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Sample records for hpge detectors operating

  1. Surface events in HPGe detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abt, Iris; Dinter, Sabine; Faulstich, Florian; Majorovits, Bela; Stelzer, Franz [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Events on or close to the surface of high purity germanium, HPGe, detectors can introduce backgrounds in low background applications of such devices. The Galatea test-stand, especially developed and constructed at the MPI fuer Physik allows an almost full surface scan of a detector with alpha and beta sources. Events induced by alpha and beta particles can be characterized and surface effects can be studied. First comparisons between data and Monte Carlo are presented.

  2. Monte Carlo simulation of background characteristics of a HPGe detector operating underground in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breier, R; Laubenstein, M; Povinec, P P

    2017-08-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of background components of an ultra-low background high purity germanium (HPGe) detector operating in a deep underground laboratory was carried out. The results show that the background of the HPGe detector is about two orders of magnitude higher than the MC prediction when accounting only for cosmic-ray induced background. The difference is due to natural radioactivity in the parts surrounding the Ge detector. To get reasonable agreement between MC simulations and the experiment, a contamination in the parts surrounding the Ge crystal from (40)K, (208)Tl and (214)Bi of 0.1mBqkg(-1) was required to include in the simulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An investigation of the performance of a coaxial HPGe detector operating in a magnetic resonance imaging field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkness, L.J., E-mail: ljh@ns.ph.liv.ac.u [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C.; Cole, P.; Cresswell, J.R.; Filmer, F.; Jones, M.; Judson, D.S.; Nolan, P.J.; Oxley, D.C.; Sampson, J.A.; Scraggs, D.P.; Slee, M.J. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Bimson, W.E.; Kemp, G.J. [MARIARC, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GE (United Kingdom); Groves, J.; Headspith, J.; Lazarus, I.; Simpson, J. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Cooper, R.J. [Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6371 (United States)

    2011-05-11

    Nuclear medical imaging modalities such as positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography are used to probe physiological functions of the body by detecting gamma rays emitted from biologically targeted radiopharmaceuticals. A system which is capable of simultaneous data acquisition for nuclear medical imaging and magnetic resonance imaging is highly sought after by the medical imaging community. Such a device could provide a more complete medical insight into the functions of the body within a well-defined structural context. However, acquiring simultaneous nuclear/MRI sequences are technically challenging due to the conventional photomultiplier tube readout employed by most existing scintillator detector systems. A promising solution is a nuclear imaging device composed of semiconductor detectors that can be operated with a standard MRI scanner. However, the influence of placing a semiconductor detector such as high purity germanium (HPGe) within or close to the bore of an MRI scanner, where high magnetic fields are present, is not well understood. In this paper, the performance of a HPGe detector operating in a high strength static (B{sub S}) MRI field along with fast switching gradient fields and radiofrequency from the MRI system has been assessed. The influence of the B{sub S} field on the energy resolution of the detector has been investigated for various positions and orientations of the detector within the magnetic field. The results have then been interpreted in terms of the influence of the B{sub S} field on the charge collection properties. MRI images have been acquired with the detector situated at the entrance of the MRI bore to investigate the effects of simultaneous data acquisition on detector performance and MRI imaging.

  4. A repair station for HpGe detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearman, Robert; Lister, Christopher; Mitchell, A. J.; Copp, Patrick; Jepeal, Steven; Chowdhury, Partha

    2013-10-01

    Hyper-pure Germanium detectors (HpGe) offer the highest energy resolution for gamma-ray nuclear spectroscopy (about 1.5 keV @ 1 MeV), and are used in all the world's leading detector arrays such as GammaSphere, AGATA and GRETINA. The detector crystals are operated in cryostats at 100 K to reduce thermal noise. To maintain low leakage current and low operating temperatures, cryostat hygiene is very important. Detectors must be regularly maintained by using a high-vacuum, oil-free annealing station. At elevated temperatures above 373 K the process of pumping and baking can also anneal away neutron damage to the detector crystals. This poster will show the design and building of a new HpGe repair station at U. Mass Lowell, and make comparisons of results obtained from this new station to the Gammasphere annealing factory at Argonne. This research is funded by the DOE National Nuclear Safety Administration and the Office of Science.

  5. Constraining solar hidden photons using HPGe detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvat, R.; Kekez, D., E-mail: Dalibor.Kekez@irb.hr; Krčmar, M.; Krečak, Z.; Ljubičić, A.

    2013-04-25

    In this Letter we report on the results of our search for photons from a U(1) gauge factor in the hidden sector of the full theory. With our experimental setup we observe the single spectrum in a HPGe detector arising as a result of the photoelectric-like absorption of hidden photons emitted from the Sun on germanium atoms inside the detector. The main ingredient of the theory used in our analysis, a severely constrained kinetic mixing from the two U(1) gauge factors and massive hidden photons, entails both photon into hidden state oscillations and a minuscule coupling of hidden photons to visible matter, of which the latter our experimental setup has been designed to observe. On a theoretical side, full account was taken of the effects of refraction and damping of photons while propagating in Sun's interior as well as in the detector. We exclude hidden photons with kinetic couplings χ>(2.2×10{sup −13}–3×10{sup −7}) in the mass region 0.2 eV≲m{sub γ{sup ′}}≲30 keV. Our constraints on the mixing parameter χ in the mass region from 20 eV up to 15 keV prove even slightly better then those obtained recently by using data from the CAST experiment, albeit still somewhat weaker than those obtained from solar and HB stars lifetime arguments.

  6. Compton imaging with a highly-segmented, position-sensitive HPGe detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, T.; Hirsch, R.; Reiter, P.; Birkenbach, B.; Bruyneel, B.; Eberth, J.; Gernhäuser, R.; Hess, H.; Lewandowski, L.; Maier, L.; Schlarb, M.; Weiler, B.; Winkel, M.

    2017-02-01

    A Compton camera based on a highly-segmented high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and a double-sided silicon-strip detector (DSSD) was developed, tested, and put into operation; the origin of γ radiation was determined successfully. The Compton camera is operated in two different modes. Coincidences from Compton-scattered γ-ray events between DSSD and HPGe detector allow for best angular resolution; while the high-efficiency mode takes advantage of the position sensitivity of the highly-segmented HPGe detector. In this mode the setup is sensitive to the whole 4π solid angle. The interaction-point positions in the 36-fold segmented large-volume HPGe detector are determined by pulse-shape analysis (PSA) of all HPGe detector signals. Imaging algorithms were developed for each mode and successfully implemented. The angular resolution sensitively depends on parameters such as geometry, selected multiplicity and interaction-point distances. Best results were obtained taking into account the crosstalk properties, the time alignment of the signals and the distance metric for the PSA for both operation modes. An angular resolution between 13.8° and 19.1°, depending on the minimal interaction-point distance for the high-efficiency mode at an energy of 1275 keV, was achieved. In the coincidence mode, an increased angular resolution of 4.6° was determined for the same γ-ray energy.

  7. HPGe detectors for low-temperature nuclear orientation

    CERN Document Server

    Zakoucky, D; Vénos, D; Golovko, V V; Kraev, I S; Phalet, T; Schuurmans, P; Severijns, N; Vereecke, B; Versyck, S

    2004-01-01

    Using the low-temperature nuclear orientation (LTNO) technique one can study various interesting properties of atomic nuclei and nuclear decay which can be deduced from the measurements of the angular distributions of charged particles emitted during the decay. However, the use of particle detectors working in conditions of LTNO devices (which are generally not available commercially) is a necessary precondition for the realization of these experiments. Planar HPGe detectors for detection of charged particles at "liquid helium" temperatures were developed and produced at NPI Rez. Relatively simple technology using vacuum evaporation and diffusion was employed. The performance of detectors at low temperatures was tested and their characteristics measured in a testing cryostat before using them in real experiments. The HPGe detectors were extensively used in a whole range of LTNO experiments with various physical objectives - in offline (IKS Leuven) as well as online (CERN-ISOLDE, Louvain-la- Neuve - LISOL) exp...

  8. New approach to calculate the true-coincidence effect of HpGe detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alnour, I. A., E-mail: aaibrahim3@live.utm.my, E-mail: ibrahim.elnour@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Pure and Applied Science, International University of Africa, 12223 Khartoum (Sudan); Wagiran, H. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai,Johor (Malaysia); Ibrahim, N. [Faculty of Defence Science and Technology, National Defence University of Malaysia, Kem Sungai Besi, 57000 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Hamzah, S.; Elias, M. S. [Malaysia Nuclear Agency (MNA), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor D.E. (Malaysia); Siong, W. B. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Resource Science & Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    The corrections for true-coincidence effects in HpGe detector are important, especially at low source-to-detector distances. This work established an approach to calculate the true-coincidence effects experimentally for HpGe detectors of type Canberra GC3018 and Ortec GEM25-76-XLB-C, which are in operation at neutron activation analysis lab in Malaysian Nuclear Agency (NM). The correction for true-coincidence effects was performed close to detector at distances 2 and 5 cm using {sup 57}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 133}Ba and {sup 137}Cs as standard point sources. The correction factors were ranged between 0.93-1.10 at 2 cm and 0.97-1.00 at 5 cm for Canberra HpGe detector; whereas for Ortec HpGe detector ranged between 0.92-1.13 and 0.95-100 at 2 and 5 cm respectively. The change in efficiency calibration curve of the detector at 2 and 5 cm after correction was found to be less than 1%. Moreover, the polynomial parameters functions were simulated through a computer program, MATLAB in order to find an accurate fit to the experimental data points.

  9. Relative efficiency calculation of a HPGe detector using MCNPX code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Marcos P.C.; Rebello, Wilson F., E-mail: eng.cavaliere@ime.eb.br, E-mail: rebello@ime.eb.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear; Lopes, Jose M.; Silva, Ademir X., E-mail: marqueslopez@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: ademir@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    High-purity germanium detectors (HPGe) are mandatory tools for spectrometry because of their excellent energy resolution. The efficiency of such detectors, quoted in the list of specifications by the manufacturer, frequently refers to the relative full-energy peak efficiency, related to the absolute full-energy peak efficiency of a 7.6 cm x 7.6 cm (diameter x height) NaI(Tl) crystal, based on the 1.33 MeV peak of a {sup 60}Co source positioned 25 cm from the detector. In this study, we used MCNPX code to simulate a HPGe detector (Canberra GC3020), from Real-Time Neutrongraphy Laboratory of UFRJ, to survey the spectrum of a {sup 60}Co source located 25 cm from the detector in order to calculate and confirm the efficiency declared by the manufacturer. Agreement between experimental and simulated data was achieved. The model under development will be used for calculating and comparison purposes with the detector calibration curve from software Genie2000™, also serving as a reference for future studies. (author)

  10. Underwater gamma-spectrometry with HPGe and NaI(Tl) detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Povinec, P.P.; Osvath, I.; Baxter, M.S. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Monaco (Monaco). Marine Environment Lab.

    1996-09-01

    An in situ {gamma}-spectrometer designed for underwater operations consisting of HPGe and NaI(Tl) detectors with electronics, data acquisition and processing electronics, and a supporting system consisting of a hydraulic winch with 1200 m conducting cable is described. The characteristics of the system and results obtained during operational tests and deployment in the Irish and Kara Seas are presented. The spectra measured with the HPGe detector represent the first set of high resolution sea-bed {gamma}-spectra ever recorded in situ. Further, a possible utilisation of underwater {gamma}-spectrometry for in situ monitoring of leakages of radionuclides from dumped or sunken nuclear objects/wastes or discharges from nuclear plants is discussed. Remote stationary {gamma}-spectrometers operating on the sea-bed, in the open sea or in any aquatic environment with satellite data transmission would be very efficient means of long-term monitoring. (author).

  11. Evaluation of HPGe detector efficiency for point sources using virtual point detector model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, M.A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81747-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdi, M.R., E-mail: r.abdi@phys.ui.ac.i [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81747-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kamali, M., E-mail: m.kamali@chem.ui.ac.i [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technologies, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chemical Processes Research Department, Engineering Research Center, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mostajaboddavati, M.; Zare, M.R. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81747-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    The concept of a virtual point detector (VPD) has been developed and validated in the past for Ge(Li) and HPGe detectors. In the present research, a new semi-empirical equation involving photon energy and source-virtual point detector distance for the efficiency of point sources by HPGe detectors is introduced , which is based on the VPD model. The calculated efficiencies for both coaxial and off-axis geometries by this equation are in good agreement with experimental data. The estimated uncertainties are less than 4%.

  12. Characterization and modeling of a low background HPGe detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dokania, N.; Singh, V.; Mathimalar, S. [India-based Neutrino Observatory, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Nanal, V., E-mail: nanal@tifr.res.in [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Pal, S.; Pillay, R.G. [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400 005 (India)

    2014-05-01

    A high efficiency, low background counting setup has been made at TIFR consisting of a special HPGe detector (∼70%) surrounded by a low activity copper+lead shield. Detailed measurements are performed with point and extended geometry sources to obtain a complete response of the detector. An effective model of the detector has been made with GEANT4 based Monte Carlo simulations which agrees with experimental data within 5%. This setup will be used for qualification and selection of radio-pure materials to be used in a cryogenic bolometer for the study of Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay in {sup 124}Sn as well as for other rare event studies. Using this setup, radio-impurities in the rock sample from India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) site have been estimated.

  13. Characterization and modeling of a low background HPGe detector

    CERN Document Server

    Dokania, N; Mathimalar, S; Nanal, V; Pal, S; Pillay, R G

    2013-01-01

    A high efficiency, low background counting setup has been made at TIFR consisting of a special HPGe detector ($\\sim$70$\\%$) surrounded by a low activity copper+lead shield. Detailed measurements are performed with point and extended geometry sources to obtain a complete response of the detector. An effective model of the detector has been made with GEANT4 based Monte Carlo simulations which agrees with experimental data within 5$\\%$. This setup will be used for qualification and selection of radio-pure materials to be used in a cryogenic bolometer for the study of Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay in $^{124}$Sn as well as for other rare event studies. Using this setup, radio-impurities in the rock sample from India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) site have been estimated.

  14. Mod 1 ICS TI Report: ICS Conversion of a 140% HPGe Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bounds, John Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-05

    This report evaluates the Mod 1 ICS, an electrically cooled 140% HPGe detector. It is a custom version of the ORTEC Integrated Cooling System (ICS) modified to make it more practical for us to use in the field. Performance and operating characteristics of the Mod 1 ICS are documented, noting both pros and cons. The Mod 1 ICS is deemed a success. Recommendations for a Mod 2 ICS, a true field prototype, are provided.

  15. MSE/SSE discrimination methods of the PC-HPGe detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Zi-Feng; LI Yu-Lan; LI Jin; YUE Qian; LI Yuan-Jing

    2012-01-01

    Having advantages of low capacitance and low energy threshold,the PC-HPGe (Point-Contact High Purity Germanium) detector has found its application in the direct detection of WIMP(Weak Interaction Massive Particle) in CDEX (China Darkmatter Experiment).The MSE (Multi-Site Event) and SSE(Single-Site Event) discrimination methods of the PC-HPGe detector are introduced in this article,including their physical basis,the electronics system and the algorithms to implement them.Behaviors of the PC-HPGe detector are studied intensively through this research and finally the experimental results of the LE discrimination method are presented.

  16. Using HPGe detector for a solar hidden-photons search

    CERN Document Server

    Horvat, R; Krcmar, M; Krecak, Z; Ljubicic, A

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report on the results of our search for photons from a U(1) gauge factor in the hidden sector of the full theory, by observing the single spectrum in a HPGe detector arising as a result of the photoelectric-like absorption of hidden photons emitted from the Sun on germanium atoms inside the detector. The main ingredient of the theory used in our analysis, a severely constrained kinetic mixing from the two U(1) gauge factors and massive hidden photons, leads to both photon into hidden states oscillations and to a minuscule coupling of hidden photons to visible matter, of which the latter our experimental setup has been designed to observe. On a theoretical side, full account was taken of the effects of refraction and damping of photons while propagating in the Sun's interior. We exclude hidden photons with kinetic couplings chi > (1.5x10^{-6}-2.6x10^{-11}) for the mass region 1.7x10^{-4} eV < m_\\gamma' < 3.4 eV. Our constraints on the mixing parameter chi at sub-eV hidden-photon masses p...

  17. Comparison of background in underground HPGe-detectors in different lead shield configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, Mikael; Lutter, Guillaume; Yüksel, Ayhan; Marissens, Gerd; Misiaszek, Marcin; Rosengård, Ulf

    2013-11-01

    In underground HPGe-detector systems where the cosmic ray induced background is low, it is often difficult to assess the location of background sources. In this study, background counting rates of different HPGe-detectors in different lead shields are reported with the aim of better understanding background sources. To further enhance the understanding of the variations of environmental parameters, the background as a function of time over a long period was also studied. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental and simulated efficiency of a HPGe detector with point-like and extended sources

    CERN Document Server

    Karamanis, D; Andriamonje, Samuel A; Barreau, G; Petit, M

    2002-01-01

    The absolute efficiency of a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector was determined with a point-like calibrated sup 1 sup 5 sup 2 Eu source at two distances from the detector and three pure metallic thorium foils of different thicknesses. The experimental values are compared with the ones determined with the simulation codes MCNP4B and GEANT 3.21. A procedure for HPGe absolute efficiency calibration is proposed for gamma-ray energies higher than 200 keV.

  19. X-ray Shield for High Energy Gamma Spectrometry using a n-type HPGe Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Jong In; Yun, Ju Yong [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Row, Jeong Hwan; Lee, Ji Yun [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    In the last several decades HPGe detectors have been used popularly because of good energy resolution and high efficiency. And HPGe detectors to measure low energy gamma rays also have been developed by several companies. The detectors are generally called as a n-type HPGe detector or LEGe. The commercial n-type HPGe detectors have the front window made from carbonate or beryllium to increase the detection efficiency for low energy photons. For that reason, cascade coincidence summing effects by X- and Gamma rays can be produced. In order to use the n-type HPGe detector for high energy gamma rays, therefore, we should eliminate incidence of X-rays or correct the effects. The correction for X- and Gamma rays might be so complicate and difficult. On the other hand, the summing effects can be terminated by additional X-ray shields at the end cap. In this study, we optimized the thickness of shielding material selected for the purpose. This paper demonstrates the optimization process and the shield' s applicability for detection efficiency calibration and radioactivity analysis.

  20. A novel technique for the characterization of a HPGe detector response based on pulse shape comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespi, F.C.L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano and INFN Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Camera, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano and INFN Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)], E-mail: camera@mi.infn.it; Million, B.; Sassi, M.; Wieland, O.; Bracco, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano and INFN Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2008-08-11

    A novel technique for measuring the HPGe detector pulse shape as a function of the {gamma}-ray interaction position inside the detector volume is presented. This technique is based on a specific pulse shape comparison procedure. Its main feature is that it allows to characterize the 3D position response of a HPGe segmented detector in a much shorter time as compared with the standard coincidence techniques. The method was first validated using a GEANT simulation of a 36-fold HPGe AGATA detector realized taking into account the effects of the electronic chain response and electrical noise on the calculated signal shape. This procedure was then applied to extract experimentally the position response of a non-segmented coaxial HPGe detector along the radial direction, using a 438 MBq {sup 137}Cs collimated {gamma}-source. The results of this measurement show a dependence of the pulse shape as a function of {gamma}-ray interaction radial coordinate consistent with that obtained with calculations. The signal acquisition rate reached using this characterization technique allows to realize a full scan of a large volume highly segmented HPGe detector in less than a week.

  1. Theoretical consideration of the energy resolution in planar HPGe detectors for low energy X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samedov, Victor V. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), 31, Kashirskoye Shosse, 115409, Moscow, (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-01

    In this work, theoretical consideration of the processes in planar High Purity Ge (HPGe) detectors for low energy X-rays using the random stochastic processes formalism was carried out. Using the random stochastic processes formalism, the generating function of the processes of X-rays registration in a planar HPGe detector was derived. The power serial expansions of the detector amplitude and the variance in terms of the inverse bias voltage were derived. The coefficients of these expansions allow determining the Fano factor, electron mobility lifetime product, nonuniformity of the trap density, and other characteristics of the semiconductor material. (authors)

  2. Measurement of β-decay end point energy with planar HPGe detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, T., E-mail: btumpa@vecc.gov.in [Physics Group, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Pandit, Deepak [Physics Group, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Das, S.K. [RCD-BARC, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Chowdhury, A.; Das, P. [Physics Group, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Banerjee, D. [RCD-BARC, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Saha, A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Pal, S.; Banerjee, S.R. [Physics Group, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

    2014-12-11

    The β–γ coincidence measurement has been performed with a segmented planar Hyper-Pure Germanium (HPGe) detector and a single coaxial HPGe detector to determine the end point energies of nuclear β-decays. The experimental end point energies have been determined for some of the known β-decays in {sup 106}Rh→{sup 106}Pd. The end point energies corresponding to three weak branches in {sup 106}Rh→{sup 106}Pd decay have been measured for the first time. The γ ray and β particle responses for the planar HPGe detector were simulated using the Monte Carlo based code GEANT3. The experimentally obtained β spectra were successfully reproduced with the simulation.

  3. Compton polarimetry with a 36-fold segmented HPGe-detector of the AGATA-type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alikhani, B., E-mail: alikhani@ikp.tu-darmstadt.de [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Givechev, A. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Heinz, A. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Subatomic Physics Division, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); John, P.R.; Leske, J.; Lettmann, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Moeller, O., E-mail: moeller@ikp.tu-darmstadt.de [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Pietralla, N.; Roeder, C. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2012-05-21

    The calibration of a highly-segmented AGATA-type HPGe-detector as a {gamma}-ray Compton polarimeter and a method for (quasi-)continuous angle Compton polarimetry are presented. The high granularity, combined with the large detection efficiency of the AGATA-type HPGe-crystals, offers a significant advantage for polarization measurements of {gamma}-radiation. A polarization-directional correlation experiment with {gamma}-rays from a {sup 60}Co source with an activity of about 680 kBq was used to determine the polarization sensitivity of a single AGATA-type HPGe-crystal at 1173 and 1332 keV and to demonstrate the method. The polarization measurement was based on segment information. In our set-up a polarization sensitivity of 19% at 1332 keV has been achieved.

  4. Measuring 235U(n,xnγ) Cross Sections with HPGe Detector Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Zhao-hui; WANG; Qi; SU; Xiao-bin; LI; Xia; HOU; Long; ZHANG; Kai; CHEN; Hong-tao; ZHAO; Fang

    2015-01-01

    We had built the array of HPGe detectors,which is used to measure theγrays from(n,xn)reaction.The detection system,acquisition system and analysis method have been improved to meet the requirement of prompt gamma ray measurement.According to the research of angular distribution of secondary gamma ray,we adjust the location and angle of detectors(Fig.1).Due to the absence of suitable sample,

  5. Modeling the impact of uncertainty in detector specification on efficiency values of a HPGe detector using ANGLE software

    OpenAIRE

    Miller Maurice; Voutchkov Mitko

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to model the impact of uncertainties in the engineering specifications of a typical p-type HPGe detector on the efficiency values when the measured soil sample is in contact geometry with the detector. We introduce a parameter named the normalized sensitivity impact which allows a comparative analysis to be made of the impact of the detector specification uncertainties and develop a correction factor table for the most important parameters. The areas of th...

  6. Gamma-spectrometric module based on HPGe detector for radiation portal monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondratjev Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of small-sized and powerful enough electric cryocoolers of various types on the market, has opened the perspective of HPGe detectors application, cooled by such coolers, in radiation portal monitors. The first results of a spectrometric module based on HPGe detector with relative efficiency of 45% cooled by a Stirling-cycle cryocooler, are presented. The spectrometer has provided energy resolutions of less than 0.95 keV and 1.95 keV at energies of 122 keV and 1332 keV, respectively. The deterioration of the energy resolution of HPGe detector cooled by electric cryocooler in comparison to the resolution with liquid nitrogen cooling was about 8% at the energy of 1332 keV. With the use of activated filters to suppress pulses produced by the mechanical vibrations, the energy resolution of the spectrometer was 0.8 keV and 1.8 keV, respectively, however, the detector relative efficiency at the energy of 1332 keV has dropped to 39 %.

  7. Uranium Enrichment Analysis With Electromechanical Cooled HPGe Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Micro_trans_SPEC-100 portable high-resolution gamma-ray radioisotope identifier was used for the uranium enrichment analysis demonstration. Micro_trans_SPEC utilize stirling-cycle cooler and integrated detector, signal electronics and analysis

  8. A Software Package Using a Mesh-grid Method for Simulating HPGe Detector Efficiencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Jackman

    2009-10-01

    Traditional ways of determining the absolute full-energy peak efficiencies of high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors are often time consuming, cost prohibitive, or not feasible. A software package, KMESS (Kevin’s Mesh Efficiency Simulator Software), was developed to assist in predicting these efficiencies. It uses a semiempirical mesh-grid method and works for arbitrary source shapes and counting geometries. The model assumes that any gamma-ray source shape can be treated as a large enough collection of point sources. The code is readily adaptable, has a web-based graphical front-end, and could easily be coupled to a 3D scanner. As will be shown, this software can estimate absolute full-energy peak efficiencies with good accuracy in reasonable computation times. It has applications to the field of gamma-ray spectroscopy because it is a quick and accurate way to assist in performing quantitative analyses using HPGe detectors.

  9. A software package using a mesh-grid method for simulating HPGe detector efficiencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritzo, Russell E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jackman, Kevin R [REMOTE SENSING LAB; Biegalski, Steven R [UT AUSTIN

    2009-01-01

    Traditional ways of determining the absolute full-energy peak efficiencies of high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors are often time consuming, cost prohibitive, or not feasible. A software package, KMESS (Kevin's Mesh Efficiency Simulator Software), was developed to assist in predicting these efficiencies. It uses a semiempirical mesh-grid method and works for arbitrary source shapes and counting geometries. The model assumes that any gamma-ray source shape can be treated as a large enough collection of point sources. The code is readily adaptable, has a web-based graphical front-end. and could easily be coupled to a 3D scanner. As will be shown. this software can estimate absolute full-energy peak efficiencies with good accuracy in reasonable computation times. It has applications to the field of gamma-ray spectroscopy because it is a quick and accurate way to assist in performing quantitative analyses using HPGe detectors.

  10. Comparison of the NDA of HEU Oxide between the AWCC and the HPGe Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, L. G.; Oberer, R. B.; Gunn, C. A.; Dukes, E. E.; Akin, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    This paper compares the performance of the Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC) with the performance of high resolution gamma spectrometry using an HPGe detector to nondestructively assay highly enriched (HEU) oxide. Traditionally the AWCC was considered to be the more appropriate instrument for this measurement. Although the AWCC had a high degree of precision, the HPGe provided the more accurate measurement of this material. The AWCC determines mass of U-235 from the coincident pairs of neutron detections, or doubles rate. The HPGe determines the mass of both U-235 and U238, the enrichment, and the quantity of other radioisotopes. The Tl-208 gamma rays were used to verify the amount of attenuation for the HPGe analysis. Fifty-four cans of enriched U3O8 were shipped to the Y-12 National Security Complex from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) under Scrap Declaration LANL-45. The declared values for net weight, mass of uranium, mass of U-235, and enrichment (percent mass of U-235 to total uranium) are shown in Table A-1. The masses of U-235 range from 104g to 2404g and the enrichment varies from 20% to 98%.

  11. Uncertainty analysis in the simulation of an HPGe detector using the Monte Carlo Code MCNP5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo, Sergio; Pozuelo, Fausto; Querol, Andrea; Verdu, Gumersindo; Rodenas, Jose, E-mail: sergalbe@upv.es [Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia, (Spain). Instituto de Seguridad Industrial, Radiofisica y Medioambiental (ISIRYM); Ortiz, J. [Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia, (Spain). Servicio de Radiaciones. Lab. de Radiactividad Ambiental; Pereira, Claubia [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    A gamma spectrometer including an HPGe detector is commonly used for environmental radioactivity measurements. Many works have been focused on the simulation of the HPGe detector using Monte Carlo codes such as MCNP5. However, the simulation of this kind of detectors presents important difficulties due to the lack of information from manufacturers and due to loss of intrinsic properties in aging detectors. Some parameters such as the active volume or the Ge dead layer thickness are many times unknown and are estimated during simulations. In this work, a detailed model of an HPGe detector and a petri dish containing a certified gamma source has been done. The certified gamma source contains nuclides to cover the energy range between 50 and 1800 keV. As a result of the simulation, the Pulse Height Distribution (PHD) is obtained and the efficiency curve can be calculated from net peak areas and taking into account the certified activity of the source. In order to avoid errors due to the net area calculation, the simulated PHD is treated using the GammaVision software. On the other hand, it is proposed to use the Noether-Wilks formula to do an uncertainty analysis of model with the main goal of determining the efficiency curve of this detector and its associated uncertainty. The uncertainty analysis has been focused on dead layer thickness at different positions of the crystal. Results confirm the important role of the dead layer thickness in the low energy range of the efficiency curve. In the high energy range (from 300 to 1800 keV) the main contribution to the absolute uncertainty is due to variations in the active volume. (author)

  12. Fast neutron-induced damage in INTEGRAL n-type HPGe detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Borrel, V; Albernhe, F; Frabel, P; Cordier, B; Tauzin, G; Crespin, S; Coszach, R; Denis, J M; Leleux, P

    1999-01-01

    Several INTEGRAL n-type HPGe detectors have been irradiated by fast neutrons and their degradation studied through the analysis of line shapes. The availability of three different fast neutron beams (5, 16 and 6-70 MeV) allowed a quantitative analysis of the importance of the neutron energy on the amount of damage. A comparison is made with the degradation induced by high-energy proton irradiations. Transient effects on the measured resolution are reported after high voltage cut-off on degraded detectors.

  13. Optimized digital filtering techniques for radiation detection with HPGe detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salathe, Marco; Kihm, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes state-of-the-art digital filtering techniques that are part of GEANA, an automatic data analysis software used for the GERDA experiment. The discussed filters include a novel, nonlinear correction method for ballistic deficits, which is combined with one of three shaping filters: a pseudo-Gaussian, a modified trapezoidal, or a modified cusp filter. The performance of the filters is demonstrated with a 762 g Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detector, produced by Canberra, that measures γ-ray lines from radioactive sources in an energy range between 59.5 and 2614.5 keV. At 1332.5 keV, together with the ballistic deficit correction method, all filters produce a comparable energy resolution of ~1.61 keV FWHM. This value is superior to those measured by the manufacturer and those found in publications with detectors of a similar design and mass. At 59.5 keV, the modified cusp filter without a ballistic deficit correction produced the best result, with an energy resolution of 0.46 keV. It is observed that the loss in resolution by using a constant shaping time over the entire energy range is small when using the ballistic deficit correction method.

  14. Optimized digital filtering techniques for radiation detection with HPGe detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Salathe, M

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes state-of-the-art digital filtering techniques that are part of the tool kit GEANA which is used as a fast automatic data validation tool for the GERDA experiment. The discussed filters include a novel, nonlinear correction method for ballistic deficits, which is combined with one of three shaping filters: the pseudo-Gaussian, a modified trapezoidal, or a modified cusp filter. The performance of the filters is demonstrated using a 762 g high purity germanium detector that measures gamma-ray lines from radioactive sources in an energy range between 59 and 2615 keV. The modified cusp filter was found to be most optimal for individual gamma-ray lines. Furthermore, it was observed, that even though, the shaping time that minimizes the energy resolution is energy dependent, the loss in resolution by using a constant shaping time over the entire energy range is small, i.e. less than 32 eV for the pseudo-Gaussian filter. This together with good energy resolutions, e.g. 1.59 keV at 1333 keV, this ...

  15. Effects due to a Pu-C source on a HPGe detector and the corresponding neutron shielding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-Yong; FU Cheng-Dong; MO Xiao-Hu; ZHANG Zi-Liang; LI Dao-Wu; WANG Bao-Yi

    2011-01-01

    A gamma spectrum of a Pu-C source is measured using a p-type HPGe detector, whose three peaks (full energy, single-escape and double-escape peak) can be used as a calibration source for the beam energy measurement system of BEPCII. The effect of fast neutron damage on the energy resolution of the HPGe detector is studied, which indicates that the energy resolution begins to deteriorate when the detector is subject to 2× 107 n/cm2 fast neutrons. The neutron damage mechanism and detector repair methods are reviewed. The Monte Carlo simulation technique is utilized to study the shielding of the HPGe detector from the fast neutron radiation damage, which is of great significance for the future commissioning of the beam energy measurement system.

  16. The influence of anisotropic electron drift velocity on the signal shapes of closed-end HPGe detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Mihailescu, L; Lieder, R M; Brands, H; Jaeger, H

    2000-01-01

    This study is concerned with the anisotropy of the electron drift velocity in germanium crystals at high electric fields and low temperature, and its influence on the charge collection process in n-type, high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors of closed-end, coaxial geometry. The electron trajectories inside HPGe detectors are simulated using a phenomenological model to calculate the dependence of the drift velocity on the angle between the electric field and the crystal orientation. The resulting induced currents and pulse shapes for a given detector geometry and preamplifier bandwidth are compared to experiment. Experimentally, the dependence of the pulse shapes on the conductivity anisotropy in closed-end HPGe detectors was observed. The experimental data on pulse shapes were obtained by sampling preamplifier signals of an encapsulated, hexaconical EUROBALL detector, which was irradiated by collimated sup 2 sup 2 Na and sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am sources. The crystal orientation was measured by neutron reflection...

  17. Evaluation of ANGLE(R), a code for calculating HPGe detector efficiencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homan, Victoria M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-10-25

    This paper evaluates the ANGLE(reg sign) software package, an advanced efficiency calibration software for high purity germanium detectors that is distributed by ORTEC(reg sign). ANGLE(reg sign) uses a semi-empirical approach, by way of the efficiency transfer method, based on the calculated effective solid angle. This approach would have an advantage over the traditional relative and stochastic methods by decreasing the chances for systematic errors and reducing sensitivity to uncertainties in detector parameters. For experimental confirmation, a closed-end coaxial HPGe detector was used with sample geometries frequently encountered at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The results obtained were sufficient for detector-source configurations which included intercepting layers of plexiglass and carbon graphite, but somewhat insufficient for bare source configurations.

  18. Search for double beta decay of $^{136}$Ce and $^{138}$Ce with HPGe gamma detector

    CERN Document Server

    Belli, P; Boiko, R S; Cappella, F; Cerulli, R; Danevich, F A; Incicchitti, A; Kropivyansky, B N; Laubenstein, M; Poda, D V; Polischuk, O G; Tretyak, V I

    2014-01-01

    Search for double $\\beta$ decay of $^{136}$Ce and $^{138}$Ce was realized with 732 g of deeply purified cerium oxide sample measured over 1900 h with the help of an ultra-low background HPGe $\\gamma$ detector with a volume of 465 cm$^3$ at the STELLA facility of the Gran Sasso National Laboratories of the INFN (Italy). New improved half-life limits on double beta processes in the cerium isotopes were set at the level of $\\lim T_{1/2}\\sim 10^{17}-10^{18}$~yr; many of them are even two orders of magnitude larger than the best previous results.

  19. Cosmic-ray induced background intercomparison with actively shielded HPGe detectors at underground locations

    CERN Document Server

    Szücs, T; Reinhardt, T P; Schmidt, K; Takács, M P; Wagner, A; Wagner, L; Weinberger, D; Zuber, K

    2015-01-01

    The main background above 3\\,MeV for in-beam nuclear astrophysics studies with $\\gamma$-ray detectors is caused by cosmic-ray induced secondaries. The two commonly used suppression methods, active and passive shielding, against this kind of background were formerly considered only as alternatives in nuclear astrophysics experiments. In this work the study of the effects of active shielding against cosmic-ray induced events at a medium deep location is performed. Background spectra were recorded with two actively shielded HPGe detectors. The experiment was located at 148\\,m below the surface of the Earth in the Reiche Zeche mine in Freiberg, Germany. The results are compared to data with the same detectors at the Earth's surface, and at depths of 45\\,m and 1400\\,m, respectively.

  20. Measurement of $\\beta$-decay end point energy with Planar HPGe detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharjee, T; Das, S K; Chowdhury, A; Das, P; Banerjee, D; Saha, A; Mukhopadhyay, S; Pal, S; Banerjee, S R

    2014-01-01

    The end point energies of nuclear $\\beta$ decays have been measured with a segmented planar Ge LEPS detector using both singles and coincidence techniques. The $\\beta - \\gamma$ coincidence has been performed with a segmented planar Ge LEPS and a single 10$\\%$ HPGe detector. The $\\gamma$ ray and $\\beta$ particle responses of the Segmented planer Ge LEPS detector were studied using monte carlo simulation code GEANT3. The experimentally obtained $\\beta$ spectrum was in reasonably good agreement with the simulation results. The experimental end point energies are determined with substantial accuracy for some of the known $\\beta$ decays in $^{106}$Rh, $^{210}$Bi and $^{90}$Y. The end point energies corresponding to three weak branches in $^{106}$Rh $\\rightarrow$ $^{106}$Pd decay has been measured for the first time.

  1. Influence of temperature on the behaviour of INTEGRAL n-type HPGe detectors irradiated with fast neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Kandel, B; Albernhe, F; Frabel, P; Cordier, B; Tauzin, G; Crespin, S; Coszach, R; Denis, J M; Leleux, P

    1999-01-01

    Several INTEGRAL n-type HPGe detectors have been irradiated by fast neutrons at different temperatures and their performances have been evaluated. Their behaviour during warm-up and cool-down cycles following the irradiations show evidence for irreversible temperature effects above 100 K. The detectors recovery after annealing was also studied.

  2. Well-type HPGe-detector absolute-peak-efficiency calibration and true-coincidence correction

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, T K; Tseng, C L

    1999-01-01

    A personal-computer-based program SWELL has been developed for well-type HPGe detector effective-solid-angle calculation. This program is very useful in constructing the absolute-peak efficiency (epsilon sub p) versus gamma-ray energy (E subgamma) curves for different sample geometries based on a pre-determined epsilon sub p under a reference counting geometry. The validity of using this program for epsilon sub p (E subgamma) conversion was successfully demonstrated for photons in the energy range approx 20 keV-1.5 MeV; the overall uncertainty can be controlled to be within 3%. In addition, a semi-empirical method has been developed to estimate the true-coincidence correction (COI) factor for well-type HPGe detector. Results based on sup 6 sup 0 Co, sup 1 sup 3 sup 9 Ce, sup 1 sup 3 sup 3 Ba and sup 5 sup 9 Fe sources indicated that the estimated COI factors are in good agreement with the experimentally validated COI values.

  3. True coincidence summing corrections for an extended energy range HPGe detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venegas-Argumedo, Y. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Miguel de Cervantes 120, Chihuahua, Chih 31109 (Mexico); M.S. Student at CIMAV (Mexico); Montero-Cabrera, M. E., E-mail: elena.montero@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Miguel de Cervantes 120, Chihuahua, Chih 31109 (Mexico)

    2015-07-23

    True coincidence summing (TCS) effect for natural radioactive families of U-238 and Th-232 represents a problem when an environmental sample with a close source-detector geometry measurement is performed. By using a certified multi-nuclide standard source to calibrate an energy extended range (XtRa) HPGe detector, it is possible to obtain an intensity spectrum slightly affected by the TCS effect with energies from 46 to 1836 keV. In this work, the equations and some other considerations required to calculate the TCS correction factor for isotopes of natural radioactive chains are described. It is projected a validation of the calibration, performed with the IAEA-CU-2006-03 samples (soil and water)

  4. Field analyses of (238)U and (226)Ra in two uranium mill tailings piles from Niger using portable HPGe detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déjeant, Adrien; Bourva, Ludovic; Sia, Radia; Galoisy, Laurence; Calas, Georges; Phrommavanh, Vannapha; Descostes, Michael

    2014-11-01

    The radioactivities of (238)U and (226)Ra in mill tailings from the U mines of COMINAK and SOMAÏR in Niger were measured and quantified using a portable High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. The (238)U and (226)Ra activities were measured under field conditions on drilling cores with 600s measurements and without any sample preparation. Field results were compared with those obtained by Inductive Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and emanometry techniques. This comparison indicates that gamma-ray absorption by such geological samples does not cause significant deviations. This work shows the feasibility of using portable HPGe detector in the field as a preliminary method to observe variations of radionuclides concentration with the aim of identifying samples of interest. The HPGe is particularly useful for samples with strong secular disequilibrium such as mill tailings.

  5. Effects due to a Pu-C source on a HPGe detector and the corresponding neutron shielding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建勇; 傅成栋; 莫晓虎; 张子良; 李道武; 王宝义

    2011-01-01

    A gamma spectrum of a Pu-C source is measured using a p-type HPGe detector, whose three peaks (full energy, single-escape and double-escape peak) can be used as a calibration source for the beam energy measurement system of BEPCII. The effect of fast neut

  6. Improvement studies on neutron-gamma separation in HPGe detectors by using neural networks

    CERN Document Server

    Akkoyun, Serkan; Kara, S Okan

    2013-01-01

    The neutrons emitted in heavy-ion fusion-evaporation (HIFE) reactions together with the gamma-rays cause unwanted backgrounds in gamma-ray spectra. Especially in the nuclear reactions, where relativistic ion beams (RIBs) are used, these neutrons are serious problem. They have to be rejected in order to obtain clearer gamma-ray peaks. In this study, the radiation energy and three criteria which were previously determined for separation between neutron and gamma-rays in the HPGe detectors have been used in artificial neural network (ANN) for improving of the decomposition power. According to the preliminary results obtained from ANN method, the ratio of neutron rejection has been improved by a factor of 1.27 and the ratio of the lost in gamma-rays has been decreased by a factor of 0.50.

  7. Estimation of background spectrum in a shielded HPGe detector using Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhat, M E; Wang, Yifang

    2014-02-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are powerful tools used to estimate the background γ-radiation detected by high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry systems with a HPGe (high purity germanium) detector contained inside a lead shield. The purpose of this work was to examine the applicability of Monte Carlo simulations to predict the optimal lead thickness necessary to reduce the background effect in spectrometer measurements. GEANT4 code was applied to simulate the background radiation spectrum at different thicknesses of lead. The simulated results were compared with experimental measurements of background radiation taken at the same shielding thickness. The results show that the background radiation detected depends on the thickness, size and lining of the shield. Simulation showed that 12 cm lead thick is the optimal shielding thickness.

  8. Hunting up low-mass bosons from the Sun using HPGe detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvat, R. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Kekez, D., E-mail: Dalibor.Kekez@irb.h [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Krcmar, M.; Krecak, Z.; Ljubicic, A. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2011-05-02

    In this experiment we aim to look for keV-mass bosons emitted from the Sun, by looking at a process analogous to the photoelectric/Compton effect inside the HPGe detector. Their coupling to both electrons and nucleons is assumed. For masses above 25 keV, the mass dependence of our limit on the scalar-electron coupling reveals a constraint which proves stronger than that obtained recently and based on the very good agreement between the measured and predicted solar neutrino flux from the {sup 8}B reaction. On the other hand, the mass dependence of our limit on the scalar-proton/electron coupling together entails a limit on a possible Yukawa addition to the gravitational inverse square low. Such a constraint on the Yukawa interactions proves much stronger than that derived from the latest AFM Casimir force measurement.

  9. Hunting up low-mass bosons from the Sun using HPGe detector

    CERN Document Server

    Horvat, R; Krcmar, M; Krecak, Z; Ljubicic, A

    2011-01-01

    In this experiment we aim to look for keV-mass bosons emitted from the Sun, by looking at a process analogous to the photoelectric/Compton effect inside the HPGe detector. Their coupling to both electrons and nucleons is assumed. For masses above 25 keV, the mass dependence of our limit on the scalar-electron coupling reveals a constraint which proves stronger than that obtained recently and based on the very good agreement between the measured and predicted solar neutrino flux from the ^{8}B reaction. On the other hand, the mass dependence of our limit on the scalar-proton/electron coupling together entails a limit on a possible Yukawa addition to the gravitational inverse square low. Such a constraint on the Yukawa interactions proves much stronger than that derived from the latest AFM Casimir force measurement.

  10. A primary standard source of radon-222 based on the HPGe detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, M Y A; Vasyanovich, M; Zhukovsky, M

    2017-02-01

    The present paper describes the prototype of a calibration standard system for radon concentrations to be used in establishing the traceability of radon concentration measurements in dwellings. Radon gas was generated with a radium-226 solid source in a certified volume as a closed system. The activity of the radon that was released in the closed system was determined from the difference between the absolute activity of the standard radium solid source and the residual radon decay products ((214)Bi or (214)Pb). A high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector, which was calibrated using gamma reference standard sources, was used to measure the activity of a radium solid source and radon decay products ((214)Bi or (214)Pb). The emanation factor of the (226)Ra source was controlled online with the HPGe detector. Radon activity was achieved at ~1500±45Bq from the radium source at 3.95±0.2kBq under equilibrium conditions. After this activity, the radon gas was transferred into the closed system producing radon activity concentrations of 31.1±0.3kBq/m(3). Systematic errors were found of less than 4% with a random error around 0.5%. The random error is generally associated with the estimation of the count rate of the measured radon progenies ((214)Po and (214)Po for alpha measurements or (214)Pb and (214)Bi for gamma measurements), but systematic errors are associated with the errors introduced by the instrumentation and measurement technique. The system that was developed has a high degree of accuracy and can be recommended as a national or regional prototype standard of radon activity concentration to calibrate different working radon measurement devices.

  11. Spectral Study of a Broad Energy HPGe Detector for First Measurement of Coherent Neutrino Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surbrook, Jason; Green, Matthew

    2014-09-01

    Intense neutrino flux at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the energy domain below Eν = 50 MeV makes SNS a suitable location for measurement of Coherent Neutrino Scattering. Coherent scattering is assumed to occupy vital roles in supernovae (SN) events and measurement offers promising insight into SN mechanics and advancements in SN- ν detection. Furthermore, this interaction is well-calculable and therefore, a strong test of the Standard Model. P-Type Point Contact High-purity germanium detectors are excellent candidates for this measurement due to their sensitivity to low-energy nuclear recoils. One such, a Canberra Broad Energy HPGe detector, was tested for quality degradation from exposure to fast neutrons in the SNS target building, to assess usefulness in a future coherent scattering experiment. Analysis of the lead-shielded spectra was handled using tools developed for the Majorana Demonstrator neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment. Broad spectrum energy resolution and 68Ge decay rates were calculated. This poster will present findings that will help determine this detector's eligibility and exposure limitations for measurement in a future coherent neutrino scattering experiment at the SNS.

  12. Gamma-gamma coincidence performance of LaBr3:Ce scintillation detectors vs HPGe detectors in high count-rate scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, A; Yoho, M; Landsberger, S; Durbin, M; Biegalski, S; Meier, D; Schwantes, J

    2017-04-01

    A radiation detection system consisting of two cerium doped lanthanum bromide (LaBr3:Ce) scintillation detectors in a gamma-gamma coincidence configuration has been used to demonstrate the advantages that coincident detection provides relative to a single detector, and the advantages that LaBr3:Ce detectors provide relative to high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. Signal to noise ratios of select photopeak pairs for these detectors have been compared to high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors in both single and coincident detector configurations in order to quantify the performance of each detector configuration. The efficiency and energy resolution of LaBr3:Ce detectors have been determined and compared to HPGe detectors. Coincident gamma-ray pairs from the radionuclides (152)Eu and (133)Ba have been identified in a sample that is dominated by (137)Cs. Gamma-gamma coincidence successfully reduced the Compton continuum from the large (137)Cs peak, revealed several coincident gamma energies characteristic of these nuclides, and improved the signal-to-noise ratio relative to single detector measurements. LaBr3:Ce detectors performed at count rates multiple times higher than can be achieved with HPGe detectors. The standard background spectrum consisting of peaks associated with transitions within the LaBr3:Ce crystal has also been significantly reduced. It is shown that LaBr3:Ce detectors have the unique capability to perform gamma-gamma coincidence measurements in very high count rate scenarios, which can potentially benefit nuclear safeguards in situ measurements of spent nuclear fuel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Modeling the impact of uncertainty in detector specification on efficiency values of a HPGe detector using ANGLE software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Maurice

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to model the impact of uncertainties in the engineering specifications of a typical p-type HPGe detector on the efficiency values when the measured soil sample is in contact geometry with the detector. We introduce a parameter named the normalized sensitivity impact which allows a comparative analysis to be made of the impact of the detector specification uncertainties and develop a correction factor table for the most important parameters. The areas of the detector most susceptible to error were found to be the crystal geometry, vacuum layer above the crystal and the bulletizing radius. In all cases the major impacts were mathematically modeled - for the first time - and found to vary either quadratically or logarithmically over the energy range of 180 keV to 1500 keV. Finally, we propose a set of detector characterization values that may be used in ANGLE for generating a reference efficiency curve using the efficiency transfer method inherent in this software. These values are to be used with the understanding that their uncertainty impact on the full-peak efficiency though not very significant in this counting arrangement, is not non-zero.

  14. Crosstalk corrections for improved energy resolution with highly segmented HPGe-detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruyneel, Bart [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Uni zu Koeln, ZuelpicherStr. 77, D-50937 Koeln (Germany)], E-mail: bart.bruyneel@ikp.uni-koeln.de; Reiter, Peter; Wiens, Andreas; Eberth, Juergen; Hess, Herbert; Pascovici, Gheorghe; Warr, Nigel [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Uni zu Koeln, ZuelpicherStr. 77, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); Aydin, Sezgin; Bazzacco, Dino [INFN Padova, 35131 Padova (Italy); Recchia, Francesco [INFN Padova, 35131 Padova (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Padova, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2009-09-01

    Crosstalk effects of 36-fold segmented, large volume AGATA HPGe detectors cause shifts in the {gamma}-ray energy measured by the inner core and outer segments as function of segment multiplicity. The positions of the segment sum energy peaks vary approximately linearly with increasing segment multiplicity. The resolution of these peaks deteriorates also linearly as a function of segment multiplicity. Based on single event treatment, two methods were developed in the AGATA Collaboration to correct for the crosstalk induced effects by employing a linear transformation. The matrix elements are deduced from coincidence measurements of {gamma}-rays of various energies as recorded with digital electronics. A very efficient way to determine the matrix elements is obtained by measuring the base line shifts of untriggered segments using {gamma}-ray detection events in which energy is deposited in a single segment. A second approach is based on measuring segment energy values for {gamma}-ray interaction events in which energy is deposited in only two segments. After performing crosstalk corrections, the investigated detector shows a good fit between the core energy and the segment sum energy at all multiplicities and an improved energy resolution of the segment sum energy peaks. The corrected core energy resolution equals the segment sum energy resolution which is superior at all folds compared to the individual uncorrected energy resolutions. This is achieved by combining the two independent energy measurements with the core contact on the one hand and the segment contacts on the other hand.

  15. Interaction position resolution simulations and in-beam measurements of the AGATA HPGe detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederstroem, P.-A., E-mail: P-A.Soderstrom@physics.uu.s [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75121 Uppsala (Sweden); Recchia, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Sezione di Padova, I-35122 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Nyberg, J., E-mail: Johan.Nyberg@physics.uu.s [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75121 Uppsala (Sweden); Al-Adili, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75121 Uppsala (Sweden); Atac, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75121 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ankara University, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey); Aydin, S. [INFN, Sezione di Padova, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Art, Aksaray University, Aksaray 68100 (Turkey); Bazzacco, D. [INFN, Sezione di Padova, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Bednarczyk, P. [The Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Birkenbach, B. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln Zuelpicher Strasse 77, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); Bortolato, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Sezione di Padova, I-35122 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C. [Oliver Lodge Lab., University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Bruyneel, B. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln Zuelpicher Strasse 77, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); Bucurescu, D. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, RO-77125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Calore, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro (Italy); Colosimo, S. [Oliver Lodge Lab., University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Crespi, F.C.L. [INFN Sezione di Milano, Universita di Milano, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Dipt. di Fisica, Universita di Milano, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2011-05-11

    The interaction position resolution of the segmented HPGe detectors of an AGATA triple cluster detector has been studied through Monte Carlo simulations and in an in-beam experiment. A new method based on measuring the energy resolution of Doppler-corrected {gamma}-ray spectra at two different target to detector distances is described. This gives the two-dimensional position resolution in the plane perpendicular to the direction of the emitted {gamma}-ray. The {gamma}-ray tracking was used to determine the full energy of the {gamma}-rays and the first interaction point, which is needed for the Doppler correction. Five different heavy-ion induced fusion-evaporation reactions and a reference reaction were selected for the simulations. The results of the simulations show that the method works very well and gives a systematic deviation of <1mm in the FWHM of the interaction position resolution for the {gamma}-ray energy range from 60 keV to 5 MeV. The method was tested with real data from an in-beam measurement using a {sup 30}Si beam at 64 MeV on a thin {sup 12}C target. Pulse-shape analysis of the digitized detector waveforms and {gamma}-ray tracking was performed to determine the position of the first interaction point, which was used for the Doppler corrections. Results of the dependency of the interaction position resolution on the {gamma}-ray energy and on the energy, axial location and type of the first interaction point, are presented. The FWHM of the interaction position resolution varies roughly linearly as a function of {gamma}-ray energy from 8.5 mm at 250 keV to 4 mm at 1.5 MeV, and has an approximately constant value of about 4 mm in the {gamma}-ray energy range from 1.5 to 4 MeV.

  16. Study on Gamma Full-Energy Peak Efficiency Calibration of HPGe Detector for Bulky Sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>This paper briefly introduces a method for the calibration of the gamma full-energy peak efficiency of HPGe for bulky sources with different geometries and different matrices. Simultaneously, the effects of

  17. Characterisation of an ultra low-background point contact HPGe well-detector for an underground laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, Mikael; Marissens, Gerd; Stroh, Heiko; Lutter, Guillaume; Tzika, Faidra; Marković, Nikola

    2017-08-03

    Since a few years there are well-type HPGe-detectors with a small, point-like, anode contacts available commercially. This paper describes the characterisation of the first ultra low-background, so-called, SAGe™ well detector with regards to resolution and background performance. Inside a passive lead/copper shield in the underground laboratory HADES a background count rate of 690 ± 6d(-1) (268 ± 3d(-1) per kg Ge) was recorded 19 months after taking it underground. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Simulation and real-time analysis of pulse shapes from segmented HPGe-detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlarb, Michael Christian

    2009-11-17

    The capabilities of future HPGe arrays consisting of highly segmented detectors, like AGATA will depend heavily on the performance of {gamma}-ray tracking. The most crucial component in the whole concept is the pulse shape analysis (PSA). The working principle of PSA is to compare the experimental signal shape with signals available from a basis set with known interaction locations. The efficiency of the tracking algorithm hinges on the ability of the PSA to reconstruct the interaction locations accurately, especially for multiple {gamma}-interactions. Given the size of the arrays the PSA algorithm must be run in a real-time environment. A prerequisite to a successful PSA is an accurate knowledge of the detectors response. Making a full coincidence scan of a single AGATA detector, however takes between two and three months, which is too long to produce an experimental signal basis for all detector elements. A straight forward possibility is to use a precise simulation of the detector and to provide a basis of simulated signals. For this purpose the Java Agata Signal Simulation (JASS) was developed in the course of this thesis. The geometry of the detector is given with numerical precision and models describing the anisotropic mobilities of the charge carriers in germanium were taken from the literature. The pulse shapes of the transient and net-charge signals are calculated using weighting potentials on a finite grid. Special care was taken that the interpolation routine not only reproduces the weighting potentials precisely in the highly varying areas of the segment boundaries but also that its performance is independent of the location within the detector. Finally data from a coincidence scan and a pencil beam experiment were used to verify JASS. The experimental signals are reproduced accurately by the simulation. Pulse Shape Analysis (PSA) reconstructs the positions of the individual interactions and the corresponding energy deposits within the detector. This

  19. Application of the Monte Carlo efficiency transfer method to an HPGe detector with the purpose of environmental samples measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morera-Gómez, Yasser; Cartas-Aguila, Héctor A; Alonso-Hernández, Carlos M; Bernal-Castillo, Jose L; Guillén-Arruebarrena, Aniel

    2015-03-01

    Monte Carlo efficiency transfer method was used to determine the full energy peak efficiency of a coaxial n-type HPGe detector. The efficiencies calibration curves for three Certificate Reference Materials were determined by efficiency transfer using a (152)Eu reference source. The efficiency values obtained after efficiency transfer were used to calculate the activity concentration of the radionuclides detected in the three materials, which were measured in a low-background gamma spectrometry system. Reported and calculated activity concentration show a good agreement with mean deviations of 5%, which is satisfactory for environmental samples measurement.

  20. Towards a deep characterization of a 64-fold-pixelated position sensitive detector for a new {gamma}-scanning system of HPGe segmented detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Prieto, A.; Quintana, B. [Laboratorio de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Univ. of Salamanca, 37007 (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    Characterization of the electrical response of the HPGe segmented detectors is one of the current goals for the Nuclear Physics community in order to perform {gamma}-ray tracking or even imaging with these detectors. For this purpose, scanning devices have to be developed to achieve the signal-position association with the highest precision. In this laboratory, a new scanning system, SALSA (Salamanca Lyso-based Scanning Array), consisting on a high spatial resolution {gamma} camera, is a under development. In this work the whole scanning system is presented and first results for the characterization of the {gamma} camera are shown. (authors)

  1. Simulation of the charge collection and signal response of a HPGe double sided strip detector using MGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateu, I., E-mail: isidre.mateu@irap.omp.eu [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Medina, P., E-mail: patrice.medina@aero.obs-mip.fr [IPHC, IN2P3 – CNRS/Université Louis Pasteur, 23 rue du Loess, PB28, Strasbourg Cedex 2, F67037 (France); Roques, J.P., E-mail: jean-pierre.roques@irap.omp.eu [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Jourdain, E., E-mail: elisabeth.jourdain@irap.omp.eu [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France)

    2014-01-21

    This paper aims to present Multi geometry Simulation (MGS), a software intended for the characterization of the signal response of solid state detectors. Its main feature is the calculation of the pulse shapes induced at the electrodes of the detector by a photon–semiconductor interaction occurring at a specific position inside the detector volume. The program uses numerical methods to simulate the drift of the charge carriers generated by the interaction, as the movement of these particles induces the useful signal for detection to the electrodes. After the description of the tool fundamentals, an example of application is presented where MGS was used for simulating a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) double sided strip detector conceived for hard X-ray astronomy. Simulated and measured pulse shapes are compared for interactions occurring at different depths in the detector volume. The comparison focuses on the difference in time of arrival between the anode and cathode pulses, as this measure allows, together with the X/Y information retrieved from the strips, a 3D determination of the photon interaction point, which is an important feature of the detector. A good matching between simulations and measurements is obtained, with a discrepancy less than 0.5 mm between the measured and the simulated depth of the interaction, for an 11 mm thick detector. -- Highlights: • Description of MGS, a tool for the synthesis of the signal response of solid state detectors. • Validation of the simulator through comparison with measurements on a DSSD prototype. • Discussion on the advantages, drawbacks and possible evolutions of MGS.

  2. Validation of an efficiency calibration procedure for a coaxial n-type and a well-type HPGe detector used for the measurement of environmental radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morera-Gómez, Yasser, E-mail: ymore24@gamail.com [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos, AP 5. Ciudad Nuclear, CP 59350 Cienfuegos (Cuba); Departamento de Química y Edafología, Universidad de Navarra, Irunlarrea No 1, Pamplona 31009, Navarra (Spain); Cartas-Aguila, Héctor A.; Alonso-Hernández, Carlos M.; Nuñez-Duartes, Carlos [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos, AP 5. Ciudad Nuclear, CP 59350 Cienfuegos (Cuba)

    2016-05-11

    To obtain reliable measurements of the environmental radionuclide activity using HPGe (High Purity Germanium) detectors, the knowledge of the absolute peak efficiency is required. This work presents a practical procedure for efficiency calibration of a coaxial n-type and a well-type HPGe detector using experimental and Monte Carlo simulations methods. The method was performed in an energy range from 40 to 1460 keV and it can be used for both, solid and liquid environmental samples. The calibration was initially verified measuring several reference materials provided by the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency). Finally, through the participation in two Proficiency Tests organized by IAEA for the members of the ALMERA network (Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity) the validity of the developed procedure was confirmed. The validation also showed that measurement of {sup 226}Ra should be conducted using coaxial n-type HPGe detector in order to minimize the true coincidence summing effect. - Highlights: • An efficiency calibration for a coaxial and a well-type HPGe detector was performed. • The calibration was made using experimental and Monte Carlo simulations methods. • The procedure was verified measuring several reference materials provided by IAEA. • Calibrations were validated through the participation in 2 ALMERA Proficiency Tests.

  3. Response of AGATA Segmented HPGe Detectors to Gamma Rays up to 15.1 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Crespi, F C L; Camera, F; Akkoyun, S; Atac, A; Bazzacco, D; Bellato, M; Benzoni, G; Blasi, N; Bortolato, D; Bottoni, S; Bracco, A; Brambilla, S; Bruyneel, B; Cerutia, S; Ciemala, M; Coelli, S; Eberth, J; Fanin, C; Farnea, E; Gadea, A; Giaz, A; Gottardo, A; Hess, H; Kmiecik, M; Leoni, S; Maj, A; Mengoni, D; Michelagnoli, C; Million, B; Montanari, D; Pellegri, L; Recchia, F; Reiter, P; Riboldi, S; Ur, C A; Vandone, V; Valiente-Dobon, J J; Wieland, O; Wiens, A

    2012-01-01

    The response of AGATA segmented HPGe detectors to gamma rays in the energy range 2-15 MeV was measured. The 15.1 MeV gamma rays were produced using the reaction d(11B,ng)12C at Ebeam = 19.1 MeV, while gamma-rays between 2 to 9 MeV were produced using an Am-Be-Fe radioactive source. The energy resolution and linearity were studied and the energy-to-pulse-height conversion resulted to be linear within 0.05%. Experimental interaction multiplicity distributions are discussed and compared with the results of Geant4 simulations. It is shown that the application of gamma-ray tracking allows a suppression of background radiation following neutron capture by Ge nuclei. Finally the Doppler correction for the 15.1 MeV gamma line, performed using the position information extracted with Pulse-shape Analysis, is discussed.

  4. Search for double beta decay of {sup 136}Ce and {sup 138}Ce with HPGe gamma detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, P. [INFN sezione Roma “Tor Vergata”, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Bernabei, R., E-mail: rita.bernabei@roma2.infn.it [INFN sezione Roma “Tor Vergata”, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “Tor Vergata”, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Boiko, R.S. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Cappella, F. [INFN sezione Roma, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “La Sapienza”, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Cerulli, R. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67010 Assergi (AQ) (Italy); Danevich, F.A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Incicchitti, A. [INFN sezione Roma, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “La Sapienza”, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Kropivyansky, B.N. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Laubenstein, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67010 Assergi (AQ) (Italy); Poda, D.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Polischuk, O.G.; Tretyak, V.I. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); INFN sezione Roma, I-00185 Rome (Italy)

    2014-10-15

    Search for double β decay of {sup 136}Ce and {sup 138}Ce was realized with 732 g of deeply purified cerium oxide sample measured over 1900 h with the help of an ultra-low background HPGe γ detector with a volume of 465 cm{sup 3} at the STELLA facility of the Gran Sasso National Laboratories of the INFN (Italy). New improved half-life limits on double beta processes in the cerium isotopes were set at the level of lim⁡T{sub 1/2}∼10{sup 17}–10{sup 18} yr; many of them are even two orders of magnitude larger than the best previous results.

  5. Development of cryogenic CMOS Readout ASICs for the Point-Contact HPGe Detectors for Dark Matter Search and Neutrino Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhi; He, Li; Liu, Feng; Liu, Yinong; Xue, Tao; Li, Yulan; Yue, Qian

    2017-05-01

    The paper presents the developments of two cryogenic readout ASICs for the point-contact HPGe detectors for dark matter search and neutrino experiments. Extremely low noise readout electronics were demanded and the capability of working at cryogenic temperatures may bring great advantages. The first ASIC was a monolithic CMOS charge sensitive preamplifier with its noise optimized for ∼1 pF input capacitance. The second ASIC was a waveform recorder based on switched capacitor array. These two ASICs were fabricated in CMOS 350 nm and 180 nm processes respectively. The prototype chips were tested and showed promising results. Both ASICs worked well at low temperature. The preamplifier had achieved ENC of 10.3 electrons with 0.7 pF input capacitance and the SCA chip could run at 9 bit effective resolution and 25 MSPS sampling rate.

  6. A Multi-Contact, Low Capacitance HPGe Detector for High Rate Gamma Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Christopher [XIA LLC, Hayward, CA (United States)

    2014-12-04

    The detection, identification and non-destructive assay of special nuclear materials and nuclear fission by-products are critically important activities in support of nuclear non-proliferation programs. Both national and international nuclear safeguard agencies recognize that current accounting methods for spent nuclear fuel are inadequate from a safeguards perspective. Radiation detection and analysis by gamma-ray spectroscopy is a key tool in this field, but no instrument exists that can deliver the required performance (energy resolution and detection sensitivity) in the presence of very high background count rates encountered in the nuclear safeguards arena. The work of this project addresses this critical need by developing a unique gamma-ray detector based on high purity germanium that has the previously unachievable property of operating in the 1 million counts-per-second range while achieving state-of-the-art energy resolution necessary to identify and analyze the isotopes of interest. The technical approach was to design and fabricate a germanium detector with multiple segmented electrodes coupled to multi-channel high rate spectroscopy electronics. Dividing the germanium detector’s signal electrode into smaller sections offers two advantages; firstly, the energy resolution of the detector is potentially improved, and secondly, the detector is able to operate at higher count rates. The design challenges included the following; determining the optimum electrode configuration to meet the stringent energy resolution and count rate requirements; determining the electronic noise (and therefore energy resolution) of the completed system after multiple signals are recombined; designing the germanium crystal housing and vacuum cryostat; and customizing electronics to perform the signal recombination function in real time. In this phase I work, commercial off-the-shelf electrostatic modeling software was used to develop the segmented germanium crystal geometry

  7. Study of accuracy in the position determination with SALSA, a γ-scanning system for the characterization of segmented HPGe detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Prieto, A., E-mail: alvaro.prieto@usal.es [Laboratorio de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Departamento de Física Fundamental, Universidad de Salamanca, C /Espejo s/n, Salamanca (Spain); Quintana, B.; Martìn, S. [Laboratorio de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Departamento de Física Fundamental, Universidad de Salamanca, C /Espejo s/n, Salamanca (Spain); Domingo-Pardo, C. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular, C /Catedrático José Beltrán, 2, Paterna (Spain)

    2016-07-01

    Accurate characterization of the electric response of segmented high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors as a function of the interaction position is one of the current goals of the Nuclear Physics community seeking to perform γ-ray tracking or even imaging with these detectors. For this purpose, scanning devices must be developed to achieve the signal-position association with the highest precision. With a view to studying the accuracy achieved with SALSA, the SAlamanca Lyso-based Scanning Array, here we report a detailed study on the uncertainty sources and their effect in the position determination inside the HPGe detector to be scanned. The optimization performed on the design of SALSA, aimed at minimizing the effect of the uncertainty sources, afforded an intrinsic uncertainty of ∼2 mm for large coaxial detectors and ∼1 mm for planar ones.

  8. Improved energy resolution of highly segmented HPGe detectors by noise reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiens, A.; Birkenbach, B.; Bruyneel, B.; Eberth, J.; Hess, H.; Pascovici, Gh.; Reiter, P. [Institut fuer Kernpyhsik, Koeln (Germany); Bazzacco, D.; Farnea, E.; Michelagnoli, C.; Recchia, F. [INFN, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Collaboration: for the AGATA Collaboration

    2013-04-15

    Built-in redundancies in highly segmented high-purity Ge detectors are exploited to increase the energy resolution of these semiconductor devices for detection of electromagnetic radiation in the X-ray and {gamma}-ray regime. The information of the two electronically decoupled independent measurements, the cathode and the anode electrodes, provides an improved signal-to-noise ratio through a combination of the individually measured signals performed on an event-by-event basis. The average energy resolution values of the AGATA triple cluster detector for an energy deposition of 60keV was measured to be 1.1 keV (FWHM) for the 36 segments and 1.2 keV for the core. The averaged signals of the core and the segments show an improved resolution value of 0.87 keV which is close to the expected theoretical limit. At higher {gamma}-ray energy the averaging technique allows for an enhanced energy resolution with a FWHM of 2.15keV at 1.3MeV. By means of the position sensitive operation of AGATA a new value for the Fano factor was determined and the noise contributions to the FWHM of a {gamma}-ray peak separated. (orig.)

  9. Determination of the dead layer and full-energy peak efficiency of an HPGe detector using the MCNP code and experimental results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Moeinifar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available One important factor in using an High Purity Germanium (HPGe detector is its efficiency that highly depends on the geometry and absorption factors, so that when the configuration of source-detector geometry is changed, the detector efficiency must be re-measured. The best way of determining the efficiency of a detector is measuring the efficiency of standard sources. But considering the fact that standard sources are hardly available and it is time consuming to find them, determinig the efficiency by simulation which gives enough efficiency in less time, is important. In this study, the dead layer thickness and the full-energy peak efficiency of an HPGe detector was obtained by Monte Carlo simulation, using MCNPX code. For this, we first measured gamma–ray spectra for different sources placed at various distances from the detector and stored the measured spectra obtained. Then the obtained spectra were simulated under similar conditions in vitro.At first, the whole volume of germanium was regarded as active, and the obtaind spectra from calculation were compared with the corresponding experimental spectra. Comparison of the calculated spectra with the measured spectra showed considerable differences. By making small variations in the dead layer thickness of the detector (about a few hundredths of a millimeter in the simulation program, we tried to remove these differences and in this way a dead layer of 0.57 mm was obtained for the detector. By incorporating this value for the dead layer in the simulating program, the full-energy peak efficiency of the detector was then obtained both by experiment and by simulation, for various sources at various distances from the detector, and both methods showed good agreements. Then, using MCNP code and considering the exact measurement system, one can conclude that the efficiency of an HPGe detector for various source-detector geometries can be calculated with rather good accuracy by simulation method

  10. COMPUTATION OF THE FULL ENERGY PEAK EFFICIENCY OF AN HPGE DETECTOR USING A NEW COMPACT SIMULATION ANALYTICAL APPROACH FOR SPHERICAL SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMED M. EL-KHATIB

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The full energy peak efficiency of HPGe detector is computed using a new analytical approach. The approach explains the effect of self-attenuation of the source matrix, the attenuation by the source container and the detector housing materials on the detector efficiency. The experimental calibration process was done using radioactive spherical sources containing aqueous 152Eu radionuclide which produces photons with a wide range of energies from 121 up to 1408 keV. The comparison shows a good agreement between the measured and calculated efficiencies for the detector using spherical sources.

  11. Polarization sensitivity of a segmented HPGe detector up to 10 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutter, C.; Babilon, M.; Bayer, W.; Galaviz, D.; Hartmann, T.; Mohr, P.; Mueller, S.; Rochow, W.; Savran, D.; Sonnabend, K.; Vogt, K.; Volz, S.; Zilges, A. E-mail: zilges@ikp.tu-darmstadt.de

    2002-08-21

    Linear {gamma}-ray polarization can be measured using segmented germanium detectors. The polarization sensitivity of the Compton scattering process leads to asymmetries in the signals of a segmented detector. We have measured the polarization sensitivity of a four-fold segmented large volume germanium detector up to photon energies of approximately 10 MeV for the first time. The detector and its performance are compared to smaller Compton polarimeters which have been analyzed in previous work. A possible application of the described Compton polarimeter will be parity assignments in photon scattering experiments.

  12. Metrological tests of a 200 L calibration source for HPGE detector systems for assay of radioactive waste drums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshkova, T; Mitev, K

    2016-03-01

    In this work we present test procedures, approval criteria and results from two metrological inspections of a certified large volume (152)Eu source (drum about 200L) intended for calibration of HPGe gamma assay systems used for activity measurement of radioactive waste drums. The aim of the inspections was to prove the stability of the calibration source during its working life. The large volume source was designed and produced in 2007. It consists of 448 identical sealed radioactive sources (modules) apportioned in 32 transparent plastic tubes which were placed in a wooden matrix which filled the drum. During the inspections the modules were subjected to tests for verification of their certified characteristics. The results show a perfect compliance with the NIST basic guidelines for the properties of a radioactive certified reference material (CRM) and demonstrate the stability of the large volume CRM-drum after 7 years of operation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Monte Carlo based geometrical model for efficiency calculation of an n-type HPGe detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla Cabal, Fatima, E-mail: fpadilla@instec.c [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas, ' Quinta de los Molinos' Ave. Salvador Allende, esq. Luaces, Plaza de la Revolucion, Ciudad de la Habana, CP 10400 (Cuba); Lopez-Pino, Neivy; Luis Bernal-Castillo, Jose; Martinez-Palenzuela, Yisel; Aguilar-Mena, Jimmy; D' Alessandro, Katia; Arbelo, Yuniesky; Corrales, Yasser; Diaz, Oscar [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas, ' Quinta de los Molinos' Ave. Salvador Allende, esq. Luaces, Plaza de la Revolucion, Ciudad de la Habana, CP 10400 (Cuba)

    2010-12-15

    A procedure to optimize the geometrical model of an n-type detector is described. Sixteen lines from seven point sources ({sup 241}Am, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 22}Na, {sup 60}Co, {sup 57}Co, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 152}Eu) placed at three different source-to-detector distances (10, 20 and 30 cm) were used to calibrate a low-background gamma spectrometer between 26 and 1408 keV. Direct Monte Carlo techniques using the MCNPX 2.6 and GEANT 4 9.2 codes, and a semi-empirical procedure were performed to obtain theoretical efficiency curves. Since discrepancies were found between experimental and calculated data using the manufacturer parameters of the detector, a detail study of the crystal dimensions and the geometrical configuration is carried out. The relative deviation with experimental data decreases from a mean value of 18-4%, after the parameters were optimized.

  14. Monte Carlo based geometrical model for efficiency calculation of an n-type HPGe detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabal, Fatima Padilla; Lopez-Pino, Neivy; Bernal-Castillo, Jose Luis; Martinez-Palenzuela, Yisel; Aguilar-Mena, Jimmy; D'Alessandro, Katia; Arbelo, Yuniesky; Corrales, Yasser; Diaz, Oscar

    2010-12-01

    A procedure to optimize the geometrical model of an n-type detector is described. Sixteen lines from seven point sources ((241)Am, (133)Ba, (22)Na, (60)Co, (57)Co, (137)Cs and (152)Eu) placed at three different source-to-detector distances (10, 20 and 30 cm) were used to calibrate a low-background gamma spectrometer between 26 and 1408 keV. Direct Monte Carlo techniques using the MCNPX 2.6 and GEANT 4 9.2 codes, and a semi-empirical procedure were performed to obtain theoretical efficiency curves. Since discrepancies were found between experimental and calculated data using the manufacturer parameters of the detector, a detail study of the crystal dimensions and the geometrical configuration is carried out. The relative deviation with experimental data decreases from a mean value of 18-4%, after the parameters were optimized.

  15. Characterization of different surface passivation routes applied to a planar HPGe detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maggioni, G.; Gelain, M.; Carturan, S. [University of Padova, Department of Physics and Astronomy ' ' G. Galilei' ' , Padova (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Legnaro (Italy); Napoli, D.R. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Legnaro (Italy); Eberth, J. [Universitaet zu Koeln, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Koeln (Germany); Grimaldi, M.G.; Tati, S. [University of Catania, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Catania (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    The effects of different passivation methods applied to the same planar high-purity germanium gamma radiation detector have been studied. By means of the scanning with a low-energy collimated gamma source, it has been found that the surface passivation gives rise to a dead layer below the intrinsic Ge surface, whose thickness and distribution are strongly dependent on the passivation type. Measured bulk detector properties like the peak-to-Compton ratio and efficiency have shown a dependence on the passivation and an influence of the passivation type on the depletion voltage, whilst the optimal energy resolution has been the same for all the passivations. (orig.)

  16. Precise determination of HPGe detector efficiency for gamma spectrometry measurements of environmental samples with variable geometry and density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrera Manuel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A methodology to determine the full energy peak efficiency (FEPE for precise gamma spectrometry measurements of environmental samples with high-purity germanium (HPGe detector, valid when this efficiency depends on the energy of the radiation E, the height of the cylindrical sample H, and its density ρ, is introduced. The methodology consists of an initial calibration as a function of E and H and the application of a self-attenuation factor, depending on the density of the sample ρ, in order to correct for the different attenuation of the generic sample in relation to the measured standard. The obtained efficiency can be used in the whole range of interest studied, E = 120–2000 keV, H = 1–5 cm, and ρ = 0.8–1.7 g/cm3, being its uncertainty below 5%. The efficiency has been checked by the measurement of standards, resulting in a good agreement between experimental and expected activities. The described methodology can be extended to similar situations when samples show geometric and compaction differences.

  17. Response of AGATA segmented HPGe detectors to gamma rays up to 15.1 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespi, F.C.L., E-mail: fabio.crespi@mi.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano, Milano I-20133 (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano, Milano I-20133 (Italy); Avigo, R.; Camera, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano, Milano I-20133 (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano, Milano I-20133 (Italy); Akkoyun, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Cumhuriyet University, Campus 58140, Sivas (Turkey); Ataç, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ankara University, Tandoðan 06100, Ankara (Turkey); Bazzacco, D; Bellato, M. [INFN, Sezione di Padova, Padova I-35131 (Italy); Benzoni, G.; Blasi, N. [INFN, Sezione di Milano, Milano I-20133 (Italy); Bortolato, D. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro IT-35020 (Italy); Bottoni, S.; Bracco, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano, Milano I-20133 (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano, Milano I-20133 (Italy); Brambilla, S. [INFN, Sezione di Milano, Milano I-20133 (Italy); Bruyneel, B. [CEA-Saclay DSM/IRFU/SPhN, Gif-sur-Yvette 91191 (France); Ceruti, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano, Milano I-20133 (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano, Milano I-20133 (Italy); Ciemała, M. [The Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Coelli, S. [INFN, Sezione di Milano, Milano I-20133 (Italy); Eberth, J. [Institut für Kernphysik, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Str. 77, Köln D-50937 (Germany); Fanin, C.; Farnea, E. [INFN, Sezione di Padova, Padova I-35131 (Italy); and others

    2013-03-21

    The response of AGATA segmented HPGe detectors to gamma rays in the energy range 2–15 MeV was measured. The 15.1 MeV gamma rays were produced using the reaction d({sup 11}B,nγ){sup 12}C at E{sub beam}=19.1 MeV, while gamma rays between 2 and 9 MeV were produced using an Am–Be–Fe radioactive source. The energy resolution and linearity were studied and the energy-to-pulse-height conversion resulted to be linear within 0.05%.Experimental interaction multiplicity distributions are discussed and compared with the results of Geant4 simulations. It is shown that the application of gamma-ray tracking allows a suppression of background radiation caused by n-capture in Ge nuclei. Finally the Doppler correction for the 15.1 MeV gamma line, performed using the position information extracted with Pulse-shape analysis is discussed.

  18. Consistent empirical physical formula construction for recoil energy distribution in HPGe detectors using artificial neural networks

    CERN Document Server

    Akkoyun, Serkan

    2012-01-01

    The gamma-ray tracking technique is one of the highly efficient detection method in experimental nuclear structure physics. On the basis of this method, two gamma-ray tracking arrays, AGATA in Europe and GRETA in the USA, are currently being developed. The interactions of neutrons in these detectors lead to an unwanted background in the gamma-ray spectra. Thus, the interaction points of neutrons in these detectors have to be determined in the gamma-ray tracking process in order to improve photo-peak efficiencies and peak-to-total ratios of the gamma-ray peaks. Therefore, the recoil energy distributions of germanium nuclei due to inelastic scatterings of 1-5 MeV neutrons were obtained both experimentally and using artificial neural networks. Also, for highly nonlinear detector response for recoiling germanium nuclei, we have constructed consistent empirical physical formulas (EPFs) by appropriate layered feed-forward neural networks (LFNNs). These LFNN-EPFs can be used to derive further physical functions whic...

  19. Alpha-event and surface characterisation in segmented true-coaxial HPGe detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Abt, Iris; Gooch, Chris; Irlbeck, Sabine; Liu, Xiang; Palermo, Matteo; Schulz, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    A detailed study of alpha interactions on the passivation layer on the end-plate of a true-coaxial high-purity germanium detector is presented. The observation of alpha events on such a surface indicates an unexpectedly thin so-called "dead layer" of less than 20 {\\mu}m thickness. In addition, the influence of the metalisation close to the end-plate on the time evolution of the output pulses is discussed. The results indicate that alpha contamination can result in events which could be mistaken as signals for neutrinoless double beta decay and provide some guidance on how to prevent this.

  20. Development of portable HPGe spectrometer for in situ measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kail Artjoms

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ applications require a very high level of portability of high-resolution spectrometric equipment. Usage of HPGe detectors for radioactivity measurements in the environment or for nuclear safeguard applications, to combat illicit trafficking of nuclear materials or uranium and plutonium monitoring in nuclear wastes, has become a norm in the recent years. Portable HPGe-based radionuclide spectrometer with electrical cooling has lately appeared on the market for in situ applications. At the same time deterioration of energy resolution associated with vibrations produced by cryocooler or high weight of the instrument, short time of autonomous operation and high price of these spectrometers are limiting their usage in many cases. In this paper we present development results of ultra compact hand held all-in-one spectrometer for in situ measurements based on HPGe detector cooled by liquid nitrogen without listing the above disadvantages.

  1. In-beam measurements of sub-nanosecond nuclear lifetimes with a mixed array of HPGe and LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marginean, N.; Bucurescu, D.; Cata-Danil, G.; Cata-Danil, I.; Deleanu, D.; Filipescu, D.; Ghita, D.; Glodariu, T.; Ivascu, M.; Mihai, C.; Marginean, R.; Negret, A.; Pascu, S.; Sava, T.; Stroe, L.; Suliman, G.; Zamfir, N.V. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), Bucharest (Romania); Balabanski, D.L.; Atanasova, L.; Detistov, P. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), Sofia (Bulgaria); Lalkovski, S.; Deyanova, G.; Gladnishki, K.A.; Kisyov, S.; Radulov, D. [St. Kliment Ohridski University, Sofia (Bulgaria); Daugas, J.M. [CEA, DAM, DIF, Arpajon (France); Georgiev, G.; Lozeva, R. [CSNSM, Orsay (France)

    2010-12-15

    A fast-timing method to determine lifetimes of nuclear states in the sub-nanosecond domain is presented. It is based on in-beam measurements of triple-gamma coincidences in heavy-ion fusion-evaporation reactions, performed with an array of HPGe and LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detectors. The high-energy resolution HPGe detectors are used to define de-exciting cascades, while the fast LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detectors are used to determine the decay time spectra of selected levels fed by these cascades. A special method to treat the time information of an array of fast detectors is employed in order to fully use the efficiency of the array. Two measurements are presented to illustrate the method: a re-determination of the known half-life T{sub 1/2}=0.7 ns of the E{sub x}=205 keV, J{sup {pi}}=7/2{sup +} level in {sup 107}Cd (test experiment), and the determination of a half-life T{sub 1/2}=47 ps for the E{sub x}=367 keV, J{sup {pi}}=3/2{sup +} state of {sup 199}Tl. (orig.)

  2. Monte Carlo analysis of the influence of germanium dead layer thickness on the HPGe gamma detector experimental efficiency measured by use of extended sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chham, E; García, F Piñero; El Bardouni, T; Ferro-García, M Angeles; Azahra, M; Benaalilou, K; Krikiz, M; Elyaakoubi, H; El Bakkali, J; Kaddour, M

    2014-09-22

    We have carried out a study to figure out the influence of crystal inactive-layer thickness on gamma spectra measured by an HPGe detector. The thickness of this dead layer (DL) is not known (no information about it was delivered by the manufacturer) due to the existence of a transition zone where photons are increasingly absorbed. To perform this analyses a virtual model of a Canberra HPGe detector was produced with the aid of MCNPX 2.7 code. The main objective of this work is to produce an optimal modeling for our GPGe detector. To this end, the study included the analysis of the total inactive germanium layer thickness and the active volume that are needed in order to obtain the smallest discrepancy between calculated and experimental efficiencies. Calculations and measurements were performed for all of the radionuclides included in a standard calibration gamma cocktail solution. Different geometry sources were used: a Marinelli and two other new sources represented as S(1) and S(2). The former was used for the determination of the active volume, whereas the two latter were used for the determination of the face and lateral DL, respectively. The model was validated by comparing calculated and experimental full energy peak efficiencies in the 50-1900keV energy range. the results show that the insertion of the DL parameter in the modeling is absolutely essential to reproduce the experimental results, and that the thickness of this DL varies from one position to the other on the detector surface.

  3. Gamma-ray multiplicity measurement of the spontaneous fission decay of 252Cf in a segmented HPGe/BGO detector array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleuel, D L; Bernstein, L A; Burke, J T; Gibelin, J; Heffner, M D; Mintz, J; Norman, E B; Phair, L; Scielzo, N D; Sheets, S A; Snyderman, N J; Stoyer, M A; Wiedeking, M

    2008-04-23

    Coincident {gamma} rays from a {sup 252}Cf source were measured using an array of six segmented high-purity germanium (HPGe) Clover detectors each enclosed by 16 bismuth-germanate (BGO) detectors. The detectors were arranged in a cubic pattern around a 1 {micro}Ci {sup 252}Cf source to cover a large solid angle for {gamma}-ray measurement with a reasonable reconstruction of the multiplicity. Neutron multiplicity was determined in certain cases by identifying the prompt {gamma} rays from individual fission fragment pairs. Multiplicity distributions from previous experiments and theoretical models were convolved with the response function of the array and compared to the present results. These results suggest a {gamma}-ray multiplicity spectrum broader than previous measurements and models, and provide no evidence of correlation with neutron multiplicity.

  4. Gamma-ray multiplicity measurement of the spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf in a segmented HPGe/BGO detector array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleuel, D.L., E-mail: bleuel1@llnl.go [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Bernstein, L.A.; Burke, J.T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Gibelin, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Heffner, M.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Mintz, J. [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Norman, E.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Phair, L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Scielzo, N.D.; Sheets, S.A.; Snyderman, N.J.; Stoyer, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Wiedeking, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-12-21

    Coincident {gamma} rays from a {sup 252}Cf source were measured using an array of six segmented high-purity germanium (HPGe) Clover detectors each enclosed by 16 bismuth-germanate (BGO) detectors. The detectors were arranged in a cubic pattern around a 1{mu}Ci{sup 252}Cf source to cover a large solid angle for {gamma}-ray measurement with a reasonable reconstruction of the multiplicity. Neutron multiplicity was determined in certain cases by identifying the prompt {gamma} rays from individual fission fragment pairs. Multiplicity distributions from previous experiments and theoretical models were convolved with the response function of the array and compared to the present results. These results suggest a {gamma}-ray multiplicity spectrum broader than previous measurements and models, and provide no evidence of correlation with neutron multiplicity.

  5. On the use of mercury as a means of locating background sources in ultra low-background HPGe-detector systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hult, M. [European Commission-Joint Research Centre-Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 111, GB-2440 Geel (Belgium)], E-mail: mikael.hult@ec.europa.eu; Gasparro, J.; Lindahl, P.; Marissens, G.; Fessler, A. [European Commission-Joint Research Centre-Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 111, GB-2440 Geel (Belgium); Johnston, Peter N. [Applied Physics, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, GPO Box 2476V, Melbourne 3001 (Australia)

    2008-06-15

    In low-level gamma-ray spectrometry, it is common to measure large samples in order to obtain low detection limits for the massic activity (in mBq/kg). These samples have significant shielding effects. In order to study whether the background sources in three ultra low-background HPGe detectors were located in the detector or in the shield, Marinelli beakers filled with hyperpure mercury were measured. Although the measurements were hampered by the presence of cosmogenically produced {sup 194}Hg, information regarding the major background location of {sup 40}K, {sup 60}Co, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 228}Th could be obtained.

  6. Search for double beta processes in {sup 106}Cd with enriched {sup 106}CdWO{sub 4} crystal scintillator in coincidence with four crystals HPGe detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danevich, F. A., E-mail: danevich@kinr.kiev.ua; Chernyak, D. M.; Mokina, V. M. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; D’Angelo, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma ”Tor Vergata”, I-00133 Rome (Italy); INFN sezione Roma ”Tor Vergata”, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Brudanin, V. B. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Cappella, F.; Caracciolo, V.; Cerulli, R.; Laubenstein, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67100 Assergi (AQ) (Italy); Incicchitti, A. [INFN, sezione di Roma ”La Sapienza”, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma ”La Sapienza”, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Poda, D. V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière, 91405 Orsay (France); Polischuk, O. G.; Tretyak, V. I. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); INFN, sezione di Roma ”La Sapienza”, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Tupitsyna, I. A. [Institute of Scintillation Materials, 61001 Kharkiv (Ukraine)

    2015-10-28

    A radiopure cadmium tungstate crystal scintillator, enriched in {sup 106}Cd ({sup 106}CdWO{sub 4}), was used to search for double beta decay processes in {sup 106}Cd in coincidence with an ultra-low background set-up containing four high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors in a single cryostat. The experiment has been completed after 13085 h of data taking. New improved limits on most of the double beta processes in {sup 106}Cd have been set on the level of 10{sup 20}−10{sup 21} yr. Tn particular, the half-life limit on the two neutrino electron capture with positron emission, T{sub 1/2} ≥ 1.8 × 10{sup 21} yr, reached the region of theoretical predictions.

  7. Improvements in the simulation of the efficiency of a HPGe detector with Monte Carlo code MCNP5; Mejoras en la simulacion de la eficiencia de un detector HPGe con el codigo Monte Carlo MCNP5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo, S.; Querol, A.; Rodenas, J.; Verdu, G.

    2014-07-01

    in this paper we propose to perform a simulation model using the MCNP5 code and a registration form meshing to improve the simulation efficiency of the detector in the range of energies ranging from 50 to 2000 keV. This meshing is built by FMESH MCNP5 registration code that allows a mesh with cells of few microns. The photon and electron flow is calculated in the different cells of the mesh which is superimposed on detector geometry. It analyzes the variation of efficiency (related to the variation of energy deposited in the active volume). (Author)

  8. Determination of the detection efficiency of a HPGe detector by means of the MCNP 4A simulation code; Determinacion de la eficiencia de deteccion de un detector HPGe mediante el codigo de simulacion MCNP 4A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, B. [Centro Regional de Estudios Nucleares, A.P. 579C, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    In the majority of the laboratories, the calibration in efficiency of the detector is carried out by means of the standard sources measurement of gamma photons that have a determined activity, or for matrices that contain a variety of radionuclides that can embrace the energy range of interest. Given the experimental importance that has the determination from the curves of efficiency to the effects of establishing the quantitative results, is appealed to the simulation of the response function of the detector used in the Regional Center of Nuclear Studies inside the energy range of 80 keV to 1400 keV varying the density of the matrix, by means of the application of the Monte Carlo code MCNP-4A. The adjustment obtained shows an acceptance grade in the range of 100 to 600 keV, with a smaller percentage discrepancy to 5%. (Author)

  9. Modeling the detection efficiency of an HP-Ge detector for use in boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Satoshi; Wakita, Akihisa; Ito, Masashi; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Nishioka, Shie; Iijima, Kotaro; Kobayashi, Kazuma; Nishio, Teiji; Igaki, Hiroshi; Itami, Jun

    2017-07-01

    The multi-foil method is commonly used to determine upon an energy spectrum of neutrons in boron neutron capture therapy. The method requires to measure the radioactivation of the foils. This study develops a simple modeling procedure of a high-purity Ge detector, which is used to measure the radioactivation, in order to calculate the detection efficiency with GEANT4. By changing four parameters from their manufacturing specifications of the detector, the simulated detection efficiency is able to reproduce the actual detection efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Response function of an HPGe detector simulated through MCNP 4A varying the density and chemical composition of the matrix; Funcion respuesta de un detector HPGe simulada mediante MCNP 4A variando la densidad y composicion quimica de la matriz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal A, B.; Mireles G, F.; Quirino T, L.; Pinedo, J.L. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas (Mexico)]. e-mail: bleal79@yahoo.com.mx

    2005-07-01

    In the area of the Radiological Safety it is required of a calibrated detection system in energy and efficiency for the determination of the concentration in activity in samples that vary in chemical composition and by this in density. The area of Nuclear Engineering requires to find the grade of isotopic enrichment of the uranium of the Sub-critic Nuclear Chicago 9000 Mark. Given the experimental importance that has the determination from the curves of efficiency to the effects of establishing the quantitative results, is appealed to the simulation of the response function of the detector used in the Regional Center of Nuclear Studies inside the range of energy of 80 keV to 1400 keV varying the density of the matrix and the chemical composition by means of the application of the Monte Carlo code MCNP-4A. The obtained results in the simulation of the response function of the detector show a grade of acceptance in the range from 500 to 1400 keV energy, with a smaller percentage discrepancy to 10%, in the range of low energy that its go from 59 to 400 keV, the percentage discrepancy varies from 17% until 30%, which is manifested in the opposing isotopic relationship for 5 fuel rods of the Sub critic nuclear assemble. (Author)

  11. Advanced pulse-shape analysis and implementation of gamma-ray tracking in a position-sensitive coaxial HPGe detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Austin Lee [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-11-12

    A new concept in g-radiation detection utilizing highly segmented positionsensitive germanium detectors is currently being developed. Through pulse-shape analysis these detectors will provide the three-dimensional position and energy of individual γ-ray interactions and allow the full-energy and direction vectors of the incident radiation to be reconstructed in a process termed tracking. Here, a prototype segmented detector has been utilized in the assessment of theoretically modeled pulse shapes to gain insight into the factors that effect their agreement with those experimentally measured. It was found that simple modeling of the charge-collection process would provide fair agreement between calculated and experimental pulse shapes. However, in some cases significant deviations between the two were present. This was a result of insufficient modeling of all the processes involved in pulse-shape formation. Factors contributing to this include the three-dimensional spatial distribution of the charge carriers, the path of the primary electron, and fluctuations in the electric fields near electrode surfaces and due to variations in impurity concentrations. Additionally, the sensitivity of pulse shapes to changes in the interaction location has been studied. The results indicate that single interactions with energy deposition of 662 keV can potentially be localized to better than the desired position resolution of 2 mm. However, when the study was extended to two interactions totaling 662 keV a different conclusion was reached. It was shown that the pulse shapes resulting from two interactions were ambiguous with that of pulse shapes from single interactions over dimensions greater than 2 mm in the larger detector segments. The size of these segments in future detectors must be reduced in order to increase their sensitivity. Ultimately, a signal decomposition algorithm was developed and implemented to extract the position and energy of γ-ray interactions, occurring

  12. Fast analytical methods for the correction of signal random time-shifts and application to segmented HPGe detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Désesquelles, P; Korichi, A; Blanc, F Le; Olariu, A; Petrache, C M; 10.1016/j.nimb.2008.11.042

    2009-01-01

    Detection systems rely more and more on on-line or off-line comparison of detected signals with basis signals in order to determine the characteristics of the impinging particles. Unfortunately, these comparisons are very sensitive to the random time shifts that may alter the signal delivered by the detectors. We present two fast algebraic methods to determine the value of the time shift and to enhance the reliability of the comparison to the basis signals.

  13. Direct determination of the hit locations from experimental HPGe pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Désesquelles, P., E-mail: Pierre.Desesquelles@in2p3.fr [Univ. Paris-Sud, CSNSM CNRS/IN2P3, 15 rue G. Clémenceau, 91405 Orsay (France); Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C.; Cresswell, J.R.; Dimmock, M.R. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, The University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I.H. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Ljungvall, J. [Univ. Paris-Sud, CSNSM CNRS/IN2P3, 15 rue G. Clémenceau, 91405 Orsay (France); Nelson, L. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, The University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Nga, D.-T. [Univ. Paris-Sud, CSNSM CNRS/IN2P3, 15 rue G. Clémenceau, 91405 Orsay (France); Nolan, P.J.; Rigby, S.V. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, The University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Simpson, J. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Van-Oanh, N.-T. [Univ. Paris-Sud, LCP UMR8000 CNRS, 15 rue G. Clémenceau, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2013-11-21

    The gamma-tracking technique optimises the determination of the energy and emission angle of gamma-rays detected by modern segmented HPGe detectors. This entails the determination, using the delivered pulse shapes, of the interaction points of the gamma-ray within the crystal. The direct method presented here allows the localisation of the hits using only a large sample of pulses detected in the actual operating conditions. No external crystal scanning system or pulse shape simulation code is needed. In order to validate this method, it is applied to sets of pulses obtained using the University of Liverpool scanning system. The hit locations are determined by the method with good precision.

  14. The BABAR detector: Upgrades, operation and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; del Amo Sanchez, P.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Hicheur, A.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prudent, X.; Robbe, P.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Garra Tico, J.; Lopez, L.; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; Chen, G. P.; Chen, J. C.; Qi, N. D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y. S.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Abrams, G. S.; Battaglia, M.; Borgland, A. W.; Breon, A. B.; Brown, D. N.; Button-Shafer, J.; Cahn, R. N.; Charles, E.; Clark, A. R.; Day, C. T.; Furman, M.; Gill, M. S.; Groysman, Y.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kadel, R. W.; Kadyk, J. A.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kral, J. F.; Kukartsev, G.; LeClerc, C.; Levi, M. E.; Lynch, G.; Merchant, A. M.; Mir, L. M.; Oddone, P. J.; Orimoto, T. J.; Osipenkov, I. L.; Pripstein, M.; Roe, N. A.; Romosan, A.; Ronan, M. T.; Shelkov, V. G.; Suzuki, A.; Tackmann, K.; Tanabe, T.; Wenzel, W. A.; Zisman, M.; Barrett, M.; Bright-Thomas, P. G.; Ford, K. E.; Harrison, T. J.; Hart, A. J.; Hawkes, C. M.; Knowles, D. J.; Morgan, S. E.; O'Neale, S. W.; Penny, R. C.; Smith, D.; Soni, N.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, N. K.; Goetzen, K.; Held, T.; Koch, H.; Kunze, M.; Lewandowski, B.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peters, K.; Schmuecker, H.; Schroeder, T.; Steinke, M.; Fella, A.; Antonioli, E.; Boyd, J. T.; Chevalier, N.; Cottingham, W. N.; Foster, B.; Mackay, C.; Walker, D.; Abe, K.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T.; Fulsom, B. G.; Hearty, C.; Knecht, N. S.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Thiessen, D.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; McKemey, A. K.; Randle-Conde, A.; Saleem, M.; Sherwood, D. J.; Teodorescu, L.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Korol, A. A.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Telnov, V. I.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Yushkov, A. N.; Best, D. S.; Bondioli, M.; Bruinsma, M.; Chao, M.; Curry, S.; Eschrich, I.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; Martin, E. C.; McMahon, S.; Mommsen, R. K.; Stoker, D. P.; Abachi, S.; Buchanan, C.; Hartfiel, B. L.; Weinstein, A. J. R.; Atmacan, H.; Foulkes, S. D.; Gary, J. W.; Layter, J.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Shen, B. C.; Vitug, G. M.; Wang, K.; Yasin, Z.; Zhang, L.; Hadavand, H. K.; Hill, E. J.; Paar, H. P.; Rahatlou, S.; Schwanke, U.; Sharma, V.; Berryhill, J. W.; Campagnari, C.; Cunha, A.; Dahmes, B.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Kuznetsova, N.; Levy, S. L.; Lu, A.; Mazur, M. A.; Richman, J. D.; Verkerke, W.; Beck, T. W.; Beringer, J.; Eisner, A. M.; Flacco, C. J.; Grillo, A. A.; Grothe, M.; Heusch, C. A.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Martinez, A. J.; Nesom, G.; Schalk, T.; Schmitz, R. E.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Spencer, E.; Spradlin, P.; Turri, M.; Walkowiak, W.; Wang, L.; Wilder, M.; Williams, D. C.; Wilson, M. G.; Winstrom, L. O.; Chen, E.; Cheng, C. H.; Doll, D. A.; Dorsten, M. P.; Dvoretskii, A.; Echenard, B.; Erwin, R. J.; Fang, F.; Flood, K.; Hitlin, D. G.; Metzler, S.; Narsky, I.; Oyang, J.; Piatenko, T.; Porter, F. C.; Ryd, A.; Samuel, A.; Yang, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andreassen, R.; Devmal, S.; Geld, T. L.; Jayatilleke, S.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Mishra, K.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Abe, T.; Antillon, E. A.; Barillari, T.; Becker, J.; Blanc, F.; Bloom, P. C.; Chen, S.; Clifton, Z. C.; Derrington, I. M.; Destree, J.; Dima, M. O.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Gilman, J. D.; Hachtel, J.; Hirschauer, J. F.; Johnson, D. R.; Kreisel, A.; Nagel, M.; Nauenberg, U.; Olivas, A.; Rankin, P.; Roy, J.; Ruddick, W. O.; Smith, J. G.; Ulmer, K. A.; van Hoek, W. C.; Wagner, S. R.; West, C. G.; Zhang, J.; Ayad, R.; Blouw, J.; Chen, A.; Eckhart, E. A.; Harton, J. L.; Hu, T.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Winklmeier, F.; Zeng, Q. L.; Altenburg, D.; Feltresi, E.; Hauke, A.; Jasper, H.; Karbach, M.; Merkel, J.; Petzold, A.; Spaan, B.; Wacker, K.; Brandt, T.; Brose, J.; Colberg, T.; Dahlinger, G.; Dickopp, M.; Eckstein, P.; Futterschneider, H.; Kaiser, S.; Kobel, M. J.; Krause, R.; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R.; Mader, W. F.; Maly, E.; Nogowski, R.; Otto, S.; Schubert, J.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Sundermann, J. E.; Volk, A.; Wilden, L.; Bernard, D.; Brochard, F.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Dohou, F.; Ferrag, S.; Latour, E.; Mathieu, A.; Renard, C.; Schrenk, S.; T'Jampens, S.; Thiebaux, Ch.; Vasileiadis, G.; Verderi, M.; Anjomshoaa, A.; Bernet, R.; Clark, P. J.; Lavin, D. R.; Muheim, F.; Playfer, S.; Robertson, A. I.; Swain, J. E.; Watson, J. E.; Xie, Y.; Andreotti, D.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Carassiti, V.; Cecchi, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Evangelisti, F.; Fioravanti, E.; Franchini, P.; Garzia, I.; Landi, L.; Luppi, E.; Malaguti, R.; Negrini, M.; Padoan, C.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Sarti, A.; Anulli, F.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; Finocchiaro, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; de Sangro, R.; Santoni, M.; Zallo, A.; Bagnasco, S.; Buzzo, A.; Capra, R.; Contri, R.; Crosetti, G.; Lo Vetere, M.; Macri, M. M.; Minutoli, S.; Monge, M. R.; Musico, P.; Passaggio, S.; Pastore, F. C.; Patrignani, C.; Pia, M. G.; Robutti, E.; Santroni, A.; Tosi, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Prasad, V.; Bailey, S.; Brandenburg, G.; Chaisanguanthum, K. S.; Lee, C. L.; Morii, M.; Won, E.; Wu, J.; Adametz, A.; Dubitzky, R. S.; Marks, J.; Schenk, S.; Uwer, U.; Klose, V.; Lacker, H. M.; Aspinwall, M. L.; Bhimji, W.; Bowerman, D. A.; Dauncey, P. D.; Egede, U.; Flack, R. L.; Gaillard, J. R.; Gunawardane, N. J. W.; Morton, G. W.; Nash, J. A.; Nikolich, M. B.; Panduro Vazquez, W.; Sanders, P.; Smith, D.; Taylor, G. P.; Tibbetts, M.; Behera, P. K.; Chai, X.; Charles, M. J.; Grenier, G. J.; Hamilton, R.; Lee, S.-J.; Mallik, U.; Meyer, N. T.; Chen, C.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Dong, L.; Eyges, V.; Fischer, P.-A.; Lamsa, J.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rubin, A. E.; Gao, Y. Y.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Lae, C. K.; Schott, G.; Albert, J. N.; Arnaud, N.; Beigbeder, C.; Breton, D.; Davier, M.; Derkach, D.; Dû, S.; Firmino da Costa, J.; Grosdidier, G.; Höcker, A.; Laplace, S.; Le Diberder, F.; Lepeltier, V.; Lutz, A. M.; Malaescu, B.; Nief, J. Y.; Petersen, T. C.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pruvot, S.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Serrano, J.; Sordini, V.; Stocchi, A.; Tocut, V.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Wang, L. L.; Wormser, G.; Bionta, R. M.; Brigljević, V.; Lange, D. J.; Simani, M. C.; Wright, D. M.; Bingham, I.; Burke, J. P.; Chavez, C. A.; Coleman, J. P.; Forster, I. J.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; George, M.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Kay, M.; Parry, R. J.; Payne, D. J.; Schofield, K. C.; Sloane, R. J.; Touramanis, C.; Azzopardi, D. E.; Bellodi, G.; Bevan, A. J.; Clarke, C. K.; Cormack, C. M.; Di Lodovico, F.; Dixon, P.; George, K. A.; Menges, W.; Potter, R. J. L.; Sacco, R.; Shorthouse, H. W.; Sigamani, M.; Strother, P.; Vidal, P. B.; Brown, C. L.; Cowan, G.; Flaecher, H. U.; George, S.; Green, M. G.; Hopkins, D. A.; Jackson, P. S.; Kurup, A.; Marker, C. E.; McGrath, P.; McMahon, T. R.; Paramesvaran, S.; Salvatore, F.; Vaitsas, G.; Winter, M. A.; Wren, A. C.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Griessinger, K.; Hafner, A.; Prencipe, E.; Allison, J.; Alwyn, K. E.; Bailey, D. S.; Barlow, N. R.; Barlow, R. J.; Chia, Y. M.; Edgar, C. L.; Forti, A. C.; Fullwood, J.; Hart, P. A.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Jackson, F.; Jackson, G.; Kelly, M. P.; Kolya, S. D.; Lafferty, G. D.; Lyon, A. J.; Naisbit, M. T.; Savvas, N.; Weatherall, J. H.; West, T. J.; Williams, J. C.; Yi, J. I.; Anderson, J.; Farbin, A.; Hulsbergen, W. D.; Jawahery, A.; Lillard, V.; Roberts, D. A.; Schieck, J. R.; Simi, G.; Tuggle, J. M.; Blaylock, G.; Dallapiccola, C.; Hertzbach, S. S.; Kofler, R.; Koptchev, V. B.; Li, X.; Moore, T. B.; Salvati, E.; Saremi, S.; Staengle, H.; Willocq, S. Y.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Fisher, P. H.; Henderson, S. W.; Koeneke, K.; Lang, M. I.; Sciolla, G.; Spitznagel, M.; Taylor, F.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Yi, M.; Zhao, M.; Zheng, Y.; Klemetti, M.; Lindemann, D.; Mangeol, D. J. J.; Mclachlin, S. E.; Milek, M.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Biassoni, P.; Cerizza, G.; Lazzaro, A.; Lombardo, V.; Neri, N.; Palombo, F.; Pellegrini, R.; Stracka, S.; Bauer, J. M.; Cremaldi, L.; Eschenburg, V.; Kroeger, R.; Reidy, J.; Sanders, D. A.; Summers, D. J.; Zhao, H. W.; Godang, R.; Brunet, S.; Cote, D.; Nguyen, X.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; Viaud, B.; Nicholson, H.; Cavallo, N.; De Nardo, G.; Fabozzi, F.; Gatto, C.; Lista, L.; Monorchio, D.; Onorato, G.; Paolucci, P.; Piccolo, D.; Sciacca, C.; Baak, M. A.; Raven, G.; Snoek, H. L.; Jessop, C. P.; Knoepfel, K. J.; LoSecco, J. M.; Wang, W. F.; Allmendinger, T.; Benelli, G.; Brau, B.; Corwin, L. A.; Gan, K. K.; Honscheid, K.; Hufnagel, D.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Morris, J. P.; Rahimi, A. M.; Regensburger, J. J.; Smith, D. S.; Ter-Antonyan, R.; Wong, Q. K.; Blount, N. L.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Igonkina, O.; Iwasaki, M.; Kolb, J. A.; Lu, M.; Potter, C. T.; Rahmat, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Strube, J.; Torrence, E.; Borsato, E.; Castelli, G.; Colecchia, F.; Crescente, A.; Dal Corso, F.; Dorigo, A.; Fanin, C.; Furano, F.; Gagliardi, N.; Galeazzi, F.; Margoni, M.; Marzolla, M.; Michelon, G.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Solagna, P.; Stevanato, E.; Stroili, R.; Tiozzo, G.; Voci, C.; Akar, S.; Bailly, P.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bonneaud, G.; Briand, H.; Chauveau, J.; Hamon, O.; John, M. J. J.; Lebbolo, H.; Leruste, Ph.; Malclès, J.; Marchiori, G.; Martin, L.; Ocariz, J.; Perez, A.; Pivk, M.; Prendki, J.; Roos, L.; Sitt, S.; Stark, J.; Thérin, G.; Vallereau, A.; Biasini, M.; Covarelli, R.; Manoni, E.; Pennazzi, S.; Pioppi, M.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bosi, F.; Bucci, F.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Cenci, R.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Morganti, M.; Morsani, F.; Paoloni, E.; Raffaelli, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sandrelli, F.; Triggiani, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Haire, M.; Judd, D.; Biesiada, J.; Danielson, N.; Elmer, P.; Fernholz, R. E.; Lau, Y. P.; Lu, C.; Miftakov, V.; Olsen, J.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Sands, W. R.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Tumanov, A.; Varnes, E. W.; Baracchini, E.; Bellini, F.; Bulfon, C.; Buccheri, E.; Cavoto, G.; D'Orazio, A.; Di Marco, E.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Jackson, P. D.; Lamanna, E.; Leonardi, E.; Li Gioi, L.; Lunadei, R.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Morganti, S.; Piredda, G.; Polci, F.; del Re, D.; Renga, F.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Serra, M.; Voena, C.; Bünger, C.; Christ, S.; Hartmann, T.; Leddig, T.; Schröder, H.; Wagner, G.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Bly, M.; Brew, C.; Condurache, C.; De Groot, N.; Franek, B.; Geddes, N. I.; Gopal, G. P.; Olaiya, E. O.; Ricciardi, S.; Roethel, W.; Wilson, F. F.; Xella, S. M.; Aleksan, R.; Bourgeois, P.; Emery, S.; Escalier, M.; Esteve, L.; Gaidot, A.; Ganzhur, S. F.; Giraud, P.-F.; Georgette, Z.; Graziani, G.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Kozanecki, W.; Langer, M.; Legendre, M.; London, G. W.; Mayer, B.; Micout, P.; Serfass, B.; Vasseur, G.; Yèche, Ch.; Zito, M.; Allen, M. T.; Akre, R.; Aston, D.; Azemoon, T.; Bard, D. J.; Bartelt, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Bechtle, P.; Becla, J.; Benitez, J. F.; Berger, N.; Bertsche, K.; Boeheim, C. T.; Bouldin, K.; Boyarski, A. M.; Boyce, R. F.; Browne, M.; Buchmueller, O. L.; Burgess, W.; Cai, Y.; Cartaro, C.; Ceseracciu, A.; Claus, R.; Convery, M. R.; Coupal, D. P.; Craddock, W. W.; Crane, G.; Cristinziani, M.; DeBarger, S.; Decker, F. J.; Dingfelder, J. C.; Donald, M.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dunwoodie, W.; Ebert, M.; Ecklund, S.; Erickson, R.; Fan, S.; Field, R. C.; Fisher, A.; Fox, J.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Fulsom, B. G.; Gabareen, A. M.; Gaponenko, I.; Glanzman, T.; Gowdy, S. J.; Graham, M. T.; Grenier, P.; Hadig, T.; Halyo, V.; Haller, G.; Hamilton, J.; Hanushevsky, A.; Hasan, A.; Hast, C.; Hee, C.; Himel, T.; Hryn'ova, T.; Huffer, M. E.; Hung, T.; Innes, W. R.; Iverson, R.; Kaminski, J.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, H.; Kim, P.; Kharakh, D.; Kocian, M. L.; Krasnykh, A.; Krebs, J.; Kroeger, W.; Kulikov, A.; Kurita, N.; Langenegger, U.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Lewis, P.; Li, S.; Libby, J.; Lindquist, B.; Luitz, S.; Lüth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; MacFarlane, D. B.; Marsiske, H.; McCulloch, M.; McDonald, J.; Melen, R.; Menke, S.; Metcalfe, S.; Messner, R.; Moss, L. J.; Mount, R.; Muller, D. R.; Neal, H.; Nelson, D.; Nelson, S.; Nordby, M.; Nosochkov, Y.; Novokhatski, A.; O'Grady, C. P.; O'Neill, F. G.; Ofte, I.; Ozcan, V. E.; Perazzo, A.; Perl, M.; Petrak, S.; Piemontese, M.; Pierson, S.; Pulliam, T.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Ratkovsky, S.; Reif, R.; Rivetta, C.; Rodriguez, R.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schietinger, T.; Schindler, R. H.; Schwarz, H.; Schwiening, J.; Seeman, J.; Smith, D.; Snyder, A.; Soha, A.; Stanek, M.; Stelzer, J.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Suzuki, K.; Swain, S. K.; Tanaka, H. A.; Teytelman, D.; Thompson, J. M.; Tinslay, J. S.; Trunov, A.; Turner, J.; van Bakel, N.; van Winkle, D.; Va'vra, J.; Wagner, A. P.; Weaver, M.; Weinstein, A. J. R.; Weber, T.; West, C. A.; Wienands, U.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittgen, M.; Wittmer, W.; Wright, D. H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Yan, Y.; Yarritu, A. K.; Yi, K.; Yocky, G.; Young, C. C.; Ziegler, V.; Chen, X. R.; Liu, H.; Park, W.; Purohit, M. V.; Singh, H.; Weidemann, A. W.; White, R. M.; Wilson, J. R.; Yumiceva, F. X.; Sekula, S. J.; Bellis, M.; Burchat, P. R.; Edwards, A. J.; Majewski, S. A.; Meyer, T. I.; Miyashita, T. S.; Petersen, B. A.; Roat, C.; Ahmed, M.; Ahmed, S.; Alam, M. S.; Bula, R.; Ernst, J. A.; Jain, V.; Liu, J.; Pan, B.; Saeed, M. A.; Wappler, F. R.; Zain, S. B.; Gorodeisky, R.; Guttman, N.; Peimer, D.; Soffer, A.; De Silva, A.; Lund, P.; Krishnamurthy, M.; Ragghianti, G.; Spanier, S. M.; Wogsland, B. J.; Eckmann, R.; Ritchie, J. L.; Ruland, A. M.; Satpathy, A.; Schilling, C. J.; Schwitters, R. F.; Wray, B. C.; Drummond, B. W.; Izen, J. M.; Kitayama, I.; Lou, X. C.; Ye, S.; Bianchi, F.; Bona, M.; Gallo, F.; Gamba, D.; Pelliccioni, M.; Bomben, M.; Borean, C.; Bosisio, L.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Dittongo, S.; Grancagnolo, S.; Lanceri, L.; Poropat, P.; Rashevskaya, I.; Vitale, L.; Vuagnin, G.; Manfredi, P. F.; Re, V.; Speziali, V.; Frank, E. D.; Gladney, L.; Guo, Q. H.; Panetta, J.; Azzolini, V.; Lopez-March, N.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Milanes, D. A.; Oyanguren, A.; Agarwal, A.; Albert, J.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Brown, C. M.; Choi, H. H. F.; Fortin, D.; Fransham, K. B.; Hamano, K.; Kowalewski, R.; Lewczuk, M. J.; Nugent, I. M.; Roney, J. M.; Sobie, R. J.; Back, J. J.; Gershon, T. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Ilic, J.; Latham, T. E.; Mohanty, G. B.; Puccio, E.; Band, H. R.; Chen, X.; Cheng, B.; Dasu, S.; Datta, M.; Eichenbaum, A. M.; Hollar, J. J.; Hu, H.; Johnson, J. R.; Kutter, P. E.; Li, H.; Liu, R.; Mellado, B.; Mihalyi, A.; Mohapatra, A. K.; Pan, Y.; Pierini, M.; Prepost, R.; Scott, I. J.; Tan, P.; Vuosalo, C. O.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Wu, S. L.; Yu, Z.; Greene, M. G.; Kordich, T. M. B.

    2013-11-01

    The BABAR detector operated successfully at the PEP-II asymmetric e+e- collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory from 1999 to 2008. This report covers upgrades, operation, and performance of the collider and the detector systems, as well as the trigger, online and offline computing, and aspects of event reconstruction since the beginning of data taking.

  15. 低能量阈高纯锗探测器用于暗物质探测实验研究%Status of ULE-HPGe Detector Experiment for Dark Matter Search

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昕; 岳骞; 李元景; 李金; 何道; 金善基; 郭正元; 王子敬

    2007-01-01

    An Ultra Low Energy HPGe (ULE-HPGe) detector, with CsI (Tl) active shielding, is applied to the direct detection experiment for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMP), and located in Korea. The setups for the whole system and the calibration have been completed and more than half a year's background data have been accumulated. Some external neutron and gamma source experiments were carried out to study the origin of the background. The analysis and preliminary results are shown, and an attractive future is also provided.%一个位于韩国江原道襄阳郡地下实验室的暗物质WIMP探测实验中,采用了低能量阈高纯锗探测器,带有碘化铯晶体反符合探测器作为主动屏蔽体.整个系统设置和能量标定已经完成,并且已经积累了约155d的本底数据.还应用外置伽玛源和中子源进行了实验,以判断本底的来源.介绍了数据的分析和初步结果,并给出了实验诱人的前景.

  16. The gender-specific chest wall thickness prediction equations for routine measurements of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Am within the lungs using HPGE detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vickers, L.R. [Pantex Plant, Amarillo, TX (United States)

    1996-03-01

    The current chest wall thickness prediction equation is not applicable to use in routine lung counting measurements for detection of low energy photons (17-60 keV) within the lungs of male and female subjects. The current chest wall thickness prediction equation was derived for the NaI-CsI {open_quotes}phoswich{close_quotes} detection system, which is not the routine detection system in use; the subject position was supine, which is not the routine position; the equation did not account for the intercostal tissue thicknesses of muscle and adipose which significantly attenuate low energy photons (17-60 keV); it was derived from male subjects only and is used to predict the chest wall thickness of female subjects for whom it is not applicable. The current chest wall thickness prediction equation yields unacceptable percent errors in the HPGe detection efficiency calibration for {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Am (17- and 59.5-keV photons, respectively) relative to the gender-specific HPGe chest wall thickness prediction equations of this paper (+284% to -73% for {sup 239}Pu; +42% to -39% for {sup 241}Am). As a result, use of the current chest wall thickness prediction equation yields unacceptable percent errors (proportional in magnitude to the percent errors in the detection efficiency calibration) in the calculation of the minimum detectable activity (Bq) or in an initial assessment of a radioactive contamination exposure detected by a routine lung count measurement. 17 refs., 6 figs., 12 tabs.

  17. First results of the experiment to search for double beta decay of 106Cd with 106CdWO4 crystal scintillator in coincidence with four crystals HPGe detector

    CERN Document Server

    Tretyak, V I; Bernabei, R; Brudanin, V B; Cappella, F; Caracciolo, V; Cerulli, R; Chernyak, D M; Danevich, F A; d'Angelo, S; Incicchitti, A; Laubenstein, M; Mokina, V M; Poda, D V; Polischuk, O G; Podviyanuk, R B; Tupitsyna, I A

    2013-01-01

    An experiment to search for double beta processes in 106Cd by using cadmium tungstate crystal scintillator enriched in 106Cd (106CdWO4) in coincidence with the four crystals HPGe detector GeMulti is in progress at the STELLA facility of the Gran Sasso underground laboratory of INFN (Italy). The 106CdWO4 scintillator is viewed by a low-background photomultiplier tube through a lead tungstate crystal light-guide produced from deeply purified archaeological lead to suppress gamma quanta from the photomultiplier tube. Here we report the first results of the experiment after 3233 hours of the data taking. A few new improved limits on double beta processes in 106Cd are obtained, in particular T1/2(2nuECb+) > 8.4e20 yr at 90% C.L.

  18. Operational Experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Lantzsch, Kerstin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Run 2 of the LHC is providing new challenges to track and vertex reconstruction with higher energies, denser jets and higher rates. Therefore the ATLAS experiment has constructed the first 4-layer Pixel detector in HEP, installing a new Pixel layer, also called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). In addition the Pixel detector was refurbished with new service quarter panels to recover about 3% of defective modules lost during run 1 and a new optical readout system to readout the data at higher speed while reducing the occupancy when running with increased luminosity. The commissioning, operation and performance of the 4-layer Pixel Detector will be presented.

  19. Study of function response of a detector HPGe to photons of reaction {sup 19}F(p,{alpha}{gamma}){sup 16}O; Estudo da funcao resposta de um detetor HPGe a fotons da reacao {sup 19}F(p,{alpha}{gamma}){sup 16}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tridapalli, D.B

    2006-07-01

    In the {sup 19}F(p,{alpha}{gamma}){sup 16}O reaction, characteristic gamma-rays with energies: 6.1 MeV; 6.9 MeV and 7.1 keV can be observed. These photons can be used in many important applications such as Proton Induced Gamma-ray Emission (PIGE), gamma radiography and calibration purposes. It has another advantage in calibration procedures, which is the observed photon flux is greater than other reactions studied, {sup 27}Al(p,{alpha}{gamma}){sup 28}Si and {sup 23}Na(p,{alpha}{gamma}){sup 24}Mg. In our laboratory, we are studying the efficiency and response function of HPGe detectors for high energy photons, and for this it is necessary a source with a level scheme with few gamma-ray transitions and known relative yields. The {sup 19}F(p,{alpha}{gamma}){sup 16}O reaction satisfies the first condition but in the literature we found relative yields for thick targets or reaction cross section for thin targets. However, we use targets of intermediate thickness, therefore in this work we measure the relative gamma-ray yields for protons with energies between 1.36 MeV and 1.42 MeV. The experiments were performed at the 1.7 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator of the Laboratorio de Analise de Materiais por Feixes Ionicos (LAMFI) located at Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, using a reverse-electrode closed-end coaxial HPGe detector with 72.5 mm in diameter and 60.5 mm in length, at 0 deg. The proton irradiation current was 50 nA, and the target consisted of 250 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} CaF{sub 2} evaporated on a 0.1 mm Ta backing. In this reaction the {sup 20}Ne resonant state fissions in flight, and the resulting {sup 16}O excited states have different half-lives; all observed peaks are deformed due to either Doppler broadening from {sup 16}O random velocity direction or Doppler shift from nuclei that leave the target toward the vacuum chamber. Moreover, the peak deformations vary with the proton energy. These deformations were modeled by a Monte Carlo simulation that

  20. The BABAR detector: Upgrades, operation and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F; Sanchez, PDA; Gaillard, J-M; Hicheur, A.; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, JP; Poireau, V.; Prudent, X.; Wogsland, BJ; Haller, G.; Hamilton, J.; Hanushevsky, A.; Hasan, A.

    2013-01-01

    This article is the Preprint version of the final published article which can be accessed at the link below. The BaBar detector operated successfully at the PEP-II asymmetric e+e− collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory from 1999 to 2008. This report covers upgrades, operation, and performance of the collider and the detector systems, as well as the trigger, online and offline computing, and aspects of event reconstruction since the beginning of data taking. This work has b...

  1. Operational Experience with the ALICE Pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Mastroserio, A.

    2017-01-01

    The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) constitutes the two innermost layers of the Inner Tracking System of the ALICE experiment and it is the closest detector to the interaction point. As a vertex detector, it has the unique feature of generating a trigger signal that contributes to the L0 trigger of the ALICE experiment. The SPD started collecting data since the very first pp collisions at LHC in 2009 and since then it has taken part in all pp, Pb-Pb and p-Pb data taking campaigns. This contribution will present the main features of the SPD, the detector performance and the operational experience, including calibration and optimization activities from Run 1 to Run 2.

  2. Electromechanically cooled germanium radiation detector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavietes, Anthony D.; Joseph Mauger, G.; Anderson, Eric H.

    1999-02-01

    We have successfully developed and fielded an electromechanically cooled germanium radiation detector (EMC-HPGe) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This detector system was designed to provide optimum energy resolution, long lifetime, and extremely reliable operation for unattended and portable applications. For most analytical applications, high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors are the standard detectors of choice, providing an unsurpassed combination of high energy resolution performance and exceptional detection efficiency. Logistical difficulties associated with providing the required liquid nitrogen (LN) for cooling is the primary reason that these systems are found mainly in laboratories. The EMC-HPGe detector system described in this paper successfully provides HPGe detector performance in a portable instrument that allows for isotopic analysis in the field. It incorporates a unique active vibration control system that allows the use of a Sunpower Stirling cycle cryocooler unit without significant spectral degradation from microphonics. All standard isotopic analysis codes, including MGA and MGA++ [1], GAMANL [2], GRPANL [3]and MGAU [4], typically used with HPGe detectors can be used with this system with excellent results. Several national and international Safeguards organisations including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have expressed interest in this system. The detector was combined with custom software and demonstrated as a rapid Field Radiometric Identification System (FRIS) for the U.S. Customs Service [5]. The European Communities' Safeguards Directorate (EURATOM) is field-testing the first Safeguards prototype in their applications. The EMC-HPGe detector system design, recent applications, and results will be highlighted.

  3. Digital gamma-gamma coincidence HPGe system for environmental analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Nikola; Roos, Per; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    2017-01-01

    The performance of a new gamma-gamma coincidence spectrometer system for environmental samples analysis at the Center for Nuclear Technologies of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) is reported. Nutech Coincidence Low Energy Germanium Sandwich (NUCLeGeS) system consists of two HPGe detector...

  4. Search for $2\\beta$ decay of $^{106}$Cd with enriched $^{106}$CdWO$_4$ crystal scintillator in coincidence with four HPGe detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Belli, P; Brudanin, V B; Cappella, F; Caracciolo, V; Cerulli, R; Chernyak, D M; Danevich, F A; d'Angelo, S; Di Marco, A; Incicchitti, A; Laubenstein, M; Mokina, V M; Poda, D V; Polischuk, O G; Tretyak, V I; Tupitsyna, I A

    2016-01-01

    A radiopure cadmium tungstate crystal scintillator, enriched in $^{106}$Cd to 66%, with mass of 216 g ($^{106}$CdWO$_4$), was used to search for double beta decay processes in $^{106}$Cd in coincidence with four ultra-low background high purity germanium detectors in a single cryostat. New improved limits on the double beta processes in $^{106}$Cd have been set on the level of $10^{20}- 10^{21}$ yr after 13085 h of data taking. In particular, the half-life limit on the two neutrino electron capture with positron emission, $T_{1/2}^{2\

  5. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Detector Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Coniavitis, E

    2011-01-01

    In December 2009 the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) recorded the first proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 900 GeV, followed by the unprecedented energy of 7 TeV in March 2010. The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, made up from silicon micro-strip detectors processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The completed SCT has been installed inside the ATLAS experimental hall. After the commissioning phase it arrived to the first LHC pp collision runs in very good shape: 99.3% of the SCT strips are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications, the alignment is already close enough to the ideal one to allow on-line track reconstruction and invariant mass determination. The current status of the SCT is reviewed, including results from the latest data-taking periods in 2009 and 2010, and from the detector alignment. We report on the operation of the detector and observed problems. The main emphasi...

  6. CdZnTe room-temperature semiconductor operation in liquid scintillator

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, D Y

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate the first operation of CdZnTe room-temperature detectors in a liquid scintillator environment. This work follows conceptually the Heusser-type detector method of operating HPGe detectors in liquid nitrogen and liquid argon but instead for a far more practical room-temperature ensemble with the aim of achieving ultra-low background levels for radiation detection.

  7. Optimal cooling of HPGe spectrometers for space-born experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Chernenko, A; Loznikov, V; Semena, N; Konev, S; Rybkin, B; Paschin, A; Prokopenko, I

    2000-01-01

    We present current results on the theoretical and experimental studies of optimal cryogenic cooling of gamma-ray spectrometers based on high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. We show that the technology of cryogenic heat pipe diodes (HPDs) usually allows one to meet cooling requirements with minimal weight, power consumption and cost. Results of computer modeling and laboratory tests of HPDs, Stirling cooler and complete cooling solutions are presented.

  8. Operational experience of ATLAS SCT and Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kocian, Martin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Inner Detector based on silicon sensors is consisting of a strip detector (SCT) and a pixel detector. It is the crucial component for vertexing and tracking in the ATLAS experiment. With the excellent performance of the LHC well beyond the original specification the silicon tracking detectors are facing substantial challenges in terms of data acquisition, radiation damage to the sensors, and SEUs in the readout ASICs. The approaches on how the detector systems cope with the demands of high luminosity operation while maintaining excellent performance through hardware upgrades, software and firmware algorithms, and operational settings, are presented.

  9. The BaBar detector: Upgrades, operation and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; del Amo Sanchez, P.; Gaillard, J. -M.; Hicheur, A.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prudent, X.; Robbe, P.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Garra Tico, J.; Lopez, L.; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; Chen, G. P.; Chen, J. C.; Qi, N. D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y. S.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Abrams, G. S.; Battaglia, M.; Borgland, A. W.; Breon, A. B.; Brown, D. N.; Button-Shafer, J.; Cahn, R. N.; Charles, E.; Clark, A. R.; Day, C. T.; Furman, M.; Gill, M. S.; Groysman, Y.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kadel, R. W.; Kadyk, J. A.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kral, J. F.; Kukartsev, G.; LeClerc, C.; Levi, M. E.; Lynch, G.; Merchant, A. M.; Mir, L. M.; Oddone, P. J.; Orimoto, T. J.; Osipenkov, I. L.; Pripstein, M.; Roe, N. A.; Romosan, A.; Ronan, M. T.; Shelkov, V. G.; Suzuki, A.; Tackmann, K.; Tanabe, T.; Wenzel, W. A.; Zisman, M.; Barrett, M.; Bright-Thomas, P. G.; Ford, K. E.; Harrison, T. J.; Hart, A. J.; Hawkes, C. M.; Knowles, D. J.; Morgan, S. E.; O' Neale, S. W.; Penny, R. C.; Smith, D.; Soni, N.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, N. K.; Goetzen, K.; Held, T.; Koch, H.; Kunze, M.; Lewandowski, B.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peters, K.; Schmuecker, H.; Schroeder, T.; Steinke, M.; Fella, A.; Antonioli, E.; Boyd, J. T.; Chevalier, N.; Cottingham, W. N.; Foster, B.; Mackay, C.; Walker, D.; Abe, K.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T.; Fulsom, B. G.; Hearty, C.; Knecht, N. S.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Thiessen, D.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; McKemey, A. K.; Randle-Conde, A.; Saleem, M.; Sherwood, D. J.; Teodorescu, L.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Korol, A. A.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Telnov, V. I.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Yushkov, A. N.; Best, D. S.; Bondioli, M.; Bruinsma, M.; Chao, M.; Curry, S.; Eschrich, I.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; Martin, E. C.; McMahon, S.; Mommsen, R. K.; Stoker, D. P.; Abachi, S.; Buchanan, C.; Hartfiel, B. L.; Weinstein, A. J. R.; Atmacan, H.; Foulkes, S. D.; Gary, J. W.; Layter, J.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Shen, B. C.; Vitug, G. M.; Wang, K.; Yasin, Z.; Zhang, L.; Hadavand, H. K.; Hill, E. J.; Paar, H. P.; Rahatlou, S.; Schwanke, U.; Sharma, V.; Berryhill, J. W.; Campagnari, C.; Cunha, A.; Dahmes, B.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Kuznetsova, N.; Levy, S. L.; Lu, A.; Mazur, M. A.; Richman, J. D.; Verkerke, W.; Beck, T. W.; Beringer, J.; Eisner, A. M.; Flacco, C. J.; Grillo, A. A.; Grothe, M.; Heusch, C. A.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Martinez, A. J.; Nesom, G.; Schalk, T.; Schmitz, R. E.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Spencer, E.; Spradlin, P.; Turri, M.; Walkowiak, W.; Wang, L.; Wilder, M.; Williams, D. C.; Wilson, M. G.; Winstrom, L. O.; Chen, E.; Cheng, C. H.; Doll, D. A.; Dorsten, M. P.; Dvoretskii, A.; Echenard, B.; Erwin, R. J.; Fang, F.; Flood, K.; Hitlin, D. G.; Metzler, S.; Narsky, I.; Oyang, J.; Piatenko, T.; Porter, F. C.; Ryd, A.; Samuel, A.; Yang, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andreassen, R.; Devmal, S.; Geld, T. L.; Jayatilleke, S.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Mishra, K.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Abe, T.; Antillon, E. A.; Barillari, T.; Becker, J.; Blanc, F.; Bloom, P. C.; Chen, S.; Clifton, Z. C.; Derrington, I. M.; Destree, J.; Dima, M. O.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Gilman, J. D.; Hachtel, J.; Hirschauer, J. F.; Johnson, D. R.; Kreisel, A.; Nagel, M.; Nauenberg, U.; Olivas, A.; Rankin, P.; Roy, J.; Ruddick, W. O.; Smith, J. G.; Ulmer, K. A.; van Hoek, W. C.; Wagner, S. R.; West, C. G.; Zhang, J.; Ayad, R.; Blouw, J.; Chen, A.; Eckhart, E. A.; Harton, J. L.; Hu, T.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Winklmeier, F.; Zeng, Q. L.; Altenburg, D.; Feltresi, E.; Hauke, A.; Jasper, H.; Karbach, M.; Merkel, J.; Petzold, A.; Spaan, B.; Wacker, K.; Brandt, T.; Brose, J.; Colberg, T.; Dahlinger, G.; Dickopp, M.; Eckstein, P.; Futterschneider, H.; Kaiser, S.; Kobel, M. J.; Krause, R.; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R.; Mader, W. F.; Maly, E.; Nogowski, R.; Otto, S.; Schubert, J.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Sundermann, J. E.; Volk, A.; Wilden, L.; Bernard, D.; Brochard, F.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Dohou, F.; Ferrag, S.; Latour, E.; Mathieu, A.; Renard, C.; Schrenk, S.; T' Jampens, S.; Thiebaux, Ch.; Vasileiadis, G.; Verderi, M.; Anjomshoaa, A.; Bernet, R.; Clark, P. J.; Lavin, D. R.; Muheim, F.; Playfer, S.; Robertson, A. I.; Swain, J. E.; Watson, J. E.; Xie, Y.; Andreotti, D.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Carassiti, V.; Cecchi, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Evangelisti, F.; Fioravanti, E.; Franchini, P.; Garzia, I.; Landi, L.; Luppi, E.; Malaguti, R.; Negrini, M.; Padoan, C.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Sarti, A.; Anulli, F.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; Finocchiaro, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; de Sangro, R.; Santoni, M.; Zallo, A.; Bagnasco, S.; Buzzo, A.; Capra, R.; Contri, R.; Crosetti, G.; Lo Vetere, M.; Macri, M. M.; Minutoli, S.; Monge, M. R.; Musico, P.; Passaggio, S.; Pastore, F. C.; Patrignani, C.; Pia, M. G.; Robutti, E.; Santroni, A.; Tosi, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Prasad, V.; Bailey, S.; Brandenburg, G.; Chaisanguanthum, K. S.; Lee, C. L.; Morii, M.; Won, E.; Wu, J.; Adametz, A.; Dubitzky, R. S.; Marks, J.; Schenk, S.; Uwer, U.; Klose, V.; Lacker, H. M.; Aspinwall, M. L.; Bhimji, W.; Bowerman, D. A.; Dauncey, P. D.; Egede, U.; Flack, R. L.; Gaillard, J. R.; Gunawardane, N. J. W.; Morton, G. W.; Nash, J. A.; Nikolich, M. B.; Panduro Vazquez, W.; Sanders, P.; Smith, D.; Taylor, G. P.; Tibbetts, M.; Behera, P. K.; Chai, X.; Charles, M. J.; Grenier, G. J.; Hamilton, R.; Lee, S. -J.; Mallik, U.; Meyer, N. T.; Chen, C.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Dong, L.; Eyges, V.; Fischer, P. -A.; Lamsa, J.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rubin, A. E.; Gao, Y. Y.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Lae, C. K.; Schott, G.; Albert, J. N.; Arnaud, N.; Beigbeder, C.; Breton, D.; Davier, M.; Derkach, D.; Dû, S.; Firmino da Costa, J.; Grosdidier, G.; Höcker, A.; Laplace, S.; Le Diberder, F.; Lepeltier, V.; Lutz, A. M.; Malaescu, B.; Nief, J. Y.; Petersen, T. C.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pruvot, S.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Serrano, J.; Sordini, V.; Stocchi, A.; Tocut, V.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Wang, L. L.; Wormser, G.; Bionta, R. M.; Brigljević, V.; Lange, D. J.; Simani, M. C.; Wright, D. M.; Bingham, I.; Burke, J. P.; Chavez, C. A.; Coleman, J. P.; Forster, I. J.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; George, M.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Kay, M.; Parry, R. J.; Payne, D. J.; Schofield, K. C.; Sloane, R. J.; Touramanis, C.; Azzopardi, D. E.; Bellodi, G.; Bevan, A. J.; Clarke, C. K.; Cormack, C. M.; Di Lodovico, F.; Dixon, P.; George, K. A.; Menges, W.; Potter, R. J. L.; Sacco, R.; Shorthouse, H. W.; Sigamani, M.; Strother, P.; Vidal, P. B.; Brown, C. L.; Cowan, G.; Flaecher, H. U.; George, S.; Green, M. G.; Hopkins, D. A.; Jackson, P. S.; Kurup, A.; Marker, C. E.; McGrath, P.; McMahon, T. R.; Paramesvaran, S.; Salvatore, F.; Vaitsas, G.; Winter, M. A.; Wren, A. C.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Griessinger, K.; Hafner, A.; Prencipe, E.; Allison, J.; Alwyn, K. E.; Bailey, D. S.; Barlow, N. R.; Barlow, R. J.; Chia, Y. M.; Edgar, C. L.; Forti, A. C.; Fullwood, J.; Hart, P. A.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Jackson, F.; Jackson, G.; Kelly, M. P.; Kolya, S. D.; Lafferty, G. D.; Lyon, A. J.; Naisbit, M. T.; Savvas, N.; Weatherall, J. H.; West, T. J.; Williams, J. C.; Yi, J. I.; Anderson, J.; Farbin, A.; Hulsbergen, W. D.; Jawahery, A.; Lillard, V.; Roberts, D. A.; Schieck, J. R.; Simi, G.; Tuggle, J. M.; Blaylock, G.; Dallapiccola, C.; Hertzbach, S. S.; Kofler, R.; Koptchev, V. B.; Li, X.; Moore, T. B.; Salvati, E.; Saremi, S.; Staengle, H.; Willocq, S. Y.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Fisher, P. H.; Henderson, S. W.; Koeneke, K.; Lang, M. I.; Sciolla, G.; Spitznagel, M.; Taylor, F.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Yi, M.; Zhao, M.; Zheng, Y.; Klemetti, M.; Lindemann, D.; Mangeol, D. J. J.; Mclachlin, S. E.; Milek, M.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Biassoni, P.; Cerizza, G.; Lazzaro, A.; Lombardo, V.; Neri, N.; Palombo, F.; Pellegrini, R.; Stracka, S.; Bauer, J. M.; Cremaldi, L.; Eschenburg, V.; Kroeger, R.; Reidy, J.; Sanders, D. A.; Summers, D. J.; Zhao, H. W.; Godang, R.; Brunet, S.; Cote, D.; Nguyen, X.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; Viaud, B.; Nicholson, H.; Cavallo, N.; De Nardo, G.; Fabozzi, F.; Gatto, C.; Lista, L.; Monorchio, D.; Onorato, G.; Paolucci, P.; Piccolo, D.; Sciacca, C.; Baak, M. A.; Raven, G.; Snoek, H. L.; Jessop, C. P.; Knoepfel, K. J.; LoSecco, J. M.; Wang, W. F.; Allmendinger, T.; Benelli, G.; Brau, B.; Corwin, L. A.; Gan, K. K.; Honscheid, K.; Hufnagel, D.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Morris, J. P.; Rahimi, A. M.; Regensburger, J. J.; Smith, D. S.; Ter-Antonyan, R.; Wong, Q. K.; Blount, N. L.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Igonkina, O.; Iwasaki, M.; Kolb, J. A.; Lu, M.; Potter, C. T.; Rahmat, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Strube, J.; Torrence, E.; Borsato, E.; Castelli, G.; Colecchia, F.; Crescente, A.; Dal Corso, F.; Dorigo, A.; Fanin, C.; Furano, F.; Gagliardi, N.; Galeazzi, F.; Margoni, M.; Marzolla, M.; Michelon, G.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Solagna, P.; Stevanato, E.; Stroili, R.; Tiozzo, G.; Voci, C.; Akar, S.; Bailly, P.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bonneaud, G.; Briand, H.; Chauveau, J.; Hamon, O.; John, M. J. J.; Lebbolo, H.; Leruste, Ph.; Malclès, J.; Marchiori, G.; Martin, L.; Ocariz, J.; Perez, A.; Pivk, M.; Prendki, J.; Roos, L.; Sitt, S.; Stark, J.; Thérin, G.; Vallereau, A.; Biasini, M.; Covarelli, R.; Manoni, E.; Pennazzi, S.; Pioppi, M.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bosi, F.; Bucci, F.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Cenci, R.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Morganti, M.; Morsani, F.; Paoloni, E.; Raffaelli, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sandrelli, F.; Triggiani, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Haire, M.; Judd, D.; Biesiada, J.; Danielson, N.; Elmer, P.; Fernholz, R. E.; Lau, Y. P.; Lu, C.; Miftakov, V.; Olsen, J.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Sands, W. R.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Tumanov, A.; Varnes, E. W.; Baracchini, E.; Bellini, F.; Bulfon, C.; Buccheri, E.; Cavoto, G.; D' Orazio, A.; Di Marco, E.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Jackson, P. D.; Lamanna, E.; Leonardi, E.; Li Gioi, L.; Lunadei, R.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Morganti, S.; Piredda, G.; Polci, F.; del Re, D.; Renga, F.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Serra, M.; Voena, C.; Bünger, C.; Christ, S.; Hartmann, T.; Leddig, T.; Schröder, H.; Wagner, G.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Bly, M.; Brew, C.; Condurache, C.; De Groot, N.; Franek, B.; Geddes, N. I.; Gopal, G. P.; Olaiya, E. O.; Ricciardi, S.; Roethel, W.; Wilson, F. F.; Xella, S. M.; Aleksan, R.; Bourgeois, P.; Emery, S.; Escalier, M.; Esteve, L.; Gaidot, A.; Ganzhur, S. F.; Giraud, P. -F.; Georgette, Z.; Graziani, G.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Kozanecki, W.; Langer, M.; Legendre, M.; London, G. W.; Mayer, B.; Micout, P.; Serfass, B.; Vasseur, G.; Yèche, Ch.; Zito, M.; Allen, M. T.; Akre, R.; Aston, D.; Azemoon, T.; Bard, D. J.; Bartelt, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Bechtle, P.; Becla, J.; Benitez, J. F.; Berger, N.; Bertsche, K.; Boeheim, C. T.; Bouldin, K.; Boyarski, A. M.; Boyce, R. F.; Browne, M.; Buchmueller, O. L.; Burgess, W.; Cai, Y.; Cartaro, C.; Ceseracciu, A.; Claus, R.; Convery, M. R.; Coupal, D. P.; Craddock, W. W.; Crane, G.; Cristinziani, M.; DeBarger, S.; Decker, F. J.; Dingfelder, J. C.; Donald, M.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dunwoodie, W.; Ebert, M.; Ecklund, S.; Erickson, R.; Fan, S.; Field, R. C.; Fisher, A.; Fox, J.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Fulsom, B. G.; Gabareen, A. M.; Gaponenko, I.; Glanzman, T.; Gowdy, S. J.; Graham, M. T.; Grenier, P.; Hadig, T.; Halyo, V.; Haller, G.; Hamilton, J.; Hanushevsky, A.; Hasan, A.; Hast, C.; Hee, C.; Himel, T.; Hryn' ova, T.; Huffer, M. E.; Hung, T.; Innes, W. R.; Iverson, R.; Kaminski, J.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, H.; Kim, P.; Kharakh, D.; Kocian, M. L.; Krasnykh, A.; Krebs, J.; Kroeger, W.; Kulikov, A.; Kurita, N.; Langenegger, U.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Lewis, P.; Li, S.; Libby, J.; Lindquist, B.; Luitz, S.; Lüth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; MacFarlane, D. B.; Marsiske, H.; McCulloch, M.; McDonald, J.; Melen, R.; Menke, S.; Metcalfe, S.; Messner, R.; Moss, L. J.; Mount, R.; Muller, D. R.; Neal, H.; Nelson, D.; Nelson, S.; Nordby, M.; Nosochkov, Y.; Novokhatski, A.; O' Grady, C. P.; O' Neill, F. G.; Ofte, I.; Ozcan, V. E.; Perazzo, A.; Perl, M.; Petrak, S.; Piemontese, M.; Pierson, S.; Pulliam, T.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Ratkovsky, S.; Reif, R.; Rivetta, C.; Rodriguez, R.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schietinger, T.; Schindler, R. H.; Schwarz, H.; Schwiening, J.; Seeman, J.; Smith, D.; Snyder, A.; Soha, A.; Stanek, M.; Stelzer, J.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Suzuki, K.; Swain, S. K.; Tanaka, H. A.; Teytelman, D.; Thompson, J. M.; Tinslay, J. S.; Trunov, A.; Turner, J.; van Bakel, N.; van Winkle, D.; Va' vra, J.; Wagner, A. P.; Weaver, M.; Weinstein, A. J. R.; Weber, T.; West, C. A.; Wienands, U.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittgen, M.; Wittmer, W.; Wright, D. H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Yan, Y.; Yarritu, A. K.; Yi, K.; Yocky, G.; Young, C. C.; Ziegler, V.; Chen, X. R.; Liu, H.; Park, W.; Purohit, M. V.; Singh, H.; Weidemann, A. W.; White, R. M.; Wilson, J. R.; Yumiceva, F. X.; Sekula, S. J.; Bellis, M.; Burchat, P. R.; Edwards, A. J.; Majewski, S. A.; Meyer, T. I.; Miyashita, T. S.; Petersen, B. A.; Roat, C.; Ahmed, M.; Ahmed, S.; Alam, M. S.; Bula, R.; Ernst, J. A.; Jain, V.; Liu, J.; Pan, B.; Saeed, M. A.; Wappler, F. R.; Zain, S. B.; Gorodeisky, R.; Guttman, N.; Peimer, D.; Soffer, A.; De Silva, A.; Lund, P.; Krishnamurthy, M.; Ragghianti, G.; Spanier, S. M.; Wogsland, B. J.; Eckmann, R.; Ritchie, J. L.; Ruland, A. M.; Satpathy, A.; Schilling, C. J.; Schwitters, R. F.; Wray, B. C.; Drummond, B. W.; Izen, J. M.; Kitayama, I.; Lou, X. C.; Ye, S.; Bianchi, F.; Bona, M.; Gallo, F.; Gamba, D.; Pelliccioni, M.; Bomben, M.; Borean, C.; Bosisio, L.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Dittongo, S.; Grancagnolo, S.; Lanceri, L.; Poropat, P.; Rashevskaya, I.; Vitale, L.; Vuagnin, G.; Manfredi, P. F.; Re, V.; Speziali, V.; Frank, E. D.; Gladney, L.; Guo, Q. H.; Panetta, J.; Azzolini, V.; Lopez-March, N.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Milanes, D. A.; Oyanguren, A.; Agarwal, A.; Albert, J.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Brown, C. M.; Choi, H. H. F.; Fortin, D.; Fransham, K. B.; Hamano, K.; Kowalewski, R.; Lewczuk, M. J.; Nugent, I. M.; Roney, J. M.; Sobie, R. J.; Back, J. J.; Gershon, T. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Ilic, J.; Latham, T. E.; Mohanty, G. B.; Puccio, E.; Band, H. R.; Chen, X.; Cheng, B.; Dasu, S.; Datta, M.; Eichenbaum, A. M.; Hollar, J. J.; Hu, H.; Johnson, J. R.; Kutter, P. E.; Li, H.; Liu, R.; Mellado, B.; Mihalyi, A.; Mohapatra, A. K.; Pan, Y.; Pierini, M.; Prepost, R.; Scott, I. J.; Tan, P.; Vuosalo, C. O.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Wu, S. L.; Yu, Z.; Greene, M. G.; Kordich, T. M. B.

    2013-11-01

    The BaBar detector operated successfully at the PEP-II asymmetric e+e- collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory from 1999 to 2008. This report covers upgrades, operation, and performance of the collider and the detector systems, as well as the trigger, online and offline computing, and aspects of event reconstruction since the beginning of data taking.

  10. Tests of HPGe- and scintillation-based backpack γ-radiation survey systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Jonas M C; Östlund, Karl; Söderberg, Joakim; Mattsson, Sören; Rääf, Christopher

    2014-09-01

    The performance of three different backpack-mounted γ-radiation survey systems has been investigated. The systems are based on a LaBr3:Ce detector and a NaI(Tl) detector both with active volume dimensions of 76.2 mm in diameter and 76.2 mm length and a 123% relative efficiency HPGe detector. The detection limits of the systems were tested in a controlled outdoor environment in Sweden, followed by field tests of the HPGe- and LaBr3:Ce-based systems at the site of a radioactive waste repository in Georgia (in the Caucasus region of Eurasia). The results showed that the high efficiency HPGe detector performed significantly better than similar sized LaBr3:Ce and NaI(Tl) detectors, however, the HPGe detector was significantly heavier than the other systems. The use of different analysis methods revealed that creating maps of the survey area was the best method for offline analysis of survey data collected from a large area. Using off-site personnel for analysis of the data proved to be beneficial.

  11. Commissioning and operation of the CDF silicon detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. D' Auria

    2002-01-18

    The CDF-II silicon detector has been partially commissioned and used for taking preliminary physics data. This paper is a report on commissioning and initial operations of the 5.8m{sup 2} silicon detector. This experience can be useful to the large silicon systems that are presently under construction.

  12. Main Detector of Cosmic Rays at Yangbajing Fully Operational

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The construction of the main detector of the Astroparticle-physics Research at Ground-based Observatory Yangbajing (Yangbajain) Experiment (dubbed the YBJ-ARGO Experiment) has been completed and put into full operation recently.

  13. The SPICE Detector at ISAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garnsworthy A.B.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A new ancillary detector system for the TIGRESS HPGe array called SPectrometer for Internal Conversion Electrons (SPICE is currently under development. SPICE consists of a segmented electron detector, photon shield and a permanent magnetic lens. SPICE will enable in-beam electron spectroscopy and, in coupling to the TIGRESS HPGe array, coincident gamma-electron spectroscopy with stable and radioactive beams.

  14. Operational Experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, M

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus crucial for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via front-end chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-on-n silicon substrates. In this paper results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including calibration procedures, detector performance and measurements of radiation damage. The detector performance is excellent: more than 95% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the des...

  15. Operation and performance of new NIR detectors from SELEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, D.; Bezawada, N.; Hipwood, L. G.; Shorrocks, N.; Milne, H.

    2012-07-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has funded SELEX Galileo, Southampton, UK to develop large format near infrared (NIR) detectors for its future space and ground based programmes. The UKATC has worked in collaboration with SELEX Galileo to test and characterise the new detectors produced during phase-1 of the development. In order to demonstrate the detector material performance, the HgCdTe (MCT) detector diodes (grown on GaAs substrate through MOVPE process in small 320×256, 24μm pixel format) are hybridised to the existing SELEX Galileo SWALLOW CMOS readout chip. The substrate removed and MCT thinned detector arrays were then tested and evaluated at the UKATC following screening tests at SELEX. This paper briefly describes the test setup, the operational aspects of the readout multiplexer and presents the performance parameters of the detector arrays including: conversion gain, detector dark current, read noise, linearity, quantum efficiency and persistence for various detector temperatures between 80K and 140K.

  16. Operation and performance of the NESTOR test detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggouras, G.; Anassontzis, E. G.; Ball, A. E.; Bourlis, G.; Chinowsky, W.; Fahrun, E.; Grammatikakis, G.; Green, C.; Grieder, P.; Katrivanos, P.; Koske, P.; Leisos, A.; Ludvig, J.; Markopoulos, E.; Minkowsky, P.; Nygren, D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Przybylski, G.; Resvanis, L. K.; Siotis, I.; Sopher, J.; Staveris, T.; Tsagli, V.; Tsirigotis, A.; Zhukov, V. A.; Nestor Collaboration

    2005-11-01

    NESTOR is a deep-sea neutrino telescope that is under construction in the Ionian Sea off the coast of Greece at a depth of about 4000 m. This paper briefly reviews the detector structure and deployment techniques before describing in detail the calibration and engineering run of a test detector carried out in 2003. The detector was operated for more than 1 month and data was continuously transmitted to shore via an electro-optical cable laid on the sea floor. The performance of the detector is discussed and analysis of the data obtained shows that the measured cosmic ray muon flux is in good agreement with previous measurements and with phenomenological cosmic ray models.

  17. CUORE-0 detector: design, construction and operation

    CERN Document Server

    Alduino, C; Artusa, D R; Avignone, F T; Azzolini, O; Balata, M; Banks, T I; Bari, G; Beeman, J W; Bellini, F; Bersani, A; Biare, D; Biassoni, M; Bragazzi, F; Brofferio, C; Buccheri, A; Bucci, C; Bulfon, C; Caminata, A; Canonica, L; Cao, X G; Capelli, S; Capodiferro, M; Cappelli, L; Carbone, L; Cardani, L; Cariello, M; Carniti, P; Casali, N; Cassina, L; Cereseto, R; Ceruti, G; Chiarini, A; Chiesa, D; Chott, N; Clemenza, M; Conventi, D; Copello, S; Cosmelli, C; Cremonesi, O; Creswick, R J; Cushman, J S; Dafinei, I; Davis, C J; Dell'Oro, S; Deninno, M M; Di Domizio, S; Di Vacri, M L; DiPaolo, L; Drobizhev, A; Erme, G; Fang, D Q; Faverzani, M; Fernandes, G; Ferri, E; Ferroni, F; Fiorini, E; Freedman, S J; Fujikawa, B K; Gaigher, R; Giachero, A; Gironi, L; Giuliani, A; Gladstone, L; Gorla, P; Gotti, C; Guetti, M; Gutierrez, T D; Haller, E E; Han, K; Hansen, E; Heeger, K M; Hennings-Yeomans, R; Hickerson, K P; Huang, H Z; Iannone, M; Ioannucci, L; Kadel, R; Keppel, G; Kolomensky, Yu G; Leder, A; Lim, K E; Liu, X; Ma, Y G; Maino, M; Marini, L; Martinez, M; Maruyama, R H; Mazza, R; Mei, Y; Meijer, S; Michinelli, R; Miller, D; Moggi, N; Morganti, S; Mosteiro, P J; Nastasi, M; Nisi, S; Nones, C; Norman, E B; Nucciotti, A; O'Donnell, T; Orio, F; Orlandi, D; Ouellet, J L; Pagliarone, C E; Pallavicini, M; Palmieri, V; Pancaldi, G; Pattavina, L; Pavan, M; Pedrotta, R; Pelosi, A; Perego, M; Pessina, G; Pettinacci, V; Piperno, G; Pirro, S; Pozzi, S; Previtali, E; Rosenfeld, C; Rusconi, C; Sala, E; Sangiorgio, S; Santone, D; Scielzo, N D; Singh, V; Sisti, M; Smith, A R; Stivanello, F; Taffarello, L; Tatananni, L; Tenconi, M; Terranova, F; Tessaro, M; Tomei, C; Trentalange, S; Ventura, G; Vignati, M; Wagaarachchi, S L; Wallig, J; Wang, B S; Wang, H W; Wilson, J; Winslow, L A; Wise, T; Zanotti, L; Zarra, C; Zhang, G Q; Zhu, B X; Zimmermann, S; Zucchelli, S

    2016-01-01

    The CUORE experiment will search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of $^{130}$Te with an array of 988 TeO$_2$ bolometers arranged in 19 towers. CUORE-0, the first tower assembled according to the CUORE procedures, was built and commissioned at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, and took data from March 2013 to March 2015. In this paper we describe the design, construction and operation of the CUORE-0 experiment, with an emphasis on the improvements made over a predecessor experiment, Cuoricino. In particular, we demonstrate with CUORE-0 data that the design goals of CUORE are within reach.

  18. Development of twin Ge detector for high energy photon measurement and its performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigetome, Yoshiaki; Harada, Hideo [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works

    1998-03-01

    Prototype twin HPGe detector composed of two large HPGe crystals was developed to obtain better detection efficiency ({epsilon}) and P/T ratio, which was required for high energy photon spectroscopy. In this work, the performances of the twin HPGe detector were evaluated by computer simulation employing EGS4 code. (author)

  19. High Voltage Operation of heavily irradiated silicon microstrip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, W H; Angarano, M M; Bader, A; Biggeri, U; Boemi, D; Braibant, S; Breuker, H; Bruzzi, Mara; Caner, A; Catacchini, E; Civinini, C; Creanza, D; D'Alessandro, R; Demaria, N; Eklund, C; Peisert, Anna; Feld, L; Fiore, L; Focardi, E; Fürtjes, A; Glessing, B; Hall, G; Hammerstrom, R; Dollan, Ralph; Huhtinen, M; Karimäki, V; König, S; Lenzi, M; Lübelsmeyer, K; Maggi, G; Mannelli, M; Marchioro, A; Mariotti, C; Mättig, P; McEvoy, B; Meschini, M; My, S; Pandoulas, D; Parrini, G; Pieri, M; Dollan, Ralph; Potenza, R; Raso, G; Raymond, M; Schmitt, B; Selvaggi, G; Siedling, R; Silvestris, L; Skog, K; Stefanini, G; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Watts, S; Wittmer, B; De Palma, M

    1999-01-01

    We discuss the results obtained from the R&D studies, done within the CMS experiment at LHC related to the behaviour of silicon microstrip prototype detectors when they are operated at high bias voltages before and after heavy irradiation, simulating up to 10 years of LHC running conditions. We have found detectors from several manufacturesrs that are able to work at V_bias > 500 Volts before and after the irradiation procedure, maintaining an acceptable performance with S/N > 14, efficiency close to 100% and few ghost hits.

  20. Operation, optimisation, and performance of the DELPHI RICH detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Battaglia, Marco; Bloch, D; Boudinov, E; Brunet, J M; Carrié, P; Cavalli, P; Christophel, E; Davenport, M; Dracos, M; Eklund, L; Erzen, B; Fischer, P A; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Gracco, Valerio; Hallgren, A; Joram, C; Juillot, P; Kjaer, N J; Kluit, P M; Lenzen, G; Liko, D; Mahon, J R; Maltezos, S; Markou, A; Neufeld, N; Nielsen, B S; Petrolini, A; Podobnik, T; Polok, G; Sajot, G; Sannino, M; Schyns, E; Strub, R; Tegenfeldt, F; Thadome, J; Tristram, G; Ullaland, O; Vulpen, I V

    1999-01-01

    The Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors of DELPHI represent a large-scale particle identification system which covers almost the full angular acceptance of DELPHI. The combination of liquid and gas radiators (C sub 4 F sub 1 sub 0 , C sub 5 F sub 1 sub 2 , and C sub 6 F sub 1 sub 4) provides particle identification over the whole secondary particle momentum spectrum at LEP I and LEP II. Continuing optimisation on the hardware as well as on the online and offline software level have resulted in a stable operation of the complete detector system for more than five years at full physics performance.

  1. Spectral response of multi-element silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludewigt, B.A.; Rossington, C.S.; Chapman, K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Multi-element silicon strip detectors, in conjunction with integrated circuit pulse-processing electronics, offer an attractive alternative to conventional lithium-drifted silicon Si(Li) and high purity germanium detectors (HPGe) for high count rate, low noise synchrotron x-ray fluorescence applications. One of the major differences between the segmented Si detectors and the commercially available single-element Si(Li) or HPGe detectors is that hundreds of elements can be fabricated on a single Si substrate using standard silicon processing technologies. The segmentation of the detector substrate into many small elements results in very low noise performance at or near, room temperature, and the count rate of the detector is increased many-fold due to the multiplication in the total number of detectors. Traditionally, a single channel of detector with electronics can handle {approximately}100 kHz count rates while maintaining good energy resolution; the segmented detectors can operate at greater than MHz count rates merely due to the multiplication in the number of channels. One of the most critical aspects in the development of the segmented detectors is characterizing the charge sharing and charge loss that occur between the individual detector strips, and determining how these affect the spectral response of the detectors.

  2. The KLOE-2 Inner Tracker: Detector commissioning and operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Branchini, P.; Ciambrone, P.; Czerwinski, E.; De Lucia, E.; Cicco, A.; Di Domenici, D.; Felici, G.; Morello, G.

    2017-02-01

    The KLOE-2 experiment started its data taking campaign in November 2014 with an upgraded tracking system including an Inner Tracker built with the cylindrical GEM technology, to operate together with the Drift Chamber improving the apparatus tracking performance. The Inner Tracker is composed of four cylindrical triple-GEM, each provided with an X-V strips-pads stereo readout and equipped with the GASTONE ASIC developed inside the KLOE-2 collaboration. Although GEM detectors are already used in high energy physics experiment, this device is considered a frontier detector due to its cylindrical geometry: KLOE-2 is the first experiment to use this novel solution. The results of the detector commissioning, detection efficiency evaluation, calibration studies and alignment, both with dedicated cosmic-ray muon and Bhabha scattering events, will be reported.

  3. The ALICE Transition Radiation Detector: construction, operation, and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Shreyasi; The ALICE collaboration; Adamova, Dagmar; Adler, Clemens; Adolfsson, Jonatan; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Nazeer; Ahn, Sang Un; Aiola, Salvatore; Akindinov, Alexander; Al-turany, Mohammad; Alam, Sk Noor; Antonczyk, Dariusz; Arend, Andreas; Bazo Alba, Jose Luis; Silva De Albuquerque, Danilo; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altenkamper, Lucas; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andreou, Dimitra; Andrews, Harry Arthur; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anson, Christopher Daniel; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Anwar, Rafay; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arnold, Oliver Werner; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Audurier, Benjamin; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Ball, Markus; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barioglio, Luca; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartalini, Paolo; Barth, Klaus; Bartos, D; Bartsch, Esther; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Baumann, Christoph; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bello Martinez, Hector; Bellwied, Rene; Espinoza Beltran, Lucina Gabriela; Belyaev, Vladimir; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, I; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Antonio; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biro, Gabor; Biswas, Rathijit; Biswas, Saikat; Blair, Justin Thomas; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Boca, Gianluigi; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Bonomi, Germano; Bonora, Matthias; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Borri, Marcello; Botta, Elena; Bourjau, Christian; Bratrud, Lars; Braun-munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Broker, Theo Alexander; Broz, Michal; Brucken, Erik Jens; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Bucher, Damian; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buhler, Paul; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Bashir Butt, Jamila; Buxton, Jesse Thomas; Cabala, Jan; Caffarri, Davide; Caines, Helen Louise; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Capon, Aaron Allan; Caragheorgheopol, G; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carnesecchi, Francesca; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castro, Andrew John; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Catanescu, V; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Chandra, Sinjini; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Chartier, Marielle; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chauvin, Alex; Chernenko, S; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Cho, Soyeon; Chochula, Peter; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Chowdhury, Tasnuva; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Ciobanu, M; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Concas, Matteo; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Costanza, Susanna; Crkovska, Jana; Crochet, Philippe; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dahms, Torsten; Dainese, Andrea; Danisch, Meike Charlotte; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; Daues, Heinz; De, Sudipan; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Conti, Camila; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Derradi De Souza, Rafael; Franz Degenhardt, Hermann; Deisting, Alexander; Deloff, Andrzej; Deplano, Caterina; Devismes, A; Dhankher, Preeti; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Di Ruzza, Benedetto; Dietel, Thomas; Dillenseger, Pascal; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Van Doremalen, Lennart Vincent; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Duggal, Ashpreet Kaur; Dupieux, Pascal; Duta, V; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Emschermann, David; Endress, Eric; Engel, Heiko; Epple, Eliane; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erhardt, Filip; Espagnon, Bruno; Esumi, Shinichi; Eulisse, Giulio; Eum, Jongsik; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Fabbietti, Laura; Faivre, Julien; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Fateev, O; Feldkamp, Linus; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigorii; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Feuillard, Victor Jose Gaston; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fleck, M; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Francisco, Audrey; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Freuen, S; Fronze, Gabriele Gaetano; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Furs, Artur; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gajdosova, Katarina; Gallio, Mauro; Duarte Galvan, Carlos; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-solis, Edmundo Javier; Garg, Kunal; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gasik, Piotr Jan; Gatz, Henriette; Gauger, Erin Frances; De Leone Gay, Maria Beatriz; Germain, Marie; Ghosh, Jhuma; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giolu, G; Giubellino, Paolo; Giubilato, Piero; Gladysz-dziadus, Ewa; Glasow, Richard; Glassel, Peter; Gremmler, Svenja; Gomez Coral, Diego Mauricio; Gomez Ramirez, Andres; Sanchez Gonzalez, Andres; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gotovac, Sven; Gottschalk, Dirk; Gottschlag, Holger; Grabski, Varlen; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Graham, Katie Leanne; Grajcarek, Robert; Greiner, Leo Clifford; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grimm, Helge; Grion, Nevio; Gronefeld, Julius Maximilian; Grosa, Fabrizio; Grosse-oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grosso, Raffaele; Gruber, Lukas; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Gutfleisch, M; Bautista Guzman, Irais; Haake, Rudiger; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hamon, Julien Charles; Haque, Md Rihan; Harris, John William; Hartig, Matthias; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hassan, Hadi; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Hehner, Joerg; Heide, Markus; Hellbar, Ernst; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Herrmann, Florian; Herrmann, Norbert; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hillemanns, Hartmut; Hills, Christopher; Hippolyte, Boris; Hladky, Jan; Hohlweger, Bernhard; Horak, David; Hornung, Sebastian; Hosokawa, Ritsuya; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Huber, Sebastian; Hughes, Charles; Humanic, Thomas; Hussain, Nur; Hussain, Tahir; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Iga Buitron, Sergio Arturo; Ilkaev, Radiy; Inaba, Motoi; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Islam, Md Samsul; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Izucheev, Vladimir; Jacak, Barbara; Jacazio, Nicolo; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Jadhav, Manoj Bhanudas; Jadlovsky, Jan; Jaelani, Syaefudin; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jakubowska, Monika Joanna; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Chitrasen; Jena, Satyajit; Jercic, Marko; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jusko, Anton; Kalinak, Peter; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karayan, Lilit; Karczmarczyk, Przemyslaw; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Keijdener, Darius Laurens; Keil, Markus; Ketzer, Bernhard Franz; Khabanova, Zhanna; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Khatun, Anisa; Khuntia, Arvind; Kielbowicz, Miroslaw Marek; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Byungchul; Kim, Daehyeok; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Hyeonjoong; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Minjung; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kislov, E; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Carsten; Klein, Jochen; Klein-boesing, Christian; "Klein-Boesing", Melanie; Kliemant, Michael; Klingenmeyer, Hannah; Klewin, Sebastian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Kofarago, Monika; Kohn, Martin; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kondratev, Valerii; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Kondratyuk, Evgeny; Konevskikh, Artem; Konno, Masahiro; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kopcik, Michal; Kour, Mandeep; Kouzinopoulos, Charalampos; Kovalenko, Oleksandr; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kralik, Ivan; Kramer, Frederick; Kravcakova, Adela; Krawutschke, Tobias; Kreis, Lukas; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Krumbhorn, Dirk; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kubera, Andrew Michael; Kucera, Vit; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Jitendra; Kumar, Lokesh; Kumar, Shyam; Kundu, Sourav; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lai, Yue Shi; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lapidus, Kirill; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lattuca, Alessandra; Laudi, Elisa; Lavicka, Roman; Lea, Ramona; Leardini, Lucia; Lee, Seongjoo; Lehas, Fatiha; Lehmann, T; Lehner, Jorg; Lehner, Sebastian; Lehrbach, Johannes; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenti, Vito; Leogrande, Emilia; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Lesser, F; Levai, Peter; Li, Xiaomei; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lim, Bong-hwi; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lindsay, Scott William; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Litichevskyi, Vladyslav; Llope, William; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lohner, Daniel; Lonne, Per-ivar; Loginov, Vitaly; Loizides, Constantinos; Loncar, Petra; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lowe, Andrew John; Lu, XianGuo; Ludolphs, W; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Luhder, Jens Robert; Lunardon, Marcello; Luparello, Grazia; Lupi, Matteo; Lutz, Tyler Harrison; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Magureanu, C; Mahajan, Sanjay; Mahmoud, T; Mahmood, Sohail Musa; Maire, Antonin; Majka, Richard Daniel; Malaev, Mikhail; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Mao, Yaxian; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Margutti, Jacopo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martinengo, Paolo; Lucio Martinez, Jose Antonio; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-garcia, Gines; Martinez Pedreira, Miguel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Masson, Erwann; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Mathis, Andreas Michael; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel Anthony; Mazzilli, Marianna; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Meddi, Franco; Melikyan, Yuri; Menchaca-rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Meninno, Elisa; Mercado-perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Mhlanga, Sibaliso; Miake, Yasuo; Mieskolainen, Matti Mikael; Mihaylov, Dimitar Lubomirov; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milosevic, Jovan; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitra, Jubin; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mohammadi, Naghmeh; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Perez Moreno, Luis Alberto; Moretto, Sandra; Morino, Yuhei; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhlheim, Daniel Michael; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Mulligan, James Declan; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Munning, Konstantin; Munzer, Robert Helmut; Murakami, Hikari; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Myers, Corey James; Myrcha, Julian Wojciech; Mycke, Jan Felix; Nag, Dipanjan; Naik, Bharati; Nair, Rahul; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Narayan, Amrendra; Naru, Muhammad Umair; Ferreira Natal Da Luz, Pedro Hugo; Nattrass, Christine; Rosado Navarro, Sebastian; Nayak, Kishora; Nayak, Ranjit; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Negrao De Oliveira, Renato Aparecido; Neher, Michael; Nellen, Lukas; Nesbo, Simon Voigt; Ng, Fabian; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Niedziela, Jeremi; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Cabanillas Noris, Juan Carlos; Norman, Jaime; Nyanin, Alexander; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Ohlson, Alice Elisabeth; Okubo, Tsubasa; Olah, Laszlo; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Oliver, Michael Henry; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Orava, Risto; Oravec, Matej; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pacik, Vojtech; Pagano, Davide; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Panebratsev, Yu; Palni, Prabhakar; Pan, Jinjin; Pandey, Ashutosh Kumar; Panebianco, Stefano; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Pareek, Pooja; Park, Jonghan; Park, WooJin; Parmar, Sonia; Passfeld, Annika; Pathak, Surya Prakash; Patra, Rajendra Nath; Paul, Biswarup; Pei, Hua; Peitzmann, Thomas; Peng, Xinye; Pereira, Luis Gustavo; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lezama, Edgar; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petris, M; Petrov, Viacheslav; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Peretti Pezzi, Rafael; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Ozelin De Lima Pimentel, Lais; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Pitz, Nora; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Planinic, Mirko; Pliquett, Fabian; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Poonsawat, Wanchaloem; Pop, Amalia; Poppenborg, Hendrik; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Pozdniakov, Valeriy; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puccio, Maximiliano; Puddu, Giovanna; Pujahari, Prabhat Ranjan; Punin, Valery; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Radomski, Sylwester; Rachevski, Alexandre; Raha, Sibaji; Rajput, Sonia; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Rami, Fouad; Rana, Dhan Bahadur; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Ratza, Viktor; Ravasenga, Ivan; Read, Kenneth Francis; Redlich, Krzysztof; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reidt, Felix; Reischl, A; Ren, Xiaowen; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riabov, Viktor; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Ristea, Catalin-lucian; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Roeed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Rokita, Przemyslaw Stefan; Ronchetti, Federico; Dominguez Rosas, Edgar; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossi, Andrea; Rotondi, Alberto; Roukoutakis, Filimon; Roy, Ankhi; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Vazquez Rueda, Omar; Rui, Rinaldo; Rumyantsev, Boris; Rusanov, Ivan; Rustamov, Anar; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Ryabov, Yury; Rybicki, Andrzej; Saarinen, Sampo; Sadhu, Samrangy; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Saha, Sumit Kumar; Sahlmuller, Baldo; Sahoo, Baidyanath; Sahoo, Pragati; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahoo, Sarita; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakai, Shingo; Sakata, Dousatsu; Saleh, Mohammad Ahmad; Salzwedel, Jai Samuel Nielsen; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sandoval, Andres; Sann, H; Sano, Masato; Santo, Rainer; Sarkar, Debojit; Sarkar, Nachiketa; Sarma, Pranjal; Sas, Mike Henry Petrus; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Schaefer, Brennan; Scharenberg, Rolf Paul; Scheid, Horst Sebastian; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schmidt, Marten Ole; Schmidt, Martin; Schmidt, Nicolas Vincent; Schmiederer, Stefan; Schneider, R; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schulze, R; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Sedykh, S; Sefcik, Michal; Seger, Janet Elizabeth; Sekiguchi, Yuko; Sekihata, Daiki; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Senosi, Kgotlaesele; Senyukov, Serhiy; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sett, Priyanka; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabanov, Arseniy; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shahoyan, Ruben; Shaikh, Wadut; Shangaraev, Artem; Sharma, Anjali; Sharma, Ankita; Sharma, Mona; Sharma, Monika; Sharma, Natasha; Sheikh, Ashik Ikbal; Shigaki, Kenta; Shimansky, S; Shou, Qiye; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Shukla, P; Sibiryak, Yury; Sicking, Eva; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Sielewicz, Krzysztof Marek; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silaeva, Svetlana; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Simon, Reinhard S; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singhal, Vikas; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Slupecki, Maciej; Smirnov, Nikolai; Smykov, L; Snellings, Raimond; Snellman, Tomas Wilhelm; Solveit, Hans Kristian; Sommer, Wolfgang; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Soramel, Francesca; Sorensen, Soren Pontoppidan; Sozzi, Federica; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Srivastava, Brijesh Kumar; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stankus, Paul; Stelzer, Herbert; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Stiller, Johannes; Stocco, Diego; Stockmeyer, MR; Storetvedt, Maksim Melnik; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Suleymanov, Mais Kazim Oglu; Suljic, Miljenko; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Suzuki, Ken; Swain, Sagarika; Szabo, Alexander; Szarka, Imrich; Tabassam, Uzma; Takahashi, Jun; Tambave, Ganesh Jagannath; Tanaka, Naoto; Tarhini, Mohamad; Tariq, Mohammad; Tarzila, Madalina-gabriela; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terasaki, Kohei; Terrevoli, Cristina; Teyssier, Boris; Thakur, Dhananjaya; Thakur, Sanchari; Thomas, Deepa; Thoresen, Freja; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Tikhonov, Anatoly; Tilsner, Heinz; Timmins, Anthony Robert; 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Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Voscek, Dominik; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, B; Wagner, Boris; Wang, Hongkai; Wang, Mengliang; Wang, Yifei; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watanabe, Kengo; Watanabe, Yosuke; Weber, Michael; Weber, Steffen Georg; Wegerle, Dominik; Weiser, Dennis Franz; Wenzel, Sandro Christian; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Whitehead, Andile Mothegi; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilk, Alexander; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Willems, Guido Alexander; Williams, Crispin; Willsher, Emily; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael; Witt, William Edward; Xu, C; Yalcin, Serpil; Yamakawa, Kosei; Yang, Ping; Yano, Satoshi; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-kwon; Yoon, Jin Hee; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Yurevich, Vladimir; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Correa Zanoli, Henrique Jose; Zanevski, Yuri; Zardoshti, Nima; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Chunhui, Zhang; Zhang, Zuman; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmer, Stefan; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zmeskal, Johann; Zou, Shuguang

    2017-01-01

    The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) was designed and built to enhance the capabilities of the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). While aimed at providing electron identification and triggering, the TRD also contributes significantly to the track reconstruction and calibration in the central barrel of ALICE. In this paper the design, construction, operation, and performance of this detector are discussed. A pion rejection factor of up to 410 is achieved at a momentum of 1 GeV/c in p-Pb collisions and the resolution at high transverse momentum improves by about 40% when including the TRD information in track reconstruction. The triggering capability is demonstrated both for jet and for electron selection.

  4. Upgrade of the muon veto and current status of the Dortmund low background HPGe facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goessling, Claus; Kroeninger, Kevin; Neddermann, Till; Nitsch, Christian; Quante, Thomas [TU Dortmund, Physik EIV, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The Dortmund Low Background HPGe Facility (DLB) is a germanium facility with heavy shielding located above ground. It's primary task is to provide material screening support for the COBRA experiment which was built to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. Germanium detectors used for low background gamma spectroscopy are usually operated under either a fairly low overburden (O(1m) water equivalent (mwe)) or high overburden, e.g. in specialised underground laboratories (O(>100 mwe)). In between, only a few facilities exist, such as the DLB. The artificial overburden of 10 mwe already shields the weak component of cosmic rays. The lead castle with a state-of-the-art neutron shielding as well as the active anti-cosmics veto detector enable low background gamma spectrometry with the advantage of good accessibility on the university campus. Throughout the last years improvements have been made especially on the cosmics veto and the MC simulation leading to an remarkable low integral background counting rate (40-2700 keV) of about 2.5228(52) counts/kg/min. The talk summarises the completed tasks and presents the current status.

  5. Development of a HPGe shielding system for radioactivity measurements at Cheongpyeong Underground Radiation Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S. I.; Huh, J. Y.; Lee, E. K.; Choi, S. H.; Hahn, I. S.; Kang, W. G.; Kim, A.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, Y. D.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, K. W.; Park, S. Y.; Yoo, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    We constructed an underground laboratory called Cheongpyeong Underground Radiation Laboratory (CURL) for measuring the radioactivity levels of various samples by using HPGe detectors. CURL is located underground at a depth of 1000-m water equivalent in the Cheongpyeong Pumped Storage Power Plant. We developed a shielding system, which consists of 15-cm-thick Pb blocks and 5-cm-thick Cu blocks and completely surrounds a 100% HPGe detector. We measured the background radiations and the gamma peaks from sources with and without the shield. The shielding efficiencies were also estimated using MCNP5 simulations, and they were compared to our measured data. The shielding system blocked more than 99.99% of gamma rays with energies up to 3.0 MeV. The HPGe detector with the shielding system at CURL blocked both high-energy cosmic rays and background radiation from surrounding rocks and materials. Our CURL detector system was optimized for gamma-ray measurements of meterials with ultra-low radioactivity.

  6. Simulation of background reduction and Compton suppression in a low-background HPGe spectrometer at a surface laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Shun-Li; Cai, Xiao; Wu, Zhen-Zhong; Liu, Yi; Xie, Yu-Guang; Yu, Bo-Xiang; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Fang, Jian; Sun, Xi-Lei; Sun, Li-Jun; Liu, Ying-Biao; Gao, Long; Zhang, Xuan; Zhao, Hang; Zhou, Li; Lü, Jun-Guang; Hu, Tao

    2015-08-01

    High-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors are well suited to analyse the radioactivity of samples. In order to reduce the environmental background for an ultra-low background HPGe spectrometer, low-activity lead and oxygen free copper are installed outside the probe to shield from gamma radiation, with an outer plastic scintillator to veto cosmic rays, and an anti-Compton detector to improve the peak-to-Compton ratio. Using Geant4 tools and taking into account a detailed description of the detector, we optimize the sizes of these detectors to reach the design requirements. A set of experimental data from an existing HPGe spectrometer was used to compare with the simulation. For the future low-background HPGe detector simulation, considering different thicknesses of BGO crystals and anti-coincidence efficiency, the simulation results show that the optimal BGO thickness is 5.5 cm, and the peak-to-Compton ratio of 40K is raised to 1000 when the anti-coincidence efficiency is 0.85. In the background simulation, 15 cm oxygen-free copper plus 10 cm lead can reduce the environmental gamma rays to 0.0024 cps/100 cm3 Ge (50 keV-2.8 MeV), which is about 10-5 of the environmental background.

  7. Optimization of statistical methods for HpGe gamma-ray spectrometer used in wide count rate ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervino, G.; Mana, G.; Palmisano, C.

    2016-07-01

    The need to perform γ-ray measurements with HpGe detectors is a common technique in many fields such as nuclear physics, radiochemistry, nuclear medicine and neutron activation analysis. The use of HpGe detectors is chosen in situations where isotope identification is needed because of their excellent resolution. Our challenge is to obtain the "best" spectroscopy data possible in every measurement situation. "Best" is a combination of statistical (number of counts) and spectral quality (peak, width and position) over a wide range of counting rates. In this framework, we applied Bayesian methods and the Ellipsoidal Nested Sampling (a multidimensional integration technique) to study the most likely distribution for the shape of HpGe spectra. In treating these experiments, the prior information suggests to model the likelihood function with a product of Poisson distributions. We present the efforts that have been done in order to optimize the statistical methods to HpGe detector outputs with the aim to evaluate to a better order of precision the detector efficiency, the absolute measured activity and the spectra background. Reaching a more precise knowledge of statistical and systematic uncertainties for the measured physical observables is the final goal of this research project.

  8. DAFNE Consolidation Program and Operation with the KLOE-2 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Milardi, Catia; Biagini, Maria Enrica; Bini, Simone; Boscolo, Manuela; Buonomo, Bruno; Cantarella, Sergio; De Santis, Antonio; Di Pirro, Giampiero; Monache, Giovanni Delle; Drago, Alessandro; Foggetta, Luca; Frasciello, Oscar; Gallo, Alessandro; Gargana, Riccardo; Ghigo, Andrea; Guatieri, Francesco; Guiducci, Susanna; Iungo, Franco; Ligi, Carlo; Michelotti, Andrea; Pellegrino, Luigi; Ricci, Ruggero; Rotundo, Ugo; Sensolini, Giancarlo; Stella, Angelo; Stecchi, Alessandro; Zobov, Mikhail; Shatilov, Dmitry; Valishev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    After a long preparatory phase, including a wide hardware consolidation program, the Italian lepton collider DAFNE, is now systematically delivering data to the KLOE-2 experiment. In approximately 200 days of operation 1 fb-1 has been given to the detector limiting the background to a level compatible with an efficient data acquisition. Instantaneous and maximum daily integrated luminosity measured, so far, are considerably higher with respect to the previous KLOE runs, and are: L(inst) ~ 2.0 1032 cm-2s-1, and L(day) ~ 12.5 pb-1 respectively. A general review concerning refurbishing activities, machine optimization efforts and data taking performances is presented and discussed.

  9. Construction and operation of an electromagnetic shower detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbincius, P.H.; Polychronakos, V.A.; Barton, D.S.; Dobrowolski, T.; Halliwell, C.; Kendall, H.W.; Lyons, T.; Young, C.C.; Nassalski, J.; Siemiarczuk, T.

    1979-10-01

    An electromagnetic shower detector consisting of lead glass blocks and scintillator hodoscopes was constructed. During calibration runs detector resolutions were measured for single incident electrons. Performance of the detector for ..pi../sup 0/ and multi-photon showers, including sizable backgrounds, was studied during actual data runs. This detector was used in Fermilab Experiment 451.

  10. Material Screening with HPGe Counting Station for PandaX Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xuming; Fu, Changbo; Ji, Xiangdong; Liu, Xiang; Mao, Yajun; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Siguang; Xie, Pengwei; Zhang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    A gamma counting station based on high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector was set up for the material screening of the PandaX dark matter experiments in the China Jinping Underground Laboratory. Low background gamma rate of 2.6 counts/min within the energy range of 20 to 2700 keV is achieved due to the well-designed passive shield. The sentivities of the HPGe detetector reach mBq/kg level for isotopes like K, U, Th, and even better for Co and Cs, resulted from the low-background rate and the high relative detection efficiency of 175%. The structure and performance of the counting station are described in this article. Detailed counting results for the radioactivity in materials used by the PandaX dark-matter experiment are presented. The upgrading plan of the counting station is also discussed.

  11. Material screening with HPGe counting station for PandaX experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Chen, X.; Fu, C.; Ji, X.; Liu, X.; Mao, Y.; Wang, H.; Wang, S.; Xie, P.; Zhang, T.

    2016-12-01

    A gamma counting station based on high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector was set up for the material screening of the PandaX dark matter experiments in the China Jinping Underground Laboratory. Low background gamma rate of 2.6 counts/min within the energy range of 20 to 2700 keV is achieved due to the well-designed passive shield. The sentivities of the HPGe detetector reach mBq/kg level for isotopes like K, U, Th, and even better for Co and Cs, resulted from the low-background rate and the high relative detection efficiency of 175%. The structure and performance of the counting station are described in this article. Detailed counting results for the radioactivity in materials used by the PandaX dark-matter experiment are presented. The upgrading plan of the counting station is also discussed.

  12. Detection limits of the NaI(Tl) shielded HPGe spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Bikit, I; Krmar, M; Durcic, Z; Zikic, N; Conkic, L; Veskovic, M; Anicin, I V

    1999-01-01

    The results of a detailed study of the low-level performance of a NaI(Tl) shield added to an iron shielded HPGe spectrometer are presented. Both the 'slow' and the 'fast' anticoincidence gating modes were tested, the 'slow' mode being found better suited for general low-level spectroscopy applications. In long runs the stability of the system in this mode is satisfactory. The anticoincidence action of the NaI(T1) shield lowers the integral background of the iron shielded HPGe detector in the energy range from 30 keV to 2 MeV by a factor of 6.5, and suppresses the continuum above 150 keV by a factor larger than 10.

  13. Germanium detectors for nuclear spectroscopy: Current research and development activity at LNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napoli, D. R., E-mail: daniel.r.napoli@lnl.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell’Università 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Maggioni, G., E-mail: maggioni@lnl.infn.it; Carturan, S.; Gelain, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell’Università 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Department of Physics and Astronomy “G. Galilei”, University of Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35121 Padova (Italy); Eberth, J. [Institut für Kernphysik, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Straße 77, D-50937 Köln (Germany); Grimaldi, M. G.; Tatí, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Catania (Italy); Riccetto, S. [University of Camerino and INFN of Perugia (Italy); Mea, G. Della [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell’Università 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); University of Trento (Italy)

    2016-07-07

    High-purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors have reached an unprecedented level of sophistication and are still the best solution for high-resolution gamma spectroscopy. In the present work, we will show the results of the characterization of new surface treatments for the production of these detectors, studied in the framework of our multidisciplinary research program in HPGe detector technologies.

  14. Efficiency transfer using the GEANT4 code of CERN for HPGe gamma spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagren, S; Ben Tekaya, M; Reguigui, N; Gharbi, F

    2016-01-01

    In this work we apply the GEANT4 code of CERN to calculate the peak efficiency in High Pure Germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometry using three different procedures. The first is a direct calculation. The second corresponds to the usual case of efficiency transfer between two different configurations at constant emission energy assuming a reference point detection configuration and the third, a new procedure, consists on the transfer of the peak efficiency between two detection configurations emitting the gamma ray in different energies assuming a "virtual" reference point detection configuration. No pre-optimization of the detector geometrical characteristics was performed before the transfer to test the ability of the efficiency transfer to reduce the effect of the ignorance on their real magnitude on the quality of the transferred efficiency. The obtained and measured efficiencies were found in good agreement for the two investigated methods of efficiency transfer. The obtained agreement proves that Monte Carlo method and especially the GEANT4 code constitute an efficient tool to obtain accurate detection efficiency values. The second investigated efficiency transfer procedure is useful to calibrate the HPGe gamma detector for any emission energy value for a voluminous source using one point source detection efficiency emitting in a different energy as a reference efficiency. The calculations preformed in this work were applied to the measurement exercise of the EUROMET428 project. A measurement exercise where an evaluation of the full energy peak efficiencies in the energy range 60-2000 keV for a typical coaxial p-type HpGe detector and several types of source configuration: point sources located at various distances from the detector and a cylindrical box containing three matrices was performed.

  15. Detector developments for the hypernuclear programme at PANDA

    CERN Document Server

    Achenbach, P; Lorente, A Sanchez; Majos, S Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    The technical design of the PANDA experiment at the future FAIR facility next to GSI is progressing. At the proposed anti-proton storage ring the spectroscopy of double Lambda hypernuclei is one of the four main topics which will be addressed by the Collaboration. The hypernuclear experiments require (i) a dedicated internal target, (ii) an active secondary target of alternating silicon and absorber material layers, (iii) high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors, and (iv) a good particle identification system for low momentum kaons. All systems need to operate in the presence of a high magnetic field and a large hadronic background. The status of the detector developments for this programme is summarized.

  16. Modeling of the substrate influence on multielement THz detector operation

    CERN Document Server

    Sakhno, M; Sizov, F

    2015-01-01

    The development of THz multielement uncooled imagers based on focal plane arrays (FPAs) requires an optimization of the system parameters to achieve a homogeneous sensitivity of the array elements. Results of numerical simulation of the eight-element linear array of planar antennas with detecting elements, on a substrate of finite dimensions are presented. We establish how the substrate thickness h and the relative permittivity epsilon influence antenna pattern and antenna-detector matching for each element. We show that the antenna pattern depends on the detector position more than the antenna-detector impedance matching. The gain of array elements, the antenna-detector matching, and the homogeneity of the detector sensitivity can be simultaneously optimized by the proper choice of the substrate thickness h and the relative permittivity epsilon. We show that multielement systems with large substrate thickness and high relative permittivity are not suitable for the imaging system implementation. To achieve un...

  17. Coincidence corrected efficiency calibration of Compton-suppressed HPGe detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aucott, Timothy [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Brand, Alexander [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); DiPrete, David [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-04-20

    The authors present a reliable method to calibrate the full-energy efficiency and the coincidence correction factors using a commonly-available mixed source gamma standard. This is accomplished by measuring the peak areas from both summing and non-summing decay schemes and simultaneously fitting both the full-energy efficiency, as well as the total efficiency, as functions of energy. By using known decay schemes, these functions can then be used to provide correction factors for other nuclides not included in the calibration standard.

  18. Application of the Recursive Subtraction Pulse Shape Analysis algorithm to in-beam HPGe signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespi, F.C.L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano and INFN Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Camera, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano and INFN Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)], E-mail: camera@mi.infn.it; Bracco, A.; Million, B.; Wieland, O.; Vandone, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano and INFN Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Recchia, F.; Gadea, A.; Kroell, Th. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, INFN, Viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Mengoni, D.; Farnea, E.; Ur, C.A.; Bazzacco, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova and INFN Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2009-06-11

    The Pulse Shape Analysis algorithm 'Recursive Subtraction' has been applied to data acquired during the in-beam tests of two different highly segmented HPGe detectors. This algorithm processes the net charge signal, determining the number of interactions per segment and their radial coordinates. The RS algorithm performances are evaluated by comparing the results obtained following its application to experimental pulse shapes with those obtained with specific GEANT simulations. Excellent agreement is found between the experimental distribution of the number of interactions per segment and the simulated one. Deviations between experimental radial distribution and the calculated ones are discussed.

  19. Evaluation of HPGe spectrometric devices in monitoring the level of radioactive contamination in metallurgical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, A.; Arnold, D.; Burda, O.; De Felice, P.; Garcia-Toraño, E.; Mejuto, M.; Peyres, V.; Šolc, J.; Vodenik, B.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the results of the tests of High Purity Germanium (HPGe) based gamma spectrometers employed for radioactivity control carried out on a daily basis in steel factories. This new application of this type of detector is part of the Joint Research Project (JRP) MetroMETAL supported by the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP). The final purpose of the project was the improvement and standardisation of the measurement methods and systems for the control of radioactivity of recycled metal scraps at the beginning of the working process and for the certification of the absence of any radioactive contamination above the clearance levels (IAEA-TECDOC-8S5) in final steel products, Clearance levels for radionuclides in solid materials: application of exemption principles). Two prototypes based on HPGe detectors were designed and assembled to suit the needs of steel mills which had been examined previously. The evaluation of the two prototypes, carried out at three steel factories with standard sources of 60Co, 137Cs, 192Ir, 226Ra and 241Am in three different matrices (slag, fume dust and cast steel) and with samples provided on-site by the factories, was successful. The measurements proved the superiority of the prototypes over the scintillation detectors now commonly used regarding energy resolution and multi-nuclide identification capability. The detection limits were assessed and are presented as well.

  20. Evaluation of HPGe spectrometric devices in monitoring the level of radioactive contamination in metallurgical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrucci, A., E-mail: andrea.petrucci@enea.it [ENEA – Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazione Ionizzanti, Rome (Italy); Arnold, D.; Burda, O. [PTB – Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); De Felice, P. [ENEA – Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazione Ionizzanti, Rome (Italy); Garcia-Toraño, E.; Mejuto, M.; Peyres, V. [CIEMAT – Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Šolc, J. [CMI – Czech Metrology Institute, Radiova 1a, 102 00 Praha 10 (Czech Republic); Vodenik, B. [IJS – Laboratory for Radioactivity Measurements, Institute Jožef Stefan, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana Slovenia (Slovenia)

    2015-10-11

    This paper presents the results of the tests of High Purity Germanium (HPGe) based gamma spectrometers employed for radioactivity control carried out on a daily basis in steel factories. This new application of this type of detector is part of the Joint Research Project (JRP) MetroMETAL supported by the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP). The final purpose of the project was the improvement and standardisation of the measurement methods and systems for the control of radioactivity of recycled metal scraps at the beginning of the working process and for the certification of the absence of any radioactive contamination above the clearance levels (IAEA-TECDOC-8S5) in final steel products, Clearance levels for radionuclides in solid materials: application of exemption principles). Two prototypes based on HPGe detectors were designed and assembled to suit the needs of steel mills which had been examined previously. The evaluation of the two prototypes, carried out at three steel factories with standard sources of {sup 60}Co, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 192}Ir, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 241}Am in three different matrices (slag, fume dust and cast steel) and with samples provided on-site by the factories, was successful. The measurements proved the superiority of the prototypes over the scintillation detectors now commonly used regarding energy resolution and multi-nuclide identification capability. The detection limits were assessed and are presented as well.

  1. Analysis of the dead layer of a detector of germanium with code ultrapure Monte Carlo SWORD-GEANT; Analisis del dead layer de un detector de germanio ultrapuro con el codigo de Monte Carlo SWORDS-GEANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo, S.; Querol, A.; Ortiz, J.; Rodenas, J.; Verdu, G.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper the use of Monte Carlo code SWORD-GEANT is proposed to simulate an ultra pure germanium detector High Purity Germanium detector (HPGe) detector ORTEC specifically GMX40P4, coaxial geometry. (Author)

  2. Modeling of the Substrate Influence on Multielement THz Detector Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhno, M.; Gumenjuk-Sichevska, J.; Sizov, F.

    2014-09-01

    The development of THz multielement uncooled imagers based on focal plane arrays (FPAs) requires an optimization of the system parameters to achieve a homogeneous sensitivity of the array elements. Results of numerical simulation of the eight-element linear array of planar antennas with detecting elements, on a substrate of finite dimensions are presented. We establish how the substrate thickness h and the relative permittivity ɛ r influence antenna pattern and antenna-detector matching for each element. We show that the antenna pattern depends on the detector position more than the antenna - detector impedance matching. The gain of array elements, the antenna-detector matching, and the homogeneity of the detector sensitivity can be simultaneously optimized by the proper choice of the substrate thickness h and the relative permittivity ɛ r . We show that multielement systems with large substrate thickness and high relative permittivity are not suitable for the imaging system implementation. To achieve uniform multielement system sensitivity, substrates with low permittivity ( ɛ r corruption.

  3. The Successful Operation of Hole-type Gaseous Detectors at Cryogenic Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Pereiale, L; Iacobaeus, C; Francke, T; Lund-Jensen, B; Pavlopoulos, P; Picchi, P; Pietropaolo, F; Tokanai, F

    2004-01-01

    We have demonstrated that hole-type gaseous detectors, GEMs and capillary plates, can operate up to 77 K. For example, a single capillary plate can operate at gains of above 10E3 in the entire temperature interval between 300 until 77 K. The same capillary plate combined with CsI photocathodes could operate perfectly well at gains (depending on gas mixtures) of 100-1000. Obtained results may open new fields of applications for capillary plates as detectors of UV light and charge particles at cryogenic temperatures: noble liquid TPCs, WIMP detectors or LXe scintillating calorimeters and cryogenic PETs.

  4. Charge-Sensitive Front-End Electronics with Operational Amplifiers for CdZnTe Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Födisch, P; Lange, B; Kirschke, T; Enghardt, W; Kaever, P

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe, "CZT") radiation detectors are announced to be a game-changing detector technology. However, state-of-the-art detector systems require high-performance readout electronics as well. Even though an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) is an adequate solution for the readout, our demands on a high dynamic range for energy measurement and a high throughput are not served by any commercially available circuit. Consequently, we had to develop the analog front-end electronics with operational amplifiers for an 8x8 pixelated CZT detector. For this purpose, we model an electrical equivalent circuit of the CZT detector with the associated charge-sensitive amplifier (CSA). Therefore, we present the mathematical equations for a detailed network analysis. Additionally, we enhance the design with numerical values for various features such as ballistic deficit, charge-to-voltage gain, rise time, noise level and verify the performance with synthetic detector signals. With this benchm...

  5. Installation and Operation of the SNO Neutral Current Detector Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    SNO Collaboration; McGee, S.; Rielage, K.

    2005-06-01

    An array of low background detectors designed to capture neutrons liberated by interactions with solar neutrinos was recently installed in the heavy water region of the SNO experiment. The neutral current detector (NCD) array consists of 36 proportional counters filled with 3He-CF4 gas and 4 proportional counters filled with 4He-CF4. Special hardware conforming to the high radiopurity requirements in SNO was used to assemble and deploy these counters. Neutron events detected by the NCD array are distinguished from various types of backgrounds on an event-by-event basis using the NCD data acquisition system (NCDDAQ), which employs a mixture of commercial and custom-built electronics equipment. The NCDDAQ is controlled by a custom-built Object-oriented Realtime Control and Acquisition (ORCA) software program, and is fully integrated into the SNO PMT data acquisition system to provide shared trigger information and a combined data stream.

  6. Installation and Operation of the SNO Neutral Current Detector Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heise, J. [Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, 87545 (United States); McGee, S. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98195 (United States); Rielage, K. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98195 (United States)

    2005-06-15

    An array of low background detectors designed to capture neutrons liberated by interactions with solar neutrinos was recently installed in the heavy water region of the SNO experiment. The neutral current detector (NCD) array consists of 36 proportional counters filled with {sup 3}He-CF{sub 4} gas and 4 proportional counters filled with {sup 4}He-CF{sub 4}. Special hardware conforming to the high radiopurity requirements in SNO was used to assemble and deploy these counters. Neutron events detected by the NCD array are distinguished from various types of backgrounds on an event-by-event basis using the NCD data acquisition system (NCDDAQ), which employs a mixture of commercial and custom-built electronics equipment. The NCDDAQ is controlled by a custom-built Object-oriented Realtime Control and Acquisition (ORCA) software program, and is fully integrated into the SNO PMT data acquisition system to provide shared trigger information and a combined data stream.

  7. Development and operation of laser machined MicroWell Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Pitts, W K; Belolipetskiy, S V; Crain, M; Hutchins, J B; Matos, S; Walsh, K M; Solberg, K

    1999-01-01

    Arrays of 100 mu m diameter cylindrical wells were laser micromachined on a 200 micrometer Cartesian grid, producing MicroWell Detectors (MWD). The substrate was 125 mu m thick polyimide foil, more than twice as thick as a typical GEM or WELL detector. An advantage of the laser micromachining process is that the wells are produced with nearly vertical sidewalls, in contrast to the sloping sidewalls characteristic of conventional chemical etching processes. With the steeper sidewall, active elements may be more closely packed than is possible with wet etching techniques. Thicker substrates can be patterned, increasing the length of the charge multiplication region and reducing the internal capacitance per unit element. A series of prototypes have been produced and tested in a counting gas composed of 85% argon and 15% carbon dioxide, with a maximum measured gas gain of approximately 12 000.

  8. High performance p-i-n CdTe and CdZnTe detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Khusainov, A K; Ilves, A G; Morozov, V F; Pustovoit, A K; Arlt, R D

    1999-01-01

    A breakthrough in the performance of p-i-n CdTe and CdZnTe detectors is reported. The detector stability has been significantly improved, allowing their use in precise gamma and XRF applications. Detectors with energy resolution close to Si and Ge were produced operating with only -30--35 deg. C cooling (by a Peltier cooler of 15x15x10 mm size and a consumed power less than 5 W). Presently detectors with volume of up to 300 mm sup 3 are available. In terms of photoelectric effect efficiency it corresponds to HPGe detectors with volumes of about 1.5 cm sup 3. The possibilities of further improvement of CdTe and CdZnTe detector characteristics are discussed in this paper.

  9. Signals induced by charge-trapping in EDELWEISS FID detectors: analytical modeling and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Q.; Armengaud, E.; Augier, C.; Benoît, A.; Bergé, L.; Billard, J.; Blümer, J.; de Boissière, T.; Broniatowski, A.; Camus, P.; Cazes, A.; Chapellier, M.; Charlieux, F.; Dumoulin, L.; Eitel, K.; Foerster, N.; Fourches, N.; Gascon, J.; Giuliani, A.; Gros, M.; Hehn, L.; Heuermann, G.; De Jésus, M.; Jin, Y.; Juillard, A.; Kleifges, M.; Kozlov, V.; Kraus, H.; Kéfélian, C.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Le-Sueur, H.; Marnieros, S.; Navick, X.-F.; Nones, C.; Olivieri, E.; Pari, P.; Paul, B.; Piro, M.-C.; Poda, D.; Queguiner, E.; Rozov, S.; Sanglard, V.; Schmidt, B.; Scorza, S.; Siebenborn, B.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Vagneron, L.; Weber, M.; Yakushev, E.

    2016-10-01

    The EDELWEISS-III direct dark matter search experiment uses cryogenic HP-Ge detectors Fully covered with Inter-Digitized electrodes (FID). They are operated at low fields (FID detectors based on the Shockley-Ramo theorem. It is used to demonstrate that veto electrodes, initially designed for the sole purpose of surface event rejection, can be used to provide a sensitivity to the depth of the energy deposits, characterize the trapping in the crystals, perform heat and ionization energy corrections and improve the ionization baseline resolutions. These procedures are applied successfully to actual data.

  10. Simulation of background reduction and Compton depression in low-background HPGe spectrometer at a surface laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Niu, ShunLi; Wu, ZhenZhong; Xie, YuGuang; Yu, BoXiang; Wang, ZhiGang; Fang, Jian; Sun, XiLei; Sun, LiJun; Liu, YingBiao; Gao, Long; Zhang, Xuan; Zhao, Hang; Zhou, Li; Lv, JunGuang; Hu, Tao

    2014-01-01

    High-purity germanium detectors are well suited to analysis the radioactivity of samples. In order to reduce the environmental background, low-activity lead and oxygen free copper are installed outside of the probe to shield gammas, outmost is a plastic scintillator to veto the cosmic rays, and an anti-Compton detector can improve the Peak-to-Compton ratio. Using the GEANT4 tools and taking into account a detailed description of the detector, we optimize the sizes of the detectors to reach the design indexes. A group of experimental data from a HPGe spectrometer in using were used to compare with the simulation. As to new HPGe Detector simulation, considering the different thickness of BGO crystals and anti-coincidence efficiency, the simulation results show that the optimal thickness is 5.5cm, and the Peak-to-Compton ratio of 40K is raised to 1000 when the anti-coincidence efficiency is 0.85. As the background simulation, 15 cm oxygen-free copper plus 10 cm lead can reduce the environmental gamma rays to 0.0...

  11. Two-phase Cryogenic Avalanche Detector with electroluminescence gap operated in argon doped with nitrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Bondar, A; Dolgov, A; Nosov, V; Shekhtman, L; Shemyakina, E; Sokolov, A

    2016-01-01

    A two-phase Cryogenic Avalanche Detector (CRAD) with electroluminescence (EL) gap, operated in argon doped with a minor (49$\\pm$7 ppm) admixture of nitrogen, has been studied. The EL gap was optically read out using cryogenic PMTs located on the perimeter of the gap. We present the results of the measurements of the N$_2$ content, detector sensitivity to X-ray-induced signals, EL gap yield and electron lifetime in the liquid. The detector sensitivity, at a drift field in liquid Ar of 0.6 kV/cm, was measured to be 9 and 16 photoelectrons recorded at the PMTs per keV of deposited energy at 23 and 88 keV respectively. Such two-phase detectors, with enhanced sensitivity to the S2 (ionization-induced) signal, are relevant in the field of argon detectors for dark matter search and low energy neutrino detection.

  12. Two-phase Cryogenic Avalanche Detector with electroluminescence gap operated in argon doped with nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondar, A.; Buzulutskov, A.; Dolgov, A.; Nosov, V.; Shekhtman, L.; Shemyakina, E.; Sokolov, A.

    2017-02-01

    A two-phase Cryogenic Avalanche Detector (CRAD) with electroluminescence (EL) gap, operated in argon doped with a minor (49±7 ppm) admixture of nitrogen, has been studied. The EL gap was optically read out using cryogenic PMTs located on the perimeter of the gap. We present the results of the measurements of the N2 content, detector sensitivity to X-ray-induced signals, EL gap yield and electron lifetime in the liquid. The detector sensitivity, at a drift field in liquid Ar of 0.6 kV/cm, was measured to be 9 and 16 photoelectrons recorded at the PMTs per keV of deposited energy at 23 and 88 keV respectively. Such two-phase detectors, with enhanced sensitivity to the S2 (ionization-induced) signal, are relevant in the field of argon detectors for dark matter search and low energy neutrino detection.

  13. LHCb: Installation and operation of the LHCb Silicon Tracker detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Esperante Pereira, D

    2009-01-01

    The LHCb experiment has been designed to perform high-precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of B hadrons. The construction and installation phases of the Silicon Tracker (ST) of the experiment were completed by early summer 2008. The LHCb Silicon Tracker sums up to a total sensitive area of about 12 m^2 using silicon micro-strip technology and withstands charged particle fluxes of up to 5 x 10^5cm^−2s^−1. We will report on the preparation of the detectors for the first LHC beams. Selected results from the commissioning in LHCb are shown, including the first beam-related events accumulated during LHC injection tests in September 2008. Lessons are drawn from the experience gathered during the installation and commissioning.

  14. Sensitivity of the spherical gravitational wave detector MiniGRAIL operating at 5K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardi, L.; de Waard, A.; Usenko, O.; Frossati, G.; Podt, M.; Flokstra, J.; Bassan, M.; Fafone, V.; Minenkov, Y.; Rocchi, A.

    2007-11-01

    We present the performances and the strain sensitivity of the first spherical gravitational wave detector equipped with a capacitive transducer and readout by a low noise two-stage SQUID amplifier and operated at a temperature of 5 K. We characterized the detector performance in terms of thermal and electrical noise in the system output signal. We measured a peak strain sensitivity of 1.5×10-20Hz-1/2 at 2942.9 Hz. A strain sensitivity of better than 5×10-20Hz-1/2 has been obtained over a bandwidth of 30 Hz. We expect an improvement of more than 1 order of magnitude when the detector will operate at 50 mK. Our results represent the first step towards the development of an ultracryogenic omnidirectional detector sensitive to gravitational radiation in the 3 kHz range.

  15. Sensitivity of the spherical gravitational wave detector MiniGRAIL operating at 5 K

    CERN Document Server

    Gottardi, L; Usenko, A; Frossati, G; Podt, M; Flokstra, J; Bassan, M; Fafone, V; Minenkov, Y; Rocchi, A

    2007-01-01

    We present the performances and the strain sensitivity of the first spherical gravitational wave detector equipped with a capacitive transducer and read out by a low noise two-stage SQUID amplifier and operated at a temperature of 5 K. We characterized the detector performance in terms of thermal and electrical noise in the system output sygnal. We measured a peak strain sensitivity of $1.5\\cdot 10^{-20} Hz^{-1/2}$ at 2942.9 Hz. A strain sensitivity of better than $5\\cdot 10{-20}Hz{-1/2}$ has been obtained over a bandwidth of 30 Hz. We expect an improvement of more than one order of magnitude when the detector will operate at 50 mK. Our results represent the first step towards the development of an ultracryogenic omnidirectional detector sensitive to gravitational radiation in the 3kHz range.

  16. Operational experience with the CMS pixel detector in LHC Run II

    CERN Document Server

    Karancsi, Janos

    2016-01-01

    The CMS pixel detector was repaired successfully, calibrated and commissioned for the second run of Large Hadron Collider during the first long shutdown between 2013 and 2015. The replaced pixel modules were calibrated separately and show the expected behavior of an un-irradiated detector. In 2015, the system performed very well with an even improved spatial resolution compared to 2012. During this time, the operational team faced various challenges including the loss of a sector in one half shell which was only partially recovered. In 2016, the detector is expected to withstand instantaneous luminosities beyond the design limits and will need a combined effort of both online and offline teams in order to provide the high quality data that is required to reach the physics goals of CMS. We present the operational experience gained during the second run of the LHC and show the latest performance results of the CMS pixel detector.

  17. Operational performance and status of the ATLAS pixel detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ince, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC and its status after three years of operation will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The record breaking instantaneous luminosities of 7.7 x 10^33 cm-2 s-1 recently surpassed at the Large Hadron Collider generate a rapidly increasing particle fluence in the ATLAS Pixel Detector. As the radiation dose accumulates, the first effects of radiation damage are now observable in the silicon sensors. A regular monitoring program has been conducted and reveals an increase in the silicon leakage ...

  18. Operational Performance and Status of the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Jentzsch, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC and its status after three years of operation will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The record breaking instantaneous luminosities of 7.7 x 10^33 cm-2 s-1 recently surpassed at the Large Hadron Collider generate a rapidly increasing particle fluence in the ATLAS Pixel Detector. As the radiation dose accumulates, the first effects of radiation damage are now observable in the silicon sensors. A regular monitoring program has been conducted and reveals an increase in the silicon leakage ...

  19. Operational Performance and Status of the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Jentzsch, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experi- ment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individu- ally read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n+-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC and its status after three years of operation will be presented, including moni- toring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The record breaking instantaneous luminosities of 7.7 · 1033 cm−2s−1 recently surpassed at the Large Hadron Collider generate a rapidly increasing particle fluence in the ATLAS Pixel Detector. As the radiation dose accumulates, the first effects of radiation damage are now observable in the silicon sensors. A regular monitoring program has been conducted and reveals an increase in the silico...

  20. The ATLAS Inner Detector operation,data quality and tracking performance.

    CERN Document Server

    Stanecka, E; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Inner Detector comprises silicon and gas based detectors. The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) and the Pixel Detector are the key precision tracking silicon devices in the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at CERN LHC. And the the Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT), the outermost of the three subsystems of the ATLAS Inner Detector is made of thin-walled proportional-mode drift tubes (straws). The Pixel Detector consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. The SCT is a silicon strip detector and is constructed of 4088 silicon detector modules for a total of 6.3 million strips. Each module is designed, constructed and tested to operate as a stand-alone unit, mechanically, electrically, optically and thermally. The SCT silicon micro-strip sensors are processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals from the strips are processed in the front-end ASICS ABCD3TA, working in the binary readout mode. The TRT is made...

  1. Operational Experience and Performance with the ATLAS Pixel detector with emphasis on radiation damage

    CERN Document Server

    Butti, Pierfrancesco; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The tracking performance of the ATLAS detector relies critically on its 4-layer Pixel Detector, that has undergone significant hardware and software upgrades to meet the challenges imposed by the higher collision energy, pileup and luminosity that are being delivered by the Large Hadron Collider, with record breaking instantaneous luminosities of 1.3 x 10^34 cm-2 s-1 recently surpassed. The key status and performance metrics of the ATLAS Pixel Detector are summarised, and the operational experience and requirements to ensure optimum data quality and data taking efficiency are described, with special emphasis to radiation damage experience.

  2. Operational Experience and Performance with the ATLAS Pixel detector with emphasis on radiation damage

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia Pascual, Juan Antonio; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The tracking performance of the ATLAS detector relies critically on its 4-layer Pixel Detector, that has undergone significant hardware and software upgrades to meet the challenges imposed by the higher collision energy, pileup and luminosity that are being delivered by the Large Hadron Collider, with record breaking instantaneous luminosities of 1.3 x 10$^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ recently surpassed. The key status and performance metrics of the ATLAS Pixel Detector are summarised, and the operational experience and requirements to ensure optimum data quality and data taking efficiency are described, with special emphasis to radiation damage experience.

  3. Operational Experience of the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker and Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Dave; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The tracking performance of the ATLAS detector relies critically on the silicon and gaseous tracking subsystems that form the ATLAS Inner Detector. Those subsystems have undergone significant hardware and software upgrades to meet the challenges imposed by the higher collision energy, pileup and luminosity that are being delivered by the LHC during Run2. The key status and performance metrics of the Pixel Detector and the Semi Conductor Tracker are summarised, and the operational experience and requirements to ensure optimum data quality and data taking efficiency are described.

  4. Strategies for reducing the environmental impact of gaseous detector operation at the CERN LHC experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capeans, M.; Guida, R.; Mandelli, B.

    2017-02-01

    A wide range of gas mixtures is used for the operation of different gaseous detectors at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments. Nowadays some of these gases, as C2H2F4, CF4 and SF6, are indicated as greenhouse gases (GHG) and dominate the overall GHG emission from particle detectors at the LHC experiments. The release of GHG is an important subject for the design of future particle detectors as well as for the operation of the current experiments. Different strategies have been adopted at CERN for reducing the GHG emissions. The standard approach is the recirculation of the gas mixture with complex gas systems where system stability and the possible accumulation of impurities need to be attentively evaluated for the good operation and safety of the detectors. A second approach is based on the recuperation of the gas mixture exiting the detectors and the separation of its gas components for re-use. At long-term, the use of less invasive gases is being investigated, especially for the Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) systems. Operation of RPC with environmentally friendly gas mixtures is demonstrated for streamer mode while avalanche mode operation needs more complex gas mixtures.

  5. High operating temperature InAlSb infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mo; Chen, Gang; Li, Hao; Zhang, Zhaofan; Peng, Pan; Lv, Yanqiu

    2016-10-01

    The recent progresses of our research in InxAl1-xSb infrared detector based on molecular beam epitaxy are presented. Al composition with 0-0.3 is used for adjusting energy gaps of InSb and a p-i-n structure is utilized to decrease dark current. InxAl1-xSb ternary alloys are grown by molecular beam epitaxy on InSb substrates, and the material quality is characterized using high resolution x-ray diffraction. In order to exploit this epitaxial material we have developed new mesa and passivation technology based on matured InSb fabrication process. The InAlSb diodes has a cut-off wavelength of around 4.8μm. The reverse bias dark current of InAlSb diodes have been measured. The dark current of the pin InAlSb diode is seen to smaller that of the bulk p+n InSb diodes by 4-5 times in 77K.

  6. High Operating Temperature Midwave Quantum Dot Barrier Infrared Detector (QD-BIRD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z.; Soibel, Alexander; Hill, Cory J.; Keo, Sam A.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2012-01-01

    The nBn or XBn barrier infrared detector has the advantage of reduced dark current resulting from suppressed Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) recombination and surface leakage. High performance detectors and focal plane arrays (FPAs) based on InAsSb absorber lattice matched to GaSb substrate, with a matching AlAsSb unipolar electron barrier, have been demonstrated. The band gap of lattice-matched InAsSb yields a detector cutoff wavelength of approximately 4.2 ??m when operating at 150K. We report results on extending the cutoff wavelength of midwave barrier infrared detectors by incorporating self-assembled InSb quantum dots into the active area of the detector. Using this approach, we were able to extend the detector cutoff wavelength to 6 ?m, allowing the coverage of the full midwave infrared (MWIR) transmission window. The quantum dot barrier infrared detector (QD-BIRD) shows infrared response at temperatures up to 225 K.

  7. High Operating Temperature Midwave Quantum Dot Barrier Infrared Detector (QD-BIRD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z.; Soibel, Alexander; Hill, Cory J.; Keo, Sam A.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2012-01-01

    The nBn or XBn barrier infrared detector has the advantage of reduced dark current resulting from suppressed Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) recombination and surface leakage. High performance detectors and focal plane arrays (FPAs) based on InAsSb absorber lattice matched to GaSb substrate, with a matching AlAsSb unipolar electron barrier, have been demonstrated. The band gap of lattice-matched InAsSb yields a detector cutoff wavelength of approximately 4.2 ??m when operating at 150K. We report results on extending the cutoff wavelength of midwave barrier infrared detectors by incorporating self-assembled InSb quantum dots into the active area of the detector. Using this approach, we were able to extend the detector cutoff wavelength to 6 ?m, allowing the coverage of the full midwave infrared (MWIR) transmission window. The quantum dot barrier infrared detector (QD-BIRD) shows infrared response at temperatures up to 225 K.

  8. Charge-sensitive front-end electronics with operational amplifiers for CdZnTe detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Födisch, P.; Berthel, M.; Lange, B.; Kirschke, T.; Enghardt, W.; Kaever, P.

    2016-09-01

    Cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe, CZT) radiation detectors are suitable for a variety of applications, due to their high spatial resolution and spectroscopic energy performance at room temperature. However, state-of-the-art detector systems require high-performance readout electronics. Though an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) is an adequate solution for the readout, requirements of high dynamic range and high throughput are not available in any commercial circuit. Consequently, the present study develops the analog front-end electronics with operational amplifiers for an 8×8 pixelated CZT detector. For this purpose, we modeled an electrical equivalent circuit of the CZT detector with the associated charge-sensitive amplifier (CSA). Based on a detailed network analysis, the circuit design is completed by numerical values for various features such as ballistic deficit, charge-to-voltage gain, rise time, and noise level. A verification of the performance is carried out by synthetic detector signals and a pixel detector. The experimental results with the pixel detector assembly and a 22Na radioactive source emphasize the depth dependence of the measured energy. After pulse processing with depth correction based on the fit of the weighting potential, the energy resolution is 2.2% (FWHM) for the 511 keV photopeak.

  9. Bridging particle and wave sensitivity in a configurable detector of positive operator-valued measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Graciana; Lundeen, Jeff S; Branderhorst, Matthijs P A; Coldenstrodt-Ronge, Hendrik B; Smith, Brian J; Walmsley, Ian A

    2009-02-27

    We report an optical detector with tunable positive operator-valued measures. The device is based on a combination of weak-field homodyne techniques and photon-number-resolving detection. The resulting positive operator-valued measures can be continuously tuned from Fock-state projectors to a variety of phase-dependent quantum-state measurements by adjusting different system parameters such as local oscillator coupling, amplitude, and phase, allowing thus not only detection but also preparation of exotic quantum states. Experimental tomographic reconstructions of classical benchmark states are presented as a demonstration of the detector capabilities.

  10. Operation and radiation resistance of a FOXFET biasing structure for silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laakso, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)]|[Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of High Energy Physics; Singh, P.; Engels, E. Jr.; Shepard, P. [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    1992-02-01

    AC-coupled strip detectors biased with a FOXFET transistor structure have been studied. Measurement results for the basic operational characteristics of the FOXFET are presented together with a brief description of the physics underlying its operation. Radiation effects were studied using photons from a {sup 137}Cs source. Changes in the FOXFET characteristics as a function of radiation dose up to 1 MRad are reported. Results about the effect of radiation on the noise from a FOXFET biased detector are described. 13 refs.

  11. Operational Studies of Cadmium Zinc Telluride Microstrip Detectors using SVX ASIC Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizmanic, John; Barbier, L. M.; Barthelmy, S.; Bartlett, L.; Birsa, F.; Gehrels, N.; Hanchak, C.; Kurczynski, P.; Odom, J.; Parsons, A.; Palmer, D.; Sheppard, D.; Snodgrass, S.; Stahle, C. M.; Teegarden, B.; Tueller, J.

    1997-04-01

    We have been investigating the operational properties of cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) microstrip detectors by using SVX ASIC readout electronics. This research is in conjunction with the development of a CZT-based, next generation gamma-ray telescope for use in the gamma-ray Burst ArcSecond Imaging and Spectroscopy (BASIS) experiment. CZT microstrip detectors with 128 channels and 100 micron strip pitch have been fabricated and were interfaced to SVX electronics at Goddard Space Flight Center. Experimental results involving position sensing, spectroscopy, and CZT operational properties will be presented.

  12. Real time method and computer system for identifying radioactive materials from HPGe gamma-ray spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Mark S.; Howard, Douglas E.; Wong, James L.; Jessup, James L.; Bianchini, Greg M.; Miller, Wayne O.

    2007-10-23

    A real-time method and computer system for identifying radioactive materials which collects gamma count rates from a HPGe gamma-radiation detector to produce a high-resolution gamma-ray energy spectrum. A library of nuclear material definitions ("library definitions") is provided, with each uniquely associated with a nuclide or isotope material and each comprising at least one logic condition associated with a spectral parameter of a gamma-ray energy spectrum. The method determines whether the spectral parameters of said high-resolution gamma-ray energy spectrum satisfy all the logic conditions of any one of the library definitions, and subsequently uniquely identifies the material type as that nuclide or isotope material associated with the satisfied library definition. The method is iteratively repeated to update the spectrum and identification in real time.

  13. GRABGAM: A Gamma Analysis Code for Ultra-Low-Level HPGe SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winn, W.G.

    1999-07-28

    The GRABGAM code has been developed for analysis of ultra-low-level HPGe gamma spectra. The code employs three different size filters for the peak search, where the largest filter provides best sensitivity for identifying low-level peaks and the smallest filter has the best resolution for distinguishing peaks within a multiplet. GRABGAM basically generates an integral probability F-function for each singlet or multiplet peak analysis, bypassing the usual peak fitting analysis for a differential f-function probability model. Because F is defined by the peak data, statistical limitations for peak fitting are avoided; however, the F-function does provide generic values for peak centroid, full width at half maximum, and tail that are consistent with a Gaussian formalism. GRABGAM has successfully analyzed over 10,000 customer samples, and it interfaces with a variety of supplementary codes for deriving detector efficiencies, backgrounds, and quality checks.

  14. Determination of cascade summing correction for HPGe spectrometers by the Monte Carlo method

    CERN Document Server

    Takeda, M N

    2001-01-01

    The present work describes the methodology developed for calculating the cascade sum correction to be applied to experimental efficiencies obtained by means of HPGe spectrometers. The detection efficiencies have been numerically calculated by the Monte Carlo Method for point sources. Another Monte Carlo algorithm has been developed to follow the path in the decay scheme from the beginning state at the precursor radionuclide decay level, down to the ground state of the daughter radionuclide. Each step in the decay scheme is selected by random numbers taking into account the transition probabilities and internal transition coefficients. The selected transitions are properly tagged according to the type of interaction has occurred, giving rise to a total or partial energy absorption events inside the detector crystal. Once the final state has been reached, the selected transitions were accounted for verifying each pair of transitions which occurred simultaneously. With this procedure it was possible to calculate...

  15. Obelix, a new low-background HPGe at Modane Underground Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaiza, P. [Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane, CNRS-CEA, 1125 route de Bardonnèche, 73500 Modane (France); LAL, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, 91405 Orsay (France); Brudanin, V.; Rukhadze, N. [JINR, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980, Dubna (Russian Federation); Piquemal, F. [Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane, CNRS-CEA, 1125 route de Bardonnèche, 73500 Modane (France); CENBG, Univ Bordeaux, CNRS/IN2P3, 33175 Gradignan (France); Rukhadze, E.; Stekl, I. [IEAP, Czech Techincal University in Prague, 12800 Prague (Czech Republic); Warot, G.; Zampaolo, M. [Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane, CNRS-CEA, 1125 route de Bardonnèche, 73500 Modane (France)

    2015-08-17

    An ultra-low background coaxial HPGe detector for gamma-ray spectrometry with a relative efficiency of 160%, corresponding to a 600 cm{sup 3} Ge crystal, was installed at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane, France (4800 m.w.e). To reduce the instrinsic detector background, all parts involved in the detector cryostat were selected for their low radioactivity contamination. A shielding, composed of an inner layer of roman lead and an external layer of regular lead was installed, together with a system to reduce the Rn level inside the sample chamber. The shielding was designed to allow the measurement of Marinelli-shaped samples. We present the constructional details which lead to a remarkable low detector background of 73 cts/kg·d in [40, 3000] keV. Measured samples showed that sensitivities about 100 μBq/kg in {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Th are reached for samples of some kg and 30 days of lifetime.

  16. The gravitational wave detector NAUTILUS operating at T = 0.1 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astone, P. [Rome, ``La Sapienza`` (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica]|[INFN, Rone (Italy); Bassan, M. [Rome, ``Tor Vergata`` (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica]|[INFN, Rome 2 (Italy); Bonifazi, P. [CNR, Frascati (Italy). Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario]|[INFN, Rome (Italy)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    They report on the ultralow-temperature resonant-mass gravitational-wave detector NAUTILUS operating at the Frascati INFN Laboratories. The present aim of this detector is to achieve a sensitivity sufficient to detect bursts of gravitational radiation from sources located in our Galaxy and in the local group. Progress in transducer technology is likely to lead to sensitivities that will enable them to observe events from sources as far away as the Virgo cluster of galaxies. They describe the cryogenic apparatus, readout system cosmic-ray veto system, and give first results obtained during one year of continuous operation at T = 0.1 K. In particular the Brownian noise of the detector at T = 0.1 K was measured. The measured strain sensitivity was h-tilde {approx} 6 10{sup -22} Hz{sup -1/2} at the frequencies of the two modes, 908 Hz and 924 Hz, with bandwidths of about 1 Hz.

  17. Qualitative and quantitative validation of the SINBAD code on complex HPGe gamma-ray spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohee, E.; Coulon, R.; Normand, S.; Carrel, F. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures electroniques, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, (France); Dautremer, T.; Barat, E.; Montagu, T. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Modelisation, Simulation et Systemes, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, (France); Jammes, C. [CEA/DEN/SPEx/LDCI, Centre de Cadarache, F-13109 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, (France)

    2015-07-01

    Radionuclides identification and quantification is a serious concern for many applications as safety or security of nuclear power plant or fuel cycle facility, CBRN risk identification, environmental radioprotection and waste measurements. High resolution gamma-ray spectrometry based on HPGe detectors is a performing solution for all these topics. During last decades, a great number of software has been developed to improve gamma spectra analysis. However, some difficulties remain in the analysis when photoelectric peaks are folded together with a high ratio between theirs amplitudes, when the Compton background is much larger compared to the signal of a single peak and when spectra are composed of a great number of peaks. This study deals with the comparison between conventional methods in radionuclides identification and quantification and the code called SINBAD ('Spectrometrie par Inference Non parametrique Bayesienne Deconvolutive'). For many years, SINBAD has been developed by CEA LIST for unfolding complex spectra from HPGe detectors. Contrary to conventional methods using fitting procedures, SINBAD uses a probabilistic approach with Bayesian inference to describe spectrum data. This conventional fitting method founded for example in Genie 2000 is compared with the nonparametric SINBAD approach regarding some key figures of merit as the peak centroid evaluation (identification) and peak surface evaluation (quantification). Unfriendly cases are studied for nuclides detection with closed gamma-rays energies and high photoelectric peak intensity differences. Tests are performed with spectra from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for gamma spectra analysis software benchmark and with spectra acquired at the laboratory. Results show that SINBAD and Genie 2000 performances are quite similar with sometimes best results for SINBAD with the important difference that to achieve same performances the nonparametric method is user-friendly compared

  18. Operation of the CDF silicon vertex detector with colliding beams at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedeschi, F.; Bolognesi, V.; Dell' Agnello, S.; Galeotti, S.; Grieco, G.; Mariotti, M.; Menzione, A.; Punzi, G.; Raffaelli, F.; Ristori, L.; Tartarelli, F.; Turini, N.; Wenzel, H.; Zetti, F. (INFN, University and Scuola Normale Superiore of Pisa, Pisa, Italy, I-56100 (Italy)); Bailey, M.W.; Garfinkel, A.F.; Kruse, M.C.; Shaw, N.M. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)); Carithers, W.C.; Ely, R.; Haber, C.; Holland, S.; Kleinfelder, S.; Merrick, T.; Schneider, O.; Wester, W.; Wong, M.; Yao, W. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)); Carter, H.; Flaugher, B.; Nelson, C.; Segler, S.; Shaw, T.; Tkaczyk, S.; Turner, K.; Wesson, T.R. (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)); Barnett, B.; Boswell, C.; Skarha, J.; Snider, F.D.; Spies, A.; Tseng, J.; Vejcik, S. (The John Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)); Amidei, D.; Derwent, P.F.; Song, T.Y.; Dunn, A. (Univer

    1992-02-05

    In this paper we briefly describe the main features of the CDF Silicon Vertex Detector (SVX) and discuss its performance during actual colliding beam operation at the Fermilab Tevatron. Details on [ital S]/[ital N] ratio, alignment, resolution, and efficiency are given.

  19. Operation of the CDF Silicon Vertex Detector with colliding beams at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedeschi, F.; Bolognesi, V.; Dell' Agnello, S.; Galeotti, S.; Grieco, G.; Mariotti, M.; Menzione, A.; Punzi, G.; Raffaelli, F.; Ristori, L.; Tartarelli, F.; Turini, N.; Wenzel, H.; Zetti, F. (Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy)); Bailey, M.W.; Garfinkel, A.F.; Kruse, M.C.; Shaw, N.M. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States)); Carithers, W.C.; Ely, R.; Haber, C.; Holland, S.; Kleinfelder, S.; Merrick, T.; Schneide

    1992-10-01

    In this paper we briefly describe the main features of the CDF Silicon Vertex Detector (SVX) and discuss its performance during actual colliding beam operation at the Fermilab Tevatron. Details on S/N ratio, alignment, resolution and efficiency are given.

  20. On the efficient operation of a CsI-coated GEM photon detector

    CERN Document Server

    Mörmann, D; Chechik, R; Singh, B K

    2001-01-01

    We report on the efficient operation of a CsI-coated GEM photon detector. We describe its operation mode and the dependence of the single electron detection efficiency on the electric fields. Conditions for obtaining full efficiency of photoelectron extraction and their focusing into the GEM apertures, in 1 atm CH sub 4 , are presented. The quantum efficiency of the CsI-coated GEM is 35% at 150 nm.

  1. Optical readout uncooled infrared imaging detector using knife-edge filter operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Q; MIAO Z; GUO Z; DONG F; XIONG Z; WU X; CHEN D; LI C; JIAO B

    2007-01-01

    An optical readout uncooled infrared (IR) imaging detector of bimaterial cantilever array using knife-edge filter operation(KEFO) is demonstrated. The angle change of each cantilever in a focal plane array (FPA) can be simultaneously detected with a resolution of 10-5 degree. A deformation magnifying substrate-free micro-cantilever unit with multi-fold interval metallized legs is specially designed and modeled. A FPA with 160× 160 pixels is fabricated and thermal images with noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) of 400 mK are obtained by this imaging detector.

  2. Operational Experience, Improvements, and Performance of the CDF Run II Silicon Vertex Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aaltonen, T; Boveia, A.; Brau, B.; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Calancha, C; Carron, S.; Cihangir, S.; Corbo, M.; Clark, D.; Di Ruzza, B.; Eusebi, R.; Fernandez, J.P.; Freeman, J.C.; Garcia, J.E.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Gonzalez, O.; Grinstein, S.; Hartz, M.; Herndon, M.; Hill, C.; Hocker, A.; Husemann, U.; Incandela, J.; Issever, C.; Jindariani, S.; Junk, T.R.; Knoepfel, K.; Lewis, J.D.; Martinez-Ballarin, R.; Mathis, M.; Mattson, M.; Merkel, P; Mondragon, M.N.; Moore, R.; Mumford, J.R.; Nahn, S.; Nielsen, J.; Nelson, T.K.; Pavlicek, V.; Pursley, J.; Redondo, I.; Roser, R.; Schultz, K.; Spalding, J.; Stancari, M.; Stanitzki, M.; Stuart, D.; Sukhanov, A.; Tesarek, R.; Treptow, K.; Wallny, R.; Worm, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) pursues a broad physics program at Fermilab's Tevatron collider. Between Run II commissioning in early 2001 and the end of operations in September 2011, the Tevatron delivered 12 fb-1 of integrated luminosity of p-pbar collisions at sqrt(s)=1.96 TeV. Many physics analyses undertaken by CDF require heavy flavor tagging with large charged particle tracking acceptance. To realize these goals, in 2001 CDF installed eight layers of silicon microstrip detectors around its interaction region. These detectors were designed for 2--5 years of operation, radiation doses up to 2 Mrad (0.02 Gy), and were expected to be replaced in 2004. The sensors were not replaced, and the Tevatron run was extended for several years beyond its design, exposing the sensors and electronics to much higher radiation doses than anticipated. In this paper we describe the operational challenges encountered over the past 10 years of running the CDF silicon detectors, the preventive measures undertaken, an...

  3. Operating Water Cherenkov Detectors in high altitude sites for the Large Aperture GRB Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Allard, D; Asorey, H; Barros, H; Bertou, X; Castillo, M; Chirinos, J M; De Castro, A; Flores, S; González, J; Berisso, M Gomez; Grajales, J; Guada, C; Day, W R Guevara; Ishitsuka, J; López, J A; Martínez, O; Melfo, A; Meza, E; Loza, P Miranda; Barbosa, E Moreno; Murrugarra, C; Núñez, L A; Ormachea, L J Otiniano; Pérez, G; Perez, Y; Ponce, E; Quispe, J; Quintero, C; Rivera, H; Rosales, M; Rovero, A C; Saavedra, O; Salazar, H; Tello, J C; Peralda, R Ticona; Varela, E; Velarde, A; Villaseñor, L; Wahl, D; Zamalloa, M A

    2009-01-01

    Water Cherenkov Detectors (WCD) are efficient detectors for detecting GRBs in the 10 GeV - 1 TeV energy range using the single particle technique, given their sensitivity to low energy secondary photons produced by high energy photons when cascading in the atmosphere. The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO) operates arrays of WCD in high altitude sites (above 4500 m a.s.l.) in Bolivia, Mexico and Venezuela, with planned extension to Peru. Details on the operation and stability of these WCD in remote sites with high background rates of particles will be detailed, and compared to simulations. Specific issues due to operation at high altitude, atmospheric effects and solar activity, as well as possible hardware enhancements will also be presented.

  4. The Outer Tracker Detector of the HERA-B Experiment. Part III: Operation and Performance.

    OpenAIRE

    Albrecht et al., H.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we describe the operation and performance of the HERA-B Outer Tracker, a 112674 channel system of planar drift tube layers. The performance of the HERA-B Outer Tracker system fullfilled all requirements for stable and efficient operation in a hadronic environment, thus confirming the adequacy of the honeycomb drift tube technology and of the front-end readout system. The detector was stably operated with a gas gain of 30000 in an Ar/CF4/CO2 (65:30:5) gas mixture, yielding a good...

  5. Characteristics of Signals Originating Near the Lithium-Diffused N+ Contact of High Purity Germanium P-Type Point Contact Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Aguayo, E; Avignone, F T; Barabash, A S; Barton, P J; Beene, J R; Bertrand, F E; Boswell, M; Brudanin, V; Busch, M; Chan, Y-D; Christofferson, C D; Collar, J I; Combs, D C; Cooper, R J; Detwiler, J A; Doe, P J; Efremenko, Yu; Egorov, V; Ejiri, H; Elliott, S R; Esterline, J; Fast, J E; Fields, N; Finnerty, P; Fraenkle, F M; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Gehman, V M; Giovanetti, G K; Green, M P; Guiseppe, V E; Gusey, K; Hallin, A L; Hazama, R; Henning, R; Hoppe, E W; Horton, M; Howard, S; Howe, M A; Johnson, R A; Keeter, K J; Kidd, M F; Knecht, A; Kochetov, O; Konovalov, S I; Kouzes, R T; LaFerriere, B D; Leon, J; Leviner, L E; Loach, J C; Looker, Q; Luke, P N; MacMullin, S; Marino, M G; Martin, R D; Merriman, J H; Miller, M L; Mizouni, L; Nomachi, M; Orrell, J L; Overman, N R; Perumpilly, G; Phillips, D G; Poon, A W P; Radford, D C; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Ronquest, M C; Schubert, A G; Shima, T; Shirchenko, M; Snavely, K J; Steele, D; Strain, J; Timkin, V; Tornow, W; Varner, R L; Vetter, K; Vorren, K; Wilkerson, J F; Yakushev, E; Yaver, H; Young, A R; Yu, C -H; Yumatov, V

    2012-01-01

    A study of signals originating near the lithium-diffused n+ contact of p-type point contact (PPC) high purity germanium detectors (HPGe) is presented. The transition region between the active germanium and the fully dead layer of the n+ contact is examined. Energy depositions in this transition region are shown to result in partial charge collection. This provides a mechanism for events with a well defined energy to contribute to the continuum of the energy spectrum at lower energies. A novel technique to quantify the contribution from this source of background is introduced. Experiments that operate germanium detectors with a very low energy threshold may benefit from the methods presented herein.

  6. Characteristics of Signals Originating near the Lithium-Diffused N+ Contact of High Purity Germanium P-Type Point Contact Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguayo, E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Amman, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Avignone, F. T. [University of South Carolina/ORNL; Barabash, A.S. [Institute of Theoretical & Experimental Physics, Moscow, Russia; Barton, P. J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Beene, James R [ORNL; Bertrand Jr, Fred E [ORNL; Boswell, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Brudanin, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Busch, M. [Duke University; Chan, Y-D [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Christofferson, C. D. [South Dakota School of Mines & Technology, Rapid City, SD; Collar, Juan I. [University of Chicago; Combs, D. C. [University of North Carolina / Triangle Universities Nuclear Lababoratory, Durham; Cooper, Reynold J [ORNL; Detwiler, J.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Doe, P. J. [University of Washington; Efremenko, Yuri [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Egorov, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Ejiri, H. [Osaka University; Elliott, S. R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Esterline, J. [Duke University; Fast, J.E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Fields, N. [University of Chicago; Finnerty, P. [University of North Carolina / Triangle Universities Nuclear Lababoratory, Durham; Fraenkle, F. M. [University of North Carolina / Triangle Universities Nuclear Lababoratory, Durham; Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo {nmn} [ORNL; Gehman, V. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Giovanetti, G. K. [Univ, of North Carolina & Triangle Universities Nucl. Lab - Durham, NC; Green, M. P. [University of North Carolina / Triangle Universities Nuclear Lababoratory, Durham; Guiseppe, V.E. [University of South Dakota; Gusey, K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Hallin, A. L. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada; Hazama, R. [Osaka University; Henning, R. [Univ, of North Carolina & Triangle Universities Nucl. Lab - Durham, NC; Hoppe, E.W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Horton, M. [South Dakota School of Mines & Technology, Rapid City, SD; Howard, S. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology; Howe, M. A. [University of North Carolina / Triangle Universities Nuclear Lababoratory, Durham; Johnson, R. A. [University of Washington, Seattle; Keeter, K.J. [Black Hills State University, Spearfish, SD; Kidd, M. F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Knecht, A. [University of Washington, Seattle; Kochetov, O. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Konovalov, S.I. [Institute of Theoretical & Experimental Physics, Moscow, Russia; Kouzes, R. T. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); LaFerriere, B. D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Leon, J. [University of Washington, Seattle; Leviner, L. E. [University of North Carolina / Triangle Universities Nuclear Lababoratory, Durham; Loach, J.C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Looker, Q. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Luke, P.N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); MacMullin, S. [University of North Carolina / Triangle Universities Nuclear Lababoratory, Durham; Marino, M. G. [University of Washington, Seattle; Martin, R.D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Merriman, J. H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Miller, M. L. [University of Washington, Seattle; Mizouni, L. [PPNL/Univ. of South Carolina; Nomachi, M. [Osaka University; Orrell, John L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Overman, N. R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Perumpilly, G. [University of South Dakota; Phillips II, D. G. [University of North Carolina / Triangle Universities Nuclear Lababoratory, Durham; Poon, A.W.P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); et al.

    2013-01-01

    A study of signals originating near the lithium-diffused n+ contact of p-type point contact (PPC) high purity germanium detectors (HPGe) is presented. The transition region between the active germanium and the fully dead layer of the n+ contact is examined. Energy depositions in this transition region are shown to result in partial charge collection. This provides a mechanism for events with a well defined energy to contribute to the continuum of the energy spectrum at lower energies. A novel technique to quantify the contribution from this source of background is introduced. Experiments that operate germanium detectors with a very low energy threshold may benefit from the methods presented herein.

  7. Performance of bare high-purity germanium detectors in liquid argon for the GERDA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Heider, Marik Barnabé; Chkvorets, Oleg; Di Vacri, Assunta; Gusev, Konstantin; Schönert, Stefan; Shirchenko, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array, GERDA, will search for neutrinoless double beta decay in 76Ge at the National Gran Sasso Laboratory of the INFN. Bare high-purity germanium detectors enriched in 76Ge will be submerged in liquid argon serving simultaneously as a shield against external radioactivity and as a cooling medium. In GERDA Phase-I, reprocessed enriched-Ge detectors, which were previously operated by the Heidelberg-Moscow and IGEX collaborations, will be redeployed. Before operating the enriched detectors, tests are performed with non-enriched bare HPGe detectors in the GERDA underground Detector Laboratory to test the Phase-I detector assembly, the detector handling protocols, the refurbishment technology and to study the long-term stability in liquid argon. The leakage currents in liquid argon and liquid nitrogen have been extensively studied under varying gamma irradiation conditions. In total three non-enriched high-purity p-type prototype germanium detectors have been operated successfully. The dete...

  8. Operation of Resistive Plate Chamber Detectors with a New Environmentally Friendly Freon

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Helen Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    RPC particle gas detectors at CERN provide a vital element to the physics experiments carried out on the LHC. While their current operation and working gas mixtures are successful, environ- mental and economic factors force a revision of the mixture, specifically the eventual replacement of the current Freon gas R134-a with a newer, less environmentally harmful formulation, namely R1234-yf. The methods and results presented here outline the detector response to the introduction of the new Freon and its behavior under various mixtures. The electronegativity and hence impact on RPC parameters was investigated. It was found that the new Freon gas is indeed electroneg- ative, and suppresses the RPC signal. The mixture was modified to include Argon to increase ionization, and the final results of the operation of the RPC were satisfactory. Further work to refine the mixture for future implementation is necessary.

  9. A streamer tube detector for operation at high rates in the CPLEAR experiment at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennet, J.M. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Oliver Lodge Lab.; Carroll, M. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Oliver Lodge Lab.; Cawley, E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Oliver Lodge Lab.; Dodgson, M. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Oliver Lodge Lab.; Fry, J.R. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Oliver Lodge Lab.; Gabathuler, E. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Oliver Lodge Lab.; Gamet, R. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Oliver Lodge Lab.; Harrison, P. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Oliver Lodge Lab.; Harrison, P.F. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Oliver Lodge Lab.; Haselden, A.R. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Oliver Lodge Lab.; Hayman, P.J. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Oliver Lodge Lab.; King, D. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Oliver Lodge Lab.; Maley, P.D. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Oliver Lodge Lab.; Sacks, L.E. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Oliver Lodge Lab.; Sanders, P.M. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Oliver Lodge Lab.

    1996-06-01

    The design and instrumentation of a streamer tube detector for operation in the high rate environment of the CPLEAR experiment at CERN is described. A study of gas mixtures for use in the streamer tube is discussed. The final mixture of 46% argon, 50% isobutane, 4% methylal and 0.01% freon produces an axial resolution of 1.5 cm with an efficiency of 98% per layer. (orig.).

  10. Mirror thermal noise in laser interferometer gravitational wave detectors operating at room and cryogenic temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Franc, Janyce; Flaminio, Raffaele; Nawrodt, Ronny; Martin, Iain; Cunningham, Liam; Cumming, Alan; Rowan, Sheila; Hough, James

    2009-01-01

    Mirror thermal noise is and will remain one of the main limitations to the sensitivity of gravitational wave detectors based on laser interferometers. We report about projected mirror thermal noise due to losses in the mirror coatings and substrates. The evaluation includes all kind of thermal noises presently known. Several of the envisaged substrate and coating materials are considered. The results for mirrors operated at room temperature and at cryogenic temperature are reported.

  11. CMS Strip Detector: Operational Experience and Run1 to Run2 Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Butz, Erik Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The CMS silicon strip tracker is the largest silicon detector ever built. It has an active area of 200~m$^2$ of silicon segmented into almost 10 million readout channels. We describe some operational aspects of the system during its first years of operation during the LHC run 1. During the long shutdown 1 of the LHC an extensive work program was carried out on the strip tracker services in order to facilitate operation of the system at sub-zero temperatures in the LHC run~2 and beyond. We will describe these efforts and give a motivation of the choice of run~2 operating temperature. Finally, a brief outlook on the operation of the system in the upcoming run~2 will be given.

  12. Neutrinoless double-β decay of76Ge: First results from the International Germanium Experiment (IGEX) with six isotopically enriched detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalseth, C. E.; Avignone, F. T.; Brodzinski, R. L.; Collar, J. I.; Garcia, E.; González, D.; Hasenbalg, F.; Hensley, W. K.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Klimenko, A. A.; Miley, H. S.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Ortiz de Solórzano, A.; Osetrov, S. B.; Pogosov, V. S.; Puimedón, J.; Reeves, J. H.; Salinas, A.; Sarsa, M. L.; Smolnikov, A. A.; Starostin, A. S.; Tamanyan, A. G.; Vasenko, A. A.; Vasiliev, S. I.; Villar, J. A.

    1999-04-01

    The International Germanium Experiment (IGEX) has six HPGe detectors, isotopically enriched to 86% in 76Ge, containing approximately 90 active moles of 76Ge. Three detectors of 2 kg each operate in the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (Spain) with pulse-shape analysis electronics. One detector (~0.7 kg active volume) has been operating in the Baksan Low-Background Laboratory for several years, and two additional similar detectors will operate in Baksan. A maximum likelihood analysis of 74.84 active mole years of data yields a lower bound T0ν1/2>=0.8×1025 yr (90% C.L.), corresponding to <(0.5-1.5) eV, depending on the theoretical nuclear matrix elements used to extract the neutrino mass parameter.

  13. Neutrinoless double-{beta} decay of {sup 76}Ge: First results from the International Germanium Experiment (IGEX) with six isotopically enriched detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalseth, C.E.; Avignone, F.T. III; Collar, J.I.; Hasenbalg, F. [University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States); Brodzinski, R.L.; Hensley, W.K.; Miley, H.S.; Reeves, J.H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Garcia, E.; Gonzalez, D.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Ortiz de Solorzano, A.; Puimedon, J.; Salinas, A.; Sarsa, M.L.; Villar, J.A. [University of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Kirpichnikov, I.V.; Starostin, A.S.; Vasenko, A.A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117259 Moscow (Russia); Klimenko, A.A.; Osetrov, S.B.; Smolnikov, A.A.; Vasiliev, S.I. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Baksan Neutrino Observatory, 361609 Neutrino (Russia); Pogosov, V.S.; Tamanyan, A.G. [Yerevan Physical Institute, 375 036 Yerevan (Armenia)

    1999-04-01

    The International Germanium Experiment (IGEX) has six HPGe detectors, isotopically enriched to 86{percent} in {sup 76}Ge, containing approximately 90 active moles of {sup 76}Ge. Three detectors of 2 kg each operate in the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (Spain) with pulse-shape analysis electronics. One detector ({approximately}0.7 kg active volume) has been operating in the Baksan Low-Background Laboratory for several years, and two additional similar detectors will operate in Baksan. A maximum likelihood analysis of 74.84 active mole years of data yields a lower bound T{sub 1/2}{sup 0{nu}}{ge}0.8{times}10{sup 25}yr (90{percent} C.L.), corresponding to {l_angle}m{sub {nu}}{r_angle}{lt}(0.5{endash}1.5)eV, depending on the theoretical nuclear matrix elements used to extract the neutrino mass parameter. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. Positive operator-valued measure reconstruction of a beam-splitter tree-based photon-number-resolving detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, F; Levi, M P; Avella, A; López, M; Kück, S; Polyakov, S V; Degiovanni, I P; Brida, G; Genovese, M

    2015-04-01

    Here we present a reconstruction of the positive operator-value measurement of a photon-number-resolving detector comprised of three 50∶50 beam-splitters in a tree configuration, terminated with four single-photon avalanche detectors. The four detectors' outputs are processed by an electronic board that discriminates detected photon number states from 0 to 4 and implements a "smart counting" routine to compensate for dead time issues at high count rates.

  15. A gravitational wave detector operating beyond the quantum shot-noise limit: Squeezed light in application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnabel Roman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This contribution reviews our recent progress on the generation of squeezed light [1], and also the recent squeezed-light enhancement of the gravitational wave detector GEO 600 [2]. GEO 600 is currently the only GW observatory operated by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration in its search for gravitational waves. With the help of squeezed states of light it now operates with its best ever sensitivity, which not only proves the qualification of squeezed light as a key technology for future gravitational wave astronomy but also the usefulness of quantum entanglement.

  16. A prototype High Purity Germanium detector for high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy at high count rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.J., E-mail: rjcooper@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Amman, M.; Luke, P.N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Vetter, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-09-21

    Where energy resolution is paramount, High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors continue to provide the optimum solution for gamma-ray detection and spectroscopy. Conventional large-volume HPGe detectors are typically limited to count rates on the order of ten thousand counts per second, however, limiting their effectiveness for high count rate applications. To address this limitation, we have developed a novel prototype HPGe detector designed to be capable of achieving fine energy resolution and high event throughput at count rates in excess of one million counts per second. We report here on the concept, design, and initial performance of the first prototype device.

  17. Commissioning and Operation of the New CMS Phase-1 Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Si, Weinan

    2017-01-01

    The Phase-1 upgrade of the CMS pixel detector is built out of four barrel layers (BPix) and three forward disks in each endcap (FPix). It comprises a total of 124M pixel channels in 1,856 modules, and it is designed to withstand instantaneous luminosities of up to $2 \\times 10^{34}$\\,cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$. Different parts of the detector were assembled over the last year and later brought to CERN for installation inside the CMS tracker. At various stages during the assembly tests have been performed to ensure that the readout and power electronics and the cooling system meet the design specifications. After tests of the individual components, system tests were performed before the installation inside CMS. In addition to reviewing these tests, we also present results from the final commissioning of the detector in-situ using the central CMS DAQ system. Finally we review results from the initial operation of the detector first with cosmic rays and then with pp collisions.

  18. InSb Mid-Infrared Photon Detector for Room-Temperature Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Koichiro; Gomes Camargo, Edson; Katsumata, Takashi; Goto, Hiromasa; Kuze, Naohiro; Kangawa, Yoshihiro; Kakimoto, Koichi

    2013-09-01

    We developed a small InSb mid-infrared (2-7 µm wavelength range) photon detector that operates at room temperature. The photodiode was made from (hetero epitaxial) InSb layers that were grown on a semi-insulating GaAs substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. To suppress the effects of the diffusion current of the p-i-n photodiode, we used an AlInSb barrier layer that raises the resistance of the photodiode. We also optimized the device's doping concentration and the infrared incidence window structure. These optimization steps realized high photoelectric current output in a room-temperature environment. We also increased the signal-to-noise ratio of the detector by connecting multiple photodiodes in series. The size of this detector is 1.9×2.7×0.4 mm3 and the detectivity is 2.8×108 cm Hz1/2/W at 300 K. This is a practical IR detector that can be used in general signal amplification ICs.

  19. GRABGAM Analysis of Ultra-Low-Level HPGe Gamma Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winn, W.G.

    1999-07-28

    The GRABGAM code has been used successfully for ultra-low level HPGe gamma spectrometry analysis since its development in 1985 at Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). Although numerous gamma analysis codes existed at that time, reviews of institutional and commercial codes indicated that none addressed all features that were desired by SRTC. Furthermore, it was recognized that development of an in-house code would better facilitate future evolution of the code to address SRTC needs based on experience with low-level spectra. GRABGAM derives its name from Gamma Ray Analysis BASIC Generated At MCA/PC.

  20. Operating Instructions for the Cryogenics in the Liquid Argon Detector at CIEMAT; Operacion de la Criogenia del Detector de Argon Liquido del CIEMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, L.; Leal, M. D.; Prado, M. del; Ramirez, J. L.

    2009-12-19

    Ciemat has wide experience in designing and developing gaseous particle detectors. It has taken part in the building of experiments for CERN accelerators, constructing shares of the muon chambers for L3 experiment in LEP and CMS experiment in LHC. Recently, new concepts for particle detectors have been developed, as a natural evolution from the ones built at Ciemat. These new radiation detectors use liquefied noble gases as active media. A testing system for these kind of liquefied argon detectors has been built at Ciemat, and includes a supporting cryogenic system for the liquefaction and maintenance of the liquid argon needed for operating the detector. This document describes the technical features of this cryogenic system. Besides the documentation of the cryogenic system, this technical report can be of help for the management and upgrading of the detector. As well as an introduction, the report includes the following chapters: The second one is a description of the cryogenics and gas systems. The third chapter shows the controlling electronics. The fourth chapter deals with the important topic that is security, its systems and protocols. The fifth describes the cryogenic operations possible in this equipment. The report is completed with diagrams, schemes, pictures and tables for the easier management of the setup. (Author)

  1. Thermophysics modeling of an infrared detector cryochamber for transient operational scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Mayank; Singhal, Gaurav; Verma, Avinash C.; Kumar, Sushil; Singh, Manmohan

    2016-05-01

    An infrared detector (IR) is essentially a transducer capable of converting radiant energy in the infrared regime into a measurable form. The benefit of infrared radiation is that it facilitates viewing objects in dark or through obscured conditions by detecting the infrared energy emitted by them. One of the most significant applications of IR detector systems is for target acquisition and tracking of projectile systems. IR detectors also find widespread applications in the industry and commercial market. The performance of infrared detector is sensitive to temperatures and performs best when cooled to cryogenic temperatures in the range of nearly 120 K. However, the necessity to operate in such cryogenic regimes increases the complexity in the application of IR detectors. This entails a need for detailed thermophysics analysis to be able to determine the actual cooling load specific to the application and also due to its interaction with the environment. This will enable design of most appropriate cooling methodologies suitable for specific scenarios. The focus of the present work is to develop a robust thermo-physical numerical methodology for predicting IR cryochamber behavior under transient conditions, which is the most critical scenario, taking into account all relevant heat loads including radiation in its original form. The advantage of the developed code against existing commercial software (COMSOL, ANSYS, etc.), is that it is capable of handling gas conduction together with radiation terms effectively, employing a ubiquitous software such as MATLAB. Also, it requires much smaller computational resources and is significantly less time intensive. It provides physically correct results enabling thermal characterization of cryochamber geometry in conjunction with appropriate cooling methodology. The code has been subsequently validated experimentally as the observed cooling characteristics are found to be in close agreement with the results predicted using

  2. Investigating the effect of characteristic x-rays in cadmium zinc telluride detectors under breast computerized tomography operating conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Stephen J; Didier, Clay

    2013-10-14

    A number of research groups have been investigating the use of dedicated breast computerized tomography (CT). Preliminary results have been encouraging, suggesting an improved visualization of masses on breast CT as compared to conventional mammography. Nonetheless, there are many challenges to overcome before breast CT can become a routine clinical reality. One potential improvement over current breast CT prototypes would be the use of photon counting detectors with cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) (or CdTe) semiconductor material. These detectors can operate at room temperature and provide high detection efficiency and the capability of multi-energy imaging; however, one factor in particular that limits image quality is the emission of characteristic x-rays. In this study, the degradative effects of characteristic x-rays are examined when using a CZT detector under breast CT operating conditions. Monte Carlo simulation software was used to evaluate the effect of characteristic x-rays and the detector element size on spatial and spectral resolution for a CZT detector used under breast CT operating conditions. In particular, lower kVp spectra and thinner CZT thicknesses were studied than that typically used with CZT based conventional CT detectors. In addition, the effect of characteristic x-rays on the accuracy of material decomposition in spectral CT imaging was explored. It was observed that when imaging with 50-60 kVp spectra, the x-ray transmission through CZT was very low for all detector thicknesses studied (0.5-3.0 mm), thus retaining dose efficiency. As expected, characteristic x-ray escape from the detector element of x-ray interaction increased with decreasing detector element size, approaching a 50% escape fraction for a 100 μm size detector element. The detector point spread function was observed to have only minor degradation with detector element size greater than 200 μm and lower kV settings. Characteristic x-rays produced increasing distortion

  3. The Design and Research of the Operation Status Detector for Marine Engine Room Power Plant Based on Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Designed in this paper, based on the noise of ship engine room power plant running status of detector, is mainly used in the operation of the power plant of acoustic shell size to determine when the machine running state, this device is composed of signal disposal and alarm display adjustment part of two parts. Detector that can show the size of the voice, if exceed the set limit alarm value, the detector can sound an alarm, to remind staff equipment fails, it shall timely inspection maintenance, improve the safety of the operation of the ship.

  4. Real-time operating system for a multi-laser/multi-detector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, G.

    1980-01-01

    The laser-one hazard detector system, used on the Rensselaer Mars rover, is reviewed briefly with respect to the hardware subsystems, the operation, and the results obtained. A multidetector scanning system was designed to improve on the original system. Interactive support software was designed and programmed to implement real time control of the rover or platform with the elevation scanning mast. The formats of both the raw data and the post-run data files were selected. In addition, the interface requirements were selected and some initial hardware-software testing was completed.

  5. In situ radiation test of silicon and diamond detectors operating in superfluid helium and developed for beam loss monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurfürst, C.; Dehning, B.; Sapinski, M.; Bartosik, M. R.; Eisel, T.; Fabjan, C.; Rementeria, C. A.; Griesmayer, E.; Eremin, V.; Verbitskaya, E.; Zabrodskii, A.; Fadeeva, N.; Tuboltsev, Y.; Eremin, I.; Egorov, N.; Härkönen, J.; Luukka, P.; Tuominen, E.

    2015-05-01

    As a result of the foreseen increase in the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider, the discrimination between the collision products and possible magnet quench-provoking beam losses of the primary proton beams is becoming more critical for safe accelerator operation. We report the results of ongoing research efforts targeting the upgrading of the monitoring system by exploiting Beam Loss Monitor detectors based on semiconductors located as close as possible to the superconducting coils of the triplet magnets. In practice, this means that the detectors will have to be immersed in superfluid helium inside the cold mass and operate at 1.9 K. Additionally, the monitoring system is expected to survive 20 years of LHC operation, resulting in an estimated radiation fluence of 1×1016 proton/cm2, which corresponds to a dose of about 2 MGy. In this study, we monitored the signal degradation during the in situ irradiation when silicon and single-crystal diamond detectors were situated in the liquid/superfluid helium and the dependences of the collected charge on fluence and bias voltage were obtained. It is shown that diamond and silicon detectors can operate at 1.9 K after 1×1016 p/cm2 irradiation required for application as BLMs, while the rate of the signal degradation was larger in silicon detectors than in the diamond ones. For Si detectors this rate was controlled mainly by the operational mode, being larger at forward bias voltage.

  6. Performance Optimization of Spin-Torque Microwave Detectors with Material and Operational Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity, bandwidth, and noise equivalent power (NEP are important indicators of the performance of microwave detectors. The previous reports on spin-torque microwave detectors (STMDs have proposed various approaches to increase the sensitivity. However, the effects of these methods on the other two indicators remain unclear. In this work, macrospin simulation is developed to evaluate how the performance can be optimized through changing the material (tilt angle of reference-layer magnetization and operational parameters (the direction of magnetic field and working temperature. The study on the effect of magnetic field reveals that the driving force behind the performance tuning is the effective field and the equilibrium angle between the magnetization of the free layer and that of the reference layer. The material that offers the optimal tilt angle in reference-layer magnetization is determined. The sensitivity can be further increased by changing the direction of the applied magnetic field and the operation temperature. Although the optimized sensitivity is accompanied by a reduction in bandwidth or an increase in NEP, a balance among these performance indicators can be reached through optimal tuning of the corresponding influencing parameters.

  7. Operating the GridPix detector in dark matter search experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schön, R., E-mail: rolfs@nikhef.nl [National Institute for Subatomic Physics Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Alfonsi, M. [National Institute for Subatomic Physics Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hemink, G. [National Institute for Subatomic Physics Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Twente, Drienerloolaan 5, 7522 NB, Enschede (Netherlands); Decowski, M.P.; Bakel, N. van; Graaf, H. van der [National Institute for Subatomic Physics Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-08-01

    The DARWIN (dark matter WIMP search with noble liquids) design study aims to use liquid argon and liquid xenon targets to look for nuclear recoils due to weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). To measure the recoil energy in dual-phase noble gas time projection chambers the combination of scintillation and ionisation detection is used to discriminate nuclear from electron recoils. Current experiments use an array of photomultiplier tubes to detect the primary scintillation and the ionisation electrons via secondary scintillation in the gas phase. Within the research framework for DARWIN, one candidate for an alternative direct charge readout is GridPix, a micro-pattern gaseous detector composed of a Micromegas-like amplification grid over the Timepix 65k pixel readout chip. It can achieve a single-electron detection efficiency of up to 98% and has thus great potential to identify the ionisation electrons in dark matter search experiments. The main challenges for this application are low outgassing, thermal robustness, and operation in pure (thus quencher-free) noble gas. To investigate its applicability we operated a GridPix detector in an argon cryostat. We proved GridPix's performance in pure argon. The gas amplification was confirmed in pure argon in the broad temperature range from 300 K down to 87 K. Additionally, we discuss results of thermal tests of GridPix devices at liquid xenon temperature in a dry nitrogen atmosphere.

  8. Congenital heart diseases: post-operative appearance on multi-detector CT - a pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasian, Anderanik; Malik, Sachin; Shamsa, Kamran; Krishnam, Mayil S. [UCLA Medical Center, Department of Radiological Science, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Echocardiography is considered as an initial imaging modality of choice in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is preferred for detailed functional information. Multi-detector computed tomography (CT) plays an important role in clinical practice in assessing post-operative morphological and functional information of patients with complex CHD when echocardiography and MR imaging are not contributory. Radiologists should understand and become familiar with the complex morphology and physiology of CHD, as well as with various palliative and corrective surgical procedures performed in these patients, to obtain CT angiograms with diagnostic quality and promptly recognise imaging features of normal post-operative anatomy and complications of these complex surgeries. (orig.)

  9. Theoretical Study of Midwave Infrared HgCdTe nBn Detectors Operating at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Nima Dehdashti; Jolley, Gregory; Umana-Membreno, Gilberto A.; Antoszewski, Jarek; Faraone, Lorenzo

    2015-09-01

    We report a theoretical study of mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) unipolar n-type/barrier/ n-type (nBn) detectors for midwave infrared (MWIR) applications at elevated temperatures. The results obtained indicate that the composition, doping, and thickness of the barrier layer in MWIR HgCdTe nBn detectors can be optimized to yield performance levels comparable with those of ideal HgCdTe p- n photodiodes. It is also shown that introduction of an additional barrier at the back contact layer of the detector structure (nBnn+) leads to substantial suppression of the Auger generation-recombination (GR) mechanism; this results in an order-of-magnitude reduction in the dark current level compared with conventional nBn or p- n junction-based detectors, thus enabling background-limited detector operation above 200 K.

  10. Status of the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC and its performance after three years of operation

    CERN Document Server

    Andreazza, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experi- ment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution mea- surements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. After three years of operation the detector performance is excellent: 96% of the pixels are opera- tional, at 3500 e threshold noise occupancy and efficiency exceed the design specification. The effect of radiation on the silicon sensor is measured and compared with model of radiation damage.

  11. Determining HPGe Total Detection Efficiency Using γ–γ Coincidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erikson, Luke E.; Keillor, Martin E.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Mizouni, Leila K.; Stavenger, Timothy J.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Lepel, Elwood A.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Rutherford, Crystal E.

    2013-05-01

    Abstract Both the peak and total detection efficiencies are generally needed in order to calculate sample activity from a gamma spectroscopic measurement, except in the case of isotope specific calibration. This is particularly true when the sample is in close proximity to the detector and corrections for cascade summing effects are required to avoid significant inaccuracy in the result. These corrections use the total detection efficiency to correct for summing-in and summing-out events, and the extent of the correction depends on both the geometry and the gamma cascade for the isotope in question. Experimentally determining the total efficiency is a labor intensive endeavor requiring multiple measurements with a set of single-gamma-emitting standards. Modeling the total efficiency vs. energy may be less time consuming, but is also likely to produce less confidence in the final result. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Radiation Detection and Nuclear Sciences group has constructed a low background 14-crystal HPGe array for sample measurement; in all measurements, samples will be in close proximity to the germanium crystals. This close geometry and the sheer number efficiency calibrations required for the system have led us to investigate methods to simplify the efficiency calibration procedure. One method we are developing uses the Y-Y coincidence plane to isolate Compton scattering event populations, allowing experimental determination of total detection efficiency values from the measurement of a single mixed isotope standard. A description of the analysis and experimental results of this method are presented.

  12. Simulation for photon detection in spectrometric system of high purity (HPGe) using MCNPX code; Simulacao de deteccao de fotons em sistema espectrometrico de alta pureza (HPGe) usando o codigo MCNPX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Guilherme Jorge de Souza

    2013-07-01

    The Brazilian National Commission of Nuclear Energy defines parameters for classification and management of radioactive waste in accordance with the activity of materials. The efficiency of a detection system is crucial to determine the real activity of a radioactive source. When it's possible, the system's calibration should be performed using a standard source. Unfortunately, there are only a few cases that it can be done this way, considering the difficulty of obtaining appropriate standard sources for each type of measurement. So, computer simulations can be performed to assist in calculating of the efficiency of the system and, consequently, also auxiliary the classification of radioactive waste. This study aims to model a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector with MCNPX code, approaching the spectral values computationally obtained of the values experimentally obtained for the photopeak of {sup 137}Cs. The approach will be made through changes in outer dead layer of the germanium crystal modeled. (author)

  13. Results from prototypes of environmental and health alarm devices based on gaseous detectors operating in air in counting mode

    CERN Document Server

    Martinengo, P; Peskov, V; Benaben, P; Charpak, G; Breuil, P

    2011-01-01

    We have developed and successfully tested two prototypes of detectors of dangerous gases based on wire-type counters operating in air in avalanche mode: one is for radon (Rn) detection whereas the other one is for the detection of gases with an ionization potential less than the air components. Due to the operation in pulse counting mode these prototypes have sensitivities comparable to (in the case of the Rn detector) or much higher than (in the case of the detector for low ionization gases) the best commercial devices currently available on the market. We believe that due to their high sensitivity, simplicity and low cost such new detectors will find massive applications. One of them, discussed in this paper, could be the on-line monitoring of Rn for the prediction of earthquakes. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Status of the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC and its performance after three years of operation.

    CERN Document Server

    Heim, Timon; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC and its status after three years of operation will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The record breaking instantaneous luminosities of 7.7 x 10^33 cm-2 s-1 recently surpassed at the Large Hadron Collider generate a rapidly increasing particle fluence in the ATLAS Pixel Detector. As the radiation dose accumulates, the first effects of radiation damage are now observable in the silicon sensors. A regular monitoring program has been conducted and reveals an increase in the silicon leakage ...

  15. HIgh Rate X-ray Fluorescence Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grudberg, Peter Matthew [XIA LLC

    2013-04-30

    The purpose of this project was to develop a compact, modular multi-channel x-ray detector with integrated electronics. This detector, based upon emerging silicon drift detector (SDD) technology, will be capable of high data rate operation superior to the current state of the art offered by high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors, without the need for liquid nitrogen. In addition, by integrating the processing electronics inside the detector housing, the detector performance will be much less affected by the typically noisy electrical environment of a synchrotron hutch, and will also be much more compact than current systems, which can include a detector involving a large LN2 dewar and multiple racks of electronics. The combined detector/processor system is designed to match or exceed the performance and features of currently available detector systems, at a lower cost and with more ease of use due to the small size of the detector. In addition, the detector system is designed to be modular, so a small system might just have one detector module, while a larger system can have many you can start with one detector module, and add more as needs grow and budget allows. The modular nature also serves to simplify repair. In large part, we were successful in achieving our goals. We did develop a very high performance, large area multi-channel SDD detector, packaged with all associated electronics, which is easy to use and requires minimal external support (a simple power supply module and a closed-loop water cooling system). However, we did fall short of some of our stated goals. We had intended to base the detector on modular, large-area detectors from Ketek GmbH in Munich, Germany; however, these were not available in a suitable time frame for this project, so we worked instead with pnDetector GmbH (also located in Munich). They were able to provide a front-end detector module with six 100 m^2 SDD detectors (two monolithic arrays of three elements each) along with

  16. In situ radiation test of silicon and diamond detectors operating in superfluid helium and developed for beam loss monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurfürst, C.; Dehning, B.; Sapinski, M.; Bartosik, M.R.; Eisel, T.; Fabjan, C.; Rementeria, C.A. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Griesmayer, E. [CIVIDEC Instrumentation, GmbH, Vienna (Austria); Eremin, V. [Ioffe Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Verbitskaya, E., E-mail: elena.verbitskaya@cern.ch [Ioffe Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Zabrodskii, A.; Fadeeva, N.; Tuboltsev, Y.; Eremin, I. [Ioffe Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Egorov, N. [Research Institute of Material Science and Technology, Zelenograd, Moscow (Russian Federation); Härkönen, J.; Luukka, P.; Tuominen, E. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (Finland)

    2015-05-11

    As a result of the foreseen increase in the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider, the discrimination between the collision products and possible magnet quench-provoking beam losses of the primary proton beams is becoming more critical for safe accelerator operation. We report the results of ongoing research efforts targeting the upgrading of the monitoring system by exploiting Beam Loss Monitor detectors based on semiconductors located as close as possible to the superconducting coils of the triplet magnets. In practice, this means that the detectors will have to be immersed in superfluid helium inside the cold mass and operate at 1.9 K. Additionally, the monitoring system is expected to survive 20 years of LHC operation, resulting in an estimated radiation fluence of 1×10{sup 16} proton/cm{sup 2}, which corresponds to a dose of about 2 MGy. In this study, we monitored the signal degradation during the in situ irradiation when silicon and single-crystal diamond detectors were situated in the liquid/superfluid helium and the dependences of the collected charge on fluence and bias voltage were obtained. It is shown that diamond and silicon detectors can operate at 1.9 K after 1×10{sup 16} p/cm{sup 2} irradiation required for application as BLMs, while the rate of the signal degradation was larger in silicon detectors than in the diamond ones. For Si detectors this rate was controlled mainly by the operational mode, being larger at forward bias voltage. - Highlights: • Silicon and diamond detectors are proposed for beam loss monitoring at LHC. • The first in situ radiation test of Si and diamond detectors at 1.9 K is described. • Both diamond and silicon detectors survived after 1×10{sup 16} p/cm{sup 2} irradiation at 1.9 K. • The rate of Si detectors degradation depends on bias polarity and is larger at V{sub forw}. • Sensitivity of Si detectors irradiated to 1×10{sup 16} p/cm{sup 2} is independent on resistivity.

  17. Characterization of a pixelated CdTe Timepix detector operated in ToT mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billoud, T.; Leroy, C.; Papadatos, C.; Pichotka, M.; Pospisil, S.; Roux, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    A 1 mm thick CdTe sensor bump-bonded to a Timepix readout chip operating in Time-over-Threshold (ToT) mode has been characterized in view of possible applications in particle and medical physics. The CdTe sensor layer was segmented into 256 × 256 pixels, with a pixel pitch of 55 μm. This CdTe Timepix device, of ohmic contact type, has been exposed to alpha-particles and photons from an 241Am source, photons from a 137Cs source, and protons of different energies (0.8–10 MeV) delivered by the University of Montreal Tandem Accelerator. The device was irradiated on the negatively biased backside electrode. An X-ray per-pixel calibration commonly used for this type of detector was done and its accuracy and resolution were assessed and compared to those of a 300 μm thick silicon Timepix device. The electron mobility-lifetime product (μeτe) of CdTe for protons of low energy has been obtained from the Hecht equation. Possible polarization effects have been also investigated. Finally, information about the homogeneity of the detector was obtained from X-ray irradiation.

  18. Operation of a fast diamond γ-ray detector at the HIγS facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, T.; N' Diaye, C.; Breton, D.; Cassou, K.; Dupraz, K.; Favier, P.; Jehanno, D.; Kubytskyi, V.; Liu, X.; Maalmi, J.; Martens, A.; Peinaud, Y.; Stocchi, A.; Zomer, F. [LAL, Univ Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Griesmayer, E.; Kavrigin, P. [Vienna University of Technology (Austria); Ahmed, M.W. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Physics Department, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Department of Mathematics and Physics, North Carolina Central University, Durham, NC 27707 (United States); Sikora, M.; Weller, H.R. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Physics Department, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2016-09-11

    Operations of a diamond sensor placed in a high average-intensity beam of photons with energies of a few MeV are reported. Data was taken at the HIγS facility of TUNL in parasitic mode while nuclear-physics experiments were taking place. The energies of the photons during data taking were 2, 3 and 7 MeV with circular and linear polarisations of the photon beam. The collected charge appears to be constant at these energies, which is consistent with simulations. A dedicated run with bunches of photons separated by 16 ns shows that they are unambiguously distinguished. This is possible thanks to a FWHM of the pulses measured to be about 6 ns. The results indicate that the tested apparatus fulfils the requirements for a fast monitoring detector for the ELI-NP source currently under construction, which motivates this work, and demonstrates for the first time the capabilities of such detectors in high average-intensity photon beams.

  19. Reliability issues for a bolometer detector for ITER at high operating temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, H; Kannamüller, M; Koll, J; Pathak, A; Penzel, F; Trautmann, T; Detemple, P; Schmitt, S; Langer, H

    2012-10-01

    The first detector prototypes for the ITER bolometer diagnostic featuring a 12.5 μm thick Pt-absorber have been realized and characterized in laboratory tests. The results show linear dependencies of the calibration parameters and are in line with measurements of prototypes with thinner absorbers. However, thermal cycling tests up to 450 °C of the prototypes with thick absorbers demonstrated that their reliability at these elevated operating temperatures is not yet sufficient. Profilometer measurements showed a deflection of the membrane hinting to stresses due to the deposition processes of the absorber. Finite element analysis (FEA) managed to reproduce the deflection and identified the highest stresses in the membrane in the region around the corners of the absorber. FEA was further used to identify changes in the geometry of the absorber with a positive impact on the intrinsic stresses of the membrane. However, further improvements are still necessary.

  20. Developments in plastic wire chambers operated in the limited streamer mode (LSM detectors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, Mikko; Kurvinen, Kari; Orava, Risto

    1988-12-01

    We have calculated the photon detection efficiency of a wire chamber constructed with conductive nylon-66 plastic as cathode material in the photon energy range of 100 keV-1 MeV. The calculated results are compared with the results obtained with a Monte Carlo simulation using the FLUKA [1] transport code and with experimental results. We have also calculated the efficiency for copper and compared these two cathode materials. The comparison shows that wire chambers with nylon and copper cathodes are equally efficient in detecting the 100 keV-1 MeV photons. Furthermore, we have studied the different physical processes contributing to photon detection as well as the detection efficiency as a function of cathode thickness. Finally, we report some results from the first LSM detector operational tests performed with our new wire chamber testing device.

  1. Improvement in Ge Detector Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    linear Stirling cooler manufactured by SunPower, Inc., Athens, Ohio. This hybrid system has the same footprint as a standard 30-liter LN2 Dewar and...are two such HPGe detector cooler /cryostat systems that we are modifying and evaluating for use in the RASA. The modifications will enhance vacuum... system incorporating a 4-watt pulse-tube cooler manufactured by Thales Cryogenics, Eindhoven, Netherlands, is being modified to incorporate ultra

  2. State of the art of AIM LWIR and VLWIR MCT 2D focal plane detector arrays for higher operating temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figgemeier, H.; Hanna, S.; Eich, D.; Mahlein, K.-M.; Fick, W.; Schirmacher, W.; Thöt, R.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper AIM presents its latest results on both n-on-p and p-on-n low dark current planar MCT photodiode technology LWIR and VLWIR two-dimensional focal plane detector arrays with a cut-off wavelength >11μm at 80K and a 640x512 pixel format at a 20μm pitch. Thermal dark currents significantly reduced as compared to `Tennant's Rule 07' at a yet good detection efficiency >60% as well as results from NETD and photo response performance characterization are presented. The demonstrated detector performance paces the way for a new generation of higher operating temperature LWIR MCT FPAs with a <30mK NETD up to a 110K detector operating temperature and with good operability.

  3. Long-Term Stability of Underground Operated CZT Detectors Based on the Analysis of Intrinsic $^{113}$Cd \\beta$^{-}$-Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Ebert, J; Gehre, D; Hagner, C; Heidrich, N; Klingenberg, R; Kroeninger, K; Nitsch, C; Oldorf, C; Quante, T; Rajek, S; Rebber, H; Rohatsch, K; Tebruegge, J; Temminghoff, R; Theinert, R; Timm, J; Wonsak, B; Zatschler, S; Zuber, K

    2015-01-01

    The COBRA collaboration operates a demonstrator setup at the underground facility LNGS (Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, located in Italy) to prove the technological capabilities of this concept for the search for neutrinoless double beta-decay. The setup consists of 64 $(1\\times\\!1\\times\\!1)$ cm$^{3}$ CZT detectors in CPG configuration. One purpose of this demonstrator is to test if reliable long-term operation of CZT-CPG detectors in such a setup is possible. The demonstrator has been operated under ultra low-background conditions since more than three years and collected data corresponding to an exposure of 218 kg$\\cdot$days. The presented study focuses on the long-term stability of CZT detectors by analyzing the intrinsic, fourfold forbidden non-unique $^{113}$Cd single beta-decay. It can be shown that CZT detectors can be operated stably for long periods of time and that the $^{113}$Cd single beta-decay can be used as an internal monitor of the detector performance during the runtime of the experimen...

  4. Technical design of a detector to be operated at the Superconducting Super Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the Soleoidal Detector Collaboration: Summary and overview of the detector; physics and detector requirements; central tracking system; superconducting magnet; calorimetry; muon system; electronics; online computing; offline computing; safety; experimental facilities; installation; test and calibration beam plan; and cost and schedule summary.

  5. Experimental and simulation study of the behaviour and operation modes of MSGC+GEM detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Ageron, M; Barvich, T; Beaumont, W; Beckers, T; Bernier, K; Blüm, P; Boulogne, I; Bouvet, D; Brom, J M; Charles, F; Coffin, J; Contardo, D; Daubie, Evelyne; Didierjean, François; De Lentdecker, G; De Troy, J; Devroede, O; Erdmann, M; Ernenwein, J P; Fahrer, M; Flügge, G; Fontaine, J C; Geist, Walter M; Goerlach, U; Gottschalk, M; Helleboid, J M; Huss, D; Iacopi, F; Juillot, P; Kärcher, K; Kühn, F; Lounis, A; Maazouzi, C; Macke, D; Martin, C; Mirabito, L; Moreau, S; Müller, T; Neuberger, D; Nowack, A; Perriès, S; Ripp-Baudot, I; Röderer, F; Schulte, R; Shekhtman, L I; Simonis, H J; Struczinski, W; Tatarinov, A; Thümmel, W H; Udo, Fred; Van der Velde, C; Van Doninck, W K; Van Dyck, C; Vanlaer, P; Van Lancker, L; Weiler, T; Zander, A; Zghiche, A; Zhukov, V

    2002-01-01

    A small series production of detector modules made of MicroStrip Gas Counters (MSGC) and a Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) foil has been exposed to a high-intensity hadron beam. We report about the reproductibility and stability of the detector responses and about the occurrence and consequences of discharges in the detector. The interdependence of the four voltage differences used in the detector has been studied by simulation and with X-ray measurements. Rate dependence of the signal amplitude is observed. The behaviour of the MSGC+GEM is compared to that of a state-of-the-art MSGC. Influence of various parameters on the detector response is investigated.

  6. Single-chip electron spin resonance detectors operating at 50 GHz, 92 GHz, and 146 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheoud, Alessandro V.; Gualco, Gabriele; Jeong, Minki; Zivkovic, Ivica; Brugger, Jürgen; Rønnow, Henrik M.; Anders, Jens; Boero, Giovanni

    2017-05-01

    We report on the design and characterization of single-chip electron spin resonance (ESR) detectors operating at 50 GHz, 92 GHz, and 146 GHz. The core of the single-chip ESR detectors is an integrated LC-oscillator, formed by a single turn aluminum planar coil, a metal-oxide-metal capacitor, and two metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistors used as negative resistance network. On the same chip, a second, nominally identical, LC-oscillator together with a mixer and an output buffer are also integrated. Thanks to the slightly asymmetric capacitance of the mixer inputs, a signal at a few hundreds of MHz is obtained at the output of the mixer. The mixer is used for frequency down-conversion, with the aim to obtain an output signal at a frequency easily manageable off-chip. The coil diameters are 120 μm, 70 μm, and 45 μm for the U-band, W-band, and the D-band oscillators, respectively. The experimental frequency noises at 100 kHz offset from the carrier are 90 Hz/Hz1/2, 300 Hz/Hz1/2, and 700 Hz/Hz1/2 at 300 K, respectively. The ESR spectra are obtained by measuring the frequency variations of the single-chip oscillators as a function of the applied magnetic field. The experimental spin sensitivities, as measured with a sample of α,γ-bisdiphenylene-β-phenylallyl (BDPA)/benzene complex, are 1 × 108 spins/Hz1/2, 4 × 107 spins/Hz1/2, 2 × 107 spins/Hz1/2 at 300 K, respectively. We also show the possibility to perform experiments up to 360 GHz by means of the higher harmonics in the microwave field produced by the integrated single-chip LC-oscillators.

  7. Signals induced by charge-trapping in EDELWEISS FID detectors: analytical modeling and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaud, Q; Augier, C; Benoît, A; Bergé, L; Billard, J; Blümer, J; de Boissière, T; Broniatowski, A; Camus, P; Cazes, A; Chapellier, M; Charlieux, F; Dumoulin, L; Eitel, K; Foerster, N; Fourches, N; Gascon, J; Giuliani, A; Gros, M; Hehn, L; Heuermann, G; Juillard, A; De Jésus, M; Kleifges, M; Kozlov, V; Kraus, H; Kudryavtsev, V A; Kéfélian, C; Le-Sueur, H; Lin, J; Marnieros, S; Navick, X -F; Nones, C; Olivieri, E; Pari, P; Paul, B; Piro, M -C; Poda, D; Queguiner, E; Rozov, S; Sanglard, V; Schmidt, B; Scorza, S; Siebenborn, B; Tcherniakhovski, D; Vagneron, L; Weber, M; Yakushev, E

    2016-01-01

    The EDELWEISS-III direct dark matter search experiment uses cryogenic HP-Ge detectors Fully covered with Inter-Digitized electrodes (FID). They are operated at low fields ($<1\\;\\mathrm{V/cm}$), and as a consequence charge-carrier trapping significantly affects both the ionization and heat energy measurements. This paper describes an analytical model of the signals induced by trapped charges in FID detectors based on the Shockley-Ramo theorem. It is used to demonstrate that veto electrodes, initially designed for the sole purpose of surface event rejection, can be used to provide a sensitivity to the depth of the energy deposits, characterize the trapping in the crystals, perform heat and ionization energy corrections and improve the ionization baseline resolutions. These procedures are applied successfully to actual data.

  8. First operation of a hybrid photon detector prototype with electrostatic cross-focussing and integrated silicon pixel readout

    CERN Document Server

    Alemi, M; Gys, Thierry; Mikulec, B; Piedigrossi, D; Puertolas, D; Rosso, E; Schomaker, R; Snoeys, W; Wyllie, Ken H

    2000-01-01

    We report on the first operation of a hybrid photon detector prototype with integrated silicon pixel readout for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment. The photon detector is based on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of 4. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The prototype has been characterized using a low-intensity light-emitting diode operated in pulsed mode. Its performance in terms of single-photoelectron detection efficiency and imaging properties is presented. A model of photoelectron detection is proposed, and is shown to be in good agreement with the experimental data. It includes an estimate of the charge signal generated in the silicon detector, and the combined effects of the comparator threshold spread of the pixel readout chip, charge sharing at the pixel boundaries and back-scattering of the photoelectrons at the silicon detector surface...

  9. Production, characterization and operation of {sup 76}Ge enriched BEGe detectors in GERDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, M.; Bode, T.; Budjas, D.; Janicsko Csathy, J.; Lazzaro, A.; Schoenert, S. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Munich (Germany); Allardt, M.; Barros, N.; Domula, A.; Lehnert, B.; Wester, T.; Wilsenach, H.; Zuber, K. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Dresden (Germany); Andreotti, E. [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel (Belgium); Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); Bakalyarov, A.M.; Belyaev, S.T.; Lebedev, V.I.; Zhukov, S.V. [National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Balata, M.; D' Andrea, V.; Ioannucci, L.; Junker, M.; Laubenstein, M.; Macolino, C.; Nisi, S.; Zavarise, P. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and Gran Sasso Science Institute, Assergi (Italy); Barabanov, I.; Bezrukov, L.; Gurentsov, V.; Inzhechik, L.V.; Kazalov, V.; Kuzminov, V.V.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Yanovich, E. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Baudis, L.; Benato, G.; Walter, M. [Physik Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland); Bauer, C.; Heisel, M.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Kihm, T.; Kirsch, A.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Lindner, M.; Maneschg, W.; Salathe, M.; Schreiner, J.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Strecker, H.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Caldwell, A.; Liao, H.Y.; Majorovits, B.; O' Shaughnessy, C.; Palioselitis, D.; Schulz, O.; Vanhoefer, L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Bellotti, E.; Pessina, G. [Universita Milano Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Belogurov, S.; Kornoukhov, V.N. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bettini, A.; Brugnera, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Hemmer, S.; Sada, C.; Von Sturm, K. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell' Universita di Padova, Padua (Italy); INFN Padova, Padua (Italy); Borowicz, D. [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Cracow (Poland); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Brudanin, V.; Egorov, V.; Kochetov, O.; Nemchenok, I.; Rumyantseva, N.; Shevchik, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zinatulina, D. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Cattadori, C.; Gotti, C. [INFN Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Chernogorov, A.; Demidova, E.V.; Kirpichnikov, I.V.; Vasenko, A.A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Falkenstein, R.; Freund, K.; Grabmayr, P.; Hegai, A.; Jochum, J.; Schmitt, C.; Schuetz, A.K. [Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); Frodyma, N.; Misiaszek, M.; Pelczar, K.; Wojcik, M.; Zuzel, G. [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Cracow (Poland); Gangapshev, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gusev, K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Munich (Germany); Hult, M.; Lutter, G. [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel (Belgium); Klimenko, A.; Lubashevskiy, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Lippi, I.; Stanco, L.; Ur, C.A. [INFN Padova, Padua (Italy); Pandola, L. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN Milano (Italy); Shirchenko, M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory (LNGS) searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) of {sup 76}Ge. Germanium detectors made of material with an enriched {sup 76}Ge fraction act simultaneously as sources and detectors for this decay. During Phase I of the experiment mainly refurbished semi-coaxial Ge detectors from former experiments were used. For the upcoming Phase II, 30 new {sup 76}Ge enriched detectors of broad energy germanium (BEGe)- type were produced. A subgroup of these detectors has already been deployed in GERDA during Phase I. The present paper reviews the complete production chain of these BEGe detectors including isotopic enrichment, purification, crystal growth and diode production. The efforts in optimizing the mass yield and in minimizing the exposure of the {sup 76}Ge enriched germanium to cosmic radiation during processing are described. Furthermore, characterization measurements in vacuum cryostats of the first subgroup of seven BEGe detectors and their long-term behavior in liquid argon are discussed. The detector performance fulfills the requirements needed for the physics goals of GERDA Phase II. (orig.)

  10. Testing the Ge detectors for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, W; Aguayo, E; Avignone, F T; Barabash, A S; Bertrand, F E; Boswell, M; Brudanin, V; Busch, M; Byram, D; Caldwell, A S; Chan, Y-D; Christofferson, C D; Combs, D C; Cuesta, C; Detwiler, J A; Doe, P J; Efremenko, Yu; Egorov, V; Ejiri, H; Elliott, S R; Fast, J E; Finnerty, P; Fraenkle, F M; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Giovanetti, G K; Goett, J; Green, M P; Gruszko, J; Guiseppe, V E; Gusev, K; Hallin, A L; Hazama, R; Hegai, A; Henning, R; Hoppe, E W; Howard, S; Howe, M A; Keeter, K J; Kidd, M F; Kochetov, O; Konovalov, S I; Kouzes, R T; LaFerriere, B D; Leon, J; Leviner, L E; Loach, J C; MacMullin, J; MacMullin, S; Martin, R D; Meijer, S; Mertens, S; Nomachi, M; Orrell, J L; O'Shaughnessy, C; Overman, N R; Phillips, D G; Poon, A W P; Pushkin, K; Radford, D C; Rager, J; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Romero-Romero, E; Ronquest, M C; Schubert, A G; Shanks, B; Shima, T; Shirchenko, M; Snavely, K J; Snyder, N; Suriano, A M; Thompson, J; Timkin, V; Tornow, W; Trimble, J E; Varner, R L; Vasilyev, S; Vetter, K; Vorren, K; White, B R; Wilkerson, J F; Wiseman, C; Yakushev, E; Young, A R; Yu, C H; Yumatov, V

    2014-01-01

    High purity germanium (HPGe) crystals will be used for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, where they serve as both the source and the detector for neutrinoless double beta decay. It is crucial for the experiment to understand the performance of the HPGe crystals. A variety of crystal properties are being investigated, including basic properties such as energy resolution, efficiency, uniformity, capacitance, leakage current and crystal axis orientation, as well as more sophisticated properties, e.g. pulse shapes and dead layer and transition layer distributions. In this paper, we will present our measurements that characterize the HPGe crystals. We will also discuss our simulation package for the detector characterization setup, and show that additional information can be extracted from data-simulation comparisons.

  11. Cross-calibration of neutron detectors for deuterium-tritium operation in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.C.; Jassby, D.L.; Roquemore, A.L.; Strachan, J.D. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Barnes, C.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Duong, H.H. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Heidbrink, W.E.; Ruskov, E. [California Univ., Irvine, CA (United States); Loughlin, M.J. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    1995-03-01

    During the initial deuterium-tritium experiments on TFTR, neutron emission was measured with {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U fission chambers, silicon surface barrier diodes, spatially collimated {sup 4}He proportional counters and ZnS scintillators, and a variety of elemental activation foils. The activation foils, {sup 4}He counters and silicon diodes can discriminate between 14 MeV and 2.5 MeV neutrons. The other detectors respond to both DD and DT neutrons but are more sensitive to the latter. The proportional counters, scintillators, and some of the fission chambers were calibrated absolutely, using a 14-MeV neutron generator positioned at numerous locations inside the TFTR vacuum vessel. Although the directly calibrated systems were saturated during the highest power deuterium-tritium operation, they allowed cross-calibration of less sensitive fission chambers and silicon diodes. The estimated absolute accuracy of the uncertainty-weighted mean of these cross-calibrations, combined with an independent calibration derived from activation foil determinations of total neutron yield, is {plus_minus}7%.

  12. Study of the dosimetric and operating characteristics of natural diamond detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Angelis, C.; Onori, S.; Pacilio, M. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Roma (Italy); INFN, Gruppo Collegato Sanita' , Roma (Italy); Cirrone, P.; Cuttone, G.; Raffaele, L.; Sabini, M.G. [INFN-LNS, Catania (Italy); Bucciolini, M.; Mazzocchi, S. [Firenze Univ., Firenze (Italy). Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica; INFN, Florence (Italy)

    2002-07-01

    Main properties of PTW natural diamond detectors have been studied in photon, electron and photon beams. Suitability for depth dose and dose profile measurements in photon beams has been investigated. The necessity to characterise each detector sample before its clinical use has been addressed.

  13. Simulation study comparing high-purity germanium and cadmium zinc telluride detectors for breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D. L.; Peterson, T. E.

    2014-11-01

    We conducted simulations to compare the potential imaging performance for breast cancer detection with High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) and Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) systems with 1% and 3.8% energy resolution at 140 keV, respectively. Using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP5) simulation package, we modelled both 5 mm-thick CZT and 10 mm-thick HPGe detectors with the same parallel-hole collimator for the imaging of a breast/torso phantom. Simulated energy spectra were generated, and planar images were created for various energy windows around the 140 keV photopeak. Relative sensitivity and scatter and the torso fractions were calculated along with tumour contrast and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). Simulations showed that utilizing a ±1.25% energy window with an HPGe system better suppressed torso background and small-angle scattered photons than a comparable CZT system using a -5%/+10% energy window. Both systems provided statistically similar contrast and SNR, with HPGe providing higher relative sensitivity. Lowering the counts of HPGe images to match CZT count density still yielded equivalent contrast between HPGe and CZT. Thus, an HPGe system may provide equivalent breast imaging capability at lower injected radioactivity levels when acquiring for equal imaging time.

  14. Performance, high voltage operation and radiation hardness of full-size ATLAS charge division silicon detectors with LHC electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allport, P. P.; Booth, P. S. L.; Carter, J. R.; Goodrick, M. J.; Green, C.; Greenall, A.; Hanlon, M.; Hill, J. C.; Jackson, J. N.; Jones, T. J.; Martí i García, S.; Munday, D. J.; Murray, W.; Richardson, J. D.; Robinson, D.; Sheridan, A. E.; Smith, N. A.; Tyndel, M.; Wyllie, K.

    1998-02-01

    ATLAS silicon detectors designed for charge division read-out were produced during 1995 and have been extensively studied both in the laboratory and test beam at the CERN SPS. Data have been taken with the analogue read-out FELIX-128 chip and studies simulating other read-out architectures under consideration by ATLAS have been performed. To evaluate survival in the harsh environment of the LHC, detectors have been tested to high voltage, both before and after radiation damage by protons exceeding the expected charged hadron dose after 10 years of LHC operation. These tests have all employed analogue read-out to be sensitive to changes in noise and charge collection efficiency as a function of the detector damage.

  15. Serial powering Proof of principle demonstration of a scheme for the operation of a large pixel detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ta, D B; Hugging, F; Fischer, P; Grosse-Knetter, J; Runólfsson, O; Wermes, N

    2006-01-01

    Large detectors in high-energy physics experiments are mostly built from many identical individual building blocks, called modules, which possess individual parts of the services. The modules are usually also powered by parallel power lines such that they can be individually operated. The main disadvantage of such a parallel powering scheme is the vast amount of necessary power cables which constitutes also a large amount of material in the path of the particles to be detected. For the LHC experiments already now this is a major problem for the optimal performance of the detectors and it has become evident, that for an upgrade programme alternative powering schemes must be investigated. We prove and demonstrate here for the example of the large scale pixel detector of ATLAS that Serial Powering of pixel modules is a viable alternative. A powering scheme using dedicated voltage regulators and modified flex hybrid circuits has been devised and implemented for ATLAS pixel modules. The modules have been intensive...

  16. Study of long-term operation of triple-GEM detectors for the high rate environment in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    The CMS GEM collaboration is working on the possible instrumentation of the high-eta region of the CMS Endcap with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors, a technology capable to sustain the hostile environment that will be encountered at the high-luminosity LHC. To ensure the long-term operation of large triple-GEM detectors in the CMS experiment, we are performing a set of studies in order to measure and understand the aging effect of triple-GEM Muon chambers. The aging includes all the processes that lead to a significant degradation of the performances of the detector gain drop, non-uniformity, dark current, discharges and resolution loss. The project is focused on monitoring continuously the response of the detector when irradiated by a source of Cs 137 at CERN in the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF). Moreover, the new technology employed for stretching the GEM foils, so called NS2, introduces new, carefully chosen materials and components in the detectors. Outgassing tests are performed in order to va...

  17. Characteristics of a 'HARP' signal processor with analog memory operated with segmented silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anghinolfi, F.; Aspell, P. (CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)); Bonino, R. (Geneva Univ. (Switzerland)) (and others)

    1994-08-01

    For future particle experiments, the detector systems will have a large number of detecting elements, and these will provide raw data at [approximately] 50 MHz rates. As an example, the silicon outer tracker (SIT) for the ATLAS detector may consist of 5 planes of silicon strip and pad detectors with 390,000 independent channels per plane. The signal processing electronics must comply with the strong limitation on electrical power and cooling in the central barrel. A 32 channel analog VLSI detector readout chip (HARP32) with an input charge preamplifier, a 64-cell current integrating analog memory in each channel and a common analog multiplexer, has been used in a test beam with segmented silicon detectors. The device was operated at the LHC clock speed of 66 MHz. The different pedestal variations seen at the output are analyzed: the input noise [sigma][sub n] amounts to 2.8mV r.m.s., the pedestal non-uniformity in channel [sigma][sub ped] to 1.2mV r.m.s., the channel to channel pedestal variation [sigma][sub ch] to 4.0mV r.m.s., and an output baseline shift [sigma][sub obs] of 3.5mV r.m.s. has been observed.

  18. Search for molecular bremsstrahlung radiation signals in Ku band with coincidental operations of radio telescopes with air shower detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukushima Masaki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Microwave radiation from extensive air showers is expected to provide a new technique to observe UHECR. We insatlled and operate radio telescopes in Osaka and at Telescope Array site in Utah, USA. In Osaka, we are coincidentally operating two Ku band radio telescopes with an air shower array which consists of nine plastic scintillators with about 10 m separation. In Utah, we installed two telescopes just beside the Black Rock Mesa fluorescence detector (FD station of the Telescope Array experiment, and we operated the radio telescopes coincidentally with FD event triggers. We report the experimental setups and the results of these measurements.

  19. Charge collection efficiency and resolution of an irradiated double sided silicon microstrip detector operated at cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Bartalini, P; Buytaert, J; Chabaud, V; Collins, P; Dijkstra, H; Dormond, O; Frei, R; Parkes, C; Ruf, T; Saladino, S; Saladino, Stefania

    1999-01-01

    99-026 This paper presents results on the measurement of the cluster shapes, resolution and charge collection efficiency of a double sided silicon microstrip detector after irradiation with 24 GeV protons to a fluence of 3.5 x 10^14 p/cm2 and operated at cryogenic temperatures. An empirical model is presented which describes the expected cluster shapes as a function of depletion depth, and is shown to agree with the data. It is observed that the clusters on the p-side broaden if the detector is under-depleted, leading to a degradation of resolution and efficiency.The model is used to make predictions for detector types envisaged for the LHC experiments. The results also show that at cryogenic temperature the charge collection efficiency varies depending on the operating conditions of the detector and can reach values of 100 % at unexpectedly low bias voltage. By analysing the cluster shapes it is shown that these variations are due to changes in depletion depth. This phenomenon, known as the ``Lazarus effect'...

  20. Charge-sensitive front-end electronics with operational amplifiers for CdZnTe detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Födisch, P.; Berthel, M.; Lange, B; Kirschke, T.; Enghardt, W.; Kaever, P.

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe, CZT) radiation detectors are suitable for a variety of applications, due to their high spatial resolution and spectroscopic energy performance at room temperature. However, state-of-the-art detector systems require high-performance readout electronics. Though an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) is an adequate solution for the readout, requirements of high dynamic range and high throughput are not available in any commercial circuit. Consequently, ...

  1. Active noise canceling system for mechanically cooled germanium radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Karl Einar; Burks, Morgan T

    2014-04-22

    A microphonics noise cancellation system and method for improving the energy resolution for mechanically cooled high-purity Germanium (HPGe) detector systems. A classical adaptive noise canceling digital processing system using an adaptive predictor is used in an MCA to attenuate the microphonics noise source making the system more deployable.

  2. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  3. Analysis and operation of DePFET X-ray imaging detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauf, Thomas

    2011-04-28

    The latest active pixel sensor for X-ray imaging spectroscopy developed at the Max-Planck-Halbleiterlabor (HLL) is the Depleted P-channel Field Effect Transistor (DePFET). This detector type unites detector and first stage amplification and has excellent energy resolution, low noise readout at high speed and low power consumption. This is combined with the possibility of random accessibility of pixels and on-demand readout. In addition it possesses all advantages of a sidewards depleted device, i.e. 100% fill factor and very good quantum efficiency. In the course of the development of DePFET detectors the need of a data analysis software for DePFET devices became apparent. A new tool was developed within the scope of this thesis, which should enable scientists to analyze DePFET data, but also be flexible enough so it can be adapted to new device variants and analysis challenges. A modular concept was thus implemented: a base program running an analysis by individual steps encapsulating algorithms, which can be interchanged. The result is a flexible, adaptable, and expandable analysis software. The software was used to investigate and qualify different structural variants of DePFET detectors. Algorithms to examine detector effects and methods to correct them were developed and integrated into the software. This way, a standard analysis suite for DePFET data was built up which is used at the HLL. Beside the planned use as detector for the wide field imager in the space X-ray observatory IXO, DePFET matrices will be used as focal plane array on the Mercury Imaging X-ray Spectrometer on board the Mercury probe BepiColombo which is scheduled for launch in 2014. The developed analysis software was used in the detector development for this mission to qualify test structures, analyze detector effects and study experimental results. In the course of this development, detector prototypes were studied in respect of linearity, charge collection and detection efficiency in an

  4. Design and Operational Experience of a Microwave Cavity Axion Detector for the 20-100 micro-eV Range

    CERN Document Server

    Kenany, S Al; Backes, K M; Brubaker, B M; Cahn, S B; Carosi, G; Gurevich, Y V; Kindel, W F; Lamoreaux, S K; Lehnert, K W; Lewis, S M; Malnou, M; Palken, D A; Rapidis, N M; Root, J R; Simanovskaia, M; Shokair, T M; Urdinaran, I; van Bibber, K A; Zhong, L

    2016-01-01

    We describe a dark matter axion detector designed, constructed, and operated both as an innovation platform for new cavity and amplifier technologies and as a data pathfinder in the $5 - 25$ GHz range ($\\sim20-100\\: \\mu$eV). The platform is small but flexible to facilitate the development of new microwave cavity and amplifier concepts in an operational environment. The experiment has recently completed its first data production; it is the first microwave cavity axion search to deploy a Josephson parametric amplifier and a dilution refrigerator to achieve near-quantum limited performance.

  5. Design and operational experience of a microwave cavity axion detector for the 20 - 100 μeV range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kenany, S.; Anil, M. A.; Backes, K. M.; Brubaker, B. M.; Cahn, S. B.; Carosi, G.; Gurevich, Y. V.; Kindel, W. F.; Lamoreaux, S. K.; Lehnert, K. W.; Lewis, S. M.; Malnou, M.; Palken, D. A.; Rapidis, N. M.; Root, J. R.; Simanovskaia, M.; Shokair, T. M.; Urdinaran, I.; van Bibber, K. A.; Zhong, L.

    2017-05-01

    We describe a dark matter axion detector designed, constructed, and operated both as an innovation platform for new cavity and amplifier technologies and as a data pathfinder in the 5-25 GHz range (∼ 20 - 100 μeV) . The platform is small but flexible to facilitate the development of new microwave cavity and amplifier concepts in an operational environment. The experiment has recently completed its first data production; it is the first microwave cavity axion search to deploy a Josephson parametric amplifier and a dilution refrigerator to achieve near-quantum limited performance.

  6. Search for rare nuclear decays with HPGe detectors at the STELLA facility of the LNGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, P.; Di Marco, A. [INFN, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Bernabei, R.; D' Angelo, S. [INFN, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Cappella, F.; D' Angelo, A.; Incicchitti, A. [INFN, Sezione di Roma La Sapienza, Rome, Italy and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Cerulli, R.; Di Vacri, M. L.; Laubenstein, M.; Nisi, S. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (AQ) (Italy); Danevich, F. A.; Kobychev, V. V.; Poda, D. V.; Tretyak, V. I. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine); Kovtun, G. P.; Kovtun, N. G.; Shcherban, A. P.; Solopikhin, D. A. [Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology, Kharkiv (Ukraine); Polischuk, O. G. [INFN, Sezione di Roma La Sapienza, Rome, Italy and Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine); and others

    2013-12-30

    Results on the search for rare nuclear decays with the ultra low background facility STELLA at the LNGS using gamma ray spectrometry are presented. In particular, the best T{sub 1/2} limits were obtained for double beta processes in {sup 96}Ru and {sup 104}Ru. Several isotopes, which potentially decay through different 2β channels, including also possible resonant double electron captures, were investigated for the first time ({sup 156}Dy, {sup 158}Dy, {sup 184}Os, {sup 192}Os, {sup 190}Pt, {sup 198}Pt). Search for resonant absorption of solar {sup 7}Li axions in a LiF crystal gave the best limit for the mass of {sup 7}Li axions (< 8.6 keV). Rare alpha decay of {sup 190}Pt to the first excited level of {sup 186}Os(E{sub exc} = 137.2keV) was observed for the first time.

  7. Search for Rare Nuclear Decays with HPGe Detectors at the STELLA Facility of the LNGS

    CERN Document Server

    Belli, P; Cappella, F; Cerulli, R; Danevich, F A; d'Angelo, A; d'Angelo, S; Di Marco, A; Di Vacri, M L; Incicchitti, A; Kovtun, G P; Kovtun, N G; Laubenstein, M; Nisi, S; Poda, D V; Polischuk, O G; Shcherban, A P; Solopikhin, D A; Suhonen, J; Tolmachev, A V; Tretyak, V I; Yavetskiy, R P

    2013-01-01

    Results on the search for rare nuclear decays with the ultra low background facility STELLA at the LNGS using gamma ray spectrometry are presented. In particular, the best T1/2 limits were obtained for double beta processes in 96Ru and 104Ru. Several isotopes, which potentially decay through different double beta decay channels, including also possible resonant double electron captures, were investigated for the first time (156Dy, 158Dy, 184Os, 192Os, 190Pt, 198Pt). Search for resonant absorption of solar 7Li axions in a LiF crystal gave the best limit for the mass of 7Li axions (< 8.6 keV). Rare alpha decay of 190Pt to the first excited level of 186Os (Eexc = 137.2 keV) was observed for the first time.

  8. Survey of the nonlinearities structures in gamma ray energy calibration using HPGe detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, Andre da Silva; Pascholati, Paulo Reginaldo; Guillaumon, Pedro Vinicius, E-mail: andreserra@ymail.co, E-mail: pascholati@if.com.b, E-mail: pedrovg@if.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Lab. do Acelerador Linear; Castro, Ruy Morgado de, E-mail: rmcastro@ieav.cta.b [Centro Tecnologico da Aeronautica, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The present work aims to survey the typical fine energy calibration structure in gamma-ray spectroscopy systems which use successive approximation ADC and shows that the knowledge of this fine structure, about 5 eV per 10{sup 2} channels, allows achieving correct statistic energy calibrations without the usually ad hoc introduction of uncertainties associated with the differential non-linearity inherent to those systems. Differently of previous works, the One Step Self-Calibration Procedure implementation allows the proper use of all covariances between the experimental data. At the end of the interactive scheme proposed in this work, it was achieved a reduced chi-square of 1,107 without the ad hoc introduction of uncertainties related to the differential nonlinearities. (author)

  9. Efficiency calibration of a HPGe detector for [{sup 18}F] FDG activity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fragoso, Maria da Conceicao de Farias; Lacerda, Isabelle Viviane Batista de; Albuquerque, Antonio Morais de Sa, E-mail: mariacc05@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: isabelle.lacerda@ufpe.br, E-mail: moraisalbuquerque@hotmaiI.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Oliveira, Mercia Liane de; Hazin, Clovis Abrahao; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade, E-mail: mercial@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: chazin@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-11-01

    The radionuclide {sup 18}F, in the form of flurodeoxyglucose (FDG), is the most used radiopharmaceutical for Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Due to [{sup 18}F]FDG increasing demand, it is important to ensure high quality activity measurements in the nuclear medicine practice. Therefore, standardized reference sources are necessary to calibrate of {sup 18}F measuring systems. Usually, the activity measurements are performed in re-entrant ionization chambers, also known as radionuclide calibrators. Among the existing alternatives for the standardization of radioactive sources, the method known as gamma spectrometry is widely used for short-lived radionuclides, since it is essential to minimize source preparation time. The purpose of this work was to perform the standardization of the [{sup 18}F]FDG solution by gamma spectrometry. In addition, the reference sources calibrated by this method can be used to calibrate and test the radionuclide calibrators from the Divisao de Producao de Radiofarmacos (DIPRA) of the Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE). Standard sources of {sup 152}Eu, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 68}Ge were used for the efficiency calibration of the spectrometer system. As a result, the efficiency curve as a function of energy was determined in wide energy range from 122 to 1408 keV. Reference sources obtained by this method can be used in [{sup 18}F]FDG activity measurements comparison programs for PET services localized in the Brazilian Northeast region. (author)

  10. MULTI - DETECTOR COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY AND INTRA - OPERATIVE CORRELATION IN BLUNT ABDOMINAL TRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : With the change in the pace of life fast , faster , fastest being the motto of the present day , the incidence of trauma and the associated mortality and morbidities is on a continuous rise.Imaging plays a very important role in the management of these injuries in deciding which injuries , in trauma the final verdict of organ injury in abdomen is intra - ope rative findings. AIMS : In view of the above said we considered to study to determine diagnostic accuracy of MDCT (Multi - Detector Computed Tomography in detection of intra - abdominal solid organ injury in blunt abdominal trauma and to highlight the importance of MDCT in evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma. METHODS AND MATERIALS : This was a prospective study done between over a period of 2 years from between January 2011 to February 2013 on patients who presented with blun t abdominal trauma after excluding patients who were managed conservatively and normal on imaging , the data we compared had 32 patients and the analysis was as follows. RESULTS : Blunt abdominal trauma was common in males , the male to female ratio was 9:1 , road traffic accident is the most common mode of injury in blunt abdominal trauma with 60% of the patients in this mode of injury , single organ injury is 22 patients (76% spleen is the most commonly injured organ 15(47% patients having splenic injury , wi th grade 3 being the commonest splenic injury 8 out of the 15 patients had splenic injury bowel injury was the second common organ injured in blunt trauma abdomen. In this study computed tomography grading correlated well with intra - operative grading with a PPV of= 95.45 % (95% ci: 84.50 % to 99.31 % Asensitivityof 76.36 % (95% ci: 62.98 % to 86.76 % . CONCLUSION : Computed tomography is an important imaging technique for diagnosis of organ injuries in patients with abdominal trauma. It helps in grading of the type of injury and accordingly deciding the management of patient. It is a highly

  11. Towards monolithic scintillator based TOF-PET systems: practical methods for detector calibration and operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Giacomo; Tabacchini, Valerio; Schaart, Dennis R.

    2016-07-01

    Gamma-ray detectors based on thick monolithic scintillator crystals can achieve spatial resolutions  published k-NN 1D method. Also, the procedures for estimating the DOI and time of interaction are revised to enable full detector calibration by means of fan-beam or flood irradiations only. Moreover, a new technique is presented to allow the use of events in which some of the photosensor pixel values and/or timestamps are missing (e.g. due to dead time), so as to further increase system sensitivity. The accelerated methods were tested on a monolithic scintillator detector specifically developed for clinical PET applications, consisting of a 32 mm  ×  32 mm  ×  22 mm LYSO : Ce crystal coupled to a digital photon counter (DPC) array. This resulted in a spatial resolution of 1.7 mm FWHM, an average DOI resolution of 3.7 mm FWHM, and a CRT of 214 ps. Moreover, the possibility of using events missing the information of up to 16 out of 64 photosensor pixels is shown. This results in only a small deterioration of the detector performance.

  12. Development and operation of tracking detectors in silicon technology for the LHCb upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Adeva, Bernardo

    The LHCb experiment is one of the four main experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It uses the energy density provided by the LHC to attempt to probe asymmetries between particles and antiparticles that can not be explained by the Standard Model, and thus provide evidence that would allow us to build a new model of fundamental physics. This thesis covers the author's work in the Silicon Tracker $(\\textit{ST})$ and VErtex LOcator $(\\textit{VELO})$ detectors of the LHCb experiment. The thesis explains the installation and commissioning of the $ST$, as well as the development of the slow control for the detector. The $ST$ is a silicon micro-strip detector which provides precise momentum measurements of ionizing particles coming from the collisions. The $ST$consists of two sub-detectors: the Tracker Turicensis $ (TT)$, located upstream of the 4 Tm dipole magnet covering the full acceptance of the experiment, and the Inner Tracker $(IT)$, which covers the region of highest particle density closest...

  13. Neutron Damage in Mechanically-Cooled High-Purity Germanium Detectors for Field-Portable Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.H. Seabury; C.J. Wharton; A.J. Caffrey; J.B. McCabe; C. DeW. Van Siclen

    2013-10-01

    Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation (PGNAA) systems require the use of a gamma-ray spectrometer to record the gamma-ray spectrum of an object under test and allow the determination of the object’s composition. Field-portable systems, such as Idaho National Laboratory’s PINS system, have used standard liquid-nitrogen-cooled high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors to perform this function. These detectors have performed very well in the past, but the requirement of liquid-nitrogen cooling limits their use to areas where liquid nitrogen is readily available or produced on-site. Also, having a relatively large volume of liquid nitrogen close to the detector can impact some assessments, possibly leading to a false detection of explosives or other nitrogen-containing chemical. Use of a mechanically-cooled HPGe detector is therefore very attractive for PGNAA applications where nitrogen detection is critical or where liquid-nitrogen logistics are problematic. Mechanically-cooled HPGe detectors constructed from p-type germanium, such as Ortec’s trans-SPEC, have been commercially available for several years. In order to assess whether these detectors would be suitable for use in a fielded PGNAA system, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been performing a number of tests of the resistance of mechanically-cooled HPGe detectors to neutron damage. These detectors have been standard commercially-available p-type HPGe detectors as well as prototype n-type HPGe detectors. These tests compare the performance of these different detector types as a function of crystal temperature and incident neutron fluence on the crystal.

  14. Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis of germanium detector response to gamma-rays with energies below 1 MeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maleka, PP; Maucec, M

    2005-01-01

    Monte Carlo method was used to simulate the pulse-height response function of high-precision germanium (HPGe) detector for photon energies below 1 MeV. The calculations address the uncertainty estimation due to inadequate specifications of source positioning and to variations in the detector's physi

  15. Operation of an InGrid based X-ray detector at the CAST experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieger, Christoph; Desch, Klaus; Kaminski, Jochen; Lupberger, Michael [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is searching for axions and other new particles emerging from the Sun and coupling to photons. Those particles are converted into soft X-ray photons in a high magnetic field. To enhance sensitivity for physics beyond the Standard Model it is necessary to cope with weak couplings and low energies, thus requiring an efficient background discrimination as well as a detection threshold below 1 keV. Both requirements are fulfilled by an X-ray detector based on the combination of a Micromegas gas amplification stage with a highly integrated pixel chip (InGrid) which allows to make full use of the Micromegas structure's granularity. The necessary precision in fabrication is achieved by the use of photolithographic postprocessing techniques. The high spatial resolution allows for a topological suppression of background events originating from cosmic rays as well as for the low detection threshold as single electrons can be detected. After the detector's energy threshold was evaluated at an X-ray generator to be low enough to allow for the detection of the carbon K{sub α} line at 277 eV, the detector was mounted at one of CAST's X-ray telescopes and installed along with the necessary infrastructure in 2014. The data taken during the CAST run 2014 is being analysed. Background studies and rates are presented as a first result.

  16. Absolute calibration of TFTR neutron detectors for D-T plasma operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jassby, D.L.; Johnson, L.C.; Roquemore, A.L.; Strachan, J.D.; Johnson, D.W.; Medley, S.S.; Young, K.M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Barnes, C.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The two most sensitive TFTR fission-chamber detectors were absolutely calibrated in situ by a D-T neutron generator ({approximately}5 {times} 10{sup 7} n/s) rotated once around the torus in each direction, with data taken at about 45 positions. The combined uncertainty for determining fusion neutron rates, including the uncertainty in the total neutron generator output ({plus_minus}9%), counting statistics, the effect of coil coolant, detector stability, cross-calibration to the current mode or log Campbell mode and to other fission chambers, and plasma position variation, is about {plus_minus}13%. The NE-451 (ZnS) scintillators and {sup 4}He proportional counters that view the plasma in up to 10 collimated sightlines were calibrated by scanning. the neutron generator radially and toroidally in the horizontal midplane across the flight tubes of 7 cm diameter. Spatial integration of the detector responses using the calibrated signal per unit chord-integrated neutron emission gives the global neutron source strength with an overall uncertainty of {plus_minus}14% for the scintillators and {plus_minus}15% for the {sup 4}He counters.

  17. A combined surface and bulk TCAD damage model for the analysis of radiation detectors operating at HL-LHC fluences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozzi, A.; Passeri, D.; Moscatelli, F.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Bilei, G. M.

    2016-12-01

    In this work we present the development and the application of a new TCAD modelling scheme to simulate the effects of radiation damage on silicon radiation detectors at the very high fluence levels expected at High Luminosity LHC (up to 2 × 1016 1MeV n/cm2). In particular, we propose a combined approach for the analysis of the surface effects (oxide charge build-up and interface trap states introduction) as well as bulk effects (deep level traps and/or recombination centers introduction). Experimental measurements have been carried out aiming at: i) extraction from simple test structures of relevant parameters to be included within the TCAD model and ii) validation of the new modelling scheme through comparison with measurements of different test structures (e.g. different technologies) before and after irradiation. The good agreements between experimental measurements and simulation findings foster the suitability of the TCAD modelling approach as a predictive tool for investigating the radiation detector behavior at different fluences and operating conditions. This would allow the design and optimization of innovative 3D and planar silicon detectors for future HL-LHC High Energy Physics experiments.

  18. The high performance readout chain for the DSSC 1Megapixel detector, designed for high throughput during pulsed operation mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchgessner, M.; Soldat, J.; Kugel, A.; Donato, M.; Porro, M.; Fischer, P.

    2015-01-01

    The readout chain of the DSSC 1M pixel detector currently built at DESY, Hamburg for the European X-Ray Free Electron Laser is described. The system operates in pulsed operation mode comparable to the new ILC. Each 0.1 seconds 800 images of 1M pixels are produced and readout by the DSSC DAQ electronics. The total data production rate of the system is about 134 Gbit/s. In order to deal with the high data rates, latest technology components like the Xilinx Kintex 7 FPGA are used to implement fast DDR3-1600 image buffers, high speed serial FPGA to FPGA communication and 10 GB Ethernet links concentrated in one 40 Gbit/s QSFP+ transceiver.

  19. 基于HPGeγ谱仪的土壤样品分析%Soil Sample Analysis with Wide Enegy HPGe γ Spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史志兰; 艾宪芸; 肖无云; 马新华; 张磊

    2012-01-01

    The activities of226Ra,232Th, 40K, 238 U in soil sample were measured by wide energy HPGe gamma -ray spectrometer, the source -free efficiency calibration method and relative measurement method were presented. The results show that the analysis date of the two methods is consistent. On no standard volume source or on - site measurement condition, the source - free efficiency calibration method is a ideal choice for system efficiency calibration.%使用宽能超低本底HPGeγ谱仪,分别采用无源效率刻度曲线法和相对测量比较法对土壤样品中226 Ra、232Th、40K、238U的放射性活度进行了测量.通过对计算结果的对比分析得出:在150 keV以上的中高能区无源效率刻度方法与传统相对比较法对相同样品的测量分析结果具有很好的一致性,在无标准源可依或现场测量分析等情况下,无源效率刻度方法是一种比较理想的效率刻度方法.

  20. Performance of wire-type Rn detectors operated with gas gain in ambient air in view of its possible application to early earthquake predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Charpak, Georges; Breuil, P; Nappi, E; Martinengo, P; Peskov, V

    2010-01-01

    We describe a detector of alpha particles based on wire type counters (single-wire and multiwire) operating in ambient air at high gas gains (100-1000). The main advantages of these detectors are: low cost, robustness and ability to operate in humid air. The minimum detectable activity achieved with the multiwire detector for an integration time of 1 min is 140 Bq per m3, which is comparable to that featured by commercial devices. Owing to such features the detector is suited for massive application, for example for continuous monitoring of Rn or Po contaminations or, as discussed in the paper, its use in a network of Rn counters in areas affected by earth-quakes in order to verify, on a solid statistical basis, the envisaged correlation between the sudden Rn appearance and a forthcoming earthquake.

  1. Fine analysis of the calibration curve for a HPGe spectrometer in gamma ray energy measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Liu Yhi Gang; Wei Long; Chang Tian Ba

    1999-01-01

    A computational method is suggested to analyze gamma ray peak position data of a series of closely shifted spectra of sup 1 sup 9 sup 2 Ir measured by a HPGe spectrometer and an iteration program, Recovery-98 has been designed to find the fine curve of the spectrometer nonlinearity for energy calibration. The program is applied to check a previous experiment (measuring the gamma energies of sup 8 sup 5 Sr, etc.), and the revised result has been reported. (author)

  2. Measurement of photoelectron yield of the CDEX-10 liquid argon detector prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing-Hao; Yue, Qian; Cheng, Jian-Ping; Kang, Ke-Jun; Li, Yuan-Jing; Lin, Shin-Ted; Tang, Chang-Jian; Xing, Hao-Yang; Yu, Xun-Zhen; Zeng, Ming; Zhu, Jing-Jun

    2016-11-01

    The China Dark Matter Experiment (CDEX) is a low background experiment at China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL) designed to directly detect dark matter with a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. In the second phase, CDEX-10, which has a 10 kg germanium array detector system, a liquid argon (LAr) anti-Compton active shielding and cooling system is proposed. To study the properties of the LAr detector, a prototype with an active volume of 7 liters of liquid argon was built and operated. The photoelectron yields, as a critically important parameter for the prototype detector, have been measured to be 0.051-0.079 p.e./keV for 662 keV γ rays at different positions. The good agreement between the experimental and simulation results has provided a reasonable understanding and determination of the important parameters such as the surviving fraction of the excimers, the absorption length for 128 nm photons in liquid argon, the reflectivity of Teflon and so on.

  3. Photoelectron yield in the prototype of the liquid argon detector for CDEX-10

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Qing-Hao; Cheng, Jian-Ping; Kang, Ke-Jun; Li, Yuan-Jing; Lin, Shin-Ted; Tang, Chang-Jian; Xing, Hao-Yang; Yu, Xun-Zhen; Zeng, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The China Dark Matter Experiment (CDEX) is a low background experiment at China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL) designed to directly detect dark matter with a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. In the second phase CDEX-10 with 10 kg germanium array detector system, the liquid argon (LAr) anti-Compton active shielding and cooling system is proposed. For purpose of studying the properties of LAr detector, a prototype with an active volume of 7 liters of liquid argon was built and operated. The photoelectron yields, as a critically important parameter for the LAr detector, have been measured to be 0.051-0.079 p.e./keV for 662 keV gamma lines at different positions. The good agreement between the experimental and simulation results has provided a quite reasonable understanding and determination of the important parameters such as the Surviving Fraction of the $Ar_{2}^{*}$ excimers, the absorption length for 128 nm photons in liquid argon, the reflectivity of Teflon and so on.

  4. Development of a CZT drift ring detector for X and γ ray spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alruhaili, A.; Sellin, P. J.; Lohstroh, A.; Boothman, V.; Veeramani, P.; Veale, M. C.; Sawhney, K. J. S.; Kachkanov, V.

    2015-04-01

    CdTe and CZT detectors are considered better choices for high energy γ and X-ray spectroscopy in comparison to Si and HPGe detectors due to their good quantum efficiency and room temperature operation. The performance limitations in CdTe and CZT detectors are mainly associated with poor hole transport and trapping phenomena. Among many techniques that can be used to eliminate the effect of the poor charge transport properties of holes in CdTe and CZT material, the drift ring technique shows promising results. In this work, the performance of a 2.3 mm thick CZT drift ring detector is investigated. Spatially resolved measurements were carried out with an X-ray microbeam (25 and 75 keV) at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron to study the response uniformity and extent of the active area. Higher energy photon irradiation was also carried out at up to 662 keV using different radioisotopes to complement the microbeam data. Different biasing schemes were investigated in terms of biasing the cathode rear electrode (bulk field) and the ring electrodes (lateral fields). The results show that increasing the bulk field with fixed-ratio ring biases and lateral fields with fixed bulk fields increase the active area of the device significantly, which contrasts with previous studies in CdTe, where only an increasing lateral field resulted in an improvement of device performance. This difference is attributed to the larger thickness of the CZT device reported here.

  5. Operation of the Electronics for the AMS-02RICH Detector Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguayo, P.; Aguilar, M.; Berdugo, J.; Casaus, J.; Delgado, C.; Diaz, C.; Fernandez, C.; Garcia-Tabares, L.; Lanciotti, E.; Mana, C.; Marin, J.; Martinez, G.; Palomares, C.; Sanchez, E.; Sevilla, I.; Torrento, A.; Wilmott, C.; Yanez, J.

    2002-07-01

    The operation and behaviour of the RICH prototype electronics developed for the AMS-02 experiment is presented. It includes results and conclusions obtained from experimental tests data with cosmic rays. (Author)

  6. Operation of the Electronics for the AMS-02 RICH Detector Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Aguayo, P; Berdugo, J; Casaus, J; Delgado, C; Díaz, C; Fernández, C; Garcia-Tabares, L; Lanciotti, E; Marin, J; Martínez, G; Maña, C; Palomares, C; Sevilla, I; Sánchez, E; Torrento, A S; Wilmott, C; Yanez, J

    2002-01-01

    The operation and behaviour of the RICH prototype electronics developed for the AMS-02 experiment is presented. It includes results and conclusions obtained from experimental tests data with cosmic rays. (Author)

  7. Testing and Characterization of SuperCDMS Dark Matter Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shank, Benjamin [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (SuperCDMS) relies on collection of phonons and charge carriers in semiconductors held at tens of milliKelvin as handles for detection of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). This thesis begins with a brief overview of the direct dark matter search (Chapter 1) and SuperCDMS detectors (Chapter 2). In Chapter 3, a 3He evaporative refrigerator facility is described. Results from experiments performed in-house at Stanford to measure carrier transport in high-purity germanium (HPGe) crystals operated at sub-Kelvin temperatures are presented in Chapter 4. Finally, in Chapter 5 a new numerical model and a time-domain optimal filtering technique are presented, both developed for use with superconducting Transition Edge Sensors (TESs), that provide excellent event reconstruction for single particle interactions in detectors read out with superconducting W-TESs coupled to energy-collecting films of Al. This thesis is not intended to be read straight through. For those new to CDMS or dark matter searches, the first two chapters are meant to be a gentle introduction for experimentalists. They are by no means exhaustive. The remaining chapters each stand alone, with different audiences.

  8. Pyroelectric detectors with integrated operational amplifier for high modulation frequencies; Pyroelektrische Detektoren mit integriertem Operationsverstaerker fuer hohe Modulationsfrequenzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, N.; Saenze, H.; Heinze, M. [InfraTec GmbH Dresden (Germany)

    2006-02-01

    In order to use the advantages of the current mode operation a pyroelectric detector family with integrated transimpedance amplifier (TIA) was developed particularly for modulation frequencies up to the kHz range with a simplified external circuitry for new application fields, e.g. absorption spectroscopy using quantum-cascade-laser. The essential advantages of the TIA arise from the small electrical time constant {tau}{sub E} and the short-circuiting of the pyroelectric element. A flat amplitude response up to some kHz was aimed at for a sufficiently high response of 7500 V/W, appr., also at high modulation frequencies. This can be achieved through a electrical time constant of 1 ms or less and a wide bandwidth of the op amp. The article describes in detail how these demands were accomplished and which compromises had to be accepted. (orig.)

  9. CVD Diamond Detector Stability Issues for Operation at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, G J; Koch, J A; Moran, M J; Lerche, R A; Izumi, N; Phillips, T W; Glebov, V Y; Sangster, T C; Stoeckl, C

    2003-08-22

    Synthetic diamond crystals produced by the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) technique can serve as fast, radiation hard, neutron sensors for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Here we explore the stability issues, such as charge trapping and high-flux saturation, that will be relevant to operation at the NIF.

  10. Detector evaluation for improved situational awareness: Receiver operator characteristic curve based

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuijckhuijse, A.L. van; Nieuwenhuizen, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    In military and civilian operations good situational awareness is a prerequisite to make proper decisions. The situational awareness is among others based upon intelligence, threat analysis and detection, altogether element of the so-called DIM (detection, identification, monitoring) system. In case

  11. Detector evaluation for improved situational awareness: Receiver operator characteristic curve based

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuijckhuijse, A.L. van; Nieuwenhuizen, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    In military and civilian operations good situational awareness is a prerequisite to make proper decisions. The situational awareness is among others based upon intelligence, threat analysis and detection, altogether element of the so-called DIM (detection, identification, monitoring) system. In case

  12. Long-term stability of underground operated CZT detectors based on the analysis of intrinsic {sup 113}Cd β{sup −}-decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, J. [Universität Hamburg, Institut für Experimentalphysik, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Gößling, C. [Technische Universität Dortmund, Lehrstuhl für Experimentelle Physik IV, Otto-Hahn-Str 4, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Gehre, D., E-mail: daniel.gehre@tu-dresden.de [Technische Universität Dresden, Institut für Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Zellescher Weg 19, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Hagner, C.; Heidrich, N. [Universität Hamburg, Institut für Experimentalphysik, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Klingenberg, R.; Kröninger, K.; Nitsch, C. [Technische Universität Dortmund, Lehrstuhl für Experimentelle Physik IV, Otto-Hahn-Str 4, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Oldorf, C. [Universität Hamburg, Institut für Experimentalphysik, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Quante, T.; Rajek, S. [Technische Universität Dortmund, Lehrstuhl für Experimentelle Physik IV, Otto-Hahn-Str 4, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Rebber, H.; Rohatsch, K. [Universität Hamburg, Institut für Experimentalphysik, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Tebrügge, J.; Temminghoff, R.; Theinert, R. [Technische Universität Dortmund, Lehrstuhl für Experimentelle Physik IV, Otto-Hahn-Str 4, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); and others

    2016-06-11

    The COBRA collaboration operates a demonstrator setup at the underground facility Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS, located in Italy) to prove the technological capabilities of this concept for the search for neutrinoless double beta-decay. The setup consists of 64 (1×1×1) cm{sup 3} Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) detectors in Coplanar-Grid (CPG) configuration. One purpose of this demonstrator is to test if reliable long-term operation of CZT-CPG detectors in such a setup is possible. The demonstrator has been operated under ultra low-background conditions for more than three years and collected data corresponding to a total exposure of 218 kg days. The presented study focuses on the long-term stability of CZT detectors by analyzing the intrinsic, fourfold forbidden non-unique {sup 113}Cd single beta-decay. It can be shown that CZT detectors can be operated stably for long periods of time and that the {sup 113}Cd single beta-decay can be used as an internal monitor of the detector performance during the runtime of the experiment.

  13. An empirical formula for the efficiency detection of Ge detectors for cylindrical radioactive sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfassi, Z.B. [Department of Nuclear Engineering Ben Gurion University, Il-84105 Beer Sheva (Israel)]. E-mail: alfassi@bgu.ac.il; Groppi, F. [LASA, Universita degli Studi and INFN of Milano, Laboratory of Radiochemistry, via F.lli Cervi 201, 20090 Segrate (Italy)

    2007-05-01

    An empirical equation was developed for the count rate of a cylindrical radioactive source by an HPGe detector as a function of the volume and the height of the source. The equation can be used to calculate the height of the cylinder, which will yield maximum count rate for a known volume of environmental source.

  14. An automatic sleep spindle detector based on wavelets and the teager energy operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Beena; Redissi, Amira; Tafreshi, Reza

    2009-01-01

    Sleep spindles are one of the most important short-lasting rhythmic events occurring in the EEG during Non-Rapid Eye Movement sleep. Their accurate identification in a polysomnographic signal is essential for sleep professionals to help them mark Stage 2 sleep. Visual spindle scoring however is a tedious workload, as there are often a thousand spindles in an all-night recording. In this paper a novel approach for the automatic detection of sleep spindles based upon the Teager Energy Operator and wavelet packets has been presented. The Teager operator was found to accurately enhance periodic activity in epochs of the EEG containing spindles. The wavelet packet transform proved effective in accurately locating spindles in the time-frequency domain. The autocorrelation function of the resultant Teager signal and the wavelet packet energy ratio were used to identify epochs with spindles. These two features were integrated into a spindle detection algorithm which achieved an accuracy of 93.7%.

  15. 利用 HPGe γ谱仪快速测量226 Ra%Rapid Measurement of 226 Ra Using HPGe Gamma Spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张轶名; 於国兵; 杜勤; 闻德运; 顾先宝; 潘灵婧

    2014-01-01

    HPGeγ谱分析中,一般通过测量222 Rn的子体来确定样品中226 Ra的含量,这种方法需要对样品密封数周后测量,无法实现样品中226 Ra含量的快速测量。文章分析了样品γ谱中186 keV全能峰的计数来源,对使用186 keV全能峰计算出的226 Ra的含量结果进行修正,得到较好的实验结果,实现了用186 keV全能峰快速测量样品中Ra的含量。%In general , the content of 226 Ra in a sample is deduced from results of 222 Rn progeny in HPGeγspectral analysis .Because the sample should be sealed for several weeks before the measurement , we can not get the results quickly through this method .The paper analyzes the source of the counts of the full -en-ergy peak in 186 keV in the full-energy peak , and modifies the result of 226 Ra content calculated by using the full-energy peak in 186 keV.The study gets good experiment results and realizes the rapid measurement of Ra in samples using the full -energy peak in 186 keV.

  16. Performance of Sub-Array of ARIANNA Detector Stations during First Year of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Joulien Erdintch

    The ARIANNA high energy neutrino telescope is designed to search for ultrahigh energy neutrinos produced by the collision of cosmic rays with the cosmic microwave background. ARIANNA exploits the recent development of low noise, low power data acquisition technology to measure the brief radio pulses created by neutrino-induced charged particle showers in the Ross Ice Shelf of Antarctica. Three stations were installed and commissioned in early December 2012 as part of a pilot program to construct a hexagonal array of 7 radio stations. Each station required only 10 Watts of power and operated autonomously using both solar panels and wind generators. In addition, an environmental station was deployed at the ARIANNA site. Data is stored locally and reliably transmitted from Antarctica over high speed wireless internet and Iridium satellite modem during special transmission windows. The wireless internet ceased operation on March 15, corresponding to the fading light condition just before Austral winter. With the aid of wind generation, the stations operated until late May before winter hibernation. Communication was re-established after winter hibernation on September 11, 2013 for three of the four stations. Overall, the stations operated for 65% of the year. The station acquired three types of events: (1) forced, (2) thermal, and (3) signals from an external transmitter, which are called "heartbeat" events. The forced trigger captures the ambient RF conditions at a random snapshot in time. The thermal trigger configuration usually required any 2 of the 4 antenna channels to exceed a voltage level of ˜ 6 · Vrms, where Vrms is the root mean square of the random voltage fluctuations. Individual channel thresholds were adjusted to account for temperature dependences in the electronics. The vast majority of thermal triggers are consistent random gaussian noise expected from thermal processes in the ice and amplifier. Excess power, but no increase is trigger rates, is

  17. INTEGRAL - operating high-energy detectors for five years in space

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann, Volker

    2007-01-01

    The INTEGRAL satellite, which studies the Universe in the hard X-ray and soft Gamma-ray domain, has been operational for 5 years now. The X-ray telescopes, which use the coded mask technique, provide unprecedented spectral and imaging resolution. This led to a number of discoveries, such as the distribution of diffuse emission in the Galaxy, the discovery of highly absorbed sources and fast X-ray transients in the Galactic Plane, localization of ~50 Gamma-ray bursts, and the resolution of the cosmic X-ray background around its peak at 30 keV. About 300 previously known X-ray sources have been detected and in addition more than 200 new sources have been discovered. INTEGRAL provides spectra starting at 3 keV and ranging up to several hundred keV. This article gives a brief overview about the major discoveries of INTEGRAL.

  18. Operation of an array of field-change detectors to provide ground truth for FORTE data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massey, R.S.; Eack, K.B.; Eberle, M.H.; Shao, X.M.; Smith, D.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Space and Atmospheric Sciences Group; Wiens, K.C. [New Mexico Inst. of Tech., Socorro, NM (United States)

    1999-06-01

    The authors have deployed an array of fast electric-field-change sensors around the state of New Mexico to help identify the lightning processes responsible for the VHF RF signals detected by the FORTE satellite`s wide-band transient radio emission receivers. The array provides them with locations and electric-field waveforms for events within New Mexico and into surrounding states, and operates continuously. They are particularly interested in events for which there are coincident FORTE observations. For these events, they can correct both the array and FORTE waveforms for time of flight, and can plot the two waveforms on a common time axis. Most of the coincident events are from cloud-go-ground discharges, but the most powerful are from a little-studied class of events variously called narrow bipolar events and compact intra-cloud discharges. They have therefore focused their attention on these events whether or not FORTE was in position to observe them.

  19. HPGe 探测器对环状γ面源探测效率刻度研究%Detect Efficiency Calibration Methods of HPGeγSpectrometer for Annularity Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯松; 羊奕伟; 王玫; 刘荣; 严小松; 鹿心鑫

    2014-01-01

    The reaction rates of uranium in the Natural uranium decomposition simulation device is the important data for studying the reliability of neutronics design in the conceptual design of fission cladding in subcritical re-actor.The detect efficiency for annularity source in a HPGe spectrometer must be calibrated accurately.We want to apply the Monte-Carlo method to calibrate the efficiency for annularity source and improve the accura-cy and efficiency.The detect efficiency curve of point source was measured at the axis of the detector with a 6cm distance from the surface.The results are obtained by calculation in MCNP5 and the measurements are fit well through adjusting the size of dead layer and hole in the HPGe.Then the detect efficiency for the annularity gamma source is calculated and compared with the measurement result which was measured by integral calculat-ing the point detect efficiency in radial direction, and the comparison will examine the efficiency calibration method.The measured full energy peak efficiency for the annularity gamma source agreed with the simulated value to within 4%in the energy range 200 to 1400 keV.The method is an accurate and efficient way for cali-brating the annularity source.%天然铀分解模拟装置中铀的相关反应率是研究混合堆包层设计宏观中子学的重要数据,采用活化法测量相应反应率的过程中必须对环状天然铀箔片的探测效率进行精确刻度。为了研究快速有效刻度HPGe探测器探测效率的方法,利用一系列标准伽马点源测量了轴线上6cm高度位置的点源探测效率曲线,在蒙特卡罗程序MCNP5中调整探测器内部结构参数,同时对HPGe探测器的探测效率进行模拟计算,在计算结果与实验结果能较好拟合的情况下推算探测器的死层厚度、冷指长度和半径等参数的实际尺寸。利用计算的尺寸模拟计算探测器对环状伽马源的探测效率,计算结果与实验结果

  20. The TALE Tower Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, D. R.

    The TA Low Energy Extension will include a Tower FluorescenceDetector. Extensive air showers at the lowest usful energies for fluorescence detectors will in general be close to the detector. This requires viewing all elevation angles to be able to reconstruct showers. The TALE Tower Detector, operating in conjunction with other TALE detectors will view elevation angles up to above 70 degrees, with an azimuthal coverage of about 90 degrees. Results from a prototype mirror operated in conjunction with the HiRes detector will also be presented.

  1. 用高纯锗(HPGe)γ谱仪测量天然放射性核素活度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭崇; 赖晓洁; 陈晶

    2008-01-01

    目前我国环保辐射系统中使用的最多γ谱仪系统是高纯锗(HPGe)γ谱仪,文章主要对高纯锗(HPGe)γ谱仪进行介绍,并分析了天然放射性核素(U-238,Th-232,Ra-226,K-40)活度测量的一般方法,探讨了测量环境样品过程中测量误差的来源.

  2. Recent advances with a hybrid micro-pattern gas detector operated in low pressure H2 and He, for AT-TPC applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cortesi, Marco; Bazin, Daniel; Beceiro-Novo, Saul; Yurkon, John; Tanani, Rim Soussi; Wolff, Michael; Stolz, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In view of a possible application as a charge-particle track readout for an Active-Target Time Projection Chamber (AT-TPC), the operational properties and performances of a hybrid Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detector (MPGD) were investigated in pure low-pressure Hydrogen (H2) and Helium (He). The detector consists of a MICROMesh GAseous Structure (MICROMEGAS) coupled to a single- or multi-cascade THick Gaseous Electron Multiplier (THGEM) as a pre-amplification stage. This study reports of the effective gain dependence of the hybrid-MPGD at relevant pressure (in the range of 200-760 torr) for different detector arrangements. The results of this work are relevant in the field of avalanche mechanism in low-pressure, low-mass noble gases, in particularly for applications of MPGD end-cap readout for active-target Time Projection Chambers (TPC) in the field of nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics.

  3. Methods for fitting of efficiency curves obtained by means of HPGe gamma rays spectrometers; Metodos de ajuste de curvas de eficiencia obtidas por meio de espectrometros de HPGe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Vanderlei

    2002-07-01

    The present work describes a few methodologies developed for fitting efficiency curves obtained by means of a HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer. The interpolated values were determined by simple polynomial fitting and polynomial fitting between the ratio of experimental peak efficiency and total efficiency, calculated by Monte Carlo technique, as a function of gamma-ray energy. Moreover, non-linear fitting has been performed using a segmented polynomial function and applying the Gauss-Marquardt method. For the peak area obtainment different methodologies were developed in order to estimate the background area under the peak. This information was obtained by numerical integration or by using analytical functions associated to the background. One non-calibrated radioactive source has been included in the curve efficiency in order to provide additional calibration points. As a by-product, it was possible to determine the activity of this non-calibrated source. For all fittings developed in the present work the covariance matrix methodology was used, which is an essential procedure in order to give a complete description of the partial uncertainties involved. (author)

  4. Experimental study of the response of semiconductor detectors to low-energy photons

    CERN Document Server

    Lepy, M C; Laborie, J M; Plagnard, J; Stemmler, P; Teesdale, W J

    2000-01-01

    Six semiconductor detectors (Si(Li) and HPGe) are calibrated in the 1-10 keV energy range by means of tuneable monochromatised synchrotron radiation. Significant improvement in the quality of the response is observed in very recent detectors. A peak shape calibration is established using a modified Hypermet-type function to model the detector response for each energy step; electron effects induce individual background and tail shapes for each detector material. Fano factors for both semiconductor materials are experimentally derived. The efficiency calibration is determined using a proportional counter as reference: the front semiconductor layer acts as a partially active zone.

  5. Real-time operating mode with DSSSD detector to search for short correlation ER-alpha chains

    CERN Document Server

    Tsyganov, Yury

    2015-01-01

    Real-time PC based algorithm is developed for DSSSD detector. Complete fusion nuclear reaction natYb+48Ca->217Th is used to test this algorithm at 48Ca beam. Example of successful application of a former algorithm for resistive strip PIPS detector in 249Bk+48Ca nuclear reaction is presented too. Case of alpha-alpha correlations is also under brief consideration.

  6. A multiple CCD X-ray detector and its first operation with synchrotron radiation X-ray beam

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, M; Kumasaka, T; Sato, K; Toyokawa, H; Aries, I F; Jerram, P A; Ueki, T

    1999-01-01

    A 4x4 array structure of 16 identical CCD X-ray detector modules, called the multiple CCD X-ray detector system (MCCDX), was submitted to its first synchrotron radiation experiment at the protein crystallography station of the RIKEN beamline (BL45XU) at the SPring-8 facility. An X-ray diffraction pattern of cholesterol powder was specifically taken in order to investigate the overall system performance.

  7. The MINOS Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Grashorn, A H E W

    2005-01-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) experiment's primary goal is the precision measurement of the neutrino oscillation parameters in the atmospheric neutrino sector. This long-baseline experiment uses Fermilab's NuMI beam, measured with a Near Detector at Fermilab, and again 735 km later using a Far Detector in the Soudan Mine Underground Lab in northern Minnesota. The detectors are magnetized iron/scintillator calorimeters. The Far Detector has been operational for cosmic ray and atmospheric neutrino data from July of 2003, the Near Detector from September 2004, and the NuMI beam started in early 2005. This poster presents details of the two detectors.

  8. a Portable Pixel Detector Operating as AN Active Nuclear Emulsion and its Application for X-Ray and Neutron Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vykydal, Z.; Jakubek, J.; Holy, T.; Pospisil, S.

    2006-04-01

    This work is devoted to the development of a USB1.1 (Universal Serial Bus) based read out system for the Medipix2 detector to achieve maximum portability of this position sensitive detecting device. All necessary detector support is integrated into one compact system (80 × 50 × 20 mm3) including the detector bias source (up to 100 V). The read out interface can control external I2C REFID="9789812773678_0123FN002"> based devices, so in case of tomography it is easy to synchronize detector shutter with stepper motor control. An additional significant advantage of the USB interface is the support of back side pulse processing. This feature enables to determine the energy additionally to the position of a heavy charged particle hitting the sensor. Due to the small pixel dimensions it is also possible to distinguish the type of single quanta of radiation from the track created in the pixel detector as in case of an active nuclear emulsion.

  9. Spectrum-dose conversion operator of NaI(Tl) and CsI(Tl) scintillation detectors for air dose rate measurement in contaminated environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Shuichi; Saito, Kimiaki

    2017-01-01

    Spectrum-dose conversion operators, the G(E) functions, for common NaI(Tl) scintillation survey meters and CsI(Tl) detectors are obtained for measurements in a semi-infinite plane of contaminated ground field by photon-emitting radionuclides (ground source). The calculated doses at a height of 100 cm from the ground in (137)Cs-contaminated environments by the Monte Carlo simulation technique are compared with those obtained using the G(E) functions by assuming idealized irradiation geometries such as anterior-posterior or isotropic. The simulation reveals that one could overestimate air dose rates in the environment by a maximum of 20-30% for NaI(Tl) detectors and 40-50% for CsI(Tl) detectors depending on photon energy when using the G(E) functions assuming idealized irradiation geometries for ground source measurements. Measurements obtained after the nuclear accident in Fukushima reveal that the doses calculated using a G(E) function for a unidirectional irradiation geometry are 1.17 times higher than those calculated using a G(E) function for the ground source in the case of a CsI(Tl) scintillation detector, which has a rectangular parallelepiped crystal (13 × 13 × 20 mm(3)). However, if a G(E) function is used assuming irradiation to a surface of the detector, the doses agree with those of the ground source within 2%. These results indicate that in contaminated environments, the commonly used scintillation-based detectors overestimate doses within the acceptable limit. In addition, the degree of overestimation depends on the irradiation direction of each detector assumed for developing the G(E) function. With regard to directional dependence of the detectors, reliable air dose rates in the environment can be obtained using the G(E) function determined in unidirectional irradiation geometry, provided that the irradiation surface of the crystal is determined properly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Design and operation of a 2-D thin-film semiconductor neutron detector array for use as a beamport monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unruh, Troy C.; Bellinger, Steven L. [SMART Laboratory, Kansas State University, Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Huddleston, David E. [Electronics Design Laboratory, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); McNeil, Walter J.; Patterson, Eric [SMART Laboratory, Kansas State University, Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Sobering, Tim J. [Electronics Design Laboratory, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); McGregor, Douglas S. [SMART Laboratory, Kansas State University, Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)], E-mail: mcgregor@ksu.edu

    2009-06-01

    Silicon-based diodes coated with a thin film of neutron reactive materials have been shown to produce excellent low-efficiency neutron detectors. This work employs the same technology, but groups 25 equally sized and spaced diodes on a single 29 mm by 29 mm substrate. A 5x5 array was fabricated and coated with a thin film of {sup 6}LiF for use as a low-efficiency neutron beam monitor. The 5x5 neutron detector array is coupled to an array of amplifiers, allowing the response to be interpreted using a LabVIEW FPGA. The 5x5 array has been characterized in a diffracted neutron beam. This work is a part of on-going research to develop various designs of high- and low-efficiency semiconductor neutron detectors.

  11. Multiagency Urban Search Experiment Detector and Algorithm Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Andrew D.; Garishvili, Irakli; Peplow, Douglas E.; Archer, Daniel E.; Ray, William R.; Swinney, Mathew W.; Willis, Michael J.; Davidson, Gregory G.; Cleveland, Steven L.; Patton, Bruce W.; Hornback, Donald E.; Peltz, James J.; McLean, M. S. Lance; Plionis, Alexander A.; Quiter, Brian J.; Bandstra, Mark S.

    2017-07-01

    In order to provide benchmark data sets for radiation detector and algorithm development, a particle transport test bed has been created using experimental data as model input and validation. A detailed radiation measurement campaign at the Combined Arms Collective Training Facility in Fort Indiantown Gap, PA (FTIG), USA, provides sample background radiation levels for a variety of materials present at the site (including cinder block, gravel, asphalt, and soil) using long dwell high-purity germanium (HPGe) measurements. In addition, detailed light detection and ranging data and ground-truth measurements inform model geometry. This paper describes the collected data and the application of these data to create background and injected source synthetic data for an arbitrary gamma-ray detection system using particle transport model detector response calculations and statistical sampling. In the methodology presented here, HPGe measurements inform model source terms while detector response calculations are validated via long dwell measurements using 2"×4"×16" NaI(Tl) detectors at a variety of measurement points. A collection of responses, along with sampling methods and interpolation, can be used to create data sets to gauge radiation detector and algorithm (including detection, identification, and localization) performance under a variety of scenarios. Data collected at the FTIG site are available for query, filtering, visualization, and download at muse.lbl.gov.

  12. Operation and calibration of the Silicon Drift Detectors of the ALICE experiment during the 2008 cosmic ray data taking period

    CERN Document Server

    Alessandro, B; Bala, R; Batigne, G; Beolè, S; Biolcati, E; Bock Garcia, N; Bruna, E; Cerello, P; Coli, S; Corrales Morales, Y; Costa, F; Crescio, E; De Remigis, P; Di Liberto, S; Falchieri, D; Feofilov, G; Ferrarese, W; Gandolfi, E; Garcia, C; Gaudichet, L; Giraudo, G; Giubellino, P; Humanic, T J; Igolkin, S; Idzik, M; Kiprich, S K; Kisiel, A; Kolozhvari, A; Kotov, I; Kral, J; Kushpil, S; Kushpil, V; Lea, R; Lisa, M A; Martinez, M I; Marzari Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Masetti, M; Mazza, G; Mazzoni, M A; Meddi, F; Montano Zetina, L M; Monteno, M; Nilsen, B S; Nouais, D; Padilla Cabal, F; Petrácek, V; Poghosyan, M G; Prino, F; Ramello, L; Rashevsky, A; Riccati, L; Rivetti, A S; Senyukov, S; Siciliano, M; Sitta, M; Subieta Vasquez, M A; Sumbera, M L; Toscano, L; Tosello, F; Truesdale, D; Urciuoli, G M; Vacchi, A; Vallero, S; Werbrouck, A; Zampa, G; Zinovjev, G

    2010-01-01

    The calibration and performance of the Silicon Drift Detector of the ALICE experiment during the 2008 cosmic ray run will be presented. In particular the procedures to monitor the running parameters (baselines, noise, drift speed) are detailed. Other relevant parameters (SOP delay, time-zero, charge calibration) were also determined.

  13. A detector module with highly efficient surface-alpha event rejection operated in CRESST-II Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department, Garching (Germany); Angloher, G.; Ferreiro, N.; Hauff, D.; Kiefer, M.; Petricca, F.; Proebst, F.; Reindl, F.; Seidel, W.; Stodolsky, L.; Tanzke, A.; Wuestrich, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Bento, A. [Universidade de Coimbra, CIUC, Departamento de Fisica, Coimbra (Portugal); Bucci, C.; Canonica, L.; Gorla, P.; Schaeffner, K. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, INFN, Assergi (Italy); Erb, A. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department, Garching (Germany); Walther-Meissner-Institut fuer Tieftemperaturforschung, Garching (Germany); Feilitzsch, F. von; Guetlein, A.; Lanfranchi, J.C.; Muenster, A.; Potzel, W.; Roth, S.; Schoenert, S.; Stanger, M.; Ulrich, A.; Wawoczny, S.; Willers, M.; Zoeller, A. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department, Garching (Germany); Jochum, J.; Loebell, J.; Rottler, K.; Sailer, C.; Scholl, S.; Strandhagen, C.; Uffinger, M.; Usherov, I. [Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); Kluck, H. [Institut fuer Hochenergiephysik der Oesterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien (Austria); Vienna University of Technology, Atominstitut, Wien (Austria); Kraus, H. [University of Oxford, Department of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); Schieck, J. [Institut fuer Hochenergiephysik der Oesterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien (Austria); Sivers, M. von [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department, Garching (Germany); University of Bern, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Bern (Switzerland)

    2015-08-15

    The cryogenic dark matter experiment CRESSTII aims at the direct detection of WIMPs via elastic scattering off nuclei in scintillating CaWO{sub 4} crystals. We present a new, highly improved, detector design installed in the current run of CRESST-II Phase 2 with an efficient active rejection of surface-alpha backgrounds. Using CaWO{sub 4} sticks instead of metal clamps to hold the target crystal, a detector housing with fully-scintillating inner surface could be realized. The presented detector (TUM40) provides an excellent threshold of ∝0.60 keV and a resolution of σ ∼ 0.090 keV (at 2.60 keV).With significantly reduced background levels, TUM40 sets stringent limits on the spin-independent WIMP nucleon scattering cross section and probes a new region of parameter space for WIMP masses below 3GeV/c{sup 2}. In this paper, we discuss the novel detector design and the surface-alpha event rejection in detail. (orig.)

  14. A detector module with highly efficient surface-alpha event rejection operated in CRESST-II Phase 2

    CERN Document Server

    Strauss, R; Bento, A; Bucci, C; Canonica, L; Erb, A; Feilitzsch, F v; Ferreiro, N; Gorla, P; Gütlein, A; Hauff, D; Jochum, J; Kiefer, M; Kluck, H; Kraus, H; Lanfranchi, J -C; Loebell, J; Münster, A; Petricca, F; Potzel, W; Pröbst, F; Reindl, F; Roth, S; Rottler, K; Sailer, C; Schäffner, K; Schieck, J; Scholl, S; Schönert, S; Seidel, W; Sivers, M v; Stanger, M; Stodolsky, L; Strandhagen, C; Tanzke, A; Uffinger, M; Ulrich, A; Usherov, I; Wawoczny, S; Willers, M; Wüstrich, M; Zöller, A

    2014-01-01

    The cryogenic dark matter experiment CRESST-II aims at the direct detection of WIMPs via elastic scattering off nuclei in scintillating CaWO$_4$ crystals. We present a new, highly improved, detector design installed in the current run of CRESST-II Phase 2 with an efficient active rejection of surface-alpha backgrounds. Using CaWO$_4$ sticks to hold the target crystal a detector housing with fully-scintillating inner surface could be realized. The presented detector (TUM40) provides an excellent threshold of ${\\sim}\\,0.60\\,$keV and a resolution of $\\sigma\\,{\\approx}\\,0.090\\,$keV (at 2.60$\\,$keV). With significantly reduced background levels, TUM40 sets stringent limits on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering cross section and probes a new region of parameter space for WIMP masses below 3$\\,$GeV/c$^2$. In this paper, we discuss the novel detector design and the surface-alpha event rejection in detail.

  15. Study of factors controlling exposure dose and image quality of C-arm in operation room according to detector size of it (Mainly L-Spine AP study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chui, Sung Hyun; Jo, Hwang Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Woon Kwan; Song, Ha Jin [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Kyung Rae [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Gwangju Health University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun Jin [Dept. of Public Health and Medicine, Dongshin University, Naju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Time of operation has been reduced and accuracy of operation has been improved since C-arm, which offer real-time image of patient, was introduced in operation room. However, because of the contamination of patient, C-arm could not be used more appropriately. Therefore, this study is to know factors of controlling exposure dose, image quality and the exposed dose of health professional in operation room. Height of Wilson frame (bed for operation) was fixed at 130 cm. Then, Model 76-2 Phantom, which was set by assembling manual of Fluke Company, was set on the bed. Head/Spine Fluoroscopy AEC mode was set for exposure condition. According to detector size of C-arm, the absorbed dose per min was measured in the 7 steps OFD (cm) from 10 cm to 40 cm (10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 cm). In each step of OFD, the absorbed dose per min of same diameter of collimation was measured. Moreover, using Nero MAX Model 8000, exposure dose per min was measured according to 3 step of distance from detector (20 cm, 60 cm, 100 cm). Finally, resolution was measured by CDRH Disc Phantom and magnification of each OFD was measured by aluminum stick bar. According to detector size of C-arm, difference of absorbed dose shows that the dose of 20 cm OFD is 1.750 times higher than the dose of 40 cm OFD. It means that the C-arm, which has smaller size of detector, shows the bigger difference of absorbed dose per min (p<0.05). In the difference of absorbed dose in the same step of OFD (from 20 cm to 40 cm), the absorbed dose of 9 inch detect or C-arm was 1.370 times higher than 12 inch' s (p<0.05). When OFD was set to 20 cm OFD, the absorbed dose of non-collimation case was approximately 0.816 times lower than the absorbed dose of collimation cases (p<0.05). When the distance was 20 cm from detector, exposed does includes first-ray and scatter-ray. When the distance was 60 cm and 100 cm from detector, exposed does includes just scatter-ray. So, there was the 2.200 times difference of absorbed

  16. Travelling-wave single-photon detectors integrated with diamond photonic circuits - operation at visible and telecom wavelengths with a timing jitter down to 23 ps

    CERN Document Server

    Rath, Patrik; Kovalyuk, Vadim; Ferrari, Simone; Kahl, Oliver; Nebel, Christoph; Goltsman, Gregory N; Korneev, Alexander; Pernice, Wolfram H P

    2016-01-01

    We report on the design, fabrication and measurement of travelling-wave superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) integrated with polycrystalline diamond photonic circuits. We analyze their performance both in the near-infrared wavelength regime around 1600 nm and at 765 nm. Near-IR detection is important for compatibility with the telecommunication infrastructure, while operation in the visible wavelength range is relevant for compatibility with the emission line of silicon vacancy centers in diamond which can be used as efficient single-photon sources. Our detectors feature high critical currents (up to 31 {\\mu}A) and high performance in terms of efficiency (up to 74% at 765 nm), noise-equivalent power (down to 4.4*10^-19 W/(Hz^1/2) at 765 nm) and timing jitter (down to 23 ps).

  17. Calibration of a portable HPGe detector using MCNP code for the determination of {sup 137}Cs in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez-Villanueva, J.L. [Laboratorio LIBRA, Edificio I-D, Paseo Belen 3, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Facultad de Ciencias, Po Prado de la Magdalena, s/n 47005 Valladolid (Spain)], E-mail: joselg@libra.uva.es; Martin-Martin, A. [Laboratorio LIBRA, Edificio I-D, Paseo Belen 3, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Facultad de Ciencias, Po Prado de la Magdalena, s/n 47005 Valladolid (Spain)], E-mail: alonsomm@libra.uva.es; Pena, V. [Laboratorio LIBRA, Edificio I-D, Paseo Belen 3, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Facultad de Ciencias, Po Prado de la Magdalena, s/n 47005 Valladolid (Spain)], E-mail: victorp@libra.uva.es; Iniguez, M.P. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Facultad de Ciencias, Po Prado de la Magdalena, s/n 47005 Valladolid (Spain)], E-mail: piluca@fta.uva.es; Celis, B. de [University of Leon, Escuela de Ingenieria Industrial, Leon 24071 (Spain)

    2008-10-15

    In situ gamma spectrometry provides a fast method to determine {sup 137}Cs inventories in soils. To improve the accuracy of the estimates, one can use not only the information on the photopeak count rates but also on the peak to forward-scatter ratios. Before applying this procedure to field measurements, a calibration including several experimental simulations must be carried out in the laboratory. In this paper it is shown that Monte Carlo methods are a valuable tool to minimize the number of experimental measurements needed for the calibration.

  18. Addendum No. 29 to the Memorandum of Understanding for Collaboration in the Construction, the Maintenance and Operation of the ALICE Detector Participation of National Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhubaneswar, India

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolucci, S

    2013-01-01

    Addendum No. 29 to the Memorandum of Understanding for Collaboration in the Construction, the Maintenance and Operation of the ALICE Detector Participation of National Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhubaneswar, India

  19. Detector Control System for the ATLAS Forward Proton detector

    CERN Document Server

    Czekierda, Sabina; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) is a forward detector using a Roman Pot technique, recently installed in the LHC tunnel. It is aiming at registering protons that were diffractively or electromagnetically scattered in soft and hard processes. Infrastructure of the detector consists of hardware placed both in the tunnel and in the control room USA15 (about 330 meters from the Roman Pots). AFP detector, like the other detectors of the ATLAS experiment, uses the Detector Control System (DCS) to supervise the detector and to ensure its safe and coherent operation, since the incorrect detector performance may influence the physics results. The DCS continuously monitors the detector parameters, subset of which is stored in data bases. Crucial parameters are guarded by alarm system. A detector representation as a hierarchical tree-like structure of well-defined subsystems built with the use of the Finite State Machine (FSM) toolkit allows for overall detector operation and visualization. Every node in the hierarchy is...

  20. Evaluation of HgCdTe on GaAs Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy for High-Operating-Temperature Infrared Detector Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenisch, J.; Schirmacher, W.; Wollrab, R.; Eich, D.; Hanna, S.; Breiter, R.; Lutz, H.; Figgemeier, H.

    2015-09-01

    Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth of HgCdTe (MCT) on alternative substrates enables production of both cheaper and more versatile (third-generation) infrared (IR) detectors. After rapid progress in the development of MBE-grown MCT on GaAs in recent years, the question of whether the considerable benefits of this material system are also applicable to high-operating-temperature (HOT) applications demands attention. In this paper, we present a mid-wavelength-IR 640 × 512 pixel, 15- μm-pitch focal-plane array with operability of 99.71% at operating temperature of 120 K and low dark current density. In the second part of the paper, MBE growth of short-wavelength IR material with Cd fraction of up to 0.8 is investigated as the basis for future evaluation of the material for low-light-level imaging HOT applications.

  1. A New Expression for the Full Energy Peak Efficiency of a High Pure Germanium Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Medhat, M E; Awaad, Z

    2001-01-01

    An empirical expression for the full energy photo-peak efficiency in terms of gamma-ray energy (E) and the vertical distance from the detector surface (d) (i.e. efficiency = function (d,E)) has been obtained for a high pure germanium detector (HPGe) using different standard sources. Comparison of the calculated efficiencies and the experimentally measured values for the energy range from 59.5-1332.2 keV and a source-to-detector distance of 5-30 cm showed that the theoretical values agree with the experiment.

  2. Detective Quantum Efficiency of a CsI-CMOS X-ray Detector for Breast Tomosynthesis Operating in High Dynamic Range and High Sensitivity Modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Tushita; Klanian, Kelly; Gong, Zongyi; Williams, Mark B

    2012-07-01

    The spatial frequency dependent detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of a CsI-CMOS x-ray detector was measured in two operating modes: a high dynamic range (HDR) mode and a high sensitivity (HS) mode. DQE calculations were performed using the IEC-62220-1-2 Standard. For detector entrance air kerma values between ~7 µGy and 60 µGy the DQE is similar in either HDR mode or HS mode, with a value of ~0.7 at low frequency and ~ 0.15 - 0.20 at the Nyquist frequency fN = 6.7 mm(-1). In HDR mode the DQE remains virtually constant for operation with Ka values between ~7 µGy and 119 µGy but decreases for Ka levels below ~ 7 µGy. In HS mode the DQE is approximately constant over the full range of entrance air kerma tested between 1.7 µGy and 60 µGy but kerma values above ~75 µGy produce hard saturation. Quantum limited operation in HS mode for entrance kerma as small as 1.7 µGy makes it possible to use a large number of low dose views to improve angular sampling and decrease acquisition time.

  3. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS/LHC. The ALFA system is composed by two stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from each side of the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronic for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  4. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus). The ALFA system is composed by four stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  5. 4{\\pi}{\\beta} (LS)-{\\gamma} (HPGe) Digital Coincidence System Based on Synchronous High-Speed Multichannel Data Acquisition

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jifeng; Liang, Juncheng; Liu, Jiacheng

    2015-01-01

    A dedicated 4{\\pi}{\\beta} (LS)-{\\gamma} (HPGe)digital coincidence system has been developed in this work, which includes five acquisition channels. Three analog-to-digital converter (ADC) acquisition channels with an acquisition resolution of 8 bits and acquisition rate of 1GSPS (sample per second) are utilized to collect the signals from three Photo multiplier tubes (PMTs) which are adopted to detect {\\beta} decay, and two acquisition channels with an acquisition resolution of 16 bits and acquisition rate of 50MSPS are utilized to collect the signals from high-purity germanium (HPGe) which are adopted to detect {\\gamma} decay. In order to increase the accuracy of the coincidence system, all the five acquisition channels are synchronous within 500ps. The data collected by the five acquisition channels will be transmitted to the host PC through PCI bus and saved as a file. Off-line software is applied for the 4{\\pi}{\\beta} (LS)-{\\gamma} (HPGe) coincidence and data analysis as needed in practical application. W...

  6. Radioxenon detector calibration spike production and delivery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxe, Michael P.; Cameron, Ian M.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Kriss, Aaron A.; Lidey, Lance S.; Mendez, Jennifer M.; Prinke, Amanda M.; Riedmann, Robin A.

    2016-03-01

    Abstract Beta-Gamma coincidence radioxenon detectors must be calibrated for each of the four-radioxenon isotopes (135Xe, 133Xe, 133mXe, and 131mXe). Without a proper calibration, there is potential for the misidentification of the amount of each isotope detected. It is important to accurately determine the amount of each radioxenon isotope, as the ratios can be used to distinguish between an anthropogenic source and a nuclear explosion. We have developed a xenon calibration system (XeCalS) that produces calibration spikes of known activity and pressure for field calibration of detectors. The activity concentrations of these calibration spikes are measured using a beta-gamma coincidence detector and a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. We will present the results from the development and commissioning of XeCalS, along with the future plans for a portable spike implementation system.

  7. Noble Gas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Aprile, Elena; Bolozdynya, Alexander I; Doke, Tadayoshi

    2006-01-01

    This book discusses the physical properties of noble fluids, operational principles of detectors based on these media, and the best technical solutions to the design of these detectors. Essential attention is given to detector technology: purification methods and monitoring of purity, information readout methods, electronics, detection of hard ultra-violet light emission, selection of materials, cryogenics etc.The book is mostly addressed to physicists and graduate students involved in the preparation of fundamental next generation experiments, nuclear engineers developing instrumentation

  8. Neutron detector and fabrication method thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhandari, Harish B.; Nagarkar, Vivek V.; Ovechkina, Olena E.

    2016-08-16

    A neutron detector and a method for fabricating a neutron detector. The neutron detector includes a photodetector, and a solid-state scintillator operatively coupled to the photodetector. In one aspect, the method for fabricating a neutron detector includes providing a photodetector, and depositing a solid-state scintillator on the photodetector to form a detector structure.

  9. Determination of relative efficiency of a detector using Monte Carlo method; Determinacao da eficiencia relativa de um detector usando metodo de Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, M.P.C.; Rebello, W.F., E-mail: eng.cavaliere@ime.eb.br, E-mail: rebello@ime.eb.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear; Lopes, J.M.; Silva, A.X., E-mail: marqueslopez@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: ademir@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    High-purity germanium detectors (HPGe) are mandatory tools for spectrometry because of their excellent energy resolution. The efficiency of such detectors, quoted in the list of specifications by the manufacturer, frequently refers to the relative full-energy peak efficiency, related to the absolute full-energy peak efficiency of a 7.6 cm x 7.6 cm (diameter x height) NaI(Tl) crystal, based on the 1.33 MeV peak of a {sup 60}Co source positioned 25 cm from the detector. In this study, we used MCNPX code to simulate an HPGe detector (Canberra GC3020), from Real-Time Neutrongraphy Laboratory of UFRJ, to survey the spectrum of a {sup 60}Co source located 25 cm from the detector in order to calculate and confirm the efficiency declared by the manufacturer. Agreement between experimental and simulated data was achieved. The model under development will be used for calculating and comparison purposes with the detector calibration curve from software Genie2000™, also serving as a reference for future studies. (author)

  10. FID检测器的工作原理、操作条件及使用注意事项%On Operating Principle and Conditions of FID Detector and Points for Attention in Its Use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章喜萍

    2011-01-01

    Based on the summarization of practical operation,this paper introduces the operation principle,operating conditions and points for attention in the operation of FID detector.%本文通过对实际操作的总结,介绍了FID检测器的工作原理、操作条件以及使用注意事项。

  11. Monte Carlo simulation of the LENA detector system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, C., E-mail: choward@unc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States); Iliadis, C.; Champagne, A.E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States)

    2013-11-21

    Many nuclear astrophysics experiments use the singles energy spectrum to measure nuclear cross-sections. It has been shown in previous publications that the use of a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector and a NaI(Tl) annulus in coincidence can lower the background, allowing the measurement of smaller cross-sections. In our previous work, our simulation was only capable of determining both full-energy peak relative efficiencies. Here, we present work which extends our simulation so that we can predict absolute efficiencies, and both coincidence gate efficiencies. We first show that the full-energy peak and the total energy singles efficiency of our HPGe detector simulation agrees well with calibration data. We then present the full-energy peak and total energy efficiency for the NaI(Tl) annulus. Results are presented for our coincidence efficiencies, using three examples. These examples are a comparison to the decay of the 151 keV resonance in the {sup 18}O(p, γ){sup 19}F reaction, a {sup 22}Na point-like calibration source, and {sup 26}Al nuclei distributed in a meteorite fragment. In each case, we present a comparison of data to the simulation and show that, within our uncertainties, we can accurately simulate our measured intensities. -- Highlights: •We create a simulation of our HPGe detector and NaI annulus. •We compare our model to various calibration sources. •We compare energy gating using the simulation. •The simulation predict efficiencies as observed in the data.

  12. Development of fast measurements of concentration of NORM U-238 by HPGe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Seokki; Kim, Siu; Kim, Geehyun

    2017-02-01

    Naturally Occureed Radioactive Material (NORM) generated from the origin of earth can be found all around us and even people who are not engaged in the work related to radiation have been exposed to unnecessary radiation. This NORM has a potential risk provided that is concentrated or transformed by artificial activities. Likewise, a development of fast measruement method of NORM is emerging to prevent the radiation exposure of the general public and person engaged in the work related to the type of business related thereto who uses the material in which NORM is concentrated or transfromed. Based on such a background, many of countries have tried to manage NORM and carried out regulatory legislation. To effienctly manage NORM, there is need for developing new measurement to quickly and accurately analyze the nuclide and concentration. In this study, development of the fast and reliable measurement was carried out. In addition to confirming the reliability of the fast measurement, we have obtained results that can suggest the possibility of developing another fast measurement. Therefore, as a follow-up, it is possible to develop another fast analytical measurement afterwards. The results of this study will be very useful for the regulatory system to manage NORM. In this study, a review of two indirect measurement methods of NORM U-238 that has used HPGe on the basis of the equilibrium theory of relationships of mother and daughter nuclide at decay-chain of NORM U-238 has been carried out. For comparative study(in order to know reliabily), direct measurement that makes use of alpha spectrometer with complicated pre-processing process was implemented.

  13. Detectors on the drawing board

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Linear collider detector developers inside and outside CERN are tackling the next generation of detector technology. While their focus has centred on high-energy linear collider detectors, their innovative concepts and designs will be applicable to any future detector.   A simulated event display in one of the new generation detectors. “While the LHC experiments remain the pinnacle of detector technology, you may be surprised to realise that the design and expertise behind them is well over 10 years old,” says Lucie Linssen, CERN’s Linear Collider Detector (LCD) project manager whose group is pushing the envelope of detector design. “The next generation of detectors will have to surpass the achievements of the LHC experiments. It’s not an easy task but, by observing detectors currently in operation and exploiting a decade’s worth of technological advancements, we’ve made meaningful progress.” The LCD team is curr...

  14. Radiation doses to operators performing transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt using a flat-panel detector-based system and ultrasound guidance for portal vein targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraglia, Roberto; Gerasia, Roberta; Maruzzelli, Luigi; D'Amico, Mario; Luca, Angelo

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate effective dose (E) of operators performing transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) in a single centre. Patients' radiation exposure was also collected. Between 8/2015 and 6/2016, 45 consecutive TIPS were performed in adult patients using a flat-panel detector-based system (FPDS) and real-time ultrasound guidance (USG) for portal vein targeting. Electronic personal dosimeters were used to measure radiation doses to the primary and assistant operators, anaesthesia nurse and radiographer. Patients' radiation exposure was measured with dose area product (DAP); fluoroscopy time (FT) was also collected. Mean E for the primary operator was 1.40 μSv (SD 2.68, median 0.42, range 0.12 - 12.18), for the assistant operator was 1.29 μSv (SD 1.79, median 0.40, range 0.10 - 4.89), for the anaesthesia nurse was 0.21 μSv (SD 0.67, median 0.10, range 0.03 - 3.99), for the radiographer was 0.42 μSv (SD 0.71, median 0.25, range 0.03 - 2.67). Mean patient DAP was 59.31 GyCm(2) (SD 56.91, median 31.58, range 7.66 - 281.40); mean FT was 10.20 min (SD 7.40, median 10.40, range 3.8 - 31.8). The use of FPDS and USG for portal vein targeting allows a reasonably low E to operators performing TIPS. • The operators' E vary according to the complexity of the procedure. • FPDS and USG allow a reasonably low E to TIPS operators. • FPDS and USG have an important role in reducing the occupational exposure.

  15. Correctness of multi-detector-row computed tomography for diagnosing mechanical prosthetic heart valve disorders using operative findings as a gold standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, I.Chen [Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taichung (China); Institute of Clinical Medicine and Faculty of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei (China); Lin, Yung-Kai; Chang, Yen; Wang, Chung-Chi; Hsieh, Shih-Rong; Wei, Hao-Ji; Tsai, Hung-Wen [Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Section of Cardiovascular Surgery, Cardiovascular Center, Taichung (China); Fu, Yun-Ching; Jan, Sheng-Ling [Institute of Clinical Medicine and Faculty of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei (China); Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Section of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Taichung (China); Wang, Kuo-Yang [Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Section of General Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Taichung (China); Chung-Shan Medical University, Department of Medicine, Taichung (China); Chen, Min-Chi; Chen, Clayton Chi-Chang [Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taichung (China); Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Department of Radiological Technology, Taichung (China)

    2009-04-15

    The purpose was to compare the findings of multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) in prosthetic valve disorders using the operative findings as a gold standard. In a 3-year period, we prospectively enrolled 25 patients with 31 prosthetic heart valves. MDCT and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) were done to evaluate pannus formation, prosthetic valve dysfunction, suture loosening (paravalvular leak) and pseudoaneurysm formation. Patients indicated for surgery received an operation within 1 week. The MDCT findings were compared with the operative findings. One patient with a Bjoerk-Shiley valve could not be evaluated by MDCT due to a severe beam-hardening artifact; thus, the exclusion rate for MDCT was 3.2% (1/31). Prosthetic valve disorders were suspected in 12 patients by either MDCT or TTE. Six patients received an operation that included three redo aortic valve replacements, two redo mitral replacements and one Amplatzer ductal occluder occlusion of a mitral paravalvular leak. The concordance of MDCT for diagnosing and localizing prosthetic valve disorders and the surgical findings was 100%. Except for images impaired by severe beam-hardening artifacts, MDCT provides excellent delineation of prosthetic valve disorders. (orig.)

  16. Photocapacitive MIS infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, A.; Lu, S. S.-M.; Moriarty, J. A.; Crouch, R. K.; Miller, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    A new class of room-temperature infrared detectors has been developed through use of metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) or metal-insulator-semiconductor-insulator-metal (MISIM) slabs. The detectors, which have been fabricated from Si, Ge and GaAs, rely for operation on the electrical capacitance variations induced by modulated incident radiation. The peak detectivity for a 1000-A Si MISIM detector is comparable to that of a conventional Si detector functioning in the photovoltaic mode. Optimization of the photocapacitive-mode detection sensitivity is discussed.

  17. Development of a Large Area Advanced Fast RICH Detector for Particle Identification at the Large Hadron Collider Operated with Heavy Ions

    CERN Multimedia

    Piuz, F; Braem, A; Van beelen, J B; Lion, G; Gandi, A

    2002-01-01

    %RD26 %title\\\\ \\\\During the past two years, RD26 groups have focused their activities on the production of CsI-RICH prototypes of large area, up to a square meter, to demonstrate their application in High Energy experiments. Many large CsI-photocathodes (up to 40) were produced following the processing techniques furthermore developped in the collaboration. Taking the Quantum Efficiency (QE) measured at 180 nm as a comparative figure of merit of a CsI-PC. Figure 1 shows the increase of the performance while improvements were successively implemented in the PC processing sequence. Most efficient were the use of substrates made of nickel, the heat treatment and handling of the PCs under inert gas. Actually, three large systems based on CsI-RICH have got approval in the following HEP experiments: HADES at GSI, COMPASS/NA58 at CERN and HMPID/ALICE at LHC implying up to 14 square metres of CsI-PC. In addition, several CsI-RICH detectors have been successfully operated in the Threshold Imaging Detector at NA44 and ...

  18. The DØ detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abachi, S.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adam, I.; Ahn, S.; Aihara, H.; Alvarez, G.; Alves, G. A.; Amos, N.; Anderson, W.; Antipov, Yu.; Aronson, S. H.; Astur, R.; Avery, R. E.; Baden, A.; Balderston, J.; Baldin, B.; Bantly, J.; Barasch, E.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bazizi, K.; Behnke, T.; Bezzubov, V.; Bhat, P. C.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Boehnlein, A.; Borcherding, F.; Borders, J.; Bozko, N.; Brandt, A.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Burtovoy, V.; Butler, J. M.; Callot, O.; Chakraborty, D.; Chekulaev, S.; Chen, J.; Chen, L.-P.; Chen, W.; Choudhary, B. C.; Christenson, J. H.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Cobau, W. G.; Cochran, J.; Cooper, W. E.; Cretsinger, C.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cummings, M.; Cutts, D.; Dahl, O. I.; Daniels, B.; De, K.; Demarteau, M.; Denisenko, K.; Denisenko, N.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S.; Dharmaratna, W.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Dixon, R.; Draper, P.; Ducros, Y.; Durston-Johnson, S.; Eartly, D.; Eberhard, P. H.; Edmunds, D.; Efimov, A.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Engelmann, R.; Eroshin, O.; Evdokimov, V.; Fahey, S.; Fanourakis, G.; Fatyga, M.; Featherly, J.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Finley, D.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisk, H. E.; Flattum, E.; Forden, G. E.; Fortner, M.; Franzini, P.; Fuess, S.; Gallas, E.; Gao, C. S.; Geld, T. L.; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gibbard, B.; Glebov, V.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gobbi, B.; Goforth, M.; Good, M. L.; Goozen, F.; Gordon, H.; Graf, N.; Grannis, P. D.; Green, D. R.; Green, J.; Greenlee, H.; Grossman, N.; Grudberg, P.; Guida, J. A.; Guida, J. M.; Guryn, W.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hall, R. E.; Hansen, S.; Hauptman, J.; Hedin, D.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Heuring, T.; Hirosky, R.; Hodel, K.; Hoftun, J. S.; Hubbard, J. R.; Huehn, T.; Huson, R.; Igarashi, S.; Ito, A. S.; James, E.; Jiang, J.; Johns, K.; Johnson, C. R.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jöstlein, H.; Jung, C. K.; Kahn, S.; Kanekal, S.; Kernan, A.; Kerth, L.; Kirunin, A.; Klatchko, A.; Klima, B.; Klochkov, B.; Klopfenstein, C.; Klyukhin, V.; Kochetkov, V.; Kohli, J. M.; Kononenko, W.; Kotcher, J.; Kotov, I.; Kourlas, J.; Kozelov, A.; Kozlovsky, E.; Krafczyk, G.; Krempetz, K.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Kroon, P.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kunori, S.; Lami, S.; Landsberg, G.; Lanou, R. E.; Laurens, P.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Li, J.; Li, R.; Li-Demarteau, Q. Z.; Lima, J. G. R.; Linn, S. L.; Linnemann, J.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Y.-C.; Lloyd-Owen, D.; Lobkowicz, F.; Loken, S. C.; Lokos, S.; Lueking, L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Madaras, R. J.; Madden, R.; Malamud, E.; Mangeot, Ph.; Manning, I.; Mansoulié, B.; Manzella, V.; Mao, H.-S.; Marcin, M.; Markosky, L.; Marshall, T.; Martin, H. J.; Martin, M. I.; Martin, P. S.; Marx, M.; May, B.; Mayorov, A.; McCarthy, R.; McKinley, J.; Mendoza, D.; Meng, X.-C.; Merritt, K. W.; Milder, A.; Mincer, A.; Mondal, N. K.; Montag, M.; Mooney, P.; Mudan, M.; Mulholland, G. T.; Murphy, C.; Murphy, C. T.; Nang, F.; Narain, M.; Narasimham, V. S.; Neal, H. A.; Nemethy, P.; Nešić, D.; Ng, K. K.; Norman, D.; Oesch, L.; Oguri, V.; Oltman, E.; Oshima, N.; Owen, D.; Pang, M.; Para, A.; Park, C. H.; Partridge, R.; Paterno, M.; Peryshkin, A.; Peters, M.; Pi, B.; Piekarz, H.; Pischalnikov, Yu.; Pizzuto, D.; Pluquet, A.; Podstavkov, V.; Pope, B. G.; Prosper, H. B.; Protopopescu, S.; Que, Y.-K.; Quintas, P. Z.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Raja, R.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rao, M. V. S.; Rasmussen, L.; Read, A. L.; Regan, T.; Repond, S.; Riadovikov, V.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Roe, N. A.; Rubinov, P.; Rutherfoord, J.; Santoro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Schamberger, R. D.; Sculli, J.; Selove, W.; Shea, M.; Shkurenkov, A.; Shupe, M.; Singh, J. B.; Sirotenko, V.; Smart, W.; Smith, A.; Smith, D.; Smith, R. P.; Snow, G. R.; Snyder, S.; Sosebee, M.; Souza, M.; Spadafora, A. L.; Stampke, S.; Stephens, R.; Stevenson, M. L.; Stewart, D.; Stocker, F.; Stoyanova, D.; Stredde, H.; Streets, K.; Strovink, M.; Suhanov, A.; Taketani, A.; Tartaglia, M.; Taylor, J. D.; Teiger, J.; Theodosiou, G.; Thompson, J.; Tisserant, S.; Trippe, T. G.; Tuts, P. M.; Van Berg, R.; Vaz, M.; Vishwanath, P. R.; Volkov, A.; Vorobiev, A.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, D.-C.; Wang, L.-Z.; Weerts, H.; Wenzel, W. A.; White, A.; White, J. T.; Wightman, J.; Willis, S.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Wolf, Z.; Womersley, J.; Wood, D. R.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xie, P.; Xu, H.; Yamada, R.; Yamin, P.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yang, J.; Yang, M.-J.; Yoshikawa, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, J.; Zeller, R.; Zhang, S.; Zhou, Y. H.; Zhu, Q.; Zhu, Y.-S.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.; Zinchenko, A.; Zylberstejn, A.; DØ Collaboration

    1994-01-01

    The DØ detector is a large general purpose detector for the study of short-distance phenomena in high energy antiproton-proton collisions, now in operation at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. The detector focusses upon the detection of electrons, muons, jets and missing transverse momentum. We describe the design and performance of the major elements of the detector, including the tracking chambers, transition radiation detector, liquid argon calorimetry and muon detection. The associated electronics, triggering systems and data acquisition systems are presented. The global mechanical, high voltage, and experiment monitoring and control systems which support the detector are described. We also discuss the design and implementation of software and software support systems that are specific to DØ.

  19. Study of long-term sustained operation of gaseous detectors for the high rate environment in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00366989; Sharma, Archana

    The muon system of CMS aims to provide an efficient and fast identification of the muons produced in the proton-proton collisions. However, the forward region of the end-caps is only instrumented with Cathode Strip Chambers. This lack of redundancy will be problematic after the high-luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC), for which the increase of the background rate would degrade the Level-1 trigger performance and thus the selection of interesting physics channels. The goal of the CMS muon upgrade is to maintain the L1 trigger rate with maximum selection efficiency in order to fully exploit the HL-LHC. The CMS GEM Collaboration has proposed to instrument the vacant high-eta region of the muon end-caps with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors, called GE1/1 chambers. The Ph.D. subject proposed by the CMS GEM Collaboration aims to demonstrate that the GE1/1 technology is the most suitable choice for the upgrade of the muon end-caps. Three main research projects were conducted in this context. The first pro...

  20. NbN superconducting nanowire single photon detector with efficiency over 90% at 1550 nm wavelength operational at compact cryocooler temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, W J; Li, H; Huang, J; Lv, C L; Zhang, L; Liu, X Y; Wu, J J; Wang, Z; Xie, X M

    2016-01-01

    The fast development of superconducting nanowire single photon detector (SNSPD) in the past decade has enabled many advances in quantum information technology. The best system detection efficiency (SDE) record at 1550 nm wavelength was 93% obtained from SNSPD made of amorphous WSi which usually operated at sub-kelvin temperatures. We first demonstrate SNSPD made of polycrystalline NbN with SDE of 90.2% for 1550 nm wavelength at 2.1K, accessible with a compact cryocooler. The SDE saturated to 92.1% when the temperature was lowered to 1.8K. The results lighten the practical and high performance SNSPD to quantum information and other high-end applications.

  1. Characteristics of GRIFFIN high-purity germanium clover detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, U.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Andreoiu, C.; Ball, G. C.; Chester, A.; Domingo, T.; Dunlop, R.; Hackman, G.; Rand, E. T.; Smith, J. K.; Starosta, K.; Svensson, C. E.; Voss, P.; Williams, J.

    2016-06-01

    The Gamma-Ray Infrastructure For Fundamental Investigations of Nuclei, GRIFFIN, is a new experimental facility for radioactive decay studies at the TRIUMF-ISAC laboratory. The performance of the 16 high-purity germanium (HPGe) clover detectors that will make up the GRIFFIN spectrometer is reported. The energy resolution, efficiency, timing resolution, crosstalk and preamplifier properties of each crystal were measured using a combination of analog and digital data acquisition techniques. The absolute efficiency and add-back factors are determined for the energy range of 80-3450 keV. The detectors show excellent performance with an average over all 64 crystals of a FWHM energy resolution of 1.89(6) keV and relative efficiency with respect to a 3 in . × 3 in . NaI detector of 41(1)% at 1.3 MeV.

  2. Correction for hole trapping in AGATA detectors using pulse shape analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruyneel, B. [CEA Saclay, DSM/IRFU/SPhN, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Universitaet zu Koeln, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Koeln (Germany); Birkenbach, B.; Eberth, J.; Hess, H.; Pascovici, Gh.; Reiter, P.; Wiens, A. [Universitaet zu Koeln, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Koeln (Germany); Bazzacco, D.; Farnea, E.; Michelagnoli, C.; Recchia, F. [INFN, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Collaboration: for the AGATA Collaboration

    2013-05-15

    Data from the highly segmented High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors of the AGATA spectrometer show that segments are more sensitive to neutron damage than the central core contact. Calculations on the collection efficiency of charge carriers inside the HPGe detector were performed in order to understand this phenomenon. The trapping sensitivity, an expression based on the collection efficiencies for electrons and holes, is put forward to quantify the effect of charge carrier trapping. The sensitivity is evaluated for each position in the detector volume with respect to the different electrodes and the collected charge carrier type. Using the position information obtained by pulse shape analysis from the position-sensitive AGATA detectors, it is possible to correct for the energy deficit employing detector specific sensitivity values. We report on the successful correction of the energy peaks from heavily neutron-damaged AGATA detectors for core and segment electrode signals. The original energy resolution can optimally be recovered up to a certain quantifiable limit of degradation due to statistical fluctuations caused by trapping effects. (orig.)

  3. New type of drift tubes for gas-discharge detectors operating in vacuum: Production technology and quality control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azorskii, N. I.; Gusakov, Yu. V.; Elsha, V. V.; Enik, T. L.; Ershov, Yu. V.; Kekelidze, V. D.; Kislov, E. M.; Kolesnikov, A. O.; Madigozhin, D. T.; Movchan, S. A.; Polenkevich, I. A.; Potrebenikov, Yu. K.; Samsonov, V. A.; Shkarovskiy, S. N.; Sotnikov, A. N.; Volkov, A. D.; Zinchenko, A. I.

    2017-01-01

    A device for fabricating thin-wall (straw) drift tubes using polyethylene terephthalate film 36 μm thick by ultrasonic welding is described together with the technique for controlling their quality. The joint width amounts to 0.4-1.0 mm. The joint breaking strength is 31.9 kg/mm2. The argon leakage from a tube of volume 188.6 cm3 under a pressure gradient of 1.0 atm does not exceed 0.3 × 10-3 cm3/min, which is mainly related to the absence of metallization in the joint vicinity. The high strength, the low tensile creep due to the absence of glued layers, the small value of gas leakage makes the new tubes capable of reliable and long-term operation in vacuum, which is confirmed by the operation of 7168 straw tubes for two years in the NA62 experiment.

  4. The AFP Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector is one of the forward detectors of the ATLAS experiment at CERN aiming at measuring momenta and angles of diffractively scattered protons. Silicon Tracking and Time-of-Flight detectors are located inside Roman Pot stations inserted into beam pipe aperture. The AFP detector is composed of two stations on each side of the ATLAS interaction point and is under commissioning. The detector is provided with high and low voltage distribution systems. Each station has vacuum and cooling systems, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. Monitoring of environmental parameters, like temperature and radiation, is also available. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of the detector hardware and ensures the safe and reliable operation of the detector, assuring good data quality. Comparing with DCS systems of other detectors, the AFP DCS main challenge is to cope with the large variety of AFP equipment. This paper describes t...

  5. High-resolution ionization detector and array of such detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, Douglas S. (Ypsilanti, MI); Rojeski, Ronald A. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2001-01-16

    A high-resolution ionization detector and an array of such detectors are described which utilize a reference pattern of conductive or semiconductive material to form interaction, pervious and measurement regions in an ionization substrate of, for example, CdZnTe material. The ionization detector is a room temperature semiconductor radiation detector. Various geometries of such a detector and an array of such detectors produce room temperature operated gamma ray spectrometers with relatively high resolution. For example, a 1 cm.sup.3 detector is capable of measuring .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays with room temperature energy resolution approaching 2% at FWHM. Two major types of such detectors include a parallel strip semiconductor Frisch grid detector and the geometrically weighted trapezoid prism semiconductor Frisch grid detector. The geometrically weighted detector records room temperature (24.degree. C.) energy resolutions of 2.68% FWHM for .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays and 2.45% FWHM for .sup.60 Co 1.332 MeV gamma rays. The detectors perform well without any electronic pulse rejection, correction or compensation techniques. The devices operate at room temperature with simple commercially available NIM bin electronics and do not require special preamplifiers or cooling stages for good spectroscopic results.

  6. Infrared detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Rogalski, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    This second edition is fully revised and reorganized, with new chapters concerning third generation and quantum dot detectors, THz detectors, cantilever and antenna coupled detectors, and information on radiometry and IR optics materials. Part IV concerning focal plane arrays is significantly expanded. This book, resembling an encyclopedia of IR detectors, is well illustrated and contains many original references … a really comprehensive book.-F. Sizov, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine

  7. Improved CO [lidar detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, P.L.; Busch, G.E.; Thompson, D.C.; Remelius, D.K.; Wells, F.D.

    1999-07-18

    A high sensitivity, CO{sub 2} lidar detector, based on recent advances in ultra-low noise, readout integrated circuits (ROIC), is being developed. This detector will combine a high speed, low noise focal plane array (FPA) with a dispersive grating spectrometer. The spectrometer will filter the large background flux, thereby reducing the limiting background photon shot noise. In order to achieve the desired low noise levels, the HgCdTe FPA will be cooled to {approximately}50K. High speed, short pulse operation of the lidar system should enable the detector to operate with the order of a few noise electrons in the combined detector/ ROIC output. Current receiver design concepts will be presented, along with their expected noise performance.

  8. Detectors for Tomorrow's Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Cryogenically cooled superconducting detectors have become essential tools for a wide range of measurement applications, ranging from quantum limited heterodyne detection in the millimeter range to direct searches for dark matter with superconducting phonon detectors operating at 20 mK. Superconducting detectors have several fundamental and practical advantages which have resulted in their rapid adoption by experimenters. Their excellent performance arises in part from reductions in noise resulting from their low operating temperatures, but unique superconducting properties provide a wide range of mechanisms for detection. For example, the steep dependence of resistance with temperature on the superconductor/normal transition provides a sensitive thermometer for calorimetric and bolometric applications. Parametric changes in the properties of superconducting resonators provides a mechanism for high sensitivity detection of submillimeter photons. From a practical point of view, the use of superconducting detectors has grown rapidly because many of these devices couple well to SQUID amplifiers, which are easily integrated with the detectors. These SQUID-based amplifiers and multiplexers have matured with the detectors; they are convenient to use, and have excellent noise performance. The first generation of fully integrated large scale superconducting detection systems are now being deployed. I will discuss the prospects for a new generation of instruments designed to take full advantage of the revolution in detector technology.

  9. Phi factory detector requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arisaka, K.; Atac, M.; Berg, R.; Buchanan, C.; Calvette, M.; Khazin, B.; Kinoshita, K.; Muller, T.; Ohshima, T.; Olsen, S.; Park, J.; Santoni, C.; Shirai, J.; Solodov, E.; Thompson, J.; Triggiani, G.; Ueno, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Detector and Simulation Working Group

    1991-08-01

    We identify the experimental problems and the conditions required for successful phi-factory operation, and show the range of detector parameters which, in conjunction with different machine designs, may meet these conditions. We started by considering, comparing and criticizing the Italian and Novosibirsk designs. With this discussion as a background, we defined the apparent experimental problems and detector constraints. In this article we summarize our understanding. (orig./HSI).

  10. Characterization of segmented large volume, high purity germanium detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruyneel, B. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    2006-07-01

    {gamma}-ray tracking in future HPGe arrays like AGATA will rely on pulse shape analysis (PSA) of multiple {gamma}-interactions. For this purpose, a simple and fast procedure was developed which enabled the first full characterization of a segmented large volume HPGe detector. An analytical model for the hole mobility in a Ge crystal lattice was developed to describe the hole drift anisotropy with experimental velocity values along the crystal axis as parameters. The new model is based on the drifted Maxwellian hole distribution in Ge. It is verified by reproducing successfully experimental longitudinal hole anisotropy data. A comparison between electron and hole mobility shows large differences for the longitudinal and tangential velocity anisotropy as a function of the electrical field orientation. Measurements on a 12 fold segmented, n-type, large volume, irregular shaped HPGe detector were performed in order to determine the parameters of anisotropic mobility for electrons and holes as charge carriers created by {gamma}-ray interactions. To characterize the electron mobility the complete outer detector surface was scanned in small steps employing photopeak interactions at 60 keV. A precise measurement of the hole drift anisotropy was performed with 356 keV rays. The drift velocity anisotropy and crystal geometry cause considerable rise time differences in pulse shapes depending on the position of the spatial charge carrier creation. Pulse shapes of direct and transient signals are reproduced by weighting potential calculations with high precision. The measured angular dependence of rise times is caused by the anisotropic mobility, crystal geometry, changing field strength and space charge effects. Preamplified signals were processed employing digital spectroscopy electronics. Response functions, crosstalk contributions and averaging procedures were taken into account implying novel methods due to the segmentation of the Ge-crystal and the digital electronics

  11. Gaseous Detectors: Charged Particle Detectors - Particle Detectors and Detector Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hilke, H J

    2011-01-01

    Gaseous Detectors in 'Charged Particle Detectors - Particle Detectors and Detector Systems', part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B1: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 1: Principles and Methods'. This document is part of Part 1 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Subsection '3.1.2 Gaseous Detectors' of Section '3.1 Charged Particle Detectors' of Chapter '3 Particle Detectors and Detector Systems' with the content: 3.1.2 Gaseous Detectors 3.1.2.1 Introduction 3.1.2.2 Basic Processes 3.1.2.2.1 Gas ionization by charged particles 3.1.2.2.1.1 Primary clusters 3.1.2.2.1.2 Cluster size distribution 3.1.2.2.1.3 Total number of ion pairs 3.1.2.2.1.4 Dependence of energy deposit on particle velocity 3.1.2.2.2 Transport of...

  12. Studies of aging and HV break down problems during development and operation of MSGC and GEM detectors for the Inner Tracking System of HERA-B

    CERN Document Server

    Bagaturia, Yu S; Dreis, H B; Eisele, Franz; Gorbunov, I V; Gradl, S; Gradl, W; Hausmann, S A; Hildebrandt, M; Hott, T; Keller, S; Krauss, C; Lomonosov, B N; Negodaev, M A; Richter, C; Robmann, P; Schmidt, B; Straumann, U; Truöl, P; Visbeck, S; Walter, T; Werner, C; Werthenbach, U; Zech, G; Zeuner, T; Ziegler, M

    2002-01-01

    The results of five years of development of the inner tracking system of the HERA-B experiment and first experience from the data taking period of the year 2000 are reported. The system contains 184 chambers, covering a sensitive area of about 20 * 20 cm2 each. The detector is based on microstrip gas counters (MSGCs) with diamond like coated (DLC) glass wafers and gas electron multipliers (GEMs). The main problems in the development phase were gas discharges in intense hadron beams and aging in a high radiation dose environment. The observation of gas discharges which damage the electrode structure of the MSGC led to the addition of the GEM as a first amplification step. Spurious sparking at the GEM cannot be avoided completely. It does not affect the GEM itself but can produce secondary damage of the MSGC if the electric field between the GEM and the MSGC is above a threshold depending on operation conditions. We observed that aging does not only depend on the dose but also on the spot size of the irradiated...

  13. Works of art investigation with silicon drift detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Leutenegger, P; Fiorini, C; Strüder, L; Kemmer, J; Lechner, P; Sciuti, S; Cesareo, R

    2000-01-01

    The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy analysis is a non-destructive technique widely used in archeometry to investigate the chemical composition of pigments, metal alloys and stones for restoration and historical investigation. The classical detection systems for archeometrical investigations utilize cryogenic detectors, like Si(Li) and HPGe, characterized by a satisfactory energy resolution (of the order of 140 eV FWHM at 6 keV). However, the requirements of liquid N sub 2 drastically limit the portability of such systems, limiting the possibility of making measurements 'on the field'. Recently new silicon PIN diodes Peltier cooled were introduced, allowing the construction of portable instrumentation. However, their energy resolution (of the order of 250 eV FWHM at 6 keV) results in some cases unsatisfactory (for instance in the identification of light elements). Both the requirements of portability and good energy resolution are fulfilled by the silicon drift detector (SDD). The SDD, cooled by a Peltie...

  14. BATATA: A device to characterize the punch-through observed in underground muon detectors and to operate as a prototype for AMIGA

    CERN Document Server

    Medina-Tanco, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    BATATA is a hodoscope comprising three X-Y planes of plastic scintillation detectors. This system of buried counters is complemented by an array of 3 water-Cherenkov detectors, located at the vertices of an equilateral triangle with 200 m sides. This small surface array is triggered by extensive air showers. The BATATA detector will be installed at the centre of the AMIGA array, where it will be used to quantify the electromagnetic contamination of the muon signal as a function of depth, and so to validate, in situ, the numerical estimates made of the optimal depth for the AMIGA muon detectors. BATATA will also serves as a prototype to aid the design of these detectors.

  15. Conceptual design of a hybrid neutron-gamma detector for study of β-delayed neutrons at the RIB facility of RIKEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarifeño-Saldivia, A.; Tain, J. L.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Calviño, F.; Cortés, G.; Phong, V. H.; Riego, A.; Agramunt, J.; Algora, A.; Brewer, N.; Caballero-Folch, R.; Coleman-Smith, P. J.; Davinson, T.; Dillmann, I.; Estradé, A.; Griffin, C. J.; Grzywacz, R.; Harkness-Brennan, L. J.; Kiss, G. G.; Kogimtzis, M.; Labiche, M.; Lazarus, I. H.; Lorusso, G.; Matsui, K.; Miernik, K.; Montes, F.; Morales, A. I.; Nishimura, S.; Page, R. D.; Podolyák, Z. S.; Pucknell, V. F. E.; Rasco, B. C.; Regan, P.; Rubio, B.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Saito, Y.; Sakurai, H.; Simpson, J.; Sokol, E.; Surman, R.; Svirkhin, A.; Thomas, S. L.; Tolosa, A.; Woods, P.

    2017-04-01

    The conceptual design of the BRIKEN neutron detector at the radioactive ion beam factory (RIBF) of the RIKEN Nishina Center is reported. The BRIKEN setup is a complex system aimed at detecting heavy-ion implants, β particles, γ rays and β-delayed neutrons. The whole setup includes the Advanced Implantation Detection Array (AIDA), two HPGe Clover detectors and up to 166 3He-filled counters embedded in a high-density polyethylene moderator. The design is quite complex due to the large number and different types of 3He-tubes involved and the additional constraints introduced by the ancillary detectors for charged particles and γ rays. This article reports on a novel methodology developed for the conceptual design and optimisation of the 3He-counter array, aiming for the best possible performance in terms of neutron detection. The algorithm is based on a geometric representation of two selected detector parameters of merit, namely, the average neutron detection efficiency and the efficiency flatness as a function of a reduced number of geometric variables. The response of the neutron detector is obtained from a systematic Monte Carlo simulation implemented in GEANT4. The robustness of the algorithm allowed us to design a versatile detection system, which operated in hybrid mode includes the full neutron counter and two clover detectors for high-precision gamma spectroscopy. In addition, the system can be reconfigured into a compact mode by removing the clover detectors and re-arranging the 3He tubes in order to maximize the neutron detection performance. Both operation modes shows a rather flat and high average efficiency. In summary, we have designed a system which shows an average efficiency for hybrid mode (3He tubes + clovers) of 68.6% and 64% for neutron energies up to 1 and 5 MeV, respectively. For compact mode (only 3He tubes), the average efficiency is 75.7% and 71% for neutron energies up to 1 and 5 MeV, respectively. The performance of the BRIKEN

  16. Cryogenic Tracking Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Luukka, P R; Tuominen, E M; Mikuz, M

    2002-01-01

    The recent advances in Si and diamond detector technology give hope of a simple solution to the radiation hardness problem for vertex trackers at the LHC. In particular, we have recently demonstrated that operating a heavily irradiated Si detector at liquid nitrogen (LN$_2$) temperature results in significant recovery of Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE). Among other potential benefits of operation at cryogenic temperatures are the use of large low-resistivity wafers, simple processing, higher and faster electrical signal because of higher mobility and drift velocity of carriers, and lower noise of the readout circuit. A substantial reduction in sensor cost could result The first goal of the approved extension of the RD39 program is to demonstrate that irradiation at low temperature in situ during operation does not affect the results obtained so far by cooling detectors which were irradiated at room temperature. In particular we shall concentrate on processes and materials that could significantly reduce th...

  17. Detector and System Developments for LHC Detector Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Mandelli, Beatrice; Guida, Roberto; Rohne, Ole; Stapnes, Steinar

    2015-05-12

    The future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Physics program and the consequent improvement of the LHC accelerator performance set important challenges to all detector systems. This PhD thesis delineates the studies and strategies adopted to improve two different types of detectors: the replacement of precision trackers with ever increasingly performing silicon detectors, and the improvement of large gaseous detector systems by optimizing their gas mixtures and operation modes. Within the LHC tracker upgrade programs, the ATLAS Insertable B-layer (IBL) is the first major upgrade of a silicon-pixel detector. Indeed the overall ATLAS Pixel Detector performance is expected to degrade with the increase of luminosity and the IBL will recover the performance by adding a fourth innermost layer. The IBL Detector makes use of new pixel and front-end electronics technologies as well as a novel thermal management approach and light support and service structures. These innovations required complex developments and Quality Ass...

  18. A novel approach for modelling the cluster detector and the SPI spectrometer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ritesh Kshetri; Pintu Bhattachary

    2014-11-01

    A probabilistic approach has been presented in six recent papers (R Kshetri, J. Instrum. 2012 7 P04008; ibid., P07006; ibid., P07008; ibid., P08015; ibid., P12007; Appl. Radiat. Isotopes 2013 75 30) for modelling a general composite detector. In this paper, a simplistic view has been presented on the application of our formalism to composite detectors consisting of hexagonal closely packed encapsulated HPGe detector modules.We have presented modified calculations for the peak-to-total (PT) and peak-to-background (PB) ratios of the cluster and spectrometer for integral satellite (SPI) for the first time considering up to four-fold events. Instead of using an empirical method or simulation, we present a novel approach for calculating the peak-to-total ratio of the SPI spectrometer for high energies. Our work can provide guidance for designing new composite detectors and for performing experimental studies with the SPI spectrometer for high-energy -rays.

  19. The HERMES recoil detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Laboratory of Physics; Aschenauer, E.C. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Belostotski, S. [B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Insitute, Gatchina (Russian Federation)] [and others; Collaboration: HERMES Recoil Detector Group

    2013-02-15

    For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with an integrated field strength of 1Tm. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

  20. Pixel Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Wermes, Norbert

    2005-01-01

    Pixel detectors for precise particle tracking in high energy physics have been developed to a level of maturity during the past decade. Three of the LHC detectors will use vertex detectors close to the interaction point based on the hybrid pixel technology which can be considered the state of the art in this field of instrumentation. A development period of almost 10 years has resulted in pixel detector modules which can stand the extreme rate and timing requirements as well as the very harsh...

  1. The LUX Prototype Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Akerib, D S; Bedikian, S; Bernstein, A; Bolozdynya, A; Bradley, A; Cahn, S; Carr, D; Chapman, J J; Clark, K; Classen, T; Curioni, A; Dahl, C E; Dazeley, S; deViveiros, L; Dragowsky, M; Druszkiewicz, E; Fiorucci, S; Gaitskell, R J; Hall, C; Faham, C; Holbrook, B; Kastens, L; Kazkaz, K; Kwong, J; Lander, R; Leonard, D; Malling, D; Mannino, R; McKinsey, D N; Mei, D; Mock, J; Morii, M; Nikkel, J; Phelps, P; Shutt, T; Skulski, W; Sorensen, P; Spaans, J; Steigler, T; Svoboda, R; Sweany, M; Thomson, J; Tripathi, M; Walsh, N; Webb, R; White, J; Wolfs, F L H; Woods, M; Zhang, C

    2012-01-01

    The LUX (Large Underground Xenon) detector is a two-phase xenon Time Projection Chamber (TPC) designed to search for WIMP-nucleon dark matter interactions. As with all noble element detectors, continuous purification of the detector medium is essential to produce a large ($>$1ms) electron lifetime; this is necessary for efficient measurement of the electron signal which in turn is essential for achieving robust discrimination of signal from background events. In this paper we describe the development of a novel purification system deployed in a prototype detector. The results from the operation of this prototype indicated heat exchange with an efficiency above 94% up to a flow rate of 42 slpm, allowing for an electron drift length greater than 1 meter to be achieved in approximately two days and sustained for the duration of the testing period.

  2. Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

    2013-01-01

    The advanced space radiation detector development team at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

  3. Performance of a compact multi-crystal high-purity germanium detector array for measuring coincident gamma-ray emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, Chris; Daigle, Stephen; Buckner, Matt [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Erikson, Luke E.; Runkle, Robert C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Stave, Sean C., E-mail: Sean.Stave@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Champagne, Arthur E.; Cooper, Andrew; Downen, Lori [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Glasgow, Brian D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Kelly, Keegan; Sallaska, Anne [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2015-05-21

    The Multi-sensor Airborne Radiation Survey (MARS) detector is a 14-crystal array of high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors housed in a single cryostat. The array was used to measure the astrophysical S-factor for the {sup 14}N(p,γ){sup 15}O{sup ⁎} reaction for several transition energies at an effective center-of-mass energy of 163 keV. Owing to the granular nature of the MARS detector, the effect of gamma-ray summing was greatly reduced in comparison to past experiments which utilized large, single-crystal detectors. The new S-factor values agree within their uncertainties with the past measurements. Details of the analysis and detector performance are presented.

  4. Performance of A Compact Multi-crystal High-purity Germanium Detector Array for Measuring Coincident Gamma-ray Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, Chris [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Univ. Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Daigle, Stephen [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Univ. Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Buckner, Matt [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Univ. Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Erikson, Luke E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Runkle, Robert C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stave, Sean C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Champagne, Art [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Univ. Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Cooper, Andrew [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Univ. Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Downen, Lori [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Univ. Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Glasgow, Brian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kelly, Keegan [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Univ. Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Sallaska, Anne [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Univ. Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States)

    2015-02-18

    The Multi-sensor Airborne Radiation Survey (MARS) detector is a 14-crystal array of high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors housed in a single cryostat. The array was used to measure the astrophysical S-factor for the 14N(p,γ)15O* reaction for several transition energies at an effective center of mass energy of 163 keV. Owing to the segmented nature of the MARS detector, the effect of gamma-ray summing was greatly reduced in comparison to past experiments which utilized large, single-crystal detectors. The new S-factor values agree within the uncertainties with the past measurements. Details of the analysis and detector performance will be presented.

  5. Metal Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1992-01-01

    Schools that count on metal detectors to stem the flow of weapons into the schools create a false sense of security. Recommendations include investing in personnel rather than hardware, cultivating the confidence of law-abiding students, and enforcing discipline. Metal detectors can be quite effective at afterschool events. (MLF)

  6. Optical Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbert, Bernd; Goushcha, Alexander

    Optical detectors are applied in all fields of human activities from basic research to commercial applications in communication, automotive, medical imaging, homeland security, and other fields. The processes of light interaction with matter described in other chapters of this handbook form the basis for understanding the optical detectors physics and device properties.

  7. Spectrum correction algorithm for detectors in airborne radioactivity monitoring equipment NH-UAV based on a ratio processing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Ye [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Tang, Xiao-Bin, E-mail: tangxiaobin@nuaa.edu.cn [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Equipment Materials Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Wang, Peng; Meng, Jia; Huang, Xi; Wen, Liang-Sheng [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Chen, Da [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Equipment Materials Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China)

    2015-10-11

    The unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) radiation monitoring method plays an important role in nuclear accidents emergency. In this research, a spectrum correction algorithm about the UAV airborne radioactivity monitoring equipment NH-UAV was studied to measure the radioactive nuclides within a small area in real time and in a fixed place. The simulation spectra of the high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and the lanthanum bromide (LaBr{sub 3}) detector in the equipment were obtained using the Monte Carlo technique. Spectrum correction coefficients were calculated after performing ratio processing techniques about the net peak areas between the double detectors on the detection spectrum of the LaBr{sub 3} detector according to the accuracy of the detection spectrum of the HPGe detector. The relationship between the spectrum correction coefficient and the size of the source term was also investigated. A good linear relation exists between the spectrum correction coefficient and the corresponding energy (R{sup 2}=0.9765). The maximum relative deviation from the real condition reduced from 1.65 to 0.035. The spectrum correction method was verified as feasible. - Highlights: • An airborne radioactivity monitoring equipment NH-UAV was developed to measure radionuclide after a nuclear accident. • A spectrum correction algorithm was proposed to obtain precise information on the detected radioactivity within a small area. • The spectrum correction method was verified as feasible. • The corresponding spectrum correction coefficients increase first and then stay constant.

  8. Transition Radiation Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Andronic, A

    2012-01-01

    We review the basic features of transition radiation and how they are used for the design of modern Transition Radiation Detectors (TRD). The discussion will include the various realizations of radiators as well as a discussion of the detection media and aspects of detector construction. With regard to particle identification we assess the different methods for efficient discrimination of different particles and outline the methods for the quantification of this property. Since a number of comprehensive reviews already exist, we predominantly focus on the detectors currently operated at the LHC. To a lesser extent we also cover some other TRDs, which are planned or are currently being operated in balloon or space-borne astro-particle physics experiments.

  9. The LHCb Detector Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Schindler, H

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb collaboration presented a Letter of Intent (LOI) to the LHCC in March 2011 for a major upgrading of the detector during Long Shutdown 2 (2018) and intends to collect a data sample of 50/fb in the LHC and High-Luminosity-LHC eras. The aim is to operate the experiment at an instantaneous luminosity 2.5 times above the present operational luminosity, which has already been pushed to twice the design value. Reading out the detector at 40MHz allows to increase the trigger efficiencies especially for the hadronic decay modes. The physics case and the strategy for the upgrade have been endorsed by the LHCC. This paper presents briefly the physics motivations for the LHCb upgrade and the proposed changes to the detector and trigger.

  10. Sensitive hydrogen leak detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    1999-01-01

    A sensitive hydrogen leak detector system using passivation of a stainless steel vacuum chamber for low hydrogen outgassing, a high compression ratio vacuum system, a getter operating at 77.5 K and a residual gas analyzer as a quantitative hydrogen sensor.

  11. Low-energy neutrino and dark matter physics with sub-keV germanium detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Soma; L Singh; M K Singh; V Singh; H T Wong

    2012-11-01

    The TEXONO-CDEX Collaboration (Taiwan experiment on neutrino–China dark matter experiment) explores high-purity germanium (HPGe) detection technology to develop a sub-keV threshold detector for pursuing studies on low mass weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), properties of neutrino and the possibilities of neutrino-nucleus coherent scattering observation. This article will introduce the facilities of newly established China Jing-Ping Underground Laboratory (CJPL), preliminary result of cosmic ray background studies at CJPL, the dark matter studies pursued at Kuo-Sheng Neutrino Laboratory (KSNL) and research efforts to accomplish our physics goals.

  12. Tomography of Spatial Mode Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bobrov, Ivan; Markov, Anton; Straupe, Stanislav; Kulik, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Transformation and detection of photons in higher-order spatial modes usually requires complicated holographic techniques. Detectors based on spatial holograms suffer from non-idealities and should be carefully calibrated. We report a novel method for analyzing the quality of projective measurements in spatial mode basis inspired by quantum detector tomography. It allows us to calibrate the detector response using only gaussian beams. We experimentally investigate the inherent inaccuracy of the existing methods of mode transformation and provide a full statistical reconstruction of the POVM (positive operator valued measure) elements for holographic spatial mode detectors.

  13. Crosstalk-free operation of multielement superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array integrated with single-flux-quantum circuit in a 0.1 W Gifford-McMahon cryocooler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Taro; Miki, Shigehito; Terai, Hirotaka; Makise, Kazumasa; Wang, Zhen

    2012-07-15

    We demonstrate the successful operation of a multielement superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SSPD) array integrated with a single-flux-quantum (SFQ) readout circuit in a compact 0.1 W Gifford-McMahon cryocooler. A time-resolved readout technique, where output signals from each element enter the SFQ readout circuit with finite time intervals, revealed crosstalk-free operation of the four-element SSPD array connected with the SFQ readout circuit. The timing jitter and the system detection efficiency were measured to be 50 ps and 11.4%, respectively, which were comparable to the performance of practical single-pixel SSPD systems.

  14. 利用 HPGe 铀能谱88~100 keV 能区确定铀富集度方法研究%Research on Uranium Enrichment Determination Using 88-100 keV Region of HPGe Uranium Spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周浩; 赵永刚; 李建华; 金惠民

    2014-01-01

    利用铀材料γ能谱88~100 keV能区中γ、X射线重峰分解确定同位素丰度的方法,是铀同位素分析商用软件MGAU、MGA++等的核心技术。本文建立了γ、X射线峰形模型,提出了效率拟合因子修正效率的方法,并自行编写了铀富集度分析程序。用 H PGe γ谱仪对两种化学形态、铀富集度范围为1.80%~90.1%的铀样品进行了测量,以验证自编程序的可行性。利用本文所编写的程序分析实验能谱,得到的芯块样品分析结果与标称值的相对偏差小于2%,粉末样品分析结果与标称值的相对偏差小于1%。%T he method w hich is used to determine uranium enrichment by deconvoluting complex peak clusters in 88-100 keV region of γ/X spectrum of uranium materials is the key technique of some uranium enrichment determination software ,such as MGAU , MGA + + ,etc .According to the basic principle of this method ,a code to analyze the spectrum was written ,in which peak shape model of γ/X ray was built to fit the spec-trum and efficiency fitting factor was developed to make efficiency correction . Two types of uranium samples with enrichment ranging from 1.80% to 90.1% were meas-ured by a HPGe detector and analyzed by the code . For the samples measured , the uranium enrichment was determined with relative deviation of about 2% for pellet and 1% for pow der samples .

  15. Preliminary Results of High-Energy Cosmic Ray Muons as Observed by a Small Multiwire Detector Operated at High Cutoff Rigidity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abdullrahnan Maghrabi; Mohammed Alanazi; A. Aldosari; M. Almuteri

    2017-03-01

    Solar disturbances modulate primary cosmic rays on different time scales. Studying cosmic ray variation is an important subject that attracts scientists from different disciplines. We have constructed and installed (in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, Rc =14.4 GV) a three-layer small (20 × 20 cm2) MultiWire Chamber (MWC) telescope to study cosmic ray variations and investigate their influence on various atmospheric and environmental processes. Preliminary results obtained from the developed detector are given. The influence of both atmospheric pressure and temperature was studied. Both the temperature and pressure coefficients were calculated and were consistent with those previously obtained. Short-term cosmic ray periodicities, such as the 27-day period, and its two harmonics, have been identified. Sporadic variations caused by some solar activity processes have been inspected. The obtained results from this detector have been compared to the existing 1 m2 scintillator detector, as well as to some of the neutron monitors, showing comparable results.

  16. Operation of Silicon, Diamond and liquid Helium Detectors in the range of Room Temperature to 1.9 K and after an Irradiation Dose of several Mega Gray

    CERN Document Server

    Kurfuerst, C; Dehning, B; Eisel, T; Sapinski, M; Eremin, V

    2013-01-01

    At the triplet magnets, close to the interaction regions of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the current Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system is sensitive to the debris from the collision points. For future beams, with higher energy and intensity the expected increase in luminosity implicate an increase of the debris from interaction products covering the quench-provoking beam losses from the primary proton beams. The investigated option is to locate the detectors as close as possible to the superconducting coil, where the signal ratio of both is optimal. Therefore the detectors have to be located inside the cold mass of the superconducting magnets in superfluid helium at 1.9 Kelvin. Past measurements have shown that a liquid helium ionisation chamber, diamond and silicon detectors are promising candidates for cryogenic beam loss monitors. The carrier parameter, drift velocity, and the leakage current changes will be shown as a function of temperature. New high irradiation test beam measurements at room temperat...

  17. Detector Fundamentals for Reachback Analysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, Steven Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-03

    This presentation is a part of the DHS LSS spectroscopy course and provides an overview of the following concepts: detector system components, intrinsic and absolute efficiency, resolution and linearity, and operational issues and limits.

  18. DUMAND detector

    CERN Multimedia

    This object is one of the 256 other detectors of the DUMAND (Deep Underwater Muon And Neutrino Detection) experiment. The goal of the experiment was the construction of the first deep ocean high energy neutrino detector, to be placed at 4800 m depth in the Pacific Ocean off Keahole Point on the Big Island of Hawaii. A few years ago, a European conference with Cosmic experiments was organized at CERN as they were projects like DUMAND in Hawaii. Along with the conference, a temporary exhibition was organised as well. It was a collaboration of institutions from Germany, Japan, Switzerland and the U.S.A. CERN had borrowed equipment and objects from different institutes around the world, including this detector of the DUMAND experiment. Most of the equipment were sent back to the institutes, however this detector sphere was offered to a CERN member of the personnel.

  19. Detector of Optical Vortices as the Main Element of the System of Data Transfer: Principles of Operation, Numerical Model, and Influence of Noise and Atmospheric Turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerii Aksenov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The method is proposed of optical vortex topological charge detection along with a design of a corresponding detector. The developed technique is based on measurements of light field intensity. Mathematical model simulating performance of the detector is described in the paper, and results of numerical experiments are presented which illustrate recognition of a vortex in a turbulent medium and in the presence of amplitude and phase noise in the registered radiation. Influence of shifts of the system optical axis on precision of registration is also considered in the paper.

  20. Edgeless silicon pad detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea Solano, B.; Abreu, M. C.; Avati, V.; Boccali, T.; Boccone, V.; Bozzo, M.; Capra, R.; Casagrande, L.; Chen, W.; Eggert, K.; Heijne, E.; Klauke, S.; Li, Z.; Mäki, T.; Mirabito, L.; Morelli, A.; Niinikoski, T. O.; Oljemark, F.; Palmieri, V. G.; Rato Mendes, P.; Rodrigues, S.; Siegrist, P.; Silvestris, L.; Sousa, P.; Tapprogge, S.; Trocmé, B.

    2006-05-01

    We report measurements in a high-energy pion beam of the sensitivity of the edge region in "edgeless" planar silicon pad diode detectors diced through their contact implants. A large surface current on such an edge prevents the normal reverse biasing of the device, but the current can be sufficiently reduced by the use of a suitable cutting method, followed by edge treatment, and by operating the detector at low temperature. The depth of the dead layer at the diced edge is measured to be (12.5±8 stat..±6 syst.) μm.

  1. Edgeless silicon pad detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perea Solano, B. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)]. E-mail: blanca.perea.solano@cern.ch; Abreu, M.C. [LIP and University of Algarve, 8000 Faro (Portugal); Avati, V. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Boccali, T. [INFN Sez. di Pisa and Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy); Boccone, V. [INFN Sez. di Genova and Universita di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Bozzo, M. [INFN Sez. di Genova and Universita di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Capra, R. [INFN Sez. di Genova and Universita di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Casagrande, L. [INFN Sez. di Roma 2 and Universita di Roma 2, Rome (Italy); Chen, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Eggert, K. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Heijne, E. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Klauke, S. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Li, Z. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Maeki, T. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Mirabito, L. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Morelli, A. [INFN Sez. di Genova and Universita di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Niinikoski, T.O. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Oljemark, F. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Palmieri, V.G. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Rato Mendes, P. [LIP and University of Algarve, 8000 Faro (Portugal); Rodrigues, S. [LIP and University of Algarve, 8000 Faro (Portugal); Siegrist, P. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Silvestris, L. [INFN Sez. Di Bari, Bari (Italy); Sousa, P. [LIP and University of Algarve, 8000 Faro (Portugal); Tapprogge, S. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Trocme, B. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Villeurbanne (France)

    2006-05-01

    We report measurements in a high-energy pion beam of the sensitivity of the edge region in 'edgeless' planar silicon pad diode detectors diced through their contact implants. A large surface current on such an edge prevents the normal reverse biasing of the device, but the current can be sufficiently reduced by the use of a suitable cutting method, followed by edge treatment, and by operating the detector at low temperature. The depth of the dead layer at the diced edge is measured to be (12.5{+-}8{sub stat.}.{+-}6{sub syst.}) {mu}m.

  2. CLIC Detector and Physics Status

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)627941

    2017-01-01

    This contribution to LCWS2016 presents recent developments within the CLICdp collaboration. An updated scenario for the staged operation of CLIC has been published; the accelerator will operate at 380 GeV, 1.5 TeV and 3 TeV. The lowest energy stage is optimised for precision Higgs and top physics, while the higher energy stages offer extended Higgs and BSM physics sensitivity. The detector models CLIC_SiD and CLIC_ILD have been replaced by a single optimised detector; CLICdet. Performance studies and R&D in technologies to meet the requirements for this detector design are ongoing.

  3. ILC Reference Design Report Volume 4 - Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Behnke, Ties; Jaros, John; Miyamoto, Akiya; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Gajewski, Jan; Idzik, Marek; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kulis, Szymon; Suszycki, Leszek; Swientek, Krzysztof; Martyn, Hans-Ulrich; Bernreuther, Werner; Feld, Lutz; Hebbeker, Thomas; Muennich, Astrid; Roth, Stefan; Stahl, Achim; Tonutti, Manfred; Rindani, Saurabh; Sarkar, Utpal; Singh, S.K.; Adloff, Catherine; Delebecque, Pierre; Hermel, Richard; Karyotakis, Yannis; Lafaye, Remi; Prast, Julie; Muhlleitner, Milada Margarete; Singh, R.K.; Wagner, Carlos E.M.; Antipov, Sergei; Arnold, Ned; Berger, Edmond; Carwardine, John; Drake, Gary; Emery, Louis; Friedsam, Horst; Fuerst, Joel; Gai, Wei; Gerbick, Scot; Gerig, Rod; Kelly, Michael; Kim, Kwang-Je; Lenkszus, Frank; Liu, Wanming; Magill, Stephen; Noonan, John; Repond, Jose; Saunders, Claude; Shepard, Ken; Underwood, David G.; Wang, Haitao; Weerts, Harry; Xia, Lei; Xiao, Aimin; Zhang, Jinlong; Yock, Philip; Singh, Bhartendu K.; Ananthanarayan, B.; Biswal, S.S.; Godbole, Rohini; Vempati, Sundir K.; Comerma, Albert; Dieguez, Angel; Garrido, Luis; Gascon, David; Graciani, Ricardo; Grauges, Eugeni; Herms, Atila; Balbuena, Juan Pablo; Cabruja, Enric; Lozano, Manuel; Pellegrini, Giulio; Miquel, Ramon; Lux, Thorsten; Martinez, Manel; Padilla, Cristobal; Riu, Imma; Ward, Bennie; Sun, Yipeng; Ablikim, Medina; Bai, Sha; Bi, Xiao-Jun; Cao, J.S.; Chen, He Sheng; Chen, Sen Yu; Chen, Yuan Bo; Cheng, Jian; Chi, Yun Long; Dai, Jian Ping; Dong, Dong; Dong, Hai Yi; Du, Shuxian; Fang, Shou Xian; Gao, Jian She; Gao, Jie; Ge, Ming Qi; Ge, Rui; Geng, Zhe Qiao; Gu, Jun; He, An; Hou, Mi; Hu, Tao; Huang, Tong Ming; Jiang, Xiao Ming; Jin, Shan; Kang, Wen; Kong, Xiang Cheng; Li, Chun Hua; Li, Da Zhang; Li, Gang; Li, Shao Peng; Li, Weiguo; Li, Xiao Ping; Li, Zhong Quan; Liu, Shao Zhen; Liu, Wei Bin; Liu, Ya Ping; Liu, Yu Dong; Lu, Cai-Dian; Ma, Li; Ma, Qiang; Ouyang, Qun; Pam, Wei Min; Pei, Guo Xi; Pei, Shi Lun; Peng, G.X.; Qin, Qing; Qu, Hua Min; Shi, Cai Tu; Sun, Hong; Sun, Yi; Wang, Chun Hong; Wang, Dou; Wang, Guang Wei; Wang, Jiang; Wang, Jiu Qing; Wang, Shu Hong; Wang, Yi Fang; Wang, Zheng; Xie, Jia Lin; Xing, Zhi-Zhong; Xu, Gang; Xu, Qing Jin; Yu, Cheng Hui; Yu, Xian Ming; Yuan, Chang-Zheng; Yue, Jun Hui; Zhai, Ji Yuan; Zhang, Chuang; Zhang, He; Zhang, Jiawen; Zhang, Jing Ru; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Yuan; Zhao, Ji Jiu; Zhao, Jing Xia; Zhao, Sheng Chu; Zhou, De Min; Zhou, Shun; Zhu, Xiong Wei; Zong, Zhang Guo; Liu, Chun; Wu, Yue Liang; Yang, Jin Min; Liang, Jian Tao; Liu, Li Qiang; Lu, Wen Hui; Xiong, Lian You; Zhang, Liang; Zhao, Tong Xian; Afanaciev, Konstantin; Ignatenko, Alexandr; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Manghisoni, Massimo; Re, Valerio; Traversi, Gianluca; Eigen, Gerald; Osland, Per; Handu, Virender K.; Jawale, Suresh B.; Joshi, Gopal; Pande, Manjiri; Pande, Rajni; Rao, Sista V.L.S.; Singh, Pitamber; Sinha, Anil K.; Suthar, Rameshwar L.; Topkar, Anita; Adey, David; Hawkes, Chris; Hillier, Stephen James; Mikami, Yoshinari; Miller, Owen; Stockton, Mark; Watson, Nigel Keith; Wilson, John A.; Petersen, Troels Christian; Driouichi, Chafik; Hansen, Jorgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Klinkby, Esben; Xella, Stefania; Von Toerne, Eckhard; Brock, Ian; Desch, Klaus; Dreiner, Herbert; Hohlfeld, Mark; Killenberg, Martin; Kittel, Olaf; Koch, Manuel; Kohrs, Robert; Krautscheid, Thorsten; Kruger, Hans; Langenfeld, Ulrich; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Reuen, Lars; Ummenhofer, Martin; Wermes, Norbert; Wienemann, Peter; Butler, John; Cussans, David; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Helen; Lynch, Clare; Velthuis, Jaap J.; Hearty, Christopher; Mattison, Thomas; Anerella, Michael; Dawson, Sally; Marone, Andrew; Morse, William Michael; Parker, Brett; Parsa, Zohreh; Pogorelsky, Igor; Radeka, Veljko; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Partridge, Richard; Narain, Meenakshi; Coca, Cornelia; Orlandea, Marius Ciprian; Popescu, Sorina; Teodorescu, Eliza; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Christophe, Grojean; Baddams, Nigel; Baldy, Jean-Luc; Camporesi, Tiziano; Capatina, Ofelia; De Roeck, Albert; Delahaye, Jean-Pierre; Eliasson, Peder; Ellis, John R.; Ferguson, John; Gastal, Martin; Hauschild, Michael; Hauviller, Claude; Hawkings, Richard; Kraml, Sabine; Latina, Andrea; Parma, Vittorio; Pedersen, John; Quesnel, Jean-Pierre; Rinolfi, Louis; Rolandi, Gigi; Ruehl, Ingo; Sauli, Fabio; Schulte, Daniel; Tavian, Laurent; Zimmermann, Frank; Chung, Jin-Hyuk; Hwang, Youngseok; Kim, Donghee; Kim, Eun San; Kim, Guinyun; Kim, Hongjoo; Kim, Hyoungsuk; Kim, Kyung Sook; Kim, Youngim; Park, Hwanbae; Shin, Seunghwan; Son, Dongchul; Suh, Jun Suhk; Bhattacherjee, Biplob; Datta, Anindya; Ghosh, Kirtiman; Kundu, Anirban; Bhandari, R.K.; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Mallik, C.; Nabhiraj, P.Y.

    2007-01-01

    This report, Volume IV of the International Linear Collider Reference Design Report, describes the detectors which will record and measure the charged and neutral particles produced in the ILC's high energy e+e- collisions. The physics of the ILC, and the environment of the machine-detector interface, pose new challenges for detector design. Several conceptual designs for the detector promise the needed performance, and ongoing detector R&D is addressing the outstanding technological issues. Two such detectors, operating in push-pull mode, perfectly instrument the ILC interaction region, and access the full potential of ILC physics.

  4. Luminosity measurements in ATLAS with MPX detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopczak, Andre; Benes, Petr; Bergmann, Benedikt; Biskup, Bartolomej; Jakubek, Jan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Solc, Jaroslav; Sopko, Vit; Suk, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Vykydal, Zdenek [IEAP CTU Prague (Czech Republic); Asbah, Nedaa; Leroy, Claude; Soueid, Paul [Universite de Montreal (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The ATLAS-MPX detectors are based on Medipix2 silicon devices designed by CERN for the detection of different types of radiation. These detectors are successfully operating in the ATLAS detector at 16 places and collect data independent of the ATLAS data-recording chain. Recently it has been recognized that these detectors are well suited for luminosity measurements. Results from these studies are presented.

  5. Nonequilibrium superconducting detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristiano, R.; Ejrnaes, M.; Esposito, E.; Lisitskyi, M. P.; Nappi, C.; Pagano, S.; Perez de Lara, D.

    2006-03-01

    Nonequilibrium superconducting detectors exploit the early stages of the energy down cascade which occur after the absorption of radiation. They operate on a short temporal scale ranging from few microseconds down to tens of picoseconds. In such a way they provide fast counting capability, high time discrimination and also, for some devices, energy sensitivity. Nonequilibrium superconducting detectors are developed for their use both in basic science and in practical applications for detection of single photons or single ionized macromolecules. In this paper we consider two devices: distributed readout imaging detectors (DROIDs) based on superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs), which are typically used for high-speed energy spectroscopy applications, and hot-electron superconductive detectors (HESDs), which are typically used as fast counters and time discriminators. Implementation of the DROID geometry to use a single superconductor is discussed. Progress in the fabrication technology of NbN nanostructured HESDs is presented. The two detectors share the high sensitivity that makes them able to efficiently detect even single photons down to infrared energy.

  6. Nonequilibrium superconducting detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristiano, R [CNR-Istituto di Cibernetica E. Caianiello, 80078 Pozzuoli (Namibia) (Italy); Ejrnaes, M [CNR-Istituto di Cibernetica E. Caianiello, 80078 Pozzuoli (Namibia) (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, 80126 Naples (Italy); Esposito, E [CNR-Istituto di Cibernetica E. Caianiello, 80078 Pozzuoli (Namibia) (Italy); Lisitskyi, M P [CNR-Istituto di Cibernetica E. Caianiello, 80078 Pozzuoli (Namibia) (Italy); Nappi, C [CNR-Istituto di Cibernetica E. Caianiello, 80078 Pozzuoli (Namibia) (Italy); Pagano, S [CNR-Istituto di Cibernetica E. Caianiello, 80078 Pozzuoli (Namibia) (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Salerno, 84081 Baronissi (Saudi Arabia) (Italy); Perez de Lara, D [CNR-Istituto di Cibernetica E. Caianiello, 80078 Pozzuoli (Namibia) (Italy)

    2006-03-15

    Nonequilibrium superconducting detectors exploit the early stages of the energy down cascade which occur after the absorption of radiation. They operate on a short temporal scale ranging from few microseconds down to tens of picoseconds. In such a way they provide fast counting capability, high time discrimination and also, for some devices, energy sensitivity. Nonequilibrium superconducting detectors are developed for their use both in basic science and in practical applications for detection of single photons or single ionized macromolecules. In this paper we consider two devices: distributed readout imaging detectors (DROIDs) based on superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs), which are typically used for high-speed energy spectroscopy applications, and hot-electron superconductive detectors (HESDs), which are typically used as fast counters and time discriminators. Implementation of the DROID geometry to use a single superconductor is discussed. Progress in the fabrication technology of NbN nanostructured HESDs is presented. The two detectors share the high sensitivity that makes them able to efficiently detect even single photons down to infrared energy.

  7. Detectors in Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaj, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Carini, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Carron, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Haller, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hart, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hasi, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Herrmann, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kenney, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Segal, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tomada, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-06

    Free Electron Lasers opened a new window on imaging the motion of atoms and molecules. At SLAC, FEL experiments are performed at LCLS using 120Hz pulses with 1012 - 1013 photons in 10 femtoseconds (billions of times brighter than the most powerful synchrotrons). This extreme detection environment raises unique challenges, from obvious to surprising. Radiation damage is a constant threat due to accidental exposure to insufficiently attenuated beam, focused beam and formation of ice crystals reflecting the beam onto the detector. Often high power optical lasers are also used (e.g., 25TW), increasing the risk of damage or impeding data acquisition through electromagnetic pulses (EMP). The sample can contaminate the detector surface or even produce shrapnel damage. Some experiments require ultra high vacuum (UHV) with strict design, surface contamination and cooling requirements - also for detectors. The setup is often changed between or during experiments with short turnaround times, risking mechanical and ESD damage, requiring work planning, training of operators and sometimes continuous participation of the LCLS Detector Group in the experiments. The detectors used most often at LCLS are CSPAD cameras for hard x-rays and pnCCDs for soft x-rays.

  8. Calorimeter detectors

    CERN Document Server

    de Barbaro, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Although the instantaneous and integrated luminosity in HL-LHC will be far higher than the LHC detectors were originally designed for, the Barrel calorimeters of the four experiments are expected to continue to perform well  throughout the Phase II program. The conditions for the End-Cap calorimeters are far more challenging and whilst some detectors will require relatively modest changes, others require far more substantial upgrades. We present the results of longevity and performance studies for the calorimeter systems of the four main LHC experiments and outline the upgrade options under consideration. We include a discussion of the R&D required to make the final technology choices for the upgraded detectors.

  9. Pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Passmore, M S

    2001-01-01

    positions on the detector. The loss of secondary electrons follows the profile of the detector and increases with higher energy ions. studies of the spatial resolution predict a value of 5.3 lp/mm. The image noise in photon counting systems is investigated theoretically and experimentally and is shown to be given by Poisson statistics. The rate capability of the LAD1 was measured to be 250 kHz per pixel. Theoretical and experimental studies of the difference in contrast for ideal charge integrating and photon counting imaging systems were carried out. It is shown that the contrast differs and that for the conventional definition (contrast = (background - signal)/background) the photon counting device will, in some cases, always give a better contrast than the integrating system. Simulations in MEDICI are combined with analytical calculations to investigate charge collection efficiencies (CCE) in semiconductor detectors. Different pixel sizes and biasing conditions are considered. The results show charge shari...

  10. Design of a Simple UV Double Beam Spectrophotometer Detector Based on a High Gain Trans Impedance Operational Amplifiers for RNA Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alakhib Ibrahim Abdelbary

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work a simple double beam spectrophotometer detector for the nucleic acid detection has been designed. The developed system contains photodiodes as a sensor, logarithamatic transimpedance amplifier circuit and filter circuit.The developed prototype design accuracy is validated by running a RNA sample and the result shows that our simplified developed setup detects the present of RNA in the sample.

  11. Monte Carlo simulation of gamma-ray interactions in an over-square high-purity germanium detector for in-vivo measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saizu, Mirela Angela

    2016-09-01

    The developments of high-purity germanium detectors match very well the requirements of the in-vivo human body measurements regarding the gamma energy ranges of the radionuclides intended to be measured, the shape of the extended radioactive sources, and the measurement geometries. The Whole Body Counter (WBC) from IFIN-HH is based on an “over-square” high-purity germanium detector (HPGe) to perform accurate measurements of the incorporated radionuclides emitting X and gamma rays in the energy range of 10 keV-1500 keV, under conditions of good shielding, suitable collimation, and calibration. As an alternative to the experimental efficiency calibration method consisting of using reference calibration sources with gamma energy lines that cover all the considered energy range, it is proposed to use the Monte Carlo method for the efficiency calibration of the WBC using the radiation transport code MCNP5. The HPGe detector was modelled and the gamma energy lines of 241Am, 57Co, 133Ba, 137Cs, 60Co, and 152Eu were simulated in order to obtain the virtual efficiency calibration curve of the WBC. The Monte Carlo method was validated by comparing the simulated results with the experimental measurements using point-like sources. For their optimum matching, the impact of the variation of the front dead layer thickness and of the detector photon absorbing layers materials on the HPGe detector efficiency was studied, and the detector’s model was refined. In order to perform the WBC efficiency calibration for realistic people monitoring, more numerical calculations were generated simulating extended sources of specific shape according to the standard man characteristics.

  12. Evaluation of detectors for blood bioanalysis in Lu-177 and I-131 therapies for bone marrow dosimetry; Avaliacao de detectores para bioanalise de sangue em terapias com Lu-177 and I-131 para dosimetria de medula ossea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degenhardt, Amilie Louize

    2016-10-01

    The measures traceability is mandatory for minimizing uncertainties in internal dosimetry for radiopharmaceuticals clinical studies and ensures the quality of the standard. Equipment should have resolution and efficiency compatible with radionuclides energies and, additionally, be able to quantify variations in human bodies' activities samples since the initial administration near the minimum residual activities. For testing three equipment (ionization chamber Capintec 25R, sodium iodine scintillator LTI Genesys Gamma-1 and high hyperpure germanium detector Canberra), they were prepared Lu-177 and I-131 radiation sources simulating patient's blood samples activities by adopting the following hypothesis: (1) initial activities according the Brazilian protocols; (2) blood volume in the whole body (5.3 L for adult men and 1.4 L for 5 years-old children); (3) effective half-lives (1.61 h and 42.9 h for Lu-177 bi-exponential adjustment and 15.7 h for I-131 mono-exponential adjustment); (4) sampling between 30 min and 168 h; (v) blood density adjustments. The standard sources were measured in the secondary standard ionization chamber Centronics IG11 at the Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes. The Capintec ionization chamber efficiencies ranged, respectively for I-131 and Lu-177, between (111.58±0.02)% and (102.27±0.01)% and HPGe semiconductor detector efficiencies ranged, respectively, between (89.40±0.03)% and (87.80±0.04)%. For the NaI detector, when the Lu-177 sources were positioned inside the detector the efficiencies ranged between (12.66±0.01)% and (11.54± 0.07)% and when the sources were positioned at 5 cm and 10 cm from the detector the efficiencies decreased to less than 5%. For I-131 sources positioned inside the detector, the efficiencies ranged between (29.76±0.21)% and (30.20±0.04)% and they decreased to less than 5% when they were positioned at 5 cm and 10 cm from the detector (deviation greater than 95

  13. Evaluation of radon measuring technique using passive detector activated carbon; Avaliacao da tecnica de medicao do radonio utilizando detector passivo com carvao ativado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Paulo Roberto Rocha; Lessa, Edmilson de Lima; Oliveira, Evaldo Paulo de, E-mail: epoliveira@aluno.ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Radioprotecao Ambiental e Ocupacional

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the efficiency of measuring the radioactive gas Radon ({sup 222} Rn) with passive detector activated carbon. Alpha Guard, exposure chamber, air sampler, default font Radio, calibrator flow, flow adjuster, ducts drivers: For this, various equipment to make the measurement system as were used. An assembly of such equipment, with specific sequence was used allowing for more efficient exposure of passive detectors Radon gas. Twenty samples were heated to remove moisture and then stored in desiccator until the experiment were made. The exhibition was held passive dosimeters being removed from the chamber, and one hour after, subjected to analysis by gamma spectrometry in germanium (HPGe) for an hour. Subsequently, other measurements were made at scheduled times and sequential for one hour. The results were presented in report form and spectra, measures and graphs generated by Alpha Guard were also extracted. Finally we calculated the efficiency of the passive meter activated carbon. (author)

  14. XMASS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Hiraide, K; Hirano, S; Kishimoto, Y; Kobayashi, K; Moriyama, S; Nakagawa, K; Nakahata, M; Nishiie, H; Ogawa, H; Oka, N; Sekiya, H; Shinozaki, A; Suzuki, Y; Takeda, A; Takachio, O; Ueshima, K; Umemoto, D; Yamashita, M; Yang, B S; Tasaka, S; Liu, J; Martens, K; Hosokawa, K; Miuchi, K; Murata, A; Onishi, Y; Otsuka, Y; Takeuchi, Y; Kim, Y H; Lee, K B; Lee, M K; Lee, J S; Fukuda, Y; Itow, Y; Nishitani, Y; Masuda, K; Takiya, H; Uchida, H; Kim, N Y; Kim, Y D; Kusaba, F; Motoki, D; Nishijima, K; Fujii, K; Murayama, I; Nakamura, S

    2013-01-01

    The XMASS project aims to detect dark matter, pp and $^{7}$Be solar neutrinos, and neutrinoless double beta decay using ultra pure liquid xenon. The first phase of the XMASS experiment searches for dark matter. In this paper, we describe the XMASS detector in detail, including its configuration, data acquisition equipment and calibration system.

  15. XMASS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, K. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Hieda, K. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Hiraide, K. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Hirano, S. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Kishimoto, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Moriyama, S. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Nakagawa, K. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Nakahata, M. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Nishiie, H. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Ogawa, H. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); and others

    2013-07-11

    The XMASS project aims to detect dark matter, pp and {sup 7}Be solar neutrinos, and neutrinoless double beta decay using ultra pure liquid xenon. The first phase of the XMASS experiment searches for dark matter. In this paper, we describe the XMASS detector in detail, including its configuration, data acquisition equipment and calibration system.

  16. New Micromegas detectors in the CAST experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aune, S. [DAPNIA, Centre d' etudes de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Braeuninger, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Dafni, T. [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas (Spain); Fanourakis, G. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, NCSR Demokritos, Athens (Greece); Ferrer Ribas, E. [DAPNIA, Centre d' etudes de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Galan Lacarra, J. [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas (Spain)], E-mail: javier.galan.lacarra@cern.ch; Geralis, T. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, NCSR Demokritos, Athens (Greece); Giomataris, I. [DAPNIA, Centre d' etudes de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Iguaz, F.; Irastorza, I.G. [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas (Spain); Kousouris, K. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, NCSR Demokritos, Athens (Greece); Morales, J. [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas (Spain); Mols, J.P. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, NCSR Demokritos, Athens (Greece); Papaevangelou, T. [DAPNIA, Centre d' etudes de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Pivovaroff, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore (United States); Ruz, J. [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas (Spain); Soufli, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore (United States); Tomas, A. [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas (Spain); Zachariadou, K. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, NCSR Demokritos, Athens (Greece)

    2009-06-01

    A low background Micromegas detector was operating at the sunrise side of the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) experiment during the previous data taking periods (2002-2006). This detector, constructed of low radioactivity materials, operated efficiently and achieved a background level, 5x10{sup -5}keV{sup -1}cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, in the 2-7 keV region. This performance was accomplished by exploiting the spatial and energy resolution of the detector as well as the time information contained in the pulse shape of the events. During the second phase of the experiment, the detector at the sunrise was replaced and upgraded by including a shielding. Moreover, the old time projection chamber (TPC) covering the sunset side of the experiment was replaced by two new Micromegas detectors. These detectors belong to the newest generation of Micromegas detectors: 'bulk' and 'microbulk'. Performances and advantages will be presented.

  17. Responsivity Calibration of Pyroelectric Terahertz Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Berry, Christopher W; Jarrahi, Mona

    2014-01-01

    There has been a significant advancement in terahertz radiation sources in the past decade, making milliwatt terahertz power levels accessible in both continuous-wave and pulsed operation. Such high-power terahertz radiation sources circumvent the need for cryogenic-cooled terahertz detectors such as semiconductor bolometers and necessitate the need for new types of calibrated, room-temperature terahertz detectors. Among various types of room-temperature terahertz detectors, pyroelectric detectors are one of the most widely used detectors, which can offer wide dynamic range, broad detection bandwidth, and high sensitivity levels. In this article, we describe the calibration process of a commercially available pyroelectric detector (Spectrum Detector, Inc, SPI-A-65 THz), which incorporates a 5 mm diameter LiTaO3 detector with an organic terahertz absorber coating.

  18. Semiconductor Detectors; Detectores de Semiconductores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortina, E.

    2007-07-01

    Particle detectors based on semiconductor materials are among the few devices used for particle detection that are available to the public at large. In fact we are surrounded by them in our daily lives: they are used in photoelectric cells for opening doors, in digital photographic and video camera, and in bar code readers at supermarket cash registers. (Author)

  19. Status and performance of the CDF Run II silicon detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, Tuula; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.

    2006-10-01

    The CDF silicon detector is one of the largest silicon detectors in operation. It has a total of 722,432 electronic channels, and it covers a sensor surface area of 6 m{sup 2}. The detector has been operating reliably for five years, and it has recorded 1.5 fb{sup -1} of data. This article discusses experiences of operating such a large, complex system as well as the longevity of the detector.

  20. Performance of Geant4 in simulating semiconductor particle detector response in the energy range below 1 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Soti, G.; Breitenfeldt, M.; Finlay, P.; Kraev, I.S.; Knecht, A.; Porobic, T.; Zákoucký, D.; Severijns, N.

    2013-01-01

    Geant4 simulations play a crucial role in the analysis and interpretation of experiments providing low energy precision tests of the Standard Model. This paper focuses on the accuracy of the description of the electron processes in the energy range between 100 and 1000 keV. The effect of the different simulation parameters and multiple scattering models on the backscattering coefficients is investigated. Simulations of the response of HPGe and passivated implanted planar Si detectors to \\beta{} particles are compared to experimental results. An overall good agreement is found between Geant4 simulations and experimental data.

  1. A computerized track detector reader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosinski, S.W. (Centralne Lab. Ochrony Radiologicznej, Warsaw (Poland))

    1993-01-01

    The structure and basic operation function of a computerized facility named Track Detection Reader is described. This facility is used for recording, counting and evaluation of defects made by [alpha]-particles in a solid state detector. It consists of a microscope equipped with the movable stage, a TV screen and PC-AT computer. The microscope stage is being controlled by a stepper motor. The TV screen enables surface visualization of the detector analyzed while the PC-AT computer is being used for digital analysis of the detector surface, according to the functions of the program. (author). 4 refs, 3 figs.

  2. The CDF Silicon Vertex Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkaczyk, S.; Carter, H.; Flaugher, B. [and others

    1993-09-01

    A silicon strip vertex detector was designed, constructed and commissioned at the CDF experiment at the Tevatron collider at Fermilab. The mechanical design of the detector, its cooling and monitoring are presented. The front end electronics employing a custom VLSI chip, the readout electronics and various components of the SVX system are described. The system performance and the experience with the operation of the detector in the radiation environment are discussed. The device has been taking colliding beams data since May of 1992, performing at its best design specifications and enhancing the physics program of CDF.

  3. Detector Control System for the AFP detector in ATLAS experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Banas, Elzbieta; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector project consists of two forward detectors located at 205 m and 217 m on either side of the ATLAS experiment. The aim is to measure the momenta and angles of diffractively scattered protons. In 2016, two detector stations on one side of the ATLAS interaction point were installed and commissioned. The detector infrastructure and necessary services were installed and are supervised by the Detector Control System (DCS), which is responsible for the coherent and safe operation of the detector. A large variety of used equipment represents a considerable challenge for the AFP DCS design. Industrial Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) product Siemens WinCCOA, together with the CERN Joint Control Project (JCOP) framework and standard industrial and custom developed server applications and protocols are used for reading, processing, monitoring and archiving of the detector parameters. Graphical user interfaces allow for overall detector operation and visualization of...

  4. The SELEX Phototube RICH Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Engelfried, J; Kilmer, J; Kozhevnikov, A P; Kubarovskii, V P; Molchanov, V V; Nemitkin, A V; Ramberg, E; Rud, V I; Stutte, L

    1999-01-01

    In this article, construction, operation, and performance of the RICH detector of Fermilab experiment 781 (SELEX) are described. The detector utilizes a matrix of 2848 phototubes for the photocathode to detect Cherenkov photons generated in a 10m Neon radiator. For the central region an N0 of 104/cm, corresponding to 13.6 hits on a beta=1 ring, was obtained. The ring radius resolution measured is 1.6%.

  5. The SELEX phototube RICH detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelfried, J.; Filimonov, I.; Kilmer, J.; Kozhevnikov, A.; Kubarovsky, V.; Molchanov, V.; Nemitkin, A.; Ramberg, E.; Rud, V.; Stutte, L

    1999-07-11

    In this article, construction, operation, and performance of the RICH detector of Fermilab experiment 781 (SELEX) are described. The detector utilizes a matrix of 2848 phototubes for the photocathode to detect Cherenkov photons generated in a 10 m neon radiator. For the central region an N{sub 0} of 104 cm{sup -1}, corresponding to 13.6 hits on a {beta}=1 ring, was obtained. The ring radius resolution measured is 1.6%. (author)

  6. The SELEX phototube RICH detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelfried, J.; Filimonov, I.; Kilmer, J.; Kozhevnikov, A.; Kubarovsky, V.; Molchanov, V.; Nemitkin, A.; Ramberg, E.; Rud, V.; Stutte, L.

    1999-07-01

    In this article, construction, operation, and performance of the RICH detector of Fermilab experiment 781 (SELEX) are described. The detector utilizes a matrix of 2848 phototubes for the photocathode to detect Cherenkov photons generated in a 10 m neon radiator. For the central region an N0 of 104 cm-1, corresponding to 13.6 hits on a β=1 ring, was obtained. The ring radius resolution measured is 1.6%.

  7. GEANT4 simulation of photo-peak efficiency of small high purity germanium detectors for nuclear power plant applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehman, Shakeel Ur; Mirza, Sikander M. [Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan); Mirza, Nasir M., E-mail: nmm@pieas.edu.p [Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan); Siddique, Muhammad Tariq [Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan)

    2011-01-15

    GEANT4 - based Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out for the determination of photo-peak efficiency of heavily shielded small high purity germanium detector (HPGe) used for monitoring radiation levels in nuclear power plants. The GEANT4 simulated values of HPGe detector efficiency for point as well as for disk sources, for two different values of collimator diameter, have been found in good agreement with the corresponding published results obtained by using the MCNP code. The work has been extended to study the effect of radial displacement of a source relative to a detector on photo-peak efficiency for both point and disk source, and at various values of {gamma}-ray energies. Also the effect of disk source radius on photo-peak efficiency has been studied. Besides the results of different available physics models in GEANT4 have also been compared. The computed values of efficiency for point as well as for disk sources using the Penelope and Livermore physics models have been found correspondingly consistent for various values of {gamma}-ray energies while some differences (e.g., Penelope model yields 6.3% higher values of photo-peak efficiency for E{gamma} = 1.332 MeV, 10 mm collimator diameter) have been observed in the corresponding valued obtained by using the Standard physics model.

  8. Analytical response function for planar Ge detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alvarez, Juan A.; Maidana, Nora L.; Vanin, Vito R.; Fernández-Varea, José M.

    2016-04-01

    We model the response function (RF) of planar HPGe x-ray spectrometers for photon energies between around 10 keV and 100 keV. The RF is based on the proposal of Seltzer [1981. Nucl. Instrum. Methods 188, 133-151] and takes into account the full-energy absorption in the Ge active volume, the escape of Ge Kα and Kβ x-rays and the escape of photons after one Compton interaction. The relativistic impulse approximation is employed instead of the Klein-Nishina formula to describe incoherent photon scattering in the Ge crystal. We also incorporate a simple model for the continuous component of the spectrum produced by the escape of photo-electrons from the active volume. In our calculations we include external interaction contributions to the RF: (i) the incoherent scattering effects caused by the detector's Be window and (ii) the spectrum produced by photo-electrons emitted in the Ge dead layer that reach the active volume. The analytical RF model is compared with pulse-height spectra simulated using the PENELOPE Monte Carlo code.

  9. The BABAR Detector

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2002-01-01

    BABAR, the detector for the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric e+e- B Factory operating at the upsilon 4S resonance, was designed to allow comprehensive studies of CP-violation in B-meson decays. Charged particle tracks are measured in a multi-layer silicon vertex tracker surrounded by a cylindrical wire drift chamber. Electromagentic showers from electrons and photons are detected in an array of CsI crystals located just inside the solenoidal coil of a superconducting magnet. Muons and neutral hadrons are identified by arrays of resistive plate chambers inserted into gaps in the steel flux return of the magnet. Charged hadrons are identified by dE/dx measurements in the tracking detectors and in a ring-imaging Cherenkov detector surrounding the drift chamber. The trigger, data acquisition and data-monitoring systems, VME- and network-based, are controlled by custom-designed online software. Details of the layout and performance of the detector components and their associated electronics and software are presented.

  10. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Paolucci

    2012-01-01

    The RPC system is operating with a very high uptime, an average chamber efficiency of about 95% and an average cluster size around 1.8. The average number of active channels is 97.7%. Eight chambers are disconnected and forty are working in single-gap mode due to high-voltage problems. The total luminosity lost due to RPCs in 2012 is 88.46 pb–1. One of the main goals of 2012 was to improve the stability of the endcap trigger that is strongly correlated to the performances of the detector, due to the 3-out-3 trigger logic. At beginning of 2011 the instability of the detector efficiency was about 10%. Detailed studies found that this was mainly due to the strong correlation between the performance of the detector and the atmospheric pressure (P). Figure XXY shows the linear correlation between the average cluster size of the endcap chamber versus P. This effect is expected for gaseous detectors and can be reduced by correcting the applied high-voltage working point (HVapp) according to the followi...

  11. The BABAR Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luth, Vera G

    2001-05-18

    BABAR, the detector for the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} B Factory operating at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance, was designed to allow comprehensive studies of CP-violation in B-meson decays. Charged particle tracks are measured in a multi-layer silicon vertex tracker surrounded by a cylindrical wire drift chamber. Electromagentic showers from electrons and photons are detected in an array of CsI crystals located just inside the solenoidal coil of a superconducting magnet. Muons and neutral hadrons are identified by arrays of resistive plate chambers inserted into gaps in the steel flux return of the magnet. Charged hadrons are identified by dE/dx measurements in the tracking detectors and in a ring-imaging Cherenkov detector surrounding the drift chamber. The trigger, data acquisition and data-monitoring systems, VME- and network-based, are controlled by custom-designed online software. Details of the layout and performance of the detector components and their associated electronics and software are presented.

  12. MICROMEGAS detectors in the CAST experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galan, J; Carmona, J; Dafni, T; Gomez, H; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Luzon, G; Morales, J; Rodriguez, A; Ruz, J; Tomas, A [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas, University of Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna, Zaragoza (Spain); Aune, S; Ribas, E Ferrer; Giomataris, I; Papaevangelou, T [IRFU, Centre d' etudes de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Fanourakis, G; Geralis, T; Kousouris, K; Mols, J P [Institute of Nuclear Physics, NCSR Demokritos, Athens (Greece); Vafeiadis, T, E-mail: Javier.Galan.Lacarra@cern.c [Nuclear Physics and Elementary Particle Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2010-01-15

    MICROMEGAS detectors have been running in the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) experiment since 2002. The detector, constructed of low radioactivity materials, operated efficiently exploiting its good spatial and energy resolution of the detector as well as the time information contained in the pulse shape of the events. Last year Microbulk detectors were installed in the experiment achieving very low background levels thanks to the improved performances of the detector as well as the upgraded shielding. The performance during 2008 data-taking and recent background studies will be presented.

  13. The Projects for Onboard Autonomy (PROBA2) Science Centre: Sun Watcher Using APS Detectors and Image Processing (SWAP) and Large-Yield Radiometer (LYRA) Science Operations and Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zender, J.; Berghmans, D.; Bloomfield, D. S.; Cabanas Parada, C.; Dammasch, I.; De Groof, A.; D'Huys, E.; Dominique, M.; Gallagher, P.; Giordanengo, B.; Higgins, P. A.; Hochedez, J.-F.; Yalim, M. S.; Nicula, B.; Pylyser, E.; Sanchez-Duarte, L.; Schwehm, G.; Seaton, D. B.; Stanger, A.; Stegen, K.; Willems, S.

    2013-08-01

    The PROBA2 Science Centre (P2SC) is a small-scale science operations centre supporting the Sun observation instruments onboard PROBA2: the EUV imager Sun Watcher using APS detectors and image Processing (SWAP) and Large-Yield Radiometer (LYRA). PROBA2 is one of ESA's small, low-cost Projects for Onboard Autonomy (PROBA) and part of ESA's In-Orbit Technology Demonstration Programme. The P2SC is hosted at the Royal Observatory of Belgium, co-located with both Principal Investigator teams. The P2SC tasks cover science planning, instrument commanding, instrument monitoring, data processing, support of outreach activities, and distribution of science data products. PROBA missions aim for a high degree of autonomy at mission and system level, including the science operations centre. The autonomy and flexibility of the P2SC is reached by a set of web-based interfaces allowing the operators as well as the instrument teams to monitor quasi-continuously the status of the operations, allowing a quick reaction to solar events. In addition, several new concepts are implemented at instrument, spacecraft, and ground-segment levels allowing a high degree of flexibility in the operations of the instruments. This article explains the key concepts of the P2SC, emphasising the automation and the flexibility achieved in the commanding as well as the data-processing chain.

  14. A precise method to determine the activity of a weak neutron source using a germanium detector

    CERN Document Server

    Duke, M J M; Krauss, C B; Mekarski, P; Sibley, L

    2015-01-01

    A standard high purity germanium detector (HPGe) was used to determine the neutron activity of a weak americium-beryllium (AmBe) neutron source. Gamma rays were created through 27Al(n,n'), 27Al(n,gamma) and 1H(n,gamma) reactions induced by the neutrons on aluminum and acrylic disks. A Monte Carlo simulation was developed to model the efficiency of the detector system. The activity of our neutron source was determined to be 305.6 +/- 4.9 n/s. The result is consistent for the different gamma rays and was verified using additional simulations and measurements of the 4483 keV gamma ray produced directly from the AmBe source.

  15. Radiation experience with the CDF silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husemann, Ulrich; /Rochester U.

    2005-11-01

    The silicon detectors of the CDF experiment at the Tevatron collider are operated in a harsh radiation environment. The lifetime of the silicon detectors is limited by radiation damage, and beam-related incidents are an additional risk. This article describes the impact of beam-related incidents on detector operation and the effects of radiation damage on electronics noise and the silicon sensors. From measurements of the depletion voltage as a function of the integrated luminosity, estimates of the silicon detector lifetime are derived.

  16. Radiation Hardening of Silicon Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Leroy, C; Glaser, M

    2002-01-01

    %RD48 %title\\\\ \\\\Silicon detectors will be widely used in experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider where high radiation levels will cause significant bulk damage. In addition to increased leakage current and charge collection losses worsening the signal to noise, the induced radiation damage changes the effective doping concentration and represents the limiting factor to long term operation of silicon detectors. The objectives are to develop radiation hard silicon detectors that can operate beyond the limits of the present devices and that ensure guaranteed operation for the whole lifetime of the LHC experimental programme. Radiation induced defect modelling and experimental results show that the silicon radiation hardness depends on the atomic impurities present in the initial monocrystalline material.\\\\ \\\\ Float zone (FZ) silicon materials with addition of oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, germanium and tin were produced as well as epitaxial silicon materials with epilayers up to 200 $\\mu$m thickness. Their im...

  17. The Tilecal/ATLAS detector control system

    CERN Document Server

    Tomasio Pina, João Antonio

    2004-01-01

    Tilecal is the barrel hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS detector that is presently being built at CERN to operate at the LHC accelerator. The main task of the Tilecal detector control system (DCS) is to enable the coherent and safe operation of the detector. All actions initiated by the operator and all errors, warnings, and alarms concerning the hardware of the detector are handled by DCS. The DCS has to continuously monitor all operational parameters, give warnings and alarms concerning the hardware of the detector. The DCS architecture consists of a distributed back-end (BE) system running on PC's and different front-end (FE) systems. The implementation of the BE will he achieved with a commercial supervisory control and data acquisition system (SCADA) and the FE instrumentation will consist on a wide variety of equipment. The connection between the FE and BE is provided by fieldbus or L

  18. Photosensitive Gaseous Detectors for Cryogenic Temperature Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Periale, L; Iacobaeus, C; Lund-Jensen, B; Picchi, P; Pietropaolo, F

    2007-01-01

    There are several proposals and projects today for building LXe Time Projection Chambers (TPCs) for dark matter search. An important element of these TPCs are the photomultipliers operating either inside LXe or in vapors above the liquid. We have recently demonstrated that photosensitive gaseous detectors (wire type and hole-type) can operate perfectly well until temperatures of LN2. In this paper results of systematic studies of operation of the photosensitive version of these detectors (combined with reflective or semi-transparent CsI photocathodes) in the temperature interval of 300-150 K are presented. In particular, it was demonstrated that both sealed and flushed by a gas detectors could operate at a quite stable fashion in a year/time scale. Obtained results, in particular the long-term stability of photosensitive gaseous detectors, strongly indicate that they can be cheap and simple alternatives to photomultipliers or avalanche solid-state detectors in LXe TPC applications.

  19. Active Pixel HgCdTe Detectors With Built-in Dark Current Reduction for Near-Room Temperature Operation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High sensitivity HgCdTe infrared arrays operating at 77K can now be tailored in a wide range of wavelengths from 1 to 14 microns. However, due to the cooling...

  20. Active Pixel HgCdTe Detectors With Built-in Dark Current Reduction for Near-Room Temperature Operation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High sensitivity HgCdTe infrared arrays operating at 77K can now be tailored in a wide range of wavelengths from 1 to14 um. However, the cooling requirements make...

  1. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Owens, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Although elemental semiconductors such as silicon and germanium are standard for energy dispersive spectroscopy in the laboratory, their use for an increasing range of applications is becoming marginalized by their physical limitations, namely the need for ancillary cooling, their modest stopping powers, and radiation intolerance. Compound semiconductors, on the other hand, encompass such a wide range of physical and electronic properties that they have become viable competitors in a number of applications. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors is a consolidated source of information on all aspects of the use of compound semiconductors for radiation detection and measurement. Serious Competitors to Germanium and Silicon Radiation Detectors Wide-gap compound semiconductors offer the ability to operate in a range of hostile thermal and radiation environments while still maintaining sub-keV spectral resolution at X-ray wavelengths. Narrow-gap materials offer the potential of exceeding the spectral resolutio...

  2. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G.Gomez

    Since September, the muon alignment system shifted from a mode of hardware installation and commissioning to operation and data taking. All three optical subsystems (Barrel, Endcap and Link alignment) have recorded data before, during and after CRAFT, at different magnetic fields and during ramps of the magnet. This first data taking experience has several interesting goals: •    study detector deformations and movements under the influence of the huge magnetic forces; •    study the stability of detector structures and of the alignment system over long periods, •    study geometry reproducibility at equal fields (specially at 0T and 3.8T); •    reconstruct B=0T geometry and compare to nominal/survey geometries; •    reconstruct B=3.8T geometry and provide DT and CSC alignment records for CMSSW. However, the main goal is to recons...

  3. Depth of interaction and bias voltage depenence of the spectral response in a pixellated CdTe detector operating in time-over-threshold mode subjected to monochromatic X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröjdh, E.; Fröjdh, C.; Gimenez, E. N.; Maneuski, D.; Marchal, J.; Norlin, B.; O'Shea, V.; Stewart, G.; Wilhelm, H.; Modh Zain, R.; Thungström, G.

    2012-03-01

    High stopping power is one of the most important figures of merit for X-ray detectors. CdTe is a promising material but suffers from: material defects, non-ideal charge transport and long range X-ray fluorescence. Those factors reduce the image quality and deteriorate spectral information. In this project we used a monochromatic pencil beam collimated through a 20μm pinhole to measure the detector spectral response in dependance on the depth of interaction. The sensor was a 1mm thick CdTe detector with a pixel pitch of 110μm, bump bonded to a Timepix readout chip operating in Time-Over-Threshold mode. The measurements were carried out at the Extreme Conditions beamline I15 of the Diamond Light Source. The beam was entering the sensor at an angle of \\texttildelow20 degrees to the surface and then passed through \\texttildelow25 pixels before leaving through the bottom of the sensor. The photon energy was tuned to 77keV giving a variation in the beam intensity of about three orders of magnitude along the beam path. Spectra in Time-over-Threshold (ToT) mode were recorded showing each individual interaction. The bias voltage was varied between -30V and -300V to investigate how the electric field affected the spectral information. For this setup it is worth noticing the large impact of fluorescence. At -300V the photo peak and escape peak are of similar height. For high bias voltages the spectra remains clear throughout the whole depth but for lower voltages as -50V, only the bottom part of the sensor carries spectral information. This is an effect of the low hole mobility and the longer range the electrons have to travel in a low field.

  4. High rate resistive plate chamber for LHC detector upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Y., E-mail: haddad@llr.in2p3.fr [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet (LLR), École Polytechnique, 91120 Palaiseau (France); Laktineh, I.; Grenier, G.; Lumb, N. [IPNL, Villeurbanne 69622 Lyon (France); Cauwenbergh, S. [Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium)

    2013-08-01

    The limitation of the detection rate of standard bakelite resistive plate chambers (RPCs) used as muon detectors in the LHC experiments has prevented the use of such detectors in the high rate regions in both CMS and ATLAS detectors. One alternative to these detectors is RPCs made with low resistivity glass plates (10{sup 10}Ωcm), a beam test at DESY has shown that such detectors can operate at few thousand Hz/cm{sup 2} with high efficiency (>90%)

  5. Superconducting single-photon detectors for integrated quantum optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahl, Oliver

    2016-01-29

    This thesis reports on the implementation and characterization of a fully integrated single-photon detector. Several detector circuits are realized and it is shown that the detectors exhibit supreme detection performance over a wide optical spectrum. The detectors' scalability is showcased by the parallel operation of multiple detectors within a single integrated circuit. These demonstrations are essential for future developments in integrated quantum optics.

  6. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Fernandez Bedoya and M. Dallavalle

    2010-01-01

    The DT system operation since the 2010 LHC start up is remarkably smooth.
 All parts of the system have behaved very satisfactorily in the last two months of operation with LHC pp collisions. Disconnected HV channels remain at the level of 0.1%, and the loss in detector acceptance because of failures in the readout and Trigger electronics is about 0.4%. The DT DCS-LHC handshake mechanism, which was strengthened after the short 2009 LHC run, operates without major problems. A problem arose with the opto-receivers of the trigger links connecting the detector to USC; the receivers would unlock from transmission for specific frequencies of the LHC lock, in particular during the LHC ramp. For relocking the TX and RX a “re-synch” command had to be issued. The source of the problem has been isolated and cured in the Opto-RX boards and now the system is stable. The Theta trigger chain also has been commissioned and put in operation. Several interventions on the system have been made, pro...

  7. Handheld ultrasound concealed weapons detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felber, Franklin S.; Wild, Norbert C.; Nunan, Scott C.; Breuner, Dennis; Doft, Frank

    1998-12-01

    A handheld, battery-operated prototype of a remove concealed weapons detector has been built and tested. The concealed weapons detector will enable law enforcement and security officers to detect metallic and nonmetallic weapons concealed beneath clothing remotely from beyond arm's length to about 20 feet. These detectors may be used to: (1) allow hands-off, stand-off frisking of suspects for metallic and nonmetallic weapons; and (2) search for metallic and nonmetallic weapons on cooperative subjects at courthouse entrances and other monitored security portals. We have demonstrated that we image weapons concealed under heavy clothing, not just detect them, at ranges up to 15 feet using the same ultrasound frequency (40 kHz) used by commercial rangefinders. The concealed weapons detector operates much as a rangefinder, but at higher peak fluxes and pulse repetition frequencies. The detector alerts the user to concealed weapons audibly and visibly by detecting ultrasound glints above a body/clothing baseline, and by compensating for changing range and attenuation. The detector locates concealed weapons within a 6-inch illuminated spot at 10 feet. The signal processor eliminates any signal from behind the target.

  8. Asymptotically thermal responses for smoothly switched detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Fewster, Christopher J; Louko, Jorma

    2015-01-01

    Thermal phenomena in quantum field theory can be detected with the aid of particle detectors coupled to quantum fields along stationary worldlines, by testing whether the response of such a detector satisfies the detailed balance version of the KMS condition at a constant temperature. This relation holds when the interaction between the field and the detector has infinite time duration. Operationally, however, detectors interact with fields for a finite amount of time, controlled by a switching function of compact support, and the KMS detailed balance condition cannot hold exactly for finite time interactions at arbitrarily large detector energy gap. In this large energy gap regime, we show that, for an adiabatically switched Rindler detector, the Unruh temperature emerges asymptotically after the detector and the field have interacted for a time that is polynomially long in the large energy. We comment on the significance of the adiabaticity assumption in this result.

  9. The E781 (SELEX) RICH detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelfried, J.

    1997-06-01

    First results from a new RICH detector, operating in an experiment currently taking data - Fermilab E781 (SELEX), are presented. The detector utilizes a matrix of 2848 phototubes for the photocathode. In a 650 GeV/c ?r- beam the number of photons detected is 14 per ring, giving a Figure of Merit No of 106 cm-`. The ring radius resolution obtained is 1.2 %. Results showing the particle identification ability of the detector are discussed.

  10. The E781 (SELEX) RICH detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelfried, J.; Kilmer, J.; Ramberg, E.; Stutte, L.; Kozhevnikov, A.; Kubarovsky, V.; Molchanov, V.; Filimonov, I.; Nemitkin, A.; Rud, V.

    1998-02-01

    First results from a new RICH detector, operating in an experiment currently taking data - Fermilab E781 (SELEX), are presented. The detector utilizes a matrix of 2848 phototubes for the photocathode. In a 650 GeV/c π- beam the number of photons detected is 14 per ring, giving a figure of merit N0 of 106 cm-1. The ring radius resolution obtained is 1.2%. Results showing the particle identification ability of the detector are discussed.

  11. Radiation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi P.

    2017-06-27

    Alpha particle detecting devices are disclosed that have a chamber that can hold a fluid in a tensioned metastable state. The chamber is tuned with a suitable fluid and tension such that alpha emitting materials such as radon and one or more of its decay products can be detected. The devices can be portable and can be placed in areas, such as rooms in dwellings or laboratories and used to measure radon in these areas, in situ and in real time. The disclosed detectors can detect radon at and below 4 pCi/L in air; also, at and below 4,000 pCi/L or 300 pCi/L in water.

  12. 高纯锗(HPGe)γ谱仪测定铀矿石中镭的方法研究%The Experiment Study on the Radium Measurment in Uranium ore with High Purity Germanium(HPGe) γSpectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛志伟; 高明明; 乔宁强; 王强; 朱晓贤

    2014-01-01

    为了改善由样品密度不同、厚度不同引起的测量误差,笔者采用压片法制样,然后密封于样品盒达到平衡,通过152 Eu对外界的电磁干扰进行内标校正,在高纯锗( HPGe)γ谱仪上测定铀矿石中镭的含量。测定结果的相对标准偏差( RSD/%)为2.43%,与射气法结果进行比较,相对误差在-5.31%~6.62%之间,方法的精密度和准确度均能满足实际生产需求,可操作性强,简便快速。%In order to reduce the measurement error caused by different sample thickness and density , the author uses compression method to get detection sample .The sample is sealed in a sample box to achieve balance , then we measure the radium content of uranium ore by using High purity germanium (HPGe) γspectrometer. The result is corrected by 152 Eu to avoid the electromagnetic disturbances .The relative standard deviation ( RSD%) of the determination results is 2.43%.Comparing with the emanation method results , the relative error are between -5.31%~6.62%.The method is able to meet the demands due to its advantages of easy operation and rapidness , the high precision and accuracy .

  13. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Dallavalle.

    The DT system is ready for the LHC start up. The status of detector hardware, control and safety, of the software for calibration and monitoring and of people has been reviewed at several meetings, starting with the CMS Action Matrix Review and with the Muon Barrel Workshop (October 5 to 7). The disconnected HV channels are at a level of about 0.1%. The loss in detector acceptance because of failures in the Read-Out and Trigger electronics is about 0.5%. The electronics failure rate has been lower this year: next year will tell us whether the rate has stabilised and hopefully will confirm that the number of spares is adequate for ten years operation. Although the detector safety control is very accurate and robust, incidents have happened. In particular the DT system suffered from a significant water leak, originated in the top part of YE+1, that generated HV trips in eighteen chambers going transversely down from the top sector in YB+2 to the bottom sector in YB-2. All chambers recovered and all t...

  14. The STAR PXL detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contin, G.

    2016-12-01

    The PiXeL detector (PXL) of the STAR experiment at RHIC is the first application of the state-of-the-art thin Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) technology in a collider environment. Designed to extend the STAR measurement capabilities in the heavy flavor domain, it took data in Au+Au collisions, p+p and p+Au collisions at 0√sNN=20 GeV at RHIC, during the period 2014-2016. The PXL detector is based on 50 μm-thin MAPS sensors with a pitch of 20.7 μm. Each sensor includes an array of nearly 1 million pixels, read out in rolling shutter mode in 185.6 μs. The 170 mW/cm2 power dissipation allows for air cooling and contributes to reduce the global material budget to 0.4% radiation length on the innermost layer. Experience and lessons learned from construction and operations will be presented in this paper. Detector performance and results from 2014 Au+Au data analysis, demonstrating the STAR capabilities of charm reconstruction, will be shown.

  15. The ATLAS Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Schlenker, S; Kersten, S; Hirschbuehl, D; Braun, H; Poblaguev, A; Oliveira Damazio, D; Talyshev, A; Zimmermann, S; Franz, S; Gutzwiller, O; Hartert, J; Mindur, B; Tsarouchas, CA; Caforio, D; Sbarra, C; Olszowska, J; Hajduk, Z; Banas, E; Wynne, B; Robichaud-Veronneau, A; Nemecek, S; Thompson, PD; Mandic, I; Deliyergiyev, M; Polini, A; Kovalenko, S; Khomutnikov, V; Filimonov, V; Bindi, M; Stanecka, E; Martin, T; Lantzsch, K; Hoffmann, D; Huber, J; Mountricha, E; Santos, HF; Ribeiro, G; Barillari, T; Habring, J; Arabidze, G; Boterenbrood, H; Hart, R; Marques Vinagre, F; Lafarguette, P; Tartarelli, GF; Nagai, K; D'Auria, S; Chekulaev, S; Phillips, P; Ertel, E; Brenner, R; Leontsinis, S; Mitrevski, J; Grassi, V; Karakostas, K; Iakovidis, G.; Marchese, F; Aielli, G

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is one of the multi-purpose experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), constructed to study elementary particle interactions in collisions of high-energy proton beams. Twelve different sub-detectors as well as the common experimental infrastructure are supervised by the Detector Control System (DCS). The DCS enables equipment supervision of all ATLAS sub-detectors by using a system of >130 server machines running the industrial SCADA product PVSS. This highly distributed system reads, processes and archives of the order of 106 operational parameters. Higher level control system layers allow for automatic control procedures, efficient error recognition and handling, and manage the communication with external systems such as the LHC. This contribution firstly describes the status of the ATLAS DCS and the experience gained during the LHC commissioning and the first physics data taking operation period. Secondly, the future evolution and maintenance constraints for the coming years an...

  16. Use of radiation detectors in remote monitoring for containment and surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupree, S.A.; Ross, M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bonino, A. [Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Lucero, R.; Hasimoto, Yu [PNC Oarai Engineering Center, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    Radiation detectors have been included in several remote monitoring field trial systems to date. The present study considers detectors at Embalse, Argentina, and Oarai, Japan. At Embalse four gamma detectors have been operating in the instrumentation tubes of spent fuel storage silos for up to three years. Except for minor fluctuations, three of the detectors have operated normally. One of the detectors appears never to have operated correctly. At Oarai two gamma detectors have been monitoring a spent-fuel transfer hatch for over 18 months. These detectors have operated normally throughout the period, although one shows occasional noise spikes.

  17. Instrumentation for multi-detector arrays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Bhowmik

    2001-07-01

    The new generation of detector arrays require complex instrumentation and data acquisition system to ensure increased reliability of operation, high degree of integration, software control and faster data handling capability. The main features of some of the existing multi-detector arrays like MSU 4 array, Gammasphere and Eurogam are summarized. The instrumentation for the proposed INGA array in India is discussed.

  18. The DELPHI detector at CERN's LEP collider

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    DELPHI (DEtector with Lepton, Photon and Hadron Identification), is a detector for e+e- physics, with special emphasis on powerful particle identification , three-dimensional information, high granularity and precise vertex determination. It is installed at LEP (Large Electron and Positron collider) at CERN where it has operated since 1989.

  19. Eco gases for future particle gas detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kjølbro, Jógvan Nikolaj

    2014-01-01

    Due to global regulations of non environmental refrigerants, some of the gas mixtures used in gas detectors at CERN has to be replaced. This report is a review that summarises and predicts some properties that are important when selecting new gases to operate in the gas detectors.

  20. CLIC Detector Power Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Gaddi, A

    2013-01-01

    An estimate for the CLIC detector power requirements is outlined starting from the available data on power consumptions of the four LHC experiments and considering the differences between a typical LHC Detector (CMS) and the CLIC baseline detector concept. In particular the impact of the power pulsing scheme for the CLIC Detector electronics on the overall detector consumption is considered. The document will be updated with the requirements of the sub-detector electronics once they are more defined.

  1. Pixel Vertex Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Wermes, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    Pixel vertex detectors are THE instrument of choice for the tracking of charged particles close to the interaction point at the LHC. Hybrid pixel detectors, in which sensor and read-out IC are separate entities, constitute the present state of the art in detector technology. Three of the LHC detectors use vertex detectors based on this technology. A development period of almost 10 years has resulted in pixel detector modules which can stand the extreme rate and timing requirements as well as ...

  2. Cherenkov Detector for Beam Quality Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Orfanelli, Stella

    2015-01-01

    A new detector to measure the machine induced background at larger radiihas been developed and installed in the CMS experiment at LHC. Itconsists of 40 modules, each comprising a quartz bar read out by aphotomultiplier. Since Cerenkov radiation is emitted in a forward conearound the charged particle trajectory, these detectors can distinguishthe directions of the machine induced background.The back-end consists of a microTCA readout with excellent time resolution.The performance of the detector modules measured in several test-beamcampaigns will be reported. The installation in CMS will be described, andfirst results about operating the detector during data taking will begiven.

  3. Advantages of gated silicon single photon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lunghi, T; Barreiro, C; Stucki, D; Sanguinetti, B; Zbinden, H

    2012-01-01

    We present a gated silicon single photon detector based on a commercially available avalanche photodiode. Our detector achieves a photon detection efficiency of 45\\pm5% at 808 nm with 2x 10^-6 dark count per ns at -30V of excess bias and -30{\\deg}C. We compare gated and free-running detectors and show that this mode of operation has significant advantages in two representative experimental scenarios: detecting a single photon either hidden in faint continuous light or after a strong pulse. We also explore, at different temperatures and incident light intensities, the "charge persistence" effect, whereby a detector clicks some time after having been illuminated.

  4. Status of the ATLAS pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Saavedra Aldo, F

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS pixel detector is currently being constructed and will be installed in 2006 to be ready for commissioning at the Large Hadron Collider. The complete pixel detector is composed of three concentric barrels and six disks that are populated by 1744 ATLAS Pixel modules. The main components of the pixel module are the readout electronics and the silicon sensor whose active region is instrumented with rectangular pixels. The module has been designed to be able to survive 10 years of operation within the ATLAS detector. A brief description of the pixel detector will be presented with results and problems encountered during the production stage.

  5. Portable humanitarian mine detector overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsopp, David J.; Dibsdall, Ian M.

    2002-08-01

    This paper will present an overview and early results of the QinetiQ Portable Humanitarian Mine Detector project, funded by the UK Treasury Capital Modernization Fund. The project aims to develop a prototype multi-sensor man-portable detector for humanitarian demining, drawing on experience from work for UK MoD. The project runs from July 2000 to October 2002. The project team have visited mined areas and worked closely with a number of demining organizations and a manufacturer of metal detectors used in the field. The primary objective is to reduce the number of false alarms resulting from metallic ground clutter. An analysis of such clutter items found during actual demining has shown a large proportion to be very small when compared with anti-personnel mines. The planned system integrates: a lightweight multi-element pseudo-random-code ground penetrating radar array; a pulse induction metal detector and a capacitive sensor. Data from the GPR array and metal detector are fused to provide a simple audio-visual operator interface. The capacitive sensor provides information to aid processing of the radar responses and to provide feedback to the operator of the position of the sensors above the ground. At the time of presentation the project should be in the final stages of build, prior to tests and field trials, which QinetiQ hope to carry out under the International Test and Evaluation Project (ITEP) banner.

  6. MUON DETECTOR

    CERN Multimedia

    F. Gasparini

    DT As announced in the previous Bulletin MU DT completed the installation of the vertical chambers of barrel wheels 0, +1 and +2. 242 DT and RPC stations are now installed in the negative barrel wheels. The missing 8 (4 in YB-1 and 4 in YB-2) chambers can be installed only after the lowering of the two wheels into the UX cavern, which is planned for the last quarter of the year. Cabling on the surface of the negative wheels was finished in May after some difficulties with RPC cables. The next step was to begin the final commissioning of the wheels with the final trigger and readout electronics. Priority was giv¬en to YB0 in order to check everything before the chambers were covered by cables and services of the inner detectors. Commissioning is not easy since it requires both activity on the central and positive wheels underground, as well as on the negative wheels still on the surface. The DT community is requested to commission the negative wheels on surface to cope with a possible lack of time a...

  7. Works of art investigation with silicon drift detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leutenegger, P. E-mail: phl@mpe.mpg.de; Longoni, A.; Fiorini, C.; Strueder, L.; Kemmer, J.; Lechner, P.; Sciuti, S.; Cesareo, R

    2000-01-11

    The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy analysis is a non-destructive technique widely used in archeometry to investigate the chemical composition of pigments, metal alloys and stones for restoration and historical investigation. The classical detection systems for archeometrical investigations utilize cryogenic detectors, like Si(Li) and HPGe, characterized by a satisfactory energy resolution (of the order of 140 eV FWHM at 6 keV). However, the requirements of liquid N{sub 2} drastically limit the portability of such systems, limiting the possibility of making measurements 'on the field'. Recently new silicon PIN diodes Peltier cooled were introduced, allowing the construction of portable instrumentation. However, their energy resolution (of the order of 250 eV FWHM at 6 keV) results in some cases unsatisfactory (for instance in the identification of light elements). Both the requirements of portability and good energy resolution are fulfilled by the silicon drift detector (SDD). The SDD, cooled by a Peltier element, can reach resolutions better than 150 eV FWHM at 6 keV. These features make the device ideal for portable high resolution XRF spectrometers. A portable XRF spectrometer was realized at the research laboratories of Politecnico di Milano, and used for investigation on different kinds of works of art. Experimental results obtained in analysis of paintings of different ages and of metal alloys performed directly 'on the field' are summarized.

  8. MUON DETECTORS: CSC

    CERN Multimedia

    Richard Breedon

    Following the opening of the CMS detector, commissioning of the cathode strip chamber (CSC) system resumed in earnest. Some on-chamber electronics problems could be fixed on the positive endcap when each station became briefly accessible as the steel yokes were peeled off. There was no opportunity to work on the negative endcap chambers during opening; this had to wait instead until the yokes were again separated and the stations accessible during closing. In March, regular detector-operating shifts were resumed every weekday evening during which Local Runs were taken using cosmic rays to monitor and validate repairs and improvements that had taken place during the day. Since April, the CSC system has been collecting cosmic data under shift supervision 24 hours a day on weekdays, and 24/7 operation began in early June. The CSC system arranged shifts for continuous running in the entire first half of 2009. One reward of this effort is that every chamber of the CSC system is alive and recording events. There...

  9. MUON DETECTORS: CSC

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Hauser

    2011-01-01

    The earliest collision data in 2011 already show that the CSC detector performance is very similar to that seen in 2010. That is discussed in the DPG write-up elsewhere in this Bulletin. This report focuses on a few operational developments, the ME1/1 electronics replacement project, and the preparations at CERN for building the fourth station of CSC chambers ME4/2. During the 2010 LHC run, the CSC detector ran smoothly for the most part and yielded muon triggers and data of excellent quality. Moreover, no major operational problems were found that needed to be fixed during the Extended Technical Stop. Several improvements to software and configuration were however made. One such improvement is the automation of recovery from chamber high-voltage trips. The algorithm, defined by chamber experts, uses the so-called "Expert System" to analyse the trip signals sent from DCS and, based on the frequency and the timing of the signals, respond appropriately. This will make the central DCS shifters...

  10. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Iaselli

    During the last 3 months the RPC group has made impressive improvements in the refinement of the operation tools and understanding of the detector. The full barrel and part of the plus end cap participated systematically to global runs producing millions of trigger on cosmics. The main monitoring tools were robust and efficient in controlling the detector and in diagnosis of problems. After the refinement of the synchronization procedure, detailed studies of the chamber performances, as a function of high voltage and front-end threshold, were pursued. In parallel, new tools for the prompt analysis were developed which have enabled a fast check of the data at the CMS Centre. This effort has been very valuable since it has helped in discovering many minor bugs in the reconstruction software and database which are now being fixed. Unfortunately, a large part of the RE2 station has developed increasing operational current. Some preliminary investigation leads to the conclusion that the serial gas circulation e...

  11. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Iaselli.

    Substantial progress has been made on the RPC system resulting in a high standard of operation. Impressive improvements have been made in the online software and DCS PVSS protocols that ensure robustness of the configuration phase and reliability of the detector monitoring tasks. In parallel, an important upgrade of CCU ring connectivity was pursued to avoid noise pick-up and consequent  data transmission errors during operation with magnetic field. While the barrel part is already well synchronized thanks to the long cosmics runs, some refinements are still required on the forward part. The "beam splashes" have been useful to cross check  the existing delay constants, but further efforts will be made as soon as a substantial sample of beam-halo events is available. Progress has been made on early detector performance studies. The RPC DQM tool is being extensively used and minor bugs have been found. More plots have been added and more people have been tr...

  12. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Document Server

    Marco Dallavalle

    2012-01-01

      Although the year 2012 is the third year without access to the chambers and the Front-End electronics, the fraction of good channels is still very high at 99.1% thanks also to the constant care provided by the on-site operation team. The downtime caused to CMS as a consequence of DT failures is to-date <2%. The intervention on the LV power supplies, which required a large number of CAEN modules (137 A3050, 13 A3100, and 3 MAO) to be removed from the detector, reworked and tested during this Year-End Technical Stop, can now, after a few months of stable operation of the LV, be declared to have solved once-and-for-all the persistent problem with the overheating LV Anderson connectors. Another piece of very good news is that measurements of the noise from single-hit rate outside the drift-time box as a function of the LHC luminosity show that the noise rate and distribution are consistent with expectations of the simulations in the Muon TDR, which have guided the detector design and constru...

  13. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Z. Szillasi and G. Gomez.

    2013-01-01

    When CMS is opened up, major components of the Link and Barrel Alignment systems will be removed. This operation, besides allowing for maintenance of the detector underneath, is needed for making interventions that will reinforce the alignment measurements and make the operation of the alignment system more reliable. For that purpose and also for their general maintenance and recalibration, the alignment components will be transferred to the Alignment Lab situated in the ISR area. For the track-based alignment, attention is focused on the determination of systematic uncertainties, which have become dominant, since now there is a large statistics of muon tracks. This will allow for an improved Monte Carlo misalignment scenario and updated alignment position errors, crucial for high-momentum muon analysis such as Z′ searches.

  14. Scintillation detectors of Alborz-I experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezeshkian, Yousef [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O.Box 11155-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alborz Observatory, Sharif University of Technology, P.O.Box 11155-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bahmanabadi, Mahmud, E-mail: bahmanabadi@sharif.edu [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O.Box 11155-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alborz Observatory, Sharif University of Technology, P.O.Box 11155-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abbasian Motlagh, Mehdi; Rezaie, Masume [Alborz Observatory, Sharif University of Technology, P.O.Box 11155-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-11

    A new air shower experiment of the Alborz Observatory, Alborz-I, located at the Sharif University of Technology, Iran, will be constructed in near future. An area of about 30×40 m{sup 2} will be covered by 20 plastic scintillation detectors (each with an area of 50×50 cm{sup 2}). A series of experiments have been performed to optimize the height of light enclosures of the detectors for this array and the results have been compared to an extended code simulation of these detectors. Operational parameters of the detector obtained by this code are cross checked by the Geant4 simulation. There is a good agreement between the extended-code and Geant4 simulations. We also present further discussions on the detector characteristics, which can be applicable for all scintillation detectors with a similar configuration.

  15. Scintillation detectors of Alborz-I experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Pezeshkian, Yousef; Motlagh, Mehdi Abbasian; Rezaie, Masoume

    2014-01-01

    A new air shower experiment of the Alborz Observatory, Alborz-I, located at the Sharif University of Technology, Iran, will be constructed in near future. An area of about 30$\\times$40 m$^{2}$ will be covered by 20 plastic scintillation detectors (each with an area of 50$\\times$50 cm$^{2}$). A series of experiments have been performed to optimize the height of light enclosures of the detectors for this array and the results have been compared to an extended code simulation of these detectors. Operational parameters of the detector obtained by this code are cross checked by Geant4 simulation. There is a good agreement between extended-code and Geant4 simulations. We also present further discussions on the detector characteristics, which can be applicable for all scintillation detectors with a similar configuration.

  16. TOKM hardware operation manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menlove, H.O.; Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Bosler, G.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Abedin-Zadeh, R.; Syed-Azmi, B. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramerstrasse, Vienna (Austria)

    1995-08-01

    This manual describes the detector design features, performance, and operating characteristics of the Tokai-1 spent fuel monitor. The system includes a pair of monitors-one for the primary (normal) fuel transfer chute and one for the by-pass fuel transfer chute. Each monitor contains four independent detector tubes to provide direction of travel and redundancy. There are two ion chambers and two {sup 3}He tubes inside each detector package. All of the detectors are used to monitor the presence of spent-fuel gamma rays as the fuel rods pass alongside the detector package. Gamma-ray and neutron detector (GRAND) electronics supply power to the ion chambers and {sup 3}He tubes, and the data is collected in the GRAND and the Kontron computer. The system is designed to operate unattended with data pickup by the inspectors on a 90-day period. This manual gives the performance and calibration parameters.

  17. Single photon detector design features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, Sergey V.; Kurochkin, Vladimir L.; Kurochkin, Yury V.

    2016-12-01

    In the report are discussed the laboratory test results of SPAD detectors with InGaAs / InP avalanche photodiodes, operating in Geiger mode. Device operating in synchronous mode with the dead timer setting for proper working conditions of photodiodes. The report materials will showing the functional block diagram of the detector, real operating signals in the receiver path and clock circuits and main results of measurements. The input signal of the synchronous detector is the clock, which determines the time positions of expected photons arrival. Increasing the clock speed 1-300 MHz or getting more time positions of the time grid, we provide increased capacity for time position code of signals, when QKD information transmitted over the nets. At the same time, the maximum attainable speed of photon reception is limited by diode dead time. Diode quantum noise are minimized by inclusion of a special time interval - dead time 0.1-10 usec, after each received and registered a photon. The lowest attainable value of the dead time is determined as a compromise between transients in electrical circuits, passive avalanche «quenching» circuit and thermal transients cooling crystal diode, after each avalanche pass though photodiode. Achievable time and speed parameters are discussed with specific examples of detectors.

  18. Performance of the fluorescence detectors of the pierre auger observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellido, Jose A.; /Adelaide U.

    2005-08-01

    Fluorescence detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory have been operating in a stable manner since January 2004. After a brief review of the physical characteristics of the detectors, the associated atmospheric monitoring, the calibration infrastructure and the detector aperture, we will describe the steps required for the reconstruction of fluorescence event data, with emphasis on the shower profile parameters and primary energy.

  19. First observation of Cherenkov ring images using hybrid photon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, E.; Wilkinson, G. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Div. Particle Physics Experiments; Barber, G.; Duane, A.; John, M.; Miller, D.G.; Websdale, D. [Imperial College of Science Technology and Medicine, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Bibby, J.H.; Giles, R.; Harnew, N.; Smale, N. [University of Oxford, Department of Nuclear Physics, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Brook, N.H.; Halley, A.W.; O`Shea, V. [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); French, M. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Gibson, V.; Wotton, S.A. [University of Cambridge, Cavendish Laboratory, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Schomaker, R. [Delft Electronic Products BV, 9300 AB Roden (Netherlands)

    1998-07-11

    A ring-imaging Cherenkov detector, equipped with hybrid photon detectors, has been operated in a charged-particle beam. Focussed ring images from various particle types were detected using silica aerogel, air and C{sub 4}F{sub 10} gas radiators. The detector, a prototype for the CERN LHC-B experiment, is described and first observations are reported. (orig.)

  20. Studies on activation in the ATLAS cavern with MPX detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, Benedikt; Sopczak, Andre; Biskup, Bartolomej; Jakubek, Jan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Solc, Jaroslav; Sopko, Vit; Suk, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Vykydal, Zdenek; Benes, Petr [IEAP CTU Prague (Czech Republic); Asbah, Nedaa; Leroy, Claude; Soueid, Paul [Universite de Montreal (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The ATLAS-MPX detectors are based on Medipix2 silicon devices designed by CERN for the detection of different types of radiation. These detectors are successfully operating in the ATLAS detector at 16 positions and collect data independent of the ATLAS data-recording chain. Their data was used to study the activation of the surrounding material and the ATLAS-MPX detectors itself during and after collisions. As the detectors also offer the possibility to distinguish between different types of radiation, an attempt was made to estimate the corresponding dose rates at different locations in the ATLAS detector and in the cavern. First results are presented.

  1. FOUR PI CALIBRATION AND MODELING OF A BARE GERMANIUM DETECTOR IN A CYLINDRICAL FIELD SOURCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewberry, R.; Young, J.

    2011-04-29

    In reference 1 the authors described {gamma}-ray holdup assay of a Mossbauer spectroscopy instrument where they utilized two axial symmetric cylindrical shell acquisitions and two disk source acquisitions to determine Am-241 and Np-237 contamination. The measured contents of the two species were determined using a general detector efficiency calibration taken from a 12-inch point source.2 The authors corrected the raw spectra for container absorption as well as for geometry corrections to transform the calibration curve to the applicable axial symmetric cylindrical source - and disk source - of contamination. The authors derived the geometry corrections with exact calculus that are shown in equations (1) and (2) of our Experimental section. A cylindrical shell (oven source) acquisition configuration is described in reference 3, where the authors disclosed this configuration to gain improved sensitivity for holdup measure of U-235 in a ten-chamber oven. The oven was a piece of process equipment used in the Savannah River Plant M-Area Uranium Fuel Fabrication plant for which a U-235 holdup measurement was necessary for its decontamination and decommissioning in 2003.4 In reference 4 the authors calibrated a bare NaI detector for these U-235 holdup measurements. In references 5 and 6 the authors calibrated a bare HpGe detector in a cylindrical shell configuration for improved sensitivity measurements of U-235 in other M-Area process equipment. Sensitivity was vastly improved compared to a close field view of the sample, with detection efficiency of greater than 1% for the 185.7-keV {gamma}-ray from U-235. In none of references 3 - 7 did the authors resolve the exact calculus descriptions of the acquisition configurations. Only the empirical efficiency for detection of the 185.7-keV photon from U-235 decay was obtained. Not until the 2010 paper of reference 1 did the authors derive a good theoretical description of the flux of photons onto the front face of a detector

  2. Development of large-area CZT detector systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvvetli, Irfan; Budtz-Joergensen, Carl C.; Westergaard, Niels J.; Jonasson, Per; van Pamelen, Mike A.; Reglero, Victor; Eyles, Christopher J.; Neubert, Torsten

    1999-10-01

    DSRI has initiated a development program of CZT x-ray and gamma ray detectors employing strip readout techniques. A dramatic improvement of the energy response was found operating the detectors as so-called drift detectors. For the electronic readout, modern ASIC chips were investigated. Modular design and the low power electronics will make large area detectors using the drift strip method feasible. The performance of a prototype CZT system will be presented and discussed.

  3. Design and Implementation of the ATLAS Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Boterenbrood, H; Cook, J; Filimonov, V; Hallgren, B I; Heubers, W P J; Khomoutnikov, V; Ryabov, Yu; Varela, F

    2004-01-01

    The overall dimensions of the ATLAS experiment and its harsh environment, due to radiation and magnetic field, represent new challenges for the implementation of the Detector Control System. It supervises all hardware of the ATLAS detector, monitors the infrastructure of the experiment, and provides information exchange with the LHC accelerator. The system must allow for the operation of the different ATLAS sub-detectors in stand-alone mode, as required for calibration and debugging, as well as the coherent and integrated operation of all sub-detectors for physics data taking. For this reason, the Detector Control System is logically arranged to map the hierarchical organization of the ATLAS detector. Special requirements are placed onto the ATLAS Detector Control System because of the large number of distributed I/O channels and of the inaccessibility of the equipment during operation. Standardization is a crucial issue for the design and implementation of the control system because of the large variety of e...

  4. 18F half-life measurement using a high-purity germanium detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jubong; Lee, K B; Park, T S; Lee, J M; Oh, P J; Lee, S H; Kang, Y S; Ahn, J K

    2012-11-01

    The half-life of (18)F has been measured using HPGe detectors with a (137)Cs reference source. The counting ratio of 511 keV γ-rays from (18)F to 622 keV γ-rays from (137)Cs was fitted for the half-life with a weighted least-square method. Uncertainties due to the systematic effects arising from the measurement of a high activity (18)F source were studied in detail. The half-life of (18)F was found to be (109.72±0.19) min. The result is in a good agreement with the recommended value of (109.728±0.019) min evaluated at the Laborotaire National Henri Becquerel (LNHB).

  5. Amorphous Silicon Position Detectors for the Link Alignment System of the CMS Detector: Users Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon, A.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F. J.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Arbol, P.; Scodellaro, L.; Vila, I.; Virto, A. L.; Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M. I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J. C.; Yuste, C.

    2007-07-01

    We present the general characteristics, calibration procedures and measured performance of the Amorphous Silicon Position Detectors installed in the Link Alignment System of the CMS Detector for laser beam detection and reconstruction and give the Data Base to be used as a Handbook during CMS operation. (Author) 10 refs.

  6. The next detectors for gravitational wave astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, David; Ju, Li; Zhao, ChunNong; Wen, LinQing; Miao, HaiXing; Cai, RongGen; Gao, JiangRui; Lin, XueChun; Liu, Dong; Wu, Ling-An; Zhu, ZongHong; Hammond, Giles; Paik, Ho Jung; Fafone, Viviana; Rocchi, Alessio; Blair, Carl; Ma, YiQiu; Qin, JiaYi; Page, Michael

    2015-12-01

    This paper focuses on the next detectors for gravitational wave astronomy which will be required after the current ground based detectors have completed their initial observations, and probably achieved the first direct detection of gravitational waves. The next detectors will need to have greater sensitivity, while also enabling the world array of detectors to have improved angular resolution to allow localisation of signal sources. Sect. 1 of this paper begins by reviewing proposals for the next ground based detectors, and presents an analysis of the sensitivity of an 8 km armlength detector, which is proposed as a safe and cost-effective means to attain a 4-fold improvement in sensitivity. The scientific benefits of creating a pair of such detectors in China and Australia is emphasised. Sect. 2 of this paper discusses the high performance suspension systems for test masses that will be an essential component for future detectors, while sect. 3 discusses solutions to the problem of Newtonian noise which arise from fluctuations in gravity gradient forces acting on test masses. Such gravitational perturbations cannot be shielded, and set limits to low frequency sensitivity unless measured and suppressed. Sects. 4 and 5 address critical operational technologies that will be ongoing issues in future detectors. Sect. 4 addresses the design of thermal compensation systems needed in all high optical power interferometers operating at room temperature. Parametric instability control is addressed in sect. 5. Only recently proven to occur in Advanced LIGO, parametric instability phenomenon brings both risks and opportunities for future detectors. The path to future enhancements of detectors will come from quantum measurement technologies. Sect. 6 focuses on the use of optomechanical devices for obtaining enhanced sensitivity, while sect. 7 reviews a range of quantum measurement options.

  7. Search for 2νββ excited state transitions and HPGe characterization for surface events in GERDA phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, Bjoern

    2016-03-01

    The search for the neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay is one of the most active fields in modern particle physics. This process is not allowed within the Standard Model and its observation would imply lepton number violation and would lead to the Majorana nature of neutrinos. The experimentally observed quantity is the half-life of the decay, which can be connected to the effective Majorana neutrino mass via nuclear matrix elements. The latter can only be determined theoretically and are currently affected by large uncertainties. To reduce these uncertainties one can investigate the well established two-neutrino double beta (2νββ) decay into the ground and excited states of the daughter isotope. These similar processes are allowed within the Standard Model. In this dissertation, the search for 2νββ decays into excited states is performed in {sup 110}Pd, {sup 102}Pd and {sup 76}Ge. Three gamma spectroscopy setups at the Felsenkeller (Germany), HADES (Belgium) and LNGS (Italy) underground laboratories are used to search for the transitions in {sup 110}Pd and {sup 102}Pd. No signal is observed leading to lower half-live bounds (90% C.I.) of 2.9 . 10{sup 20} yr, 3.9 . 10{sup 20} yr and 2.9 . 10{sup 20} yr for the 0/2νββ 2{sup +}{sub 1}, 0{sup +}{sub 1} and 2{sup +}{sub 2} transitions in {sup 110}Pd and 7.9 . 10{sup 18} yr, 9.2 . 10{sup 18} yr and 1.5 . 10{sup 19} yr for the 0/2νββ 2{sup +}{sub 1}, 0{sup +}{sub 1} and 2{sup +}{sub 2} transitions in {sup 102}Pd, respectively. This is a factor of 1.3 to 3 improvement compared to previous limits. The data of Phase I (Nov 2011 - May 2013) of the 0νββ decay experiment GERDA at LNGS is used to search for excited state transitions in {sup 76}Ge. The analysis is based on coincidences between two detectors and finds no signal. Lower half-life limits (90 % C.L.) of 1.6.10{sup 23} yr, 3.7.10{sup 23} yr and 2.3.10{sup 23} yr are obtained for the 2νββ 2{sup +}{sub 1}, 0{sup +}{sub 1} and 2{sup +}{sub 2

  8. Background intercomparison with escape-suppressed germanium detectors in underground mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szuecs, Tamas; Bemmerer, Daniel [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    A key requirement for underground nuclear astrophysics experiments is the very low background level in germanium detectors underground. The reference for these purposes is the world's so far only underground accelerator laboratory for nuclear astrophysics, LUNA. LUNA is located deep underground in the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, shielded from cosmic rays by 1400 m of rock. The background at LUNA was studied in detail using an escape-suppressed Clover-type HPGe detector. Exactly the same detector was subsequently transported to the Felsenkeller underground laboratory in Dresden, shielded by 45 m of rock, and the background was shown to be only a factor of three higher than at LUNA when comparing the escape-suppressed spectra, with interesting consequences for underground nuclear astrophysics. As the next step of a systematic study of the effects of a combination of active and passive shielding on the cosmic ray induced background, this detector is now being brought to the ''Reiche Zeche'' mine in Freiberg/Sachsen, shielded by 150 m of rock. The data from the Freiberg measurement are shown and discussed.

  9. ATLAS Detector Upgrade Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobre, M.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    After the successful operation at the centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010-2012, the LHC was ramped up and successfully took data at the centre-of-mass energies of 13 TeV in 2015 and 2016. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, which will deliver of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity levelling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb ‑1 expected for LHC running by the end of 2018 to 3000 fb ‑1 by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new all-silicon tracker, significant upgrades of the calorimeter and muon systems, as well as improved triggers and data acquisition. ATLAS is also examining potential benefits of extensions to larger pseudorapidity, particularly in tracking and muon systems. This report summarizes various improvements to the ATLAS detector required to cope with the anticipated evolution of the LHC luminosity during this decade and the next. A brief overview is also given on physics prospects with a pp centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV.

  10. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    Marco Dallavalle

    2013-01-01

    The DT group is undertaking substantial work both for detector maintenance and for detec-tor upgrade. Maintenance interventions on chambers and minicrates require close collaboration between DT, RPC and HO, and are difficult because they depend on the removal of thermal shields and cables on the front and rear of the chambers in order to gain access. The tasks are particularly critical on the central wheel due to the presence of fixed services. Several interventions on the chambers require extraction of the DT+RPC package: a delicate operation due to the very limited space for handling the big chambers, and the most dangerous part of the DT maintenance campaign. The interventions started in July 2013 and will go on until spring 2014. So far out of the 16 chambers with HV problems, 13 have been already repaired, with a global yield of 217 recovered channels. Most of the observed problems were due to displacement of impurities inside the gaseous volume. For the minicrates and FE, repairs occurred on 22 chambe...

  11. The TALE Fluorescence Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jui, Charles

    2009-05-01

    The TALE fluorescence detectors are designed to extend the threshold for fluorescence observation by TA down to 3x10^16 eV. It will comprise two main components. The first is a set of 24 telescopes working in stereo, with an existing TA FD station at ˜6 km separation. These will cover between 3-31 degrees in elevation and have azimuthal coverage maximizing the stereo aperture in the 10^18-10^19 eV energy range. The second component consists of 15 telescopes equipped with 4m diameter mirrors and covering the sky between 31 and 73 degrees in elevation. The larger mirror size pushes the physics threshold down to 3x10^16 eV, and provides view of the shower maximum for the lower energy events. The Tower detector will cover one quadrant in azimuth and operate in hybrid mode with the TALE infill array to provide redundant composition measurements from both shower maximum information and muon-to-electron ratio.

  12. COMMISSIONING AND DETECTOR PERFORMANCE GROUPS

    CERN Multimedia

    T. Camporesi

    The major progress made during the last months has been in the consolidation of services for the +endcaps and three barrel wheels (YB+2, YB+1 and YB0): all subdetectors have now final power connections (including Detector Safety protection), the gas systems have been commissioned for all gas detectors (the recirculation is not yet activated for the RPC though) and detector cooling has also been commissioned. Their integration with final services is the necessary condition for being able to operate larger fractions the detector. Recent weeks have seen full HCAL, more than 50% of EB and full wheels of DTs and CSC being operated using final services. This has not yet translated into major progress of global integration due to major interruptions of central services, which have not allowed the necessary debugging and commissioning time to all the subdetec¬tors and central activities like DAQ and trigger. Moreover the running in of the final central services has introduced instabilities related to the co...

  13. Physics and Detectors at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    CLIC represents an attractive option for the future particle physics programme at the energy frontier. CLIC is a proposed electron-positron linear collider, based on a novel two beam accelerating structure, with the capability of operating at centre-of-mass energies of up to 3 TeV. The Physics and Detector volume of the CLIC conceptual design report was recently published as a CERN yellow report. In this seminar, I will review the conclusions of this report, focussing on four main areas. Firstly, I will give an overview of the physics potential at CLIC, and will place this in the context of a possible scenario for the staged construction of the machine. Secondly, I will discuss the challenges for a detector operating in the CLIC machine environment. I will then present detailed studies of possible detector concepts, based on high granularity particle flow calorimetry, which demonstrate that the required detector performance goals at CLIC can be met. Finally, I will highlight the main issues for the future R&a...

  14. Sputtered film thermistor IR detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliga, Shankar B.; Rost, Martin R.; Doctor, Alan P.

    1994-07-01

    The thermistor infrared detector or bolometer is the detector of choice in many classical remote sensing applications such as horizon sensing, noncontact thermometry, and industrial applications. In recent years, the authors have developed a thin film process where the thermistor material is deposited from a target directly onto the substrate. This is an advance over the labor intensive ceramic technology, where sintered flakes of the thermistor are bonded to the substrate. The thin film technique permits a variety of device constructions and configurations. Detectors fabricated on heat-sunk ceramic substrates can withstand high operating temperatures and large incident optical power, in both pulsed and CW laser measurements. For dc or low frequency measurements, the films can be deposited onto a thermally isolated membrane with applications in motion sensing, gas detection, and temperature measurement. Utilizing advances in micromachining a 2D array of thermally isolated microbolometer sensors, integrated onto a silicon wafer containing readout circuitry may be achieved. This paper describes the construction of the sputtered film thermistor detectors, their operation, and applications.

  15. GADRAS Detector Response Function.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Dean J.; Harding, Lee; Thoreson, Gregory G; Horne, Steven M.

    2014-11-01

    The Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) applies a Detector Response Function (DRF) to compute the output of gamma-ray and neutron detectors when they are exposed to radiation sources. The DRF is fundamental to the ability to perform forward calculations (i.e., computation of the response of a detector to a known source), as well as the ability to analyze spectra to deduce the types and quantities of radioactive material to which the detectors are exposed. This document describes how gamma-ray spectra are computed and the significance of response function parameters that define characteristics of particular detectors.

  16. Study of Detection Efficiency of 222 Rn Samples Obtained by Active Activated Charcoal by HPGe γSpectrometry%HPGeγ谱仪对主动式活性炭法中222Rn样品的探测效率研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洋; 刘春雨; 尹国辉; 李安; 申茂泉; 徐明; 邓培君; 成智威

    2014-01-01

    In active adsorption of activated charcoal ,it is uneven distribution of 222 Rn in the collector in different adsorption time ,w hich makes impact on efficiency calibration by HPGe γ spectrometry . By the adsorption experiment of active double-membrane activated charcoal in the standard radon chamber , the relationship between detection efficiencies of different energy characteristics of the γ-ray and counting relative deviation of 222 Rn from import and export side of the double-membrane activated charcoal collector by HPGeγspectrometry in different adsorption time was obtained ,which is linear .The absolute value of relative deviation of adsorption capacity for 222 Rn is less than 5%between calculated and measured ,which is to verify the correctness and reliability of the method of active double-membrane activated charcoal .%主动式活性炭吸附222 Rn的方法中,吸附时间不同,222 Rn在活性炭盒中的分布不均匀,这对 H PGeγ谱仪测量分析中效率刻度产生影响。通过在标准氡室进行的主动式双滤膜活性炭吸附实验,分析得到不同吸附时间下 HPGe γ谱仪对222 Rn子体不同能量特征γ射线的探测效率和222 Rn在双滤膜活性炭盒中进出口计数相对偏差,拟合得到两者之间的关系曲线,即不同能量特征γ射线下的探测效率与222 Rn进出口计数相对偏差呈线性关系。通过实验得到双滤膜活性炭盒对氡吸附量的拟合曲线值与测氡仪实测值相对偏差绝对值小于5%,验证了该方法的正确性和可靠性。

  17. Time-resolved and position-resolved X-ray spectrometry with a pixelated detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sievers, Peter

    2012-12-07

    The aim of the work presented here was to measure X-ray spectra with a pixelated detector. Due to effects in the sensor the spectrum cannot be measured directly and has to be calculated by a deconvolution of the measured data. In the scope of this work the deconvolution of the measured spectra could be enhanced considerably by - amongst other things - the introduction of the Bayesian deconvolution method. Those improvements opened the possibilities for further measurements. For the measurements the detectors of the Medipix family have been used. They are nowadays used for a wide range of applications and scientific research. Their main advantage is the very high position resolution gained by a pixel pitch of 55 μm and a high number of 65536 pixels. The Timepix detector has, in particular, two special possibilities of measurement: the ToA mode and the ToT mode. In ToA mode the arrival time of an impinging photon is measured and in ToT mode the amount of deposited charge is measured. The most common method of operation is counting the number of impinging photons that release a charge higher than a preset threshold in each pixel. As this released charge is proportional to the energy deposition of the impinging photon, one can perform energy-sensitive measurements. To perform the deconvolution of the measured energy distribution there is a need of an energy response matrix describing the detector response on radiation. For some detectors it is possible to obtain an analytic model of the response functions. Due to the high discrepancy between the impinging spectrum and the measured spectrum in case of detectors of the Medipix family, there is so far no analytic model. Thus, the detector response has to be simulated. As I could improve the precision of the measurement quite extensively, I also intended to tune the simulation with more accurate and appropriate models to gain the same level of accuracy. The results of measurement and simulation have then been compared and

  18. Time-resolved and position-resolved X-ray spectrometry with a pixelated detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sievers, Peter

    2012-12-07

    The aim of the work presented here was to measure X-ray spectra with a pixelated detector. Due to effects in the sensor the spectrum cannot be measured directly and has to be calculated by a deconvolution of the measured data. In the scope of this work the deconvolution of the measured spectra could be enhanced considerably by - amongst other things - the introduction of the Bayesian deconvolution method. Those improvements opened the possibilities for further measurements. For the measurements the detectors of the Medipix family have been used. They are nowadays used for a wide range of applications and scientific research. Their main advantage is the very high position resolution gained by a pixel pitch of 55 μm and a high number of 65536 pixels. The Timepix detector has, in particular, two special possibilities of measurement: the ToA mode and the ToT mode. In ToA mode the arrival time of an impinging photon is measured and in ToT mode the amount of deposited charge is measured. The most common method of operation is counting the number of impinging photons that release a charge higher than a preset threshold in each pixel. As this released charge is proportional to the energy deposition of the impinging photon, one can perform energy-sensitive measurements. To perform the deconvolution of the measured energy distribution there is a need of an energy response matrix describing the detector response on radiation. For some detectors it is possible to obtain an analytic model of the response functions. Due to the high discrepancy between the impinging spectrum and the measured spectrum in case of detectors of the Medipix family, there is so far no analytic model. Thus, the detector response has to be simulated. As I could improve the precision of the measurement quite extensively, I also intended to tune the simulation with more accurate and appropriate models to gain the same level of accuracy. The results of measurement and simulation have then been compared and

  19. MUON DETECTOR

    CERN Multimedia

    F.Gasparini

    Barrel Good progress has been made since the last CMS Week: the RPC chambers with gas problems have been success¬fully replaced in YB+2 (4 chambers) and YB+1 (5 chambers). Replacing of two chambers in YB-1 is ongoing. All the alignment MABs have been installed (few repairs were needed) and control and monitoring system is under test. The LINK system connecting the Tracker to the Endcap Disks and to the MABs in YB+1 and YB+2 is well advanced and will be ready for CMS test closure. This system concerns the relative positions of three ele¬ments at the moment of the final closure, the Alignment Ring on the Tracker, the Link Disk on YEs and MABs on YBs. Final possible corrective actions are under discussion or planned. Significant progress was made in the UXC infrastructure with the completion of the power distribution from S4F and the refurbishing of the cooling distribution on all gas towers. A prototype of the small online drift velocity measuring chambers is operational in the gas room fo...

  20. Drift Chambers detectors; Detectores de deriva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, I.; Martinez laso, L.

    1989-07-01

    We present here a review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysed, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author) 115 refs.

  1. MUON DETECTORS: CSC

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Hauser

    2011-01-01

    The CSC detector continued to operate well during the March-June 2011 period. As the luminosity has climbed three orders of magnitude, the currents drawn in the CSC high-voltage system have risen correspondingly, and the current trip thresholds have been increased from 1 μA to 5 μA (and 20 in ME1/1 chambers). A possible concern is that a long-lasting and undesirable corona is capable of drawing about 1 μA, and thus may not be detected by causing current trips; on the other hand it is easily dealt with by cycling HV when detected. To better handle coronas, software is being developed to better detect them, although a stumbling block is the instability of current measurements in some of the channels of the CAEN supplies used in ME1/1. A survey of other issues faced by the CSC Operations team was discussed at the 8th June 2011 CSC Operations/DPG meeting (Rakness). The most important issues, i.e. those that have caused a modest amount of downtime, are all being actively addressed. These are:...

  2. Neutron detectors for the ESS diffractometers

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanescu, I; Fenske, J; Hall-Wilton, R; Henry, P; Kirstein, O; Mueller, M; Nowak, G; Pooley, D; Raspino, D; Rhodes, N; Saroun, J; Schefer, J; Schooneveld, E; Sykora, J; Schweika, W

    2016-01-01

    The ambitious instrument suite for the future European Spallation Source whose civil construction started recently in Lund, Sweden, demands a set of diverse and challenging requirements for the neutron detectors. For instance, the unprecedented high flux expected on the samples to be investigated in neutron diffraction or reflectometry experiments requires detectors that can handle high counting rates, while the investigation of sub-millimeter protein crystals will only be possible with large-area detectors that can achieve a position resolution as low as 200 {\\mu}m. This has motivated an extensive research and development campaign to advance the state-of-the-art detector and to find new technologies that can reach maturity by the time the ESS will operate at full potential. This paper presents the key detector requirements for three of the Time-of-Flight diffraction instrument concepts selected by the Scientific Advisory Committee to advance into the phase of preliminary engineering design. We discuss the av...

  3. The two sides of silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Devine, S R

    2001-01-01

    /p/n sup + and essentially two p-n junctions within one device. With increasing bias voltage, as the electric field is extending into the detector bulk from opposite sides of the silicon detector, there are two distinct depletion regions that collect charge signal independently. Summing the signal charge from the two regions, one is able to reconstruct the initial energy of the incident particle. From Transient Current measurements it is apparent that E-field manipulation is possible by excess carrier injection, enabling a high enough E-field to extend across the width of the detector, allowing for efficient charge collection. Results are presented on in situ irradiation of silicon detector's at cryogenic temperature. The results show that irradiation at cryogenic temperatures does not detrimentally effect a silicon detectors performance when compared to its irradiation at room temperature. Operation of silicon devices at cryogenic temperatures offers the advantage of reducing radiation-induced leakage curren...

  4. Thermal kinetic inductance detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecil, Thomas; Gades, Lisa; Miceli, Antonio; Quaranta, Orlando

    2016-12-20

    A microcalorimeter for radiation detection that uses superconducting kinetic inductance resonators as the thermometers. The detector is frequency-multiplexed which enables detector systems with a large number of pixels.

  5. Forward tracking detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Klaus Mönig

    2007-11-01

    Forward tracking is an essential part of a detector at the international linear collider (ILC). The requirements for forward tracking are explained and the proposed solutions in the detector concepts are shown.

  6. Results from the characterisation of Advanced GAmma Tracking Array prototype detectors and their consequences for the next-generation nuclear physics spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, M. R.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Cresswell, J. R.; Nelson, L.; Nolan, P.; Rigby, S.; Unsworth, C.; Lazarus, I.; Simpson, J.; Medina, P.; Parisel, C.; Santos, C.

    2007-09-01

    The Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) is a European project that is aiming to construct a complete 4π High Purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray spectrometer for nuclear structure studies at future Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) Facilities. The proposed array will utilise digital electronics, Pulse Shape Analysis (PSA) and Gamma-Ray Tracking (GRT) algorithms, to overcome the limited efficiencies encountered by current Escape Suppressed Spectrometers (ESS), whilst maintaining the high Peak-to-Total ratio. Two AGATA symmetrical segmented Canberra Eurisys (CE) prototype HPGe detectors have been tested at the University of Liverpool. A highly collimated Cs-137 (662keV) beam was raster scanned across each detector and data were collected in both singles and coincidence modes. The charge sensitive preamplifier output pulse shapes from all 37 channels (one for each of the 36 segments and one for the centre contact) were digitised and stored for offline analysis. The shapes of the real charge and image charge pulses have been studied to give detailed information on the position dependent response of each detector. 1mm position sensitivity has been achieved with the parameterisation of average pulse shapes, calculated from data collected with each of the detectors. The coincidence data has also been utilised to validate the electric field simulation code Multi Geometry Simulation (MGS). The precisely determined 3D interaction positions allow the comparison of experimental pulse shapes from single site interactions with those generated by the simulation. It is intended that the validated software will be used to calculate a basis data set of pulse shapes for the array, from which any interaction site can be determined through a χ2 minimisation of the digitized pulse with linear combinations of basis pulseshapes. The results from this partial validation, along with those from the investigation into the position sensitivity of each detector are presented.

  7. Layout of the ALICE detector

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The ALICE experiment will study the collisions of beams of lead nuclei in an attempt to produce a new state of matter known as 'quark-gluon plasma'. The barrel of the detector will be housed in the solenoid that once contained the L3 experiment when LEP was in operation at CERN, between 1989 and 2000. Outside of the solenoid, a dipole magnet will bend the path of charged particles called muons, allowing their momenta to be measured.

  8. The OSMOND detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, J.E. [Technology Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Dalgliesh, R. [ISIS Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Duxbury, D.M., E-mail: dom.duxbury@stfc.ac.uk [Technology Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Helsby, W.I. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Daresbury Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Holt, S.A.; Kinane, C.J. [ISIS Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Marsh, A.S. [Diamond Light Source LTD, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Diamond House, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Rhodes, N.J.; Schooneveld, E.M. [ISIS Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Spill, E.J.; Stephenson, R. [Technology Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-11

    The development and testing of the Off Specular MicrOstrip Neutron Detector (OSMOND) is described. Based on a microstrip gas chamber the aim of the project was to produce a high counting rate detector capable of replacing the existing rate limited scintillator detectors currently in use on the CRISP reflectometer for off specular reflectometry experiments. The detector system is described together with results of neutron beam tests carried out at the ISIS spallation neutron source.

  9. Recent progress in low-temperature silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, M; Berglund, P; Borchi, E; Borer, K; Bruzzi, M; Buontempo, S; Casagrande, L; Chapuy, S; Cindro, V; D'Ambrosio, N; De Masi, R; Devine, S R H; Dezillie, B; Dierlamm, A; Dimcovski, Zlatomir; Eremin, V; Esposito, A; Granata, V; Grigoriev, E; Grohmann, S; Härkönen, J; Hauler, F; Heijne, Erik H M; Heising, S; Hempel, O; Herzog, R; Janos, S; Jungermann, L; Konorov, I; Li, Z; Lourenço, Carlos; Rato-Mendes, P; Menichelli, D; Mikuz, M; Niinikoski, Tapio O; Pagano, S; Palmieri, V G; Paul, S; Pirollo, S; Pretzl, Klaus; Ruggiero, G; Shea, V O; Smith, K; Solano, B P; Sonderegger, Peter; Sousa, P; Tuominen, E; Verbitskaya, E; Watts, S; Wobst, E; Zavrtanik, M; Da Vià, C; de Boer, Wim

    2003-01-01

    The CERN RD39 Collaboration studies the possibility to extend the detector lifetime in a hostile radiation environment by operating them at low temperatures. The outstanding illustration is the Lazarus effect, which showed a broad operational temperature range around 130 K for neutron irradiated silicon detectors.

  10. The CAPRICE RICH detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basini, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Codino, A.; Grimani, C. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); De Pascale, M.P. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Sezione Univ. `Tor Vergata` Rome (Italy); Cafagna, F. [Bari Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Bari (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Brancaccio, F.; Bocciolini, M. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Barbiellini, G.; Boezio, M. [Trieste Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Trieste (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    A compact RICH detector has been developed and used for particle identification in a balloon borne spectrometer to measure the flux of antimatter in the cosmic radiation. This is the first RICH detector ever used in space experiments that is capable of detecting unit charged particles, such as antiprotons. The RICH and all other detectors performed well during the 27 hours long flight.

  11. Status of radiation detector and neutron monitor technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Y K; Ha, J H; Han, S H; Hong, S B; Hwang, I K; Lee, W G; Moon, B S; Park, S H; Song, M H

    2002-01-01

    In this report, we describe the current states of the radiation detection technology, detectors for industrial application, and neutron monitors. We also survey the new technologies being applied to this field. The method to detect radiation is the measurement of the observable secondary effect from the interaction between incident radiation and detector material, such as ionization, excitation, fluorescence, and chemical reaction. The radiation detectors can be categorized into gas detectors, scintillation detectors, and semiconductor detectors according to major effects and main applications. This report contains the current status and operational principles of these detectors. The application fields of radiation detectors are industrial measurement system, in-core neutron monitor, medical radiation diagnostic device, nondestructive inspection device, environmental radiation monitoring, cosmic-ray measurement, security system, fundamental science experiment, and radiation measurement standardization. The st...

  12. Ultraviolet imaging detectors for the GOLD mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; McPhate, J.; Curtis, T.; Jelinsky, S.; Vallerga, J. V.; Hull, J.; Tedesco, J.

    2016-07-01

    The GOLD mission is a NASA Explorer class ultraviolet Earth observing spectroscopy instrument that will be flown on a telecommunications satellite in geostationary orbit in 2018. Microchannel plate detectors operating in the 132 nm to 162 nm FUV bandpass with 2D imaging cross delay line readouts and electronics have been built for each of the two spectrometer channels for GOLD. The detectors are "open face" with CsI photocathodes, providing 30% efficiency at 130.4 nm and 15% efficiency at 160.8 nm. These detectors with their position encoding electronics provide 600 x 500 FWHM resolution elements and are photon counting, with event handling rates of > 200 KHz. The operational details of the detectors and their performance are discussed.

  13. Development of Large Cryogenic Semiconductor Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandic, Vuk [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-12-09

    This project aims at developing large cryogenic semiconductor detectors for applications in particle physics and more broadly. We have developed a 150 mm diameter, 43 mm thick, Si-based detector that measures ionization released in an interaction of a particle inside the silicon crystal of high purity, operated at 30 mK temperature. We demonstrated that such a detector can be used to measure recoil energies on the keV scale, and that its stable operation can be maintained indefinitely. Detectors of this type could therefore be used in the fields of direct dark matter searches, coherent neutrino scattering measurements, X-ray observations, as well as in broader applications such as homeland security.

  14. New materials for radiation hard semiconductor detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Sellin, P J; CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    We present a review of the current status of research into new semiconductor materials for use as particle tracking detectors in very high radiation environments. This work is carried out within the framework of the CERN RD50 collaboration, which is investigating detector technologies suitable for operation at the proposed Super-LHC facility (SLHC). Tracking detectors operating at the SLHC in this environment will have to be capable of withstanding radiation levels arising from a luminosity of 1035 cm-2s-1 which will present severe challenges to current tracking detector technologies. The "new materials" activity within RD50 is investigating the performance of various semiconductor materials that potentially offer radiation hard alternatives to silicon devices. The main contenders in this study are silicon carbide, gallium nitride and amorphous silicon. In this paper we review the current status of these materials, in terms of material quality, commercial availability, charge transport properties, and radiati...

  15. Radiation hardness studies of silicon pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lari, T

    2006-01-01

    At the LHC silicon vertex detectors will be exposed to hadron fluences of the order of . In order to study the effects of radiation damage on the performances of the ATLAS Pixel Vertex Detector, several full-size detector modules were irradiated to a fluence of and tested in a beam at CERN. After irradiation only a modest degradation of the detector performances is observed. At the operating ATLAS bias voltage of 600 V the average signal is still 80% of the pre-irradiation value, the spatial resolution is and the detection efficiency is 98.2%. The LHC luminosity upgrade will increase the radiation hardness requirements by a factor of 10 and will require the development of new ultra-radiation hard vertex detectors. A detailed simulation of silicon pixel detectors irradiated to very high fluence is presented and used to study the possibility to use silicon pixel detectors at the LHC after the luminosity upgrade. The charge collection properties and the detector response were computed for different silicon mater...

  16. The Mu3e Tile Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, Hans Patrick

    2015-05-06

    The Mu3e experiment is designed to search for the lepton flavour violating decay μ→e{sup +}e{sup +}e{sup -} with a sensitivity of one in 10{sup 16} decays. An observation of such a decay would be a clear sign of physics beyond the Standard Model. Achieving the targeted sensitivity requires a high precision detector with excellent momentum, vertex and time resolution. The Mu3e Tile Detector is a highly granular sub-detector system based on scintillator tiles with Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) readout, and aims at measuring the timing of the muon decay products with a resolution of better than 100 ps. This thesis describes the development of the Tile Detector concept and demonstrates the feasibility of the elaborated design. In this context, a comprehensive simulation framework has been developed, in order to study and optimise the detector performance. The central component of this framework is a detailed simulation of the SiPM response. The simulation model has been validated in several measurements and shows good agreement with the data. Furthermore, a 16-channel prototype of a Tile Detector module has been constructed and operated in an electron beam. In the beam tests, a time resolution up to 56 ps has been achieved, which surpasses the design goal. The simulation and measurement results demonstrate the feasibility of the developed Tile Detector design and show that the required detector performance can be achieved.

  17. The forward Detectors of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Vittori, Camilla; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In this poster, a review of the ATLAS forward detectors operating in the 2015-2016 data taking is given. This includes a description of LUCID, the preferred ATLAS luminosity provider; of the ALFA detector, aimed to measure elastically scattered protons at small angle for the total proton-proton cross section measurement; of the ATLAS Forward Proton project AFP, which was partially installed and took the first data in 2015, and of the Zero Degree Calorimeter ZDC built for the ATLAS Heavy Ions physics program. The near future plans for these detectors will also be addressed.

  18. Development of a plasma panel muon detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, D. S.; Ball, R.; Beene, J. R.; Benhammou, Y.; Chapman, J. W.; Dai, T.; Etzion, E.; Friedman, P. S.; Ben Moshe, M.; Silver, Y.; Varner, R. L.; Weaverdyck, C.; White, S.; Zhou, B.

    2011-10-01

    A radiation detector technology based on plasma display panels (PDPs), the underlying engine of panel plasma television displays, is being investigated. Emerging from this well-established television technology is the Plasma Panel Sensor (PPS), a novel variant of the micro-pattern radiation detector. The PPS is fundamentally a fast, high-resolution detector comprised of an array of plasma discharge cells, operating in a hermetically sealed gas mixture. We report on the PPS development effort, including proof-of-principle results of laboratory signal observations.

  19. ATLAS Beam Pipe and LUCID Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The film will show you the descending and installation of the last element of the LHC beam pipe. Around the beam pipe is installed an ATLAS detector called LUCID. The same kind of element is on both sides of ATLAS. This detector measures the rate of the collisions in ATLAS. You can also get more information about LUCID detector by watching the part were Vincent Hedberg is interviewed (00:01:20). Almost at the end of the film there is the interview of the Raymond Veness. He tells about the delicate operations of finishing the vacuum system and the LHC (00:26:00).

  20. Status of the CDF silicon detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinstein, Sebastian; /Harvard U.

    2006-05-01

    The CDF Run II silicon micro-strip detector is an essential part of the heavy flavor tagging and forward tracking capabilities of the experiment. Since the commissioning period ended in 2002, about 85% of the 730 k readout channels have been consistently provided good data. A summary of the recent improvements in the DAQ system as well as experience of maintaining and operating such a large, complex detector are presented.

  1. FOUR PI CALIBRATION AND MODELING OF A BARE GERMANIUM DETECTOR IN A CYLINDRICAL FIELD SOURCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewberry, R.; Young, J.

    2011-04-29

    In reference 1 the authors described {gamma}-ray holdup assay of a Mossbauer spectroscopy instrument where they utilized two axial symmetric cylindrical shell acquisitions and two disk source acquisitions to determine Am-241 and Np-237 contamination. The measured contents of the two species were determined using a general detector efficiency calibration taken from a 12-inch point source.2 The authors corrected the raw spectra for container absorption as well as for geometry corrections to transform the calibration curve to the applicable axial symmetric cylindrical source - and disk source - of contamination. The authors derived the geometry corrections with exact calculus that are shown in equations (1) and (2) of our Experimental section. A cylindrical shell (oven source) acquisition configuration is described in reference 3, where the authors disclosed this configuration to gain improved sensitivity for holdup measure of U-235 in a ten-chamber oven. The oven was a piece of process equipment used in the Savannah River Plant M-Area Uranium Fuel Fabrication plant for which a U-235 holdup measurement was necessary for its decontamination and decommissioning in 2003.4 In reference 4 the authors calibrated a bare NaI detector for these U-235 holdup measurements. In references 5 and 6 the authors calibrated a bare HpGe detector in a cylindrical shell configuration for improved sensitivity measurements of U-235 in other M-Area process equipment. Sensitivity was vastly improved compared to a close field view of the sample, with detection efficiency of greater than 1% for the 185.7-keV {gamma}-ray from U-235. In none of references 3 - 7 did the authors resolve the exact calculus descriptions of the acquisition configurations. Only the empirical efficiency for detection of the 185.7-keV photon from U-235 decay was obtained. Not until the 2010 paper of reference 1 did the authors derive a good theoretical description of the flux of photons onto the front face of a detector

  2. The ATLAS Detector Safety System

    CERN Multimedia

    Helfried Burckhart; Kathy Pommes; Heidi Sandaker

    The ATLAS Detector Safety System (DSS) has the mandate to put the detector in a safe state in case an abnormal situation arises which could be potentially dangerous for the detector. It covers the CERN alarm severity levels 1 and 2, which address serious risks for the equipment. The highest level 3, which also includes danger for persons, is the responsibility of the CERN-wide system CSAM, which always triggers an intervention by the CERN fire brigade. DSS works independently from and hence complements the Detector Control System, which is the tool to operate the experiment. The DSS is organized in a Front- End (FE), which fulfills autonomously the safety functions and a Back-End (BE) for interaction and configuration. The overall layout is shown in the picture below. ATLAS DSS configuration The FE implementation is based on a redundant Programmable Logical Crate (PLC) system which is used also in industry for such safety applications. Each of the two PLCs alone, one located underground and one at the s...

  3. First results from the Lund NMP particle detector system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golubev, P. [Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund University, Box 118, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Kristiansson, P. [Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund University, Box 118, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden)], E-mail: Per.Kristiansson@nuclear.lu.se; Arteaga-Marrero, N.; Elfman, M.; Malmqvist, K.; Nilsson, E.J.C.; Nilsson, C.; Pallon, J.; Wegden, M. [Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund University, Box 118, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden)

    2009-06-15

    The design and first results from a Double Sided Silicon Strip Detector (DSSSD) recently installed at the Lund Nuclear Microprobe facility (NMP) are presented. The detector has 64 sector strips and 32 ring strips, which in combination give more than 2000 detector cells, each with characteristics comparable with a standard surface barrier detector (SBD). The detector has been tested both with radioactive sources and with different ion beams and energies. The most striking features are the high rate virtually pile-up free operation and also the possibility of detailed measurement of angular distributions.

  4. Alpha particle response study of polycrstalline diamond radiation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Amit; Topkar, Anita [Electronics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Chemical vapor deposition has opened the possibility to grow high purity synthetic diamond at relatively low cost. This has opened up uses of diamond based detectors for wide range of applications. These detectors are most suitable for harsh environments where standard semiconductor detectors cannot work. In this paper, we present the fabrication details and performance study of polycrystalline diamond based radiation detector. Effect of different operating parameters such as bias voltage and shaping time for charge collection on the performance of detector has been studied.

  5. The Evaporative Cooling System for the ATLAS Inner Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aitree, D; Anderssen, E C; Akhnazarov, V; Apsimon, R J; Barclay, P; Batchelor, L E; Bates, R L; Battistin, M; Bendotti, J; Berry, S; Bitadze, A; Bizzel, J P; Bonneau, P; Bosteels, Michel; Butterworth, J M; Butterworth, S; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Catinaccio, A; Corbaz, F; Danielsson, H O; Danilevich, E; Dixon, N; Dixon, S D; Doherty, F; Dorholt, O; Doubrava, M; Egorov, I; Egorov, K; Einsweiler, K; Falou, A C; Feraudet, P; Ferrari, P; Fowler, K; Fraser, J T; French, R S; Galuska, M; Gannaway, F; Gariano, G; Gibson, M D; Gilchriese, M G D; Giugni, D; Godlewski, J; Gousakov, I; Górski, B; Hallewell, G D; Hartman, N; Hawkings, R J; Haywood, S J; Hessey, N P; Infante, S; Jackson, J N; Jones, T J; Kaplon, J; Katunin, S; Lindsay, S; Luisa, L; Massol, N; McEwan, F; McMahon, S J; Menot, C; Mistry, J; Morris, J; Muskett, D M; Nagai, K; Nichols, A; Nicholson, R; Nickerson, R B; Nielsen, S L; Nordahl, P E; Olcese, M; Parodi, M; Pérez-Gómez, F; Pernegger, H; Perrin, E; Rossi, L P; Rovani, A; Ruscino, E; Sandaker, H; Smith, A; Sopko, V; Stapnes, S; Stodulski, M; Tarrant, J; Thadome, J; Tovey, D; Turala, M; Tyndel, M; Vacek, V; van der Kraaij, E; Viehhauser, G H A; Vigeolas, E; Wells, P S; Wenig, S; Werneke, P

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the evaporative system used to cool the silicon detector structures of the inner detector sub-detectors of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The motivation for an evaporative system, its design and construction are discussed. In detail the particular requirements of the ATLAS inner detector, technical choices and the qualification and manufacture of final components are addressed. Finally results of initial operational tests are reported. Although the entire system described, the paper focuses on the on-detector aspects. Details of the evaporative cooling plant will be discussed elsewhere.

  6. Equalized near maximum likelihood detector

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents new detector that is used to mitigate intersymbol interference introduced by bandlimited channels. This detector is named equalized near maximum likelihood detector which combines nonlinear equalizer and near maximum likelihood detector. Simulation results show that the performance of equalized near maximum likelihood detector is better than the performance of nonlinear equalizer but worse than near maximum likelihood detector.

  7. High-energy detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E [South Setauket, NY; Camarda, Giuseppe [Farmingville, NY; Cui, Yonggang [Upton, NY; James, Ralph B [Ridge, NY

    2011-11-22

    The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

  8. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Redondo Fernandez

    2011-01-01

    The DT system has operated successfully during the entire 2011 data-taking: the fraction of good channels was always >99.4 % and the downtime caused to CMS amounts to a few inverse picobarns. This excellent performance does not come without a price: the DT group requested more than 30 short accesses to the underground experimental cavern (UXC).  A large fraction of interventions was for dealing with overheated LV Anderson connectors, whose failure can affect larger sections of the detector (a whole chamber, or half a wheel of the CMS barrel, etc.). A crash programme for reworking those connections will take place during the Year-End Technical Stop. The system of six vd chambers (VDC) that were installed on the DT exhaust gas line have operated successfully. The VDCs are small drift chambers the size of a shoebox that measure the drift velocity every 10 minutes. Possible deviations from the nominal value could be caused by a contamination of the gas mixture or changes in pressure or temperat...

  9. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    R.Carlin

    2010-01-01

    DT operation during 2010 LHC collisions, both in proton-proton and heavy ions, has been outstanding. The DT downtime has been below 0.1% throughout the whole year, mainly caused by the manual Resync commands that took around a minute for being processed. An automatic resynchronisation procedure has been enabled by August 27 and since then the downtime has been negligible (though constantly monitored). The need for these Resync commands is related to sporadic noise events that occasionally fill the RO buffers or unlock the readout links. Their rate is low, in the order of a few per week. Besides that, only one pp collisions run (1 hour 30 minutes run) has been marked as bad for DT, because of an incident with a temperature sensor that triggered a false alarm and powered off one wheel. Nevertheless, quite a large number of interventions (>30) have been made in the cavern during the year, in order to keep such a large fraction of the detector operational. Most of those are due to the overheating of the ...

  10. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Redondo

    2011-01-01

    During the second quarter of 2011, the DT system has continued to operate successfully with a high fraction of good channels (>99 %) and causing extremely little downtime to CMS. The high fraction of operated channels did not come for free: DT requested 18 short UXC accesses in the 3 months from March to May 2011. The dominant causes for these interventions were HV related interventions (7), which typically affect a small fraction of a chamber, and interventions for dealing with overheated LV Anderson connectors (7), whose failure could affect larger fractions of the detector (a whole chamber, half a wheel). With respect to the CMS downtime, a successful effort with colleagues from the DT Track Finder of the Level-1 Trigger system allowed to overcome a relatively relevant source of downtime from DTTF FED Out-Of-Sync errors, which would appear randomly during data-taking. The DT group developed a system configuration that would make it possible to reproduce the error without beam, thereby sparing lumin...

  11. PHAROS A pluri-detector, high-resolution, analyser of radiometric properties of soil

    CERN Document Server

    Rigollet, C

    2002-01-01

    PHAROS is a new type of core logger, designed to measure activity concentrations of sup 4 sup 0 K, sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U, sup 2 sup 3 sup 2 Th and sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs in sediment and rock cores with a spatial resolution of a few centimetres along the core. PHAROS has been developed as a non-destructive alternative to the traditional slicing of cores into sub-samples and their analysis on an HPGe detector. The core is scanned at fixed increments by three BGO scintillation detectors and the spectra analysed by the full spectrum analysis method. The core logger is also equipped with a collimated lead castle and a sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs source for transmission measurements. In this paper, we report on the properties of the core logger and its detectors, and on the analysis techniques used for the determination of the radionuclides activity concentrations. Results from initial measurements are presented and discussed.

  12. Large dynamic range radiation detector and methods thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrs, Roscoe E [Livermore, CA; Madden, Norman W [Sparks, NV

    2012-02-14

    According to one embodiment, a radiation detector comprises a scintillator and a photodiode optically coupled to the scintillator. The radiation detector also includes a bias voltage source electrically coupled to the photodiode, a first detector operatively electrically coupled to the photodiode for generating a signal indicative of a level of a charge at an output of the photodiode, and a second detector operatively electrically coupled to the bias voltage source for generating a signal indicative of an amount of current flowing through the photodiode.

  13. COMMISSIONING AND DETECTOR PERFORMANCE GROUPS

    CERN Multimedia

    T. Camporesi

    P5 Commissioning activities The commissioning effort at the pit has made major progress since the last CMS week concerning the installation and operation of the off-detector electronics in USC. The progress has been much slower in the experi¬mental cavern due to the delay in the deployment of the infrastructure which should eventually allow safe powering-up of the front ends. Nevertheless, temporary power connections have allowed operation of slices of subdetectors at any given time. HF, HE, ECAL, DTs, RPCs and CSCs have carried out local commissioning tests with these temporary services. The status of hardware deployment in USC and on the towers/balconies is represented in the detailed table below.   Table 1: Status of installation of off-detector electronics. FEDs are detector dependent hardware modules which perform the first ‘colla¬tion’ of front-end data and send it to Central-data for event building. Tracker, ECAL, HCAL have their front end electronics mo...

  14. Graphene vertical hot-electron terahertz detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryzhii, V., E-mail: v-ryzhii@riec.tohoku.ac.jp [Research Institute for Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Center for Photonics and Infrared Engineering, Bauman Moscow State Technical University and Institute of Ultra High Frequency Semiconductor Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 111005 (Russian Federation); Satou, A.; Otsuji, T. [Research Institute for Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Ryzhii, M. [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Aizu, Aizu-Wakamatsu 965-8580 (Japan); Mitin, V. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 1460-1920 (United States); Shur, M. S. [Departments of Electrical, Electronics, and Systems Engineering and Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2014-09-21

    We propose and analyze the concept of the vertical hot-electron terahertz (THz) graphene-layer detectors (GLDs) based on the double-GL and multiple-GL structures with the barrier layers made of materials with a moderate conduction band off-set (such as tungsten disulfide and related materials). The operation of these detectors is enabled by the thermionic emissions from the GLs enhanced by the electrons heated by incoming THz radiation. Hence, these detectors are the hot-electron bolometric detectors. The electron heating is primarily associated with the intraband absorption (the Drude absorption). In the frame of the developed model, we calculate the responsivity and detectivity as functions of the photon energy, GL doping, and the applied voltage for the GLDs with different number of GLs. The detectors based on the cascade multiple-GL structures can exhibit a substantial photoelectric gain resulting in the elevated responsivity and detectivity. The advantages of the THz detectors under consideration are associated with their high sensitivity to the normal incident radiation and efficient operation at room temperature at the low end of the THz frequency range. Such GLDs with a metal grating, supporting the excitation of plasma oscillations in the GL-structures by the incident THz radiation, can exhibit a strong resonant response at the frequencies of several THz (in the range, where the operation of the conventional detectors based on A{sub 3}B{sub 5} materials, in particular, THz quantum-well detectors, is hindered due to a strong optical phonon radiation absorption in such materials). We also evaluate the characteristics of GLDs in the mid- and far-infrared ranges where the electron heating is due to the interband absorption in GLs.

  15. SINGLE: single photon sensitive cryogenic light detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biassoni, Matteo; SINGLE Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Thermal detectors operated at few mK as calorimeters are a powerful tool for the study of rare particle physics processes. In order to implement particle identification, light detection can be effectively performed by means of other thermal detectors operated as light sensors. This configuration can be used also in large scale, thousand-channels setups, but the light sensors must be sensitive enough to detect few, possibly a single, photons. The SINGLE project described here aims at producing silicon based, large area devices that can be operated as thermal detectors with single-photon sensitivity, and demonstrate the reliability of the performance, scalability of the production process and integrability with present and next generation cryogenic experiments for the search for rare events.

  16. Measurement of x-ray energy spectrum by using HPGe detection in 14.5 GHz ECR ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Cheol Ho; Chang, Dae Sik; Oh, Byung Hoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Chang Seog; Kim, Yong Kyun [Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    The Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source is used to produce intense, high charge state ion beams of intermediate and heavy mass elements. It is widely used to produce ion beams for accelerator, atomic physics research and industrial application. The basic principle of the ECR ion source is the resonance absorption of energy by electron from microwave that has the same frequency as the electron's frequency in the resonance zone. The ECR ion source produces soft and hard x-rays because of efficient heating of electrons. The x-rays are created by electron-ion collisions in the ECR plasma or, when free electrons collide with ECR plasma chamber wall. The generated x-rays are influenced by various input parameters of the ECR ion source. In this study, The x-ray spectrum was measured by using a 14.5 GHz ECR ion source at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). ECR ion source is used to generate ion beams of heavy mass elements. KAERI has a 14.5 GHz ECR ion source to produce high current ion beam. In this study, experimental condition is provided to generate stable plasma through x-ray spectrum measurement. In the future, x-rays spectra will be measured at various operation conditions such as gas-pressure, trim coil and solenoid current.

  17. ATLAS inner detector performance

    CERN Document Server

    Gadomski, S

    2001-01-01

    The ATLAS Inner Detector consists of three subsystems using different tracking detector technologies: silicon pixels, silicon strips and straw tubes. The combination gives ATLAS a robust, hermetic and efficient tracking system, able to reconstruct tracks at the highest foreseen LHC luminosities. The inner detector provides vertex and momentum measurements, electron identification and some $K/\\pi$ separation. Since last year the beam pipe of ATLAS was changed, causing a redesign of the first tracking layer and a deterioration of the impact parameter resolutions.

  18. The CMS Tracker Detector Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousaf Shah, S. [University of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)], E-mail: yousaf.shah@cern.ch; Tsirou, Andromachi; Verdini, Piero Giorgio [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Hartmann, Frank [University of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany); Masetti, Lorenzo [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Dirkes, Guido H. [University of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany); Stringer, Robert [University of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Fahrer, Manuel [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2009-06-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid DCS (CMS) Silicon Strip Tracker is by far the largest detector ever built in micro-strip technology. It has an active surface area of 198 m{sup 2} consisting of 15,148 silicon modules with 9,316,352 readout channels read via 75,376 Analog Pipeline Voltage (APV) front-end chips and a total of 24,244 sensors. The Detector Control System (DCS) for the Tracker is a distributed control system that operates {approx}2000 power supplies for the silicon modules and also monitors its environmental sensors. The DCS receives information from about 10{sup 3} environmental probes (temperature and humidity sensors) located inside the detector's volume and values from these probes are driven through the Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) of the Detector Safety System (DSS). A total of 10{sup 5} parameters are read out from the dedicated chips in the front-end electronics of the detector via the data acquisition system, and a total of 10{sup 5} parameters are read from the power supply modules. All these parameters are monitored, evaluated and correlated with the detector layout; actions are taken under specific conditions. The hardware for DCS consists of 10 PCs and 10 PLC systems that are continuously running the necessary control and safety routines. The DCS is a fundamental tool for the Tracker operation and its safety.

  19. The CMS Tracker Detector Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf Shah, S.; Tsirou, Andromachi; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Hartmann, Frank; Masetti, Lorenzo; Dirkes, Guido H.; Stringer, Robert; Fahrer, Manuel

    2009-06-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid DCS (CMS) Silicon Strip Tracker is by far the largest detector ever built in micro-strip technology. It has an active surface area of 198 m 2 consisting of 15,148 silicon modules with 9,316,352 readout channels read via 75,376 Analog Pipeline Voltage (APV) front-end chips and a total of 24,244 sensors. The Detector Control System (DCS) for the Tracker is a distributed control system that operates ˜2000 power supplies for the silicon modules and also monitors its environmental sensors. The DCS receives information from about 10 3 environmental probes (temperature and humidity sensors) located inside the detector's volume and values from these probes are driven through the Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) of the Detector Safety System (DSS). A total of 10 5 parameters are read out from the dedicated chips in the front-end electronics of the detector via the data acquisition system, and a total of 10 5 parameters are read from the power supply modules. All these parameters are monitored, evaluated and correlated with the detector layout; actions are taken under specific conditions. The hardware for DCS consists of 10 PCs and 10 PLC systems that are continuously running the necessary control and safety routines. The DCS is a fundamental tool for the Tracker operation and its safety.

  20. Strip Detector for the ATLAS Detector Upgrade for the High - Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Sperlich, Dennis; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential of the LHC through a sizeable increase in the luminosity, reaching 1*10^35 cm2s-1 after 10 years of operation. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at an integrated luminosity of 3000/fb, requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron fluencies to over 1*10^16 1 MeV neutron equivalent per cm2. With the addition of increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk), which will consist of both strip and pixelated silicon detectors. The physics motivations, required performance characteristics and basic design of the proposed upgrade of the strip detector will be a subject of this talk. Present ideas and solutions for the strip detector and current research and development program will be discussed.