Sample records for hp-lt metamorphic assemblages

  1. Upper Cretaceous HP-LT metamorphism along the leading edge of the Mesozoic Bolkardag platform, southern Turkey (United States)

    Parlak, Osman; Kop, Alican; Robertson, Alastair; Karaoglan, Fatih; Neubauer, Franz; Koepke, Jürgen


    HP/LT metamorphism within the Anatoliodes (Tavşanlı and Afyon zonses) provides key evidence of Late Cretaceous/Paleogene subduction of N the margin of the Tauride microcontinent. HP/LT metamorphism within the Bolkar Daǧ has long been suspected, but without supporting evidence until now. HP/LT rocks are exposed as disrupted stratiform bodies interbedded with pale-coloured meta-limestones (tens of metres thick in all) around the periphery of Kargöl, 20 km SE of Ulukışla. The outcrops are mapped as lying within the Bokar Daǧ stratigraphy, separate from lower grade accretionary melange and unmetamorphosed ophiolitic rocks further north. The age of the meta-basic rocks is uncertain but could be either Early Mesozoic or Late Meszoic based on comparison with the Taşvanlı Zone elsewhere. The protoliths of the HP/LT rock are mostly meta-basic extrusives igneous rocks, including massive lava and lava breccia, mostly converted to amphibolite. The protoliths fall into two groups, alkaline (Nb/Y=1.43-2.05) and tholeiitic (Nb/Y=0.04-0.58). Chondrite-normalized REE patterns, N-MORB normalized multi-element diagrams and tectonic discrimination diagrams suggest that the alkaline amphibolites were derived from the metamorphism of intra-plate basaltic rocks. The tholeiitic amphibolites form two groups, one characterized by slightly LREE-enriched (La/YbN=1,74-2,67) patterns and progressive enrichment in LIL elements; this has a similarity to enriched-mid ocean ridge basalts (E-MORB). The second group of tholeiitic amphibolites is characterized by LREE-depleted (La/YbN=0,57-0,90) rare earth element patterns. Multi-element diagram of this group exhibits strong negative Nb anomalies and flat HFS elements compared to N-MORB, suggesting a subduction influence on magmatism. Petrographic studies of the amphibolites indicate a blueschist facies overprint, represented by glaucophane. 40Ar-39Ar isotopic age determinations performed on amphibole separates yielded ages from 92.29±0

  2. Petrology of HP/LT metapelitic rocks of an accretionary wedge, the Central Pontides, Turkey: evidence for tectonic stacking and syn-subduction exhumation (United States)

    Aygül, Mesut; Okay, Aral; Oberhänsli, Roland


    Cretaceous HP/LT chloritoid-bearing metapelitic rocks crop out widely in the central part of the Pontides, northern Turkey. They are associated with eclogite to blueschist-facies metabasites and represent deep levels of an underplated subduction-accretion complex, which is tectonically overlain by low-grade HP phyllite/metasandstone intercalation along an extensional shear zone. Close to the shear zone, the footwall micaschists consist of quartz, phengite, paragonite, chlorite, rutile with syn-kinematic albite porphyroblast formed by pervasive shearing during exhumation. This type of micaschists is tourmaline-bearing and their retrograde nature suggests high-fluid flux along shear zones. Peak metamorphic assemblages are partly preserved in the chloritoid-micaschist farther away from the shear zone. Three peak metamorphic assemblages are identified and their PT conditions are constrained by pseudosections produced by Theriak-Domino and by Raman spectra of carbonaceous material: 1) garnet-chloritoid-glaucophane with lawsonite pseudomorphs (P: 17.5 ± 1 Kbar, T: 390-450 °C) 2) chloritoid with glaucophane pseudomorphs (P: 16-18 Kbar, T: 475 ± 40 °C) and 3) relatively high-Mg chloritoid (17%) with jadeite pseudomorphs (22-25 Kbar; T: 440 ± 30 °C) in addition to phengite, paragonite, quartz, chlorite, rutile. The last mineral assemblage is interpreted as transformation of the chloritoid + glaucophane assemblage to chloritoid + jadeite paragenesis with increasing pressure. Absence of tourmaline suggests that the chloritoid-micaschist did not interact with B-rich fluids during zero strain exhumation. Peak metamorphic assemblages and PT estimates suggest tectonic stacking within wedge with different depths of burial. 40Ar/39Ar phengite age of a pervasively sheared footwall micaschist is constrained to 100.6 ± 1.3 Ma and that of a chloritoid-micaschist is constrained to 91.8 ± 1.8 Ma suggesting exhumation during on-going subduction. Coupling and exhumation of the

  3. Pseudomorphs of Neotethyan Evaporites in Anatolia's HP/LT belts - Aptian basin-wide pelagic gypsum deposits (United States)

    Scheffler, Franziska; Oberhänsli, Roland; Pourteau, Amaury; Immenhauser, Adrian; Candan, Osman


    Rosetta Marble was defined in SW Anatolia as 3D-radiating textures of dm-to-m-long calcite rods in the HP/LT metamorphosed Mid-Cretaceous pelagic carbonate sequence of the Ören Unit. Rosetta Marble in the type locality are interbedded with meta-chert beds, and may constitute entire carbonate beds. Rare aragonite relicts and Sr-rich, fibrous calcite pseudomorphs after aragonite witness the HP metamorphic imprint of this sequence during the closure of a Neotethyan oceanic domain during latest Cretaceous-Palaeocene times. We investigated the Rosetta Marble of the Ören Unit, as well as other known and newly found localities in the Tavşanlı and Afyon zones, and the Alanya Massif and Malatya area, to decipher the metamorphic, diagenetic and sedimentologic significance of these uncommon textures. Based on field, petrographic and geochemical investigations, we document a wide variety of Rosetta-type textures. A striking resemblance with well-known gypsum morphologies (e.g. shallow-tail, palm-tree textures) leads us to argue that Rosetta Marble was initially composed of giant gypsum crystals (selenite). The absence of anhydrite relicts of pseudomorphs indicate that gypsum transformed into calcite soon after the deposition by the mean of a sulphate reduction reaction. The gypsum-to-calcite transformation requires that organic matter intervened as a reactant phase. Mid Cretaceous oceanic domains in the Tethyan realm are characterised by overall anoxic conditions that allowed the preservation of organic material. Rosetta Marble exposures are widely distributed over 600 km along the Neotethyan suture zone. During deepening of the Neotethyan ocean in Mid Cretaceous times, basin-wide and cyclic sedimentation of gypsum and radiolarite occurred. The origin of high-salinity waters needed for gypsum precipitation was located at shelf levels. Density and gravity effects forced the brines to cascade downwards into the deep ocean. Favorable climatic conditions trigger the formation

  4. Timing and processes for exhumation of HP/LT rocks of the southern Brooks Range (AK): Insight from combined geochemistry and 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology of white mica (United States)

    O'Brien, T.; Miller, E. L.; Grove, M. J.; Hayden, L. A.


    The obduction of an island arc onto the Arctic Alaska continental margin in the Jura-Cretaceous led to southward subduction of continental crust and high-pressure/low-temperature (HP/LT) epidote-blueschist facies metamorphism in the southern Brooks Range (BR). A regionally developed greenschist facies normal-sense shear zone system along the southern margin of the BR suggests that extensional faulting had an influential role in the exhumation of the metamorphic core. To better constrain the exhumation history of the metamorphic core of the BR, samples were collected from a N-S transect through the metamorphic core of the orogen. Electron microprobe (EMP) analyses of white micas reveal that they are composed of phengite (Si > 3.0 pfu) or a combination of phengite + paragonite. Si-content of phengites reveal a southward increase in Si from 3.1 to 3.4 pfu (corresponding to an increase in pressure). Si-contents in higher-P phengites are scattered, reflecting subsequent muscovite growth. The Si trend is matched by a southward increase in the 40Ar/39Ar total gas ages of white micas. Phengite from the north are characterized by younger ages (~115 Ma) and flatter 40Ar/39Ar spectra. Farther south, phengites and paragonites yield older 40Ar/39Ar ages. These samples yield convex, staircase 40Ar/39Ar spectra that initiate ~115-120 Ma and flatten-out ~130-138 Ma. Modeling using MacArgon proposes that an initial cooling of HP/LT metamorphism occurred ~130-138 Ma, recorded in the high-Si phengites and paragonites. Following initial cooling, modeling suggests HP/LT rocks stalled in the greenschist facies field before subsequent exhumation, resulting in the staircase 40Ar/39Ar spectra. Flatter 40Ar/39Ar spectra recorded by the northern samples and modeling of 40Ar/39Ar results from the southern samples suggest that these rocks from metamorphic core of the BR were exhumed to temperatures < 300°C by ~115 Ma.

  5. Metamorphic belts of Anatolia (United States)

    Oberhänsli, Roland; Prouteau, Amaury; Candan, Osman; Bousquet, Romain


    Investigating metamorphic rocks from high-pressure/low-temperature (HP/LT) belts that formed during the closure of several oceanic branches, building up the present Anatolia continental micro-plate gives insight to the palaeogeography of the Neotethys Ocean in Anatolia. Two coherent HP/LT metamorphic belts, the Tavşanlı Zone (distal Gondwana margin) and the Ören-Afyon-Bolkardağ Zone (proximal Gondwana margin), parallel their non-metamorphosed equivalent (the Tauride Carbonate Platform) from the Aegean coast in NW Anatolia to southern Central Anatolia. P-T conditions and timing of metamorphism in the Ören-Afyon-Bolkardağ Zone (>70?-65 Ma; 0.8-1.2 GPa/330-420°C) contrast those published for the overlying Tavşanlı Zone (88-78 Ma; 2.4 GPa/500 °C). These belts trace the southern Neotethys suture connecting the Vardar suture in the Hellenides to the Inner Tauride suture along the southern border of the Kirşehir Complex in Central Anatolia. Eastwards, these belts are capped by the Oligo-Miocene Sivas Basin. Another HP/LT metamorphic belt, in the Alanya and Bitlis regions, outlines the southern flank of the Tauride Carbonate Platform. In the Alanya Nappes, south of the Taurides, eclogites and blueschists yielded metamorphic ages around 82-80 Ma (zircon U-Pb and phengite Ar-Ar data). The Alanya-Bitlis HP belt testifies an additional suture not comparable to the northerly Tavşanlı and Ören-Afyon belts, thus implying an additional oceanic branch of the Neotethys. The most likely eastern lateral continuation of this HP belt is the Bitlis Massif, in SE Turkey. There, eclogites (1.9-2.4 GPa/480-540°C) occur within calc-arenitic meta-sediments and in gneisses of the metamorphic (Barrovian-type) basement. Zircon U-Pb ages revealed 84.4-82.4 Ma for peak metamorphism. Carpholite-bearing HP/LT metasediments representing the stratigraphic cover of the Bitlis Massif underwent 0.8-1.2 GPa/340-400°C at 79-74 Ma (Ar-Ar on white mica). These conditions compares to the Tav

  6. Metamorphic evolution of metadolerites from the Frido Unit ophiolites (Southern Apennine-Italy) (United States)

    Cristi Sansone, Maria T.; Prosser, Giacomo; Rizzo, Giovanna; Tartarotti, Paola


    seriate texture; ii) rocks with brown horneblende showing an intersertal or a blastophitic texture or a partially blastophitic and foliate texture in one specimen; iii) rocks with brown horneblende and blue amphibole with an intersertal or a blastophitic texture. Primary clinopyroxene is replaced by brown and green amphiboles interpreted as being of oceanic origin; brown amphiboles show Mg-hastingsite, edenite, pargasite, Fe-hastingsite, Mg-horneblende and tschermakite compositions, whereas green amphiboles show Mg-hastingsite, hastingsite, edenite, Mg-horneblende, tschermakite and Fe-tschermakite compositions. Other minerals developed in the amphibolite facies conditions are: oligoclase, titanite and apatite. The blue amphiboles have a winchite and barrowisite composition and are interpreted as being originated during the early stages of the orogenic metamorphism, since they rim the oceanic brown and green amphiboles. The mineral assemblage of orogenic metamorphism is typical of the LT-blueschist facies conditions and consists of glaucophane, Mg-riebekite, lawsonite, phengite, pumpellyite and aegerin-augite. Bulk-rock chemistry of metadolerites suggests that protoliths of the mafic rock have a N-MORB-type affinity. Ca-rich metadolerites are affected by ocean-floor rodingitic alteration, whereas Na-rich metadolerites show a spilitic alteration. The study of metadolerites from Frido Unit show evidence of the entire evolution from their origin in the ocean floor to their emplacement in the accretionary wedge. Textural and mineralogical observations suggest that the metadolerites of the Frido Unit have been affected by both ocean-floor metamorphism in the amphibolite to greenschist facies- and subsequent orogenic metamorphism under relatively HP/LT conditions. The HP/LT orogenic metamorphism reflecting underplating of the ophiolitic suite at the base of the Liguride accretionary wedge during subduction produced mineral assemblages typical of the lawsonite-glaucophane facies

  7. Prograde metamorphic evolution and development of chloritoid-bearing eclogitic assemblages in subcontinental metagabbro (Sesia Lanzo zone, Italy) (United States)

    Rebay, G.; Messiga, B.


    In the coronitic metagabbroic rocks of the Corio and Monastero metagabbro bodies in the continental Sesia-Lanzo zone of the western Italian Alps, a variety of mineral reactions that testify to prograde conditions from greenschist to eclogite-facies can be recognised. A microstructural and microchemical study of a series of samples characterized by coronitic textures and pseudomorphic replacement of the original igneous minerals has allowed the prograde reactions undergone by the rocks to be established. In completely eclogitized coronitic samples, paragonite, blue amphibole, garnet, epidote, fine grained jadeite and chloritoid occur in plagioclase microdomains (former igneous plagioclase). The mafic mineral microdomains consist of glaucophane and garnet. Complexly-zoned amphiboles constrain changing metamorphic conditions: cores of pre-Alpine brown hornblende and/or tremolite are preserved inside rims of a sodic-calcic amphibole that are in turn surrounded by a sodic amphibole. The main high-pressure mineral assemblage, as seen in mylonites, involves glaucophane, chloritoid, epidote, garnet ± phengite, ± paragonite. Some layers within the gabbro contain garnet, omphacite, ± glaucophane, and acid dykes crosscutting the gabbro body contain jadeite, quartz, garnet, epidote and paragonite. The presence of chloritoid-bearing high-pressure assemblages reflects hydration of the gabbros during their pre-Alpine exhumation prior to subduction, as well as the composition of the microdomains operating during subduction. The pressure and temperature conditions of gabbro transformation during subduction are inferred to be 450-550 °C at up to 2 GPa on the basis of the chloritoid-bearing assemblages. The factors controlling the reaction pathway to form chloritoid-bearing high-pressure assemblages in mafic rocks are inferred from these observations.

  8. Carbide-metal assemblages in a sample returned from asteroid 25143 Itokawa: Evidence for methane-rich fluids during metamorphism (United States)

    Harries, Dennis; Langenhorst, Falko


    We found that the particle RA-QD02-0115 returned by the Hayabusa spacecraft from near-Earth asteroid 25143 Itokawa contains the iron carbide haxonite (Fe21.9-22.7Co0.2-0.3Ni0.2-0.8)C6 and several Fe,Ni alloys, including multi-domain tetrataenite and spinodally decomposed taenite. Ellipsoidal to nearly spherical voids occur throughout the particle and suggest the presence of a fluid phase during textural and chemical equilibration of the host rock within the parent asteroid of 25143 Itokawa. The calculated solubility of carbon in Fe,Ni metal indicates that the carbide formed at temperatures larger than 600 °C during thermal metamorphism of the LL-chondritic mineral assemblage. Haxonite formed metastably with respect to graphite and cohenite, probably due to its high degree of lattice match with neighboring taenite, a low cooling rate at peak metamorphic temperatures, and the hindered nucleation of graphite. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations indicate that the fluid present was dry (H2O-poor) and dominated by methane. The reactive fluid most plausibly had an atomic H/C ratio of 4-5 and was derived from the reduction of macromolecular, insoluble organic matter (IOM) that initially co-accreted with water ice. The initial presence of water is a necessary assumption to provide sufficient hydrogen for the formation of methane from hydrolyzed IOM. Metallic iron was in turn partially oxidized and incorporated into the ferromagnesian silicates during the high-temperature stage of metamorphism. An exemplary bulk reaction from unequilibrated material on the left to an equilibrated assemblage on the right may be written as: 330 CH0.8O0.2(IOM) + 500 H2O(ice/g) + 681 Fe(in alloy) + 566 FeSiO3(in Opx) → 300 CH4(g) + 32 H2(g) + 5 Fe23C6(in Hx) + 566 Fe2SiO4(in Ol) (Opx = orthopyroxene, Hx = haxonite, Ol = olivine, g = fluid species). The best estimate of the fluid/rock ratio in the region of the LL parent body where RA-QD02-0115 formed is about 3 × 10-3 and corresponds to

  9. Metamorphic evolution of the Frido Unit from the southern Apennines (Italy): consequences for the subduction processes in the western Mediterranean area (United States)

    Laurita, Salvatore; Prosser, Giacomo; Altenberger, Uwe; Bousquet, Romain; Oberhänsli, Roland; Cavalcante, Francesco


    The southern Apennine chain is a typical segment of the western Mediterranean orogenic belt. It consists of oceanic- and continent-derived complexes, representing the remnants of the Tethyan oceanic crust and as its eastern (Adriatic) margin. Oceanic subduction was active during the Eocene, followed by involvement of the Adriatic margin during the Oligocene-early Miocene. The Frido Unit represents the uppermost tectonic unit in the nappe pile of the southern Apennine chain. It is a typical ocean-derived unit, made up of metasediments, metabasites, serpentinites and fragments of continental crust rocks. Although HP/LT conditions for metabasites (0.6-0.8 GPa; 350±50°C or 0.8-1.0 GPa; 400-450°C) were already recognized, the extent of the HP-LT overprint and its widespread regional distribution in the sedimentary matrix has never been described in detail. In the present study we define the HP/LT metamorphism of the Frido Unit exposed in the Pollino area (Basilicata) by: i) mapping the occurrence of new and significant index minerals in all rock types (metasediments, gneisses and mafic rocks), to document the areal extent of HP-LT metamorphism in the Frido Unit; ii) constraining P-T evolution and the deformation of both mafic rocks and metasediments during the subduction process. Mapping of index minerals in metasediments (carpholite and aragonite), metabasites and fragments of continental crust rocks (glaucophane, riebeckite, lawsonite, and omphacite/jadeite) reveals widespread HP metamorphism, indicating that the whole Frido Unit underwent HP-LT conditions during subduction. Interestingly, carpholite occurs within a NW-oriented belt, where strongly deformed metabasalts and massive metadolerites show the most widespread HP overprint. By using thermodynamic modelling on a HP metadolerite and by considering the stability field of carpholite and aragonite in metasediments peak PT conditions of 0.9-1.2 GPa at less than 350 °C can be deduced. A very cold retrograde path

  10. Petrology and phase equilibrium modeling of sapphirine + quartz assemblage from the Napier Complex, East Antarctica: Diagnostic evidence for Neoarchean ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism

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    Hisako Shimizu


    Full Text Available A synthesis of the petrological characters of granulite facies rocks that contain equilibrium sapphirine + quartz assemblage from two localities (Tonagh Island (TI and Priestley Peak (PP in the Napier Complex, East Antarctica, provides unequivocal evidence for extreme crustal metamorphism possibly associated with the collisional orogeny during Neoarchean. The reaction microstructures associated with sapphirine + quartz vary among the samples, probably suggesting different tectonic conditions during the metamorphic evolution. Sapphirine and quartz in TI sample were probably in equilibrium at the peak stage, but now separated by corona of Grt + Sil + Opx suggesting near isobaric cooling after the peak metamorphism, whereas the Spr + Qtz + Sil + Crd + Spl assemblage replaces garnet in PP sample suggesting post-peak decompression. The application of mineral equilibrium modeling in NCKFMASHTO system demonstrated that Spr + Qtz stability is lowered down to 930 °C due to small Fe3+ contents in the rocks (mole Fe2O3/(FeO + Fe2O3 = 0.02. The TI sample yields a peak p-T range of 950–1100 °C and 7.5–11 kbar, followed by cooling toward a retrograde stage of 800–950 °C and 8–10 kbar, possibly along a counterclockwise p-T path. In contrast, the peak condition of the PP sample shows 1000–1050 °C and >12 kbar, which was followed by the formation of Spr + Qtz corona around garnet at 930–970 °C and 6.7–7.7 kbar, suggesting decompression possibly along a clockwise p-T trajectory. Such contrasting p-T paths are consistent with a recent model on the structural framework of the Napier Complex that correlates the two areas to different crustal blocks. The different p-T paths obtained from the two localities might reflect the difference in the tectonic framework of these rocks within a complex Neoarchean subduction/collision belt.

  11. Syn- to post-orogenic exhumation of metamorphic nappes: Structure and thermobarometry of the western Attic-Cycladic metamorphic complex (Lavrion, Greece) (United States)

    Scheffer, Christophe; Vanderhaeghe, Olivier; Lanari, Pierre; Tarantola, Alexandre; Ponthus, Léandre; Photiades, Adonis; France, Lydéric


    The Lavrion peninsula is located along the western boundary of the Attic-Cycladic metamorphic complex in the internal zone of the Hellenic orogenic belt. The nappe stack is well exposed and made, from top to bottom, of (i) a non-metamorphic upper unit composed of an ophiolitic melange, (ii) a middle unit mainly composed of the Lavrion schists in blueschist facies, (iii) and a basal unit mainly composed of the Kamariza schists affected by pervasive retrogression of the blueschist facies metamorphism in greenschist facies. The middle unit is characterized by a relatively steep-dipping foliation associated with isoclinal folds of weakly organized axial orientation. This foliation is transposed into a shallow-dipping foliation bearing a N-S trending lineation. The degree of transposition increases with structural depth and is particularly marked at the transition from the middle to the basal unit across a low-angle mylonitic to cataclastic detachment. The blueschist facies foliation of the Lavrion schists (middle unit) is underlined by high pressure phengite intergrown with chlorite. The Kamariza schists (basal unit) contains relics of the blueschist mineral paragenesis but is dominated by intermediate pressure phengite also intergrown with chlorite and locally with biotite. Electron probe micro-analyzer chemical mapping combined with inverse thermodynamic modeling (local multi-equilibrium) reveals distinct pressure-temperature conditions of crystallization of phengite and chlorite assemblages as a function of their structural, microstructural and microtextural positions. The middle unit is characterized by two metamorphic conditions grading from high pressure (M1, 9-13 kbar) to lower pressure (M2, 6-9 kbar) at a constant temperature of ca. 315 °C. The basal unit has preserved a first set of HP/LT conditions (M1-2, 8-11 kbar, 300 °C) partially to totally transposed-retrogressed into a lower pressure mineral assemblage (M3, 5-8.5 kbar) associated with a slight but

  12. Stepwise exhumation of the Triassic Lanling high-pressure metamorphic belt in Central Qiangtang, Tibet: Insights from a coupled study of metamorphism, deformation, and geochronology (United States)

    Liang, Xiao; Wang, Genhou; Yang, Bo; Ran, Hao; Zheng, Yilong; Du, Jinxue; Li, Lingui


    The E-W trending Central Qiangtang metamorphic belt (CQMB) is correlated to the Triassic orogeny of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean prior to Cenozoic growth of the Tibetan Plateau. The well-exposed Lanling high-pressure, low-temperature (HP-LT) metamorphic complex was chosen to decipher the process by which it was exhumed, which thereby provides insights into the origin of the CQMB and Qiangtang terrane. After a detailed petrological and structural mapping, three distinct N-S-trending metamorphic domains were distinguished. Microscopic observations show that core domain garnet (Grt)-bearing blueschist was exhumed in a heating plus depressurization trajectory after peak eclogitic conditions, which is more evident in syntectonic vein form porphyroblastic garnets with zoning typical of a prograde path. Grt-free blueschist of the mantle domain probably underwent an exhumation path of temperature increasing and dehydration, as evidenced by pervasive epidote veins. The compilation of radiometric results of high-pressure mineral separates in Lanling and Central Qiantang, and reassessments on the published phengite data sets of Lanling using Arrhenius plots allow a two-step exhumation model to be formulated. It is suggested that core domain eclogitic rocks were brought onto mantle domain blueschist facies level starting at 244-230 Ma, with exhumation continuing to 227-223.4 Ma, and subsequently were exhumed together starting at 223-220 Ma, reaching lower greenschist facies conditions generally after 222-217 Ma. These new observations indicate that the CQMB formed as a Triassic autochthonous accretionary complex resulting from the northward subdcution of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean and that HP-LT rocks therein were very probably exhumed in an extensional regime.

  13. Cretaceous high-pressure metamorphic belts of the Central Pontides (northern Turkey): pre-collisional Pacific-type accretionary continental growth of Laurasian Margin (United States)

    Aygul, Mesut; Okay, Aral I.; Oberhaensli, Roland; Sudo, Masafumi


    Cretaceous blueschist-facies metamorphic rocks crop out widely in the central part of the Pontides, an east-west trending mountain belt in northern Turkey. They comprise an accretionary wedge along to the southern Laurasian active continental margin and predate the opening of Black Sea basin. From North to South, the wedge consists of a low grade metaflysch unit with marble, Na-amphibole-bearing metabasite and serpentinite blocks. An extensional shear zone separates the accreted distal terrigenous sediments from HP/LT micaschists and metabasites of oceanic origin, known as Domuzdaǧ Complex. The shear zone reaches up to one km in thickness and consists of tectonic slices of serpentinite, metabasite, marble, phyllite and micaschist with top to the NW sense of shear. The Domuzdaǧ Complex predominantly consists of carbonaceous micaschist and metabasite with serpentinite, and minor metachert, marble and metagabbro. Metabasites consist mainly of epidote-blueschists sometimes with garnet. Fresh lawsonite-blueschists are found as blocks within the shear zone. Peak metamorphic assemblages in the micaschists are chloritoid-glaucophane and garnet-chloritoid-glaucophane-lawsonite in addition to phengite, paragonite, quartz, chlorite and rutile (P: 17 ± 1 Kbar, T: 390-450 °C). To the south, lithologies change slightly, with metabasite and thick, pale marble with few metachert and metapelitic horizons. The degree of metamorphism also changes. The metabasites range from high-pressure upper-greenschist facies with growth of sodic-amphibole to lower greenschist without any HP index mineral, suggesting a general decrease in pressure toward south within the prism. While Domuzdaǧ Complex represents deep-seated underplated oceanic sediments and basalts, the carbonate-rich southern parts can be interpreted as seamounts integrated into the accretionary prism. Ar/Ar dating on phengite separates both from terrigenous and oceanic metasediments give consistent plateau ages of 100 ± 2

  14. Metamorphism of the glaucophane - and magnesioriebeckite - bearing metamorphic rocks in the Gostivar - Vodno Zone, North - Western Macedonia


    Mircovski, Vojo; Spasovski, Orce


    Mineral assemblages discovered in the glaucophane - and magnesioriebeckite - bearing metamorphic rocks of Gostivar - Vodno zone, allow to distinguish three metamorphic phases. The first - phase metamorphism is progressive and corresponds to conditions of the lowest temperature part of the greenschist facis at P from 2 to 4 bar and T of about 350 C. The second metamorphic phase formed the sodic amphiboles glaucophane and magnesioriebeckite in a paragenesis with phengite and epidote - minerals ...

  15. Pre-accretion metamorphism of the Teloloapan Terrane (southern Mexico): example of burial metamorphism in an island-arc setting (United States)

    Talavera Mendoza, O.


    Volcanic and interbedded volcaniclastic rocks of the lower Cretaceous island-arc series of the Teloloapan Terrane in southern Mexico contain metamorphic assemblages characteristic of the zeolite, prehnite-pumpellyite and lower greenschist facies produced by burial metamorphism prior to its accretion to nuclear Mexico. Distribution of secondary assemblages throughout the stratigraphic succession, together with the chemical evolution of metamorphic minerals, reveals a depth-controlled metamorphic zonation characterized by the presence of the diagnostic assemblages laumontite+pumpellyite+epidote and laumontite+celadonite+pumpellyite±epidote (zeolite facies) followed downward by assemblages containing prehnite+pumpellyite±white mica (prehnite-pumpellyite facies) and finally by the presence of the assemblages pumpellyite+actinolite+epidote and epidote+actinolite (greenschist facies). Analysis of assemblages in the Al-Fe 3+-FM-K system, reveals that facies boundaries are discontinuous, involving the disappearance of at least one phase and the appearance and/or extension of the field of equilibrium of other diagnostic minerals and assemblages. Application of empirically based thermobarometers, phase equilibria, mineral chemistry, and petrogenetic grids indicates that the P- T conditions of metamorphism ranged from 175 to 342°C and Pgeothermal gradients of about ˜55°C km -1. Seawater-derived fluids were characterized by high aK, high fO 2 and low XCO 2.

  16. Cretaceous high-pressure metamorphism and low pressure overprint in the Sistan Suture Zone, eastern Iran: Additional temperature estimates for eclogites, geological significance of U-Pb zircon ages and Rb-Sr constraints on the timing of exhumation (United States)

    Kurzawa, Timon; Bröcker, Michael; Fotoohi Rad, Gholamreza; Berndt, Jasper; Lisker, Frank


    The Sistan Suture Zone, eastern Iran, includes blocks and lenses of eclogite-, blueschist- and/or epidote amphibolite-facies rocks that provide an excellent opportunity to examine the exhumation history of oceanic HP/LT rocks and their retrograde derivatives. Zr-in-rutile thermometry of eclogites corroborates previous interpretations suggesting metamorphic temperatures of ca. 550-600 °C during the HP stage in the Sistan area. Flat HREE distribution patterns and Ti-in-zircon temperatures of ca. 500-600 °C document that zircon in eclogite is of metamorphic origin. REE patterns of zircon from felsic meta-igneous rocks do not allow to distinguish between a magmatic or metamorphic origin, but relatively low temperatures indicated by Ti-in-zircon thermometry (ca. 500-600 °C) and the close similarity of zircon (U-Pb) and white mica (Rb-Sr, Ar-Ar) ages favor a metamorphic zircon origin. Previously published isotopic ages of the felsic rocks cannot unambiguously be linked to the eclogite- and/or blueschist-facies P-T conditions due to the absence of unequivocal mineralogical and petrological evidence. Instead, these rocks may record contemporaneous metamorphic processes that took place at a different depth within the subduction complex, or may indicate active ridge subduction and/or melt formation in the subduction zone at relatively low pressures. Biotite-based internal Rb-Sr isochrons of newly dated epidote amphibolite and biotite-albite gneisses indicate ages of ca. 74-80 Ma, either dating fluid-infiltration-induced formation of biotite during relatively fast uplift, or the time of final passage through the effective biotite closure temperature. Rb-Sr ages of phengite from both an epidote amphibolite and a biotite-albite gneiss yield ages that correspond to the HP/LT stage. This outcome, combined with textural evidence for derivation from eclogitic precursors documents that white mica ages of some strongly overprinted Sistan rocks are compromised by inheritance and do

  17. Garnet peridotites from Pohorje: Petrography, geothermobarometry and metamorphic evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirijam Vrabec


    Full Text Available Ultrahigh-pressure (UHP metamorphism has been recorded in Eo-Alpine garnet peridotites from the PohorjeMts., Slovenia, belonging to the Eastern Alps. The garnet peridotite bodies are found within serpentinized metaultrabasitesin the SE edge of Pohorje and are closely associated with UHP kyanite eclogites. These rocks belongto the Lower Central Austroalpine basement unit of the Eastern Alps, exposed in the proximity of the Periadriaticfault system.Garnet peridotites show signs of a complex four-stage metamorphic history. The protolith stage is represented bya low-P high-T assemblage of olivine + Al-rich orthopyroxene + Al-rich clinopyroxene + Cr-spinel. Due to metamorphism,primary clinopyroxene shows exsolutions of garnet, orthopyroxene, amphibole, Cr-spinel and ilmenite. TheUHP metamorphic stage is defined by the assemblage garnet + olivine + Al-poor orthopyroxene + clinopyroxene +Cr-spinel. Subsequent decompression and final retrogression stage resulted in formation of kelyphitic rims aroundgarnet and crystallization of tremolite, chlorite, serpentine and talc.Pressure and temperature estimates indicate that garnet peridotites reached the peak of metamorphism at 4 GPaand 900 °C, that is well within the UHP stability field. Garnet peridotites in the Pohorje Mountains experiencedUHP metamorphism during the Cretaceous orogeny and thus record the highest-pressure conditions of all Eo-Alpinemetamorphism in the Alps.

  18. Mesozoic thermal history and timing of structural events for the Yukon-Tanana Upland, east-central Alaska: 40Ar/39Ar data from metamorphic and plutonic rocks (United States)

    Dusel-Bacon, C.; Lanphere, M.A.; Sharp, W.D.; Layer, P.W.; Hansen, V.L.


    We present new 40Ar/39Ar ages for hornblende, muscovite, and biotite from metamorphic and plutonic rocks from the Yukon-Tanana Upland, Alaska. Integration of our data with published 40Ar/39Ar, kinematic, and metamorphic pressure (P) and temperature (T) data confirms and refines the complex interaction of metamorphism and tectonism proposed for the region. The oldest metamorphic episode(s) postdates Middle Permian magmatism and predates the intrusion of Late Triassic (215-212 Ma) granitoids into the Fortymile River assemblage (Taylor Mountain assemblage of previous papers). In the eastern Eagle quadrangle, rapid and widespread Early Jurassic cooling is indicated by ???188-186 Ma 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages for hornblende from plutons that intrude the Fortymile River assemblage, and for metamorphic minerals from the Fortymile River assemblage and the structurally underlying Nasina assemblage. We interpret these Early Jurassic ages to represent cooling resulting from northwest-directed contraction that emplaced the Fortymile River assemblage onto the Nasina assemblage to the north as well as the Lake George assemblage to the south. This cooling was the final stage of a continuum of subduction-related contraction that produced crustal thickening, intermediate- to high-P metamorphism within both the Fortymile River assemblage and the structurally underlying Lake George assemblage, and Late Triassic and Early Jurassic plutonism in the Fortymile River and Nasina assemblages. Although a few metamorphic samples from the Lake George assemblage yield Jurassic 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages, most yield Early Cretaceous 40Ar/39Ar ages: hornblende ???135-115 Ma, and muscovite and biotite ???110-108 Ma. We interpret the Early Cretaceous metamorphic cooling, in most areas, to have resulted from regional extension and exhumation of the lower plate, previously tectonically thickened during Early Jurassic and older convergence.

  19. Relations between tectonic tremor and metamorphic processes (United States)

    Fagereng, A.; Diener, J. F.


    Tectonic tremor appears to require low effective stress conditions, and is therefore commonly inferred to correlate with zones of high fluid pressure. In subduction settings, tremor generally occurs near the down-dip end of the interseismically locked zone of the subduction thrust interface. We calculate the stable mineral assemblages in the subducting slab, and find that slab dehydration is not continuous, but rather restricted to a few reactions localized in pressure-temperature space. Along geothermal gradients applicable to Shikoku and Cascadia, our calculations indicate that localized voluminous water release from the breakdown of lawsonite and chlorite+glaucophane respectively, occurs near the tremor source region at the down-dip limit of the locked zone. The shape of the pressure-temperature path for the subducting slab prevents fluid release at depths above and below where these dehydration reactions occur. It therefore appears that tremor in these locations correlate with site-specific metamorphic dehydration reactions. Tremor is also observed along the deep extension of the central San Andreas Fault. We calculate the stable mineral assemblages in basalt and greywacke, representing main components of the Franciscan Complex melange rocks forming the protolith of San Andreas fault rocks. From thermal models and surface heat flow data it is apparent that the tremor source region is cooling and experiencing retrograde metamorphic conditions. Several mineralogical transitions occur at the temperature-depth conditions of tremor on the deep San Andreas, and during retrograde metamorphism these reactions lead to localized, significant removal of free water from the fault zone and an associated volume decrease. Contrary to subduction-related tremor, tremor on the San Andreas fault is therefore not linked to fluid production within the fault zone; rather it might be related to volume change and/or fault zone weakening that occurs as phyllosilicates replace more

  20. Fluids in metamorphic rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touret, J.L.R.


    Basic principles for the study of fluid inclusions in metamorphic rocks are reviewed and illustrated. A major problem relates to the number of inclusions, possibly formed on a wide range of P-T conditions, having also suffered, in most cases, extensive changes after initial trapping. The

  1. Initiating intermediate-depth earthquakes: Insights from a HP-LT ophiolite from Corsica (United States)

    Deseta, N.; Ashwal, L. D.; Andersen, T. B.


    The hypocentres of intermediate-depth earthquakes have been shown to overlap with the regions in subducting slabs that contain high abundances of hydrous minerals. This relationship was initially revealed using geophysical and numerical modelling and until recently has lacked corroboration from direct field-based research. We evaluated the relationship of the coincidence of intermediate-depth earthquakes with hydrous minerals in the slab by undertaking detailed geochemical analyses of blueschist to lawsonite to eclogite facies pseudotachylytes and their hostrocks located within an exhumed ophiolite, the Eocene Schistes Lustres Complex in Corsica. These units comprise incompletely metamorphosed metagabbro and peridotite. The wallrocks of the pseudotachylytes contain variable amounts of hydrous minerals: tremolite, Mg-hornblende, glaucophane in the metagabbro, and serpentine, tremolite and chlorite in the peridotite. Back-scatter-electron images show that the hydrous minerals entrained in the melt undergo fusion rather than dehydration. Vesicular and H2O-rich melt veins are observed cross-cutting partially molten pseudotachylyte fault veins and show evidence of H2O exsolution during melt solidification. The crystallisation products of these melts indicate formation under high temperature, high pressure conditions (1400-1700 °C; 1.5 GPa). The peridotite-hosted pseudotachylytes crystallised olivine, orthopyroxene and diopside, which are surrounded by interstitial Al- and H2O-rich glass. The metagabbro pseudotachylyte is dominated by Al-rich omphacite, ilmenite and high-Fe anorthite. XRF bulk analyses of the wallrock of the pseudotachylyte and electron microprobe analyses of the pseudotachylyte matrix, entrained survivor clasts and the crystallisation products show that near-total disequilibrium melting took place. The peridotite-hosted pseudotachylyte composition is skewed strongly towards chlorite; however, the preservation of delicate dendritic diopside and olivine hopper crystals suggests that the pseudotachylyte is unaltered, indicating that preferential fusion of chlorite took place. The metagabbro-hosted pseudotachylyte matrix composition is very similar to the bulk wallrock composition but slightly skewed by the preferential melting of Mg-hornblende and tremolite. Not all the pseudotachylytes are hydrous as the H2O content of the melts is highly variable; the metagabbro-pseudotachylyte ranges from 0 to 4 wt.% and the peridotite-pseudotachylyte ranges from 0 to 14 wt.%. The range in H2O content of the pseudotachylytes has lead us to conclude that the localised dehydration of hydrous minerals may be a second order factor in initiating intermediate-depth seismicity. However, we have observed that the pseudotachylytes with the most chaotic vein networks, thickest fault veins and most comminuted material have the highest abundances of hydrous wallrock minerals, possibly owing to repeated fluid ingress in between pseudotachylyte-generating events. This implies that free fluids enhance pseudotachylyte generation and possibly seismicity, but are not a first order requirement. Microtextural and geochemical results from this study suggest that the presence of abundant H2O-rich minerals in the slab exerts a strong rheological control during high strain-rate deformation, facilitating thermally-triggered localising shear instabilities. These field-based observations allow us to explore the assumption of the causal link between slab hydration and earthquake nucleation, and offer fresh insight into the debate of how intermediate-depth earthquakes take place.

  2. New evidence for polyphase metamorphism of glaucophane schist and eclogite exotic blocks in the Franciscan Complex, California and Oregon (United States)

    Moore, Diane E.; Blake, M.C.


    The early metamorphic history of high-grade exotic blocks in the Franciscan Complex may be more complicated than previously supposed. The different assemblages of high-grade glaucophane schists, eclogite, amphibolite and hornblende schist are commonly considered to have formed at the same time from essentially unmetamorphosed oceanic crust. However, new textural and mineralogical data presented here suggest that high-grade glaucophane schist and eclogite have replaced an earlier epidote-amphibolite facies assemblage that is identical to the primary assemblages in many of the hornblende-rich blocks. At least some of the hornblende-rich blocks may therefore be well-preserved remnants of the earlier metamorphism. Comparison of the mineral assemblages and element partititioning in the mixed-assemblage blocks suggests that the glaucophane schist and eclogite metamorphism took place at slightly lower temperatures but at the same or higher pressures than the earlier, hornblende-forming stage. -Authors

  3. Trace element composition of rutile in eclogite from the Karakaya Complex, NW Anatolia: Implications for rutile growth during subduction zone metamorphism (United States)

    Şengün, Fırat


    High-pressure/low-temperature (HP/LT) eclogite-facies terranes are widely regarded to represent exhumed fragments of subducted slabs. Therefore, the metamorphic studies of eclogites and associated high-pressure rocks yield crucial information about their P-T evolution and associated tectonometamorphic processes at depth in subduction zones. Especially rutile in eclogites record chemical history of subduction zones and also constrain metamorphic temperatures of subduction zone processes. Eclogites occur as a tectonic slice within metabasite-phyllite-marble intercalation of the Karakaya Complex. In this study, trace element geochemistry of rutiles and Zr-in-rutile thermometry have been investigated. The main mineralogical composition eclogites are composed of omphacite, garnet, glaucophane, epidote and quartz. Core-rim analyses through rutile grains yield remarkable trace element zoning with lower contents of Nb, Ta and Zr in the core than in the rim. The variations in Nb, Ta and Zr can be ascribed to the growth zoning rather than diffusion effect. The Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf ratios increase with a decrease in Ta and Hf contents, which could be ascribed to the effect of metamorphic dehydration at subduction zones on rutile Nb/Ta differentiation. The rutile grains from eclogites in the Karakaya Complex are characterized by subchondritic Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf ratios. It can be noted that the subchondritic Nb/Ta ratios may record rutile growth from local sinks of aqueous fluids from metamorphic dehydration. The Zr contents of the all rutile grains vary between 81 and 160 ppm with the average of 123 ppm. The Zr-in-rutile thermometer yielded the metamorphic temperature of 559-604 oC (average 585 oC) for eclogites occurring in the Karakaya Complex. This average temperature suggests the peak growth temperature of rutile. Moreover, Zr contents and calculated temperatures in both inclusion rutile and matrix rutile from eclogites are identical to each other, which suggests that rutiles in

  4. Modelling Metamorphism by Abstract Interpretation (United States)

    Dalla Preda, Mila; Giacobazzi, Roberto; Debray, Saumya; Coogan, Kevin; Townsend, Gregg M.

    Metamorphic malware apply semantics-preserving transformations to their own code in order to foil detection systems based on signature matching. In this paper we consider the problem of automatically extract metamorphic signatures from these malware. We introduce a semantics for self-modifying code, later called phase semantics, and prove its correctness by showing that it is an abstract interpretation of the standard trace semantics. Phase semantics precisely models the metamorphic code behavior by providing a set of traces of programs which correspond to the possible evolutions of the metamorphic code during execution. We show that metamorphic signatures can be automatically extracted by abstract interpretation of the phase semantics, and that regular metamorphism can be modelled as finite state automata abstraction of the phase semantics.

  5. Metamorphic Testing for Cybersecurity. (United States)

    Chen, Tsong Yueh; Kuo, Fei-Ching; Ma, Wenjuan; Susilo, Willy; Towey, Dave; Voas, Jeffrey; Zhou, Zhi Quan


    Testing is a major approach for the detection of software defects, including vulnerabilities in security features. This article introduces metamorphic testing (MT), a relatively new testing method, and discusses how the new perspective of MT can help to conduct negative testing as well as to alleviate the oracle problem in the testing of security-related functionality and behavior. As demonstrated by the effectiveness of MT in detecting previously unknown bugs in real-world critical applications such as compilers and code obfuscators, we conclude that software testing of security-related features should be conducted from diverse perspectives in order to achieve greater cybersecurity.

  6. Strange Assemblage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Robert Cole


    Full Text Available This paper contends that the power of Deleuze & Guattari’s (1988 notion of assemblage as theorised in 1000 Plateaus can be normalised and reductive with reference to its application to any social-cultural context where an open system of dynamic and fluid elements are located. Rather than determining the assemblage in this way, this paper argues for an alternative conception of ‘strange assemblage’ that must be deliberately and consciously created through rigorous and focused intellectual, creative and philosophical work around what makes assemblages singular. The paper will proceed with examples of ‘strange assemblage’ taken from a film by Peter Greenaway (A Zed and 2 Noughts; the film ‘Performance’; educational research with Sudanese families in Australia; the book, Bomb Culture by Jeff Nuttall (1970; and the band Hawkwind. Fittingly, these elements are themselves chosen to demonstrate the concept of ‘strange assemblage’, and how it can be presented. How exactly the elements of a ‘strange assemblage’ come together and work in the world is unknown until they are specifically elaborated and created ‘in the moment’. Such spontaneous methodology reminds us of the 1960s ‘Happenings’, the Situationist International and Dada/Surrealism. The difference that will be opened up by this paper is that all elements of this ‘strange assemblage’ cohere in terms of a rendering of ‘the unacceptable.'

  7. Using quantitative phase petrology to understand metamorphism (United States)

    White, Richard


    Quantitative phase petrology has become one of the mainstay methods for interpreting metamorphic rocks and processes. Its increased utility has been driven by improvements to end-member thermodynamics, activity-composition relationships and computer programs to undertake calculations. Such improvements now allow us to undertake calculations in increasingly complex chemical systems that more closely reflect those of rocks. Recent progress in activity-composition (a-x) relationships is aimed at developing suites of a-x relationships in large chemical systems that are calibrated together, which will allow a more direct application of the method to metamorphic rocks. In addition, considerable progress has been made in how quantitative phase diagrams can be used to understand features, including chemical potential diagrams for reaction textures, methods for fractionating bulk compositions and methods for modelling open system processes. One feature of calculated phase diagrams is that they present us with a great amount of information, such as mineral assemblages, mineral proportions, phase compositions, volume or density etc. An important aspect to using this information is to understand the potential uncertainties associated with these, which are significant. These uncertainties require that calculated phase diagrams be used with caution to interpret observed features in rocks. Features such as mineral zoning and reaction textures should still be interpreted in a semi-quantitative way, even if based on a fully quantitative diagram. Exercises such as the interpretation of reaction overstepping based on relating phase diagrams to observed mineral core compositions are likely to give spurious results given the infelicities in existing a-x models. Despite these limitations, quantitative phase petrology remains the most useful approach to interpreting the metamorphic history of rocks in that it provides a theoretical framework in which to interpret observed features rather

  8. Metamorphic assemblages and the direction of flow of metamorphic fluids in four instances of serpentinization (United States)

    Barnes, I.; Rapp, J.B.; O'Neil, J.R.; Sheppard, R.A.; Gude, A.J.


    Fluids related to Serpentinization are of at least three types. The first reported (Barnes and O'Neil, 1969) is a fluid of local meteoric origin, the chemical and thermodynamic properties of which are entirely controlled by olivine, orthopyroxene, brucite, and serpentine reactions. It is a Ca+2-OH-1 type and is shown experimentally to be capable of reacting with albite to yield calcium hydroxy silicates. Rodingites may form where the Ca+2-OH-1 type waters flow across the ultramafic contact and react with siliceous country rock. The second type of fluid has its chemical composition largely controlled before it enters the ultramafic rocks, but reactions within the ultramafic rocks fix the thermodynamic properties by reactions of orthopyroxene, olivine, calcite, brucite, and serpentine. The precipitation of brucite from this fluid clearly shows that fluid flow allows reaction products to be deposited at a distance from the point of solution. Thus, textural evidence for volume relations during Serpentinization may not be valid. The third type of fluid has its chemical properties fixed in part before the reactions with ultramafic rocks, in part by the reactions of orthopyroxene, olivine, and serpentine and in part by reactions with siliceous country rock at the contact. The reactions of the ultramafic rock and country rock with the fluid must be contemporaneous and require flow to be along the contact. This third type of fluid is grossly supersaturated with talc and tremolite, both found along the contact. The occurrence of magadiite, kenyaite, mountainite, and rhodesite along the contact is probably due to a late stage low-temperature reaction of fluids of the same thermodynamic properties as those that formed the talc and tremolite at higher temperatures. Oxygen isotope analyses of some of these minerals supports this conclusion. Rodingites form from Ca+2-rich fluids flowing across the contact; talc and tremolite form from silica-rich fluids flowing along the contact. Isotopic analyses of the fluids indicate varied origins including unaltered local meteoric water and connate water. Complexion Spring water may be a sample of only slightly altered Jurassic or Cretaceous sea water. ?? 1972 Springer-Verlag.

  9. Prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphism in the Cenozoic Abanico Formation, Andes of central Chile (33°50'S: chemical and scale controls on mineral assemblages, reaction progress and the equilibrium state Metamorfismo de facies prehnita-pumpellyita en la Formación Abanico del Cenozoico, Andes centrales de Chile (33°50'S: controles químicos y de escala sobre las asociaciones minerales, el progreso de la reacción y el estado de equilibrio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Muñoz


    Full Text Available In the El Volcan and Rodeo de los Bueyes areas, Andean Principal Cordillera (east of Santiago; 33°50'S, an Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene volcanic series belonging to the Abanico Formation (Late Eocene-Early Miocene is exposed. The rock successions outcropping in both areas, ca. 3,300 m total thickness, have been affected by very low-grade, non-deformative metamorphism in the prehnite-pumpellyite facies. This is represented by the widespread development of secondary mineral assemblages composed of epidote, mixed-layer chlorite-smectite, albite, quartz, white mica, and titanite. These mineral assemblages also contain pumpellyite, prehmte or prehnite+actinolite in a few samples. Chemical characteristics, such as low compositional variability of mixed-layer chlorite-smectite and actino-lite independent from the metadomain where these phases are hosted, along with a high proportion of chlorite layers in the former, suggest that these phases closely represent the whole rock effective bulk composition. On the contrary, pumpellyite compositions show a higher variability and a strong metadomain control evidencing its lower equilibration kinetics and leaving only those that grow in the rock matrix as the more closely representative of a whole rock effective bulk compositional control. Mineral assemblages from both areas show evidence of having been formed during the same metamorphic event where reactions have ocurred equivalently between them. However, local differences in chemical variables controlling this process are recognizable. A higher CO2 concentration in the fluids during the metamorphism in the El Volcán area than in the Rodeo de los Bueyes area is suggested by the scarce development of prehnite and the ubiquitous presence of calcite in the metamorphic assemblages of the former. Pressure and temperature of this metamorphic event have been roughly estimated to be lower than 2-3 kbar and 320°C, respectively.En las areas de El Volcán y Rodeo de

  10. Metamorphic evolution of aluminous granulites from Labwor Hills, Uganda (United States)

    Sandiford, Michael; Neall, Fiona B.; Powell, Roger


    Sapphirine-cordierite-quartz and spinel-cordierite-quartz form relic assemblages of probable Archaean age in Fe-rich aluminous metapelites from Labwor Hills, Uganda, and reflect an unusually high temperature metamorphism (˜1,000° C) at pressures in the vicinity of 7 9 kbars and a(O2) near the magnetite-hematite buffer. Subsequent reaction textures include the replacement of spinel and cordierite by sillimanite and hypersthene and formation of sapphirine-hypersthene-K-feldspar-quartz symplectites which are interpreted as pseudomorphs after osumilite. A petrogenetic grid appropriate to these assemblages suggests these reaction textures may be due to cooling at constant or increasing pressure and constant a(O2), or decreasing a(O2) at constant temperature and pressure. The former interpretation is supported by the coexistence of ilmenohematite and magnetite during the development of the reaction textures, and by the comparatively low Al2O3-contents of secondary hypersthene. This pressure-temperature path implies that: (1) metamorphism occurred at deep levels within normal thickness crust, probably less than 40 45 km thick, due to an extreme thermal perturbation induced either by emplacement of mantle-derived magmas or by thinning of the subcontinental lithosphere in an extensional tectonic regime, (2) the excavation and surface exposure of the granulites is due to a subsequent, postgranulite facies metamorphism, crustal thickening most probably involving their incorporation into an allochthonous upper crustal thrust sheet during the formation of the Mozambique foldbelt.

  11. Identity Assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Line Helverskov

    The study aims at exploring how identity is enacted within the context of a two-year programme in Service, Hospitality, and Tourism Management (SHTM). This research thus investigates how students and educators go about their daily lives in different educational contexts both on and off campus......, the IDENTITY ASSEMBLAGES 8 analysis unfolds the relational understanding of identity by introducing the concept of ‘identity assemblages’, that is, complex actor-networks of the human/non-human and material/immaterial. Furthermore, the analysis describes how the enactment of identities is made possible...... or hindered by organisational patterns, that is, modes of ordering (Law 1994). This is, in essence, an argument for identities as organisational effects. The study’s main contributions may be structured in three categories. First, it explores the applicability of ANT to identity studies and thereby serves...

  12. Regional metamorphic controls on alteration associated with gold mineralization in the Eastern Goldfields province, Western Australia: Implications for the timing and origin of Archean lode-gold deposits (United States)

    Witt, W. K.


    Alteration assemblages associated with Archean epigenetic gold mineralization in the Menzies-Kambalda area of the Yilgarn craton, Western Australia, vary systematically with regional metamorphic grade, up to and including upper amphibolite facies rocks. K-metasomatism is recorded by the presence of muscovite, biotite, and K-feldspar at progressively higher metamorphic grades. High metamorphic grades are commonly developed in broad thermal aureoles around fate syntectonic granitic intrusions. Metamorphic recrystallization of alteration assemblages is common in the thermal aureoles. These relations suggest broad contemporaneity among granitoid intrusion, regional metamorphism, and mineralization during the final stages of the tectonic evolution of the granite-greenstone terrain. Late syntectonic granitoids acted as centers of heat and fluid flux in large-scale, synmetamorphic hydrothermal systems that deposited gold, possibly from modified mantle-derived fluids.

  13. Petrological and geochemical records of short-lived, high temperature metamorphism during exhumation of the Sulu UHP metamorphic terrane (United States)

    Zong, K.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, X.; Ye, Y.; Gao, C.


    The Dabie-Sulu terrane of east-central China is the largest and most well known ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic terrane in the world, which has become one of the most important places to study continental subduction-related UHP metamorphism. In the past two decades, numerous petrological, geochemical, petrophysical and tectonophysical studies were carried out in the Dabie-Sulu UHP metamorphic terrane. However, almost all of these studies have focused on UHP metamorphic processes, while only a few studies have focused on the thermal evolution. Here we present a detailed petrological and geochemical study on the southern Sulu UHP eclogites in order to constrain the “hot” exhumation of the Sulu UHP metamorphic terrane. Eclogite-hosted garnet-spinel-corundum-quartz-bearing titanohematite veins near the main hole of the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project (CCSD-MH) are described for the first time in the Sulu UHP metamorphic terrane. A vein composed of titanohematite + ilmenite + hematite + spinel + garnet + corundum + quartz + K-feldspar + albite was studied in detail. The unusual mineral assemblage of garnet + spinel + corundum + quartz implies that this vein could have experienced high temperatures (>900 oC). Although within garnets showed well-defined Mg and Mn diffusion zoning in the rim as a result of the high temperature event, slight Mg and Mn growth zoning was preserved in the core. Thus, we suggest that the Sulu UHP terrane could have experienced a short-lived, high-temperature stage during exhumation. This is consistent with trace element zoning recorded by garnet, omphacite and apatite and much higher temperatures recorded by rutiles and zircons with ages of ~200 Ma in the CCSD-MH eclogites. We speculate that slab breakoff may have caused asthenospheric upwelling, which could have provided a heat pulse for the short-lived, high-temperature metamorphism in the Sulu UHP terrane. Such high temperature stage could have contributed to the

  14. High-pressure metamorphism in the Chinshuichi area, Yuli belt, eastern Taiwan (United States)

    Keyser, William; Tsai, Chin-Ho; Iizuka, Yoshiyuki; Oberhänsli, Roland; Ernst, W. G.


    Tectonic blocks and slabs of mafic-ultramafic rocks are distributed discontinuously in the Yuli metamorphic belt of Taiwan. The blocks include rare omphacite metagabbros and garnet-epidote blueschists in the Wanjung and Juisui (Tamayen) areas, respectively. Such high-pressure (HP) mineral assemblages have been attributed to a mid-Miocene subduction event. However, the surrounding psammitic, pelitic and chloritic schists are the dominant greenschist-facies lithologies of the Yuli belt. In the Chinshuichi area, tectonic blocks are enclosed in garnet-bearing metapelites, suggesting elevated pressures. In this area, we recently discovered meta-plagiogranite containing the assemblage glaucophane + omphacite (XJd up to 0.39) + rutile + quartz, indicating P-T conditions near 13 kbar/550 °C. New equilibrium phase modeling of a garnet-paragonite mica schist and compositional isopleths for peak assemblage minerals garnet and phengite (Si = 3.33-3.37 pfu) indicate metamorphic conditions of 15.5-17 kbar/530-550 °C. These P-T estimates are higher than previously reported in the Yuli belt and suggest that both tectonic blocks and host metapelites underwent HP metamorphism. The juxtaposition of tectonic blocks and metapelites apparently occurred during the formation of a subduction-accretionary complex, followed by exhumation facilitated by a collisional event. These new findings imply that HP metamorphism was not limited to tectonic blocks, and instead played a significant role attending orogenesis in eastern Taiwan.

  15. Geochemistry and paleotectonomagmatic setting of metabasites protolith from Asalem metamorphic complex (northwest Rasht

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    Mohsen Nasrabady


    Full Text Available Asalem metamorphic complex consists mostly of metabasite, metapelite and serpentinite. Metabasites display metamorphic features of greenschist and blueschist facies. Greenschist facies rocks that found as both foliated and massive types contain mineralogical assemblage of actinolite, chlorite, albite and epidote. Blueschists contain mineralogical assemblage of sodic amphibole, epidote and phengite. Whole rock analyses of the metabasites indicate basaltic to andesitic composition with mainly calcalkaline nature of their protolith. According to the discrimination diagrams of tectonomagmatic setting, the protolith of investigated metabasites has been islands arc and somewhat mid ocean ridge. The patterns of rare earth elements and spider diagrams of the Asalem metabasites resemble to the basic and intermediate magmatism of islands arc or suprasubduction setting as well. Greenschists and blueschists facies rocks of the Asalem metamorphic complex have been probably equivalent to islands arc or young and hot oceanic crust of suprasubduction zone setting. This portion of oceanic basin unlike the subducted even and thick oceanic lithosphere of Paleotethys during accretion in the shallower levels of accretionary prisms, have underwent metamorphic conditions of blueschist and greenschist facies and finally gave rise to the formation of the metabasites of the Asalem metamorphic complex.

  16. Timing and conditions of regional metamorphism and crustal shearing in the granulite facies basement of south Namibia: Implications for the crustal evolution of the Namaqualand metamorphic basement in the Mesoproterozoic (United States)

    Bial, Julia; Büttner, Steffen; Appel, Peter


    Granulite facies basement gneisses from the Grünau area in the Kakamas Domain of the Namaqua-Natal Metamorphic Province in south Namibia show high-grade mineral assemblages, most commonly consisting of garnet, cordierite, sillimanite, alkali feldspar and quartz. Cordierite + hercynitic spinel, and in some places quartz + hercynitic spinel, indicate granulite facies P-T conditions. The peak assemblage equilibrated at 800-850 °C at 4.0-4.5 kbar. Sillimanite pseudomorphs after kyanite1 and late-stage staurolite and kyanite2 indicate that the metamorphic record started and ended within the stability field of kyanite. Monazite in the metamorphic basement gneisses shows a single-phase growth history dated as 1210-1180 Ma, which we interpret as the most likely age of the regional metamorphic peak. This time coincides with the emplacement of granitic plutons in the Grünau region. The ∼10 km wide, NW-SE striking Grünau shear zone crosscuts the metamorphic basement and overprints high-temperature fabrics. In sheared metapelites, the regional metamorphic peak assemblage is largely obliterated, and is replaced by synkinematic biotite2, quartz, alkali feldspar, sillimanite and cordierite or muscovite. In places, gedrite, staurolite, sillimanite and green biotite3 may have formed late- or post-kinematically. The mylonitic mineral assemblage equilibrated at 590-650 °C at 3.5-5.0 kbar, which is similar to a retrograde metamorphic stage in the basement away from the shear zone. Monazite cores in two mylonite samples are similar in texture and age (∼1200 Ma) to monazite in metapelites away from the shear zone. Chemically distinct monazite rims indicate a second growth episode at ∼1130-1120 Ma. This age is interpreted to date the main deformation episode along the Grünau shear zone and the retrograde metamorphic stage seen in the basement. The main episode of ductile shearing along the Grünau shear zone took place 70-80 million years after the thermal peak metamorphism

  17. Fi Investigations On Hp-Rocks From The Lower Engadine Window New Insights On Its Late Tectono-Metamorphic Evolution (United States)

    Bertle, R. J.; Götzinger, M. A.; Koller, F.


    Fluid inclusions studies in metamorphic rocks allow to reconstruct not only the chemistry of the fluids enabling and/or supporting metamorphic reactions but also the late metamorphic evolution of orogenesis. Therefore late, discordant quarz-calcite veins were investigated using FI-techniques. The Engadine Window which is exposed at the Swiss-Austrian-border exposes the penninic units of the Western Alps as a tectonic window within the Austroalpine nappes of the Eastern Alps. The nappes of the Engadine window underwent metamorphism and deformation during Tertiary times (THÖNI 1981, BERTLE 2000). The highest unit (Fimber unit) and the core of the window (= Zone of Pfunds) suffered HP-LT-metamorphism. P-T-conditions for parts of the Zone of Pfunds at the region of Piz Mundin are at 13-15 kbar at 380^oC (BOUSQUET et al. 2002) indicated by the occurrence of carpholite and glaucophane. The late metamorphic history is not very well constrained. There exist only a few FI-data published in an abstract by STÖCKHERT et al. 1990 and some unpublished data in RING 1989. During the ongoing mapping campaign of the first author samples from the Fimber unit and the Zone of Pfunds were collected and investigated using a LINKHAM freezing-cooling-stage. The investigated veins are discordant in respect to the main-foliation of the rocks and show nice cristalls of quarz, calcite and sometimes feldspar (adularia). Structural data implie that the investigated veins correspond to a set of ac-joints that correlate to the late updoming of the large "Engadiner Gewölbe" (Engadin anticlinal structure, MATTMÜLLER 1996). All investigated veins (from all tectonic units) show the same relationship to the anticlinal structure. FI-investigations show, that a large amount of the primary FI are decrepitated, however it was possible to find enough to provide a serious statistical data set. FI from Piz Mundin in the core of the Engadine window exhibit at the base of the vein quarz at the contact to

  18. Proterozoic metamorphism in the Neoarchean Kabul Block, Afghanistan (United States)

    Collett, Stephen; Wali Faryad, Shah


    The Kabul Block is an elongate crustal fragment that is situated within a tectonic zone known as the Afghan Central Blocks, which form at the triple junction between the Indian, Eurasian, and Arabian plates. Unique amongst the Afghan Central Blocks, the Kabul Block contains quantifiably Precambrian basement rocks. Recent U/Pb SHRIMP analysis of zircons from the lowermost basement formations (the Sherdarwaza and Khair Khana) indicated the presence of a small Neoarchean component (~2700 Ma), while the majority of zircon cores yielded ages of 2200-2500 Ma. The Sherdarwaza and Khair Khana Formations consist predominantly of migmatites and orthogneisses that reached granulite-facies conditions. Conventional geothermobarometry and phase equilibria modelling on well preserved granulite-facies assemblages indicate that the rocks reached peak conditions in excess of 850°C and up to 7 kbar. U/Pb SHRIMP dating of zircon rims in addition to Th/U dating of monazite inclusions in garnet suggest that this event occurred in the late Paleoproterozoic (1800-1900 Ma). The granulite-facies assemblages are overprinted by a younger amphibolite-facies metamorphism, and are unconformably overlain by amphibolite-facies rocks belonging to younger formations (the Kharog and Welayati) that lack paragenetic evidence for a preceding high-grade metamorphism. The Welayati formation crops-out extensively in the south of Kabul City and consists of a variety of mica-schists and garnet-amphibolites, which contain textural relations suitable for the construction of a pressure-temperature (P-T) path. Inclusion assemblages in porphyroblastic garnet yield P-T conditions of around 525°C and 6 kbar. Chemical zonation in the garnet and phase equilibria modelling indicates that from this point garnet grew during a pressure increase of ~3.5 kbar over a temperature increase of ~125°C. A subsequent period of near isothermal decompression over ~2 kbar is confirmed by the growth of plagioclase, kyanite, and

  19. Tectonic-metamorphic evolution of the Jebilet massif (Morocco) in the context of the Variscan orogeny (United States)

    Delchini, S.; Lahfid, A.; Lacroix, B.


    The Jebilet massif belongs to the western Moroccan Meseta characterized by nearly complete Paleozoic sedimentary sequence folded and metamorphosed under low-grade greenschist- to amphibolite-facies during the Variscan orogeny, and intruded by widespread syn- to late-orogenic Carboniferous granitoids (Michard et al., 2008, 2010 and references therein). It has been previously proposed that Jebilet massif first underwent a regional, greenschist facies metamorphic event (D1 phase), followed by a high-T regional and contact metamorphism that reached the hornfels/amphibolite facies conditions (D2 and D2/D3 phases). However our recent observations of staurolite likely belonging to D1 assemblage obscure the previously proposed metamorphic conditions. In order to refine the metamorphic model we propose to revise the entire metamorphic conditions of the Jebilet massif. To address this issue, detailed structural, mineralogical, thermobarometric and Raman Spectroscopy on Carbonaceous Material (RSCM) methods have been employed to study the tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Jebilet. The results obtained for the metapelitic rocks that underwent D2/D3 higher metamorphism grades (hornfels/amphibolite facies), show four dominant mineral assemblages: (1) Chlorite-Biotite, (2) Cordierite-Biotite, (3) Andalusite-Garnet-Biotite, and (4) Andalusite-Cordierite-Biotite. The corresponding RSCM temperatures vary between 474 ± 50 °C and 628 ± 50 °C. The computed pseudo-sections for samples from the hornfels/amphibolite facies confirm the peak temperatures measured by the RSCM method. Our structural and mineralogical results support the occurrence of the Garnet-Staurolite assemblage during the D1 regional metamorphism event. These results bring new constrains on the evolution of the Jebilet massif during the Variscan orogeny of the western Moroccan Meseta and strongly suggest that the D1 phase reached higher conditions than those initially proposed, refining the metamorphic history of

  20. The thermodynamic regime of metamorphism in the ancient subduction zones (United States)

    Perchuk, L. L.; Aranovich, L. Ya.


    Based on mineralogical themometry and baroraetry and computation of mineral reactions modelling metamorphic sequence, a geotherm for metamorphic belts of the subduction zones has been deduced. Relatively low PT-values (3 kbar/200° C) correspond to zeolite and prehnite-pumpellyite metasediments and at higher pressures and temperatures (10 kbar/400 °C) lawsonite-glaucophane assemblages become unstable. The PT-curve achieves maximum at 11 kbar and 470° C to drop down to normal geotherm (Perchuk 1977). High concentration of H2O in the metamorphic fluid has been revealed, the difference between Pf1 and P_{{text{H}}_{text{2}} {text{O}}} being less than 2 kbar. Consideration has also been given to specific thermodynamic regime of zeolite and prehnite-pumpellyite zones of the younger island arcs, where lawsoniteglaucophane zones are absent. Here the geotherm has been found to rise from 0.2kbar/120° C up to 4 kbar/350° C and P_{{text{H}}_{text{2}} {text{O}}}-regime similar to that of glaucophane schists formations.

  1. Metamorphic Rocks in West Irian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegen, van der G.


    Low-grade metamorphics of West Irian occur to the east of Geelvink Bay associated with two narrow belts of basic and ultrabasic igneous rocks which represent ophiolitic suites of an eugeosynclinical development beginning in Early Mesozoic time. In both of these belts there are indications of

  2. Age of metamorphic events : petrochronology and hygrochronology (United States)

    Bosse, Valerie; Villa, Igor M.


    , reflect the interaction with the surrounding mineral assemblages. An often neglected observation is that the K-Ar chronometer minerals show similar patterns of isotopic inheritance closely tied to relict patches and heterochemical retrogression phases (Villa and Williams 2013). Isotopic closure in the U-Pb and K-Ar systems follows the same principle: thermal diffusion is very slow, dissolution and reprecipitation are several orders of magnitude faster. This means that both U-Pb and K-Ar mineral chronometers are hygrochronometers. The interpretation of the ages of the different domains cannot be decoupled from the geochemical and petrological context. The focus on petrology also requires, following Villa (1998, 2016), that the ages measured in metamorphic rocks no longer can be used in geodynamic models according to the "closure temperature" concept as originally defined by Dodson (1973). Bosse et al. (2009) Chem Geol 261: 286 Didier et al. (2014) Chem Geol 381: 206 Didier et al. (2015) Contrib Mineral Petrol 170: 45 Dodson (1973) Contrib Mineral Petrol 40: 259 Muller (2003) EPSL, 206: 237 Villa (1998) Terra Nova 10: 42 Villa (2016) Chem Geol 420: 1 Villa & Williams (2013) In: Harlov & Austrheim (eds.), Metasomatism and the Chemical Transformation of Rock. Springer, p171

  3. Different origins of garnet in high pressure to ultrahigh pressure metamorphic rocks (United States)

    Xia, Qiong-Xia; Zhou, Li-Gang


    Garnet in high-pressure (HP) to ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks in subduction zone commonly shows considerable zonation in major and trace elements as well as mineral inclusions, which bears information on its growth mechanism via metamorphic or peritectic reactions in coexistence with relic minerals and metamorphic fluids or anatectic melts at subduction-zone conditions. It provides an important target to retrieve physicochemical changes in subduction-zone processes, including those not only in pressure and temperature but also in the durations of metamorphism and anatexis. Garnet from different compositions of HP to UHP metamorphic rocks may show different types of major and trace element zonation, as well as mineral inclusions. Discrimination between the different origins of garnet provides important constraints on pressure and temperature and the evolution history for the HP to UHP metamorphic rocks. Magmatic garnet may occur as relics in granitic gneisses despite metamorphic modification at subduction-zone conditions, with spessartine-increasing or flat major element profiles from inner to outer core and exceptionally higher contents of trace elements than metamorphic mantle and rim. Metamorphic garnet can grow at different metamorphic stages during prograde subduction and retrograde exhumation, with spessartine-decreasing from core to rim if the intracrystalline diffusion is not too fast. The compositional profiles of metamorphic garnet in the abundances of grossular, almandine and pyrope are variable depending on the composition of host rocks and co-existing minerals. Peritectic garnet grows through peritectic reactions during partial melting of HP to UHP rocks, with the composition of major elements to be controlled by anatectic P-T conditions and the compositions of parental rocks and anatectic melts. Trace element profiles in garnet with different origins are also variable depending on the coexisting mineral assemblages, the garnet

  4. Stable isotope and fluid inclusion studies of metamorphic fluid flow in an evolving tectonic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesolowski, D.; Cole, D.R.; Drummond, M.S.; Stakes, D.R.


    The Southern Appalachian borehole represents a unique opportunity to couple O-H-C-S isotope and fluid inclusion studies with textures, mineralogies, and chemical compositions in order to assess the role of fluids in metamorphism, deformation, element migration, and heat transfer throughout the evolution of a complex orogen. Studies which focus on hydrothermal veins, felsic/mafic intrusives and juxtaposed but chemically and isotopically distinct lithologies such as volcanics/-clastics and silicates/carbonates will be particularly informative. That large-scale metamorphic fluid flow has occurred in the Southern Appalachians is evidenced by devolatilization of enormous masses of rock during prograde metamorphism and extensive revolatilization, along major shear zones exhibiting retrograde assemblages. The authors own textural, chemical and oxygen isotope studies of granitoids and their host rocks in Northern Alabama document substantial isotopic, major and trace element (e.g. U, Th, Pb, Rb, and Sr) redistribution over thousands of cubic kilometers via exchange with infiltrating metamorphic fluids. Even chemically and mineralogically unaltered granites in the area have been isotopically enriched, perhaps reflecting differing chemical and isotopic exchange capacities of the fluid/rock system. These observations suggest that the chemical and isotopic effects of metamorphic fluid flow must be quantified in order to determine the origins of sedimentary and igneous rocks based on their geochemical signatures and age dates and to evaluate the role of fluids in the tectonic evolution of the proposed study area.

  5. Accessory Mineral Geochronology and Trace Element Fingerprinting of Metamorphic Processes (United States)

    Moller, A.


    Zircon and monazite are the most versatile tools for geochronological studies in magmatic, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. New trace element techniques are now used to link growth and modification to pressure and temperature evolution of magmatic and metamorphic rocks and to coexisting minerals. Studies on the distribution of rare earth elements (REE) have mainly focused on garnet and zircon relationships and which distribution patterns constitute equilibrium under different metamorphic conditions. But a more detailed understanding of the growth and modification processes of accessory phases is needed to provide better constraints for genetic models and multiple method datasets (U-Pb, REE, trace element thermometry, imaging) is essential. We use this approach on examples from high-temperature low-pressure granulites of Rogaland (SW Norway) and UHT medium pressure granulites from the Labwor Hills (Uganda) to illustrate the influence of major and accessory mineral reactions on the trace element signature of zircon and monazite. Relatively flat zircon HREE patterns, often associated with coexisting garnet, can also be found in orthopyroxene-bearing, garnet free assemblages. The zircon-opx distribution patterns are similar to zircon-garnet pairs from UHT leucosomes and granulites. Some garnet-bearing granulites are characterized by zircon overgrowths with xenotime inclusions and elevated Y- and HREE-contents, interpreted to reflect garnet breakdown at high T. Zircon and monazite in Labwor Hills metasedimentary granulites both have modified domains. Monazite has low Th rims that yield erroneous high chemical ages, interpreted to be due to loss of Th, while remnants of radiogenic Pb remain during the recrystallization process. Zircon in contrast has high Th rims and domains along sealed cracks that are characterized by anomalously high Th/U ratios (not previously associated with metamorphic growth or modification) and unusual REE patterns. These features are

  6. Permian high-temperature metamorphism in the Western Alps (NW Italy) (United States)

    Kunz, Barbara E.; Manzotti, Paola; von Niederhäusern, Brigitte; Engi, Martin; Darling, James R.; Giuntoli, Francesco; Lanari, Pierre


    During the late Palaeozoic, lithospheric thinning in part of the Alpine realm caused high-temperature low-to-medium pressure metamorphism and partial melting in the lower crust. Permian metamorphism and magmatism has extensively been recorded and dated in the Central, Eastern, and Southern Alps. However, Permian metamorphic ages in the Western Alps so far are constrained by very few and sparsely distributed data. The present study fills this gap. We present U/Pb ages of metamorphic zircon from several Adria-derived continental units now situated in the Western Alps, defining a range between 286 and 266 Ma. Trace element thermometry yields temperatures of 580-890 °C from Ti-in-zircon and 630-850 °C from Zr-in-rutile for Permian metamorphic rims. These temperature estimates, together with preserved mineral assemblages (garnet-prismatic sillimanite-biotite-plagioclase-quartz-K-feldspar-rutile), define pervasive upper-amphibolite to granulite facies conditions for Permian metamorphism. U/Pb ages from this study are similar to Permian ages reported for the Ivrea Zone in the Southern Alps and Austroalpine units in the Central and Eastern Alps. Regional comparison across the former Adriatic and European margin reveals a complex pattern of ages reported from late Palaeozoic magmatic and metamorphic rocks (and relics thereof): two late Variscan age groups ( 330 and 300 Ma) are followed seamlessly by a broad range of Permian ages (300-250 Ma). The former are associated with late-orogenic collapse; in samples from this study these are weakly represented. Clearly, dominant is the Permian group, which is related to crustal thinning, hinting to a possible initiation of continental rifting along a passive margin.

  7. Fluid-induced Blueschist Preservation on Syros, Cyclades, Southern Greece (United States)

    Kleine, B. I.; Huet, B.; Skelton, A. D. L.


    Local examples of preservation of high-pressure, low-temperature (HP-LT) mineral assemblages within retrograde metamorphosed greenschist are recorded from the Cyclades, Greece. Several models have been proposed to explain the preservation of HP-LT rocks in these areas. On Sifnos, a capping effect of impermeable marble units below the preserved blueschists caused diversion of the upward, cross-layer infiltration of retrograde fluids [1]. On Tinos, blueschist preservation occurred due to retrograde fluid flow channelization along lithological contacts with high flux rates [2]. HP-LT minerals were preserved in regions adjacent to these contacts where fluid fluxes were smaller. We propose a different mechanism of blueschist preservation based on observations from a costal section near Fabrika on Syros. At this locality a high strain zone cuts through a retrograde greenschist. Along the fault a dark blue halo occurs within the greenschist. Whole rock analyses along a profile from the fault into the greenschist show that only the areas directly adjacent to the deformation zone show chemical evidence of metasomatism, whereas the areas further away are chemically similar to greenschist. Point counting of 1000 evenly spaced points in thin sections of the profile shows a clear blueschist to greenschist transition with a blueschist mineral assemblage (glaucophane+phengite+calcite) nearer to the metasomatic zone and a typical greenschist mineral assemblage (epidote+chlorite+albite) farther away. We propose the following model to explain preservation of HP-LT mineral assemblage in this locality. During retrograde metamorphism a water-rich fluid infiltrated the blueschist rock from below. This occurred close to the brittle-ductile transition. This fluid caused a reaction front to propagate into the overlying blueschist at which its mineral assemblage glaucophane+phengite+calcite was replaced by the greenschist mineral assemblage epidote+albite+chlorite. Upwards-flowing fluid

  8. Alkali control of high-grade metamorphism and granitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg G. Safonov


    Full Text Available We review petrologic observations of reaction textures from high-grade rocks that suggest the passage of fluids with variable alkali activities. Development of these reaction textures is accompanied by regular compositional variations in plagioclase, pyroxenes, biotite, amphibole and garnet. The textures are interpreted in terms of exchange and net-transfer reactions controlled by the K and Na activities in the fluids. On the regional scale, these reactions operate in granitized, charnockitized, syenitized etc. shear zones within high-grade complexes. Thermodynamic calculations in simple chemical systems show that changes in mineral assemblages, including the transition from the hydrous to the anhydrous ones, may occur at constant pressure and temperature due only to variations in the H2O and the alkali activities. A simple procedure for estimating the activity of the two major alkali oxides, K2O and Na2O, is implemented in the TWQ software. Examples of calculations are presented for well-documented dehydration zones from South Africa, southern India, and Sri Lanka. The calculations have revealed two end-member regimes of alkalis during specific metamorphic processes: rock buffered, which is characteristic for the precursor rocks containing two feldspars, and fluid-buffered for the precursor rocks without K-feldspar. The observed reaction textures and the results of thermodynamic modeling are compared with the results of available experimental studies on the interaction of the alkali chloride and carbonate-bearing fluids with metamorphic rocks at mid-crustal conditions. The experiments show the complex effect of alkali activities in the fluid phase on the mineral assemblages. Both thermodynamic calculations and experiments closely reproduce paragenetic relations theoretically predicted by D.S. Korzhinskii in the 1940s.

  9. Thermal and shock metamorphism of the sixiangkou ordinary chondrite (United States)

    Ding, M. W.; Zhang, A. C.; Hsu, W. B.


    The Sixiangkou meteorite is a heavily shocked chondrite that contains numerous shock-induced melt veins of various widths. This paper focuses on the petrography and mineralogy of the host portion and shock veins of Sixiangkou. This meteorite contains relict chondrules with obscure structures and shapes. We calculate the peak equilibration temperature (891±36°C) recorded in the Sixiangkou L6 chondrite using the two-pyroxene geothermometer. The thermal metamorphic features of Sixiangkou are in accordance with the petrologic type 6. Olivine in the host portion of the chondrite shows obvious undulatory extinction and planar deformation features. Abundant maskelynite occurs in the chondrite. The shock veins contain numerous coarse-grained ringwoodite, majorite, and fine-grained high-pressure mineral assemblages. On the basis of these observations, Sixiangkou can be graded as S6 on the shock metamorphism scale. And it can also be inferred that the peak pressure which melt veins experienced is about 20GPa---24GPa and the temperature is higher than 2000°C. Merrilite and chromite in the shock veins are possibly transformed back from their high-pressure to low-pressure phases during the prolonged shock event Sixiangkou experienced.

  10. A polyphase metamorphic evolution for the Xitieshan paragneiss of the north Qaidam UHP metamorphic belt, western China: In-situ EMP monazite- and U-Pb zircon SHRIMP dating (United States)

    Zhang, Cong; van Roermund, Herman; Zhang, Lifei; Spiers, Chris


    In-situ electron microprobe (EMP) U-Th-Pb monazite-, sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) zircon analyses, metamorphic phase equilibrium (Domino/Theriak)- and geothermobarometric calculations are performed on kyanite/sillimanite-bearing garnet biotite gneisses forming part of the dominant rock association in the Xitieshan ultra-high pressure metamorphic belt, north Qaidam, western China. Results are consistent with the following complex polyphase tectono-metamorphic evolution. The kyanite/sillimanite bearing garnet biotite gneisses contain monazite ages of 938 ± 23 Ma and zircon SHRIMP ages of 945 ± 7 Ma, referring to a Neoproterozoic metamorphism, i.e. similar to the age of the Jinning orogeny in the Yangtze block of southern China. This correlation suggests that the paragneiss has affinities with the Yangtze block (South China block). The Neoproterozoic monazites were found inside coarse grained porphyroblastic garnets containing amphibolite facies mineral inclusion assemblages. The kyanite/sillimanite-bearing garnet biotite gneisses also contain early Paleozoic monazite ages of 422-425 Ma and 455-460 Ma, detected in amphibolite facies mineral assemblages associated with matrix minerals. Using phase equilibrium- and geothermobarometric calculations, PT conditions of 560-610 °C/5.8-7.0 kbar and 610-675 °C/4.6-6.5 kbar were calculated respectively for both amphibolite facies assemblages. The early Paleozoic ages of 422-425 Ma and 455-460 Ma were detected in 8 monazite grains from the investigated paragneiss samples. Based on the Y and Eu contents variation of the early Paleozoic monazite domains (measured by EMP), the 422-425 Ma monazite ages are interpreted to have formed during an amphibolite facies tectono-metamorphic overprint that post-dates (U)HP metamorphism and can thus be related to exhumation of previously deeply subducted rocks. Alternatively, the 455-460 Ma monazite ages are interpreted to represent the age of the prograde subduction

  11. Metamorphic Evolution of Garnet-bearing Epidote-Barroisite Schist from the Meratus Complex in South Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugroho Imam Setiawan


    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.2.3.139-156This paper presents metamorphic evolution of metamorphic rocks from the Meratus Complex in South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Eight varieties of metamorphic rocks samples from this location, which are garnet-bearing epidote-barroisite schist, epidote-barroisite schist, glaucophane-quartz schist, garnet-muscovite schist, actinolite-talc schist, epidote schist, muscovite schist, and serpentinite, were investigated in detail its petrological and mineralogical characteristics by using polarization microscope and electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA. Furthermore, the pressure-temperature path of garnet-bearing epidote-barroisite schist was estimated by using mineral parageneses, reaction textures, and mineral chemistries to assess the metamorphic history. The primary stage of this rock might be represented by the assemblage of glaucophane + epidote + titanite ± paragonite. The assemblage yields 1.7 - 1.0 GPa in assumed temperature of 300 - 550 °C, which is interpreted as maximum pressure limit of prograde stage. The peak P-T condition estimated on the basis of the equilibrium of garnet rim, barroisite, phengite, epidote, and quartz, yields 547 - 690 °C and 1.1 - 1.5 GPa on the albite epidote amphibolite-facies that correspond to the depth of 38 - 50 km. The retrograde stage was presented by changing mineral compositions of amphiboles from the Si-rich barroisite to the actinolite, which lies near 0.5 GPa at 350 °C. It could be concluded that metamorphic rocks from the Meratus Complex experienced low-temperature and high-pressure conditions (blueschist-facies prior to the peak metamorphism of the epidote amphibolite-facies. The subduction environments in Meratus Complex during Cretaceous should be responsible for this metamorphic condition.

  12. Shock metamorphism of carbonaceous chondrites (United States)

    Scott, Edward R. D.; Keil, Klaus; Stoeffler, Dieter


    Shock effects were studied in 69 carbonaceous chondrites, including CM2, CO3, CV3, ungrouped C2-C4, and CK4-6 chondrites, using optical microscopy of thin sections. It is shown that the classification scheme of Stoeffler et al. (1991) for the progressive stages of shock metamorphism in ordinary chondrites is also applicable to carbonaceous chondrites. On the basis of shock effects in olivine, the 69 carbonaceous chondrites could be assigned to four shock stage, S1 to S4. The CM2 and CO3 groups were found to be the least shocked chondrite groups, whereas the CK4-6 and CV3 were the most strongly shocked groups.

  13. Metamorphic evolution and geochronology of the Dunhuang orogenic belt in the Hongliuxia area, northwestern China (United States)

    Wang, Hao Y. C.; Wang, Juan; Wang, Guo-Dong; Lu, Jun-Sheng; Chen, Hong-Xu; Peng, Tao; Zhang, Hui C. G.; Zhang, Qian W. L.; Xiao, Wen-Jiao; Hou, Quan-Lin; Yan, Quan-Ren; Zhang, Qing; Wu, Chun-Ming


    Garnet-bearing mafic granulites and amphibolites from the Hongliuxia area of the southern Dunhuang orogenic belt, northwestern China, commonly occur as lenses or boudinages enclosed within metapelite or marble, which represent the block-in-matrix feature typical of orogenic mélange. Three to four generations of metamorphic mineral assemblages are preserved in these rocks. In the high-pressure amphibolites, prograde mineral assemblages (M1) occur as inclusions (hornblende + plagioclase + quartz ± chlorite ± epidote ± ilmenite) preserved within garnet porphyroblasts, and formed at 550-590 °C and 7.7-9.2 kbar based on geothermobarometry. The metamorphic peak mineral assemblages (M2) are composed of garnet + hornblende + plagioclase + quartz + clinopyroxene, as well as titanite + zircon + rutile + apatite as accessory minerals in the matrix, and are estimated to have formed at 640-720 °C and 14.1-16.0 kbar. The first retrograde assemblages (M3) are characterized by "white-eye socket" symplectites (hornblende + plagioclase + quartz ± biotite ± epidote ± magnetite) rimming garnet porphyroblasts, which formed at the expense of the garnet rims and adjacent matrix minerals during the decompression stage under P-T conditions of 610-630 °C and 5.6-11.8 kbar. The second retrograde assemblages (M4) are intergrowths of actinolite and worm-like quartz produced by the breakdown of the matrix hornblendes, and formed under P-T conditions of ∼490 °C and ∼2.8 kbar. For the high-pressure mafic granulites, the prograde assemblages (M1) are represented by plagioclase + quartz preserved within the garnet porphyroblasts. The metamorphic peak assemblages (M2) are garnet + matrix minerals (clinopyroxene + plagioclase + quartz + hornblende + rutile + zircon) and were estimated to have formed at ∼680 °C and ∼15.4 kbar. The retrograde assemblages (M3) are characterized by fine-grained patches of hornblende + plagioclase + quartz rimming the garnet porphyroblasts, as well as

  14. The Cedrolina Chromitite, Goiás State, Brazil: A Metamorphic Puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri de Melo Portella


    Full Text Available The Cedrolina chromitite body (Goiás-Brazil is concordantly emplaced within talc-chlorite schists that correspond to the poly-metamorphic product of ultramafic rocks inserted in the Pilar de Goiás Greenstone Belt (Central Brazil. The chromite ore displays a nodular structure consisting of rounded and ellipsoidal orbs (up to 1.5 cm in size, often strongly deformed and fractured, immersed in a matrix of silicates (mainly chlorite and talc. Chromite is characterized by high Cr# (0.80–0.86, high Fe2+# (0.70–0.94, and low TiO2 (av. = 0.18 wt % consistent with variation trends of spinels from metamorphic rocks. The chromitite contains a large suite of accessory phases, but only irarsite and laurite are believed to be relicts of the original igneous assemblage, whereas most accessory minerals are thought to be related to hydrothermal fluids that emanated from a nearby felsic intrusion, metamorphism and weathering. Rutile is one of the most abundant accessory minerals described, showing an unusually high Cr2O3 content (up to 39,200 ppm of Cr and commonly forming large anhedral grains (>100 µm that fill fractures (within chromite nodules and in the matrix or contain micro-inclusions of chromite. Using a trace element geothermometer, the rutile crystallization temperature is estimated at 550–600 °C (at 0.4–0.6 GPa, which is in agreement with P and T conditions proposed for the regional greenschist to low amphibolite facies metamorphic peak of the area. Textural, morphological, and compositional evidence confirm that rutile did not crystallize at high temperatures simultaneously with the host chromitite, but as a secondary metamorphic mineral. Rutile may have been formed as a metamorphic overgrowth product following deformation and regional metamorphic events, filling fractures and incorporating chromite fragments. High Cr contents in rutile very likely are due to Cr remobilization from Cr-spinel during metamorphism and suggest that Ti was

  15. Affects and assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    Affects and assemblages are Deleuzian Guattarian notions related to aesthetics and spatial territories. In recent urban geography and urban studies these notions are increasingly gaining more impact (Amin & Thrift 2002, Pile 2008, Farías & Bender 2010, Andersen & Harrison 2010, Thrift 2008). What...... happens to aesthetics and how does it change the existing social and geographical understanding of urban space? The paper sets out to reintroduce aesthetical aspects of affects and assemblages in relation to urban space and urban planning. It presupposes urban space as a continuous state of becoming where...... affects and assemblages produce subjective feelings and emotions (Pile 2009) Recently, urban experience designs and events aim at evoking affects through affects and assemblages. A Danish example is the Carlsberg city in Copenhagen another is The High line in Chelsea, New York (Samson 2011). Thus...

  16. Metamorphic sole formation, emplacement and blueschist overprint: early obduction dynamics witnessed by W. Turkey ophiolites (United States)

    Plunder, Alexis; Agard, Philippe; Chopin, Christian; Soret, Mathieu; Okay, Aral; Whitechurch, Hubert


    Western Turkey, with a >200 km long-belt of unmetamorphosed ophiolite overlying continental lithosphere is one or even the largest obducted ophiolite on Earth and therefore a key example to study obduction and early subduction dynamics. All Western Turkish ophiolite fragments are considered as part of the same Neotethyan branch resulting of a long-lived continental subduction (or underthrusting). Synchronous (ca. ~ 93 Ma) metamorphic sole formation and preservation at the base of most of the Turkish ophiolite fragments support this single event and place a strong constraint on the age of subduction initiation. Metamorphic soles are indeed generally considered to have formed during the early and hot subduction zone at 25 ± 10 km depths and welded to the overriding oceanic lithosphere. In Western Turkey however (as for most places worldwide) a systematic study of the pressure-temperature conditions with modern thermobarometric tools is generally lacking, and fundamental mechanisms of formation or accretion to the upper plate are poorly (if at all) constrained. We herein reappraise Western Turkish metamorphic soles focusing on the following points and issues: (i) detailed structures of metamorphic sole and other subduction derived units, petrological evolution and refined pressure-temperature conditions; peak pressure-temperature conditions of metamorphic sole were estimated using garnet, clinopyroxene, amphibole and plagioclase as the peak paragenesis at 10.5 ± 2 kbar and 800 ± 50°C based on pseudosections using the Theriak/Domino package (ii) the rather unique (and enigmatic) blueschist facies overprint found in places was investigated in terms of structural position and pressure-temperature conditions. Conditions of overprint were estimated around 12 kbar and 425 °C from the presence of glaucophane, lawsonite, jadeite and garnet overgrowing the amphibolite-facies assemblage. This field-based study provides clues to mechanisms of metamorphic sole underplating

  17. Shock metamorphism of ordinary chondrites (United States)

    Stoeffler, Dieter; Keil, Klaus; Scott, Edward R. D.


    This study proposes a revised petrographic classification of progressive stages of shock metamorphism of 26 ordinary chondrites. Six stages of shock (S1 to S6) are defined on the basis of shock effects in olivine and plagioclase as recognized by thin section microscopy, and the characteristic shock effects of each shock stage are described. It is concluded that shock effects and the sequence of progressively increasing degrees of shock metamorphosis are very similar in H, L, and LL groups. Differences in the frequency distribution of shock stages are relatively minor. It is suggested that the collisional histories of the H, L, and LL parent bodies were similar. Petrologic type-3 chondrites are deficient in stages S4 and S6 and, with increasing petrologic type, the frequency of stages S4 to S6 increases. It is suggested that the more porous and volatile-rich Type-3 chondrites are subject to melting at a lower shock pressure than the nonporous chondrites of higher petrologic type. Stage S3 is the most abundant in nearly all petrologic types.

  18. Applicability of the RSCM geothermometry approach in a complex tectono-metamorphic context: The Jebilet massif case study (Variscan Belt, Morocco) (United States)

    Delchini, Sylvain; Lahfid, Abdeltif; Plunder, Alexis; Michard, André


    The Raman Spectroscopy of Carbonaceous Materials (RSCM) geothermometry approach allows determining the peak temperature recorded by metasediments through their metamorphic history. This technique, however, has been calibrated using Meso-Cenozoic metapelitic rocks that underwent a single metamorphic cycle. Until now, the reliability of the RSCM method has never been demonstrated for contexts with superposition of regional and contact metamorphism, such as many Variscan contexts. The present study aims at testing the applicability of the RSCM method to these polyphased metamorphism terrains and at investigating the cumulative molecular transformations of carbonaceous materials related to metamorphic superposition. To address the above issues, samples were collected in the Variscan Jebilet massif of the Moroccan Meseta. This massif was first affected by a regional, greenschist facies metamorphic event (D1 phase), and then by a higher-T, regional and contact metamorphism that reached the hornfels/amphibolite facies conditions (D2 and D2/D3 phases). Mineralogical, thermobarometric and RSCM methods have been used in this study to determine the peak T recorded by the studied rocks. The results obtained for greenschist facies metapelitic rocks show a good agreement between the mineralogical assemblage Chlorite-Phengite-Felspar-Quartz and the Raman temperatures ranging from 330 to 394 ± 50 °C. In the metapelitic rocks that underwent higher metamorphism grades (hornfels/amphibolite facies), four dominant mineral assemblages were observed: (1) Chlorite-Biotite, (2) Cordierite-Biotite, (3) Andalusite-Garnet-Bt, and (4) Andalusite-Cordierite-Biotite. The corresponding Raman temperatures vary respectively between 474 ± 50 °C and 628 ± 50 °C. The pseudo-sections generated for samples from the hornfels/amphibolite facies confirmed the peak temperatures measured by the RSCM method. Our results do not support clear evidence of potential molecular cumulative effect on CM

  19. Mid amphibolite facies metamorphism of harzburgites in the Neoproterozoic Cerro Mantiqueiras Ophiolite, southernmost Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Valuable information is retrieved from the integrated investigation of the field relationships, microstructure and mineral compositions of harzburgites from the Neoproterozoic Cerro Mantiqueiras Ophiolite. This important tectonic marker of the geological evolution of southernmost Brazilian Shield was thoroughly serpentinized during progressive metamorphism, because the oldest mineral assemblage is: olivine + orthopyroxene + tremolite + chlorite + chromite. This M1 was stabilized in mid amphibolite facies - 550-600ºC as calculated from mineral equilibria. No microstructural (e.g. ductile deformation of olivine or chromite or compositional (e.g. mantle spinel remnant of mantle history was identified. A metamorphic event M2 occurred in the low amphibolite facies along 100 m-wide shear zones, followed by intense serpentinization (M3 and narrow 1-3 m-wide shear zones (M4 containing asbestos.

  20. Amphibole zonation as a tool for tracing metamorphic histories: examples from Lavrion and Penteli metamorphic core complexes (United States)

    Baziotis, Ioannis; Proyer, Alexander; Mposkos, Evripides; Marsellos, Antonios; Leontakianakos, George


    formed during prograde evolution, whereas the actinolite overgrowths on glaucophane took place at post-peak conditions, during greenschist-facies overprinting. The actinolite overgrowths indicate retrogression at slightly higher temperature for a given pressure compared to the prograde path; such overgrowths started with the assemblage actinolite-glaucophane-epidote-albite, immediately at the post-peak pressure conditions with minor fluid ingress. In the greenschists, however, the extensive actinolite overgrowths on glaucophane took place in the typical greenschist-facies actinolite-chlorite-epidote-albite stability field, triggered by internal dehydration. The metamorphic history of Penteli amphiboles is depicted by a prograde path with AlV I/ NaB increase and AlIV decrease; this suggests the formation of glaucophane around actinolite during ongoing subduction. Glaucophane replacement by actinolitic hornblende and core-to-rim decrease of AlV I both suggest temperature increase during decompression. A complex amphibole, with Fe-rich hornblende or actinolitic hornblende at the core, an intermediate Na-amphibole and outer rim of actinolitic or actinolitic hornblende, suggest with pressure-temperature decrease. A patchy glaucophane grown at the outer rim, suggests another cycle of pressure increase, perhaps during renewed subduction. This might be interpreted as a temporary recapturing of that rock fragment by the downgoing slab. References Baziotis, I. et al. 2009. Eur. J. Mineral. 21, 133-148. Baziotis, I. & Mposkos, E. 2011. Lithos, 126, 161-173. Triboulet, C. 1992. J. Met. Geol., 10, 545-556.

  1. Thermodynamic modelling of metamorphic processes: state of the art in pseudosection approach (United States)

    López-Carmona, A.; Gutiérrez-Alonso, G.; Tishin, P. A.; Gertner, I. F.


    Understanding global-scale orogenic processes related to supercontinents, and their relationship to the secular evolution of the Earth’s lithosphere, represent important challenges for Earth scientists today. The record of these processes is preserved in the microstructures, mineral assemblages and mineral compositions of lithospheric rocks exhumed to the Earth’s surface. Given a well-characterized microstructural evolution, thermodynamic modelling is the key to quantifying changes in pressure and temperature, with the rate of these changes being provided by rock-forming and accessory mineral-based geochronology. Thus, metamorphic rocks provide Pressure–Temperature–time–deformation (P–T–t–d) data that help to parameterize orogenic processes.

  2. Snow metamorphism: A fractal approach (United States)

    Carbone, Anna; Chiaia, Bernardino M.; Frigo, Barbara; Türk, Christian


    Snow is a porous disordered medium consisting of air and three water phases: ice, vapor, and liquid. The ice phase consists of an assemblage of grains, ice matrix, initially arranged over a random load bearing skeleton. The quantitative relationship between density and morphological characteristics of different snow microstructures is still an open issue. In this work, a three-dimensional fractal description of density corresponding to different snow microstructure is put forward. First, snow density is simulated in terms of a generalized Menger sponge model. Then, a fully three-dimensional compact stochastic fractal model is adopted. The latter approach yields a quantitative map of the randomness of the snow texture, which is described as a three-dimensional fractional Brownian field with the Hurst exponent H varying as continuous parameters. The Hurst exponent is found to be strongly dependent on snow morphology and density. The approach might be applied to all those cases where the morphological evolution of snow cover or ice sheets should be conveniently described at a quantitative level.

  3. Translanguaging and Semiotic Assemblages (United States)

    Pennycook, Alastair


    This paper asks what translanguaging could start to look like if it incorporated an expanded version of language and questioned not only to the borders between languages but also the borders between semiotic modes. Developing the idea of spatial repertoires and assemblages, and looking at data from a Bangladeshi-owned corner shop, this paper…

  4. Assemblages of Patient Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balatsas Lekkas, Angelos


    This thesis identifies how design processes emerge during the use of devices in healthcare, by attending to assemblages where contingencies of risk and harm co-exist with the contribution of healthcare professionals to the safe care of patients. With support from the field of Science and Technology...

  5. Metamorphic evolution of ultrahigh-pressure rocks from Chinese southwestern Tianshan and a possible indicator of UHP metamorphism using garnet composition in low-T eclogites (United States)

    Du, Jin-Xue; Zhang, Li-Fei; Bader, Thomas; Shen, Ting-Ting


    How to identify ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphism in the absence of coesite is a key problem to gain the correct P-T history for an orogenic belt. In this study, garnet composition combined with the pseudosection approach was used to identify ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism and to determine P-T paths for eclogites and metapelites from Chinese southwestern Tianshan. Porphyroblastic garnets from both eclogites and metapelites develop pronounced chemical core-rim textures: the relatively homogeneous core with low pyrope [Prp; Mg/(Ca + Mn + Mg + Fe2+) × 100] and grossular [Grs; Ca/(Ca + Mn + Mg + Fe2+) × 100] content is overgrown by a thin rim with sharply increased Prp and Grs. Phase equilibria modeling indicates that the ultrahigh-pressure rocks have undergone a clockwise P-T path characterized by heating during early exhumation with peak P-T at 31-33 kbar and 490-520 °C. The P-T pseudosections for eclogites show that isopleths of Prp and Grs strongly depend on temperature and pressure, respectively, especially in the stability fields of glaucophane-lawsonite-bearing eclogite facies assemblages. This indicates that garnet composition provides robust thermobarometric constraints. Consequently, we propose a Prp-Grs diagram which is subdivided into a high-pressure region and an ultrahigh-pressure region by the quartz-coesite-transition curve. Those garnet compositions which fall into the ultrahigh-pressure region are regarded to have experienced ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism. This approach is expected to be a useful tool to qualitatively identify ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism for glaucophane-lawsonite-bearing eclogites and its particular strength is the quick examination of large datasets comprising samples with similar bulk composition. Using this method, garnet compositions of eclogites and mafic blueschists from Chinese southwestern Tianshan and lawsonite eclogites worldwide are plotted in the Prp-Grs diagram and several possible ultrahigh

  6. The Chicxulub crater - impact metamorphism of sulfate and carbonate lithologies (United States)

    Deutsch, A.; Langenhorst, F.; Hornemann, U.; Ivanov, B. A.


    It is discussed whether in the aftermath of the Chicxulub event, impact-released CO_2 and SO_x have changed the Earth's climate, acting also as lethal thread for life. Undoubtedly, vaporization of carbonates and sulfates, which are major target lithologies at the Chicxulub impact site, occurred in the footprint of the projectile. What happened to these lithologies outside this very restricted zone was so far unconstrained. Petrologic observations on PEMEX and UNAM as well as on the CSDP cores allow to set up a general classification for shock-related pro-grade effects on sulfate and carbonate sedimentary rocks. Shock effects in lithic breccias are restricted to brecciation and formation of twins in calcite. Suevites mostly lack melted carbonate clasts; annealing effects in anhydrite fragments are absent. The underlying melt breccias contain anhydrite fragments still displaying a sedimentary texture, and limestone clasts, whose texture reflect crystallization from melt. Impact melt breccias from deeper levels frequently contain partially resorbed anhydrite clasts and a melt matrix with the Ca-rich mineral assemblage quartz + plagioclase + clinopyroxene; this mineral assemblage provides evidence for partial dissociation of CaSO_4. Large clasts of anhydrite consist of equant crystals with 120^o triple junctions, a feature indicative for re-crystallization in the solid state. Tagamites (impact melt rocks) are virtually free of clasts from sedimentary lithologies. These rocks have an extremely high formation temperature, which caused total dissociation of CaSO_4 and CaCO_3. Finally, up to 100 μm wide veins of anhydrite + calcite + quartz cut the matrix of all lithologies except the tagamites. They probably represent "degassing vents". The given scheme is in qualitative accordance with data of shock recovery and annealing experiments as well as with modeling results. In addition, it substantiates that annealing plays a fundamental role in the impact metamorphism of

  7. Entropy theory of metamorphic transitions in coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novgorodova, M.I.; Gutan, Y.M.; Losev, N.F.; Moshchenko, I.N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Fersman Mineral Museum


    The paper proposes a model of metamorphic phase transition in coals that explains the change of the superionic conduction of coals at early stages of metamorphism by the electronic conductivity of anthracites. The model is based on a concept of quasiplane fragments of aromatic rings, the main component of microstructure of coals, the percolation approximation for determining the carbon concentration responsible for the formation of infinite clusters of aromatic rings, and the Lichtenecker approximation for determining the conductivity of the object coal substance + rock.

  8. Metamorphic zirconology of continental subduction zones (United States)

    Chen, Ren-Xu; Zheng, Yong-Fei


    Zircon is widely used to date geological events and trace geochemical sources in high-pressure (HP) to ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks of continental subduction zones. However, protolith zircons may be modified by three different types of metamorphic recrystallization via mechanisms of solid-state transformation, metasomatic alteration and dissolution reprecipitation; new zircon growth may be induced by dehydration reactions below the wet solidus of crustal rocks (metamorphic zircon) or peritectic reactions above the wet solidus (peritectic zircon). As a consequence, there are different origins of zircon domains in high-grade metamorphic rocks from collisional orogens. Thus, determining the nature of individual zircon domains is substantial to correct interpretation of their origin in studies of isotopic geochronology and geochemical tracing. We advocate an integrated study of zircon mineragraphy (internal structure and external morphology), U-Pb ages, mineral inclusions, trace elements, and Lu-Hf and O isotope compositions. Only in this way we are in a position to advance the simple zircon applications to metamorphic zirconology, enabling discrimination between the different origins of zircon and providing constraints on the property of fluid activity at subduction-zone conditions. The metamorphic recrystallization of protolith zircons and the new growth of metamorphic and peritectic zircons are prominent in HP to UHP metamorphic rocks of collisional orogens. These different types of recrystallized and grown zircons can be distinguished by their differences in element and isotope compositions. While the protolith nature of metamorphosed rocks dictates water availability, the P-T conditions of subduction zones dictate the property of subduction-zone fluids. The fluids of different properties may be produced at different positions of subducting and exhuming crustal slices, and they may physically and chemically mix with each other in continental

  9. Fashion, Mediations & Method Assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie; Jespersen, Astrid Pernille

    , 1997). "Mediation" is an activity rather than an actor; a co-constructive relation that creates what it mediates - the producer and the consumer. Hennion argues "that something effectively `happens´ in this process, which transforms the ways things were before" (Hennion & Grenier 2000, p. 346). Hennion...... to STS literature by expanding one of its central debates to a new empirical setting; fashion specifically, and the aesthetic-cultural field on a more general level. In trying to make a theoretical connection between aesthetics and sociality of fashion, the paper suggests the term of "mediator" (Hennion......, it is an important ambition of this paper to go into a methodological discussion of how "that which effectively happens" can be approached. To this end, the paper will combine Hennion's term of the "mediator" with John Laws methodological term of "method assemblages". Method assemblages is a suggested as a way...

  10. Textural aspects of high T-low P polymetamorphism in the Rangeley area, western Maine: General implications for studies of Acadian metamorphic rocks in New England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidotti, C.V. (Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States). Dept. of Geology)


    High T-Low P polymetamorphism in W. Maine results from overlapping, regionally extensive thermal aureoles around sheet-like granitic plutons. At least five metamorphic events have been recognized. The Rangeley-Oquossoc (R-O) area was affected by two high T, static events (M[sub 2] and M[sub 3]). M[sub 2], (400 Ma) developed and + St + Bt regionally. M[sub 3] (370 Ma), due to heating by the sheet-like Mooselookmeguntic Pluton (MP), is superimposed on M[sub 2] such that near the MP, M[sub 2] rocks were prograded to upper sillimanite zone, migmatitic gneisses. To the E., M[sub 2] rocks have been downgraded to garnet zone. Mineral chemistry and assemblage data strongly suggest that M[sub 3] parageneses closely approximated a new equilibrium. These temporally separate superimposed events produced pseudomorphic replacement textures; in the E. by downgrade reactions; in the W. by prograde reactions. The nature of the downgrade or prograde pseudomorphs reflects where they occur in the M[sub 3] range of metamorphic grades. Some authors have interpreted these textures as due to continuous PTt paths or K-metasomatism. Even worse, in some studies the textures are simply ignored and mineral assemblages merely assumed to be the result of a single, equilibrium metamorphic event. The three Al-silicate rocks in the Littleton-Mooselauke area of New Hampshire probably fall in this latter category. It is suggested that in most cases such textures are best interpreted as the R-O area. Metamorphic textures probably are unique in some aspects related to the details of the metamorphism(s) of the given area. However, in New England the commonness in Acadian metamorphic rocks of textures similar to those found in the fortuitously well displayed example of temporally separated polymetamorphism in the R-O area suggests a basis to recognize similar histories elsewhere.

  11. Petrochronological investigations to unravel the tectono-metamorphic history of Alpine subduction (Briançonnais, Queyras, Western Alps) (United States)

    Lanari, Pierre


    The study of the tectonic and metamorphic history of the Alpine metamorphic belt involving oceanic and continental subduction processes requires knowledge of detailed Pressure-Temperature-time-deformation (P-T-t-ɛ) paths recorded by different tectono-metamorphic units across the belt. This task is particularly challenging in low-grade rocks, e.g. metapelites, (a) for thermobarometry, and (b) for geochronology. Metapelites at greenschist facies metamorphic conditions show a narrow spectrum of metamorphic minerals, notably quartz, chlorite and K-white mica, in addition to commonly detrital relics inherited from previous metamorphic rocks. To obtain reliable P-T estimates, a multi-method approach is required, which usefully combines Raman study of Carbonaceous Material (RSCM), chemical analysis in standardized X-ray maps, and multi-equilibrium inverse thermodynamic modelling of chlorite and white mica. In order to be able to link each assemblage to a specific metamorphic stage and determine the time scales and rates of metamorphism, it is critical to use in situ dating techniques. In this study, high-resolution geochronology was conducted including single-grain 40Ar/39Ar dating (step heating), where possible in combination with U-Th-Pb age-dating of allanite by LA-ICP-MS analysis. In the French western Alps, the Briançonnais zone is a remnant of the continental subduction wedge, while the Liguro-Piedmontais zone is a fossil oceanic subduction wedge. Metapelites from these two complexes were investigated to constrain the individual P-T-t paths recorded in each tectonic slice. This study focussed on deciphering four tectono-metamorphic units in the Briançonnais zone: (B1) The Internal basement; (B2) the Lower and (B3) Upper Zone Houillère; (B4) the Mesozoic Nappe Stack. These continental units recorded green-schist Alpine metamorphic conditions. In the Liguro-Piedmontais zone, five tectono-metamorphic units are identified: (LP1) the Péouvou; (LP2) Saint-Véran; (LP

  12. Platy Hematite and Metamorphism on Mars (United States)

    Lane, M. D.; Morris, R. V.; Hartmann, W. K.; Christensen, P. R.; Mertzman, S. A.


    Emissivity spectra of Sinus Meridiani, Mars suggest that the hematite consists of platy particles that occur as consolidated, schistose lenses or loose, platy particles. This platy hematite may have originated as a result of burial metamorphism. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  13. On ultrahigh temperature crustal metamorphism: Phase equilibria, trace element thermometry, bulk composition, heat sources, timescales and tectonic settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Kelsey


    Full Text Available Ultrahigh temperature (UHT metamorphism is the most thermally extreme form of regional crustal metamorphism, with temperatures exceeding 900 °C. UHT crustal metamorphism is recognised in more than 50 localities globally in the metamorphic rock record and is accepted as ‘normal’ in the spectrum of regional crustal processes. UHT metamorphism is typically identified on the basis of diagnostic mineral assemblages such as sapphirine + quartz, orthopyroxene + sillimanite ± quartz and osumilite in Mg–Al-rich rock compositions, now usually coupled with pseudosection-based thermobarometry using internally-consistent thermodynamic data sets and/or Al-in-Orthopyroxene and ternary feldspar thermobarometry. Significant progress in the understanding of regional UHT metamorphism in recent years includes: (1 development of a ferric iron activity–composition thermodynamic model for sapphirine, allowing phase diagram calculations for oxidised rock compositions; (2 quantification of UHT conditions via trace element thermometry, with Zr-in-rutile more commonly recording higher temperatures than Ti-in-zircon. Rutile is likely to be stable at peak UHT conditions whereas zircon may only grow as UHT rocks are cooling. In addition, the extent to which Zr diffuses out of rutile is controlled by chemical communication with zircon; (3 more fully recognising and utilising temperature-dependent thermal properties of the crust, and the possible range of heat sources causing metamorphism in geodynamic modelling studies; (4 recognising that crust partially melted either in a previous event or earlier in a long-duration event has greater capacity than fertile, unmelted crust to achieve UHT conditions due to the heat energy consumed by partial melting reactions; (5 more strongly linking U–Pb geochronological data from zircon and monazite to P–T points or path segments through using Y + REE partitioning between accessory and major phases, as well as phase

  14. An alternative strategy to apply equilibrium models to metamorphic rocks with disequilibrium features (GMPV Division Outstanding ECS Award Lecture) (United States)

    Lanari, Pierre


    Metamorphic rocks evolve dynamically in response to changes in pressure (P) and temperature (T) conditions by adjusting their mineral assemblage, modes and compositions in an attempt to minimize their Gibbs free energy. The transformations are achieved by dissolution-precipitation via successive mineral reactions. Along a given P-T trajectory the evolution of metamorphic rocks can be easily modeled using the principle of Gibbs free energy minimization. Such a forward modeling technique requires a good approximation of the bulk rock composition and an appropriate thermodynamic dataset with complex solid solution models. Recent progress in the accuracy and efficiency of such techniques has had a major impact on the evolution of metamorphic petrology especially in our understanding of the physical conditions occurring in the crust. However, metamorphic rocks commonly preserve mineralogical and textural relics, such as compositionally zoned minerals. These archives are vitally important because they provide a (partial) record of the successive transformations and thus allow the reconstruction of their P-T history; but they also indicate that a rock-wide thermodynamic equilibrium clearly was not attained during the evolution of the rock. In this context, the use of an equilibrium model to understand the metamorphic petrogenesis can be questioned. It becomes necessary to quantify the compositional and textural effects on P-T estimation and to develop alternative modeling strategies that incorporate the complexity of the texture and mineral compositions. In this contribution, I seek to establish an alternative modeling framework to decipher the P-T history of metamorphic rocks. For this purpose it is essential to provide the adapted computer tools to study and model the mineral compositional variability in link with rock textures. Thermodynamic models are applied to local domains using quantitative compositional maps. The goal is to apply the equilibrium model to the

  15. Metamorphic degassing of carbonates in the contact aureole of the Aguablanca Cu -Ni -PGE deposit, Spain (United States)

    Ganino, Clément; Arndt, Nicholas T.; Chauvel, Catherine; Tornos, Fernando


    Analysis of magmatic and sedimentary rocks of several large igneous provinces has demonstrated that the release of gas during plutonic-metamorphic processes may be linked to global climate change and mass extinctions. Aguablanca, one of the largest Cu-Ni-PGE deposits in Europe, formed during the Variscan orogeny when a mafic magma intruded limestones and shales, creating a contact aureole composed of marble, skarn and hornfels. Our petrological and geochemical investigation of the aureole provides evidence that a combination of the two processes led to the formation of the ore deposit: The assimilation of terrigenous sediments supplied S to the magma while the assimilation of carbonates changed the oxygen fugacity and decreased the solubility of sulfur in the magma. The metamorphic assemblages in the contact aureole are directly related to heterogeneity of the protolith and particularly to the original proportions of calcite and clay. We modeled carbon dioxide degassing during contact metamorphism and showed that pure limestone is relatively unproductive because of its high reaction temperature. The presence of clay, however, leads to the formation of calc-silicates and significantly enhances CO2 degassing. Our estimations suggest that degassing of the Aguablanca contact aureole released about 74.8 Mt of CO2, a relatively low volume that we attribute to the composition of the host rock, mainly a pure limestone. A far larger volume of carbon dioxide was emitted by the contact metamorphism of dolostones in the contact aureole of Panzhihua (part of Emeishan large igneous province, SW China). We propose that the level of emission of carbon dioxide depends strongly on the nature of the protolith and has to be considered when predicting environmental impact during the emplacement of large igneous provinces.

  16. A reappraisal of the metamorphic history of EH3 and EL3 enstatite chondrites (United States)

    Quirico, Eric; Bourot-denise, Michèle; Robin, Christophe; Montagnac, Gilles; Beck, Pierre


    The thermal history of a series of EH3 and EL3 chondrites has been investigated by studying the degree of structural order of the organic matter (OM) located and characterized in matrix areas by Raman micro-spectroscopy. By comparison with unequilibrated ordinary chondrites (UOCs) and CO and CV carbonaceous chondrites, the following petrologic types have been assigned to various E chondrites: Sahara 97096 and Allan Hills 84206: 3.1-3.4; Allan Hills 85170 and Parsa: 3.5; Allan Hills 85119: 3.7; Qingzhen, MacAlpine Hills 88136 and MacAlpine Hills 88184: 3.6-3.7. The petrologic type of Qingzhen is consistent with the abundance of the P3 noble gas component, a sensitive tracer of the grade of thermal metamorphism. The petrologic types are qualitatively consistent with the abundance of fine-grained matrix for the whole series. No significant effects of shock processes on the structure of OM were observed. However such processes certainly compete with thermal metamorphism and the possibility of an effect cannot be fully discarded, in particular in the less metamorphosed objects. The OM precursors accreted by the EH3 and EL3 parent bodies appear to be fairly similar to those of UOCs and CO and CV carbonaceous chondrites. Raman data however show some slight structural differences that could be partly accounted for by shock processes. The metamorphic history of EH3 and EL3 chondrites has often been described as complex, in particular regarding the combined action of shock and thermal metamorphism. Because OM maturity is mostly controlled by the temperature of peak metamorphism, it is possible to distinguish between the contributions of long duration thermal processes and that of shock processes. Comparison of the petrologic types with the closure temperatures previously derived from opaque mineral assemblages has revealed that the thermal history of EH3 and EL3 chondrites is consistent with a simple asteroidal onion shell model. Thermal metamorphism in enstatite chondrites

  17. Charnockite microstructures: From magmatic to metamorphic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques L.R. Touret


    Full Text Available Charnockites sensu lato (charnockite-enderbite series are lower crustal felsic rocks typically characterised by the presence of anhydrous minerals including orthopyroxene and garnet. They either represent dry (H2O-poor felsic magmas that are emplaced in the lower crust or granitic intrusions that have been dehydrated during a subsequent granulite facies metamorphic event. In the first case, post-magmatic high-temperature recrystallisation may result in widespread metamorphic granulite microstructures, superimposed or replacing the magmatic microstructures. Despite recrystallisation, magmatic remnants may still be found, notably in the form of melt-related microstructures such as melt inclusions. For both magmatic charnockites and dehydrated granites, subsequent fluid-mineral interaction at intergrain boundaries during retrogradation are documented by microstructures including K-feldspar microveins and myrmekites. They indicate that a large quantity of low-H2O activity salt-rich brines, were present (together with CO2 under immiscible conditions in the lower crust.

  18. Shape Metamorphism Using p-Laplacian Equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong, Ge; Esser, Mehmet; Parvin, Bahram; Bebis, George


    We present a new approach for shape metamorphism, which is a process of gradually changing a source shape (known) through intermediate shapes (unknown) into a target shape (known). The problem, when represented with implicit scalar function, is under-constrained, and regularization is needed. Using the p-Laplacian equation (PLE), we generalize a series of regularization terms based on the gradient of the implicit function, and we show that the present methods lack additional constraints for a more stable solution. The novelty of our approach is in the deployment of a new regularization term when p --> infinity which leads to the infinite Laplacian equation (ILE). We show that ILE minimizes the supremum of the gradient and prove that it is optimal for metamorphism since intermediate solutions are equally distributed along their normal direction. Applications of the proposed algorithm for 2D and 3D objects are demonstrated.

  19. Modelling metamorphism in the Hoosac Schist, Western Massachusetts: new approaches to a New England problem (United States)

    Bidgood, Anna; Waters, Dave; Gardiner, Nick


    Along the western margin of the metamorphic Appalachians in New England, Taconic (Ordovician) tectonism and metamorphism are overprinted towards the east by Acadian (Devonian) structures and metamorphism. The Hoosac Schist, a probable correlate of the well-known Gassetts Schist of Vermont, lies in the region of overprinting. It forms a narrow N-S-trending tectonically-bound zone crossing several Barrovian mineral-assemblage zones from garnet to kyanite grade. Highly aluminous units containing cm-sized garnets (Cheney & Brady, 1992) are noted for the occurrence of textural unconformities within the garnets, separating inclusion-rich cores from inclusion-poor rims. Matrix domains contain both paragonite and muscovite. Muscovite is present in at least two compositionally distinct generations, with broad later laths cutting across a microfolded earlier fabric. Rutile is restricted to inclusions in garnet, whereas the matrix Ti- phase is ilmenite. These features suggest a polymetamorphic history, potentially recording the superimposition of Acadian metamorphism on Taconic, but it has not yet proved possible to demonstrate the presence of two metamorphic cycles. This study aims to test and employ the new and revised activity models recently developed for metapelites in the full system MnNCKFMASHTO (White et al, 2014), for use with the Holland & Powell data-set 6. Features that can now be more explicitly modelled include garnet zonation in relation to its inclusion suites and microstructural features, the occurrence, texture and distribution of Ti-bearing accessory minerals, and the assemblages and compositional trends in white micas. Preliminary modelling, correlated with microstructural observation, indicates (1) some confirmation of the concern expressed by White et al (2014) that the stability of margarite-bearing assemblages may be somewhat overestimated, (2) that apart from this, the early growth history of garnet is consistent with its suite of trapped inclusions

  20. Metamorphic evolution of the eastern part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faryad Shah Wali


    Full Text Available The Inner to Central parts of the Western Carpathians consist of several tectonic units that provide unique opportunity to investigate Alpine and Pre-Alpine tectonothermal evolution in the Western Carpathians. Lithological and geochemical composition of sedimentary and igneous rocks indicate the presence of Alpine-Meliata and Pre-Alpine Rakovec suture zones. The Meliata blueschists are the only evidence of subducted Triassic Meliata-Hallstatt oceanic basin and adjacent continental wedge which occurred during the Jurassic time. These processes were followed by the Cretaceous collision that suffered not only the Gemer but also the Vepor Belts. Since Alpine and Variscan metamorphism occurred in most tectonic units under similar pressure and/or temperature conditions, for reconstruction of Alpine development is necessary to understand Pre-Alpine history of each tectonic unit. The Field Meeting is aimed to comprehend Alpine and Pre-Alpine tectonothermal evolution in the eastern parts of the Western Carpathians with a special respect to subduction and exhumation history of the Jurassic Meliata blueschists, as well as of Cretaceous collision in the Western Carpathians. In order to clear metamorphic characteristic and geological position of each unit a brief outline on structure and metamorphism of the Central Western Carpathians is given in the excursion guide. The manuscript of this work was improved by helpful suggestions of S. Jacko, D. Plašienka and M. Janák. This work was supported by Slovak Academic Agency, project WEGA-1/5003/98

  1. Metamorphic evolution of the Maud Belt: P- T- t path for high-grade gneisses in Gjelsvikfjella, Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica (United States)

    Bisnath, Avinash; Frimmel, Hartwig E.


    A metamorphic petrological study, in conjunction with recent precise geochronometric data, revealed a complex P- T- t path for high-grade gneisses in a hitherto poorly understood sector of the Mesoproterozoic Maud Belt in East Antarctica. The Maud Belt is an extensive high-grade, polydeformed, metamorphic belt, which records two significant tectono-thermal episodes, once towards the end of the Mesoproterozoic and again towards the late Neoproterozoic/Cambrian. In contrast to previous models, most of the metamorphic mineral assemblages are related to a Pan-African tectono-thermal overprint, with only very few relics of late Mesoproterozoic granulite-facies mineral assemblages (M 1) left in strain-protected domains. Petrological and mineral chemical evidence indicates a clockwise P- T- t path for the Pan-African orogeny. Peak metamorphic (M 2b) conditions recorded by most rocks in the area ( T = 709-785 °C and P = 7.0-9.5 kbar) during the Pan-African orogeny were attained subsequent to decompression from probably eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions (M 2a). The new data acquired in this study, together with recent geochronological and geochemical data, permit the development of a geodynamic model for the Maud Belt that involves volcanic arc formation during the late Mesoproterozoic followed by extension at 1100 Ma and subsequent high-grade tectono-thermal reworking once during continent-continent collision at the end of the Mesoproterozoic (M 1; 1090-1030 Ma) and again during the Pan-African orogeny (M 2a, M 2b) between 565 and 530 Ma. Post-peak metamorphic K-metasomatism under amphibolite-facies conditions (M 2c) followed and is ascribed to post-orogenic bimodal magmatism between 500 and 480 Ma.

  2. Subduction metamorphism in the Himalayan ultrahigh-pressure Tso Morari massif: An integrated geodynamic and petrological modelling approach (United States)

    Palin, Richard M.; Reuber, Georg S.; White, Richard W.; Kaus, Boris J. P.; Weller, Owen M.


    having been performed on minerals that were likely not in equilibrium. Furthermore, diagnostic high-P mineral assemblages predicted to form in Tso Morari orthogneiss at peak metamorphism are absent from natural samples, which may reflect the widespread metastable preservation of lower-pressure assemblages in the felsic component of the crust during subduction. If common in such subducted continental terranes, this metastability calls into question the reliability of geodynamic simulations of orogenesis that are predicated on equilibrium metamorphism operating continuously throughout tectonic cycles.

  3. Ostwald ripening of clays and metamorphic minerals (United States)

    Eberl, D.D.; Srodon, J.; Kralik, M.; Taylor, B.E.; Peterman, Z.E.


    Analyses of particle size distributions indicate that clay minerals and other diagenetic and metamorphic minerals commonly undergo recrystallization by Ostwald ripening. The shapes of their particle size distributions can yield the rate law for this process. One consequence of Ostwald ripening is that a record of the recrystallization process is preserved in the various particle sizes. Therefore, one can determine the detailed geologic history of clays and other recrystallized minerals by separating, from a single sample, the various particle sizes for independent chemical, structural, and isotopic analyses.

  4. Plate tectonics. Seismological detection of slab metamorphism. (United States)

    Julian, Bruce


    The occurrence of more or less continuous ground vibrations ("volcanic tremor") is an important indicator of volcanic activity. But results from the "Hi-net" seismic network in Japan reported by Obara show that continuous ground vibrations can occur far away from any volcanic activity. In his Perspective, Julian discusses the idea that this tremor is excited by flow of metamorphic fluids. He also identifies other possible locations where such a tremor may be detected and explains what may be learnt from measuring it.

  5. Opaque Assemblages in CK and CV Carbonaceous Chondrites (United States)

    Neff, K. E.; Righter, K.


    CK carbonaceous chondrites are the only group of carbonaceous chondrites that exhibit thermal metamorphism. As a result, CKs display features of metamorphism such as silicate darkening, recrystallization and shock veins. Calcium Aluminum Inclusions and Fe-Ni metal are rare. CV carbonaceous chondrites are unequilibrated and have two subgroups; oxidized and reduced. The CV and CK carbonaceous chondrite groups have been compared to each other often because of petrographic similarities, such as overlapping oxygen isotopic ratios. Scientists have suggested the two groups of carbonaceous chondrites formed from the same parent body and CKs are equilibrated CV chondrites [1, 2]. The oxidized CV group has been most closely related to CKs. This study examines the petrology and mineralogy of CKs and CVs focusing on opaque minerals found in the meteorites. Using the oxide, metal and sulfide assemblages, constraints can be placed on the temperature and oxygen fugacity at which the meteorites equilibrated. The temperature and oxygen fugacity of the CK and CV chondrites can be compared in order to help define their formation history.

  6. Record of mid-Archaean subduction from metamorphism in the Barberton terrain, South Africa. (United States)

    Moyen, Jean-François; Stevens, Gary; Kisters, Alexander


    Although plate tectonics is the central geological process of the modern Earth, its form and existence during the Archaean era (4.0-2.5 Gyr ago) are disputed. The existence of subduction during this time is particularly controversial because characteristic subduction-related mineral assemblages, typically documenting apparent geothermal gradients of 15 degrees C km(-1) or less, have not yet been recorded from in situ Archaean rocks (the lowest recorded apparent geothermal gradients are greater than 25 degrees C km(-1)). Despite this absence from the rock record, low Archaean geothermal gradients are suggested by eclogitic nodules in kimberlites and circumstantial evidence for subduction processes, including possible accretion-related structures, has been reported in Archaean terrains. The lack of spatially and temporally well-constrained high-pressure, low-temperature metamorphism continues, however, to cast doubt on the relevance of subduction-driven tectonics during the first 1.5 Gyr of the Earth's history. Here we report garnet-albite-bearing mineral assemblages that record pressures of 1.2-1.5 GPa at temperatures of 600-650 degrees C from supracrustal amphibolites from the mid-Archaean Barberton granitoid-greenstone terrain. These conditions point to apparent geothermal gradients of 12-15 degrees C-similar to those found in recent subduction zones-that coincided with the main phase of terrane accretion in the structurally overlying Barberton greenstone belt. These high-pressure, low-temperature conditions represent metamorphic evidence for cold and strong lithosphere, as well as subduction-driven tectonic processes, during the evolution of the early Earth.

  7. Investigating the response of biotite to impact metamorphism: Examples from the Steen River impact structure, Canada (United States)

    Walton, E. L.; Sharp, T. G.; Hu, J.; Tschauner, O.


    Impact metamorphic effects from quartz and feldspar and to a lesser extent olivine and pyroxene have been studied in detail. Comparatively, studies documenting shock effects in other minerals, such as double chain inosilicates, phyllosilicates, carbonates, and sulfates, are lacking. In this study, we investigate impact metamorphism recorded in crystalline basement rocks from the Steen River impact structure (SRIS), a 25 km diameter complex crater in NW Alberta, Canada. An array of advanced analytical techniques was used to characterize the breakdown of biotite in two distinct settings: along the margins of localized regions of shock melting and within granitic target rocks entrained as clasts in a breccia. In response to elevated temperature gradients along shock vein margins, biotite transformed at high pressure to an almandine-Ca/Fe majorite-rich garnet with a density of 4.2 g cm-3. The shock-produced garnets are poikilitic, with oxide and silicate glass inclusions. Areas interstitial to garnets are vesiculated, in support of models for the formation of shock veins via oscillatory slip, with deformation continuing during pressure release. Biotite within granitic clasts entrained within the hot breccia matrix thermally decomposed at ambient pressure to produce a fine-grained mineral assemblage of orthopyroxene + sanidine + titanomagnetite. These minerals are aligned to the (001) cleavage plane of the original crystal. In this and previous work, the transformation of an inosilicate (pargasite) and a phyllosilicate (biotite) to form garnet, an easily identifiable, robust mineral, has been documented. We contend that in deeply eroded astroblemes, high-pressure minerals that form within or in the environs of shock veins may serve as one of the possibly few surviving indicators of impact metamorphism.

  8. Ediacaran ( 620 Ma) high grade regional metamorphism in the northern Arabian Nubian Shield: U/Th-Pb monazite ages of the Elat schist (United States)

    Elisha, Bar; Katzir, Yaron; Kylander-Clark, Andrew


    Ediacaran times witnessed a hemisphere-scale orogenesis forming the extensive Pan-African mountain ranges and resulting in the final assembly of Gondwana supercontinent. The Elat metamorphic basement (S Israel) located at the northernmost tip of a major Pan-African orogenic suture, the Arabian Nubian Shield (ANS), comprises amphibolite facies schists and gneisses and was most likely shaped by this major continental collision. However the timing, number and duration of metamorphic events in Elat and elsewhere in the ANS are non-conclusive and a major emphasis was given to pre-Ediacaran island-arc related tectonics. This is mostly because U-Pb dating of zircon, widely used in Elat and elsewhere, is very successful in constraining the ages of the igneous and sedimentary protoliths, but is 'blind' to metamorphism at grades lower than granulite. Here U/Th-Pb dating of monazite, a precise chronometer of metamorphic mineral growth, is systematically applied to the Elat schist and unveils the tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Elat basement. Previous U-Pb dating of detrital zircon has shown that the sedimentary protoliths of the Elat schist are the oldest basement components (≥800 Ma), and detailed structural observations of the schists portrayed a complex deformation history including four successive phases (Shimron, 1972). The earliest three phases were defined as ductile and penetrative, but some of the available geochronological data apparently contradict field relations. In-situ analysis of metamorphic monazites by LASS (Laser Ablation Split Stream) involves simultaneous measurement of U/Th-Pb isotope ratios and REE contents in a single 10 μm sized grain or domain, thus allowing determining the age of specific texture and metamorphic assemblage. Monazite dating of the Elat schist yielded two concordant age clusters at 712±6 and 613±5 Ma. The corresponding REE patterns of the dated monazite grains indicate that porphyroblast growth, either garnet or staurolite

  9. Igneous and metamorphic petrology in the field: a problem-based, writing-intensive alternative to traditional classroom petrology (United States)

    DeBari, S. M.


    The Geology Department at Western Washington University (~100 geology majors) offers field and classroom versions of its undergraduate petrology course. This is a one-quarter course (igneous and metamorphic petrology) with mineralogy as a prerequisite. The field version of the course is offered during the three weeks prior to fall quarter and the classroom version is offered in spring quarter. We take 15-20 students around the state of Washington, camping at different outcrop sites where students integrate observational skills, petrologic knowledge, and writing. Petrogenetic associations in various tectonic settings provide the theme of the course. We compare ophiolites vs. arc sequences (volcanic, plutonic, and metamorphic rocks), S- vs. I-type granitoids (plutonic rocks and associated metamorphic rocks), Barrovian vs. Buchan vs. subduction zone metamorphism of different protoliths, and flood-basalt vs. active-arc volcanism. Some basics are covered in the first day at WWU, followed by 17 days of field instruction. Lecture is integrated with outcrop study in the field. For example, students will listen to a lecture about magma differentiation processes as they examine cumulate rocks in the Mt. Stuart batholith, and a lecture about metamorphic facies as they study blueschist facies rocks in the San Juan Islands. Students study multiple outcrops around a site for 1-4 days. They then use their observations (sketches and written descriptions of mineral assemblages, rock types, rock textures, etc.) and analysis techniques (e.g. geochemical data plotting, metamorphic protolith analysis) to write papers in which the data are interpreted in terms of a larger tectonic problem. In advance of the writing process, students use group discussion techniques such as whiteboarding to share their observational evidence and explore interpretations. Student evaluations indicate that despite the intense pace of the course, they enjoy it more. Students also feel that they retain more

  10. Prolonged episodic Paleoproterozoic metamorphism in the Thelon Tectonic Zone, Canada: an in-situ SHRIMP/EPMA monazite geochronology study (United States)

    Mitchell, Rhea; William, Davis; Robert, Berman; Sharon, Carr; Michael, Jercinovic


    The Thelon Tectonic zone (TTZ), Nunavut, Canada, is a >500km long geophysically, lithologically and structurally distinct N-NNE striking Paleoproterozoic boundary zone between the Slave and Rae Archean provinces. The TTZ has been interpreted as a ca. 2.0 Ga continental arc on the western edge of the Rae craton, that was deformed during collision with the Slave craton ca. 1.97 Ga. Alternatively, the Slave-Rae collision is interpreted as occurring during the 2.35 Ga Arrowsmith orogeny while the 1.9-2.0 Ga TTZ represents an intra-continental orogenic belt formed in previously thinned continental crust, postdating the Slave-Rae collision. The central part of the TTZ comprises three >100 km long, 10-20 km wide belts of ca. 2.0 Ga, mainly charnockitic plutonic rocks, and a ca. 1910 Ma garnet-leucogranite belt. Metamorphism throughout these domains is upper-amphibolite to granulite-facies, with metasedimentary rocks occurring as volumetrically minor enclaves and strands of migmatites. The Ellice River domain occurs between the western and central plutonic belts. It contains ca. 1950 Ma ultramafic to dacitic volcanic rocks and foliated Paleoproterozoic psammitic metasedimentary rocks at relatively lower grade with lower to middle amphibolite-facies metamorphic assemblages. In-situ U-Pb analyses of monazite using a combination of Sensitive High-Resolution Ion Microprobe (SHRIMP) and Electron Probe Microanalyzer (EPMA) were carried out on high-grade metasedimentary rocks from seventeen samples representing the eastern margin of the Slave Province and all major lithological domains of the TTZ. 207Pb/206Pb monazite ages from SHRIMP analysis form the foundation of this dataset, while EPMA ages are supplementary. The smaller EPMA allowed for further constraint on ages of micro-scale intra-crystalline domains in some samples. Monazite ages define four distinct Paleoproterozoic metamorphic events and one Archean metamorphic event at ca. 2580 Ma. The latter is recorded exclusively

  11. MicroRNAs in metamorphic and non-metamorphic transitions in hemimetabolan insect metamorphosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio Mercedes


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous work showed that miRNAs play key roles in the regulation of metamorphosis in the hemimetabolan species Blattella germanica. To gain insight about which miRNAs might be important, we have constructed two miRNA libraries, one of the penultimate, pre-metamorphic nymphal instar (N5 and the other of the last, metamorphic nymphal instar (N6. Results High throughput sequencing gave 61 canonical miRNAs present in the N5 and N6 libraries, although at different proportions in each. Comparison of both libraries led to the identification of three and 37 miRNAs significantly more expressed in N5 and N6 respectively. Twelve of these 40 miRNAs were then investigated further by qRT-PCR and results indicated that miR-252-3p was well expressed in N5 but not in N6, whereas let-7-5p, miR-100-5p and miR-125-5p showed the reverse pattern. 20-Hydroxyecdysone (20E tended to stimulate miRNA expression, whereas juvenile hormone (JH inhibited the 20E stimulatory effect. Expression of let-7, miR-100 and miR-125 was increased by 20E, which has also been observed in D. melanogaster. The only miRNA that was inhibited by 20E was miR-252-3p. The involvement of let-7, miR-100 and miR-125 in metamorphosis has been demonstrated in other insects. Depletion of miR-252-3p caused growth and developmental delays, which suggests that this miRNA is involved in regulating these processes prior to metamorphosis. Conclusions The comparative analysis of miRNA libraries from pre-metamorphic (N5 and metamorphic stages (N6 of B. germanica proved to be a useful tool to identify miRNAs with roles in hemimetabolan metamorphosis. Three miRNAs emerged as important factors in the metamorphic stage (N6: let-7-5p, miR-100-5p and miR-125-5p, whereas miR-252-3p appears to be important in the pre-metamorphic stage (N5.

  12. Contact Metamorphism and the Global Carbon Cycle (United States)

    Polteau, S.; Svensen, H.; Planke, S.; Aarnes, I.


    The understanding of past global warming events may help predict the consequences of today's anthropogenic climate change. In this contribution, we show that the 183 Ma old Karoo Large Igneous Province vented greenhouse gases into the atmosphere at rates and with a carbon isotopic compositions similar to today's emissions. The emplacement of magmatic intrusions in sediments with abundant organic carbon is the mechanism of greenhouse gases production, and involves the sudden exposure of organic matter to temperatures as high as 600°C in metamorphic contact aureoles. The organic-rich Ecca Group forms the base of the Karoo sedimentary succession and contains thousands of degassing pipe structures rooted in contact aureoles around sill intrusions. Numerical and analogue modelling shows that these piercement structures form during violent eruptions releasing the overpressure. In the present study, we focus on the devolatilization processes in a contact aureole by evaluating the effects of thermal alteration on the carbon isotopic composition of organic-rich sediments. We compared thermally affected and unaffected borehole sections intersecting organic-rich black shale from South Africa. A series of bulk-geochemical analyses (total organic carbon, organic maturity and stable carbon isotopes) were carried out on both borehole sections. The results show that the aureole thickness is best defined by organic matter maturity. With decreasing distance from the sill intrusion contacts, the thermal maturity increases, the total organic carbon decreases and the carbon isotopic composition measured on bitumen is enriched in 13C. These results demonstrate that the 2.8t/m2 of organic carbon escapes the contact aureole during devolatilization processes involving the generation of light carbon gases. The calculated isotopic composition of the carbon released is similar whether using the batch devolatilization or the Rayleigh distillation model, and ranges from the background values

  13. The timing of the tectono-metamorphic evolution at the Neoproterozoic-Phanerozoic boundary in central southern Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, Jörg; Berger, Alfons; Schreurs, Guido


    In central southern Madagascar the crystalline basement is composed of mid-crustal rocks which have experienced polycyclic deformation and metamorphism coupled with repeated granitoid magmatism at the Neoproterozoic–Phanerozoic boundary. Based on the integration of in situ U–Th–Pb dating of monaz......In central southern Madagascar the crystalline basement is composed of mid-crustal rocks which have experienced polycyclic deformation and metamorphism coupled with repeated granitoid magmatism at the Neoproterozoic–Phanerozoic boundary. Based on the integration of in situ U–Th–Pb dating...... of monazite and structural relationships,twodistinct phases of major ductile deformation, the Andreaba and Ihosy phases can be distinguished in central southern Madagascar. Both these deformation phases occur between ~550 and 520 Ma. Coeval with, and outlasting deformation, granitic plutons and dykes were...... that the whole crustal section remained in a mid-crustal position. Metamorphic overprinting related to M2 is spatially limited and is heterogeneously distributed in central southern Madagascar. Newly developed M2 mineral assemblages are preferentially found in areas featuring Ihosy phase vertical foliation...

  14. Post-metamorphic brecciation in type 3 ordinary chondrites (United States)

    Scott, E. R. D.; Mccoy, T. J.; Keil, K.


    Type 3.1-3.9 ordinary chondrites can be divided into two kinds: those in which the compositions of chondrule silicates are entirely consistent with metamorphism of type 3.0 material, and those in which the computational heterogeneity appears to be too extreme for in situ metamorphism. We present petrologic data for three LL3 chondrites of the second kind--Ngawi, ALH A77278 (both type 3.6), and Hamlet (type 3.9)--and compare these data with results for the first kind of LL3-4 chondrites. Given that chondrules form in the nebula and that metamorphic equilibration occurs in asteroids, our new data imply that Ngawi, A77278, Hamlet, and many other type 3 ordinary chondrites are post-metamorphic breccias containing materials with diverse metamorphic histories; they are not metamorphic rocks or special kinds of 'primitive breccias.' We infer also that metamorphism to type 3.1-3.9 levels produces very friable material that is easily remixed into breccias and lithified by mild shock. Thus, petrologic types and subtypes of chondrites indicate the mean metamorphic history of the ingredients, not the thermal history of the rock. The metamorphic history of individual type 1 or 2 porphyritic chondrules in type 3 breccias is best derived from olivine and pyroxene analyses and the data of McCoy et al. for unbrecciated chondrites. The new chondrule classification schemes of Sears, DeHart et al., appears to provide less information about the original state and metamorphic history of individual porphyritic chondrules and should not replace existing classification schemes.

  15. Palaeoproterozoic prograde metasomatic-metamorphic overprint zones in Archaean tonalitic gneisses, eastern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajunen, M.


    Full Text Available Several occurrences of coarse-grained kyanite rocks are exposed in the Archaean area of eastern Finland in zones trending predominantly northwest-southeast that crosscut all the Archaean structures and, locally, the Palaeoproterozoic metadiabase dykes, too. Their metamorphic history illustrates vividly Palaeoproterozoic reactivation of the Archaean craton. The early-stage kyanite rocks were formed within the framework of ductile shearing or by penetrative metasomatism in zones of mobile brecciation. Static-state coarse-grained mineral growth during the ongoing fluid activity covered the early foliated fabrics, and metasomatic zoning developed. The early-stage metasomatism was characterized by Si, Ca and alkali leaching. The late-stage structures are dilatational semi-brittle faults and fractures with unstrained, coarse-grained fabrics often formed by metasomatic reactions displaying Mg enrichment along grain boundaries. Metamorphism proceeded from the low-T early-stage Chl-Ms-Qtz, Ky/And-St, eventually leading to the high-T late-stage Crd-Sil assemblages. The thermal peak, at 600-620°C/4-5 kbar, of the process is dated to 1852+2 Ma (U-Pb on xenotime. Al-silicate growth successions in different locations record small variations in the Palaeoproterozoic clockwise P-T paths. Pressure decreased by c. 1 kbar between the early and late stage, i.e. some exhumation had occurred. Fluid composition also changed during the progression, from saline H2O to CO2, rich. Weak retrograde features of high-T phases indicate a rapid cooling stage and termination of fluid activity. The early-stage Ky-St assemblages resemble those described from nearby Palaeoproterozoic metasediments in the Kainuu and North Karelia Schist Belts, where the metamorphic peak was achieved late with respect to Palaeoproterozoic structures. The static Ky-St metamorphism in kyanite rocks was generated by fluid-induced leaching processes at elevated T during the post-orogenic stage after

  16. Early Proterozoic ultrahigh pressure metamorphism: evidence from microdiamonds. (United States)

    Cartigny, Pierre; Chinn, Ingrid; Viljoen, K S; Robinson, Derek


    Microdiamonds from the Akluilâk minette dykes (Nunavut, Canada) are similar to diamonds formed in subducted metamorphic rocks. High concentrations of unaggregated nitrogen and positive delta(15)N suggest that the microdiamonds formed within rocks subducted to ultrahigh pressures before being sampled by the minette magma 1.8 billion years ago. This ultrahigh pressure metamorphism in North America, probably related to the Trans-Hudson orogen (about 2 billion years ago), extends the occurrence of ultrahigh pressure metamorphism from 0.6 billion years to before 1.8 billion years ago and suggests that Phanerozoic-type subductions were active by the Early Proterozoic.

  17. U-Pb dating of minerals in alteration halos of Superior Province massive sulfide deposits: syngenesis versus metamorphism (United States)

    Davis, D. W.; Schandl, E. S.; Wasteneys, H. A.


    U-Pb geochronology of igneous zircon from rhyolitic host rocks to the Archean Kidd Creek, Geco and Winston Lake massive sulfide deposits, in the Superior Province of Ontario, shows that volcanism, which accompanied mineralization, occupied a narrow time span (2717±2 Ma, 2720±2 Ma and 2723±2 Ma, respectively). Precise ages of hydrothermal monazite, allanite and rutile from alteration zones surrounding the above deposits indicate that these minerals crystallized 40 70 million years after volcanism. Monazite from Kidd Creek mine is 2659±3 Ma old, in agreement with spatially associated 2664±25 Ma old rutile. Monazite from a biotite schist at Geoco mine gives a similar age of 2661±1 Ma. However, monazite from a sericite schist, which hosts the ore at Geco mine, is 2675±2 Ma old. Abraded large monazite grains from three units in the Winston Lake deposit are coeval with biotite crystallization and record an age of 2677±2 Ma, approximately the same as monazite in the sericite schist at Geco. Data points from allanite fractions from both the Winston Lake and Geco deposits fall on a Pb-Pb isochron that gives an age of 2672±5 Ma. Rutile from Winston Lake gives a younger age of 2651±6/-2 Ma and may date retrograde alteration of biotite to chlorite. The ca. 2676 Ma age of monazite from Winston Lake and in the sericite schist at Geco mine probably dates a regional metamorphic event that affected most of the southern Superior Province. The ca. 2660 Ma old monazite in the biotite schist at Geco mine and in the chlorite-sericite alteration at Kidd Creek may date later K-metasomatism caused by metamorphically derived fluids that were focussed along old fault structures. Such fluids were also responsible for local sulfide remobilization. Monazite and rutile are spatially associated with chlorite and sericite alterations at Kidd Creek. Their young ages indicate that these originally syngenetic mineral assemblages may have been significantly affected by regional metamorphism

  18. Loss of isotopic (Nd, O) and chemical (REE) memory during metamorphism of komatiites: new evidence from eastern Finland (United States)

    Gruau, G.; Tourpin, S.; Fourcade, S.; Blais, S.


    Komatiites are often considered to depict the chemical and isotopic composition of their source rocks in the Archean mantle. However, a weakness of these rocks in tracking the initial compositional heterogeneity of the Earth's mantle is the ubiquitous presence of metamorphic recrystallization, which casts some doubt about the preservation of primary chemical and isotopic characteristics. Two spinifex-textured komatiite flows from the 2.75 Ga old Kuhmo greenstone belt (Siivikkovaara area) of eastern Finland document this weakness. Both flows have experienced low to medium grade metamorphism (T=450±50°C), and now consist entirely of secondary metamorphic assemblages of amphibole±chlorite±plagioclase, with minor proportions of magnetite and ilmenite. MgO contents range from 25 to 8%, which suggests that low pressure differentiation was likely controlled by olivine and clinopyroxene fractional crystallization. However, neither major nor trace elements fall on olivine and/or clinopyroxene control lines. This is particularly well illustrated by the REE as there is an overall 60% variation of (Ce/Sm)N ratios (0.38 to 0.91), which far exceeds that expected from olivine and clinopyroxene fractionation alone. In fact, careful evaluation of petrographic (including mineral composition data) and chemical characteristics shows that most elements of geological interest (including the reputedly immobile REE) were mobile on a whole-rock scale during metamorphic recrystallization of these two flows. This view is fully supported by Sm-Nd isotopic data since both whole-rock and mineral (amphibole and plagioclase) samples lie on a single isochron relationship at T≈ 1800 Ma, an age which corresponds to the time of regional metamorphism. Thus, the meta-komatiite flows from Siivikkovaara document a case of komatiite flow units in which metamorphism has induced whole-rock scale resetting of primary REE patterns and Sm-Nd isotope systematics. As regards the nature of the mechanism

  19. Inverted Metamorphic Multijunction (IMM) Cell Processing Instructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duda, A.; Ward, S.; Young, M.


    This technical report details the processing schedule used to fabricate Inverted Metamorphic Multijunction (IMM) concentrator solar cells at The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). These devices are used as experimental test structures to support the research at NREL that is focused on increasing the efficiency of photovoltaic power conversion. They are not intended to be devices suitable for deployment in working concentrator systems primarily because of heat sinking issues. The process schedule was developed to be compatible with small sample sizes and to afford relatively rapid turn-around times, in support of research efforts. The report describes the use of electro deposition of gold for both the back and front contacts. Electro-deposition is used because of its rapid turn around time and because it is a benign metallization technique that is seldom responsible for damage to the semiconductors. The layer transfer technique is detailed including the use of a commercially available adhesive and the etching away of the parent gallium arsenide substrate. Photolithography is used to define front contact grids as well as the mesa area of the cell. Finally, the selective wet chemical etchant system is introduced and its use to reveal the back contact is described.

  20. High Radiation Resistance Inverted Metamorphic Solar Cell Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation in this SBIR Phase II project is the development of a unique triple junction inverted metamorphic technology (IMM), which will enable the...

  1. High Radiation Resistance Inverted Metamorphic Solar Cell Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation in the proposed SBIR Phase I project is the development of a unique triple unction inverted metamorphic technology (IMM), which will enable the...

  2. Mid-Late Triassic metamorphic event for Changhai meta-sedimentary rocks from the SE Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt, North China Craton: Evidence from monazite U-Th-Pb and muscovite Ar-Ar dating (United States)

    Liu, Fulai; Wang, Fang; Liou, J. G.; Meng, En; Liu, Jianhui; Yang, Hong; Xiao, Lingling; Cai, Jia; Shi, Jianrong


    The precise constraints on the timing of metamorphism of the Changhai metamorphic complex is of great importance considering the prolonged controversial issue of the north margin and the extension of the Sulu-Dabie HP-UHP Belt. While the monazite U-Th-Pb and muscovite 40Ar/39Ar techniques are widely accepted as two of the most powerful dating tools for revealing the thermal histories of medium-low grade metamorphic rocks and precisely constraining the timing of metamorphism. The Changhai metamorphic complex at the SE Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt, North China Craton consists of a variety of pelitic schist and Grt-Ky-bearing paragneiss, and minor quartzite and marble. Analyses of mineral inclusions and back-scattered electric (BSE) images of monazites, combined with LA-ICP-MS U-Th-Pb ages for monazites and 40Ar/39Ar ages for muscovites, provide evidence of the origin and metamorphic age of the Changhai metamorphic complex. Monazites separates from various Grt-Mus schists and Grt-Ky-St-Mus paragneisses exhibit homogeneous BSE images from cores to rims, and contain inclusion assemblages of Grt + Mus + Qtz ± Ctd ± Ky in schist, and Grt + Ky + St + Mus + Pl + Kfs + Qtz inclusions in paragneiss. These inclusion assemblages are very similar to matrix minerals of host rocks, indicating they are metamorphic rather than inherited or detrital in origin. LA-ICP-MS U-Th-Pb dating reveals that monazites of schist and paragneiss have consistent 206Pb/238U ages ranging from 228.1 ± 3.8 to 218.2 ± 3.7 Ma. In contrast, muscovites from various schists show slightly older 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages of 236.1 ± 1.5 to 230.2 ± 1.2 Ma. These geochronological and petrological data conclude that the pelitic sediments have experienced a metamorphic event at the Mid-Late Triassic (236.1-218.2 Ma) rather than the Paleoproterozoic (1950-1850 Ma), commonly regarded as the Precambrian basement for the Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt. Hence, the Changhai metamorphic complex should be considered as a discrete

  3. Sapphirine granulites from Panasapattu, Eastern Ghats belt, India: Ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism in a Proterozoic convergent plate margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.V. Dharma Rao


    Full Text Available We report equilibrium sapphirine + quartz assemblage in biotite–orthopyroxene–garnet granulites from a new locality in Panasapattu of Paderu region in the Eastern Ghats granulite belt, which provide new evidence for ultrahigh-temperature (UHT metamorphism at 1030–1050 °C and 10 kbar in this region. The development of migmatitic texture, stabilization of the garnet–orthopyroxene–plagioclase–K-feldspar association, prograde biotite inclusions within garnet and sapphirine as well as sapphirine and cordierite inclusions within garnet in these granulites indicate that the observed peak assemblages probably formed during prograde dehydration melting of a Bt–Sill–Qtz assemblage, and constrain the prograde stage of the p–T path. The core domains of orthopyroxene porphyroblasts have up to w(Al2O3 9.6%, which suggest that the temperatures reached up to 1150 °C suggesting extreme crustal metamorphism. These conditions were also confirmed by the garnet–orthopyroxene thermobarometery, which yields a p–T range of 1012–960 °C and 9.4 kbar. The p–T phase topologies computed using isochemical sections calculated in the model system Na2O–CaO–K2O–FeO–MgO–Al2O3–SiO2–H2O (NCKFMASH for metapelites, garnet-free sapphirine granulites and garnet-bearing sapphirine granulites match the melt-bearing assemblages observed in these rocks. Isochemical sections constructed in the NCKFMASH system for an average sub-aluminous metapelite bulk composition, and contoured for modal proportions of melt and garnet, as well as for the compositional isopleths of garnet, predict phase and reaction relations that are consistent with those observed in the rocks. Garnet and orthopyroxene contain Ti-rich phlogopite inclusions, suggesting formation by prograde melting reactions at the expense of phlogopite during ultrahigh-temperature conditions. These p–T results underestimate ‘peak’ conditions, in part as a result of the modification

  4. Initiation of continental accretion: metamorphic conditions (United States)

    Clement, Conand; Frederic, Mouthereau; Gianreto, Manatschal; Adbeltif, Lahfid


    The physical processes involved at the beginning of the continental collision are largely unknown because they are transient and therefore hardly identifiable from the rock record. Despite the importance of key parameters for understanding mountain building processes, especially the formation of deep mountain roots and their impacts on earthquakes nucleation, rock/fluid transfers and oil/gas resources in the continental crust, observations from the earliest collision stages remain fragmentary. Here, we focus on the example of Taiwan, a young and active mountain belt where the transition from oceanic subduction, accretion of the first continental margin to mature collision can be followed in space and time. We present preliminary results and provide key questions regarding the reconstruction of time-pressure-temperature paths of rocks & fluids to allow discriminating between rift-related thermal/rheological inheritance and burial/heating phases during convergence. Previous studies have focused on peak temperatures analyzed by Raman Spectrometry of Carbonaceous Matter from the deeper structural layers exposed in the Central Range of Taiwan. In the pre-rift sediments, these studies reported a positive gradient from West to Est, and values from directly be interpreted in terms of syn-convergence nappe stacking only and must reflect a component of initial (pre-collisional) high-geothermal gradients (up to 60°C/km) known in the region, and higher temperature closer to the pre-rift units. Cross sections and maps with high resolution peak temperatures are in process as well as pressure estimations to determine how the sediments were metamorphosed. In addition to this work, we report a few inherited temperatures in the 390-570 °C range, indicating recycling of organic matter from metasediments that recorded HT events, likely originated from higher grade metamorphic units of mainland China, which have been eroded and deposited in the post-rift sediments.

  5. Reconstructing grazer assemblages for protected area restoration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan A Venter

    Full Text Available Protected area management agencies often struggle to reliably reconstruct grazer assemblages due to a lack of historical distribution data for their regions. Wrong predictions of grazing assemblages could potentially affect biodiversity negatively. The objective of the study was to determine how well grazing herbivores have become established since introduction to the Mkambati Nature Reserve, South Africa, how this was influenced by facilitation and competition, and how indigenous grazer assemblages can best be predicted for effective ecological restoration. Population trends of several grazing species were investigated in in order to determine how well they have become established since introduction. Five different conceivable grazing assemblages reflecting a range of approaches that are commonly encountered during conservation planning and management decision making were assessed. Species packing was used to predict whether facilitation, competition or co-existence were more likely to occur, and the species packing of the different assemblages were assessed using ANCOVA. Reconstructing a species assemblage using biogeographic and biological information provides the opportunity for a grazer assemblage that allows for facilitatory effects, which in turn leads to an ecosystem that is able to maintain its grazer assemblage structure. The strength of this approach lies in the ability to overcome the problem of depauperate grazer assemblages, resulting from a lack of historical data, by using biogeographical and biological processes, to assist in more effectively reconstructing grazer assemblages. Adaptive management of grazer assemblage restoration through reintroduction, using this approach would further mitigate management risks.

  6. Public Sphere as Digital Assemblage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    ), and subjectivity (agency). This changed the public sphere into an assemblage consisting of both human and non-human actors interactingin a highly dynamic, networked environment. This paper proposes a framework for considering this new materiality in the field of the public sphere: the assemblage and complexity......Normative theories of public sphere have struggled with the topic of materiality. The historical narrative of the ‘public sphere’ situated the phenomenon in specific spaces, where practices (public deliberation) and language (discourse) constructed political agencies, and further publics. From...... the 1990s onwards digitalization brought concepts of network and complexity into the theoretical discourse. This relational turn changed the social ontology of the public sphere into a dynamic and complex system, erasing the division between the fields of reality (the world), representation (discourse...

  7. Chloritoid-bearing assemblages in eclogitised metagabbros of the Lanzo peridotite body (western Italian Alps) (United States)

    Kienast, J. R.; Pognante, U.


    Dykes of metagabbro from the Lanzo peridotite body in the western Italian Alps contain Mg-chloritoidtalc-garnet-Na-pyroxenes ± chlorite or Fe-chloritoid-glaucophane-garnet-Na-pyroxenes eclogitic assemblages of Cretaceous age. In these metagabbros the metamorphic equilibration is incomplete and controlled by local equilibrium conditions; here the chemical gradients, which document the magmatic microstructural domains and the diffusion patterns during metamorphism, survive the eclogitic crystallisation. Concentration of elements like Al, Mg and Fe near the boundaries between the magmatic domains favours the crystallisation, in reaction coronas, of Mg-rich chloritoid in Mg metagabbro and of Fe-rich chloritoid in FeTi metagabbro. Phase compatibilities in the Al 2O 3FeOMgO( ± SiO 2 ± H 2O) system suggest temperatures around 400-500°C at approximate pressures of 15-18 kbar for the eclogitic metamorphism of the Lanzo rocks. In spite of the difficulties and of the inaccuracies of these thermobarometric estimates, the inferred P- T values are in good agreement with determinations involving Na-pyroxenes and garnets.

  8. Tertiary plate tectonics and high-pressure metamorphism in New Caledonia (United States)

    Brothers, R.N.; Blake, M.C.


    The sialic basement of New Caledonia is a Permian-Jurassic greywacke sequence which was folded and metamorphosed to prehnite-pumpellyite or low-grade greenschist facies by the Late Jurassic. Succeeding Cretaceous-Eocene sediments unconformably overlie this basement and extend outwards onto oceanic crust. Tertiary tectonism occurred in three distinct phases. 1. (1) During the Late Eocene a nappe of peridotite was obducted onto southern New Caledonia from northeast to southwest, but without causing significant metamorphism in the underlying sialic rocks. 2. (2) Oligocene compressive thrust tectonics in the northern part of the island accompanied a major east-west subduction zone, at least 30 km wide, which is identified by an imbricate system of tectonically intruded melanges and by development of lawsonite-bearing assemblages in adjacent country rocks; this high-pressure mineralogy constituted a primary metamorphism for the Cretaceous-Eocene sedimentary pile, but was overprinted on the Mesozoic prehnite-pumpellyite metagreywackes. 3. (3) Post-Oligocene transcurrent faulting along a northwest-southeast line (the sillon) parallel to the west coast caused at least 150 km of dextral offset of the southwest frontal margin of the Eocene ultramafic nappe. At the present time, the tectonics of the southwest Pacific are related to a series of opposite facing subduction (Benioff) zones connected by transform faults extending from New Britain-Solomon Islands south through the New Hebrides to New Zealand and marking the boundary between the Australian and Pacific plates. Available geologic data from this region suggest that a similar geometry existed during the Tertiary and that the microcontinents of New Guinea, New Caledonia and New Zealand all lay along the former plate boundary which has since migrated north and east by a complex process of sea-floor spreading behind the active island arcs. ?? 1973.

  9. Oceanic evolution of Spl-peridotites of the Frido Unit ophiolites (Southern Apennine-Italy) (United States)

    Cristi Sansone, Maria T.; Prosser, Giacomo; Rizzo, Giovanna; Tartarotti, Paola


    . Tremolite is present as nematoblasts associated with orthopyroxene. Magnetite replaces spinel or occurs within the mesh textured serpentine. The metamorphic assemblages in the Frido Unit serpentinites allowed to infer the physical conditions operating during serpentinization. The mineralogical assemblages found are typical of the amphibolite facies, greenschist-amphibolite transition and greenschist facies conditions. Serpentinites are cut by veins filled with mineralogical assemblages typical of prehnite-pumpellyite facies likely related to the later orogenic Apennine evolution. The geochemical features of serpentinites show differences in compositions with respect to the Primitive Upper Mantle (PUM). These are likely related to serpentinization processes, since elements normalised to PUM show different trends, comparable to Residual MORB Mantle and to Primitive Upper Mantle respectively. HP/LT metamorphic conditions can be documented in mafic dykes enclosed in serpentinites, but similar conditions are not recorded in serpentinites. This suggests that P-T conditions during the orogenic event were not able to produce a HP/LT mineral assemblage in serpentinites.

  10. The Role of Halogens in High-Grade Metamorphism and Anatexis (United States)

    Aranovich, L.; Safonov, O.


    We review factors controlling the distribution of the two major halogens, F and Cl, in high-grade metamorphic rocks; their compositional correlations and partitioning between minerals; experimental data on stability and phase equilibria of the halogen-bearing minerals; the influence of halogens on Fe-Mg exchange reactions; and the means of estimating concentrations/activity of halogen species concentration/ activity in the fluid phase ("chlorimetry and fluorimetry") via calculation of equilibrium conditions for mineral assemblages containing halogen-bearing phases. Clear negative correlation between the F content and XFe=Fe/(Fe+Mg) suggests that natural biotite and amphibole obey the Fe-F avoidance rule. A strong positive correlation exists between K and Cl in amphibole. A scattering of points on the XFe -Cl and TiO2- Cl diagrams indicate the possible involvement of an exotic Cl-rich phase (fluid or melt) during the formation of Cl-bearing biotite and amphibole. Fluorine and Cl substituting for OH-groups substantially stabilize minerals relative to dehydration and melting. They should also strongly affect partitioning of Fe and Mg between biotite, amphibole and anhydrous minerals. This effect is quantified for Fe-Mg exchange reactions involving biotite (Zhu and Sverjensky, 1992), but remains to be evaluated for amphibole. Calculations based on recent thermodynamic systematics show that the relatively Mg-rich, Cl-poor biotite (for example, XFe = 0.4 and about 0.2 wt.% Cl) may coexist with a fairly Cl-rich fluid, i.e. total Cl/(Cl+H2O) from 0.1-0.3, depending on the assemblage, under granulite facies P-T conditions. Alkali (and Ca) metasomatism caused by interaction of high grade rocks with halogen-bearing fluids has major impact on the subsolidus phase transformations and melting processes during high-grade metamorphism and anatexis. For example, an increase in sodium content in plagioclase (Pl) by 20 mol% due to infiltration of Na- fluid into the quartz (Qtz

  11. The next chapter in experimental petrology: Metamorphic dehydration of polycrystalline gypsum captured in 3D microtomographic time series datasets (United States)

    Bedford, John; Fusseis, Florian; Leclere, Henry; Wheeler, John; Faulkner, Dan


    Nucleation and growth of new minerals in response to disequilibrium is the most fundamental metamorphic process. However, our current kinetic models of metamorphic reactions are largely based on inference from fossil mineral assemblages, rather than from direct observation. The experimental investigation of metamorphism has also been limited, typically to concealed vessels that restrict the possibility of direct microstructural monitoring. Here we present one of the first time series datasets that captures a metamorphic reaction, dehydration of polycrystalline gypsum to form hemihydrate, in a series of three dimensional x-ray microtomographic datasets. We achieved this by installing an x-ray transparent hydrothermal cell (Fusseis et al., 2014, J. Synchrotron Rad. 21, 251-253) in the microtomography beamline 2BM at the Advanced Photon Source (USA). In the cell, we heated a millimetre-sized sample of Volterra Alabaster to 388 K while applying an effective pressure of 5 MPa. Using hard x-rays that penetrate the pressure vessel, we imaged the specimen 40 times while it reacted for approximately 10 hours. Each microtomographic dataset was acquired in 300 seconds without interrupting the reaction. Our absorption microtomographic data have a voxel size of 1.3 μm, which suffices to analyse the reaction progress in 4D. Gypsum can clearly be distinguished from hemihydrate and pores, which form due to the large negative solid volume change. On the resolved scale, the first hemihydrate needles appear after about 2 hours. Our data allow tracking of individual needles throughout the entire experiment. We quantified their growth rates by measuring their circumference. While individual grains grow at different rates, they all start slowly during the initial nucleation stage, then accelerate and grow steadily between about 200 and 400 minutes before reaction rate decelerates again. Hemihydrate needles are surrounded by porous haloes, which grow with the needles, link up and

  12. Formation of metamorphic and metamorphosed garnets in the low-T/UHP metagranite during continental collision in the Dabie orogen (United States)

    Xia, Qiong-Xia; Zheng, Yong-Fei; Lu, Xiao-Nan; Hu, Zhaochu; Xu, Haijun


    A combined study of major and trace elements in garnet was carried out for low-T/UHP metagranite in the Dabie orogen. The results show different fashions of element zoning in the garnet, suggesting occurrence of both metamorphic and metamorphosed garnets. Three generations of garnet growth are distinguished on the basis of the assumption that Ca contents, Mn contents and Fe/Mg ratios of garnet in metagranites are a function of pressure and temperature. The first generation of garnet (Grt-I) occurs in the core of a skeletal garnet, showing homogeneously low XGrs values and Fe/Mg ratios but high XSps values. This implies that the core garnet grew at the highest temperature but the lowest pressure, representing a metamorphosed residue of magmatic garnet in protolith granite. The second generation of garnet (Grt-II) occurs in the mantles and cores of many garnet grains, exhibiting increased XGrs values but decreased Fe/Mg ratios. This is ascribed to a continuous increase in temperature and pressure till the peak pressure, corresponding to metamorphic growth (or overgrowth) during the prograde subduction. The third generation of garnet (Grt-III) occurs in the rims of all garnet grains, displaying decreased XGrs values and Fe/Mg ratios in response to a pressure decrease but a temperature increase till the peak temperature. These rims overgrew subsequent to the peak pressure with continuous heating during the initial exhumation. Grt-I shows steep MREE-HREE patterns and profoundly negative Eu anoalies, consistent with growth from granitic melt. This kind of metamorphosed garnet from protolith granite has still preserved very high contents of many trace elements (such as REE, Rb, Ba, Sr, Pb, Th, U, Nb and Ta) despite the low-T/UHP metamorphism. Grt-II and Grt-III in one sample exhibit steep MREE-HREE patterns, with a continuous decrease in REE contents. This suggests their growth from the almost same matrix of mineral assemblages (plagioclase + K-feldspar + muscovite

  13. Retrograde mineral and fluid evolution in high-pressure metapelites (Schistes Lustres unit, Western Alps).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agard, Ph.; Goffe, B.; Touret, J.L.R.; Vidal, O.


    Fluid inclusions have been analysed in successive generations of syn-metamorphic segregations within low-grade, high-pressure, low-temperature (HP-LT) metapelites from the Western Alps. Fluid composition was then compared to mass transfer deduced from outcrop-scale retrograde mineral reactions. Two

  14. Ubiquitous brecciation after metamorphism in equilibrated ordinary chondrites (United States)

    Scott, E. R. D.; Lusby, D.; Keil, K.


    Ten objects with aberrant Fe/(Fe + Mg) ratios have been found in apparently unbrecciated types 4-6 H and L chondrites. Since the Fe/(Fe + Mg) ratios of these objects are incompatible with the metamorphic history of the host chondrites, it is concluded that a high proportion of ordinary chondrites are breccias that were lithified after peak metamorphism. This is consistent with the results of Scott (1984), who concluded that most type three ordinary chondrites are breccias of materials with diverse thermal histories, even though they do not show prominent brecciation. It is found that the classification scheme of Van Schmus and Wood (1967) does not identify chondrites with similar thermal histories; the petrologic type of a chondrite is only a measure of the average thermal history of its ingredients. Chondrite and achondrite breccias are also compared in order to understand how brecciation of chondrites after metamorphism is so well camouflaged.

  15. Association of coal metamorphism and hydrothermal mineralization in Rough Creek fault zone and Fluorspar District, Western Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hower, J.C.; Fiene, F.L.; Trinkle, E.J.


    The ambient coal rank (metamorphism) of the Carboniferous coals in the Western Kentucky coalfield ranges from high volatile A bituminous (vitrinite maximum reflectance up to 0.75% R/sub max/) in the Webster syncline (Webster and southern Union Counties) to high volatile C bituminous (0.45 to 0.60% R/sub max/) over most of the remainder of the area. Anomalous patterns of metamorphism, however, have been noted in coals recovered from cores and mines in fault blocks of the Rough Creek fault zone and Fluorspar District. Coals in Gil-30 borehole (Rough Creek faults, Bordley Quadrangle, Union County) vary with no regard for vertical position, from high volatile C(0.55% R/sub max/) to high volatile A (0.89%R/sub max) bituminous. Examination of the upper Sturgis Formation (Missourian/Virgilian) coals revealed that the higher rank (generally above 0.75% R/sub max/) coals had vein mineral assemblages of sphalerite, twinned calcite, and ferroan dolomite. Lower rank coals had only untwinned calcite. Several sites in Webster County contain various coals (Well (No. 8) to Coiltwon (No. 14)) with vitrinite reflectances up to 0.83% R/sub max/ and associated sphalerite mineralization. Mississippian and Lower Pennsylvanian (Caseyville Formation Gentry coal) coals in the mineralized Fluorspar District have ranks to nearly medium volatile bituminous (1.03% R/sub max/). The regional rank trend exhibited by the fualt zones is generally higher rank than the surrounding areas. Sphalerite mineralization in itself is not unique within Illinois basin coals, but if it was partly responsible for the metamorphism of these coals, then the fluid temperature must have been higher within the above mentioned fault complexes.

  16. Phosphate minerals in LL chondrites: A record of the action of fluids during metamorphism on ordinary chondrite parent bodies (United States)

    Jones, Rhian H.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Dreeland, Linda; Guan, Yunbin; Burger, Paul V.; Shearer, Charles K.


    Ordinary chondrites contain two phosphate minerals, merrillite and chlorapatite, both of which are secondary minerals that developed in response to metamorphism on the chondrite parent bodies. We have studied the phosphate mineralogy of four LL chondrites, of petrologic types 3.9-6, in order to determine the petrogenesis of the two minerals and interpret the conditions under which they formed. Characterization of merrillite and apatite includes textural observations, mineral compositions determined by electron probe microanalysis, and ion microprobe analyses of trace element and volatile anion elemental abundances. Initial formation of phosphate minerals during mild metamorphism, to petrologic type 4 conditions, resulted in oxidation of P that was originally incorporated in metal, and growth of merrillite as inclusions within metal grains. Subsequent development of both phosphate minerals occurred in response to diffusional equilibration, possible precipitation from fluids as well as replacement reactions resulting from interactions with fluids. Porosity and vein-filling textures in both merrillite and chlorapatite, as well as textures indicating replacement of merrillite by chlorapatite, support a model in which fluid played a significant role and suggest an interface-coupled dissolution-reprecipitation mechanism during metasomatism. Some associations of phosphate minerals with chromite-plagioclase assemblages suggest that phosphate minerals could also be related to impact processes, either as precipitation from an impact melt or as a result of interactions with a fluid or vapor derived from an impact melt. Fluid compositions may have been water-bearing initially, at low temperatures of metamorphism, but later evolved to become halogen-rich and very dry. Late-stage halogen-rich fluids that dominated during cooling of LL chondrite material may have been derived from vaporization of partial melts in the interior of the parent body. Overall, the LL chondrite parent

  17. Chlorine isotope behavior during prograde metamorphism of sedimentary rocks (United States)

    Selverstone, Jane; Sharp, Zachary D.


    Chlorine stable isotope compositions of two sedimentary sequences and their metamorphic equivalents were measured in order to study fractionation effects during prograde metamorphism and devolatilization. Protoliths (n = 25) were collected from a 50 m section of Triassic fluvial and playa-lake strata and Jurassic (Liassic) marine black shales in a well-characterized quarry. Low greenschist to middle amphibolite facies equivalents (n > 80) were collected from the Glarus Alps, Urseren Zone, and Lucomagno region. Bulk δ37Cl values are constant within individual sedimentary layers, but vary from -2.0 to + 2.4 ‰ in Triassic rocks and from -3.0 to 0‰ in the black shales. Dolomitic and gypsiferous samples have positive δ37Cl values, but marls and shales are isotopically negative. Bulk Cl contents show only small declines during the earliest stages of metamorphism. Metamorphic equivalents of the Triassic and Liassic protoliths record the same overall ranges in δ37Cl as their protoliths. Samples with highly correlated bulk compositions but different metamorphic grade show no statistically significant difference in δ37Cl. These data lead to the following conclusions: (1) Terrestrial and marine sedimentary rocks display large primary heterogeneities in chlorine isotope composition. As a result, an unambiguous "sedimentary signature" does not exist in the chlorine stable isotope system. (2) No isotopic fractionation is discernable during metamorphic devolatilization, even at low temperatures. Alpine-style metamorphism thus has little to no effect on bulk chlorine isotopic compositions, despite significant devolatilization. (3) Cl is largely retained in the rocks during devolatilization, contrary to the normally assumed hydrophilic behavior of chlorine. Continuous release of mixed-volatile C-O-H fluids likely affected Cl partitioning between fluid and minerals and allowed chlorine to remain in the rocks. (4) There is no evidence for fluid communication across (meta

  18. Metamorphic evolution and U-Pb zircon SHRIMP geochronology of the Belizário ultramafic amphibolite, Encantadas Complex, southernmost Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmann Léo A.


    Full Text Available The integrated investigation of metamorphism and zircon U-Pb SHRIMP geochronology of the Belizário ultramafic amphibolite from southernmost Brazil leads to a better understanding of the processes involved in the generation of the Encantadas Complex. Magmatic evidence of the magnesian basalt or pyroxenite protolith is only preserved in cores of zircon crystals, which are dated at 2257 ± 12 Ma. Amphibolite facies metamorphism M1 formed voluminous hornblende in the investigated rock possibly at 1989 ± 21 Ma. This ultramafic rock was re-metamorphosed at 702±21 Ma during a greenschist facies eventM2; the assemblage actinolite + oligoclase + microcline + epidote + titanite + monazite formed by alteration of hornblende. The metamorphic events are probably related to the Encantadas Orogeny (2257±12 Ma and Camboriú Orogeny (~ 1989 Ma of the Trans-Amazonian Cycle, followed by an orogenic event (702±21 Ma of the Brasiliano Cycle. The intervening cratonic period (2000-700 Ma corresponds to the existence of the Supercontinent Atlantica, known regionally as the Rio de la Plata Craton.

  19. Diachronous deformation along the base of the Himalayan metamorphic core, west-central Nepal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gibson, R; Godin, L; Kellet, D A; Cottle, J M; Archibald, D


    .... In situ U-Th/Pb petrochronology of monazite sampled from an along-strike transect at the top of the high-strain zone records Eocene-Oligocene prograde metamorphism followed by Miocene retrograde metamorphism...

  20. Chromium isotope signature during continental crust subduction recorded in metamorphic rocks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shen, Ji; Liu, Jia; Qin, Liping; Wang, Shui‐Jiong; Li, Shuguang; Xia, Jiuxing; Ke, Shan; Yang, Jingsui


    The chromium isotope compositions of 27 metamorphic mafic rocks with varying metamorphic degrees from eastern China were systematically measured to investigate the Cr isotope behavior during continental crust subduction...

  1. Analysis of lineament swarms in a Precambrian metamorphic rocks ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Addressing the geologic significance of lineaments and their correlation with joints/fractures is still unclear. The present study attempts to analyse the lineament swarms developed in a Precambrian metamorphic terrain in India using both unfiltered and filtered techniques. The unfiltered analysis technique shows that the ...

  2. Petrographic and Geochemical Study of Low Grade Metamorphic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    other minerals due to low grade metamorphism and hydrothermal alteration have modified the chemistry of the rocks particularly MgO by chlorite in phyllite. Shear zones are common in the rocks of the study area, trending N-S and showing presence of clasts with non-ideal tails, relatively higher amount of quartz veins, ...

  3. Metamorphism in the Potomac composite terrane, Virginia-Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, A.A. Jr.


    Metamorphic rocks in the Potomac Valley occur in three allochthon-precursory melange pairs unconformably overlain by the Popes Head Formation which is at greenschist facies of metamorphism. The highest motif, the Piney Branch Complex and Yorkshire Formation are also in the greenschist facies. The middle motif, consists of the Peters Creek Schist and the Sykesville Formation. Quartzose schists and metagraywacke of the Peters Creek contain serpentinite debris and have had a complex metamorphic history: Barrovian prograde to amphibolite facies (with sillimanite), a localized retrograde event producing chlorite phyllonite, and a later greenschist prograde event. The Sykeville is at biotite +/- garnet grade and contains deformed olistoliths of Peters Creek, including phyllonite, at various grades. The lower motif consists of the Annandale Group (pelitic schists and metasandstone) and Indian Run Formation. The Annandale has experienced two greenschist metamorphisms. The Indian Run is at biotite +/- garnet grade and contains previously metamorphosed and deformed olistoliths of Annandale. The allochthons have had different histories, but after stacking they were metamorphosed with their melanges and the Popes Head to biotite grade. The Popes Head has experienced three phases of folding, the earliest synkinematic with Occoquan emplacement. These fold phases are superposed on earlier structures in the older rocks and are probably of Late Cambrian age (Penobscotian). Earlier deformation is probably of Late Proterozoic age (Cadomian). Neither of these deformations is recognized in North American rocks.

  4. The post-impact metamorphism textures of various type meteorites (United States)

    Grokhovsky, V.; Muftakhetdinova, R.; Petrova, E.; Yakovlev, G.


    A review of the features of shock metamorphism is given of stone and iron meteorites after high-intensity shock loading; In the simulation experiments, possible structural changes in the meteorite matter are demonstrated with significant peak pressure and temperature. This allows obtaining structural changes from melting to plastic deformation of the test substance.



    Ankur Singh Bist*, Dr. Anuj Sharma


    Recent research work shows that n-gram is widely used in metamorphic virus detection. Viruses generated from kits like NGVCK are detected effectively by n-gram approach. Our purpose is to examine various flavours of n-gram approach in virus detection.

  6. Recent saltmarsh foraminiferal assemblages from Iceland (United States)

    Lübbers, Julia; Schönfeld, Joachim


    This study reports for the first time boreal to subarctic intertidal foraminiferal assemblages from saltmarshes at Borgarnes and Faskrudsfjördur on Iceland. The composition of living and dead foraminiferal assemblages was investigated along transects from the tidal flat to the highest reach of halophytic plants. The foraminiferal assemblages from Borgarnes showed 18 species in the total foraminiferal assemblage of which only 7 species were recorded in the living fauna. The assemblages were dominated by agglutinated taxa, whereas 3 calcareous species were recorded, of which only Haynesina orbicularis was found in the living fauna. The distribution limit of calcifying species corresponds to the lower boundary of the lower saltmarsh vegetation zone. Furthermore, calcareous tests showed many features of dissolution, which is an indication of a carbonate corrosive environment. The species forming the dead assemblages were mainly derived from the ambient intertidal areas and were displaced by tidal currents into the saltmarsh. The foraminiferal assemblages from Faskrudsfjördur showed two species, of which only one species was recorded in the living fauna. The assemblage was dominated by the agglutinated foraminifer Trochaminita irregularis. The foraminiferal species recorded on Iceland were the same as commonly found elsewhere in Europa. Since no species was found which is endemic to North America, Iceland is considered part of the European bio province. The foraminiferal could have been immigrated to Iceland from Europe through warm water currents, migratory birds or marine traffic since the last Ice Age.

  7. Spatial variability in macroinvertebrate assemblages: comparing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatial variability in macroinvertebrate assemblages was examined with the aim of evaluating the utility of regional classification systems in aquatic ... process that allows for subjective a priori regional classifications to be modified on the basis of independent, objective a posteriori classification of biological assemblages.

  8. Organic nitrogen chemistry during low-grade metamorphism (United States)

    Boudou, J.-P.; Schimmelmann, A.; Ader, M.; Mastalerz, Maria; Sebilo, M.; Gengembre, L.


    Most of the organic nitrogen (Norg) on Earth is disseminated in crustal sediments and rocks in the form of fossil nitrogen-containing organic matter. The chemical speciation of fossil Norg within the overall molecular structure of organic matter changes with time and heating during burial. Progressive thermal evolution of organic matter involves phases of enhanced elimination of Norg and ultimately produces graphite containing only traces of nitrogen. Long-term chemical and thermal instability makes the chemical speciation of Norg a valuable tracer to constrain the history of sub-surface metamorphism and to shed light on the subsurface biogeochemical nitrogen cycle and its participating organic and inorganic nitrogen pools. This study documents the evolutionary path of Norg speciation, transformation and elimination before and during metamorphism and advocates the use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to monitor changes in Norg speciation as a diagnostic tool for organic metamorphism. Our multidisciplinary evidence from XPS, stable isotopes, traditional quantitative coal analyses, and other analytical approaches shows that at the metamorphic onset Norg is dominantly present as pyrrolic and pyridinic nitrogen. The relative abundance of nitrogen substituting for carbon in condensed, partially aromatic systems (where N is covalently bonded to three C atoms) increases exponentially with increasing metamorphic grade, at the expense of pyridinic and pyrrolic nitrogen. At the same time, much Norg is eliminated without significant nitrogen isotope fractionation. The apparent absence of Rayleigh-type nitrogen isotopic fractionation suggests that direct thermal loss of nitrogen from an organic matrix does not serve as a major pathway for Norg elimination. Instead, we propose that hot H, O-containing fluids or some of their components gradually penetrate into the carbonaceous matrix and eliminate Norg along a progressing reaction front, without causing nitrogen

  9. Metamorphism and partial melting of ordinary chondrites: Calculated phase equilibria (United States)

    Johnson, T. E.; Benedix, G. K.; Bland, P. A.


    Constraining the metamorphic pressures (P) and temperatures (T) recorded by meteorites is key to understanding the size and thermal history of their asteroid parent bodies. New thermodynamic models calibrated to very low P for minerals and melt in terrestrial mantle peridotite permit quantitative investigation of high-T metamorphism in ordinary chondrites using phase equilibria modelling. Isochemical P-T phase diagrams based on the average composition of H, L and LL chondrite falls and contoured for the composition and abundance of olivine, ortho- and clinopyroxene, plagioclase and chromite provide a good match with values measured in so-called equilibrated (petrologic type 4-6) samples. Some compositional variables, in particular Al in orthopyroxene and Na in clinopyroxene, exhibit a strong pressure dependence when considered over a range of several kilobars, providing a means of recognising meteorites derived from the cores of asteroids with radii of several hundred kilometres, if such bodies existed at that time. At the low pressures (phase diagrams predict the onset of partial melting at 1050-1100 °C by incongruent reactions consuming plagioclase, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene, whose compositions change abruptly as melting proceeds. These predictions match natural observations well and support the view that type 7 chondrites represent a suprasolidus continuation of the established petrologic types at the extremes of thermal metamorphism. The results suggest phase equilibria modelling has potential as a powerful quantitative tool in investigating, for example, progressive oxidation during metamorphism, the degree of melting and melt loss or accumulation required to produce the spectrum of differentiated meteorites, and whether the onion shell or rubble pile model best explains the metamorphic evolution of asteroid parent bodies in the early solar system.

  10. Petrographical Evidence for Ultra High Temperature Metamorphism from Sapphirine-bearing Granulites; the Central Highland Complex Sri Lanka (United States)

    Dharmapriya, P. L.; Malaviarachchi, S.


    Extreme crustal metamorphism at temperatures of 900-1150 0C generates rocks with specific mineralogical characteristics termed as ultra high temperature (UHT) granulites. UHT conditions have been derived and inferred from Sapphirine-bearing granulites throughout the world including Sri Lanka. In this study we put forward petrographical evidence for UHT metamorphism observed in thin sections of four types of sapphirine-bearing granulites. Sapphirine (Spr), Kayanite (Ky) (?) and Spinel (Spl) bearing Garnet (Grt)- Orthopyroxene (Opx)-Sillimanite (Sil)-Cordiarite (Cord)-Biotite (Bt) gneiss (Rock A) collected from quarry close to Gampola where the rock is occurred as a layer within Sapphirine bearing Grt-Opx-Sil- Bt gneiss (Rock B). In Rock A, anhedral Spr grains are founded in two phases; as inclusion with in core area of porphyroblastic Grt and within the Quartz (Qtz) saturated matrix. Former type is coexisting with Ky (?) while later types where Spr grain close to Grt porpyroblasts associated with Plagioclase (Plag)-Opx and Spr grain away from garnets are coexisting with K-feldspar and Plag. There are plenty of retrograde Opx+Sil+Cord intergrowth in the matrix of Rock A could be the Spr+Qtz brake down product after the peak metamorphism via the reaction Spr+Qtz=Opx+Sil+Qtz. In Rock B, Spr comprise as inclusion within Grt as mono-phase. Multiple modes of occurrences of Opx-Sil-Qtz assemblage can also be observed in both Rocks A and B enhance that the rocks have been evolved through UHT conditions. Spr, Spl and Sil bearing Grt-Opx-Bt gneiss (Rock C) was collected from a quarry close Kotmale where the rock is occur as a thin layer within a massive charnockite. The Rock C contains medium grained Grt porphyroblasts in which Spr, Spl, Sil, Rutile, Qtz and Bt occur as rare inclusions as either monophase or multiphase assemblages. Spr and Spl have coexisted with tiny mineral which shows inclined extinction and low order birefringence it is very difficult to identify. Based

  11. Light Element Systematics of Metamorphic Clasts from Odp Legs 125 and 195, South Chamorro and Conical Seamounts, Mariana Forearc. (United States)

    Guggino, S.; Savov, I. P.; Ryan, J. G.


    ODP Legs 125 and 195 drilled the summits and flanks of two actively fluid-venting mud volcanoes in the Mariana Forearc: the Conical and the S.Chamorro Seamounts. The recovered lithologies include serpentinized harzburgites and dunites as well as metamorphic clasts, both enclosed in a serpentine mud matrix. The metamafic clasts are schists with highly variable diagnostic mineral assemblages - chlorite, serpentine, talc; tremolite, actinolite and glaucophane; albite, quartz, prhenite, epidote and zeolites. While the major and trace element geochemistries of the metamorphic clasts are highly variable, two protolith groups can be identified. The first group includes serpentinites/mantle-derived source rocks with high LOI, high Ni (avg. 2280 ppm), high Cr (1040-3950 ppm), and low TiO2 (0.04wt%- 0.4 wt%) abundances. The second group includes metamorphosed MORB/sedimentary materials with low LOI, high TiO2 (0.97- 3.58 wt%), low Ni (avg. 470 ppm) and Cr (14- 340 ppm). Samples in this group have MORB-like REE patterns ([Sm/Yb]N ~ 1; [La/Sm]N ~ 0.6-1), as well as non-serpentinite Y abundances (avg: 30 ppm) and Si/Mg ratios ranging from 2.1 to 8.9. Light element/immobile element ratios of the clasts show extreme enrichments of fluid mobile elements (FME). Clasts from both seamounts have very high B/Be (8.2-2715; avg: 358) and B/Li (avg: 2.9). As noted by Bebout et al.(1993, 1999), metamorphism at the slab-mantle interface may prevent the deep subduction of highly volatile components such as H2O, B, As, Cs and Sb. Although only 5-10% of the recovered clasts are slab-derived metamorphic rocks, major and trace element signatures of the serpentinite muds suggest the admixture of a slab crustal component. The extreme FME enrichments preserved in these crustal rocks may thus indicate a large shallow FME outflux.

  12. Dating coeval mafic magmatism and ultrahigh temperature metamorphism in the Anápolis-Itauçu Complex, Central Brazil (United States)

    Giustina, Maria Emilia Schutesky Della; Pimentel, Márcio Martins; Ferreira Filho, Cesar Fonseca; de Hollanda, Maria Helena Bezerra Maia


    Dating granulites has always been of great interest because they represent one of the most extreme settings of an orogen. Owing to the resilience of zircon, even in such severe environments, the link between P-T conditions and geological time is possible. However, a challenge to geochronologists is to define whether the growth of new zircon is related to pre- or post-P-T peak conditions and which processes might affect the (re)crystallization. In this context, the Anápolis-Itauçu Complex, a high-grade complex in central Brazil with ultrahigh temperature (UHT) granulites, may provide valuable information within this topic. The Anápolis-Itauçu Complex (AIC) includes ortho- and paragranulites, locally presenting UHT mineral assemblages, with igneous zircon ages varying between 760 and 650 Ma and metamorphic overgrowths dated at around 650-640 Ma. Also common in the Anápolis-Itauçu Complex are layered mafic-ultramafic complexes metamorphosed under high-grade conditions. This article presents the first geological and geochronological constraints of three of these layered complexes within the AIC, the Damolândia, Taquaral and Goianira-Trindade complexes. U-Pb (LA-MC-ICPMS, SHRIMP and ID-TIMS) zircon analyses reveal a spread of concordant ages spanning within an age interval of ~ 80 Ma with an “upper” intercept age of ~ 670 Ma. Under cathodoluminescence imaging, these crystals show partially preserved primary sector zoning, as well as internal textures typical of alteration during high-grade metamorphism, such as inward-moving boundaries. Zircon grains reveal homogeneous initial 176Hf/177Hf values in distinct crystal-scale domains in all samples. Moreover, Hf isotopic ratios show correlation neither with U-Pb ages nor with Th/U ratios, suggesting that zircon grains crystallized during a single growth event. It is suggested, therefore, that the observed spread of concordant U-Pb ages may be related to a memory effect due to coupled dissolution

  13. Isotopic and geothermometric constraints on the structural and metamorphic evolution of Homestake gold deposit, Black Hills, South Dakota (USA) (United States)

    Terry, M.; Dahl, P.; Frei, R.


    The Homestake Deposit, located in the northern Black Hills and host for 40 million ounces of gold, shows evidence for extensive remobilization of gold related to regional metamorphism deformation associated with the Early Proterozoic assembly of supercontinent Laurentia. Field and petrographic evidence for gold remobilization includes the occurrence of abundant quartz veins associated with selvages of chlorite-siderite-ankerite-pyrrhotite-arsenopyrite-gold in the Homestake Fm. The deposit is located on the western limb of a major anticlinorium that coincides with a vertical N-S-striking garnet isograd, and garnet-biotite geothermometry of metapelites sampled across the anticlinorium indicates a steep metamorphic field gradient of 150^oC/km (east side warmer). This gradient is mirrored by a pronounced fractionation of oxygen isotopes observed in the vein quartz, with δ18O ranging from 10 to 18 ppm. The isograd is parallel with a major N-S-striking shear zone, and kinematic indicators predominantly indicate oblique sinistral motion with east-side up. Garnet was separated from a subsurface sample of the Homestake Fm. collected from the nose of the so-called "main ledge" synform and subjected to Pb stepwise leaching (PbSL) to determine the age of garnet growth and thus metamorphism. PbSL analysis revealed a 207Pb/206Pb age of 1746 ± 10 Ma (± 2σ). Recent work in the southern Black Hills indicates that almandine does not contain sufficient Pb to be dated directly by this method; instead, the PbSL result represents the bulk age of abundant allanite inclusions observed in the garnet. Thus, 1746 Ma is interpreted as a maximum age of prograde garnet growth during regional thermotectonism. Mineral assemblages from selvages in Main Ledge indicate that mineralization occurred at or after peak metamorph, which indicates that 1746 Ma also represents a maximum age for gold remobilization. A minimum 1715 Ma age of these events is indicated by published ages of post

  14. Felsic granulite with layers of eclogite facies rocks in the Bohemian Massif; did they share a common metamorphic history? (United States)

    Jedlicka, Radim; Faryad, Shah Wali


    facies mineral assemblage. The results of this study are compared with other granulite massifs in the Moldanubian Zone. In addition, a possible scenario for the Variscan eclogite and subsequent granulite facies metamorphism in the Bohemian Massif is discussed.

  15. P-T-time evolution of the Mejillones Metamorphic Complex: Insights into Late Triassic to Early Jurassic orogenic processes in northern Chile (United States)

    Calderón, M.; Massonne, H.-J.; Hervé, F.; Theye, T.


    Better constrained pressure-temperature (P-T) histories of metamorphic complexes along the Andean continental margin are important for understanding the late Paleozoic and Mesozoic tectonic evolution of the southwestern margin of Gondwana. The Mejillones Metamorphic Complex of the northern Chilean Coastal Cordillera is composed of two tectonic units, the Morro Mejillones and Morro Jorgiño blocks. These units are bound by the NW-trending Caleta Herradura fault and show distinctly metamorphic ages and thermal evolution. The Morro Mejillones block was metamorphosed at low pressure conditions (andalusite-sillimanite series) during the intrusion of tonalitic plutons at ca. 208 Ma, as indicated by available geochronological data. In contrast, the Morro Jorgiño block comprises amphibolite-facies schists, gneisses and foliated metabasites with characteristic garnet-bearing mineral assemblages. For garnet-bearing pelitic gneisses, a clockwise P-T path has been determined from pseudosection modelling in the MnNCKFMASHTO system. The proposed evolution is characterized by a pressure increase from 7.5 to 8.5 kbar at increasing temperatures from 585 to 615 °C. Decompression to 6 kbar followed, accompanied by heating to 630-640 °C. Electron microprobe Th-U-Pb in-situ dating of high-Y monazite grains yielded a weighted average age of ca. 190 ± 4 Ma, which is interpreted as the age of tectonic burial of metamorphic rocks of the Morro Jorgiño tectonic unit. We infer that the block was buried to 25 km depth through contractional deformation of the continental edge in a subduction zone, likely linked to the docking of the Mejillonia terrane. Rapid exhumation followed and the ensuing juxtaposition of both tectonic units was controlled by Jurassic transtensional activity of the Atacama Fault System.

  16. Zoned high-pressure assemblages in pillow lavas of the Zermatt-Saas ophiolite zone, Switzerland (United States)

    Barnicoat, A. C.


    Pillow lavas of the Zermatt-Saas ophiolite zone of the western Swiss Alps in places consist of zoned high-pressure parageneses. These assemblages, which developed subsequent to the metamorphic peak, are of lawsonite eclogite in the cores of pillows and dolomite-bearing blueschist or glaucophane eclogite in the rims. The matrix between the pillows comprises dolomite-glaucophane-rich material. An analysis of reactions in the system Na 2OCaOFeOMgOAl 2O 3SiO 2H 2OCO 2 (NCFMAS-H 2OCO 2) indicates that one possible model is that these assemblages formed cofacially due to systematic intra-pillow variations in the chemical potentials of H 2O and CO 2. Pillow rims equilibrated at higher values of μCO 2 and lower values of μH 2O than pillow cores. Textural evidence suggests that infiltration has controlled the distribution of CO 2 generated by the breakdown of dolomite-bearing assemblages during the return of the rocks to the surface. Variation in H 2O content was caused by ocean-floor hydrothermal alteration. In these rocks, therefore, blueschist assemblages have been stabilised by higher values of μCO 2 and eclogites by higher values of μH 2O . If fluids were present (as suggested by various lines of evidence) then blueschist pillow rims equilibrated at higher {CO2}/{( CO2+ H2O) } than eclogitic pillow cores.

  17. Metamorphism of eclogites from the UHP Maksyutov Complex, south Ural Mountains, Russia (United States)

    Burlick, T. D.; Leech, M. L.


    The Maksyutov Complex is a mid- to late Paleozoic ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) subduction terrane in the south Ural Mountains of Russia. Radial fractures around quartz inclusions in garnet, omphacite, and glaucophane interpreted as pre-existing coesite; and microdiamond aggregates in garnet identified by Raman spectroscopy demonstrate Maksyutov rocks were subducted to UHP conditions (>2.8 GPa for coesite and >3.0 GPa for diamond at 600°C). Peak UHP eclogite-facies metamorphism (Grt+Omp+Ph+Coe+Rt ×Ttn) took place at c. 385 M and Maksyutov rocks were exhumed through retrograde blueschist-facies metamorphism (Grt+Gln+Ph+Qz×Chl×Ep) by 360 Ma. Pseudosections were constructed to constrain the P-T conditions recorded by the equilibrium mineral assemblanges in eclogites and their retrograded equivalents using bulk rock XRF analysis in the system Na2O-CaO-K2O-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O-TiO2 and the suite of free energy minimization programs, Perple_X 6.6.8 [Connolly 2009] with the internally consistent end-member thermodynamic database from Holland and Powell [1998] (mod 2004); solution models for omphacite (Holland and Powell, 1996), clinoamphibole (Dale et al. 2005), white mica (Coggon & Holland 2002, Auzanneau et al 2010), chlorite and garnet (Holland and Powell 1998; Powell and Holland 1999), and feldspar (Thompson and Hovis 1979; Newton et al. 1980) were used with H2O as a saturated component. Both conventional thermometry, using microprobe analyses and Grt-Cpx cation exchange as well as pseudosection modeling result in higher peak equilibrium temperatures than has been previously been reported in the Maksyutov. Pseudosection modeling gives minimum P-T conditions of 625°-675°C and 2.8-3.1 GPa for peak assemblages from the least retrogressed eclogites, while Fe-Mg exchange thermometry yields temperatures of 775°C × 25°C for pressures ranging from 2.5 to 3.5 GPa.

  18. Constraining the Rate of Water-Releasing Metamorphic Reactions in Subduction Zones (United States)

    Mehl, L. Y.; Barkman, J. E.; Baxter, E. F.


    Metamorphic reactions in subduction zones have implications for the timing and depth over which water is released from subducting lithologies. Water release is related to the densification of the slab, the fluxing of arc magmatism, and seismogenesis. Garnet-forming reactions frequently involve the release of water. In order to quantify the rate at which water is produced during the P-T-t interval represented by garnet growth, we seek to constrain the rate and duration of garnet formation. Garnets in blueschists were collected from Sifnos, Greece. This island is in an accretionary wedge setting where the Apulian microplate subducted beneath the Eurasia plate from late Cretaceous to Eocene times. Peak metamorphic conditions were certainly less than 600 C and 2.0 GPa [1]. Blueschists from this subduction zone are preserved in the northern part of Sifnos; we collected most of our samples from Vroulidia Bay. This locality was chosen because large garnets (5-10mm) are preserved in many lithologies. Also, the peak temperatures determined by previous workers indicates that the garnet has remained closed to diffusive re-equilibration of Nd permitting the use of Sm/Nd geochronology to constrain prograde reaction history. Samples taken from Vroulidia Bay are fresh, with compositions that likely include mafic oceanic protoliths. Common assemblages include glaucophane, epidote, garnet, zoisite, quartz, phengite, partially replaced titanite, and rutile, as well as patches of carbonate and rare chlorite. The garnets sampled are dominantly almandine but also include a grossular component. Possible garnet-forming reactions in the Sifnos rocks may include: Chlorite + quartz = Almandine + H2O where the consumption of Fe-rich chlorite forms the almandine and releases water. The break down of Ca-rich clinozoisite, lawsonite, and/or titanite could contribute to the grossular component. Using the Sm/Nd isochron method, microsampled cores and rims of garnets may be directly dated. The

  19. Metamorphic hemispherical microphone array for three-dimensional acoustics (United States)

    Biswas, Shantonu; Reiprich, Johannes; Cohrs, Thaden; Stauden, Thomas; Pezoldt, Joerg; Jacobs, Heiko O.


    This article describes the realization of a metamorphic stretchable microphone array, which can be inflated by air to morph from a planar to a hemispherical shape. The array undergoes morphological changes to adjust their receive characteristic. To realize this device, a metamorphic printed circuit board technology (m-PCB) is described. The resulting products are millimeter-thin stretchable silicone embedded and electrically interconnected electronic structures with mechanical properties, which resemble a silicone membrane. The microphone array is used to localize a sound source in a 3D space. The results of the planar orientation (resting shape), and the 3D hemispherical orientation after air inflation are compared. The inflated hemispherical microphone array proofs to be better for 3D acoustic localization and/or beam-forming.

  20. Repeated shock and thermal metamorphism of the Abernathy meteorite (United States)

    Lambert, P.; Lewis, C.; Moore, C. B.


    Based on the example of Abernathy (L6 chondrite), it is shown how petrographic investigation can be used to unravel the nature, chronology and conditions of superposed metamorphic events in chondrites. Features considered include the texture of the rock, optical characteristics of olivine, pyroxene and plagioclase, refractive index of plagioclase, metallographical characteristics and microhardness of Fe-Ni alloys. It is deduced that Abernathy has been involved in at least six metamorphic events since the formation of the chondrite. Four distinct shock events and two separate reheating events have been identified. The chronology of these events is established. The conditions for the last four events are reasonably well constrained. These include severe reheating (T greater than 1200 C); severe shock causing complete melting of plagioclase and local melting of the rock (P between 90 and 110 GPa, T between 1250 and 1350 C); mild shock (P between 10 and 25 GPa, T less than 500 C); and reheating below 800 C.

  1. Petrology of blueschist facies metamorphic rocks of the Meliata Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faryad Shah Wali


    Full Text Available Meliata blueschists originated from basalts, limestones, pelites, psammitic and amphibolite facies basement rocks. Compositionally, the metabasalts have a geochemical signature mostly indicative of a transitional arc-MORB origin, but some mafic rocks having affinity with within plate basalts also present. The mafic blueschists consist of blue amphibole, epidote and albite, rarely also garnet, Na-pyroxene and chloritoid. Apart from phengite and quartz the metapelites and metapsammites contain one or more of the minerals: chloritoid, paragonite, glaucophane, albite, chlorite, occasionally also Na-pyroxene and garnet. Amphibolite facies rocks contain relic garnet, plagioclase and hornblende, the latter two replaced by albite and blue amphibole, respectively. The zoning patterns of blue amphibole, garnet and chloritoid suggest their formation during prograde stage of metamorphism. P-T conditions of meta-morphism are estimated to be about 350-460 oC and 10-12 kbar.

  2. Pathway to 50% Efficient Inverted Metamorphic Concentrator Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisz, John F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Steiner, Myles A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jain, Nikhil [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schulte, Kevin L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); France, Ryan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McMahon, William E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Perl, Emmett [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, Kelsey A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Friedman, Daniel J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Series-connected five (5J) and six junction (6J) concentrator solar cell strategies have the realistic potential to exceed 50% efficiency to enable low-cost CPV systems. We propose three strategies for developing a practical 6J device. We have overcome many of the challenges required to build such concentrator solar cell devices: We have developed 2.1 eV AlGaInP, 1.7 eV AlGaAs, and 1.7 eV GaInAsP junctions with external radiative efficiency greater than 0.1%. We have developed a transparent tunnel junction that absorbs minimal light intended for the second junction yet resists degradation under thermal load. We have developed metamorphic grades from the GaAs to the InP lattice constant that are transparent to sub-GaAs bandgap light. We have grown and compared low bandgap junctions (0.7eV - 1.2 eV) using metamorphic GaInAs, metamorphic GaInAsP, and GaInAsP lattice-matched to InP. And finally, we have demonstrated excellent performance in a high voltage, low current 4 junction inverted metamorphic device using 2.1, 1.7, 1.4, and 1.1 eV junctions with over 8.7 mA/cm2 one-sun current density that operates up to 1000 suns without tunnel junction failure.

  3. Fish assemblages in southern California kelp forests. (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a point file of fish assemblages calculated from diver surveys in kelp forests in Southern California. Visual census data was combined for two separate...

  4. Quantitative Prograde P-T Paths From Inclusion Assemblages in Eclogitic Garnets (United States)

    Essene, E. J.; Page, F. Z.; Mukasa, S. B.


    Many workers have used garnet inclusions as qualitative indicators of the early history of tectonically exposed eclogites. Assemblages indicative of crustal facies combined with standard P-T conditions of those facies and thermobarometry on the matrix eclogite constrain the prograde path. However, now that conditions of some blueschist, amphibolite and granulite facies rocks have been extended to much higher pressures, in the range of 10-20 kbar, those assignments are in need of review. While undertaking studies on eclogites from the Blue Ridge of North Carolina and the Franciscan in northern California, the authors have identified key inclusion assemblages of sphene-rutile-epidote-quartz and phengite-omphacite together with garnet that constrain the prograde P-T path based on univariant assemblages corrected for observed solid solutions. Equilibria that have proved most useful are those bounding epidote stability and two key reactions, one involving sphene/rutile: (1) clinozoisite + sphene = grossular + rutile + H2O, and the second being the phengite barometer: garnet + Mg-celadonite = clinopyroxene + muscovite. Reactions (1) and (2) have negative slopes, intersecting with the Mg/Fe KD garnet-clinopyroxene thermometer and providing a reasonable estimate of pre- to syn-eclogite facies P-T. In the case of the Bakersville eclogite samples from North Carolina, the inclusion assemblage yields 10 +/- 2 kbar and 500 +/- 50° C with reaction (1) compared to the peak assemblage at P > 15 +/- 2 kbar and 700 +/- 50° C. These data combined with evidence for a granulite facies overprint indicate a clockwise P-T path for those eclogites. A similar study on the Healdsburg eclogite samples from California yields about 500° C and 12 +/- 1 kbar for the garnet cores, 14 +/- 2 kbar for mantles and 16 +/- 2 kbar for rim-matrix assemblages. The introduction of late glaucophane, epidote and chlorite partially replacing omphacite and garnet implies a retrograde return to the blueschist

  5. Metamorphic conditions and structural evolution of the Kesebir-Kardamos dome: Rhodope metamorphic complex (Greece-Bulgaria) (United States)

    Moulas, Evangelos; Schenker, Filippo Luca; Burg, Jean-Pierre; Kostopoulos, Dimitrios


    The synmetamorphic nappe system of the Rhodope Metamorphic Complex has been deformed into dome-and-basin structures attributed to syn- to post-convergent exhumation. We document the deformation style and present new thermobarometric and geochronological constraints for the Kesebir-Kardamos dome in southern Bulgaria and northern Greece. The dome consists of a migmatitic core overlain by high-grade thrust sheets. Kinematic indicators indicate a continuum from ductile to brittle conditions during exhumation. Thermodynamic modeling applied to the high-grade, intermediate thrust sheets yielded peak conditions of 1.2 GPa and ca 730 °C. New U-Pb SHRIMP-II dating of zircons from rocks of the same unit revealed Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous (145 Ma) as the time of metamorphic crystallization; some zircon rims yielded Eocene ages (53 and 44 Ma) interpreted as having been thermally reset owing to coeval granitoid magmatism. The high-grade rocks were covered by Lutetian-Priabonian marine sediments after exhumation. Slumps suggest that sedimentation took place in a tectonically active environment. Our new structural, petrological and geochronological results suggest that the major shear zone in the core of the Kesebir-Kardamos dome is equivalent to the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Nestos Shear Zone. Post-Jurassic metamorphic ages recorded in the Rhodope most likely represent crustal rather than deep subduction geodynamic processes.

  6. The Oxidation (Not Reduction) of Ordinary Chondrites During Metamorphism (United States)

    McSween, H. Y., Jr.; Labotka, T. C.


    Subtle but systematic changes in the compositions and relative abundances of olivine, pyroxene, and metal with increasing petrologic type in equilibrated (types 4-6) H, L, and LL chondrites suggest that metallic Fe in these meteorites was oxidized during metamorphism. Observed changes include increases in the mean Fe contents of olivine and pyroxene and in the mean Ni and Co contents of bulk metal, as well as increases in the olivine:low-Ca pyroxene ratio with decreasing metal abundance. This evidence for oxidation is at variance with the commonly accepted idea that chondritic Fe was reduced by graphite during metamorphism (Ringwood, 1965; Williams, 1971; Brett and Sato, 1984; Rubin et al., 1988). We suggest that graphite activity was lowered by its dissolution in taenite at metamorphic temperatures, so that redox state was determined largely by equilibrium between ferromagnesian silicates and metal. Oxygen fugacities calculated from chondrite mineral equilibria are 2-3 log units below intrinsic fO(sub)2 measurements (Brett and Sato, 1984). The mineralogies of type 3 chondrites do not conform to the oxidation sequence seen in types 4-6 chondrites, and there is some evidence to suggest that Fe in unequilibrated chondrites was actually reduced during mild heating. Apparently, redox conditions in the surficial layers of parent bodies were reducing, but were oxidizing in the hotter interiors. Much of the current confusion over oxidation versus reduction is attributable to comparing unequilibrated and equilibrated chondrites. Progressive oxidation of Fe during metamorphism implies reaction with an oxidizing agent no longer present in the meteorites. We suggest that this oxidant was an aqueous vapor, derived from heating small amounts of ices originally accreted into the parent asteroids. The condensation of this vapor in cooler, outer layers of asteroids could account for aqueous alteration phases documented in some type 3 chondrites (Alexander et al., 1989). Assuming

  7. Geochemical Characteristics of Metamorphic Rock-Hosted Gold Deposit At Onzon-Kanbani Area, Central Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aung Tay Zar


    Full Text Available Gold and associated base metal mineralization of Onzon-Kabani area located in the western border of generally N-S trending Mogoke Metamorphic Belt where well-known Sagaing fault is served as a western boundary of this area. In this research area, many artisanal and small-scale gold mines were noted in last three decades. Gold mineralization is hosted in marble and gneiss unit of research area but most common in marble unit. Variety of igneous intrusions are also observed in research area. Mineralizations are observed as fissure filling veins as well as lesser amount of disseminated nature in marble unit. Mineralogically, gold are associated with other base metal such as pyrite, galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, marcasite and arsenopyrite. Hydrothermal alteration halos are developed in peripheral of hydrothermal conduits or mineralization veins from proximal to distal such as 1 silicic, 2 sericite-illite, and 3 propylitic alteration.  Most of hydrothermal minerals from each altered zones showed that near neutral condition of pH (e.g. adularia, calcite, illite, sericite and chlorite. Alternatively, hydrothermal alteration zones that show with ore minerals such as native gold, electrum, sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite and marcasite which mostly observed in silicic alteration zone. Typical boiling characters of vein textures and fluid inclusion petrography are observed in hydrothermal system of research area. Boiling, cooling and mixing are possiblily responsible for gold deposition in hydrothermal system. In this paper, authors are documented to clarify the type of mineralization based on hydrothermal alterations, ore and gangue mineral assemblages and fluid inclusion study. All of these data can describe and play an important role for both with respect to understanding deposit genesis and in mineral exploration.

  8. Metamorphic evolution of the contact aureole of the Jhirgadandi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The granitoid pluton causes a high geothermal gradient resulted into the textural and miner- alogical changes in a narrow zone. The mineral assemblages of low pressure and low to high tem- perature conditions from outer to inner aureole along with textural and mineralogical changes. (figure 4) indicate the overprinting of ...

  9. Deformation and metamorphism of gold-sulphide lodes in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    crop scale also, mainly due to superposition of open. F3 folds over F2. Geothermobarometric calculations using metapelitic mineral assemblage of garnet + biotite ..... chronous with early to 'late F2-deformation', and Guha (2004), who negated the hydrothermal replacement hypothesis of metal genesis and its concentration.

  10. contact metamorphism in the supracrustal rocks of the sukumaland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    quartz and garnet- ferrogedrite-biotite-quartz and in the metabasites of Mawemeru is ferrotschermakite-(Na- plagioclase)-quartz. Peak temperatures ranging between 438°C and 544°C were calculated from the above mineral assemblages and a ...

  11. Contact Metamorphism in the Supracrustal Rocks of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Critical and informative mineral assemblages in the metairostones of Geita Hills are garnet-grunerite-epidote-quartz and garnetferrogedrite- biotite-quartz and in the metabasites of Mawemeru is ferrotschermakite-(Naplagioclase)- quartz. Peak temperatures ranging between 438°C and 544°C were calculated from the ...

  12. Phase-equilibrium modelling of blueschists from the Vestgötabreen Complex (SW Svalbard) (United States)

    Kośmińska, Karolina; Majka, Jarosław; Manecki, Maciej; Lorenz, Henning; Kozub, Gabriela


    In Svalbard Archipelago, blueschists are known from Motalafjella area (Oscar II Land). They belong to the Vestgötabreen Complex, which is divided into a Lower (LU) and Upper Unit (UU). The former is composed of high pressure-low temperature (HP-LT) metasediments. The latter consists mainly of blueschists and eclogites. Various radiometric dating yielded an age of c. 470 Ma for the HP-LT metamorphism in the Motalafjella area. The pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions for carpholite-bearing schists from LU have been estimated to c. 16 kbar and 330-450°C (Agard et al., 2005), whereas eclogites from UU indicate peak conditions of 18-24 kbar and 580-640°C (Hirajima et al., 1988). During the fieldwork in 2011, blueschists were also discovered at the western coast of Nordenskiöld Land. They form isolated bodies enclosed within metasedimentary units, but their tectonic position is still under debate. Preliminary P-T estimates indicate peak pressure conditions of c. 17 kbar and 480°C (Kośmińska et al., in revision). The age of metamorphism is unknown, however P-T conditions as well as metamorphic assemblage suggest that the blueschists from Nordenskiöld Land may be an equivalent of these in the Vestgötabreen Complex. Samples of blueschists from UU have been collected on Skipperryggen. They consist mainly of glaucophane, garnet, white micas (phengite and paragonite), rutile, lawsonite and chlorite. The garnet typically forms euhedral to subhedral porphyroblasts which contain voluminous inclusions. Its composition varies from Alm63Prp13Grs22Sps2 in the cores to Alm60Prp19Grs20Sps1 in the rims. The change in chemical zoning is rather gradual. The garnet shows bowl-shaped pyrope profiles and opposite almandine trends. The P-T conditions were estimated using phase equilibrium modeling. Preliminary modeling in the NCKFMMnASHTO system yields peak pressure conditions at c. 20 kbar and 520°C. The estimated P-T conditions for the blueschists from Skipperryggen are in

  13. Mineralogy, geochronology and geochemistry of early Triassic blueschists in the Lancang metamorphic zone of Southwest China: fingerprints of the Paleotethyan subduction (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Fan, W.; Zhang, Y.; Cai, Y.; Jourdan, M.


    The subduction of the Paleotethyan Ocean and subsequent continental collision along the Lancang tectonic belt of the southeastern Paleotethyan belt is a major tectonic event for Southwest China, but the timing of the subduction and associated thermal structure preceding the final collision are still unknown. The mafic blueschists exposed in the Lancang accretionary complex provide the crucial records of the kinematics and thermal dynamics for the subduction zone. In this paper, we present a set of new mineralogical, geochronological and geochemical data for the Xuyi blueschists and report the presence of high-pressure Na-amphibole in the Lancang metamorphic zone. The mineral assemblage of these blueschists consists of zoned sodic amphibole (25-30 %), albite (15-20 %), epidote (25-30 %), phengite (5-10 %), chlorite (~5-10 %), and minor amounts of actinolite, apatite, sphere, zircon, ilmenite, quartz and secondary limonite. They display a progressive metamorphism from ~0.5 GPa to ~0.9 GPa and retrograde metamorphic overprinting (back to ~0.6 GPa) within the temperature range 300-450°C. The glaucophane and phengite developed during progressive metamorphism yielded the Ar-Ar ages of 246-251 Ma, and the glaucophane overprinted by retrograde metamorphism gave the Ar-Ar plateau ages of 233.2 ×3.1 Ma. The Xuyi blueschists yielded the zircon U-Pb age of 254 × 3 Ma, and are compositionally identical to the subalkaline basalt with typical OIB-type REE and multi-elemental patterns and ɛNd(t) values of +3.35 to +4.85. Based on all the available data, it is inferred that the protolith originated from the basaltic seamount with shallow-marine carbonate cap in the Paleotethyan Ocean till 254 Ma. The seamounts subducted eastward down to 30-35 km depths beneath the Lincang arc and became metamorphosed to form the epidote blueschists at ~246 -251 Ma. The blueschists were subsequently transported to shallower crustal levels in response to the continuous underthrust of the

  14. Prograde high- to ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism and exhumation of oceanic sediments at Lago di Cignana, Zermatt-Saas Zone, western Alps (United States)

    Reinecke, T.


    Pelagic metasediments and MORB-type metabasalts of the former Tethyan oceanic crust at Cignana, Valtournanche, Italy, experienced UHP metamorphism and subsequent exhumation during the Early to Late Tertiary. Maximum PT conditions attained during UHP metamorphism were 600-630 °C, 2.7-2.9 GPa, which resulted in the formation of coesite-glaucophane-eclogites in the basaltic layer and of garnet-dolomite-aragonite-lawsonite-coesite-phengite-bearing calc-schists and garnet-phengite-coesite-schists with variable amounts of epidote, talc, dolomite, Na-pyroxene and Na-amphibole in the overlying metasediments. During subduction the rocks followed a prograde HP/UHP path which in correspondance with the Jurassic age of the Tethyan crust reflects the thermal influence of relatively old and cold lithosphere and of low to moderate shear heating. Inflections on the prograde metamorphic path may correspond to thermal effects that arise from a decrease in shear heating due to brittle-plastic transition in the quartz-aragonite-dominated rocks, induced convection in the asthenospheric mantle wedge and/or heat consumption by endothermic reactions over a restricted PT segment during subduction. After detachment from the downgoing slab some 50-70 Ma before present, the Cignana crustal slice was first exhumed to ca. 60 km and concomitantly cooled to ca. 550 °C, tracing back the UHP/HP prograde path displaced by 50-80 °C to higher temperatures. Exhumation at this stage is likely to have occurred in the Benioff zone, while the subduction of cool lithosphere was going on. Subsequently, the rocks were near-isothermally exhumed to ca. 30 km, followed by concomitant decompression and cooling to surface conditions (at glaucophane eclogites, the HP/UHP assemblages of the metasediments have been largely obliterated during exhumation. Relics from which the metamorphic evolution of the rocks during prograde HP metamorphism and the UHP stage can be retrieved are restricted to rigid low

  15. Histamine is a modulator of metamorphic competence in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea)


    Sutherby Josh; Giardini Jamie-Lee; Nguyen Julia; Wessel Gary; Leguia Mariana; Heyland Andreas


    Abstract Background A metamorphic life-history is present in the majority of animal phyla. This developmental mode is particularly prominent among marine invertebrates with a bentho-planktonic life cycle, where a pelagic larval form transforms into a benthic adult. Metamorphic competence (the stage at which a larva is capable to undergo the metamorphic transformation and settlement) is an important adaptation both ecologically and physiologically. The competence period maintains the larval st...

  16. Fish Assemblage Responses to Forest Cover (United States)

    Burcher, Chris L.; McTammany, Matthew E.; Benfield, E. Fred; Helfman, Gene S.


    We investigated whether fish assemblage structure in southern Appalachian streams differed with historical and contemporary forest cover. We compared fish assemblages in 2nd-4th order streams draining watersheds that had increased forest cover between 1950 and 1993 (i.e ., reforesting watersheds). We sampled fish in 50 m reaches during August 2001 and calculated catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) by taxonomic, distributional, trophic, reproductive, and thermal metrics. We assigned streams to reforestation categories based on cluster analysis of years 1950 and 1993 near-stream forest cover. The relationship between forest cover and assemblage structure was assessed using analysis of variance to identify differences in fish CPUE in five forest cover categories. Streams contained 23 fish species representing six families, and taxa richness ranged from 1 to 13 at 30 stream sites. Streams with relatively low near-stream forest cover were different from streams having moderate to high near-stream forest cover in 1950 and 1993. Fish assemblages in streams having the lowest amount of forest cover (53-75%) were characterized by higher cosmopolitan, brood hider, detritivore/herbivore, intermediate habitat breadths, run-pool dweller, and warm water tolerant fish CPUE compared to streams with higher riparian forest cover. Our results suggest that fish assemblage’s structural and functional diversity and/or richness may be lower in streams having lower recent or past riparian forest cover compared to assemblages in streams having a high degree of near-stream forest cover.

  17. Gold mineralisation and orogenic metamorphism in the Lena province of Siberia as assessed from Chertovo Koryto and Sukhoi Log deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina A. Yudovskaya


    Full Text Available The Chertovo Koryto gold deposit (80 t Au at 1.84 g/t in the Lena world-class province, Siberia, is hosted in a metamorphosed sequence of the Paleoproterozoic Mikhailovsk Formation that comprises the oldest black shale strata of the Baikal-Patom region. The mineralisation is confined to the thrust zone complicated with a conjugate anticline fold, zones of shearing and dislocation. The structural position of the mineralisation is similar to that at the giant Sukhoi Log deposit in the neighbouring Mama-Bodaibo zone. In the latter, the isotope age data suggest that Khomolkho black shales, hosts to Sukhoi Log mineralisation, are of Ediacaran age and underwent prograde metamorphism during early Paleozoic. The geochemical composition of the terrigenous rocks that host Sukhoi Log, Chertovo Koryto, and a number of other deposits at the various stratigraphic levels throughout the Proterozoic sequence have much in common. They do not show elevated metal contents above the common black shale abundances, except for Au and As, which is at variance with the accepted view on diagenetic enrichment of black shales in the Lena province. The occurrence of sagenitic rutile in quartz and chlorite pseudomorphs after biotite and other petrographic observations provide evidence on a retrograde nature of the metamorphic mineral assemblages in the Mikhailovsk rocks. The sulphides are pyrrhotite and arsenopyrite with very minor pyrite at Chertovo Koryto, whereas pyrite is the predominant sulphide in the Sukhoi Log ore. Fluid inclusion data on both deposits emphasise a high-temperature nature of the mineralisation albeit revealing great contrast in the fluid composition. Sukhoi Log mineralisation was formed at mixing between low-salinity aqueous solutions and dense gaseous carbonic fluids, which facilitated effective gold scavenging and precipitation, as demonstrated by thermodynamic simulation. The precursory devolatilisation of the Mikhailovsk sediments at the prograde

  18. Tectono-metamorphic evolution of a hot orogen during Gondwanaland assembly: a case study from Palni hills metapelite granulite, south India (United States)

    Bhadra, S.; Nasipuri, P.


    This study deals with the tectono-metamorphic evolution of Sapphirine-cordierite-bearing metapelite granulite at Perumalmalai, south India, that occurs as enclave within deformed migmatitic enderbite gneiss of Kodaikanal massif, Madurai granulite block (MB), south India. Pre-peak mineral paragenesis is represented by an inclusion assemblage of sillimanite + plagioclase + Ti-rich biotite ±quartz in Al-rich orthopyroxene. Dehydration melting of biotite marked the onset of ultra-high temperature metamorphism (M1A, ~1000 °C, 10 Kbar). Early stage of retrograde metamorphism (M1B) is characterized by the development of type1-symplectite and corona textures. In type1-symplectite an innermost vermicular sapphirine (Spr - XMg: 0.90, Al/Si: 6.17) - cordierite (Crd) symplectite on sillimanite is followed by cordierite (XMg: 0.94) moat. A meso-perthitic layer laced the interface between cordierite moat and orthopyroxene porphyroblast, the latter showing prominent rim-ward decrease in Al2O3 (up to 3 wt%). The cordierite rim at the interface between sillimanite and orthopyroxene characterizes corona texture. Type1-symplectite and corona domains are circumnavigated by Ti-poor biotite (TiO2: ~3.2 wt%) showing shape preferred alignment, and set in a feldspar matrix showing wide compositional range. By implication, leucosome crystallization was possibly prolonged and enhanced by deformation. Type1-symplectite and corona textures were resulted from melt-solid interaction or silica-metasomatism during early stage of retrogression, Opx+Sil = Spr+Crd → Opx+Sil+melt = Crd. The retrograde metamorphism is constrained at 9 kbar and 950°C, implying an early stage of near-isothermal decompression. Late stage retrograde metamorphism (M2) is also characterized by symplectite textures, type2-symplectite, with innermost sapphirine-cordierite symplectite followed by cordierite corona. Sapphirine in type2-symplectite domain (XMg: 0.89; Al/Si: 5.92), which occurs as inclusion in Opx, is

  19. Deformation history inferred from magnetic fabric in the southwestern Okcheon metamorphic belt, Korea (United States)

    Park, Yong-Hee; Doh, Seong-Jae; Kim, Wonnyon; Suk, Dongwoo


    Magnetic fabric and rock-magnetic studies have been carried out for the non-fossiliferous, low- to medium-grade metasedimentary rocks in the southwestern part of the Okcheon metamorphic belt (OMB). Two major metamorphic events in the study area were previously recognized: regional metamorphism ( M1) in the late Carboniferous to early Permian and contact metamorphism ( M2) due to the intrusion of granite in the middle Jurassic. The metamorphic grade of the study area increases from the biotite zone in southeast through the garnet zone to the staurolite zone towards the northwest. Magnetic fabrics of the study area are generally well defined and can be characterized according to the metamorphic zones. Magnetic foliation is the dominant magnetic fabric in the biotite zone, while magnetic lineation prevails in both garnet and staurolite zones. We interpret the metamorphism-related deformation history of the study area based on magnetic fabrics, magnetic mineralogy and previously reported metamorphic evolution as follows. Penetrative NW-dipping cleavage, represented by magnetic foliation, was formed in the study area by prevailing NW-SE shortening event during the M1 regional metamorphism in the late Carboniferous-early Permian. This shortening event is interpreted to be associated with the collisional event between the North and South China blocks. Cleavages dipping steeply to the southeast in the staurolite zone are attributed to the pressure exerted from the intrusion of Jurassic granite in the northwestern area.

  20. Metamorphic evolution of LT-UHP eclogite from the south Dabie orogen, central China: An insight from phase equilibria modeling (United States)

    Wei, Chunjing; Cui, Ying; Tian, Zuolin


    Low-temperature ultrahigh pressure (LT-UHP) eclogites from the south Dabie orogen are distributed in the Zhujiachong and Anqiling zones and their peak mineral assemblages and P-T paths are still disputable. The rocks consist commonly of garnet, omphacite, epidote, phengite, amphibole, quartz/coesite and rutile with or without glaucophane, kyanite, talc and paragonite. Garnet porphyroblasts in the representative sample (D901) from the Zhujiachong zone exhibit core-mantle zoning with slightly increasing pyrope (Xpy) and decreasing grossular (Xgr) contents, and mantle-rim zoning with rapidly increasing Xpy and decreasing Xgr. Garnet shows diverse rim compositions which can be classified into group-1 that show high Xpy and low Xgr values, being an indicative character of LT-UHP eclogite, and group-2 that show lower Xpy and higher Xgr than in group-1. Phengite shows higher Si contents in the Anqiling zone than in the Zhujiachong zone. Epidote, paragonite and amphibole usually occur as porphyroblasts that contain inclusions of garnet, omphacite and rutile. Pseudosections calculated using THERMOCALC for the representative samples suggest that the mineral assemblage in the pressure peak stage would be garnet + omphacite + lawsonite + talc + phengite + coesite in the model system. In this assemblage, Xpy steadily increases as temperature rises and Si in phengite increases with pressure rising, whereas Xgr is very insensitive as pressure changes. The peak P-T conditions for low-T UHP eclogites can be determined using the isopleths of maximum Xpy and Si in phengite in P-T pseudosections. Using this approach, the peak P-T conditions of eclogite were estimated to be ∼30 kbar/615 °C for the representative sample in the Zhujiachong zone, and ∼32 kbar/623 °C or ∼36 kbar/640 °C for samples in the Anqiling zone. The pre-peak prograde metamorphic evolution during subduction was modeled according to the garnet growth zoning in sample D901, where the core-mantle zoning

  1. Tectono-metamorphic evolution of the upper plate of the Eo-Alpine nappe-stack: constraints from the Oberhof Window (Carinthia, Austria) (United States)

    Hollinetz, Marianne Sophie; Huet, Benjamin; Iglseder, Christoph; Rantitsch, Gerd; Grasemann, Berhard


    The Upper Austro-Alpine Unit in the Eastern Alps corresponds to a nappe-stack that formed during the Eo-Alpine Cretaceous event. It is dominated by crystalline rocks that show Variscan, Permo-Triassic, Eo-Alpine and Neo-Alpine metamorphic imprints. Understanding the tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Eo-Alpine nappe-stack is therefore hampered by a complex polyphase history. Most published studies focused on the subducted lower plate that contains the eclogite-bearing nappes (Koralpe-Wölz nappe system) but the upper plate (Ötztal-Bundschuh nappe system and Drauzug-Gurktal nappe system) is less understood. Our contribution focuses on the tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Bundschuh nappe (Oberhof Window, Carinthia, Austria). This nappe contains metasediments intruded by granites of Ordovician age. Characteristically, these rocks underwent Variscan amphibolite-facies. They were later covered by Carboniferous to Mesozoic sediments and, all together, overprinted by greenschist to amphibolite-facies metamorphism in the upper plate of the Eo-Alpine wedge. During this event, the Bundschuh nappe was overthrusted by the nappes of the Drauzug-Gurktal nappe system. The core of the window is occupied by the middle-grained "Oberhof orthogneiss". LA-ICP-MS U/Pb zircon dating yielded a late Ordovician age for its protolith. The orthogneiss is overlain by the transgressive Carboniferous metasediments comprising meta-conglomerate, graphite schist and quartzite. The Bundschuh nappe is overthrusted by garnet-micaschist, amphibolite, hornblende-garbenschist, calc-micaschist, quarzite and graphitic schist interpreted as parts of the basal Drauzug-Gurktal nappe system. Deformation is characterized by isoclinal folds with an E-W/SE-NW trending fold-axes and top-to-the-East/South-East shearing. This kinematics is related to normal faulting in the upper part of the Eo-Alpine orogenic wedge. The graphite schist contains an assemblage of isolated round garnet and abundant chloritoid in

  2. Clinopyroxene as a key for tracing a history of crystallization and recrystallization of coronitic metagabbro in high-grade metamorphic terranes (United States)

    Egorova, Svetlana; Stepanova, Alexandra


    The evaluation PT-parameters of magmatic crystallization is usually complicated for metagabbros in high-grade metamorphic terranes. Sometimes intensively metamorphosed coronitic gabbronorites preserve relics of primary magmatic mineral assemblage that could give valuable information on the conditions of melt crystallization. However, to use the composition of this relict minerals one should be sure that relict magmatic minerals in coronotic metagabbros did not change their primary composition despite the fact of high-grade metamorphic overprinting. Clinopyroxene is the most important concentrator of REE in igneous and metamorphic mafic rocks because its trace element composition is a sensitive indicator of physico-chemical conditions of the clinopyroxene-bearing-rocks formation. The Belomorian mobile belt (BMB) of the eastern part of the Fennoscandian Shield is high-garde metamorphic terrane. High-Mg coronitic metagabbronorites are widespread in BMB. In spite of metamorphic alteration at high-pressure amphibolite (to eclogite) facies conditions they often preserve relicts of primary igneous mineral assemblages that consist of olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene (augite) and plagioclase. Corona textures usually developed between mafic minerals and plagioclase. In general, coronas consist of orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene (Na-rich diopside), hornblende (with or without spinel inclusions) and garnet. Trace element composition of relict (primary-igneous?) and corona-forming (around magmatic orthopyroxene) clinopyroxenes from paleoproterozoic coronitic metagabbronorites of the BMB was studied using SIMS Cameca IMS 4f. Igneous clinopyroxenes from fresh olivine gabbronorites of age ca. 2.45 Ga in the Karelian craton were used as reference composition for igneous clinopyroxenes. The major element contents in relict clinopyroxenes from coronitic metagabbronorites determined using EDS EPMA is very similar to the igneous clinopyroxene from gabbronorites of the Karelian craton

  3. The Cimmerian accretionary wedge of Anarak, Central Iran (United States)

    Zanchi, Andrea; Malaspina, Nadia; Zanchetta, Stefano; Berra, Fabrizio; Benciolini, Luca; Bergomi, Maria; Cavallo, Alessandro; Javadi, Hamid Reza; Kouhpeyma, Meyssam


    The occurrence in Iran of several ophiolite belts dating between Late Palaeozoic to Triassic poses several questions on the possible existence of various sutures marking the closure of the Palaeotethys ocean between Eurasia and this Gondwana-derived microplate. In this scenario, the Anarak region in Central Iran still represents a conundrum. Contrasting geochronological, paleontological, paleomagnetic data and reported field evidence suggest different origins for the Anarak Metamorphic Complex (AMC). The AMC is either interpreted, as: (1) relict of an accretionary wedge developed at the Eurasia margin during the Palaeotethys subduction as part of the Cimmerian suture zone of NE Iran, displaced to Central Iran by a large counter-clockwise rotation of the central Iranian blocks; (2) autochthonous unit forming a secondary branch of the main suture zone. Our structural, petrographic and geochemical data indicate that the AMC consists of several metamorphic units also including dismembered "ophiolites" which display different tectono-metamorphic evolutions. Three main ductile deformational events can be distinguished in the AMC. The Morghab and Chah Gorbeh complexes preserve a different M1 metamorphism, characterized by blueschist relics in the S1 foliation of the former unit, and greenschist assemblages in the latter. They share a subsequent similar D2 deformational and M2 metamorphic history, showing a prograde metamorphism with syn- to post-deformation growth of blueschist facies mineral assemblages on pre-existing greenschist facies associations. High pressure, low temperature (HP/LT) metamorphism responsible for the growth of sodic amphibole has been recognized also within marble lenses at the contact between the Chah Gorbeh Complex and serpentinites. Evidence of HP/LT metamorphism also occurs in glaucophane-bearing meta-pillow lavas and serpentinites, which contain antigorite and form most of the "ophiolites" within the AMC. Structural relationships show that the

  4. Tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Jomolhari massif: Variations in timing of syn-collisional metamorphism across western Bhutan (United States)

    Regis, Daniele; Warren, Clare J.; Young, David; Roberts, Nick M. W.


    Our current understanding of the rates and timescales of mountain-building processes is largely based on information recorded in U-bearing accessory minerals such as monazite, which is found in low abundance but which hosts the majority of the trace element budget. Monazite petrochronology was used to investigate the timing of crustal melting in migmatitic metasedimentary rocks from the Jomolhari massif (NW Bhutan). The samples were metamorphosed at upper amphibolite to granulite facies conditions (~ 0.85 GPa, ~ 800 °C), after an earlier High-Pressure stage (P > 1.4 GPa), and underwent partial melting through dehydration melting reactions involving muscovite and biotite. In order to link the timing of monazite growth/dissolution to the pressure-temperature (P-T) evolution of the samples, we identified 'chemical fingerprints' in major and accessory phases that were used to back-trace specific metamorphic reactions. Variations in Eu anomaly and Ti in garnet were linked to the growth and dissolution of major phases (e.g. growth of K-feldspar and dehydration melting of muscovite/biotite). Differences in M/HREE and Y from garnet core to rim were instead related to apatite breakdown and monazite-forming reactions. Chemically zoned monazite crystals reacted multiple times during the metamorphic evolution suggesting that the Jomolhari massif experienced a prolonged high-temperature metamorphic evolution from 36 Ma to 18 Ma, significantly different from the P-T-time path recorded in other portions of the Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) in Bhutan. Our data demonstrate unequivocally that the GHS in Bhutan consists of units that experienced independent high-grade histories and that were juxtaposed across different tectonic structures during exhumation. The GHS may have been exhumed in response to (pulsed) mid-crustal flow but cannot be considered a coherent block.

  5. Building a Six-Junction Inverted Metamorphic Concentrator Solar Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisz, John F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Steiner, Myles A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jain, Nikhil [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schulte, Kevin L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); France, Ryan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McMahon, William E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Perl, Emmett [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Friedman, Daniel J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    We propose practical six-junction (6J) inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) concentrator solar cell designs with the potential to exceed 50% efficiency using moderately high quality junction materials. We demonstrate the top three junctions and their monolithic integration lattice matched to GaAs using 2.1-eV AlGaInP, 1.7-eV AlGaAs or GaInAsP, and 1.4-eV GaAs with external radiative efficiencies >0.1%. We demonstrate tunnel junctions with peak tunneling current >400 A/cm2 that are transparent to <2.1-eV light. We compare the bottom three GaInAs(p) junctions with bandgaps of 1.2, 1.0, and 0.7 eV grown on InP and transparent metamorphic grades with low dislocation densities. The solution to an integration challenge resulting from Zn diffusion in the GaAs junction is illustrated in a five-junction IMM. Excellent 1-sun performance is demonstrated in a complete 6J IMM device with VOC = 5.15 V, and a promising pathway toward >50% efficiency at high concentrations is presented.

  6. Testing and Validating Machine Learning Classifiers by Metamorphic Testing☆ (United States)

    Xie, Xiaoyuan; Ho, Joshua W. K.; Murphy, Christian; Kaiser, Gail; Xu, Baowen; Chen, Tsong Yueh


    Machine Learning algorithms have provided core functionality to many application domains - such as bioinformatics, computational linguistics, etc. However, it is difficult to detect faults in such applications because often there is no “test oracle” to verify the correctness of the computed outputs. To help address the software quality, in this paper we present a technique for testing the implementations of machine learning classification algorithms which support such applications. Our approach is based on the technique “metamorphic testing”, which has been shown to be effective to alleviate the oracle problem. Also presented include a case study on a real-world machine learning application framework, and a discussion of how programmers implementing machine learning algorithms can avoid the common pitfalls discovered in our study. We also conduct mutation analysis and cross-validation, which reveal that our method has high effectiveness in killing mutants, and that observing expected cross-validation result alone is not sufficiently effective to detect faults in a supervised classification program. The effectiveness of metamorphic testing is further confirmed by the detection of real faults in a popular open-source classification program. PMID:21532969

  7. Blueschist-facies metamorphism related to regional thrust faulting (United States)

    Blake, M.C.; Irwin, W.P.; Coleman, R.G.


    Rocks of the blueschist (glaucophane schist) facies occur throughout the world in narrow tectonic belts associated with ultramafic rocks. In the Coast Range province of California, blueschist rocks are devloped in the eugeosynclinal Franciscan Formation of Late Mesozoic age. The blueschist rocks form a narrow belt for more than 800 km along the eastern margin of this province and commonly are separated from rocks of an overlying thrust plate by serpentinite. Increasing metamorphism upward toward the thrust fault is indicated mineralogically by a transition from pumpellyite to lawsonite and texturally by a transition from metagraywacke to schist. The blueschist metamorphism probably occurred during thrusting in a zone of anomalously high water pressure in the lower plate along the sole of the thrust fault. This tectonic mode of origin for blueschist differs from the generally accepted hypothesis involving extreme depth of burial. Other belts of blueschist-facies rocks, including the Sanbagawa belt of Japan, the marginal synclinal belt of New Zealand, and the blueschist-ultramafic belts of Venezuela, Kamchatka, Ural mountains, and New Caledonia have similar geologic relations and might be explained in the same manner. ?? 1969.

  8. Uranium, rare metals, and granulite-facies metamorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Cuney


    The Tranomaro metasomatized marbles recrystallizing under granulite-facies conditions represent a demonstrative example of fluid transfer from granulite-facies supracrustals to traps represented by regional scale skarns. Such fluids may be at the origin of the incompatible element enrichment detected in leucosomes of migmatites from St Malo in Brittany (France and Black Hills in South Dakota. The northern French Massif Central provides us with an example of a potential association between incompatible element enrichment of granitic melts and granulite-facies metamorphism. U- and F-enriched fine-grained granites are emplaced along a crustal scale shear zone active during the emplacement within the St Sylvestre peraluminous leucogranitic complex. We propose that during granulite-facies metamorphism dominated by carbonic waves in a deep segment of the continental crust, these shear zones control: (i the percolation of F-, LILE-, rare metal-rich fluids liberated primarily by the breakdown of biotite; (ii the enhancement of partial melting by F-rich fluids at intermediate crustal levels with the generation of F-, LILE-, rare metal-rich granitic melts; (iii their transfer through the crust with protracted fractionation facilitated by their low viscosity due to high F-Li contents; and finally (iv their emplacement as rare metal intrusions at shallow crust levels.

  9. Dating Subduction Zone Metamorphism with Garnet and Lawsonite Geochronology (United States)

    Mulcahy, S. R.; Vervoort, J. D.


    Lawsonite [CaAl2Si2O7(OH)2 H2O] is a critical index mineral for high- to ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism associated with subduction. Lawsonite is an important carrier of water into the mantle, a likely contributor to subduction zone seismicity, and a bearer of trace elements that link metamorphism to arc magmatism. Due to its limited pressure-temperature stability, lawsonite can serve as a powerful petrogenetic indicator of specific metamorphic events. Lu-Hf dating of lawsonite, therefore provides a potentially powerful new tool for constraining subduction zone processes in a pressure-temperature window where few successful geochronometers exist. Broad application of lawsonite Lu-Hf geochronology requires constraining the role of pressure-temperature path, lawsonite forming reactions, and the Lu and Hf systematics within lawsonite and other blueschist facies minerals. We are working to address the role of the metamorphic path on the applicability of lawsonite Lu-Hf geochronology within the Franciscan Complex of California. The Franciscan Complex preserves mafic high-grade exotic blocks in melange that underwent a counterclockwise pressure-temperature path wherein garnet, which strongly partitions heavy rare-earth elements, formed prior to lawsonite. Coherent mafic rocks within the Franciscan Complex, however, underwent a clockwise pressure-temperature path and lawsonite growth occurred prior to garnet. We sampled exotic blocks of garnet-hornblendite, garnet-epidote amphibolite, garnet-epidote blueschist, and lawsonite blueschist from the Berkeley Hills and Tiburon Peninsula of California. We collected four samples from coherent lawsonite blueschist across the lawsonite-pumpellyite-epidote isograds in Ward Creek, near Cazadero California. High-grade blocks give ages similar to existing Franciscan geochronology: multi-stage garnet in hornblendite gives the following ages: 171×1.3 Ma (MSWD 2.8) for the core and 159.4×0.9 Ma (MSWD 2.0) for the corresponding rim; 166

  10. Triassic High-P Metamorphism of the central Qiangtang terrane, Tibet; constraints using mineral equilibria modelling and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology (United States)

    Rajkumar, A.; Hui, L.; Clarke, G. L.; Aitchison, J. C.; Forster, M. A.


    The SE-trending Qiangtang metamorphic belt (QMB) stretches more than 500 km through the Qiangtang terrane in central Tibet and comprises tectonically disrupted blueschist and eclogite in lower-grade garnet-phengite-bearing schist and quartzite. These rocks record the closure of a paleo-Tethyan Triassic ocean that formerly separated Cathaysian and Gondwana components of Asia, now forming the northern and southern Qiangtang blocks. Eclogite is extensively recrystallized to high-P amphibolite and greenschist facies assemblages, formed during water ingression that accompanied terrane uplift. P-T pseudosections constructed in Na2O-CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O-TiO2-O (NCKMASHTO) in the context of petrography and mineral chemistry provides the ability to recover a dynamic PT history for the eclogite facies assemblages. Prograde (S1) assemblages for the Gemu Co eclogite are predicted to have formed at P≈21.5 kbars and T≈505°C and involved garnet, glaucophane, omphacite, rutile, lawsonite and chlorite, based on garnet composition and inferred pseudomorphs after lawsonite. Peak (S2) assemblages of garnet, barroisite, omphacite, rutile, epidote and quartz reflect P≈15 kbars and T≈570°C. Based on textural relations, post-peak stages can be divided into epidote-amphibolite and greenschist facies. The geothermal gradient for the prograde S1 assemblage and the peak S2 assemblage is 7.1 and 11.5°C/km respectively.40Ar/39Ar geochronology of phengitic mica using step heating in recrystallized eclogite components and surrounding garnet-mica schist components both yield maximum ages ranging 230-220 Ma. The congruency in ages of the deeply subducted high-pressure eclogites to the surrounding garnet phengite schists indicate they were the most probable source of fluids to extensively recrystallize most of the high-pressure eclogite components in the high-pressure belt. The P-T history of the high-P rocks of the QMB records the deep subduction of paleo-Tethyan oceanic crust to

  11. Evaluation of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage for disturbance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 122; Issue 4. Evaluation of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage for disturbance zonation in urban rivers using multivariate analysis: Implications for river management. Ram Devi Tachamo Shah Deep Narayan Shah. Volume 122 Issue 4 August 2013 pp 1125- ...

  12. Obesity Assemblages and Surveillance in Schools (United States)

    Rich, Emma


    In this paper, I draw on the growing body of work in surveillance studies, to examine the increasing propensity in recent years towards the monitoring and collection of information about children's weight and health within school contexts. Applying Haggerty and Ericson's concept of the surveillant assemblage within school contexts, the paper…

  13. Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in mangroves and open ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Higher density, species richness and diversity were recorded in open intertidal areas, compared to nearby mangrove forests. ... PRIMER RELATE indicated significant correlation between macroinvertebrate assemblages and the measured physico-chemical parameters salinity, pH, redox potential and sediment particle size, ...

  14. Paleoenvironmental settings and assemblage changes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A quantitative micropaleontological analysis was performed on outcrop and core samples across a shallow borehole drilled in the southern coastal basin of Tanzania with the aim of characterizing foraminifera and palynomorphs assemblage changes aiming at reconstructing paleoenvironmental settings across the ...

  15. Phytoplankton assemblage and environmental variables in Ogun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution and composition of estuarine phytoplankton species provide prerequisite to the understanding of the dynamics of aquatic ecosystem and its diagnostic assessment. The present study was on the relationship between phytoplankton assemblage and environmental variables. It was carried out between ...

  16. Tectonic evolution of the Mogok metamorphic belt, Burma (Myanmar) constrained by U-Th-Pb dating of metamorphic and magmatic rocks (United States)

    Searle, M. P.; Noble, S. R.; Cottle, J. M.; Waters, D. J.; Mitchell, A. H. G.; Hlaing, Tin; Horstwood, M. S. A.


    The Mogok metamorphic belt (MMB) extends for over 1500 km along the western margin of the Shan-Thai block, from the Andaman Sea north to the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. Previous geochronology has suggested that a long-lasting Jurassic-early Cretaceous subduction-related event resulted in emplacement of granodiorites and orthogneisses (171-120 Ma) and a poorly constrained Tertiary metamorphic event. On the basis of new U-Pb isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry and U-Th-Pb laser ablation-multicollector-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer geochronology presented here, we propose two Tertiary metamorphic events affected the MMB in Burma. The first was a Paleocene event that ended with intrusion of crosscutting postkinematic biotite granite dikes at ˜59 Ma. A second metamorphic event spanned late Eocene to Oligocene (at least from 37, possibly 47, to 29 Ma). This resulted in the growth of metamorphic monazite at sillimanite grade, growth of zircon rims at 47-43 Ma, sillimanite + muscovite replacing older andalusite, and synmetamorphic melting producing garnet and tourmaline bearing leucogranites at 45.5 ± 0.6 Ma and 24.5 ± 0.7 Ma. These data imply high-temperature sillimanite + muscovite metamorphism peaking at 680°C and 4.9 kbar between 45 and 33 Ma, to around 606-656°C and 4.4-4.8 kbar at 29.3 ± 0.5 Ma. The later metamorphic event is older than 24.5 ± 0.3 Ma, the age of leucogranites that crosscut all earlier fabrics. Our structural and geochronological data suggest that the MMB links north to the unexposed middle or lower crust rocks of the Lhasa terrane, south Tibet, and east to high-grade metamorphic core complexes in northwest Thailand.

  17. Thermal evolution of high-pressure metamorphic rocks in the Alps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, F.M.


    There are two major and currently unresolved issues in Alpine geology concerning the metamorphic evolution of the rocks in the internal zones of the Alps. First, rocks showing evidence for geologically young, high-pressure to very high-pressure metamorphism are now exposed at the Earth's surface,

  18. Age of granites of Wrangel Island metamorphic complex (United States)

    Luchitskaya, Marina; Sergeev, Sergey; Sokolov, Sergey; Tuchkova, Marianna


    Within huge arctic shelf of Eastern-Siberian and Chukchi seas the metamorphic basement (Wrangel complex, Berri Formation) is exposed only on the Wrangel Island. There are different points of views on the age of metamorphic rocks of Wrangel complex (Berri Formation): (1) Neoproterozoic (Kameneva, 1970; Ageev, 1979; Kos'ko et al., 1993, 2003), (2) Devonian (Til'man et al., 1964, 1970; Ganelin, 1989). Metamorphic basement is represented by stratified complex, composed of dislocated metavolcanic, metavolcaniclastic and metasedimentary rocks (schists, metasandstones, metaconglomerated) with single lenses and layers of carbonate rocks (Wrangel Island…, 2003). Among basement rocks in the central part of Wrangel Island there are felsic intrusive bodies. They form small tabular bodies from tens centimeters to 70-80 meters in thickness, rarely dikes and small stocks (up to 20 x 30 m) and are composed of granite-porphyres, rarely muscovite porphyr-like granites and granosyenites (Wrangel Island…, 2003). The age of intrusions allow to determine the age of basement formation. Earlier the age of intrusions was determined by different methods and correlated to the boundary between Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic: K-Ar 570-603 Ma, Pb-Pb 590±50 Ma (S.M. Pavlov, Institute of Precambrian Geology and Geochronology, USSR Academy of Sciences), Rb-Sr 475±31 Ma (I.M.Vasil'eva, Institute of Precambrian Geology and Geochronology, USSR Academy of Sciences), U-Pb 609, 633, 677 Ma (Geological Survey of Canada) (Wrangel Island…, 2003; Kos'ko et al., 1993; Cecile et al., 1991). In the lower part of metamorphic rocks of Wrangel complex there are conformable tabular bodies of gneissosed and foliated granitoides. The latter are meramorphosed and transformed in biotite-muscovite-feldspar-quartz-sericite and muscovite-feldspar-quartz-sericite gneisses and schists, where relics of primary minerals (quartz, plagioclase, potassium feldspar, rarely biotite and muscovite) and equigranular granitic

  19. An innovative approach for testing bioinformatics programs using metamorphic testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Huai


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in experimental and computational technologies have fueled the development of many sophisticated bioinformatics programs. The correctness of such programs is crucial as incorrectly computed results may lead to wrong biological conclusion or misguide downstream experimentation. Common software testing procedures involve executing the target program with a set of test inputs and then verifying the correctness of the test outputs. However, due to the complexity of many bioinformatics programs, it is often difficult to verify the correctness of the test outputs. Therefore our ability to perform systematic software testing is greatly hindered. Results We propose to use a novel software testing technique, metamorphic testing (MT, to test a range of bioinformatics programs. Instead of requiring a mechanism to verify whether an individual test output is correct, the MT technique verifies whether a pair of test outputs conform to a set of domain specific properties, called metamorphic relations (MRs, thus greatly increases the number and variety of test cases that can be applied. To demonstrate how MT is used in practice, we applied MT to test two open-source bioinformatics programs, namely GNLab and SeqMap. In particular we show that MT is simple to implement, and is effective in detecting faults in a real-life program and some artificially fault-seeded programs. Further, we discuss how MT can be applied to test programs from various domains of bioinformatics. Conclusion This paper describes the application of a simple, effective and automated technique to systematically test a range of bioinformatics programs. We show how MT can be implemented in practice through two real-life case studies. Since many bioinformatics programs, particularly those for large scale simulation and data analysis, are hard to test systematically, their developers may benefit from using MT as part of the testing strategy. Therefore our work

  20. Mineralogical constraint for metamorphic conditions in a shear zone affecting the Archean Ngoulemakong tonalite, Congo craton (Southern Cameroon) and retentivity of U-Pb SHRIMP zircon dates (United States)

    Tchameni, R.; Lerouge, C.; Penaye, J.; Cocherie, A.; Milesi, J. P.; Toteu, S. F.; Nsifa, N. E.


    In the Ngoulemakong region of the Ntem unit (South Cameroon), tonalite crops out as intrusions of various sizes cross-cutting the charnockite suite. Both of these granitoids are affected by NE-SW and WNW-ESE sinistral and dextral shear zones. Tonalite in the WNW-ESE shear zone are deformed and shows metamorphic assemblages represented by quartz-microcline-biotite-garnet-plagioclase-scapolite-fluoro-apatite and chlorite-sulfides-epidote-muscovite-quartz-calcite not recorded by the undeformed rocks outside it. These mineralogical assemblages provide evidence of decreasing pressure-temperature conditions from granulite-amphibolite-facies in the moderate deformed part to greenschist-facies in the central part of the shear plane. The higher fluid (H 2O, CO 2, S, F, Cl, K, and Na) activities and high-grade recrystallizations recorded in the shear zone favour a Pb loss hypothesis in the zircons. U-Pb SHRIMP zircon dating yield an emplacement age of 2865 ± 4 Ma for the tonalite but does not permit the determination of the age of the high-grade event responsible for the Pb loss. These results provide evidence of the retentivity of U-Pb zircon dates under high grade conditions.

  1. Subduction-related prograde metamorphism of the ultramafic members of the Central-Sudetic Ophiolite (SW Poland) (United States)

    Wojtulek, Piotr; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros


    ~680-780°C. The BBM serpentinites have mineral assemblage (antigorite-olivine-diopside-tremolite) typical for ~420-490°C and the ŚM rocks containing antigorite-olivine-diopside were altered at ~380-460°C (cf. phase diagram based on Berman et al., 1986). Similar mineral succession indicative for prograde metamorphism of serpentinites is typical for alteration in subduction zone setting and occurs in serpentinites from the Lanzo Massif in Alps (Debret et al., 2013) and in the mantle wedge serpentinites from Guatemala (Kodolanyi et al., 2012). This abstract was prepared as a part of the project of the National Science Centre of Poland ("Evolution of serpentinic members of the Lower Silesia ophiolites", DEC-2012/07/N/ST10/03934). References Berman, R. G., Engi, M., Greenwood, H. J., Brown, T. H., 1986. Derivation of internally-consistent thermodynamic data by the technique of mathematical programming: a review with application to the system MgO-SiO2-H2O. Journal of Petrology 27, 1331-1364. Debret, B., Nicollet, C., Schwartz, S., Andreani, M., Godard, M., 2013. Three steps of serpentinization in an eclogitized oceanic serpentinization front (Lanzo Massif - Western Alps). Journal of Metamorphic Geology 31, 65 - 186. Kodolányi, J., Pettke, T., Spandler, C., Kamber, B.S. and Gméling, K., 2012. Geochemistry of ocean floor and forearc serpentinites: Constraints on the ultramafic input to subduction zones. Journal of Petrology 53, 235-270.

  2. Regional metamorphism at extreme conditions: Implications for orogeny at convergent plate margins (United States)

    Zheng, Yong-Fei; Chen, Ren-Xu


    Regional metamorphism at extreme conditions refers either to Alpine-type metamorphism at low geothermal gradients of 30 °C/km. Extreme pressures refer to those above the polymorphic transition of quartz to coesite, so that ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) eclogite-facies metamorphism occurs at mantle depths of >80 km. Extreme temperatures refer to those higher than 900 °C at crustal depths of ≤80 km, so that ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) granulite-facies metamorphism occurs at medium to high pressures. While crustal subduction at the low geothermal gradients results in blueschist-eclogite facies series without arc volcanism, heating of the thinned orogenic lithosphere brings about the high geothermal gradients for amphibolite-granulite facies series with abundant magmatism. Therefore, UHP metamorphic rocks result from cold lithospheric subduction to the mantle depths, whereas UHT metamorphic rocks are produced by hot underplating of the asthenospheric mantle at the crustal depths. Active continental rifting is developed on the thinned lithosphere in response to asthenospheric upwelling, and this tectonism is suggested as a feasible mechanism for regional granulite-facies metamorphism, with the maximum temperature depending on the extent to which the mantle lithosphere is thinned prior to the rifting. While lithospheric compression is associated with subduction metamorphism in accretionary and collisional orogens, the thinned orogenic lithosphere undergoes extension due to the asthenospheric upwelling to result in orogen-parallel rifting metamorphism and magmatism. Thus, the rifting metamorphism provides a complement to the subduction metamorphism and its operation marks the asthenospheric heating of the orogenic lithosphere. Because of the partial melting and melt extraction of the lower continental crust, contemporaneous granite-migmatite-granulite associations may serve as a petrological indicator of rifting orogeny that is superimposed on precedingly accretionary and

  3. Microtectonic-assisted P-T determination on low-grade Alpine metamorphic rocks from the "Tisia Mega-Unit" of the Slavonian Mountains in Croatia (United States)

    Balen, Dražen; Lihter, Iva; Massonne, Hans-Joachim


    The internal structure of the Tisia (Tisza) Mega-Unit in the Alpine-Carpathian-Dinaridic orogenic system encompasses large Alpine nappe systems brought to its present-day position by complex regional-scale movements. The Slavonian Mountains are part of the Bihor nappe system which is below the Codru and above the Mecsek nappe systems. The low-grade metamorphic schist unit of the Slavonian Mountains includes numerous rocks which were previously related to Precambrian and/or Lower Paleozoic orogeneses. However, recent studies (e.g. Balen, 2014, European Geosciences Union General Assembly, EGU 2014-6122) show that the metapelites of this unit should be attributed to the Alpine orogeny and the poorly known P-T conditions, which they experienced, should be refined. Although metapelites can be sensitive to changes of metamorphic conditions and, therefore, be suitable for the P-T estimation of metamorphic event(s), the extraction of mineral assemblages, being in equilibrium, and associated microtectonic data for particular low-grade metamorphic rocks is not straightforward. On the contrary, due to lack of suitable minerals and complex mictotectonic features, one can be faced with a severe problem concerning (dis)equilibrium. To avoid this, the observation scale in the research was set to the sub-mm level taking into account microtectonic positions of minerals. The investigated samples from the Slavonian Mountains are fine-grained schists consisting of chlorite (15-30 vol. %), white mica (15-25 vol. %), quartz (10-25 vol. %), feldspars (albite 10-15 vol. %; some K-feldspar), biotite (<5 vol. %), opaques (<5 vol. %), and accessory minerals (zircon, monazite, xenotime, apatite, chalcopyrite, pyrite, barite, parisite-(Ce), rutile). The schists show complex microtectonic fabric including well-developed foliations, pervasive folding, crenulation and cleavage. Foliations are defined by the preferred orientation of phyllosilicates and thin quartz and feldspar ribbons. Chlorite

  4. Ar-Ar and Rb-Sr dating of very low-/low-grade metamorphism along the main Iapetus suture, Newfoundland (United States)

    Willner, Arne P.; Glodny, Johannes; Massonne, Hans-Joachim; Romer, Rolf L.; Sudo, Masafumi; Van Staal, Cees R.; Zagorevski, Alexandre


    The Late Ordovician closure of the main tract of Iapetus resulted in juxtaposition of the leading edge of the peri-Gondwanan microplate Ganderia and the composite Laurentian margin. The suture is the Red Indian Line, which separates the Iapetan realm into peri-Gondwanan and peri-Laurentian arc-backarc complexes. The discrete Red Indian Line forms part of a wider collision zone that has a protracted and complicated tectonic history starting with underplating of oceanic terranes beneath the composite margin of Laurentia at ca. 471 Ma during the early stages of the Taconic orogeny. Final collision along the Red Indian Line and closure of the Iapetus ocean occurred at 455 Ma with the underthrusting of the peri-Gondwanan Victoria arc and its Ganderian basement beneath the composite Laurentian margin. The accreted Iapetan realm terranes were progressively deformed during the closure of a remaining Iapetan marginal basin, resulting locally in significant overprint and reactivation during the Silurian (Salinic orogeny). Metamorphic overprint in the deformed Laurentia margin (Notre Dame Zone) above the Red Indian Line is mainly of very low grade to low grade and very heterogeneous. PT-conditions cluster at 3-5 kbar, 300-400°C and 6-7 kbar, 270-330°C. Medium grade conditions are related to local contact metamorphism. Ages of the local peak metamorphism in the peri-Laurentian Iapetan realm were determined by dating white mica with the Ar-Ar system and white mica-bearing assemblages with the Rb-Sr mineral isochron method. Both methods yielded ages that postdate the closure of the main tract of Iapetus. These generally belong to two age ranges: 418-430 Ma (Salinic events) and 350-390 Ma Neoacadian events). Partly two overprints can be detected in one and the same sample. Metamorphism is related to (1) reactivation of deformation in shear zones which partly cause further crustal thickening or strike slip-related deformation, (2) to external fluid influx, (3) to advective

  5. Miura Tubes and Assemblages: Theory and Applications (United States)

    Filipov, Evgueni; Paulino, Glaucio; Tachi, Tomohiro


    Origami systems inspired from the Miura-ori pattern are rigid and flat foldable meaning that they can fold completely by deforming only about prescribed fold lines. We investigate origami tubes and assemblages constructed from Miura-ori inspired sheets and use eigenvalue analyses to study their stiffness characteristics. A simplified bar model is used to model the stretching and shear of the flat panel segments and rotational hinges are used to simulate the bending stiffness of the panels and prescribed fold lines. We discuss the small to large deformation bending of thin sheets and show an improved method to estimate stiffness when modeling origami structures. The tube assemblages show interesting behaviors that make them suitable for applications in science and engineering.

  6. Teosinte inflorescence phytolith assemblages mirror Zea taxonomy. (United States)

    Hart, John P; Matson, R G; Thompson, Robert G; Blake, Michael


    Molecular DNA analyses of the New World grass (Poaceae) genus Zea, comprising five species, has resolved taxonomic issues including the most likely teosinte progenitor (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis) of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays). However, archaeologically, little is known about the use of teosinte by humans both prior to and after the domestication of maize. One potential line of evidence to explore these relationships is opaline phytoliths produced in teosinte fruit cases. Here we use multidimensional scaling and multiple discriminant analyses to determine if rondel phytolith assemblages from teosinte fruitcases reflect teosinte taxonomy. Our results indicate that rondel phytolith assemblages from the various taxa, including subspecies, can be statistically discriminated. This indicates that it will be possible to investigate the archaeological histories of teosinte use pending the recovery of appropriate samples.

  7. Teosinte inflorescence phytolith assemblages mirror Zea taxonomy.

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    John P Hart

    Full Text Available Molecular DNA analyses of the New World grass (Poaceae genus Zea, comprising five species, has resolved taxonomic issues including the most likely teosinte progenitor (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays. However, archaeologically, little is known about the use of teosinte by humans both prior to and after the domestication of maize. One potential line of evidence to explore these relationships is opaline phytoliths produced in teosinte fruit cases. Here we use multidimensional scaling and multiple discriminant analyses to determine if rondel phytolith assemblages from teosinte fruitcases reflect teosinte taxonomy. Our results indicate that rondel phytolith assemblages from the various taxa, including subspecies, can be statistically discriminated. This indicates that it will be possible to investigate the archaeological histories of teosinte use pending the recovery of appropriate samples.

  8. Consumer–brand assemblages in advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrisgaard, Sofie Møller; Kjeldgaard, Dannie; Bengtson, Anders


    This paper discusses how the use of tattoos in advertising renders diverse brand–consumer assemblages visible. In considering advertising practitioners as professionals of entanglement, the paper emphasizes the embeddedness of practitioners’ use of tattoo symbolism in institutionalized marketing...... systems and in the cultural history of tattooing. In accordance with recent emphasis on the importance of material devices for understanding contemporary sociality, this paper presents a semiotic analysis of a convenience sample of advertisements depicting tattoos. Tattoos are productive for the study...... potency. This analysis demonstrates how the emergence of brand tattoos in advertising challenges the dominant consumer centrism in consumer research and suggests a networked, emerging understanding of the subject in which agency is distributed in socio-technical assemblages....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Four Pleistocene bathyal molluscan assemblages from southern Italy (Calabria and Messina area were studied. One hundred and thirty-six species were recorded. Twenty-four were classified and described in detail and thirty-five were illustrated. The following new combinations are pro posed: Solariella marginulata (Philippi, 1844, Iphitus tenuisculptus (Seguenza, 1876, Benthomangelia tenuicostata (Seguenza, 1879, Chrysallida microscalaria (Seguenza, 1876, Ennucula corbuloides (Seguenza, 1877, Ennucula rotundata (Seguenza, 1877, Thestyleda cuspidata (Philippi, 1844, Katadesmia confusa (Seguenza, 1877, Austrotindaria pusio (Philippi, 1844, Austrotindaria salicensis (Seguenza, 1877. Comments concerning the taxonomy of Fissurisepta Seguenza, 1862, Solariella Wood, 1842, Ennucula Iredale, 1931, Thestyleda Iredale, 1929, Ledella Verrill & Bush, 1897, Yoldiella Verrill & Bush, 1897, Bathyspinula Filatova, 1958, Katadesmia Dall, 1908, Austrotindaria Fleming, 1948 and Cadulus Philippi, 1844 are included. The assemblages are dominated by nuculoids and fit the general compositional pattern of the deep-sea molluscan communities. A paleodepth of 500-600 m is inferred for two assemblages, whereas a greater depth, pro bably not exceeding 1,000 m, is suggested for the other two. Taxonomic affinities with northeast Atlantic and more generally with World Ocean deep-sea molluscan faunas are remarkable. The Plio-Quaternary evolution of the deep Mediterranean benthos is discussed.    

  10. Tectonic structure and evolution of Eastern Anatolia - insights from new petrologic data and possible lateral correlations (United States)

    Oberhänsli, Roland; Pourteau, Amaury; Candan, Osman; Bousquet, Romain; Çetinkaplan, Mete; Koralay, Ersin


    Modern Eastern Anatolia is a high-plateau region characterized by active N-S crustal shortening, mostly accommodated along strike-slip faults, and recent, abundant volcanism. Due to the extensive Cenozoic marine and Quaternary volcano-sedimentary covers, Tetyhan palaeogeography and related tectonic settings, and thence their impact on modern strain partitioning, in this region are particularly difficult to unravel, and therefore remains strongly debated. According to recent works in Armenia and northernmost Eastern Anatolia, blueschists dated to middle Cretaceous times record the accretion of the South-Armenian Block to the southern Eurasian margin, now separated by the Sevan-Akera Suture. Further south, we recently documented Late Cretaceous HP-LT metamorphism in the Bitlis Complex, which belongs to a micro-continental block isolated between the South-Armenian Block and the Arabian Platform. In order to gain further insights into Eastern Anatolia's tectonic architecture, and its continuation into the better-established Central and Western Anatolian tectonic domains, we collected petrologic data from slightly- to strongly metamorphosed sedimentary and crustal lithologies of scattered localities of SE Anatolia, west and north of the Bitlis Complex. From our field observations, we report only low-grade metamorphic assemblages in metasedimentary rocks of the Pütürge Massif, which was commonly considered as the western equivalent of the Bitlis Massif, but obviously did, in contrast to the latter, not experienced HP-LT metamorphism. Nevertheless, glaucophane-bearing rocks were found farther west, north of Adıyaman, might represent the west continuation of the Bitlis HP Complex. From near Malatya, north of the Pütürge Massif and south of the Eastern Tauride non-metamorphosed carbonate platform, eastwards via Elazig and Bingöl, to Aǧrı, between the Bitlis Massif and the South-Armenian Block, we found numerous, scattered occurrences of HT metamorphic assemblages in

  11. Opaque assemblages in CR2 Graves Nunataks (GRA) 06100 as indicators of shock-driven hydrothermal alteration in the CR chondrite parent body (United States)

    Abreu, Neyda M.; Bullock, Emma S.


    We have studied the petrologic characteristics of sulfide-metal lodes, polymineralic Fe-Ni nodules, and opaque assemblages in the CR2 chondrite Graves Nunataks (GRA) 06100, one of the most altered CR chondrites. Unlike low petrologic type CR chondrites, alteration of metal appears to have played a central role in the formation of secondary minerals in GRA 06100. Differences in the mineralogy and chemical compositions of materials in GRA 06100 suggest that it experienced higher temperatures than other CR2 chondrites. Mineralogic features indicative of high temperature include: (1) exsolution of Ni-poor and Ni-rich metal from nebular kamacite; (2) formation of sulfides, oxides, and phosphates; (3) changes in the Co/Ni ratios; and (4) carbidization of Fe-Ni metal. The conspicuous absence of pentlandite may indicate that peak temperatures exceeded 600 °C. Opaques appear to have been affected by the action of aqueous fluids that resulted in the formation of abundant oxides, Fe-rich carbonates, including endmember ankerite, and the sulfide-silicate-phosphate scorzalite. We suggest that these materials formed via impact-driven metamorphism. Mineralogic features indicative of impact metamorphism include (1) the presence of sulfide-metal lodes; (2) the abundance of polymineralic opaque assemblages with mosaic-like textures; and (3) the presence of suessite. Initial shock metamorphism probably resulted in replacement of nebular Fe-Ni metal in chondrules and in matrix by Ni-rich, Co-rich Fe metal, Al-Ti-Cr-rich alloys, and Fe sulfides, while subsequent hydrothermal alteration produced accessory oxides, phosphates, and Fe carbonates. An extensive network of sulfide-metal veins permitted effective exchange of siderophile elements from pre-existing metal nodules with adjacent chondrules and matrix, resulting in unusually high Fe contents in these objects.

  12. The longevity of Neotethyan metamorphic soles from Lu-Hf garnet chronology (United States)

    Peters, Kalijn; Smit, Matthijs; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; van Roermund, Herman; Brouwer, Fraukje


    Supra-subduction zone (SSZ) ophiolites typically have a few-hundred-meters thick sequence of metamorphic rocks below their mantle section: a so-called metamorphic sole. Metamorphic soles are derived from oceanic crustal rocks, and they typically show an inverted metamorphic field gradient, ranging from greenschist-facies at the bottom to upper-amphibolite or granulite facies near the contact with the overlying peridotite. The soles are interpreted to represent the top of a nascent subducting slab that accreted to the base of the hot overriding plate. Studying the formation and exhumation of metamorphic soles is key to characterizing the inception of subduction in oceanic settings. Chronology is an important research tool in this regard and is typically done using 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology on amphibolite-hosted hornblende. The 40Ar/39Ar dates of metamorphic soles invariably overlap with the ages of the crust of SSZ ophiolites, suggesting that spreading and sole cooling are causally linked. The time between the inception of subduction and sole cooling is generally assumed to be short, but unquantified. In this study, we shed light on this aspect of ophiolite evolution by petrological analysis and multi-mineral chronology on the Late Cretaceous Pιnarbaşι metamorphic sole, central Turkey, and the Jurassic metamorphic soles of the Pindos and Vourinos ophiolites, northern Greece. These Tethyan SSZ ophiolites show, with the exception of Vourinos, well-exposed sole sections, of which the different metamorphic levels were subjected to our integrated analytical approach. In this presentation we show the results from Lu-Hf dating of garnet from the highest grade garnet-amphibolites of the Pιnarbaşι and Vourinos ophiolites and the lower grade garnet-micaschists of the sole at Pindos. The Lu-Hf system in garnet enables reliable age constraints on the growth of this important prograde index mineral, allowing better approximation of the timing of subduction initiation than

  13. Phase equilibria modelling and zircon dating for Precambrian metapelites from Xinghuadukou Group in Lvlin Forest of Erguna Massif, NE China (United States)

    Xu, Jiulei; Zheng, Changqing; Tajcmanova, Lucie; Zhong, Xin; Xu, Xuechun; Han, Xiaomeng; Wang, Zhaoyuan


    Xinghuadukou Group, the basement metamorphic complex of Erguna Massif in NE China, is considered to be Mesoproterozoic with Sm-Nd age of 1157±32 Ma. However, the new zircon data from these metamorphic supracrustal rocks in Lvlin Forest show that they formed in Neoproterozoic with the age of 800 Ma. Old zircon age with 2.5 Ga, 2.0 Ga and 1.8 Ga, indicate that the Erguna Massif had an affinity to both Columbia and Rodinia continents. Furthermore, we also present 500 Ma metamorphic age in micashists and 500 Ma age of adjacent granitoids that might have thermally influenced its surrounding. No detailed studies have been undertaken on the metamorphic evolution of the Xinghuadukou Complex. The typical paragneissic mineral assemblage of garnet sillimanite mica schist is Grt+Sil+Bt+Mus+Qtz±Kfs. (Zhou et al., 2011) proposed that the Xinghuadukou Complex appears to have undergone similar granulite facies metamorphic conditions based on the similarity of mineral assemblages to the Mashan Complex in the Jiamusi Massif, NE China. However, the new phase equilibria modelling result shows that these rocks are high amphibolite facies product with 650℃. We can easily find K-feldspar formed by partial melting due to the consuming of muscovite. Also the remaining muscovite is directly connected with a fluid channel in thin sections which indicate that the remaining muscovite formed from retrograde with the existence of fluid. The zoned garnet has low MgO and high CaO content in rims and high MgO and low CaO content in core. It seems that this garnet has high pressure and low temperature (HP-LT) in rims and low pressure and high temperature (LP-HT) in core which would point to an anti-clockwise metamorphic evolution. Zhou, J.B., Wilde, S.A., Zhang, X.Z., Zhao, G.C., Liu, F.L., Qiao, D.W., Ren, S.M. and Liu, J.H., 2011b. A> 1300km late Pan-African metamorphic belt in NE China: new evidence from the Xing'an block and its tectonic implications. Tectonophysics, 509(3): 280-292.

  14. Reconstruction of P-T-t metamorphic conditions from symplectites: insights from Pouso Alegre mafic rocks (Brasília Belt, Brazil) (United States)

    Tedeschi, Mahyra; Lanari, Pierre; Rubatto, Daniela; Hermann, Jörg; Pedrosa-Soares, Antônio Carlos; Dussin, Ivo; Aurélio Pinheiro, Marco; Bouvier, Anne-Sophie; Baumgartner, Lukas


    Reconstructing the metamorphic history of polycyclic tectono-metamorphic mafic rocks that preserve potential relicts of high-pressure metamorphism is challenging because such rocks are commonly retrogressed and rare in supercrustal sequences. However, pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) information is required to obtain the paleo-geothermal gradients and thus to define those units as markers for suture zones. The mafic rocks from Pouso Alegre in the Meridional Brasília Orogen (SW-Brazil) outcrop as rare lenses within Sil-Grt gneisses, Amp-Grt orthogneisses and Bt granites. They are heavily weathered. They have previously been defined as "retro-eclogites", based on the characteristic symplectite texture and some mineralogical observations. They have been intepreted to mark the suture zone between the Paranapanema and São Francisco cratons, although no quantitative estimates of the pressure is available to support this conclusion. In this study we investigated in detail these samples to refine their P-T-t history. As commonly observed in retrogressed eclogites, the studied mafic rock shows symplectite and corona textures overprinting the former paragenesis of Garnet (Grt) - Clinopyroxene (Cpx) 1 - Amphibole (Amp) 1 - Rutile (Rt). Phase equilibrium modelling shows that this assemblage is stable at 690°C and 13.5 kbar, in line with Zr-in-rutile thermometry (720 ±30° C). Local compositions of the symplectite domains were used to retrieve the jadeite content of Cpx1. This low-Jd cpx is in line with the predictions of the model and confirms a maximum pressure of 14 kbar. The symplectite formed from the reaction Cpx1+Qz+H2O→Cpx2+Amp+Pl+Qz taking place at conditions of 600-750°C and <7 kbar. Zircon and monazite U-Th-Pb geochronology was performed for the mafic and surrounding rocks. Zircon core dates from the mafic rock spread along concordia from ca. 1.7 to 1.0 Ga with a cluster at 1520±17 Ma, which is interpreted as the protolith crystallization age. Zircon rim

  15. Gating of high-mobility InAs metamorphic heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabani, J. [California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); McFadden, A. P. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Shojaei, B. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Palmstrøm, C. J. [California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)


    We investigate the performance of gate-defined devices fabricated on high mobility InAs metamorphic heterostructures. We find that heterostructures capped with In{sub 0.75}Ga{sub 0.25}As often show signs of parallel conduction due to proximity of their surface Fermi level to the conduction band minimum. Here, we introduce a technique that can be used to estimate the density of this surface charge that involves cool-downs from room temperature under gate bias. We have been able to remove the parallel conduction under high positive bias, but achieving full depletion has proven difficult. We find that by using In{sub 0.75}Al{sub 0.25}As as the barrier without an In{sub 0.75}Ga{sub 0.25}As capping, a drastic reduction in parallel conduction can be achieved. Our studies show that this does not change the transport properties of the quantum well significantly. We achieved full depletion in InAlAs capped heterostructures with non-hysteretic gating response suitable for fabrication of gate-defined mesoscopic devices.

  16. The Functions of Metamorphic Metallothioneins in Zinc and Copper Metabolism

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    Artur Krężel


    Full Text Available Recent discoveries in zinc biology provide a new platform for discussing the primary physiological functions of mammalian metallothioneins (MTs and their exquisite zinc-dependent regulation. It is now understood that the control of cellular zinc homeostasis includes buffering of Zn2+ ions at picomolar concentrations, extensive subcellular re-distribution of Zn2+, the loading of exocytotic vesicles with zinc species, and the control of Zn2+ ion signalling. In parallel, characteristic features of human MTs became known: their graded affinities for Zn2+ and the redox activity of their thiolate coordination environments. Unlike the single species that structural models of mammalian MTs describe with a set of seven divalent or eight to twelve monovalent metal ions, MTs are metamorphic. In vivo, they exist as many species differing in redox state and load with different metal ions. The functions of mammalian MTs should no longer be considered elusive or enigmatic because it is now evident that the reactivity and coordination dynamics of MTs with Zn2+ and Cu+ match the biological requirements for controlling—binding and delivering—these cellular metal ions, thus completing a 60-year search for their functions. MT represents a unique biological principle for buffering the most competitive essential metal ions Zn2+ and Cu+. How this knowledge translates to the function of other families of MTs awaits further insights into the specifics of how their properties relate to zinc and copper metabolism in other organisms.

  17. Pattern formation in snow during temperature gradient metamorphism (United States)

    Pinzer, B.; Schneebeli, M.


    Temperature gradient metamorphism causes sublimation and growth of crystals. This process causes a dramatic change in thermal and geometrical properties. Using a time-series of snow evolution, we simulated the evolution of the thermal conductivity parallel and perpendicular to the temperature gradient direction. Thermal conductivity changed within a few days from an isotropic property to a strongly anisotropic property. Surprisingly, these changes are only marginally reflected in the geometrical anisotropy of the full snow microstructure. We also observed that the heat flux in the microstructure is concentrated in a small part of the ice matrix, which causes a high tortuosity. The percentage of the ice matrix involved in high heat fluxes was almost constant over time. However, the connectivity of these heat-conducting ice structures increased. The formation of an anisotropic temperature conductivity could have important consequences in terrain where temperature gradients are not perpendicular to the surface, as in shallow snowpacks over hummocky terrain or in boulder areas, or where the snowpack has a strong surface topography, e.g. due to sastrugi formation.

  18. Radiation-Hardened, Substrate-Removed, Metamorphic InGaAs Detector Arrays Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High-performance radiation-hardened metamorphic InGaAs imaging arrays sensitive from the ultraviolet (UV) through the short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) will be...

  19. Thermal histories of CO3 chondrites - Application of olivine diffusion modelling to parent body metamorphism (United States)

    Jones, Rhian H.; Rubie, David C.


    The petrologic sequence observed in the CO3 chondrite group has been suggested to be the result of thermal metamorphism on a parent body. A model developed to examine the possibility that chondrule and matrix olivines equilibrated in situ, during parent body metamorphism is presented. The model considers Fe-Mg interdiffusion between chondrule and matrix olivines. Zoning profiles comparable to those observed in chondrule olivines from partially equilibrated members of the series are reproduced successfully. Metamorphism of CO3 chondrites on a parent body is therefore a viable model for the observed equilibration. Results indicate that peak metamorphic temperatures experienced by the CO3 chondrites were around 500 C, and that the range of peak temperatures between unequilibrated and equilibrated subtypes was relatively narrow, around 100 C.

  20. Pre-collisional accretionary growth of the southern Laurasian active margin, Central Pontides, Turkey (United States)

    Aygül, Mesut; Okay, Aral I.; Oberhänsli, Roland; Sudo, Masafumi


    Cretaceous subduction-accretionary complexes crop out over wide areas in the central part of the Pontides, northern Turkey. To the north, the wedge consists of a low-grade metaflysch sequence with blocks of marble, Na-amphibole-bearing metabasite (PT = 7-12 kbar; 400 ± 70 °C) and serpentinite. 40Ar/39Ar phengite ages from the phyllites of the metaflysch are ca. 100 Ma. The metaflysch sequence is underlain by oceanic crust-derived HP/LT metabasites and micaschists along a major detachment fault. The metabasites are epidote-blueschists consisting of glaucophane, epidote, titanite, and phengite locally with garnet. Fresh lawsonite-blueschists are exposed as blocks along the detachment fault. Peak metamorphic conditions of a garnet-blueschist are constrained to 17 ± 1 kbar and 500 ± 40 °C and of a lawsonite-blueschist to 14 ± 2 kbar and 370-440 °C. 40Ar/39Ar phengite dating on the micaschists constrains the HP/LT metamorphism as 101-92 Ma, younging southward. Middle Jurassic (ca. 160 Ma) accretionary complexes consisting of blueschist to lower greenschist facies metabasites, marble and volcanogenic metasediment intercalations are exposed at the southern part of the Cretaceous wedge. In the studied area, the North Anatolian Fault forms the contact between Cretaceous and Middle Jurassic HP/LT metamorphic rocks. Wide distribution of Cretaceous subduction-accretionary complexes implies accretionary tectonic continental growth along the Laurasian active margin. High amount of clastic sediment flux into the trench has a major effect on enlarging the wedge during the Albian. Tectonic thickening of the oceanic HP/LT metamorphic sequence, however, was possibly achieved by propagation of the décollement along the retreating slab which can create the space necessary for progressive deep level basal underplating and extension of the wedge for subsequent syn-subduction exhumation.

  1. Geochronological constraints on the metamorphic sole of the Semail ophiolite in the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick M.W. Roberts


    Full Text Available The Semail ophiolite of Oman and the United Arab Emirates (UAE provides the best preserved large slice of oceanic lithosphere exposed on the continental crust, and offers unique opportunities to study processes of ocean crust formation, subduction initiation and obduction. Metamorphic rocks exposed in the eastern UAE have traditionally been interpreted as a metamorphic sole to the Semail ophiolite. However, there has been some debate over the possibility that the exposures contain components of older Arabian continental crust. To help answer this question, presented here are new zircon and rutile U-Pb geochronological data from various units of the metamorphic rocks. Zircon was absent in most samples. Those that yielded zircon and rutile provide dominant single age populations that are 95–93 Ma, partially overlapping with the known age of oceanic crust formation (96.5–94.5 Ma, and partially overlapping with cooling ages of the metamorphic rocks (95–90 Ma. The data are interpreted as dating high-grade metamorphism during subduction burial of the sediments into hot mantle lithosphere, and rapid cooling during their subsequent exhumation. A few discordant zircon ages, interpreted as late Neoproterozoic and younger, represent minor detrital input from the continent. No evidence is found in favour of the existence of older Arabian continental crust within the metamorphic rocks of the UAE.

  2. Sothi-Siswal Ceramic Assemblage: A Reappraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejas Garge


    Full Text Available Harappan evidences in Chautan valley has a unique ceramic tradition. In the light of recent plethora of knowledge as well as against the background of the studies conducted by A. Ghosh, J.S. Nigam, Katy Frenchman, Suraj Bhan & Madhu Bala, we will have to not only reclassify the Sothi-Siswal ceramic assemblage but also alter basic nomenclatures and concepts involve in it. It will give us deep insight in to the process of evolution of Early Harappan cultures vis-à-vis the dynamic of regional cultural complexes.

  3. Moral assemblages of volunteer tourism development in Cusco, Peru


    Burrai, E; Mostafanezhad, M; Hannam, K


    In this paper, we develop a conceptual approach from which to examine the moral landscape of volunteer tourism development in Cusco, Peru. Drawing from recent work on assemblage theory in geography and tourism studies, we explore how assemblage thinking can facilitate new understandings of volunteer tourism development. Using assemblage as an analytical framework allows us to understand volunteer tourism as a series of relational, processual, unequal and mobile practices. These practices, we ...

  4. Tectono-metamorphic evolution and magmatic processes in the thermo-metamorphic aureole of the Monte Capanne pluton (Elba Island, Northern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy). (United States)

    Morelli, M.; Pandeli, E.; Principi, G.


    Introduction In this work we present new structural and petrographic data collected in the thermo-metamorphic aureole of Monte Capanne (western Elba Island) and its metamorphic evolution. In the western Elba Island the Monte Capanne monzogranitic body (ca. 7 Ma) and its thermo-metamorphic aureole crop out. At least two different tectonic units can be distinguished: the Punta Le Tombe Unit, weak re-crystallized, and the Punta Nera Unit. In the latter one the re-crystallization is strong and a pre-intrusion tectono-metamorphic framework is evident (Morelli et al., 2002). The latter is mainly constituted by thermo-metamorphosed meta-ophiolites and meta-sedimentary successions previously correlated by Barberi et al. (1969) with the un-metamorphic ones (Complex IV and V of Trevisan, 1950) cropping out in the central-eastern Elba. According to Perrin (1975) and Reutter &Spohn (1982) a pre-intrusion tectono-metamorphic framework was recognized into such rocks. As suggested by Daniel &Jolivet (1995) complex relationships between metamorphic evolution and magmatic events are also recognizable. Geological Data The Punta Nera Unit crops out all around the Monte Capanne magmatic body and the primary contact with the underlying granitoid is somewhere preserved. This unit, strongly re-crystallized and locally crosscut by aplitic and porphyritic dikes, is represented by (Coli &Pandeli, 1997; Morelli, 2000) tectonized meta-serpentinites, meta-gabbros with rodingitic dikes, rare meta-basalts and meta-ophicalcites, meta-cherts, marbles, cherty meta-limestones, phyllites and meta-limestones with rare meta-arenites intercalations. A "pre-magmatic" tectono-metamorphic framework of this unit is well evident only in its meta-sedimentary portion. The meta-sediments are deformed by syn-metamorphic isoclinal folds caractherized by N-S trending axes, west dipping axial planes and easternward vergence. A later folding and flattening event clearly post-dated the above said folds and associated

  5. The origin of zircon and the significance of U-Pb ages in high-grade metamorphic rocks: a case study from the Variscan orogenic root (Vosges Mountains, NE France) (United States)

    Skrzypek, E.; Štípská, P.; Cocherie, A.


    U-Pb zircon dating is combined with petrology, Zr-in-rutile thermometry and mineral equilibria modelling to discuss zircon petrogenesis and the age of metamorphism in three units of the Variscan Vosges Mountains (NE France). The monotonous gneiss unit shows results at 700-500 Ma, but no Variscan ages. The varied gneiss unit preserves ages between 600 and 460 Ma and a Variscan group at 340-335 Ma. Zircon analyses from the felsic granulite unit define a continuous array of ages between 500 and 340 Ma. In varied gneiss samples, zoned garnet includes kyanite and rutile and is surrounded by matrix sillimanite and cordierite. In a pseudosection, it points to peak conditions of ~16 kbar/850 °C followed by isothermal decompression to 8-10 kbar/820-860 °C. In felsic granulite samples, the assemblage K-feldspar-garnet-kyanite-Zr-rich rutile is replaced by sillimanite and Zr-poor rutile. Modelling these assemblages supports minimum conditions of ~13 kbar/925 °C, and a subsequent P-T decrease to 6.5-8.5 kbar/800-820 °C. The internal structure and chemistry of zircons, and modelling of zircon dissolution/growth along the inferred P-T paths are used to discuss the significance of the U-Pb ages. In the monotonous unit, inherited zircon ages of 700-500 Ma point to sedimentation during the Late Cambrian, while medium-grade metamorphism did not allow the formation of Variscan zircon domains. In both the varied gneiss and felsic granulite units, zircons with a blurred oscillatory-zoned pattern could reflect solid-state recrystallization of older grains during HT metamorphism, whereas zircons with a dark cathodoluminescence pattern are thought to derive from crystallization of an anatectic melt during cooling at middle pressure conditions. The present work proposes that U-Pb zircon ages of ca. 340 Ma probably reflect the end of a widespread HT metamorphic event at middle crustal level.

  6. Glaucophane chloritoid-bearing assemblages from NE Oman: petrologic significance and a petrogenetic grid for high P metapelites (United States)

    El-Shazly, A. K.; Liou, J. G.


    Pelitic layers and lenses interbedded with blueschists and eclogites in Saih Hatat, NE Oman contain chloritoid- and sodic amphibole-bearing mineral assemblages that are useful for reconstructing the P-T history of the area. Textural and mineral chemical relations suggest that coexisting glaucophane (Gln) and chloritoid (Ctd) formed at the expense of chlorite (Chl)+paragonite (Pg) and later broke down to garnet (Gt)+Pg during prograde metamorphism according to the reaction: Gln+Ctd+Qz=Gt+Pg+H2O. During retrogression, Gln and Chl first formed at the expense of Gt and Pg, followed by the breakdown of Ctd and Gt to Chl. The final stages of retrogression are marked by the breakdown of Gln to an aggregate of Chl+albite (Ab). A projection from quartz (Qz), H2O and phengite (Ph) on the (Al2O3+Fe2O3)-(FeO+MgO)-Na2O plane in the system NFMASH is best suited for the representation of the phase relations in high P metapelites. Petrogenetic grids for the model systems NMASH and NFASH were calculated using program GEO-CALC (Berman et al. 1987) and its database (Berman 1988) after the retrieval of S{i/o}and ΔH{f/o}for Gln and Ctd by mathematical programming and calculating all possible reactions among Gln, Ctd, Chl, jadeite (Jd), Ab, Gt, Pg, talc (Tc), pyrophyllite (Prl) and kyanite (Ky). The calculated petrogenetic grid for the system NFASH shows that Fe-Ctd and ferroglaucophane coexist at P>6.5 kbar and T6 kbar. This grid is consistent with the P-T estimates for high P metapelites from Oman, New Caledonia, Seward Peninsula, Ile de Groix, Sifnos and Peloponnese, where Gln+Ctd bearing units are interbedded with cofacial mafic blueschists and eclogites. The grid also explains the observed textural relations in the metapelites of Oman, and is consistent with the “clockwise” P-T path proposed for this area, but differs from the grids of Guiraud et al. (1990) in showing a larger stability field for Gln+Ctd that overlaps with the stability fields of Jd+Qz as well as Ab. The

  7. Fish assemblages on estuarine artificial reefs: natural rocky-reef mimics or discrete assemblages?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heath Folpp

    Full Text Available If the primary goal of artificial reef construction is the creation of additional reef habitat that is comparable to adjacent natural rocky-reef, then performance should be evaluated using simultaneous comparisons with adjacent natural habitats. Using baited remote underwater video (BRUV fish assemblages on purpose-built estuarine artificial reefs and adjacent natural rocky-reef and sand-flat were assessed 18 months post-deployment in three south-east Australian estuaries. Fish abundance, species richness and diversity were found to be greater on the artificial reefs than on either naturally occurring reef or sand-flat in all estuaries. Comparisons within each estuary identified significant differences in the species composition between the artificial and natural rocky-reefs. The artificial reef assemblage was dominated by sparid species including Acanthopagrus australis and Rhabdosargus sarba. The preference for a range of habitats by theses sparid species is evident by their detection on sand-flat, natural rocky reef and artificial reef habitats. The fish assemblage identified on the artificial reefs remained distinct from the adjacent rocky-reef, comprising a range of species drawn from naturally occurring rocky-reef and sand-flat. In addition, some mid-water schooling species including Trachurus novaezelandiae and Pseudocaranx georgianus were only identified on the artificial reef community; presumably as result of the reef's isolated location in open-water. We concluded that estuarine artificial reef assemblages are likely to differ significantly from adjacent rocky-reef, potentially as a result of physical factors such as reef isolation, coupled with species specific behavioural traits such as the ability of some species to traverse large sand flats in order to locate reef structure, and feeding preferences. Artificial reefs should not be viewed as direct surrogates for natural reef. The assemblages are likely to remain distinct from

  8. Metamorphic crystallization kinetics quantified through space and time (United States)

    Kelly, E. D.; Carlson, W. D.; Ketcham, R. A.


    Numerical simulations of diffusion-controlled nucleation and growth of garnet porphyroblasts in regionally metamorphosed rocks constrain values for interfacial energy and rates of nucleation and Al intergranular diffusion, quantities that exert a strong control on the sizes and disposition of porphyroblasts in most metamorphic rocks. During simulation of a reaction, product crystals consume a rate-limiting component (Al) and gradients in Al concentration in the intergranular fluid develop between the product and reactant crystals. Low Al concentrations surrounding product crystals (low reaction affinity) reduce nucleation probability, creating a tendency toward spatial ordering of crystal centers in homogeneous portions of a rock. Also, as Al depletion zones impinge, crystals compete for Al, resulting in a tendency toward smaller sizes for neighboring crystals and larger sizes for those that grow in isolation. These phenomena produce distinctive textural effects that allow the simulations to be constrained by measurements of the sizes and locations of porphyroblasts in natural samples. The 13 rocks analyzed in this study were collected from 7 localities exhibiting a diverse range of crystallization conditions. In the simulations, unknown kinetic parameters governing nucleation and intergranular diffusion were adjusted iteratively to achieve fits between simulated and natural porphyroblastic textures. Model fits were assessed primarily from textural characteristics precisely measured by high-resolution X-ray computed tomography. The range of interfacial energies obtained for heterogeneous nucleation is 0.007-0.118 J/m2 for the sample suite, assuming shape factors in the range 0.1-1.0. Nucleation rates change through space and time due to growth and impingement of Al depletion zones. In some modeled rocks, the actual (whole-rock) rate rises steeply, achieves a steady state, and then falls rapidly as reactants are consumed; in others, the steady-state is not achieved

  9. Insulin signaling regulates neurite growth during metamorphic neuronal remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Gu


    Although the growth capacity of mature neurons is often limited, some neurons can shift through largely unknown mechanisms from stable maintenance growth to dynamic, organizational growth (e.g. to repair injury, or during development transitions. During insect metamorphosis, many terminally differentiated larval neurons undergo extensive remodeling, involving elimination of larval neurites and outgrowth and elaboration of adult-specific projections. Here, we show in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen, that a metamorphosis-specific increase in insulin signaling promotes neuronal growth and axon branching after prolonged stability during the larval stages. FOXO, a negative effector in the insulin signaling pathway, blocked metamorphic growth of peptidergic neurons that secrete the neuropeptides CCAP and bursicon. RNA interference and CCAP/bursicon cell-targeted expression of dominant-negative constructs for other components of the insulin signaling pathway (InR, Pi3K92E, Akt1, S6K also partially suppressed the growth of the CCAP/bursicon neuron somata and neurite arbor. In contrast, expression of wild-type or constitutively active forms of InR, Pi3K92E, Akt1, Rheb, and TOR, as well as RNA interference for negative regulators of insulin signaling (PTEN, FOXO, stimulated overgrowth. Interestingly, InR displayed little effect on larval CCAP/bursicon neuron growth, in contrast to its strong effects during metamorphosis. Manipulations of insulin signaling in many other peptidergic neurons revealed generalized growth stimulation during metamorphosis, but not during larval development. These findings reveal a fundamental shift in growth control mechanisms when mature, differentiated neurons enter a new phase of organizational growth. Moreover, they highlight strong evolutionarily conservation of insulin signaling in neuronal growth regulation.

  10. Microalgal assemblages in a poikilohaline pond. (United States)

    Wang, Shuyi; Lambert, William; Giang, Sophia; Goericke, Ralf; Palenik, Brian


    Microalgal strains for algal biofuels production in outdoor ponds will need to have high net growth rates under diverse environmental conditions. A small, variable salinity pond in the San Elijo Lagoon estuary in southern California was chosen to serve as a model pond due to its routinely high chlorophyll content. Profiles of microalgal assemblages from water samples collected from April 2011 to January 2012 were obtained by constructing 18S rDNA environmental clone libraries. Pond assemblages were found to be dominated by green algae Picochlorum sp. and Picocystis sp. throughout the year. Pigment analysis suggested that the two species contributed most of the chlorophyll a of the pond, which ranged from 21.9 to 664.3 μg · L(-1) with the Picocystis contribution increasing at higher salinities. However, changes of temperature, salinity or irradiance may have enabled a bloom of the diatom Chaetoceros sp. in June 2011. Isolates of these microalgae were obtained and their growth rates characterized as a function of temperature and salinity. Chaetoceros sp. had the highest growth rate over the temperature test range while it showed the most sensitivity to high salinity. All three strains showed the presence of lipid bodies during nitrogen starvation, suggesting they have potential as future biofuels strains. © 2013 Phycological Society of America.

  11. Holocene molluscan assemblages in the Magellan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Gordillo


    Full Text Available In the Magellan region, much of the shoreline of the Beagle Channel coast (54°53´S; 67° - 68°W is bordered by Holocene raised beaches, which contain a large number of molluscs and other shelled taxa. The purpose of this work is to document the presence of various molluscan assemblages deposited with little or no postmortem transportation. An epifaunal Chlamys patagonica palaeocommunity (ca. 8,000 - 7,000 BP and three infaunal (Tawera gayi, Ameghinomya antiqua - Hiatella solida and Ameghinomya antiqua - Ensis macha palaeocommunities (ca. 4,400 - 4,000 BP were recognized. All the assemblages studied represent shallow, subtidal, cold-temperate environments. Based on comparisons with modern benthic communities in this region, these associations show that no remarkable ecologic and climatic changes occurred during the period ca. 8,000 - 4,000 BP. Thus, an apparent stability of modern marine communities over a period of several thousand years is suggested.

  12. Techniques de formage et d'assemblage

    CERN Document Server

    Favre, G; CERN. Geneva. TS Department


    Les sections Techniques d'Assemblage du groupe EST/MF et Brasage du groupe EST/SM ont été groupées en un seul service dans un but de rationalisation accrue des ressources et méthodes. Ce service dispose de nombreux moyens : soudure et découpe LASER (YAG, 350 W), soudure par faisceau d'électrons (deux installations, 35 et 7.5 kW), équipements TIG orbital, jet line, MIG, soudure plasma, boîte à gants, portique de soudage trois axes multiprocédés, presses plieuses, rouleuses, moyens de repoussage, alimentation à induction 12 kW et divers fours sous vide et à air. Le service est composé de 17 personnes dont la polyvalence est encouragée. Les activités de la section seront décrites à travers quelques exemples significatifs récents, notamment : l'assemblage des amenées de courant HTS, la réalisation des chambres LSS, des tubes HET, d'enveloppes céramiques pour détecteurs PET-HPD, le brasage de RFQ, la soudure du Barrel d'ATLAS ou encore le soudage des lignes de thermalisation du toroïde d'AT...

  13. Histamine is a modulator of metamorphic competence in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) (United States)


    Background A metamorphic life-history is present in the majority of animal phyla. This developmental mode is particularly prominent among marine invertebrates with a bentho-planktonic life cycle, where a pelagic larval form transforms into a benthic adult. Metamorphic competence (the stage at which a larva is capable to undergo the metamorphic transformation and settlement) is an important adaptation both ecologically and physiologically. The competence period maintains the larval state until suitable settlement sites are encountered, at which point the larvae settle in response to settlement cues. The mechanistic basis for metamorphosis (the morphogenetic transition from a larva to a juvenile including settlement), i.e. the molecular and cellular processes underlying metamorphosis in marine invertebrate species, is poorly understood. Histamine (HA), a neurotransmitter used for various physiological and developmental functions among animals, has a critical role in sea urchin fertilization and in the induction of metamorphosis. Here we test the premise that HA functions as a developmental modulator of metamorphic competence in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Results Our results provide strong evidence that HA leads to the acquisition of metamorphic competence in S. purpuratus larvae. Pharmacological analysis of several HA receptor antagonists and an inhibitor of HA synthesis indicates a function of HA in metamorphic competence as well as programmed cell death (PCD) during arm retraction. Furthermore we identified an extensive network of histaminergic neurons in pre-metamorphic and metamorphically competent larvae. Analysis of this network throughout larval development indicates that the maturation of specific neuronal clusters correlates with the acquisition of metamorphic competence. Moreover, histamine receptor antagonist treatment leads to the induction of caspase mediated apoptosis in competent larvae. Conclusions We conclude that HA is a modulator

  14. Histamine is a modulator of metamorphic competence in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutherby Josh


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A metamorphic life-history is present in the majority of animal phyla. This developmental mode is particularly prominent among marine invertebrates with a bentho-planktonic life cycle, where a pelagic larval form transforms into a benthic adult. Metamorphic competence (the stage at which a larva is capable to undergo the metamorphic transformation and settlement is an important adaptation both ecologically and physiologically. The competence period maintains the larval state until suitable settlement sites are encountered, at which point the larvae settle in response to settlement cues. The mechanistic basis for metamorphosis (the morphogenetic transition from a larva to a juvenile including settlement, i.e. the molecular and cellular processes underlying metamorphosis in marine invertebrate species, is poorly understood. Histamine (HA, a neurotransmitter used for various physiological and developmental functions among animals, has a critical role in sea urchin fertilization and in the induction of metamorphosis. Here we test the premise that HA functions as a developmental modulator of metamorphic competence in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Results Our results provide strong evidence that HA leads to the acquisition of metamorphic competence in S. purpuratus larvae. Pharmacological analysis of several HA receptor antagonists and an inhibitor of HA synthesis indicates a function of HA in metamorphic competence as well as programmed cell death (PCD during arm retraction. Furthermore we identified an extensive network of histaminergic neurons in pre-metamorphic and metamorphically competent larvae. Analysis of this network throughout larval development indicates that the maturation of specific neuronal clusters correlates with the acquisition of metamorphic competence. Moreover, histamine receptor antagonist treatment leads to the induction of caspase mediated apoptosis in competent larvae. Conclusions We

  15. Histamine is a modulator of metamorphic competence in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea). (United States)

    Sutherby, Josh; Giardini, Jamie-Lee; Nguyen, Julia; Wessel, Gary; Leguia, Mariana; Heyland, Andreas


    A metamorphic life-history is present in the majority of animal phyla. This developmental mode is particularly prominent among marine invertebrates with a bentho-planktonic life cycle, where a pelagic larval form transforms into a benthic adult. Metamorphic competence (the stage at which a larva is capable to undergo the metamorphic transformation and settlement) is an important adaptation both ecologically and physiologically. The competence period maintains the larval state until suitable settlement sites are encountered, at which point the larvae settle in response to settlement cues. The mechanistic basis for metamorphosis (the morphogenetic transition from a larva to a juvenile including settlement), i.e. the molecular and cellular processes underlying metamorphosis in marine invertebrate species, is poorly understood. Histamine (HA), a neurotransmitter used for various physiological and developmental functions among animals, has a critical role in sea urchin fertilization and in the induction of metamorphosis. Here we test the premise that HA functions as a developmental modulator of metamorphic competence in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Our results provide strong evidence that HA leads to the acquisition of metamorphic competence in S. purpuratus larvae. Pharmacological analysis of several HA receptor antagonists and an inhibitor of HA synthesis indicates a function of HA in metamorphic competence as well as programmed cell death (PCD) during arm retraction. Furthermore we identified an extensive network of histaminergic neurons in pre-metamorphic and metamorphically competent larvae. Analysis of this network throughout larval development indicates that the maturation of specific neuronal clusters correlates with the acquisition of metamorphic competence. Moreover, histamine receptor antagonist treatment leads to the induction of caspase mediated apoptosis in competent larvae. We conclude that HA is a modulator of metamorphic competence in S

  16. Clumped isotopes complement petrological data in the investigation of contact metamorphic aureoles: a case study from the Middle Triassic Monzoni intrusion (Northern Italy) (United States)

    Müller, Inigo Andreas; Storck, Julian-Christopher; Brack, Peter; Bernasconi, Stefano M.


    Carbonate clumped isotope thermometry is a technique which measures the abundance of the 13C-18O-16O2 isotopologue in carbonate rocks. Its abundance is solely dependent on the formation temperature of the carbonate minerals, which makes this still novel method very attractive for research on paleoclimate or low temperature diagenetic processes. If carbonate rocks are exposed to high temperatures as during contact metamorphism or deep burial, the clumped isotope thermometer suffers from solid state reordering, destroying the primary temperature signal. However, this does not mean clumped isotopes cannot be applied on carbonates that were heated in high temperature regimes. In contrast it offers a great tool to track the extent a carbonate was heated and reveal secondary carbonate precipitation due to alteration by circulating fluids. We used carbonates from the contact aureole of the Monzoni intrusion in northern Italy to test the application of clumped isotopes in such an extreme environment. Our measurements show that solid state reordering of the clumped isotope signature and thus an increased temperature signal occurred already 3 km distal from the contact. In contrast, mineral paragenesis studies can only reconstruct the strong temperature decrease within 1.5 km from the contact, whereas carbonates exposed to temperatures below 300 °C do not form mineral assemblages allowing the reconstruction of temperatures. Towards the contact of the Monzoni intrusion clumped isotope data showed again decreasing temperatures and a change in their oxygen isotope composition. This probably reflects the later stage alteration of circulating fluids and subsequent precipitation of secondary carbonates. Our findings show that clumped isotopes are a powerful tool to estimate the extent of contact metamorphism in the cooler part of the aureole at temperatures up to 300 °C. Clumped isotope studies can complement petrological data in the low temperature range to improve thermal

  17. The role of amphiboles in the metamorphic evolution of the UHP rocks: a case study from the Tso Morari Complex, northwest Himalayas (United States)

    Singh, Preeti; Pant, Naresch C.; Saikia, Ashima; Kundu, Amitava


    Amphiboles represent a crucial phase of the ultra-high-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks as their solid solution behavior reflects both bulk compositional and P- T changes. Three different types of amphibole have been reported from the UHP metamafic rocks of the Tso Morari Crystalline Complex, NW Himalayas: Na-rich (glaucophane); Na-Ca-rich (barroisite, taramite, winchite) and Ca-rich (tremolite, magnesio-hornblende, pargasite). The Na-amphibole is presented as a core of the zoned amphibole with Na-Ca-rich rim; Na-Ca-amphibole is presented as inclusion in garnets as well as in matrix, and Ca-amphibole is generally found in the matrix. The Na-Ca-amphibole is observed at two different stages of metamorphism. The first is pre-UHP, and the second is post-garnet-omphacite assemblage though with a significant difference in composition. The pressure-temperature estimations of the formation of these two sets of Na-Ca-amphiboles corroborate their textural associations. Ca-rich amphiboles are generally present in the matrix either as symplectite with plagioclase or as a pseudomorph after garnet along with other secondary minerals like chlorite and biotite. Two different types of zoning have been observed in the amphibole grains: (1) core is Na-rich followed by Na-Ca rim and (2) core of Na-Ca-amphibole is followed by Ca-rich rim. The pre-UHP (or the prograde P- T path) and post-UHP stages (or the retrograde P- T path) of Tso Morari eclogites are defined by characteristic amphibole compositions, viz. Na/Na-Ca-amphibole, Na-Ca-amphibole and Ca-amphibole and thus indicate their utility in inferring crustal evolution of this UHP terrain.

  18. Pressure-temperature evolution of Neoproterozoic metamorphism in the Welayati Formation (Kabul Block), Afghanistan (United States)

    Collett, Stephen; Faryad, Shah Wali


    The Welayati Formation, consisting of alternating layers of mica-schist and quartzite with lenses of amphibolite, unconformably overlies the Neoarchean Sherdarwaza Formation of the Kabul Block that underwent Paleoproterozoic granulite-facies and Neoproterozoic amphibolite-facies metamorphic events. To analyze metamorphic history of the Welayati Formation and its relations to the underlying Sherdarwaza Formation, petrographic study and pressure-temperature (P-T) pseudosection modeling were applied to staurolite- and kyanite-bearing mica-schists, which crop out to the south of Kabul City. Prograde metamorphism, identified by inclusion trails and chemical zonation in garnet from the micaschists indicates that the rocks underwent burial from around 6.2 kbar at 525 °C to maximum pressure conditions of around 9.5 kbar at temperatures of around 650 °C. Decompression from peak pressures under isothermal or moderate heating conditions are indicated by formation of biotite and plagioclase porphyroblasts which cross-cut and overgrow the dominant foliation. The lack of sillimanite and/or andalusite suggests that cooling and further decompression occurred in the kyanite stability field. The results of this study indicate a single amphibolite-facies metamorphism that based on P-T conditions and age dating correlates well with the Neoproterozoic metamorphism in the underlying Sherdarwaza Formation. The rocks lack any paragenetic evidence for a preceding granulite-facies overprint or subsequent Paleozoic metamorphism. Owing to the position of the Kabul Block, within the India-Eurasia collision zone, partial replacement of the amphibolite-facies minerals in the micaschist could, in addition to retrogression of the Neoproterozoic metamorphism, relate to deformation associated with the Alpine orogeny.

  19. Pelagic fish species assemblages in the southern Benguela | Louw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patterns in the co-occurrence of small pelagic fish species within single shoals were investigated using data from 6 814 throws of commercial purse-seiners in South Africa. Assuming that the throw composition reflected the true composition of the assemblage, it was shown that: (1) mixed pelagic assemblages were as ...

  20. Here Comes the Sun ... and I Say, "It' an Assemblage" (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen


    In this article, the author discusses how she combines science lesson with a hands-on art project. She used the wonderfully creative suns shown on the Sunday edition of "The CBS Morning Show" to give the students fodder for thought. She describes how to create an assemblage. An assemblage is like a collage, but it moves past the two-dimensional…

  1. Tracing back sulfur isotope reequilibration due to contact metamorphism: A case study from the Perubar VMS deposit, Central Peru


    Polliand, Marc; Fontboté, Lluis; Spangenberg, Jorge


    The mid-Cretaceous Perubar VMS deposit, Central Peru, affected by contact metamorphism, has been the subject of a sulfur isotope investigation. The measured δ34S values for sulfate-sulfide pairs from the deposit indicate that close to equilibrium isotopic reequilibration occurred during metamorphism. After “filtering” the contact metamorphism effect, sulfur isotope desiquilibrium trends for coexisting sulfate-sulfide pairs were obtained on the δ34S versus Δ34S diagram, indicating a mixing bet...

  2. Metamorphic Evolution of Garnet-bearing Epidote-Barroisite Schist from the Meratus Complex in South Kalimantan, Indonesia


    Nugroho Imam Setiawan; Yasuhito Osanai; Nobuhiko Nakano; Tatsuro Adachi; Amril Asy’ari


    DOI:10.17014/ijog.2.3.139-156This paper presents metamorphic evolution of metamorphic rocks from the Meratus Complex in South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Eight varieties of metamorphic rocks samples from this location, which are garnet-bearing epidote-barroisite schist, epidote-barroisite schist, glaucophane-quartz schist, garnet-muscovite schist, actinolite-talc schist, epidote schist, muscovite schist, and serpentinite, were investigated in detail its petrological and mineralogical characteristi...

  3. Phylogenetic and functional diversity in large carnivore assemblages. (United States)

    Dalerum, F


    Large terrestrial carnivores are important ecological components and prominent flagship species, but are often extinction prone owing to a combination of biological traits and high levels of human persecution. This study combines phylogenetic and functional diversity evaluations of global and continental large carnivore assemblages to provide a framework for conservation prioritization both between and within assemblages. Species-rich assemblages of large carnivores simultaneously had high phylogenetic and functional diversity, but species contributions to phylogenetic and functional diversity components were not positively correlated. The results further provide ecological justification for the largest carnivore species as a focus for conservation action, and suggests that range contraction is a likely cause of diminishing carnivore ecosystem function. This study highlights that preserving species-rich carnivore assemblages will capture both high phylogenetic and functional diversity, but that prioritizing species within assemblages will involve trade-offs between optimizing contemporary ecosystem function versus the evolutionary potential for future ecosystem performance.

  4. RNA assemblages orchestrate complex cellular processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Hansen, Heidi Theil; Christiansen, Jan


    Eukaryotic mRNAs are monocistronic, and therefore mechanisms exist that coordinate the synthesis of multiprotein complexes in order to obtain proper stoichiometry at the appropriate intracellular locations. RNA-binding proteins containing low-complexity sequences are prone to generate liquid...... droplets via liquid-liquid phase separation, and in this way create cytoplasmic assemblages of functionally related mRNAs. In a recent iCLIP study, we showed that the Drosophila RNA-binding protein Imp, which exhibits a C-terminal low-complexity sequence, increases the formation of F-actin by binding to 3......' untranslated regions of mRNAs encoding components participating in F-actin biogenesis. We hypothesize that phase transition is a mechanism the cell employs to increase the local mRNA concentration considerably, and in this way synchronize protein production in cytoplasmic territories, as discussed...

  5. Clumped isotope thermometry of calcite and dolomite in a contact metamorphic environment (United States)

    Lloyd, Max K.; Eiler, John M.; Nabelek, Peter I.


    Clumped isotope compositions of slowly-cooled calcite and dolomite marbles record apparent equilibrium temperatures of roughly 150-200 °C and 300-350 °C, respectively. Because clumped isotope compositions are sensitive to the details of T-t path within these intervals, measurements of the Δ47 values of coexisting calcite and dolomite can place new constraints on thermal history of low-grade metamorphic rocks over a large portion of the upper crust (from ∼5 to ∼15 km depth). We studied the clumped isotope geochemistry of coexisting calcite and dolomite in marbles from the Notch Peak contact metamorphic aureole, Utah. Here, flat-lying limestones were intruded by a pluton, producing a regular, zoned metamorphic aureole. Calcite Δ47 temperatures are uniform, 156 ± 12 °C (2σ s.e.), across rocks varying from high-grade marbles that exceeded 500 °C to nominally unmetamorphosed limestones >5 km from the intrusion. This result appears to require that the temperature far from the pluton was close to this value; an ambient temperature just 20 °C lower would not have permitted substantial re-equilibration, and should have preserved depositional or early diagenetic Δ47 values several km from the pluton. Combining this result with depth constraints from overlying strata suggests the country rock here had an average regional geotherm of 22.3-27.4 °C/km from the late Jurassic Period until at least the middle Paleogene Period. Dolomite Δ47 in all samples above the talc + tremolite-in isograd record apparent equilibrium temperatures of 328-12+13 °C (1σ s.e.), consistent with the apparent equilibrium blocking temperature we expect for cooling from peak metamorphic conditions. At greater distances, dolomite Δ47 records temperatures of peak (anchi)metamorphism or pre-metamorphic diagenetic conditions. The interface between these domains is the location of the 330 °C isotherm associated with intrusion. Multiple-phase clumped isotope measurements are complemented by

  6. Cretaceous crust beneath SW Borneo: U-Pb dating of zircons from metamorphic and granitic rocks (United States)

    Davies, L.; Hall, R.; Armstrong, R.


    Metamorphic basement rocks from SW Borneo are undated but have been suggested to be Palaeozoic. This study shows they record low pressure 'Buchan-type' metamorphism and U-Pb SHRIMP dating of zircons indicates a mid-Cretaceous (volcaniclastic) protolith. SW Borneo is the southeast promontory of Sundaland, the continental core of SE Asia. It has no sedimentary cover and the exposed basement has been widely assumed to be a crustal fragment from the Indochina-China margin. Metamorphic rocks of the Pinoh Group in Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo) are intruded by granitoid rocks of Jurassic-Cretaceous age, based on K-Ar dating, suggesting emplacement mainly between 130 and 80 Ma. The Pinoh metamorphic rocks have been described as a suite of pelitic schists, slates, phyllites, and hornfelses, and have not been dated, although they have been correlated with rocks elsewhere in Borneo of supposed Palaeozoic age. Pelitic schists contain biotite, chlorite, cordierite, andalusite, quartz, plagioclase and in some cases high-Mn almandine-rich garnet. Many have a shear fabric associated with biotite and fibrolite intergrowth. Contact metamorphism due to intrusion of the granitoid rocks produced hornfelses with abundant andalusite and cordierite porphyroblasts. Granitoids range from alkali-granite to tonalite and contain abundant hornblende and biotite, with rare white mica. Zircons from granitoid rocks exhibit sector- and concentric- zoning; some have xenocrystic cores mantled by magmatic zircon. There are four important age populations at c. 112, 98, 84 and 84 Ma broadly confirming earlier dating studies. There is a single granite body with a Jurassic age (186 ± 2.3 Ma). Zircons from pelitic metamorphic rocks are typically euhedral, with no evidence of rounding or resorbing of grains; a few preserve volcanic textures. They record older ages than those from igneous rocks; U-Pb ages are Cretaceous with a major population between 134 and 110 Ma. A single sample contains Proterozoic

  7. P-T conditions of Stor Jougdan garnet pyroxenite and phengite-bearing eclogite: further evidence of UHP metamorphism in the Seve Nappe Complex of northern Jämtland (Swedish Caledonides) (United States)

    Klonowska, Iwona; Janák, Marian; Majka, Jarosław; Kośmińska, Karolina


    The most recent comprehensive petrological studies of high grade rocks within the Seve Nappe Complex (SNC) in the Scandinavian Caledonides have resulted in new discoveries of ultrahigh pressure metamorphism (UHPM) probably of Late Ordovician age. The first evidence was documented in the kyanite-bearing eclogite dyke within the garnet peridotite at the lake Friningen locality (Janák et al. 2013) in northern Jämtland, Sweden (Gee et al. 2013). A peak pressure assemblage yielded metamorphic conditions within the coesite stability field (~30 kbar and 800°C). About 25 km to the southeast, the Tjeliken eclogite records P-T conditions of 25-26 kbar and 650-700°C (Majka et al. 2013). The study presented here, concerns P-T conditions of garnet pyroxenite and newly discovered, phengite-bearing eclogite located in the SNC about 4 km SE of Tjeliken Mt. on the northern side of lake Stor Jougdan. The investigated garnet pyroxenite, found as small veins within the garnet peridotite body, is composed essentially of Mg-garnet, -orthopyroxene, -clinopyroxene and -olivine, minor constituents include Cr-spinel, amphibole and phlogopite. The main mineral assemblage of phengite eclogite consists of garnet, omphacite, amphibole and minor phengite, plagioclase-diopside symplectites, rutile, titanite, zoisite and quartz (possibly former coesite). Garnet peridotite occurring by the Stor Jougdan lake was studied by Van Roermund (1989) who estimated the temperatures of c. 720-800°C using Fe-Mg geothermometer (Harley 1984a) and the pressures of 14-18 kbar using Al2O3 contents of the orthopyroxene (Harley 1984b) to constrain the P-T conditions of Caledonian metamorphism (M2 garnet with prograde growth zoning and M2 orthopyroxene according to Van Roermund 1989). In the present work, we have used garnet-orthopyroxene (Harley 1984b) and Ca in orthopyroxene (Brey & Koehler 1990) geothermometry in combination with Al in orthopyroxene geothermobarometry (Brey & Koehler 1990) and obtained the

  8. Metamorphic pattern of the Cretaceous Celica Formation, SW Ecuador, and its geodynamic implications (United States)

    Aguirre, Luis


    The volcanic rocks of the Cretaceous Celica Formation of southern Ecuador are affected by a weak although widespread alteration. The chemical study of the secondary chemical phases present in andesitic and basaltic lava flows reveals that this alteration corresponds to very low-grade metamorphism comprising the zeolite and the prehnite-pumpellyite facies. Main features of this metamorphism are: weak lithostatic pressure, moderate to steep thermal gradient, high ƒ O2, low value of the seawater/rock ratio and total absence of deformation. These characteristics are typically present in other volcanic suites of similar age and composition along the Andes and correspond to the pattern of metamorphism developed in extensional settings (diastathermal metamorphism) linked to various degrees of thinning of the continental crust. Based on this metamorphic pattern, a geodynamic model is proposed in which the Celica Formation is interpreted as an ensialic, aborted, marginal basin developed on strongly attenuated continental crust at the border of the South American plate. The relationship between the Ecuadorian and Colombian volcanic suites of Cretaceous age present along the Western Cordillera is discussed in the light of the model suggested.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R. Johnson; J. W H. Ferguson; A. S. van Jaarsveld; G. N. Bronner; C. T. Chimimba


    .... Despite extensive habitat disturbance through afforestation by 1998, assemblage structure and movement distances within the plantation were similar to those recorded in undisturbed grassland assemblages...

  10. No correlation between the diversity and productivity of assemblages: evidence from the phytophage and predator assemblages in various cotton agroecosystems. (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Men, XingYuan; Ge, Feng


    Biodiversity research has shown that primary productivity increases with plant species number, especially in many experimental grassland systems. Here, we assessed the correlation between productivity and diversity of phytophages and natural enemy assemblages associated with planting date and intercropping in four cotton agroecosystems. Twenty-one pairs of data were used to determine Pearson correlations between species richness, total number of individuals, diversity indices and productivity for each assemblage every five days from 5 June to 15 September 2012. At the same trophic level, the productivity exhibited a significant positive correlation with species richness of the phytophage or predator assemblage. A significant correlation was found between productivity and total number of individuals in most cotton fields. However, no significant correlations were observed between productivity and diversity indices (including indices of energy flow diversity and numerical diversity) in most cotton fields for either the phytophage or the predator assemblages. Species richness of phytophage assemblage and total individual numbers were significantly correlated with primary productivity. Also, species richness of natural enemy assemblage and total number of individuals correlated with phytophage assemblage productivity. A negative but not significant correlation occurred between the indices of numerical diversity and energy flow diversity and lower trophic-level productivity in the cotton-phytophage and phytophage-predator assemblages for most intercropped cotton agroecosystems. Our results clearly showed that there were no correlations between diversity indices and productivity within the same or lower trophic levels within the phytophage and predator assemblages in cotton agroecosystems, and inter-cropped cotton fields had a stronger ability to support the natural enemy assemblage and potentially to reduce phytophages.

  11. Distributed consensus for metamorphic systems using a gossip algorithm for CAT(0) metric spaces (United States)

    Bellachehab, Anass; Jakubowicz, Jérémie


    We present an application of distributed consensus algorithms to metamorphic systems. A metamorphic system is a set of identical units that can self-assemble to form a rigid structure. For instance, one can think of a robotic arm composed of multiple links connected by joints. The system can change its shape in order to adapt to different environments via reconfiguration of its constituting units. We assume in this work that several metamorphic systems form a network: two systems are connected whenever they are able to communicate with each other. The aim of this paper is to propose a distributed algorithm that synchronizes all the systems in the network. Synchronizing means that all the systems should end up having the same configuration. This aim is achieved in two steps: (i) we cast the problem as a consensus problem on a metric space and (ii) we use a recent distributed consensus algorithm that only make use of metrical notions.

  12. Thermal effects of metamorphic reactions in a three-component slab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemia, Zurab; Dolejš, David; Steinle-Neumann, Gerd


    : age, geometry and rate of subducting lithosphere, shear stress across the subduction interface, radioactive heating, etc. Recently, emphasis has been placed on significant heating of the slab due to rheologically favourable convection in the mantle wedge. However, substantial heat production...... or consumption can occur due to metamorphic reactions, including endothermic devolatilization. We investigate enthalpy budget in a subducting slab using a self-consistent thermodynamic model. Petrological model of a subducting slab consists of three layers: oceanic subducting sediment (GLOSS), oceanic basalt (OB......), and moderately serpentinized harzburgite (SHB). These layers are examined over the range of pressure-temperature conditions of interest by computing metamorphic phase diagrams and retrieving whole-rock thermodynamic properties. Our results suggest that metamorphic reactions consume a significant amount of slab...

  13. Approaches to the Low Grade Metamorphic History of the Karakaya Complex by Chlorite Mineralogy and Geochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Tetiker


    Full Text Available In this study, chlorite is used to investigate the diagenetic-metamorphic evolution and accurate geological history of the different units belonging to the Karakaya complex, Turkey. Primary and secondary chlorite minerals in the very low-grade metamorphic rocks display interference colors of blue and brown and an appearance of optical isotropy. Chlorites are present in the matrix, pores, and/or rocks units as platy/flaky and partly radial forms. X-ray diffraction (XRD data indicate that Mg-Fe chlorites with entirely IIb polytype (trioctahedral exhibit a variety of compositions, such as brunsvigite-diabantite-chamosite. The major element contents and structural formulas of chlorite also suggest these were derived from both felsic and metabasic source rocks. Trace and rare earth element (REE concentrations of chlorites increase with increasing grade of metamorphism, and these geochemical changes can be related to the tectonic structures, formational mechanics, and environments present during their generation.

  14. Migmatization and low-pressure overprinting metamorphism as record of two pre-Cretaceous tectonic episodes in the Santander Massif of the Andean basement in northern Colombia (NW South America) (United States)

    Zuluaga, C. A.; Amaya, S.; Urueña, C.; Bernet, M.


    The core of the Santander Massif in the northern Andes of Colombia is dominated by migmatitic gneisses with a 7.5 kbar. Lithologies are overprinted by low-pressure metamorphism, related to extensive Jurassic intrusions and linked with growth of cordierite and equilibration of low-pressure mineral assemblages, recorded metamorphic conditions are < 750 °C and < 6.5 kbar. Observed leucosomes display significant compositional variations and can be grouped in three groups: i) Group One leucosomes with high total REE content, high LREE/HREE, and negative Eu anomaly, ii) Group Two leucosomes with low total REE, low LREE/HREE, and positive Eu anomalies, and iii) Group Three leucosomes with relatively low LREE/HREE and strong positive Eu anomaly. Geochemical data support the interpretation that Group Two leucosomes crystallized from melts originated in a partial melting event affecting mostly pelitic and quartz-feldspathic lithologies with fluid-present melting reactions. The evaluation of mesosomes (amphibolite, pelitic and quartz-feldspathic rocks) as potential protoliths or restites indicates that at least two pelitic samples of the analyzed lithologies have characteristics consistent with the occurrence of fluid-present melting reactions involving quartz and feldspar. The leucosomes produced by crystallization of modified partial melts contrast with several other leucosomes that were injected; however, in some cases the melts crystallized as injected leucosomes show consistent geochemistry with partial melting of lithologies geochemically similar to the ones observed in the unit. The migmatization and the low pressure metamorphic overprint are related here to two main tectonic events: an early Paleozoic tectonic pulse produced by subduction of the oceanic crust of the Iapetus Ocean beneath northwestern Gondwana, and an Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic tectonic pulse produced by subduction of oceanic crust of the proto-Pacific ocean beneath western Pangaea.

  15. Giants, dwarfs and the environment - metamorphic trait plasticity in the common frog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Grözinger

    Full Text Available In order to understand adaptation processes and population dynamics, it is central to know how environmental parameters influence performance of organisms within populations, including their phenotypes. The impact of single or few particular parameters in concert was often assessed in laboratory and mesocosm experiments. However, under natural conditions, with many biotic and abiotic factors potentially interacting, outcomes on phenotypic changes may be different. To study the potential environmental impact on realized phenotypic plasticity within a natural population, we assessed metamorphic traits (developmental time, size and body mass in an amphibian species, the European common frog Rana temporaria, since a larval amphibians are known to exhibit high levels of phenotypic plasticity of these traits in response to habitat parameters and, b the traits' features may strongly influence individuals' future performance and fitness. In 2007 we studied these metamorphic traits in 18 ponds spread over an area of 28 km2. A subset of six ponds was reinvestigated in 2009 and 2010. This study revealed locally high variances in metamorphic traits in this presumed generalist species. We detected profound differences between metamorphing froglets (up to factor ten; both between and within ponds, on a very small geographic scale. Parameters such as predation and competition as well as many other pond characteristics, generally expected to have high impact on development, could not be related to the trait differences. We observed high divergence of patterns of mass at metamorphosis between ponds, but no detectable pattern when metamorphic traits were compared between ponds and years. Our results indicate that environment alone, i.e. as experienced by tadpoles sharing the same breeding pond, can only partly explain the variability of metamorphic traits observed. This emphasizes the importance to assess variability of reaction norms on the individual level to

  16. Accretion of continental extensional zone and development of Rehamna metamorphic dome (Morocco) (United States)

    Chopin, F.; Schulmann, K.; Corsini, M.; El Houicha, M.; Ghienne, J. F.; El Attari, M.


    The Rehamna massif is a part of the Morocco Variscan belt where the metamorphic infrastructure has been exhumed in a continental accretionary wedge. The relationships between infra- and supra-structure tectonics originate by thickening of intra-continental Devonian and Carboniferous (Mississipian) basin. Two superposed deformations probably related to plate configuration changes have been identified. The first one corresponds to the development of the Barrovian metamorphism with a climax estimated at 0.5-0.7 Gpa, 500-550°C (litt.). The thickening of thermally preheated crust is related to a SW vergent nappe stacking in the orogenic infrastructure. This event terminates with large scale folding and extrusion of high grade rocks forming a large scale E-W trending metamorphic dome surrounded by un-metamorphosed Lower Palaeozoic rocks of orogenic suprastructre indicating complete decoupling between the two crustal layers. The second E-W shortening along Western Meseta Shear Zone event is responsible for the development of important deformation gradient orthogonal to the metamorphic dome axis. It is marked by an increase of the strain intensity towards the Cambrian rigid buttress located further west. This deformation gradient is marked by mechanical coupling and gentle folding of infra- and supra-structure in the east, development of slaty cleavage in the central part of the dome and intense deformation front close to the western buttress. Here the superposed fold pattern results in accentuation of asymmetrical NE-SW trending metamorphic dome close to the buttress and to further exhumation of deepest rocks associated with subsequent elevation and folding of metamorphic isograds. 40Ar/39Ar dating reveals that the cooling associated with the first thermal event occurred at around 310 Ma (biotite) while the second thermal event yields typical Alleghanian age around 280 Ma (muscovite). This last thermal event is contemporaneous with magmatic intrusions and continental

  17. Mobility enhancement in tensile-strained Ge grown on InAlP metamorphic templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Kai; Gong, Qian; Zhou, Haifei [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Kang, Chuanzhen [School of Physical Engineering, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China); Yan, Jinyi; Liu, Qingbo [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Wang, Shumin, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg 41296 (Sweden)


    We investigated the growth of tensile-strained Ge on InAlP metamorphic templates by gas source molecular beam epitaxy. Good control of biaxial tensile strain in the Ge layer was demonstrated in the range of 0.5–2.0% by adjusting the In content of the metamorphic template. It was found that the growth of Ge was layer-by-layer (2D) even under high tensile strain of 2.0%, resulting in a smooth surface with roughness less than 1.5 nm. Hall results showed that the electron mobility of Ge increased monotonically with tensile strain.

  18. Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen isotope studies of the regional metamorphic complex at Naxos, Greece (United States)

    Rye, R.O.; Schuiling, R.D.; Rye, D.M.; Jansen, J.B.H.


    At Naxos, Greece, a migmatite dome is surrounded by schists and marbles of decreasing metamorphic grade. Sillimanite, kyanite, biotite, chlorite, and glaucophane zones are recognized at successively greater distances from the migmatite dome. Quartz-muscovite and quartz-biotite oxygen isotope and mineralogie temperatures range from 350 to 700??C. The metamorphic complex can be divided into multiple schist-rich (including migmatites) and marblerich zones. The ??18O values of silicate minerals in migmatite and schist units and quartz segregations in the schist-rich zones decrease with increase in metamorphic grades. The calculated ??18OH2O values of the metamorphic fluids in the schist-rich zones decrease from about 15??? in the lower grades to an average of about 8.5??? in the migmatite. The ??D values of OH-minerals (muscovite, biotite, chlorite, and glaucophane) in the schist-rich zones also decrease with increase in grade. The calculated ??DH2O values for the metamorphic fluid decrease from -5??? in the glaucophane zone to an average of about -70??? in the migmatite. The ??D values of water in fluid inclusions in quartz segregations in the higher grade rocks are consistent with this trend. The??18O values of silicate minerals and quartz segregations in marble-rich zones are usually very large and were controlled by exchange with the adjacent marbles. The ??D values of the OH minerals in some marble-rich zones may reflect the value of water contained in the rocks prior to metamorphism. Detailed data on 20 marble units show systematic variations of ??18O values which depend upon metamorphic grade. Below the 540??C isograd very steep ??18O gradients at the margins and large ??18O values in the interior of the marbles indicate that oxygen isotope exchange with the adjacent schist units was usually limited to the margins of the marbles with more exchange occurring in the stratigraphic bottom than in the top margins. Above the 540??C isograd lower ??18O values occur in

  19. Raman micro-spectroscopy on diamond, graphite and other carbon polymorphs from the ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic Kimi Complex of the Rhodope Metamorphic Province, NE Greece (United States)

    Perraki, Maria; Proyer, Alexander; Mposkos, Evripidis; Kaindl, Reinhard; Hoinkes, Georg


    Raman micro-spectroscopy was applied on carbon inclusions in garnet porphyroblasts from kyanite-biotite-garnet schists of the Rhodope Metamorphic Province (RMP), NE Greece. Diamond and cuboids of poorly to highly ordered graphite were identified either as single phase inclusions or as polyphase inclusions along with CO 2 and/or carbonates (calcite/magnesian calcite). Questionable Raman bands that may be assigned to other C-phases (?nanodiamond/?lonsdaleite/?a different C-polymorph) have been observed. The presence of diamond confirms beyond any doubt the ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphism reported by Mposkos and Kostopoulos [1] [E. Mposkos, D. Kostopoulos, Diamond, former coesite and supersilisic garnet in metasedimentary rocks from the Greek Rhodope: a new ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic province established, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 192 (2001) 497-506] in the RMP. Cuboid graphite showing variable degree of disordering most probably formed after diamond. The possible involvement of CO 2 and or C-O-H fluids in the formation of diamond is discussed.

  20. Geographical assemblages of European raptors and owls (United States)

    López-López, Pascual; Benavent-Corai, José; García-Ripollés, Clara


    In this work we look for geographical structure patterns in European raptors (Order: Falconiformes) and owls (Order: Strigiformes). For this purpose we have conducted our research using freely available tools such as statistical software and databases. To perform the study, presence-absence data for the European raptors and owl species (Class Aves) were downloaded from the BirdLife International website. Using the freely available "pvclust" R-package, we applied similarity Jaccard index and cluster analysis in order to delineate biogeographical relationships for European countries. According to the cluster of similarity, we found that Europe is structured into two main geographical assemblages. The larger length branch separated two main groups: one containing Iceland, Greenland and the countries of central, northern and northwestern Europe, and the other group including the countries of eastern, southern and southwestern Europe. Both groups are divided into two main subgroups. According to our results, the European raptors and owls could be considered structured into four meta-communities well delimited by suture zones defined by Remington (1968) [Remington, C.L., 1968. Suture-zones of hybrid interaction between recently joined biotas. Evol. Biol. 2, 321-428]. Climatic oscillations during the Quaternary Ice Ages could explain at least in part the modern geographical distribution of the group.

  1. Partitioning taxonomic diversity of aquatic insect assemblages ... (United States)

    Biological diversity can be divided into: alpha (α, local), beta (β, difference in assemblage composition among locals), and gamma (γ, total diversity). We assessed the partitioning of taxonomic diversity of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT) and of functional feeding groups (FFG) in Neotropical Savanna (southeastern Brazilian Cerrado) streams. To do so, we considered three diversity components: stream site (α), among stream sites (β1), and among hydrologic units (β2). We also evaluated the association of EPT genera composition with heterogeneity in land use, instream physical habitat structure, and instream water quality variables. The percent of EPT taxonomic α diversity (20.7%) was lower than the β1 and β2 diversities (53.1% and 26.2%, respectively). The EPT FFG α diversity (26.5%) was lower than the β1 diversity (55.8%) and higher than the β2 (17.7%) diversity. The collector-gatherer FFG was predominant and had the greatest β diversity among stream sites (β1, 55.8%). Our findings support the need for implementing regional scale conservation strategies in the Cerrado biome, which has been degraded by anthropogenic activities. Using adaptations of the US EPA’s National Aquatic Resource Survey (NARS) designs and methods, Ferreira and colleagues examined the distribution of taxonomic and functional diversity of aquatic insects among basins, stream sites within basins, and within stream sample reaches. They sampled 160 low-order stre

  2. Large River Monitoring Forum Fish Assemblage Database 2016 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Large River Monitoring Forum compiled fish assemblage data for five large rivers in the U.S. as a part of a coordinated effort to compare and contract river...

  3. Coralligenous habitat: patterns of vertical distribution of macroalgal assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Piazzi


    Full Text Available The present study investigates patterns of distribution of macroalgal coralligenous assemblages in relation to depth and evaluates the role of different environmental conditions on these patterns. Two depths (30 and 40 m were investigated off small islands and off continental coasts in order to select two different environmental conditions. Results showed differences between depths in the structure of assemblages around islands, while along the continental coasts these patterns were not evident. Moreover, differences between assemblages related to different environmental conditions were more evident in the shallower zone of distribution of the coralligenous habitat. This correlative study did not allow us to identify any cause-effect relationship, but patterns we detected agree with those of other studies, suggesting that alterations in the environmental conditions may be the cause of the decrease in differences among assemblages developing at different depths and may lead to a higher spatial homogenization and an impoverishment of the whole subtidal system.

  4. Snelle, flexibele en foutloze assemblage met behulp van de hololens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, T.


    TNO heeft onlangs een operator support systeem geïntegreerd in een manuele assemblage werkplek. Dit systeem helpt bedrijven snel, flexibel en foutloos verschillende producten te assembleren door toepassing van geprojecteerde werkinstructies.

  5. Light-dependant biostabilisation of sediments by stromatolite assemblages. (United States)

    Paterson, David M; Aspden, Rebecca J; Visscher, Pieter T; Consalvey, Mireille; Andres, Miriam S; Decho, Alan W; Stolz, John; Reid, R Pamela


    For the first time we have investigated the natural ecosystem engineering capacity of stromatolitic microbial assemblages. Stromatolites are laminated sedimentary structures formed by microbial activity and are considered to have dominated the shallows of the Precambrian oceans. Their fossilised remains are the most ancient unambiguous record of early life on earth. Stromatolites can therefore be considered as the first recognisable ecosystems on the planet. However, while many discussions have taken place over their structure and form, we have very little information on their functional ecology and how such assemblages persisted despite strong eternal forcing from wind and waves. The capture and binding of sediment is clearly a critical feature for the formation and persistence of stromatolite assemblages. Here, we investigated the ecosystem engineering capacity of stromatolitic microbial assemblages with respect to their ability to stabilise sediment using material from one of the few remaining living stromatolite systems (Highborne Cay, Bahamas). It was shown that the most effective assemblages could produce a rapid (12-24 h) and significant increase in sediment stability that continued in a linear fashion over the period of the experimentation (228 h). Importantly, it was also found that light was required for the assemblages to produce this stabilisation effect and that removal of assemblage into darkness could lead to a partial reversal of the stabilisation. This was attributed to the breakdown of extracellular polymeric substances under anaerobic conditions. These data were supported by microelectrode profiling of oxygen and calcium. The structure of the assemblages as they formed was visualised by low-temperature scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser microscopy. These results have implications for the understanding of early stromatolite development and highlight the potential importance of the evolution of photosynthesis in the mat forming process

  6. Habitat characteristics affecting fish assemblages on a Hawaiian coral reef (United States)

    Friedlander, A.M.; Parrish, J.D.


    Habitat characteristics of a reef were examined as potential influences on fish assemblage structure, using underwater visual census to estimate numbers and biomass of all fishes visible on 42 benthic transects and making quantitative measurements of 13 variables of the corresponding physical habitat and sessile biota. Fish assemblages in the diverse set of benthic habitats were grouped by detrended correspondence analysis, and associated with six major habitat types. Statistical differences were shown between a number of these habitat types for various ensemble variables of the fish assemblages. Overall, both for complete assemblages and for component major trophic and mobility guilds, these variables tended to have higher values where reef substratum was more structurally or topographically complex, and closer to reef edges. When study sites were separately divided into five depth strata, the deeper strata tended to have statistically higher values of ensemble variables for the fish assemblages. Patterns with depth varied among the various trophic and mobility guilds. Multiple linear regression models indicated that for the complete assemblages and for most trophic and mobility guilds, a large part of the variability for most ensemble variables was explained by measures of holes in the substratum, with important contributions from measured substratum rugosity and depth. A strong linear relationship found by regression of mean fish length on mean volume of holes in the reef surface emphasized the importance of shelter for fish assemblages. Results of this study may have practical applications in designing reserve areas as well as theoretical value in helping to explain the organization of reef fish assemblages.

  7. Unbalanced food web in a Late Cretaceous dinosaur assemblage


    Lang Emilie; Boudad Larbi; Maio Laszlo; Samankassou Elias; Tabouelle J; Tong H; Cavin L


    The rich assemblage of continental vertebrates from the Cenomanian Kem Kem Beds (Morocco) is one of the best known and most diversified for the mid Cretaceous period (Cenomanian). This assemblage however shows apparent ecological oddities in particular the overabundance of theropod dinosaurs versus plant eating dinosaurs. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this unbalanced ratio including a peculiar ecosystem non systematic collecting taphonomic factors stratigraphic uncertaintie...

  8. FeO and MgO in plagioclase of lunar anorthosites: Igneous or metamorphic? (United States)

    Phinney, W. C.


    The combined evidence from terrestrial anorthosites and experimental laboratory studies strongly implies that lunar anorthosites have been subjected to high-grade metamorphic events that have erased the igneous signatures of FeO and MgO in their plagioclases. Arguments to the contrary have, to this point, been more hopeful than rigorous.

  9. Selection of diet by metamorphic and juvenile western toads (Bufo boreas) in northeastern Oregon (United States)

    Evelyn L Bull; Jane L. Hayes


    The decline of Bufo boreas, the Western Toad, in portions of its range has accentuated the need for more complete information on all life stages of this species. Our objectives were to describe the diet of recently metamorphosed and juvenile (one-year old) B. boreas and then compare it to the available arthropods. Metamorphs (n...

  10. Enzyme clusters during the metamorphic period of Ambystoma mexicanum: role of thyroid hormone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, W. H.; Mooren, P. G.; de Graaf, A.


    Enzyme activities and DNA content have been measure in axolotl liver during the metamorphic period (4-8 months after spawning). Three different types of enzyme activity profiles were observed. In the type I profile (carbamoyl-phosphate synthase, arginase, ornithine transcarbamoylase, and glutamate

  11. Grain coarsening in polymineralic contact metamorphic carbonate rocks: The role of different physical interactions during coarsening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodhag, Sabine; Herwegh, Marco; Berger, Alfons


    ) and microstructures with considerable second-phase volume fractions of up to 0.5. The variations might be of general validity for any polymineralic rock, which undergoes grain coarsening during metamorphism. The new findings are important for a better understanding of the initiation of strain localization based...

  12. Rapid high-temperature metamorphism of East Pacific Rise gabbros from Hess Deep (United States)

    Manning, Craig E.; Weston, Patricia E.; Mahon, Keith I.


    Metamorphosed oceanic gabbros provide a record of the cooling history of the lower crust near mid-ocean ridges, but the temperature range, rate, and location of subsolidus events are poorly known. We combine hornblende-plagioclase thermometry, statistical analysis, and thermal models to estimate precisely the temperature, time, distance from axis, and duration of metamorphism in East Pacific Rise gabbros from Hess Deep, ODP Hole 894G. Metamorphic hornblende and plagioclase, which formed during microfracturing and sea water penetration, equilibrated at a mean temperature of 716 ± 8°C (90% confidence level). Comparison of the properties of the observed temperature distribution with those of model events indicates that metamorphism spanned ≤ 60°C. When combined with thermal models of fast-spreading centers, this implies that metamorphism was rapid (≤ 6000 yr) and occurred 1-4 km off axis. Application of this approach to other gabbros will allow comparison of spatial and temporal characteristics of deformation and fluid flow in the lower oceanic crust as a function of ridge setting.

  13. An optimization method for metamorphic mechanisms based on multidisciplinary design optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wuxiang


    Full Text Available The optimization of metamorphic mechanisms is different from that of the conventional mechanisms for its characteristics of multi-configuration. There exist complex coupled design variables and constraints in its multiple different configuration optimization models. To achieve the compatible optimized results of these coupled design variables, an optimization method for metamorphic mechanisms is developed in the paper based on the principle of multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO. Firstly, the optimization characteristics of the metamorphic mechanism are summarized distinctly by proposing the classification of design variables and constraints as well as coupling interactions among its different configuration optimization models. Further, collaborative optimization technique which is used in MDO is adopted for achieving the overall optimization performance. The whole optimization process is then proposed by constructing a two-level hierarchical scheme with global optimizer and configuration optimizer loops. The method is demonstrated by optimizing a planar five-bar metamorphic mechanism which has two configurations, and results show that it can achieve coordinated optimization results for the same parameters in different configuration optimization models.

  14. Post-peak metamorphic evolution of the Sumdo eclogite from the Lhasa terrane of southeast Tibet (United States)

    Cao, Dadi; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Lingmin; Wang, Ke


    A reconstruction of the pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) path of high-pressure eclogite-facies rocks in subduction zones may reveal important information about the tectono-metamorphic processes that occur at great depths along the plate interface. The majority of studies have focused on prograde to peak metamorphism of these rocks, whereas after-peak metamorphism has received less attention. Herein, we present a detailed petrological, pseudosection modeling and radiometric dating study of a retrograded eclogite sample from the Sumdo ultrahigh pressure belt of the Lhasa terrane, Tibet. Mineral chemical variations, textural discontinuities and thermodynamic modeling suggest that the eclogite underwent an exhumation-heating period. Petrographic observations and phase equilibria modeling suggest that the garnet cores formed at the pressure peak (∼2.5 GPa and ∼520 °C) within the lawsonite eclogite-facies and garnet rims (∼1.5 GPa and spans an interval of ∼7 million years, which is a minimum estimate of the duration of the eclogite-facies metamorphism of the Sumdo eclogite.

  15. Assessment of fire-damaged concrete. Combining metamorphic petrology and concrete petrography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larbi, J.A.; Nijland, T.G.


    Metamorphic petrology is a branch of geology that deals with the study of changes in rocks due changing physio-chemical conditions. As conditions shift in or out of the thermodynamic stability field of phases, new phases may appear whereas others disappear. A basic approach is mapping of so-called

  16. Amphiboles from the garnet glaucophane schists in the Bizan area, Sambagawa metamorphic belt, eastern Shikoku, Japan


    Kabir, Md. Fazle; Takasu, Akira


    The Sambagawa metamorphic belt in the Bizan area consists mainly of pelitic schists, basic schists, and siliceous schists, along with minor garnet glaucophane schists. Garnet glaucophane schists consist mainly of garnet and amphibole (glaucophane, ferroglaucophane, barroisite, katophorite and taramite), with minor amounts of epidote, phengite, paragonite, chlorite, albite, titanite, and quartz. Clinopyroxene (jadeite-omphacite), chloritoid, rutile, ilmenite, calcite, K-feldspar, zircon occur ...

  17. Shelf gradients of echinoid assemblages from the Miocene of Sardinia (United States)

    Nebelsick, James; Andrea, Mancosu


    Well exposed Miocene echinoid assemblages from Sardinia representing various environmental settings including both siliciclastics and carbonates have been studied with respect to reconstructing palaeoenvironmental conditions along a shelf gradient. The basis of this study includes 1) detailed logging of sedimentary facies in the field, 2) interpreting their behavior and life habits of the preserved echinoids by applying functional morphological reconstructions of the echinoid skeletons and comparing them to related Recent echinoid taxa, 3) quantifying taphonomic features of test preservation including predation, abrasion, fragmentation, encrustation and bioerosion, and finally 4) analyzing accompanying fauna and flora as well as trace fossils. The assemblages included clypeasteroid dominated assemblages in shallow water settings where often mass accumulations of sand dollars are present. Spatangoid dominated assemblages are found in more offshore settings where diversity is determined by varying burrowing depths, feeding strategies and resource partitioning accompanied by varying rates of bioturbation and episodes of sediment deposition by storms. Mixed assemblages also occur ranging from shallow to deeper water with varying substrates including sea grass, as well as coarser and finer sediments. Finally, deeper water monotypic assemblages are present in storm-dominated siliciclastic shelf environments including both regular and irregular echinoids. In general, echinoid presence is determined by the ecological preferences of the taxa involved, their propensities for gregarious behavior, the differential preservation potentials of the varied skeletal architectures present as well as sedimentary environment in which they occur.

  18. Abrupt transitions between macrobenthic faunal assemblages across seagrass bed margins (United States)

    Barnes, R. S. K.; Hamylton, S.


    The nature of the transition from one contrasting macrobenthic assemblage to another across interfaces between intertidal seagrass and unvegetated sand was investigated in the subtropical Moreton Bay Marine Park, eastern Australia, via six two-dimensional core lattices. The same pattern of transition was manifested in each lattice. Macrofaunal abundance, species density (both observed and estimated total) and assemblage composition did not vary with distance away from the interface within the 0.75 m wide marginal bands of each habitat type. Neither were there significant differences in assemblage metrics or composition between the marginal and non-edge regions of either habitat. There were, however, very marked differences in assemblage composition, abundance and species density across the 25 cm wide strip on either side of the actual interface, the interacting assemblages reacting symmetrically. All these differences therefore took place over an ecotone distance of only 0.5 m at most. Spatial trends in assemblage metrics across the boundary zone were captured accurately by second and third order polynomial regression models. It also appeared that edge effects on individual species within the seagrass were a variable local response not a consistent effect of closeness to the bare sand.

  19. Dynamic recrystallization and metamorphic evolution of ca. 1.85 Ga quartzofeldspathic and cordierite-garnet gneisses, western Gyeonggi Massif, Korea (United States)

    Cho, Moonsup; Yang, Soh-young; Kim, Taehwan; Yi, Keewook


    Quartzofeldspathic orthogneisses together with cordierite-garnet gneisses occur in the Mt. Cheonggye area, western Gyeonggi Massif, where the transition from weakly-deformed gneiss to mylonite is revealed. These gneisses consist primarily of biotite, garnet, K-feldspar, plagioclase, and quartz with or without sillimanite (or kyanite) and cordierite. Microstructures in mylonites and gneisses were investigated to delineate the relationship between dynamic recrystallization and pressure-temperature (P-T) path, based on field and petrologic studies. For constraining the timing of deformation and metamorphism, zircon and monazite were dated using a sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) housed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. Recrystallization microstructures systematically vary in accordance with the degree of strain in weakly- to intensely-deformed gneisses or mylonites. Quartz shows the subgrain rotation (SGR) to grain boundary migration (GBM) recrystallization such as the ribbon structure, and K-feldspar is characterized by the core-and-mantle structure together with occasional development of myrmekite. Some isolated grains of K-feldspar appear to be the product of the solution-precipitation growth. Plagioclase was recrystallized by SGR and high-T GBM, forming fine-grained polygonal aggregates in weakly- and moderately-deformed gneisses. With increasing strain, plagioclase grains are connected with each other to form the interconnected weak layer. The microstructures described in the above suggest the deformation temperatures of ca. 490-650°C. Mineral assemblages and reaction textures in cordierite-garnet gneisses suggest a clockwise P-T path, evolving from the kyanite- to sillimanite-stable fields. The SHRIMP U-Th-Pb analyses of zircon and monazite in both cordierite-garnet gneisses and orthogneisses yielded the Paleoproterozoic metamorphic ages of ca. 1.86-1.85 Ga. Some zircons are overgrown by low Th/U rims dated at ca. 240-220 Ma. Monazite

  20. Duration of inverted metamorphic sequence formation across the Himalayan Main Central Thrust (MCT), Sikkim (United States)

    Cioldi, Stefania; Moulas, Evangelos; Tajcmanová, Lucie; Burg, Jean-Pierre


    Collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates since the Eocene (50 Ma) caused the closure of the Neo-Tethys and the underthrusting of India beneath the Tibetan Plateau, generating the 2500 km extended Himalayan belt. The Main Central Thrust (MCT) marks the boundary of the underlying Midland Lower Himalaya metasediments zone (LH) in the south from the overlying high grade metamorphic Higher Himalaya (HH) in the north. Several models considering petrochronology, geothermobarometry and structural geology have been discussed to explain the inverted metamorphic gradient in the LH metasediments without reaching a common agreement. This study investigates the tectonic setting and the timescale of inverted isograds related to crustal-scale thrusting at the MCT in the Sikkim region, northeast India. The aim is to contribute to the understanding of the link between mechanical and thermal evolution of major thrust zones and to clarify the nature and the origin of orogenic heat applying garnet geospeedometry. Garnets provide a sensitive record of metamorphic conditions and are potential chronometer. Their compositional zoning is used as a gauge for rate estimates of element diffusion within the mineral and allows estimating the absolute time of the thermal evolution. Inverse-fitting numerical model considering FRactIonation and Diffusion in GarnEt (FRIDGE) calculates garnet composition profiles by introducing P-T-t paths and bulk-rock composition of a specific sample. P-T conditions were estimated by convectional geothermobarometry supported by phase equilibria modelling and measured garnet chemical compositions. Simulation were compared with measured garnet profiles. Simple step function and FRIDGE preliminary results of Fe-Mg - Ca - Mn garnet fractionation-diffusion modelling indicate very short timescale (between 3 and 6 Ma) for peak metamorphic conditions in the northeast Himalayan collisional system. This duration does not allow thermal re-equilibration. It is an

  1. Monazite behaviours during high-temperature metamorphism: a case study from Dinggye region, Tibetan Himalaya (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Min; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Rubatto, Daniela; Liu, Shi-Ran; Zhang, Jin-Jiang


    Monazite is a key accessory mineral for metamorphic geochronology, but its growth mechanisms during melt-bearing high-temperature metamorphism is not well understood. Therefore, the petrology, pressure-temperature and timing of metamorphism have been investigated in pelitic and psammitic granulites from the Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex (GHC) in Dinggye, southern Tibet. These rocks underwent an isothermal decompression process from pressure conditions of >10 kbar to mineral growth by comprehensive studies on zoning patterns, trace element signatures, index mineral inclusions (melt inclusions, sillimanite and K-feldspar) in dated domains and textural correlations with coexisting minerals. The results show that inherited domains (500-400 Ma) are common in monazite even at granulite-facies conditions. Few monazites formed at the M1-stage ( 30-29 Ma) and recorded heterogeneous Th, Y, and HREE compositions, which formed by recrystallization related to muscovite dehydration melting reaction. These monazite grains were protected from dissolution or lateral overprinting mainly by the armour effect of matrix crystals (biotite and quartz). Most monazite grains formed at the M3-stage (21-19 Ma) through either dissolution-reprecipitation or recrystallization that was related to biotite dehydration melting reaction. These monazite grains record HREE and Y signatures in local equilibrium with different reactions involving either garnet breakdown or peritectic garnet growth. Another peak of monazite growth occurs during melt crystallization ( 15 Ma), and these monazites are unzoned and have homogeneous compositions. Our results documented the widespread recrystallization to account for monazite growth during high-temperature metamorphism and related melting reactions that trigger monazite recrystallization. In a regional sense, our P-T-t data along with published data indicate that the pre-M1 eclogite-facies metamorphism occurred at 39-30 Ma in the Dinggye Himalaya. Our

  2. On the role of Yttrium during plurifacial Hercynian metamorphism as expressed in the Northern part of the Central galician schist Area (NW Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgen, J.D.


    Recent investigations of the distribution of trace elements in metamorphic index minerals of metapelites have revealed, that the plurifacial character of the Hercynian metamorphism in this area is confirmed by the distribution of Yttrium in Hercynian garnets of the metamorphic series.

  3. Factors influencing riverine fish assemblages in Massachusetts (United States)

    Armstrong, David S.; Richards, Todd A.; Levin, Sara B.


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation, Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, and the Massachusetts Department of Fish and Game, conducted an investigation of fish assemblages in small- to medium-sized Massachusetts streams. The objective of this study was to determine relations between fish-assemblage characteristics and anthropogenic factors, including impervious cover and estimated flow alteration, relative to the effects of environmental factors, including physical-basin characteristics and land use. The results of this investigation supersede those of a preliminary analysis published in 2010. Fish data were obtained for 669 fish-sampling sites from the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife fish-community database. A review of the literature was used to select fish metrics - species richness, abundance of individual species, and abundances of species grouped on life history traits - responsive to flow alteration. The contributing areas to the fish-sampling sites were delineated and used with a geographic information system to determine a set of environmental and anthropogenic factors that were tested for use as explanatory variables in regression models. Reported and estimated withdrawals and return flows were used together with simulated unaltered streamflows to estimate altered streamflows and indicators of flow alteration for each fish-sampling site. Altered streamflows and indicators of flow alteration were calculated on the basis of methods developed in a previous U.S. Geological Survey study in which unaltered daily streamflows were simulated for a 44-year period (water years 1961-2004), and streamflow alterations were estimated by use of water-withdrawal and wastewater-return data previously reported to the State for the 2000-04 period and estimated domestic-well withdrawals and septic-system discharges. A variable selection process, conducted using principal

  4. The Miocene carnivore assemblage of Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koufos, G. D.


    Full Text Available The Miocene carnivore assemblage of Greece includes a great number of taxa, described in numerous articles since the first decades of the 19th Century. The present article is a revision of all these taxa, providing information about their history, localities, age, as well as their stratigraphic distribution and palaeoenvironment. The Early/Middle Miocene carnivore record of Greece is poor as the available fossiliferous sites and material are rare. However, the Late Miocene one is quite rich, including numerous taxa. The Miocene localities with carnivores and their age are given in a stratigraphic table covering the European Mammal zones from MN 4 to MN 13. The type locality, holotype, and some historical and morphological remarks are given for each taxon. Several carnivore taxa were erected from Greek material and new photos of their holotypes are given. The stratigraphic distribution of the Greek carnivore taxa indicates that they are covering the time span from ~19.0-5.3Ma. The majority of the Miocene taxa (Adcrocuta, Hyaenictitherium, Plioviverrops, Protictitherium, Ictitherium, Indarctos, Dinocrocuta, Promephitis disappeared at the end of Miocene. The composition of the Early/Middle Miocene carnivore assemblage of Greece includes mainly viverrids (Lophocyon, Euboictis, while the hyaenids, percrocutids, felids and mustelids are very few. On the contrary the Late Miocene assemblage is richer, including more subfamilies and species; the hyaenids and mustelids dominate, while the viverrids are absent. The Late Miocene carnivore guild structure is similar to that of the modern Serengeti, indicating a relatively open, savannah-like environment.

    La asociación de carnívoros miocenos de Grecia incluye un gran número de taxones, descritos en numerosos artículos desde las primeras décadas del siglo XIX. El presente artículo supone un esfuerzo de síntesis de todos estos taxones, suministrando información sobre su

  5. P-T and structural constraints of lawsonite and epidote blueschists from Liberty Creek and Seldovia: Tectonic implications for early stages of subduction along the southern Alaska convergent margin (United States)

    López-Carmona, Alicia; Kusky, Timothy M.; Santosh, M.; Abati, Jacobo


    The southern Alaska convergent margin contains several small belts of sedimentary and volcanic rocks metamorphosed to blueschist facies, located along the Border Ranges fault on the contact between the Wrangellia and Chugach terranes. These belts are significant in that they are the most inboard, and thus probably contain the oldest record of Triassic-Jurassic northward-directed subduction beneath Wrangellia. The Liberty Creek HP-LT schist belt is the oldest and the innermost section of the Chugach terrane. Within this belt lawsonite blueschists contains an initial high-pressure assemblage formed by lawsonite + phengite + chlorite + sphene + albite ± apatite ± carbonates and quartz. Epidote blueschists are composed of sodic, sodic-calcic and calcic amphiboles + epidote + phengite + chlorite + albite + sphene ± carbonates and quartz. P-T pseudosections computed from four representative samples constrain maximum pressures at 16 kbar and 250-280 °C for the Lawsonite-bearing blueschists, and 15 kbar and 400-500 °C for the epidote-bearing blueschists, suggesting a initial subduction stage of 50-55 km depth. The growth of late albite porphyroblasts in all samples suggests a dramatic decompression from ca. 9 kbar to 5 kbar. The Liberty Creek schists can be correlated with the Seldovia blueschist belt on the Kenai Peninsula. Metamorphism in both terranes took place in the Early Jurassic (191-192 Ma), recording an early stage of subduction beneath Wrangellia. In the nearby terranes of the same margin, the age of metamorphism records an early stage of subduction at 230 Ma. Based on this difference in age, a maximum of 40 Ma were necessary to subduct the protoliths of the Seldovia and Liberty Creek blueschists to depths of circa 50-55 km, suggesting a minimum vertical component of subduction of 1.2-1.5 cm/year.

  6. Contact metamorphism, partial melting and fluid flow in the granitic footwall of the South Kawishiwi Intrusion, Duluth Complex, USA (United States)

    Benko, Z.; Mogessie, A.; Molnar, F.; Severson, M.; Hauck, S.; Lechler, P.; Arehart, G.


    The footwall of the South Kawishiwi Intrusion (SKI) a part of the Mesoproterozoic (1.1 Ga) Duluth Complex consists of Archean granite-gneiss, diorite, granodiorite (Giant Range Batholith), thin condensed sequences of Paleoproterozoic shale (Virginia Fm.), as well as banded iron formation (Biwabik Iron Fm). Detailed (re)logging and petrographic analysis of granitic footwall rocks in the NM-57 drillhole from the Dunka Pit area has been performed to understand metamorphic processes, partial melting, deformation and geochemical characteristics of de-volatilization or influx of fluids. In the studied drillhole the footwall consists of foliated metagranite that is intersected by mafic (dioritic) dykes of older age than the SKI. In the proximal contact zones, in the mafic dykes, the orthopyroxene+clinopyroxene+plagioclase+quartz+Fe-Ti-oxide+hornblende±biotite porphyroblasts embedded in a plagioclase+K-feldspar+orthopyroxene+apatite matrix indicate pyroxene-hornfels facies conditions. Migmatitization is revealed by the euhedral crystal faces of plagioclase and pyroxene against anhedral quartz crystals in the in-situ leucosome and by the presence of abundant in-source plagioclase±biotite leucosome veinlets. Amphibole in the melanosome of mafic dykes was formed with breakdown of biotite and implies addition of H2O to the system during partial melting. Towards the deeper zones, the partially melted metatexite-granite can be characterized by K-feldspar+plagioclase+quartz+ortho/clinopyroxene+biotite+Fe-Ti-oxide+apatite mineral assemblage. The felsic veins with either pegmatitic or aplititic textures display sharp contact both to the granite and the mafic veins. They are characterized by K-feldspar+quartz±plagioclase±muscovite mineral assemblage. Sporadic occurrence of muscovite suggest local fluid saturated conditions. Emplacement of gabbroic rocks of the SKI generated intense shear in some zones of the granitic footwall resulting in formation of biotite-rich mylonites with

  7. Native bare zone assemblage nucleates myosin filament assembly. (United States)

    Niederman, R; Peters, L K


    Native myosin filaments from rabbit psoas muscle are always 1.5 micrometer long. The regulated assembly of these filaments is generally considered to occur by an initial antiparallel and subsequent parallel aggregation of identical myosin subunits. In this schema myosin filament length is controlled by either a self-assembly or a Vernier process. We present evidence which refines these ideas. Namely, that the intact myosin bare zone assemblage nucleates myosin filament assembly. This suggestion is based on the following experimental evidence. (1) A native bare zone assemblage about 0.3 micrometer long can be formed by dialysis of native myosin filaments to either a pH 8 or a 0.2 M-KCl solution. (2) Upon dialysis back to 0.1 M-KCl, bare zone assemblages and distal myosin molecules recombine to form 1.5 micrometer long bipolar filaments. (3) The bare zone assemblage can be separated from the distal myosin molecules by column chromatography in 0.2 M-KCl. Upon dialysis of the fractionated subsets back to 0.1 M-KCl, the bare zone assemblage retains its length of about 0.3 micrometer. However, the distal molecules reassemble to form filaments about 5 micrometers long. (4) Filaments are formed from mixes of the isolated subsets. The lengths of these filaments vary with the amount of distal myosin present. (5) When native filaments, isolated bare zone assemblages or distal myosin molecules are moved sequentially to 0.6 M-KCl and then to 0.1 M-KCl, the final filament lengths are all about 5 micrometers. The capacity of the bare zone assemblage to nucleate filament assembly may be due to the bare zone myosin molecules, the associated M band components or both.

  8. The effects of metamorphism on iron mineralogy and the iron speciation redox proxy (United States)

    Slotznick, Sarah P.; Eiler, John M.; Fischer, Woodward W.


    As the most abundant transition metal in the Earth's crust, iron is a key player in the planetary redox budget. Observations of iron minerals in the sedimentary record have been used to describe atmospheric and aqueous redox environments over the evolution of our planet; the most common method applied is iron speciation, a geochemical sequential extraction method in which proportions of different iron minerals are compared to calibrations from modern sediments to determine water-column redox state. Less is known about how this proxy records information through post-depositional processes, including diagenesis and metamorphism. To get insight into this, we examined how the iron mineral groups/pools (silicates, oxides, sulfides, etc.) and paleoredox proxy interpretations can be affected by known metamorphic processes. Well-known metamorphic reactions occurring in sub-chlorite to kyanite rocks are able to move iron between different iron pools along a range of proxy vectors, potentially affecting paleoredox results. To quantify the effect strength of these reactions, we examined mineralogical and geochemical data from two classic localities where Silurian-Devonian shales, sandstones, and carbonates deposited in a marine sedimentary basin with oxygenated seawater (based on global and local biological constraints) have been regionally metamorphosed from lower-greenschist facies to granulite facies: Waits River and Gile Mountain Formations, Vermont, USA and the Waterville and Sangerville-Vassalboro Formations, Maine, USA. Plotting iron speciation ratios determined for samples from these localities revealed apparent paleoredox conditions of the depositional water column spanning the entire range from oxic to ferruginous (anoxic) to euxinic (anoxic and sulfidic). Pyrrhotite formation in samples highlighted problems within the proxy as iron pool assignment required assumptions about metamorphic reactions and pyrrhotite's identification depended on the extraction techniques

  9. Eclogite-high-pressure granulite metamorphism records early collision in West Gondwana: new data from the Southern Brasilia Belt, Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reno II, Barry Len; Brown, Michael; Kobayashi, Katsura


    constrain the age of. (1) retrograded eclogite from a block along the tectonic contact beneath the uppermost nappe in a stack of passive margin-derived nappes; (2) high-pressure granulite-facies metamorphism in the uppermost passive margin-derived nappe; (3) high-pressure granulite-facies metamorphism...... in the overlying arc-derived nappe. Rare zircons from a retrograded eclogite yield a Pb-206/U-238 age of 678 +/- 29 Ma. which we interpret as most likely to (late close-to-peak-P metamorphism and to provide a minimum age for detachment of the overlying passive margin-derived nappe from the subducting plate. Zircon...

  10. U-Pb Dating of Unabraded Detrital Zircon Metamorphic Rims in the Nanaimo Basin, British Columbia (United States)

    Boivin, M. P.; Guest, B.; Matthews, W.


    Thin metamorphic rims on detrital zircons from the Nanaimo Basin in SW British Columbia offer a unique opportunity to further constrain the source of these zircons, helping to resolve the long standing Baja BC controversy. Here we present an analytical approach for dating thin zircon rims and use it to show that zircons from the Nanaimo Basin are most likely derived from metamorphic rocks in southern California. Conventional in-situ laser ablation sample preparation typically requires mounting and polishing zircon grains to expose their core. However, in order to date these thin metamorphic zircon rims a depth-profiling approach on unabraded grains was employed. Zircon grains from the Upper Cretaceous Geoffrey, Spray, and Gabriola formations of the Nanaimo Group exposed on Denman and Hornby Islands (British Columbia) were sorted into five groups based on morphology. The zircons were then mounted on tape along with several grains of a well-characterised zircon reference material to validate the uncertainty of the method. The zircons were then imaged using a Zygo Zescope optical profilometer in order to correct for grain-to-grain variations in elevation relative to mounting medium and ensure consistent laser focus. Backscatter electron images (BSE) were used to further characterised the grains and optimize the location of laser ablation targets. Zircons were ablated using a Resonetics 193 nm excimer laser and uranium and lead isotopic ratios were measured using an Agilent 7700 quadrupole mass spectrometer. A low frequency laser repetition rate extended the data collection period on relatively thin zircon rims. Our results show that metamorphic zircon growth occurred in two main phases at 100 Ma and 77 Ma suggesting two sources of detrital zircons with differing metamorphic histories were present in the catchment area. The timing of metamorphism of the source area for the Nanaimo basin is inconsistent with derivation from sources in the Rocky Mountains (Lemhi sub

  11. Public sphere as assemblage: the cultural politics of roadside memorialization. (United States)

    Campbell, Elaine


    This paper investigates contemporary academic accounts of the public sphere. In particular, it takes stock of post-Habermasian public sphere scholarship, and acknowledges a lively and variegated debate concerning the multiple ways in which individuals engage in contemporary political affairs. A critical eye is cast over a range of key insights which have come to establish the parameters of what 'counts' as a/the public sphere, who can be involved, and where and how communicative networks are established. This opens up the conceptual space for re-imagining a/the public sphere as an assemblage. Making use of recent developments in Deleuzian-inspired assemblage theory - most especially drawn from DeLanda's (2006) 'new philosophy of society' - the paper sets out an alternative perspective on the notion of the public sphere, and regards it as a space of connectivity brought into being through a contingent and heterogeneous assemblage of discursive, visual and performative practices. This is mapped out with reference to the cultural politics of roadside memorialization. However, a/the public sphere as an assemblage is not simply a 'social construction' brought into being through a logic of connectivity, but is an emergent and ephemeral space which reflexively nurtures and assembles the cultural politics (and political cultures) of which it is an integral part. The discussion concludes, then, with a consideration of the contribution of assemblage theory to public sphere studies. (Also see Campbell 2009a). © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

  12. Crab death assemblages from Laguna Madre and vicinity, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotnick, R.E.; McCarroll, S. (Univ. of Illinois, Chicago (USA)); Powell, E. (Texas A M Univ., College Station (USA))


    Crabs are a major component of modern marine ecosystems, but are only rarely described in fossil assemblages. Studies of brachyuran taphonomy have examined either the fossil end-products of the taphonomic process or the very earliest stages of decay and decomposition. The next logical step is the analysis of modern crab death assemblages; i.e., studies that examine taphonomic loss in areas where the composition of the living assemblage is known. The authors studied crab death assemblages in shallow water sediments at several localities in an near Laguna Madre, Texas. Nearly every sample examined contained some crab remains, most commonly in the form of isolated claws (dactyl and propodus). A crab fauna associated with a buried grass bed contained abundant remains of the xanthid crab Dyspanopeus texanus, including carapaces, chelipeds, and thoraxes, as well as fragments of the portunid Callinectes sapidus and the majiid Libinia dubia. Crab remains may be an overlooked portion of many preserved benthic assemblages, both in recent and modern sediments.

  13. Exploring coral microbiome assemblages in the South China Sea. (United States)

    Cai, Lin; Tian, Ren-Mao; Zhou, Guowei; Tong, Haoya; Wong, Yue Him; Zhang, Weipeng; Chui, Apple Pui Yi; Xie, James Y; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Ang, Put O; Liu, Sheng; Huang, Hui; Qian, Pei-Yuan


    Coral reefs are significant ecosystems. The ecological success of coral reefs relies on not only coral-algal symbiosis but also coral-microbial partnership. However, microbiome assemblages in the South China Sea corals remain largely unexplored. Here, we compared the microbiome assemblages of reef-building corals Galaxea (G. fascicularis) and Montipora (M. venosa, M. peltiformis, M. monasteriata) collected from five different locations in the South China Sea using massively-parallel sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and multivariate analysis. The results indicated that microbiome assemblages for each coral species were unique regardless of location and were different from the corresponding seawater. Host type appeared to drive the coral microbiome assemblages rather than location and seawater. Network analysis was employed to explore coral microbiome co-occurrence patterns, which revealed 61 and 80 co-occurring microbial species assembling the Galaxea and Montipora microbiomes, respectively. Most of these co-occurring microbial species were commonly found in corals and were inferred to play potential roles in host nutrient metabolism; carbon, nitrogen, sulfur cycles; host detoxification; and climate change. These findings suggest that the co-occurring microbial species explored might be essential to maintain the critical coral-microbial partnership. The present study provides new insights into coral microbiome assemblages in the South China Sea.

  14. Campo Belo Metamorphic Complex: tectonic evolution of an Archean sialic crust of the southern São Francisco Craton in Minas Gerais (Brazil

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    Full Text Available Systematic geological studies performed in the study area allowed the characterization of six lithodemic units: three gneissic, one amphibolitic, one supracrustal and one fissure mafic. The mineral assemblage and the structural record of these lithodemic units indicate that the study area was affected by five tectonothermal events. The structural pattern of the first and oldest event occurred under granulite facies conditions and reveals essentially a sinistral kinematic pattern. The second event, showing dominant extensional characteristics, is related to the generation of an ensialic basin filled by the volcano-sedimentary sequence of the supracrustal lithodemic unit. The third event, which is the most expressive in the study region, is characterized by a vigorous regional migmatization process and by the generation of the Claudio Shear Zone, presenting dextral kinematic movement. The fourth event is represented by a fissure mafic magmatism (probably two different mafic dike swarms and finally, the fifth event is a regional metamorphic re-equilibration that reached the greenschist facies, closing the main processes of the tectonic evolution of the Campo Belo Metamorphic Complex.Estudos geológicos sistemáticos permitiram a caracterização de seis unidades litodêmicas na área estudada: três gnáissicas, uma anfibolítica, uma supracrustal e uma máfica fissural. A assembléia mineral e os registros estruturais dessas unidades litodêmicas mostraram que a área estudada foi afetada por cinco eventos tectonotermais. O padrão estrutural do primeiro e último evento ocorreu em condições de fácies granulito e revelaram uma cinemática essencialmente sinistral. O segundo evento mostrou uma tectônica extensional relacionado à abertura da bacia ensiálica onde se alojou a seqüência vulcanosedimentar da unidade supracrustal. O terceiro evento, que é o mais expressivo na região estudada, é o responsável por um intenso processo de

  15. Epitaxial nanowire formation in metamorphic GaAs/GaPAs short-period superlattices (United States)

    Zheng, Nan; Ahrenkiel, S. Phillip


    Metamorphic growth presents routes to novel nanomaterials with unique properties that may be suitable for a range of applications. We discuss self-assembled, epitaxial nanowires formed during metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of metamorphic GaAs/GaPAs short-period superlattices. The heterostructures incorporate strain-engineered GaPAs compositional grades on 6°-B miscut GaAs substrates. Lateral diffusion within the SPS into vertically aligned, three-dimensional columns results in nanowires extending along A directions with a lateral period of 70-90 nm. The microstructure is probed by transmission electron microscopy to confirm the presence of coherent GaAs nanowires within GaPAs barriers. The compositional profile is inferred from analysis of {200} dark-field image contrast and lattice images.

  16. IR spectroscopic study of Donetsk coal with varying degrees of metamorphism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondarenko, A.K.; Amarskii, E.G.; Dmitrikov, V.P.; Mel' nichuk, A.Yu.; Babenko, V.P.; Kosinskii, V.A.


    The authors attempt to determine characteristics of organic coal substance structure from IR spectroscopic investigations and from relationship between spectral data and the degree of coal metamorphism. Tests were made on Donetsk coal of varying rank, qualitative characteristics of which are given. Tests on coal samples with approximately the same ash content were made using IKS-29 spectrometer. Coal samples were in the form of finely dispersed suspensions in vaseline oil and in hexa-chlor-butadiene. Analysis of data obtained makes it possible to assess the relative contribution of the structure of various organic substances in relation to the degree of metamorphism. Absorption intensity, optical density of absorption spectra, etc. are given. 19 references.

  17. The contribution of metamorphic petrology to understanding lithosphere evolution and geodynamics

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    Michael Brown


    At 1.0 Ga the ambient mantle temperature was still ∼150–100 °C warmer than at present. Continued secular cooling caused a transition to cold subduction registered in the crustal record of metamorphism by the first appearance of blueschist and high to ultrahigh pressure metamorphism during the Neoproterozoic. Results of 2-D numerical experiments of continental collision demonstrate a transition from shallow to deep slab breakoff associated with stronger crust–mantle coupling that enabled continental subduction to mantle depths as upper mantle temperature declined to <100 °C warmer than at present during the late Proterozoic. This is the beginning of the modern plate tectonics regime.

  18. Metamorphic Testing Integer Overflow Faults of Mission Critical Program: A Case Study

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    Zhanwei Hui


    Full Text Available For mission critical programs, integer overflow is one of the most dangerous faults. Different testing methods provide several effective ways to detect the defect. However, it is hard to validate the testing outputs, because the oracle of testing is not always available or too expensive to get, unless the program throws an exception obviously. In the present study, the authors conduct a case study, where the authors apply a metamorphic testing (MT method to detect the integer overflow defect and alleviate the oracle problem in testing critical program of Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS. Experimental results show that, in revealing typical integer mutations, compared with traditional safety property testing method, MT with a novel symbolic metamorphic relation is more effective than the traditional method in some cases.

  19. Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala infection in Bufo marinus: lung nematodes reduce viability of metamorph cane toads. (United States)

    Kelehear, C; Webb, J K; Shine, R


    Cane toads (Bufo marinus) were introduced to Australia in 1935 and have since spread widely over the continent, generating concern regarding ecological impacts on native predators. Most Australian cane toad populations are infected with lung nematodes Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala, a parasite endemic to New World (native-range) cane toad populations; presumably introduced to Australia with its toad host. Considering the high intensities and prevalence reached by this parasite in Australian toad populations, and public ardour for developing a control plan for the invasive host species, the lack of experimental studies on this host-parasite system is surprising. To investigate the extent to which this lungworm influences cane toad viability, we experimentally infected metamorph toads (the smallest and presumably most vulnerable terrestrial phase of the anuran life cycle) with the helminth. Infected toads exhibited reduced survival and growth rates, impaired locomotor performance (both speed and endurance), and reduced prey intake. In summary, R. pseudosphaerocephala can substantially reduce the viability of metamorph cane toads.

  20. Thermal effects of variable material properties and metamorphic reactions in a three-component subducting slab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemia, Zurab; Dolejš, David; Steinle-Neumann, Gerd


    We explore the effects of variable material properties, phase transformations, and metamorphic devolatilization reactions on the thermal structure of a subducting slab using thermodynamic phase equilibrium calculations combined with a thermal evolution model. The subducting slab is divided...... within the slab is limited. Two extreme scenarios are considered for a newly forming fluid phase: complete retention in the rock pore space or instantaneous fluid escape due to porosity collapse. Internal heat generation or consumption due to variable heat capacity, compressional work, and energetics...... of progressive metamorphic and devolatilization reactions contribute to the thermal evolution of the slab in addition to the dominating heat flux from the surrounding mantle. They can be considered as a perturbation on the temperature profile obtained in dynamic or kinematic subduction models. Our calculations...

  1. Research advances in contact model and mechanism configuration for nut shelling manipulation based on metamorphic method

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    Xiulan BAO


    Full Text Available Nuts are the important economic forest tree species of China. De-shell is the key operation of nut deep processing. There are some problems in the current nut cracking devices such as the low decorticating rate, the high nuts losses rate and nutmeat integrity problems, etc.. The foundation of force analysis is to establish contact model for nut and mechanical. The nut surface is rough and irregular, so the contact area cannot be modeled as regular shape. How to set up contact constraint model is the key problem to accomplish non-loss shelling. In order to study the shell-breaking mechanism and structural design of the nut shelling manipulation, a multi-fingered metamorphic manipulator is presented. An overview of the nut shelling technology and the contact manipulator modeling are proposed. The origin and application of metamorphic mechanisms are introduced. Then the research contents and development prospects of nut shelling manipulator are described.

  2. Ubiquitous interstellar diamond and SiC in primitive chondrites - Abundances reflect metamorphism (United States)

    Huss, Gary R.


    It is shown here that interstellar diamond and SiC were incorporated into all groups of chondrite meteorites. Abundances rapidly go to zero with increasing metamorphic grade, suggesting that metamorphic destruction is responsible for the apparent absence of these grains in most chondrites. In unmetamorphosed chondrites, abundances normalized to matrix content are similar for different classes. Diamond samples from chondrites of different classes have remarkably similar noble-gas constants and isotropic compositions, although constituent diamonds may have come from many sources. SiC seems to be more diverse, partly because grains are large enough to measure individually, but average characteristics seem to be similar from meteorite to meteorite. These observations suggest that various classes of chondritic meteorites sample the same solar system-wide reservoir of interstellar grains.

  3. Anatexis and metamorphism in tectonically thickened continental crust exemplified by the Sevier hinterland, western North America (United States)

    Patino Douce, Alberto E.; Humphreys, Eugene D.; Johnston, A. Dana


    This paper presents a thermal and petrologic model of anatexis and metamorphism in regions of crustal thickening exemplified by the Sevier hinterland in western North America, and uses the model to examine the geological and physical processes leading to crustally derived magmatism. The results of numerical experiments show that anatexis was an inevitable end-product of Barrovian metamorphism in the thickened crust of the late Mesozoic Sevier orogenic belt and that the advection of heat across the lithosphere, in the form of mantle-derived mafic magmas, was not required for melting of metasedimentary rocks. It is suggested that, in the Sevier belt, as in other intracontinental orogenic belts, anatexis occurred in the midcrust and not at the base of the crust.

  4. K-Ar ages of the rocks of two kinds existed in the Kamuikotan metamorphic rocks located in the Horokanai district, Hokkaido

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    Imaizumi, M. (Chiba Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science); Ueda, Y.


    In the Fransiscan metamorphic rocks known as the typical high-pressure type metamorphic belts, existence of the blocks of high grade metamorphic rocks of older age in the widely distributed low grade ones of younger age is commonly noticed. This feature has been explained as a phenomenon that the blocks had been tectonically mixed with the surroundings - so-called tectonic blocks - based on the absolute age determination of the component minerals. The Kamuikotan tectonic belt is a melange zone in which occur various kinds of metamorphic rocks of high-pressure and low-pressure types. The high-pressure Kamuikotan metamorphic rocks can be classified into two kinds based upon the modes of occurrence and mineral paragenesis. One is the low grade metamorphic rocks of greenschist and glaucophane schist and the other, the high grade metamorphic rocks of epidote glaucophane schist and epidote amphibolite. The high grade metamorphic rocks always occur as isolated blocks in the low grade metamorphics and associated serpentinite. The report discusses the age of muscovites separated from the two types of high-pressure Kamuikotan metamorphic rocks in the Horokanai district, central Hokkaido. The muscovites separated from the low grade metamorphics of the district give the age of 72 - 116 m.y., while those separated from the high grade metamorphics give the age of 132 - 145 m.y. These ages seem to agree with the idea that the blocks of high grade metamorphics (epidote glaucophane schist and epidote amphibolite) would be the ''tectonic blocks'' - namely the fragments tectonically mixed into the low grade metamorphics of younger age.

  5. Phytolith assemblages in grasses native to central Argentina. (United States)

    Gallego, Lucrecia; Distel, Roberto A


    Phytolith reference collections are a prerequisite for accurate interpretation of soil phytolith assemblages aimed at reconstructing past vegetation. In this study a phytolith reference collection has been developed for several grasses native to central Argentina: Poa ligularis, Piptochaetium napostaense, Stipa clarazii, Stipa tenuis, Stipa tenuissima, Stipa eriostachya, Stipa ambigua, Stipa brachychaeta, Pappophorum subbulbosum, Digitaria californica, Bothriochloa edwardsiana and Aristida subulata. For each species, phytoliths present in the leaf blades were classified into 47 morphotypes, and their relative frequency determined by observing 300-400 phytoliths per sample (n = 5). Data were analyzed by complete linkage cluster analysis, using the Morisita Index as measure of association. The results showed differentiation among phytolith assemblages at species level or at plant functional type level. Cluster analysis separated C3 from C4 species and palatable from non-palatable species. This study highlights the possibility of reconstructing past vegetation in central Argentina grasslands through the analysis of soil phytolith assemblages.

  6. Shaping up: a geometric morphometric approach to assemblage ecomorphology. (United States)

    Bower, L M; Piller, K R


    This study adopts an ecomorphological approach to test the utility of body shape as a predictor of niche relationships among a stream fish assemblage of the Tickfaw River (Lake Pontchartrain Basin) in southeastern Louisiana, U.S.A. To examine the potential influence of evolutionary constraints, analyses were performed with and without the influence of phylogeny. Fish assemblages were sampled throughout the year, and ecological data (habitat and tropic guild) and body shape (geometric morphometric) data were collected for each fish specimen. Multivariate analyses were performed to examine relationships and differences between body shape and ecological data. Results indicate that a relationship exists between body shape and trophic guild as well as flow regime, but no significant correlation between body shape and substratum was found. Body shape was a reliable indicator of position within assemblage niche space. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  7. Petrology of the Horoman Ultramafic Rocks in the Hidaka Metamorphic Belt, Hokkaido, Japan


    Niida, Kiyoaki


    The Horoman ultramafic massif, covering more than 8×10 km in the Hidaka Metamorphic Belt, is an "alpine-type" peridotite which is a gently warped sheet about 3,000 m in thickness. The massif exhibits a conspicuous layered structure which consists of layers of dunite, lherzolite, plagioclase lherzolite, and a small amount of gabbro and pyroxenite. Coexisting minerals from all the rock types of the layered ultramafic to mafic sequence were analysed by EPMA. The ferromagnesian minerals show larg...

  8. Design and accuracy analysis of a metamorphic CNC flame cutting machine for ship manufacturing (United States)

    Hu, Shenghai; Zhang, Manhui; Zhang, Baoping; Chen, Xi; Yu, Wei


    The current research of processing large size fabrication holes on complex spatial curved surface mainly focuses on the CNC flame cutting machines design for ship hull of ship manufacturing. However, the existing machines cannot meet the continuous cutting requirements with variable pass conditions through their fixed configuration, and cannot realize high-precision processing as the accuracy theory is not studied adequately. This paper deals with structure design and accuracy prediction technology of novel machine tools for solving the problem of continuous and high-precision cutting. The needed variable trajectory and variable pose kinematic characteristics of non-contact cutting tool are figured out and a metamorphic CNC flame cutting machine designed through metamorphic principle is presented. To analyze kinematic accuracy of the machine, models of joint clearances, manufacturing tolerances and errors in the input variables and error models considering the combined effects are derived based on screw theory after establishing ideal kinematic models. Numerical simulations, processing experiment and trajectory tracking experiment are conducted relative to an eccentric hole with bevels on cylindrical surface respectively. The results of cutting pass contour and kinematic error interval which the position error is from-0.975 mm to +0.628 mm and orientation error is from-0.01 rad to +0.01 rad indicate that the developed machine can complete cutting process continuously and effectively, and the established kinematic error models are effective although the interval is within a `large' range. It also shows the matching property between metamorphic principle and variable working tasks, and the mapping correlation between original designing parameters and kinematic errors of machines. This research develops a metamorphic CNC flame cutting machine and establishes kinematic error models for accuracy analysis of machine tools.

  9. Plasticity of Auditory Medullary-Midbrain Connectivity across Metamorphic Development in the Bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana


    Horowitz, Seth S.; Chapman, Judith A.; Simmons, Andrea Megela


    On the basis of patterns of anterograde, retrograde, and bi-directional transport of tracers from both the superior olivary nucleus (SON) and the torus semicircularis (TS), we report anatomical changes in brainstem connectivity across metamorphic development in the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana. In early and late stages of larval development (Gosner stages 25–37), anterograde or bi-directional tracers injected into the SON produce terminal/fiber label in the contralateral SON and in the ipsilate...

  10. Plasticity of Auditory Medullary-Midbrain Connectivity across Metamorphic Development in the Bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana (United States)

    Horowitz, Seth S.; Chapman, Judith A.; Simmons, Andrea Megela


    On the basis of patterns of anterograde, retrograde, and bi-directional transport of tracers from both the superior olivary nucleus (SON) and the torus semicircularis (TS), we report anatomical changes in brainstem connectivity across metamorphic development in the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana. In early and late stages of larval development (Gosner stages 25–37), anterograde or bi-directional tracers injected into the SON produce terminal/fiber label in the contralateral SON and in the ipsilateral TS. Between stages 38–41 (deaf period), only sparse or no terminal/fiber label is visible in these target nuclei. During metamorphic climax (stages 42–46), terminal/fiber label reappears in both the contralateral SON and in the ipsilateral TS, and now also in the contralateral TS. Injections of retrograde tracers into the SON fail to label cell bodies in the ipsilateral TS in deaf period animals, mirroring the previously-reported failure of retrograde transport from the TS to the ipsilateral SON during this developmental time. Bilateral cell body label emerges in the dorsal medullary nucleus and the lateral vestibular nucleus bilaterally as a result of SON transport during the late larval period, while cell body label in the contralateral TS emerges during climax. At all larval stages, injections into the SON produce anterograde and retrograde label in the medial vestibular nucleus bilaterally. These data show anatomical stability in some pathways and plasticity in others during larval development, with the most dramatic changes occurring during the deaf period and metamorphic climax. Animals in metamorphic climax show patterns of connectivity similar to that of froglets and adults, indicating the maturation during climax of central anatomical substrates for hearing in air. PMID:16912473

  11. Morphological preservation of carbonaceous plant fossils in blueschist metamorphic rocks from New Zealand. (United States)

    Galvez, M E; Beyssac, O; Benzerara, K; Bernard, S; Menguy, N; Cox, S C; Martinez, I; Johnston, M R; Brown, G E


    Morphological and chemical evidence of ancient life is widespread in sedimentary rocks retrieved from shallow depths in the Earth's crust. Metamorphism is highly detrimental to the preservation of biological information in rocks, thus limiting the geological record in which traces of life might be found. Deformation and increasing pressure/temperature during deep burial may alter the morphology as well as the composition and structure of both the organic and mineral constituents of fossils. However, microspore fossils have been previously observed in intensely metamorphosed rocks. It has been suggested that their small size, and/or the nature of the polymer composing their wall, and/or the mineralogy of their surrounding matrix were key parameters explaining their exceptional preservation. Here, we describe the remarkable morphological preservation of plant macrofossils in blueschist metamorphic rocks from New Zealand containing lawsonite. Leaves and stems can be easily identified at the macroscale. At the microscale, polygonal structures with walls mineralized by micas within the leaf midribs and blades may derive from the original cellular ultrastructure or, alternatively, from the shrinkage during burial of the gelified remnants of the leaves in an abiotic process. Processes and important parameters involved in the remarkable preservation of these fossils during metamorphism are discussed. Despite the excellent morphological preservation, the initial biological polymers have been completely transformed to graphitic carbonaceous matter down to the nanometer scale. This occurrence demonstrates that plant macrofossils may experience major geodynamic processes such as metamorphism and exhumation involving deep changes and homogenization of their carbon chemistry and structure but still retain their morphology with remarkable integrity even if they are not shielded by any hard-mineralized concretion. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Raman spectroscopy of carbon and solid bitumens in sedimentary and metamorphic rocks (United States)

    Jehlička, Jan; Urban, Ondřej; Pokorný, Jan


    Different types of carbonaceous matter from rocks display Raman spectral features which knowledge permits to obtain structural information of these materials. Application of Raman microspectroscopy to investigate kerogen, bitumen, fossils, highly carbonified amorphous carbon as well as graphite from different environments is reviewed. Differences in Raman spectra and structural differences between carbonaceous samples differing in their metamorphic history are discussed on the basis of new data.

  13. On Ultra-High Temperature Metamorphism in the Mid-Lower Crust


    Dorfler, Kristin Marie


    The Cortlandt Complex in New York is a composite intrusion of six mafic plutons and contains pelitic xenoliths that experienced extensive interaction with Mg-rich basaltic melt. The complex is an excellent natural example of ultra-high temperature (UHT) metamorphic processes and country rock-magma interaction due to mappable units of hybrid igneous rocks and the presence of large, partially melted, politic "emery" xenoliths. Previous attempts to understand the formation of the UHT xenoliths i...

  14. Study on microwave induced pyrolysis of low metamorphic coal and liquefaction residue (United States)

    Li, Zhao; Wu, Kunyao; Cao, Jing; Wang, Yongfeng


    This paper mainly studies pyrolysis characteristic in the different heating of microwave of low metamorphic coal and Liquefaction Residue, which was focused on the effects of particle sizes, pyrolysis reaction time, and microwave powers. The product are analyzed by Gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS), etc. The results showed that when heating time is 40 min and 800 W, yield of tar is about 15.51%.

  15. Patterns in reef fish assemblages: Insights from the Chagos Archipelago.

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    Melita Samoilys

    Full Text Available Understanding the drivers of variability in the composition of fish assemblages across the Indo-Pacific region is crucial to support coral reef ecosystem resilience. Whilst numerous relationships and feedback mechanisms between the functional roles of coral reef fishes and reef benthic composition have been investigated, certain key groups, such as the herbivores, are widely suggested to maintain reefs in a coral-dominated state. Examining links between fishes and reef benthos is complicated by the interactions between natural processes, disturbance events and anthropogenic impacts, particularly fishing pressure. This study examined fish assemblages and associated benthic variables across five atolls within the Chagos Archipelago, where fishing pressure is largely absent, to better understand these relationships. We found high variability in fish assemblages among atolls and sites across the archipelago, especially for key groups such as a suite of grazer-detritivore surgeonfish, and the parrotfishes which varied in density over 40-fold between sites. Differences in fish assemblages were significantly associated with variable levels of both live and recently dead coral cover and rugosity. We suggest these results reflect differing coral recovery trajectories following coral bleaching events and a strong influence of 'bottom-up' control mechanisms on fish assemblages. Species level analyses revealed that Scarus niger, Acanthurus nigrofuscus and Chlorurus strongylocephalos were key species driving differences in fish assemblage structure. Clarifying the trophic roles of herbivorous and detritivorous reef fishes will require species-level studies, which also examine feeding behaviour, to fully understand their contribution in maintaining reef resilience to climate change and fishing impacts.

  16. Habitat specialization in tropical continental shelf demersal fish assemblages.

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    Ben M Fitzpatrick

    Full Text Available The implications of shallow water impacts such as fishing and climate change on fish assemblages are generally considered in isolation from the distribution and abundance of these fish assemblages in adjacent deeper waters. We investigate the abundance and length of demersal fish assemblages across a section of tropical continental shelf at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, to identify fish and fish habitat relationships across steep gradients in depth and in different benthic habitat types. The assemblage composition of demersal fish were assessed from baited remote underwater stereo-video samples (n = 304 collected from 16 depth and habitat combinations. Samples were collected across a depth range poorly represented in the literature from the fringing reef lagoon (1-10 m depth, down the fore reef slope to the reef base (10-30 m depth then across the adjacent continental shelf (30-110 m depth. Multivariate analyses showed that there were distinctive fish assemblages and different sized fish were associated with each habitat/depth category. Species richness, MaxN and diversity declined with depth, while average length and trophic level increased. The assemblage structure, diversity, size and trophic structure of demersal fishes changes from shallow inshore habitats to deeper water habitats. More habitat specialists (unique species per habitat/depth category were associated with the reef slope and reef base than other habitats, but offshore sponge-dominated habitats and inshore coral-dominated reef also supported unique species. This suggests that marine protected areas in shallow coral-dominated reef habitats may not adequately protect those species whose depth distribution extends beyond shallow habitats, or other significant elements of demersal fish biodiversity. The ontogenetic habitat partitioning which is characteristic of many species, suggests that to maintain entire species life histories it is necessary to protect corridors of

  17. Environmental characteristics drive variation in Amazonian understorey bird assemblages. (United States)

    Menger, Juliana; Magnusson, William E; Anderson, Marti J; Schlegel, Martin; Pe'er, Guy; Henle, Klaus


    Tropical bird assemblages display patterns of high alpha and beta diversity and, as tropical birds exhibit strong habitat specificity, their spatial distributions are generally assumed to be driven primarily by environmental heterogeneity and interspecific interactions. However, spatial distributions of some Amazonian forest birds are also often restricted by large rivers and other large-scale topographic features, suggesting that dispersal limitation may also play a role in driving species' turnover. In this study, we evaluated the effects of environmental characteristics, topographic and spatial variables on variation in local assemblage structure and diversity of birds in an old-growth forest in central Amazonia. Birds were mist-netted in 72 plots distributed systematically across a 10,000 ha reserve in each of three years. Alpha diversity remained stable through time, but species composition changed. Spatial variation in bird-assemblage structure was significantly related to environmental and topographic variables but not strongly related to spatial variables. At a broad scale, we found bird assemblages to be significantly distinct between two watersheds that are divided by a central ridgeline. We did not detect an effect of the ridgeline per se in driving these patterns, indicating that most birds are able to fly across it, and that differences in assemblage structure between watersheds may be due to unmeasured environmental variables or unique combinations of measured variables. Our study indicates that complex geography and landscape features can act together with environmental variables to drive changes in the diversity and composition of tropical bird assemblages at local scales, but highlights that we still know very little about what makes different parts of tropical forest suitable for different species.

  18. Environmental characteristics drive variation in Amazonian understorey bird assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Menger

    Full Text Available Tropical bird assemblages display patterns of high alpha and beta diversity and, as tropical birds exhibit strong habitat specificity, their spatial distributions are generally assumed to be driven primarily by environmental heterogeneity and interspecific interactions. However, spatial distributions of some Amazonian forest birds are also often restricted by large rivers and other large-scale topographic features, suggesting that dispersal limitation may also play a role in driving species' turnover. In this study, we evaluated the effects of environmental characteristics, topographic and spatial variables on variation in local assemblage structure and diversity of birds in an old-growth forest in central Amazonia. Birds were mist-netted in 72 plots distributed systematically across a 10,000 ha reserve in each of three years. Alpha diversity remained stable through time, but species composition changed. Spatial variation in bird-assemblage structure was significantly related to environmental and topographic variables but not strongly related to spatial variables. At a broad scale, we found bird assemblages to be significantly distinct between two watersheds that are divided by a central ridgeline. We did not detect an effect of the ridgeline per se in driving these patterns, indicating that most birds are able to fly across it, and that differences in assemblage structure between watersheds may be due to unmeasured environmental variables or unique combinations of measured variables. Our study indicates that complex geography and landscape features can act together with environmental variables to drive changes in the diversity and composition of tropical bird assemblages at local scales, but highlights that we still know very little about what makes different parts of tropical forest suitable for different species.

  19. Phytoplankton Assemblage Patterns in the Southern Mid-Atlantic Bight (United States)

    Makinen, Carla; Moisan, Tiffany A. (Editor)


    As part of the Wallops Coastal Oceans Observing Laboratory (Wa-COOL) Project, we sampled a time-series transect in the southern Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) biweekly. Our 2-year time-series data included physical parameters, nutrient concentrations, and chlorophyll a concentrations. A detailed phytoplankton assemblage structure was examined in the second year. During the 2-year study, chlorophyll a concentration (and ocean color satellite imagery) indicated that phytoplankton blooms occurred in January/February during mixing conditions and in early autumn under stratified conditions. The chlorophyll a concentrations ranged from 0.25 microgram 1(exp -1) to 15.49 microgram 1(exp -1) during the 2-year period. We were able to discriminate approximately 116 different species under phase contrast microscopy. Dominant phytoplankton included Skeletonema costatum, Rhizosolenia spp., and Pseudo-nitzschia pungens. In an attempt to determine phytoplankton species competition/succession within the assemblage, we calculated a Shannon Weaver diversity index for our diatom microscopy data. Diatom diversity was greatest during the winter and minimal during the spring. Diatom diversity was also greater at nearshore stations than at offshore stations. Individual genera appeared patchy, with surface and subsurface patches appearing abruptly and persisting for only 1-2 months at a time. The distribution of individual species differed significantly from bulk variables of the assemblage (chlorophyll a ) and total phytoplankton assemblage (cells), which indicates that phytoplankton species may be limited in growth in ways that differ from those of the total assemblage. Our study demonstrated a highly diverse phytoplankton assemblage throughout the year, with opportunistic species dominating during spring and fall in response to seasonal changes in temperature and nutrients in the southern MAB.

  20. Polyphase growth of accessory minerals during continental collision: Geochemical evidence from ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic gneisses in the Sulu orogen (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Xiang; Zheng, Yong-Fei; Hu, Zhaochu


    An integrated study of petrology, geochronology and geochemistry was performed for ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic gneisses in the Sulu orogen. The results are used to elucidate the polyphase growth of such metamorphic minerals as zircon, titanite and garnet in response to pressure-temperature changes and fluid/melt action during continental collision. This provides insights into the property of metamorphic fluid/melt and their effects on trace element mobility. A combined result from REE patterns, mineral inclusions and Ti-in-zircon temperatures indicates three stages of zircon growth. Prograde growth occurred at ~ 237 Ma primarily at eclogite-facies, retrograde growth at ~ 222 Ma mostly at eclogite-facies, and the last growth at ~ 205 Ma at granulite-facies. The three stages of zircon growth are deciphered by distinct REE patterns and trace element compositions, reflecting the differences in the property of metamorphic fluid/melt. The episodic growth of metamorphic zircon is primarily dictated by the episodic concentration of Zr and Si in metamorphic fluid/melt. Relict domains of magmatic titanite are distinguished from metamorphosed and metamorphic domains by their distinctive REE patterns and trace element compositions. The metamorphic titanite exhibit variably elevated Nb contents and Nb/Ta ratios, suggesting Nb/Ta fractionation due to breakdown of amphibole and/or biotite during metamorphism. Polyphase growth of garnet is suggested by an integrated analysis of mineral inclusions, and major and trace elements in large garnet grains. Trace element abundances vary in different zones of garnet, which is ascribed to changes in the paragenesis and composition of matrix minerals involved in garnet-forming reactions at different P-T conditions. Therefore, the metamorphic growth of zircon, titanite and garnet would have occurred not only during prograde subduction but also during retrograde exhumation in the continental collision zones. Both metamorphic dehydration and

  1. Evolution of Migmatitic Granulite Complexes: implications from Lapland Granulite Belt, Part I: metamorphic geology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Tuisku


    Full Text Available The Palaeoproterozoic Lapland granulite belt was juxtaposed between Archaean and Proterozoic terrains in the NE part of the Fennoscandian Shield concurrently with the accretion of Svecofennian arc complexes at ~1.9 Ga. The belt consists mainly of aluminous migmatiticmetagreywackes. Abundant noritic to enderbitic magmas were intruded concordantly into the metasediments and were probably an important heat source for metamorphism, which took place during the crystallization of the magmas. This is supported by structural and contact relations of metasediments and igneous rocks, and by the lack progressive metamorphic reaction textures in the igneous rock series. The peak of metamorphism took place above the dehydration melting temperature of the biotite-sillimanite-plagioclase-quartz assemblageat 750−850°C and 5−8.5 kbar which lead to formation of a restitic palaeosome and peraluminous granitic melt in metapelites. Subsequently, the rocks were decompressed and cooled below the wet melting temperature of pelitic rocks (650°C under the stability field of andalusite coexisting with potassium feldspar (2−3 kbar. Cooling was accompanied by the crystallization of the neosomes, often carrying aluminium-rich phases. Postmetamorphic duplexing of the LGB is clearly seen in the distribution of calculated PT conditions.

  2. The Effect of Aqueous Alteration and Metamorphism in the Survival of Presolar Silicate Grains in Chondrites (United States)

    Trigo-Rodriguez, Josep M.; Blum, Jürgen


    Relatively small amounts (typically between 2 and 200 ppm) of presolar grains have been preserved in the matrices of chondritic meteorites. The measured abundances of the different types of grains are highly variable from one chondrite to another, but are higher in unequilibrated chondrites that have experienced little or no aqueous alteration and/or metamorphic heating than in processed meteorites. A general overview of the abundances measured in presolar grains (particularly the recently identified presolar silicates) contained in primitive chondrites is presented. Here we will focus on the most primitive chondrite groups, as typically the highest measured abundances of presolar grains occur in primitive chondrites that have experienced little thermal metamorphism. Looking at the most aqueously altered chondrite groups, we find a clear pattern of decreasing abundance of presolar silicate grains with increasing levels of aqueous alteration. We conclude that measured abundances of presolar grains in altered chondrites are strongly biased by their peculiar histories. Scales quantifying the intensity of aqueous alteration and shock metamorphism in chondrites could correlate with the content of presolar silicates. To do this it would be required to infer the degree of destruction or homogenization of presolar grains in the matrices of primitive meteorites. To get an unbiased picture of the relative abundance of presolar grains in the different regions of the protoplanetary disk where first meteorites consolidated, future dedicated studies of primitive meteorites, IDPs, and collected materials from sample-return missions (like e.g. the planned Marco Polo) are urgently required.

  3. Metamorphic history and geodynamic significance of the Early Cretaceous Sabzevar granulites (Sabzevar structural zone, NE Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nasrabady


    Full Text Available The Iranian ophiolites are part of the vast orogenic suture zones that mark the Alpine-Himalayan convergence zone. Few petrological and geochronological data are available from these ophiolitic domains, hampering a full assessment of the timing and regimes of subduction zone metamorphism and orogenic construction in the region. This paper describes texture, geochemistry, and the pressure-temperature path of the Early Cretaceous mafic granulites that occur within the Tertiary Sabzevar ophiolitic suture zone of NE Iran. Whole rock geochemistry indicates that the Sabzevar granulites are likely derived from a MORB-type precursor. They are thus considered as remnants of a dismembered dynamo-thermal sole formed during subduction of a back-arc basin (proto-Sabzevar Ocean formed in the upper-plate of the Neotethyan slab. The metamorphic history of the granulites suggests an anticlockwise pressure-temperature loop compatible with burial in a hot subduction zone, followed by cooling during exhumation. Transition from a nascent to a mature stage of oceanic subduction is the geodynamic scenario proposed to accomplish for the reconstructed thermobaric evolution. When framed with the regional scenario, results of this study point to diachronous and independent tectonic evolutions of the different ophiolitic domains of central Iran, for which a growing disparity in the timing of metamorphic equilibration and of pressure-temperature paths can be expected to emerge with further investigations.

  4. Disturbance of isotope systematics in meteorites during shock and thermal metamorphism and implications for shergottite chronology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaffney, A M; Borg, L E; Asmerom, Y


    Shock and thermal metamorphism of meteorites from differentiated bodies such as the Moon and Mars have the potential to disturb chronometric information contained in these meteorites. In order to understand the impact-related mechanisms and extent of disturbance to isochrons, we undertook experiments to shock and heat samples of 10017, a 3.6 billion year old lunar basalt. One sub-sample was shocked to 55 GPa, a second subsample was heated to 1000 C for one week, and a third sub-sample was maintained as a control sample. Of the isotope systems analyzed, the Sm-Nd system was the least disturbed by shock or heat, followed by the Rb-Sr system. Ages represented by the {sup 238}U-{sup 206}Pb isotope system were degraded by shock and destroyed with heating. In no case did either shock or heating alone result in rotated or reset isochrons that represent a spurious age. In some cases the true crystallization age of the sample was preserved, and in other cases age information was degraded or destroyed. Although our results show that neither shock nor thermal metamorphism alone can account for the discordant ages represented by different isotope systems in martian meteorites, we postulate that shock metamorphism may render a meteorite more susceptible than unshocked material to subsequent disturbance during impact-related heating or aqueous alteration on Mars or Earth. The combination of these processes may result in the disparate chronometric information preserved in some meteorites.

  5. Light-dependant biostabilisation of sediments by stromatolite assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Paterson

    Full Text Available For the first time we have investigated the natural ecosystem engineering capacity of stromatolitic microbial assemblages. Stromatolites are laminated sedimentary structures formed by microbial activity and are considered to have dominated the shallows of the Precambrian oceans. Their fossilised remains are the most ancient unambiguous record of early life on earth. Stromatolites can therefore be considered as the first recognisable ecosystems on the planet. However, while many discussions have taken place over their structure and form, we have very little information on their functional ecology and how such assemblages persisted despite strong eternal forcing from wind and waves. The capture and binding of sediment is clearly a critical feature for the formation and persistence of stromatolite assemblages. Here, we investigated the ecosystem engineering capacity of stromatolitic microbial assemblages with respect to their ability to stabilise sediment using material from one of the few remaining living stromatolite systems (Highborne Cay, Bahamas. It was shown that the most effective assemblages could produce a rapid (12-24 h and significant increase in sediment stability that continued in a linear fashion over the period of the experimentation (228 h. Importantly, it was also found that light was required for the assemblages to produce this stabilisation effect and that removal of assemblage into darkness could lead to a partial reversal of the stabilisation. This was attributed to the breakdown of extracellular polymeric substances under anaerobic conditions. These data were supported by microelectrode profiling of oxygen and calcium. The structure of the assemblages as they formed was visualised by low-temperature scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser microscopy. These results have implications for the understanding of early stromatolite development and highlight the potential importance of the evolution of photosynthesis in the

  6. A classic Late Frasnian chondrichthyan assemblage from southern Belgium (United States)

    Ginter, Michał; Gouwy, Sofie; Goolaerts, Stijn


    Samples from the Upper Frasnian (Devonian) of Lompret Quarry and Nismes railway section in Dinant Synclinorium, southern Belgium, yielded several chondrichthyan teeth and scales. The teeth belong to three genera: Phoebodus, Cladodoides and Protacrodus. The comparison with selected Late Frasnian chondrichthyan assemblages from the seas between Laurussia and Gondwana revealed substantial local differences of taxonomic composition due to palaeoenvironmental conditions, such as depth, distance to submarine platforms, oxygenation of water, and possibly also temperature. The assemblage from Belgium, with its high frequency of phoebodonts, is the most similar to that from the Ryauzyak section, South Urals, Russia, and the Horse Spring section, Canning Basin, Australia.

  7. Subduction Metamorphism of Ophicarbonates beyond the Stability of Antigorite: insights into Carbonate Dissolution vs. Decarbonation from the Almirez ultramafic massif (S. Spain) (United States)

    Menzel, Manuel; Garrido, Carlos J.; López Sánchez Vizcaíno, Vicente; Marchesi, Claudio; Hidas, Károly


    Subduction zone processes play a key role in determining the time and length-scales of long-term element cycles like the deep carbon cycle. Recent improvements in thermodynamic modelling of fluid properties at high pressure and new experiments have underlined the importance of carbonate dissolution by subduction fluids from dehydration reactions for the transfer of carbon out of the subducting slab. However, natural case studies are scarce, in particular regarding the impact of fluids generated by serpentinite dehydration, which are considered as a major dissolution agent for carbon due to the high temperature of antigorite breakdown (about 650°C) and the potentially large volumes of hydrated peridotites occurring in the upper part of the subducting oceanic mantle lithosphere. Here we report the occurrence of meta-ophicarbonate lenses within prograde Chl-harzburgites in the Almirez ultramafic massif (Betic Cordillera, S. Spain). The presence of these lenses indicates that carbonate minerals were preserved beyond the stability conditions of antigorite and were not dissolved by deserpentinization fluids. The largest meta-ophicarbonate lens in the Almirez Chl-harzburgites measures 8 x 160 m and is composed of a high-grade assemblage of olivine, Ti-clinohumite, diopside, chlorite, dolomite, calcite and Cr-bearing magnetite with a granofelsic to banded appearance. In this assemblage we identified, for the first time in the Betic Cordillera, aragonite inclusions in olivine and diopside using coupled EBSD and chemical mapping. Calcite-dolomite thermometry and thermodynamic equilibrium modelling constrain the peak metamorphic conditions to 1.7 - 1.9 GPa and 680 °C at very low XCO2. These conditions compare well with P-T-estimates for the surrounding Chl-harzburgites. There is strong evidence that the protolith of the carbonate rocks within Chl-harzburgites was an ophicarbonate zone: bulk rock contents of Ni and Cr are similarly high in the carbonate rocks as in Atg

  8. Age and temperature of shock metamorphism of Martian meteorite Los Angeles from (U-Th)/He thermochronometry (United States)

    Min, Kyoungwon; Reiners, Peter W.; Nicolescu, Stefan; Greenwood, James P.


    Mineralogic features attributed to impact-induced shock metamorphism are commonly observed in meteorites and terrestrial impact craters. Partly because the duration of shock metamorphism is very short, constraining the timing and temperature of shock events has been problematic. We measured (U-Th)/He ages of single grains of merrillite and chlorapatite from the Martian meteorite Los Angeles (LA). Merrillite and chlorapatite ages cluster at 3.28 ± 0.15 Ma (2σ) and 2.18 ± 0.19 (2σ) Ma, respectively. The mean age of the merrillites, which are larger than chlorapatites, is indistinguishable from cosmic-ray exposure ages (3.1 ± 0.2 Ma), suggesting that impact-induced shock metamorphism was coeval with ejection of the LA precursor from Mars. To constrain the initial temperature of shock metamorphism in the LA precursor body, we modeled diffusive loss of He from merrillite as a function of diffusion domain size, LA precursor body size, and ablation depth. From these calculations, we suggest that the metamorphic temperature of the shock event was higher than 450 °C. These results support the idea that shock pressures of the Martian meteorite Shergotty were higher than 45 GPa, as inferred from the presence of post-stishovite SiO2 polymorphs. Single-grain (U-Th)/He dating of phosphates may provide unique constraints on the timing and pressure-temperature dynamics of shock metamorphism in a wide variety of extraterrestrial materials.

  9. Geologic and Geochronologic Studies of the Early Proterozoic Kanektok Metamorphic Complex of Southwestern Alaska (United States)

    Turner, Donald L.; Forbes, Robert B.; Aleinikoff, John N.; McDougall, Ian; Hedge, Carl E.; Wilson, Frederic H.; Layer, Paul W.; Hults, Chad P.


    The Kanektok complex of southwestern Alaska appears to be a rootless terrane of early Proterozoic sedimentary, volcanic, and intrusive rocks which were metamorphosed to amphibolite and granulite facies and later underwent a pervasive late Mesozoic thermal event accompanied by granitic plutonism and greenschist facies metamorphism of overlying sediments. The terrane is structurally complex and exhibits characteristics generally attributed to mantled gneiss domes. U-Th-Pb analyses of zircon and sphene from a core zone granitic orthogneiss indicate that the orthogneiss protolith crystallized about 2.05 b.y. ago and that the protolithic sedimentary, volcanic and granitic intrusive rocks of the core zone were metamorphosed to granulite and amphibolite facies about 1.77 b.y. ago. A Rb-Sr study of 13 whole-rock samples also suggests metamorphism of an early Proterozoic [Paleoproterozoic] protolith at 1.77 Ga, although the data are scattered and difficult to interpret. Seventy-seven conventional 40K/40Ar mineral ages were determined for 58 rocks distributed throughout the outcrop area of the complex. Analysis of the K-Ar data indicate that nearly all of these ages have been totally or partially reset by a pervasive late Mesozoic thermal event accompanied by granitic plutonism and greenschist facies metamorphism. Several biotites gave apparent K-Ar ages over 2 Ga. These ages appear to be controlled by excess radiogenic 40Ar produced by the degassing protolith during the 1.77 Ga metamorphism and incorporated by the biotites when they were at temperatures at which Ar could diffuse through the lattice. Five amphibolites yielded apparent Precambrian 40K/40Ar hornblende ages. There is no evidence that these hornblende ages have been increased by excess argon. The oldest 40K/40Ar hornblende age of 1.77 Ga is identical to the sphene 207Pb/206Pb orthogneiss age and to the Rb-Sr 'isochron' age for six of the 13 whole-rock samples. The younger hornblende ages are interpreted as

  10. Effects of oil pollution on aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macroinvertebrate assemblages from uncontaminated and contaminated sites in the Gamba Complex (Gabon) were compared, the latter sites having been subjected to ongoing oil spills since the 1970s. Vegetation communities surrounding the sites included savannah, shrub–scrub, palm forest, gallery forest and thick ...

  11. Avian guild assemblages in forest fragments around Budongo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings show that bird assemblages vary in their response to habitat fragmentation but within guilds the response to fragmentation can be consistent, and can make ecological sense. Forest bird conservation can therefore benefit from information on species ecology when deciding which bird species and which parts of ...

  12. Shikarpur lithic assemblage: New questions regarding Rohri chert blade production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charusmita Gadekar


    Full Text Available Recent excavations at Shikarpur, a fortified Harappan site situated near the Gulf of Kuchchh in Gujarat, Western India, brought to light a large collection of Rohri chert blades.  Chert found in the Rohri hill near Sukkur in Sindh, central Pakistan is distinctive and easily identifiable. The wide distribution of standardized Rohri chert blades is often regarded as a testimony to the Harappan efficiency in long distance trade and craft production.  The possibility of localized production of Rohri chert blades in Gujarat is often negated due to the constraints of raw-material availability.  The absence of Rohri chert working debitage from most of the sites in Gujarat, has lent support to this position. The Shikarpur Rohri blade assemblage however incorporates more than 650 blades, a large fluted blade-core and a few Rohri chert debitage.  These have led the excavators to suggest that some of the blades found at Shikarpur were locally produced from raw materials brought to the site from the Rohri hills.  Typo-technological features of the Rohri chert assemblage from Shikarpur have been analysed in this background. These along with metrical features of the assemblage are compared with Rohri chert assemblages from other major Harappan sites in the region to check the validity of the proposed ‘limited local production’.

  13. Multiscale variability of amphipod assemblages in Posidonia oceanica meadows (United States)

    Sturaro, Nicolas; Lepoint, Gilles; Vermeulen, Simon; Gobert, Sylvie


    The study of spatial patterns is important in understanding the causes of the distribution and abundance of organisms, and it also provides a valuable basis for management and conservation. Amphipod crustaceans are key organisms in seagrass ecosystems. However, little attention has been paid to the spatial scales at which amphipod assemblages may vary. We examined variability patterns of amphipod populations inhabiting Posidonia oceanica meadows, over spatial scales spanning four orders of magnitude (1 to 1000 meters) and for two consecutive years. This study reports the scales that contributed most to spatial variation of amphipod assemblages and explores the potential processes driving the observed patterns, with particular emphasis on habitat features. The number of species, the diversity, and the density of some species varied substantially across years. For most species the highest spatial variation in density and biomass occurred at small scales (1 and 10 meters). Based on density data, the structure of amphipod assemblages did not differ at any scales investigated. The patchiness that occurred at small scales may have been related to habitat features, but only weakly. Instead, we postulate that amphipod behavioral processes likely represent good explanatory factors. Although, small-scale spatial variability can be an important feature of amphipod assemblages in P. oceanica meadows, some patterns may have gone undetected because they occur at scales smaller than those investigated.

  14. Response of phytoplankton assemblages isolated for short periods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The response of phytoplankton assemblages isolated in enclosures for short periods of time was examined in hyper-eutrophic Lake Chivero (Harare, Zimbabwe), to determine the factors that influenced the structure of the phytoplankton community, after noticing a marked decline in the dominance of Microcystis aeruginosa ...

  15. Nestedness of snake assemblages on islands of an inundated lake

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    Yanping WANG, Xi WANG, Ping DING


    Full Text Available Nestedness is a pattern frequently reported for faunal assemblages in fragmented systems. Although nestedness has been documented for a wide range of taxa, it is rarely tested in snake assemblages. To arrive at robust generalizations about proce­sses and mechanisms structuring island biotas, it is important to examine under-represented taxa such as snakes for the insights they may offer. We tested for the existence of nestedness and underlying causal mechanisms using snake data collected on islands in the Thousand Island Lake, China. We used the line-transect method to survey snake occupancy and abundance on 20 islands during two breeding seasons in 2009 and 2010. We used the recently developed metric WNODF to estimate nestedness. We used Spearman rank correlations to examine the associations of nestedness and habitat variables (area, isolation, and habitat diversity as well as life-history traits (body size, clutch size, geographical range size and area requirement related to species extinction and immigration tendencies. Snake assemblages were significantly nested and were shaped by extinction processes mediated through area effects and habitat nestedness. The nestedness of snake assemblages was not due to passive sampling or selective colonization. From a conservation viewpoint, our results indicate that we should protect both the largest island with the most species-rich community and habitat-rich islands to maximize the number of species preserved [Current Zoology 58 (6: 828–836, 2012].

  16. Learning in the "Platform Society": Disassembling an Educational Data Assemblage (United States)

    Williamson, Ben


    Schools are increasingly involved in diverse forms of student data collection. This article provides a sociotechnical survey of a data assemblage used in education. ClassDojo is a commercial platform for tracking students' behaviour data in classrooms and a social media network for connecting teachers, students, and parents. The hybridization of…


    Recent studies have indicated that solar radiation can be a significant stressor of coral assemblages in tropical and subtropical marine environments. Here we review the scientific literature related to the interactions of solar radiation with coral reefs, with emphasis on harm...

  18. comparison of avifaunal assemblage and their association with plant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    disturbances on montane grassland birds in the northern Bale Mountains, Ethiopia, by compar- ing bird assemblages in protected and unpro- tected areas. The Bale Mountains region is part of the Conservation International's Eastern Afro- montane hotspot biodiversity area (Williams et al., 2004) and contains the largest ...

  19. Biostratigraphy and foraminiferal Assemblages of the West Siberian Albian (United States)

    Podobina, V. M.


    New data of the Biostratigraphy and Albian foraminiferal assemblages from the sections of newly drilled wells in the Yamal peninsula have been obtained. This territory is assigned by the author to the Northern palaeobiogeographical district, the southern border of which goes along the latitudinal flow of the Ob River. The most diverse Albian foraminiferal assemblages have been discovered in the section of borehole 50 of the Malyginskaya area as well as in the sections of borehole 124 of the West-Tambeiskaya, boreholes, 201, 205 of the North-Tambeiskaya areas. Somewhat similar Albian foraminiferal assemblages were earlier studied by the author in 10 sections of the boreholes of the Samatlor area in the latitudinal Ob River Region. The Middle Albian assemblage is the most stable and diverse in its specific respect. It was discovered not only in the identified sections in the Yamal wells but also southwards in the earlier explored areas. The Albian foraminiferal species of the Yamal peninsula are illustrated in 5 photos and 1 drawing.

  20. A Survey of the Benthic Macrofauna and Fish Species Assemblages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Survey of the Benthic Macrofauna and Fish Species Assemblages in a Mangrove Habitat in Ghana. ... fish species from both seasons were juveniles providing a strong justification for the observation that the mangrove habitats are nursery grounds for fish inhabiting adjacent riverine, estuarine and inshore marine habitats.

  1. Global assemblages and structural models of International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf


    , anarchically, in core-periphery relations or in terms of networks. However, not only subjects but also assemblages – the bringing together of previously unconnected elements into novel constellations – play a critical role in structuring international relations. More specifically, one sub...

  2. Assessing the Mess: Challenges to Assemblage Theory and Teacher Education (United States)

    Beighton, Chris


    This article examines the Deleuzian concept of "assemblage" in educational research in the context of Teacher Education (TE) for the "continuing education" or "Lifelong Learning" sector. Drawing on Deleuze's creative approach to analysis, it draws a portrait of practice which identifies problems and successes in…

  3. Temporal variability in epifaunal assemblages associated with temperate gorgonian gardens

    KAUST Repository

    Dias, I.M.


    The present study is one of the few that investigate the temporal variability of epifaunal assemblages associated with coral species, particularly the octocorals Eunicella gazella and Leptogorgia lusitanica in south Portugal. The results suggest time rather than colony size as a primary driver of the ecological patterns of these assemblages, which were dominated by amphipods, molluscs and polychaetes. Temporal variability was linked to changes in environmental parameters, namely temperature, chlorophyll a and particulate organic carbon. Hence, temporal variability must be taken into account for the design of future biodiversity assessment studies, as different patterns may be observed depending on the sampling time. Associated epifaunal assemblages were consistently dominated by resident species (i.e. species present in all sampling periods) and a peak of rare species was observed in the transition from spring to summer following the increase of seawater temperature. Turnover was particularly high in the transition between the spring and summer periods. In both hosts, turnover was higher in the small sized colonies, which generally harboured less diverse and less abundant assemblages which also differed from those inhabiting larger size colonies. The high levels of diversity associated with gorgonian colonies highlights the need for the conservation of this priority habitat.

  4. The ichthyoplankton assemblage of the Algoa Bay nearshore region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ichthyoplankton assemblage of the Algoa Bay nearshore region in relation to coastal zone utilization by juvenile fish. ... The paucity of larvae of coastal species with pelagic eggs is highlighted and, with reference to the findings of other workers and local oceanographic conditions, a possible spawning strategy is ...

  5. Relationships between structural complexity, coral traits, and reef fish assemblages (United States)

    Darling, Emily S.; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Januchowski-Hartley, Fraser A.; Nash, Kirsty L.; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Wilson, Shaun K.


    With the ongoing loss of coral cover and the associated flattening of reef architecture, understanding the links between coral habitat and reef fishes is of critical importance. Here, we investigate whether considering coral traits and functional diversity provides new insights into the relationship between structural complexity and reef fish communities, and whether coral traits and community composition can predict structural complexity. Across 157 sites in Seychelles, Maldives, the Chagos Archipelago, and Australia's Great Barrier Reef, we find that structural complexity and reef zone are the strongest and most consistent predictors of reef fish abundance, biomass, species richness, and trophic structure. However, coral traits, diversity, and life histories provided additional predictive power for models of reef fish assemblages, and were key drivers of structural complexity. Our findings highlight that reef complexity relies on living corals—with different traits and life histories—continuing to build carbonate skeletons, and that these nuanced relationships between coral assemblages and habitat complexity can affect the structure of reef fish assemblages. Seascape-level estimates of structural complexity are rapid and cost effective with important implications for the structure and function of fish assemblages, and should be incorporated into monitoring programs.

  6. Record of Lower Gondwana megafloral assemblage from Lower ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Based on megafloral assemblages, different beds exposed at Gopalpur and Laxamanpur Pahar are assigned here to the Lower Kamthi Formation (Late Permian). The floristic composition suggests that a warm and humid climate prevailed during the Late Permian. The status of the Kamthi Formation in the Ib River Coalfield ...

  7. Changes in density and composition of algal assemblages in certain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The water purification plants at Virginia and Bothaville, South Africa, experience problems with cyanobacteria and other algae. Their algal assemblages were studied during 2010 and 2011 to determine the dominant species that may pose problems in purification. Cyanobacteria, diatoms and green algae were the dominant ...

  8. Phytolith Assemblages in Grasses Native to Central Argentina


    GALLEGO, LUCRECIA; Distel, Roberto A.


    • Background and Aims Phytolith reference collections are a prerequisite for accurate interpretation of soil phytolith assemblages aimed at reconstructing past vegetation. In this study a phytolith reference collection has been developed for several grasses native to central Argentina: Poa ligularis, Piptochaetium napostaense, Stipa clarazii, Stipa tenuis, Stipa tenuissima, Stipa eriostachya, Stipa ambigua, Stipa brachychaeta, Pappophorum subbulbosum, Digitaria californica, Bothriochloa edwar...


    Vermaire, Jesse C; Prairie, Yves T; Gregory-Eaves, Irene


    Submerged macrophytes are a central component of lake ecosystems; however, little is known regarding their long-term response to environmental change. We have examined the potential of diatoms as indicators of past macrophyte biomass. We first sampled periphyton to determine whether habitat was a predictor of diatom assemblage. We then sampled 41 lakes in Quebec, Canada, to evaluate whether whole-lake submerged macrophyte biomass (BiomEpiV) influenced surface sediment diatom assemblages. A multivariate regression tree (MRT) was used to construct a semiquantitative model to reconstruct past macrophyte biomass. We determined that periphytic diatom assemblages on macrophytes were significantly different from those on wood and rocks (ANOSIM R = 0.63, P macrophyte, nutrient-limited lakes (BiomEpiV ≥525 μg · L(-1) ; total phosphorus [TP] macrophyte, nutrient-limited lakes (BiomEpiV eutrophic lakes (TP ≥35 μg · L(-1) ; six lakes). A semiquantitative model correctly predicted the MRT group of the lake 71% of the time (P macrophytes have a significant influence on diatom community structure and that sedimentary diatom assemblages can be used to infer past macrophyte abundance. © 2011 Phycological Society of America.

  10. Parasite assemblages in fish hosts | Iyaji | Bio-Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of various factors affecting parasite assemblages in fish hosts is presented. These factors are broadly divided into two: Biotic and abiotic factors. Biotic factors such as host age and size, host size and parasites size, host specificity, host diet and host sex and their influence on the abundance and distribution of ...

  11. Comparison of Avifaunal Assemblage and their Association with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study on the comparison of avifaunal assemblage in the protected and unprotected montane grassland ecosystems of the Bale Mountains National Park was conducted during the wet and dry seasons of 2011–12. Sampling sites based on disturbance were randomly identified and a transect line of one or less than one km ...

  12. The Liana assemblage of a Congolian rainforest : diversity, structure and dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ewango Ekokinya, Corneille


    Key words: Liana assemblage, species composition, community, dynamics, canopy openness, Manniophyton fulvum, functional traits, population density, pervasive change. This study analyzes the diversity, composition, and dynamics of the liana assemblage of the Ituri rain forest in northeastern DR

  13. Demersal Assemblages on the Soft Bottoms off the Catalan-Levante Coast of the Spanish Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano García-Rodríguez


    Full Text Available The analysis of 255 bottom trawl samples obtained in annual experimental surveys (2007–2010 along the western Mediterranean shows the existence of five well-defined demersal assemblages that follow a depth distribution: (a upper shelf assemblages, including two assemblages differentiated by the type of substrate (sand-muddy and terrigenous muddy bottoms; (b a middle shelf assemblage; (c an upper slope assemblage; (d a middle slope assemblage. Faunally, they are dominated by fish (37% of 452 total species, followed by crustaceans (22%, molluscs (17%, echinoderms (9%, and other invertebrates (15%. The assemblages identified showed major alterations on the shelf and shelf edge and less pronounced ones on the upper and middle slope. The average diversity values were more or less high, evidencing the high species richness in the western Mediterranean. The identified assemblages may facilitate future multispecies fisheries management based on an ecosystem approach.

  14. Ringwoodite-Olivine Assemblages in Dhofar 922 L6 Melt Veins (United States)

    Badjukov, D. D.; Brandstätter, F.; Kurat, G.; Libowitzky, E.; Raitala, J.


    Melt veins in the L6 chondrite Dhofar 922 contain olivine - ringwoodite assemblages. Compositions of these co-existing olivine and ringwoodite correspond to the formation of the assemblages at 1200 C and 12.7 GPa.

  15. Unraveling an antique subduction process from metamorphic basement around Medellín city, Central Cordillera of Colombian Andes (United States)

    Bustamante, Andres; Juliani, Caetano


    In the surroundings of Caldas and El Retiro cities (Colombia) metamorphic rocks derived from basic and pelitic protoliths comprise the Caldas amphibole schist and the Ancón schist respectively. Subordinated metamorphosed granite bodies (La Miel gneiss) are associated to these units, and The El Retiro amphibolites, migmatites and granulites crops out eastwards of these units, separated by shear zones. The Caldas amphibole schist and the Ancón schist protoliths could have been formed in a distal marine reduced environment and amalgamated to the South American continent in an apparent Triassic subduction event. The El Retiro rocks are akin to a continental basement and possible include impure metasediments of continental margin, whose metamorphism originated granulite facies rocks and migmatites as a result of the anatexis of quartz-feldspathic rocks. The metamorphism was accompanied by intense deformation, which has juxtaposed both migmatites and granulite blocks. Afterward, heat and fluid circulation associated with the emplacement of minor igneous intrusions resulted in intense fluid-rock interaction, variations in the grain size of the minerals and, especially, intense retrograde metamorphic re-equilibrium. Thermobarometric estimations for the Caldas amphibole schist indicate metamorphism in the Barrovian amphibolite facies. The metamorphic path is counter-clockwise, but retrograde evolution could not be precisely defined. The pressures of the metamorphism in these rocks range from 6.3 to 13.5 kbar, with narrow temperature ranging from 550 to 630 °C. For the Ancón schist metapelites the P- T path is also counter-clockwise, with a temperature increase evidenced by the occurrence of sillimanite and the cooling by later kyanite. The progressive metamorphism event occurred at pressures of 7.6-7.2 kbar and temperatures of 645-635 °C for one sample and temperature between 500 and 600 °C under constant pressure of 6 kbar. The temperature estimated for these rocks

  16. Metamorphic evolution of the Rechnitz metamorphic core complex in relation to the Neogene Pannonian basin, Eastern Alps: Constraints from Ar-Ar white mica ages (United States)

    Cao, Shuyun; Neubauer, Franz; Genser, Johann; Bernroider, Manfred; Friedl, Gertrude


    The exhumation of Cordilleran-type metamorphic core complexes (MCC) is generally related to largely contemporaneous collapse-type sedimentary basins (mainly halfgrabens). Here, we investigate the example of the Rechnitz MCC, which formed by Miocene orogen-parallel extension within the Neogene Pannonian basin. The Rechnitz MCC is located on the South Burgenland basement High within the western part of the Neogene Pannonian basin, with the Styrian basin in the west and the Danube basin in the east. The Rechnitz MCC is metamorphosed within greenschist facies conditions (maximum temperature of 430 °C) ideal for Ar-Ar white mica dating. For the first time, we undertook an extensive survey of 40Ar/39Ar white mica dating combined with microfabrics and electron microprobe compositional data and we compare the new data with major evolutionary stages of adjacent sedimentary basins, mainly based on re-evaluation of existing reflection seismic lines. The internal structure of the Rechnitz window is characterized by two tectonic cover nappes, a lower nappe with distal continental affinity, and an upper nappe representing the infilling of an oceanic basin. Both within greenschist facies metamorphic conditions and few blueschists were found in the northwestern part of the upper nappe. We found a number of distinct white mica age spectra: (1) A sample from the northwesternmost upper nappe yield a staircase pattern ranging from 14.8 ± 0.9 Ma to 41.5 ± 1.0 Ma. We interpret the older age is minimum age of high-pressure metamorphism and the younger age as age of overprint during extensional exhumation. (2) A number of samples from the western part, independent from positions within the nappes yield plateau ages between 20 and maximum 23 Ma and are variably affected by a younger thermal overprint between 13 and 15 Ma. (3) The eastern and lower units show plateau-like patterns with plateau ages of 17 - 19 Ma with a majority at ca. 18 Ma and a single younger outlier at ca. 16 Ma. Some

  17. Insights into a fossil plate interface of an erosional subduction zone: a tectono-metamorphic study of the Tianshan metamorphic belt. (United States)

    Bayet, Lea; Moritz, Lowen; Li, Jilei; Zhou, Tan; Agard, Philippe; John, Timm; Gao, Jun


    Subduction zone seismicity and volcanism are triggered by processes occurring at the slab-wedge interface as a consequence of metamorphic reactions, mass-transfer and deformation. Although the shallow parts of subduction zones (60km). In order to better understand the plate interface dynamics at these greater depths, one has to rely on the rock record from fossil subduction zones. The Chinese Tianshan metamorphic belt (TMB) represents an ideal candidate for such studies, because structures are well exposed with exceptionally fresh high-pressure rocks. Since previous studies from this area focused on fluid-related processes and its metamorphic evolution was assessed on single outcrops, the geodynamic setting of this metamorphic belt is unfortunately heavily debated. Here, we present a new geodynamic concept for the TMB based on detailed structural and petrological investigations on a more regional scale. A ~11km x 13km area was extensively covered, together with E-W and N-S transects, in order to produce a detailed map of the TMB. Overall, the belt is composed of two greenschist-facies units that constitute the northern and southern border of a large high-pressure (HP) to ultra high-pressure (UHP) unit in the center. This HP-UHP unit is mainly composed of metasediments and volcanoclastic rocks, with blueschist, eclogite and carbonate lenses. Only the southern part of the HP-UHP unit is composed of the uppermost part of an oceanic crust (e.g., pillow basalts and deep-sea carbonates). From south to north, the relative abundance and size of blueschist massive boudins and layers (as well as eclogite boudins) decreases and the sequence is increasingly interlayered with metasedimentary and carbonate-rich horizons. This indicates that the subducted material was dominated by trench filling made of sediments and volcanoclastic rocks, with only subordinate pieces of oceanic crust/lithosphere. The whole sequence is cut by km-scale major shear planes orientated WNW-ESE showing

  18. Middle-Upper Devonian And Lower Carboniferous Miospore Assemblages From Western Desert Of Egypt


    El Ghazaly, G. [جمال عبد المجيد الغزالي; Ali, S. M.


    Important morphological features of some spore assemblages from Middle-Upper Devonian and Lower Carboniferous of Western Desert of Egypt are described. Comparing the present assemblages with those obtained from other countries, there are differences among Libyan, Algerian, Saudi Arabian and the Egyptian spore assemblages. This might be due to different environmental conditions prevailed in these locations. Close similarities are recorded between South Ireland assemblages and the present one. ...

  19. Igneous activity, metamorphism, and deformation in the Mount Rogers area of SW Virginia and NW North Carolina: A geologic record of Precambrian tectonic evolution of the southern Blue Ridge Province (United States)

    Tollo, Richard P.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Mundil, Roland; Southworth, C. Scott; Cosca, Michael A.; Rankin, Douglas W.; Rubin, Allison E.; Kentner, Adrienne; Parendo, Christopher A.; Ray, Molly S.


    Mesoproterozoic basement in the vicinity of Mount Rogers is characterized by considerable lithologic variability, including major map units composed of gneiss, amphibolite, migmatite, meta-quartz monzodiorite and various types of granitoid. SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology and field mapping indicate that basement units define four types of occurrences, including (1) xenoliths of ca. 1.33 to ≥1.18 Ga age, (2) an early magmatic suite including meta-granitoids of ca. 1185–1140 Ma age that enclose or locally intrude the xenoliths, (3) metasedimentary rocks represented by layered granofels and biotite schist whose protoliths were likely deposited on the older meta-granitoids, and (4) a late magmatic suite composed of younger, ca. 1075–1030 Ma intrusive rocks of variable chemical composition that intruded the older rocks. The magmatic protolith of granofels constituting part of a layered, map-scale xenolith crystallized at ca. 1327 Ma, indicating that the lithology represents the oldest, intact crust presently recognized in the southern Appalachians. SHRIMP U-Pb data indicate that periods of regional Mesoproterozoic metamorphism occurred at 1170–1140 and 1070–1020 Ma. The near synchroneity in timing of regional metamorphism and magmatism suggests that magmas were emplaced into crust that was likely at near-solidus temperatures and that melts might have contributed to the regional heat budget. Much of the area is cut by numerous, generally east- to northeast-striking Paleozoic fault zones characterized by variable degrees of ductile deformation and recrystallization. These high-strain fault zones dismember the terrane, resulting in juxtaposition of units and transformation of basement lithologies to quartz- and mica-rich tectonites with protomylonitic and mylonitic textures. Mineral assemblages developed within such zones indicate that deformation and recrystallization likely occurred at greenschist-facies conditions at ca. 340 Ma.

  20. Depth as an organizer of fish assemblages in floodplain lakes (United States)

    Miranda, L.E.


    Depth reduction is a natural process in floodplain lakes, but in many basins has been accelerated by anthropogenic disturbances. A diverse set of 42 floodplain lakes in the Yazoo River Basin (Mississippi, USA) was examined to test the hypothesis of whether depth reduction was a key determinant of water quality and fish assemblage structure. Single and multiple variable analyses were applied to 10 commonly monitored water variables and 54 fish species. Results showed strong associations between depth and water characteristics, and between depth and fish assemblages. Deep lakes provided less variable environments, clearer water, and a wider range of microhabitats than shallow lakes. The greater environmental stability was reflected by the dominant species in the assemblages, which included a broader representation of large-body species, species less tolerant of extreme water quality, and more predators. Stability in deep lakes was further reflected by reduced among-lake variability in taxa representation. Fish assemblages in shallow lakes were more variable than deep lakes, and commonly dominated by opportunistic species that have early maturity, extended breeding seasons, small adult size, and short lifespan. Depth is a causal factor that drives many physical and chemical variables that contribute to organizing fish assemblages in floodplain lakes. Thus, correlations between fish and water transparency, temperature, oxygen, trophic state, habitat structure, and other environmental descriptors may ultimately be totally or partly regulated by depth. In basins undergoing rapid anthropogenic modifications, local changes forced by depth reductions may be expected to eliminate species available from the regional pool and could have considerable ecological implications. ?? 2010 Springer Basel AG (outside the USA).

  1. Nematode assemblages in the rhizosphere of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) depended on fertilisation and plant growth phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mette Vestergård


    rhizosphere; nitrogen and phosphorus fertilisation; nematode assemblages; plant parasites; barley......rhizosphere; nitrogen and phosphorus fertilisation; nematode assemblages; plant parasites; barley...

  2. Detrital U-Pb Zircon Dating of the Cenozoic Metamorphic Terrane in Taiwan Orogenic Belt and its Tectonic Implication (United States)

    Tsai, W.; Lee, Y.


    The Taiwan orogen resulted from the collision between the Philippine Sea plate and Eurasia plate since 6.5 Ma and comprises four geologic provinces. From east to west, they are the Coastal Range, the Backbone Range, the Hsuehshan Range, and the Western Foothills. The Coastal Range belongs to Philippine Sea plate. The Backbone Range and Hsuehshan Range are metamorphic terrane are composed of Cenozoic metamorphic terrane and pre-Tertianay metamorphic basement. The Cenozoic metamorphic terrane are lack of fossil and cut by several major faults that results in hard to obtain deposition age and stratigraphic correlation relationship. Here we analysis of more than 3000 grains of detrital U-Pb zircon ages to obtain the age spectrum from Eocene to Miocene metamorphic terrane. The major ages of the Eocene strata are less than 500 Ma; on the contrast the Miocene strata have high percentage of 1800 Ma. Instead of older ages (>100Ma) we found several groups of young U-Pb zircon age, ~39 Ma, ~ 44Ma, ~50 Ma in Eocene strata and 22~25 Ma in Miocene strata which are related with Cenozoic magmatism events in continental margin of Eurasia Plate. This young U-Pb zircon ages indicates the strata age should be younger or similar with these ages. The Eocene strata have been cut by several thrust faults and separated into different blocks. The metamorphic grade increases from west to east of the blocks. The U-Pb Zircon ages indicate the deposition age of the Eocene strata are similar (40Ma) but with different metamorphic grade across the major thrust fault that infers that those thrust faults are preexisting normal faults and are reactive as thrust fault during recently deformation. We also found that the major tectonic boundary "Lishan fault" is unconformity rather than faulting relationship.

  3. Lu/Hf dating of garnet constrains timing of metamorphism and deformation, Prince Rupert Area, British Columbia (United States)

    Wolf, D. E.; Andronicos, C. L.; Vervoort, J. D.; Mansfield, M.


    We present new Lu-Hf garnet ages that constrain the timing of deformation and metamorphism in the Western Metamorphic Belt (WMB), near Prince Rupert, British Columbia. We examined four samples of grt- bearing schist collected within the aureole to the Ecstall Pluton in the WMB. Garnets were separated from these rocks and dated using the Lu-Hf method at Washington State University. We determined geologically meaningful ages from three of these samples. The tectonic history of the Prince Rupert area is marked by phases of transpressive deformation, which included the development of crustal scale strike-slip shear zones and thrust slices with inverted metamorphic gradients. The Grenville Channel shear zone (GCSZ) is a crustal-scale sinistral-slip shear zone over 300 km long that strikes NW with a steep dip and shallow lineation. The GCSZ cuts through the WMB, a ductile fold and thrust belt composed of gneiss and schist with an inverted metamorphic sequence. Index minerals range from: chl and chd-grade units at the bottom of the sequence, str-bearing rocks in the middle, and ky-grt schist and local migmatites at the top of the thrust stack. The WMB was deformed and intruded by the Ecstall Pluton after the inverted metamorphic sequence had formed. The Ecstall is an epi-bearing hbl-qtz diorite emplaced between 91 and 93.5±1 Ma (Butler et al., 2001). Sample G-16A from Kumeleon Inlet (W of the Ecstall pluton) is a schist containing grt+biot+musc+qtz+epi+amph+sil, with small (date garnet growth during metamorphism and deformation in the Prince Rupert area, and show that development of the inverted metamorphic sequence predated emplacement of the Ecstall pluton by 10 to 15 Ma. The data further indicate that left lateral strike slip shearing occurred between 107 and 102 Ma, at the same time much of the North American Cordillera was undergoing major contractional deformation.

  4. Electron microprobe Th-U-Pb monazite dating and metamorphic evolution of the Acaiaca Granulite Complex, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros Junior, Edgar Batista; Marques, Rodson Abreu, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Alegre, ES (Brazil). Departamento de Geologia; Jordt-Evangelista, Hanna; Queiroga, Glaucia Nascimento, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil). Escola de Minas. Departamento de Geologia; Schulz, Bernhard, E-mail: [TU Bergakademie - Institute of Mineralogy, Freiberg - Saxony (Germany)


    The Acaiaca Complex (AC) is located in southeastern Minas Gerais state, and comprises felsic, mafic, ultramafic, and aluminous granulite as well as lower grade gneisses and mylonite. The complex is distributed over an area of ca. 36 km by 6 km, surrounded by amphibolite facies gneisses of the Mantiqueira Complex (MC). The discrepancy in the metamorphic grade between both complexes led to the present study aiming to understand the metamorphic history of the AC by means of geothermobarometry calculations and electron microprobe Th-U-Pb monazite dating. Estimates of the metamorphic conditions of the granulite based on conventional geothermobarometry and THERMOCALC resulted in temperatures around 800 deg C and pressures between of 5.0 and 9.9 kbar and a retro metamorphic path characterized by near-isobaric cooling. Part of the granulite was affected by anatexis. The melting of felsic granulite resulted in the generation of pegmatites and two aluminous lithotypes. These are: 1) garnet-sillimanite granulite with euhedral plagioclase and cordierite that show straight faces against quartz, and is the crystallization product of an anatectic melt, and 2) garnet-kyanite-cordierite granulite, which is probably the restite of anatexis, as indicated by textures and high magnesium contents. Th-U-Pb monazite geochronology of two granulite samples resulted in a metamorphic age around 2060 Ma, which is similar to the age of the MC registered in the literature. The similar Paleoproterozoic metamorphic ages of both complexes lead to the conclusion that the Acaiaca Complex may be the high grade metamorphic unit geochronological related to the lower grade Mantiqueira Complex. (author)

  5. Protocol for Monitoring Fish Assemblages in Pacific Northwest National Parks (United States)

    Brenkman, Samuel J.; Connolly, Patrick J.


    Rivers and streams that drain from Olympic, Mount Rainier, and North Cascades National Parks are among the most protected corridors in the lower 48 States, and represent some of the largest tracts of contiguous, undisturbed habitat throughout the range of several key fish species of the Pacific Northwest. These watersheds are of high regional importance as freshwater habitat sanctuaries for native fish, where habitat conditions are characterized as having little to no disturbance from development, channelization, impervious surfaces, roads, diversions, or hydroelectric projects. Fishery resources are of high ecological and cultural importance in Pacific Northwest National Parks, and significantly contribute to economically important recreational, commercial, and tribal fisheries. This protocol describes procedures to monitor trends in fish assemblages, fish abundance, and water temperature in eight rivers and five wadeable streams in Olympic National Park during summer months, and is based on 4 years of field testing. Fish assemblages link freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems. They also serve as focal resources of national parks and are excellent indicators of ecological conditions of rivers and streams. Despite the vital importance of native anadromous and resident fish populations, there is no existing monitoring program for fish assemblages in the North Coast and Cascades Network. Specific monitoring objectives of this protocol are to determine seasonal and annual trends in: (1) fish species composition, (2) timing of migration of adult fish, (3) relative abundance, (4) age and size structure, (5) extent of non-native and hatchery fish, and (6) water temperature. To detect seasonal and annual trends in fish assemblages in reference sites, we rely on repeated and consistent annual sampling at each monitoring site. The general rationale for the repeated sampling of reference sites is to ensure that we account for the high interannual variability in fish

  6. Gold deposits in metamorphic belts: Overview of current understanding, outstanding problems, future research, and exploration significance (United States)

    Groves, D.I.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Robert, F.; Hart, C.J.R.


    Metamorphic belts are complex regions where accretion or collision has added to, or thickened, continental crust. Gold-rich deposits can be formed at all stages of orogen evolution, so that evolving metamorphic belts contain diverse gold deposit types that may be juxtaposed or overprint each other. This partly explains the high level of controversy on the origin of some deposit types, particularly those formed or overprinted/remobilized during the major compressional orogeny that shaped the final geometry of the hosting metamorphic belts. These include gold-dominated orogenic and intrusion-related deposits, but also particularly controversial gold deposits with atypical metal associations. There are a number of outstanding problems for all types of gold deposits in metamorphc belts. These include the following: (1) definitive classifications, (2) unequivocal recognition of fluid and metal sources, (3) understanding of fluid migration and focusing at all scales, (4) resolution of the precise role of granitoid magmatism, (5) precise gold-depositional mechanisms, particularly those producing high gold grades, and (6) understanding of the release of CO2-rich fluids from subducting slabs and subcreted oceanic crust and granitoid magmas at different crustal levels. Research needs to be better coordinated and more integrated, such that detailed fluid-inclusion, trace-element, and isotopic studies of both gold deposits and potential source rocks, using cutting-edge technology, are embedded in a firm geological framework at terrane to deposit scales. Ultimately, four-dimensional models need to be developed, involving high-quality, three-dimensional geological data combined with integrated chemical and fluid-flow modeling, to understand the total history of the hydrothermal systems involved. Such research, particularly that which can predict superior targets visible in data sets available to exploration companies before discovery, has obvious spin-offs for global- to deposit

  7. Sulfate incorporation in monazite lattice: potential for dating the cycle of sulfur in metamorphic belts (United States)

    Laurent, Antonin; Seydoux-Guillaume, Anne-Magali; Duchene, Stéphanie; Bingen, Bernard; Bosse, Valérie


    Monazite is a common accessory mineral in magmatic and metamorphic rocks that often shows complex chemical zoning at the μm- to nm-scale. The large number of cations that may be accommodated in its lattice, makes monazite particularly responsive to changes in the rock-forming minerals and fluid composition. Chemical zoning resulting from replacement or overgrowth may coincide, or not, with age zoning derived from U-Th-Pb isotopes. In this study, we focus on the potential for monazite to record both the redox condition of its crystalizing medium and an absolute U-Th-Pb isotopic age, during polyphase metamorphism in the Proterozoic province of Rogaland, S. Norway. The metamorphic evolution of several samples is derived from phase diagrams and the oxygen fugacity estimated from the FeO/Fe2O3 ratio measured by titration. Monazite grains were mapped at high spatial resolution for minor elements with electron microprobe, revealing convolute chemical zoning. Some of these zones yield appreciable content of S (up to 7000 ppm), accommodated following the Ca2+ + S6+ = REE3+ + P5+ substitution vector. The incorporation of sulfate in monazite has been subsequently investigated by TEM thanks to site specific FIB preparations. Besides, LA-ICP-MS U-Pb isotopic ages of monazite grains show a remarkable correlation with the sulfate content. It is therefore possible to distinguish different generations of monazite based on their S-content. From our petrological study we conclude that sulfate-bearing monazite reflects incongruent melting of Fe-Cu-As sulfides under oxidizing conditions, coeval with biotite dehydration melting. Monazite may therefore be used to probe the presence of sulfur in anatectic melts from high-grade terrains at a specific point in time. This property can be used to investigate the mineralization potential of a given geological event within a larger orogenic framework.

  8. Three Dimensional Petrography of Kernouve: A Story of Vein Formation, Compaction, and Metamorphism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, J.M.; Ruzicka, A.; Ebel, D.S.; Thostenson, J.; Rudolph, R.A.; Rivers, M.L.; Macke, R.J.; Britt, D.T. (Central Florida); (AMNH); (Portland SU); (UC); (Fordham)


    Metallic veins in ordinary chondrites, like those found in Kernouve (H5, S1), have been attributed to impact or shock processes on the parent body. However, Kernouve is widely known to exhibit few traditional signs of shock loading and has a very old {sup 39}Ar-{sup 40}Ar age (4.46 Ga), making the significance of vein formation in Kernouve unclear. One possibility is early vein formation followed by partial obliteration due to thermal metamorphism. We examine this scenario here. The metal vein in Kernouve can be explained as a pre-metamorphic shock-induced structure, given the evidence for current weak compaction and low shock stage. However, it is not clear how one explains high porosity and low shock stage if the meteorite experienced early shock sufficiently strong to mobilize metal into a vein-like structure. Some combination of unusual conditions during shock (e.g. high temperatures) or mobility of metal during metamorphism may be needed. One possible mechanism occurring early on the H chondrite parent body follows: blocks of slightly indurated but porous material were disturbed by an impact which caused a physical concentration of metallic phases akin to slickensides. Shearing of these materials caused the warm, ductile metal grains to be concentrated on rock surfaces. This process would have imparted the rocks with indicators cited by as shock induced. This event happened early in the history of the chondrite otherwise shearing forces would have imparted a preferred orientation upon the metal grains. Subsequent annealing due to radiogenic heating erased any preferential orientation and further coalesced the vein metal. The final compaction of the material occurred yielding the porosity seen in the samples today. The material escaped other major shock episodes.

  9. mRNA/microRNA Profile at the Metamorphic Stage of Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Xie


    Full Text Available Flatfish is famous for the asymmetric transformation during metamorphosis. The molecular mechanism behind the asymmetric development has been speculated over a century and is still not well understood. To date, none of the metamorphosis-related genes has been identified in flatfish. As the first step to screen metamorphosis-related gene, we constructed a whole-body cDNA library and a whole-body miRNA library in this study and identified 1051 unique ESTs, 23 unique miRNAs, and 4 snoRNAs in premetamorphosing and prometamorphosing Paralichthys olivaceus. 1005 of the ESTs were novel, suggesting that there was a special gene expression profile at metamorphic stage. Four miRNAs (pol-miR-20c, pol-miR-23c, pol-miR-130d, and pol-miR-181e were novel to P. olivaceus; they were characterized as highly preserved homologies of published miRNAs but with at least one nucleotide differed. Representative 24 mRNAs and 23 miRNAs were quantified during metamorphosis of P. olivaceus by using quantitative RT PCR or stem-loop qRT PCR. Our results showed that 20 of mRNAs might be associated with early metamorphic events, 10 of mRNAs might be related with later metamorphic events, and 16 of miRNAs might be involved in the regulation of metamorphosis. The data provided in this study would be helpful for further identifying metamorphosis-related gene in P. olivaceus.

  10. Leaf litter resource quality induces morphological changes in wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) metamorphs. (United States)

    Stoler, Aaron B; Stephens, Jeffrey P; Relyea, Rick A; Berven, Keith A; Tiegs, Scott D


    For organisms that exhibit complex life cycles, resource conditions experienced by individuals before metamorphosis can strongly affect phenotypes later in life. Such resource-induced effects are known to arise from variation in resource quantity, yet little is known regarding effects stemming from variation in resource quality (e.g., chemistry). For larval anurans, we hypothesized that variation in resource quality will induce a gradient of effects on metamorph morphology. We conducted an outdoor mesocosm experiment in which we manipulated resource quality by rearing larval wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) under 11 leaf litter treatments. The litter species represented plant species found in open- and closed-canopy wetlands and included many plant species of current conservation concern (e.g., green ash, common reed). Consistent with our hypothesis, we found a gradient of responses for nearly all mass-adjusted morphological dimensions. Hindlimb dimensions and gut mass were positively associated with litter nutrient content and decomposition rate. In contrast, forelimb length and head width were positively associated with concentrations of phenolic acids and dissolved organic carbon. Limb lengths and widths were positively related with the duration of larval period, and we discuss possible hormonal mechanisms underlying this relationship. There were very few, broad differences in morphological traits of metamorphs between open- and closed-canopy litter species or between litter and no-litter treatments. This suggests that the effects of litter on metamorph morphology are litter species-specific, indicating that the effects of changing plant community structure in and around wetlands will largely depend on plant species composition.

  11. Bedrock assemblages of the Bering Strait region: Implications for offshore metal sources in the marine environment: A section in Geologic studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1998 (United States)

    Hudson, Travis L.; Saltus, Richard W.


    The Bering Strait region is important habitat for Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens). Elevated metal levels in tissues of some walrus have raised concerns about the sources of these metals. This study synthesizes and integrates onshore geology, regional gravity and magnetic data, and information about mineral deposits and the natural processes that weather, erode, and disperse metals in the Bering Strait region. In this region (Seward Peninsula, St. Lawrence Island, Chukotsk Peninsula, and intervening areas of the Bering Sea shelf), six bedrock assemblages can be defined and extended from onshore to offshore areas. These assemblages include (1) Paleozoic sedimentary and low-grade metasedimentary rocks, (2) upper Paleozoic to Triassic sedimentary and related mafic igneous rocks, (3) Mesozoic high-pressure, low-temperature metamorphic rocks, (4) Cretaceous amphibolite-facies metamorphic rocks, (5) Cretaceous volcanic and related intrusive rocks, and (6) Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic rocks. Cretaceous plutonic rocks are widely scattered and locally intrude all of the pre-Tertiary bedrock assemblages. The distribution and thickness of Tertiary sedimentary rocks can be approximated in offshore areas using satellite gravity data. The resulting new map shows that about 40 percent of the offshore Bering Strait region may have bedrock at or near the sea floor. Some mineral deposits and rock units with high background metal contents are associated with specific bedrock assemblages whereas other mineral deposits are more regionally distributed. The mineral deposits of the region are mostly types that contain Cu, Pb, Zn, Ag, Mo, Sn, or Au (or certain combinations of these metals) and elevated concentrations of associated elements, such as As, Bi, Be, B, Sb, and F. The mineral deposits have been physically and chemically weathered and eroded by both subaerial and marine processes. Marine processes have been particularly important as the region has experienced

  12. The Kenna ureilite - An ultramafic rock with evidence for igneous, metamorphic, and shock origin (United States)

    Berkley, J. L.; Brown, H. G.; Keil, K.; Carter, N. L.; Mercier, J.-C. C.; Huss, G.


    Ureilites are a rare group of achondrites. They are composed mainly of olivine and pigeonite in a matrix of carbonaceous material, including graphite, lonsdaleite, diamond, and metal. In most respects Kenna is a typical ureilite with the requisite mineralogical and chemical properties of the group. Differences of the Kenna ureilite from previously studied ureilites are related to a greater density, the occurrence of exceedingly minute quantities of feldspar, and a very strong elongation lineation of the silicate minerals. A description is presented of a study which indicates a complex history for Kenna, including igneous, mild metamorphic, and shock processes.

  13. Fused embryos and pre-metamorphic conjoined larvae in a broadcast spawning reef coral. (United States)

    Jiang, Lei; Lei, Xin-Ming; Liu, Sheng; Huang, Hui


    Fusion of embryos or larvae prior to metamorphosis is rarely known to date in colonial marine organisms. Here, we document for the first time that the embryos of the broadcast spawning coral Platygyra daedalea could fuse during blastulation and further develop into conjoined larvae, and the settlement of conjoined larvae immediately resulted in inborn juvenile colonies. Fusion of embryos might be an adaptive strategy to form pre-metamorphic chimeric larvae and larger recruits, thereby promoting early survival. However, future studies are needed to explore whether and to what extent fusion of coral embryos occurs in the field, and fully evaluate its implications.

  14. In-situ Nd isotope measurements on accessory minerals: Insights into isotope equilibration during metamorphism (United States)

    Hammerli, Johannes; Spandler, Carl; Kemp, Tony; Pirard, Cassian


    Understanding isotope equilibration processes during metamorphism has huge implications for a range of geoscience applications, ranging from provenance studies of sedimentary units to the origin of magmas and ore bodies. Furthermore, recent claims of isotope disequilibrium situations during the melting of continental crust have questioned the reliability of using certain isotope systems to track magma sources. Our recent work investigated a prograde sequence of high-temperature, low-pressure (350-650 ˚C, ~3-5 kbar) metasedimentary rocks from the Mt. Lofty Ranges, South Australia that underwent widespread pervasive fluid flow at peak metamorphism. In situ Nd-isotope analyses by LA-MC-ICP-MS found that the detrital signature of apatite survives temperatures of 500 °C. However, the observed isotope equilibration of REE-bearing accessory minerals at ~600 °C, before the onset of partial melting, suggests that isotope disequilibrium is unlikely during high-grade metamorphism of upper crustal rocks where fluid induced melting takes place. Here, we extend our research to metasedimentary rocks from (ultra)-high pressure metamorphic terrains from northern New Caledonia, and Dabieshan, China that represent pressure and temperature conditions found in subduction zones. Our study helps to understand isotope equilibration processes from heterogeneous protoliths as well as the impact of retrogression and the resetting of isotope systems over a pressure-temperature range from ~350 °C to 700 °C and ~15 kbar to 40 kbar. Nd isotope analyses of apatite, allanite, titanite, xenotime, monazite, lawsonite and epidote in pelitic and psammitic samples allow the investigation of isotope equilibration on a mineral and sub-mineral scale, as well as comparison with traditional bulk rock isotope analyses. Our preliminary results show that under high-pressure conditions (~20 to 30 kbar) and temperatures to ~650 °C, REE-bearing phases show variable ɛNd values in some cases. These

  15. Comparison of thermoluminescence (TL) and cathodoluminescence (ESEM-CL) properties between hydrothermal and metamorphic quartzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topaksu, M., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Art, Adiyaman University, 02040 Adiyaman (Turkey); Correcher, V. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Garcia-Guinea, J. [CSIC, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Topak, Y. [Adiyaman University, Vocational High School, 02040 Adiyaman (Turkey); Goeksu, H.Y. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Art, Adiyaman University, 02040 Adiyaman (Turkey)


    This paper reports on the Thermoluminescence (TL) and Cathodoluminescence (CL) emission of well-characterized hydrothermal milky quartz specimens from Hakkari in Turkey, labeled THQ, and Madrid in Spain, labeled SHQ, and metamorphic quartz from Madrid, in Spain, labeled SMQ. Both hydrothermal and metamorphic quartz samples display similar UV-IR CL spectra consisting of five groups of components centered at 330 nm and 380 nm linked to [AlO{sub 4}] Degree-Sign centers, 420 nm due to intrinsic defects such as oxygen vacancies, lattice defects, and impurities which modify the crystal structure, 480 nm associated with [AlO{sub 4}] Degree-Sign centers of substitutional Al{sup 3+}, and a red broad band related to the hydroxyl defects in the quartz lattice as precursors of non-bridging oxygen hole centers (NBOHC) and substitutional point defects. The Turkish quartz specimen exhibits higher CL intensity in the UV region (up to 330 nm) than the Spanish specimens probably linked to the presence of Ca (0.95% in THQ and less than 0.1% in SHQ and SMQ). At wavelengths greater than 330 nm, SMQ (formed at high pressure 6000 bars and temperatures over 500-600 Degree-Sign C) shows higher intensity than the hydrothermal (growth at 2000 bars and temperatures 200-300 Degree-Sign C) samples associated with the formation process. The natural blue TL glow curves of both THQ and SHQ display a weaker TL intensity than the SMQ, attributable to the Al (0.32%), Ti (0.14%), K (0.01%) and Zr (76 ppm) content. It is shown that mineralogical formation, crystallinity index and the content of the impurities seem to be the main parameters of influence in the shape intensity of the CL and TL glow curve emission. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We reported on the TL and CL emission of well-characterized hydrothermal milky and metamorphic quartz specimens. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal and metamorphic quartz samples displayed similar UV-IR CL spectra. Black

  16. Fate of gold and base metals during metamorphic devolatilization of a pelite (United States)

    Zhong, Richen; Brugger, Joël; Tomkins, Andrew G.; Chen, Yanjing; Li, Wenbo


    Scavenging of gold during metamorphic devolatilization is a widely accepted model for fluid and metal sourcing in orogenic gold deposits. In order to further constrain this process and quantify the capacity of autogenous fluids to release metals from pelites, we investigated the behaviors of S, Au, As, Cu, Pb, and Zn during pelite metamorphic devolatilization using thermodynamic modeling within the Al-As-Au-Cl-Cu-Fe-H-K-Mg-Na-O-Pb-S-Si-Ti-Zn system over a P-T range of 350-650 °C and 0.8-5 kbar. The model revealed that S, Au and base metals are predominantly released via partitioning into the fluid phase during reactions that liberate H2O: the dehydration of chlorite and muscovite, and to a lesser extent, the replacement of pyrite by pyrrhotite. Negligible sulfur is liberated during the pyrite-pyrrhotite transition, because the excess sulfur reacts with Fe in chlorite and muscovite to form pyrrhotite. The sulfidation of chlorite/muscovite releases water, so that a significant amount of Au can be liberated from S-rich pelites at the pyrite to pyrrhotite transition: up to 0.5 ppb Au (as a proportion of bulk rock) can be stripped from a pelite containing 1 wt.% sulfur, whereas only trace amounts of base metals can be mobilized under these conditions. Chlorite dehydration is the most important process in metal extraction; up to 2 ppb Au, 1.5 ppm Cu, 1 ppm Pb and 2 ppm Zn (as proportions of bulk rock) can be extracted from a pelite by autogenous fluids upon crossing the greenschist-amphibolite facies boundary. In comparison, an average pelite contains ∼3 ppb Au, indicating that most Au within an average pelite can be scavenged as a result of the breakdown of chlorite. Prograde metamorphism is an efficient mechanism for generating Au-bearing ore fluids: most Au can be extracted during chlorite dehydration from a source rock of average pelitic composition. In contrast, only a small portion of base metals can be released in autogenous fluids, and therefore only minor

  17. Petrology of Amoeboid Olivine Aggregates in Antarctic CR Chondrites: Evidence for Aqueous Alteration and Shock Metamorphism (United States)

    Komatsu, M.; Fagan, T. J.; Yamaguchi, A.; Mikouchi, T.; Yasutake, M.; Zolensky, M. E.


    CR chondrites are the group of carbonaceous chondrites that preserve records of formation of their components in the solar nebula. Although they are affected by aqueous alteration, many chondrules and CAIs are well-preserved, suggesting they have experienced little thermal metamorphism. We have been investigating the petrologic variations among the CR chondrites in Japanese-NIPR Antarctic meteorite collection. Especially we focused on the petrology of amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs) in order to understand secondary alteration on CR chondrite parent body. AOAs are composed of fine-grained forsteritic olivine and refractory minerals formed by condensation from solar nebula, and can be used as sensitive indicators of secondary alteration processes.

  18. Extensive seismic anisotropy in the lower crust of Archean metamorphic terrain, South India, inferred from ambient noise tomography (United States)

    Das, Ritima; Rai, S. S.


    We use Rayleigh and Love wave empirical Green's function (EGF) recovered from the cross correlation of seismic ambient noise to study the spatial distribution of radial anisotropy in the southern India crust. The corresponding dispersion curves in the period 2 to 32 s are measured from ambient noise data recorded at 57 sites, and the strength of anisotropy computed from the discrepancy between shear velocities obtained from Rayleigh (VSV) and Love (VSH) at various depths down to 40 km. In upper crust (up to a depth of 20 km) the region is characterized by anisotropy coefficients of - 2 to + 2% that could be explained due to a combination of fluid-filled open cracks and foliated metamorphic rocks. At deeper levels (beyond 20 km), except for the Archean metamorphic terrain, most part of south India has anisotropies of up to 5%. This may be due to rocks with varying degree of metamorphism. Beneath the Archean metamorphic terrain, the anisotropy is recorded up to 9% in the depth range of 20-40 km. This high anisotropy is unlikely to be the manifestation of any recent geodynamic process, considering that the region has low surface heat flow ( 30 mW/m2). We propose that the observed strong anisotropy in the metamorphic belt of southern India crust could best be explained as due to the presence of micaceous minerals or amphiboles in the deep crust that are formed possibly during the evolution of granulite terrain at 2.5 Ga.

  19. New geochemical and geochronological data constraining metamorphism of the Tavşanlı Zone, NW Turkey (United States)

    Aydın, Halil Can; Özdamar, Şenel


    The Tavşanlı Zone is a high-grade metamorphic belt, representing subduction and exhumation between the Sakarya Zone and the Afyon-Bolkardaǧ Zone in Western Anatolia. The Sivrihisar area of the Tavşanlı Zone comprises Paleozoic metamorphic rocks including sedimentary and magmatic origanated; Eocene granites; Neogene sedimentary rocks and alluvium. Metasedimantary rocks are composed of marble, schist and quartzite. Metamagmatics are gneiss and metabazites. This study presents new and precise, whole-rock chemistry; phengite-40Ar/39Ar age data from this area to constrain the high pressure (HP)-low temperature (LT) metamorphism of the Tavşanlı Zone. 40Ar/39Ar dating of two phengite samples from schists gave plateau ages between 82,5 ± 0,14 and 83,29 ± 0,22 Ma, which are interpreted as the metamorphic age of these schists, and as the age of metamorphism affected the Tavşanlı Zone. Also these ages constrain the timing of the closure of the Neo-Tethys.

  20. Mass transfer and fluid evolution in late-metamorphic veins, Rhenish Massif (Germany): insight from alteration geochemistry and fluid-mineral equilibria modeling (United States)

    Marsala, Achille; Wagner, Thomas


    Element mobility and fluid-rock interaction related to the formation of late-metamorphic quartz veins have been studied by combination of mineral chemistry, whole-rock geochemistry, mass balance analysis and fluid-mineral equilibria modeling. The quartz veins are hosted by very low-grade metasedimentary rocks of the fold-and-thrust belt of the Rhenish Massif (Germany). The veins record two stages of evolution, a massive vein filling assemblage with elongate-blocky quartz, chlorite, apatite and albite, and a later open space filling assemblage with euhedral crystals of quartz, ankerite-dolomite and minor calcite and sulfides. Detailed mass balance analysis of an alteration profile adjacent to a representative quartz vein demonstrates that element mobility is restricted to the proximal zone. The most important element changes are gain of Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, P and CO2, and loss of Si, K and Na. The data demonstrate that wall-rock carbonation is one of the main alteration features, whereas mobility of Si, K and Na are related to dissolution of quartz and destruction of detrital feldspar and muscovite. The whole-rock geochemical data, in conjunction with fluid composition data and pressure-temperature estimates, were used as input for fluid-mineral equilibria modeling in the system Si-Al-Fe-Mg-Ca-Na-K-C-S-O-H-B-F-Cl. Modeling involved calculation of rock-buffered fluid compositions over the temperature interval 100-500 °C, and reaction-path simulations where a rock-buffered high-temperature fluid reacts with fresh host-rocks at temperatures of 400, 300 and 200 °C. Calculated rock-buffered fluid compositions demonstrate that retrograde silica solubility is a strong driving force for quartz leaching in the temperature-pressure window of 380-450 °C and 0.5 kbar. These conditions overlap with the estimated temperatures for the initial stage of vein formation. Reaction-path models show that high-temperature alteration can produce the observed silica leaching, suggesting that

  1. Faunistic assemblages of a sublittoral coarse sand habitat of the northwestern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Pubill


    Full Text Available The sublittoral megabenthic assemblages of a northwestern Mediterranean coarse sandy beach exploited for the bivalve Callista chione were studied. The spatial and bathymetric variability of its distinctive faunal assemblages was characterised by quantitative sampling performed with a clam dredge. The taxa studied were Mollusca Bivalvia and Gastropoda, Crustacea Decapoda, Echinodermata and Pisces, which accounted for over 99% of the total biomass. Three well-differentiated species assemblages were identified: (1 assemblage MSS (Medium Sand Shallow in medium sand (D50=0.37 mm and shallow waters (mean depth =6.5 m, (2 assemblage CSS (Coarse Sand Shallow in coarse sand (D50=0.62 mm in shallow waters (mean depth =6.7 m, and (3 assemblage CSD (Coarse Sand Deep in coarse sand (D50=0.64 mm in deeper waters (mean depth =16.2 m. Assemblage MSS was characterised by the codominance of the bivalves Mactra stultorum and Acanthocardia tuberculata. C. chione was dominant in both density and biomass in assemblages CSS and CSD. The occurrence of the crab Thia scutellata also characterised assemblage CSS, whereas the occurrence of the sea urchin Echinocardium mediterraneum characterised assemblage CSD. A depth breaking point of around 10 m determined the discontinuity between assemblages CSS and CSD, which was related to the closure depth of the beaches in the study area. Species richness was highest in the coarse sand communities; however, Shannon-Wiener diversity and Pielou equitability indexes were higher in the shallow fine sand community.

  2. Power is sweet: sugarcane in the global ethanol assemblage. (United States)

    Hollander, Gail


    New alliances between Brazil and the US for ethanol production, transport, and trade are revitalising and expanding the centuries -old sugarcane plantation system in the Americas. In this paper I adopt the concept of global assemblages, building on the work of Aihwa Ong, Stephen Collier, and Saskia Sassen, to draw the contours of an "ethanol assemblage," which includes states, corporations, growers, technologies, urban consumers, and rural communities and landscapes. Though important to conceptualise agrofuels as a global phenomenon, it is also necessary to recognise the distinct regional patterns that cohere around various aspects of this polymorphous industry. Therefore, I focus on alliances around sugarcane ethanol, paying particular attention to the role of Miami as a global city serving as a gateway to information, investment, and commodities for the public/private and national/transnational entities that are engaged in the hemispheric project of ethanol promotion, production and distribution.

  3. Hybrid carbon nanostructure assemblage for high performance pseudo-capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Mishra


    Full Text Available Investigation of novel nanocomposites for pseudo-capacitors with high capacitance and energy density is the spotlight of current energy research. In the present work, hybrid carbon nanostructure assemblage of graphene and multiwalled carbon nanotubes has been used as carbon support to nanostructured RuO2 and polyaniline for high energy supercapacitors. Maximum specific capacitances of 110, 235 and 440 F g−1 at the voltage sweep rate of 10 mV s−1 and maximum energy densities of 7, 12.5 and 20.5 Wh kg−1 were observed for carbon assemblage and its RuO2 and polyanilne decorated nanocomposites, respectively, with 1M H2SO4 as electrolyte.

  4. Conceptualizing Autoethnography as Assemblage: Accounts of Occupational Therapy Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Denshire PhD


    Full Text Available Drawing on theoretical work within ethnography and poststructuralism, this article discusses a conceptualization of autoethnography as assemblage. The concept of assemblage includes but goes beyond the literal bringing together of a range of heterogeneous elements in different modalities to offer different perspectives on a phenomenon. It challenges and displaces boundaries between the individual and the social through a focus on practice, which offers a new ontology of the social. These ideas are illustrated through excerpts from an autoethnographic study of an occupational therapist working with young people in a Sydney children's hospital in the mid-1980s. The article makes visible a material, relational, and affective landscape of remembered practice. Through successive displacements of the self as the primary site of experience and meaning, we seek to contribute new understandings about the potential for autoethnography to engage with professional practice as a space of multiplicity.

  5. Assemblage time series reveal biodiversity change but not systematic loss. (United States)

    Dornelas, Maria; Gotelli, Nicholas J; McGill, Brian; Shimadzu, Hideyasu; Moyes, Faye; Sievers, Caya; Magurran, Anne E


    The extent to which biodiversity change in local assemblages contributes to global biodiversity loss is poorly understood. We analyzed 100 time series from biomes across Earth to ask how diversity within assemblages is changing through time. We quantified patterns of temporal α diversity, measured as change in local diversity, and temporal β diversity, measured as change in community composition. Contrary to our expectations, we did not detect systematic loss of α diversity. However, community composition changed systematically through time, in excess of predictions from null models. Heterogeneous rates of environmental change, species range shifts associated with climate change, and biotic homogenization may explain the different patterns of temporal α and β diversity. Monitoring and understanding change in species composition should be a conservation priority.

  6. A new Lower Triassic ichthyopterygian assemblage from Fossil Hill, Nevada. (United States)

    Kelley, Neil P; Motani, Ryosuke; Embree, Patrick; Orchard, Michael J


    We report a new ichthyopterygian assemblage from Lower Triassic horizons of the Prida Formation at Fossil Hill in central Nevada. Although fragmentary, the specimens collected so far document a diverse fauna. One partial jaw exhibits isodont dentition with blunt tipped, mesiodistally compressed crowns and striated enamel. These features are shared with the Early Triassic genus Utatsusaurus known from coeval deposits in Japan and British Columbia. An additional specimen exhibits a different dentition characterized by relatively small, rounded posterior teeth resembling other Early Triassic ichthyopterygians, particularly Grippia. This Nevada assemblage marks a southward latitudinal extension for Early Triassic ichthyopterygians along the eastern margin of Panthalassa and indicates repeated trans-hemispheric dispersal events in Early Triassic ichthyopterygians.

  7. A new Lower Triassic ichthyopterygian assemblage from Fossil Hill, Nevada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil P. Kelley


    Full Text Available We report a new ichthyopterygian assemblage from Lower Triassic horizons of the Prida Formation at Fossil Hill in central Nevada. Although fragmentary, the specimens collected so far document a diverse fauna. One partial jaw exhibits isodont dentition with blunt tipped, mesiodistally compressed crowns and striated enamel. These features are shared with the Early Triassic genus Utatsusaurus known from coeval deposits in Japan and British Columbia. An additional specimen exhibits a different dentition characterized by relatively small, rounded posterior teeth resembling other Early Triassic ichthyopterygians, particularly Grippia. This Nevada assemblage marks a southward latitudinal extension for Early Triassic ichthyopterygians along the eastern margin of Panthalassa and indicates repeated trans-hemispheric dispersal events in Early Triassic ichthyopterygians.

  8. Participating Technologies? Nonhuman Others and Socio-Material Assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina


    This talk takes up the conversation analytical understanding of participation and combines it with the idea of technical agency developed in actor-network theory (Latour 2005). Rather than depicting nonhumans as objects of human actions, actor-network theory understands actions as socio-material...... the practice of walking can only be establish by the close interplay of a hybrid assemblage consisting of the material affordances of the technology, the bodily affordances of the user and the scaffolding by the accompanying helpers....

  9. Characterizing lentic freshwater fish assemblages using multiple sampling methods. (United States)

    Fischer, Jesse R; Quist, Michael C


    Characterizing fish assemblages in lentic ecosystems is difficult, and multiple sampling methods are almost always necessary to gain reliable estimates of indices such as species richness. However, most research focused on lentic fish sampling methodology has targeted recreationally important species, and little to no information is available regarding the influence of multiple methods and timing (i.e., temporal variation) on characterizing entire fish assemblages. Therefore, six lakes and impoundments (48-1,557 ha surface area) were sampled seasonally with seven gear types to evaluate the combined influence of sampling methods and timing on the number of species and individuals sampled. Probabilities of detection for species indicated strong selectivities and seasonal trends that provide guidance on optimal seasons to use gears when targeting multiple species. The evaluation of species richness and number of individuals sampled using multiple gear combinations demonstrated that appreciable benefits over relatively few gears (e.g., to four) used in optimal seasons were not present. Specifically, over 90 % of the species encountered with all gear types and season combinations (N = 19) from six lakes and reservoirs were sampled with nighttime boat electrofishing in the fall and benthic trawling, modified-fyke, and mini-fyke netting during the summer. Our results indicated that the characterization of lentic fish assemblages was highly influenced by the selection of sampling gears and seasons, but did not appear to be influenced by waterbody type (i.e., natural lake, impoundment). The standardization of data collected with multiple methods and seasons to account for bias is imperative to monitoring of lentic ecosystems and will provide researchers with increased reliability in their interpretations and decisions made using information on lentic fish assemblages.

  10. TNT Biodegradation by Natural Microbial Assemblages at Estuarine Frontal Boundaries (United States)


    PAHs, PCBs, TCE, BTEX) and inorganic (e.g. metals, radionuclides) contaminants (see review by Brar et al. 2006). Over the past three decades, most...studies) rather than field ecology of estuarine and marine systems (Spain et al. 2000). As seen with virtually all contaminants , the application of... cyanobacteria or fungi (see review in Spain et al. 2000). Recently, there have been some reports using natural microbial assemblages from freshwater systems

  11. Temporal variation in fish assemblage composition on a tidal flat

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    Henry L. Spach


    Full Text Available Annual variation in the fish assemblage characteristics on a tidal flat was studied in coastal Paraná, in southern Brazil. Fish were collected between August 1998 and July 1999, during the diurnal high tide and diurnal and nocturnal low tide of the syzygial (full moon and quadrature (waning moon tides, to characterize temporal change in assemblage composition. A total of 64,265 fish in 133 species were collected. The average number of species and individuals, biomass, species richness, diversity (mass and equitability varied significantly over time . The dissimilarity of the assemblage was greatest in August, September and October in contrast with the period from November to January, with the lowest dissimilarity. The combined action of water temperature, salinity and wind intensity had a great influence over the structure of the fish assemblage.Os peixes de uma planície de maré da praia Balneário de Pontal do Sul, Paraná, foram coletados, na preamar diurna e na baixa-mar diurna e noturna das marés de sizígia e de quadratura, visando caracterizar as mudanças temporais entre agosto de 1998 e julho de 1999. As coletas totalizaram 64.265 peixes de 133 espécies. Foram observadas diferenças significativas na captura média em número de espécies e de peixes, peso total e nos índices de riqueza, diversidade (H' peso e eqüitatividade entre os meses de coleta. A dissimilaridade da ictiofauna foi maior entre os meses de agosto, setembro e outubro em comparação com o período de novembro a janeiro. A ação combinada da temperatura da água, salinidade e intensidade do vento, influenciaram mais sobre a estrutura da assembléia de peixes.

  12. Correspondence between zooplankton assemblages and the Estuary Environment Classification system (United States)

    Lucena-Moya, Paloma; Duggan, Ian C.


    We tested whether variability in zooplankton assemblages was consistent with the categories of estuarine environments proposed by the 'Estuary Environment Classification' system (EEC) (Hume et al., 2007) across a variety of North Island, New Zealand, estuaries. The EEC classifies estuaries in to eight categories (A to F) based primarily on a combination of three abiotic controlling factors: ocean forcing, river forcing and basin morphometry. Additionally, we tested whether Remane's curve, which predicts higher diversities of benthic macrofauna and high and low salinities, can be applied to zooplankton assemblages. We focused on three of the eight EEC categories (B, D and F), which covered the range of estuaries with river inputs dominating (B) to ocean influence dominating (F). Additionally, we included samples from river (FW) and sea (MW) to encompass the entire salinity range. Zooplankton assemblages varied across the categories examined in accordance with a salinity gradient predicted by the EEC. Three groups of zooplankton were distinguishable: the first formed by the most freshwater categories, FW and B, and dominated by rotifers (primarily Bdelloidea) and estuarine copepods (Gladioferans pectinatus), a second group formed by categories D and F, of intermediate salinity, dominated by copepods (Euterpina acutifrons), and a final group including the purely marine category MW and dominated also by E. acutifrons along with other marine taxa. Zooplankton diversity responded to the salinity gradient in a manner expected from Remane's curve. The results of this study support others which have shown salinity to be the main factor driving zooplankton community composition and diversity.

  13. Gradients in Catostomid assemblages along a reservoir cascade (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Keretz, Kevin R.; Gilliland, Chelsea R.


    Serial impoundment of major rivers leads to alterations of natural flow dynamics and disrupts longitudinal connectivity. Catostomid fishes (suckers, family Catostomidae) are typically found in riverine or backwater habitats yet are able to persist in impounded river systems. To the detriment of conservation, there is limited information about distribution of catostomid fishes in impounded rivers. We examined the longitudinal distribution of catostomid fishes over 23 reservoirs of the Tennessee River reservoir cascade, encompassing approximately 1600 km. Our goal was to develop a basin-scale perspective to guide conservation efforts. Catostomid species composition and assemblage structure changed longitudinally along the reservoir cascade. Catostomid species biodiversity was greatest in reservoirs lower in the cascade. Assemblage composition shifted from dominance by spotted sucker Minytrema melanops and buffalos Ictiobus spp. in the lower reservoirs to carpsuckers Carpiodes spp. midway through the cascade and redhorses Moxostoma spp. in the upper reservoirs. Most species did not extend the length of the cascade, and some species were rare, found in low numbers and in few reservoirs. The observed gradients in catostomid assemblages suggest the need for basin-scale conservation measures focusing on three broad areas: (1) conservation and management of the up-lake riverine reaches of the lower reservoirs, (2) maintenance of the access to quality habitat in tributaries to the upper reservoirs and (3) reintroductions into currently unoccupied habitat within species' historic distributions

  14. Verification of Compartmental Epidemiological Models using Metamorphic Testing, Model Checking and Visual Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanathan, Arvind [ORNL; Steed, Chad A [ORNL; Pullum, Laura L [ORNL


    Compartmental models in epidemiology are widely used as a means to model disease spread mechanisms and understand how one can best control the disease in case an outbreak of a widespread epidemic occurs. However, a significant challenge within the community is in the development of approaches that can be used to rigorously verify and validate these models. In this paper, we present an approach to rigorously examine and verify the behavioral properties of compartmen- tal epidemiological models under several common modeling scenarios including birth/death rates and multi-host/pathogen species. Using metamorphic testing, a novel visualization tool and model checking, we build a workflow that provides insights into the functionality of compartmental epidemiological models. Our initial results indicate that metamorphic testing can be used to verify the implementation of these models and provide insights into special conditions where these mathematical models may fail. The visualization front-end allows the end-user to scan through a variety of parameters commonly used in these models to elucidate the conditions under which an epidemic can occur. Further, specifying these models using a process algebra allows one to automatically construct behavioral properties that can be rigorously verified using model checking. Taken together, our approach allows for detecting implementation errors as well as handling conditions under which compartmental epidemiological models may fail to provide insights into disease spread dynamics.

  15. Fluid-driven metamorphism of the continental crust governed by nanoscale fluid flow (United States)

    Plümper, Oliver; Botan, Alexandru; Los, Catharina; Liu, Yang; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders; Jamtveit, Bjørn


    The transport of fluids through the Earth's crust controls the redistribution of elements to form mineral and hydrocarbon deposits, the release and sequestration of greenhouse gases, and facilitates metamorphic reactions that influence lithospheric rheology. In permeable systems with a well-connected porosity, fluid transport is largely driven by fluid pressure gradients. In less permeable rocks, deformation may induce permeability by creating interconnected heterogeneities, but without these perturbations, mass transport is limited along grain boundaries or relies on transformation processes that self-generate transient fluid pathways. The latter can facilitate large-scale fluid and mass transport in nominally impermeable rocks without large-scale fluid transport pathways. Here, we show that pervasive, fluid-driven metamorphism of crustal igneous rocks is directly coupled to the production of nanoscale porosity. Using multi-dimensional nano-imaging and molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate that in feldspar, the most abundant mineral family in the Earth's crust, electrokinetic transport through reaction-induced nanopores (mediated mineral transformation reactions can be considerably influenced by nanofluidic transport phenomena.

  16. Mineral chemistry of garnet in pegmatite and metamorphic rocks in the Hamedan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ahmadi Khalaji


    Full Text Available Introduction The area of this study is located near Hamadan within the Sanandaj - Sirjan tectonic zone. In the Hamadan area, consisting mainly of Mesozoic plutonic and metamorphic rocks, aplites and pegmatites locally contain garnets.(Baharifar et al., 2004, Amidi and Majidi, 1977; Torkian, 1995. Garnet-bearing schists and hornfelses in the area are products of regional metamorphism shown by slate and phyllite (Baharifar, 2004. In this investigation the distribution of elements in garnet in different rock type was studied to determine their mineral types and conditions of formation. Garnet samples from igneous and metamorphic rocks were analyzed by electron microprobe (EMPA, the results of which are presented in this article. Materials and methods Thirty-five samples were selected for thin section preparation and twenty thin-polished sections were prepared for mineralogical and microprobe analysis. Thin sections of garnet-bearing igneous (pegmatite and metamorphic rocks (schist and hornfels were studied by polarizing microscope. Chemical analysis was performed on the garnets (38 points using a Caimeca SX100 electron microprobe at an acceleration voltage of 15 kV and electric current of 15 nA in the Mineral Processing Research Center, Iran. Separation of iron (II and Fe (III was calculated by Droop’s method (1987 and the structural formulas of the garnets were calculated using 24 oxygens to determine the relative proportions of the end-members using the mineral spreadsheet software of Preston and Still (2001. Results Based on the analyses, almandine (Fe - Al garnet and spessartine (Mn - Al garnet are the principal types of the (Kamari metamorphic and (Abaro pegmatitic garnets, that belong to the well-known pyralspite garnet group. Chemical zoning patterns of the garnets in the metamorphic rocks (schists differ from those in the igneous rocks (pegmatite, showing different compositions from core to rim. Petrographic evidence such as: co

  17. Gneiss domes of the Danba Metamorphic Complex, Songpan Ganze, eastern Tibet (United States)

    Billerot, Audrey; Duchene, Stéphanie; Vanderhaeghe, Olivier; de Sigoyer, Julia


    In this paper we address the formation and exhumation of the Danba Metamorphic Complex (DMC) that represents the deepest structural level of the Songpan Ganze terrane situated along the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau. The DMC comprises a variety of gneiss domes and offers a unique opportunity to decipher their development during orogenic evolution. For that purpose, PTtD paths of metamorphic rocks sampled at different structural levels have been reconstructed. The DMC is composed of Triassic metaturbidites of the Xikang group, Paleozoic metasedimentary cover and basement of the Yangtze craton. The DMC is structurally marked by transposition of the upright S1 foliation of the Triassic metaturbidites into a NW-SE trending S2 composite foliation dipping to the NE. Transposition is associated with a localized top-to-the-northeast shear zone along the northeastern edge of the DMC and with pervasive top-to-the-southwest shearing from the core to the border of the complex. These structures are consistent with extrusion of the core of the DMC relative to the lower grade Triassic metaturbidites. The position of the biotite isograd overlapping the structural boundary of the DMC suggests that the Triassic metaturbidites have been affected by an increase in temperature as a result of extrusion. Within the DMC, the position of the metamorphic index minerals relative to the composite S2 foliation reveals that biotite, garnet, staurolite and kyanite grew before the transposition into S2, in contrast with sillimanite which crystallizes in the hinge of F2 folds and along the axial planar S2 schistosity. The sillimanite isograd delineates regional-scale overturned F2 folds and cross-cuts the staurolite and kyanite isograds consistent with an increase in temperature during D2. The melt-in isograd characterizes the deepest structural level of the DMC. PT conditions for these metamorphic rocks, determined using pseudosections and conventional thermometry, indicate a temperature

  18. Gamma radiation-induced thermoluminescence, trace element and paramagnetic defect of quartz from the Sambagawa metamorphic belt, Central Shikoku, Japan. (United States)

    Chuenpee, T; Nishikawa, O; Kon, Y; Ninagawa, K; Toyoda, S; Ogata, T; Uchida, T; Takashima, I


    This study analyzes the Thermoluminescence (TL) emissions for five emission bands, trace element concentrations and defects in quartz grains extracted from metamorphic rocks and quartz veins in the Sambagawa metamorphic belt, central Shikoku. An emission of 500nm with 195, 245, and 320-325°C glow peaks are observed through the lowest to highest grade samples. A 450nm emission band with intense 195 and 245°C glow peaks and a 320-325°C shoulder peak is found in the higher grade samples. A 570nm emission band with a 170°C glow peak is observed in the samples derived from the lower grade zones. These characteristics of TL emissions of quartz suggest that they can be an indicator for the identification of rock derived from different metamorphic grades. The higher metamorphic grade samples with 450nm emission bands in particular show higher intensities of the E1' center. This relation indicates that the activation of the E1' center in higher metamorphic conditions possibly contributed to the 450nm emission band. Also, the 500nm emission band is generally observed in the samples with the signal intensities of the Aluminum hole center, suggesting that the center is the source of this emission band. We also observed that the lower metamorphic grade samples contain lower signal intensities of the Aluminum hole center, despite higher aluminum concentrations. This inconsistency indicates that the formation of interstitial aluminum ions cause local lattice distortion regions, where self-trapped excitons can be formed and presumably provide the 570nm emissions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Telescoping metamorphic isograds: Evidence from 40Ar/39A dating in the Orange-Milford belt, southern Connecticut (United States)

    Kunk, Michael J.; Walsh, Gregory J.; Growdon, Martha L.; Wintsch, Robert P.


    New 40Ar/39Ar ages for hornblende and muscovite from the Orange-Milford belt in southern Connecticut reflect cooling from Acadian amphibolite facies metamorphism between ∼380 to 360 Ma followed by retrograde recrystallization of fabric-forming muscovite and chlorite during lower greenschist facies Alleghanian transpression at ∼280 Ma. Reported field temperature and pressure gradients are improbably high for these rocks and a NW metamorphic field gradient climbing from chlorite-grade to staurolite-grade occurs over less than 5 km. Simple tilting cannot account for this compressed isograd spacing given the geothermal gradient of ∼20 °C/km present at the time of regional metamorphism. However, post-metamorphic transpression could effectively telescope the isograds by stretching the belt at an oblique angle to the isograd traces. Textures in the field and in thin section reveal several older prograde schistosities overprinted by lower greenschist facies fabrics. The late cleavages commonly occur at the scale of ∼100 μm and these samples contain multiple age populations of white mica. 40Ar/39Ar analysis of these poly-metamorphic samples with mixed muscovite populations yield climbing or U-shaped age spectra. The ages of the low temperature steps are late Paleozoic, while the ages of the older steps are late Devonian. These results support our petrologic interpretation that the younger cleavage developed under metamorphic conditions below the closure temperature for Ar diffusion in muscovite, that is, in the lower greenschist facies. The correlation of a younger regionally reproducible age population with a pervasive retrograde muscovite ± chlorite cleavage reveals an Alleghanian (∼280 Ma) overprint on the Acadian metamorphic gradient (∼380 Ma). Outcrop-scale structures including drag folds and imbricate boudins suggest that Alleghanian deformation and cleavage development occurred in response to dextral transpression along a northeast striking boundary

  20. Tectonic origin and deformation process of the Mayer Kangri medium-high pressure metamorphic dome in Central Qiangtang of Tibet (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Liang, X.


    The metamorphic characteristics, deformation process, geochronology of the medium-high pressure metamorphic rocks in blueschist bearing Central Qiangtang Metamorphic belt (CQMB) of Tibet were less well constrained. It is, however, commonly assumed that these rock slices in the margin also contain important implications on the evolution of the entire metamorphic belt. The well-exposed Mayer Kangri medium-high pressure metamorphic dome in north flank of the CQMB provides an unique opportunity to investigate the outer part of the CQMB, which could facilitate the study on the subduction-exhumation-post orogenic scenarios of the Triassic accretionary orogeny in Central Qiangtang. Field structural analyses indicate the Mayer Kangri metamorphic dome are bounded by low-angle normal faults (LANF) within the hanging wall of low-green schist facies mélange. It majorly consists of epidote-amphibolites, quartz-phengite schist, epidote-albite schist. The outcrop and micro structural observations of footwall metamorphic rocks show an open anticline with multiple foliation replacement, which largely differentiate themselves from the dextral strike-slip shearing of the hanging wall. Well-zoned amphiboles were found within the epidote-amphibolite after micro-structural observations and electron probe microanalyses (EPMA), which indicate that the amphibole zonation demonstrates a Hastingsite core, a Ferro-actinolite mantle and a Ferro-winchite rim in most cases. The mean temperature and pressure estimates of the zoned amphibolites change from 544 °, 0.98Gpa in the core, to 426°, 0.34Gpa in the mantle, and to ca.364° and 0.70 GPa in the rim. The detailed analyses on the stepwise-heating Ar-Ar results of the zoned amphiboles provide good constrains on the episodic deformation process of the CQMB. For Hast-cores, we obtained near plateau ages of 242.4-241.2 Ma, indicating the onset of the oceanic subduction is earlier than the Anisian stage of Middle Triassic. The subsequent

  1. Giardia Assemblages A and B in Diarrheic Patients: A Comparative Study in Egyptian Children and Adults. (United States)

    El Basha, Noussa R; Zaki, Mayssa M; Hassanin, Omayma M; Rehan, Mohamed K; Omran, Dalia


    Giardia duodenalis is considered the most common intestinal parasite in humans worldwide. Children are especially affected, with more severe consequences than adults. The present study was designed to determine the distribution of assemblages A and B Giardia infection in children and adults, with the use of light microscopy and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) as diagnostic procedures, and to investigate its associations with clinical and epidemiological data collected from children and adult groups. This cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2012 to October 2013 by collecting fecal samples from 200 children and 200 adults complaining of diarrhea. Samples were subjected to parasitological examination by direct wet smear and formol-ether methods. Genotyping of G. doudenalis samples was conducted by PCR-RFLP analysis. Giardia duodenalis infection caused by assemblages A and B was identified in 60 samples, 34 from children and 26 from adults. Assemblage B was detected in 38 patients (63.34%), and assemblage A was detected in 22 patients (36.66%). Assemblage A was significantly more frequent in children with age range 2-8 yr, and assemblage B was higher in children with age range 6-16 yr old. Diarrhea frequency/day and recurrences per month affected patients infected with assemblage A (P value Giardia assemblages A and B were identified in children and adults, assemblage A infected younger children more frequently and was more closely related to severe clinical manifestations than assemblage B.

  2. Associations of Giardia lamblia assemblages with HIV infections and symptomatology: HIV virus and assemblage B were they born to each other? (United States)

    Faria, Clarissa Perez; Zanini, Graziela Maria; Dias, Gisele Silva; Sousa, Maria do Céu


    Giardia lamblia is an intestinal parasite that has an extensive genetic variation among isolates. This species is divided into eight different assemblages (A-H), but only assemblages A and B have been associated with human infections. Studies on the associations of G. lamblia assemblages and symptoms have been done but were inconclusive. The aim of this study was to correlate G. lamblia assemblages with symptoms in patients with and without HIV/AIDS and its association with the CD4T cell count. The cross-sectional survey was conducted among patients attending the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases (INI/FIOCRUZ) in Rio de Janeiro from January 2011 to February 2015. Thirty-eight of 65 microscopically positive stool samples for G. lamblia were from HIV positive patients and 27 were from HIV negative patients. Of the HIV infected patients, 19 (55.9%) were genotyped as assemblage B of which 9 (47.4%) had a CD4Tcell count below 200cells/mm3. In addition, we found a greater number of samples belonging to assemblage B in symptomatic cases (11 of 19; 57.9%). Our data suggest that assemblage B is very likely to be found in HIV infected patients and probably the lower CD4T count gives advantages for assemblage B replication. Furthermore, assemblage B seems to be associated with symptomatology, particularly abdominal pain, asthenia, diarrhea, fever, headache and myalgia. This study provides information on G. lamblia assemblages and symptoms in patients with and without HIV/AIDS virus and their association with CD4Tcell counts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A polyphase metamorphic evolution for the Xitieshan paragneiss of the north Qaidam UHP metamorphic belt, western China: In-situ EMP monazite- and U-Pb zircon SHRIMP dating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, C.; Roermund, H.L.M. van; Zhang, L.; Spiers, C.


    In-situ electron microprobe (EMP) U–Th–Pbmonazite-, sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) zircon analyses, metamorphic phase equilibrium (Domino/Theriak)- and geothermobarometric calculations are performed on kyanite/sillimanite-bearing garnet biotite gneisses forming part of the

  4. A regional gradient in the composition of metamorphic fluids in pelitic schist, Pecos Baldy, New Mexico (United States)

    Grambling, Jeffrey A.


    Two metamorphic isograds cut across graphitic schist near Pecos Baldy, New Mexico. The southern isograd marks the first coexistence of staurolite with biotite, whereas the northern isograd marks the first coexistence of andalusite with biotite. The isograds do not record changes in temperature or pressure. Instead, they record a regional gradient in the composition of the metamorphic fluid phase. Ortega Quartzite, which contains primary hematite, lies immediately north of the graphitic schist. Mineral compositions within the schist change gradually toward the quartzite, reflecting gradients inμ _{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } andμ _{{text{H}}_{text{2}} {text{O}}}. The chemical potential gradients, locally as high as 72 cal/m inμ _{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } and 9 cal/m inμ _{{text{H}}_{text{2}} {text{O}}}, controlled the positions of the two mapped isograds. The staurolite-biotite isograd records whereX_{{text{H}}_{text{2}} {text{O}}} fell below 0.80, atf_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } near 10-23 bars; the andalusite-biotite isograd records whereX_{{text{H}}_{text{2}} {text{O}}} fell below 0.25, atf_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } near 10-22 bars. Dehydration and oxidation were coupled by graphite-fluid equilibrium. The chemical potential gradients apparently formed during metamorphism, as graphite in schist reacted with hematite in quartzite. Local oxidation of graphite formed CO2 which triggered dehydration reactions along the schistquartzite contact. This process created a C-O-H fluid which infiltrated into overlying rocks. Upward infiltration, local fluid-rock equilibration and additional infiltration proceeded until the composition of the infiltrating fluid evolved to that in equilibrium with the infiltrated rock. This point occurs very close to the staurolite-biotite isograd. Pelitic rocks structurally above this isograd show no petrographic evidence of infiltration, even though calculations indicate that volumetric fluid/rock ratios may have exceeded 15 and thin, rare calc

  5. Thermal and shock metamorphism of the Tenham chondrite: A TEM examination (United States)

    Langenhorst, Falko; Joreau, Pascal; Doukhan, Jean Claude


    During the early episode Of the solar system, the L6 chondrite Tenham has been affected by intense thermal metamorphism. Microanalytical data reveal homogeneous compositions Of Olivine (F O 75Fa 25), enstatite (En 79Fs 19W O 2), and diopside (En 47Fs 8W O 45). Using these data, empirical pyroxene thermometers yield temperature estimates for this thermal metamorphism, ranging from 810 to 870°C. Due to the presence of thin shock veins, which contain the high-pressure phases majorite and ringwoodite, the L6 chondrite Tenham is an instructive example for strong shock metamorphism. In contrast to previous transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies, which concentrated on these shock veins, we also systematically characterized the shock signature of the silicates occurring in the bulk Of Tenham. Plagioclase is either pervaded by thin (200 nm), amorphous lamellae, so-called planar deformation features ("PDFs"), or it is transformed to maskelynite, a diaplectic glass Of feldspar composition. In olivine, shock deformation has caused the formation of irregular and planar fractures and the activation of numerous (2 × 10 14 m -2) c dislocations in the glide planes (100) and {110}; energetically favorable but less mobile a dislocations are totally absent. Fracturing in olivine is interpreted as the cause of dislocation formation. A low dislocation density (shock origin is most reasonable in this case because of the presence of strong shock damage in the other silicates. Diopside displays the greatest diversity of shock defects: mechanical twins parallel to (100) and (001), numerous dislocations, and PDFs. The predominant glide system of dislocations is (100)[001], but the {110}[001] glide system is also present to a lesser extent. To our knowledge, we report here on the first evidence of thin (≤50 nm), amorphous lamellae in naturally shocked diopside. These PDFs are oriented parallel to {221} and {221}. Fine-grained (ringwoodite, were observed in a thin shock vein

  6. Dehydration Behavior of Metapelites and Metabasites at Very low to low Grade Metamorphic Conditions (United States)

    Massonne, H.; Willner, A. P.


    Thermodynamic calculations have been undertaken in the system Na-Ca-K-Fe-Mg-Al-Si-Ti-H-O with the PERPLE_X software package (Connolly, 1990 and updates) for a better understanding of the dehydration behavior of metapelites and metabasites during prograde metamorphism. To obtain reasonable results for the temperature range 150-450° C at pressures up to 25 kbar, the subsequent solid solution models were introduced being compatible with the applied thermodynamic data set of Holland & Powell (1998 and updates): a three component model for Mg-Fe2+-Fe3+-pumpellyite, a two component model for Fe2+-Mg- stilpnomelane, a four component amphibole model (tremolite - Fe2+-tremolite - glaucophane - Mg- riebeckite), and a four component Na-pyroxene model (acmite - jadeite - diopside - hedenbergite). The water contents released by prograde metamorphism up to 450° C from MORB and psammopelitic compositions on top of oceanic crust, were obtained by calculating P-T pseudosections. Metabasite contains 6-7 wt% H2O bound to minerals at 150° C depending on the oxidation state. Along geotherms lower than 7° C/km typical for young subduction zones, no water is released up to 400° C. However, reduction of the rock causes release of small amounts of water. Metapsammopelitic rocks also store about 6 wt% H2O in minerals at 150° C. Considerable amounts of water are liberated by mineral reactions already in the temperature range 150-250° C also at the above mentioned low geotherms. This behavior determines the rheological characteristics of the upper oceanic crust during early subduction. If water is exclusively released in the sedimentary portion of the downgoing crust only this material gets weakened to be scraped off to form accretionary wedges. At geotherms of 15-20° C/km both lithologies show significant dehydration at very low metamorphic grade. For instance, in cold frontal paleoaccretionary prisms of the Chilean Coastal Cordillera metapelites by far dominate whereas in hotter

  7. Isotopic characteristics of canopies in simulated leaf assemblages (United States)

    Graham, Heather V.; Patzkowsky, Mark E.; Wing, Scott L.; Parker, Geoffrey G.; Fogel, Marilyn L.; Freeman, Katherine H.


    The geologic history of closed-canopy forests is of great interest to paleoecologists and paleoclimatologists alike. Closed canopies have pronounced effects on local, continental and global rainfall and temperature patterns. Although evidence for canopy closure is difficult to reconstruct from the fossil record, the characteristic isotope gradients of the ;canopy effect; could be preserved in leaves and proxy biomarkers. To assess this, we employed new carbon isotopic data for leaves collected in diverse light environments within a deciduous, temperate forest (Maryland, USA) and for leaves from a perennially closed canopy, moist tropical forest (Bosque Protector San Lorenzo, Panamá). In the tropical forest, leaf carbon isotope values range 10‰, with higher δ13Cleaf values occurring both in upper reaches of the canopy, and with higher light exposure and lower humidity. Leaf fractionation (Δleaf) varied negatively with height and light and positively with humidity. Vertical 13C enrichment in leaves largely reflects changes in Δleaf, and does not trend with δ13C of CO2 within the canopy. At the site in Maryland, leaves express a more modest δ13C range (∼6‰), with a clear trend that follows both light and leaf height. Using a model we simulate leaf assemblage isotope patterns from canopy data binned by elevation. The re-sampling (bootstrap) model determined both the mean and range of carbon isotope values for simulated leaf assemblages ranging in size from 10 to over 1000 leaves. For the tropical forest data, the canopy's isotope range is captured with 50 or more randomly sampled leaves. Thus, with a sufficient number of fossil leaves it is possible to distinguish isotopic gradients in an ancient closed canopy forest from those in an open forest. For very large leaf assemblages, mean isotopic values approximate the δ13C of carbon contributed by leaves to soil and are similar to observed δ13Clitter values at forested sites within Panamá, including the

  8. Spatial and temporal variability of mobile macro-invertebrate assemblages associated to coralligenous habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate patterns of spatial and temporal variability of mobile macroinvertebrate assemblages associated to coralligenous habitat. A multi-factorial sampling design was used to test the hypotheses that the structure of assemblages and their spatial and temporal variability changed in relation to substrate inclination. Moreover, macroalgae and sessile macro-invertebrates were also investigated in order to detect eventual relationship between sessile and mobile assemblages. A total of 236 mobile macro-invertebrate taxa were identified, among them 2 Platyhelminthes, 4 Sipuncula, 6 Nemertea, 27 Mollusca, 86 Annelida, 103 Arthropoda, 8 Echinodermata. Results of the study showed that mobile macro-invertebrate assemblages of coralligenous habitat were little influenced by the inclination of substrate and by the morphology of sessile organisms, as patterns of variation were different between the two assemblages. Mobile macro-invertebrate assemblages changed among sampling dates within one year period and they showed high variability at the spatial scale examined.

  9. The effects of weathering on the physical and mechanical properties of igneous and metamorphic saprolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocchi, Irene; Coop, M. R.; Maccarini, M.


    this geological process and links soil mechanics to engineering geology. Generally, weathering induces a reduction in the grain size, both due to physical actions (e.g. opening of grain contacts) and to the chemical decomposition of minerals resulting in the formation of clay minerals. As weathering proceeds......The present paper presents three extensive datasets of laboratory testing on weathered geomaterials, which are emblematic of soil types widely found worldwide. The overall dataset includes soils originating from igneous and metamorphic rocks, either coarse or fine grained and having either felsic...... or mafic minerals. In particular, the data are interpreted to highlight the effects that weathering has on the physical and mechanical properties of these natural geomaterials comparing them with published data with the aim to provide a general framework of interpretation that takes into account...

  10. Partial melting of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks during continental collision: Evidence, time, mechanism, and effect (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Xiang; Zhou, Kun; Gao, Xiao-Ying


    Partial melting of ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks during continental collision has been increasingly found in nature. More and more studies have devoted to the evidence, time, mechanism and effect of crustal anataxis at mantle to lower crust depths. This is particularly so for UHP rocks from the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt, whereas similar studies on these issues are relatively minor for other UHP terranes. The petrological evidence, especially microstructural observations and multiphase solid inclusion analyses, have been accumulated for the partial melting of UHP metamorphic rocks in collisional orogens. The results indicate that this is a kind of low-degree crustal anataxis at convergent plate margins due to decompressional dehydration of the UHP rocks themselves. Thus it has great bearing on intracrustal differentiation and crust-mantle interaction in continental subduction channels. Zircon may grow through peritectic reactions due to the breakdown of hydrous minerals. By dating of the peritectic zircons that contain coesite or diamond inclusions, the time of crustal anatexis under UHP conditions can be directly determined. In general, the partial melting of UHP rocks mainly took place at the stage of their early exhumation, partly still in the UHP regime and partly in the subsequent high-pressure (HP) regime. The crustal anatexis still at mantle depths is common in many UHP terranes, possibly facilitating exhumation of deeply subducted continental slices toward shallower levels. Petrological and geochemical studies indicate that phengite dehydration-driven melting during exhumation is the common mechanism for the anatexis of UHP rocks, though the other hydrous minerals were also involved in this process. The resulted HP to UHP melts may occur at different spatial scales and show significant fractionation in melt-mobile incompatible trace elements such as LILE and LREE. These melts are enriched in LILE to large extent and LREE and Th to small extent

  11. The Metamorphic Nature of the Tau Protein: Dynamic Flexibility Comes at a Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J Sabbagh


    Full Text Available Accumulation of the microtubule associated protein tau occurs in several neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The tau protein is intrinsically disordered, giving it unique structural properties that can be dynamically altered by post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and cleavage. Over the last decade, technological advances in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy and structural modeling have permitted more in-depth insights into the nature of tau. These studies have helped elucidate how metamorphism of tau makes it ideally suited for dynamic microtubule regulation, but how it also facilitates tau self-assembly, oligomerization, and neurotoxicity. This review will focus on how the distinct structure of tau governs its function, accumulation, and toxicity as well as how other cellular factors such as molecular chaperones control these processes.

  12. Mineralogical Signals from Cathodoluminescence Microscopy of Metamorphic Rocks: Clues to Understanding Petrologic Processes (United States)

    Schertl, H.; Neuser, R.


    During the last 50 years the technique of cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy has become a standard tool in mineralogy. First investigations mainly focused on sedimentary (± magmatic) rocks and on zircon zonations in connection with ion probe dating (SHRIMP). Within the last decade, this technique has also been applied to various metamorphic rocks. Here we would like to demonstrate the great advantages of a "hot cathode" CL microscope, in particular in conjunction with EMP-studies on metamorphic rocks, just using standard polished thin sections. The compilation of data presented focus on HT, HP, and UHP-metamorphic rocks and include samples from Cornet Hill/Romania, Valtellina and Dora Maira/Italy, Kokchetav/Kazakhstan, Sulu/China, Western Gneiss Region/Norway, Pohorje/Slovenia, the Rio San Juan Complex/Dominican Republic, Motagua Valley/Guatemala, NE-Corsica. Among other features, we introduce here: 1) oscillatory zoning patterns of wollastonite, garnet, jadeitic clinopyroxenes, kyanite, and zircon; 2) regular and irregular - in some cases very complex - growth structures of garnet, jadeite, omphacite, sillimanite, kyanite, carbonates, and clinopyroxenes; 3) dolomitic exsolution patterns in calcite and K-feldspar exsolution patterns in clinopyroxene. We illustrate the effects of the change of crystal morphology during growth (e.g. on garnet, jadeitite, diopside) and dissolution and deformational effects (garnet). Distinguishing features of different silica phases like coesite (bluish-green luminescence), quartz (dark red to violet), chalcedony (yellow), as well as those of aragonite (green), calcite (yellow), Mg-calcite (orange), and dolomite (red) are presented, as are the characteristics of different quartz and also carbonate generations. The CL-investigations introduced also contribute to the understanding of mineral reactions, particularly considering the formation of symplectites and pseudomorphs. Further studies focus on interstitial phases and different

  13. FBC desulfurization process using coal with low sulfur content, high oxidizing conditions and metamorphic limestones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Bragança


    Full Text Available A metamorphic limestone and a dolomite were employed as SO2 sorbents in the desulfurization of gas from coal combustion. The tests were performed in a fluidized bed reactor on a bench and pilot scale. Several parameters such as bed temperature, sorbent type, and sorbent particle size at different Ca/S molar ratios were analyzed. These parameters were evaluated for the combustion of coal with low-sulfur/high-ash content, experimental conditions of high air excess and high O2 level in fluidization air. Under these conditions, typical of furnaces, few published data can be found. In this work, a medium level of desulfurization efficiency (~60% for Ca/S = 2 was obtained.

  14. Contrasting effects of environmental factors during larval stage on morphological plasticity in post-metamorphic frogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tejedo, Miguel; Marangoni, Federico; Pertoldi, Cino


    positively correlated with growth rate plasticity. However, plasticity of developmental rate was only correlated with head shape plasticity. Overall, these results suggest that environmental trends predicted by global warming projections, such as increasing pond temperature and accelerating pond desiccation...... that some morphological traits are generally insensitive to environmental inductions. We conducted a literature survey to examine the allometric responses in relative hind leg length and head shape of post-metamorphic anuran amphibians to induced environmental (temperature, resource level, predation...... temperatures increased development more than growth rate and induced smaller heads but not overall shifts in hind leg length. In contrast, an increment in resource availability increased growth more than development, with a parallel increase in hind leg length but no change in head shape. Increases...

  15. Protracted fluid-induced melting during Barrovian metamorphism in the Central Alps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubatto, Daniela; Hermann, Jörg; Berger, Alfons


    that repeated melting events occurred within a single Barrovian metamorphic cycle at roughly constant temperature; that in the country rocks zircon formation was limited to the initial stages of melting, whereas further melting concentrated in the segregated leucosomes; that melting occurred at different times......The timing and dynamics of fluid-induced melting in the typical Barrovian sequence of the Central Alps has been investigated using zircon chronology and trace element composition. Multiple zircon domains in leucosomes and country rocks yield U-Pb ages spanning from ~32 to 22 Ma. The zircon formed...... in samples a few meters apart because of the local rock composition and localized influx of the fluids; and that leucosomes were repeatedly melted when fluids became available. The geochronological data force a revision of the temperature-time path of the migmatite belt in the Central Alps. Protracted...

  16. Device characterization for design optimization of 4 junction inverted metamorphic concentrator solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisz, John F.; France, Ryan M.; Steiner, Myles A.; Friedman, Daniel J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); García, Iván [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 80401 USA and Instituto de Energía Solar, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Avda Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)


    Quantitative electroluminescence (EL) and luminescent coupling (LC) analysis, along with more conventional characterization techniques, are combined to completely characterize the subcell JV curves within a fourjunction (4J) inverted metamorphic solar cell (IMM). The 4J performance under arbitrary spectral conditions can be predicted from these subcell JV curves. The internal radiative efficiency (IRE) of each junction has been determined as a function of current density from the external radiative efficiency using optical modeling, but this required the accurate determination of the individual junction current densities during the EL measurement as affected by LC. These measurement and analysis techniques can be applied to any multijunction solar cell. The 4J IMM solar cell used to illustrate these techniques showed excellent junction quality as exhibited by high IRE and a one-sun AM1.5D efficiency of 36.3%. This device operates up to 1000 suns without limitations due to any of the three tunnel junctions.

  17. Regrowth of quantum cascade laser active regions on metamorphic buffer layers (United States)

    Rajeev, A.; Mawst, L. J.; Kirch, J. D.; Botez, D.; Miao, J.; Buelow, P.; Kuech, T. F.; Li, Xiaoqing; Sigler, C.; Babcock, S. E.; Earles, T.


    Metamorphic buffer layers (MBLs) were used as substrates with lattice constants selected for designing and fabricating intersubband transition sources involving strained superlattices (SLs) such as Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs). Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) was used to prepare the InGaAs-based MBLs for epitaxial growth. Indium enrichment of the InGaAs layer on the MBL surfaces was observed when annealed at the regrowth temperatures. This post-anneal enhancement was eliminated by including a wet-etch treatment after CMP, which results in an epi-ready surface for regrowth. Ten stages of a QCL core region structure, designed for emission at a 3.4 μm wavelength are regrown on a surface-optimized MBL. Such structures exhibit well defined X-ray diffraction pendellösung fringes, and transmission electron microscopy confirms planar superlattice interfaces with layer thicknesses that are in good agreement with the design target.

  18. Ge and Ga behaviour during subduction-related metamorphism of basic rocks (United States)

    El Korh, Afifé; Luais, Béatrice; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Deloule, Etienne


    Ge and Ga are can be used as fluid tracers in hydrothermal systems, as their solubility in fluid is temperature dependant [1,2]. Physico-chemical conditions of hydrothermal processes would result either in Ge enrichment [3], or Ge depletion of the basaltic crust in presence of hydrothermal sulphides [4]. Variations in Ge and Ga concentrations were investigated in a series of HP¬-LT metabasites (peak P-T conditions: 1.7-2.3 GPa and 550-600°C) from the Ile de Groix (France), to examine their behaviour during the fluid-rock interactions and associated metamorphism related to subduction. The studied metabasites represent former MOR-type basalts, which underwent a pre-HP low-temperature hydrothermal alteration [5]. Whole rock Ga and Ge concentrations were analysed by SN-ICP-MS (± 8%; 1σ). The Ga abundances in eclogites and blueschists (21.0-21.6 ppm) are similar to the values measured in tholeiitic basalts (18-22 ppm; [6]), while they decrease slightly in the greenschist facies metabasites (16.9-20.5 ppm). The Ge abundances measured in the metabasites (1.2-2.1 ppm) are generally higher than those of tholeiitic basalts (1.4-1.5 ppm; [6]), suggesting Ge enrichment during the low-T hydrothermal alteration. Similarly to Ga, the decrease of the Ge abundances in greenschists (1.2-1.9 ppm) compared to blueschists and eclogites (1.6-2.0 ppm) indicate that a fraction of Ge and Ga left the metabasites during the fluid-rock interactions related to the retrograde metamorphism. Ga and Ge abundances in minerals were obtained using LA-ICP-MS (± 8-15%; 1σ). Garnet and epidote are major phases in the metabasites. They are the main hosts for Ge (3.3-8.2 ppm in Grt; 2.4-12 ppm in Ep) and Ga (2.6-8.6 ppm in Grt; 33-112 ppm in Ep). Glaucophane and omphacite also contain significant amounts of Ga (3-15 ppm). The different generations of garnet and epidote formed during the prograde and retrograde metamorphic stages [5] can be distinguished using the Ge/Si and Ga/Al ratios. Ge/Si in

  19. Tectono-metamorphic evolution and timing of the melting processes in the Svecofennian Tonalite-Trondhjemite Migmatite Belt: An example from Luopioinen, Tampere area, southern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouri, H.


    Full Text Available The Svecofennian Orogen is in southern Finland characterized by two major migmatite belts. These are the so-called Granite Migmatite Belt, in which Kfs-rich leucosomes predominate, and the Tonalite-Trondhjemite Migmatite Belt, which is characterized by Kfs-poor leucosomes and borders the former belt in the north. The present paper deals with selected migmatitic rocks from the latter belt. It is aimed to study the temporal and structural relationships of the different leucosome generations, and to establish the pressure-temperature-time paths of this belt. The Tonalite-Trondhjemite Migmatite Belt consists mainly of migmatitic rocks with various types of synorogenic granitoids and minor mafic and ultramafic crocks. The mesosome of the migmatites consist of garnet-sillimanite-biotite-plagioclase-cordierite-quartz assemblages with rare K-feldspar and late andalusite. The oldest leucosomes are dominated by plagioclase and quartz, and the content of K-feldspar increases in later leucosomes. Microtextural analysis in conjunction with THERMOCALC calculations and geothermometry shows that these rocks were metamorphosed at peak conditions of 700-750°C at 4-5 kbar and aH20 = 0.4-0.7. The formation of cordierite coronas around garnet and the late crystallization of andalusite suggest that the final stage of the P-T history was characterized by decompression and cooling within the andalusite stability field, estimated at 500-650°C and 3-4 kbar. Detailed isotopic dating of mesosome and leucosomes of the migmatites was undertaken by conventional U-Pb analyses on monazite and zircon, Sm-Nd analyses on garnet, and ion probe dating on zircon. The monazites are nearly concordant with an average age of 1878.5±1.5 Ma, and garnet-whole rock analyses show that the concordant leucosomes and the mesosome are coeval within error margins having ages of 1893±40 and 1871±14 Ma, respectively. However, garnet in the discordant vein leucosome provides an age of 1843±11

  20. A reinterpretation of the metamorphic Yuli belt: Evidence for a middle-late Miocene accretionary prism in eastern Taiwan (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Shan; Chung, Sun-Lin; Chou, Hsien-Yuan; Zugeerbai, Zul; Shao, Wen-Yu; Lee, Yuan-Hsi


    The Yuli metamorphic belt has been the topic of petrological and geochronological studies for over 40 years and has been interpreted as a Cretaceous mélange. Our study utilizes zircon U-Pb dating of schist and exotic blueschist blocks in the Yuli belt. These new ages indicate that these metamorphic rocks are actually middle Miocene in age and may represent the deeper structural levels of an accretionary prism. Several distinctive detrital zircon U-Pb age populations are recognized from 14 siliceous schists of mélange-hosted rocks that are similar in age population to the Cretaceous, Eocene-Oligocene, and Miocene strata of Taiwan. The wide range of ages is interpreted as a product mixing of various sedimentary strata prior to metamorphism. Three blueschists of a volcanic-arc protolith enclosed within the host rocks yield crystallization ages of 15.4 ± 0.4, 15.5 ± 0.3, and 16.0 ± 0.2 Ma based on zircon U-Pb dating. In consideration of the new data regarding the Cretaceous-Miocene host rocks and the middle Miocene exotic blueschist blocks, it strongly suggests that the Yuli belt formed at deeper levels of an accretionary wedge during subduction of South China Sea oceanic crust at the middle-late Miocene. Subsequently, the rapid uplift of the metamorphic belt was probably related to doubly vergent wedge extrusion due to the Pliocene arc-continent collision.

  1. Effects of greenschist-facies metamorphism and related deformation on the Mobrun massive sulfide deposit, Québec, Canada (United States)

    Larocque, A. C. L.; Hodgson, C. J.


    The Mobrun Zn-Cu-Ag-Au deposit in the Noranda mining camp is hosted by Archean mafic and felsic submarine volcanic rocks. The deposit comprises three massive sulfide complexes: the Main and Satellite Lenses near surface, and the 1100 orebody at depth. The rocks have been subjected to lower greenschist-facies metamorphism and related deformation, which resulted in changes in ore textures, development of shear zones and veins systems, remobilization of gold, and formation of a new mineral (electrum) within the orebodies. Both mechanical and chemical processes operated to produce secondary textures and structures resulting from brittle deformation, ductile deformation, and annealing. The specific deformation mechanisms include brittle failure and cataclastic flow, dislocation glide, dislocation creep and solution-precipitation creep. The Main and Satellite Lenses are characterized by excellent preservation of primary sulfides deposited from and reworked by synvolcanic hydrothermal fluids. These orebodies were affected to a limited degree by mechanical processes of deformation. In contrast, the 1100 orebody is characterized by a higher degree of development of textures and structures related to metamorphism and deformation, especially those formed by chemical processes. The differences may be due to the greater depth of the 1100 orebody relative to the other lenses, as regional metamorphic isograds are subhorizontal, and more extensive interaction between metamorphic fluids and the 1100 Lens.

  2. Charnockites and UHT metamorphism in the Bakhuis Granulite Belt, western Suriname : Evidence for two separate UHT events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, Martijn; de Roever, Emond W F; Nanne, Josefine A M; Mason, Paul R D; Davies, Gareth R.

    The Bakhuis Granulite Belt in western Suriname is an ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) metamorphic terrain in the centre of the Paleoproterozoic (Transamazonian) Guiana Shield. Next to the UHT granulites, the belt contains a 30 by 30km body of orthopyroxene-bearing granitoids: the Kabalebo charnockites.

  3. Late Cretaceous extension and exhumation of the Stong and Taku magmatic and metamorphic complexes, NE Peninsular Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    François, T.; Md Ali, M.A.; Matenco, L.; Willingshofer, E.; Ng, T.F.; Taib, N.I.; Shuib, M.K.


    Fragmentation of large continental areas by post-orogenic extension requires favourable geodynamic conditions and frequently occurs along pre-existing suture zones or nappe contacts, as exemplified by the Stong and Taku magmatic and metamorphic complexes of northern Peninsular Malaysia. For this

  4. Progress in GaAs Metamorphic HEMT Technology for Microwave Applications. High Efficiency Ka-Band MHEMT Power MMICs (United States)

    Smith, P. M.; Dugas, D.; Chu, K.; Nichols, K.; Duh, K. H.; Fisher, J.; MtPleasant, L.; Xu, D.; Gunter, L.; Vera, A.


    This paper reviews recent progress in the development of GaAs metamorphic HEMT (MHEMT) technology for microwave applications. Commercialization has begun, while efforts to further improve performance, manufacturability and reliability continue. We also report the first multi-watt MHEMT MMIC power amplifiers, demonstrating up to 3.2W output power and record power-added efficiency (PAE) at Ka-band.

  5. Mnemiopsis leidyi Gut Harbors Seasonally Variant and Commensal Microbial Assemblages (United States)

    Mariita, R. M.; Hossain, M. J.; Liles, M. R.; Moss, A.


    Studies have shown that with widespread use of antibiotics in human and domestic animal populations, antibiotic resistance becomes increasingly common in the environment. Estuaries provide ideal conditions for acquisition and dissemination of drug resistance genes because they serve as sinks for pollution. This study aimed to identify M. leidyi microbial diversity and richness and their potential to act as vectors for antibiotic resistance determinants (ARDs). M. leidyi, although native to study area are highly invasive. Metagenomic analyses indicate that there are temporal variations of bacterioplankton assemblages in M. leidyi gut. Overall, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria are the most abundant phyla. Despite the temporal dynamics in the microbial assemblages in M. leidyi gut, they seem to retain Propionibacterium acnes (gut microbiota in some insects) and select proteobacteria across all seasons. The results contradict previous studies that suggest that M. leidyi does not have constant a microbiota, but only seasonally variant microbial assemblages. Here we reveal the presence of M. leidyi gut ARDs in winter and summer, probably because of the ctenophores' positive geotaxis during rough surface conditions. Genes responsible for resistance to fluoroquinolones, multidrug resistance efflux pumps, mercuric reductase, copper homeostasis and blaR1 genes were observed. This is the first study to demonstrate that M. leidyi harbors constant microbiota and provides a baseline for understanding M. leidyi gut microbial and ARDs ecology. It also suggests that M. leidyi bacterial taxonomic and functional dynamics is influenced by season. Funding: Alabama EPSCoR GRSP fellowship, AU-CMB fellowship, NSF EPS-1158862, USDA-Hatch 370225-310100 (AGM, ML).

  6. Taming Distraction: The Second Screen Assemblage, Television and the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Stauff


    Full Text Available This article argues that television’s resilience in the current media landscape can best be understood by analyzing its role in a broader quest to organize attention across different media. For quite a while, the mobile phone was considered to be a disturbance both for watching television and for classroom teaching. In recent years, however, strategies have been developed to turn the second screen’s distractive potential into a source for intensified, personalized and social attention. This has consequences for television’s position in a multimedia assemblage: television’s alleged specificities (e.g. liveness become mouldable features, which are selectively applied to guide the attention of users across different devices and platforms. Television does not end, but some of its traditional features do only persist because of its strategic complementarity with other media; others are re-adapted by new technologies thereby spreading televisual modes of attention across multiple screens. The article delineates the historical development of simultaneous media use as a ‘problematization’—from alternating (and competitive media use to multitasking and finally complementary use of different media. Additionally, it shows how similar strategies of managing attention are applied in the ‘digital classroom’. While deliberately avoiding to pin down, what television is, the analysis of the problem of attention allows for tracing how old and new media features are constantly reshuffled. This article combines three arguments: (1 the second screen is conceived of as both a danger to attention and a tool to manage attention. (2 To organize attention, the second screen assemblage modulates the specific qualities of television and all the other devices involved. (3 While being a fragile and often inconsistent assemblage, the second screen spreads its dynamics—and especially the problem of attention—far beyond television, e.g. into the realm of

  7. Variation in Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence assemblages among coral colonies. (United States)

    Stat, Michael; Bird, Christopher E; Pochon, Xavier; Chasqui, Luis; Chauka, Leonard J; Concepcion, Gregory T; Logan, Dan; Takabayashi, Misaki; Toonen, Robert J; Gates, Ruth D


    Endosymbiotic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium are fundamentally important to the biology of scleractinian corals, as well as to a variety of other marine organisms. The genus Symbiodinium is genetically and functionally diverse and the taxonomic nature of the union between Symbiodinium and corals is implicated as a key trait determining the environmental tolerance of the symbiosis. Surprisingly, the question of how Symbiodinium diversity partitions within a species across spatial scales of meters to kilometers has received little attention, but is important to understanding the intrinsic biological scope of a given coral population and adaptations to the local environment. Here we address this gap by describing the Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence assemblages recovered from colonies of the reef building coral Montipora capitata sampled across Kāne'ohe Bay, Hawai'i. A total of 52 corals were sampled in a nested design of Coral Colony(Site(Region)) reflecting spatial scales of meters to kilometers. A diversity of Symbiodinium ITS2 sequences was recovered with the majority of variance partitioning at the level of the Coral Colony. To confirm this result, the Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence diversity in six M. capitata colonies were analyzed in much greater depth with 35 to 55 clones per colony. The ITS2 sequences and quantitative composition recovered from these colonies varied significantly, indicating that each coral hosted a different assemblage of Symbiodinium. The diversity of Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence assemblages retrieved from individual colonies of M. capitata here highlights the problems inherent in interpreting multi-copy and intra-genomically variable molecular markers, and serves as a context for discussing the utility and biological relevance of assigning species names based on Symbiodinium ITS2 genotyping.

  8. Chemical and mineralogical data and processing methods management system prototype with application to study of the North Caucasus Blybsky Metamorphic Complexes metamorphism PT-condition (United States)

    Ivanov, Stanislav; Kamzolkin, Vladimir; Konilov, Aleksandr; Aleshin, Igor


    There are many various methods of assessing the conditions of rocks formation based on determining the composition of the constituent minerals. Our objective was to create a universal tool for processing mineral's chemical analysis results and solving geothermobarometry problems by creating a database of existing sensors and providing a user-friendly standard interface. Similar computer assisted tools are based upon large collection of sensors (geothermometers and geobarometers) are known, for example, the project TPF (Konilov A.N., 1999) - text-based sensor collection tool written in PASCAL. The application contained more than 350 different sensors and has been used widely in petrochemical studies (see A.N. Konilov , A.A. Grafchikov, V.I. Fonarev 2010 for review). Our prototype uses the TPF project concept and is designed with modern application development techniques, which allows better flexibility. Main components of the designed system are 3 connected datasets: sensors collection (geothermometers, geobarometers, oxygen geobarometers, etc.), petrochemical data and modeling results. All data is maintained by special management and visualization tools and resides in sql database. System utilities allow user to import and export data in various file formats, edit records and plot graphs. Sensors database contains up to date collections of known methods. New sensors may be added by user. Measured database should be filled in by researcher. User friendly interface allows access to all available data and sensors, automates routine work, reduces the risk of common user mistakes and simplifies information exchange between research groups. We use prototype to evaluate peak pressure during the formation of garnet-amphibolite apoeclogites, gneisses and schists Blybsky metamorphic complex of the Front Range of the Northern Caucasus. In particular, our estimation of formation pressure range (18 ± 4 kbar) agrees on independent research results. The reported study was

  9. Revisiting Qumran Cave 1Q and its archaeological assemblage


    Taylor, Joan E.; Mizzi, Dennis; Fidanzio, Marcello


    Qumran Cave 1Q was the first site of Dead Sea scroll discoveries. Found and partly emptied by local Bedouin, the cave was excavated officially in 1949 and published in the series Discoveries in the Judaean Desert (Volume 1) in 1955. Contents of the cave are found in collections worldwide, and in different institutions in Jerusalem and Amman. While the scrolls are the most highly prized artefacts from this cave, in archaeological terms they are part of an assemblage that needs to be understood...

  10. Elevated land runoff after European settlement perturbs persistent foraminiferal assemblages on the Great Barrier Reef. (United States)

    Uthicke, S; Patel, F; Ditchburn, R


    Coral reefs are under pressure from a variety of human-induced disturbances, but demonstration of ecosystem changes and identification of stressors are often difficult. We tested whether global change or increased agricultural runoff after European settlement of Northeast Australia (ca. 1860) has affected inshore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef. Eleven sediment cores were retrieved from inner reefs, intermediate reefs, and outer-island reefs, and benthic foraminiferal assemblages were analyzed in dated (14C, 210Pb, 137Cs) core sections (N = 82 samples). Data were grouped into six age bands ( 1500 yr). Principal component analysis and two-factor (Zone and Age) permutational analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) suggested that assemblages from the three zones were significantly different from each other over several millennia, with symbiont-bearing (mixotrophic) species dominating the outer reefs. A significant interaction term indicated that within-zone patterns varied. Assemblages in outer reefs unaffected from increased land runoff were persistent until present times. In both other zones, assemblages were also persistent until 150 yr ago, suggesting that benthic foraminiferal assemblages are naturally highly persistent over long (> 2000 yr) timescales. Assemblages in core sections old from inner reefs were significantly (post hoc t test) different from those older than 150 yr. Similarly, assemblages old from intermediate reefs were significantly different compared to older assemblages. A multivariate regression tree (environmental variables: Zone and Age) explained 56.8% of the variance in foraminiferal assemblages and confirmed patterns identified by PERMANOVA. With some exceptions, changes on the inner and intermediate reefs were consistent with a model predicting that increased nutrients and higher turbidity enhance relative abundance of heterotrophic species. Given that assemblages did not change in outer-island reefs (not impacted by runoff) we argue that changes

  11. Temporal changes in taxonomic and functional diversity of fish assemblages downstream from mountaintop mining (United States)

    Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Chambers, Douglas B.


    Mountaintop mining (MTM) affects chemical, physical, and hydrological properties of receiving streams, but the long-term consequences for fish-assemblage structure and function are poorly understood. We sampled stream fish assemblages using electrofishing techniques in MTM exposure sites and reference sites within the Guyandotte River basin, USA, during 2010–2011. We calculated indices of taxonomic diversity (species richness, abundance, Shannon diversity) and functional diversity (functional richness, functional evenness, functional divergence) to compare exposure and reference assemblages between seasons (spring and autumn) and across years (1999–2011). We based temporal comparisons on 2 sites that were sampled during 1999–2001 by Stauffer and Ferreri (2002). Exposure assemblages had lower taxonomic and functional diversity than reference assemblages or simulated assemblages that accounted for random variation. Differences in taxonomic composition between reference and exposure assemblages were associated with conductivity and aqueous Se concentrations. Exposure assemblages had fewer species, lower abundances, and less biomass than reference assemblages across years and seasons. Green Sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) and Creek Chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) became numerically dominant in exposure assemblages over time because of their persistence and losses of other taxa. In contrast, species richness increased over time in reference assemblages, a result that may indicate recovery from drought. Mean individual biomass increased as fish density decreased and most obligate invertivores were apparently extirpated at MTM exposure sites. Effects of MTM were not related to physical-habitat conditions but were associated with water-quality variables, which may limit quality and availability of benthic macroinvertebrate prey. Simulations revealed effects of MTM that could not be attributed to random variation in fish assemblage structure.

  12. High dissimilarity within a multiyear annual record of pollen assemblages from a North American tallgrass prairie


    Commerford, Julie L.; McLauchlan, Kendra K.; Minckley, Thomas A.


    Abstract Grassland vegetation varies in composition across North America and has been historically influenced by multiple biotic and abiotic drivers, including fire, herbivory, and topography. Yet, the amount of temporal and spatial variability exhibited among grassland pollen assemblages, and the influence of these biotic and abiotic drivers on pollen assemblage composition and diversity has been relatively understudied. Here, we examine 4?years of modern pollen assemblages collected from a ...

  13. Differences in biological traits composition of benthic assemblages between unimpacted habitats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolam, S.G.; Garcia, C.; Eggleton, J.


    of unimpacted benthic assemblages vary between different sedimentary habitats. Assemblages in deep, muddy environments unaffected by anthropogenic disturbance show increased proportions of downward conveyors and surface deposit-feeders, while burrowing, diffusive mixing, scavenging and predation traits assume...... greater numerical proportions in shallower habitats. Deep, coarser sediments are numerically more dominated by sessile, upward conveyors and suspension feeders. In contrast, unimpacted assemblages of coarse sediments in shallower regions are proportionally dominated by the diffusive mixers, burrowers...

  14. Presence of riparian vegetation increases biotic condition of fish assemblages in two Brazilian reservoirs


    Fabio Cop Ferreira; Ursulla Pereira Souza; Miguel Petrere Junior


    Abstract The riparian vegetation in lakes and reservoirs is source of course wood structures such as trunks and branches and is used as sheltering, spawning and foraging habitats for fishes. The reduction of these submerged structures can thus, affect the composition and structure of fish assemblages in reservoirs. Aim To evaluate the influence of riparian vegetation on the biotic condition of fish assemblage by adapting the Reservoir Fish Assemblage Index (RFAI) to two reservoirs in the Upp...

  15. The nematode assemblage of a coastal lagoon (Lake Varano, southern Italy): ecology and biodiversity patterns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Semprucci, Federica; Balsamo, Maria; Frontalini, Fabrizio


    .... Principal component analysis revealed that the main environmental factors controlling the assemblages in terms of both composition and biological traits were grain size, organic matter, pollution...

  16. Time-Lapse Micro-Tomography Measurements and Determination of Effective Transport Properties of Snow Metamorphism Under Advective Conditions (United States)

    Ebner, P. P.; Grimm, S.; Steen-Larsen, H. C.; Schneebeli, M.; Steinfeld, A.


    The metamorphism of snow under advective air flow, with and without temperature gradient, was never experimentally investigated. We developed a new sample holder where metamorphism under advective conditions can be observed and measured using time-lapse micro-tomography [1]. Long-term experiments were performed and direct pore-level simulation (DPLS) [2,3] was directly applied on the extracted 3D digital geometry of the snow to calculate the effective transport properties by solving the governing fluid flow equations. The results showed no effect of isothermal advection, compared to rates typical for isothermal metamorphism. Appling a temperature gradient, the results showed increased snow metamorphism compared to rates typical for temperature gradient metamorphism. However, for both cases a change in the isotopic composition in the air as well as in the snow sample could be observed. These measurements could be influential to better understand snow-air exchange processes relevant for atmospheric chemistry and isotopic composition. REFERENCES[1] Ebner P. P., Grimm S., Schneebeli M., and Steinfeld A.: An instrumented sample holder for time-lapse micro-tomography measurements of snow under advective airflow. Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems 4(2014), 353-373. [2] Zermatten E., Haussener S., Schneebeli M., and Steinfeld A.: Tomography-based determination of permeability and Dupuit-Forchheimer coefficient of characteristic snow samples. Journal of Glaciology 57(2011), 811-816. [3] Zermatten E., Schneebeli M., Arakawa H., and Steinfeld A.: Tomography-based determination of porosity, specific area and permeability of snow and comparison with measurements. Cold Regions Science and Technology 97 (2014), 33-40. Fig. 1: 3-D surface rendering of a refrozen wet snow sample with fluid flow streamline.

  17. Seasonal dynamics of fish assemblages on breakwaters and natural rocky reefs in a temperate estuary: consistent assemblage differences driven by sub-adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley M Fowler

    Full Text Available Development of infrastructure around cities is rapidly increasing the amount of artificial substrate (termed artificial reef, 'AR' in coastal marine habitats. However, effects of ARs on marine communities remain unknown, because it is unclear whether ARs can maintain similar communities to natural reefs. We investigated whether well-established (> 30 years old breakwaters could consistently approximate fish assemblages on interspersed rocky reefs in a temperate estuary over 6 consecutive seasons using regular visual surveys between June 2009 (winter and November 2010 (spring. We examined whether assemblage differences between reef types were driven by differences in juvenile recruitment, or were related to differences in older life-stages. Assemblages on both reef types were dominated by juveniles (61% of individuals and sub-adults (34% of individuals. Seasonal fluctuations in assemblage parameters (species richness, diversity, sub-adult abundance were similar between reef types, and levels of species diversity and assemblage composition were generally comparable. However, abundance and species richness were consistently higher (1.9-7.6 and 1.3-2.6 times, respectively on breakwaters. These assemblage differences could not be explained by differences in juvenile recruitment, with seasonal patterns of recruitment and juvenile species found to be similar between reef types. In contrast, abundances of sub-adults were consistently higher (1.1-12 times at breakwaters, and assemblage differences appeared to be driven by this life-stage. Our results indicate that breakwaters in temperate estuaries are capable of supporting abundant and diverse fish assemblages with similar recruitment process to natural reefs. However, breakwaters may not approximate all aspects of natural assemblage structure, with differences maintained by a single-life stage in some cases.

  18. Mollusc life and death assemblages on a tropical rocky shore as proxies for the taphonomic loss in a fossil counterpart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anne Mehlin; Surlyk, Finn


    Comparison of a modern rocky shore mollusc life assemblage from Thailand with the associated death assemblage, and interpretation of the fossilization potential of the latter, are used to investigate the fidelity in reconstruction of ancient analogues. The fauna from the death assemblage represents...... the intertidal to shallow subtidal rocky shore environment, from which the life assemblage was sampled, and the associated sandy beach environment. The life assemblage should in principle have a high fossilization potential because only two out of 67 species are without a calcareous shell, but it actually has...... a lower taxonomic agreement to the death assemblage than found in previous published studies. Rocky shore life and death assemblages thus appear to show lower taxonomic agreement compared to muddy or sandy shelf assemblages due to the mix after death with the sandy beach assemblage. A hypothetical fossil...

  19. How could discharge management affect Florida spring fish assemblage structure? (United States)

    Work, Kirsten; Codner, Keneil; Gibbs, Melissa


    Freshwater bodies are increasingly affected by reductions in water quantity and quality and by invasions of exotic species. To protect water quantity and maintain the ecological integrity of many water bodies in central Florida, a program of adopting Minimum Flows and Levels (MFLs) has begun for both lentic and lotic waters. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were relationships between discharge and stage, water quality, and biological parameters for Volusia Blue Spring, a first magnitude spring (discharge > 380,000 m3 day-1 or 100 mgd) for which an MFL program was adopted in 2006. Over the course of fourteen years, we assessed fish density and diversity weekly, monthly, or seasonally with seine and snorkel counts. We evaluated annual changes in the assemblages for relationships with water quantity and quality. Low discharge and dissolved oxygen combined with high stage and conductivity produced a fish population with a lower density and diversity in 2014 than in previous years. Densities of fish taxonomic/functional groups also were low in 2014 and measures of water quantity were significant predictors of fish assemblage structure. As a result of the strong relationships between variation in discharge and an array of chemical and biological characteristics of the spring, we conclude that maintaining the historical discharge rate is important for preserving the ecological integrity of Volusia Blue Spring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The effects of seasonally variable dragonfly predation on butterfly assemblages. (United States)

    Tiitsaar, Anu; Kaasik, Ants; Teder, Tiit


    Where predation is seasonally variable, the potential impact of a predator on individual prey species will critically depend on phenological synchrony of the predator with the prey. Here we explored the effects of seasonally variable predation in multispecies assemblages of short-lived prey. The study was conducted in a landscape in which we had previously demonstrated generally high, but spatially and seasonally variable dragonfly-induced mortality in adult butterflies. In this system, we show that patterns of patch occupancy in butterfly species flying during periods of peak dragonfly abundance are more strongly associated with spatial variation in dragonfly abundance than patch occupancy of species flying when dragonfly density was low. We provide evidence indicating that this differential sensitivity of different butterfly species to between-habitat differences in dragonfly abundance is causally tied to seasonal variation in the intensity of dragonfly predation. The effect of dragonfly predation could also be measured at the level of whole local butterfly assemblages. With dragonfly density increasing, butterfly species richness decreased, and butterfly species composition tended to show a shift toward a greater proportion of species flying during periods of off-peak dragonfly abundance.

  1. Measuring restoration in intertidal macrophyte assemblages following sewage treatment upgrade. (United States)

    Díez, I; Santolaria, A; Muguerza, N; Gorostiaga, J M


    Understanding the effectiveness of pollution mitigation actions in terms of biological recovery is essential if the environmental protection goals of management policies are to be achieved. Few studies, however, have evaluated the restoration of seaweed assemblages following pollution abatement. This study aimed to investigate the response of macroalgal vegetation to the upgrade of a wastewater treatment plant using a "Beyond BACI" experimental design. Temporal differences in vegetation structure between the outfall and two control locations over a 10-year period were assessed. Improvement in sewage treatment was found to lead to increases in diversity, cover of morphologically complex algae and spatial heterogeneity. The multivariate composition of assemblages at the outfall location became more similar to that at the controls; however, their complete recovery may depend on factors other than pollution removal. Our findings also suggest that the extent of restoration and the time required to detect it are largely predetermined by the response variables we choose to assess recovery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessing benthic ecological impacts of bottom aquaculture using macrofaunal assemblages. (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Fan, Ying; Yan, Cunjun; Gao, Chunzi; Xu, Zhaodong; Liu, Xiaoshou


    Bottom aquaculture of bivalves is a high-yield culture method, which is increasingly adopted by shellfish farmers worldwide. However, the effects of bottom aquaculture on benthic ecosystems are not well-known. Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum), is a widely distributed bottom aquaculture mollusk species. To assess the ecological impacts of Manila clam bottom aquaculture, clams and other macrofaunal assemblages were investigated during four cruises (July and November 2011, February and May 2012) at six sampling sites in Jiaozhou Bay, China. Correlation analysis showed that macrofaunal assemblages had significant negative correlations with the abundance of Manila clams. However, according to the results of several biotic indices, a low disturbance was detected by Manila clam bottom aquaculture. In conclusion, AMBI (AZTI'S Marine Biotic Index) and M-AMBI (Multivariate AZTI Marine Biotic Index) indices are more suitable for assessing ecological quality than polychaete/amphipod ratios when the disturbance is slight, such as at a bivalve bottom aquaculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mental Ill Health, Recovery and the Family Assemblage. (United States)

    Price-Robertson, Rhys; Manderson, Lenore; Duff, Cameron


    The recovery approach is now among the most influential paradigms shaping mental health policy and practice across the English-speaking world. While recovery is normally presented as a deeply personal process, critics have challenged the individualism underpinning this view. A growing literature on "family recovery" explores the ways in which people, especially parents with mental ill health, can find it impossible to separate their own recovery experiences from the processes of family life. While sympathetic to this literature, we argue that it remains limited by its anthropocentricity, and therefore struggles to account for the varied human and nonhuman entities and forces involved in the creation and maintenance of family life. The current analysis is based on an ethnographic study conducted in Australia, which focused on families in which the father experiences mental ill health. We employ the emerging concept of the "family assemblage" to explore how the material, social, discursive and affective components of family life enabled and impeded these fathers' recovery trajectories. Viewing families as heterogeneous assemblages allows for novel insights into some of the most basic aspects of recovery, challenging existing conceptions of the roles and significance of emotion, identity and agency in the family recovery process.

  4. Marine assemblages respond rapidly to winter climate variability. (United States)

    Morley, James W; Batt, Ryan D; Pinsky, Malin L


    Even species within the same assemblage have varied responses to climate change, and there is a poor understanding for why some taxa are more sensitive to climate than others. In addition, multiple mechanisms can drive species' responses, and responses may be specific to certain life stages or times of year. To test how marine species respond to climate variability, we analyzed 73 diverse taxa off the southeast US coast in 26 years of scientific trawl survey data and determined how changes in distribution and biomass relate to temperature. We found that winter temperatures were particularly useful for explaining interannual variation in species' distribution and biomass, although the direction and magnitude of the response varied among species from strongly negative, to little response, to strongly positive. Across species, the response to winter temperature varied greatly, with much of this variation being explained by thermal preference. A separate analysis of annual commercial fishery landings revealed that winter temperatures may also impact several important fisheries in the southeast United States. Based on the life stages of the species surveyed, winter temperature appears to act through overwinter mortality of juveniles or as a cue for migration timing. We predict that this assemblage will be responsive to projected increases in temperature and that winter temperature may be broadly important for species relationships with climate on a global scale. © The Authors Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Studies of Cystoseira assemblages in Northern Atlantic Iberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Fernández, Alicia


    Full Text Available The Iberian Peninsula contains 24 specific and infraespecific taxa of the genus Cystoseira, but only 6 inhabit in Northern Iberia: C. baccata, C. foeniculacea, C. humilis var. myriophylloides, C. nodicaulis, C. tamariscifolia, and C. usneoides. The Cystoseira assemblages exhibit a complex structure and stratification that allows the presence of a large associate biota and a rich epiphytic flora. Although in the Mediterranean Sea several species have been analyzed in depth, the Atlantic ones are less studied. A revision of the literature (1931-2014 and grey information was made to know the diversity of the North Atlantic Iberian Cystoseira assemblages. The community of C. baccata harbors the biggest number of species (215, followed by C. tamariscifolia (162 and C. usneoides (126, whereas the community with fewest species was the C. foeniculacea one (34. More than 70 species were present in the majority of the Cystoseira assemblages. In this article, are revised also environmental issues in the Cystoseira assemblages, as pollution and anthropogenic pressures or disturbances that cause regression in their communities, and effects of biological invasions by non-native species. As a conclusion, it will necessary to study the Cystoseira assemblage in depth, starting by research of C. baccata along Northern Iberia, as it is an exclusive and widely distributed Atlantic species with very scarce information concerning its role in structuring the communities.La Península Ibérica contiene 24 táxones del género Cystoseira, pero sólo 6 habitan en las costas del norte: C. baccata, C. foeniculacea, C. humilis var. myriophylloides, C. nodicaulis, C. tamariscifolia y C. usneoides. Las comunidades de Cystoseira muestran una estructura compleja debido a su estratificación, lo que permite el desarrollo de una amplia biota asociada y una gran riqueza de flora epífita. Aunque diversas especies mediterráneas han sido analizadas en profundidad, las atl

  6. Investigation of In0.7Ga0.3As/In0.7Al0.3As metamorphic HEMT- heterostructures by photoluminescence spectroscopy (United States)

    Romanovskiy, D. S.; Tarasov, S. A.; Galiev, G. B.; Pushkarev, S. S.


    Low-temperature photoluminescence and photoreflectance have been studied in several metamorphic HEMT- (MHEMT-) heterostructures with the same active regions and different buffer layer designs grown by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy. The indium mole fraction in InAlAs/InGaAs/InAlAs single quantum well (QW) is 0.7. It was found that structures with step-graded metamorphic buffer have better quality. Also it was shown that mismatched superlattices in metamorphic buffer can influence on the half-width of photoluminescence spectra. The possible attribution of photoluminescence and photoreflectance spectral lines and their thermal behaviour are critically discussed.

  7. Geochemical, Metamorphic and Geodynamic Evolution implications from subduction-related serpentinites and metarodingites at East Thessaly (Central Greece) (United States)

    Koutsovitis, Petros


    In Central Greece, the East Thessaly region encompasses ophiolitic and metaophiolitic formations emplaced onto Mesozoic platform series rocks. Metaophiolitic thrust sheets are characterized either by the predominance of serpentinites or metabasites. Serpentinites have been distinguished into three groups, representing distinct metamorphic degrees. Group-1 serpentinites (East Othris region) are characterized by the progressive transformation of lizardite to antigorite, estimated to have been formed under greenschist facies conditions (˜320-340 ˚ C, P≈6-8 kbar) [1]. Group-2 serpentinites (NE Othris and Agia-Agiokampos region) are marked by the further prevalence of antigorite over lizardite, suggesting upper-greenschist to low-blueschist facies metamorphism (˜340-370 ˚ C, P≈9-11 kbar) [1]. Group-3 serpentinites (Agia-Agiokampos region) are characterized by the predominance of antigorite and Cr-magnetite, as well as by their relatively low LOI (10.9-12.6 wt.%), corresponding to blueschist facies metamorphism (˜360-400 ˚ C, P≈12 kbar) [1]. These metamorphic conditions are highly comparable with the P-T estimates from the Easternmost Thessaly metabasic rocks, strongly indicating that the entire metaophiolitic formation (excluding East Othris) underwent blueschist facies metamorphism. Serpentinites from East Thessaly were formed from serpentinization of highly depleted harzburgitic protoliths under extensive partial melting processes (>15%), pointing to a hydrous subduction-related environment. Group-1 serpentinites exhibit higher Mg/Si ratio values and LOI compared to serpentinite Groups-2 and -3. Differences in the trace element behavior amongst the three serpentinite groups are also consistent with increasing metamorphic conditions (e.g. Pb, La enrichments, Ti, Y, Yb depletions) [1]. The East Thessaly serpentinites reflect highly oxidizing conditions (-0.4Jurassic Pindos oceanic SSZ model appears to successfully interpret not only the geochemical and

  8. Shock metamorphism of quartz in nature and experiment: II. Significance in geoscience (United States)

    Grieve, Richard A. F.; Langenhorst, Falko; Stöffler, Dieter


    The occurrence of shock metamorphosed quartz is the most common petrographic criterion for the identification of terrestrial impact structures and lithologies. Its utility is due to its almost ubiquitous occurrence in terrestrial rocks, its overall stability and the fact that a variety of shock metamorphic effects, occurring over a range of shock pressures, have been well documented. These shock effects have been generally duplicated in shock recovery experiments and, thus, serve as shock pressure barometers. After reviewing the general character of shock effects in quartz, the differences between experimental and natural shock events and their potential effects on the shock metamorphism of quartz are explored. The short pulse lengths in experiments may account for the difficulty in synthesizing the high-pressure polymorphs, coesite and stishovite, compared to natural occurrences. In addition, post-shock thermal effects are possible in natural events, which can affect shock altered physical properties, such as refractive index, and cause annealing of shock damage and recrystallization. The orientations of planar microstructures, however, are unaffected by post-impact thermal events, except if quartz is recrystallized, and provide the best natural shock barometer in terms of utility and occurrence. The nature of planar microstructures, particularly planar deformation features (PDFs), is discussed in some detail and a scheme of variations in orientations with shock pressure is provided. The effect of post-impact events on PDFs is generally limited to annealing of the original glass lamellae to produce decorated PDFs, resulting from the exsolution of dissolved water during recrystallization. Basal (0001) PDFs differ from other PDF orientations in that they are multiple, mechanical Brazil twins, which are difficult to detect if not partially annealed and decorated. The occurrence and significance of shock metamorphosed quartz and its other phases (namely, coesite

  9. Recovery of macrobenthic assemblages following experimental sand burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José J. Barrón


    Full Text Available This research was supported by a fund provided by the Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología (UNAM and a fund provided to Celia Olabarria in 2004 and 2005 by the University of Vigo for overseas short stays.AbstractPeriodic inundation by sand is a very common feature of rocky coasts throughout the world. Even so, there have been few direct observations or experiments to investigate the role of sediments on intertidal rocky shores. We designed a field experiment in Mazatlán Bay, Mexico, to test the initial impact and subsequent recovery of intertidal macrobenthic assemblages exposed to sand burial at two sites of varying wave exposure. Both sites supported different natural assemblages. Treatment plots for the addition of sediment and control plots (50 × 50 cm, separated by at least 1.5 m, were randomly placed across the mid-water tidal level. The initial response of the resident macrobenthos and the subsequent recolonization was monitored over a period of 95 days. The main effect of sediment deposition at both sites was mortality and removal of biota due to smothering. The recovery process was rapid and may in part have been the result of the mechanism by which the small, disturbed patches were recolonized. Most of the invertebrates colonized the patches as adults; several seaweeds exhibited vegetative growth as the major mechanism of colonization (e.g., Ulva lactuca Linnaeus, 1753, Amphiroa valonioides Yendo, 1902 and Chaetomorpha antennina (Borgensen Kutzing, 1849. The rate of recovery varied between the sites, however. Recovery of species numbers proceeded quickly at the sheltered site (day 7, but took 95 days at the exposed site. In contrast, biomass reached control levels by day 45 at the sheltered site, but already by day 15 at the exposed site. By day 95, the assemblages recovered to 83.5% and 81% similarity with the controls at the sheltered and exposed sites respectively. Although differences in wave exposure could be very

  10. Inventory and Spatial Assemblage Study of Reef Fish in the Area of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study represents the first qualitative census of the reef fish assemblage of coral reefs in the vicinity of Andavadoaka, south-west Madagascar. Observational data of fish species sightings were collected over the course of a year, while visual census data, with low observer bias, detailing fish assemblage from the four ...

  11. Assessing tree species assemblages in highly disturbed Puerto Rican karst landscapes using forest inventory data. (United States)

    Thomas James Brandeis


    Tree species assemblages described by landscape-scale forest inventory data both agreed and differed from those described by intensive, site specific studies in Puerto Rico’s highly disturbed northern karst belt. Species assemblages found on hill tops (typified by Tabebuia heterophylla or Bursera simaruba with Coccoloba diversifolia, Licaria parvifolia, and Drypetes...

  12. Influence of Fish Predation on Assemblage Structure of Macroinvertebrates in an Intermittent Stream (United States)

    Lance R. Williams; Christopher M. Taylor; Melvin L. Warren


    Despite considerable investigation of stream systems, the influence of fish predation on macroinvertebrate assemblages is still poorly understood and remains a controversial subject. We conducted a field experiment in an intermittent reach of Alum Creek in the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas, to examine the effects of predatory fish on macroinvertebrate assemblages. We...

  13. Testing for functional convergence of temperate rainforest tree assemblages in Chile and New Zealand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lusk, C.H.; Jimenez-Castillo, M.; Aragón, R.; Easdale, T.A.; Poorter, L.; Hinojosa, L.F.; Mason, N.W.H.W.H.


    An important tenet of biogeography and comparative ecology is that disjunct assemblages in similar physical environments are functionally more similar to each other than to assemblages from other environments. Temperate rainforests in South America, New Zealand and Australia share certain

  14. Assemblage Organization in Stream Fishes: Effects of Enviromental Variation and Interspecific Interactions (United States)

    Gary D. Grossman; Robert E. Ratajczak; Maurice Crawford; Mary C. Freeman


    We assessed the relative importance of environmental variation, interspecific competition for space, and predator abundance on assemblage structure and microhabitat use in a stream fish assemblage inhabiting Coweeta Creek, North Carolina, USA. Our study encompassed a l0-yr time span (1983-1992) and included some of the highest and lowest flows in the last 58 years. We...

  15. Social Equity and the Assemblage of Values in Australian Higher Education (United States)

    Rizvi, Fazal; Lingard, Bob


    The paper argues that the policy concept of social equity cannot be adequately understood in a generalised abstract manner, but is better viewed as an assemblage that brings together a number of contrasting, and sometimes competing, values. Our use of assemblage is somewhat eclectic and is designed to underscore the performative character of…

  16. Seismic imaging of slab metamorphism and genesis of intermediate-depth intraslab earthquakes (United States)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Nakajima, Junichi


    We review studies of intermediate-depth seismicity and seismic imaging of the interior of subducting slabs in relation to slab metamorphism and their implications for the genesis of intermediate-depth earthquakes. Intermediate-depth events form a double seismic zone in the depth range of c. 40-180 km, which occur only at locations where hydrous minerals are present, and are particularly concentrated along dehydration reaction boundaries. Recent studies have revealed detailed spatial distributions of these events and a close relationship with slab metamorphism. Pressure-temperature paths of the crust for cold slabs encounter facies boundaries with large H2O production rates and positive total volume change, which are expected to cause highly active seismicity near the facies boundaries. A belt of upper-plane seismicity in the crust nearly parallel to 80-90 km depth contours of the slab surface has been detected in the cold Pacific slab beneath eastern Japan, and is probably caused by slab crust dehydration with a large H2O production rate. A seismic low-velocity layer in the slab crust persists down to the depth of this upper-plane seismic belt, which provides evidence for phase transformation of dehydration at this depth. Similar low-velocity subducting crust closely related with intraslab seismicity has been detected in several other subduction zones. Seismic tomography studies in NE Japan and northern Chile also revealed the presence of a P-wave low-velocity layer along the lower plane of a double seismic zone. However, in contrast to predictions based on the serpentinized mantle, S-wave velocity along this layer is not low. Seismic anisotropy and pore aspect ratio may play a role in generating this unique structure. Although further validation is required, observations of these distinct low P-wave velocities along the lower seismic plane suggest the presence of hydrated rocks or fluids within that layer. These observations support the hypothesis that dehydration

  17. On the meaning of peak temperatures profiles in inverted metamorphic sequences (United States)

    Duprat-Oualid, Sylvia; Yamato, Philippe


    Inverted metamorphic sequences (IMS) exhibit an upwards continuous increase of peak temperatures and are common features of main thrust systems on Earth. They constitute evidence of the strong relationship existing between thermal field evolution and tectonic processes. Heat advection and shear heating are known to allow the formation of such metamorphic signatures while heat diffusion also plays an important role on temperatures distribution on both sides of the thrust. Furthermore, other advective processes such as erosion or accretion can also be responsible for local inversion of peak temperatures. However, despite of the crucial importance of all these processes for interpretating inverted peak temperatures signatures, their respective influences were never quantified and compared. In order to address this issue, we here propose an innovative coupled approach: (i) We perform 2-D numerical models of various thrust systems by taking into account different kinematic settings (convergence, erosion, accretion), thermal properties, mechanical strength and heat sources. (ii) We quantify the relative contributions of each thermal process (i.e., diffusion, advection, shear heating) to the thermal budget evolution by using dimensionless numbers. Erosion and accretion are compared apart. (iii) We analytically examine peak temperatures recorded in our numerical experiments, along profiles perpendicular to the thrust zone. Each peak temperatures profile presenting an inversion is then characterised by a function of approximation involving six meaningful parameters: the location μFF and width σFF of the peak temperature inversion, the characteristic peak temperature Tcte and gradient GLB beneath the inversion zone, the inversion related contrasts of peak temperature ∆T and gradient ∆G. This multi-approach allows in fine to quantitatively interpret any IMS in terms of involved processes. Its application to intra-continental thrust systems demonstrates that shear

  18. Typical gait analysis of a six-legged robot in the context of metamorphic mechanism theory (United States)

    Xu, Kun; Ding, Xilun


    The equivalent mechanism of the system is often considered as one specific mechanism in most existing studies of multi-legged robots, however the equivalent mechanism is varying while the robot moves on the ground. Four typical tripod period gaits of a radial symmetrical six-legged robot are analyzed. Similar to the metamorphic mechanism, the locomotion of multi-legged robot is considered as a series of varying hybrid serial-parallel mechanisms by assuming the constraints of the feet on the ground with hinges. One gait cycle is divided into several periods, and in different walking period there is a specific equivalent mechanism corresponding to it, and the walking process of multi-legged robot is composed by these series of equivalent mechanisms. Walking performance can be got by analyzing these series of equivalent mechanisms. Kinematics model of the equivalent mechanism is established, workspaces of equivalent mechanisms are illustrated by simulation and a concept of static stability workspace is proposed to evaluate the static stability of these four gaits. A new method to calculate the stride length of multi-legged robots is presented by analyzing the relationship between the workspace of two adjacent equivalent parallel mechanisms in one gait cycle. The stride lengths of four gaits are given by simulations. Comparison of stride length and static stability among these four typical tripod gaits are given. It has been proved that mixed gait and insect-wave gait II have better static stability than mammal kick-off gait and insect-wave gait I. Insect-wave gait II displays its advantage on stride length while the height of robot body lower than 87 mm, mammal kick-off gait has superiority on stride length while the height of robot body higher than 115 mm, and insect-wave gait I shows its shortcoming in stride length. The proposed method based on metamorphic theory and combining the footholds and body height of robot provides a new method to comprehensive analyze the

  19. Fabric Controls on the Failure Mode of Strongly Deformed Metamorphic Rocks with Multiple Anisotropies (United States)

    Agliardi, F.; Zanchetta, S.; Crosta, G. B.; Barberini, V.; Fusi, N.; De Ponti, E.


    Classical models of rock fracture in geodynamics, seismology, and rock engineering are built on basic modes of failure (e.g. tensile, shear, leaning) in isotropic homogeneous material. Nevertheless, the strength, deformability and mode of failure of anisotropic, often folded metamorphic rocks forming significant parts of both the shallow and deep Earth's crust strongly depend on rock mineralogy and fabric. Although a large body of literature exists on the effects of single planar anisotropy on rock failure (e.g. strength dependencies and slip tendency), fabric controls on the behavior of rocks which underwent severe ductile deformation (e.g. crenulation folding) are still poorly understood and further knowledge is required to improve existing models. In this perspective, we studied experimentally the mechanical behaviour of gneisses (Monte Canale unit) and phyllites (Ambria Unit) from the Italian Central Alps and Southern Alps. Rock petrography and fabric were characterised through standard optical microscopy and XRD techniques. About 60 gneiss samples and 40 phyllite samples from available drill cores were prepared and tested under uniaxial and triaxial (multistage) compression, and indirect tension (Brazilian) tests. Laboratory tests allowed reconstructing the stress-strain behaviour and the main mechanical properties of intact rock, as well as observing the fracture patterns and estimating fracture energies of tested samples. Rock samples revealed low and scattered values of unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and Young's modulus. Rock samples broke according to four failure modes, from the well-known shear failure along foliation to the development of centimetre-scale brittle shear zones, both at low and high confining pressure. Moreover, no clear dependence of rock strength on the foliation direction could be identified. Fracture patterns were thus further investigated and quantified in 3D through X-ray Computed Tomography imaging, performed at different

  20. Bleaching response of coral species in the context of assemblage response (United States)

    Swain, Timothy D.; DuBois, Emily; Goldberg, Scott J.; Backman, Vadim; Marcelino, Luisa A.


    Caribbean coral reefs are declining due to a mosaic of local and global stresses, including climate change-induced thermal stress. Species and assemblage responses differ due to factors that are not easily identifiable or quantifiable. We calculated a novel species-specific metric of coral bleaching response, taxon- α and - β, which relates the response of a species to that of its assemblages for 16 species over 18 assemblages. By contextualizing species responses within the response of their assemblages, the effects of environmental factors are removed and intrinsic differences among taxa are revealed. Most corals experience either a saturation response, overly sensitive to weak stress ( α > 0) but under-responsive compared to assemblage bleaching ( β bleaching ( β > 1). This metric may help reveal key factors of bleaching susceptibility and identify species as targets for conservation.

  1. Identification of Giardia lamblia Assemblage E in Humans Points to a New Anthropozoonotic Cycle. (United States)

    Fantinatti, Maria; Bello, Alexandre R; Fernandes, Octavio; Da-Cruz, Alda M


    Giardia lamblia is a pathogen transmitted by water and food that causes infection worldwide. Giardia genotypes are classified into 8 assemblages (A-H). Assemblages A and B are detected in humans, but they are potentially zoonotic because they infect other mammalian hosts. Giardia in samples from 44 children was genotyped. Conserved fragments of the genes encoding β-giardin and glutamate dehydrogenase were sequenced and their alignment were carried out with sequences deposited in GenBank. As expected for Rio de Janeiro, the majority of samples were related to assemblage A. Surprisingly, assemblage E was detected in 15 samples. Detection of assemblage E in humans suggests a new zoonotic route of Giardia transmission. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail

  2. Data from a proteomic baseline study of Assemblage A in Giardia duodenalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J. Emery


    Full Text Available Eight Assemblage A strains from the protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis were analysed using label-free quantitative shotgun proteomics, to evaluate inter- and intra-assemblage variation and complement available genetic and transcriptomic data. Isolates were grown in biological triplicate in axenic culture, and protein extracts were subjected to in-solution digest and online fractionation using Gas Phase Fractionation (GPF. Recent reclassification of genome databases for subassemblages was evaluated for database-dependent loss of information, and proteome composition of different isolates was analysed for biologically relevant assemblage-independent variation. The data from this study are related to the research article “Quantitative proteomics analysis of Giardia duodenalis Assemblage A – a baseline for host, assemblage and isolate variation” published in Proteomics (Emery et al., 2015 [1].

  3. Queer Gamer Assemblages and the Affective Elements of Digital Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Taylor Berdiago Ruelos


    Full Text Available Centering a discussion of gaming as an embodied experience, this essay explores the affective and embodied relationship between LGBT/queer gamers and video games. Drawing on qualitative interviews with seven queer gamers, I argue in that we should understand gamers as socio-technological assemblages, in order to illustrate how gamer identity, subjectivity, and sociality are enacted through the relationship between the body of a gamer and the game technologies. I further expand upon this by tending to how queer gamers talk about their embodied experiences and affective connections to various games through worlding and storytelling elements. These stories illustrate how games create affective possibilities for connection and belonging for queer gamers. I conclude by arguing that an attention to gaming as an embodied experience expands our conceptualizations of play and helps us understand the worldmaking practices that queer gamers often employ.

  4. The (Big Data-security assemblage: Knowledge and critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Aradau


    Full Text Available The Snowden revelations and the emergence of ‘Big Data’ have rekindled questions about how security practices are deployed in a digital age and with what political effects. While critical scholars have drawn attention to the social, political and legal challenges to these practices, the debates in computer and information science have received less analytical attention. This paper proposes to take seriously the critical knowledge developed in information and computer science and reinterpret their debates to develop a critical intervention into the public controversies concerning data-driven security and digital surveillance. The paper offers a two-pronged contribution: on the one hand, we challenge the credibility of security professionals’ discourses in light of the knowledge that they supposedly mobilize; on the other, we argue for a series of conceptual moves around data, human–computer relations, and algorithms to address some of the limitations of existing engagements with the Big Data-security assemblage.

  5. The Role of Habitat Heterogeneity in Structuring Mangrove Bird Assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasilan Mohd-Azlan


    Full Text Available Mangrove habitats are under severe land use pressure throughout the world and Australia is no exception. Here we describe the heterogeneity of mangrove habitat and its relationship with mangrove bird diversity. We examined the role of mangrove habitat complexity in determining the richness of avian mangrove dependent species (MDS and interior species, overall bird species richness and density. High species richness (overall and MDS and density in the mangroves was associated with plant species richness, the density of the understory and food resource distribution. Furthermore, habitat heterogeneity rather than patch area per se was a more important predictor of species richness in the mangroves. These findings stress the importance of habitat diversity and quality to the diversity and density of birds in mangroves. Thus, habitat heterogeneity within mangroves is a crucial patch characteristic, independent of mangrove patch size, for maintaining diverse avian species assemblages.

  6. Hospitality within hospital meals—Socio-material assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise; Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Mikkelsen, Bent E.


    Hospital meals and their role in nutritional care have been studied primarily from a life and natural science perspective. This article takes a different approach and explores the idea of hospitality inspired by Jacques Derrida’s work on the ontology of hospitality. By drawing on ethnographic...... and management involved in hospital food service and in nutritional care to work more systematically with the environment for improved hospital meal experiences in the future...... fieldwork in a Danish hospital, hospitality practices were studied using a socio-material assemblage approach. The study showed that rethinking the meal event could change the wards into temporary “pop-up-restaurants,” transcending the hospital context and providing a scene for shifting host...

  7. Spatial segregation in eastern North Pacific skate assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J Bizzarro

    Full Text Available Skates (Rajiformes: Rajoidei are common mesopredators in marine benthic communities. The spatial associations of individual species and the structure of assemblages are of considerable importance for effective monitoring and management of exploited skate populations. This study investigated the spatial associations of eastern North Pacific (ENP skates in continental shelf and upper continental slope waters of two regions: central California and the western Gulf of Alaska. Long-term survey data were analyzed using GIS/spatial analysis techniques and regression models to determine distribution (by depth, temperature, and latitude/longitude and relative abundance of the dominant species in each region. Submersible video data were incorporated for California to facilitate habitat association analysis. We addressed three main questions: 1 Are there regions of differential importance to skates?, 2 Are ENP skate assemblages spatially segregated?, and 3 When skates co-occur, do they differ in size? Skate populations were highly clustered in both regions, on scales of 10s of kilometers; however, high-density regions (i.e., hot spots were segregated among species. Skate densities and frequencies of occurrence were substantially lower in Alaska as compared to California. Although skates are generally found on soft sediment habitats, Raja rhina exhibited the strongest association with mixed substrates, and R. stellulata catches were greatest on rocky reefs. Size segregation was evident in regions where species overlapped substantially in geographic and depth distribution (e.g., R. rhina and Bathyraja kincaidii off California; B. aleutica and B. interrupta in the Gulf of Alaska. Spatial niche differentiation in skates appears to be more pronounced than previously reported.

  8. Spatial segregation in eastern North Pacific skate assemblages. (United States)

    Bizzarro, Joseph J; Broms, Kristin M; Logsdon, Miles G; Ebert, David A; Yoklavich, Mary M; Kuhnz, Linda A; Summers, Adam P


    Skates (Rajiformes: Rajoidei) are common mesopredators in marine benthic communities. The spatial associations of individual species and the structure of assemblages are of considerable importance for effective monitoring and management of exploited skate populations. This study investigated the spatial associations of eastern North Pacific (ENP) skates in continental shelf and upper continental slope waters of two regions: central California and the western Gulf of Alaska. Long-term survey data were analyzed using GIS/spatial analysis techniques and regression models to determine distribution (by depth, temperature, and latitude/longitude) and relative abundance of the dominant species in each region. Submersible video data were incorporated for California to facilitate habitat association analysis. We addressed three main questions: 1) Are there regions of differential importance to skates?, 2) Are ENP skate assemblages spatially segregated?, and 3) When skates co-occur, do they differ in size? Skate populations were highly clustered in both regions, on scales of 10s of kilometers; however, high-density regions (i.e., hot spots) were segregated among species. Skate densities and frequencies of occurrence were substantially lower in Alaska as compared to California. Although skates are generally found on soft sediment habitats, Raja rhina exhibited the strongest association with mixed substrates, and R. stellulata catches were greatest on rocky reefs. Size segregation was evident in regions where species overlapped substantially in geographic and depth distribution (e.g., R. rhina and Bathyraja kincaidii off California; B. aleutica and B. interrupta in the Gulf of Alaska). Spatial niche differentiation in skates appears to be more pronounced than previously reported.

  9. Patch dynamics of a foraging assemblage of bees. (United States)

    Wright, David Hamilton


    The composition and dynamics of foraging assemblages of bees were examined from the standpoint of species-level arrival and departure processes in patches of flowers. Experiments with bees visiting 4 different species of flowers in subalpine meadows in Colorado gave the following results: 1) In enriched patches the rates of departure of bees were reduced, resulting in increases in both the number of bees per species and the average number of species present. 2) The reduction in bee departure rates from enriched patches was due to mechanical factors-increased flower handling time, and to behavioral factors-an increase in the number of flowers visited per inflorescence and in the number of inflorescences visited per patch. Bees foraging in enriched patches could collect nectar 30-45% faster than those foraging in control patches. 3) The quantitative changes in foraging assemblages due to enrichment, in terms of means and variances of species population sizes, fraction of time a species was present in a patch, and in mean and variance of the number of species present, were in reasonable agreement with predictions drawn from queuing theory and studies in island biogeography. 4) Experiments performed with 2 species of flowers with different corolla tube lengths demonstrated that manipulation of resources of differing availability had unequal effects on particular subsets of the larger foraging community. The arrival-departure process of bees on flowers and the immigration-extinction process of species on islands are contrasted, and the value of the stochastic, species-level approach to community composition is briefly discussed.

  10. Removing forest canopy cover restores a reptile assemblage. (United States)

    Pike, David A; Webb, Jonathan K; Shine, Richard


    Humans are rapidly altering natural systems, leading to changes in the distribution and abundance of species. However, so many changes are occurring simultaneously (e.g., climate change, habitat fragmentation) that it is difficult to determine the cause of population fluctuations from correlational studies. We used a manipulative field experiment to determine whether forest canopy cover directly influences reptile assemblages on rock outcrops in southeastern Australia. Our experimental design consisted of three types of rock outcrops: (1) shady sites in which overgrown vegetation was manually removed (n = 25); (2) overgrown controls (n = 30); and (3) sun-exposed controls (n = 20). Following canopy removal, we monitored reptile responses over 30 months. Canopy removal increased reptile species richness, the proportion of shelter sites used by reptiles, and relative abundances of five species that prefer sun-exposed habitats. Our manipulation also decreased the abundances of two shade-tolerant species. Canopy cover thus directly influences this reptile assemblage, with the effects of canopy removal being dependent on each species' habitat preferences (i.e., selection or avoidance of sun-exposed habitat). Our study suggests that increases in canopy cover can cause declines of open-habitat specialists, as previously suggested by correlative studies from a wide range of taxa. Given that reptile colonization of manipulated outcrops occurred rapidly, artificially opening the canopy in ecologically informed ways could help to conserve imperiled species with patchy distributions and low vagility that are threatened by vegetation overgrowth. One such species is Australia's most endangered snake, the broadheaded snake (Hoplocephalus bungaroides).

  11. Reaction textures in a suite of clinohumite - forsterite bearing marbles from parts of the Grenvillian South Delhi Fold Belt, India: Evidence of Ti mobility during regional metamorphism (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, N.; Sengupta, P.; Mukhopadhyay, D.


    + 113 F + 212.5 SiO2(aq) + 189.5 Mg = 243.2 Chu + 886.4 CO2 + 1 Mn + 450.7 Ca b. 811 Fo + 25.2 Cal + 435.2 Dol + 135.8 H2O + 65.2 Ti + 114.5 F + 214.2 SiO2 (aq) + 201.6 Mg = 246.2 Chu + 895.5 CO2 + 1 Mn + 466.2 Ca c. 17.2 Chu + 2034.4 Cal + 56 Spl + 185.8 H2O + 1 Mn + 70.4 SiO2 (aq) + 886.3 Mg = 24.4 Chl + 1017.2 Dol + 4.3 Ti + 8 F + 871.2 Ca d. 75.3 Fo + 2045.2 Cal + 14.8 Spl + 105.4 CO2 + 51.5H2O + 1Mn + 819.5 Mg = 6.4Chl + 1075.3 Dol + 37.4 SiO2 (aq) + 822.6 Ca From the thermodynamic analyses of the mineral assemblages of the marble and its silicate bands, it is inferred that the clinohumite-bearing assemblage was formed within a P-T range of 5 ± 1 Kbar and 550o ± 50o C and in presence of a hydrous fluid (XCO2<0.1). Integrating all the petrological features it is demonstrated that a. clinohumite was formed due to infiltration driven metamorphism of the forsterite-rich layers b. the Ti and F that were necessary for the growth of clinohumite were supplied to the forsterite-rich bands by the permeating aqueous fluids c. fluid flow was highly channelized and was restricted within the 2-5 cm silicate-rich bands The post-tectonic pegmatite veins appear to be the source of the aqueous fluids that metasomatized the marble and augmented the growth of clinohumite and chlorite.

  12. An empirical, hierarchical typology of tree species assemblages for assessing forest dynamics under global change scenarios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K Costanza

    Full Text Available The composition of tree species occurring in a forest is important and can be affected by global change drivers such as climate change. To inform assessment and projection of global change impacts at broad extents, we used hierarchical cluster analysis and over 120,000 recent forest inventory plots to empirically define forest tree assemblages across the U.S., and identified the indicator and dominant species associated with each. Cluster typologies in two levels of a hierarchy of forest assemblages, with 29 and 147 groups respectively, were supported by diagnostic criteria. Groups in these two levels of the hierarchy were labeled based on the top indicator species in each, and ranged widely in size. For example, in the 29-cluster typology, the sugar maple-red maple assemblage contained the largest number of plots (30,068, while the butternut-sweet birch and sourwood-scarlet oak assemblages were both smallest (6 plots each. We provide a case-study demonstration of the utility of the typology for informing forest climate change impact assessment. For five assemblages in the 29-cluster typology, we used existing projections of changes in importance value (IV for the dominant species under one low and one high climate change scenario to assess impacts to the assemblages. Results ranged widely for each scenario by the end of the century, with each showing an average decrease in IV for dominant species in some assemblages, including the balsam fir-quaking aspen assemblage, and an average increase for others, like the green ash-American elm assemblage. Future work should assess adaptive capacity of these forest assemblages and investigate local population- and community-level dynamics in places where dominant species may be impacted. This typology will be ideal for monitoring, assessing, and projecting changes to forest communities within the emerging framework of macrosystems ecology, which emphasizes hierarchies and broad extents.

  13. Pattern of distribution and diversity of demersal assemblages in the central Mediterranean Sea (United States)

    Colloca, F.; Cardinale, M.; Belluscio, A.; Ardizzone, G.


    A highly diversified mix of fish species, cephalopods and crustaceans, together with several macro-epibenthic organisms, compose trawl catches in the Mediterranean Sea. Management of Mediterranean trawling needs a multispecies approach that considers the community and not the single species as the basic unit of the analysis. While many studies have correlated several environmental factors to the spatial organizations of demersal organisms, few have focused on the role of macro-epibenthic communities in structuring demersal assemblages. In this paper, the following hypotheses were tested: (1) there are discrete demersal assemblages in the central Mediterranean Sea; (2) the distribution and diversity of demersal communities does not change on small temporal scales (1 year); (3) the demersal assemblages were segregated across both different epibenthic assemblages and depth gradients. Shallow stations were separated into coastal and middle-deep shelf assemblages while stations on the slope formed three main assemblages: slope edge, upper slope and middle slope assemblages. The demersal community did not show a substantial change at the small temporal scale. Sandy, sand-muddy and detritic epibenthic communities characterized coastal shelf assemblages, while epibenthic assemblage on muddy bottoms were dominant in the deeper areas of the shelf. A well-defined difference in macro-epibenthic faunal associations among stations on the slope (depth >200 m) was not found. Depth appeared to affect diversity of the main taxa of demersal organisms in different ways. Teleostean diversity did not show any trend with depth, the number of cephalopod species increased on the shelf and decreased on the slope while crustacean and elasmobranch species richness increased significantly from the shelf to the middle slope. The strong correlation shown in this study between epifaunal benthic communities and demersal fish assemblages requires the formulation of an ecosystem-based management for

  14. An empirical, hierarchical typology of tree species assemblages for assessing forest dynamics under global change scenarios. (United States)

    Costanza, Jennifer K; Coulston, John W; Wear, David N


    The composition of tree species occurring in a forest is important and can be affected by global change drivers such as climate change. To inform assessment and projection of global change impacts at broad extents, we used hierarchical cluster analysis and over 120,000 recent forest inventory plots to empirically define forest tree assemblages across the U.S., and identified the indicator and dominant species associated with each. Cluster typologies in two levels of a hierarchy of forest assemblages, with 29 and 147 groups respectively, were supported by diagnostic criteria. Groups in these two levels of the hierarchy were labeled based on the top indicator species in each, and ranged widely in size. For example, in the 29-cluster typology, the sugar maple-red maple assemblage contained the largest number of plots (30,068), while the butternut-sweet birch and sourwood-scarlet oak assemblages were both smallest (6 plots each). We provide a case-study demonstration of the utility of the typology for informing forest climate change impact assessment. For five assemblages in the 29-cluster typology, we used existing projections of changes in importance value (IV) for the dominant species under one low and one high climate change scenario to assess impacts to the assemblages. Results ranged widely for each scenario by the end of the century, with each showing an average decrease in IV for dominant species in some assemblages, including the balsam fir-quaking aspen assemblage, and an average increase for others, like the green ash-American elm assemblage. Future work should assess adaptive capacity of these forest assemblages and investigate local population- and community-level dynamics in places where dominant species may be impacted. This typology will be ideal for monitoring, assessing, and projecting changes to forest communities within the emerging framework of macrosystems ecology, which emphasizes hierarchies and broad extents.

  15. The metamorphic evolution of the eclogitic rocks from the 100-2000m core of Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling, China (United States)

    You, Z.; Su, S.; Liang, F.; Zhang, Z.


    On the basis of petrographic study of the metamorphic rocks from 100-2000m in the main hole of the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) it is revealed that the major lithological types are: (1)Eclogites and garnet clinopyroxenites; (2)Eclogitic gneisses; (3)Garnet peridotites; (4)Biotite (hornblende) two-feldspar gneiss (granitic gneiss) and (5) Fault breccia and mylonites. Most of the eclogites and eclogitic gneisses had a long residence history in the crust before the deep subduction of the continental slab. However the garnet clinopyroxenites are closely related with garnet peridotites which occur within 607-783m of the drill hole. Based on their mineralogical and petrochemical characteristics they were ultramafic-mafic complexes incorporated into the subducted slab from the overlying mantle wedge during the subduction of the continental slab and had undergone ultrahigh"Cpressure metamorphism (UHPM). The eclogitic gneisses, equivalent partly to paragneiss as called by some geologists, are UHPM rocks of intermediate acidic protolith associated with crustal eclogites. The granitic gneisses are of diverse origin, most of them are products of decompressive melting of the retrogressive amphibolite and biotite gneiss derived from eclogitic rocks. The metamorphic evolution of the eclogitic rocks can be divided into 3 major stages. The first (M1) is the ultrahigh pressure metamorphism (UHPM) as evidenced by coesite inclusions within garnet and omphacite grains in eclogites. The second (M2) is a retrogressive stage sequence during which most of the UHPM rocks were turned to rocks of high-pressure eclogite facies, amphibolite facies and then epidote amphibolite facies. At this stage the eclogites are characterized by the growth of symplectites and coronas. The eclogitic gneiss is retrograded to be biotite (hornblende) plagioclase gneiss and epidote biotite (amphibole) gneiss. The granitic rocks are turned to biotite hornblende two feldspar gneiss (so

  16. Radioactive occurrences in veins and igneous and metamorphic rocks of New Mexico with annotated bibliography. [Over 600 citations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLemore, V. T.


    From an extensive literature search and field examination of 96 nonsandstone radioactive occurrences, the author compiled an annotated bibliography of over 600 citations and a list of 327 radioactive occurrences in veins and igneous and metamorphic rocks of New Mexico. The citations are indexed by individual radioactive occurrence, geographic area, county, fluorspar deposits and occurrences, geochemical analyses, and geologic maps. In addition, the geology, mineralization, and uranium and thorium potential of 41 geographic areas in New Mexico containing known radioactive occurrences in veins and igneous and metamorphic rocks or that contain host rocks considered favorable for uranium or thorium mineralization are summarized. A list of aerial-radiometric, magnetic, hydrogeochemical, and stream-sediment survey reports is included.

  17. Direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion via inverted metamorphic multi-junction semiconductor architectures (United States)

    Young, James L.; Steiner, Myles A.; Döscher, Henning; France, Ryan M.; Turner, John A.; Deutsch, Todd G.


    Solar water splitting via multi-junction semiconductor photoelectrochemical cells provides direct conversion of solar energy to stored chemical energy as hydrogen bonds. Economical hydrogen production demands high conversion efficiency to reduce balance-of-systems costs. For sufficient photovoltage, water-splitting efficiency is proportional to the device photocurrent, which can be tuned by judicious selection and integration of optimal semiconductor bandgaps. Here, we demonstrate highly efficient, immersed water-splitting electrodes enabled by inverted metamorphic epitaxy and a transparent graded buffer that allows the bandgap of each junction to be independently varied. Voltage losses at the electrolyte interface are reduced by 0.55 V over traditional, uniformly p-doped photocathodes by using a buried p-n junction. Advanced on-sun benchmarking, spectrally corrected and validated with incident photon-to-current efficiency, yields over 16% solar-to-hydrogen efficiency with GaInP/GaInAs tandem absorbers, representing a 60% improvement over the classical, high-efficiency tandem III-V device.

  18. Vitamin A Affects Flatfish Development in a Thyroid Hormone Signaling and Metamorphic Stage Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Fernández


    Full Text Available Vitamin A (VA and retinoid derivatives are known morphogens controlling vertebrate development. Despite the research effort conducted during the last decade, the precise mechanism of how VA induces post-natal bone changes, and particularly those operating through crosstalk with the thyroid hormones (THs remain to be fully understood. Since effects and mechanisms seem to be dose and time-dependent, flatfish are an interesting study model as they undergo a characteristic process of metamorphosis driven by THs that can be followed by external appearance. Here, we studied the effects of VA imbalance that might determine Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis skeletogenetic phenotype through development of thyroid follicles, THs homeostasis and signaling when a dietary VA excess was specifically provided during pre-, pro- or post-metamorphic stages using enriched rotifers and Artemia as carriers. The increased VA content in enriched live prey was associated to a higher VA content in fish at all developmental stages. Dietary VA content clearly affected thyroid follicle development, T3 and T4 immunoreactive staining, skeletogenesis and mineralization in a dose and time-dependent fashion. Gene expression analysis showed that VA levels modified the mRNA abundance of VA- and TH-specific nuclear receptors at specific developmental stages. Present results provide new and key knowledge to better understand how VA and TH pathways interact at tissue, cellular and nuclear level at different developmental periods in Senegalese sole, unveiling how dietary modulation might determine juvenile phenotype and physiology.

  19. Thermal metamorphism of Si2O3 - (A circumstellar dust analog) (United States)

    Nuth, J. A.; Donn, B.


    The thermal behavior of Si2O3, the metastable condensate from SiO vapor,has been studied experimentally. Si2O3 and its successor, amorphous quartz, have previously been shown to have infrared spectral features similar to some that appear in the spectra of grains in oxygen-rich circumstellar regions. Thermal annealing experiments show that only one Si2O3 decay process operates over the range between 750-1000 K. This process is a unimolecular disproportionation. The rate of this transformation can be expressed as k/hr = 10 to the 9th exp (-40 kcal/mole/RT). By using this rate constant, it is found that a significant fraction of freshly nucleated circumstellar grains can survive passage through a typical circumstellar shell virtually unaltered in structure. It is emphasized that this is only the first in a series of laboratory experiments intended to study the metamorphism of newly condensed circumstellar material ejected into the interstellar medium. Grains similar to these might have been incorporated into the primitive solar nebula, provided that they could also survive passage through the general interstellar medium.

  20. A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase molecular switch occurs in the gills of metamorphic sea lamprey (United States)

    Ferreira-Martins, D.; McCormick, Stephen; Campos, A.; Lopes-Marques, M.; Osorio, H.; Coimbra, J.; Castro, L.F.C.; Wilson, Jonthan M


    Carbonic anhydrase plays a key role in CO2 transport, acid-base and ion regulation and metabolic processes in vertebrates. While several carbonic anhydrase isoforms have been identified in numerous vertebrate species, basal lineages such as the cyclostomes have remained largely unexamined. Here we investigate the repertoire of cytoplasmic carbonic anhydrases in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), that has a complex life history marked by a dramatic metamorphosis from a benthic filter-feeding ammocoete larvae into a parasitic juvenile which migrates from freshwater to seawater. We have identified a novel carbonic anhydrase gene (ca19) beyond the single carbonic anhydrase gene (ca18) that was known previously. Phylogenetic analysis and synteny studies suggest that both carbonic anhydrase genes form one or two independent gene lineages and are most likely duplicates retained uniquely in cyclostomes. Quantitative PCR of ca19 and ca18 and protein expression in gill across metamorphosis show that the ca19 levels are highest in ammocoetes and decrease during metamorphosis while ca18 shows the opposite pattern with the highest levels in post-metamorphic juveniles. We propose that a unique molecular switch occurs during lamprey metamorphosis resulting in distinct gill carbonic anhydrases reflecting the contrasting life modes and habitats of these life-history stages.

  1. Temperature-Dependent Measurements of an Inverted Metamorphic Multijunction (IMM) Solar Cell: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, M. A.; Geisz, J. F.; Friedman, D. J.; Olavarria, W. J.; Duda, A.; Moriarty, T. E.


    The inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) solar cell has demonstrated efficiencies as high as 40.8% at 25 degrees C and 326 suns concentration. The actual operating temperature in a commercial module, however, is likely to be as much as 50-70 degrees C hotter, reaching as high as 100 degrees C. In order to be able to evaluate the cell performance under these real-world operating conditions, we have measured the open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current density and efficiency at temperatures up to 125 degrees C and concentrations up to 1000 suns, as well as the temperature coefficients of these parameters. Spectral response and one-sun current-voltage characteristics were measured by carefully adjusting the incident spectrum to selectively current-limit the different subcells. Concentrator measurements were taken on a pulsed solar simulator to minimize any additional heating due to the high intensity illumination. We compare our measured values to predictions based on detailed models of various triple junction solar cells. By choosing the optimum bandgaps for high temperature operation, the IMM can potentially result in greater energy production and lower temperature sensitivity under real operating conditions than a Ge-based solar cell.

  2. Continuous Static Gait with Twisting Trunk of a Metamorphic Quadruped Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zhang


    Full Text Available The natural quadrupeds, such as geckos and lizards, often twist their trunks when moving. Conventional quadruped robots cannot perform the same motion due to equipping with a trunk which is a rigid body or at most consists of two blocks connected by passive joints. This paper proposes a metamorphic quadruped robot with a reconfigurable trunk which can implement active trunk motions, called MetaRobot I. The robot can imitate the natural quadrupeds to execute motion of trunk twisting. Benefiting from the twisting trunk, the stride length of this quadruped is increased comparing to that of conventional quadruped robots.In this paper a continuous static gait benefited from the twisting trunk performing the increased stride length is introduced. After that, the increased stride length relative to the trunk twisting will be analysed mathematically. Other points impacting the implementation of the increased stride length in the gait are investigated such as the upper limit of the stride length and the kinematic margin. The increased stride length in the gait will lead the increase of locomotion speed comparing with conventional quadruped robots, giving the extent that natural quadrupeds twisting their trunks when moving. The simulation and an experiment on the prototype are then carried out to illustrate the benefits on the stride length and locomotion speed brought by the twisting trunk to the quadruped robot.

  3. Single and multiphase inclusions in metapelitic garnets of the Rhodope Metamorphic Province, NE Greece. (United States)

    Mposkos, Evripidis; Perraki, Maria; Palikari, Sarra


    Single and multiphase inclusions in garnet porphyroblasts from the diamond-bearing pelitic gneisses were studied by means of combined Raman Spectroscopy and Electron Scanning Microscopy (SEM/EDX). They are either randomly distributed or with preferred orientation within the garnet host and their dimensions vary from less than 5 up to 60 microm. In the single-phase inclusions quartz, rutile, kyanite and graphite dominate. Biotite, zircon, apatite, monazite and allanite are also common. Two types of multiphase inclusions were recognized, hydrous silicate (Type I) and silicate-carbonate (Type II) ones. The carbon-bearing multiphase inclusions predominantly consist of Mg-siderite+graphite+CO(2)+muscovite+quartz formed by a high density carboniferous fluid rich in Fe, Mg, Si and less Ca, Mn, Al and K trapped in the growing garnet in a prograde stage of metamorphism at high-pressure (HP) conditions. The carbon-free multiphase inclusions predominantly consist of biotite+quartz+rutile+/-kyanite+muscovite formed through decompression-dehydration/melting reactions of pre-existing phengite. Single and multiphase inclusions are characterized by polygonal to negative crystal shape formed by dissolution-reprecipitation mechanism between the garnet host and the inclusions during the long lasting cooling period (>100 Ma) of the Kimi Complex.

  4. Silicate darkening in the Kobe CK Chondrite: Evidence for shock metamorphism at high temperature (United States)

    Tomeoka, Kazushige; Ohnishi, Ichiro; Nakamura, Noboru


    The Kobe CK4 chondrite, like most metamorphosed CK chondrites, exhibits pronounced silicate darkening of matrix and chondrule mesostases. Our petrographic and scanning electron microscopic study reveals that the matrix of Kobe consists mostly of intermixtures of two types of fine-grained olivine. One forms subhedral to anhedral normal crystals. The other fills interstices of the subhedral to anhedral olivine crystals, exhibiting a complex network of veinlets. The latter type of olivine contains high densities of small spherical vesicles (chlorapatite. The vesicular olivine is particularly abundant in regions of matrix that exhibit a relatively high degree of darkening and commonly fills chondrule mesostases. The vesicular olivine is clearly the principal cause of the silicate darkening in Kobe. The internal texture of the vesicular olivine closely resembles those of local melts produced from the matrices of experimentally and naturally shocked carbonaceous chondrites. The occurrence and texture of the vesicular olivine suggest that it resulted from recrystallization of partially melted matrix olivine by shock. Kobe exhibits light shock effects in olivine that are consistent with shock stage S2 that is too low to explain the occurrence of olivine melting. We suggest that the vesicular olivine in Kobe was produced by shock metamorphism at a relatively mild shock pressure (600 °C). Thus, it is probable that the shock effects in olivine, manifest as fracturing and deformation, were relatively minor, but heating was strong enough to cause partial melting of matrix olivine.

  5. Aquarius Brightness Temperature Variations at Dome C and Snow Metamorphism at the Surface. [29 (United States)

    Brucker, Ludovic; Dinnat, Emmanuel Phillippe; Picard, Ghislain; Champollion, Nicolas


    The Antarctic Plateau is a promising site to monitor microwave radiometers' drift, and to inter-calibrate microwave radiometers, especially 1.4 GHz (L-band) radiometers on board the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), and AquariusSAC-D missions. The Plateau is a thick ice cover, thermally stable in depth, with large dimensions, and relatively low heterogeneities. In addition, its high latitude location in the Southern Hemisphere enables frequent observations by polar-orbiting satellites, and no contaminations by radio frequency interference. At Dome C (75S, 123E), on the Antarctic Plateau, the substantial amount of in-situ snow measurements available allows us to interpret variations in space-borne microwave brightness temperature (TB) (e.g. Macelloni et al., 2007, 2013, Brucker et al., 2011, Champollion et al., 2013). However, to analyze the observations from the Aquarius radiometers, whose sensitivity is 0.15 K, the stability of the snow layers near the surface that are most susceptible to rapidly change needs to be precisely assessed. This study focuses on the spatial and temporal variations of the Aquarius TB over the Antarctic Plateau, and at Dome C in particular, to highlight the impact of snow surface metamorphism on the TB observations at L-band.

  6. Deep drilling in the Dabie-Sulu Ultrahigh Pressure Metamorphic Belt, China (United States)

    Xu, Zhiqin; Yang, Jingsui; Robinson, Paul T.

    One of the most exciting geologic discoveries in the last 20 years is the finding of the presence of a major ultrahigh pressure (UHP) metamorphic belt in the Dabie-Sulu region of eastern China. In this belt, high-grade continental crustal rocks contain both diamond and coesite [Xu, 1987;Xu et al., 1992; Yang et al., 1999], clear evidence of crustal subduction to depths >150 km.This belt formed by collision between the North China and Yangtze blocks in the Mesozoic between about 240 and 220 Ma. Recent work has identified an older, parallel belt on the north side of the Dabie-Qinling Mountains dated as Ordovician (˜500-440 Ma) [Yang et al., 2001, 2002]. This older belt extends northwestward for nearly 4000 km through the Qilian Mountains into northern Tibet, where it is offset by the left-lateral Altyn Tagh Fault (Figure l). In the Dabie-Sulu region, the rocks consist chiefly of granitic gneiss, paragneiss, eclogite, and garnet peridotite, whose protoliths are supracrustal rocks with a formation age of about 800-1800 Ma.