WorldWideScience

Sample records for hpde

  1. Enterovirus strain and type-specific differences in growth kinetics and virus-induced cell destruction in human pancreatic duct epithelial HPDE cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smura, Teemu; Natri, Olli; Ylipaasto, Petri; Hellman, Marika; Al-Hello, Haider; Piemonti, Lorenzo; Roivainen, Merja

    2015-12-02

    Enterovirus infections have been suspected to be involved in the development of type 1 diabetes. However, the pathogenetic mechanism of enterovirus-induced type 1 diabetes is not known. Pancreatic ductal cells are closely associated with pancreatic islets. Therefore, enterovirus infections in ductal cells may also affect beta-cells and be involved in the induction of type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of different enterovirus strains to infect, replicate and produce cytopathic effect in human pancreatic ductal cells. Furthermore, the viral factors that affect these capabilities were studied. The pancreatic ductal cells were highly susceptible to enterovirus infections. Both viral growth and cytolysis were detected for several enterovirus serotypes. However, the viral growth and capability to induce cytopathic effect (cpe) did not correlate completely. Some of the virus strains replicated in ductal cells without apparent cpe. Furthermore, there were strain-specific differences in the growth kinetics and the ability to cause cpe within some serotypes. Viral adaptation experiments were carried out to study the potential genetic determinants behind these phenotypic differences. The blind-passage of non-lytic CV-B6-Schmitt strain in HPDE-cells resulted in lytic phenotype and increased progeny production. This was associated with the substitution of a single amino acid (K257E) in the virus capsid protein VP1 and the viral ability to use decay accelerating factor (DAF) as a receptor. This study demonstrates considerable plasticity in the cell tropism, receptor usage and cytolytic properties of enteroviruses and underlines the strong effect of single or few amino acid substitutions in cell tropism and lytic capabilities of a given enterovirus. Since ductal cells are anatomically close to pancreatic islets, the capability of enteroviruses to infect and destroy pancreatic ductal cells may also implicate in respect to enterovirus induced type 1

  2. Establishment of three-dimensional cultures of human pancreatic duct epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez-Barrera, Angelica M.; Menter, David G.; Abbruzzese, James L.; Reddy, Shrikanth A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) cultures of epithelial cells offer singular advantages for studies of morphogenesis or the role of cancer genes in oncogenesis. In this study, as part of establishing a 3D culture system of pancreatic duct epithelial cells, we compared human pancreatic duct epithelial cells (HPDE-E6E7) with pancreatic cancer cell lines. Our results show, that in contrast to cancer cells, HPDE-E6E7 organized into spheroids with what appeared to be apical and basal membranes and a luminal space. Immunostaining experiments indicated that protein kinase Akt was phosphorylated (Ser473) and CTMP, a negative Akt regulator, was expressed in both HPDE-E6E7 and cancer cells. However, a nuclear pool of CTMP was detectable in HPDE-E6E7 cells that showed a dynamic concentrated expression pattern, a feature that further distinguished HPDE-E637 cells from cancer cells. Collectively, these data suggest that 3D cultures of HPDE-E6E7 cells are useful for investigating signaling and morphological abnormalities in pancreatic cancer cells

  3. Antimicrobial Peptide Human Neutrophil Peptide 1 as a Potential Link Between Chronic Inflammation and Ductal Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausch, Thomas; Adolph, Sarah; Felix, Klaus; Bauer, Andrea S; Bergmann, Frank; Werner, Jens; Hartwig, Werner

    Defensins are antimicrobial peptides playing a role in innate immunity, in epithelial cell regeneration, and in carcinogenesis of inflammation-triggered malignancies. We analyzed this role in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in the context of its association with chronic pancreatitis (CP). Human tissue of healthy pancreas, CP, and PDAC was screened for defensins by immunohistochemistry. Defensin α 1 (human neutrophil peptide 1 [HNP-1]) expression was validated using mass spectrometry and microarray analysis. Human neutrophil peptide 1 expression and influences of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β, and interferon γ) were studied in human pancreatic cancer cells (Colo 357, T3M4, PANC-1) and normal human pancreatic duct epithelial cells (HPDE). Accumulation of HNP-1 in malignant pancreatic ductal epithelia was seen. Spectrometry showed increased expression of HNP-1 in CP and even more in PDAC. At RNA level, no significant regulation was found. In cancer cells, HNP-1 expression was significantly higher than in HPDE. Proinflammatory cytokines significantly led to increased HNP-1 levels in culture supernatants and decreased levels in lysates of cancer cells. In HPDE cytokines significantly decreased HNP-1 levels. Inflammatory regulation of HNP-1 in PDAC tissue and cells indicates that HNP-1 may be a link between chronic inflammation and malignant transformation in the pancreas.

  4. Effect of cyclophilin A on gene expression in human pancreatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Wang, Hao; Li, Fei; Fisher, William E; Chen, Changyi; Yao, Qizhi

    2005-11-01

    We previously found that cyclophilin A (CypA) is overexpressed in human pancreatic cancer cells and stimulates cell proliferation through CD147. In this study, we further investigated the effect of CypA on gene expression of several key molecules that are involved in pancreatic cancer cell proliferation. Human pancreatic cancer cell lines (Panc-1, MIA PaCa-2, and BxPC-3) and human pancreatic ductal epithelial (HPDE) cells were used. The messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of CypA, CypB, CD147, neuropilins (NRPs), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and VEGF receptors upon the treatment of exogenous recombinant human CypA were determined by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Exogenous human recombinant CypA reduced the mRNA levels of NRP-1 and VEGF, but not endogenous CypA, CypB, and CD147, in Panc-1, MIA PaCa-2, and BxPC-3 cells. In contrast, HPDE cells showed a decrease of endogenous CypA and CD147 mRNA, but not detectable changes of CypB, NRPs, and VEGF mRNA levels upon exogenous CypA treatment. These data show that exogenous CypA downregulates NRP-1 and VEGF expression in pancreatic cancer cells. This effect is different in normal HPDE cells. Thus, soluble CypA may affect cell growth of pancreatic cancer.

  5. Biochanin A, a Phytoestrogenic Isoflavone with Selective Inhibition of Phosphodiesterase 4, Suppresses Ovalbumin-Induced Airway Hyperresponsiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wun-Chang Ko

    2011-01-01

    the serum and BALF, and enhanced the total IgG2a level in the serum of these mice. The PDE4H/PDE4L value of biochanin A was calculated as >35. Biochanin A did not influence xylazine/ketamine-induced anesthesia. Biochanin A (10~30 μM significantly reduced cumulative OVA (10~100 μg/mL-induced contractions in the isolated guinea pig trachealis, suggesting that it inhibits degranulation of mast cells. In conclusion, red clover containing biochanin A has the potential for treating allergic asthma and COPD.

  6. The Effect of a High-Protein Diet and Exercise on Cardiac AQP7 and GLUT4 Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palabiyik, Orkide; Karaca, Aziz; Taştekin, Ebru; Yamasan, Bilge Eren; Tokuç, Burcu; Sipahi, Tammam; Vardar, Selma Arzu

    2016-10-01

    High-protein (HP) diets are commonly consumed by athletes despite their potential health hazard, which is postulated to enforce a negative effect on bone and renal health. However, its effects on heart have not been known yet. Aquaporin-7 (AQP7) is an aquaglyceroporin that facilitates glycerol and water transport. Glycerol is an important cardiac energy production substrate, especially during exercise, in conjunction with fatty acids and glucose. Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) is an insulin-sensitive glucose transporter in heart. We aimed to investigate the effect of HPD on AQP7 and GLUT4 levels in the rat heart subjected to exercise. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control (n = 12), exercise (E) training (n = 10), HPD (n = 12), and HPD-E training (n = 9) groups. The HPD groups were fed a 45 % protein-containing diet 5 weeks. The HPD-E and E groups were performed the treadmill exercise during the 5-week study period. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry techniques were used to determine the gene expression and localization of AQP7 and GLUT4 in heart tissue. Results of relative gene expression were calculated by the 'Pfaffl' mathematical method using the REST program. Differences in AQP7 and GLUT4 gene expression were expressed as fold change compared to the control group. Heart weight/tibia ratio and ventricular wall thickness were evaluated as markers of cardiac hypertrophy. Further, serum glucose, glycerol, and insulin levels were also measured. AQP7 gene expression was found to be increased in the E (3.47-fold, p protein expression was also increased in the HPD and HPD-E groups (p protein expression was significantly increased in the E, HPD, and HPD-E groups compared to the control group (p = 0.024, p protein diet groups (C and E). Serum insulin levels were higher for HPD groups compared with the normal-protein diet groups (p < 0.001), whereas no differences were observed between the exercise and sedentary

  7. The Crosstalk between Nrf2 and TGF-β1 in the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Pancreatic Duct Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Arfmann-Knübel

    Full Text Available Nrf2 and TGF-β1 both affect tumorigenesis in a dual fashion, either by preventing carcinogen induced carcinogenesis and suppressing tumor growth, respectively, or by conferring cytoprotection and invasiveness to tumor cells during malignant transformation. Given the involvement of Nrf2 and TGF-β1 in the adaptation of epithelial cells to persistent inflammatory stress, e.g. of the pancreatic duct epithelium during chronic pancreatitis, a crosstalk between Nrf2 and TGF-β1 can be envisaged. By using premalignant human pancreatic duct cells (HPDE and the pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell line Colo357, we could show that Nrf2 and TGF-β1 independently but additively conferred an invasive phenotype to HPDE cells, whereas acting synergistically in Colo357 cells. This was accompanied by differential regulation of EMT markers like vimentin, Slug, L1CAM and E-cadherin. Nrf2 activation suppressed E-cadherin expression through an as yet unidentified ARE related site in the E-cadherin promoter, attenuated TGF-β1 induced Smad2/3-activity and enhanced JNK-signaling. In Colo357 cells, TGF-β1 itself was capable of inducing Nrf2 whereas in HPDE cells TGF-β1 per-se did not affect Nrf2 activity, but enhanced Nrf2 induction by tBHQ. In Colo357, but not in HPDE cells, the effects of TGF-β1 on invasion were sensitive to Nrf2 knock-down. In both cell lines, E-cadherin re-expression inhibited the proinvasive effect of Nrf2. Thus, the increased invasion of both cell lines relates to the Nrf2-dependent downregulation of E-cadherin expression. In line, immunohistochemistry analysis of human pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias in pancreatic tissues from chronic pancreatitis patients revealed strong Nrf2 activity already in premalignant epithelial duct cells, accompanied by partial loss of E-cadherin expression. Our findings indicate that Nrf2 and TGF-β1 both contribute to malignant transformation through distinct EMT related mechanisms accounting for an

  8. Monocarboxylate transporters MCT1 and MCT4 regulate migration and invasion of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Su Chii; Nøhr-Nielsen, Asbjørn; Zeeberg, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    , localization, activity, and function were explored in human PDAC cells (MIAPaCa-2, Panc-1, BxPC-3, AsPC-1) and normal human pancreatic ductal epithelial (HPDE) cells, by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, immunocytochemistry, lactate flux, migration, and invasion assays. RESULTS: MCT1......, or knockdown of MCT1 or MCT4. PDAC cell migration was largely unaffected by MCT1/MCT2 inhibition or MCT1 knockdown but was reduced by 4-CIN and by MCT4 knockdown (BxPC-3). Invasion measured in Boyden chamber (BxPC-3, Panc-1) and spheroid outgrowth (BxPC-3) assays was attenuated by 4-CIN and AR-C155858...

  9. [The Influence of New Medium with RGD on Cell Growth,Cell Fusion and Expression of Exogenous Gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-Pei; Wei, Da-Peng; Zhu, Tong-Bo

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the influence of a new culture medium added with RGD on cell growth,cell fusion and expression of exogenous gene. A new medium was prepared by adding different concentrations of RGD to ordinary culture medium. The optimum concentration of RGD was determined by observation of the growth of human pancreatic epithelial cell line HPDE6-C7. After determining the optimum concentration of RGD,different concentrations of cells HPDE6-C7 (5×10 4 ,10 5 ,5×10 5 mL -1 ) were inoculated in the two mediums. The morphology,adherence,growth and density of the cells were observed by inverted microscope; The ratio of clone formation and the positive rate of cloning were compared between the two cultures after fusion; The fluorescence intensity after the transfection of plasmid with green fluorescent protein ( GFP ) and the protein expression after transfection of plasmid with KRAS were observed to campare the expression of exogenous genes between the new medium with ordinary medium. Firstly,the optimal concentration of RGD was 10 ng/mL. Compared with the normal medium,the cultured cells with RGD had better morphology,adhesion and faster proliferation. In addition,both of the number and positive rate of clones formed in the new medium were significantly higher than that in the ordinary medium ( P exogenous gene GFP in the new medium was significantly higher than that in normal medium ( P exogenous gene KRAS of the new medium was also significantly higher than that in normal medium. The new culture medium has highlighted advantages in cell growth,cell fusion and expression of exogenous genes. RGD peptide has widely prospect and potential value in the cell culture. Copyright© by Editorial Board of Journal of Sichuan University (Medical Science Edition).

  10. HDAC gene expression in pancreatic tumor cell lines following treatment with the HDAC inhibitors panobinostat (LBH589) and trichostatine (TSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, Ouaïssi; Françoise, Silvy; Sofia, Costa Lima; Urs, Giger; Kevin, Zemmour; Bernard, Sastre; Igor, Sielezneff; Anabela, Cordeiro-da-Silva; Dominique, Lombardo; Eric, Mas; Ali, Ouaïssi

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effect of LBH589 and trichostatin (TSA), a standard histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) toward the growth of pancreatic cancer cell lines was studied. Thus, we examined for the first time, the HDAC family gene expression levels before and after drug treatment. Several human pancreatic cancer cell lines (Panc-1, BxPC-3, SOJ-6) and a normal human pancreatic duct immortalized epithelial cell line (HPDE/E6E7) were used as target cells. The cell growth was measured by MTT assay, cell cycle alteration, membrane phosphatidylserine exposure, DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, RT-PCR and Western blots were done using standard methods. The effect of drugs on tumor growth in vivo was studied using subcutaneous xenograft model. Except in the case of certain HDAC gene/tumor cell line couples: (SIRT1/HPDE-SOJ6/TSA- or LBH589-treated cells; LBH589-treated Panc-1 Cells; HDAC2/BxPC-3/LBH589-treated cells or TSA-treated SOJ-6-1 cells), there were no major significant changes of HDACs genes transcription in cells upon drug treatment. However, significant variation in HDACs and SIRTs protein expression levels could be seen among individual cell samples. The in vivo results showed that LBH589 formulation exhibited similar tumor reduction efficacy as the commercial drug gemcitabine. Our data demonstrate that LBH589 induced the death of pancreatic tumor cell by apoptosis. In line with its in vitro activity, LBH589 achieved a significant reduction in tumor growth in BxPC-3 pancreatic tumor cell line subcutaneous xenograft mouse model. Furthermore, exploring the impact of LBH589 on HDACs encoding genes expression revealed for the first time that some of them, depending on the cell line considered, seem to be regulated during translation. Copyright © 2012 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A new classification scheme of plastic wastes based upon recycling labels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Özkan, Kemal, E-mail: kozkan@ogu.edu.tr [Computer Engineering Dept., Eskişehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskişehir (Turkey); Ergin, Semih, E-mail: sergin@ogu.edu.tr [Electrical Electronics Engineering Dept., Eskişehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskişehir (Turkey); Işık, Şahin, E-mail: sahini@ogu.edu.tr [Computer Engineering Dept., Eskişehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskişehir (Turkey); Işıklı, İdil, E-mail: idil.isikli@bilecik.edu.tr [Electrical Electronics Engineering Dept., Bilecik University, 11210 Bilecik (Turkey)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • PET, HPDE or PP types of plastics are considered. • An automated classification of plastic bottles based on the feature extraction and classification methods is performed. • The decision mechanism consists of PCA, Kernel PCA, FLDA, SVD and Laplacian Eigenmaps methods. • SVM is selected to achieve the classification task and majority voting technique is used. - Abstract: Since recycling of materials is widely assumed to be environmentally and economically beneficial, reliable sorting and processing of waste packaging materials such as plastics is very important for recycling with high efficiency. An automated system that can quickly categorize these materials is certainly needed for obtaining maximum classification while maintaining high throughput. In this paper, first of all, the photographs of the plastic bottles have been taken and several preprocessing steps were carried out. The first preprocessing step is to extract the plastic area of a bottle from the background. Then, the morphological image operations are implemented. These operations are edge detection, noise removal, hole removing, image enhancement, and image segmentation. These morphological operations can be generally defined in terms of the combinations of erosion and dilation. The effect of bottle color as well as label are eliminated using these operations. Secondly, the pixel-wise intensity values of the plastic bottle images have been used together with the most popular subspace and statistical feature extraction methods to construct the feature vectors in this study. Only three types of plastics are considered due to higher existence ratio of them than the other plastic types in the world. The decision mechanism consists of five different feature extraction methods including as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Kernel PCA (KPCA), Fisher’s Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA), Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Laplacian Eigenmaps (LEMAP) and uses a simple

  12. A new classification scheme of plastic wastes based upon recycling labels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özkan, Kemal; Ergin, Semih; Işık, Şahin; Işıklı, İdil

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PET, HPDE or PP types of plastics are considered. • An automated classification of plastic bottles based on the feature extraction and classification methods is performed. • The decision mechanism consists of PCA, Kernel PCA, FLDA, SVD and Laplacian Eigenmaps methods. • SVM is selected to achieve the classification task and majority voting technique is used. - Abstract: Since recycling of materials is widely assumed to be environmentally and economically beneficial, reliable sorting and processing of waste packaging materials such as plastics is very important for recycling with high efficiency. An automated system that can quickly categorize these materials is certainly needed for obtaining maximum classification while maintaining high throughput. In this paper, first of all, the photographs of the plastic bottles have been taken and several preprocessing steps were carried out. The first preprocessing step is to extract the plastic area of a bottle from the background. Then, the morphological image operations are implemented. These operations are edge detection, noise removal, hole removing, image enhancement, and image segmentation. These morphological operations can be generally defined in terms of the combinations of erosion and dilation. The effect of bottle color as well as label are eliminated using these operations. Secondly, the pixel-wise intensity values of the plastic bottle images have been used together with the most popular subspace and statistical feature extraction methods to construct the feature vectors in this study. Only three types of plastics are considered due to higher existence ratio of them than the other plastic types in the world. The decision mechanism consists of five different feature extraction methods including as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Kernel PCA (KPCA), Fisher’s Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA), Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Laplacian Eigenmaps (LEMAP) and uses a simple

  13. An investigation on morphology and mechanical properties of HDPE/nanoclay/nanoCaCO{sub 3} ternary nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garmabi, Hamid, E-mail: garmabi@aut.ac.ir; Tabari, Seyed Emad Alavi; Javadi, Azizeh [Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology - Tehran - Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Behrouzi, Hormoz; Hosseini, Gholamabbas [Boushehr Province Gas Company - Boushehr - Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-09

    Ternary Nanocomposites of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) containing two types of nano particles, a layered organoclay (Closite 15A) and a spherical nano Calcium Carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}), with various compositions were prepared using melt mixing. Maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene (MA-g-PE) was used to enhance the dispersion of nanofillers and better interface adhesion. Three different levels of nanoclay (1, 3, 5 wt. %), CaCO{sub 3} (6, 8, 10 wt. %) and MA-g-PE (3, 6, 9 wt. %) were used. The mixing was done in two steps: First a concentrated masterbatch of nanoparticles in HPDE and MA-g-PE was prepared using an internal mixer and then melt-mixing of nanocomposites was done in a lab scale co-rotating twin screw extruder. The morphology of samples was studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and mechanical properties were evaluated using tensile and impact tests. According to the SEM micrographs, nanofillers were well dispersed in the HDPE matrix and XRD patterns showed the intercalation of nanoclay layers too. Generally using the layered nanoclay can enhance the tensile modulus while the use of spherical nano CaCO{sub 3} results into improved toughness. It was found that co-incorporation of these two types of nanofillers, leads to improve the stiffness and minimize the reduction of impact strength, simultaneously.

  14. Radiation hazards evaluation for selected sand samples from Camburi beach, Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Livia F.; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a single location at Camburi beach, known to be a naturally high background region, was studied. Radiation hazards indexes and annual effective dose were evaluated from the 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K sands activities concentrations. Sand samples were monthly collected during 2011, dried, sealed in standard 100 mL HPDE polyethylene flasks and measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry after a 4 weeks in-growth period. The 226 Ra concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of 214 Pb and 214 Bi. The 232 Th concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of 228 Ac, 212 Pb and 212 Bi and the 4 0K from its single gamma transition. The results, considering samples gamma-rays self-attenuation, show activities concentrations in the range from 6 Bq kg -1 to 39 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, 13 Bq kg -1 to 161 Bq kg -1 for 232 Th, and 7 Bq kg -1 to 65 Bq kg -1 for 40 K. The radium equivalent activity for the studied samples ranged from 26 Bq kg -1 to 274 Bq kg - '1. The external and internal hazard indexes varied, respectively, from 0.07 to 0.74 and from 0.09 to 0.85. The annual effective dose values laid from 0.07 mSv.y -1 to 0.72 mSv.y - '1. All values obtained in this work are below the radiological protection recommended limits. (author)

  15. Evaluation of Ra, Th, K and radium equivalent activity in sand samples from Camburi Beach, Vitoria, Espirito Santos, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Livia F.; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S.

    2013-01-01

    Camburi beach, in the city of Vitoria, Espirito Santo State. Brazil, is a naturally high background region in Brazil. The beach sands contain monazite, ilmenite and other accessory minerals rich in 226 Ra, 23 '2Th and 40 K. As these radionuclides are the main natural contributors to external exposure from gamma rays, the knowledge of the sands radioactivity content plays an important role in radiation protection. In this work, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K activities concentrations, together with the radium equivalent activity, Ra eq. were determined in some selected sand samples from a single location at Camburi beach, known for the high level of radioactivity. The sand samples collected monthly from January to December 2011, were dried and sealed in standard 100 mL HPDE polyethylene flasks and measured by high resolution gamma-spectrometry after a 4 weeks ingrowth period, in order to allow the secular equilibrium in the 238 U and 23 '2Th series. Preliminary results, without considering samples self-attenuation, show activities concentrations in the range from 12 ± 1 Bq kg -1 to 1022 ± 30 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, 35 ± 1 Bq kg -1 to 5731 ± 134 Bq kg -1 for 232 Th and 18 ± 4 Bqkg -1 to 430 ± 21 Bq kg -1 for 40 K. The Ra eq , presented values ranging from 63 Bq kg -1 to 9250 Bq kg -1 . (author)

  16. Hesperetin, a Selective Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitor, Effectively Suppresses Ovalbumin-Induced Airway Hyperresponsiveness without Influencing Xylazine/Ketamine-Induced Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hung Shih

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hesperetin, a selective phosphodiesterase (PDE4 inhibitor, is present in the traditional Chinese medicine, “Chen Pi.” Therefore, we were interested in investigating its effects on ovalbumin- (OVA- induced airway hyperresponsiveness, and clarifying its rationale for ameliorating asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Hesperetin was revealed to have a therapeutic (PDE4H/PDE4L ratio of >11. Hesperetin (10 ~ 30 μmol/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p. dose-dependently and significantly attenuated the airway hyperresponsiveness induced by methacholine. It also significantly suppressed the increases in total inflammatory cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils, and levels of cytokines, including interleukin (IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF. It dose-dependently and significantly suppressed total and OVA-specific immunoglobulin E levels in the BALF and serum. However, hesperetin did not influence xylazine/ketamine-induced anesthesia, suggesting that hesperetin has few or no emetic effects. In conclusion, the rationales for ameliorating allergic asthma and COPD by hesperetin are anti-inflammation, immunoregulation, and bronchodilation.

  17. The NASA Heliophysics Active Final Archive at the Space Physics Data Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 NASA Heliophysics Science Data Management Policy re-defined and extended the responsibilities of the Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF) project. Building on SPDF's established capabilities, the new policy assigned the role of active "Final Archive" for non-solar NASA Heliophysics data to SPDF. The policy also recognized and formalized the responsibilities of SPDF as a source for critical infrastructure services such as VSPO to the overall Heliophysics Data Environment (HpDE) and as a Center of Excellence for existing SPDF science-enabling services and software including CDAWeb, SSCWeb/4D Orbit Viewer, OMNIweb and CDF. We will focus this talk to the principles, strategies and planned SPDF architecture to effectively and efficiently perform these roles, with special emphasis on how SPDF will ensure the long-term preservation and ongoing online community access to all the data entrusted to SPDF. We will layout our archival philosophy and what we are advocating in our work with NASA missions both current and future, with potential providers of NASA and NASA-relevant archival data, and to make the data and metadata held by SPDF accessible to other systems and services within the overall HpOE. We will also briefly review our current services, their metrics and our current plans and priorities for their evolution.

  18. An investigation on morphology and mechanical properties of HDPE/nanoclay/nanoCaCO_3 ternary nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garmabi, Hamid; Tabari, Seyed Emad Alavi; Javadi, Azizeh; Behrouzi, Hormoz; Hosseini, Gholamabbas

    2016-01-01

    Ternary Nanocomposites of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) containing two types of nano particles, a layered organoclay (Closite 15A) and a spherical nano Calcium Carbonate (CaCO_3), with various compositions were prepared using melt mixing. Maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene (MA-g-PE) was used to enhance the dispersion of nanofillers and better interface adhesion. Three different levels of nanoclay (1, 3, 5 wt. %), CaCO_3 (6, 8, 10 wt. %) and MA-g-PE (3, 6, 9 wt. %) were used. The mixing was done in two steps: First a concentrated masterbatch of nanoparticles in HPDE and MA-g-PE was prepared using an internal mixer and then melt-mixing of nanocomposites was done in a lab scale co-rotating twin screw extruder. The morphology of samples was studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and mechanical properties were evaluated using tensile and impact tests. According to the SEM micrographs, nanofillers were well dispersed in the HDPE matrix and XRD patterns showed the intercalation of nanoclay layers too. Generally using the layered nanoclay can enhance the tensile modulus while the use of spherical nano CaCO_3 results into improved toughness. It was found that co-incorporation of these two types of nanofillers, leads to improve the stiffness and minimize the reduction of impact strength, simultaneously.

  19. TM4SF1 Promotes Gemcitabine Resistance of Pancreatic Cancer In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Cao

    Full Text Available TM4SF1 is overexpressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC and affects the development of this cancer. Also, multidrug resistance (MDR is generally associated with tumor chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer. However, the correlation between TM4SF1 and MDR remains unknown. This research aims to investigate the effect of TM4SF1 on gemcitabine resistance in PDAC and explore the possible molecular mechanism between TM4SF1 and MDR.The expression of TM4SF1 was evaluated in pancreatic cancer cell lines and human pancreatic duct epithelial (HPDE cell lines by quantitative RT-PCR. TM4SF1 siRNA transfection was carried out using Hiperfect transfection reagent to knock down TM4SF1. The transcripts were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR, RT-PCR and western blotting for further study. The cell proliferation and apoptosis were obtained to investigate the sensitivity to gemcitabine of pancreatic cancer cells after silencing TM4SF1 in vitro. We demonstrated that cell signaling of TM4SF1 mediated chemoresistance in cancer cells by assessing the expression of multidrug resistance (MDR genes using quantitative RT-PCR. In vivo, we used orthotopic pancreatic tumor models to investigate the effect of proliferation after silencing TM4SF1 by a lentivirus-mediated shRNA in MIA PaCa-2 cell lines.The mRNA expression of TM4SF1 was higher in seven pancreatic cancer cell lines than in HPDE cell lines. In three gemcitabine-sensitive cell lines (L3.6pl, BxPC-3, SU86.86, the expression of TM4SF1 was lower than that in four gemcitabine-resistant cell lines (MIA PaCa-2, PANC-1, Hs766T, AsPC-1. We evaluated that TM4SF1 was a putative target for gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer cells. Using AsPC-1, MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1, we investigated that TM4SF1 silencing affected cell proliferation and increased the percentages of cell apoptosis mediated by treatment with gemcitabine compared with cells which were treated with negative control. This resistance was associated

  20. The small-molecule IAP antagonist AT406 inhibits pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yongsheng; Meng, Qinghua; Chen, Bo; Shen, Haiyu; Yan, Bing; Sun, Baoyou

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we tested the anti-pancreatic cancer activity by AT406, a small-molecule antagonist of IAP (inhibitor of apoptosis proteins). In established (Panc-1 and Mia-PaCa-2 lines) and primary human pancreatic cancer cells, treatment of AT406 significantly inhibited cell survival and proliferation. Yet, same AT406 treatment was non-cytotoxic to pancreatic epithelial HPDE6c7 cells. AT406 increased caspase-3/-9 activity and provoked apoptosis in the pancreatic cancer cells. Reversely, AT406′ cytotoxicity in these cells was largely attenuated with pre-treatment of caspase inhibitors. AT406 treatment caused degradation of IAP family proteins (cIAP1 and XIAP) and release of cytochrome C, leaving Bcl-2 unaffected in pancreatic cancer cells. Bcl-2 inhibition (by ABT-737) or shRNA knockdown dramatically sensitized Panc-1 cells to AT406. In vivo, oral administration of AT406 at well-tolerated doses downregulated IAPs (cIAP1/XIAP) and inhibited Panc-1 xenograft tumor growth in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) nude mice. Together, our preclinical results suggest that AT406 could be further evaluated as a promising anti-pancreatic cancer agent. - Highlights: • AT406 is cytotoxic to established/primary human pancreatic cancer cells. • AT406 provokes caspase-dependent apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells. • AT406 causes degradation of key IAPs and promotes cytochrome C release. • Bcl-2 inhibition or knockdown dramatically sensitizes Panc-1 cells to AT406. • Oral administration of AT406 inhibits Panc-1 tumor growth in SCID nude mice.

  1. Genetic background influences age-related decline in visual and nonvisual retinal responses, circadian rhythms, and sleep☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Gareth; Heise, Ines; Starbuck, Becky; Osborne, Tamzin; Wisby, Laura; Potter, Paul; Jackson, Ian J.; Foster, Russell G.; Peirson, Stuart N.; Nolan, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    The circadian system is entrained to the environmental light/dark cycle via retinal photoreceptors and regulates numerous aspects of physiology and behavior, including sleep. These processes are all key factors in healthy aging showing a gradual decline with age. Despite their importance, the exact mechanisms underlying this decline are yet to be fully understood. One of the most effective tools we have to understand the genetic factors underlying these processes are genetically inbred mouse strains. The most commonly used reference mouse strain is C57BL/6J, but recently, resources such as the International Knockout Mouse Consortium have started producing large numbers of mouse mutant lines on a pure genetic background, C57BL/6N. Considering the substantial genetic diversity between mouse strains we expect there to be phenotypic differences, including differential effects of aging, in these and other strains. Such differences need to be characterized not only to establish how different mouse strains may model the aging process but also to understand how genetic background might modify age-related phenotypes. To ascertain the effects of aging on sleep/wake behavior, circadian rhythms, and light input and whether these effects are mouse strain-dependent, we have screened C57BL/6J, C57BL/6N, C3H-HeH, and C3H-Pde6b+ mouse strains at 5 ages throughout their life span. Our data show that sleep, circadian, and light input parameters are all disrupted by the aging process. Moreover, we have cataloged a number of strain-specific aging effects, including the rate of cataract development, decline in the pupillary light response, and changes in sleep fragmentation and the proportion of time spent asleep. PMID:25179226

  2. Genetic background influences age-related decline in visual and nonvisual retinal responses, circadian rhythms, and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Gareth; Heise, Ines; Starbuck, Becky; Osborne, Tamzin; Wisby, Laura; Potter, Paul; Jackson, Ian J; Foster, Russell G; Peirson, Stuart N; Nolan, Patrick M

    2015-01-01

    The circadian system is entrained to the environmental light/dark cycle via retinal photoreceptors and regulates numerous aspects of physiology and behavior, including sleep. These processes are all key factors in healthy aging showing a gradual decline with age. Despite their importance, the exact mechanisms underlying this decline are yet to be fully understood. One of the most effective tools we have to understand the genetic factors underlying these processes are genetically inbred mouse strains. The most commonly used reference mouse strain is C57BL/6J, but recently, resources such as the International Knockout Mouse Consortium have started producing large numbers of mouse mutant lines on a pure genetic background, C57BL/6N. Considering the substantial genetic diversity between mouse strains we expect there to be phenotypic differences, including differential effects of aging, in these and other strains. Such differences need to be characterized not only to establish how different mouse strains may model the aging process but also to understand how genetic background might modify age-related phenotypes. To ascertain the effects of aging on sleep/wake behavior, circadian rhythms, and light input and whether these effects are mouse strain-dependent, we have screened C57BL/6J, C57BL/6N, C3H-HeH, and C3H-Pde6b+ mouse strains at 5 ages throughout their life span. Our data show that sleep, circadian, and light input parameters are all disrupted by the aging process. Moreover, we have cataloged a number of strain-specific aging effects, including the rate of cataract development, decline in the pupillary light response, and changes in sleep fragmentation and the proportion of time spent asleep. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of Ra, Th, K and radium equivalent activity in sand samples from Camburi Beach, Vitoria, Espirito Santos, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Livia F.; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S., E-mail: lfbarros@ipen.br, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Camburi beach, in the city of Vitoria, Espirito Santo State. Brazil, is a naturally high background region in Brazil. The beach sands contain monazite, ilmenite and other accessory minerals rich in {sup 226}Ra, {sup 23}'2Th and {sup 40}K. As these radionuclides are the main natural contributors to external exposure from gamma rays, the knowledge of the sands radioactivity content plays an important role in radiation protection. In this work, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K activities concentrations, together with the radium equivalent activity, Ra{sub eq.} were determined in some selected sand samples from a single location at Camburi beach, known for the high level of radioactivity. The sand samples collected monthly from January to December 2011, were dried and sealed in standard 100 mL HPDE polyethylene flasks and measured by high resolution gamma-spectrometry after a 4 weeks ingrowth period, in order to allow the secular equilibrium in the {sup 238}U and {sup 23}'2Th series. Preliminary results, without considering samples self-attenuation, show activities concentrations in the range from 12 {+-} 1 Bq kg{sup -1} to 1022 {+-} 30 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 35 {+-} 1 Bq kg{sup -1} to 5731 {+-} 134 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th and 18 {+-} 4 Bqkg{sup -1} to 430 {+-} 21 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K. The Ra{sub eq}, presented values ranging from 63 Bq kg{sup -1} to 9250 Bq kg{sup -1}. (author)

  4. Up-regulation of miR-146a contributes to the inhibition of invasion of pancreatic cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiwei; VandenBoom, Timothy G.; Wang, Zhiwei; Kong, Dejuan; Ali, Shadan; Philip, Philip A.; Sarkar, Fazlul H.

    2009-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is an aggressive malignancy with high mortality and is believed to be in part due to its highly invasive and metastatic behavior, which is associated with over-expression of EGFR and activation of NF-κB. Emerging evidence also suggest critical roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the regulation of various pathobiological processes including metastasis in PC and in other human malignancies. In the present study, we found lower expression of miR-146a in PC cells compared to normal human pancreatic duct epithelial (HPDE) cells. Interestingly, re-expression of miR-146a inhibited the invasive capacity of Colo357 and Panc-1 PC cells with concomitant down-regulation of EGFR and IRAK-1. Mechanistic studies including miR-146a re-expression, anti-miR-146 transfection, and EGFR knock-down experiment showed that there was a crosstalk between EGFR, MTA-2, IRAK-1, IκBα and NF-κB. Most importantly, we found that the treatment of PC cells with “natural agents” [3,3′-diinodolylmethane (DIM) or isoflavone] led to an increase in the expression of miR-146a and consequently down-regulated the expression of EGFR, MTA-2, IRAK-1 and NF-κB, resulting in the inhibition of invasion of Colo357 and Panc-1 cells. These results provide experimental evidence in support of the role of DIM and isoflavone as potential non-toxic agents as regulators of miRNA, which could be useful for the inhibition of cancer cell invasion and metastasis, and further suggesting that these agents could be important for designing novel targeted strategy for the treatment of PC. PMID:25242818

  5. The small-molecule IAP antagonist AT406 inhibits pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yongsheng; Meng, Qinghua [Department of General Surgery, Jinan Central Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan (China); Chen, Bo [Department of Biliary and Pancreatic Surgery, East Hospital Affiliated to Tongji University in Shanghai, Shanghai (China); Shen, Haiyu; Yan, Bing [Department of General Surgery, Jinan Central Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan (China); Sun, Baoyou, E-mail: sunbaoyou_sdu@yeah.net [Department of General Surgery, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, No.9677 Jing-Shi Road, Jinan 250014 (China)

    2016-09-09

    In the present study, we tested the anti-pancreatic cancer activity by AT406, a small-molecule antagonist of IAP (inhibitor of apoptosis proteins). In established (Panc-1 and Mia-PaCa-2 lines) and primary human pancreatic cancer cells, treatment of AT406 significantly inhibited cell survival and proliferation. Yet, same AT406 treatment was non-cytotoxic to pancreatic epithelial HPDE6c7 cells. AT406 increased caspase-3/-9 activity and provoked apoptosis in the pancreatic cancer cells. Reversely, AT406′ cytotoxicity in these cells was largely attenuated with pre-treatment of caspase inhibitors. AT406 treatment caused degradation of IAP family proteins (cIAP1 and XIAP) and release of cytochrome C, leaving Bcl-2 unaffected in pancreatic cancer cells. Bcl-2 inhibition (by ABT-737) or shRNA knockdown dramatically sensitized Panc-1 cells to AT406. In vivo, oral administration of AT406 at well-tolerated doses downregulated IAPs (cIAP1/XIAP) and inhibited Panc-1 xenograft tumor growth in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) nude mice. Together, our preclinical results suggest that AT406 could be further evaluated as a promising anti-pancreatic cancer agent. - Highlights: • AT406 is cytotoxic to established/primary human pancreatic cancer cells. • AT406 provokes caspase-dependent apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells. • AT406 causes degradation of key IAPs and promotes cytochrome C release. • Bcl-2 inhibition or knockdown dramatically sensitizes Panc-1 cells to AT406. • Oral administration of AT406 inhibits Panc-1 tumor growth in SCID nude mice.

  6. Hesperidin-3′-O-Methylether Is More Potent than Hesperidin in Phosphodiesterase Inhibition and Suppression of Ovalbumin-Induced Airway Hyperresponsiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Lan Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hesperidin is present in the traditional Chinese medicine, “Chen Pi,” and recently was reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, we were interested in comparing the effects of hesperidin and hesperidin-3′-O-methylether on phosphodiesterase inhibition and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR in a murine model of asthma. In the present results, hesperidin-3′-O-methylether, but not hesperidin, at 30 μmol/kg (p.o. significantly attenuated the enhanced pause (Penh value, suppressed the increases in numbers of total inflammatory cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils, suppressed total and OVA-specific immunoglobulin (IgE levels in the serum and BALF, and enhanced the level of total IgG2a in the serum of sensitized and challenged mice, suggesting that hesperidin-3′-O-methylether is more potent than hesperidin in suppression of AHR and immunoregulation. The different potency between them may be due to their aglycons, because these two flavanone glycosides should be hydrolyzed by β-glucosidase after oral administration. Neither influenced xylazine/ketamine-induced anesthesia, suggesting that they may have few or no adverse effects, such as nausea, vomiting, and gastric hypersecretion. In conclusion, hesperidin-3′-O-methylether is more potent in phosphodiesterase inhibition and suppression of AHR and has higher therapeutic (PDE4H/PDE4L ratio than hesperidin. Thus, hesperidin-3′-O-methylether may have more potential for use in treating allergic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  7. Resveratrol-induced apoptosis is enhanced in low pH environments associated with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Uzma; Hanif, Sarmad; Albanyan, Abdulmajeed; Beck, Frances W J; Bao, Bin; Wang, Zhiwei; Banerjee, Sanjeev; Sarkar, Fazlul H; Mohammad, Ramzi M; Hadi, Sheikh M; Azmi, Asfar S

    2012-04-01

    Many critical factors such as hypoxia, nutrient deficiency, activation of glycolytic pathway/Warburg effect contribute to the observed low pH in tumors compared to normal tissue. Studies suggest that such tumor specific acidic environment can be exploited for the development of therapeutic strategies against cancer. Independent observations show reduction in pH of mammalian cells undergoing internucleosomal DNA fragmentation and apoptosis. As such, our group has extensively demonstrated that anticancer mechanisms of different plant polyphenols involve mobilization of endogenous copper and consequent internucleosomal DNA breakage. Copper is redox active metal, an essential component of chromatin and is sensitive to subtle pH changes in its microenvironment. Here we explored whether, acidic pH promotes growth inhibition, apoptosis, and DNA damaging capacity of chemopreventive agent resveratrol. Our results reveal that growth inhibition and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation induced apoptosis in Capan-2 and Panc-28 pancreatic cancer cell lines (and not in normal HPDE cells) by resveratrol is enhanced at lower pH. Using comet assay, we further demonstrate that DNA breakage by resveratrol is enhanced with acidification. Membrane permeable copper specific chelator neocuproine (and not iron chelator orthophenanthroline) abrogated growth inhibition and apoptosis by resveratrol. Western blot results show enhanced activation of DNA laddering marker H2.aX by resveratrol at acidic pH that was reversed by neocuproine and not by orthophenanthroline. Our findings provide irrevocable proof that low pH environment can be turned into tumor weakness and assist in eradication of cancer cells by resveratrol. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Surface Spectroscopic Signatures of Mechanical Deformation in HDPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averett, Shawn C; Stanley, Steven K; Hanson, Joshua J; Smith, Stacey J; Patterson, James E

    2018-01-01

    High-density polyethylene (HDPE) has been extensively studied, both as a model for semi-crystalline polymers and because of its own industrial utility. During cold drawing, crystalline regions of HDPE are known to break up and align with the direction of tensile load. Structural changes due to deformation should also manifest at the surface of the polymer, but until now, a detailed molecular understanding of how the surface responds to mechanical deformation has been lacking. This work establishes a precedent for using vibrational sum-frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy to investigate changes in the molecular-level structure of the surface of HDPE after cold drawing. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to confirm that the observed surface behavior corresponds to the expected bulk response. Before tensile loading, the VSFG spectra indicate that there is significant variability in the surface structure and tilt of the methylene groups away from the surface normal. After deformation, the VSFG spectroscopic signatures are notably different. These changes suggest that hydrocarbon chains at the surface of visibly necked HDPE are aligned with the direction of loading, while the associated methylene groups are oriented with the local C 2 v symmetry axis roughly parallel to the surface normal. Small amounts of unaltered material are also found at the surface of necked HDPE, with the relative amount of unaltered material decreasing as the amount of deformation increases. Aspects of the nonresonant SFG response in the transition zone between necked and undeformed polymer provide additional insight into the deformation process and may provide the first indication of mechanical deformation. Nonlinear surface spectroscopy can thus be used as a noninvasive and nondestructive tool to probe the stress history of a HPDE sample in situations where X-ray techniques are not available or not applicable. Vibrational sum-frequency generation thus has great potential as a platform for

  9. Thermoforming of HDPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, David; Menary, Gary; Martin, Peter; Yan, Shiyong

    2017-10-01

    The thermoforming process involves a previously extruded sheet of material being reheated to a softened state below the melting temperature and then forced into a mould either by a plug, air pressure or a combination of both. Thermoplastics such as polystyrene (PS) and polypropylene (PP) are commonly processed via thermoforming for products in the packaging industry. However, high density polyethylene (HDPE) is generally not processed via thermoforming and yet HDPE is extensively processed throughout the packaging industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of thermoforming HDPE. The objectives were to firstly investigate the mechanical response under comparable loading conditions and secondly, to investigate the final mechanical properties post-forming. Obtaining in-process stress-strain behavior during thermoforming is extremely challenging if not impossible. To overcome this limitation the processing conditions were replicated offline using the QUB biaxial stretcher. Typical processing conditions that the material will experience during the process are high strain levels, high strain rates between 0.1-10s-1 and high temperatures in the solid phase (1). Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) was used to investigate the processing range of the HDPE grade used in this study, a peak in the tan delta curve was observed just below the peak melting temperature and hence, a forming temperature was selected in this range. HPDE was biaxially stretched at 128°C at a strain rate of 4s-1, under equal biaxial deformation (EB). The results showed a level of biaxial orientation was induced which was accompanied by an increase in the modulus from 606 MPa in the non-stretched sample to 1212MPa in the stretched sample.

  10. Apolipoprotein A-II Plus Lipid Emulsion Enhance Cell Growth via SR-B1 and Target Pancreatic Cancer In Vitro and In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh LE, Thao N.; Gill, Anthony J.; Bulanadi, Jerikho C.; Patel, Mili; Waddington, Lynne J.; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Moghaddam, Minoo J.; Smith, Ross C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Apolipoprotein A-II (ApoA-II) is down regulated in the sera of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients, which may be due to increase utilization of high density lipoprotein (HDL) lipid by pancreatic cancer tissue. This study examined the influence of exogenous ApoA-II on lipid uptake and cell growth in pancreatic cancer (PC) both in vitro and in vivo. Methods Cryo transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examined ApoA-II’s influence on morphology of SMOFLipid emulsion. The influence of ApoA-II on proliferation of cancer cell lines was determined by incubating them with lipid+/-ApoA-II and anti-SR-B1 antibody. Lipid was labeled with the fluorophore, DiD, to trace lipid uptake by cancer cells in vitro by confocal microscopy and in vivo in PDAC patient derived xenograft tumours (PDXT) by fluorescence imaging. Scavenger receptor class B type-1(SR-B1) expression in PDAC cell lines and in PDAC PDXT was measured by western blotting and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Results ApoA-II spontaneously converted lipid emulsion into very small unilamellar rHDL like vesicles (rHDL/A-II) and enhanced lipid uptake in PANC-1, CFPAC-1 and primary tumour cells as shown by confocal microscopy. SR-B1 expression was 13.2, 10.6, 3.1 and 2.3 fold higher in PANC-1, MIAPaCa-2, CFPAC-1 and BxPC3 cell lines than the normal pancreatic cell line (HPDE6) and 3.7 fold greater in PDAC tissue than in normal pancreas. ApoA-II plus lipid significantly increased the uptake of labeled lipid and promoted cell growth in PANC-1, MIAPaCa-2, CFPAC-1 and BxPC3 cells which was inhibited by anti SR-B1 antibody. Further, ApoA-II increased the uptake of lipid in xenografts by 3.4 fold. Conclusion Our data suggest that ApoA-II enhance targeting potential of lipid in pancreatic cancer which may have imaging and drug delivery potentialities. PMID:27002321

  11. Hesperetin-7,3'-O-dimethylether selectively inhibits phosphodiesterase 4 and effectively suppresses ovalbumin-induced airway hyperresponsiveness with a high therapeutic ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang You-Lan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hesperetin was reported to selectively inhibit phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4. While hesperetin-7,3'-O-dimethylether (HDME is a synthetic liposoluble hesperetin. Therefore, we were interested in investigating its selectivity on PDE4 and binding ability on high-affinity rolipram-binding sites (HARBs in vitro, and its effects on ovalbumin-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in vivo, and clarifying its potential for treating asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Methods PDE1~5 activities were measured using a two-step procedure. The binding of HDME on high-affinity rolipram-binding sites was determined by replacing 2 nM [3H]-rolipram. AHR was assessed using the FlexiVent system and barometric plethysmography. Inflammatory cells were counted using a hemocytometer. Cytokines were determined using mouse T helper (Th1/Th2 cytokine CBA kits, and total immunoglobulin (IgE or IgG2a levels were done using ELISA method. Xylazine (10 mg/kg/ketamine (70 mg/kg-induced anesthesia was performed. Results HDME revealed selective phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4 inhibition with a therapeutic (PDE4H/PDE4L ratio of 35.5 in vitro. In vivo, HDME (3~30 μmol/kg, orally (p.o. dose-dependently and significantly attenuated the airway resistance (RL and increased lung dynamic compliance (Cdyn, and decreased enhanced pause (Penh values induced by methacholine in sensitized and challenged mice. It also significantly suppressed the increases in the numbers of total inflammatory cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils, and levels of cytokines, including interleukin (IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF of these mice. In addition, HDME (3~30 μmol/kg, p.o. dose-dependently and significantly suppressed total and ovalbumin-specific immunoglobulin (IgE levels in the BALF and serum, and enhanced IgG2a level in the serum of these mice. Conclusions HDME exerted anti

  12. A new classification scheme of plastic wastes based upon recycling labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Kemal; Ergin, Semih; Işık, Şahin; Işıklı, Idil

    2015-01-01

    results agree on. The proposed classification scheme provides high accuracy rate, and also it is able to run in real-time applications. It can automatically classify the plastic bottle types with approximately 90% recognition accuracy. Besides this, the proposed methodology yields approximately 96% classification rate for the separation of PET or non-PET plastic types. It also gives 92% accuracy for the categorization of non-PET plastic types into HPDE or PP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Minero-chemical composition as environmental quality assessment tool of an artificial water reservoir: the case of the "Pietra del Pertusillo" lake (Basilicata, Italia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    fortunato, elisabetta; mongelli, giovanni; paternoster, michele; sinisi, rosa

    2016-04-01

    The Pietra del Pertusillo fresh-water reservoir is an artificial lake located in the High Agri River Valley (Basilicata); its dam was completed in 1963 for producing hydroelectric energy and providing water for human use to Puglia and Basilicata southern Italian regions (approximately 2 million people). Pertusillo lake lies within a national park because of the presence of many special protected areas. This reservoir is a natural laboratory for assessing the sediment pollution from human activities, including: waste-water treatment plants, landfills, farms, treatment oil plant, plastics and other industrial activities. In addition, the Pertusillo reservoir is located in the area of the largest oil field of continental Europe. This anthropogenic pressure may thus represent an impact factor on the environmental equilibrium and consequently the knowledge and control on their quality represents a relevant environmental challenge. This study reports the preliminary results of a multidisciplinary (sedimentological, mineralogical, geochemical) PhD research focused on the analysis of the lacustrine sediments filling the Pietra del Pertusillo fresh-water reservoir. The lakes and its sediments represent the natural sink for nutrients and possible pollutants which tend to accumulate in relation to the nature and composition of the solid matrix but also the concentration and characteristics of the substances themselves. Moreover the deeper sediments, deposited under undisturbed condition, represent the "historical memory" of the ecosystem. Sub-aqueous lake sediments were investigated in May 2014, sampled using a small platform and a gravity corer (UWITEC, Austria) of 90 mm diameter which allowed to drill 19 cores up to 2 m long from the sediment/water interface. Successively cores were studied and described by using facies analysis techniques; a large number of core samples (147) were collected from the working half of each core, stored in HPDE containers, and frozen at -20