuepbach Reto A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Less is known about the influence of hematocrit detection methodology on transfusion triggers. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare two different hematocrit-assessing methods. In a total of 50 critically ill patients hematocrit was analyzed using (1 blood gas analyzer (ABLflex 800 and (2 the central laboratory method (ADVIA® 2120 and compared. Findings Bland-Altman analysis for repeated measurements showed a good correlation with a bias of +1.39% and 2 SD of ± 3.12%. The 24%-hematocrit-group showed a correlation of r2 = 0.87. With a kappa of 0.56, 22.7% of the cases would have been transfused differently. In the-28%-hematocrit group with a similar correlation (r2 = 0.8 and a kappa of 0.58, 21% of the cases would have been transfused differently. Conclusions Despite a good agreement between the two methods used to determine hematocrit in clinical routine, the calculated difference of 1.4% might substantially influence transfusion triggers depending on the employed method.

  5. Image Processing Methods Usable for Object Detection on the Chessboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beran Ladislav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Image segmentation and object detection is challenging problem in many research. Although many algorithms for image segmentation have been invented, there is no simple algorithm for image segmentation and object detection. Our research is based on combination of several methods for object detection. The first method suitable for image segmentation and object detection is colour detection. This method is very simply, but there is problem with different colours. For this method it is necessary to have precisely determined colour of segmented object before all calculations. In many cases it is necessary to determine this colour manually. Alternative simply method is method based on background removal. This method is based on difference between reference image and detected image. In this paper several methods suitable for object detection are described. Thisresearch is focused on coloured object detection on chessboard. The results from this research with fusion of neural networks for user-computer game checkers will be applied.

  6. A HTK-based Method for Detecting Vocal Fold Pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Majidnezhad, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years a number of methods based on acoustic analysis were developed for vocal fold pathology detection. These methods can be categorized in two categories:a) detection based on the phonemes b) detection based on the continuous speeches. While there are many researches which belong to the first category, there are few efforts for detecting vocal fold pathology based on the continuous speeches (second category). Methods: In this work, a method based on the Hidden Markov ...

  7. Radio frequency detection assembly and method for detecting radio frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cown, Steven H.; Derr, Kurt Warren

    2010-03-16

    A radio frequency detection assembly is described and which includes a radio frequency detector which detects a radio frequency emission produced by a radio frequency emitter from a given location which is remote relative to the radio frequency detector; a location assembly electrically coupled with the radio frequency detector and which is operable to estimate the location of the radio frequency emitter from the radio frequency emission which has been received; and a radio frequency transmitter electrically coupled with the radio frequency detector and the location assembly, and which transmits a radio frequency signal which reports the presence of the radio frequency emitter.

  8. Development of detection methods for irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Seung; Nam, Hye Seon; Oh, Kyong Nam; Woo, Si Ho; Kim, Kyeung Eun; Yi, Sang Duk; Park, Jun Young; Kim, Kyong Su; Hwang, Keum Taek

    2000-04-01

    In 1999, we have been studied (1) on the detection of irradiated foods by ESR spectroscopy, by thermoluminescence, and by viscometry for physical measurements, (2) on the detection of hydrocarbons and 2-alkylcyclobutanones derived from fatty foods by GC/MS for chemical measurements, (3) on the screening and detection of irradiated foods by Comet assay and immunochemical (ELISA) technique for biological or biochemical measurements.

  9. Comparison of ninhydrin method of detecting amine compounds with other methods of halitosis detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanicka-Grzegorek, K; Lipkowska, E; Kepa, J; Michalik, J; Wierzbicka, M

    2005-01-01

    Halitosis is a result of overactivity of Gram-negative bacteria for which protein amino acids are the major source of energy. Therefore, statistical correlation between concentrations of volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) and low-molecular-weight amines should be expected. Eighty-four patients suffering from halitosis and 40 healthy volunteers aged 20-62 years (average 39.7) participated in the study. In all subjects low-molecular-weight amines were evaluated by the ninhydrin method. Patients with halitosis were randomized into treatment groups. Zinc tablets, tablets and mouthwash containing chlorhexidine or lyophilized lactic acid-forming bacteria were used. Analysis showed that the level of amines was highest in subjects with halitosis (0.39, s.d. +/- 0.06, P ninhydrin method of detecting salivary amines may be an alternative or additional method of diagnosing halitosis. This method may also be used to evaluate treatment efficacy.

  10. Comparison of Unsupervised Anomaly Detection Methods

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Several different unsupervised anomaly detection algorithms have been applied to Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) data to serve the purpose of developing a...

  11. System and method for detecting cells or components thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Marc D [Ames, IA; Lipert, Robert J [Ames, IA; Doyle, Robert T [Ames, IA; Grubisha, Desiree S [Corona, CA; Rahman, Salma [Ames, IA

    2009-01-06

    A system and method for detecting a detectably labeled cell or component thereof in a sample comprising one or more cells or components thereof, at least one cell or component thereof of which is detectably labeled with at least two detectable labels. In one embodiment, the method comprises: (i) introducing the sample into one or more flow cells of a flow cytometer, (ii) irradiating the sample with one or more light sources that are absorbed by the at least two detectable labels, the absorption of which is to be detected, and (iii) detecting simultaneously the absorption of light by the at least two detectable labels on the detectably labeled cell or component thereof with an array of photomultiplier tubes, which are operably linked to two or more filters that selectively transmit detectable emissions from the at least two detectable labels.

  12. An Entropy-Based Network Anomaly Detection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Bereziński

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Data mining is an interdisciplinary subfield of computer science involving methods at the intersection of artificial intelligence, machine learning and statistics. One of the data mining tasks is anomaly detection which is the analysis of large quantities of data to identify items, events or observations which do not conform to an expected pattern. Anomaly detection is applicable in a variety of domains, e.g., fraud detection, fault detection, system health monitoring but this article focuses on application of anomaly detection in the field of network intrusion detection.The main goal of the article is to prove that an entropy-based approach is suitable to detect modern botnet-like malware based on anomalous patterns in network. This aim is achieved by realization of the following points: (i preparation of a concept of original entropy-based network anomaly detection method, (ii implementation of the method, (iii preparation of original dataset, (iv evaluation of the method.

  13. Rapid method for detection of salmonella in meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a rapid method for the detection of Salmonella in meat as well as to a kit for performing said method. The method provides a time-to-result of less than 8 hours.......The present invention relates to a rapid method for the detection of Salmonella in meat as well as to a kit for performing said method. The method provides a time-to-result of less than 8 hours....

  14. Molecular Methods for Detection of Antimicrobial Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anjum, Muna F.; Zankari, Ea; Hasman, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    The increase in bacteria harboring antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global problem because there is a paucity of antibiotics available to treat multidrug-resistant bacterial infections in humans and animals. Detection of AMR present in bacteria that may pose a threat to veterinary and public...

  15. Ultrasound Imaging Methods for Breast Cancer Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozmen, N.

    2014-01-01

    The main focus of this thesis is on modeling acoustic wavefield propagation and implementing imaging algorithms for breast cancer detection using ultrasound. As a starting point, we use an integral equation formulation, which can be used to solve both the forward and inverse problems. This thesis

  16. [Prony analysis method about P-peak detection in ECG].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Fang, Bin; Shen, Yi; Sun, Chongzheng; Wang, Pu

    2008-12-01

    The technology of ECG (Electrocardiograph) auto-analysis has developed rapidly in recent years. There are lots of related techniques appearing. The majority is about R-peak detection. Although P-peak is important too, there are a few kinds of method about P-peak detection. In this paper is presented a new method for P-peak detection. According to Prony analysis, ECG is separated first, and then detected. The method gets good result. Data in experiment are from MIT Arrhythmia Database. The reliability of this algorithm in accurately detecting the P location is 97.8%.

  17. Anomaly-based Network Intrusion Detection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Nevlud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with detection of network anomalies. Network anomalies include everything that is quite different from the normal operation. For detection of anomalies were used machine learning systems. Machine learning can be considered as a support or a limited type of artificial intelligence. A machine learning system usually starts with some knowledge and a corresponding knowledge organization so that it can interpret, analyse, and test the knowledge acquired. There are several machine learning techniques available. We tested Decision tree learning and Bayesian networks. The open source data-mining framework WEKA was the tool we used for testing the classify, cluster, association algorithms and for visualization of our results. The WEKA is a collection of machine learning algorithms for data mining tasks.

  18. Conventional versus newer methods for detection of drug resistance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Conventional versus newer methods for detection of drug resistance in tuberculosis. Classical microbiological methods are well established but are cumbersome and time consuming. Newer rapid methods for rapid detection of drug resistance - microbiological, ...

  19. Development of detection methods for irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Chong Ki; Lee, Hae Jung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Insitiute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyong Su [Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    To identify irradiated foods, studies have been carried out with electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy on bone containing foods, such as chicken, pork, and beef. The intensity of the signal induced in bones increased linearly with irradiation doses in the range of 1.0 kGy to 5.0 kGy, and it was possible to distinguish between samples given low and high doses of irradiation. The signal stability for 6 weeks made them ideal for the quick and easy identification of irradiated meats. The analysis of DNA damage made on single cells by agarose gel electrophoresis (DNA 'comet assay') can be used to detect irradiated food. All the samples irradiated with over 0.3 kGy were identified to detect post-irradiation by the tail length of their comets. Irradiated samples showed comets with long tails, and the tail length of the comets increased with the dose, while unirradiated samples showed no or very short tails. As a result of the above experiment, the DNA 'comet assay' might be applied to the detection of irradiated grains as a simple, low-cost and rapid screening test. When fats are irradiated, hydrocarbons contained one or two fewer carbon atoms are formed from the parent fatty acids. The major hydrocarbons in irradiated beef, pork and chicken were 1,7-hexadecadiene and 8-heptadecene originating from leic acid. 1,7 hexadecadiene was the highest amount in irradiated beef, pork and chicken. Eight kinds of hydrocarbons were identified from irradiated chicken, among which 1,7-hexadecadiene and 8-heptadecen were detected as major compounds. The concentration of radiation-induced hydrocarbons was relatively constant during 16 weeks.

  20. Method for detection of extremely low concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Brian D.; Miller, Fred S.

    2002-01-01

    An ultratrace detector system for hand-held gas chromatography having high sensitivity, for example, to emissions generated during production of weapons, biological compounds, drugs, etc. The detector system is insensitive to water, air, helium, argon, oxygen, and CO.sub.2. The detector system is basically composed of a hand-held capillary gas chromatography (GC), an insulated heated redox-chamber, a detection chamber, and a vapor trap. For example, the detector system may use gas phase redox reactions and spectral absorption of mercury vapor. The gas chromatograph initially separates compounds that percolate through a bed of heated mercuric oxide (HgO) in a silica--or other metal--aerogel material which acts as an insulator. Compounds easily oxidized by HgO liberate atomic mercury that subsequently pass through a detection chamber which includes a detector cell, such as quartz, that is illuminated with a 254 nm ultra-violet (UV) mercury discharge lamp which generates the exact mercury absorption bands that are used to detect the liberated mercury atoms. Atomic mercury strongly absorbs 254 nm energy is therefore a specific signal for reducing compounds eluting from the capillary GC, whereafter the atomic mercury is trapped for example, in a silicon-aerogel trap.

  1. Laser-Based Detection Methods for Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Pastel and Sausa (173) detected NO2 (LOD 400 ppb at 1 atm) with a one-photon absorption photoacoustic process (see figure 17) by means of Ã΄ 2B1(0,8,0...amplifiers to enhance sensitivity. This new approach to wavelength 45 Note: Reproduced with permission from Pastel and Sausa (173). Figure 19...Singhal, R. P. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 1994, 8, 607. 173. Pastel , R. L.; Sausa, R. C. Appl. Opt. 1996, 35, 4046. 174. Schmidt, S.; Appel

  2. Method for early detection of infectious mononucleosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, K.E.

    1982-08-10

    Early detection of infectious mononucleosis is carried out using a sample of human blood by isolating and identifying the presence of Inmono proteins in the sample from a two-dimensional protein map with the proteins being characterized by having isoelectric banding as measured in urea of about -16 to -17 with respect to certain isoelectric point standards and molecular mass of about 70 to 75 K daltons as measured in the presence of sodium dodecylsulfate containing polyacrylamide gels, the presence of the Inmono proteins being correlated with the existence of infectious mononucleosis.

  3. Gold Cleaning Methods for Electrochemical Detection Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Lee MacKenzie; Tenje, Maria; Heiskanen, Arto

    2009-01-01

    This work investigates methods for obtaining reliably clean gold film surfaces. Nine gold cleaning methods are investigated here: UV ozone photoreactor; potassium hydroxide-hydrogen peroxide; potassium hydroxide potential sweep; sulfuric acid hydrogen peroxide; sulfuric acid potential cycling......; hydrochloric acid potential cycling; dimethylamine borane reducing agent solutions at 25 and 65 degrees C; and a dilute form of Aqua Regia. Peak-current potential-differences obtained from cyclic voltammetry and charge transfer resistance obtained from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, as well as X...

  4. Marine Biotoxins: Occurrence, Toxicity, and Detection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, M.

    2017-04-01

    This review summarizes the role of marine organisms as vectors of marine biotoxins, and discusses the need for surveillance to protect public health and ensure the quality of seafood. I Paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) and PSP-bearing organisms-PSP is produced by toxic dinoflagellates species belonging to the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium, and Pyrodinium. Traditionally, PSP monitoring programs have only considered filter-feeding molluscs that concentrate these toxic algae, however, increasing attention is now being paid to higher-order predators that carry PSP, such as carnivorous gastropods and crustaceans. II. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) and TTX-bearing organisms - TTX is the most common natural marine toxin that causes food poisonings in Japan, and poses a serious public health risk. TTX was long believed to be present only in pufferfish. However, TTX was detected in the eggs of California newt Taricha torosa in 1964, and since then it has been detected in a wide variety of species belonging to several different phyla. In this study, the main toxic components in the highly toxic ribbon worm Cephalothrix simula and the greater blue-ringed octopus Hapalochlaena lunulata from Japan were purified and analysed.

  5. Development and Establishment of Detection Method of Irradiated Foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho; Jo, Cheo Run; Kim, Jang Ho; Kim, Kyong Su

    2004-12-15

    The present project was related to the development and establishment of the detection techniques for the safety management of gamma-irradiated food and particularly conducted for the establishment of standard detection method for gamma-irradiated dried spices and raw materials, dried meat and fish powder for processed foods, bean paste powder, red pepper paste powder, soy sauce powder, and starch for flavoring ingredients described in 3, 6, 7 section of Korean Food Standard. Since the approvement of gamma-irradiated food items will be enlarged due to the international tendency for gamma-irradiated food, it was concluded that the establishment of detailed detection methods for each food group is not efficient for the enactment and enforcement of related regulations. For this reason, in order to establish the standard detection method, a detection system for gamma-irradiated food suitable for domestic operation was studied using comparative analysis of domestic and foreign research data classified by items and methods and European Standard as a reference. According to the comparative analyses of domestic and foreign research data and regulations of detection for gamma-irradiated food, it was concluded to be desirable that the optimal detection method should be decided after principal detection tests such as physical, chemical, and biological detection methods are established as standard methods and that the specific descriptions such as pre-treatment of raw materials, test methods, and the evaluation of results should be separately prescribed.

  6. Distributed gas detection system and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Challener, William Albert; Palit, Sabarni; Karp, Jason Harris; Kasten, Ansas Matthias; Choudhury, Niloy

    2017-11-21

    A distributed gas detection system includes one or more hollow core fibers disposed in different locations, one or more solid core fibers optically coupled with the one or more hollow core fibers and configured to receive light of one or more wavelengths from a light source, and an interrogator device configured to receive at least some of the light propagating through the one or more solid core fibers and the one or more hollow core fibers. The interrogator device is configured to identify a location of a presence of a gas-of-interest by examining absorption of at least one of the wavelengths of the light at least one of the hollow core fibers.

  7. Thermal History Devices, Systems For Thermal History Detection, And Methods For Thermal History Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Caraveo Frescas, Jesus Alfonso

    2015-05-28

    Embodiments of the present disclosure include nanowire field-effect transistors, systems for temperature history detection, methods for thermal history detection, a matrix of field effect transistors, and the like.

  8. Sciatica: Detection and Confirmation by New Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Sunil

    2014-01-01

    We need to overcome limitations of present assessment and also integrate newer research in our work about sciatica. Inflammation induces changes in the DRG and nerve root. It sensitizes the axons. Nociceptor is a unique axon. It is pseudo unipolar: both its ends, central and peripheral, behave in similar fashion. The nerve in periphery which carries these axons may selectively become sensitive to mechanical pressure--“mechanosensitized,” as we coin the phrase. Many pain questionnaires are used and are effective in identifying neuropathic pain solely on basis of descriptors but they do not directly physically correlate nerve root and pain. A thorough neurological evaluation is always needed. Physical examination is not direct pain assessment but testing mobility of nerve root and its effect on pain generation. There is a dogmatic dominance of dermatomes in assessment of leg pain. They are unreliable. Images may not correlate with symptoms and pathology in about 28% of cases. Electrophysiology may be normal in purely inflamed nerve root. Palpation may help in such inflammatory setting to refine our assessment further. Confirmation of sciatica is done by selective nerve root block (SNRB) today but it is fraught with several complications and needs elaborate inpatient and operating room set up. We have used the unique property of the pseudo unipolar axon that both its ends have similar functional properties and so inject along its peripheral end sodium channel blockers to block the basic cause of the mechanosensitization namely upregulated sodium channels in the root or DRG. Thus using palpation we may be able to detect symptomatic nerve in stage of inflammation and with distal end injection, along same inflamed nerve we may be able to abolish and so confirm sciatica. Discussions of sciatica pain diagnosis tend to immediately shift and centre on the affected disc rather than the nerve. Theoretically it may be possible to detect the affected nerve by palpating the

  9. Method of Detecting Coliform Bacteria from Reflected Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of detecting coliform bacteria in water from reflected light, and also includes devices for the measurement, calculation and transmission of data relating to that method.

  10. Method for detection of antibodies for metallic elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrick, Charles W.; Clarke, Sara M.; Nordin, Carl W.

    1993-11-30

    An apparatus and method for detecting antibodies specific to non-protein antigens. The apparatus is an immunological plate containing a plurality of plastic projections coated with a non-protein material. Assays utilizing the plate are capable of stabilizing the non-protein antigens with detection levels for antibodies specific to the antigens on a nanogram level. A screening assay with the apparatus allows for early detection of exposure to non-protein materials. Specifically metallic elements are detected.

  11. Novel Methods for Detecting Buried Explosive Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-10

    hypothesized that the light is a lure for other fish, which are then snapped up by the host fish as a meal. This type of light production is familiar to...shape, which defeats most projective techniques such as x-ray or neutron absorption or scattering. The very low vapor pressures and the...with activated neutron methods. Mines have NQR signatures; tree roots do not. NQR exploits the electromagnetic interaction between atomic nuclei

  12. Islanding detection scheme based on adaptive identifier signal estimation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi, M; Noroozian, R; Gharehpetian, G B

    2017-11-01

    This paper proposes a novel, passive-based anti-islanding method for both inverter and synchronous machine-based distributed generation (DG) units. Unfortunately, when the active/reactive power mismatches are near to zero, majority of the passive anti-islanding methods cannot detect the islanding situation, correctly. This study introduces a new islanding detection method based on exponentially damped signal estimation method. The proposed method uses adaptive identifier method for estimating of the frequency deviation of the point of common coupling (PCC) link as a target signal that can detect the islanding condition with near-zero active power imbalance. Main advantage of the adaptive identifier method over other signal estimation methods is its small sampling window. In this paper, the adaptive identifier based islanding detection method introduces a new detection index entitled decision signal by estimating of oscillation frequency of the PCC frequency and can detect islanding conditions, properly. In islanding conditions, oscillations frequency of PCC frequency reach to zero, thus threshold setting for decision signal is not a tedious job. The non-islanding transient events, which can cause a significant deviation in the PCC frequency are considered in simulations. These events include different types of faults, load changes, capacitor bank switching, and motor starting. Further, for islanding events, the capability of the proposed islanding detection method is verified by near-to-zero active power mismatches. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Vibration Based Methods For Damage Detection In Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoach E.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration based damage detection methods are among the most popular and promising approaches for health monitoring of structures. In this work a critical review of different methods for damage detection methods of structures is presented. The theoretical bases of the most popular methods based on the changes in the modal properties of the structures are deduced. The review includes the modal displacements, the mode shape slopes, the modal curvatures and the strain energy methods. The efficiency of all these methods is compared by using a finite element analysis of intact and damaged beams. The methods are tested experimentally by using a scanning laser vibrometer to measure the modal properties of specially prepared composite beams with defects. All this methods are compared with the damage detection method based on the analysis of the Poincaré maps of the motion of the structures. Conclusions concerning the advantages and the applicability of the considered methods are deduced.

  14. A review on automated pavement distress detection methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Tom B.J.; Golroo, Amir

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, extensive research has been conducted on pavement distress detection. A large part of these studies applied automated methods to capture different distresses. In this paper, a literature review on the distresses and related detection methods are presented. This review also includes

  15. A model based method for retinal blood vessel detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, K. A.; Vos, F. M.; Lemij, H. G.; Vossepoel, A. M.

    2004-01-01

    Retinal blood vessels are important structures in ophthalmological images. Many detection methods are available, but the results are not always satisfactory. In this paper, we present a novel model based method for blood vessel detection in retinal images. It is based on a Laplace and thresholding

  16. Laser pulse detection method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, W.; Janesick, J. R.

    1984-02-01

    A sensor is described for detecting the difference in phase of a pair of returned light pulse components, such as two components of a light pulse of an optical gyro. In an optic gyro, the two light components have passed in opposite directions through a coil of optical fiber, with the difference in phase of the returned light components determining the intensity of light shining on the sensor. The sensor includes a CCD (charge coupled device) that receives the pair of returned light components to generate a charge proportional to the number of photons in the received light. The amount of the charge represents the phase difference between the two light components. At a time after the transmission of the light pulse and before the expected time of arrival of the interfering light components, charge accumulating in the CCD as a result of reflections from components in the system, are repeatedly removed from the CCD, by transferring out charges in the CCD and dumping these charges.

  17. Conditional anomaly detection methods for patient-management alert systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valko, Michal; Cooper, Gregory; Seybert, Amy; Visweswaran, Shyam; Saul, Melissa; Hauskrecht, Milos

    2008-07-01

    Anomaly detection methods can be very useful in identifying unusual or interesting patterns in data. A recently proposed conditional anomaly detection framework extends anomaly detection to the problem of identifying anomalous patterns on a subset of attributes in the data. The anomaly always depends (is conditioned) on the value of remaining attributes. The work presented in this paper focuses on instance-based methods for detecting conditional anomalies. The methods rely on the distance metric to identify examples in the dataset that are most critical for detecting the anomaly. We investigate various metrics and metric learning methods to optimize the performance of the instance-based anomaly detection methods. We show the benefits of the instance-based methods on two real-world detection problems: detection of unusual admission decisions for patients with the community-acquired pneumonia and detection of unusual orders of an HPF4 test that is used to confirm Heparin induced thrombocytopenia - a life-threatening condition caused by the Heparin therapy.

  18. Conditional anomaly detection methods for patient–management alert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valko, Michal; Cooper, Gregory; Seybert, Amy; Visweswaran, Shyam; Saul, Melissa; Hauskrecht, Milos

    2010-01-01

    Anomaly detection methods can be very useful in identifying unusual or interesting patterns in data. A recently proposed conditional anomaly detection framework extends anomaly detection to the problem of identifying anomalous patterns on a subset of attributes in the data. The anomaly always depends (is conditioned) on the value of remaining attributes. The work presented in this paper focuses on instance–based methods for detecting conditional anomalies. The methods rely on the distance metric to identify examples in the dataset that are most critical for detecting the anomaly. We investigate various metrics and metric learning methods to optimize the performance of the instance–based anomaly detection methods. We show the benefits of the instance–based methods on two real–world detection problems: detection of unusual admission decisions for patients with the community–acquired pneumonia and detection of unusual orders of an HPF4 test that is used to confirm Heparin induced thrombocytopenia — a life–threatening condition caused by the Heparin therapy. PMID:25392850

  19. Method for detecting trace impurities in gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, S.M.; Maier, W.B. II; Holland, R.F.; Beattie, W.H.

    A technique for considerably improving the sensitivity and specificity of infrared spectrometry as applied to quantitative determination of trace impurities in various carrier or solvent gases is presented. A gas to be examined for impurities is liquefied and infrared absorption spectra of the liquid are obtained. Spectral simplification and number densities of impurities in the optical path are substantially higher than are obtainable in similar gas-phase analyses. Carbon dioxide impurity (approx. 2 ppM) present in commercial Xe and ppM levels of Freon 12 and vinyl chloride added to liquefied air are used to illustrate the method.

  20. Comparison of multi-mode parallel detection microscopy methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dazhao; Fang, Yue; Chen, Youhua; Hussain, Anwar; Kuang, Cuifang; Ding, Zhihua; Liu, Xu

    2017-03-01

    Four microscopy resolution enhancement methods based on parallel detection were investigated in this study: confocal microscopy with four pinhole sizes, fluorescence emission difference microscopy (FED) based on parallel detection, Airyscan microscopy, and virtual k-vector modulation optical microscopy (Vikmom). These methods use different algorithms to process parallel detection data and achieve resolution improvement. We investigated these methods first by performing simulations and then experimentally. In this report, the basic theories of these methods are briefly introduced. Then, analyses and comparisons of their imaging performances, especially in terms of resolution improvement, imaging speed, and signal-to-noise ratio, are presented. Finally, the results of our comparative study are summarized.

  1. Moving target detection method based on improved Gaussian mixture model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J. Y.; Jie, F. R.; Hu, Y. J.

    2017-07-01

    Gaussian Mixture Model is often employed to build background model in background difference methods for moving target detection. This paper puts forward an adaptive moving target detection algorithm based on improved Gaussian Mixture Model. According to the graylevel convergence for each pixel, adaptively choose the number of Gaussian distribution to learn and update background model. Morphological reconstruction method is adopted to eliminate the shadow.. Experiment proved that the proposed method not only has good robustness and detection effect, but also has good adaptability. Even for the special cases when the grayscale changes greatly and so on, the proposed method can also make outstanding performance.

  2. Reliably Detectable Flaw Size for NDE Methods that Use Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay M.

    2017-01-01

    Probability of detection (POD) analysis is used in assessing reliably detectable flaw size in nondestructive evaluation (NDE). MIL-HDBK-1823 and associated mh1823 POD software gives most common methods of POD analysis. In this paper, POD analysis is applied to an NDE method, such as eddy current testing, where calibration is used. NDE calibration standards have known size artificial flaws such as electro-discharge machined (EDM) notches and flat bottom hole (FBH) reflectors which are used to set instrument sensitivity for detection of real flaws. Real flaws such as cracks and crack-like flaws are desired to be detected using these NDE methods. A reliably detectable crack size is required for safe life analysis of fracture critical parts. Therefore, it is important to correlate signal responses from real flaws with signal responses form artificial flaws used in calibration process to determine reliably detectable flaw size.

  3. An Improved GLRT Method for Target Detection in SAR Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Yingyun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic ground vehicle detection based on SAR imagery is one of the important military applications of SAR. A region-based generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT method is proposed in this paper, and this method combines the GLRT detection theory and image segmentation technology. First, the SAR imagery is roughly segmented as land clutter region and potential target region through the split and merge procedure often used for processing the original images. Then, based on the segmentation results, the reasonable statistical models for the data in the two regions are built respectively. Finally, with the knowledge of statistical characteristics of clutter and target, GLRT detection method is applied to the each pixel in the potential target region to obtain more accurate detection results. Experimental results based on real SAR data show that the proposed method can effectively detect the ground vehicle targets from the land clutter with excellent accuracy and speed.

  4. Systems and Methods for Automated Water Detection Using Visible Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Arturo L. (Inventor); Matthies, Larry H. (Inventor); Bellutta, Paolo (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods are disclosed that include automated machine vision that can utilize images of scenes captured by a 3D imaging system configured to image light within the visible light spectrum to detect water. One embodiment includes autonomously detecting water bodies within a scene including capturing at least one 3D image of a scene using a sensor system configured to detect visible light and to measure distance from points within the scene to the sensor system, and detecting water within the scene using a processor configured to detect regions within each of the at least one 3D images that possess at least one characteristic indicative of the presence of water.

  5. 25 Years of Self-organized Criticality: Numerical Detection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAteer, R. T. James; Aschwanden, Markus J.; Dimitropoulou, Michaila; Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Pruessner, Gunnar; Morales, Laura; Ireland, Jack; Abramenko, Valentyna

    2016-01-01

    The detection and characterization of self-organized criticality (SOC), in both real and simulated data, has undergone many significant revisions over the past 25 years. The explosive advances in the many numerical methods available for detecting, discriminating, and ultimately testing, SOC have played a critical role in developing our understanding of how systems experience and exhibit SOC. In this article, methods of detecting SOC are reviewed; from correlations to complexity to critical quantities. A description of the basic autocorrelation method leads into a detailed analysis of application-oriented methods developed in the last 25 years. In the second half of this manuscript space-based, time-based and spatial-temporal methods are reviewed and the prevalence of power laws in nature is described, with an emphasis on event detection and characterization. The search for numerical methods to clearly and unambiguously detect SOC in data often leads us outside the comfort zone of our own disciplines—the answers to these questions are often obtained by studying the advances made in other fields of study. In addition, numerical detection methods often provide the optimum link between simulations and experiments in scientific research. We seek to explore this boundary where the rubber meets the road, to review this expanding field of research of numerical detection of SOC systems over the past 25 years, and to iterate forwards so as to provide some foresight and guidance into developing breakthroughs in this subject over the next quarter of a century.

  6. A Method of Detections' Fusion for GNSS Anti-Spoofing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Huiqi; Li, Hong; Lu, Mingquan

    2016-12-19

    The spoofing attack is one of the security threats of systems depending on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). There have been many GNSS spoofing detection methods, and each of them focuses on a characteristic of the GNSS signal or a measurement that the receiver has obtained. The method based on a single detector is insufficient against spoofing attacks in some scenarios. How to fuse multiple detections together is a problem that concerns the performance of GNSS anti-spoofing. Scholars have put forward a model to fuse different detection results based on the Dempster-Shafer theory (DST) of evidence combination. However, there are some problems in the application. The main challenge is the valuation of the belief function, which is a key issue in DST. This paper proposes a practical method of detections' fusion based on an approach to assign the belief function for spoofing detections. The frame of discernment is simplified, and the hard decision of hypothesis testing is replaced by the soft decision; then, the belief functions for some detections can be evaluated. The method is discussed in detail, and a performance evaluation is provided, as well. Detections' fusion reduces false alarms of detection and makes the result more reliable. Experimental results based on public test datasets demonstrate the performance of the proposed method.

  7. Comparative analysis of methods for detecting interacting loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Xiguo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interactions among genetic loci are believed to play an important role in disease risk. While many methods have been proposed for detecting such interactions, their relative performance remains largely unclear, mainly because different data sources, detection performance criteria, and experimental protocols were used in the papers introducing these methods and in subsequent studies. Moreover, there have been very few studies strictly focused on comparison of existing methods. Given the importance of detecting gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, a rigorous, comprehensive comparison of performance and limitations of available interaction detection methods is warranted. Results We report a comparison of eight representative methods, of which seven were specifically designed to detect interactions among single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, with the last a popular main-effect testing method used as a baseline for performance evaluation. The selected methods, multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR, full interaction model (FIM, information gain (IG, Bayesian epistasis association mapping (BEAM, SNP harvester (SH, maximum entropy conditional probability modeling (MECPM, logistic regression with an interaction term (LRIT, and logistic regression (LR were compared on a large number of simulated data sets, each, consistent with complex disease models, embedding multiple sets of interacting SNPs, under different interaction models. The assessment criteria included several relevant detection power measures, family-wise type I error rate, and computational complexity. There are several important results from this study. First, while some SNPs in interactions with strong effects are successfully detected, most of the methods miss many interacting SNPs at an acceptable rate of false positives. In this study, the best-performing method was MECPM. Second, the statistical significance assessment criteria, used by some of the

  8. Comparison between Listeria monocytogenes single and multipathogen detection methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Rodrigues de Souza

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Multipathogen detection methods have been used to provide a broad range of microorganism detection. We aimed to identify the most searched pathogens in L. monocytogenes detection methods and evaluate if there are sensitivity and specificity differences between single and multipathogen methods. A systematic review was performed by including studies carried out in order to detect L. monocytogenes in a broad range of food sample. A total of 2770 records were retrieved, of which 191 were selected. The majority of the studies (104 presented multipathogen detection, other 87 searched for L. monocytogenes specifically. From the studies for multipathogen detection; other Listeria species (19.4%, Salmonella spp. (21.6%, E. coli O157:H7 (13.2%, Staphylococcus spp. (9.7%, E. coli (5.7% were more frequently reported. Sensitivity and specificity calculations were derived from only 26 studies, because they compared their data with an official method. Sensitivity and specificity values were close to 100%, showing that others characteristics such as time and cost should be considered to evaluate alternative methods in further research. As a conclusion, evidence generated regarding L. monocytogenes identification methods contribute to method improvements and listeriosis control.

  9. Soybean allergen detection methods--a comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mona H; Holzhauser, Thomas; Bisson, Caroline; Conti, Amedeo; Jensen, Louise B; Skov, Per S; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Brinch, Ditte S; Poulsen, Lars K

    2008-12-01

    Soybean containing products are widely consumed, thus reliable methods for detection of soy in foods are needed in order to make appropriate risk assessment studies to adequately protect soy allergic patients. Six methods were compared using eight food products with a declared content of soy: a direct sandwich ELISA based on polyclonal rabbit antibody (ab) to raw soy flakes, a commercial and an in-house competitive ELISA both based on ab to denatured, 'renatured' soy protein, an enzyme-allergosorbent test (EAST) inhibition based on two sera from soy allergic patients, histamine release (HR) using basophils passively sensitized with patient serum and a PCR method detecting soy DNA. Eight food products were selected as model foods to test the performance of the methods. There was an overall good agreement between the methods in terms of ranks of soy content but not the quantity. The sandwich ELISA aimed at native soy proteins had the lowest detection limit of 0.05 ppm, but only identified soy in 5/8 products, and generally in lower amounts compared to other methods. The competitive ELISA had a higher detection limit of 21 ppm, but seemed more successful in detecting processed soy. Only HR, EAST inhibition and PCR detected soy in all eight products. In spite of a general good correlation in terms of ranks of soy content, more than a single method may be necessary to confirm the presence of soy in foods.

  10. DNA based methods used for characterization and detection of food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-04

    May 4, 2009 ... Detection of food borne pathogen is of outmost importance in the food industries and related agencies. For the last few decades conventional methods were used to detect food borne pathogens based on phenotypic characters. At the advent of complementary base pairing and amplification of DNA, the.

  11. [Standardization of technical methods for apple fluorescence canopy spectral detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xi-Cun; Zhao, Geng-Xing; Lei, Tong; Wang, Ling; Dong, Fang; Wang, Jing-An

    2010-06-01

    Aiming at spectral detection of apple fluorescence canopy, the present paper carried out spectral detection tests under different weather conditions, different detection times, and different detection heights and angles to apple canopy in the two years of 2008 and 2009, so as to analyze impacts of these factors on apple canopy spectral characteristics and explore standardized spectral detection methods for apple fluorescence canopy. The results indicated the regularity in spectral reflectance of apple fluorescence canopy to a certain degree under different conditions, especially in the 760-1 350 nm near-infrared bands. The authors found that canopy spectral reflectance declined along with the decrease in sunshine and it is appropriate to detect canopy spectrum in sunny days with few clouds. In addition, spectral reflectance tended to be stable when the wind scale was below grade 2. The discrepancy of canopy spectra is small during the time period from 10:00 to 15:00 of a day compared to that of other times. For maintaining stable spectral curves, the height of detector to apple canopy needed to be adjusted to cover the whole canopy within the field of view according to detection angle of the detector. The vertical or approximately vertical detection was the best for canopy spectral reflectance acquisition. The standardization of technical methods of spectral detection for apple fluorescence canopy was proposed accordingly, which provided theoretical references for spectral detection and information extraction of apple tree canopy.

  12. [Fast Implementation Method of Protein Spots Detection Based on CUDA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Bangshu; Ye, Yijia; Ou, Qiaofeng; Zhang, Haodong

    2016-02-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of protein spots detection, a fast detection method based on CUDA was proposed. Firstly, the parallel algorithms of the three most time-consuming parts in the protein spots detection algorithm: image preprocessing, coarse protein point detection and overlapping point segmentation were studied. Then, according to single instruction multiple threads executive model of CUDA to adopted data space strategy of separating two-dimensional (2D) images into blocks, various optimizing measures such as shared memory and 2D texture memory are adopted in this study. The results show that the operative efficiency of this method is obviously improved compared to CPU calculation. As the image size increased, this method makes more improvement in efficiency, such as for the image with the size of 2,048 x 2,048, the method of CPU needs 52,641 ms, but the GPU needs only 4,384 ms.

  13. Passive background correction method for spatially resolved detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Randal L [Tijeras, NM; Hargis, Jr., Philip J.

    2011-05-10

    A method for passive background correction during spatially or angularly resolved detection of emission that is based on the simultaneous acquisition of both the passive background spectrum and the spectrum of the target of interest.

  14. Karst topography : noninvasive geophysical detection methods and construction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this project was to investigate the current state of the practice with regards to karst detection : methods and current karst construction practices and to recommend the best practices for use by the Virginia : Department of Transpor...

  15. Research advancement of detection methods of Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yunxia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen of both human beings and animals,which has been widely recognized over the world.L.monocytogenes can be found in dairy products,vegetables,meat and other food,so it has caused great threat to human health.How to detect the trace of L.monocytogenes is a key link in the process of food-borne disease prevention and control.A wide variety of culture and alternative methods have been developed in order to detect this pathogen in food.The current articl introduces the traditional detection method and all kinds of rapid methods such as immunoassay,biosensors,Bacteriophage-based detection methods and molecular biological assay.

  16. A HTK-based Method for Detecting Vocal Fold Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidnezhad, Vahid

    2014-08-01

    In recent years a number of methods based on acoustic analysis were developed for vocal fold pathology detection. These methods can be categorized in two categories:a) detection based on the phonemes b) detection based on the continuous speeches. While there are many researches which belong to the first category, there are few efforts for detecting vocal fold pathology based on the continuous speeches (second category). In this work, a method based on the Hidden Markov model Toolkit (HTK) for detecting vocal fold pathology in the Russian digits is developed which belongs to the second category. It employs a three state HMM for modeling each phoneme. According to the results of the experiments, the proposed method achieves the 90% of detection accuracy. The proposed method is one of the first works for detecting vocal fold pathology based on the Russian digits (from 1 to 10) for Belorussian people. The reported accuracy is rather good and therefore it is recommended to use it as an auxiliary tool in medical centers.

  17. Recent developments in detection methods for microfabricated analytical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, M A; Hauser, P C

    2001-09-01

    Sensitive detection in microfluidic analytical devices is a challenge because of the extremely small detection volumes available. Considerable efforts have been made lately to further address this aspect and to investigate techniques other than fluorescence. Among the newly introduced techniques are the optical methods of chemiluminescence, refraction and thermooptics, as well as the electrochemical methods of amperometry, conductimetry and potentiometry. Developments are also in progress to create miniaturized plasma-emission spectrometers and sensitive detectors for gas-chromatographic separations.

  18. The regularized monotonicity method: detecting irregular indefinite inclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Henrik; Staboulis, Stratos

    2017-01-01

    In inclusion detection in electrical impedance tomography, the support of perturbations (inclusion) from a known background conductivity is typically reconstructed from idealized continuum data modelled by a Neumann-to-Dirichlet map. Only few reconstruction methods apply when detecting indefinite...... of approximative measurement models, including the Complete Electrode Model, hence making the method robust against modelling error and noise. In particular, we demonstrate that for a convergent family of approximative models there exists a sequence of regularization parameters such that the outer shape...

  19. A new method for abrupt change detection in dynamic structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. P. He

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA, we propose a new method – Moving Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MDFA – to detect abrupt change in dynamic structures. Application of this technique shows that this method may be of use in detecting time-instants of abrupt change in dynamic structures and we even find that the MDFA results almost do not depend on length of subseries, and are less affected by noise.

  20. Dynamic baseline detection method for power data network service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes a dynamic baseline Traffic detection Method which is based on the historical traffic data for the Power data network. The method uses Cisco's NetFlow acquisition tool to collect the original historical traffic data from network element at fixed intervals. This method uses three dimensions information including the communication port, time, traffic (number of bytes or number of packets) t. By filtering, removing the deviation value, calculating the dynamic baseline value, comparing the actual value with the baseline value, the method can detect whether the current network traffic is abnormal.

  1. A visual saliency based method for vehicle logo detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Shen, Yiping; Chang, Hongxing

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a novel method based on visual saliency and template matching for detecting vehicle logo from images captured by cross-road cameras. To detect the logo, such method first generates a saliency map based on the modified Itti's saliency model, and then obtains regions of interest (ROI) by thresholding the saliency map, at last performs an edge-based template matching to locate the logo. Experiments on more than 2400 images validate both high accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method, and demonstrates our method suitable for real-time application.

  2. Defects detecting method of lamp cap of single soldering lug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jihe; Lv, Jidong

    2017-07-01

    In order to resolve the problems of low efficiency and large separating difference in fault detection of lamp holders with single soldering lug, an image-detection-based defect detection method is presented in this paper. The selected image is first preprocessed, where the possible area of soldering lug is cut in this preprocessing to narrow the scope for subsequent partition with the consideration that the smooth surface of metal at lamp holder and black insulation glass may reflect the light. Then, the soldering lug is extracted by a series of processing including clustering partition. Based on this, the defects are detected by regional marking, area comparison, circularity and coordinate deviation. The experiment results show that the designed method is simple and practical to detect main quality defects of lamp holder with single soldering lug correctly and efficiently.

  3. Musical Tone Law Method for the Structural Damage Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weisong Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage detection tests of inclined cables, steel pipes, spherical shells, and an actual cable-stayed bridge were conducted based on the proposed musical tone law method. The results show that the musical tone law method could be used in the damage detection of isotropic material structures with simple shape, like cables, pipes, plates, and shells. Having distinct spectral lines like a comb with a certain interval distribution rule is the main characteristic of the music tone law. Damage detection baseline could be established by quantizing the fitting relationship between modal orders and the corresponding frequency values. The main advantage of this method is that it could be used in the structural damage detection without vibration information of an intact structure as a reference.

  4. Support system and method for detecting neurodegenerative disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system and a method for detection of abnormal motor activity during REM sleep, and further to systems and method for assisting in detecting neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's. One embodiment relates to a method for detection of abnormal motor activity...... during REM sleep comprising the steps of: performing polysomnographic recordings of a sleeping subject, thereby obtaining one or more electromyography (EMG) derivations, preferably surface EMG recordings, and one or more EEG derivations, and/or one or more electrooculargraphy (EOG) derivations, detecting...... one or more REM sleep stages, preferably based on the one or more EEG and/or EOG derivations, determining the level of muscle activity during the one or more REM sleep stages based on the one or more EMG derivations, wherein a subject having an increased level of muscle activity during REM sleep...

  5. Methods, systems and devices for detecting and locating ferromagnetic objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roybal, Lyle Gene [Idaho Falls, ID; Kotter, Dale Kent [Shelley, ID; Rohrbaugh, David Thomas [Idaho Falls, ID; Spencer, David Frazer [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-01-26

    Methods for detecting and locating ferromagnetic objects in a security screening system. One method includes a step of acquiring magnetic data that includes magnetic field gradients detected during a period of time. Another step includes representing the magnetic data as a function of the period of time. Another step includes converting the magnetic data to being represented as a function of frequency. Another method includes a step of sensing a magnetic field for a period of time. Another step includes detecting a gradient within the magnetic field during the period of time. Another step includes identifying a peak value of the gradient detected during the period of time. Another step includes identifying a portion of time within the period of time that represents when the peak value occurs. Another step includes configuring the portion of time over the period of time to represent a ratio.

  6. A simulation study of three methods for detecting disease clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuelsen Sven O

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cluster detection is an important part of spatial epidemiology because it can help identifying environmental factors associated with disease and thus guide investigation of the aetiology of diseases. In this article we study three methods suitable for detecting local spatial clusters: (1 a spatial scan statistic (SaTScan, (2 generalized additive models (GAM and (3 Bayesian disease mapping (BYM. We conducted a simulation study to compare the methods. Seven geographic clusters with different shapes were initially chosen as high-risk areas. Different scenarios for the magnitude of the relative risk of these areas as compared to the normal risk areas were considered. For each scenario the performance of the methods were assessed in terms of the sensitivity, specificity, and percentage correctly classified for each cluster. Results The performance depends on the relative risk, but all methods are in general suitable for identifying clusters with a relative risk larger than 1.5. However, it is difficult to detect clusters with lower relative risks. The GAM approach had the highest sensitivity, but relatively low specificity leading to an overestimation of the cluster area. Both the BYM and the SaTScan methods work well. Clusters with irregular shapes are more difficult to detect than more circular clusters. Conclusion Based on our simulations we conclude that the methods differ in their ability to detect spatial clusters. Different aspects should be considered for appropriate choice of method such as size and shape of the assumed spatial clusters and the relative importance of sensitivity and specificity. In general, the BYM method seems preferable for local cluster detection with relatively high relative risks whereas the SaTScan method appears preferable for lower relative risks. The GAM method needs to be tuned (using cross-validation to get satisfactory results.

  7. Methods and applications for detecting structure in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht, Elizabeth A.

    The use of networks to represent systems of interacting components is now common in many fields including the biological, physical, and social sciences. Network models are widely applicable due to their relatively simple framework of vertices and edges. Network structure, patterns of connection between vertices, impacts both the functioning of networks and processes occurring on networks. However, many aspects of network structure are still poorly understood. This dissertation presents a set of network analysis methods and applications to real-world as well as simulated networks. The methods are divided into two main types: linear algebra formulations and probabilistic mixture model techniques. Network models lend themselves to compact mathematical representation as matrices, making linear algebra techniques useful probes of network structure. We present methods for the detection of two distinct, but related, network structural forms. First, we derive a measure of vertex similarity based upon network structure. The method builds on existing ideas concerning calculation of vertex similarity, but generalizes and extends the scope to large networks. Second, we address the detection of communities or modules in a specific class of networks, directed networks. We propose a method for detecting community structure in directed networks, which is an extension of a community detection method previously only known for undirected networks. Moving away from linear algebra formulations, we propose two methods for network structure detection based on probabilistic techniques. In the first method, we use the machinery of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to probe patterns of connection among vertices in static networks. The technique allows for the detection of a broad range of types of structure in networks. The second method focuses on time evolving networks. We propose an application of the EM algorithm to evolving networks that can reveal significant structural

  8. A method for detecting positive growth autocorrelation without marking individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Mollie E; McCoy, Michael W; Bolker, Benjamin M

    2013-01-01

    In most ecological studies, within-group variation is a nuisance that obscures patterns of interest and reduces statistical power. However, patterns of within-group variability often contain information about ecological processes. In particular, such patterns can be used to detect positive growth autocorrelation (consistent variation in growth rates among individuals in a cohort across time), even in samples of unmarked individuals. Previous methods for detecting autocorrelated growth required data from marked individuals. We propose a method that requires only estimates of within-cohort variance through time, using maximum likelihood methods to obtain point estimates and confidence intervals of the correlation parameter. We test our method on simulated data sets and determine the loss in statistical power due to the inability to identify individuals. We show how to accommodate nonlinear growth trajectories and test the effects of size-dependent mortality on our method's accuracy. The method can detect significant growth autocorrelation at moderate levels of autocorrelation with moderate-sized cohorts (for example, statistical power of 80% to detect growth autocorrelation ρ (2) = 0.5 in a cohort of 100 individuals measured on 16 occasions). We present a case study of growth in the red-eyed tree frog. Better quantification of the processes driving size variation will help ecologists improve predictions of population dynamics. This work will help researchers to detect growth autocorrelation in cases where marking is logistically infeasible or causes unacceptable decreases in the fitness of marked individuals.

  9. A method for detecting positive growth autocorrelation without marking individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollie E Brooks

    Full Text Available In most ecological studies, within-group variation is a nuisance that obscures patterns of interest and reduces statistical power. However, patterns of within-group variability often contain information about ecological processes. In particular, such patterns can be used to detect positive growth autocorrelation (consistent variation in growth rates among individuals in a cohort across time, even in samples of unmarked individuals. Previous methods for detecting autocorrelated growth required data from marked individuals. We propose a method that requires only estimates of within-cohort variance through time, using maximum likelihood methods to obtain point estimates and confidence intervals of the correlation parameter. We test our method on simulated data sets and determine the loss in statistical power due to the inability to identify individuals. We show how to accommodate nonlinear growth trajectories and test the effects of size-dependent mortality on our method's accuracy. The method can detect significant growth autocorrelation at moderate levels of autocorrelation with moderate-sized cohorts (for example, statistical power of 80% to detect growth autocorrelation ρ (2 = 0.5 in a cohort of 100 individuals measured on 16 occasions. We present a case study of growth in the red-eyed tree frog. Better quantification of the processes driving size variation will help ecologists improve predictions of population dynamics. This work will help researchers to detect growth autocorrelation in cases where marking is logistically infeasible or causes unacceptable decreases in the fitness of marked individuals.

  10. Dirichlet Methods for Bayesian Source Detection in Radio Astronomy Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, A. M.

    2014-02-01

    The sheer volume of data to be produced by the next generation of radio telescopes - exabytes of data on hundreds of millions of objects - makes automated methods for the detection of astronomical objects ("sources") essential. Of particular importance are low surface brightness objects, which are not well found by current automated methods. This thesis explores Bayesian methods for source detection that use Dirichlet or multinomial models for pixel intensity distributions in discretised radio astronomy images. A novel image discretisation method that incorporates uncertainty about how the image should be discretised is developed. Latent Dirichlet allocation - a method originally developed for inferring latent topics in document collections - is used to estimate source and background distributions in radio astronomy images. A new Dirichlet-multinomial ratio, indicating how well a region conforms to a well-specified model of background versus a loosely-specified model of foreground, is derived. Finally, latent Dirichlet allocation and the Dirichlet-multinomial ratio are combined for source detection in astronomical images. The methods developed in this thesis perform source detection well in comparison to two widely-used source detection packages and, importantly, find dim sources not well found by other algorithms.

  11. Method Designed To Detect Alginate-Degrading Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Kitamikado, Manabu; Yamaguchi, Kuniko; Tseng, Chao-Huang; Okabe, Bun'Ichi

    1990-01-01

    A simple turbidimetric method was developed to detect alginate degradation. Bacteria were grown in alginate-containing media, and culture fluids were mixed with an acidic albumin solution. Failure to develop a white turbidity indicated an alginate degrader. The method showed alginate degradation by Vibrio alginolyticus ATCC 17749, in contrast to prior descriptions.

  12. Laboratory methods for diagnosis and detection of drug resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To outline principles, advantages and limitations of the currently available laboratory methods for diagnosis and detection of drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Data source: Published series of peer reviewed journals and manuals written on laboratory methods that are currently used for ...

  13. Evaluation of parasitological methods for the detection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Strongyloides stercoralis causes chronic intestinal infection that may lead to disseminated disease during immunosuppression. Therefore, efficient diagnostic methods are essential to detect silent and latent infections. The present study was aimed to compare the efficacy of parasitological methods for the ...

  14. A Double Polymerase Chain Reaction Method for Detecting African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To establish a double polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the simultaneous detection of African swine fever virus (ASFV) and swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV). Methods: By using reference sequences of ASFV and SVDV, this study synthesized parts of the genes connected to the 19-T vector which ...

  15. Statistical methods for damage detection applied to civil structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gres, Szymon; Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard; Döhler, Michael

    2017-01-01

    and compared to the well-known subspace-based damage detection algorithm in the context of two large case studies. Both methods are implemented in the modal analysis and structural health monitoring software ARTeMIS, in which the joint features of the methods are concluded in a control chart in an attempt...

  16. Soybean allergen detection methods--a comparison study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, M. Højgaard; Holzhauser, T.; Bisson, C.

    2008-01-01

    Soybean containing products are widely consumed, thus reliable methods for detection of soy in foods are needed in order to make appropriate risk assessment studies to adequately protect soy allergic patients. Six methods were compared using eight food products with a declared content of soy...

  17. Bayesian methods for discontinuity detection in climate model predictions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safta, Cosmin; Debusschere, Bert J.; Najm, Habib N.; Sargsyan, Khachik

    2010-06-01

    Discontinuity detection is an important component in many fields: Image recognition, Digital signal processing, and Climate change research. Current methods shortcomings are: Restricted to one- or two-dimensional setting, Require uniformly spaced and/or dense input data, and Give deterministic answers without quantifying the uncertainty. Spectral methods for Uncertainty Quantification with global, smooth bases are challenged by discontinuities in model simulation results. Domain decomposition reduces the impact of nonlinearities and discontinuities. However, while gaining more smoothness in each subdomain, the current domain refinement methods require prohibitively many simulations. Therefore, detecting discontinuities up front and refining accordingly provides huge improvement to the current methodologies.

  18. Methods for detection of GMOs in food and feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmiroli, Nelson; Maestri, Elena; Gullì, Mariolina; Malcevschi, Alessio; Peano, Clelia; Bordoni, Roberta; De Bellis, Gianluca

    2008-10-01

    This paper reviews aspects relevant to detection and quantification of genetically modified (GM) material within the feed/food chain. The GM crop regulatory framework at the international level is evaluated with reference to traceability and labelling. Current analytical methods for the detection, identification, and quantification of transgenic DNA in food and feed are reviewed. These methods include quantitative real-time PCR, multiplex PCR, and multiplex real-time PCR. Particular attention is paid to methods able to identify multiple GM events in a single reaction and to the development of microdevices and microsensors, though they have not been fully validated for application.

  19. Statistical methods for damage detection applied to civil structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gres, Szymon; Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard; Döhler, Michael

    2017-01-01

    of the structure. The practical aspect of using only the output measurements cause difficulties because of variations in ambient excitation due to variability in the environmental conditions, like sea, wind, and temperature. In this paper, a new Mahalanobis distance-based damage detection method is studied...... and compared to the well-known subspace-based damage detection algorithm in the context of two large case studies. Both methods are implemented in the modal analysis and structural health monitoring software ARTeMIS, in which the joint features of the methods are concluded in a control chart in an attempt...... of the two damage detection methods is similar, hereby implying merit of the new Mahalanobis distance-based approach, as it is less computational complex. The fusion of the damage indicators in the control chart provides the most accurate view on the progressively damaged systems....

  20. Assessment of subnetwork detection methods for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Biaobin; Gribskov, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Subnetwork detection is often used with differential expression analysis to identify modules or pathways associated with a disease or condition. Many computational methods are available for subnetwork analysis. Here, we compare the results of eight methods: simulated annealing-based jActiveModules, greedy search-based jActiveModules, DEGAS, BioNet, NetBox, ClustEx, OptDis, and NetWalker. These methods represent distinctly different computational strategies and are among the most widely used. Each of these methods was used to analyze gene expression data consisting of paired tumor and normal samples from 50 breast cancer patients. While the number of genes/proteins and protein interactions detected by the eight methods vary widely, a core set of 60 genes and 50 interactions was found to be shared by the subnetworks identified by five or more of the methods. Within the core set, 12 genes were found to be known breast cancer genes.

  1. A comparative study of some methods of detecting ovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, H N; Bhatia, S; Bhatnagar, V M; Sur, B K; Singh, R

    1974-01-01

    Ovulation detection is important in fertility control or promotion. This study compares 2 methods of ovulation detection, Basal Body Temperature (BBT) and calorimetric readings of urine by Sevag and Colton's method, in 70 healthy unmarried medical students (17 to 25 years old) from the G.S.V.M. Medical College, Kanpur. The girls were thoroughly instructed in BBT record maintenance, including a record of dates of occurrence of intermenstrual abdominal pain and appearance of vaginal discharge of clear slippery mucus. Sevag and Colton's method for detecting day of ovulation involved chemical examination of urine collected between 11 p.m. and 7:00 a.m. for successive nights. Ovulation day in all cycles fell within the 6th to 18th day range. Both methods gave similar results in range and distribution of ovulatory days and incidence of ovulatory/anovulatory cycles. Both methods found 88.6% of total cycles to be anovulatory. Occurrence of intermenstrual pain and appearance of characteristic vaginal mucus discharge occurred in 5.7% and 20% of ovulatory cycles, if these phenomena are taken as criteria for ovulation. Ovulation day occurred within the range of 8th to 15th day in 91.4% of ovulatory cycles in the chemical method and in 89.8% of ovulatory cycles in the BBT method. The study shows that ovulation detection by either chemical examination of urine or BBT record has some degree of reliability, but intermenstrual pain or characteristic vaginal mucus discharge have limited value.

  2. A New Outlier Detection Method for Multidimensional Datasets

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel Messih, Mario A.

    2012-07-01

    This study develops a novel hybrid method for outlier detection (HMOD) that combines the idea of distance based and density based methods. The proposed method has two main advantages over most of the other outlier detection methods. The first advantage is that it works well on both dense and sparse datasets. The second advantage is that, unlike most other outlier detection methods that require careful parameter setting and prior knowledge of the data, HMOD is not very sensitive to small changes in parameter values within certain parameter ranges. The only required parameter to set is the number of nearest neighbors. In addition, we made a fully parallelized implementation of HMOD that made it very efficient in applications. Moreover, we proposed a new way of using the outlier detection for redundancy reduction in datasets where the confidence level that evaluates how accurate the less redundant dataset can be used to represent the original dataset can be specified by users. HMOD is evaluated on synthetic datasets (dense and mixed “dense and sparse”) and a bioinformatics problem of redundancy reduction of dataset of position weight matrices (PWMs) of transcription factor binding sites. In addition, in the process of assessing the performance of our redundancy reduction method, we developed a simple tool that can be used to evaluate the confidence level of reduced dataset representing the original dataset. The evaluation of the results shows that our method can be used in a wide range of problems.

  3. Detection of forced oscillations in power systems with multichannel methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follum, James D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The increasing availability of high fidelity, geographically dispersed measurements in power systems improves the ability of researchers and engineers to study dynamic behaviors in the grid. One such behavior that is garnering increased attention is the presence of forced oscillations. Power system engineers are interested in forced oscillations because they are often symptomatic of the malfunction or misoperation of equipment. Though the resulting oscillation is not always large in amplitude, the root cause may be serious. In this report, multi-channel forced oscillation detection methods are developed. These methods leverage previously developed detection approaches based on the periodogram and spectral-coherence. Making use of geographically distributed channels of data is shown to improved detection performance and shorten the delay before an oscillation can be detected in the online environment. Results from simulated and measured power system data are presented.

  4. A high-throughput multiplex method adapted for GMO detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Maher; Chupeau, Gaëlle; Berard, Aurélie; McKhann, Heather; Romaniuk, Marcel; Giancola, Sandra; Laval, Valérie; Bertheau, Yves; Brunel, Dominique

    2008-12-24

    A high-throughput multiplex assay for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMO) was developed on the basis of the existing SNPlex method designed for SNP genotyping. This SNPlex assay allows the simultaneous detection of up to 48 short DNA sequences (approximately 70 bp; "signature sequences") from taxa endogenous reference genes, from GMO constructions, screening targets, construct-specific, and event-specific targets, and finally from donor organisms. This assay avoids certain shortcomings of multiplex PCR-based methods already in widespread use for GMO detection. The assay demonstrated high specificity and sensitivity. The results suggest that this assay is reliable, flexible, and cost- and time-effective for high-throughput GMO detection.

  5. Transistor-based particle detection systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ankit; Nair, Pradeep R.; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful

    2015-06-09

    Transistor-based particle detection systems and methods may be configured to detect charged and non-charged particles. Such systems may include a supporting structure contacting a gate of a transistor and separating the gate from a dielectric of the transistor, and the transistor may have a near pull-in bias and a sub-threshold region bias to facilitate particle detection. The transistor may be configured to change current flow through the transistor in response to a change in stiffness of the gate caused by securing of a particle to the gate, and the transistor-based particle detection system may configured to detect the non-charged particle at least from the change in current flow.

  6. Effects of Feature Extraction and Classification Methods on Cyberbully Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Saraç, Esra; ÖZEL, Selma Ayşe

    2016-01-01

    Cyberbullying is defined as an aggressive, intentional action against a defenseless person by using the Internet, or other electronic contents. Researchers have found that many of the bullying cases have tragically ended in suicides; hence automatic detection of cyberbullying has become important. In this study we show the effects of feature extraction, feature selection, and classification methods that are used, on the performance of automatic detection of cyberbullying. To perform the exper...

  7. Detecting Pipe Bursts Using Heuristic and CUSUM Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, M.; Jung, D; Vreeburg, J.; van de Roer, M.; Lansey, K.; Rietveld, L.

    2014-01-01

    Pipe bursts in a drinking water distribution system lead to water losses, interruption of supply, and damage to streets and houses due to the uncontrolled water flow. To minimize the negative consequences of pipe bursts, an early detection is necessary. This paper describes a heuristic burst detection method, which continuously compares forecasted and measured values of the water demand. The forecasts of the water demand were generated by an adaptive water demand forecasting model. To test th...

  8. Monitoring marine populations and communities: methods dealing with imperfect detectability

    OpenAIRE

    Katsanevakis, Stelios; Weber, Anke; Pipitone, Carlo; Leopold, Mardik; Cronin, Michelle; Scheidat, Meike; Thomas K. Doyle; Buhl-Mortensen, Lene; Buhl-Mortensen, Pål; D’Anna, Giovanni; de Boois, I.J.; Dalpadado, Padmini; Damalas, Dimitrios; Fiorentino, Fabio; Garofalo, Germana

    2012-01-01

    Effective monitoring of populations and communities is a prerequisite for ecosystem-based management of marine areas. However, monitoring programs often neglect important sources of error and thus can lead to biased estimations, spurious conclusions, and false management actions. One such source of error is imperfect detectability, i.e. inability of investigators to detect all individuals or all species in a surveyed area. Although there has been great effort to develop monitoring methods tha...

  9. [Review of driver fatigue/drowsiness detection methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Wu, Xiaojuan; Yu, Mengsun

    2007-02-01

    Driver fatigue/drowsiness is one of the important causes of serious traffic accidents and results in so many people deaths or injuries, but also substantial directly and indirectly economic expenses. Therefore, many countries make great effort on how to detect drowsiness during driving. In this paper, we introduce the recent developments of driver fatigue/drowsiness detection technology of world wide and try to classify the existing methods into several kinds according to different features measured, and analyzed. Finally, the challenges faced to fatigue/drowsiness detection technology and the development trend are presented.

  10. Radiometric method for the rapid detection of Leptospira organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manca, N.; Verardi, R.; Colombrita, D.; Ravizzola, G.; Savoldi, E.; Turano, A.

    1986-02-01

    A rapid and sensitive radiometric method for detection of Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona and Leptospira interrogans serovar copenhageni is described. Stuart's medium and Middlebrook TB (12A) medium supplemented with bovine serum albumin, catalase, and casein hydrolysate and labeled with /sup 14/C-fatty acids were used. The radioactivity was measured in a BACTEC 460. With this system, Leptospira organisms were detected in human blood in 2 to 5 days, a notably shorter time period than that required for the majority of detection techniques.

  11. Method and automated apparatus for detecting coliform organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, W. P.; Taylor, R. E.; Jeffers, E. L. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Method and automated apparatus are disclosed for determining the time of detection of metabolically produced hydrogen by coliform bacteria cultured in an electroanalytical cell from the time the cell is inoculated with the bacteria. The detection time data provides bacteria concentration values. The apparatus is sequenced and controlled by a digital computer to discharge a spent sample, clean and sterilize the culture cell, provide a bacteria nutrient into the cell, control the temperature of the nutrient, inoculate the nutrient with a bacteria sample, measures the electrical potential difference produced by the cell, and measures the time of detection from inoculation.

  12. Spectral methods for community detection and graph partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, M E J

    2013-10-01

    We consider three distinct and well-studied problems concerning network structure: community detection by modularity maximization, community detection by statistical inference, and normalized-cut graph partitioning. Each of these problems can be tackled using spectral algorithms that make use of the eigenvectors of matrix representations of the network. We show that with certain choices of the free parameters appearing in these spectral algorithms the algorithms for all three problems are, in fact, identical, and hence that, at least within the spectral approximations used here, there is no difference between the modularity- and inference-based community detection methods, or between either and graph partitioning.

  13. Microlensing of unresolved stars as a brown dwarf detection method

    CERN Document Server

    Bouquet, A; Melchior, A L; Giraud-Héraud, Yannick; Baillon, Paul

    1993-01-01

    We describe a project of brown dwarf detection in the dark halo of a galaxy using the microlensing effect. We argue that monitoring pixels instead of stars could provide an enhancement in the number of detectable events. We estimate the detection efficiency with a Monte-Carlo simulation. We expect a ten-fold increase with respect to current experiments. To assess the feasibility of this method we have determined the photometric precision of a pixel by comparing several pictures of a same field in the LMC. To be published in the Proceeding of the workshop 'The dark side of the universe...', Roma, Juin 1993,

  14. Machine Learning Methods for Attack Detection in the Smart Grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozay, Mete; Esnaola, Inaki; Yarman Vural, Fatos Tunay; Kulkarni, Sanjeev R; Poor, H Vincent

    2016-08-01

    Attack detection problems in the smart grid are posed as statistical learning problems for different attack scenarios in which the measurements are observed in batch or online settings. In this approach, machine learning algorithms are used to classify measurements as being either secure or attacked. An attack detection framework is provided to exploit any available prior knowledge about the system and surmount constraints arising from the sparse structure of the problem in the proposed approach. Well-known batch and online learning algorithms (supervised and semisupervised) are employed with decision- and feature-level fusion to model the attack detection problem. The relationships between statistical and geometric properties of attack vectors employed in the attack scenarios and learning algorithms are analyzed to detect unobservable attacks using statistical learning methods. The proposed algorithms are examined on various IEEE test systems. Experimental analyses show that machine learning algorithms can detect attacks with performances higher than attack detection algorithms that employ state vector estimation methods in the proposed attack detection framework.

  15. Detection methods for legionellae. Possibilities and limitations of detection methods; Niet alle detectiemethoden geschikt voor legionellagroei. Mogelijkheden en beperkingen detectiemethoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffer, W.

    2011-06-15

    This article provides an overview of existing and new methods for detecting legionella in water. It offers insight in the characteristics and applications of existing and new detection methods. However, it is impossible to assess the value of alternative methods at the moment. That will require additional research. [Dutch] Een overzicht is gemaakt van bestaande en nieuwe methoden om legionella in water aan te tonen. Daarmee wordt inzicht verkregen in de kenmerken en toepassingsmogelijkheden van bestaande en nieuwe detectiemethoden. De waarde van alternatieve methoden in een installatie kan echter nog niet worden beoordeeld. Daarvoor is nader onderzoek nodig.

  16. Method for predicting peptide detection in mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Lars [West Richland, WA; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA; Petritis, Konstantinos [Richland, WA

    2010-07-13

    A method of predicting whether a peptide present in a biological sample will be detected by analysis with a mass spectrometer. The method uses at least one mass spectrometer to perform repeated analysis of a sample containing peptides from proteins with known amino acids. The method then generates a data set of peptides identified as contained within the sample by the repeated analysis. The method then calculates the probability that a specific peptide in the data set was detected in the repeated analysis. The method then creates a plurality of vectors, where each vector has a plurality of dimensions, and each dimension represents a property of one or more of the amino acids present in each peptide and adjacent peptides in the data set. Using these vectors, the method then generates an algorithm from the plurality of vectors and the calculated probabilities that specific peptides in the data set were detected in the repeated analysis. The algorithm is thus capable of calculating the probability that a hypothetical peptide represented as a vector will be detected by a mass spectrometry based proteomic platform, given that the peptide is present in a sample introduced into a mass spectrometer.

  17. Effects of Feature Extraction and Classification Methods on Cyberbully Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra SARAÇ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyberbullying is defined as an aggressive, intentional action against a defenseless person by using the Internet, or other electronic contents. Researchers have found that many of the bullying cases have tragically ended in suicides; hence automatic detection of cyberbullying has become important. In this study we show the effects of feature extraction, feature selection, and classification methods that are used, on the performance of automatic detection of cyberbullying. To perform the experiments FormSpring.me dataset is used and the effects of preprocessing methods; several classifiers like C4.5, Naïve Bayes, kNN, and SVM; and information gain and chi square feature selection methods are investigated. Experimental results indicate that the best classification results are obtained when alphabetic tokenization, no stemming, and no stopwords removal are applied. Using feature selection also improves cyberbully detection performance. When classifiers are compared, C4.5 performs the best for the used dataset.

  18. Fault detection of gearbox using time-frequency method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo, A.; Satrijo, Dj.; Prahasto, T.; Haryanto, I.

    2017-04-01

    This research deals with fault detection and diagnosis of gearbox by using vibration signature. In this work, fault detection and diagnosis are approached by employing time-frequency method, and then the results are compared with cepstrum analysis. Experimental work has been conducted for data acquisition of vibration signal thru self-designed gearbox test rig. This test-rig is able to demonstrate normal and faulty gearbox i.e., wears and tooth breakage. Three accelerometers were used for vibration signal acquisition from gearbox, and optical tachometer was used for shaft rotation speed measurement. The results show that frequency domain analysis using fast-fourier transform was less sensitive to wears and tooth breakage condition. However, the method of short-time fourier transform was able to monitor the faults in gearbox. Wavelet Transform (WT) method also showed good performance in gearbox fault detection using vibration signal after employing time synchronous averaging (TSA).

  19. Compositions and methods for detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Hsin-Chih; Werner, James; Martinez, Jennifer S.

    2016-11-22

    Described herein are nucleic acid based probes and methods for discriminating and detecting single nucleotide variants in nucleic acid molecules (e.g., DNA). The methods include use of a pair of probes can be used to detect and identify polymorphisms, for example single nucleotide polymorphism in DNA. The pair of probes emit a different fluorescent wavelength of light depending on the association and alignment of the probes when hybridized to a target nucleic acid molecule. Each pair of probes is capable of discriminating at least two different nucleic acid molecules that differ by at least a single nucleotide difference. The methods can probes can be used, for example, for detection of DNA polymorphisms that are indicative of a particular disease or condition.

  20. Comparison of methods for detection of norovirus in oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Saadbye, Peter; Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Nørrung, Birgit

    2007-03-20

    In the absence of culture methods for noroviruses, detection in foods relies on molecular techniques such as Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) on extracted viral RNA followed by PCR product confirmation by hybridisation and/or sequencing. However, in order to obtain a successful detection it is of great importance to remove the tissue inhibitors during the viral RNA extraction. To select the most efficient extraction procedure of oysters we have compared four protocols. A pool of digestive gland material from oyster samples was divided into 1.5 g portions and spiked with 10-fold dilutions of human faecal samples containing norovirus genogroup II. The samples were tested on three different occasions using four different sample treatment protocols. The protocols were assessed with regard to their ability to recover viral RNA and detect norovirus in spiked oysters and for their in-house reproducibility. One method using viral elution by a Mixer Mill Cell Disrupter resulted in a 10-fold better recovery than the other three protocols when an RT-seminested PCR (G2SKR/COG2F and G2SKR/G2SKF) detection approach was applied. Although less distinctive this was also the case when NoV was detected by a single round RT-PCR approach using the primers JV13i and JV12y. The second most efficient method was a method using chloroform extraction and polyethylene precipitation.

  1. A novel visual saliency detection method for infrared video sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yuzhen; Ning, Chen

    2017-12-01

    Infrared video applications such as target detection and recognition, moving target tracking, and so forth can benefit a lot from visual saliency detection, which is essentially a method to automatically localize the ;important; content in videos. In this paper, a novel visual saliency detection method for infrared video sequences is proposed. Specifically, for infrared video saliency detection, both the spatial saliency and temporal saliency are considered. For spatial saliency, we adopt a mutual consistency-guided spatial cues combination-based method to capture the regions with obvious luminance contrast and contour features. For temporal saliency, a multi-frame symmetric difference approach is proposed to discriminate salient moving regions of interest from background motions. Then, the spatial saliency and temporal saliency are combined to compute the spatiotemporal saliency using an adaptive fusion strategy. Besides, to highlight the spatiotemporal salient regions uniformly, a multi-scale fusion approach is embedded into the spatiotemporal saliency model. Finally, a Gestalt theory-inspired optimization algorithm is designed to further improve the reliability of the final saliency map. Experimental results demonstrate that our method outperforms many state-of-the-art saliency detection approaches for infrared videos under various backgrounds.

  2. An infrared spectroscopy method to detect ammonia in gastric juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannozzi, Andrea M; Pennecchi, Francesca; Muller, Paul; Balma Tivola, Paolo; Roncari, Silvia; Rossi, Andrea M

    2015-11-01

    Ammonia in gastric juice is considered a potential biomarker for Helicobacter pylori infection and as a factor contributing to gastric mucosal injury. High ammonia concentrations are also found in patients with chronic renal failure, peptic ulcer disease, and chronic gastritis. Rapid and specific methods for ammonia detection are urgently required by the medical community. Here we present a method to detect ammonia directly in gastric juice based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The ammonia dissolved in biological liquid samples as ammonium ion was released in air as a gas by the shifting of the pH equilibrium of the ammonium/ammonia reaction and was detected in line by a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy system equipped with a gas cell for the quantification. The method developed provided high sensitivity and selectivity in ammonia detection both in pure standard solutions and in a simulated gastric juice matrix over the range of diagnostic concentrations tested. Preliminary analyses were also performed on real gastric juice samples from patients with gastric mucosal injury and with symptoms of H. pylori infection, and the results were in agreement with the clinicopathology information. The whole analysis, performed in less than 10 min, can be directly applied on the sample without extraction procedures and it ensures high specificity of detection because of the ammonia fingerprint absorption bands in the infrared spectrum. This method could be easily used with endoscopy instrumentation to provide information in real time and would enable the endoscopist to improve and integrate gastroscopic examinations.

  3. Preface to the Focus Issue: Chaos Detection Methods and Predictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottwald, Georg A.; Skokos, Charalampos

    2014-06-01

    This Focus Issue presents a collection of papers originating from the workshop Methods of Chaos Detection and Predictability: Theory and Applications held at the Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems in Dresden, June 17-21, 2013. The main aim of this interdisciplinary workshop was to review comprehensively the theory and numerical implementation of the existing methods of chaos detection and predictability, as well as to report recent applications of these techniques to different scientific fields. The collection of twelve papers in this Focus Issue represents the wide range of applications, spanning mathematics, physics, astronomy, particle accelerator physics, meteorology and medical research. This Preface surveys the papers of this Issue.

  4. Method for registration of solar cosmic rays by detecting neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, A. V.; Mordovskoy, M. V., E-mail: mvmordovsk@mail.ru; Skorkin, V. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    We consider a method of detecting the ionizing component of solar cosmic rays (SCRs) with energy from tens of MeV to tens of GeV by measuring the energy loss of SCR protons and light nuclei in scintillators and the multiplicity of the local neutron generation in a converter. Scintillation detectors based on stilbene, lithium glass, and solid-state photomultiplier tubes are capable of detecting fast neutrons with a temporal resolution of 10 ns and rejecting the gamma-ray background in the measuring system. The method will allow investigating the nucleon components of primary SCRs in circumterrestrial space.

  5. Rapid methods for detection of bacterial resistance to antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March-Rosselló, Gabriel Alberto

    2017-03-01

    The most widely used antibiotic susceptibility testing methods in Clinical Microbiology are based on the phenotypic detection of antibiotic resistance by measuring bacterial growth in the presence of the antibiotic being tested. These conventional methods take typically 24hours to obtain results. Here we review the main techniques for rapid determination of antibiotic susceptibility. Data obtained with different methods such as molecular techniques, microarrays, commercial methods used in work routine, immunochromatographic methods, colorimetric methods, image methods, nephelometry, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, flow cytometry, chemiluminescence and bioluminescence, microfluids and methods based on cell disruption are analysed in detail. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  6. Foodproof Salmonella Detection Kit. Performance Tested Method 120301.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhardt, Charlotte; Schönenbrücher, Holger; Slaghuis, Jörg; Bubert, Andreas; Ossmer, Rolf; Junge, Benjamin; Berghof-Jäger, Kornelia

    2009-01-01

    The foodproof Salmonella Detection Kit was previously validated in the Performance Tested Methods program for the detection of Salmonella species in a variety of foods, including milk powder, egg powder, coconut, cocoa powder, chicken breast, minced meat, sliced sausage, sausage, smoked fish, pasta, white pepper, cumin, dough, wet pet food, dry pet food, ice cream, watermelon, sliced cabbage, food dye, and milk chocolate. The method was shown to be equivalent to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service's Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook reference culture procedures. In the first Emergency Response Validation (ERV) extension study, peanut butter was inoculated with S. enterica. ser Typhimurium. For the low inoculation level (1.08 CFU/25 g), a Chi-square value of 2.25 indicated that there was no significant performance difference between the foodproof Salmonella Detection Kit and the FDA-BAM reference method. For high-level inoculation (11.5 CFU/25 g) and uninoculated control, there was 100% agreement between the methods. In the second ERV extension study, peanut butter was inoculated with S. enterica. ser Typhimurium. For both inoculation levels (0.1 and 0.5 CFU/25 g by most probable number), Chi-square values of 0 indicated that there was no significant performance difference between foodproof Salmonella Detection Kit and the FDA-BAM reference method.

  7. A Review of the Detection Methods for Climate Regime Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunqun Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An abrupt climate change means that the climate system shifts from a steady state to another steady state. Study on the phenomenon and theory of the abrupt climate change is a new research field of modern climatology, and it is of great significance for the prediction of future climate change. The climate regime shift is one of the most common forms of abrupt climate change, which mainly refers to the statistical significant changes on the variable of climate system at one time scale. These detection methods can be roughly divided into five categories based on different types of abrupt changes, namely, abrupt mean value change, abrupt variance change, abrupt frequency change, abrupt probability density change, and the multivariable analysis. The main research progress of abrupt climate change detection methods is reviewed. What is more, some actual applications of those methods in observational data are provided. With the development of nonlinear science, many new methods have been presented for detecting an abrupt dynamic change in recent years, which is useful supplement for the abrupt change detection methods.

  8. The advance of non-invasive detection methods in osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jiao; Chen, Yanping

    2011-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases which badly affected the patients' living quality and economy. Detection and evaluation technology can provide basic information for early treatment. A variety of imaging methods in OA were reviewed, such as conventional X-ray, computed tomography (CT), ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Among the existing imaging modalities, the spatial resolution of X-ray is extremely high; CT is a three-dimensional method, which has high density resolution; US as an evaluation method of knee OA discriminates lesions sensitively between normal cartilage and degenerative one; as a sensitive and nonionizing method, MRI is suitable for the detection of early OA, but the cost is too expensive for routine use; NIRS is a safe, low cost modality, and is also good at detecting early stage OA. In a word, each method has its own advantages, but NIRS is provided with broader application prospect, and it is likely to be used in clinical daily routine and become the golden standard for diagnostic detection.

  9. A Prognostic Method for Fault Detection in Wind Turbine Drivetrains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejada, Amir R.; Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Gao, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a prognostic method is presented for fault detection in gears and bearings in wind turbine drivetrains. This method is based on angular velocity measurements from the gearbox input shaft and the output to the generator, using two additional angular velocity sensors on the intermedi......In this paper, a prognostic method is presented for fault detection in gears and bearings in wind turbine drivetrains. This method is based on angular velocity measurements from the gearbox input shaft and the output to the generator, using two additional angular velocity sensors...... on the intermediate shafts inside the gearbox. An angular velocity error function is defined and compared in the faulty and fault-free conditions in frequency domain. Faults can be detected from the change in the energy level of the frequency spectrum of an error function. The method is demonstrated by detecting...... bearing faults in three locations: the high-speed shaft stage, the planetary stage and the intermediate-speed shaft stage. Simulations of the faulty and fault-free cases are performed on a gearbox model implemented in multibody dynamic simulation software. The global loads on the gearbox are obtained from...

  10. An Effective Conversation-Based Botnet Detection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruidong Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A botnet is one of the most grievous threats to network security since it can evolve into many attacks, such as Denial-of-Service (DoS, spam, and phishing. However, current detection methods are inefficient to identify unknown botnet. The high-speed network environment makes botnet detection more difficult. To solve these problems, we improve the progress of packet processing technologies such as New Application Programming Interface (NAPI and zero copy and propose an efficient quasi-real-time intrusion detection system. Our work detects botnet using supervised machine learning approach under the high-speed network environment. Our contributions are summarized as follows: (1 Build a detection framework using PF_RING for sniffing and processing network traces to extract flow features dynamically. (2 Use random forest model to extract promising conversation features. (3 Analyze the performance of different classification algorithms. The proposed method is demonstrated by well-known CTU13 dataset and nonmalicious applications. The experimental results show our conversation-based detection approach can identify botnet with higher accuracy and lower false positive rate than flow-based approach.

  11. A method for the detection of shallow buried objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. McGee

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous geophysical techniques have successfully contributed to geotechnical engineering and environmental problems of the shallow subsurface. Geophysical surveys are used to: delineate geologic features, measure in-situ engineering properties, and detect hidden cultural features. Most technologies for the detection of shallow buried objects are electromagnetic methods which measure the contrast in ferrous content, electrical conductivity, or dielectric constant between the object and surrounding soil. Seismic technologies measure the contrast in mechanical properties of the subsurface, however, scaled down versions of conventional seismic methods are not suitable for the detection shallow buried objects. In this paper, we discuss the development of a method based on acoustic to seismic coupling for the detection of shallow buried object. Surface vibrations induced by an impinging acoustic wave from a loudspeaker is referred to as acoustic to seismic coupling. These vibrations can be remotely detected using a laser-Doppler vibrometer (LDV. If an object is present below the surface of the insonified patch, the transmitted wave is back scattered by the target towards the surface. For targets very close to the surface, the scattered field produces anomalous ground vibrational velocities that are indicative of the shape and size of the target.

  12. A Method of Detecting Fire Smoke by Using Optical Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Kenji; Miyahara, Hiroyuki; Nii, Yasutoshi

    In this paper, the authors propose a method for detecting fire smoke by using the optical flow. This method is not influenced against the image obtainment environment. About 60,000 fires have occurred every year in Japan. To be most important to the fires is an early period fire fighting. At present, the automatic devices of detectiong fires is needed. The alarms which can detect smoke and heat are utilized to house fires. However, these alarms are not useful for the outside of house such as the incendiary or woodland fire. This method is able to detect such a flame that becomes a fire is the early period. First, the region of the flame in the images obtained from the observation camera is detected. Next, the characteristic quantity that expresses the smoke is extracted. This characteristic is not influenced to the motion such as the cloud, leaf and moving objects. In other words, the only smoke can be detected, from the range which looks like the flame in the image.

  13. An Automata Based Intrusion Detection Method for Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Fu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet of Things (IoT transforms network communication to Machine-to-Machine (M2M basis and provides open access and new services to citizens and companies. It extends the border of Internet and will be developed as one part of the future 5G networks. However, as the resources of IoT’s front devices are constrained, many security mechanisms are hard to be implemented to protect the IoT networks. Intrusion detection system (IDS is an efficient technique that can be used to detect the attackers when cryptography is broken, and it can be used to enforce the security of IoT networks. In this article, we analyzed the intrusion detection requirements of IoT networks and then proposed a uniform intrusion detection method for the vast heterogeneous IoT networks based on an automata model. The proposed method can detect and report the possible IoT attacks with three types: jam-attack, false-attack, and reply-attack automatically. We also design an experiment to verify the proposed IDS method and examine the attack of RADIUS application.

  14. A new ultrasonic signal amplification method for detection of bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant Shukla, Shiva; Resa López, Pablo; Sierra Sánchez, Carlos; Urréjola, José; Segura, Luis Elvira

    2012-10-01

    A new method is presented that increases the sensitivity of ultrasound-based techniques for detection of bacteria. The technique was developed for the detection of catalase-positive microorganisms. It uses a bubble trapping medium containing hydrogen peroxide that is mixed with the sample for microbiological evaluation. The enzyme catalase is present in catalase-positive bacteria, which induces a rapid hydrolysis of hydrogen peroxide, forming bubbles which remain in the medium. This reaction results in the amplification of the mechanical changes that the microorganisms produce in the medium. The effect can be detected by means of ultrasonic wave amplitude continuous measurement since the bubbles increase the ultrasonic attenuation significantly. It is shown that microorganism concentrations of the order of 105 cells ml-1 can be detected using this method. This allows an improvement of three orders of magnitude in the ultrasonic detection threshold of microorganisms in conventional culture media, and is competitive with modern rapid microbiological methods. It can also be used for the characterization of the enzymatic activity.

  15. InstantLabs® Salmonella species detection method: matrix extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neil; Bambusch, Lauren; Le, Thu; Morey, Amit; Hayman, Melinda; Montez, Sergio J

    2014-01-01

    The performance of InstantLabs® Salmonella Species Food Safety Kit to detect Salmonella in four food matrixes was validated against the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) reference method 6579:2002. The matrixes (raw ground beef, raw chicken breast, raw ground chicken, and lettuce) were inoculated with low levels of Salmonella (Salmonella. Samples were validated using 375 g (meat) or 25 g (lettuce and poultry) test portions enriched in FASTGRO TM SE at 42±1 °C for 12 h and 10 h, respectively. All samples were confirmed using the ISO reference method, regardless of initial-screen result. The InstantLabs test method was shown to perform as well as or better than the reference method for the detection of Salmonella species in ground beef, chicken breast, ground chicken, and lettuce. Inclusivity and exclusivity testing revealed no false negatives among the 100 Salmonella serovars and no false positives among the 30 non-Salmonella species examined, respectively.

  16. Eye blinking-based method for detecting driver drowsiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma'touq, Jumana; Al-Nabulsi, Jamal; Al-Kazwini, Akeel; Baniyassien, Ahmed; Al-Haj Issa, Ghassan; Mohammad, Haitham

    2014-11-01

    Drowsy driving is a major cause of traffic accidents. Eye blinking is considered as important evidence of driver drowsiness. In this paper, a portable and low cost device for monitoring a driver's drowsiness is proposed. The proposed system consists of two main parts that detect eye blinking based on IR sensors mounted on eyewear. Depending on the reflected and absorbed IR radiation, this system detects and classifies the eye blinking into normal blinking (NB) or prolonged blinking (PB). The detected prolonged blinking is used to trigger an audio/visual alarm system which draws the driver's attention back. The system was simulated initially by LabVIEW® software. Moreover, the system was bench tested on 15 adult volunteers; eye blinking were detected and classified successfully for all subjects. The results of this research are promising and additional investigation is required to further improve the method.

  17. A hybrid approach for efficient anomaly detection using metaheuristic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Tamer F.; Elkilani, Wail S.; Abdul-kader, Hatem M.

    2014-01-01

    Network intrusion detection based on anomaly detection techniques has a significant role in protecting networks and systems against harmful activities. Different metaheuristic techniques have been used for anomaly detector generation. Yet, reported literature has not studied the use of the multi-start metaheuristic method for detector generation. This paper proposes a hybrid approach for anomaly detection in large scale datasets using detectors generated based on multi-start metaheuristic method and genetic algorithms. The proposed approach has taken some inspiration of negative selection-based detector generation. The evaluation of this approach is performed using NSL-KDD dataset which is a modified version of the widely used KDD CUP 99 dataset. The results show its effectiveness in generating a suitable number of detectors with an accuracy of 96.1% compared to other competitors of machine learning algorithms. PMID:26199752

  18. A hybrid approach for efficient anomaly detection using metaheuristic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer F. Ghanem

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Network intrusion detection based on anomaly detection techniques has a significant role in protecting networks and systems against harmful activities. Different metaheuristic techniques have been used for anomaly detector generation. Yet, reported literature has not studied the use of the multi-start metaheuristic method for detector generation. This paper proposes a hybrid approach for anomaly detection in large scale datasets using detectors generated based on multi-start metaheuristic method and genetic algorithms. The proposed approach has taken some inspiration of negative selection-based detector generation. The evaluation of this approach is performed using NSL-KDD dataset which is a modified version of the widely used KDD CUP 99 dataset. The results show its effectiveness in generating a suitable number of detectors with an accuracy of 96.1% compared to other competitors of machine learning algorithms.

  19. A hybrid approach for efficient anomaly detection using metaheuristic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Tamer F; Elkilani, Wail S; Abdul-Kader, Hatem M

    2015-07-01

    Network intrusion detection based on anomaly detection techniques has a significant role in protecting networks and systems against harmful activities. Different metaheuristic techniques have been used for anomaly detector generation. Yet, reported literature has not studied the use of the multi-start metaheuristic method for detector generation. This paper proposes a hybrid approach for anomaly detection in large scale datasets using detectors generated based on multi-start metaheuristic method and genetic algorithms. The proposed approach has taken some inspiration of negative selection-based detector generation. The evaluation of this approach is performed using NSL-KDD dataset which is a modified version of the widely used KDD CUP 99 dataset. The results show its effectiveness in generating a suitable number of detectors with an accuracy of 96.1% compared to other competitors of machine learning algorithms.

  20. COMPARISON OF TWO METHODS FOR THE DETECTION OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Tantillo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the performance of the conventional methods for detection of Listeria monocytogenes in food using media Oxford and ALOA (Agar Listeria acc. to Ottaviani & Agosti in according to the ISO 11290-1 to a new chromogenic medium “CHROMagar Listeria” standardized in 2005 AFNOR ( CHR – 21/1-12/01. A total of 40 pre-packed ready-to-eat food samples were examined. Using two methods six samples were found positive for Listeria monocytogenes but the medium “CHROMagar Listeria” was more selective in comparison with the others. In conclusion this study has demonstrated that isolation medium able to target specifically the detection of L. monocytogenes such as “CHROMagar Listeria” is highly recommendable because of that detection time is significantly reduced and the analysis cost is less expensive.

  1. Comparative study of motion detection methods for video surveillance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehairi, Kamal; Chouireb, Fatima; Meunier, Jean

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study is to compare several change detection methods for a monostatic camera and identify the best method for different complex environments and backgrounds in indoor and outdoor scenes. To this end, we used the CDnet video dataset as a benchmark that consists of many challenging problems, ranging from basic simple scenes to complex scenes affected by bad weather and dynamic backgrounds. Twelve change detection methods, ranging from simple temporal differencing to more sophisticated methods, were tested and several performance metrics were used to precisely evaluate the results. Because most of the considered methods have not previously been evaluated on this recent large scale dataset, this work compares these methods to fill a lack in the literature, and thus this evaluation joins as complementary compared with the previous comparative evaluations. Our experimental results show that there is no perfect method for all challenging cases; each method performs well in certain cases and fails in others. However, this study enables the user to identify the most suitable method for his or her needs.

  2. Monoclonal antibodies and method for detecting dioxins and dibenzofurans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlaan, Martin; Stanker, Larry H.; Watkins, Bruce E.; Bailey, Nina R.

    1989-01-01

    Compositions of matter are described which include five monoclonal antibodies that react with dioxins and dibenzofurans, and the five hybridomas that produce these monoclonal antibodies. In addition, a method for the use of these antibodies in a sensitive immunoassay for dioxins and dibenzofurans is given, which permits detection of these pollutants in samples at concentrations in the range of a few parts per billion.

  3. Comparison of two detection methods in thin layer chromatographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    o-tolidine plus potassium iodide and photosynthesis inhibition detection methods were investigated for the analysis of three triazine herbicides (atrazine, ametryne, simazine) and two urea herbicides (diuron, metobromuron) in a coastal savanna soil using thin layer chromatography to compare the suitability of the two ...

  4. A novel duplicate images detection method based on PLSA model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yongji; Ding, Liping; Gu, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Web image search results usually contain duplicate copies. This paper considers the problem of detecting and clustering duplicate images contained in web image search results. Detecting and clustering the duplicate images together facilitates users' viewing. A novel method is presented in this paper to detect and cluster duplicate images by measuring similarity between their topics. More specifically, images are viewed as documents consisting of visual words formed by vector quantizing the affine invariant visual features. Then a statistical model widely used in text domain, the PLSA(Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis) model, is utilized to map images into a probabilistic latent semantic space. Because the main content remains unchanged despite small digital alteration, duplicate images will be close to each other in the derived semantic space. Based on this, a simple clustering process can successfully detect duplicate images and cluster them together. Comparing to those methods based on comparison between hash value of visual words, this method is more robust to the visual feature level alteration posed on the images. Experiments demonstrates the effectiveness of this method.

  5. Comparison of Two Detection Methods in Thin Layer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    The most important of such chromatographic techni-ques are gas chromatography (GC), high .... were air-dried and placed in a tank saturated with chlorine for 30 sec. The chlorine solution was made by ... the study of herbicides residue in the soil using the gas chromato-graphy method. By comparing the detection limit for ...

  6. Comparison of Two Detection Methods in Thin Layer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    Abstract o-tolidine plus potassium iodide and photosynthesis inhibition detection methods were investigated for the analysis of three triazine herbicides (atrazine, ametryne, simazine) and two urea herbicides (diuron, metobromuron) in a coastal savanna soil using thin layer chromatography to compare the suitability of the ...

  7. Development of Analytical Method for Detection of Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of Analytical Method for Detection of Some Pharmaceuticals in Surface Water. ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... using solid – phase extraction along with liquid chromatography–time of flight mass spectrometry for the analysis of pharmaceuticals in surface water of Tangkas River, Malaysia.

  8. Edge detection methods based on generalized type-2 fuzzy logic

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, Claudia I; Castro, Juan R; Castillo, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    In this book four new methods are proposed. In the first method the generalized type-2 fuzzy logic is combined with the morphological gra-dient technique. The second method combines the general type-2 fuzzy systems (GT2 FSs) and the Sobel operator; in the third approach the me-thodology based on Sobel operator and GT2 FSs is improved to be applied on color images. In the fourth approach, we proposed a novel edge detec-tion method where, a digital image is converted a generalized type-2 fuzzy image. In this book it is also included a comparative study of type-1, inter-val type-2 and generalized type-2 fuzzy systems as tools to enhance edge detection in digital images when used in conjunction with the morphologi-cal gradient and the Sobel operator. The proposed generalized type-2 fuzzy edge detection methods were tested with benchmark images and synthetic images, in a grayscale and color format. Another contribution in this book is that the generalized type-2 fuzzy edge detector method is applied in the preproc...

  9. Comparison of methods to detect Pasteurella multocida in carrier waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, Diana R.; Johnson, W.P.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted laboratory challenge trials using mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) to compare methods for detecting carriers of Pasteurella multocida, the bacterium that causes avian cholera, in wild birds. Birds that survived the initial infection were euthanized at 2-4 wk intervals up to 14 wk post challenge. Isolates of P. multocida were obtained at necropsy from 23% of the birds that survived initial infection. We found that swab samples (oral, cloacal, nasal, eye, and leg joint) were most effective for detecting carrier birds up to 14 wk post infection. No detectable differences in isolation were observed for samples stored in either 10% dimethysulfoxide or brain heart infusion broth. The frequency of detecting carriers in our challenge trials appeared to be related to mortality rates observed during the trial, but was not related to a number of other factors including time after challenge, time delays in collecting tissues postmortem, and route of infection. In our trials, there was little association between antibody levels and carrier status. We concluded that swabs samples collected from recently dead birds, stored in liquid nitrogen, and processed using selective broth provide a feasible field method for detecting P. multocida carriers in wild waterfowl.

  10. Device and method for detecting sulfur dioxide at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, David L [Oak Ridge, TN; Montgomery, Frederick C [Oak Ridge, TN; Armstrong, Timothy R [Clinton, TN

    2011-11-01

    The present invention relates to a method for selectively detecting and/or measuring gaseous SO.sub.2 at a temperature of at least 500.degree. C., the method involving: (i) providing a SO.sub.2-detecting device including an oxygen ion-conducting substrate having on its surface at least three electrodes comprising a first, second, and third electrode; (ii) driving a starting current of specified magnitude and temporal variation between the first and second electrodes; (iii) contacting the SO.sub.2-detecting device with the SO.sub.2-containing sample while maintaining the magnitude and any temporal variation of the starting current, wherein said SO.sub.2-containing sample causes a change in the electrical conductance of said device; and (iv) detecting the change in electrical conductance of the device based on measuring an electrical property related to or indicative of the conductance of the device between the first and third electrodes, or between the second and third electrodes, and detecting SO.sub.2 in the SO.sub.2-containing sample based on the measured change in electrical conductance.

  11. Earth analysis methods, subsurface feature detection methods, earth analysis devices, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Phillip B [Idaho Falls, ID; Novascone, Stephen R [Idaho Falls, ID; Wright, Jerry P [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-09-27

    Earth analysis methods, subsurface feature detection methods, earth analysis devices, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one embodiment, an earth analysis method includes engaging a device with the earth, analyzing the earth in a single substantially lineal direction using the device during the engaging, and providing information regarding a subsurface feature of the earth using the analysis.

  12. Earth analysis methods, subsurface feature detection methods, earth analysis devices, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Phillip B [Idaho Falls, ID; Novascone, Stephen R [Idaho Falls, ID; Wright, Jerry P [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-05-29

    Earth analysis methods, subsurface feature detection methods, earth analysis devices, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one embodiment, an earth analysis method includes engaging a device with the earth, analyzing the earth in a single substantially lineal direction using the device during the engaging, and providing information regarding a subsurface feature of the earth using the analysis.

  13. Imaging methods for detection of infectious foci. Les methodes scintigraphiques de detection des foyers infectieux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couret, I.; Rossi, M. (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 34 - Montpellier (France)); Weinemann, P.; Moretti, J.L. (Hopital Avicenne, 93 - Bobigny (France) Paris-13 Univ., 93 - Saint-Denis (France))

    1993-01-01

    Several tracers can be used for imaging infection. None is a worthwhile agent for all infectious foci, but each one has preferential applications, depending on its uptake mechanism by the infectious and/or inflammatory focus. Autologous leucocytes labeled in vitro with indium-111 (In-111) or with technetium-99-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (Tc-99m HMPAO) were applied with success in the detection of peripheral bone infection, focal vascular graft infection and inflammatory bowel disease. Labeling with In-111 is of interest in chronic bone infection, while labeling with Tc-99m HMPAO gets the advantage of a better dosimetry and imaging. The interest of in vivo labeled leucocytes with a Tc-99m labeled monoclonal antigranulocyte antibody anti-NCA 95 (BW 250/183) was proved in the same principal type of infectious foci than in vitro labeled leucocytes. Sites of chronic infection in the spine and the pelvis, whether active or healed, appear as photopenic defects on both in vitro labeled leucocytes and Tc-99m monoclonal antigranulocyte antibody (BW 250/183) scintigraphies. With gallium-67 results showed a high sensitivity with a low specificity. This tracer demonstrated good performance to delineate foci of infectious spondylitis. In-111 and Tc-99m labeled polyclonal human immunoglobulin (HIG) was applied with success in the assessment of various infectious foci, particularly in chronic sepsis. As labeled leucocytes, labeled HIG showed cold defects in infectious sepsis of the spine. Research in nuclear medicine is very active in the development of more specific tracers of infection, mainly involved in Tc-99m or In-111 labeled chemotactic peptides, antigranulocyte antibody fragments, antibiotic derivatives and interleukins. (authors). 70 refs.

  14. A morphological method for ammonia detection in liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Gutiérrez-de-Juan

    Full Text Available Hyperammonemia is a metabolic condition characterized by elevated levels of ammonia and a common event in acute liver injury/failure and chronic liver disease. Even though hepatic ammonia levels are potential predictive factors of patient outcome, easy and inexpensive methods aiming at the detection of liver ammonia accumulation in the clinical setting remain unavailable. Thus, herein we have developed a morphological method, based on the utilization of Nessler´s reagent, to accurately and precisely detect the accumulation of ammonia in biological tissue. We have validated our method against a commercially available kit in mouse tissue samples and, by using this modified method, we have confirmed the hepatic accumulation of ammonia in clinical and animal models of acute and chronic advanced liver injury as well as in the progression of fatty liver disease. Overall, we propose a morphological method for ammonia detection in liver that correlates well with the degree of liver disease severity and therefore can be potentially used to predict patient outcome.

  15. Methods for Detection of Aflatoxins in Agricultural Food Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex P. Wacoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are toxic carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced predominantly by two fungal species: Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. These fungal species are contaminants of foodstuff as well as feeds and are responsible for aflatoxin contamination of these agro products. The toxicity and potency of aflatoxins make them the primary health hazard as well as responsible for losses associated with contaminations of processed foods and feeds. Determination of aflatoxins concentration in food stuff and feeds is thus very important. However, due to their low concentration in foods and feedstuff, analytical methods for detection and quantification of aflatoxins have to be specific, sensitive, and simple to carry out. Several methods including thin-layer chromatography (TLC, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, mass spectroscopy, enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA, and electrochemical immunosensor, among others, have been described for detecting and quantifying aflatoxins in foods. Each of these methods has advantages and limitations in aflatoxins analysis. This review critically examines each of the methods used for detection of aflatoxins in foodstuff, highlighting the advantages and limitations of each method. Finally, a way forward for overcoming such obstacles is suggested.

  16. Fault Detection and Localization Method for Modular Multilevel Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe; Khan, Mohammad Rezwan

    2015-01-01

    The modular multilevel converter (MMC) is attractive for medium- or high-power applications because of the advantages of its high modularity, availability, and high power quality. However, reliability is one of the most important issues for MMCs those are made of large number of power electronic...... submodules (SMs). This paper proposed an effective fault detection and localization method for MMCs. An MMC fault can be detected by comparing the measured state variables and the estimated state variables with a Kalman Filter. The fault localization is based on the failure characteristics of the SM...... in the MMC. The proposed method can be implemented with less computational intensity and complexity, even in case that multiple SMs faults occur in a short time interval. The proposed method is not only implemented in simulations with professional tool PSCAD/EMTDC, but also verified with a down-scale MMC...

  17. Breath testing as a method for detecting lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taivans, Immanuels; Bukovskis, Maris; Strazda, Gunta; Jurka, Normunds

    2014-02-01

    Early diagnosis of lung cancer is important due to high mortality in late stages of the disease. An ideal approach for population screening could be the breath analysis, due to its non-invasiveness, simplicity and cheapness. Using sensitive methods of analysis like gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in exhaled air of cancer patients were discovered some volatile organic compounds - possible candidates for cancer markers. However, these compounds were not specific for cancer cells. At the same time, integrative approaches used to analyze the exhaled breath have demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity of this method for lung cancer diagnosis. Such integrative approaches include detection of smell prints by electronic nose or integrated analysis of wide range of volatile organic compounds detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry or related methods. Modern statistical pattern recognition systems like logistic regression analysis, support vector machine or analysis by artificial neuronal network may improve diagnostic accuracy.

  18. Image change detection systems, methods, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James L.; Lassahn, Gordon D.; Lancaster, Gregory D.

    2010-01-05

    Aspects of the invention relate to image change detection systems, methods, and articles of manufacture. According to one aspect, a method of identifying differences between a plurality of images is described. The method includes loading a source image and a target image into memory of a computer, constructing source and target edge images from the source and target images to enable processing of multiband images, displaying the source and target images on a display device of the computer, aligning the source and target edge images, switching displaying of the source image and the target image on the display device, to enable identification of differences between the source image and the target image.

  19. Methods for detecting the environmental coccoid form of Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz eMazaheri Assadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is recognized as the most common pathogen to cause gastritis, peptic and duodenal ulcers, and gastric cancer. The organisms are found in two forms: 1 spiral-shaped bacillus and 2 coccoid. H. pylori coccoid form, generally found in the environment, is the transformed form of the normal spiral-shaped bacillus after exposed to water or adverse environmental conditions such as exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobial agents. The putative infectious capability and the viability of H. pylori under environmental conditions are controversial. This disagreement is partially due to the fact of lack in detecting the coccoid form of H. pylori in the environment. Accurate and effective detection methods of H. pylori will lead to rapid treatment and disinfection, and less human health damages and reduction in health care costs. In this review, we provide a brief introduction to H. pylori environmental coccoid forms, their transmission and detection methods. We further discuss the use of these detection methods including their accuracy and efficiency.

  20. Cointegration Methods for Detection and Attribution of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turasie, A. A.; Stephenson, D.

    2016-12-01

    Reliable detection and attribution of changes in climate is fundamental to our understanding of climate change and in enabling decision makers to manage climate-related risks [1]. This study aims to address this concern. Regression methods, particularly the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and Total Least Square (TLS), have been widely used in this field of climate studies. However, the fact that most of the climatic variables and temperature in particular are non-stationary in the recent years poses a doubt on reliability of these existing methods, which are heavily dependent on stationarity assumption. Cointegration modelling, on the other hand, has got attractive features for modelling non-stationary time series. Three estimates of the scaling factor, namely: the OLS and TLS regression estimates and the Vector Autoregression (VAR) based maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) of cointegrating relations are critically evaluated here in the context of detection-attribution studies. The results, from simulations and real data, have shown that the MLE of cointegration model are less biased, highly efficient and consistent compared to the two existing methods. References:[1] Hegerl G.C., Hoegh-Guldberg O., Casassa G., Hoerling M. P., Kovats R. S., Parmesan C. Pierce D. W. Stott P. A. (2010) Good practice guidance paper on detection and attribution related to anthropogenic climate change. Meeting Report of the IPCC Experts on Detection and Attribution of Anthropogenic Climate Change.

  1. Solid state nuclear track detection principles, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Durrani, S A; ter Haar, D

    1987-01-01

    Solid State Nuclear Track Detection: Principles, Methods and Applications is the second book written by the authors after Nuclear Tracks in Solids: Principles and Applications. The book is meant as an introduction to the subject solid state of nuclear track detection. The text covers the interactions of charged particles with matter; the nature of the charged-particle track; the methodology and geometry of track etching; thermal fading of latent damage trails on tracks; the use of dielectric track recorders in particle identification; radiation dossimetry; and solid state nuclear track detecti

  2. Methods of detecting and controlling mucoid Pseudomonas biofilm production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongwei D. (Inventor); Qiu, Dongru (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Compositions and methods for detecting and controlling the conversion to mucoidy in Pseudomonas aeruginosa are disclosed. The present invention provides for detecting the switch from nonmucoid to mucoid state of P. aeruginosa by measuring mucE expression or MucE protein levels. The interaction between MucE and AlgW controls the switch to mucoidy in wild type P. aeruginosa. Also disclosed is an alginate biosynthesis heterologous expression system for use in screening candidate substances that inhibit conversion to mucoidy.

  3. Comparison of methods for detection of norovirus in oysters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Saadbye, Peter; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    In the absence of culture methods for noroviruses, detection in foods relies on molecular techniques such as Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) on extracted viral RNA followed by PCR product confirmation by hybridisation and/or sequencing. However, in order to obtain...... with I 0-fold dilutions of human faecal samples containing norovirus genogroup II. The samples were tested on three different occasions using four different sample treatment protocols. The protocols were assessed with regard to their ability to recover viral RNA and detect norovirus in spiked oysters...

  4. Plum pox virus variability detected by the advanced analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subr, Z; Glasa, M

    2008-01-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) infects stone-fruit trees with important economical impact mainly in Europe and Mediterranean region. The data about PPV intra-species variability accumulated markedly in the last two decades. Six PPV strains have been recognized using different approaches including serology, protein analysis, specific amplification, and genome sequencing. Reliable and sensitive diagnostics is the most important requirement for application of early control and safety measures. Therefore, many techniques and their modifications have been adapted to detect PPV and its different forms. Here, we review the improvement of the PPV detection and variability analysis in the context of progress in laboratory methods since the virus discovery till today.

  5. Detection of vapor phase mercury species by laser fluorescence methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiaomei

    Several mercury species emissions have been identified in off-gases from industrial processes. At present, there is no commercial continuous emission monitoring (CEM) technique or instrumentation to reliably monitor volatile mercury species emissions from industrial stacks. Conventional measurement methods, such as cold vapor trap based techniques for elemental mercury, have difficulty in achieving both high sensitivity and the fast time resolution required for real-time monitoring. This doctoral research work gives a systematic study of potential methods for real-time trace detection of volatile elemental mercury and mercury compounds in industrial stack gases. It is based on laser-induced fluorescence techniques; photofragment fluorescence spectroscopy for detection of volatile mercury compounds, and resonance fluorescence for detection of elemental mercury. The capabilities and limitations of these detection techniques are investigated in this dissertation. Detection of mercury compounds is a challenge since they are non-fluorescent. With photofragment fluorescence spectroscopy, target compound concentrations are related to the fluorescence intensity from an excited fragment. In this doctoral research work, low concentrations of mercuric bromide vapor in an atmospheric pressure flow cell are irradiated by a focused laser beam at 222nm. Photofragment fluorescence is monitored at 253.7nm. Two detection schemes, Charge Coupled Device (CCD) and photomultiplier tube (PMT), are applied for the measurement of photofragment fluorescence. The performances of these two systems are compared in the dissertation. A supersonic jet is combined with resonance fluorescence for detection of elemental mercury vapor. With test gas expanded into a vacuum, fluorescence quenching and spectral broadening are reduced. In the experiment, the gas jet is crossed with a laser beam at 253.7nm to excite atomic fluorescence, which is distinguished from the elastic background by time gating

  6. Application of a thermoluminescence method for detection of irradiated spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastelum, S.; Osuna, I.; Melendrez, R.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Chernov, V.; Calderon, T.; Barboza-Flores, M

    2002-07-01

    Food irradiation is extremely effective at reducing food-borne illness as well as losses caused by infestation and contamination. Despite the well-established regulations that permit irradiation to control pathogens in spices, there are no widespread methods to detect previously irradiated food. Therefore, it has become necessary to develop new detection and dose determination methods for food subjected previously to irradiation. The present work deals with the application of the thermoluminescence (TL) phenomenon to detect irradiated spices. The process is based upon the thermoluminescence properties exhibited by the polymineral content of the irradiated specimen. After separating the organic material, it is possible to extract some polymineral substances that are suitable for thermoluminescence analysis due to interaction of the spice to ionising radiation. The method was successfully applied to examine irradiated and non-irradiated paprika of Mexican origin. The spice was irradiated with gamma rays at doses of 5, 10 and 15 kGy. The separated thermoluminescent polymineral was found to be composed mainly of quartz and feldspar. The thermoluminescence glow curve of the irradiated specimen shows a side band peaked 228, 268 and 336 deg. C, resembling pretty much the combined TL of quartz and feldspars. The method allows for the determination of the retrospective dose exposure. (author)

  7. An iterative method for airway segmentation using multiscale leakage detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Syed Ahmed; Jin, Dakai; Hoffman, Eric A.; Saha, Punam K.

    2017-02-01

    There are growing applications of quantitative computed tomography for assessment of pulmonary diseases by characterizing lung parenchyma as well as the bronchial tree. Many large multi-center studies incorporating lung imaging as a study component are interested in phenotypes relating airway branching patterns, wall-thickness, and other morphological measures. To our knowledge, there are no fully automated airway tree segmentation methods, free of the need for user review. Even when there are failures in a small fraction of segmentation results, the airway tree masks must be manually reviewed for all results which is laborious considering that several thousands of image data sets are evaluated in large studies. In this paper, we present a CT-based novel airway tree segmentation algorithm using iterative multi-scale leakage detection, freezing, and active seed detection. The method is fully automated requiring no manual inputs or post-segmentation editing. It uses simple intensity based connectivity and a new leakage detection algorithm to iteratively grow an airway tree starting from an initial seed inside the trachea. It begins with a conservative threshold and then, iteratively shifts toward generous values. The method was applied on chest CT scans of ten non-smoking subjects at total lung capacity and ten at functional residual capacity. Airway segmentation results were compared to an expert's manually edited segmentations. Branch level accuracy of the new segmentation method was examined along five standardized segmental airway paths (RB1, RB4, RB10, LB1, LB10) and two generations beyond these branches. The method successfully detected all branches up to two generations beyond these segmental bronchi with no visual leakages.

  8. Cytological detection of spermatozoa: comparison of three staining methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allery, J P; Telmon, N; Mieusset, R; Blanc, A; Rougé, D

    2001-03-01

    Sperm detection can be an important factor in confirming sexual assault in cases of rape. This paper compares three of the most commonly used staining methods cited in the scientific literature: Christmas tree. hematoxylin-eosin, and alkaline fuchsin. The population studied was composed of 174 consenting women seen at the Male Infertility Center in Toulouse. France. The date of their last sexual intercourse was accurately known. Alkaline fuchsin did not seem effective in detecting spermatozoa in vaginal samples. Compared with hematoxylin-eosin, Christmas tree stain appeared to be the most useful test in the first 72 h. Two external factors were associated with decreased detection of spermatozoa: time since in tercourse and sperm volume.

  9. PCA method for automated detection of mispronounced words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhenhao; Sharma, Sudhendu R.; Smith, Mark J. T.

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a method for detecting mispronunciations with the aim of improving Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) tools used by foreign language learners. The algorithm is based on Principle Component Analysis (PCA). It is hierarchical with each successive step refining the estimate to classify the test word as being either mispronounced or correct. Preprocessing before detection, like normalization and time-scale modification, is implemented to guarantee uniformity of the feature vectors input to the detection system. The performance using various features including spectrograms and Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs) are compared and evaluated. Best results were obtained using MFCCs, achieving up to 99% accuracy in word verification and 93% in native/non-native classification. Compared with Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) which are used pervasively in recognition application, this particular approach is computational efficient and effective when training data is limited.

  10. A Hybrid Vision-Map Method for Urban Road Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernández

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid vision-map system is presented to solve the road detection problem in urban scenarios. The standardized use of machine learning techniques in classification problems has been merged with digital navigation map information to increase system robustness. The objective of this paper is to create a new environment perception method to detect the road in urban environments, fusing stereo vision with digital maps by detecting road appearance and road limits such as lane markings or curbs. Deep learning approaches make the system hard-coupled to the training set. Even though our approach is based on machine learning techniques, the features are calculated from different sources (GPS, map, curbs, etc., making our system less dependent on the training set.

  11. A rapid DNA extraction method suitable for human papillomavirus detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brestovac, Brian; Wong, Michelle E; Costantino, Paul S; Groth, David

    2014-04-01

    Infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes is necessary for the development of cervical cancer. Testing for HPV DNA from liquid based cervical samples can be used as an adjunct to traditional cytological screening. In addition there are ongoing viral load, genotyping, and prevalence studies. Therefore, a sensitive DNA extraction method is needed to maximize the efficiency of HPV DNA detection. The XytXtract Tissue kit is a DNA extraction kit that is rapid and so could be useful for HPV testing, particularly in screening protocols. This study was undertaken to determine the suitability of this method for HPV detection. DNA extraction from HeLa and Caski cell lines containing HPV 18 and 16 respectively together with DNA from five liquid based cervical samples were used in a HPV PCR assay. DNA was also extracted using the QIAamp DNA mini kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) as a comparison. DNA extracts were serially diluted and assayed. HPV DNA was successfully detected in cell lines and cervical samples using the XytXtract Tissue kit. In addition, the XytXtract method was found to be more sensitive than the QIAmp method as determined by a dilution series of the extracted DNA. While the XytXtract method is a closed, the QIAamp method uses a spin column with possible loss of DNA through DNA binding competition of the matrix, which could impact on the final extraction efficiency. The XytXtract is a cheap, rapid and efficient method for extracting HPV DNA from both cell lines and liquid based cervical samples. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Minimum detectable gas concentration performance evaluation method for gas leak infrared imaging detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Jin, Weiqi; Li, Jiakun; Wang, Xia; Li, Shuo

    2017-04-01

    Thermal imaging technology is an effective means of detecting hazardous gas leaks. Much attention has been paid to evaluation of the performance of gas leak infrared imaging detection systems due to several potential applications. The minimum resolvable temperature difference (MRTD) and the minimum detectable temperature difference (MDTD) are commonly used as the main indicators of thermal imaging system performance. This paper establishes a minimum detectable gas concentration (MDGC) performance evaluation model based on the definition and derivation of MDTD. We proposed the direct calculation and equivalent calculation method of MDGC based on the MDTD measurement system. We build an experimental MDGC measurement system, which indicates the MDGC model can describe the detection performance of a thermal imaging system to typical gases. The direct calculation, equivalent calculation, and direct measurement results are consistent. The MDGC and the minimum resolvable gas concentration (MRGC) model can effectively describe the performance of "detection" and "spatial detail resolution" of thermal imaging systems to gas leak, respectively, and constitute the main performance indicators of gas leak detection systems.

  13. Alcohol Detection in Exhaled Air by NDIR Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujitsuka, Norio; Yonemura, Masatoshi; Sakakibara, Kiyomi; Taguchi, Toshiyuki; Wakita, Toshihiro

    In recent years, the increase in traffic accidents associated with drunk driving has become a serious social issue. Therefore, there is a need for an in-vehicle system that can detect the fact that the driver is under the influence of alcohol. We thought a method for alcohol detection in the breath of the driver, based on a nondispersive infrared (NDIR) method, is suitable for this system. Since alcohol content in the driver's breath is significantly diluted at the sensor device, it is necessary that the sensor is highly sensitive to detect diluted alcohol. A quantum cascade laser was used to produce highly intense infrared light source. An infrared hollow fiber used in medical treatment was utilized as a gas absorption cell. Since the core of the fiber is hollow, gas is introduced for analyzer. The flexibility of the fiber allowed it to be looped so that 2 m fiber in length could be formed into a compact coil of 29 cm in diameter. It was clarified that the light intensity change of light output from the hollow fiber with ethanol density, and rarefied ethanol as small as 1 ppm in density was detected.

  14. Fast detection of air contaminants using immunobiological methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Katrin; Bolwien, Carsten; Sulz, Gerd; Koch, Wolfgang; Dunkhorst, Wilhelm; Lödding, Hubert; Schwarz, Katharina; Holländer, Andreas; Klockenbring, Torsten; Barth, Stefan; Seidel, Björn; Hofbauer, Wolfgang; Rennebarth, Torsten; Renzl, Anna

    2009-05-01

    The fast and direct identification of possibly pathogenic microorganisms in air is gaining increasing interest due to their threat for public health, e.g. in clinical environments or in clean rooms of food or pharmaceutical industries. We present a new detection method allowing the direct recognition of relevant germs or bacteria via fluorescence-labeled antibodies within less than one hour. In detail, an air-sampling unit passes particles in the relevant size range to a substrate which contains antibodies with fluorescence labels for the detection of a specific microorganism. After the removal of the excess antibodies the optical detection unit comprising reflected-light and epifluorescence microscopy can identify the microorganisms by fast image processing on a single-particle level. First measurements with the system to identify various test particles as well as interfering influences have been performed, in particular with respect to autofluorescence of dust particles. Specific antibodies for the detection of Aspergillus fumigatus spores have been established. The biological test system consists of protein A-coated polymer particles which are detected by a fluorescence-labeled IgG. Furthermore the influence of interfering particles such as dust or debris is discussed.

  15. [Detection of antibodies to mycoplasmas using an immunoenzyme method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hájková, M; Jurmanová, K

    1986-08-01

    Detection of the antibodies to the species Mycoplasma bovis in the serum and milk of dairy cows coming from a mastitis-infected herd is a good example of utilization of the ELISA immunoenzymologic method in the mycoplasmology. Examining the samples from 75 dairy cows and applying the indirect hemagglutination test, good correlation of the results of the two tests was determined. The antibodies to the species Ureaplasma diversum were demonstrated by the ELISA method both in the bovine serum and in the milk of dairy cows infected slightly with mastitis. We chosen that strain which detected the maximum titres in the selected samples of the sera out of four antigens prepared from various strains of U. diversum. Rabbit sera hyperimmune to 26 strains of the mycoplasmas of various species were used to identify two antigens (after removing the antibodies to the components of the media). Specific reaction was obtained with the antisera to M. hyorhinis and M. arginini.

  16. A cascade method for TFT-LCD defect detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Songsong; Wu, Xiaojun; Yu, Zhiyang; Mo, Zhuoya

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel cascade detection algorithm which focuses on point and line defects on TFT-LCD. At the first step of the algorithm, we use the gray level difference of su-bimage to segment the abnormal area. The second step is based on phase only transform (POT) which corresponds to the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), normalized by the magnitude. It can remove regularities like texture and noise. After that, we improve the method of setting regions of interest (ROI) with the method of edge segmentation and polar transformation. The algorithm has outstanding performance in both computation speed and accuracy. It can solve most of the defect detections including dark point, light point, dark line, etc.

  17. Devices and methods to detect and quantify trace gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Robinson, Alex

    2016-05-03

    Sensing devices based on a surface acoustic wave ("SAW") device coated with an absorbent crystalline or amorphous layer for detecting at least one chemical analyte in a gaseous carrier. Methods for detecting the presence of a chemical analyte in a gaseous carrier using such devices are also disclosed. The sensing devices and methods for their use may be configured for sensing chemical analytes selected from the group consisting of water vapor, carbon dioxide, methanol, ethanol, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrous oxide, organic amines, organic compounds containing NO.sub.2 groups, halogenated hydrocarbons, acetone, hexane, toluene, isopropanol, alcohols, alkanes, alkenes, benzene, functionalized aromatics, ammonia (NH.sub.3), phosgene (COCl.sub.2), sulfur mustard, nerve agents, sulfur dioxide, tetrahydrofuran (THF) and methyltertbutyl ether (MTBE) and combinations thereof.

  18. Multiuser detection and channel estimation: Exact and approximate methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    . We also derive optimal detectors when nuisance parameters such as the channel and noise level are unknown, and show how well the proposed methods fit into this framework via the Generalised Expectation Maximisation algorithm. Our numerical evaluation show that naive mean field annealing and adaptive......This dissertation deals with optimal and close to optimal multiuser detection in Code Division Multiple Access. We derive optimal detection strategies in the sense of minimum expected probability of bit error, sequence error, and mean square error. These are implemented efficiently by the use...... analysis of the convexity and bifurcations of the naive mean field free energy and optima. This proves that we can avoid local minima by tracking a global convex solution into the non-convex region, effectively avoiding error propagation. This method is in statistical physics denoted mean field annealing...

  19. Neutron imaging integrated circuit and method for detecting neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagarkar, Vivek V.; More, Mitali J.

    2017-12-05

    The present disclosure provides a neutron imaging detector and a method for detecting neutrons. In one example, a method includes providing a neutron imaging detector including plurality of memory cells and a conversion layer on the memory cells, setting one or more of the memory cells to a first charge state, positioning the neutron imaging detector in a neutron environment for a predetermined time period, and reading a state change at one of the memory cells, and measuring a charge state change at one of the plurality of memory cells from the first charge state to a second charge state less than the first charge state, where the charge state change indicates detection of neutrons at said one of the memory cells.

  20. Native Fluorescence Detection Methods, Devices, and Systems for Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Bhartia, Rohit (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor); Lane, Arthur L. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Naphthalene, benzene, toluene, xylene, and other volatile organic compounds VOCs have been identified as serious health hazards. Embodiments of the invention are directed to methods and apparatus for near-real-time in-situ detection and accumulated dose measurement of exposure to naphthalene vapor and other hazardous gaseous VOCs. The methods and apparatus employ excitation of fluorophors native or endogenous to compounds of interest using light sources emitting in the ultraviolet below 300 nm and measurement of native fluorescence emissions in distinct wavebands above the excitation wavelength. The apparatus of some embodiments are cell-phone-sized sensor/dosimeter "badges" to be worn by personnel potentially exposed to hazardous VOCs. The badge sensor of some embodiments provides both real time detection and data logging of exposure to naphthalene or other VOCs of interest from which both instantaneous and accumulated dose can be determined.

  1. Focus-before-detection Methods for Radar Detection of Near Space High-maneuvering Aircrafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently emerging, high maneuvering near space targets have many characteristics that differ from conventional targets, like ultra-high speed, high-maneuverability, ultra-far range, low Radar Cross Section (RCS, plasma sheath, ionosphere layer pollution, and cosmic ray interference. Based on general signal modeling for near space targets of ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne radars, this paper proposes novel focus-before-detection methods with respect to a distributed radar network, multi-dimensions, multiple targets, micro motion, varied model, and non-parametric processing. The proposed FBD based methods can effectively suppress the strong ionosphere layer pollution and active jamming, as well as problems like the scaled effect of echoes, arbitrary motion, aperture fill time, sparse sub-band frequency synthesis, across range cell, across Doppler cell, and across beam width. The proposed Focus-Before-Detection (FBD based methods can remarkably improve the signal processing performance on target detection, parameter estimation, maneuver tracking, high-resolution imaging, feature extraction, and target recognition. Additionally, they are suitable for both high maneuvering near space targets and conventional targets, and can be applied for both new-generation radars and conventional targets. Therefore, the proposed FBD based methods for high maneuvering near space target detection have both important academic research value and impact a wide variety of applications.

  2. Pre-processing methods for nodule detection in lung CT

    OpenAIRE

    Cheran, S. C.; Delogu, P.; De Mitri, I.; De Nunzio, G; Fantacci, M. E.; Fauci, F.; Gargano, G; Torres, E. Lopez; Massafra, R.; Oliva, P.; Martinez, A. Preite; Raso, G.; Retico, A.; Stumbo, S.; Tata, A.

    2005-01-01

    The use of automatic systems in the analysis of medical images has proven to be very useful to radiologists, especially in the framework of screening programs, in which radiologists make their first diagnosis on the basis of images only, most of those corresponding to healthy patients, and have to distinguish pathological findings from non-pathological ones at an early stage. In particular, we are developing preprocessing methods to be applied for pulmonary nodule Computer Aided Detection in ...

  3. Express method for detection of Amanita phalloides amanitine toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaskin, D N; Gainullina, E T; Klyuster, O V; Rybal'chenko, I V; Ryzhikov, S B; Taranchenko, V F

    2006-01-01

    Spectral studies of the interaction between amanitine and ethidium bromide fluorophore showed the appearance of a new intensive fluorescence band after addition of amanitine to ethidium bromide solution, caused by the formation of a charge-transfer complex. The new fluorescence band is located in a shorter wave region of the spectrum compared to ethidium bromide fluorescence band. Based on the results, a rapid fluorescent method for detection of amanitines was developed.

  4. Big Data and Specific Analysis Methods for Insurance Fraud Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona BOLOGA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Analytics is the future of big data because only transforming data into information gives them value and can turn data in business in competitive advantage. Large data volumes, their variety and the increasing speed their growth, stretch the boundaries of traditional data warehouses and ETL tools. This paper investigates the benefits of Big Data technology and main methods of analysis that can be applied to the particular case of fraud detection in public health insurance system in Romania.

  5. Monitoring marine populations and communities: methods dealing with imperfect detectability

    OpenAIRE

    S. KATSANEVAKIS; Weber, A; Pipitone, C. (Carlo); Leopold, M.F.; Scheidat, M.; Boois, de, I.J.; Jansen, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Effective monitoring of populations and communities is a prerequisite for ecosystem-based management of marine areas. However, monitoring programs often neglect important sources of error and thus can lead to biased estimates, spurious conclusions and false management actions. One such source of error is ‘imperfect detectability’, i.e. the inability of investigators to detect all individuals or all species in a surveyed area. Although there has been great effort to develop monitoring methods ...

  6. Small RNA Detection by in Situ Hybridization Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna O. Urbanek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Small noncoding RNAs perform multiple regulatory functions in cells, and their exogenous mimics are widely used in research and experimental therapies to interfere with target gene expression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are the most thoroughly investigated representatives of the small RNA family, which includes short interfering RNAs (siRNAs, PIWI-associated RNA (piRNAs, and others. Numerous methods have been adopted for the detection and characterization of small RNAs, which is challenging due to their short length and low level of expression. These include molecular biology methods such as real-time RT-PCR, northern blotting, hybridization to microarrays, cloning and sequencing, as well as single cell miRNA detection by microscopy with in situ hybridization (ISH. In this review, we focus on the ISH method, including its fluorescent version (FISH, and we present recent methodological advances that facilitated its successful adaptation for small RNA detection. We discuss relevant technical aspects as well as the advantages and limitations of ISH. We also refer to numerous applications of small RNA ISH in basic research and molecular diagnostics.

  7. Small RNA Detection by in Situ Hybridization Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanek, Martyna O.; Nawrocka, Anna U.; Krzyzosiak, Wlodzimierz J.

    2015-01-01

    Small noncoding RNAs perform multiple regulatory functions in cells, and their exogenous mimics are widely used in research and experimental therapies to interfere with target gene expression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are the most thoroughly investigated representatives of the small RNA family, which includes short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), PIWI-associated RNA (piRNAs), and others. Numerous methods have been adopted for the detection and characterization of small RNAs, which is challenging due to their short length and low level of expression. These include molecular biology methods such as real-time RT-PCR, northern blotting, hybridization to microarrays, cloning and sequencing, as well as single cell miRNA detection by microscopy with in situ hybridization (ISH). In this review, we focus on the ISH method, including its fluorescent version (FISH), and we present recent methodological advances that facilitated its successful adaptation for small RNA detection. We discuss relevant technical aspects as well as the advantages and limitations of ISH. We also refer to numerous applications of small RNA ISH in basic research and molecular diagnostics. PMID:26068454

  8. Detection of Extraterrestrial Life. Method II- Optical Rotatory Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    The object of this study is to develop polarimetric methods to detect the presence of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) or its congeners in soil suspensions, and through these methods determine the existence of life (as known terrestrially) on other planets. The cotton region associated with optically active organic compounds is being used to detect and characterize the compounds above. An apparatus has been designed and assembled which can measure optical rotations in systems which strongly attenuate incident-polarized, monochromatic light. This instrument was used to measure the optical rotatory dispersion spectra of nucleosides, a polynucleotide, and proteins whose optical density at 260 microns approached 1.0. This work is discussed in the final report on Contract NASR-85, Detection of Extraterrestrial Life, Method II: Optical Rotatory Dispersion. Recent work in Melpar laboratories has reaffirmed these rotatory dispersion spectra. Based upon the analysis of the optical components associated with this apparatus, however, these measurements must be considered as qualitative rather than quantitative. The reason for this is discussed in greater detail subsequently in this report. In addition, an evaluation of the theoretical and instrumental aspects of making rotatory-dispersion measurements in the cotton region has resulted in a procedure for measuring optical rotation.

  9. Median Filtering Methods for Non-volcanic Tremor Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiao, L. G.; Nadeau, R. M.; Dreger, D. S.; Luna, B.; Zhang, H.

    2016-12-01

    Various properties of median filtering over time and space are used to address challenges posed by the Non-volcanic tremor detection problem. As part of a "Big-Data" effort to characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of ambient tremor throughout the Northern San Andreas Fault system, continuous seismic data from multiple seismic networks with contrasting operational characteristics and distributed over a variety of regions are being used. Automated median filtering methods that are flexible enough to work consistently with these data are required. Tremor is characterized by a low-amplitude, long-duration signal-train whose shape is coherent at multiple stations distributed over a large area. There are no consistent phase arrivals or mechanisms in a given tremor's signal and even the durations and shapes among different tremors vary considerably. A myriad of masquerading noise, anthropogenic and natural-event signals must also be discriminated in order to obtain accurate tremor detections. We present here results of the median methods applied to data from four regions of the San Andreas Fault system in northern California (Geysers Geothermal Field, Napa, Bitterwater and Parkfield) to illustrate the ability of the methods to detect tremor under diverse conditions.

  10. A review of methods for detect human Papillomavirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abreu André L P

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human Papillomavirus (HPV is the most common sexually transmitted virus. Worldwide, the most common high-risk (HR-HPV are -16/18, and approximately 70% of cervical cancers (CC are due to infection by these genotypes. Persistent infection by HR-HPV is a necessary but not sufficient cause of this cancer, which develops over a long period through precursor lesions, which can be detected by cytological screening. Although this screening has decreased the incidence of CC, HPV-related cervical disease, including premalignant and malignant lesions, continues to be a major burden on health-care systems. Although not completely elucidated, the HPV-driven molecular mechanisms underlying the development of cervical lesions have provided a number of potential biomarkers for both diagnostic and prognostic use in the clinical management of women with HPV-related cervical disease, and these biomarkers can also be used to increase the positive predictive value of current screening methods. In addition, they can provide insights into the biology of HPV-induced cancer and thus lead to the development of nonsurgical therapies. Considering the importance of detecting HPV and related biomarkers, a variety of methods are being developed for these purposes. This review summarizes current knowledge of detection methods for HPV, and related biomarkers that can be used to discriminate lesions with a high risk of progression to CC.

  11. Method for early detection of cooling-loss events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Sergio A.; Hamann, Hendrik; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2015-06-30

    A method of detecting cooling-loss event early is provided. The method includes defining a relative humidity limit and change threshold for a given space, measuring relative humidity in the given space, determining, with a processing unit, whether the measured relative humidity is within the defined relative humidity limit, generating a warning in an event the measured relative humidity is outside the defined relative humidity limit and determining whether a change in the measured relative humidity is less than the defined change threshold for the given space and generating an alarm in an event the change is greater than the defined change threshold.

  12. A graph clustering method for community detection in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, HongFang; Li, Jin; Li, JunHuai; Zhang, FaCun; Cui, YingAn

    2017-03-01

    Information mining from complex networks by identifying communities is an important problem in a number of research fields, including the social sciences, biology, physics and medicine. First, two concepts are introduced, Attracting Degree and Recommending Degree. Second, a graph clustering method, referred to as AR-Cluster, is presented for detecting community structures in complex networks. Third, a novel collaborative similarity measure is adopted to calculate node similarities. In the AR-Cluster method, vertices are grouped together based on calculated similarity under a K-Medoids framework. Extensive experimental results on two real datasets show the effectiveness of AR-Cluster.

  13. An evaluation of certain Salmonella detection methods in surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernagozzi, M; Sacchetti, R; Polenta, L

    1996-11-01

    Two different procedures were employed for detecting Salmonella spp. in environmental water samples: a rapid method (enrichment in Salmosyst Broth and plating in Rambach Agar-Merck) and a longer assay (pre-enrichment in Buffered Peptone Water, enrichment in Selenite-Cistyne Broth and plating in Brilliant Green Agar-Difco). The efficiency of microbiological tests was measured by the following criteria: recovery, sensitivity and specificity. The results analysed by the Kendall concordance coefficients demonstrated that the rapid method appeared more effective even if poorly specific.

  14. A Latent Implementation Error Detection Method for Software Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiantao Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Model checking and conformance testing play an important role in software system design and implementation. From the view of integrating model checking and conformance testing into a tightly coupled validation approach, this paper presents a novel approach to detect latent errors in software implementation. The latent errors can be classified into two kinds, one is called as Unnecessary Implementation Trace, and the other is called as Neglected Implementation Trace. The method complements the incompleteness of security properties for software model checking. More accurate models are characterized to leverage the effectiveness of the model-based software verification and testing combined method.

  15. Optimization and modification of the method for detection of rhamnolipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Tabuchi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Use of biosurfactants in bioremediation, facilitates and accelerates microbial degradation of hydrocarbons. CTAB/MB agar method created by Siegmund & Wagner for screening of rhamnolipids (RL producing strains, has been widely used but has not improved significantly for more than 20 years. To optimize the technique as a quantitative method, CTAB/MB agar plates were made and different variables were tested, like incubation time, cooling, CTAB concentration, methylene blue presence, wells diameter and inocula volume. Furthermore, a new method for RL detection within halos was developed: precipitation of RL with HCl, allows the formation a new halos pattern, easier to observe and to measure. This research reaffirm that this method is not totally suitable for a fine quantitative analysis, because of the difficulty to accurately correlate RL concentration and the area of the halos. RL diffusion does not seem to have a simple behavior and there are a lot of factors that affect RL migration rate.

  16. A Robust Shape Reconstruction Method for Facial Feature Point Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shuqiu; Chen, Dongyi; Guo, Chenggang; Huang, Zhiqi

    2017-01-01

    Facial feature point detection has been receiving great research advances in recent years. Numerous methods have been developed and applied in practical face analysis systems. However, it is still a quite challenging task because of the large variability in expression and gestures and the existence of occlusions in real-world photo shoot. In this paper, we present a robust sparse reconstruction method for the face alignment problems. Instead of a direct regression between the feature space and the shape space, the concept of shape increment reconstruction is introduced. Moreover, a set of coupled overcomplete dictionaries termed the shape increment dictionary and the local appearance dictionary are learned in a regressive manner to select robust features and fit shape increments. Additionally, to make the learned model more generalized, we select the best matched parameter set through extensive validation tests. Experimental results on three public datasets demonstrate that the proposed method achieves a better robustness over the state-of-the-art methods.

  17. A Method of Insulator Detection from Aerial Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjie Zhai

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With increased image processing and sensor technologies, it is possible for photogrammetrists to monitor the status of electrical power infrastructures. Identifying and extracting insulators from complex background have great potential in automatic power grid surveillance on board unmanned aerial vehicles. This paper proposes an improved method to automatically extract the insulators from aerial images. A 3D model is introduced into the existing algorithms to obtain samples of insulators, which are Haar features and AdaBoost. Finally, in order to evaluate the performances, we compare our 3D model-based method with the existing methods that does not use 3D model to show the performance improvement. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is able to successfully extract the insulators from aerial images with an increased average detection ratio to 83 %.

  18. Current perspectives on genetically modified crops and detection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamle, Madhu; Kumar, Pradeep; Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Bajpai, Vivek K

    2017-07-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops are the fastest adopted commodities in the agribiotech industry. This market penetration should provide a sustainable basis for ensuring food supply for growing global populations. The successful completion of two decades of commercial GM crop production (1996-2015) is underscored by the increasing rate of adoption of genetic engineering technology by farmers worldwide. With the advent of introduction of multiple traits stacked together in GM crops for combined herbicide tolerance, insect resistance, drought tolerance or disease resistance, the requirement of reliable and sensitive detection methods for tracing and labeling genetically modified organisms in the food/feed chain has become increasingly important. In addition, several countries have established threshold levels for GM content which trigger legally binding labeling schemes. The labeling of GM crops is mandatory in many countries (such as China, EU, Russia, Australia, New Zealand, Brazil, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Korea, Chile, Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand), whereas in Canada, Hong Kong, USA, South Africa, and Argentina voluntary labeling schemes operate. The rapid adoption of GM crops has increased controversies, and mitigating these issues pertaining to the implementation of effective regulatory measures for the detection of GM crops is essential. DNA-based detection methods have been successfully employed, while the whole genome sequencing using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies provides an advanced means for detecting genetically modified organisms and foods/feeds in GM crops. This review article describes the current status of GM crop commercialization and discusses the benefits and shortcomings of common and advanced detection systems for GMs in foods and animal feeds.

  19. Detection of formaldehyde in textiles by chromotropic acid method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Sanath

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The common causes of textile dermatitis are formaldehyde resins and disperse dyes. There are various methods to detect the presence of formaldehyde in clothing. AIM: To detect the presence of formaldehyde in various types of textiles by the chromotropic acid method and to assess the effect of washing on the formaldehyde content. METHODS: Twenty randomly selected textiles from a local cloth store were tested for formaldehyde by the chromotropic acid method. A purple ring indicated a positive reaction. The intensity of the purple ring was graded from 1+ to 3+ and reassessed after washing the clothes. RESULTS: Eleven out of the 20 textiles tested positive for formaldehyde. The fully synthetic clothes were free from formaldehyde. After the first and second washes the majority did not show a reduction in the formaldehyde content. CONCLUSIONS: This is a simple and rapid test which can be used in the practical management of patients with textile allergy. Washing the clothes may not have an effect on the formaldehyde content.

  20. A serological method for detection of Nosema ceranae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronstein, K A; Webster, T C; Saldivar, E

    2013-03-01

    We developed a new method for detection of the intracellular parasite, Nosema ceranae, one of the most economically devastating pathogens of the honeybee. The SWP-32 antibody was used for the development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We also compared the efficiency of this ELISA to microscopy and quantitative real-time (qRT) PCR, the methods currently in use. ELISA is comparable in sensitivity with the qRT-PCR, less expensive and faster. When this method is commercialized and made available to bee-keepers, it will allow them to make informed decisions for the application of in-hive chemicals. Hence, bee-keepers may be able to determine when treatments for control of N. ceranae are unnecessary and reduce the cost, time and possible side effects of these treatments. This assay provides the first serological method for detection of N. ceranae in bee colonies, which is as sensitive as DNA amplification. It can be easily adopted for both laboratory and field applications. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology No claim to US Government works.

  1. Comparison of three molecular detection methods for detection of Trichinella in infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhibing; Cao, Jie; Zhang, Houshuang; Zhou, Yongzhi; Deng, Mingjun; Li, Guoqing; Zhou, Jinlin

    2013-05-01

    Different molecular detection methods require diverse molecular platforms, but there is no uniform standard for people to reference in the detection of Trichinella. In this study, real-time PCR, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and conventional PCR were developed for the detection of Trichinella by targeting mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal DNA (mt-lsrDNA). We compared the performance of the three newly developed assays. The results revealed that the detection limits of the real-time PCR, LAMP, and conventional PCR assays were 10 and 100 fg/μL and 1 pg/μL of Trichinella spiralis genomic DNA, respectively. The assays were used in the detection of Trichinella in the field. A total of 192 samples were obtained from pigs: 75 samples from free range farming and 117 from intensive feeding factory. The infection rate was 8/192 (4.2 %), 7/192 (3.6 %), and 1/192 (1.0 %) through the real-time PCR, LAMP, and conventional PCR assays, respectively. These data indicate that Taqman real-time PCR was a rapid, specific, and sensitive tool as a preferred option for investigation of valuable samples, but that LAMP assay was closed tube, highly sensitive, cost-effective, rapid, easy-to-perform, and was the optimal choice for detection of Trichinella in the field. The results of a model of experimental infection in mice indicated that spleen can be used as sampling site for the detection of early T. spiralis infection. However, the diaphragm and myocardium were the most suitable sampling sites for the detection of T. spiralis.

  2. Integration of microwave and thermographic NDT methods for corrosion detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, D.; Donnell, K. M.; Ghasr, M. T.; Kinzel, E. C.

    2014-02-01

    Infrastructure health monitoring is an important issue in the transportation industry. For the case of cement-based structures in particular, detection of corrosion on reinforcing steel bars (rebar) is an ongoing problem for aging infrastructure. There have been a number of techniques that have shown promise in this area including microwave nondestructive testing (NDT) and thermography. Thermography is quite advantageous as it is an established method, and can be utilized for large inspection areas with intuitive results. Typical heat sources include induction heating and flash lamps, but these are not without drawbacks. Microwave nondestructive testing has also been successful at detecting corroded rebar, but at the cost of lengthy scan times. This paper presents an investigation into the potential of utilizing aspects of microwave NDT and thermography to create a hybrid NDT method, herein referred to as Active Microwave Thermography (AMT). AMT takes advantage of the electromagnetically lossy nature of corrosion byproducts and uses microwave energy to induce heat in the corrosion. Subsequently, the resultant heat profile is captured using an infrared camera. This paper presents initial simulations and measurements that highlight the potential of AMT to detect corroded rebar.

  3. Methods of detecting and counting raptors: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, M.R.; Mosher, J.A.; Ralph, C. John; Scott, J. Michael

    1981-01-01

    Most raptors are wide-ranging, secretive, and occur at relatively low densities. These factors, in conjunction with the nocturnal activity of owls, cause the counting of raptors by most standard census and survey efforts to be very time consuming and expensive. This paper reviews the most common methods of detecting and counting raptors. It is hoped that it will be of use to the ever-increasing number of biologists, land-use planners, and managers that must determine the occurrence, density, or population dynamics of raptors. Road counts of fixed station or continuous transect design are often used to sample large areas. Detection of spontaneous or elicited vocalizations, especially those of owls, provides a means of detecting and estimating raptor numbers. Searches for nests are accomplished from foot surveys, observations from automobiles and boats, or from aircraft when nest structures are conspicuous (e.g., Osprey). Knowledge of nest habitat, historic records, and inquiries of local residents are useful for locating nests. Often several of these techniques are combined to help find nest sites. Aerial searches have also been used to locate or count large raptors (e.g., eagles), or those that may be conspicuous in open habitats (e.g., tundra). Counts of birds entering or leaving nest colonies or colonial roosts have been attempted on a limited basis. Results from Christmas Bird Counts have provided an index of the abundance of some species. Trapping and banding generally has proven to be an inefficient method of detecting raptors or estimating their populations. Concentrations of migrants at strategically located points around the world afford the best opportunity to count many rap tors in a relatively short period of time, but the influence of many unquantified variables has inhibited extensive interpretation of these counts. Few data exist to demonstrate the effectiveness of these methods. We believe more research on sampling techniques, rather than complete

  4. Topological Methods for Pattern Detection in Climate Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszynski, G.; Kurlin, V.; Morozov, D.; Prabhat, M.

    2016-12-01

    We address the problem of detecting extreme weather phenomena (called Atmospheric Rivers) in climate datasets. Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) are narrow filaments of concentrated water vapour in the atmosphere whose presence has been connected to major flooding events along the West Coast of North America (California, US) and Western Europe (the United Kingdom). The purpose of this research is to analyze large, high-dimensional climate datasets using Topological Data Analysis (TDA). TDA is a new area on the interface between Topology and Computer Science. Topology studies shapes and properties of geometric objects that are preserved under continuous deformations. TDA provides efficient tools for computing topological properties that are stable under perturbations of noisy data. The state-of-the-art detection methods of ARs use threshold parameters based on fields of Integrated Water Vapour (IWV) data on a fixed grid, while we develop a resolution and threshold independent method. We have refactored the connected component labeling step in AR detection to employ union-find data structure to determine connectedness. For this purpose, we store each component of the graph as a subset of a dataset. Then, by adding the edges one at a time and maintaining components above a variable threshold, we update the volume of all connected components (the sum of values at all nodes in the component) to see the change in topology and geometry along threshold value. We have also implemented a procedure to compute the topological skeleton of the AR and a more accurate method to compute the AR width. We will integrate these improvements with the union-find algorithm to explore the robustness of the AR shape characteristics (length, width, geometric connectivity) as we systematically vary IWV thresholds. Preliminary results indicate that the AR detection procedure can be made more robust (compared to earlier approaches) by incorporating topological ideas. We will present results on the

  5. Evaluation of nutria (Myocastor coypus) detection methods in Maryland, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Margaret A; Herrmann, Valentine; Hines, James; Nichols, James D.; Kendrot, Stephen R

    2017-01-01

    Nutria (Myocaster coypus), invasive, semi-aquatic rodents native to South America, were introduced into Maryland near Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge (BNWR) in 1943. Irruptive population growth, expansion, and destructive feeding habits resulted in the destruction of thousands of acres of emergent marshes at and surrounding BNWR. In 2002, a partnership of federal, state and private entities initiated an eradication campaign to protect remaining wetlands from further damage and facilitate the restoration of coastal wetlands throughout the Chesapeake Bay region. Program staff removed nearly 14,000 nutria from five infested watersheds in a systematic trapping and hunting program between 2002 and 2014. As part of ongoing surveillance activities, the Chesapeake Bay Nutria Eradication Project uses a variety of tools to detect and remove nutria. Project staff developed a floating raft, or monitoring platform, to determine site occupancy. These platforms are placed along waterways and checked periodically for evidence of nutria visitation. We evaluated the effectiveness of monitoring platforms and three associated detection methods: hair snares, presence of scat, and trail cameras. Our objectives were to (1) determine if platform placement on land or water influenced nutria visitation rates, (2) determine if the presence of hair snares influenced visitation rates, and (3) determine method-specific detection probabilities. Our analyses indicated that platforms placed on land were 1.5–3.0 times more likely to be visited than those placed in water and that platforms without snares were an estimated 1.7–3.7 times more likely to be visited than those with snares. Although the presence of snares appears to have discouraged visitation, seasonal variation may confound interpretation of these results. Scat was the least effective method of determining nutria visitation, while hair snares were as effective as cameras. Estimated detection probabilities provided by occupancy

  6. Novel method for detection of Sleep Apnoea using respiration signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristine Carmes; Kempfner, Lykke; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing

    2014-01-01

    Polysomnography (PSG) studies are considered the “gold standard” for the diagnosis of Sleep Apnoea (SA). Identifying cessations of breathing from long-lasting PSG recordings manually is a labour-intensive and time-consuming task for sleep specialist, associated with inter-scorer variability....... In this study a simplified, semi-automatic, three-channel method for detection of SA patients is proposed in order to increase analysis reliability and diagnostic accuracy in the clinic. The method is based on characteristic features, such as respiration stoppages pr. hour and the total number of oxygen...... desaturations > 3%, extracted from the thorax and abdomen respiration effort belts, and the oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO2), fed to an Elastic Net classifier and validated according to American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) using the patients' AHI value. The method was applied to 109 patient recordings...

  7. Detection of Seed Methods for Quantification of Feature Confinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olszak, Andrzej; Bouwers, Eric; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2012-01-01

    The way features are implemented in source code has a significant influence on multiple quality aspects of a software system. Hence, it is important to regularly evaluate the quality of feature confinement. Unfortunately, existing approaches to such measurement rely on expert judgement for tracing...... links between features and source code which hinders the ability to perform cost-efficient and consistent evaluations over time or on a large portfolio of systems. In this paper, we propose an approach to automating measurement of feature confinement by detecting the methods which play a central role...... in implementations of features, the so-called seed methods, and using them as starting points for a static slicing algorithm. We show that this approach achieves the same level of performance compared to the use of manually identified seed methods. Furthermore we illustrate the scalability of the approach...

  8. System and Method for Outlier Detection via Estimating Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, David J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An efficient method and system for real-time or offline analysis of multivariate sensor data for use in anomaly detection, fault detection, and system health monitoring is provided. Models automatically derived from training data, typically nominal system data acquired from sensors in normally operating conditions or from detailed simulations, are used to identify unusual, out of family data samples (outliers) that indicate possible system failure or degradation. Outliers are determined through analyzing a degree of deviation of current system behavior from the models formed from the nominal system data. The deviation of current system behavior is presented as an easy to interpret numerical score along with a measure of the relative contribution of each system parameter to any off-nominal deviation. The techniques described herein may also be used to "clean" the training data.

  9. Neutron-detecting apparatuses and methods of fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Rajendra P.; Huang, Jacky Kuan-Chih; Lu, James J. Q.; Danon, Yaron; Bhat, Ishwara B.

    2015-10-06

    Neutron-detecting structures and methods of fabrication are provided which include: a substrate with a plurality of cavities extending into the substrate from a surface; a p-n junction within the substrate and extending, at least in part, in spaced opposing relation to inner cavity walls of the substrate defining the plurality of cavities; and a neutron-responsive material disposed within the plurality of cavities. The neutron-responsive material is responsive to neutrons absorbed for releasing ionization radiation products, and the p-n junction within the substrate spaced in opposing relation to and extending, at least in part, along the inner cavity walls of the substrate reduces leakage current of the neutron-detecting structure.

  10. Single Molecule Detection in Solution: Methods and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Christoph; Enderlein, Jorg; Keller, Richard A.

    2002-07-01

    The detection of single molecules opens up new horizons in analytical chemistry, biology and medicine. This discipline, which belongs to the expanding field of nanoscience, has been rapidly emerging over the last ten years. This handbook provides a thorough overview of the field. It begins with basics of single molecule detection in solution, describes methods and devices (fluorescense correlation spectroscopy, surface enhanced Raman scattering, sensors, especially dyes, screening techniques, especially confocal laser scanning microscopy). In the second part, various applications in life sciences and medicine provide the latest research results. This modern handbook is a highly accessible reference for a broad community from advanced researchers, specialists and company professionals in physics, spectroscopy, biotechnology, analytical chemistry, and medicine. Written by leading authorities in the field, it is timely and fills a gap - up to now there exists no handbook concerning this theme.

  11. Comparative analysis of different methods to detect Clostridium difficile infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderaro, Adriana; Buttrini, Mirko; Martinelli, Monica; Gorrini, Chiara; Montecchini, Sara; Medici, Maria Cristina; Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina; De Conto, Flora; Covan, Silvia; Chezzi, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    The increased incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection, particularly in North America and Europe, have brought renewed focus on the most appropriate method to detect C. difficile and/or its toxins in stools. This prospective study evaluated the usefulness of the Illumigene TM C. difficile assay in diagnostic practice for the detection of toxigenic C. difficile DNA in clinical samples. A total of 88 out of 306 stool samples analysed were positive both by Illumigene and the combination of toxigenic C. difficile culture (TC) and immunochromatographic assay (IC) with a concordance of 100%. Of the 218 samples negative by the combination of TC and IC, 204 were negative also by Illumigene with a concordance of 93.57%. In our experience, compared to conventional assays Illumigene assay proved to be easy to perform, accurate and prompt giving results within 1 hour at a cost of 28 euro per sample.

  12. Conventional, molecular methods and biomarkers molecules in detection of septicemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Arabestani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients worldwide and based on studies, 30-40% of all cases of severe sepsis and septic shock results from the blood stream infections (BSIs. Identifying of the disease, performing laboratory tests, and consequently treatment are factors that required for optimum management of BSIs. In addition, applying precise and immediate identification of the etiologic agent is a prerequisite for specific antibiotic therapy of pathogen and thereby decreasing mortality rates. The diagnosis of sepsis is difficult because clinical signs of sepsis often overlap with other noninfectious cases of systemic inflammation. BSIs are usually diagnosed by performing a series of techniques such as blood cultures, polymerase chain reaction-based methods, and biomarkers of sepsis. Extremely time-consuming even to take up to several days is a major limitation of conventional methods. In addition, yielding false-negative results due to fastidious and slow-growing microorganisms and also in case of antibiotic pretreated samples are other limitations. In comparison, molecular methods are capable of examining a blood sample obtained from suspicious patient with BSI and gave the all required information to prescribing antimicrobial therapy for detected bacterial or fungal infections immediately. Because of an emergency of sepsis, new methods are being developed. In this review, we discussed about the most important sepsis diagnostic methods and numbered the advantage and disadvantage of the methods in detail.

  13. a Probabilistic Embedding Clustering Method for Urban Structure Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, X.; Li, H.; Zhang, Y.; Gao, L.; Zhao, L.; Deng, M.

    2017-09-01

    Urban structure detection is a basic task in urban geography. Clustering is a core technology to detect the patterns of urban spatial structure, urban functional region, and so on. In big data era, diverse urban sensing datasets recording information like human behaviour and human social activity, suffer from complexity in high dimension and high noise. And unfortunately, the state-of-the-art clustering methods does not handle the problem with high dimension and high noise issues concurrently. In this paper, a probabilistic embedding clustering method is proposed. Firstly, we come up with a Probabilistic Embedding Model (PEM) to find latent features from high dimensional urban sensing data by "learning" via probabilistic model. By latent features, we could catch essential features hidden in high dimensional data known as patterns; with the probabilistic model, we can also reduce uncertainty caused by high noise. Secondly, through tuning the parameters, our model could discover two kinds of urban structure, the homophily and structural equivalence, which means communities with intensive interaction or in the same roles in urban structure. We evaluated the performance of our model by conducting experiments on real-world data and experiments with real data in Shanghai (China) proved that our method could discover two kinds of urban structure, the homophily and structural equivalence, which means clustering community with intensive interaction or under the same roles in urban space.

  14. A PROBABILISTIC EMBEDDING CLUSTERING METHOD FOR URBAN STRUCTURE DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Lin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Urban structure detection is a basic task in urban geography. Clustering is a core technology to detect the patterns of urban spatial structure, urban functional region, and so on. In big data era, diverse urban sensing datasets recording information like human behaviour and human social activity, suffer from complexity in high dimension and high noise. And unfortunately, the state-of-the-art clustering methods does not handle the problem with high dimension and high noise issues concurrently. In this paper, a probabilistic embedding clustering method is proposed. Firstly, we come up with a Probabilistic Embedding Model (PEM to find latent features from high dimensional urban sensing data by “learning” via probabilistic model. By latent features, we could catch essential features hidden in high dimensional data known as patterns; with the probabilistic model, we can also reduce uncertainty caused by high noise. Secondly, through tuning the parameters, our model could discover two kinds of urban structure, the homophily and structural equivalence, which means communities with intensive interaction or in the same roles in urban structure. We evaluated the performance of our model by conducting experiments on real-world data and experiments with real data in Shanghai (China proved that our method could discover two kinds of urban structure, the homophily and structural equivalence, which means clustering community with intensive interaction or under the same roles in urban space.

  15. Current and Prospective Methods for Plant Disease Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yi; Ramasamy, Ramaraja P.

    2015-01-01

    Food losses due to crop infections from pathogens such as bacteria, viruses and fungi are persistent issues in agriculture for centuries across the globe. In order to minimize the disease induced damage in crops during growth, harvest and postharvest processing, as well as to maximize productivity and ensure agricultural sustainability, advanced disease detection and prevention in crops are imperative. This paper reviews the direct and indirect disease identification methods currently used in agriculture. Laboratory-based techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunofluorescence (IF), fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), flow cytometry (FCM) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) are some of the direct detection methods. Indirect methods include thermography, fluorescence imaging and hyperspectral techniques. Finally, the review also provides a comprehensive overview of biosensors based on highly selective bio-recognition elements such as enzyme, antibody, DNA/RNA and bacteriophage as a new tool for the early identification of crop diseases. PMID:26287253

  16. Current and Prospective Methods for Plant Disease Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Fang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Food losses due to crop infections from pathogens such as bacteria, viruses and fungi are persistent issues in agriculture for centuries across the globe. In order to minimize the disease induced damage in crops during growth, harvest and postharvest processing, as well as to maximize productivity and ensure agricultural sustainability, advanced disease detection and prevention in crops are imperative. This paper reviews the direct and indirect disease identification methods currently used in agriculture. Laboratory-based techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR, immunofluorescence (IF, fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, flow cytometry (FCM and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS are some of the direct detection methods. Indirect methods include thermography, fluorescence imaging and hyperspectral techniques. Finally, the review also provides a comprehensive overview of biosensors based on highly selective bio-recognition elements such as enzyme, antibody, DNA/RNA and bacteriophage as a new tool for the early identification of crop diseases.

  17. Biological methods for the detection of irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerton, K.M. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    The main purpose of most applications of food irradiation is to obtain a change in a biological system associated with or within the food commodity. The biological effects in systems associated with the food include the reduction or elimination of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms, insect disinfestation and parasite disinfection. For fresh plant foods, the effects are due to changes in biological systems in the food such as inhibition of sprouting of tubers, bulbs and roots, loss of seed viability and delay of maturation and senescence of fruits and vegetables. Ultimately, the efficacy of a food irradiation process is determined by reference to whether the desired effect can be observed. These biological effects have formed the basis for investigating various methods for the detection of irradiated foods. A review of the methods developed up to 1990 was carried out within the framework of the FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Programme on Analytical Detection Methods for Irradiation Treatment of Foods (ADMIT), and a state-of-the-art presented in 1992. (author).

  18. Genome Fusion Detection: a novel method to detect fusion genes from SNP-array data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Sebastian; Groth, Philip

    2013-03-15

    Fusion genes result from genomic rearrangements, such as deletions, amplifications and translocations. Such rearrangements can also frequently be observed in cancer and have been postulated as driving event in cancer development. to detect them, one needs to analyze the transition region of two segments with different copy number, the location where fusions are known to occur. Finding fusion genes is essential to understanding cancer development and may lead to new therapeutic approaches. Here we present a novel method, the Genomic Fusion Detection algorithm, to predict fusion genes on a genomic level based on SNP-array data. This algorithm detects genes at the transition region of segments with copy number variation. With the application of defined constraints, certain properties of the detected genes are evaluated to predict whether they may be fused. We evaluated our prediction by calculating the observed frequency of known fusions in both primary cancers and cell lines. We tested a set of cell lines positive for the BCR-ABL1 fusion and prostate cancers positive for the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion. We could detect the fusions in all positive cell lines, but not in the negative controls.

  19. A Hierarchical Classification Method for Breast Tumor Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Mohammadpoor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Breast cancer is the second cause of mortality among women. Early detection of it can enhance the chance of survival. Screening systems such as mammography cannot perfectly differentiate between patients and healthy individuals. Computer-aided diagnosis can help physicians make a more accurate diagnosis. Materials and Methods Regarding the importance of separating normal and abnormal cases in screening systems, a hierarchical classification system is defined in this paper. The proposed system is including two Adaptive Boosting (AdaBoost classifiers, the first classifier separates the candidate images into two groups of normal and abnormal. The second classifier is applied on the abnormal group of the previous stage and divides them into benign and malignant categories. The proposed algorithm is evaluated by applying it on publicly available  Mammographic Image Analysis Society (MIAS dataset. 288 images of the database are used, including 208  normal and 80 abnormal images. 47 images of the abnormal images showed benign lesion and 33 of them had malignant lesion.  Results Applying the proposed algorithm on MIAS database indicates its advantage compared to previous methods. A major improvement occurred in the first classification stage. Specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy of the first classifier are obtained as 100%, 95.83%, and 97.91%, respectively. These values are calculated as 75% in the second stage   Conclusion A hierarchical classification method for breast cancer detection is developed in this paper. Regarding the importance of separating normal and abnormal cases in screening systems, the first classifier is devoted to separate normal and tumorous cases. Experimental results on available database shown that the performance of this step is adequately high (100% specificity. The second layer is designed to detect tumor type.  The accuracy in the second layer is obtained 75%.

  20. Advances in Laboratory Methods for Detection and Typing of Norovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Human noroviruses are the leading cause of epidemic and sporadic gastroenteritis across all age groups. Although the disease is usually self-limiting, in the United States norovirus gastroenteritis causes an estimated 56,000 to 71,000 hospitalizations and 570 to 800 deaths each year. This minireview describes the latest data on laboratory methods (molecular, immunological) for norovirus detection, including real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and commercially available immunological assays as well as the latest FDA-cleared multi-gastrointestinal-pathogen platforms. In addition, an overview is provided on the latest nomenclature and molecular epidemiology of human noroviruses. PMID:24989606

  1. Method for Real-Time Model Based Structural Anomaly Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy A. (Inventor); Urnes, James M., Sr. (Inventor); Reichenbach, Eric Y. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A system and methods for real-time model based vehicle structural anomaly detection are disclosed. A real-time measurement corresponding to a location on a vehicle structure during an operation of the vehicle is received, and the real-time measurement is compared to expected operation data for the location to provide a modeling error signal. A statistical significance of the modeling error signal to provide an error significance is calculated, and a persistence of the error significance is determined. A structural anomaly is indicated, if the persistence exceeds a persistence threshold value.

  2. Oceanic eddy detection and lifetime forecast using machine learning methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkezari, Mohammad D.; Hill, Christopher N.; Follett, Christopher N.; Forget, Gaël.; Follows, Michael J.

    2016-12-01

    We report a novel altimetry-based machine learning approach for eddy identification and characterization. The machine learning models use daily maps of geostrophic velocity anomalies and are trained according to the phase angle between the zonal and meridional components at each grid point. The trained models are then used to identify the corresponding eddy phase patterns and to predict the lifetime of a detected eddy structure. The performance of the proposed method is examined at two dynamically different regions to demonstrate its robust behavior and region independency.

  3. Non-cavitated carious lesions detection methods: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Juliana; Tellez, M; Pretty, I A; Ellwood, R P; Ismail, A I

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to critically appraise the performance of detection methods for non-cavitated carious lesions (NCCLs). A detailed search of Medline (via OVID), the Cochrane Collaboration, Scielo and EMBASE identified 2054 publications. After title and abstract review by three investigators (JG, MT, AI), 124 publications were selected for further review. The final publications evaluated the following methods: Visual (V), Caries Lesion Activity Assessment (CLAA), Laser Fluorescence (LF), Radiographic (R), Fibre-optic Transillumination (FOTI), Electrical Conductance (EC) and Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence (QLF). All included studies used histological assessment as a gold standard for in vitro studies or clinical/visual validation for the in vivo designs. They reported outcomes measures such as sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP), area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and reliability. Data were extracted from the selected studies independently by two reviewers and checked for errors. The quality of the studies was evaluated as described by Bader et al. (2002). Of the 124 articles, 42 were included that described 85 clinical assessments. Overall, the quality of evidence on detection methods was rated ‘poor’, except for EC that was rated ‘fair’. The SE rates were as follows: V (0.17–0.96), LF or DIAGNOdent (DD) (0.16–0.96), R (0.12–0.84), FOTI (0.21–0.96), EC (0.61–0.92) and QLF (0.82). The SP rates were as follows: V (0.46–1.0), LF (0.25–1.00), R (0.55–0.99), FOTI (0.74-0.88), EC (0.73–1.0) and QLF (0.92). There is a large variation in SE and SP values for methods and a lack of consistency in definition of disease and analytical methods. EC and QLF seem to be promising for detection of early lesions. For both cost and practicality considerations, visual methods should remain the standard for clinical assessment in dental practice.

  4. CHROMagar Salmonella Detection Test Kit. Performance Tested Method 020502.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Katana; Ritter, Vicki

    2009-01-01

    BBL CHROMagar Salmonella was evaluated by an external food testing laboratory for the recovery of Salmonella in peanut butter using the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM) procedure. The peanut butter was found to be negative for the presence of Salmonella and, therefore, was seeded with heat-stressed Salmonella at target concentrations of 0.2 and 2 CFU/25 g. The Salmonella-seeded samples remained at room temperature for 14 days before analysis to stabilize the Salmonella in the food environment. Twenty 25 g test portions from each seeded level and five 25 g samples of uninoculated control samples were processed using enrichment broths as outlined in the FDA-BAM procedure. BBL CHROMagar Salmonella-prepared plates were evaluated with the FDA reference method media (bismuth sulfite, xylose lysine desoxycholate, and Hektoen enteric agars). Fractionally positive results were obtained from the lower inoculum level of peanut butter samples. Five positive cultures were recovered from both the BBL CHROMagar Salmonella and reference methods. The two methods gave identical results for all cultures resulting in a method agreement of 100%. McNemar's chi2 test, which assesses the evidence for difference in marginal proportions between two methods, could not be evaluated because it requires one or more discrepant cultures. However, because there were no discrepant cultures, the marginal proportions for the two methods were identical; therefore, there is no evidence of a difference between the methods. This study demonstrates that the results from BBL CHROMagar Salmonella are comparable to the three reference method media for the detection of Salmonella in peanut butter using the FDA-BAM procedures.

  5. Optimization of Quantitative PCR Methods for Enteropathogen Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    Full Text Available Detection and quantification of enteropathogens in stool specimens is useful for diagnosing the cause of diarrhea but is technically challenging. Here we evaluate several important determinants of quantification: specimen collection, nucleic acid extraction, and extraction and amplification efficiency. First, we evaluate the molecular detection and quantification of pathogens in rectal swabs versus stool, using paired flocked rectal swabs and whole stool collected from 129 children hospitalized with diarrhea in Tanzania. Swabs generally yielded a higher quantification cycle (Cq (average 29.7, standard deviation 3.5 vs. 25.3 ± 2.9 from stool, P<0.001 but were still able to detect 80% of pathogens with a Cq < 30 in stool. Second, a simplified total nucleic acid (TNA extraction procedure was compared to separate DNA and RNA extractions and showed 92% (318/344 sensitivity and 98% (951/968 specificity, with no difference in Cq value for the positive results (ΔCq(DNA+RNA-TNA = -0.01 ± 1.17, P = 0.972, N = 318. Third, we devised a quantification scheme that adjusts pathogen quantity to the specimen's extraction and amplification efficiency, and show that this better estimates the quantity of spiked specimens than the raw target Cq. In sum, these methods for enteropathogen quantification, stool sample collection, and nucleic acid extraction will be useful for laboratories studying enteric disease.

  6. Detection of communities with Naming Game-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Thais Gobet; Ribeiro, Carlos Henrique Costa

    2017-01-01

    Complex networks are often organized in groups or communities of agents that share the same features and/or functions, and this structural organization is built naturally with the formation of the system. In social networks, we argue that the dynamic of linguistic interactions of agreement among people can be a crucial factor in generating this community structure, given that sharing opinions with another person bounds them together, and disagreeing constantly would probably weaken the relationship. We present here a computational model of opinion exchange that uncovers the community structure of a network. Our aim is not to present a new community detection method proper, but to show how a model of social communication dynamics can reveal the (simple and overlapping) community structure in an emergent way. Our model is based on a standard Naming Game, but takes into consideration three social features: trust, uncertainty and opinion preference, that are built over time as agents communicate among themselves. We show that the separate addition of each social feature in the Naming Game results in gradual improvements with respect to community detection. In addition, the resulting uncertainty and trust values classify nodes and edges according to role and position in the network. Also, our model has shown a degree of accuracy both for non-overlapping and overlapping communities that are comparable with most algorithms specifically designed for topological community detection.

  7. Analytical Methods for Mycotoxin Detection in Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chee Wei; Chung, Gerald; Chan, Sheot Harn

    2017-10-03

    Aflatoxins B1 (AFB1) and B₂ (AFB₂) and G1 and G₂ remain the top mycotoxins routinely analyzed and monitored by Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) national laboratories primarily for food safety regulation in the major food commodities, nuts and spices. LC tandem fluorescence detection (LC–fluorescence) represents a current mainstream analytical method, with a progressive migration to a primary method by LC tandem MS (MS/MS) for the next half decade. Annual proficiency testing (PT) is conducted by ASEAN Food Reference Laboratories (AFRLs) for mycotoxin testing as part of capability building in national laboratories, with the scope of PT materials spanning from naturally mycotoxin-contaminated spices and nuts in the early 2010s to the recent contamination of corn flour in 2017 for total aflatoxin assay development. The merits of the mainstream LC–fluorescence method are witnessed by a significant improvement (P < 0.05) in PT z-score passing rates (≤2) from 11.8 to 79.2% for AFB1, 23.5 to 83.3% for AFB₂, and 23.5 to 79.2% for total aflatoxins in the last 5 years. This paper discusses the journey of ASEAN national laboratories in analytical testing through AFRLs, and the progressive collective adoption of a multimycotoxin LC-MS/MS method aided by an isotopic dilution assay as a future primary method for safer food commodities.

  8. SAS molecular tests Salmonella detection kit. Performance tested method 021202.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapanpally, Chandra; Montier, Laura; Khan, Shah; Kasra, Akif; Brunelle, Sharon L

    2014-01-01

    The SAS Molecular tests Salmonella Detection method, a Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification method, performed as well as or better than the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual reference methods for ground beef, beef trim, ground turkey, chicken carcass rinses, bagged mixed lettuce, and fresh spinach. The ground beef (30% fat, 25 g test portion), poultry matrixes and leafy greens were validated in a 6-7 h enrichment, and ground beef (30% fat, 375 g composite test portion) and beef trim (375 g composite test portion) were validated in a 16-20 h enrichment. The method performance for meat and leafy green matrixes was shown to be acceptable under conditions of co-enrichment with Escherichia coli 0157. Thus, after a short 6-7 h co-enrichment step, ground beef, beef trim, lettuce, and spinach can be tested for both Salmonella and E. coli O157. Inclusivity and exclusivity testing revealed no false negatives and no false positives among the 100 Salmonella serovars and 30 non-Salmonella species examined. The method was shown to be robust when enrichment time, DNA extract hold time, and DNA volume were varied.

  9. Immunoanalysis Methods for the Detection of Dioxins and Related Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhao

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With the development of biotechnology, approaches based on antibodies, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, active aryl hydrocarbon immunoassay (Ah-I and other multi-analyte immunoassays, have been utilized as alternatives to the conventional techniques based on gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy for the analysis of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in environmental and biological samples. These screening methods have been verified as rapid, simple and cost-effective. This paper provides an overview on the development and application of antibody-based approaches, such as ELISA, Ah-I, and multi-analyte immunoassays, covering the sample extraction and cleanup, antigen design, antibody preparation and immunoanalysis. However, in order to meet the requirements for on-site fast detection and relative quantification of dioxins in the environment, further optimization is needed to make these immuno-analytical methods more sensitive and easy to use.

  10. METHODS OF TSUNAMI DETECTION AND OF POST-TSUNAMI SURVEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kurkin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In our paper we describe some of the methods of the last 25 years which have been used extensively to examine and register tsunami traces - particularly by satellite imaging of coastal zones before and after a tsunami has struck, thus assessing quickly the extent of coastal inundation over large areas without the need of a site visit. Nearly all countries bordering oceans, seas and bodies of water have established digital systems of water level registration in the range of tsunami waves. In this article we describe methods of tsunami detection and runup measurements, some based on our own participation in post-tsunami surveys. Also, we discuss the possibility of using robotic systems to survey tsunami traces in hard-to- reach places.

  11. Computational methods for ab initio detection of microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik eYousef

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are small RNA sequences of 18-24 nucleotides in length, which serve as templates to drive post transcriptional gene silencing. The canonical microRNA pathway starts with transcription from DNA and is followed by processing via the Microprocessor complex, yielding a hairpin structure. Which is then exported into the cytosol where it is processed by Dicer and then incorporated into the RNA induced silencing complex. All of these biogenesis steps add to the overall specificity of miRNA production and effect. Unfortunately, their modes of action are just beginning to be elucidated and therefore computational prediction algorithms cannot model the process but are usually forced to employ machine learning approaches. This work focuses on ab initio prediction methods throughout; and therefore homology-based miRNA detection methods are not discussed. Current ab initio prediction algorithms, their ties to data mining, and their prediction accuracy are detailed.

  12. Devices, systems, and methods for detecting nucleic acids using sedimentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Chung-Yan; Schaff, Ulrich Y.; Sommer, Gregory J.

    2017-10-24

    Embodiments of the present invention are directed toward devices, systems, and method for conducting nucleic acid purification and quantification using sedimentation. In one example, a method includes generating complexes which bind to a plurality of beads in a fluid sample, individual ones of the complexes comprising a nucleic acid molecule such as DNA or RNA and a labeling agent. The plurality of beads including the complexes may be transported through a density media, wherein the density media has a density lower than a density of the beads and higher than a density of the fluid sample, and wherein the transporting occurs, at least in part, by sedimentation. Signal may be detected from the labeling agents of the complexes.

  13. [Review of Crop Canopy Spectral Information Detection Technology and Methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiao-rong; Gao, Jun-feng; Xie, Chuan-qi; Zhu, Feng-le; Huang, Ling-xia; He, Yong

    2015-07-01

    Compared with the traditional chemical methods and the subjective visual ways for measuring plant physiology information indicators, the assessments of crop canopy information through spectral radiometer are more simple, rapid and accurate. The applications of different types of spectral radiometer, especially for international general used Cropscan multispectral radiometer, for predicting crop canopy leaf area index under different growth stage, biomass, nitrogen, chlorophyll and yield, and monitoring plant diseases and insect pests were summarized based on crop group information acquisition methods in recent years. The varity of vegetation indices (VIs) were concluded after comparing regression coefficients of related models among different crops. In general, the correlation coefficients of mathematical models were high and it can realize the crop detection of various kinds of physiological information. Besides, the combination of multispectral radiometer and other sensors can provide useful information to evaluate the status of crops growth, which is very important in practice.

  14. Detection of pasteurized milk adulteration through official methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mareze

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of milk consumed is a constant concern of dairy industry and healthcare-related authorities, technicians as well as consumers. The most serious problems are the various frauds which cause economic losses, risks to consumer health and, sometimes, problems for industries, such as the decrease in industrial output. Many foods are subject to fraud, but milk is one of the most commonly spoofed. The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of fraudulent substances and assess the physico-chemical properties of pasteurized milk produced in dairies from the North region of Paraná. Eighty samples were evaluated in the period from March to June 2014 and carried out specific methods for detection of restoratives: starch, alcohol, chloride and sucrose; neutralizers: bicarbonate and sodium hydroxide; preservatives: chlorine, sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide and formaldehyde. The evaluation of physico-chemical characteristics was carried out through the following analyses: density at 15° C, cryoscopic index, Dornic titratable acidity, 72 alizarol stability, pH, alkaline phosphatase, peroxidase, fat, total solids, non-fat solids, urea, protein and lactose. Non-standard samples were observed for the following analyses: fat (12.5%, non-fat solids (5%, density (1.25%, cryoscopy (3.75%, pH (48.75%, urea (1.25%. Frauds were observed by addition of water and sucrose (3.75%, presence of hypochlorite (5% and occurrence of skim milk (12.5%. The evidence together can assist in detecting fraud most commonly performed in pasteurized milk, but does not show in which thread might have occurred. However, if not detected, the quality of the product cannot be assured since many frauds have been carried out in a balanced way hindering its detection.

  15. Methods used for the detection and subtyping of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Snehal; Bhave, Mrinal; Palombo, Enzo A

    2012-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an important foodborne pathogen responsible for non-invasive and invasive diseases in the elderly, pregnant women, neonates and immunocompromised populations. This bacterium has many similarities with other non-pathogenic Listeria species which makes its detection from food and environmental samples challenging. Subtyping of L. monocytogenes strains can prove to be crucial in epidemiological investigations, source tracking contamination from food processing plants and determining evolutionary relationships between different strains. In recent years there has been a shift towards the use of molecular subtyping. This has led to the development of new subtyping techniques such as multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and multi-locus sequence based typing (MLST). This review focuses on the available methods for Listeria detection including immuno-based techniques and the more recently developed molecular methods and analytical techniques such as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight based mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). It also includes a comparison and critical analysis of the available phenotypic and genotypic subtyping techniques that have been investigated for L. monocytogenes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A Review on Detection and Treatment Methods of Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraj, Rajeswari; Mohan, Jagannath; Kanagasabai, Adalarasu

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a review on detection and treatment methods of sleep apnea. Sleep apnea is the most common type of breathing-related sleep disorder. It manifests in a variety of behaviours from teeth grinding to night terrors as involuntary night-time events. The most common sleep disorders are narcolepsy, hypersomnia, sleep talking, sleep walking, and bedwetting. Sleep apnea (somnipathy) is a serious sleep disorder that pauses breathing while sleeping. Breathing pauses occur 30 times or more during sleep and it lasts for few seconds to minutes, when normal breathing starts after this pause. Untreated sleep apnea patients stop breathing, which happens up to hundreds of times during sleep that ultimately results in atrial fibrillation, cardiac arousal, stroke, brain tumor and other vascular diseases at the age of 65 that causes death. Smokers are at a greater threat for sleep apnea. Several studies have suggested that a person who smokes more than two packs a day has 40 times the risk of sleep apnea then nonsmokers. This review includes the discussion about detection of sleep apnea from heart rate and respiratory events. The published literature of sleep apnea and methods of treatment are also discussed.

  17. Numerical simulation for cracks detection using the finite elements method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Bennoud

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The means of detection must ensure controls either during initial construction, or at the time of exploitation of all parts. The Non destructive testing (NDT gathers the most widespread methods for detecting defects of a part or review the integrity of a structure. In the areas of advanced industry (aeronautics, aerospace, nuclear …, assessing the damage of materials is a key point to control durability and reliability of parts and materials in service. In this context, it is necessary to quantify the damage and identify the different mechanisms responsible for the progress of this damage. It is therefore essential to characterize materials and identify the most sensitive indicators attached to damage to prevent their destruction and use them optimally. In this work, simulation by finite elements method is realized with aim to calculate the electromagnetic energy of interaction: probe and piece (with/without defect. From calculated energy, we deduce the real and imaginary components of the impedance which enables to determine the characteristic parameters of a crack in various metallic parts.

  18. Microwave-assisted extraction for the simultaneous determination of Novolac glycidyl ethers, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether, and its derivatives in canned food using HPLC with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Xue, Ming; Lu, Yanbin; Dai, Zhiyuan; Wang, Honghai

    2010-02-01

    A microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) protocol and an efficient HPLC analysis method were first developed for the fast extraction and simultaneous determination of bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (Novolac glycidyl ether 2-Ring), Novolac glycidyl ether 3-Ring, Novolac glycidyl ether 4-Ring, Novolac glycidyl ether 5-Ring, Novolac glycidyl ether 6-Ring, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether, bisphenol A (2,3-dihydroxypropyl) glycidyl ether, bisphenol A (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) glycidyl ether, bisphenol A bis(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) ether, bisphenol A (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) (2,3-dihydroxypropyl) ether in canned fish and meat. After being optimized in terms of solvents, microwave power and irradiation time, MAE was selected to carry out the extraction of ten target compounds. Analytes were purified by poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) SPE columns and determined by HPLC-fluorescence detection. LOD varied from 0.79 to 3.77 ng/g for different target compounds based on S/N=3; LOQ were from 2.75 to 10.92 ng/g; the RSD for repeatability were <8.64%. The analytical recoveries ranged from 70.46 to 103.44%. This proposed method was successfully applied to 16 canned fish and meat, and the results acquired were in good accordance with the studies reported. Compared with the conventional liquid-liquid extraction and ultrasonic extraction, the optimized MAE approach gained the higher extraction efficiency (20-50% improved).

  19. Efficiencies of Inhomogeneity-Detection Algorithms: Comparison of Different Detection Methods and Efficiency Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Domonkos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency evaluations for change point Detection methods used in nine major Objective Homogenization Methods (DOHMs are presented. The evaluations are conducted using ten different simulated datasets and four efficiency measures: detection skill, skill of linear trend estimation, sum of squared error, and a combined efficiency measure. Test datasets applied have a diverse set of inhomogeneity (IH characteristics and include one dataset that is similar to the monthly benchmark temperature dataset of the European benchmarking effort known by the acronym COST HOME. The performance of DOHMs is highly dependent on the characteristics of test datasets and efficiency measures. Measures of skills differ markedly according to the frequency and mean duration of inhomogeneities and vary with the ratio of IH-magnitudes and background noise. The study focuses on cases when high quality relative time series (i.e., the difference between a candidate and reference series can be created, but the frequency and intensity of inhomogeneities are high. Results show that in these cases the Caussinus-Mestre method is the most effective, although appreciably good results can also be achieved by the use of several other DOHMs, such as the Multiple Analysis of Series for Homogenisation, Bayes method, Multiple Linear Regression, and the Standard Normal Homogeneity Test.

  20. Detection methods for mycotoxins in cereal grains and cereal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Michelangelo N.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Analytical methods for mycotoxins in cereals and cereal-based products require three major steps, including extraction, clean-up (to eliminate interferences from the extract and concentrate the analyte, and detection/determination of the toxin (by using suitable analytical instruments/technologies. Clean-up is essential for the analysis of mycotoxins at trace levels, and involves the use of solid phase extraction and multifunctional (e.g. MycoSep® or immunoaffinity columns. Different chromatographic methods are commonly used for quantitative determination of mycotoxins, including gas-chromatography (GC coupled with electron capture, flame ionization or mass spectrometry (MS detectors (mainly for type-A trichothecenes, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC coupled with ultraviolet, diode array, fluorescence or MS detectors. The choice of method depends on the matrix and the mycotoxin to be analyzed. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS is spreading rapidly as a promising technique for simultaneous screening, identification and quantitative determination of a large number of mycotoxins. In addition, commercial immunometric assays, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA, are frequently used for screening purposes as well. Recently, a variety of emerging methods have been proposed for the analysis of mycotoxins in cereals based on novel technologies, including immunochromatography (i.e. lateral flow devices, fluorescence polarization immunoassays (FPIA, infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs and optical biosensors.

  1. An empirical comparison of several recent epistatic interaction detection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Liu, Guimei; Feng, Mengling; Wong, Limsoon

    2011-11-01

    Many new methods have recently been proposed for detecting epistatic interactions in GWAS data. There is, however, no in-depth independent comparison of these methods yet. Five recent methods-TEAM, BOOST, SNPHarvester, SNPRuler and Screen and Clean (SC)-are evaluated here in terms of power, type-1 error rate, scalability and completeness. In terms of power, TEAM performs best on data with main effect and BOOST performs best on data without main effect. In terms of type-1 error rate, TEAM and BOOST have higher type-1 error rates than SNPRuler and SNPHarvester. SC does not control type-1 error rate well. In terms of scalability, we tested the five methods using a dataset with 100 000 SNPs on a 64 bit Ubuntu system, with Intel (R) Xeon(R) CPU 2.66 GHz, 16 GB memory. TEAM takes ~36 days to finish and SNPRuler reports heap allocation problems. BOOST scales up to 100 000 SNPs and the cost is much lower than that of TEAM. SC and SNPHarvester are the most scalable. In terms of completeness, we study how frequently the pruning techniques employed by these methods incorrectly prune away the most significant epistatic interactions. We find that, on average, 20% of datasets without main effect and 60% of datasets with main effect are pruned incorrectly by BOOST, SNPRuler and SNPHarvester. The software for the five methods tested are available from the URLs below. TEAM: http://csbio.unc.edu/epistasis/download.php BOOST: http://ihome.ust.hk/~eeyang/papers.html. SNPHarvester: http://bioinformatics.ust.hk/SNPHarvester.html. SNPRuler: http://bioinformatics.ust.hk/SNPRuler.zip. Screen and Clean: http://wpicr.wpic.pitt.edu/WPICCompGen/. wangyue@nus.edu.sg.

  2. Development of detection methods for irradiated foods - Development of detection method for radiolytic products of irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyong Su; Lee, Eun Ryong; Hong, Hae Jung [Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea)

    2000-07-01

    Meats, nuts, legumes and cereals were irradiated with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray. The detection methods included the fat extraction from samples, isolation of hydrocarbons and 2-alkylcyclobutanones by florisil column chromatography and analyses of GC-FID and GC/MS analyzers. Concentrations of hydrocarbons and 2-clobutanones increased with the irradiation dose in meat, nuts, legumes and cereals. In nuts (sesame seeds, black sesame seeds, perilla seeds, pine nuts and peanuts), legumes (white beans, black soybeans, yellow bean sprout soybeans, mouse-eyed soybeans, mung beans, kidney beans and small red beans) and cereals (brown rice, corns and wheat), 8-heptadecene and 1,7-hexadecadiene originated from oleic acid and 6,9-heptadecadiene and 1,7,10-hexadecatriene induced from linoleic acids were the major hydrocarbons due to the composition of fatty acids. Concentrations of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in nuts were slightly reduced and hydrocarbons were still significantly detectable, during 6 months at -18 deg. C. In meats and nuts, 2-(5'-tetradecenyl)cyclobutanone formed from oleic acid was found in most. 2-Dodecylcyclobutanone was detected in a large amount. The concentrations of radiation-induced 2-alkylcyclobutanones in meats slightly decreased, but relatively constant during 6 months at -18 deg. C. 62 refs., 45 figs., 25 tabs. (Author)

  3. A Distributed Signature Detection Method for Detecting Intrusions in Sensor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Woo Ro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks are easily exposed to open and unprotected regions. A security solution is strongly recommended to prevent networks against malicious attacks. Although many intrusion detection systems have been developed, most systems are difficult to implement for the sensor nodes owing to limited computation resources. To address this problem, we develop a novel distributed network intrusion detection system based on theWu–Manber algorithm. In the proposed system, the algorithm is divided into two steps; the first step is dedicated to a sensor node, and the second step is assigned to a base station. In addition, the first step is modified to achieve efficient performance under limited computation resources. We conduct evaluations with random string sets and actual intrusion signatures to show the performance improvement of the proposed method. The proposed method achieves a speedup factor of 25.96 and reduces 43.94% of packet transmissions to the base station compared with the previously proposed method. The system achieves efficient utilization of the sensor nodes and provides a structural basis of cooperative systems among the sensors.

  4. A distributed signature detection method for detecting intrusions in sensor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ilkyu; Oh, Doohwan; Yoon, Myung Kuk; Yi, Kyueun; Ro, Won Woo

    2013-03-25

    Sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks are easily exposed to open and unprotected regions. A security solution is strongly recommended to prevent networks against malicious attacks. Although many intrusion detection systems have been developed, most systems are difficult to implement for the sensor nodes owing to limited computation resources. To address this problem, we develop a novel distributed network intrusion detection system based on the Wu-Manber algorithm. In the proposed system, the algorithm is divided into two steps; the first step is dedicated to a sensor node, and the second step is assigned to a base station. In addition, the first step is modified to achieve efficient performance under limited computation resources. We conduct evaluations with random string sets and actual intrusion signatures to show the performance improvement of the proposed method. The proposed method achieves a speedup factor of 25.96 and reduces 43.94% of packet transmissions to the base station compared with the previously proposed method. The system achieves efficient utilization of the sensor nodes and provides a structural basis of cooperative systems among the sensors.

  5. A novel community detection method in bipartite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cangqi; Feng, Liang; Zhao, Qianchuan

    2018-02-01

    Community structure is a common and important feature in many complex networks, including bipartite networks, which are used as a standard model for many empirical networks comprised of two types of nodes. In this paper, we propose a two-stage method for detecting community structure in bipartite networks. Firstly, we extend the widely-used Louvain algorithm to bipartite networks. The effectiveness and efficiency of the Louvain algorithm have been proved by many applications. However, there lacks a Louvain-like algorithm specially modified for bipartite networks. Based on bipartite modularity, a measure that extends unipartite modularity and that quantifies the strength of partitions in bipartite networks, we fill the gap by developing the Bi-Louvain algorithm that iteratively groups the nodes in each part by turns. This algorithm in bipartite networks often produces a balanced network structure with equal numbers of two types of nodes. Secondly, for the balanced network yielded by the first algorithm, we use an agglomerative clustering method to further cluster the network. We demonstrate that the calculation of the gain of modularity of each aggregation, and the operation of joining two communities can be compactly calculated by matrix operations for all pairs of communities simultaneously. At last, a complete hierarchical community structure is unfolded. We apply our method to two benchmark data sets and a large-scale data set from an e-commerce company, showing that it effectively identifies community structure in bipartite networks.

  6. Development and Test of Methods for Fault Detection and Isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, R.B.

    Almost all industrial systemns are automated to ensure optimal production both in relation to energy consumtion and safety to equipment and humans. All working parts are individually subject to faults. This can lead to unacceptable economic loss or injury to people. This thesis deals with a monit......Almost all industrial systemns are automated to ensure optimal production both in relation to energy consumtion and safety to equipment and humans. All working parts are individually subject to faults. This can lead to unacceptable economic loss or injury to people. This thesis deals...... they are especiallu crucial for the entire operaiton of a closed loop system. The purpose of the thesis is to investigate, deveop, and verify methods for fault detection and isolation on control loop systems. An Industrial Position Controller, (IPC), laboratory setup is used as an application example throughout...... the thesis. The IPC offers prospects of repeated fault scenarios, and support studies in robustness issues. The thesis contributes with a numerical fault analysis representation, practical applications of existing methods for FDI, and a method for robust FDI for practical applications....

  7. Angoff's delta method revisited: improving DIF detection under small samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magis, David; Facon, Bruno

    2012-05-01

    Most methods for detecting differential item functioning (DIF) are suitable when the sample sizes are sufficiently large to validate the null statistical distributions. There is no guarantee, however, that they will still perform adequately when there are few respondents in the focal group or in both the reference and the focal group. Angoff's delta plot is a potentially useful alternative for small-sample DIF investigation, but it suffers from an improper DIF flagging criterion. The purpose of this paper is to improve this classification rule under mild statistical assumptions. This improvement yields a modified delta plot with an adjusted DIF flagging criterion for small samples. A simulation study was conducted to compare the modified delta plot with both the classical delta plot approach and the Mantel-Haenszel method. It is concluded that the modified delta plot is consistently less conservative and more powerful than the usual delta plot, and is also less conservative and more powerful than the Mantel-Haenszel method as long as at least one group of respondents is small. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Nondestructive methods for early detection of damage to living plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fateyeva, Natalya L.; Matvienko, Gennadii G.; Shul'gina, Lidia A.

    2004-10-01

    As a result of the accomplish experiments determine, that by a method of a laser-induced fluorescence of chlorophyll it is possible to spot for cedar an early stage of the stressful factor, bound with presence in ground >. In our case the laboratory researches provided learning a quantitative contents chlorophyll for plants found in normal and stressful conditions on a basis spectrophotometrical of a method. Natural measurement the observations behind dynamics of a photosynthetic state means of wood plants in vivo enable. For an estimation of this state the fluorescence of chlorophyll on wavelength 685 and 740 nm was used. The optical model of a green leaf was developed for methods of a laser-induced fluorescence of chlorophyll. A experiments series on remote research of processes violation of mineral power supply and exchange in plants is carried spent. Was considered the change of the ratios of intensity of a fluorescence of chlorophyll and carotenoids at deficiency. Was designed technique for detection infringement processes of mineral nutrition and change surveyed acidity grounds on laser-induce fluorescent responses of deciduous plants.

  9. Theoretical and experimental investigation of multispectral photoacoustic osteoporosis detection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Idan; Hershkovich, Hadas Sara; Gannot, Israel; Eyal, Avishay

    2014-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a widespread disorder, which has a catastrophic impact on patients lives and overwhelming related to healthcare costs. Recently, we proposed a multispectral photoacoustic technique for early detection of osteoporosis. Such technique has great advantages over pure ultrasonic or optical methods as it allows the deduction of both bone functionality from the bone absorption spectrum and bone resistance to fracture from the characteristics of the ultrasound propagation. We demonstrated the propagation of multiple acoustic modes in animal bones in-vitro. To further investigate the effects of multiple wavelength excitations and of induced osteoporosis on the PA signal a multispectral photoacoustic system is presented. The experimental investigation is based on measuring the interference of multiple acoustic modes. The performance of the system is evaluated and a simple two mode theoretical model is fitted to the measured phase signals. The results show that such PA technique is accurate and repeatable. Then a multiple wavelength excitation is tested. It is shown that the PA response due to different excitation wavelengths revels that absorption by the different bone constitutes has a profound effect on the mode generation. The PA response is measured in single wavelength before and after induced osteoporosis. Results show that induced osteoporosis alters the measured amplitude and phase in a consistent manner which allows the detection of the onset of osteoporosis. These results suggest that a complete characterization of the bone over a region of both acoustic and optical frequencies might be used as a powerful tool for in-vivo bone evaluation.

  10. A survey about methods dedicated to epistasis detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément eNiel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade, findings of genome-wide association studies (GWAS improved our knowledge and understanding of disease genetics. To date, thousands of SNPs have been associated to diseases and other complex traits. Statistical analysis typically looks for association between a phenotype and a SNP taken individually via single-locus tests. However, geneticists admit this is an oversimplified approach to tackle the complexity of underlying biological mechanisms. Interaction between SNPs, namely epistasis, must be considered. Unfortunately, epistasis detection gives rise to analytic challenges since analyzing every SNP combination is at present impractical at a genome-wide scale. In this review, we will present the main strategies recently proposed to detect epistatic interactions, along with their operating principle. Some of these methods are exhaustive, such as multifactor dimensionality reduction, likelihood ratio-based tests or receiver operating characteristic curve analysis; some are non-exhaustive, such as machine learning techniques (random forests, Bayesian networks or combinatorial optimization approaches (ant colony optimization, computational evolution system.

  11. System and method of detecting cavitation in pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin; Sharma, Santosh Kumar; Yan, Ting; Dimino, Steven A.

    2017-10-03

    A system and method for detecting cavitation in pumps for fixed and variable supply frequency applications is disclosed. The system includes a controller having a processor programmed to repeatedly receive real-time operating current data from a motor driving a pump, generate a current frequency spectrum from the current data, and analyze current data within a pair of signature frequency bands of the current frequency spectrum. The processor is further programmed to repeatedly determine fault signatures as a function of the current data within the pair of signature frequency bands, repeatedly determine fault indices based on the fault signatures and a dynamic reference signature, compare the fault indices to a reference index, and identify a cavitation condition in a pump based on a comparison between the reference index and a current fault index.

  12. System and Method for Detecting Cracks and their Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Stanley E. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A system and method are provided for detecting cracks and their location in a structure. A circuit coupled to a structure has capacitive strain sensors coupled sequentially and in parallel to one another. When excited by a variable magnetic field, the circuit has a resonant frequency that is different for unstrained and strained states. In terms of strained states, the resonant frequency is indicative of a region of the circuit that is experiencing strain induced by strain in a region of the structure in proximity to the region of the circuit. An inductor is electrically coupled to one end of each circuit. A magnetic field response recorder wirelessly transmits the variable magnetic field to the inductor and senses the resonant frequency of the circuit so-excited by the variable magnetic field.

  13. Gas sensitive materials for gas detection and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakhtenberg, Leonid Israilevich; Gerasimov, Genrikh Nikolaevich; Gromov, Vladimir Fedorovich; Rozenberg, Valeriya Isaakovna

    2012-12-25

    A gas sensitive material comprising SnO2 nanocrystals doped with In2O3 and an oxide of a platinum group metal, and a method of making the same. The platinum group metal is preferably Pd, but also may include Pt, Ru, Ir, and combinations thereof. The SnO2 nanocrystals have a specific surface of 7 or greater, preferably about 20 m2/g, and a mean particle size of between about 10 nm and about 100 nm, preferably about 40 nm. A gas detection device made from the gas sensitive material deposited on a substrate, the gas sensitive material configured as a part of a current measuring circuit in communication with a heat source.

  14. Gas sensitive materials for gas detection and methods of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakhtenberg, Leonid Israilevich; Gerasimov, Genrikh Nikolaevich; Gromov, Vladimir Fedorovich; Rozenberg, Valeriya Isaakovna

    2014-07-15

    A gas sensitive material comprising SnO.sub.2 nanocrystals doped with In.sub.2O.sub.3 and an oxide of a platinum group metal, and a method of making the same. The platinum group metal is preferably Pd, but also may include Pt, Ru, Ir, and combinations thereof. The SnO.sub.2 nanocrystals have a specific surface of 7 or greater, preferably about 20 m2/g, and a mean particle size of between about 10 nm and about 100 nm, preferably about 40 nm. A gas detection device made from the gas sensitive material deposited on a substrate, the gas sensitive material configured as a part of a current measuring circuit in communication with a heat source.

  15. Method and apparatus for enhanced detection of toxic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Elias; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel; Wu, Jie Jayne; Qi, Hairong

    2013-10-01

    A biosensor based detection of toxins includes enhancing a fluorescence signal by concentrating a plurality of photosynthetic organisms in a fluid into a concentrated region using biased AC electro-osmosis. A measured photosynthetic activity of the photosynthetic organisms is obtained in the concentrated region, where chemical, biological or radiological agents reduce a nominal photosynthetic activity of the photosynthetic organisms. A presence of the chemical, biological and/or radiological agents or precursors thereof, is determined in the fluid based on the measured photosynthetic activity of the concentrated plurality of photosynthetic organisms. A lab-on-a-chip system is used for the concentrating step. The presence of agents is determined from feature vectors, obtained from processing a time dependent signal using amplitude statistics and/or time-frequency analysis, relative to a control signal. A linear discriminant method including support vector machine classification (SVM) is used to identify the agents.

  16. Improved method for the detection of TATP after explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, D; Levy, A; Shelef, R; Abramovich-Bar, S; Sonenfeld, D; Tamiri, T

    2004-09-01

    TATP in post explosion exhibits was reported earlier to be best recovered from vapor phase. A typical procedure includes its adsorption on Amberlite XAD-7, elution with acetonitrile and analysis by GC/MS. In this work, improved recovery of TATP from the vapor phase was achieved by SPME using PDMS/DVB fiber and immediate sampling to GC/MS. The recovery of TATP by SPME was compared with headspace and with adsorption on Amberlite XAD-7 by spiking onto filter paper put in a 100 mL beaker. The limit of detection of TATP was 6.4 ng in these conditions, few orders magnitude more than in the other tested methods. Recovery of TATP in the presence of various solvents was also studied. Acetone, water, and mixtures of water:alcohols (1:1) were found to reduce the recovery of TATP. Using SPME, TATP has been identified in dozens of post-explosion cases.

  17. Development of Pulsar Detection Methods for a Galactic Center Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Stephen; Wharton, Robert; Cordes, James; Chatterjee, Shami

    2018-01-01

    Finding pulsars within the inner parsec of the galactic center would be incredibly beneficial: for pulsars sufficiently close to Sagittarius A*, extremely precise tests of general relativity in the strong field regime could be performed through measurement of post-Keplerian parameters. Binary pulsar systems with sufficiently short orbital periods could provide the same laboratories with which to test existing theories. Fast and efficient methods are needed to parse large sets of time-domain data from different telescopes to search for periodicity in signals and differentiate radio frequency interference (RFI) from pulsar signals. Here we demonstrate several techniques to reduce red noise (low-frequency interference), generate signals from pulsars in binary orbits, and create plots that allow for fast detection of both RFI and pulsars.

  18. A Comparison of Different Methods for Fissure Caries Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peycheva K.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to compare the diagnostic capabilities of three different diagnostic methods: Quantitative Laser Fluorescence (QLF − DIAGNOdent Classic (DD, Light-Induced Fluorescence (LIF − SoproLife daylight and blue fluorescence, and their relevance to ICDAS II system in detection of fissure caries lesions in permanent molars. Permanent molars (n = 45 are divided in two groups: 1 third molars, n = 35; 2 first and second molars, n = 10. They are examined by 2 examiners with and without magnification x5 using ICDAS II, SoproLife “day light” and “blue light” (405nm, LIF, DIAGNOdent Classic − emitting laser light on 655nm, QLF. The results are proven with histological bucco-lingual or mesio-distal sections through the body of the lesion with diamond blade rinsed with water. Photos of all occlusal surfaces of the molars are taken before and after the sections. The lowest overdiagnosis rate is found with SoproLife camera. When visual examination is applied overdiagnoses are fewer than with DD. DD is not capable to differentiate white and brown spots from a caries lesion. Soprolife is not capable to differentiate brown spots from a caries lesion. The most accurate method in this in vitro study for diagnosis of fissure caries is LIF (SoproLife − 75.6% of the teeth are correctly diagnosed, followed by ICDAS (57.8% and QLF (DIAGNOdent (40%.

  19. Standard Test Procedures for Evaluating Various Leak Detection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about protocols that testers could use to demonstrate that an individual release detection equipment type could meet the performance requirements noted in the federal UST requirements for detecting leaks.

  20. Gearbox Typical Failure Modes, Detection, and Mitigation Methods (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, S.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation was given at the AWEA Operations & Maintenance and Safety Seminar and focused on what the typical gearbox failure modes are, how to detect them using detection techniques, and strategies that help mitigate these failures.

  1. Detecting Groupthink: Methods for Observing the Illusion of Unanimity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Rebecca J. Welch

    1990-01-01

    Reconceptualizes groupthink symptoms as observable group interaction patterns. Proposes two coding systems for detecting the illusion of unanimity symptom, detecting both degree of unanimity and degree of the illusory versus substantive nature of that unanimity. (SR)

  2. Development of a stir bar sorptive extraction based HPLC-FLD method for the quantification of serotonin reuptake inhibitors in plasma, urine and brain tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unceta, Nora; Ugarte, Ana; Sánchez, Alicia; Gómez-Caballero, Alberto; Goicolea, Maria Aránzazu; Barrio, Ramón J

    2010-01-05

    The aim of this article is to present an analytical application of stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) coupled to HPLC-fluorescence detection (FLD) for the quantification of fluoxetine (FLX), citalopram (CIT) and venlafaxine (VLF) and their active metabolites - norfluoxetine (NFLX), desmethyl- (DCIT) and didesmethylcitalopram (DDCIT) and o-desmethylvenlafaxine (ODV) - in plasma, urine and brain tissue samples. All the parameters influencing adsorption (pH, ion strength, organic modifier addition, volume, extraction time and temperature) and desorption (desorption solvent composition, time, temperature and desorption mode) of the analytes on the stir bar have been optimized. For each matrix, the analytical method has been assessed by studying the linearity and the intra- and interday accuracy (89-113%) and precision (RSD<13%). The improvement of the quantification limits (0.2-2 microg l(-1) for plasma, 2-20 ng g(-1) for brain tissue and 1-10 microg l(-1) for urine, depending on the respective response for analytes) and the development of a procedure for all the matrices make this method useful in clinical and forensic analysis.

  3. Rapid Methods for detection of Veterinary Drug residues in Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of substances having hormonal or thyreostatic action as well as b-agonists is banned in many countries. However, sometimes forbidden drugs may be added to feeds for illegal administration to farm animals for promoting increased muscle development or increased water retention and thus obtain an economical benefit. The result is a fraudulent overweight of meat but, what is worse, residues of these substances may remain in meat and may pose a real threat to the consumer either through exposure to the residues, transfer of antibiotic resistance or allergy risk. This has exerted a great concern among the meat consumers. The control of the absence of these forbidden substances in animal foods and feeds is regulated in the European Union by Directive 96/23/EC on measures to monitor certain substances and residues in live animals and animal products. Analytical methodology, including criteria for identification and confirmation, for the monitoring of compliance was also given in Decisions 93/256/EEC and 93/257/EEC. More recently, Decision 2002/657/EC provided rules for the analytical methods to be used in testing of official samples. New substances with anabolic properties are being detected year by year increasing the list of forbidden compounds to be tested. Furthermore, the extended practice consisting in the use of “cocktails” (mixtures of low amounts of several substances that exert a synergistic effect to have a similar growth promotion, reduces the margin for an effective analytical detection. Thus, the evolution of the “black market” is making really difficult to have an effective analytical control of the residues of these substances in foods of animal origin. Control laboratories must face an increasing demand of analysis like the growing number of residues to be analysed in different types of samples, the strict guidelines for analytical methodologies according to the latest Directives, the increased costs of such new

  4. Validation of an electrophoretic method to detect albuminuria in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlizza, Enea; Dondi, Francesco; Andreani, Giulia; Bucci, Diego; Archer, Joy; Isani, Gloria

    2017-08-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were to validate a semi-automated high-resolution electrophoretic technique to quantify urinary albumin in healthy and diseased cats, and to evaluate its diagnostic performance in cases of proteinuria and renal diseases. Methods Urine samples were collected from 88 cats (healthy; chronic kidney disease [CKD]; lower urinary tract disease [LUTD]; non-urinary tract diseases [OTHER]). Urine samples were routinely analysed and high-resolution electrophoresis (HRE) was performed. Within-assay and between-assay variability, linearity, accuracy, recovery and the lowest detectable and quantifiable bands were calculated. Receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis was also performed. Results All coefficients of variation were cats, while profiles from diseased cats were variable. Albumin (mg/dl) and urine albumin:creatinine ratio (UAC) were significantly ( P cats. After ROC analysis, UAC values of 0.035 and 0.074 had a high sensitivity and high specificity, respectively, to classify proteinuria and identify borderline proteinuric cats. Moreover, a UAC of 0.017 had a high sensitivity in distinguishing between healthy and diseased cats. However, UAC was not able to distinguish between renal (CKD) and non-renal diseases (LUTD/OTHER), probably owing to the pathophysiology of CKD in cats, which is characterised by low-grade proteinuria and less glomerular involvement than in dogs. Conclusions and relevance HRE is an accurate and precise method that could be used to measure albuminuria in cats. UAC was useful to correctly classify proteinuria and to discriminate between healthy and diseased cats. HRE might also provide additional information on urine proteins with a profile of all proteins (albumin and globulins) to aid clinicians in the diagnosis of diseases characterised by proteinuria.

  5. Detection of graves using the micro-resistivity method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Luzio

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a case history of the application of resistivity methods on the detection of a tomb tentatively associated with Damião de Goes, a prominent Portuguese humanist who lived in the XVI century. The survey carried out inside Varzea Church comprised dipole-dipole, gradient and pole-pole arrays. The results obtained from the 2D inversion of dipole-dipole data and 3D inversion of the gradient array have shown high resistivity anomalies that were assigned to the walls of the tomb. The low resistivity anomalies observed in between were interpreted as due to the presence of water enriched by ions from the decomposition of human bodies. This result is corroborated by the imaging obtained using the 3D probability tomography of the gradient and pole-pole data. Excavation works, carried out in accordance with the results of the geoelectrical investigation, successfully found a 2.7×0.8×1.7 m tomb, where several human bones have been collected. A 3D resistivity model incorporating the main features of the tomb was built after the excavation. The pole-pole model responses calculated from this model reproduce the main features observed in the data.

  6. Diffusion Geometry Based Nonlinear Methods for Hyperspectral Change Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    Schaum and A. Stocker, “Hyperspectral change detection and supervised matched filtering based on covariance equalization,” Proceedings of the SPIE, vol...5425, pp. 77- 90 (2004). 10. A. Schaum and A. Stocker, “Linear chromodynamics models for hyperspectral target detection,” Proceedings of the IEEE...Aerospace Conference (February 2003). 11. A. Schaum and A. Stocker, “Linear chromodynamics models for hyperspectral target detection

  7. Methods, compounds and systems for detecting a microorganism in a sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colston, Jr, Bill W.; Fitch, J. Patrick; Gardner, Shea N.; Williams, Peter L.; Wagner, Mark C.

    2016-09-06

    Methods to identify a set of probe polynucleotides suitable for detecting a set of targets and in particular methods for identification of primers suitable for detection of target microorganisms related polynucleotides, set of polynucleotides and compositions, and related methods and systems for detection and/or identification of microorganisms in a sample.

  8. A New Moving Object Detection Method Based on Frame-difference and Background Subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiajia; Wang, Junping; Bai, Ruixue; Zhang, Yao; Li, Yong

    2017-09-01

    Although many methods of moving object detection have been proposed, moving object extraction is still the core in video surveillance. However, with the complex scene in real world, false detection, missed detection and deficiencies resulting from cavities inside the body still exist. In order to solve the problem of incomplete detection for moving objects, a new moving object detection method combined an improved frame-difference and Gaussian mixture background subtraction is proposed in this paper. To make the moving object detection more complete and accurate, the image repair and morphological processing techniques which are spatial compensations are applied in the proposed method. Experimental results show that our method can effectively eliminate ghosts and noise and fill the cavities of the moving object. Compared to other four moving object detection methods which are GMM, VIBE, frame-difference and a literature's method, the proposed method improve the efficiency and accuracy of the detection.

  9. Statistical methods for damage detection applied to civil structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gres, Szymon; Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard; Döhler, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Damage detection consists of monitoring the deviations of a current system from its reference state, characterized by some nominal property repeatable for every healthy state. Preferably, the damage detection is performed directly on vibration data, hereby avoiding modal identification of the str...

  10. Methods of Oil Detection in Response to the Deepwater ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detecting oil in the northern Gulf of Mexico following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill presented unique challenges due to the spatial and temporal extent of the spill and the subsequent dilution of oil in the environment. Over time, physical, chemical, and biological processes altered the composition of the oil, further complicating its detection. Reservoir fluid, containing gas and oil, released from the Macondo well was detected in surface and subsurface environments. Oil monitoring during and after the spill required a variety of technologies, including nimble adaptation of techniques developed for non-oil-related applications. The oil detection technologies employed varied in sensitivity, selectivity, strategy, cost, usability, expertise of user, and reliability. Innovative technologies ranging from remote sensing to laboratory analytical techniques were employed and produced new information relevant to oil spill detection, including the chemical characterization, the dispersion effectiveness, and the detection limits of oil. The challenge remains to transfer these new technologies to oil spill responders so that detection of oil following a spill can be improved. To publish a perspective paper on oil detection technologies during the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill. This is for a special issue book/journal.

  11. Detection and Monitoring of Wear Using Imaging Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Jindang

    2006-01-01

    Wear is traditionally measured offline. A new methodology for online detection and monitoring of wear has been investigated in this thesis. This methodology consists of design of an online wear testing apparatus and development of techniques for online wear detection and monitoring using imaging

  12. Enhanced detection method for corneal protein identification using shotgun proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlager John J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cornea is a specialized transparent connective tissue responsible for the majority of light refraction and image focus for the retina. There are three main layers of the cornea: the epithelium that is exposed and acts as a protective barrier for the eye, the center stroma consisting of parallel collagen fibrils that refract light, and the endothelium that is responsible for hydration of the cornea from the aqueous humor. Normal cornea is an immunologically privileged tissue devoid of blood vessels, but injury can produce a loss of these conditions causing invasion of other processes that degrade the homeostatic properties resulting in a decrease in the amount of light refracted onto the retina. Determining a measure and drift of phenotypic cornea state from normal to an injured or diseased state requires knowledge of the existing protein signature within the tissue. In the study of corneal proteins, proteomics procedures have typically involved the pulverization of the entire cornea prior to analysis. Separation of the epithelium and endothelium from the core stroma and performing separate shotgun proteomics using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry results in identification of many more proteins than previously employed methods using complete pulverized cornea. Results Rabbit corneas were purchased, the epithelium and endothelium regions were removed, proteins processed and separately analyzed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Proteins identified from separate layers were compared against results from complete corneal samples. Protein digests were separated using a six hour liquid chromatographic gradient and ion-trap mass spectrometry used for detection of eluted peptide fractions. The SEQUEST database search results were filtered to allow only proteins with match probabilities of equal or better than 10-3 and peptides with a probability of 10-2 or less with at least two unique peptides isolated within

  13. Detection method of the LGP warpage degree based on edge detection evaluation function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gong; Zhu, Xifang; Chu, Lijuan; Cao, Lihua; Lin, Rong

    2017-07-01

    Because of the shortage of rule gap measurement for light guide plate (LGP) warpage degree, image definition criterion of quality indexing is present based on single CCD camera. The detection paper and LGP are respectively arranged on the camera detection device platform, located by X- and Y-axes driving unit and focused by Z-axis driving unit firstly, different image definition criterion peaks of edge detection evaluation function are obtained in the middle surface of LGP bottom and surface. Finally, different edge detection algorithms are compared under different situations. Results show that the algorithm has good repetition and can meet the online, untouched detection needs.

  14. TMTI Task 1.6 Genetic Engineering Methods and Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slezak, T; Lenhoff, R; Allen, J; Borucki, M; Vitalis, E; Gardner, S

    2009-12-04

    A large number of GE techniques can be adapted from other microorganisms to biothreat bacteria and viruses. Detection of GE in a microorganism increases in difficulty as the size of the genetic change decreases. In addition to the size of the engineered change, the consensus genomic sequence of the microorganism can impact the difficulty of detecting an engineered change in genomes that are highly variable from strain to strain. This problem will require comprehensive databases of whole genome sequences for more genetically variable biothreat bacteria and viruses. Preliminary work with microarrays for detecting synthetic elements or virulence genes and analytic bioinformatic approaches for whole genome sequence comparison to detect genetic engineering show promise for attacking this difficult problem but a large amount of future work remains.

  15. METHODS FOR DETECTION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM SP. AND GIARDIA SP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    There have been several waterborne outbreaks of giardiasis caused by infection with Giardia lamblia, and cryptosporidiosis, caused by infection with Cryptosporidium parvum. These outbreaks have created a need to detect these organisms in source and finished drinking water. The pr...

  16. Comparative Analysis of Data-Driven Anomaly Detection Methods

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper provides a review of three different advanced machine learning algorithms for anomaly detection in continuous data streams from a ground-test firing of a...

  17. Colour based fire detection method with temporal intensity variation filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trambitckii, K.; Anding, K.; Musalimov, V.; Linß, G.

    2015-02-01

    Development of video, computing technologies and computer vision gives a possibility of automatic fire detection on video information. Under that project different algorithms was implemented to find more efficient way of fire detection. In that article colour based fire detection algorithm is described. But it is not enough to use only colour information to detect fire properly. The main reason of this is that in the shooting conditions may be a lot of things having colour similar to fire. A temporary intensity variation of pixels is used to separate them from the fire. These variations are averaged over the series of several frames. This algorithm shows robust work and was realised as a computer program by using of the OpenCV library.

  18. Determining detection sensitivity and methods for invertebrate sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    This meeting is intended to communicate Great Lakes invasive species early detection science to state management agencies to assist them in implementing monitoring. My presentation summaries lessons learned concerning invertebrate monitoring in the course of ORD research on earl...

  19. How Do Statistical Detection Methods Compare to Entropy Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    Qingzhong Liu, Andrew H. Sung, "Detect Information-Hiding Type and Length in JPEG Images by Using Neuro - fuzzy Inference Systems ," cisp, vol. 5, pp...Computer Science, 2009 [13] Qingzhong Liu, Andrew H. Sung, "Detect Information-Hiding Type and Length in JPEG Images by Using Neuro - fuzzy ...possible to break every steganaographic system that has ever been published. As a result of this, new techniques are developed to improve upon the

  20. Spectral methods for network community detection and graph partitioning

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, M.E.J.

    2013-01-01

    We consider three distinct and well studied problems concerning network structure: community detection by modularity maximization, community detection by statistical inference, and normalized-cut graph partitioning. Each of these problems can be tackled using spectral algorithms that make use of the eigenvectors of matrix representations of the network. We show that with certain choices of the free parameters appearing in these spectral algorithms the algorithms for all three problems are, in...

  1. Methods for the selective detection of alkyne-presenting molecules and related compositions and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdez, Carlos A.; Vu, Alexander K.

    2017-10-17

    Provided herein are methods for selectively detecting an alkyne-presenting molecule in a sample and related detection reagents, compositions, methods and systems. The methods include contacting a detection reagent with the sample for a time and under a condition to allow binding of the detection reagent to the one or more alkyne-presenting molecules possibly present in the matrix to the detection reagent. The detection reagent includes an organic label moiety presenting an azide group. The binding of the azide group to the alkyne-presenting molecules results in emission of a signal from the organic label moiety.

  2. REAL-TIME PCR METHOD TO DETECT ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS IN WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 16S rDNA real-time PCR method was developed to detect Enterococcus faecalis in water samples. The dynamic range for cell detection spanned five logs and the detection limit was determined to be 6 cfu/reaction. The assay was capable of detecting E. faecalis cells added to biof...

  3. Detection of wood failure by image processing method: influence of algorithm, adhesive and wood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanying Lin; Sheng He; Feng Fu; Xiping Wang

    2015-01-01

    Wood failure percentage (WFP) is an important index for evaluating the bond strength of plywood. Currently, the method used for detecting WFP is visual inspection, which lacks efficiency. In order to improve it, image processing methods are applied to wood failure detection. The present study used thresholding and K-means clustering algorithms in wood failure detection...

  4. The Use of Highly Sensitive Detection Methods for Eradication of Plasmodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Marianne Smedegaard; Knudsen, Birgitta R.

    2017-01-01

    The key to a successful malaria eradication program is highly efficient detection of Plasmodium infected people followed by appropriate treatment to avoid spreading of the parasite. We will discuss some of the demands that such a detection method needs to fulfill and review some of the advantages...... and disadvantages of currently available detection methods...

  5. Model and Expansion Based Methods of Detection of Small Masses in Radiographs of Dense Breasts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laine, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    .... During this year of the project we focused on an enhancement method to be carried out prior the detection algorithm and have begun to incorporate an expansion based method of detecting masses in digital radiographs. We showed that the method of adaptive multi-scale histogram equalization can be integrated into our existing expansion framework as a preprocessing step to assist detection. This method will be tested using a local database of digital mammograms during the final year of the project.

  6. Experimental Detection and Quantification of Structural Nonlinearity Using Homogeneity and Hilbert Transform Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Knud Abildgaard; Thomsen, Jon Juel; Tcherniak, Dmitri

    2010-01-01

    exists. The present study suggests a framework for the detection of structural nonlinearities. Two methods for detection are compared, the homogeneity method and a Hilbert transform based method. Based on these two methods, a nonlinearity index is suggested. Through simulations and laboratory experiments......All real structures are inherently nonlinear. Whether a structure exhibits linear or nonlinear behavior, depends mainly on the excitation level. So far no unequivocal framework for experimental detection, localization, and characterization of structural nonlinearities from dynamic measurements...

  7. A New Color-based Lawn Weed Detection Method and Its Integration with Texture-based Methods: A Hybrid Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watchareeruetai, Ukrit; Ohnishi, Noboru

    We propose a color-based weed detection method specifically designed for detecting lawn weeds in winter. The proposed method exploits fuzzy logic to make inference from color information. Genetic algorithm is adopted to search for the optimal combination of color information, fuzzy membership functions, as well as fuzzy rules used in the method. Experimental results show that the proposed color-based method outperforms the conventional texture-based methods when testing with a winter dataset. In addition, we propose a hybrid system that incorporates both texture-based and color-based weed detection methods. It can automatically select a better method to perform weed detection, depending on an input image. The results show that the use of the hybrid system can significantly improve weed control performances for the overall datasets.

  8. A Hybrid Vehicle Detection Method Based on Viola-Jones and HOG + SVM from UAV Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongzheng; Yu, Guizhen; Wang, Yunpeng; Wu, Xinkai; Ma, Yalong

    2016-08-19

    A new hybrid vehicle detection scheme which integrates the Viola-Jones (V-J) and linear SVM classifier with HOG feature (HOG + SVM) methods is proposed for vehicle detection from low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images. As both V-J and HOG + SVM are sensitive to on-road vehicles' in-plane rotation, the proposed scheme first adopts a roadway orientation adjustment method, which rotates each UAV image to align the roads with the horizontal direction so the original V-J or HOG + SVM method can be directly applied to achieve fast detection and high accuracy. To address the issue of descending detection speed for V-J and HOG + SVM, the proposed scheme further develops an adaptive switching strategy which sophistically integrates V-J and HOG + SVM methods based on their different descending trends of detection speed to improve detection efficiency. A comprehensive evaluation shows that the switching strategy, combined with the road orientation adjustment method, can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the vehicle detection from UAV images. The results also show that the proposed vehicle detection method is competitive compared with other existing vehicle detection methods. Furthermore, since the proposed vehicle detection method can be performed on videos captured from moving UAV platforms without the need of image registration or additional road database, it has great potentials of field applications. Future research will be focusing on expanding the current method for detecting other transportation modes such as buses, trucks, motors, bicycles, and pedestrians.

  9. Ensemble method: Community detection based on game theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Xia, Zhengyou; Xu, Shengwu; Wang, J. D.

    2014-08-01

    Timely and cost-effective analytics over social network has emerged as a key ingredient for success in many businesses and government endeavors. Community detection is an active research area of relevance to analyze online social network. The problem of selecting a particular community detection algorithm is crucial if the aim is to unveil the community structure of a network. The choice of a given methodology could affect the outcome of the experiments because different algorithms have different advantages and depend on tuning specific parameters. In this paper, we propose a community division model based on the notion of game theory, which can combine advantages of previous algorithms effectively to get a better community classification result. By making experiments on some standard dataset, it verifies that our community detection model based on game theory is valid and better.

  10. Chemical mutagens: principles and methods for their detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Serres, F.J.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses the development and validation of short-term assays designed to detect the mutagenic effects of environmental chemicals. Topics considered include the grasshopper neuroblast short-term assay for evaluating the effects of environmental chemicals on chromosomes and cell kinetics, a comparison of the mutagenic responses of lung-derived and skin-derived human diploid fibroblast populations, the L-arabinose resistance test with Salmonella typhimurium, the Bacillus subtilis multigene sporulation test for the detection of environmental mutagens, the L5178Y/TK gene mutation assay system, the induction of bacteriophage lambda by DNA-interacting chemicals, the granuloma pouch assay, the use of multiply marked Escherichia coli K12 strains in the host-mediated assay, and the detection of mutagens in human feces as an approach to the discovery of causes of colon cancer.

  11. Surface Tension Screen Failure Detection Method and Apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apparatus for detecting failure of a surface tension screen disposed between a holding chamber and a main chamber of a tank includes a fixture for...Comparison of the measurements provides an assessment of the integrity of the surface tension screen. If the measurements are significantly different

  12. UPDATING NATIONAL TOPOGRAPHIC DATA BASE USING CHANGE DETECTION METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Keinan

    2016-06-01

    The automatic process is based on high-resolution Digital Surface Model analysis, Multi Spectral (MS classification, MS segmentation, object analysis and shape forming algorithms. This article reviews the results of a novel change detection methodology as a first step for updating NTDB in the Survey of Israel.

  13. Methods of Detecting Outliers in A Regression Analysis Model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... Abstract. This study detects outliers in a univariate and bivariate data by using both Rosner's and. Grubb's test in a regression analysis model. The study shows how an observation that causes the least square point estimate of a Regression model to be substantially different from what it would be if the ...

  14. Methods of Detecting Outliers in A Regression Analysis Model. | Ogu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study detects outliers in a univariate and bivariate data by using both Rosner's and Grubb's test in a regression analysis model. The study shows how an observation that causes the least square point estimate of a Regression model to be substantially different from what it would be if the observation were removed from ...

  15. Bioluminescent bioreporter integrated circuit devices and methods for detecting ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Michael L [Knoxville, TN; Paulus, Michael J [Knoxville, TN; Sayler, Gary S [Blaine, TN; Applegate, Bruce M [West Lafayette, IN; Ripp, Steven A [Knoxville, TN

    2007-04-24

    Monolithic bioelectronic devices for the detection of ammonia includes a microorganism that metabolizes ammonia and which harbors a lux gene fused with a heterologous promoter gene stably incorporated into the chromosome of the microorganism and an Optical Application Specific Integrated Circuit (OASIC). The microorganism is generally a bacterium.

  16. Heuristic burst detection method using flow and pressure measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Roer, Van de M.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2014-01-01

    Pipe bursts in a drinking water distribution system lead to water losses, interruption of supply, and damage to streets and houses due to the uncontrolled water flow. To minimize the negative consequences of pipe bursts, an early detection is necessary. This paper describes a heuristic burst

  17. Detecting Pipe Bursts Using Heuristic and CUSUM Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Jung, D.; Vreeburg, J.; Van de Roer, M.; Lansey, K.; Rierveld, L.

    2014-01-01

    Pipe bursts in a drinking water distribution system lead to water losses, interruption of supply, and damage to streets and houses due to the uncontrolled water flow. To minimize the negative consequences of pipe bursts, an early detection is necessary. This paper describes a heuristic burst

  18. Reliability of bedside blood glucose estimating methods in detecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In detection of hypoglycaemia, both bedside glucose monitors were found to have a high specificity and high predictive values of a negative test (99.8% and 98.5% for Accuchek Active® and 89.4% and 97.8% for Betachek Visual® respectively) with moderate sensitivity (75.0% and 66.7% respectively). However, the ...

  19. Replica plate screening method for detecting phosphatase activity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of phosphatase activity with colony development, and the ability to distinguish between activity arising from cell-bound and cell-free enzyme. Phosphatase activity was confrrmed by staining the replica plate with fast blue RR salt. This enzyme probe was successfully used to detect phosphatase producing basidiomycetes.

  20. An Automatic Cloud Detection Method for ZY-3 Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Zhenwei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Automatic cloud detection for optical satellite remote sensing images is a significant step in the production system of satellite products. For the browse images cataloged by ZY-3 satellite, the tree discriminate structure is adopted to carry out cloud detection. The image was divided into sub-images and their features were extracted to perform classification between clouds and grounds. However, due to the high complexity of clouds and surfaces and the low resolution of browse images, the traditional classification algorithms based on image features are of great limitations. In view of the problem, a prior enhancement processing to original sub-images before classification was put forward in this paper to widen the texture difference between clouds and surfaces. Afterwards, with the secondary moment and first difference of the images, the feature vectors were extended in multi-scale space, and then the cloud proportion in the image was estimated through comprehensive analysis. The presented cloud detection algorithm has already been applied to the ZY-3 application system project, and the practical experiment results indicate that this algorithm is capable of promoting the accuracy of cloud detection significantly.

  1. Machine learning methods for detection of dust from Meteosat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolios, Stavros; Hatzianastassiou, Nikos

    2017-04-01

    Dust and sand storms can create potentially hazardous air quality conditions and adversely affect climate on a regional and world-wide scale, by modifying the shortwave and longwave radiation budgets, and human health. The indirect effects of dust are also significant because they modify cloud and precipitation properties and influence the general circulation of the atmosphere. In addition, consideration of dust has been shown to improve the weather forecast ability of models. For these reasons, there is an increasing and strong interest for real-time dust detection and monitoring as well as for dust load estimation from satellite observations, which offer the best solution to the problem. Indeed, remote sensing has been shown to be a valuable tool for detecting, mapping and forecasting dust events. Furthermore, dust satellite remote sensing is also useful in providing long-term and global observations of dust. Nevertheless, the majority of the approaches for dust detection and monitoring are still based on simple thresholding of the multispectral satellite imagery. This study is an effort to investigate the efficiency of machine learning techniques in order to accurately classify different cloud features in Meteosat imagery and detect dust in different atmospheric layers over the greater Mediterranean basin. More specifically, different Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) schemes are tested to conclude on the most appropriate parameterization of the examined classification schemes. The training samples are collected after spatiotemporal correlation of AERONET station measurements with Meteosat images. Τhe efficiency of the examined algorithms is also tested using AERONET station data in selected cases. This study is first step toward the development of an integrated methodology for an accurate detection, monitoring and estimation of dust using exclusively satellite imagery.

  2. Method for in-situ detection of tritium in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold, John W., III; Jeffers, Larry A.

    1999-12-01

    The objective of this project was to design a monitoring system capable of detecting and quantifying tritium in-situ in ground and surface waters, and in water from effluent lines prior to discharge into public waterways. The design work was successfully completed with the predicted capability to detect tritium levels below 20 nanocuries per liter. The designed system was based on the detection of the low energy beta radiation from the radioactive decay of tritium using a special form of scintillating optical fiber directly in contact with the water to be measured. To support the design, laboratory tests were performed in several areas. Different types of scintillating fiber were tested to determine which would provide optimum system performance. The fibers contained a fluor material in a special cladding configuration which optimizes the absorption of beta radiation. The tritium detection system consists of an immersible sensor module containing the optical fiber and detection electronics as well as signal processing electronics. An umbilical cable is used to interconnect the components. The system design goals included optional permanent installation for routine water monitoring in wells, process and effluent lines or as a potential portable survey tool which could be moved from one location to another. Not all the design goals were met due to the large physical size of the immersible sensor module. Discussed in this paper are the design details of the in-situ tritium beta detector, the tests performed, and results obtained. The work was supported by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract number DE-AC21-96MC33128.

  3. Rapid detection of Salmonella in pet food: design and evaluation of integrated methods based on real-time PCR detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Priya; Friberg, Maria; Vanlandingham, V; Kozak, K; Manolis, Amanda; Brevnov, Maxim; Crowley, Erin; Bird, Patrick; Goins, David; Furtado, Manohar R; Petrauskene, Olga V; Tebbs, Robert S; Charbonneau, Duane

    2012-02-01

    Reducing the risk of Salmonella contamination in pet food is critical for both companion animals and humans, and its importance is reflected by the substantial increase in the demand for pathogen testing. Accurate and rapid detection of foodborne pathogens improves food safety, protects the public health, and benefits food producers by assuring product quality while facilitating product release in a timely manner. Traditional culture-based methods for Salmonella screening are laborious and can take 5 to 7 days to obtain definitive results. In this study, we developed two methods for the detection of low levels of Salmonella in pet food using real-time PCR: (i) detection of Salmonella in 25 g of dried pet food in less than 14 h with an automated magnetic bead-based nucleic acid extraction method and (ii) detection of Salmonella in 375 g of composite dry pet food matrix in less than 24 h with a manual centrifugation-based nucleic acid preparation method. Both methods included a preclarification step using a novel protocol that removes food matrix-associated debris and PCR inhibitors and improves the sensitivity of detection. Validation studies revealed no significant differences between the two real-time PCR methods and the standard U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual (chapter 5) culture confirmation method.

  4. Improved Agar Diffusion Method for Detecting Residual Antimicrobial Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tsai C-E; Kondo F

    2001-01-01

    The improved agar diffusion method for determination of residual antimicrobial agents was investigated, and the sensitivities of various combinations of test organisms and assay media were determined...

  5. Methods for geothermal reservoir detection emphasizing submerged environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, C.W.; Wilde, P.

    1976-05-21

    This report has been prepared for the California State Lands Commission to aid them in evaluating exploration programs for geothermal reservoirs, particularly in submerged land environments. Three charts show: (1) a logical progression of specific geologic, geochemical, and geophysical exploration techniques for detecting geothermal reservoirs in various geologic environments with emphasis on submerged lands, (2) various exploration techniques which can be used to develop specific information in geothermal areas, and (3) if various techniques will apply to geothermal exploration according to a detailed geologic classification. A narrative in semi-outline form supplements these charts, providing for each technique; a brief description, advantages, disadvantages, special geologic considerations, and specific references. The specific geologic situation will control the exploration criterion to be used for reservoir detection. General guidelines are established which may be of use in evaluating such a program, but the optimum approach will vary with each situation.

  6. chromswitch: A flexible method to detect chromatin state switches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessa, Selin; Kleinman, Claudia L

    2018-02-09

    Chromatin state plays a major role in controlling gene expression, and comparative analysis of ChIP-seq data is key to understanding epigenetic regulation. We present chromswitch, an R/Bioconductor package to integrate epigenomic data in a defined window of interest to detect an overall switch in chromatin state. Chromswitch accurately classifies a benchmarking dataset, and when applied genome-wide, the tool successfully detects chromatin changes that result in brain-specific expression. Chromswitch is implemented as an R package available from Bioconductor at https://bioconductor.org/packages/chromswitch. claudia.kleinman@mcgill.ca. Supplementary material are available online. All data and code for the analysis presented in this paper are available at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1101260.

  7. New method to detect organic nanoparticles in live tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fixler, Dror; Yariv, Inbar

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, infiltrating materials into the human body has become a great challenge many researches are facing. In medicine and cosmetics today, there are materials which are administrated to patients by injection only. The main challenge with topical medication is penetrating the skin barrier. The skin is an effective barrier between the body and the outside environment, which prevents foreign materials entering the body easily. However, reducing the size of the desired materials might help their skin penetration ability. Recently nanoparticles (NPs) are being evaluated for use in many fields like chemistry, biology, medicine, physics and optics. The technique used in this work for forming organic NPs (ONPs) is the application of sonic waves to an aqueous solution, known as sonochemistry. To investigate the physical penetration depth of ONPs into the human body, we first developed a novel optical technique for detecting NPs within tissues. The detection of NPs is done by the extraction and investigation of the reemitted light phase.

  8. [Detection of early forms of keratoconus - current screening methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebels, S; Eppig, T; Seitz, B; Langenbucher, A

    2013-10-01

    The detection of early forms of keratoconus is still a challenge for clinicians. Beside clinical examination and diagnosis of keratoconus, a series of examination techniques has been established in clinical routine to assist in the diagnosis of early forms of keratoconus: corneal topography for measuring the geometry of the corneal front surface, tomography for measuring the geometry of structures of the anterior segment of the eye, aberrometers for evaluation of optical aberrations of the entire eye, and a system for investigation of the biomechanical properties of the cornea. These instruments provide software tools which are designed for diagnostic support in keratoconus. In this review article, we provide an overview over the spectrum of measurement systems currently on the market focussing on their performance for detecting (early forms of) keratoconus. In detail, we focus on dedicated keratoconus screening software modules of topography, tomography, aberrometry and biomechanics. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Detection and monitoring of invasive exotic plants: a comparison of four sampling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia D. Huebner

    2007-01-01

    The ability to detect and monitor exotic invasive plants is likely to vary depending on the sampling method employed. Methods with strong qualitative thoroughness for species detection often lack the intensity necessary to monitor vegetation change. Four sampling methods (systematic plot, stratified-random plot, modified Whittaker, and timed meander) in hemlock and red...

  10. Method of Detecting Coliform Bacteria and Escherichia Coli Bacteria from Reflected Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Robert (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of detecting coliform bacteria in water from reflected light and a method of detecting Eschericha Coli bacteria in water from reflected light, and also includes devices for the measurement, calculation and transmission of data relating to that method.

  11. Oral Premalignancy: New Methods of Detection and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Gillenwater, Ann; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vali; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    Oral carcinogenesis proceeds through a stepwise accumulation of genetic damage over time. Because the oral cavity is easy to examine and risk factors for oral cancer are known, there is great opportunity to improve patient outcomes through diagnosis and treatment of premalignant lesions before the development of invasive oral carcinoma. This review provides a summary of developments in detection and diagnosis of oral premalignant lesions and innovative approaches to management of early oral n...

  12. Circuitry, systems and methods for detecting magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter, Dale K [Shelley, ID; Spencer, David F [Idaho Falls, ID; Roybal, Lyle G [Idaho Falls, ID; Rohrbaugh, David T [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-09-14

    Circuitry for detecting magnetic fields includes a first magnetoresistive sensor and a second magnetoresistive sensor configured to form a gradiometer. The circuitry includes a digital signal processor and a first feedback loop coupled between the first magnetoresistive sensor and the digital signal processor. A second feedback loop which is discrete from the first feedback loop is coupled between the second magnetoresistive sensor and the digital signal processor.

  13. A Soft Shadow Detection Method Based on MRF for Remote Sensing Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengwei Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shadows limit many remote sensing applications such as classification, target detection, and change detection. Most current shadow detection methods utilize the histogram threshold of spectral characteristics to distinguish the shadows and nonshadows directly, called “hard binary shadow.” Obviously, the performance of threshold-based methods heavily rely on the selected threshold. Simultaneously, these threshold-based methods do not take any spatial information into account. To overcome these shortcomings, a soft shadow description method is developed by introducing the concept of opacity into shadow detection, and MRF-based shadow detection method is proposed in order to make use of neighborhood information. Experiments on remote sensing images have shown that the proposed method can obtain more accurate detection results.

  14. Objective Methods for Reliable Detection of Concealed Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia eSolomon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has shown that it is possible to automatically detect clinical depression from audio-visual recordings. Before considering integration in a clinical pathway, a key question that must be asked is whether such systems can be easily fooled. This work explores the potential of acoustic features to detect clinical depression in adults both when acting normally and when asked to conceal their depression. Nine adults diagnosed with mild to moderate depression as per the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 were asked a series of questions and to read a excerpt from a novel aloud under two different experimental conditions. In one, participants were asked to act naturally and in the other, to suppress anything that they felt would be indicative of their depression. Acoustic features were then extracted from this data and analysed using paired t-tests to determine any statistically significant differences between healthy and depressed participants. Most features that were found to be significantly different during normal behaviour remained so during concealed behaviour. In leave-one-subject-out automatic classification studies of the 9 depressed subjects and 8 matched healthy controls, an 88% classification accuracy and 89% sensitivity was achieved. Results remained relatively robust during concealed behaviour, with classifiers trained on only non-concealed data achieving 81% detection accuracy and 75% sensitivity when tested on concealed data. These results indicate there is good potential to build deception-proof automatic depression monitoring systems.

  15. Method for detecting the presence of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karin, Michael; Luo, Jun-Li; Tan, Wei

    2010-04-13

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for cancer diagnosis, treatment and drug screening. In particular, the present invention provides compositions and methods for targeting the nuclear translocation of IkB kinase-.alpha. (IKK.alpha.) and the IKK.alpha.-mediated suppression of Maspin expression observed in metastatic prostate cancer cells.

  16. CRITERIA FOR EVALUATION OF PROPOSED PROTOZOAN DETECTION METHODS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been a proliferation of techniques and methods reported for analysis of water samples to determine the presence of the protozoan pathogens Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia. Many of the proposed methods are presented as complete procedures, which include sampli...

  17. A novel dictionary based computer vision method for the detection of cell nuclei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas De Vylder

    Full Text Available Cell nuclei detection in fluorescent microscopic images is an important and time consuming task in a wide range of biological applications. Blur, clutter, bleed through and partial occlusion of nuclei make individual nuclei detection a challenging task for automated image analysis. This paper proposes a novel and robust detection method based on the active contour framework. Improvement over conventional approaches is achieved by exploiting prior knowledge of the nucleus shape in order to better detect individual nuclei. This prior knowledge is defined using a dictionary based approach which can be formulated as the optimization of a convex energy function. The proposed method shows accurate detection results for dense clusters of nuclei, for example, an F-measure (a measure for detection accuracy of 0.96 for the detection of cell nuclei in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, compared to an F-measure of 0.90 achieved by state-of-the-art nuclei detection methods.

  18. Determination of detection limits for a VPD ICPMS method of analysis; Determination des limites de detection d'une methode d'analyse VPD ICPMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badard, M.; Veillerot, M

    2007-07-01

    This training course report presents the different methods of detection and quantifying of metallic impurities in semiconductors. One of the most precise technique is the collection of metal impurities by vapor phase decomposition (VPD) followed by their analysis by ICPMS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry). The study shows the importance of detection limits in the domain of chemical analysis and the way to determine them for the ICPMS analysis. The results found on detection limits are excellent. Even if the detection limits reached with ICPMS performed after manual or automatic VPD are much higher than detection limits of ICPMS alone, this method remains one of the most sensible for ultra-traces analysis. (J.S.)

  19. Rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens: principles, applications, advantages and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Jodi Woan-Fei; Ab Mutalib, Nurul-Syakima; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of foodborne diseases has increased over the years and resulted in major public health problem globally. Foodborne pathogens can be found in various foods and it is important to detect foodborne pathogens to provide safe food supply and to prevent foodborne diseases. The conventional methods used to detect foodborne pathogen are time consuming and laborious. Hence, a variety of methods have been developed for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens as it is required in many food analyses. Rapid detection methods can be categorized into nucleic acid-based, biosensor-based and immunological-based methods. This review emphasizes on the principles and application of recent rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens. Detection methods included are simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR), multiplex PCR, real-time PCR, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and oligonucleotide DNA microarray which classified as nucleic acid-based methods; optical, electrochemical and mass-based biosensors which classified as biosensor-based methods; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and lateral flow immunoassay which classified as immunological-based methods. In general, rapid detection methods are generally time-efficient, sensitive, specific and labor-saving. The developments of rapid detection methods are vital in prevention and treatment of foodborne diseases. PMID:25628612

  20. Rapid Methods for the Detection of Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens: Principles, Applications, Advantages and Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Law eJodi Woan-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of foodborne diseases has increased over the years and resulted in major public health problem globally. Foodborne pathogens can be found in various foods and it is important to detect foodborne pathogens to provide safe food supply and to prevent foodborne diseases. The conventional methods used to detect foodborne pathogen are time consuming and laborious. Hence, a variety of methods have been developed for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens as it is required in many food analyses. Rapid detection methods can be categorized into nucleic acid-based, biosensor-based and immunological-based methods. This review emphasizes on the principles and application of recent rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens. Detection methods included are simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR, multiplex PCR, real-time PCR, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP and oligonucleotide DNA microarray which classified as nucleic acid-based methods; optical, electrochemical and mass-based biosensors which classified as biosensor-based methods; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and lateral flow immunoassay which classified as immunological-based methods. In general, rapid detection methods are generally time-efficient, sensitive, specific and labor-saving. The developments of rapid detection methods are vital in prevention and treatment of foodborne diseases.

  1. Dynamic analysis methods for detecting anomalies in asynchronously interacting systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Akshat; Solis, John Hector; Matschke, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Detecting modifications to digital system designs, whether malicious or benign, is problematic due to the complexity of the systems being analyzed. Moreover, static analysis techniques and tools can only be used during the initial design and implementation phases to verify safety and liveness properties. It is computationally intractable to guarantee that any previously verified properties still hold after a system, or even a single component, has been produced by a third-party manufacturer. In this paper we explore new approaches for creating a robust system design by investigating highly-structured computational models that simplify verification and analysis. Our approach avoids the need to fully reconstruct the implemented system by incorporating a small verification component that dynamically detects for deviations from the design specification at run-time. The first approach encodes information extracted from the original system design algebraically into a verification component. During run-time this component randomly queries the implementation for trace information and verifies that no design-level properties have been violated. If any deviation is detected then a pre-specified fail-safe or notification behavior is triggered. Our second approach utilizes a partitioning methodology to view liveness and safety properties as a distributed decision task and the implementation as a proposed protocol that solves this task. Thus the problem of verifying safety and liveness properties is translated to that of verifying that the implementation solves the associated decision task. We develop upon results from distributed systems and algebraic topology to construct a learning mechanism for verifying safety and liveness properties from samples of run-time executions.

  2. Methods of Profile Cloning Detection in Online Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabielski Michał

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the arrival of online social networks, the importance of privacy on the Internet has increased dramatically. Thus, it is important to develop mechanisms that will prevent our hidden personal data from unauthorized access and use. In this paper an attempt was made to present a concept of profile cloning detection in Online Social Networks (OSN using Graph and Networks Theory. By analysing structural similarity of network and value of attributes of user personal profile, we will be able to search for attackers which steal our identity.

  3. Dark matter candidates and methods for detecting them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffelt, G. G.

    1992-01-01

    A number of experiments employing Ge and Si ionization detectors have excluded large regions in the plane of masses and scattering cross-sections for weakly-interacting dark matter (DM) candidates. It is judged that, before a realistic detection experiment for supersymmetric DM candidates can be conducted, significant development efforts will have to be completed for suitable cryogenic or ionization detectors. Pilot experiments have demonstrated the feasibility of axion searches with microwave cavities, but these are at least two orders of magnitude too low in sensitivity.

  4. Physical developer method for detection of latent fingerprints: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. Sodhi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The physical developer technique is a means to detect fingerprints on dry and wet, porous items, including paper articles, clay-based products and adhesive tapes. The process involves an oxidation–reduction couple whereby a solution of an iron salt reduces aqueous silver nitrate to finely divided metallic silver. The technique derives its name from the photographic physical developer which, during processing of film rolls, undergoes a similar redox reaction. The physical developer reveals the fingerprints as dark gray or black images due to the adsorption of metallic silver particles on the fatty acid and lipid components of sweat residue.

  5. Evaluation of detection methods for Legionella species using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    American Type Culture Collection 33152). The effect of sample concentration by centrifugation and membrane filtration followed by either vortex or sonication for resuspension of organisms was studied. Three currently available culture methods ...

  6. A New Mining Method to Detect Real Time Substance Use Events from Wearable Biosensor Data Stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Fang, Hua; Carreiro, Stephanie; Wang, Honggang; Boyer, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Detecting real time substance use is a critical step for optimizing behavioral interventions to prevent drug abuse. Traditional methods based on self-reporting or urine screening are inefficient or intrusive for drug use detection, and inappropriate for timely interventions. For example, self-report suffers from distortion or recall bias; while urine screening often detects drug use that occurred only within the previous 72 hours. Methods for real-time substance use detection are severely underdeveloped, partly due to the novelty of wearable biosensor technique and the lack of substantive clinical data for evaluation. We propose a new real-time drug use event detection method using data obtained from wearable biosensors. Specifically, this method is built upon the slide window technique to process the data stream, and a distance-based outlier detection method to identify substance use events. This novel method is designed to examine how to detect and set up the thresholds of parameters in real-time drug use event detection for wearable biosensor data streams. Our numerical analyses empirically identified the thresholds of parameters used to detect the cocaine use and showed that this proposed method could be adapted to detect other substance use events.

  7. Linear and kernel methods for multivariate change detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canty, Morton J.; Nielsen, Allan A.

    2012-01-01

    The iteratively reweighted multivariate alteration detection (IR-MAD) algorithm may be used both for unsupervised change detection in multi- and hyperspectral remote sensing imagery and for automatic radiometric normalization of multitemporal image sequences. Principal components analysis (PCA), as well as maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) and minimum noise fraction (MNF) analyses of IR-MAD images, both linear and kernel-based (nonlinear), may further enhance change signals relative to no-change background. IDL (Interactive Data Language) implementations of IR-MAD, automatic radiometric normalization, and kernel PCA/MAF/MNF transformations are presented that function as transparent and fully integrated extensions of the ENVI remote sensing image analysis environment. The train/test approach to kernel PCA is evaluated against a Hebbian learning procedure. Matlab code is also available that allows fast data exploration and experimentation with smaller datasets. New, multiresolution versions of IR-MAD that accelerate convergence and that further reduce no-change background noise are introduced. Computationally expensive matrix diagonalization and kernel image projections are programmed to run on massively parallel CUDA-enabled graphics processors, when available, giving an order of magnitude enhancement in computational speed. The software is available from the authors' Web sites.

  8. Balancing precision and risk: should multiple detection methods be analyzed separately in N-mixture models?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabitha A Graves

    Full Text Available Using multiple detection methods can increase the number, kind, and distribution of individuals sampled, which may increase accuracy and precision and reduce cost of population abundance estimates. However, when variables influencing abundance are of interest, if individuals detected via different methods are influenced by the landscape differently, separate analysis of multiple detection methods may be more appropriate. We evaluated the effects of combining two detection methods on the identification of variables important to local abundance using detections of grizzly bears with hair traps (systematic and bear rubs (opportunistic. We used hierarchical abundance models (N-mixture models with separate model components for each detection method. If both methods sample the same population, the use of either data set alone should (1 lead to the selection of the same variables as important and (2 provide similar estimates of relative local abundance. We hypothesized that the inclusion of 2 detection methods versus either method alone should (3 yield more support for variables identified in single method analyses (i.e. fewer variables and models with greater weight, and (4 improve precision of covariate estimates for variables selected in both separate and combined analyses because sample size is larger. As expected, joint analysis of both methods increased precision as well as certainty in variable and model selection. However, the single-method analyses identified different variables and the resulting predicted abundances had different spatial distributions. We recommend comparing single-method and jointly modeled results to identify the presence of individual heterogeneity between detection methods in N-mixture models, along with consideration of detection probabilities, correlations among variables, and tolerance to risk of failing to identify variables important to a subset of the population. The benefits of increased precision should be weighed

  9. Balancing precision and risk: should multiple detection methods be analyzed separately in N-mixture models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Tabitha A.; Royle, J. Andrew; Kendall, Katherine C.; Beier, Paul; Stetz, Jeffrey B.; Macleod, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    Using multiple detection methods can increase the number, kind, and distribution of individuals sampled, which may increase accuracy and precision and reduce cost of population abundance estimates. However, when variables influencing abundance are of interest, if individuals detected via different methods are influenced by the landscape differently, separate analysis of multiple detection methods may be more appropriate. We evaluated the effects of combining two detection methods on the identification of variables important to local abundance using detections of grizzly bears with hair traps (systematic) and bear rubs (opportunistic). We used hierarchical abundance models (N-mixture models) with separate model components for each detection method. If both methods sample the same population, the use of either data set alone should (1) lead to the selection of the same variables as important and (2) provide similar estimates of relative local abundance. We hypothesized that the inclusion of 2 detection methods versus either method alone should (3) yield more support for variables identified in single method analyses (i.e. fewer variables and models with greater weight), and (4) improve precision of covariate estimates for variables selected in both separate and combined analyses because sample size is larger. As expected, joint analysis of both methods increased precision as well as certainty in variable and model selection. However, the single-method analyses identified different variables and the resulting predicted abundances had different spatial distributions. We recommend comparing single-method and jointly modeled results to identify the presence of individual heterogeneity between detection methods in N-mixture models, along with consideration of detection probabilities, correlations among variables, and tolerance to risk of failing to identify variables important to a subset of the population. The benefits of increased precision should be weighed against

  10. Evaluation of different detection methods of biofilm formation in the clinical isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afreenish Hassan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microorganisms growing in a biofilm are associated with chronic and recurrent human infections and are highly resistant to antimicrobial agents. There are various methods to detect biofilm production like Tissue Culture Plate (TCP, Tube method (TM, Congo Red Agar method (CRA, bioluminescent assay, piezoelectric sensors, and fluorescent microscopic examination. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to compare three methods for the detection of biofilms. METHOD: The study was carried out at the Department of Microbiology, Army Medical College, National University of Sciences and Technology, Pakistan, from January 2010 to June 2010. A total of 110 clinical isolates were subjected to biofilm detection methods. Isolates were identified by standard microbiological procedures. Biofilm detection was tested by TCP, TM and CRA. Antibiotic susceptibility test of biofilm producing bacteria was performed by using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique according to CLSI guidelines. RESULTS: The TCP method was considered to be superior to TM and CRA. From the total of 110 clinical isolates, TCP method detected 22.7% as high, 41% moderate and 36.3% as weak or non-biofilm producers. We have observed higher antibiotic resistance in biofilm producing bacteria than non-biofilm producers. CONCLUSION: We can conclude from our study that the TCP method is a more quantitative and reliable method for the detection of biofilm forming microorganisms as compared to TM and CRA methods, and it can be recommended as a general screening method for detection of biofilm producing bacteria in laboratories.

  11. SUPPLEMENT TO EPA COMPENDIUM METHOD TO-15 - REDUCTION OF METHOD DETECTION LIMITS TO MEET VAPOR INTRUSION MONITORING NEEDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Supplement to EPA Compendium Method TO-15 provides guidance for reducing the method detection limit (MDL) for the compound 1,1- dichloroethene (1,1-DCE) and for other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from 0.5 ppbv, as cited in Method TO-15, to much lower concentrations. R...

  12. DETECTION OF BACTERIA IN FOODSTUFF BY MACHINE LEARNING METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Saenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an actual problem of ensuring the control of foodstuff quality by means of machine learning methods. Existing analysis methods require special laboratory environment, significant time and depend on the qualification and some physiological characteristics of an expert while the suggested method gives the possibility to decrease significantly the costs due to automatization. The mobile analysis platform performing this method is based on the fluorescence microscopy. The problem of the object classification as either “bacterium” or “third-party artifact” was solved for the test data with some classification algorithms as support vector machine, random forest, decision tree C4.5, k-nearest neighbors, Bayes method. The analysis showed that the most effective algorithms are support vector machine and random forest. This research is performed on the Mechatronics Department of Saint Petersburg National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics and the Quality Assurance and Industrial Image Processing Department of Ilmenau University of Technology with the support of the program “Mikhail Lomonosov” of the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia and the German Academic Exchange Service.

  13. Monoclonal antibodies to cyclodiene insecticides and method for detecting the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanker, Larry H.; Vanderlaan, Martin; Watkins, Bruce E.

    1994-01-01

    Methods are described for making specific monoclonal antibodies useful for detection of cyclodienes in foods and environmental samples. Monoclonal antibodies specifically reactive with cyclodienes can detect accumulated pesticides in food, tissue or environmental samples. Extraction and preparation of organic samples for immunoassay in a polar-nonpolar reaction medium permits detection of halogenated organic ring structures at concentrations in samples.

  14. Vocal folds disorder detection using pattern recognition methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianglin; Jo, Cheolwoo

    2007-01-01

    Diagnosis of pathological voice is one of the most important issues in biomedical applications of speech technology. This study focuses on the classification of pathological voice using the HMM(Hidden Markov Model), the GMM(Gaussian Mixture Model) and a SVM (Support Vector Machine), and then compares the results to work done previously using an ANN (Artificial Neural Network). Speech data were collected from those without and those with vocal disorders. Normal and pathological speech data were mixed in out experiment. Six characteristic parameters (Jitter, Shimmer, NHR, SPI, APQ and RAP) were chosen. Then the pattern recognition methods (HMM, GMM and SVM) were used to distinguish the mixed data into categories of normal and pathological speech. We found that the GMM-based method can give us superior classification rates compared to the other classification methods.

  15. Quantitative naturalistic methods for detecting change points in psychotherapy research: an illustration with alliance ruptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubanks-Carter, Catherine; Gorman, Bernard S; Muran, J Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of change points in psychotherapy process could increase our understanding of mechanisms of change. In particular, naturalistic change point detection methods that identify turning points or breakpoints in time series data could enhance our ability to identify and study alliance ruptures and resolutions. This paper presents four categories of statistical methods for detecting change points in psychotherapy process: criterion-based methods, control chart methods, partitioning methods, and regression methods. Each method's utility for identifying shifts in the alliance is illustrated using a case example from the Beth Israel Psychotherapy Research program. Advantages and disadvantages of the various methods are discussed.

  16. Detection of C. difficile common antigen: comparison of methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giuliana Brunelli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify and define a diagnostic algorithm for the diagnosis of C. difficile infection, a comparative study was carried out at the Microbiology Laboratory of “Maggiore della Carità” Hospital in Novara.We compared the system currently in use in the laboratory “TECHLAB C.difficile Quik Chek Complete (Inverness Medical, USA”, an immunoenzymatic assay for the simultaneous detection of C. difficile common antigen (GDH and Toxins A&B, with the new ImmunoCard Clostridium difficile GDH (Meridian Bioscience, USA, which identifies the C. difficile Common Antigen GDH. The results proved identical between the two assays: of 100 samples, 82 resulted negative with both tests, 18 were GDH positive with both tests. Out of the 18 GDH positives, 9 resulted positive for the Toxins portion of the TechLab test.

  17. A Survey On Various Web Template Detection And Extraction Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neethu Mary Varghese

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In todays digital world reliance on the World Wide Web as a source of information is extensive. Users increasingly rely on web based search engines to provide accurate search results on a wide range of topics that interest them. The search engines in turn parse the vast repository of web pages searching for relevant information. However majority of web portals are designed using web templates which are designed to provide consistent look and feel to end users. The presence of these templates however can influence search results leading to inaccurate results being delivered to the users. Therefore to improve the accuracy and reliability of search results identification and removal of web templates from the actual content is essential. A wide range of approaches are commonly employed to achieve this and this paper focuses on the study of the various approaches of template detection and extraction that can be applied across homogenous as well as heterogeneous web pages.

  18. An Effective Method for Small Event Detection: Match and Locate (ML) and Its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Wen, L.

    2014-12-01

    Detection of low magnitude event is critical and challenging in seismology. Traditional methods of event detection, which rely on phase identification, are usually hindered by low signal to noise ratio (SNR) in small event recordings. We develop a new method, named the match and locate (ML) method, for small event detection. The ML method employs some template events and detects small events through stacking cross-correlograms between waveforms of the template events and potential small event signals in the continuous waveforms over multiple stations and components. Unlike the traditional match filter method which assumes that the template event and slave event are co-located, the ML method scans over potential small event locations around the template, by making relative travel time corrections based on the relative locations of the template event and the potential small event before stacking. It makes event detection more efficient and at the same time relocates the detected event in high-precision. As an example of application and comparison with the matched filter method, we apply the ML and matched filter methods to detect the foreshocks before the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake. The ML method detects four times more events than the templates and 10% more than the matched filter under the same detection threshold. Up to 42% of the events detected by the ML method are not co-located at the template locations with the largest event separation of 9.4 km. As another example of application, we apply the ML method to search for potential nuclear tests conducted by North Korea in the continuous seismic data recorded in Northeast China, using North Korea's 2009 and 2013 tests as templates. We report detection of a low-yield nuclear test conducted by North Korea in 2010.

  19. Comparison of enclosed space detection system with conventional methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kercel, S.W.; Baylor, V.M.; Labaj, L.E.

    1997-09-01

    Enclosed Space Detection System (ESDS) is a fast, inexpensive, and reliable device for detecting human occupants hidden in vehicles. Operation requires less than two minutes. ESDS is used to foil attempts at smuggling illegal aliens, terrorists, and escaping prisoners. It is being tested at nuclear weapons facilities and has been operated at several prisons and international border crossings. ESDS is the first practical electronic alternative to physical searches of vehicles for hidden passengers. At critical checkpoints, a thorough physical search of a single fully loaded truck requires a team of from two to six people, and may take as long as eight hours. Despite this level of security, experience has shown that the search can occasionally be foiled. Due to the enormous time and expense of thorough physical searches of vehicles, they are seldom conducted at any but the most critical of locations, simply leaving many sites vulnerable to crime and terrorism. Prior to the development of the ESDS, the only other effective alternative to physical search was the use of specially-trained canines, which can be vastly superior to the physical search in both time and accuracy. However, as discussed in this paper, canine inspection is not really a competitive substitute for ESDS because canine reliability (80% at most) is not as high as that of the ESDS (99%+), while the costs, training requirements, and operator skill needed are significantly higher with canines than with the ESDS. In addition, the ESDS has straightforward self-diagnostic tests to ensure the system is operating correctly; such tests are not currently available with either canine or human inspectors. ESDS offers an attractive supplement or alternative to meet current security requirements for vehicle searches at portals at government, nuclear, industrial, and other facilities where concealed persons may pose a threat either by entering or leaving.

  20. Detection of irradiated spices with a microbiological method - DEFT/APC method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerton, K.M.; Banos, C. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    The decontamination of spices that are to be used as ingredients in processed foods is necessary in order to prevent the introduction of spoilage microorganisms and more rarely disease causing organisms. Spices can be contaminated with bacteria and moulds in concentration from 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 8} microorganisms per gram so that, even when used in small amounts, they can contaminate food with large numbers of microorganisms. The most effective means of decontaminating spices is irradiation treatment with an absorbed radiation dose from 5 to 10 kGy. Several countries are commercially using radiation processing of spices. A microbiological screening method based on the use of the direct epifluorescent filter technique (DEFT) and the conventional aerobic plate count (APC) has been established for the detection of irradiated spices. The DEFT count enumerates the total number of contaminating microorganisms, irrespective of viability, in an untreated or treated spice sample. This paper reports recent investigations on the possibility that the inclusion of a mesophilic aerobic spore count will enable irradiated spices to be distinguished from ethylene oxide (EtO) or heat treated spices. (author).

  1. Prediction of coating durability : Early detection using electrochemical methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, W.M.

    2008-01-01

    Corrosion of metals has an enormous economic impact. Fortunately, the rate at which corrosion processes take place can be reduced, often to a point where, at least temporarily, corrosion is virtually non-existent. One of these, corrosion-control methods is barrier protection. The concept of barrier

  2. Improved detection methods for infected hip joint prostheses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgdall, Dan Taksony Solyom; Hvolris, Jørgen Jesper; Christensen, Lise

    2010-01-01

    . This article based on a literature search and own observations is primarily focused on newer methods that help us identify the pathology behind infection-based prosthesis failure. We suggest that the fluorescence in situ hybridization technique on carefully selected biopsy material is used in the future...

  3. Fast and sensitive method for detecting volatile species in liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trimarco, Daniel Bøndergaard; Pedersen, Thomas; Hansen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    to a mass spectrometer through a narrow capillary without the use of differential pumping. This method inherits features from differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) and membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS), but brings the best of both worlds, i.e., the fast time-response of a DEMS system...

  4. Comparison of eight methods to detect vancomycin resistance in enterococci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.P. Endtz (Hubert); N.P.W.C.J. van den Braak (Nicole); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); W.H.F. Goessens (Wil); D. Kreft; A.B. Stroebel; H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractA collection of genetically unrelated vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) including 50 vanA, 15 vanB, 50 vanC1, and 30 vanC2 VRE were used to evaluate the accuracy of eight currently available susceptibility test methods (agar dilution, disk diffusion,

  5. Evaluation of Screening Methods for the Detection of Urinary Tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Urinary tract infection occurs in all populations, but with particular impact in females of all ages, male at the two extremes of their life, renal transplant patients, and anyone with functional or structural abnormalities of the urinary system. Method: Evaluation of reagent strips, unspun gram stain urine and wet ...

  6. Analytical methods for virus detection in water and food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, A.; Sanchez, G.; Abbaszadegan, M.; Carducci, A.; Guix, S.; Guyader, Le F.S.; Netshikweta, R.; Pintó, R.M.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Rutjes, S.; Sano, D.; Taylor, M.D.; Zijl, Van W.B.; Rodriguez-Lázaro, D.; Kovac, K.; Sellwood, J.

    2011-01-01

    Potential ways to address the issues that relate to the techniques for analyzing food and environmental samples for the presence of enteric viruses are discussed. It is not the authors’ remit to produce or recommend standard or reference methods but to address specific issues in the analytical

  7. The harmonics detection method based on neural network applied ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The latter combines both the strategies for extracting the reference currents and controlling DC link voltage which ensure suitable transit of powers to supply the inverter. To investigate the performance of this identification method, the study has been accomplished using simulation with MATLAB Simulink Power System ...

  8. Method and apparatus for detecting phycocyanin-pigmented algae and bacteria from reflected light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Robert (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of detecting phycocyanin algae or bacteria in water from reflected light, and also includes devices for the measurement, calculation and transmission of data relating to that method.

  9. Microscopy outperformed in a comparison of five methods for detecting Trichomonas vaginalis in symptomatic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, B; Appiah, J; Saunders, P; Heron, D; Nichols, T; Brum, R; Alexander, S; Baraitser, P; Ison, C

    2015-03-01

    In the UK, despite its low sensitivity, wet mount microscopy is often the only method of detecting Trichomonas vaginalis infection. A study was conducted in symptomatic women to compare the performance of five methods for detecting T. vaginalis: an in-house polymerase chain reaction (PCR); Aptima T. vaginalis kit; OSOM ®Trichomonas Rapid Test; culture and microscopy. Symptomatic women underwent routine testing; microscopy and further swabs were taken for molecular testing, OSOM and culture. A true positive was defined as a sample that was positive for T. vaginalis by two or more different methods. Two hundred and forty-six women were recruited: 24 patients were positive for T. vaginalis by two or more different methods. Of these 24 patients, 21 patients were detected by real-time PCR (sensitivity 88%); 22 patients were detected by the Aptima T. vaginalis kit (sensitivity 92%); 22 patients were detected by OSOM (sensitivity 92%); nine were detected by wet mount microscopy (sensitivity 38%); and 21 were detected by culture (sensitivity 88%). Two patients were positive by just one method and were not considered true positives. All the other detection methods had a sensitivity to detect T. vaginalis that was significantly greater than wet mount microscopy, highlighting the number of cases that are routinely missed even in symptomatic women if microscopy is the only diagnostic method available. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. Automatic detecting method of LED signal lamps on fascia based on color image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaoling; Hou, Wenguang; Ding, Mingyue

    2009-10-01

    Instrument display panel is one of the most important parts of automobiles. Automatic detection of LED signal lamps is critical to ensure the reliability of automobile systems. In this paper, an automatic detection method was developed which is composed of three parts in the automatic detection: the shape of LED lamps, the color of LED lamps, and defect spots inside the lamps. More than hundreds of fascias were detected with the automatic detection algorithm. The speed of the algorithm is quite fast and satisfied with the real-time request of the system. Further, the detection result was demonstrated to be stable and accurate.

  11. Novel methods for improving rapid paper-based protein assays with gold nanoparticle detection

    OpenAIRE

    Lama, Lara

    2017-01-01

    This thesis describes methods for improving sensitivity in rapid singleplex and multiplex microarray assays. The assays utilize the optical characteristics of colloidal gold nanoparticles for the colorimetric detection of proteins. Multiplexed detection in sandwich immunoassays is limited by cross-reactivity between different detection antibodies. The cross-reactivity between antibodies can contribute to increased background noise - decreasing the Limit-of-Detection of the assay - or generate...

  12. Method of manufacturing a matrix for the detection of mismatches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershov, Gennady Moiseevich; Mirzabekov, Andrei Darievich

    1998-01-01

    This method for preparing micromatrices consists in applying a specially-patterned intermediate layer of laser-absorbing substance on a solid support. The configuration of the sublayer fully corresponds to the topology of the manufactured matrix. The intermediate layer is further covered by a continuous layer of gel , the gel and the material of the support being transparent towards laser radiation. The gel layer is irradiated by a laser beam for a time needed to evaporate simultaneously the gel in the places immediately above the laser-absorbing sublayer and the sublayer itself. Oligonucleotides from a chosen set are then attached to the formed gel `cells`, one oligonucleotide to each cell. This method is intended for use in biotechnology, specifically for deciphering the nucleotide sequence of DNA.

  13. The biospeckle method for early damage detection of fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lei; Liu, Jiaxin; Men, Sen

    2017-07-01

    In the field of fruits damage assessment, biospeckle activity is considered relevant to quality properties of plants, such us damage, aging, or diseases. In this paper, biospeckle technique was applied to identify the early bruising of apples. Then a total of 50 undamaged apples were determined to be artificially bruised as samples. Three methods (Fujii, GD, and LSTCA) were used to extract effective information from these speckle images for measuring the intensity of biospeckle activity. The results showed that for all of three methods, the biospeckle activities of the undamaged areas in apple were similar; after the hit, the damaged area showed a lower biospeckle activity. It can be concluded that early bruising can be identified by biospeckle technique.

  14. Roka Listeria detection method using transcription mediated amplification to detect Listeria species in select foods and surfaces. Performance Tested Method(SM) 011201.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yang; Kaplan, Shannon; Reshatoff, Michael; Hu, Ernie; Zukowski, Alexis; Schweis, Franz; Gin, Cristal; Maroni, Brett; Becker, Michael; Wisniewski, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The Roka Listeria Detection Assay was compared to the reference culture methods for nine select foods and three select surfaces. The Roka method used Half-Fraser Broth for enrichment at 35 +/- 2 degrees C for 24-28 h. Comparison of Roka's method to reference methods requires an unpaired approach. Each method had a total of 545 samples inoculated with a Listeria strain. Each food and surface was inoculated with a different strain of Listeria at two different levels per method. For the dairy products (Brie cheese, whole milk, and ice cream), our method was compared to AOAC Official Method(SM) 993.12. For the ready-to-eat meats (deli chicken, cured ham, chicken salad, and hot dogs) and environmental surfaces (sealed concrete, stainless steel, and plastic), these samples were compared to the U.S. Department of Agriculture/Food Safety and Inspection Service-Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (USDA/FSIS-MLG) method MLG 8.07. Cold-smoked salmon and romaine lettuce were compared to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration/Bacteriological Analytical Manual, Chapter 10 (FDA/BAM) method. Roka's method had 358 positives out of 545 total inoculated samples compared to 332 positive for the reference methods. Overall the probability of detection analysis of the results showed better or equivalent performance compared to the reference methods.

  15. An autocorrelation method to detect low frequency earthquakes within tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J.R.; Beroza, G.C.; Shelly, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that deep tremor in the Nankai Trough under western Shikoku consists of a swarm of low frequency earthquakes (LFEs) that occur as slow shear slip on the down-dip extension of the primary seismogenic zone of the plate interface. The similarity of tremor in other locations suggests a similar mechanism, but the absence of cataloged low frequency earthquakes prevents a similar analysis. In this study, we develop a method for identifying LFEs within tremor. The method employs a matched-filter algorithm, similar to the technique used to infer that tremor in parts of Shikoku is comprised of LFEs; however, in this case we do not assume the origin times or locations of any LFEs a priori. We search for LFEs using the running autocorrelation of tremor waveforms for 6 Hi-Net stations in the vicinity of the tremor source. Time lags showing strong similarity in the autocorrelation represent either repeats, or near repeats, of LFEs within the tremor. We test the method on an hour of Hi-Net recordings of tremor and demonstrates that it extracts both known and previously unidentified LFEs. Once identified, we cross correlate waveforms to measure relative arrival times and locate the LFEs. The results are able to explain most of the tremor as a swarm of LFEs and the locations of newly identified events appear to fill a gap in the spatial distribution of known LFEs. This method should allow us to extend the analysis of Shelly et al. (2007a) to parts of the Nankai Trough in Shikoku that have sparse LFE coverage, and may also allow us to extend our analysis to other regions that experience deep tremor, but where LFEs have not yet been identified. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Nucleotide sequence composition and method for detection of neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, A.; Yang, H.L.

    1990-02-13

    This patent describes a composition of matter that is specific for {ital Neisseria gonorrhoeae}. It comprises: at least one nucleotide sequence for which the ratio of the amount of the sequence which hybridizes to chromosomal DNA of {ital Neisseria gonorrhoeae} to the amount of the sequence which hybridizes to chromosomal DNA of {ital Neisseria meningitidis} is greater than about five. The ratio being obtained by a method described.

  17. Methods of Fire Debris Preparation for Detection of Accelerants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caddy, B; Smith, F P; Macy, J

    1991-06-01

    Forensic scientists use various techniques to separate accelerants from fire debris samples before instrumental identification of added fuels. Among the choices available, traditional micro-distillation, steam distillation, vacuum distillation, headspace, heated headspace, and several vapor adsorption/desorption methods provide various advantages and disadvantages. This communication reviews the development of these techniques from the 1950s and comparison studies performed. Copyright © 1991 Central Police University.

  18. Acquisition Program Problem Detection Using Text Mining Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    this method into their practices (Berry & Kogan, 2010). Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (PLSA), Latent...also known as Latent Semantic Indexing, uses a series of three matrices (document eigenvector, eigenvalue, and term eigenvector) to approximate the...Estimate at Complete • EVM: Earned Value Management • HTML: Hyper Text Markup Language • LDA: Latent Dirichlet Allocation • LSA: Latent Semantic Analysis

  19. Protein-Protein Interaction Detection: Methods and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Srinivasa Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein-protein interaction plays key role in predicting the protein function of target protein and drug ability of molecules. The majority of genes and proteins realize resulting phenotype functions as a set of interactions. The in vitro and in vivo methods like affinity purification, Y2H (yeast 2 hybrid, TAP (tandem affinity purification, and so forth have their own limitations like cost, time, and so forth, and the resultant data sets are noisy and have more false positives to annotate the function of drug molecules. Thus, in silico methods which include sequence-based approaches, structure-based approaches, chromosome proximity, gene fusion, in silico 2 hybrid, phylogenetic tree, phylogenetic profile, and gene expression-based approaches were developed. Elucidation of protein interaction networks also contributes greatly to the analysis of signal transduction pathways. Recent developments have also led to the construction of networks having all the protein-protein interactions using computational methods for signaling pathways and protein complex identification in specific diseases.

  20. Detection of Dew-Point by substantial Raman Band Frequency Jumps (A new Method)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Berg, Rolf W.; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Detection of Dew-Point by substantial Raman Band Frequency Jumps (A new Method). See poster at http://www.kemi.dtu.dk/~ajo/rolf/jumps.pdf......Detection of Dew-Point by substantial Raman Band Frequency Jumps (A new Method). See poster at http://www.kemi.dtu.dk/~ajo/rolf/jumps.pdf...

  1. Increased efficacy for in-house validation of real-time PCR GMO detection methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens-Toma, I.M.J.; Kok, E.J.; Hougs, L.; Molenaar, B.; Thissen, J.T.N.M.; Voet, van der H.

    2010-01-01

    To improve the efficacy of the in-house validation of GMO detection methods (DNA isolation and real-time PCR, polymerase chain reaction), a study was performed to gain insight in the contribution of the different steps of the GMO detection method to the repeatability and in-house reproducibility. In

  2. On the Evaluation of Outlier Detection and One-Class Classification Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swersky, Lorne; Marques, Henrique O.; Sander, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that unsupervised outlier detection methods can be adapted to the one-class classification problem. In this paper, we focus on the comparison of oneclass classification algorithms with such adapted unsupervised outlier detection methods, improving on previous comparison studies ...

  3. Effectivity of PCR and AGID methods to detect of enzootic bovine leukosis in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Saepulloh M; Sendow I

    2015-01-01

    Enzootic Bovine Leucosis (EBL) is one of viral diseases in cattle caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV), from Retroviridae. The virus can be detected using severals methods such as Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), while antibody can be detected using Agar Gel Immunodifussion (AGID). The aim of this experiment was to study the effectivity of PCR and AGID methods to detect enzootic bovine leukosis virus in Indonesia. Samples of peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) were collected from cattles those ...

  4. Event Detection Challenges, Methods, and Applications in Natural and Artificial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Sauvageon, Agogino, Mehr, and Tumer [2006], for instance, use a fourth degree polynomial within an event detection algorithm to sense high...AM, Mehr AF, and Tumer IY. 2006. “Comparison of Event Detection Methods for Centralized Sensor Networks.” IEEE Sensors Applications Symposium 2006...div898/handbook/index.htm>. • Sauvageon J, Agogino AM, Mehr AF, and Tumer IY. 2006. “Comparison of Event Detection Methods for Centralized Sensor

  5. Hand-Eye LRF-Based Iterative Plane Detection Method for Autonomous Robotic Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungmin Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a hand-eye LRF-based (laser range finder welding plane-detection method for autonomous robotic welding in the field of shipbuilding. The hand-eye LRF system consists of a 6 DOF manipulator and an LRF attached to the wrist of the manipulator. The welding plane is detected by the LRF with only the wrist's rotation to minimize a mechanical error caused by the manipulator's motion. A position on the plane is determined as an average position of the detected points on the plane, and a normal vector to the plane is determined by applying PCA (principal component analysis to the detected points. In this case, the accuracy of the detected plane is analysed by simulations with respect to the wrist's angle interval and the plane angle. As a result of the analysis, an iterative plane-detection method with the manipulator's alignment motion is proposed to improve the performance of plane detection. For verifying the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed plane-detection method, experiments are carried out with a prototype of the hand-eye LRF-based system, which consists of a 1 DOF wrist's joint, an LRF system and a rotatable plane. In addition, the experimental results of the PCA-based plane detection method are compared with those of the two representative plane-detection methods, based on RANSAC (RANdom SAmple Consensus and the 3D Hough transform in both accuracy and computation time's points of view.

  6. Optical vibration detection spectral analysis assembly and method for detecting vibration in an object of interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Thomas C.; Telschow, Kenneth L.

    1998-01-01

    A vibration detection assembly is described which includes an emitter of light which has object and reference beams, the object beam reflected off of a vibrating object of interest; and a photorefractive substance having a given response time and which passes the reflected object beam and the reference beam, the reference beam and the object beam interfering within the photorefractive substance to create a space charge field which develops within the response time of the photorefractive substance.

  7. Vehicles Potholes Detection Based Blob Detection Method and Neural Network Backpropagation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Dewiani, Dewiani; Achmad, Andani; Parung, Rivanto

    2016-01-01

    In Indonesia, especially on developing area, many potholes are occurred almost on every part of the road. The situation is exacerbated on how potholes location data gathering is performed manually by field personnel of the Department of Transportation or other related services, which would require more time and cost. This study aimed to produce a prototype of detection system and potholes location automatically. The prototype is a device attached on public transport so that it can be a soluti...

  8. Human Detection System by Fusing Depth Map-Based Method and Convolutional Neural Network-Based Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh Vu Le

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the depth images and the colour images provided by Kinect sensors are used to enhance the accuracy of human detection. The depth-based human detection method is fast but less accurate. On the other hand, the faster region convolutional neural network-based human detection method is accurate but requires a rather complex hardware configuration. To simultaneously leverage the advantages and relieve the drawbacks of each method, one master and one client system is proposed. The final goal is to make a novel Robot Operation System (ROS-based Perception Sensor Network (PSN system, which is more accurate and ready for the real time application. The experimental results demonstrate the outperforming of the proposed method compared with other conventional methods in the challenging scenarios.

  9. A Hybrid Vehicle Detection Method Based on Viola-Jones and HOG + SVM from UAV Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzheng Xu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A new hybrid vehicle detection scheme which integrates the Viola-Jones (V-J and linear SVM classifier with HOG feature (HOG + SVM methods is proposed for vehicle detection from low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV images. As both V-J and HOG + SVM are sensitive to on-road vehicles’ in-plane rotation, the proposed scheme first adopts a roadway orientation adjustment method, which rotates each UAV image to align the roads with the horizontal direction so the original V-J or HOG + SVM method can be directly applied to achieve fast detection and high accuracy. To address the issue of descending detection speed for V-J and HOG + SVM, the proposed scheme further develops an adaptive switching strategy which sophistically integrates V-J and HOG + SVM methods based on their different descending trends of detection speed to improve detection efficiency. A comprehensive evaluation shows that the switching strategy, combined with the road orientation adjustment method, can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the vehicle detection from UAV images. The results also show that the proposed vehicle detection method is competitive compared with other existing vehicle detection methods. Furthermore, since the proposed vehicle detection method can be performed on videos captured from moving UAV platforms without the need of image registration or additional road database, it has great potentials of field applications. Future research will be focusing on expanding the current method for detecting other transportation modes such as buses, trucks, motors, bicycles, and pedestrians.

  10. Comparison of new immunofluorescence method for detection of soy protein in meat products with immunohistochemical, histochemical, and ELISA methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Petrášová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soy proteins are commonly used in the food industry thanks to their technological properties. However, soy is, along with cow’s milk, eggs, wheat, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, crustaceans, and molluscs, responsible for around 90% of food allergies, and is also one of the foodstuffs that can cause anaphylaxis. The aim of this work was to compare the immunofluorescence method for the detection of soy protein in meat products purchased from the retail market with other microscopic methods (immunohistochemical and histochemical, with the ELISA reference method and with the confirmatory results. Within the research, 127 meat products purchased in the retail network were examined using the immunofluorescence method used for the detection of soy protein. The method was compared to Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA, immunohistochemical, and histochemical methods. According to McNemar’s test, non-compliance between the immunofluorescence method and immunohistochemical method was low. In addition, a significant difference between the fluorescence method and ELISA (P P < 0.01 was found. The immunofluorescence method was also compared with confirmatory results. According to McNemar’s test, non-compliance between the immunofluorescence method and confirmatory results was low. The results showed the possibilities of this new method to detect the content of soy protein in meat products.

  11. Comparison of Classification Methods for Detecting Emotion from Mandarin Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pao, Tsang-Long; Chen, Yu-Te; Yeh, Jun-Heng

    It is said that technology comes out from humanity. What is humanity? The very definition of humanity is emotion. Emotion is the basis for all human expression and the underlying theme behind everything that is done, said, thought or imagined. Making computers being able to perceive and respond to human emotion, the human-computer interaction will be more natural. Several classifiers are adopted for automatically assigning an emotion category, such as anger, happiness or sadness, to a speech utterance. These classifiers were designed independently and tested on various emotional speech corpora, making it difficult to compare and evaluate their performance. In this paper, we first compared several popular classification methods and evaluated their performance by applying them to a Mandarin speech corpus consisting of five basic emotions, including anger, happiness, boredom, sadness and neutral. The extracted feature streams contain MFCC, LPCC, and LPC. The experimental results show that the proposed WD-MKNN classifier achieves an accuracy of 81.4% for the 5-class emotion recognition and outperforms other classification techniques, including KNN, MKNN, DW-KNN, LDA, QDA, GMM, HMM, SVM, and BPNN. Then, to verify the advantage of the proposed method, we compared these classifiers by applying them to another Mandarin expressive speech corpus consisting of two emotions. The experimental results still show that the proposed WD-MKNN outperforms others.

  12. SET: A Pupil Detection Method Using Sinusoidal Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir-Homayoun eJavadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile eye-tracking in external environments remains challenging, despite recent advances in eye-tracking software and hardware engineering. Many current methods fail to deal with the vast range of outdoor lighting conditions and the speed at which these can change. This confines experiments to artificial environments where conditions must be tightly controlled. Additionally, the emergence of low-cost eye tracking devices calls for the development of analysis tools that enable non-technical researchers to process the output of their images. We have developed a fast and accurate method (known as ‘SET’ that is suitable even for natural environments with uncontrolled, dynamic and even extreme lighting conditions. We compared the performance of SET with that of two open-source alternatives by processing two collections of eye images: images of natural outdoor scenes with extreme lighting variations (‘Natural’; and images of less challenging indoor scenes (‘CASIA-Iris-Thousand’. We show that SET excelled in outdoor conditions and was faster, without significant loss of accuracy, indoors. SET offers a low cost eye-tracking solution, delivering high performance even in challenging outdoor environments. It is offered through an open-source MATLAB toolkit as well as a dynamic-link library (‘DLL’, which can be imported into many programming languages including C# and Visual Basic in Windows OS (www.eyegoeyetracker.co.uk.

  13. Designation and verification of road markings detection and guidance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Runze; Jian, Yabin; Li, Xiyuan; Shang, Yonghong; Wang, Jing; Zhang, JingChuan

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid development of China's space industry, digitization and intelligent is the tendency of the future. This report is present a foundation research about guidance system which based on the HSV color space. With the help of these research which will help to design the automatic navigation and parking system for the frock transport car and the infrared lamp homogeneity intelligent test equipment. The drive mode, steer mode as well as the navigation method was selected. In consideration of the practicability, it was determined to use the front-wheel-steering chassis. The steering mechanism was controlled by the stepping motors, and it is guided by Machine Vision. The optimization and calibration of the steering mechanism was made. A mathematical model was built and the objective functions was constructed for the steering mechanism. The extraction method of the steering line was studied and the motion controller was designed and optimized. The theory of HSV, RGB color space and analysis of the testing result will be discussed Using the function library OPENCV on the Linux system to fulfill the camera calibration. Based on the HSV color space to design the guidance algorithm.

  14. Measurement of capillary permeability in canine heart determined by the tissue injection, residue detection method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Paaske, W P; Haunsø, S

    1991-01-01

    (apparent) interstitial volume of distribution, tev is the mean transit time of the indicator, and klo is the recorded fractional initial washout rate constant. In experiments on open chest dog hearts we examined capillary permeability for 51Cr-EDTA and 99mTc-DTPA with the tissue injection, residue...... detection method and the single injection, residue detection method. Blood flow was measured independently with local 133Xenon washout. D and D' were measured by a true transient diffusion method. We found that the tissue injection, residue detection method gave results for capillary extraction and Pd...

  15. Systems and methods of detecting force and stress using tetrapod nanocrystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Charina L.; Koski, Kristie J.; Sivasankar, Sanjeevi; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2013-08-20

    Systems and methods of detecting force on the nanoscale including methods for detecting force using a tetrapod nanocrystal by exposing the tetrapod nanocrystal to light, which produces a luminescent response by the tetrapod nanocrystal. The method continues with detecting a difference in the luminescent response by the tetrapod nanocrystal relative to a base luminescent response that indicates a force between a first and second medium or stresses or strains experienced within a material. Such systems and methods find use with biological systems to measure forces in biological events or interactions.

  16. Method for Detecting Perlite Compaction in Large Cryogenic Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Perlite is the most typical insulating powder used to separate the inner and outer shells of cryogenic tanks. The inner tank holds the low-temperature commodity, while the outer shell is exposed to the ambient temperature. Perlite minimizes radiative energy transfer between the two tanks. Being a powder, perlite will settle over time, leading to the danger of transferring any loads from the inner shell to the outer shell. This can cause deformation of the outer shell, leading to damaged internal fittings. The method proposed is to place strain or displacement sensors on several locations of the outer shell. Loads induced on the shell by the expanding inner shell and perlite would be monitored, providing an indication of the location and degree of compaction.

  17. Conventional methods for the detection and isolation of Salmonella enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zee, H

    1994-01-01

    Conventional methods for the specific isolation of Salmonella enteritidis are scarce. For pre-enrichment, addition of ammonium-iron (III)-citrate, ferrioxamine E and G or novobiocin in combination with cefsoludin to Buffered Peptone Water (BPW) and of ferrous sulphate to Trypticase Soy Broth seems to favour S. enteritidis isolation. As far as selective media are concerned, the use of semi-solid media, and addition of nitrofurantoin, results in higher isolation rates of the S. enteritidis serovar. Addition of 0.0015% nitrofurantoin to semi-solid DIASALM is so far the only successful combination reported. Addition of 0.0015% nitrofurantoin to solid media, in this case to XLD, is also reported. Use of a semi-solid medium, preferably DIASALM + 0.0015% nitrofurantoin, in addition to the selective media routinely used is recommended.

  18. Evaluation of harmonic detection methods for active power filter applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asiminoaei, Lucian; Blaabjerg, Frede; Hansen, Steffan

    2005-01-01

    In the attempt to minimize the harmonic disturbances created by the non-linear loads the choice of the active power filters comes out to improve the filtering efficiency and to solve many issues existing with classical passive filters. One of the key points for a proper implementation of an active...... implementation issues. The conclusions are collected and a comparison is given at the end, which is useful in deciding the future hardware setup implementation. The comparison shows that the choice of numerical filtering is a key factor for obtaining good accuracies and dynamics for an active filter....... theories. Then, the work here proposes a simulation setup that decouples the harmonic reference generator from the active filter model and its controller. In this way the selected methods can be equally analyzed and compared with respect to their performance, which helps anticipating possible...

  19. Visualizing confusion matrices for multidimensional signal detection correlational methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Wischgoll, Thomas; Blaha, Leslie M.; Smith, Ross; Vickery, Rhonda J.

    2013-12-01

    Advances in modeling and simulation for General Recognition Theory have produced more data than can be easily visualized using traditional techniques. In this area of psychological modeling, domain experts are struggling to find effective ways to compare large-scale simulation results. This paper describes methods that adapt the web-based D3 visualization framework combined with pre-processing tools to enable domain specialists to more easily interpret their data. The D3 framework utilizes Javascript and scalable vector graphics (SVG) to generate visualizations that can run readily within the web browser for domain specialists. Parallel coordinate plots and heat maps were developed for identification-confusion matrix data, and the results were shown to a GRT expert for an informal evaluation of their utility. There is a clear benefit to model interpretation from these visualizations when researchers need to interpret larger amounts of simulated data.

  20. A new method for fast circle detection in a complex background image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meijun; Yang, Jie; Sun, Yadong

    2011-11-01

    A new method for circle detection, Hough gradient clustering method, has been developed in this paper. By using gradient direction angle to find the diameter of a circle, the new method can rapidly detect the circle in a complex background. The crucial steps in this method are the feature extraction and the clustering of the points which have the same gray direction angle and are collinear along the gradient direction. The application of the two-to-one space mapping and 1-2Hough transform can further reduce the useless calculation in the process of circle detection. Comparing with the Hough gradient method in OpenCV, the newly developed method shows a higher efficiency of circle detection in a complex background image as well as a great improvement in the anti-noise ability.

  1. A scanning method for detecting clustering pattern of both attribute and structure in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tai-Chi; Phoa, Frederick Kin Hing

    2016-03-01

    Community/cluster is one of the most important features in social networks. Many cluster detection methods were proposed to identify such an important pattern, but few were able to identify the statistical significance of the clusters by considering the likelihood of network structure and its attributes. Based on the definition of clustering, we propose a scanning method, originated from analyzing spatial data, for identifying clusters in social networks. Since the properties of network data are more complicated than those of spatial data, we verify our method's feasibility via simulation studies. The results show that the detection powers are affected by cluster sizes and connection probabilities. According to our simulation results, the detection accuracy of structure clusters and both structure and attribute clusters detected by our proposed method is better than that of other methods in most of our simulation cases. In addition, we apply our proposed method to some empirical data to identify statistically significant clusters.

  2. A New Method Based on Two-Stage Detection Mechanism for Detecting Ships in High-Resolution SAR Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yongli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ship detection in synthetic aperture radar (SAR remote sensing images, being a fundamental but challenging problem in the field of satellite image analysis, plays an important role for a wide range of applications and is receiving significant attention in recent years. Aiming at the requirements of ship detection in high-resolution SAR images, the accuracy, the intelligent level, a better real-time operation and processing efficiency, The characteristics of ocean background and ship target in high-resolution SAR images were analyzed, we put forward a ship detection algorithm in high-resolution SAR images. The algorithm consists of two detection stages: The first step designs a pre-training classifier based on improved spectral residual visual model to obtain the visual salient regions containing ship targets quickly, then achieve the purpose of probably detection of ships. In the second stage, considering the Bayesian theory of binary hypothesis detection, a local maximum posterior probability (MAP classifier is designed for the classification of pixels. After the parameter estimation and judgment criterion, the classification of pixels are carried out in the target areas to achieve the classification of two types of pixels in the salient regions. In the paper, several types of satellite image data, such as TerraSAR-X (TS-X, Radarsat-2, are used to evaluate the performance of detection methods. Comparing with classical CFAR detection algorithms, experimental results show that the algorithm can achieve a better effect of suppressing false alarms, which caused by the speckle noise and ocean clutter background inhomogeneity. At the same time, the detection speed is increased by 25% to 45%.

  3. Computationally efficient QRS detection analysis based on dual-slope method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefin, M Riadh; Fazel-Rezai, Reza

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a computationally efficient QRS detection algorithm for wearable electrocardiogram (ECG) applications based on dual-slope analysis. In general, ECG signals of arrhythmias are pseudo-periodic and contaminated with noises like the patient's contraction muscles, respiration, 60 Hz interference and other types which impede correct QRS detection. To resolve this problem, in this paper, a technique is presented which is based on two slopes on both sides of a peak in ECG signal. Based on these slopes, a variable measuring steepness is developed and R peaks are detected. The algorithm was evaluated against MIT/BIH arrhythmia database and achieved 99.38% detection rate. This method was compared with one of the recently developed dual-slope based QRS detection methods. The results showed that the proposed method has 12.48 times faster runtime than the old method.

  4. Micro Surface Defect Detection Method for Silicon Steel Strip Based on Saliency Convex Active Contour Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kechen Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate detection of surface defect is an indispensable section in steel surface inspection system. In order to detect the micro surface defect of silicon steel strip, a new detection method based on saliency convex active contour model is proposed. In the proposed method, visual saliency extraction is employed to suppress the clutter background for the purpose of highlighting the potential objects. The extracted saliency map is then exploited as a feature, which is fused into a convex energy minimization function of local-based active contour. Meanwhile, a numerical minimization algorithm is introduced to separate the micro surface defects from cluttered background. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method presents good performance for detecting micro surface defects including spot-defect and steel-pit-defect. Even in the cluttered background, the proposed method detects almost all of the microdefects without any false objects.

  5. An Efficient Collision Detection Method for Computing Discrete Logarithms with Pollard's Rho

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Wang; Fangguo Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Pollard's rho method and its parallelized variant are at present known as the best generic algorithms for computing discrete logarithms. However, when we compute discrete logarithms in cyclic groups of large orders using Pollard's rho method, collision detection is always a high time and space consumer. In this paper, we present a new efficient collision detection algorithm for Pollard's rho method. The new algorithm is more efficient than the previous distinguished point me...

  6. A method to detect soil carbon degradation during soil erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Conen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion has been discussed intensively but controversial both as a significant source or a significant sink of atmospheric carbon possibly explaining the gap in the global carbon budget. One of the major points of discussion has been whether or not carbon is degraded and mineralized to CO2 during detachment, transport and deposition of soil material. By combining the caesium-137 (137Cs approach (quantification of erosion rates with stable carbon isotope signatures (process indicator of mixing versus degradation of carbon pools we were able to show that degradation of carbon occurs during soil erosion processes at the investigated mountain grasslands in the central Swiss Alps (Urseren Valley, Canton Uri. Transects from upland (erosion source to wetland soils (erosion sinks of sites affected by sheet and land slide erosion were sampled. Analysis of 137Cs yielded an input of 2 and 4.6 tha−1 yr−1 of soil material into the wetlands sites. Assuming no degradation of soil organic carbon during detachment and transport, carbon isotope signature of soil organic carbon in the wetlands could only be explained with an assumed 500–600 and 350–400 years of erosion input into the wetlands Laui and Spissen, respectively. The latter is highly unlikely with alpine peat growth rates indicating that the upper horizons might have an age between 7 and 200 years. While we do not conclude from our data that eroded soil organic carbon is generally degraded during detachment and transport, we propose this method to gain more information on process dynamics during soil erosion from oxic upland to anoxic wetland soils, sediments or water bodies.

  7. Determination of the relative level of detection of a Qualitative microbiological measurement method with respect to a reference measurement method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mărgăritescu, Irina; Wilrich, Peter-Th

    2013-01-01

    Performance of qualitative microbiological measurement methods where the results are either "O" (microorganism not detected) or "1" (microorganism detected) is described by their probability of detection (POD) function, i.e., the POD as a function of the level of contamination of the sample, expressed as CFU/g or CFU/mL, or by the level of detection (LODp), i.e., the contamination of the sample that is detected (measurement result "1") with a specified probability p. When it is impossible to obtain samples of known contamination, estimation of the POD and LOD is impossible. However, it may not be the LOD of the method that is of interest, but its LOD with respect to the LOD of a reference method. Hence, an intralaboratory experiment is performed with a reference method, R, and an alternative method, A, at different levels of unknown contamination. A complementary loglog model is used to statistically estimate the relative LOD (RLOD) of A with respect to R that is equal for all chosen values p of the POD. An intralaboratory experiment for the detection of Listeria monocytogenes in fish and eggs illustrates the method. In a simulation study, the bias of the estimate of the RLOD was investigated. This bias is due to the small number of repeated measurements in intralaboratory studies; the relative bias increases with increasing true values of the RLOD from 0 for true RLOD = 1 to about 20% for true RLOD = 3. If the number of CFUs in the test portions does not follow a Poisson distribution, but instead follows a negative binomial distribution, e.g., because of overdispersion, the bias of the estimate of the RLOD decreases. An EXCEL program RLOD_ver1. xlsm for this method of statistical analysis can be downloaded from http://www.wiwiss.fu-berlin.de/ instituteliso/mitarbeiterlwilrichlindex.html.

  8. An Emulsion Based Microarray Method to Detect the Toxin Genes of Toxin-Producing Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfei Bai

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxins produced by bacteria and fungi are one of the most important factors which may cause food contamination. The study of detection methods with high sensitivity and throughput is significant for the protection of food safety. In the present study, we coupled microarray with emulsion PCR and developed a high throughput detection method. Thirteen different gene sites which encode the common toxins of several bacteria and fungi were assayed in parallel in positive and maize samples. Conventional PCR assays were carried out for comparison. The results showed that the developed microarray method had high specificity and sensitivity. Two zearalenone-related genes were investigated in one of the ten maize samples obtained with this present method. The results indicated that the emulsion based microarray detection method was developed successfully and suggested its potential application in multiple gene site detection.

  9. In vitro performance of different methods in detecting occlusal caries lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, J; Zakian, C; Salsone, S; Pinto, S C S; Taylor, A; Pretty, I A; Ellwood, R

    2013-02-01

    Early caries detection is essential for the implementation of preventive, therapeutic and intervention strategies within general dental practice. The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro performance of the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS), digital photographs scored with ICDAS (ICDAS photographs), fibre-optic transillumination (FOTI), optical coherence tomography (OCT), SoproLife(®) camera and two implementations of quantitative light-induced fluorescence a commercial (QLF-Inspektor Research systems) and a custom (QLF-Custom) system, to detect early and intermediate occlusal lesions. One hundred and twelve permanent extracted teeth were selected and assessed with each detection method. Histological validation was used as a gold standard. The detection methods were compared by means of sensitivity, specificity, areas under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves for enamel and dentine levels and with the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient against histology. For any enamel or dentine caries detection, the AUROC curves ranged from 0.86 (OCT) to 0.98 (ICDAS and ICDAS photographs, SoproLife(®) camera) and at the dentine level from 0.83 (OCT) to 0.96 for FOTI. The correlations with histology ranged between 0.65 (OCT) and 0.88 (ICDAS and FOTI). Under in vitro conditions, the assessed detection methods showed excellent intra-examiner reproducibility. All the methods were strongly correlated with histology (pclinical practice for detection and assessment of lesion depth. Other methods may be useful in monitoring caries lesion behaviour. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A new method for the detection of a periodic signal of unknown shape and period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, P. C.; Loredo, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    A method was developed for the detection and measurement of a periodic signal with unknown characteristics in a data set where the existence of such signal was not known. The method detects a signal by using Bayesian probability theory to compare a constant model for the signal to members of a class of models with periodic structure. The method was applied to simulated data generated with both stepwise and sinusoidal light curves, demonstrating that such signals can be sensitively detected and the signal frequency and its shape can be accurately estimated.

  11. Data-driven fault detection for industrial processes canonical correlation analysis and projection based methods

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhiwen

    2017-01-01

    Zhiwen Chen aims to develop advanced fault detection (FD) methods for the monitoring of industrial processes. With the ever increasing demands on reliability and safety in industrial processes, fault detection has become an important issue. Although the model-based fault detection theory has been well studied in the past decades, its applications are limited to large-scale industrial processes because it is difficult to build accurate models. Furthermore, motivated by the limitations of existing data-driven FD methods, novel canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and projection-based methods are proposed from the perspectives of process input and output data, less engineering effort and wide application scope. For performance evaluation of FD methods, a new index is also developed. Contents A New Index for Performance Evaluation of FD Methods CCA-based FD Method for the Monitoring of Stationary Processes Projection-based FD Method for the Monitoring of Dynamic Processes Benchmark Study and Real-Time Implementat...

  12. Outlier detection methods for generalized lattices: a case study on the transition from ANOVA to REML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Vasquez, Angela-Maria; Utz, H-Friedrich; Piepho, Hans-Peter

    2016-04-01

    We review and propose several methods for identifying possible outliers and evaluate their properties. The methods are applied to a genomic prediction program in hybrid rye. Many plant breeders use ANOVA-based software for routine analysis of field trials. These programs may offer specific in-built options for residual analysis that are lacking in current REML software. With the advance of molecular technologies, there is a need to switch to REML-based approaches, but without losing the good features of outlier detection methods that have proven useful in the past. Our aims were to compare the variance component estimates between ANOVA and REML approaches, to scrutinize the outlier detection method of the ANOVA-based package PlabStat and to propose and evaluate alternative procedures for outlier detection. We compared the outputs produced using ANOVA and REML approaches of four published datasets of generalized lattice designs. Five outlier detection methods are explained step by step. Their performance was evaluated by measuring the true positive rate and the false positive rate in a dataset with artificial outliers simulated in several scenarios. An implementation of genomic prediction using an empirical rye multi-environment trial was used to assess the outlier detection methods with respect to the predictive abilities of a mixed model for each method. We provide a detailed explanation of how the PlabStat outlier detection methodology can be translated to REML-based software together with the evaluation of alternative methods to identify outliers. The method combining the Bonferroni-Holm test to judge each residual and the residual standardization strategy of PlabStat exhibited good ability to detect outliers in small and large datasets and under a genomic prediction application. We recommend the use of outlier detection methods as a decision support in the routine data analyses of plant breeding experiments.

  13. Real-time method for establishing a detection map for a network of sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D; Koch, Mark W; Giron, Casey; Rondeau, Daniel M; Russell, John L

    2012-09-11

    A method for establishing a detection map of a dynamically configurable sensor network. This method determines an appropriate set of locations for a plurality of sensor units of a sensor network and establishes a detection map for the network of sensors while the network is being set up; the detection map includes the effects of the local terrain and individual sensor performance. Sensor performance is characterized during the placement of the sensor units, which enables dynamic adjustment or reconfiguration of the placement of individual elements of the sensor network during network set-up to accommodate variations in local terrain and individual sensor performance. The reconfiguration of the network during initial set-up to accommodate deviations from idealized individual sensor detection zones improves the effectiveness of the sensor network in detecting activities at a detection perimeter and can provide the desired sensor coverage of an area while minimizing unintentional gaps in coverage.

  14. INCREMENTAL PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS BASED OUTLIER DETECTION METHODS FOR SPATIOTEMPORAL DATA STREAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bhushan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address outliers in spatiotemporal data streams obtained from sensors placed across geographically distributed locations. Outliers may appear in such sensor data due to various reasons such as instrumental error and environmental change. Real-time detection of these outliers is essential to prevent propagation of errors in subsequent analyses and results. Incremental Principal Component Analysis (IPCA is one possible approach for detecting outliers in such type of spatiotemporal data streams. IPCA has been widely used in many real-time applications such as credit card fraud detection, pattern recognition, and image analysis. However, the suitability of applying IPCA for outlier detection in spatiotemporal data streams is unknown and needs to be investigated. To fill this research gap, this paper contributes by presenting two new IPCA-based outlier detection methods and performing a comparative analysis with the existing IPCA-based outlier detection methods to assess their suitability for spatiotemporal sensor data streams.

  15. An intelligent detection method for high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Yu, Jianwen; Ruan, Zhiming; Chen, Chilai; Chen, Ran; Wang, Han; Liu, Youjiang; Wang, Xiaozhi; Li, Shan

    2017-01-01

    In conventional high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry signal acquisition, multi-cycle detection is time consuming and limits somewhat the technique's scope for rapid field detection. In this study, a novel intelligent detection approach has been developed in which a threshold was set on the relative error of α parameters, which can eliminate unnecessary time spent on detection. In this method, two full-spectrum scans were made in advance to obtain the estimated compensation voltage at different dispersion voltages, resulting in a narrowing down of the whole scan area to just the peak area(s) of interest. This intelligent detection method can reduce the detection time to 5-10% of that of the original full-spectrum scan in a single cycle.

  16. Robust fault detection of linear systems using a computationally efficient set-membership method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabaeipour, Mojtaba; Bak, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a computationally efficient set-membership method for robust fault detection of linear systems is proposed. The method computes an interval outer-approximation of the output of the system that is consistent with the model, the bounds on noise and disturbance, and the past measureme...... is trivially parallelizable. The method is demonstrated for fault detection of a hydraulic pitch actuator of a wind turbine. We show the effectiveness of the proposed method by comparing our results with two zonotope-based set-membership methods....

  17. Comparison of three methods for detection of herbal food supplement irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Hansen, Hanne; Boisen, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    A survey for irradiation of 106 herbal food supplements was carried out in Denmark in 2003. The results from three methods, two screening methods and a specific method, were compared: Direct epifluorescent filter technique/aerobic plate count (DEFT/APC), photostimulated luminescence (PSL...... was lacking in sensitivity, as not enough minerals could be isolated to get a signal over the minimum detection level. For such clean herbal food supplements no suitable method exists at all among the CEN standardised methods for irradiation detection....

  18. Molecular detection methods of resistance to antituberculosis drugs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossier, F; Sougakoff, W

    2017-09-01

    Molecular methods predict drug resistance several weeks before phenotypic methods and enable rapid implementation of appropriate therapeutic treatment. We aimed to detail the most representative molecular tools used in routine practice for the rapid detection of resistance to antituberculosis drugs among Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. The molecular diagnosis of resistance to antituberculosis drugs in clinical samples or from in vitro cultures is based on the detection of the most common mutations in the genes involved in the development of resistance in M. tuberculosis strains (encoding either protein targets of antibiotics, or antibiotic activating enzymes) by commercial molecular kits or by sequencing. Three hypotheses could explain the discrepancies between the genotypic results and the phenotypic drug susceptibility testing results: a low percentage of resistant mutants precluding the detection by genotypic methods on the primary culture; a low level of resistance not detected by phenotypic testing; and other resistance mechanisms not yet characterized. Molecular methods have varying sensitivity with regards to detecting antituberculosis drug resistance; that is why phenotypic susceptibility testing methods are mandatory for detecting antituberculosis drug-resistant isolates that have not been detected by molecular methods. The questionable ability of existing phenotypic and genotypic drug susceptibility testing to properly classify strains as susceptible or resistant, and at what level of resistance, was raised for several antituberculosis agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Pornographic information of Internet views detection method based on the connected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huibai; Fan, Ajie

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays online porn video broadcasting and downloading is very popular. In view of the widespread phenomenon of Internet pornography, this paper proposed a new method of pornographic video detection based on connected areas. Firstly, decode the video into a serious of static images and detect skin color on the extracted key frames. If the area of skin color reaches a certain threshold, use the AdaBoost algorithm to detect the human face. Judge the connectivity of the human face and the large area of skin color to determine whether detect the sensitive area finally. The experimental results show that the method can effectively remove the non-pornographic videos contain human who wear less. This method can improve the efficiency and reduce the workload of detection.

  20. Sleep Spindles as an Electrographic Element: Description and Automatic Detection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothée Coppieters ’t Wallant

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep spindle is a peculiar oscillatory brain pattern which has been associated with a number of sleep (isolation from exteroceptive stimuli, memory consolidation and individual characteristics (intellectual quotient. Oddly enough, the definition of a spindle is both incomplete and restrictive. In consequence, there is no consensus about how to detect spindles. Visual scoring is cumbersome and user dependent. To analyze spindle activity in a more robust way, automatic sleep spindle detection methods are essential. Various algorithms were developed, depending on individual research interest, which hampers direct comparisons and meta-analyses. In this review, sleep spindle is first defined physically and topographically. From this general description, we tentatively extract the main characteristics to be detected and analyzed. A nonexhaustive list of automatic spindle detection methods is provided along with a description of their main processing principles. Finally, we propose a technique to assess the detection methods in a robust and comparable way.

  1. Detection Method of Skin Region by Near-IR Spectrum Multi-Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kato, Kunihito; Andoh, Michinori; Kojima, Shinichi

    Many active safety technologies for the driver support system are developing. Most of the traffic accidents are caused by driver's inattentive or drowsy. We are developing a driver support system that protects from traffic accidents by these causes. Our purpose is to detect the driver's face region by using a camera. A lot of face detection methods are proposed, but there is not a technique addressing every environment inside the car. For example, skin color segmentation can not detect the skin region in the night, because it has to light up the driver by bright light. In this paper, we propose a skin detection method by the unique reflection characteristics of the materials. Our method is very simple algorithm. We developed a skin detection system, and confirmed effectiveness by the evaluation experiment in indoor environment, and showed the effectiveness by a driving experiment in the night.

  2. Weak scratch detection and defect classification methods for a large-aperture optical element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xian; Xu, De; Zhang, Zheng-Tao; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Xi-Long; Zhang, Da-Peng

    2017-03-01

    Surface defects on optics cause optic failure and heavy loss to the optical system. Therefore, surface defects on optics must be carefully inspected. This paper proposes a coarse-to-fine detection strategy of weak scratches in complicated dark-field images. First, all possible scratches are detected based on bionic vision. Then, each possible scratch is precisely positioned and connected to a complete scratch by the LSD and a priori knowledge. Finally, multiple scratches with various types can be detected in dark-field images. To classify defects and pollutants, a classification method based on GIST features is proposed. This paper uses many real dark-field images as experimental images. The results show that this method can detect multiple types of weak scratches in complex images and that the defects can be correctly distinguished with interference. This method satisfies the real-time and accurate detection requirements of surface defects.

  3. Comparison of detection methods for Toxoplasma gondii in naturally and experimentally infected swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Dolores E; Chirukandoth, Sreekumar; Dubey, J P; Lunney, Joan K; Gamble, H Ray

    2006-10-10

    Results from recent serological surveys and epidemiological studies show that pigs raised in a variety of management systems can be carriers of the tissue cyst stage of Toxoplasma gondi. This parasite can be transmitted to humans through the consumption of improperly prepared pork, making detection and removal of infected swine carcasses from the food chain an important food safety issue. Several methods are available for detection of T. gondii infected swine, including serological assays, polymerase chain reaction, and animal bioassays. The aim of the present study was to compare the detection sensitivities of six of these commonly used methods for detection of T. gondii infection in tissues from naturally and experimentally infected pigs. The results indicate that a serum-based ELISA is the most sensitive method, of those tested, for detection of T. gondii infected swine.

  4. DETECTING NETWORK ATTACKS IN COMPUTER NETWORKS BY USING DATA MINING METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    Platonov, V. V.; Semenov, P. O.

    2016-01-01

    The article describes an approach to the development of an intrusion detection system for computer networks. It is shown that the usage of several data mining methods and tools can improve the efficiency of protection computer networks against network at-tacks due to the combination of the benefits of signature detection and anomalies detection and the opportunity of adaptation the sys-tem for hardware and software structure of the computer network.

  5. Methods to Estimate the Variance of Some Indices of the Signal Detection Theory: A Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suero, Manuel; Privado, Jesús; Botella, Juan

    2017-01-01

    A simulation study is presented to evaluate and compare three methods to estimate the variance of the estimates of the parameters d and "C" of the signal detection theory (SDT). Several methods have been proposed to calculate the variance of their estimators, "d'" and "c." Those methods have been mostly assessed by…

  6. Using Order Tracking Analysis Method to Detect the Angle Faults of Blades on Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Pengfei; Hu, Weihao; Liu, Juncheng

    2016-01-01

    has many advantages, such as easy implementation and high system reliability. Because of using Power Spectral Density method (PSD) or Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method cannot get clear fault characteristic frequencies, this kind of faults should be detected by an effective method. This paper...

  7. Methods and apparatus using commutative error detection values for fault isolation in multiple node computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasi, Gheorghe [Ardsley, NY; Blumrich, Matthias Augustin [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton-On-Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul [Yorktown, NY; Gara, Alan [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Hoenicke, Dirk I [Ossining, NY; Singh, Sarabjeet [Mississauga, CA; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D [Wernau, DE; Takken, Todd [Brewster, NY; Vranas, Pavlos [Bedford Hills, NY

    2008-06-03

    Methods and apparatus perform fault isolation in multiple node computing systems using commutative error detection values for--example, checksums--to identify and to isolate faulty nodes. When information associated with a reproducible portion of a computer program is injected into a network by a node, a commutative error detection value is calculated. At intervals, node fault detection apparatus associated with the multiple node computer system retrieve commutative error detection values associated with the node and stores them in memory. When the computer program is executed again by the multiple node computer system, new commutative error detection values are created and stored in memory. The node fault detection apparatus identifies faulty nodes by comparing commutative error detection values associated with reproducible portions of the application program generated by a particular node from different runs of the application program. Differences in values indicate a possible faulty node.

  8. Two independent label-free detection methods in one electrochemical DNA sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosar, Juan Pablo; Keel, Karen; Laíz, Justo

    2009-06-15

    Two direct reagent-free detection methods were tested with Au/polypyrrole/oligonucleotide modified electrodes. Detection by monitoring guanine oxidation was realized amperometrically using an experimental setup which does not require any expensive electrochemical equipment and is therefore suitable for in situ detection. Target detection was also realized by monitoring the decrease in the amplitude of polypyrrole oxidation and reduction peaks in cyclic voltammetry experiments after incubation or injection of target into the electrochemical cell. Detection of 53 pM target within a 2000x excess of non-complementary sequences was possible. The possibility of a dual detection scheme in the same biosensor, with both detection schemes being totally independent from one another is very promising for genosensor design since it would result in a significant decrease in the number of false positive and false negative samples.

  9. Pairing field methods to improve inference in wildlife surveys while accommodating detection covariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, John; McKinney, Shawn T.; DePue, John E.; Loftin, Cynthia S.

    2017-01-01

    It is common to use multiple field sampling methods when implementing wildlife surveys to compare method efficacy or cost efficiency, integrate distinct pieces of information provided by separate methods, or evaluate method-specific biases and misclassification error. Existing models that combine information from multiple field methods or sampling devices permit rigorous comparison of method-specific detection parameters, enable estimation of additional parameters such as false-positive detection probability, and improve occurrence or abundance estimates, but with the assumption that the separate sampling methods produce detections independently of one another. This assumption is tenuous if methods are paired or deployed in close proximity simultaneously, a common practice that reduces the additional effort required to implement multiple methods and reduces the risk that differences between method-specific detection parameters are confounded by other environmental factors. We develop occupancy and spatial capture–recapture models that permit covariance between the detections produced by different methods, use simulation to compare estimator performance of the new models to models assuming independence, and provide an empirical application based on American marten (Martes americana) surveys using paired remote cameras, hair catches, and snow tracking. Simulation results indicate existing models that assume that methods independently detect organisms produce biased parameter estimates and substantially understate estimate uncertainty when this assumption is violated, while our reformulated models are robust to either methodological independence or covariance. Empirical results suggested that remote cameras and snow tracking had comparable probability of detecting present martens, but that snow tracking also produced false-positive marten detections that could potentially substantially bias distribution estimates if not corrected for. Remote cameras detected marten

  10. Using parallel computing methods to improve log surface defect detection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Edward Thomas; Liya. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Determining the size and location of surface defects is crucial to evaluating the potential yield and value of hardwood logs. Recently a surface defect detection algorithm was developed using the Java language. This algorithm was developed around an earlier laser scanning system that had poor resolution along the length of the log (15 scan lines per foot). A newer...

  11. [Effect of modified crushing-cercariae escaping method on detection of infected Oncomelania snails in field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liang-Cai; Wang, Jia-Song; Li, Hua-Zhong; Rong, Xian-Bing; Yuan, Mei-Zhi; Peng, Xiao-Wu; Zhu, Shao-Liang; Wang, Lu; He, Zheng-Wen; Yang, Zhi-Qiang; Hong, Min; Su, Wen; Li, Jun

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of a modified crushing-cercariae escaping method on the detection of infected Oncomelania snails in the field. A snail survey was carried out in Jingzhou City in the spring of 2011, and the villages were randomly divided into several groups, the coincidence rates, detection rates and the labour cost of the modified crushing-cercariae escaping method and crushing method were compared. A total of 14 snail spots were surveyed, and the coincidence rate of the two methods was 100%. In the spring snail survey, 539 villages and 3 536 spots with snails were detected by the modified crushing-cercariae escaping method, and 671 villages and 11 375 spots with snails were detected by the crushing method. The detection rates of villages with infected snails of the two methods were 25.79% and 28.46%, respectively, the difference between them was not statistically significant (chi2 = 1.079 5, P > 0.05); and those of spots with infected snails were 5.57% and 3.66%, respectively, which had no significant difference between them (chi2 = 95.464 1, P snails quickly and accurately with less labour cost, therefore, it is suitable for detecting environments with infected snails in batch in endemic areas.

  12. Monoclonal antibodies to synthetic pyrethroids and method for detecting the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanker, Larry H.; Vanderlaan, Martin; Watkins, Bruce E.; Van Emon, Jeanette M.; Bigbee, Carolyn L.

    1992-01-01

    Methods are described for making specific monoclonal antibodies which may be used in a sensitive immunoassay for detection of synthetic pyrethroids in foods and environmental samples. Appropriate sample preparation and enzyme amplification of the immunoassay for this widely-used class of pesticides permits detection at low levels in laboratory and field tested samples.

  13. Method and instrumentation for detection of rail defects, in particular rail top defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Z.; Molodova, M.

    2011-01-01

    A method and instrumentation for detection of rail defects, in particular rail top defects, in a railway-track by measuring an axle box acceleration signal of a rail vehicle, wherein a longitudinal axle box acceleration signal is used as a measure to detect the occurrence of said rail defects, in

  14. The first demonstration of laser computed tomography achieved by Coherent Detection Imaging method for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toida, Masahiro; Ichimura, Tsutomu (Research Development Corp. of Japan (JRDC), Sendai (Japan). Inaba Biophoton Project); Inaba, Humio

    1991-06-01

    The first successful imaging by laser absorption computed tomography of in vitro specimens has been achieved by means of the Coherent Detection Imaging (CDI) method realized with the optical heterodyne detection technique and image reconstruction from back projection of the data obtained via optical absorption measurements in a parallel beam geometry. (author).

  15. Nucleotide sequences specific to Brucella and methods for the detection of Brucella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCready, Paula M [Tracy, CA; Radnedge, Lyndsay [San Mateo, CA; Andersen, Gary L [Berkeley, CA; Ott, Linda L [Livermore, CA; Slezak, Thomas R [Livermore, CA; Kuczmarski, Thomas A [Livermore, CA

    2009-02-24

    Nucleotide sequences specific to Brucella that serves as a marker or signature for identification of this bacterium were identified. In addition, forward and reverse primers and hybridization probes derived from these nucleotide sequences that are used in nucleotide detection methods to detect the presence of the bacterium are disclosed.

  16. Methods of Run-Time Error Detection in Distributed Process Control Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drejer, N.

    In this thesis, methods of run-time error detection in application software for distributed process control is designed. The error detection is based upon a monitoring approach in which application software is monitored by system software during the entire execution. The thesis includes definition...

  17. A proposed method of infra-red detection based on thermal conversion of radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, C.T.J.

    1954-01-01

    A new method of i.r. detection is proposed, based on the change in Planck radiation of a black strip when it is heated by the radiation to be measured. The application of a photo-conductive cell is proposed for the detection of the Planck radiation which occurs in the near i.r. region at

  18. A method for unsupervised change detection and automatic radiometric normalization in multispectral data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Canty, Morton John

    2011-01-01

    Based on canonical correlation analysis the iteratively re-weighted multivariate alteration detection (MAD) method is used to successfully perform unsupervised change detection in bi-temporal Landsat ETM+ images covering an area with villages, woods, agricultural fields and open pit mines in Nort...... to carry out the analyses is available from the authors' websites....

  19. 78 FR 16513 - Application of Advances in Nucleic Acid and Protein Based Detection Methods to Multiplex...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... Detection Methods to Multiplex Detection of Transfusion-Transmissible Agents and Blood Cell Antigens in... the following topics: (1) Blood safety and infectious agents, (2) advances in blood-borne pathogen... include presentations and discussion on the following topics: (1) Highly multiplexed technologies in blood...

  20. Digital mammography: computer-assisted diagnosis method for mass detection with multiorientation and multiresolution wavelet transforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Qian, W; Clarke, L P

    1997-11-01

    The authors evaluated a modular computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) method for mass detection that uses computation of features in three domains (gray level, morphology, and directional texture). Their objectives were to improve the sensitivity of detection and reduce the false-positive (FP) detection rate. The directional wavelet transform (DWT) method, which uses both multiorientation and multiresolution wavelet transforms to improve image preprocessing and segmentation of suspicious areas and to extract both morphologic and directional texture features, was evaluated with a previously reported image database containing 50 normal and 45 abnormal digitized screen-film mammograms. The mammograms contained all mass types and included 16 minimal cancers. This method was compared with the Markov random field (MRF) method to avoid issues related to case selection criteria. Free-response receiver operating characteristic curves were compared for both DWT and MRF methods. For the DWT method, the sensitivity was 98% and the FP detection rate was 1.8 FP findings per image. For the MRF method, the sensitivity was 90% and the FP detection rate was 2.0 FP findings per image. The CAD method applied to the full mammographic image is automatic and independent of mass type. The segmentation of masses as performed with this method may potentially allow visual interpretation according to American College of Radiology criteria.

  1. A DDoS Attack Detection Method Based on Hybrid Heterogeneous Multiclassifier Ensemble Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Jia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The explosive growth of network traffic and its multitype on Internet have brought new and severe challenges to DDoS attack detection. To get the higher True Negative Rate (TNR, accuracy, and precision and to guarantee the robustness, stability, and universality of detection system, in this paper, we propose a DDoS attack detection method based on hybrid heterogeneous multiclassifier ensemble learning and design a heuristic detection algorithm based on Singular Value Decomposition (SVD to construct our detection system. Experimental results show that our detection method is excellent in TNR, accuracy, and precision. Therefore, our algorithm has good detective performance for DDoS attack. Through the comparisons with Random Forest, k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN, and Bagging comprising the component classifiers when the three algorithms are used alone by SVD and by un-SVD, it is shown that our model is superior to the state-of-the-art attack detection techniques in system generalization ability, detection stability, and overall detection performance.

  2. Validation of New Signal Detection Methods for Web Query Log Data Compared to Signal Detection Algorithms Used With FAERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colilla, Susan; Tov, Elad Yom; Zhang, Ling; Kurzinger, Marie-Laure; Tcherny-Lessenot, Stephanie; Penfornis, Catherine; Jen, Shang; Gonzalez, Danny S; Caubel, Patrick; Welsh, Susan; Juhaeri, Juhaeri

    2017-05-01

    Post-marketing drug surveillance is largely based on signals found in spontaneous reports from patients and healthcare providers. Rare adverse drug reactions and adverse events (AEs) that may develop after long-term exposure to a drug or from drug interactions may be missed. The US FDA and others have proposed that web-based data could be mined as a resource to detect latent signals associated with adverse drug reactions. Recently, a web-based search query method called a query log reaction score (QLRS) was developed to detect whether AEs associated with certain drugs could be found from search engine query data. In this study, we compare the performance of two other algorithms, the proportional query ratio (PQR) and the proportional query rate ratio (Q-PRR) against that of two reference signal-detection algorithms (SDAs) commonly used with the FDA AE Reporting System (FAERS) database. In summary, the web query methods have moderate sensitivity (80%) in detecting signals in web query data compared with reference SDAs in FAERS when the web query data are filtered, but the query metrics generate many false-positives and have low specificity compared with reference SDAs in FAERS. Future research is needed to find better refinements of query data and/or the metrics to improve the specificity of these web query log algorithms.

  3. Round-robin comparison of methods for the detection of human enteric viruses in lettuce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guyader, Francoise S.; Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Haugarreau, Larissa

    2004-01-01

    Five methods that detect human enteric virus contamination in lettuce were compared. To mimic multiple contaminations as observed after sewage contamination, artificial contamination was with human calicivirus and poliovirus and animal calicivirus strains at different concentrations. Nucleic acid...

  4. Limitations and Strengths of the Fourier Transform Method to Detect Accelerating Targets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thayaparan, Thayananthan

    2000-01-01

    .... In using a Pulse Doppler Radar to detect a non-accelerating target in additive white Gaussian noise and to estimate its radial velocity, the Fourier method provides an output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR...

  5. The Close Objects Buffer : A Sharp Shadow Detection Technique for Radiosity Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, A.C.; Overveld, C.W.A.M. van

    1998-01-01

    Detecting sharp illumination variations such as shadow boundaries is an important problem for radiosity methods. Such illumination variations are captured using a nonuniform mesh that refines the areas exhibiting high illumination gradients. Nonuniform meshing techniques like discontinuity meshing

  6. Application of a Subspace-Based Fault Detection Method to Industrial Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevel, L.; Hermans, L.; van der Auweraer, H.

    1999-11-01

    Early detection and localization of damage allow increased expectations of reliability, safety and reduction of the maintenance cost. This paper deals with the industrial validation of a technique to monitor the health of a structure in operating conditions (e.g. rotating machinery, civil constructions subject to ambient excitations, etc.) and to detect slight deviations in a modal model derived from in-operation measured data. In this paper, a statistical local approach based on covariance-driven stochastic subspace identification is proposed. The capabilities and limitations of the method with respect to health monitoring and damage detection are discussed and it is explained how the method can be practically used in industrial environments. After the successful validation of the proposed method on a few laboratory structures, its application to a sports car is discussed. The example illustrates that the method allows the early detection of a vibration-induced fatigue problem of a sports car.

  7. An Evaluation of liquid metal leak detection methods for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, C.J.; Doctor, S.R.

    1977-12-01

    This report documents an independent review and evaluation of sodium leak detection methods described in the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. Only information in publicly available documents was used in making the assessments.

  8. First screening method for the simultaneous detection of seven allergens by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heick, J; Fischer, M; Pöpping, B

    2011-02-18

    The development of a multi-method for the detection of seven allergens based on liquid chromatography and triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction mode is described. It is based on extraction of the allergenic proteins from a food matrix, followed by enzymatic digestion with trypsin. The chosen marker peptides were implemented into one method that is capable of the simultaneous detection of milk, egg, soy, hazelnut, peanut, walnut and almond. This method has been used to detect all seven allergenic commodities from incurred reference bread material, which was baked according to a standard recipe from the baking industry. Detected concentrations ranged from 10 to 1000 μg/g, demonstrating that the mass spectrometric based method is a useful tool for allergen screening. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Commercially Available Rapid Methods for Detection of Selected Food-borne Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, Wladir B; Dudley, Edward G; Doores, Stephanie; Cutter, Catherine N

    2016-07-03

    Generally, the enumeration and isolation of food-borne pathogens is performed using culture-dependent methods. These methods are sensitive, inexpensive, and provide both qualitative and quantitative assessment of the microorganisms present in a sample, but these are time-consuming. For this reason, researchers are developing new techniques that allow detection of food pathogens in shorter period of time. This review identifies commercially available methods for rapid detection and quantification of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in food samples. Three categories are discussed: immunologically based methods, nucleic acid-based assays, and biosensors. This review describes the basic mechanism and capabilities of each method, discusses the difficulties of choosing the most convenient method, and provides an overview of the future challenges for the technology for rapid detection of microorganisms.

  10. The multiple outliers detection using agglomerative hierarchical methods in circular regression model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanariah Satari, Siti; Di, Nur Faraidah Muhammad; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah

    2017-09-01

    Two agglomerative hierarchical clustering algorithms for identifying multiple outliers in circular regression model have been developed in this study. The agglomerative hierarchical clustering algorithm starts with every single data in a single cluster and it continues to merge with the closest pair of clusters according to some similarity criterion until all the data are grouped in one cluster. The single-linkage method is one of the simplest agglomerative hierarchical methods that is commonly used to detect outlier. In this study, we compared the performance of single-linkage method with another agglomerative hierarchical method, namely average linkage for detecting outlier in circular regression model. The performances of both methods were examined via simulation studies by measuring their “success” probability, masking effect, and swamping effect with different number of sample sizes and level of contaminations. The results show that the single-linkage method performs very well in detecting the multiple outliers with lower masking and swamping effects.

  11. Detection methods for cereal grains treated with low and high energy electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutrubinis, Mihalis; Delincee, Henry E-mail: henry.delincee@bfe.uni-karlsruhe.de; Stahl, Mario; Roeder, Olaf; Schaller, H.J

    2005-04-01

    Cereal grains can be treated with low energy (<300 keV) or high energy (1-10 MeV) electrons for decontamination of phytopathogenic and spoilage organisms. In this preliminary study, wheat and barley samples were treated with low energy electrons of 145 keV or high energy electrons of 10 MeV. To identify the electron treatment, different detection methods have been investigated: (1) photostimulated luminescence (PSL), (2) thermoluminescence (TL), (3) electron spin resonance (ESR) and (4) DNA Comet Assay. These four methods are already standardised at a European level and are now adopted as general Codex methods for detection of irradiated foodstuffs. The results suggest that the most suitable detection methods for electron-treated grains are the PSL and TL methods. The results from the other two methods (ESR and Comet Assay) are not so promising because they seem only to be applicable in special cases.

  12. Breast cancer detection using combined curvelet based enhancement and a novel segmentation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, Balasubramaniam; Umamaheswari, Govindaswamy

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes the digital implementation of a mathematical transform namely 2D Fast Discrete Curvelet Transform (FDCT) via UnequiSpaced Fast Fourier Transform (USFFT) in combination with the novel segmentation method for effective detection of breast cancer. USFFT performs exact reconstructions with high image clarity. Radon, ridgelet and Cartesian filters are included in this method. Mean Square Error (MSE) and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) were calculated for the image and the resulting value showed that the proposed method performs well on mammogram image in reducing noise with good extraction of edges. This work includes a novel segmentation method, which combines Modified Local Range Modification (MLRM) and Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) edge detection method to segment the textured features in the mammogram image. The result was analyzed using a Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) plot and the detection accuracy found was 99% which is good compared to existing methods.

  13. Structural damage detection by a new iterative regularization method and an improved sensitivity function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entezami, Alireza; Shariatmadar, Hashem; Sarmadi, Hassan

    2017-07-01

    A new sensitivity-based damage detection method is proposed to identify and estimate the location and severity of structural damage using incomplete noisy modal data. For these purposes, an improved sensitivity function of modal strain energy (MSE) based on Lagrange optimization problem is derived to adapt the initial sensitivity formulation of MSE to damage detection problem with the aid of new mathematical approaches. In the presence of incomplete noisy modal data, the sensitivity matrix is sparse, rectangular, and ill-conditioned, which leads to an ill-posed damage equation. To overcome this issue, a new regularization method named as Regularized Least Squares Minimal Residual (RLSMR) is proposed to solve the ill-posed damage equation. This method relies on Krylov subspace and exploits bidiagonalization and iterative algorithms to solve linear mathematical systems. For the majority of Krylov subspace methods, conventional direct methods for the determination of an optimal regularization parameter may not be proper. To cope with this limitation, a hybrid technique is introduced that depends on the residual of RLSMR method, the number of iterations, and the bidiagonalization algorithm. The accuracy and performance of the improved and proposed methods are numerically examined by a planner truss by incorporating incomplete noisy modal parameters and finite element modeling errors. A comparative study on the initial and improved sensitivity functions is conduced to investigate damage detectability of these sensitivity formulations. Furthermore, the accuracy and robustness of RLSMR method in detecting damage are compared with the well-known Tikhonov regularization method. Results show that the improved sensitivity of MSE is an efficient tool for using in the damage detection problem due to a high sensitivity to damage and reliable damage detectability in comparison with the initial sensitivity function. Additionally, it is observed that the RLSMR method with the aid

  14. Method for detecting and diagnosing disease caused by pathological protein aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, F.J.

    1994-12-31

    A method is provided for detecting pathological macromolecules in a patient, comprising obtaining body fluid from the patient, pretreating the body fluid, subjecting the pretreated body fluid to size-exclusion chromatography to create an excluded fluid, and analyzing the excluded fluid to detect macromolecules having a predetermined molecular weight. The method also allows for comparing elution spectra with reference spectra of suspect pathologic proteins.

  15. A highly sensitive method for the detection of Chrysanthemum virus B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Guan

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: A highly specific and sensitive nested PCR-based assay has been described for detecting CVB. This new method is highly specific and sensitive for the detection of CVB, which is known to infect chrysanthemum plants in the fields. Further, this protocol has an advantage over traditional methods as it is more cost-effective. This assay is ideal for an early stage diagnosis of the disease.

  16. An Android Malicious Code Detection Method Based on Improved DCA Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Chundong Wang; Zhiyuan Li; Liangyi Gong; Xiuliang Mo; Hong Yang; Yi Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Recently, Android malicious code has increased dramatically and the technology of reinforcement is increasingly powerful. Due to the development of code obfuscation and polymorphic deformation technology, the current Android malicious code static detection method whose feature selected is the semantic of application source code can not completely extract malware’s code features. The Android malware static detection methods whose features used are only obtained from the AndroidManifest.xml fil...

  17. Comparison of variations detection between whole-genome amplification methods used in single-cell resequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Yong; Wu, Kui; Shi, Xulian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Single-cell resequencing (SCRS) provides many biomedical advances in variations detection at the single-cell level, but it currently relies on whole genome amplification (WGA). Three methods are commonly used for WGA: multiple displacement amplification (MDA), degenerate-oligonucleoti......BACKGROUND: Single-cell resequencing (SCRS) provides many biomedical advances in variations detection at the single-cell level, but it currently relies on whole genome amplification (WGA). Three methods are commonly used for WGA: multiple displacement amplification (MDA), degenerate...

  18. Analytical notes - Electrochemical method for early detection and monitoring of coliforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, J. R.; Boykin, E. H.

    1976-01-01

    An electrochemical method for detecting bacteria, based on a linear relationship between inoculum size and the time of hydrogen evolution, was tested for the early detection and monitoring of coliforms in naturally contaminated estuarine and fresh water samples. Standard methods for coliform analysis were performed on each sample, and membrane filtration counts were used to construct dose-response curves; relationships and results are discussed herein.

  19. A robust fault detection method of rolling bearings using modulation signal bispectrum analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Xiange; Gu, Fengshou; Rehab, Ibrahim; Abdalla, Gaballa; Ball, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Envelope analysis is a widely used method for bearing fault detection. To obtain high detection accuracy, it is critical to select an optimal narrowband for envelope demodulation. Fast Kurtogram is an effective method for optimal narrowband selection. However, fast Kurtogram is not sufficiently robust because it is very sensitive to random noise and large aperiodic impulses which normally exist in practical application. To achieve the purpose of denoising and frequency band optimization, this...

  20. Analyte-induced photoreduction method for visual and colorimetric detection of tyrosine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satheeshkumar, Elumalai; Yang, Jyisy, E-mail: jyisy@dragon.nchu.edu.tw

    2015-06-16

    Highlights: • New detection scheme for detection of tyrosine is developed. • Photoactivity of tyrosine is used to form color nanoparticles selectively. • Detection step is simple and effective allowing rapid screening. • Highly sensitive and selective in detection of tyrosine. - Abstract: A new method based on photochemical formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was developed for detection of tyrosine (Tyr). To selectively detect Tyr and to simplify the detection procedure, the photoactivity of Tyr was utilized to trigger the photochemical reduction in production of AgNPs. The drastic change of solution color caused by the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption band of the formed AgNPs was used to extract the quantitative information of Tyr. This developed method is simple in detection, while both the sensitivity and selectivity are significant improved. Meanwhile, the solution color was changed from colorless to dark yellow after the formation of AgNPs, which allows a much higher sensitivity in visual identification when compared with the SPR band shifting technique commonly, used in conventional colorimetric methods. To optimize the detection system and to understand the mechanism in this proposed method, parameters such as irradiation time, intensity of light source, and the concentration of Tyr were systematically examined. Results indicated that these factors mainly affected the reaction rate of photoreduction. The morphologies of the formed AgNPs were similar, but with small differences in particle sizes. In the examination of selectivity, sixteen other amino acids were examined. Results indicated that only amino acids of tryptophan, cysteine and histidine are photoactive and possess potential interferences in analysis of Tyr. Quantitative studies indicated that a linear response up to 10 μM with a detection limit of 100 nM could be obtained. For visually detection, color change could be observed with a concentration as low as 500 nM of Tyr.

  1. Novel Fingertip Image-Based Heart Rate Detection Methods for a Smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifat Zaman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesize that our fingertip image-based heart rate detection methods using smartphone reliably detect the heart rhythm and rate of subjects. We propose fingertip curve line movement-based and fingertip image intensity-based detection methods, which both use the movement of successive fingertip images obtained from smartphone cameras. To investigate the performance of the proposed methods, heart rhythm and rate of the proposed methods are compared to those of the conventional method, which is based on average image pixel intensity. Using a smartphone, we collected 120 s pulsatile time series data from each recruited subject. The results show that the proposed fingertip curve line movement-based method detects heart rate with a maximum deviation of 0.0832 Hz and 0.124 Hz using time- and frequency-domain based estimation, respectively, compared to the conventional method. Moreover, another proposed fingertip image intensity-based method detects heart rate with a maximum deviation of 0.125 Hz and 0.03 Hz using time- and frequency-based estimation, respectively.

  2. Accuracy and sensitivity of commercial PCR-based methods for detection of Salmonella enterica in feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyuncu, Sevinc; Andersson, M Gunnar; Häggblom, Per

    2010-05-01

    The present study compared the performance of commercial PCR-based Salmonella enterica detection methods (BAX System Q7, the iQ-Check Salmonella II kit, and the TaqMan Salmonella enterica detection kit) with culture-based methods (modified semisolid Rappaport-Vassiliadis [MSRV] and NMKL71) in spiked and naturally contaminated samples of feed mill scrapings (FMS), palm kernel meal (PKM), pelleted feed (PF), rape seed meal (RSM), soybean meal (SM), and wheat grain (WG). When results from the various feeds were compared, the number of Salmonella enterica CFU/25 g required to produce a positive were as follows: PKM > FMS = WG > RSM = SM = PF. These data are similar to those developed in earlier studies with culture-based Salmonella detection methods. PCR-based methods were performed similarly to culture-based methods, with respect to sensitivity and specificity. However, many PCR positives could not be confirmed by Salmonella isolation and for that reason the evaluated methods were found to be suitable only when rapid results were paramount. Nevertheless, PCR-based methods cannot presently replace culture-based methods when typing information is required for tracing studies or epidemiological investigations. The observed difference in detection levels is a potential problem when prevalence data are compared as well as when feed ingredients are tested for conformance with microbiological criteria. This paper also presents a statistical model that describes the detection probability when different levels (CFU) of Salmonella contamination are present in feed materials.

  3. Method of analyzing multiple sample simultaneously by detecting absorption and systems for use in such a method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Edward S.; Gong, Xiaoyi

    2004-09-07

    The present invention provides a method of analyzing multiple samples simultaneously by absorption detection. The method comprises: (i) providing a planar array of multiple containers, each of which contains a sample comprising at least one absorbing species, (ii) irradiating the planar array of multiple containers with a light source and (iii) detecting absorption of light with a detetion means that is in line with the light source at a distance of at leaat about 10 times a cross-sectional distance of a container in the planar array of multiple containers. The absorption of light by a sample indicates the presence of an absorbing species in it. The method can further comprise: (iv) measuring the amount of absorption of light detected in (iii) indicating the amount of the absorbing species in the sample. Also provided by the present invention is a system for use in the abov metho.The system comprises; (i) a light source comrnpising or consisting essentially of at leaat one wavelength of light, the absorption of which is to be detected, (ii) a planar array of multiple containers, and (iii) a detection means that is in line with the light source and is positioned in line with and parallel to the planar array of multiple contiainers at a distance of at least about 10 times a cross-sectional distance of a container.

  4. Assessment of three rapid methods for the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Maria João; Soares, Carlos; Mendes, Ana Constança; Guimarães, Maria Luís; Cabeda, José Manuel; Amorim, José Manuel

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated three rapid methods to detect methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and compared them with PCR amplification of mecA. A total of 103 S. aureus strains were studied by MRSA-Screen, BBL Crystal, Velogene Genomic and mecA PCR. All the methods detected the 61 MRSA strains having the mecA gene, showing 100% sensitivity and specificity. Despite the correlation between all the rapid methods and PCR, the ease of use and shorter turnaround time of MRSA-Screen were important factors leading to the selection of this method as the routine screening technique for MRSA.

  5. A method to detect heart rate based on electrical bio-impedance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Kun-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a basic health indicator, heart rate has been widely used in clinical measurement and daily health care. Electrical bio-impedance (EBI measurement provides non-invasive method for heart rate detection. Therefore, this paper proposed a method to detect heart rate based on EBI. With the BIOPAC EBI module, the signal can be de-noised in real-time. Finally, the de-noised EBI signal is used to compute heart rate. Four electrodes are located at radial artery of left upper limb in this method. The result proves that this method has high accuracy on heart rate measurement.

  6. Biomedical journals lack a consistent method to detect outcome reporting bias: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, L N; Tejani, A M; Egan, G

    2014-10-01

    An increasing amount of recently published literature has implicated outcome reporting bias (ORB) as a major contributor to skewing data in both randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews; however, little is known about the current methods in place to detect ORB. This study aims to gain insight into the detection and management of ORB by biomedical journals. This was a cross-sectional analysis involving standardized questions via email or telephone with the top 30 biomedical journals (2012) ranked by impact factor. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was excluded leaving 29 journals in the sample. Of 29 journals, 24 (83%) responded to our initial inquiry of which 14 (58%) answered our questions and 10 (42%) declined participation. Five (36%) of the responding journals indicated they had a specific method to detect ORB, whereas 9 (64%) did not have a specific method in place. The prevalence of ORB in the review process seemed to differ with 4 (29%) journals indicating ORB was found commonly, whereas 7 (50%) indicated ORB was uncommon or never detected by their journal previously. The majority (n = 10/14, 72%) of journals were unwilling to report or make discrepancies found in manuscripts available to the public. Although the minority, there were some journals (n = 4/14, 29%) which described thorough methods to detect ORB. Many journals seemed to lack a method with which to detect ORB and its estimated prevalence was much lower than that reported in literature suggesting inadequate detection. There exists a potential for overestimation of treatment effects of interventions and unclear risks. Fortunately, there are journals within this sample which appear to utilize comprehensive methods for detection of ORB, but overall, the data suggest improvements at the biomedical journal level for detecting and minimizing the effect of this bias are needed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Three Leprosy Case Detection Methods in Northern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenduka, Charles; Post, Erik; John, Steven; Suraj, Abdulkarim; Namadi, Abdulahi; Onwujekwe, Obinna

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite several leprosy control measures in Nigeria, child proportion and disability grade 2 cases remain high while new cases have not significantly reduced, suggesting continuous spread of the disease. Hence, there is the need to review detection methods to enhance identification of early cases for effective control and prevention of permanent disability. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of three leprosy case detection methods in Northern Nigeria to identify the most cost-effective approach for detection of leprosy. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the additional benefits of using several case detection methods in addition to routine practice in two north-eastern states of Nigeria. Primary and secondary data were collected from routine practice records and the Nigerian Tuberculosis and Leprosy Control Programme of 2009. The methods evaluated were Rapid Village Survey (RVS), Household Contact Examination (HCE) and Traditional Healers incentive method (TH). Effectiveness was measured as number of new leprosy cases detected and cost-effectiveness was expressed as cost per case detected. Costs were measured from both providers' and patients' perspectives. Additional costs and effects of each method were estimated by comparing each method against routine practise and expressed as incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). All costs were converted to the U.S. dollar at the 2010 exchange rate. Univariate sensitivity analysis was used to evaluate uncertainties around the ICER. Results The ICER for HCE was $142 per additional case detected at all contact levels and it was the most cost-effective method. At ICER of $194 per additional case detected, THs method detected more cases at a lower cost than the RVS, which was not cost-effective at $313 per additional case detected. Sensitivity analysis showed that varying the proportion of shared costs and subsistent wage for valuing unpaid time did not significantly change the

  8. Cost-effectiveness analysis of three leprosy case detection methods in Northern Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Ezenduka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite several leprosy control measures in Nigeria, child proportion and disability grade 2 cases remain high while new cases have not significantly reduced, suggesting continuous spread of the disease. Hence, there is the need to review detection methods to enhance identification of early cases for effective control and prevention of permanent disability. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of three leprosy case detection methods in Northern Nigeria to identify the most cost-effective approach for detection of leprosy. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the additional benefits of using several case detection methods in addition to routine practice in two north-eastern states of Nigeria. Primary and secondary data were collected from routine practice records and the Nigerian Tuberculosis and Leprosy Control Programme of 2009. The methods evaluated were Rapid Village Survey (RVS, Household Contact Examination (HCE and Traditional Healers incentive method (TH. Effectiveness was measured as number of new leprosy cases detected and cost-effectiveness was expressed as cost per case detected. Costs were measured from both providers' and patients' perspectives. Additional costs and effects of each method were estimated by comparing each method against routine practise and expressed as incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER. All costs were converted to the U.S. dollar at the 2010 exchange rate. Univariate sensitivity analysis was used to evaluate uncertainties around the ICER. RESULTS: The ICER for HCE was $142 per additional case detected at all contact levels and it was the most cost-effective method. At ICER of $194 per additional case detected, THs method detected more cases at a lower cost than the RVS, which was not cost-effective at $313 per additional case detected. Sensitivity analysis showed that varying the proportion of shared costs and subsistent wage for valuing unpaid time did not

  9. Systems and methods for neutron detection using scintillator nano-materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letant, Sonia Edith; Wang, Tzu-Fang

    2016-03-08

    In one embodiment, a neutron detector includes a three dimensional matrix, having nanocomposite materials and a substantially transparent film material for suspending the nanocomposite materials, a detector coupled to the three dimensional matrix adapted for detecting a change in the nanocomposite materials, and an analyzer coupled to the detector adapted for analyzing the change detected by the detector. In another embodiment, a method for detecting neutrons includes receiving radiation from a source, converting neutrons in the radiation into alpha particles using converter material, converting the alpha particles into photons using quantum dot emitters, detecting the photons, and analyzing the photons to determine neutrons in the radiation.

  10. Magnetic force microscopy method and apparatus to detect and image currents in integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ann. N.; Anderson, Richard E.; Cole, Jr., Edward I.

    1995-01-01

    A magnetic force microscopy method and improved magnetic tip for detecting and quantifying internal magnetic fields resulting from current of integrated circuits. Detection of the current is used for failure analysis, design verification, and model validation. The interaction of the current on the integrated chip with a magnetic field can be detected using a cantilevered magnetic tip. Enhanced sensitivity for both ac and dc current and voltage detection is achieved with voltage by an ac coupling or a heterodyne technique. The techniques can be used to extract information from analog circuits.

  11. Verification of a Novel Method of Detecting Faults in Medium-Voltage Systems with Covered Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišák Stanislav

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the use of new methods of detecting faults in medium-voltage overhead lines built of covered conductors. The methods mainly address such faults as falling of a conductor, contacting a conductor with a tree branch, or falling a tree branch across three phases of a medium-voltage conductor. These faults cannot be detected by current digital relay protection systems. Therefore, a new system that can detect the above mentioned faults was developed. After having tested its operation, the system has already been implemented to protect mediumvoltage overhead lines built of covered conductors.

  12. Improvements in the method of radiation anomaly detection by spectral comparison ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfund, D M; Anderson, K K; Detwiler, R S; Jarman, K D; McDonald, B S; Milbrath, B D; Myjak, M J; Paradis, N C; Robinson, S M; Woodring, M L

    2016-04-01

    We present a new procedure for configuring the Nuisance-rejection Spectral Comparison Ratio Anomaly Detection (N-SCRAD) method. The procedure minimizes detectable count rates of source spectra at a specified false positive rate using simulated annealing. We also present a new method for correcting the estimates of background variability used in N-SCRAD to current conditions of the total count rate. The correction lowers detection thresholds for a specified false positive rate, enabling greater sensitivity to targets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Hybrid Image Filtering Method for Computer-Aided Detection of Microcalcification Clusters in Mammograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyong Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of microcalcification clusters (MCs in mammogram is a major indicator of breast cancer. Detection of an MC is one of the key issues for breast cancer control. In this paper, we present a highly accurate method based on a morphological image processing and wavelet transform technique to detect the MCs in mammograms. The microcalcifications are firstly enhanced by using multistructure elements morphological processing. Then, the candidates of microcalcifications are refined by a multilevel wavelet reconstruction approach. Finally, MCs are detected based on their distributions feature. Experiments are performed on 138 clinical mammograms. The proposed method is capable of detecting 92.9% of true microcalcification clusters with an average of 0.08 false microcalcification clusters detected per image.

  14. A rapid Salmonella detection method involving thermophilic helicase-dependent amplification and a lateral flow assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xin-Jun; Zhou, Tian-Jiao; Li, Ping; Wang, Shuo

    2017-08-01

    Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen that is widespread in the environment and can cause serious human and animal disease. Since conventional culture methods to detect Salmonella are time-consuming and laborious, rapid and accurate techniques to detect this pathogen are critically important for food safety and diagnosing foodborne illness. In this study, we developed a rapid, simple and portable Salmonella detection strategy that combines thermophilic helicase-dependent amplification (tHDA) with a lateral flow assay to provide a detection result based on visual signals within 90 min. Performance analyses indicated that the method had detection limits for DNA and pure cultured bacteria of 73.4-80.7 fg and 35-40 CFU, respectively. Specificity analyses showed no cross reactions with Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterobacter aerogenes, Shigella and Campylobacter jejuni. The results for detection in real food samples showed that 1.3-1.9 CFU/g or 1.3-1.9 CFU/mL of Salmonella in contaminated chicken products and infant nutritional cereal could be detected after 2 h of enrichment. The same amount of Salmonella in contaminated milk could be detected after 4 h of enrichment. This tHDA-strip can be used for the rapid detection of Salmonella in food samples and is particularly suitable for use in areas with limited equipment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of DNA Extraction and PCR Methods for Detection of Enterocytozoon bienuesi in Stool Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Subrungruang, Ittisak; Mungthin, Mathirut; Chavalitshewinkoon-Petmitr, Porntip; Rangsin, Ram; Naaglor, Tawee; Leelayoova, Saovanee

    2004-01-01

    An evaluation of the sensitivities of three DNA extraction methods, i.e., FTA filter paper, a QIAamp stool mini kit, and a conventional phenol-chloroform method, by using specimens with known concentrations of Enterocytozoon bieneusi spores was performed. FTA filter paper and the QIAamp stool mini kit were the most sensitive methods, which could detect E. bieneusi in specimens with a concentration of 800 spores/ml. We also compared five previously described PCR methods that use five different...

  16. A Mobile Outdoor Augmented Reality Method Combining Deep Learning Object Detection and Spatial Relationships for Geovisualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Jinmeng; Qiao, Yanjun; Ren, Fu; Wang, Junxing; Du, Qingyun

    2017-08-24

    The purpose of this study was to develop a robust, fast and markerless mobile augmented reality method for registration, geovisualization and interaction in uncontrolled outdoor environments. We propose a lightweight deep-learning-based object detection approach for mobile or embedded devices; the vision-based detection results of this approach are combined with spatial relationships by means of the host device's built-in Global Positioning System receiver, Inertial Measurement Unit and magnetometer. Virtual objects generated based on geospatial information are precisely registered in the real world, and an interaction method based on touch gestures is implemented. The entire method is independent of the network to ensure robustness to poor signal conditions. A prototype system was developed and tested on the Wuhan University campus to evaluate the method and validate its results. The findings demonstrate that our method achieves a high detection accuracy, stable geovisualization results and interaction.

  17. A Mobile Outdoor Augmented Reality Method Combining Deep Learning Object Detection and Spatial Relationships for Geovisualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinmeng Rao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a robust, fast and markerless mobile augmented reality method for registration, geovisualization and interaction in uncontrolled outdoor environments. We propose a lightweight deep-learning-based object detection approach for mobile or embedded devices; the vision-based detection results of this approach are combined with spatial relationships by means of the host device’s built-in Global Positioning System receiver, Inertial Measurement Unit and magnetometer. Virtual objects generated based on geospatial information are precisely registered in the real world, and an interaction method based on touch gestures is implemented. The entire method is independent of the network to ensure robustness to poor signal conditions. A prototype system was developed and tested on the Wuhan University campus to evaluate the method and validate its results. The findings demonstrate that our method achieves a high detection accuracy, stable geovisualization results and interaction.

  18. A New Copy Move Forgery Detection Method Resistant to Object Removal with Uniform Background Forgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzin Ulutas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Users transfer large number of images everyday over the Internet. Easy to use commercial and open source image editing tools have made intactness of images questionable. Passive methods have been proposed in the literature to determine authenticity of images. However, a specific type of forgery called “Object Removal with uniform Background forgery” becomes a problem for keypoint based methods in the literature. In this paper, we proposed an effective copy move forgery detection technique. The method uses AKAZE features and nonlinear scale space for detection of copied/pasted regions. The proposed method detects “Object Removal with uniform Background” and “Replication” types of forgeries with high precision compared to similar works. Experimental results also indicate that the method yields better discriminative capability compared to others even if forged image has been rotated, blurred, AWGN added, or compressed by JPEG to hide clues of forgery.

  19. A robust GWSS method to simultaneously detect rare and common variants for complex disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Feng Kao

    Full Text Available The rapid advances in sequencing technologies and the resulting next-generation sequencing data provide the opportunity to detect disease-associated variants with a better solution, in particular for low-frequency variants. Although both common and rare variants might exert their independent effects on the risk for the trait of interest, previous methods to detect the association effects rarely consider them simultaneously. We proposed a class of test statistics, the generalized weighted-sum statistic (GWSS, to detect disease associations in the presence of common and rare variants with a case-control study design. Information of rare variants was aggregated using a weighted sum method, while signal directions and strength of the variants were considered at the same time. Permutations were performed to obtain the empirical p-values of the test statistics. Our simulation showed that, compared to the existing methods, the GWSS method had better performance in most of the scenarios. The GWSS (in particular VDWSS-t method is particularly robust for opposite association directions, association strength, and varying distributions of minor-allele frequencies. It is therefore promising for detecting disease-associated loci. For empirical data application, we also applied our GWSS method to the Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 data, and the results were consistent with the simulation, suggesting good performance of our method. As re-sequencing studies become more popular to identify putative disease loci, we recommend the use of this newly developed GWSS to detect associations with both common and rare variants.

  20. Infrared small target detection method based on decomposition of polarization information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Shi, Zhi-Guang; Qiu, Tiao-Wen

    2017-05-01

    A method of feature extraction and small target detection, based on infrared polarization, which uses the technical superiority of infrared polarization imaging in artificial target detection to solve the clutter interference problem in infrared target detection, is proposed. First, using the differences in the polarization characteristics of the artificial target and the natural background, the infrared polarization information models for the target and background are established. The compositions of intensity information, polarization information, and target polarization information are extracted, and enhancement measures are analyzed. Then, the variable polarization theories are combined to extract the target polarization characteristics and suppress the background clutter. Finally, the infrared small target is detected, and comparisons with existing methods demonstrate the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed method.