Sample records for hp desulfuration directe

  1. Electric-Field-Driven Direct Desulfurization. (United States)

    Borca, Bogdana; Michnowicz, Tomasz; Pétuya, Rémi; Pristl, Marcel; Schendel, Verena; Pentegov, Ivan; Kraft, Ulrike; Klauk, Hagen; Wahl, Peter; Gutzler, Rico; Arnau, Andrés; Schlickum, Uta; Kern, Klaus


    The ability to elucidate the elementary steps of a chemical reaction at the atomic scale is important for the detailed understanding of the processes involved, which is key to uncover avenues for improved reaction paths. Here, we track the chemical pathway of an irreversible direct desulfurization reaction of tetracenothiophene adsorbed on the Cu(111) closed-packed surface at the submolecular level. Using the precise control of the tip position in a scanning tunneling microscope and the electric field applied across the tunnel junction, the two carbon-sulfur bonds of a thiophene unit are successively cleaved. Comparison of spatially mapped molecular states close to the Fermi level of the metallic substrate acquired at each reaction step with density functional theory calculations reveals the two elementary steps of this reaction mechanism. The first reaction step is activated by an electric field larger than 2 V nm(-1), practically in absence of tunneling electrons, opening the thiophene ring and leading to a transient intermediate. Subsequently, at the same threshold electric field and with simultaneous injection of electrons into the molecule, the exergonic detachment of the sulfur atom is triggered. Thus, a stable molecule with a bifurcated end is obtained, which is covalently bound to the metallic surface. The sulfur atom is expelled from the vicinity of the molecule.

  2. Performance of a multi-frontal parallel direct solver for hp-finite element method


    Paszynski M.; Pardo D.; Torres-Verdín C.


    In this paper we present the performance of our parallel multi-frontal direct solver when applied to solve linear systems of equations resulting from discretizations of a hp Finite Element Method (hp-FEM). The hp-FEM generates a sequence of computational meshes delivering exponential convergence of the numerical error with respect to the mesh size (number of degrees of freedom). A sequence of meshes is obtained by performing several hp refinements starting from an arbitrary initial mesh. The ...

  3. Numerical Study on the Effect of Electrode Polarity on Desulfurization in Direct Current Electroslag Remelting Process (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Liu, Yu; Wang, Fang; Li, Guangqiang; Li, Baokuan; Qiao, Wenwei


    In order to clarify the influence of electrode polarity on desulfurization in direct current (DC) electroslag remelting process, a transient three-dimensional coupled mathematical model has been established. The finite volume method was invoked to simultaneously solve the mass, momentum, energy, and species conservation equations. The Joule heating and Lorentz force were fully coupled through calculating Maxwell's equations with the assistance of the magnetic potential vector. The motion of the metal-slag interface was described by using the volume of fluid approach. An auxiliary metallurgical kinetics module was introduced to determine the thermochemical and the electrochemical reaction rates. A reasonable agreement between the measured data and the simulated results are observed. A longer time and a larger area for the desulfurization can be provided by the metal pool-slag interface when compared with the metal droplet-slag interface. The electrochemical transfer rate at the metal pool-slag interface is positive in the DC reverse polarity (DCRP) remelting, while in the DC straight polarity (DCSP) remelting, the electrochemical transfer rate is negative at this interface. The desulfurization progress in the DCSP remelting thus is fall behind that in the DCRP remelting. The desulfurization rate of the DCRP remelting is around 70 pct and the rate of the DCSP remelting is about 40 pct.

  4. 75 FR 3418 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1... (United States)


    ... Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1, Jetstream Series 200, Jetstream... Service Information BAE Systems (Operations) Limited has issued British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin No. 32-JA020741, dated November 2, 2002; British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100...

  5. A parallel direct solver for the self-adaptive hp Finite Element Method

    KAUST Repository

    Paszyński, Maciej R.


    In this paper we present a new parallel multi-frontal direct solver, dedicated for the hp Finite Element Method (hp-FEM). The self-adaptive hp-FEM generates in a fully automatic mode, a sequence of hp-meshes delivering exponential convergence of the error with respect to the number of degrees of freedom (d.o.f.) as well as the CPU time, by performing a sequence of hp refinements starting from an arbitrary initial mesh. The solver constructs an initial elimination tree for an arbitrary initial mesh, and expands the elimination tree each time the mesh is refined. This allows us to keep track of the order of elimination for the solver. The solver also minimizes the memory usage, by de-allocating partial LU factorizations computed during the elimination stage of the solver, and recomputes them for the backward substitution stage, by utilizing only about 10% of the computational time necessary for the original computations. The solver has been tested on 3D Direct Current (DC) borehole resistivity measurement simulations problems. We measure the execution time and memory usage of the solver over a large regular mesh with 1.5 million degrees of freedom as well as on the highly non-regular mesh, generated by the self-adaptive h p-FEM, with finite elements of various sizes and polynomial orders of approximation varying from p = 1 to p = 9. From the presented experiments it follows that the parallel solver scales well up to the maximum number of utilized processors. The limit for the solver scalability is the maximum sequential part of the algorithm: the computations of the partial LU factorizations over the longest path, coming from the root of the elimination tree down to the deepest leaf. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 76 FR 14349 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1... (United States)


    ... Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1, Jetstream Series 200, Jetstream Series 3101, and... issued British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin 32-JA090240, Revision 1, dated... British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1, Jetstream Series 200, Jetstream Series...

  7. An alternative direct compound dispensing method using the HP D300 digital dispenser. (United States)

    Jones, Raisa E; Zheng, Wei; McKew, John C; Chen, Catherine Z


    Evaluation of compound activity in vitro is crucial to drug discovery efforts and require that the compounds be accurately and reliably titrated and dispensed to the assay wells. The HP D300 dispenser uses inkjet technology to achieve small-volume dispensing that allows concentration-response testing using the direct dilution paradigm. Although inkjet technology has been long in existence, it is new to the field of screening and drug development. We have evaluated the D300 dispenser in a biochemical assay, a cell-based reporter gene assay, and a cytotoxicity assay. The software for this instrument is user friendly, and the compound-dispensing process is streamlined. However, a limitation is that this dispenser is currently applicable to only 96-well and 384-well plate formats and not to 1536-well high-density plates. Our results indicate that the D300 generates clean and reproducible results that correlate with those produced with more commonly used instruments such as the pin tool. We found that the instrument is useful and can improve the throughput of compound dispensing in 96-well and 384-well plates.

  8. HP 9816

    CERN Multimedia


    The 9816 was introduced in late 1982. This was the low-cost model in the 200 Series range. It only had two expansion slots and featured a monitor integrated with the system unit and modular keyboard and mass storage (usually a 9121 dual 3.5 inch floppy drive). The monitor was nine inches diagonally with a 400 by 300 dot resolution. The HP 9816 was also designated as the HP 9000 216. It did not include any disk drives but it had a built-in 9 inch monochrome monitor, built-in HP-IB and RS-232 ports and 2 expansion slots. The standard keyboard for the 9816 is a itty-bitty number. The 9816 A came with 128K bytes of memory. The 9816 S included all of the above plus disk based BASIC and a card containing an additional 256K of memory bringing the total memory to 512K but only leaving only one expansion slot open.

  9. The Biocatalytic Desulfurization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Nunn; James Boltz; Philip M. DiGrazia; Larry Nace


    The material in this report summarizes the Diversa technical effort in development of a biocatalyst for the biodesulfurization of Petro Star diesel as well as an economic report of standalone and combined desulfurization options, prepared by Pelorus and Anvil, to support and inform the development of a commercially viable process. We will discuss goals of the projected as originally stated and their modification as guided by parallel efforts to evaluate commercialization economics and process parameters. We describe efforts to identify novel genes and hosts for the generation of an optimal biocatalyst, analysis of diesel fuels (untreated, chemically oxidized and hydrotreated) for organosulfur compound composition and directed evolution of enzymes central to the biodesulfurization pathway to optimize properties important for their use in a biocatalyst. Finally we will summarize the challenges and issues that are central to successful development of a viable biodesulfurization process.

  10. 3HP tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Cells and cell cultures are provided that have improved tolerance to 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP). Genetic modifications to provide a mutated or overexpressed SFA1 gene or other enhancement of 3HP detoxification via a glutathione- dependent dehydrogenase reaction, including medium supplementation...... with glutathione, may be combined with a 3HP producing metabolic pathway....

  11. Crude oil desulfurization (United States)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Hsu, G. C.; Ernest, J. B. (Inventor)


    High sulfur crude oil is desulfurized by a low temperature (25-80 C.) chlorinolysis at ambient pressure in the absence of organic solvent or diluent but in the presence of water (water/oil=0.3) followed by a water and caustic wash to remove sulfur and chlorine containing reaction products. The process described can be practiced at a well site for the recovery of desulfurized oil used to generate steam for injection into the well for enhanced oil recovery.

  12. Magnesite base desulfurizer of metallurgical physical chemistry research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Liu


    Full Text Available This topic put carbon thermal vacuum method in combination with magnesium based desulfurization technology with magnesite reduction of magnesium vapor directly on hot metal desulphurization. This is a new type of desulfurization technology, the retrieval related literature at home and abroad was not reported in the recent ten years, according to the relationship between heat of desulfurizer preparation MgO style content can reach 50 %.It was found that the desulfurizer sample with 50 % MgO content was in accordance with the requirements, without adding flux, but its viscosity did not meet the requirements; adding 1 % flux (CaF2, the sample viscosity was significantly reduced, and about 1 400 °C sample viscosity suitable for hot metal pretreatment desulfurization.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven E. Bonde; David Nunn


    During the first quarter of the Biological Desulfurization project several activities were pursued. A project kickoff meeting was held at the Diversa facility in San Diego, CA. Activities that were in process before the meeting and begun afterwards by Diversa Corporation and Petro Star Inc. include: Technology transfer in the form of information generated by Enchira to Diversa, the purchase and installation of equipment by Diversa, development of synthetic methods and preparation of organo-sulfur substrates for use in determining enzyme activities, production of extract via Petro Star's CED process, detailed analysis of Petro Star Inc. diesel and CED extract, and several activities in molecular biology. Diversa Corporation, in the area of molecular biology, engaged in several activities in support of the task list of the contract. These included: construction of a genomic library; development and utilization of a sequence-based gene discovery effort; a parallel discovery approach based on functional expression of enzymes with the ability to oxidize organosulfur compounds. Biodesulfurization genes have already been identified and are being sequenced and subcloned for expression in heterologous biological hosts. Diversa has evaluated and adapted assays developed by Enchira used to assess the activities of DBT and DBTO{sub 2} monooxygenases. Finally, Diversa personnel have developed two novel selection/screen strategies for the improvement of biocatalyst strains by directed evolution.

  14. Fluidized bed coal desulfurization (United States)

    Ravindram, M.


    Laboratory scale experiments were conducted on two high volatile bituminous coals in a bench scale batch fluidized bed reactor. Chemical pretreatment and posttreatment of coals were tried as a means of enhancing desulfurization. Sequential chlorination and dechlorination cum hydrodesulfurization under modest conditions relative to the water slurry process were found to result in substantial sulfur reductions of about 80%. Sulfur forms as well as proximate and ultimate analyses of the processed coals are included. These studies indicate that a fluidized bed reactor process has considerable potential for being developed into a simple and economic process for coal desulfurization.

  15. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.


    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  16. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquis, J.K. (Boston Univ., MA (United States). School of Medicine); Kitchell, J.P. (Holometrix, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States))


    Our current efforts to develop clean coal technology emphasize the advantages of enzymatic desulfurization techniques and have specifically addressed the potential of using partially-purified extracellular microbial enzymes or commercially available enzymes. Our work is focused on the treatment of model'' organic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene (DBT) and ethylphenylsulfide (EPS). Furthermore, we are designing experiments to facilitate the enzymatic process by means of a hydrated organic solvent matrix.

  17. Fluidized bed desulfurization (United States)

    Ravindram, M.; Kallvinskas, J. J. (Inventor)


    High sulfur content carbonaceous material, such as coal is desulfurized by continuous fluidized suspension in a reactor with chlorine gas, inert dechlorinating gas and hydrogen gas. A source of chlorine gas, a source of inert gas and a source of hydrogen gas are connected to the bottom inlet through a manifold and a heater. A flow controler operates servos in a manner to continuously and sequentially suspend coal in the three gases. The sulfur content is reduced at least 50% by the treatment.

  18. Microbial desulfurization of coal (United States)

    Dastoor, M. N.; Kalvinskas, J. J.


    Experiments indicate that several sulfur-oxidizing bacteria strains have been very efficient in desulfurizing coal. Process occurs at room temperature and does not require large capital investments of high energy inputs. Process may expand use of abundant reserves of high-sulfur bituminous coal, which is currently restricted due to environmental pollution. On practical scale, process may be integrated with modern coal-slurry transportation lines.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Collins; David Nunn


    The analysis of Petro Star diesel sulfur species is complete and a report is attached. Further analytical efforts will concentrate on characterization of diesel fuel, hydrodesulfurized to varying degrees, in order to determine sulfur species that may be problematic to hydrogen treatment and represent potential target substrates for biodesulfurization in a combined HDS-BDS process. Quotes have been received and are being considered for the partial treatment of Petro Star Inc. marine diesel fuel. Direction of research is changing slightly; economic analysis of the hyphenated--BDSHDS, BDS-CED--has shown the highest probability of success to be with a BDS-HDS process where the biodesulfurization precedes hydrodesulfurization. Thus, the microorganisms will be tailored to focus on those compounds that tend to be recalcitrant to hydrodesulfurization and decrease the severity of the hydrodesulfurization step. A separate, detailed justification for this change is being prepared. Research activities have continued in the characterization of the desulfurization enzymes from multiple sources. Genes for all DszA, -B, -C and -D enzymes (and homologs) have been cloned and expressed. Activity determinations, on a variety of substituted benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene substrates, have been carried out and continue. In addition, chemical synthesis efforts have been carried out to generate additional substrates for analytical standards and activity determinations. The generation of a GSSM mutant library of the ''Rhodococcus IGTS8 dszA'' gene has been completed and development of protocols for a high throughput screen to expand substrate specificity are nearing completion. In an effort to obtain improved hosts as biocatalyst, one hundred-thirty ''Rhodococcus'' and related strains are being evaluated for growth characteristics and other criteria deemed important for an optimal biocatalyst strain. We have also begun an effort to generate

  20. Coal desulfurization with iron pentacarbonyl (United States)

    Hsu, G. C.


    Coal desulfurization with iron pentacarbonyl treatment under mild conditions removes up to eighty percent of organic sulfur. Preliminary tests on treatment process suggest it may be economical enough to encourage investigation of use for coal desulfurization. With mild operating conditions, process produces environmentally-acceptable clean coal at reasonable cost.

  1. Nanocarbons for Catalytic Desulfurization. (United States)

    Gu, Qingqing; Lin, Yangming; Heumann, Saskia; Su, Dangsheng


    Nanocarbon catalysts are green and sustainable alternatives to metal-based catalysts for numerous catalytic transformations. The application of nanocarbons for environmental catalysis is an emerging research discipline and has undergone rapid development in recent years. In this focus review, we provide a critical analysis of state-of-the-art nanocarbon catalysts for three different catalytic desulfurization processes. In particular, we focus on the advantages and limitations as well as the reaction mechanisms of the nanocarbon catalysts at the molecular level. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Irradiation pretreatment for coal desulfurization (United States)

    Hsu, G. C.


    Process using highly-penetrating nuclear radiation (Beta and Gamma radiation) from nuclear power plant radioactive waste to irradiate coal prior to conventional desulfurization procedures increases total extraction of sulfur.

  3. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V. (DynaGen, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Marquis, J.K. (Boston Univ., MA (United States). School of Medicine)


    Our experimental approach focuses on the use of enzymes which catalyze the addition of oxygen to organic compounds. In tailoring the application of these enzymes to coal processing, we are particularly interested in ensuring that oxidation occurs at sulfur and not at carbon-carbon bonds. Previous studies with DBT have shown that the reaction most frequently observed in microbial oxidative pathways is one in which DBT is oxidized at ring carbons. These reactions, as we have said, are accompanied by a considerable decrease in the energy content of the compound. In addition, microbial pathways have been identified in which the sulfur atom is sequentially oxidized to sulfoxide, to sulfone, to sulfonate, and finally to sulfuric acid. In this case, the fuel value of the desulfurized compounds is largely retained. We are evaluating the potential of commercially available enzymes to selectively catalyze oxidation at sulfur.

  4. Microbial desulfurization of dibenzothiophene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Afferden, M.; Schacht, S.; Beyer, M.; Klein, J.


    Concerning the sulfur removal from coal before combustion there is considerable interest in microbial methods as pyrite oxidation and elimination of organically bound sulfur from coal. Using organic sulfur compounds relevant for coal the mechanism of desulfurization was investigated. The authors isolated a defined mixed culture (FODO) able to utilize dibenzothiophene as sole sulfur source for growth, while benzoate was used as carbon source. The mixed culture FODO consists of an Alcaligenes denitrificans subspecies and a Brevibacterium species. Two metabolites of the degradation and dibenzothiophene-5-dioxide. The subsequent degradation of dibenzothiophene-5-dioxide used as sole sulfur source results in a release of sulfate ions into the medium. The results suggest a sulfur specific oxidative mechanism for removal of sulfur from dibenzothiophene.

  5. Desulfurization apparatus and method (United States)

    Rong, Charles; Jiang, Rongzhong; Chu, Deryn


    A method and system for desulfurization comprising first and second metal oxides; a walled enclosure having an inlet and an exhaust for the passage of gas to be treated; the first and second metal oxide being combinable with hydrogen sulfide to produce a reaction comprising a sulfide and water; the first metal oxide forming a first layer and the second metal oxide forming a second layer within the walled surroundings; the first and second layers being positioned so the first layer removes the bulk amount of the hydrogen sulfide from the treated gas prior to passage through the second layer, and the second layer removes substantially all of the remaining hydrogen sulfide from the treated gas; the first metal oxide producing a stoichiometrical capacity in excess of 500 mg sulfur/gram; the second metal oxide reacts with the hydrogen sulfide more favorably but has a stoichometrical capacity which is less than the first reactant; whereby the optimal amount by weight of the first and second metal oxides is achieved by utilizing two to three units by weight of the first metal oxide for every unit of the second metal oxide.

  6. Desulfurization from Bauxite Water Slurry (BWS) Electrolysis (United States)

    Gong, Xuzhong; Ge, Lan; Wang, Zhi; Zhuang, Siyuan; Wang, Yuhua; Ren, Lihui; Wang, Mingyong


    Feasibility of high-sulfur bauxite electrolysis desulfurization was examined using the electrochemical characterization, XRD, DTA, and FTIR. The cyclic voltammetry curves indicated that bauxite water slurry (BWS) electrolysis in NaOH system was controlled by diffusion. Additionally, the desulfurization effect of NaCl as the electrolyte was significantly better than that of NaOH as an electrolyte. As the stirring rate increased, the desulfurization ratio in NaCl system was not increased obviously, while the desulfurization ratio in NaOH system increased significantly, indicating further that electrolysis desulfurization in NaOH solution was controlled by diffusion. According to XRD, DTA, and FTIR analysis, the characteristic peaks of sulfur-containing phase in bauxite after electrolysis weakened or disappeared, indicating that the pyrite in bauxite was removed from electrolysis. Finally, the electrolytic desulfurization technology of bauxite was proposed based on the characteristics of BWS electrolysis.

  7. Coal desulfurization by aqueous chlorination (United States)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Vasilakos, N.; Corcoran, W. H.; Grohmann, K.; Rohatgi, N. K. (Inventor)


    A method of desulfurizing coal is described in which chlorine gas is bubbled through an aqueous slurry of coal at low temperature below 130 degrees C., and at ambient pressure. Chlorinolysis converts both inorganic and organic sulfur components of coal into water soluble compounds which enter the aqueous suspending media. The media is separated after chlorinolysis and the coal dechlorinated at a temperature of from 300 C to 500 C to form a non-caking, low-sulfur coal product.

  8. Mass Transfer Model of Desulfurization in the Electroslag Remelting Process (United States)

    Hou, Dong; Jiang, Zhou-Hua; Dong, Yan-Wu; Li, Yang; Gong, Wei; Liu, Fu-Bin


    Experimental and theoretical studies have been carried out to investigate the effects of the slag on desulfurization during the electroslag remelting (ESR) process with a focus of developing a mass transfer model to understand the mechanism of desulfurization. Stainless steel 1Cr21Ni5Ti was used as the electrode and remelted with two different kinds of slags using a 50-kg ESR furnace. The contents of sulfur along the axial direction of product ingots were analyzed. It was found that the sulfur content of 350 ppm in the electrode is reduced to 71 to 95 ppm in the ingot by remelting with the slag containing 5 wt pct of CaO, and lowered more to 47 to 59 ppm with another slag having 20 wt pct CaO. On the basis of the penetration and film theories, the theoretical model developed in this work well elucidates the kinetics of desulfurization revealing the mechanism of sulfur transfer during the ESR process. The calculation results obtained from the model agree well with the experimental results. The model indicates that when sulfur content in electrode is given, there is a corresponding minimum value of sulfur content in the ingot due to the kinetics limit. This lowest sulfur content cannot be further reduced even with increasing L S (sulfur distribution coefficient between metal and slag phases) or decreasing sulfur content in the slag. Constant addition of extra amount of CaO to the molten slag with the increase of sulfur content in the slag during the remelting process can improve the macrosegregation of sulfur distributed along the axial direction of ESR ingots. Since the rate-determining steps of the sulfur mass transfer lie in the metal phase, adding calcium as deoxidizer can change mass transfer of sulfur and thus promote desulfurization further during the ESR process.

  9. Review of desulfurization process for biogas purification (United States)

    Xiao, Cong; Ma, Yunqian; Ji, Dandan; Zang, Lihua


    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a toxic and odorous compound present in biogas produced by the anaerobic digestion of biosolids and other organic materials. Elimination of H2S is necessary as it is extremely hazardous to human health, poisonous to process catalysts and corrosive to equipment. The desulfurization technology is an important part for efficient utilization of biogas. In this paper, the traditional wet and dry desulfurization technology for biogas was reviewed, and the new research progress of biological desulfurization technologies are also introduced.

  10. Oxidative desulfurization of tire pyrolysis oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Shahzad


    Full Text Available This paper presents a low cost method for the purification of oils obtained from the pyrolysis of used tires. Oxidative desulfurization is a promising route for purification of tire pyrolysis oils as hydro-desulfurization may not be affordable for small scale industries. Different additives and acids have been employed for the enhancement of properties of pyrolytic oils. The experimental conditions were kept identical throughout, i.e. atmospheric pressure and 50°C temperature for comparison of performance of various additives. The use of hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid mixture (10 wt.% was found more economical and effective in desulfurization and improvement of fuel properties of sample oils. The contribution of sulfuric acid in desulfurization and decreasing viscosity was also satisfactory but due to high price of concentrated sulfuric acid its use may not be economical. Calcium oxide and Fuller’s earth was not found to be effective in desulfurization. Results indicate that oxidative desulfurization could render tire pyrolysis oils suitable for blending as heating fuel.

  11. Crosstalk between the HpArsRS two-component system and HpNikR is necessary for maximal activation of urease transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth M Carpenter


    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori NikR (HpNikR is a nickel dependent transcription factor that directly regulates a number of genes in this important gastric pathogen. One key gene that is regulated by HpNikR is ureA, which encodes for the urease enzyme. In vitro DNA binding studies of HpNikR with the ureA promoter (PureA previously identified a recognition site that is required for high affinity protein/DNA binding. As a means to determine the in vivo significance of this recognition site and to identify the key DNA sequence determinants required for ureA transcription, herein, we have translated these in vitro results to analysis directly within H. pylori. Using a series of GFP reporter constructs in which the PureA DNA target was altered, in combination with mutant H. pylori strains deficient in key regulatory proteins, we confirmed the importance of the previously identified HpNikR recognition sequence for HpNikR-dependent ureA transcription. Moreover, we identified a second factor, the HpArsRS two-component system that was required for maximum transcription of ureA. While HpArsRS is known to regulate ureA in response to acid shock, it was previously thought to function independently of HpNikR and to have no role at neutral pH. However, our qPCR analysis of ureA expression in wildtype, nikR and arsS single mutants as well as a nikR/arsS double mutant strain background showed reduced basal level expression of ureA when arsS was absent. Additionally, we determined that both HpNikR and HpArsRS were necessary for maximal expression of ureA under nickel, low pH and combined nickel and low pH stresses. In vitro studies of HpArsR-P with the PureA DNA target using florescence anisotropy confirmed a direct protein/DNA binding interaction. Together, these data support a model in which HpArsRS and HpNikR cooperatively interact to regulate ureA transcription under various environmental conditions. This is the first time that direct ‘cross-talk’ between Hp

  12. Roles of Piwi Proteins in Transcriptional Regulation Mediated by HP1s in Cultured Silkworm Cells (United States)

    Tatsuke, Tsuneyuki; Zhu, Li; Li, Zhiqing; Mitsunobu, Hitoshi; Yoshimura, Kaito; Mon, Hiroaki; Lee, Jae Man; Kusakabe, Takahiro


    Piwi proteins are part of a superfamily of Argonaute proteins, which are one of the core components of the RNA silencing pathway in many eukaryotes. Piwi proteins are thought to repress the transposon expression both transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally. Recently, Drosophila melanogaster Piwi was recently reported to associate with chromatin and to interact directly with the Heterochromatin Protein 1 (HP1a). However, similar interactions have not been reported in other higher eukaryotes. Here we show that silkworm Piwi proteins interact with HP1s in the nucleus. The silkworm, Bombyx mori, has two Piwi proteins, Ago3 and Siwi, and two typical HP1 proteins, HP1a and HP1b. We found that HP1a plays an important role in the interaction between Ago3/Siwi and HP1b in the ovary-derived BmN4 cell line. We also found that Ago3/Siwi regulates the transcription in an HP1-dependent manner. These results suggest that silkworm Piwi proteins function as a chromatin regulator in collaboration with HP1a and HP1b. PMID:24637637

  13. Method for desulfurization of coal (United States)

    Kelland, D.R.


    A process and apparatus are disclosed for desulfurizing coal which removes sulfur in the inorganic and organic form by preferentially heating the inorganic iron sulfides in coal in a flowing gas to convert some of the inorganic iron sulfides from a pyrite form FeS[sub 2] to a troilite FeS form or a pyrrhotite form Fe[sub 1[minus]x]S and release some of the sulfur as a gaseous compound. The troilite and pyrrhotite forms are convenient catalyst for removing the organic sulfur in the next step, which is to react the coal with chemical agents such as alcohol, thus removing the organic sulfur as a liquid or a gas such as H[sub 2]S. The remaining inorganic sulfur is left in the predominantly higher magnetic form of pyrrhotite and is then removed by magnetic separation techniques. Optionally, an organic flocculant may be added after the organic sulfur has been removed and before magnetic separation. The flocculant attaches non-pyrite minerals with the pyrrhotite for removal by magnetic separation to reduce the ash-forming contents. 2 figs.

  14. Coal desulfurization by low-temperature chlorinolysis (United States)

    Hsu, G. C.; Kalvinskas, J. J.; Ganguli, P. S.; Gavalas, G. R.


    Among the three principal methods for precombustion desulfurization of coal, which include physical depyriting, chemical desulfurization, and coal conversion to low-sulfur liquid and gaseous fuels, the potential of chemical methods looks promising in terms of both total sulfur removal and processing cost. The principal chemical methods for coal desulfurization involve treatment with either oxidizing agents or basic media at elevated temperature and pressure. A description is given of some recent experimental results which show the feasibility of removing sulfur, particularly organic sulfur, from high-sulfur coals by a simple method of low-temperature chlorinolysis followed by hydrolysis and dechlorination. The chemical feasibility of sulfur removal by chlorinolysis rather than the detailed engineering process is emphasized.

  15. Spectral/hp element methods for CFD

    CERN Document Server

    Karniadakis, George Em


    Traditionally spectral methods in fluid dynamics were used in direct and large eddy simulations of turbulent flow in simply connected computational domains. The methods are now being applied to more complex geometries, and the spectral/hp element method, which incorporates both multi-domain spectral methods and high-order finite element methods, has been particularly successful. This book provides a comprehensive introduction to these methods. Written by leaders in the field, the book begins with a full explanation of fundamental concepts and implementation issues. It then illustrates how these methods can be applied to advection-diffusion and to incompressible and compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Drawing on both published and unpublished material, the book is an important resource for experienced researchers and for those new to the field.

  16. Ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization of bitumen (United States)

    Kamal, Wan Mohamad Ikhwan bin Wan; Okawa, Hirokazu; Kato, Takahiro; Sugawara, Katsuyasu


    Bitumen contains a high percentage of sulfur (about 4.6 wt %). A hydrodesulfurization method is used to remove sulfur from bitumen. The drawback of this method is the requirement for a high temperature of >300 °C. Most of the sulfur in bitumen exists as thiophene. Oxidative desulfurization (ODS), involving oxidizing sulfur using H2O2, then removing it using NaOH, allows the removal of sulfur in thiophene at low temperatures. We removed sulfur from bitumen using ODS treatment under ultrasound irradiation, and 52% of sulfur was successfully removed. Additionally, the physical action of ultrasound assisted the desulfurization of bitumen, even at low H2O2 concentrations.

  17. HP investeerib tulevikku / Fredy-Edwin Esse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Esse, Fredy-Edwin


    Maailma suurima tehnoloogiafirma Hewlett-Packard (HP) tootearenduskulud kasvasid IV kvartalis 16%, 814 mln dollarini. Autor märgib, et HP aktsia on praegu väga hea saak, kuid mingit imehüpet aktsia hinnas ei tuleks kindlasti oodata

  18. H.P. Hanssens nationale retorik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Christian Erik J


    Hvordan var H.P. Hanssens retorik om danskheden og det nationale? Dette spørgsmål stiller professor i retorik Christian Kock, Københavns Universitet.......Hvordan var H.P. Hanssens retorik om danskheden og det nationale? Dette spørgsmål stiller professor i retorik Christian Kock, Københavns Universitet....

  19. Low-Cost Aqueous Coal Desulfurization (United States)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Vasilakos, N.; Corcoran, W. H.; Grohmann, K.; Rohatgi, N. K.


    Water-based process for desulfurizing coal not only eliminates need for costly organic solvent but removes sulfur more effectively than an earlier solvent-based process. New process could provide low-cost commercial method for converting high-sulfur coal into environmentally acceptable fuel.

  20. [Performance of desulfurizing absorbent of roasted navajoite]. (United States)

    Chen, Fang; Yang, Chun-ping; Gan, Hai-ming; Wu, Ting; Chen, Hai-lin; Chen, Hong; Xu, Ke-hui; Xie, Geng-xin


    An innovative flue gas desulfurization (FGD) coupling process was proposed in this study to overcome the problems in wet-type limestone/lime processes which include fouling, clogging, and difficulty of selling the by-products and the problems in traditional process for vanadium extraction from navajoite ore such as excessive consumption of sulfuric acid and emissions of pollutants. The performance of a jet bubbling reactor (JBR) at pilot-scale was evaluated using navajoite ore produced in the process of extracting vanadium pentoxide as desulfurization absorbent. Results showed that navajoite ore slurry achieved better desulfurization performance than limestone slurry. When the inlet flue gas pressure drop was 3.0 kPa, the gas flow was about 2350 m3 x h(-1) and the pH of the navajoite ore slurry was higher than 4.5, the desulfurization efficiency was stable about 90%. The SO2 removal efficiency appeared to increase along with the increasing of absorbent cycle-index. The efficiency of the second circulation was improved 3.5% compared to the first circulation. After an operating duration of 40 minutes, the leaching rate of vanadium pentoxide was about 20%, and reached 60% when the by-products were leached with 5% dilute sulfuric acid for 10 hours. The by-product from this process not only could be used to produce vanadium pentoxide which is a valuable industrial product, but also could significantly overcome the pollution problem existing in the traditional refining process of vanadium pentoxide when navajoite ore is used as the feed material. This FGD process using roasted navajoite slurry as absorbent is environmental sound and cost-effective, and shows the potential for application in the field of flue gas desulfurization as well as hydrometallurgy.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This research project examined the feasibility of a second generation high-temperature coal gas desulfurization process in which elemental sulfur is produced directly during the sorbent regeneration phase. Two concepts were evaluated experimentally. In the first, FeS was regenerated in a H2O-O2 mixture. Large fractions of the sulfur were liberated in elemental form when the H2O-O2 ratio was large. However, the mole percent of elemental sulfur in the product was always quite small (<<1%) and a process based on this concept was judged to be impractical because of the low temperature and high energy requirements associated with condensing the sulfur. The second concept involved desulfurization using CeO2 and regeneration of the sulfided sorbent, Ce2O2S, using SO2 to produce elemental sulfur directly. No significant side reactions were observed and the reaction was found to be quite rapid over the temperature range of 500°C to 700°C. Elemental sulfur concentrations (as S2) as large as 20 mol% were produced. Limitations associated with the cerium sorbent process are concentrated in the desulfurization phase. High temperature and highly reducing coal gas such as produced in the Shell gasification process are required if high sulfur removal efficiencies are to be achieved. For example, the equilibrium H2S concentration at 800°C from a Shell gas in contact with CeO2 is about 300 ppmv, well above the allowable IGCC specification. In this case, a two-stage desulfurization process using CeO2 for bulk H2S removal following by a zinc sorbent polishing step would be required. Under appropriate conditions, however, CeO2 can be reduced to non-stoichiometric CeOn (n<2) which has significantly greater affinity for H2S. Pre-breakthrough H2S concentrations in the range of 1 ppmv to 5 ppmv were measured in sulfidation tests using CeOn at 700°C in highly reducing gases, as measured by equilibrium O2 concentration, comparable to the Shell gas. Good sorbent durability was indicated in

  2. Haptoglobin levels, but not Hp1-Hp2 polymorphism, are associated with polycystic ovary syndrome. (United States)

    Carvalho, Laura M L; Ferreira, Cláudia N; de Oliveira, Daisy K D; Rodrigues, Kathryna F; Duarte, Rita C F; Teixeira, Márcia F A; Xavier, Luana B; Candido, Ana Lúcia; Reis, Fernando M; Silva, Ieda F O; Campos, Fernanda M F; Gomes, Karina B


    Proteomic studies suggest an association between haptoglobin (Hp) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Hp is a classic inflammatory marker and binds to the intravascular hemoglobin, avoiding the oxidative damages that can be caused by free hemoglobin. Inflammation and oxidative stress are important in the pathogenesis of the PCOS, one of the most frequent metabolic diseases in women. To validate these proteomic studies, we developed a controlled cross-sectional study that aimed to evaluate the Hp levels and allelic and genotypic frequencies of Hp1-Hp2 polymorphism in Brazilian women with PCOS. We also investigated the correlation between Hp levels and several important parameters in PCOS as follows: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), fasting glucose, post-prandial glucose, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), lipid accumulation product (LAP), C-reactive protein (CRP), and metabolization test of tetrazolium salts (MTTs-serum antioxidant capacity). Plasma Hp levels were higher in the PCOS group than in controls [8.20 (4.04) g/L; 7.98 (3.31) g/L; p = 0.018]. No significant difference was observed in the frequency of Hp1-Hp2 genotypes under additive, recessive, or dominant model of inheritance between the PCOS and the control groups. Plasma Hp levels did not differ according to the genotype. However, plasma Hp showed a negative correlation with MTT (r = - 0.383; p = 0.028), as well as a positive correlation with CRP (r = 0.361; p = 0.014) in the PCOS group. Hp1-Hp2 polymorphism is not associated with PCOS but plasma Hp could be a potential biomarker for PCOS and its complications.

  3. Optimal design of PV and HP system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nepper-Rasmussen, Bjarke Christian; Rasmussen, Theis Bo


    electric energy demand of the HP to hours where excess PV power is present. The self-consumption of the PV energy affects the overall net present value (NPV). In this paper, a method which maximizes the NPV by finding the cost-optimal combination of PV, HP and BT sizes, is proposed. Results show......Methods of utilizing residential produced photovoltaic (PV) power by converting to thermal energy through heat pumps (HP) are present in literature, where thermal energy is dispersed as either heat or hot water at the instant moment of PV production. In this paper an alternative solution...

  4. HP-SEE User Forum 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Karaivanova, Aneta; Oulas, Anastasis; Liabotis, Ioannis; Stojiljkovic, Danica; Prnjat, Ognjen


    This book is a collection of carefully reviewed papers presented during the HP-SEE User Forum, the meeting of the High-Performance Computing Infrastructure for South East Europe’s (HP-SEE) Research Communities, held in October 17-19, 2012, in Belgrade, Serbia. HP-SEE aims at supporting and integrating regional HPC infrastructures; implementing solutions for HPC in the region; and making HPC resources available to research communities in SEE, region, which are working in a number of scientific fields with specific needs for massively parallel execution on powerful computing resources. HP-SEE brings together research communities and HPC operators from 14 different countries and enables them to share HPC facilities, software, tools, data and research results, thus fostering collaboration and strengthening the regional and national human network; the project specifically supports research groups in the areas of computational physics, computational chemistry and the life sciences. The contributions presented i...

  5. Synthesis of Deoxyglycosides by Desulfurization under UV Light. (United States)

    Ge, Jian-Tao; Li, Ying-Ying; Tian, Jun; Liao, Rong-Zhen; Dong, Hai


    This study was performed to develop a highly efficient method whereby desulfurization could be completed in 0.5 h under ultraviolet light, at room temperature, and in the presence of trialkylphosphine. Using this method, deoxyglycosides could be produced from sulfur-containing glycosides in almost quantitative yields. The much higher reactivity of desulfurization with triethylphosphine versus that with triethylphosphite is also discussed.

  6. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal: Third quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquis, Judith K. [School of Medicine, Boston Univ., MA (United States); Kitchell, Judith P. [Holometrix, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States)


    Our current efforts to develop clean coal technology emphasize the advantages of enzymatic desulfurization techniques and have specifically addressed the potential of using partially-purified extracellular microbial enzymes or commercially available enzymes. Our work is focused on the treatment of ''model'' organic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene (DBT) and ethylphenylsulfide (EPS). Furthermore, we are designing experiments to facilitate the enzymatic process by means of a hydrated organic solvent matrix. In this quarter we obtained important results both with the development of our understanding of the enzyme reaction systems and also with the microbial work at Woods Hole. 12 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Sorbent for use in hot gas desulfurization (United States)

    Gasper-Galvin, Lee D.; Atimtay, Aysel T.


    A multiple metal oxide sorbent supported on a zeolite of substantially silicon oxide is used for the desulfurization of process gas streams, such as from a coal gasifier, at temperatures in the range of about to about F. The sorbent is provided by a mixture of copper oxide and manganese oxide and preferably such a mixture with molybdenum oxide. The manganese oxide and the molybdenum are believed to function as promoters for the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with copper oxide. Also, the manganese oxide inhibits the volatilization of the molybdenum oxide at the higher temperatures.

  8. hp-HGS strategy for inverse 3D DC resistivity logging measurement simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Gajda-Zaǵorska, Ewa


    In this paper we present a twin adaptive strategy hp-HGS for solving inverse problems related to 3D DC borehole resistivity measurement simulations. The term “simulation of measurements” is widely used by the geophysical community. A quantity of interest, voltage, is measured at a receiver electrode located in the logging instrument. We use the self-adaptive goal-oriented hp-Finite Element Method (hp-FEM) computer simulations of the process of measurements in deviated wells (when the angle between the borehole and formation layers are < 90 deg). We also employ the hierarchical genetic search (HGS) algorithm to solve the inverse problem. Each individual in the population represents a single configuration of the formation layers. The evaluation of the individual is performed by solving the direct problem by means of the hp-FEM algorithm and by comparison with measured logging curve. We conclude the paper with some discussion on the parallelization of the algorithm.

  9. Investigating tumor perfusion and metabolism using multiple hyperpolarized 13C compounds: HP001, pyruvate and urea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Morze, Cornelius; Larson, Peder E.Z.; Hu, Simon


    The metabolically inactive hyperpolarized agents HP001 (bis-1,1-(hydroxymethyl)-[1-13C]cyclopropane-d8) and urea enable a new type of perfusion magnetic resonance imaging based on a direct signal source that is background-free. The addition of perfusion information to metabolic information obtained...... by spectroscopic imaging of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate would be of great value in exploring the relationship between perfusion and metabolism in cancer. In preclinical normal murine and cancer model studies, we performed both dynamic multislice imaging of the specialized hyperpolarized perfusion compound HP001...... of separate dynamic HP001 imaging and copolarized pyruvate/urea imaging were compared. A strong and significant correlation (R=0.73, P=.02) detected between the urea and HP001 data confirmed the value of copolarizing urea with pyruvate for simultaneous assessment of perfusion and metabolism....

  10. Postligation-desulfurization: a general approach for chemical protein synthesis. (United States)

    Ma, Jimei; Zeng, Jing; Wan, Qian


    Native chemical ligation, involving regioselective and chemoselective coupling of two unprotected peptide segments, enabled the synthesis of polypeptide with more than 200 amino acids. However, cysteine was indispensable in this synthetic technique in its initial format, which limited its further application. Thus, considerable effort has been put into breaking the restriction of cysteine-containing ligation. As a consequence, postligation-desulfurization, concerning thiol-mediated ligation followed by desulfurization, was developed. This review describes the development and recent progress on the chemical synthesis of peptides and proteins encompassing postligation-desulfurization at alanine, valine, lysine, threonine, leucine, proline, arginine, aspartic acid, glutamate, phenylalanine, glutamine, and tryptophan.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John G. Verkade


    The nonionic superbase P(MeNCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 3}N (A) efficiently desulfurizes trisulfides to disulfides and monosulfides, disulfides to monosulfides, and propylene sulfide to propene. S=P(MeNCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 3}N (B) was formed as the sulfur acceptor. P(NMe{sub 2}){sub 3} was a much poorer desulfurizing agent than A under the same reaction conditions. Thiocyanates and triphenylphosphine sulfide were also desulfurized with A, but N-(phenylthio)phthalimide formed [A-SP]{sup +} phthalimide in quantitative yield.

  12. Surface acidity effects of Al-SBA-15 mesoporous materials on adsorptive desulfurization. (United States)

    Meng, Xiuhong; Wang, Yuan; Duan, Linhai; Qin, Yucai; Yu, Wenguang; Wang, Qiang; Dong, Shiwei; Ruan, Yanjun; Wang, Haiyan; Song, Lijuan


    SBA-15 and Aluminum-substituted SBA-15 with Si/Al molar ratio 10 (Al-SBA-15(10)) mesoporous materials were directly synthesized by a hydrolysis approach and characterized by a powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 physisorption analysis and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) etc. The relative number of hydroxyl groups was investigated by in situ FTIR systematically. The acid type and acid strength of the adsorbents were monitord by FTIR at 423 K and 673 K, respectively, utilizing pyridine as a probe. Desulfurization performances of the adsorbents were investigated via static adsorption experiment. Gas chromatography-sulfur chemiluminescence detector (GC-SCD) was employed to detect the sulfur compounds in model fuels before and after treated by the adsorbents. The calcined Al-SBA-15(10) material shows well-ordered hexagonal mesostructure and strong Lewis acid sites (L acid) and weak Brönsted acid sites (B acid). The number of hydroxy on the surface of the Al-SBA-15(10) is more than that of SBA-15, which is beneficial to further modifications such as spontaneous monolayer dispersion. Desulfurization performance of the adsorbents is affected by surface acidity of adsorbents and the constituent of model fuels (olefins, arene, etc.). The thiophene and olefins adsorbed on the B acid site of the adsorbent may occur subsequently alkylation reactions, which may block the pores of the adsorbents and thus cause the reduction of desulfurization capacity.

  13. Desulfurization of Saudi Arabian crudes by oxidation-extraction method. (United States)

    Al Otaibi, Raja L; Liu, Dong; Hou, Xulian; Song, Linhua; Li, Qingyin; Li, Mengfei; Almigrin, Hamid O; Yan, Zifeng

    The oxidation-extraction desulfurization of Saudi Arabian crudes was conducted with hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid oxidation system. The selection of extractant, the optimization of oxidation-extraction conditions, and the exploration of desulfurization mechanism were studied. As DMF was used as the extractant, the optimal desulfurization rate of 35.11 % and oil recovery of 95 % were obtained at 70 °C with the molar ratio of peracetic acid to sulfur of 8:1, the molar ratio of acetic acid to hydrogen peroxide of 2:1 and the volume ratio of extractant to oil of 1:1. The desulfurization effect of different fractions in the treated Saudi Arabian crudes was found to obey the following order: gasoline-diesel fraction >VGO fraction >VR fraction, due to different types and structures of sulfur compounds. The oil quality was less affected and most sulfides were mainly extracted via DMF.

  14. Catalytic Desulfurization of Benzothiophene Using Keggin Type Polyoxometalates as Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldes Lesbani


    Full Text Available Performance of catalytic desulfurization of benzothiophen (BT was studied using polyoxometalates as catalyst. Polyoxometalates H3[a-PW12O40] and H4[a-SiW12O40], have different heteroatom in Keggin structure and catalytic activities. Polyoxometalates H3[a-PW12O40] and H4[a-SiW12O40] have high crystallinity with homogeneous distribution particles. Desulfurization of BT using polyoxometalates H3[a-PW12O40] and H4[a-SiW12O40] resulted % conversion up to 99% for 3 h reaction time and at temperature 40 oC. Application of polyoxometalates H3[a-PW12O40] and H4[a-SiW12O40] for crude oil desulfurization showed % conversion of 4-88%. The main functional groups of polyoxometalates still retained after catalytic desulfurization indicated the stability of polyoxometalate compounds

  15. Verification of Goal-Oriented HP-Adaptivity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paszynski, M; Demkowicz, L; Pardo, D


    .... The analytical solution has been used to validate a goaloriented hp adaptive strategy based on a simultaneous solution of a dual problem, and an hp strategy based on minimizing the projection-based...

  16. HP advances Grid Strategy for the adaptive enterprise

    CERN Multimedia


    "HP today announced plans to further enable its enterprise infrastructure technologies for grid computing. By leveraging open grid standards, HP plans to help customers simplify the use and management of distributed IT resources. The initiative will integrate industry grid standards, including the Globus Toolkit and Open Grid Services Architecture (OGSA), across HP's enterprise product lines" (1 page).

  17. Intrabody-mediated diverting of HP1β to the cytoplasm induces co-aggregation of H3-H4 histones and lamin-B receptor. (United States)

    Cardinale, Alessio; Filesi, Ilaria; Singh, Prim B; Biocca, Silvia


    Diverting a protein from its intracellular location is a unique property of intrabodies. To interfere with the intracellular traffic of heterochromatin protein 1β (HP1β) in living cells, we have generated a cytoplasmic targeted anti-HP1β intrabody, specifically directed against the C-terminal portion of the molecule. HP1β is a conserved component of mouse and human constitutive heterochromatin involved in diverse nuclear functions including gene silencing, DNA repair and nuclear membrane assembly. We found that the anti-HP1β intrabody sequesters HP1β into cytoplasmic aggregates, inhibiting its traffic to the nucleus. Lamin B receptor (LBR) and a subset of core histones (H3/H4) are also specifically co-sequestered in the cytoplasm of anti-HP1β intrabody-expressing cells. Methylated histone H3 at K9 (Me9H3), a marker of constitutive heterochromatin, is not affected by the anti-HP1β intrabody expression. Hyper-acetylating conditions completely dislodge H3 from HP1β:LBR containing aggregates. The expression of anti-HP1β scFv fragments induces apoptosis, associated with an alteration of nuclear morphology. Both these phenotypes are specifically rescued either by overexpression of recombinant full length HP1β or by HP1β mutant containing the chromoshadow domain, but not by recombinant LBR protein. The HP1β-chromodomain mutant, on the other hand, does not rescue the phenotypes, but does compete with LBR for binding to HP1β. These findings provide new insights into the mode of action of cytoplasmic-targeted intrabodies and the interaction between HP1β and its binding partners involved in peripheral heterochromatin organisation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Proteomics and Metabolomics Analyses to Elucidate the Desulfurization Pathway of Chelatococcus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naba K Bordoloi

    Full Text Available Desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT and alkylated DBT derivatives present in transport fuel through specific cleavage of carbon-sulfur (C-S bonds by a newly isolated bacterium Chelatococcus sp. is reported for the first time. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis of the products of DBT degradation by Chelatococcus sp. showed the transient formation of 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP which was subsequently converted to 2-methoxybiphenyl (2-MBP by methylation at the hydroxyl group of 2-HBP. The relative ratio of 2-HBP and 2-MBP formed after 96 h of bacterial growth was determined at 4:1 suggesting partial conversion of 2-HBP or rapid degradation of 2-MBP. Nevertheless, the enzyme involved in this conversion process remains to be identified. This production of 2-MBP rather than 2-HBP from DBT desulfurization has a significant metabolic advantage for enhancing the growth and sulfur utilization from DBT by Chelatococcus sp. and it also reduces the environmental pollution by 2-HBP. Furthermore, desulfurization of DBT derivatives such as 4-M-DBT and 4, 6-DM-DBT by Chelatococcus sp. resulted in formation of 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-biphenyl and 2-hydroxy -3, 3/- dimethyl-biphenyl, respectively as end product. The GC and X-ray fluorescence studies revealed that Chelatococcus sp. after 24 h of treatment at 37°C reduced the total sulfur content of diesel fuel by 12% by per gram resting cells, without compromising the quality of fuel. The LC-MS/MS analysis of tryptic digested intracellular proteins of Chelatococcus sp. when grown in DBT demonstrated the biosynthesis of 4S pathway desulfurizing enzymes viz. monoxygenases (DszC, DszA, desulfinase (DszB, and an NADH-dependent flavin reductase (DszD. Besides, several other intracellular proteins of Chelatococcus sp. having diverse biological functions were also identified by LC-MS/MS analysis. Many of these enzymes are directly involved with desulfurization process whereas the other enzymes

  19. High Contacting Efficience Carrier Structures & Porcesses for Liquid Phase Regenerable Desulfurization of Logistic Fuels (United States)


    Phase Regenerable Desulfurization of Logistic Fuels 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Sb. GRANT NUMBER N00014-06-1-1165 6c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR...developed and characterized. The adsorbent’s formulation, preparation procedure, desulfurization conditions and regeneration procedure have established and...enables novel process design for the logistic fuel desulfurization . 15. SUBJECT TERMS desulfurization , liquid fuel, silver, titania 16. SECURITY

  20. HP1 recruits activity-dependent neuroprotective protein to H3K9me3 marked pericentromeric heterochromatin for silencing of major satellite repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Mosch

    Full Text Available H3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3 is a histone posttranslational modification (PTM that has emerged as hallmark of pericentromeric heterochromatin. This constitutive chromatin domain is composed of repetitive DNA elements, whose transcription is differentially regulated. Mammalian cells contain three HP1 proteins, HP1α, HP1β and HP1γ These have been shown to bind to H3K9me3 and are thought to mediate the effects of this histone PTM. However, the mechanisms of HP1 chromatin regulation and the exact functional role at pericentromeric heterochromatin are still unclear. Here, we identify activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP as an H3K9me3 associated factor. We show that ADNP does not bind H3K9me3 directly, but that interaction is mediated by all three HP1 isoforms in vitro. However, in cells ADNP localization to areas of pericentromeric heterochromatin is only dependent on HP1α and HP1β. Besides a PGVLL sequence patch we uncovered an ARKS motif within the ADNP homeodomain involved in HP1 dependent H3K9me3 association and localization to pericentromeric heterochromatin. While knockdown of ADNP had no effect on HP1 distribution and heterochromatic histone and DNA modifications, we found ADNP silencing major satellite repeats. Our results identify a novel factor in the translation of H3K9me3 at pericentromeric heterochromatin that regulates transcription.

  1. CFD and CHD in random packing columns with seawater desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Mei-Shan [Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China). College of Civil Engineering; Wang, Shi-He; Wang, Xiao-Ming [State Power Environmental Protection Research Institute, Nanjing (China); Guo, Ming-Chun [Shanghai Huolin engineering Plastics Co., Ltd., Shanghai (China)


    By the volume average method, gas-liquid two-phase flow CFD and CHT model is established to describe the random packing column in seawater desulfurization. By numerical calculation, the flow velocity, porosity distribution, pressure distribution and temperature distribution of seawater are obtained. Pressure loss and the outlet temperature of seawater are compared with experimental data, the prediction results and experimental results are well consistent, is exactly the same trend. Analyzing the results of calculation, a significant ''wall flow'' phenomena was found, and the reason of its formation is that the porosity of filler near the wall is significantly higher than in the middle region. Analyzing the distribution of seawater temperature, it is found that the distribution of seawater temperature is more uniform on the top of column, the seawater temperature near the wall fluctuated and were gradually more uniform towards the center of the column. Along the direction of the column from top to bottom, the seawater temperature gradually decreased, and the degree of fluctuations gradually reduced and basically does not change at half of the column, which indicated that the heat exchange between the gas and liquid has been basically completed.

  2. Desulfurization of Hydrocarbon Fuels at Ambient Conditions Using Supported Silver Oxide-Titania Sorbents (United States)


    Desulfurization of Hydrocarbon Fuels at Ambient Conditions Using Supported Silver Oxide-Titania Sorbents by Sachin Appukuttan Nair...Philosophy Auburn, Alabama December 13, 2010 Keywords: Desulfurization , Silver, Titanium Oxide, Hydrocarbon Fuels, Adsorption, Dispersion...number. 1. REPORT DATE 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Desulfurization of Hydrocarbon Fuels


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John G. Verkade


    Column chromatographic separation of the S=PBu{sub 3}/PBu{sub 3} product mixture followed by weighing the S=PBu{sub 3}, and by vacuum distillation of S=PBu{sub 3}/PBu{sub 3}mixture followed by gas chromatographic analysis are described. Effects of coal mesh size, pre-treatment with methanol Coal (S) + excess PR{sub 3} {yields} Coal + S=PR{sub 3}/PBu{sub 3} and sonication on sulfur removal by PBu{sub 3} revealed that particle size was not observed to affect desulfurization efficiency in a consistent manner. Coal pretreatment with methanol to induce swelling or the addition of a filter aid such as Celite reduced desulfurization efficiency of the PBu{sub 3} and sonication was no more effective than heating. A rationale is put forth for the lack of efficacy of methanol pretreatment of the coal in desulfurization runs with PBu{sub 3}. Coal desulfurization with PBu{sub 3} was not improved in the presence of miniscule beads of molten lithium or sodium as a desulfurizing reagent for SPBu{sub 3} in a strategy aimed at regenerating PBu{sub 3} inside coal pores. Although desulfurization of coals did occur in sodium solutions in liquid ammonia, substantial loss of coal mass was also observed. Of particular concern is the mass balance in the above reaction, a problem which is described in some detail. In an effort to solve this difficulty, a specially designed apparatus is described which we believe can solve this problem reasonably effectively. Elemental sodium was found to remove sulfur quantitatively from a variety of polycyclic organosulfur compounds including dibenzothiophene and benzothiophene under relatively mild conditions (150 C) in a hydrocarbon solvent without requiring the addition of a hydrogen donor. Lithium facilitates the same reaction at a higher temperature (254 C). Mechanistic pathways are proposed for these transformations. Curiously, dibenzothiophene and its corresponding sulfone was virtually quantitatively desulfurized in sodium solutions in liquid


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Boltz


    This project was undertaken to refine the Conversion Extraction Desulfurization (CED) technology to efficiently and economically remove sulfur from diesel fuel to levels below 15-ppm. CED is considered a generic term covering all desulfurization processes that involve oxidation and extraction. The CED process first extracts a fraction of the sulfur from the diesel, then selectively oxidizes the remaining sulfur compounds, and finally extracts these oxidized materials. The Department of Energy (DOE) awarded Petro Star Inc. a contract to fund Phase III of the CED process development. Phase III consisted of testing a continuous-flow process, optimization of the process steps, design of a pilot plant, and completion of a market study for licensing the process. Petro Star and the Degussa Corporation in coordination with Koch Modular Process Systems (KMPS) tested six key process steps in a 7.6-centimeter (cm) (3.0-inch) inside diameter (ID) column at gas oil feed rates of 7.8 to 93.3 liters per hour (l/h) (2.1 to 24.6 gallons per hour). The team verified the technical feasibility with respect to hydraulics for each unit operation tested and successfully demonstrated pre-extraction and solvent recovery distillation. Test operations conducted at KMPS demonstrated that the oxidation reaction converted a maximum of 97% of the thiophenes. The CED Process Development Team demonstrated that CED technology is capable of reducing the sulfur content of light atmospheric gas oil from 5,000-ppm to less than 15-ppm within the laboratory scale. In continuous flow trials, the CED process consistently produced fuel with approximately 20-ppm of sulfur. The process economics study calculated an estimated process cost of $5.70 per product barrel. The Kline Company performed a marketing study to evaluate the possibility of licensing the CED technology. Kline concluded that only 13 refineries harbored opportunity for the CED process. The Kline study and the research team's discussions

  5. Desulfurization performance of azole-based ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liubei CHENG


    Full Text Available In order to study the addition of functional groups in ionic liquid anion and cation to achieve better absorbing of SO2, the 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine triazole ( is synthesized using 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine and triazole as raw materials. The desulfurization performance of the synthesized is systematically studied. The desulfurization performance and desulfurization mechanism of the are discussed. The results show that the has good performance of desulfurization and regeneration. At the atmospheric pressure, 1 mol of the absorbs 2.964 mol of SO2 at 20 ℃. With the increase of temperature, the desulfurization capacity of the decreases gradually. The molar absorption ratio increases with the increase of SO2 partial pressure, and under the conditions of 130 ℃, the desorption rate of the ionic liquid after saturated adsorption reaches over 95%. The mechanism investigation results show that the interaction of SO2 and is the combination of chemical absorption and physical absorption. The results have a certain reference value to improve the efficiency of flue gas treatment.

  6. Biogas desulfurization using autotrophic denitrification process. (United States)

    Bayrakdar, Alper; Tilahun, Ebrahim; Calli, Baris


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of an autotrophic denitrification process for desulfurization of biogas produced from a chicken manure digester. A laboratory scale upflow fixed bed reactor (UFBR) was operated for 105 days and fed with sodium sulfide or H2S scrubbed from the biogas and nitrate as electron donor and acceptor, respectively. The S/N ratio (2.5 mol/mol) of the feed solution was kept constant throughout the study. When the UFBR was fed with sodium sulfide solution with an influent pH of 7.7, about 95 % sulfide and 90 % nitrate removal efficiencies were achieved. However, the inlet of the UFBR was clogged several times due to the accumulation of biologically produced elemental sulfur particles and the clogging resulted in operational problems. When the UFBR was fed with the H2S absorbed from the biogas and operated with an influent pH of 8-9, around 98 % sulfide and 97 % nitrate removal efficiencies were obtained. In this way, above 95 % of the H2S in the biogas was removed as elemental sulfur and the reactor effluent was reused as scrubbing liquid without any clogging problem.

  7. Copper-based sorbents for hot coal gas desulfurization systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Slimane, R.B.; Zarnegar, M.K. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)] [and others


    High-temperature coal gas desulfurization has been recognized as essential in the development of emerging power generation technologies such as the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), aiming to improve both the efficiency and environmental performance of power generation from coal. Hot gas desulfurization may be accomplished by using regenerable mixed metal oxides sorbents which can reduce the H{sub 2}S content of the coal gas to a few ppmv over many sulfidation/regeneration cycles. The focus of much of the current research on hot gas desulfurization has been on the use of zinc-based sorbents. Although these sorbents have been the subject of extensive pilot-scale and process development work, zinc-based sorbents have been shown to suffer from sulfate formation and zinc volatilization, leading to sorbent degradation over multicycle use, increasing sorbent replacement costs and the overall cost of hot gas desulfurization processes. A novel copper-chromite sorbent has been developed at IGT for hot coal gas desulfurization under the sponsorship of the Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI). Results obtained so far indicate that this sorbent, in granular form (i.e., CuCr-29), has a much higher attrition resistance compared to the commercial granular zinc titanate sorbent, as well as excellent desulfurization efficiency. Furthermore, unlike most zinc titanate sorbents, the reactivity of IGT`s CuCr-29 sorbent gradually and consistently improved during the 20 cycles tested. The sorbent preparation techniques developed at IGT have been applied to produce highly reactive and attrition resistant sorbent pellets for moving-bed applications.

  8. The WRKY transcription factor HpWRKY44 regulates CytP450-like1 expression in red pitaya fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus). (United States)

    Cheng, Mei-Nv; Huang, Zi-Juan; Hua, Qing-Zhu; Shan, Wei; Kuang, Jian-Fei; Lu, Wang-Jin; Qin, Yong-Hua; Chen, Jian-Ye


    Red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) fruit is a high-value, functional food, containing a high level of betalains. Several genes potentially related to betalain biosynthesis, such as cytochrome P450-like (CytP450-like), have been identified in pitaya fruit, while their transcriptional regulation remains unclear. In this work, the potential involvement of a WRKY transcription factor, HpWRKY44, in regulating CytP450-like1 expression in pitaya fruit was examined. HpWRKY44, a member of the Group 1 WRKY family, contains two conserved WRKY motifs and is localized in the nucleus. HpWRKY44 also exhibits trans-activation ability. Gene expression analysis showed that the expression of HpCytP450-like1 and HpWRKY44 increased steadily during pitaya fruit coloration, which corresponded with the production of elevated betalain levels in the fruit. HpWRKY44 was also demonstrated to directly bind to and activate the HpCytP450-like1 promoter via the recognition of the W-box element present in the promoter. Collectively, our findings indicate that HpWRKY44 transcriptionally activates HpCytP450-like1, which perhaps, at least in part, contributes to betalain biosynthesis in pitaya fruit. The information provided in the current study provides novel insights into the regulatory network associated with betalain biosynthesis during pitaya fruit coloration.

  9. Nano-magnetic particles as multifunctional microreactor for deep desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Xinai; Yao, Dongdong [Engineering Research Center of Historical and Cultural Heritage Protection, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Li, Hong [College of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Xi' an Polytechnic University, Xi' an 710048 (China); Yang, Juxiang [Department of Chemistry, Xi' an University of Arts and Science, Xi' an 710065 (China); Hu, Daodao, E-mail: [Engineering Research Center of Historical and Cultural Heritage Protection, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An easy-separated amphiphilic catalyst with small size was prepared for deep desulfurization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of several factors on desulfurization reactivity were systematically investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The catalyst demonstrates high performance in the deep desulfurization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The material could make integration of micro-reactor and micro-extractor into one system. - Abstract: Oxidation of dibenzothiophene with hydrogen peroxide using a recyclable amphiphilic catalyst has been studied. The catalyst was synthesized by surfacely covering magnetic silica nanospheres (MSN) with the complexes between 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride (AEM) and phosphotungstic acid (PTA). The morphology and components of the composite material were characterized by TEM, EDX, XPS, FT-IR, and VSM, respectively. The effects of several factors on desulfurization reactivity were systematically investigated. The results showed that the composite nanospheres have core/shell structure with the properties of amphiphilicity and superparamagnetism. The composite nanospheres have high catalytic activity in the oxidation of dibenzothiophene to corresponding sulfones by hydrogen peroxide under mild reaction conditions. The sulfur level could be lowered from 487 ppm to less than 0.8 ppm under optimal conditions. Additionally, the amphiphilic catalyst and the oxidized product could be simultaneously separated from medium by external magnetism, and the recovered composite material could be recycled for three times with almost constant activity.

  10. Mechanical, Hygric and Thermal Properties of Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tesárek


    Full Text Available The reference measurements of basic mechanical, thermal and hygric parameters of hardened flue gas desulfurization gypsum are carried out. Moisture diffusivity, water vapor diffusion coefficient, thermal conductivity, volumetric heat capacity and linear thermal expansion coefficient are determined with the primary aim of comparison with data obtained for various types of modified gypsum in the future. 


    The following report discusses current bench- and pilot-plant advances in preparation of ADVAnced siliCATE (ADVACATE) calcium silicate sorbentsfor flue gas desulfurization. It also discusses current bench- and pilot-plant advances in sorbent preparation. Fly ash was ground in a l...

  12. Ralstonia eutropha as a biocatalyst for desulfurization of dibenzothiophene. (United States)

    Dejaloud, Azita; Vahabzadeh, Farzaneh; Habibi, Alireza


    The potential of Ralstonia eutropha as a biocatalyst for desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT) was studied in growing and resting cell conditions. The results of both conditions showed that sulfur was removed from DBT which accompanied by the formation of 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP). In growing cell experiments, glucose was used as an energy supplying substrate in initial concentrations of 55 mM (energy-limited) and 111 mM (energy-sufficient). The growing cell behaviors were quantitatively described using the logistic equation and maintenance concept. The results indicated that 2-HBP production was higher for the energy-sufficient cultures, while the values of the specific growth rate and the maintenance coefficient for these media were lower than those of the energy-limited cultures. Additionally, the kinetic studies showed that the half-saturation constant for the energy-limited cultures was 2 times higher than the energy-sufficient ones where the inhibition constant (0.08 mM) and the maximum specific DBT desulfurization rate (0.002 mmol gcell(-1) h(-1)) were almost constant. By defining desulfurizing capacity (D DBT) including both the biomass concentration and time to reach a particular percentage of DBT conversion, the best condition for desulfurizing cell was determined at 23% gcell L(-1) h(-1) which corresponded with the resting cells that were harvested at the mid-exponential growth phase.

  13. Core-in-shell sorbent for hot coal gas desulfurization (United States)

    Wheelock, Thomas D.; Akiti, Jr., Tetteh T.


    A core-in-shell sorbent is described herein. The core is reactive to the compounds of interest, and is preferably calcium-based, such as limestone for hot gas desulfurization. The shell is a porous protective layer, preferably inert, which allows the reactive core to remove the desired compounds while maintaining the desired physical characteristics to withstand the conditions of use.

  14. Theoretical study of the catalytic desulfurization mechanism of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The desulfurization process of compounds implicates two steps. The first step is the adsorption process on the catalytic site and the second, the breaking of the carbon-heteroatom bond leading to the heteroatom elimination. The adsorption process of thiiren have been studied and published in previous works. The results ...

  15. Workshop on sulfur chemistry in flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, W.E. Jr.


    The Flue Gas Desulfurization Workshop was held at Morgantown, West Virginia, June 7-8, 1979. The presentations dealt with the chemistry of sulfur and calcium compounds in scrubbers. DOE and EPRI programs in this area are described. Ten papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  16. Pengukuran Tekanan Udara Menggunakan Dt-sense Barometric Presure Berbasis Sensor Hp03


    Yulkifli, Yulkifli; Asrizal, Asrizal; Ardi, Ruci


    This research has successfully designed an instrument to measure air pressure, namely, DT-Sense Barometric Pressure and Temperature (DT-SBPT). DT-SBPT is a smart sensor module on the basis of HP03 sensor. Data were collected using direct and indirect measurement. Direct measurement was done toward air pressure. Indirect measurement, however, was applied to determine the exact and accuracy of the measurement of air pressure. Data were analyzed by using two ways, namely statistic and graphic wa...

  17. Mechanistic analysis of ultrasound assisted enzymatic desulfurization of liquid fuels using horseradish peroxidase. (United States)

    Bhasarkar, Jaykumar; Borah, Arup Jyoti; Goswami, Pranab; Moholkar, Vijayanand S


    This study has attempted to gain physical insight into ultrasound-assisted enzymatic desulfurization using system comprising horseradish peroxidase enzyme and dibenzothiophene (DBT). Desulfurization pathway (comprising DBT-sulfoxide and DBT-sulfone as intermediates and 4-methoxy benzoic acid as final product) has been established with GC-MS analysis. Intrinsic fluorescence and circular dichroism spectra of ultrasound-treated enzyme reveal conformational changes in secondary structure (reduction in α-helix and β-conformations and increase in random coil content) leading to enhancement in activity. Concurrent analysis of desulfurization profiles, Arrhenius and thermodynamic parameters, and simulations of cavitation bubble dynamics reveal that strong micro-convection generated by sonication enhances enzyme activity and desulfurization kinetics. Parallel oxidation of DBT by radicals generated from transient cavitation gives further boost to desulfurization kinetics. However, random motion of enzyme molecules induced by shock waves reduces frequency factor and limits the ultrasonic enhancement of enzymatic desulfurization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Oxidative desulfurization of fuel oil by pyridinium-based ionic liquids. (United States)

    Zhao, Dishun; Wang, Yanan; Duan, Erhong


    In this work, an N-butyl-pyridinium-based ionic liquid [BPy]BF(4) was prepared. The effect of extraction desulfurization on model oil with thiophene and dibenzothiophene (DBT) was investigated. Ionic liquids and hydrogen peroxide (30%) were tested in extraction-oxidation desulfurization of model oil. The results show that the ionic liquid [BPy]BF(4) has a better desulfurization effect. The best technological conditions are: V(IL)/V(Oil) /V(H(2)O(2)) = 1:1:0.4, temperature 55 degrees C, the time 30 min. The ratio of desulfurization to thiophene and DBT reached 78.5% and 84.3% respectively, which is much higher than extraction desulfurization with simple ionic liquids. Under these conditions, the effect of desulfurization on gasoline was also investigated. The used ionic liquids can be recycled up to four times after regeneration.

  19. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for optimizing 3HP production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Bjerg; Maury, Jerome; Oberg, Fredrik


    cerevisiae. One main reason for selecting Baker's yeast as host organism is that yeast has a high tolerance towards low pH in comparison to bacteria, e.g. E. coli. Hence, it lowers the consumption of base for neutralization of growth media when compared to bacteria. The preferred engineered pathway towards 3...... and the market for acrylate products exceeds USD 100 billion. As an alternative to oil and gas derived acrylic acid, 3-hydroxypropionic (3HP) acid produced from renewable sources is highly desired, because 3HP can easily be converted into acrylic acid. We are setting out to produce 3HP in yeast Saccharomyces...

  20. Test and Characterization of Some Zeolite Supported Gas Phase Desulfurization Sorbents (United States)


    Test and Characterization of Some Zeolite Supported Gas Phase Desulfurization Sorbents by Charles Rong, Deryn Chu, and John Hopkins ARL...20783-1197 ARL-TR-4859 June 2009 Test and Characterization of Some Zeolite Supported Gas Phase Desulfurization Sorbents Charles Rong...Characterization of Some Zeolite Supported Gas Phase Desulfurization Sorbents 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 6

  1. Application and Development Trend of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Process: A Review


    Rehan Jamil; Li Ming; Irfan Jamil; Rizwan Jamil


    In 1927, the limestone desulfurization process was first applied in the Barthes and Bansside Power Plants (total 120MW) beside the Thames River in UK to protect high-rise building in London. Up to now, over 10 desulfurization processes have been launched and applied. Based on the desulfurizing agent being used, there include calcium process (limestone/lime), ammonia process, magnesium process, sodium process, alkali alumina process, copper oxide/zinc process, active carbon process, ammonium d...

  2. Transcriptional profiling of type II toxin-antitoxin genes of Helicobacter pylori under different environmental conditions: identification of HP0967-HP0968 system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the human gastric mucosa and is responsible for causing peptic ulcers and gastric carcinoma. The expression of virulence factors allows the persistence of H. pylori in the stomach, which results in a chronic, sometimes uncontrolled inflammatory response. Type II toxin-antitoxin systems have emerged as important virulence factors in many pathogenic bacteria. Three type II toxin-antitoxin (TA systems have previously been identified in the genome of H. pylori 26695: HP0315-HP0316, HP0892-HP0893, and HP0894-HP0895. Here we characterized a heretofore undescribed type II TA system in H. pylori, HP0967-HP0968, which is encoded by the bicistronic operon hp0968-hp0967 and belongs to the Vap family. The predicted HP0967 protein is a toxin with ribonuclease activity whereas HP0968 is an antitoxin that binds to its own regulatory region. We found that all type II TA systems were expressed in H. pylori during early stationary growth phase, and differentially expressed in the presence of urea, nickel, and iron, although the hp0968-hp0967 pair was the most affected under these environmental conditions. Transcription of hp0968-hp0967 was strongly induced in a mature H. pylori biofilm and when the bacteria interacted with AGS epithelial cells. Kanamycin and chloramphenicol considerably boosted transcription levels of all the four type II TA systems. The hp0968-hp0967 TA system was the most frequent among 317 H. pylori strains isolated from all over the world. This study is the first report on the transcription of type II TA genes in H. pylori under different environmental conditions. Our data show that the HP0967 and HP0968 proteins constitute a bona fide type II TA system in H. pylori, whose expression is regulated by environmental cues, which are relevant in the context of infection of the human gastric mucosa.

  3. Effect of Silicon on Desulfurization of Aluminum-killed Steels (United States)

    Roy, Debdutta

    Recent reports have suggested that silicon has a beneficial effect on the rate of desulfurization of Al-killed steel. This effect is difficult to understand looking at the overall desulfurization reaction which does not include silicon. However an explanation is proposed by taking into account the (SiO2)/[Si] equilibrium in which some Al reaching the slag-metal interface is used in reducing the SiO2 in the slag. This reaction can be suppressed to some extent if the silicon content of the metal is increased and in doing so, more Al will be available at the slag-metal interface for the desulfurization reaction and this would increase the rate of the desulfurization reaction. A model was developed, assuming the rates are controlled by mass transfer, taking into account the coupled reactions of the reduction of silica, and other unstable oxides, namely iron oxide and manganese oxide, in the slag and desulfurization reaction in the steel by aluminum. The model predicts that increasing silicon increases the rate and extent of desulfurization. Plant data was analyzed to obtain rough estimates of ladle desulfurization rates and also used to validate the model predictions. Experiments have been conducted on a kilogram scale of material in an induction furnace to test the hypothesis. The major conclusions of the study are as follows: The rate and extent of desulfurization improve with increasing initial silicon content in the steel; the effect diminishes at silicon contents higher than approximately 0.2% and with increasing slag basicity. This was confirmed with kilogram-scale laboratory experiments. The effects of the silicon content in the steel (and of initial FeO and MnO in the slag) largely arise from the dominant effects of these reactions on the equilibrium aluminum content of the steel: as far as aluminum consumption or pick-up is concerned, the Si/SiO2 reaction dominates, and desulfurization has only a minor effect on aluminum consumption. The rate is primarily

  4. HP fotovõistluse finalistid veebis / Henrik Roonemaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roonemaa, Henrik


    Hewlett-Packardi koduleheküljel on üleval rahvusvahelise digitaalfotograafia konkursi HP Invision Digital Photography Awards 2002 finalistide tööd, nende hulgas Katrin Arraku foto "Minu kala Vallo"

  5. Spectral/hp element methods: Recent developments, applications, and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Hui; Cantwell, Chris; Monteserin, Carlos


    The spectral/hp element method combines the geometric flexibility of the classical h-type finite element technique with the desirable numerical properties of spectral methods, employing high-degree piecewise polynomial basis functions on coarse finite element-type meshes. The spatial approximation...... regularity assumptions an exponential reduction in approximation error between numerical and exact solutions can be achieved. This method has now been applied in many simulation studies of both fundamental and practical engineering flows. This paper briefly describes the formulation of the spectral/hp...... element method and provides an overview of its application to computational fluid dynamics. In particular, it focuses on the use of the spectral/hp element method in transitional flows and ocean engineering. Finally, some of the major challenges to be overcome in order to use the spectral/hp element...

  6. Mathematical Model of Hot Metal Desulfurization by Powder Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Cepeda Rodríguez


    Full Text Available Although there have been a numerous number of studies on mathematical model of hot metal desulfurization by deep injection of calcium carbide, the research field as a whole is not well integrated. This paper presents a model that takes into account the kinetics, thermodynamics, and transport processes to predict the sulfur levels in the hot metal throughout a blow. The model could be utilized to assess the influence of the treatment temperature, rate of injection, gas flow rate, and initial concentration of sulfur on the desulfurization kinetics. In the second part of this paper an analysis of the industrial data for injection of calcium carbide using this model is described. From a mathematical model that describes the characteristics of a system, it is possible to predict the behavior of the variables involved in the process, resulting in savings of time and money. Discretization is realized through the finite difference method combined with interpolation in the border domain by Taylor series.

  7. Simple biogas desulfurization by microaeration - Full scale experience. (United States)

    Jeníček, P; Horejš, J; Pokorná-Krayzelová, L; Bindzar, J; Bartáček, J


    Hydrogen sulfide in biogas is common problem during anaerobic treatment of wastewater with high sulfate concentration (breweries, distilleries, etc.) and needs to be removed before biogas utilization. Physico-chemical desulfurization methods are energetically demanding and expensive compare to biochemical methods. Microaeration, i.e. dosing of small amount of air, is suitable and cost effective biochemical method of sulfide oxidation to elemental sulfur. It has been widely used in biogas plants, but its application in anaerobic reactors for wastewater treatment has been rarely studied or tested. The lack of full-scale experience with microaeration in wastewater treatment plants has been overcome by evaluating the results of seven microaerobic digesters in central Europe. The desulfurization efficiency has been more than 90% in most of the cases. Moreover, microaeration improved the degradability of COD and volatile suspended solids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification of novel drug targets in HpB38, HpP12, HpG27, Hpshi470, HpSJM180 strains of Helicobacter pylori : an in silico approach for therapeutic intervention. (United States)

    Neelapu, Nageswara Rao Reddy; Pavani, T


    Helicobacter species colonizes the stomach and are associated with the development of gastritis disease. Drugs for treatment of Helicobacter infection relieve pain or gastritis symptoms but they are not targeted specifically to Helicobacter pylori. Therefore, there is dire need for discovery of new drug targets and drugs for the treatment of H. pylori. The main objective of this study is to screen the potential drug targets by in silico analysis for the potent strains of H. pylori which include HpB38, HpP12, HpG27, Hpshi470 and HpSJM180. Genome and metabolic pathways of pathogen H. pylori and the host Homosapien sapiens are compared and genes which were unique to H. pylori were filtered and catalogued. These unique genes were subjected to gene property analysis to identify the potentiality of the drug targets. Among the total number of genes analysed in different strains of H. pylori nearly 558, 569, 539, 569, 567 number of genes in HpB38, HpP12, HpG27, Hpshi470 and HpSJM180 found qualified as unique molecules and among them 17 qualified as potential drug targets. Membrane fusion protein of hefABC efflux system, 50 S ribosomal protein L33, Hydrogenase expression protein/formation of HypD, Cag pathogenecity island protein X, Apolipoprotein N acyl transferase, DNA methyalse, Histone like binding protein, Peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein OprL were found to be critical drug targets to H. pylori. Three (hefABC efflux system, Hydrogenase expression protein/formation of HypD, Cag pathogenecity island protein X) of the 17 predicted drug targets are already experimentally validated either genetically or biochemically lending credence to our unique approach.

  9. Tonopah Test Range EGS graphics tracking display system: HP370

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, R.H.; Bauhs, K.C.


    This report describes the HP370 component of the Enhanced Graphics System (EGS) used at Tonopah Test Range (TTR). Selected Radar data is fed into the computer systems and the resulting tracking symbols are displayed on high-resolution video monitors in real time. These tracking symbols overlay background maps and are used for monitoring/controlling various flight vehicles. This report discusses both the operational aspects and the internal configuration of the HP370 Workstation portion of the EGS system.

  10. Goal-Oriented Self-Adaptive hp Finite Element Simulation of 3D DC Borehole Resistivity Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Calo, Victor M.


    In this paper we present a goal-oriented self-adaptive hp Finite Element Method (hp-FEM) with shared data structures and a parallel multi-frontal direct solver. The algorithm automatically generates (without any user interaction) a sequence of meshes delivering exponential convergence of a prescribed quantity of interest with respect to the number of degrees of freedom. The sequence of meshes is generated from a given initial mesh, by performing h (breaking elements into smaller elements), p (adjusting polynomial orders of approximation) or hp (both) refinements on the finite elements. The new parallel implementation utilizes a computational mesh shared between multiple processors. All computational algorithms, including automatic hp goal-oriented adaptivity and the solver work fully in parallel. We describe the parallel self-adaptive hp-FEM algorithm with shared computational domain, as well as its efficiency measurements. We apply the methodology described to the three-dimensional simulation of the borehole resistivity measurement of direct current through casing in the presence of invasion.

  11. Exploring the Mechanism of Biocatalyst Inhibition in Microbial Desulfurization (United States)

    Abin-Fuentes, Andres; Mohamed, Magdy El-Said; Wang, Daniel I. C.


    Microbial desulfurization, or biodesulfurization (BDS), of fuels is a promising technology because it can desulfurize compounds that are recalcitrant to the current standard technology in the oil industry. One of the obstacles to the commercialization of BDS is the reduction in biocatalyst activity concomitant with the accumulation of the end product, 2-hydroxybiphenyl (HBP), during the process. BDS experiments were performed by incubating Rhodococcus erythropolis IGTS8 resting-cell suspensions with hexadecane at 0.50 (vol/vol) containing 10 mM dibenzothiophene. The resin Dowex Optipore SD-2 was added to the BDS experiments at resin concentrations of 0, 10, or 50 g resin/liter total volume. The HBP concentration within the cytoplasm was estimated to decrease from 1,100 to 260 μM with increasing resin concentration. Despite this finding, productivity did not increase with the resin concentration. This led us to focus on the susceptibility of the desulfurization enzymes toward HBP. Dose-response experiments were performed to identify major inhibitory interactions in the most common BDS pathway, the 4S pathway. HBP was responsible for three of the four major inhibitory interactions identified. The concentrations of HBP that led to a 50% reduction in the enzymes' activities (IC50s) for DszA, DszB, and DszC were measured to be 60 ± 5 μM, 110 ± 10 μM, and 50 ± 5 μM, respectively. The fact that the IC50s for HBP are all significantly lower than the cytoplasmic HBP concentration suggests that the inhibition of the desulfurization enzymes by HBP is responsible for the observed reduction in biocatalyst activity concomitant with HBP generation. PMID:24096431

  12. Numerical simulation of flow in the wet scrubber for desulfurization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novosád Jan


    Full Text Available This article deals with numerical simulation of flow and chemical reactions in absorber for desulfurization of flue-gas. The objective of the work is the investigation of effect of different nozzles types and their placement in spray layers. These nozzles distribute lime suspension into flue gas stream. The research includes two types of nozzles and four different arrangements of nozzles and spray layers. Conclusion describes the effect of nozzle types and their arrangements on the suspension concentration in absorber.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John G. Verkade


    The reactions of dialkyl mono- and disulfides and functionalized alkylthio compounds with sodium in refluxing hydrocarbon solvent (tetradecane, mesitylene or toluene) resulted in sulfur-free products in very high yields. Greater than 95% sulfur removal was observed when dialkyl mono or polysulfides were treated with Na in liquid ammonia. Polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles were only moderately desulfurized under these conditions while phenylthio derivatives gave thiophenol as the major product and dithiophenols as the minor products.

  14. Modeling bacterial transport in the subsurface using HP1 (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Olson, M. S.


    Bacterial infiltration through the subsurface has been studied experimentally under different conditions of interest and is dependent on a variety of physical, chemical and biological factors, such as solution chemistry, bacterial size and surface properties, and mineral surfaces etc. However, most bacterial transport studies are often not directly relevant to processes occurring in natural systems. Bacteria have been frequently detected and reported in stormwater runoff. Mixing of stormwater runoff with groundwater in the subsurface during infiltration causes changes in solution chemistry, which lead to changes in bacterial surface properties (such as zeta potential) and collector surface charge and properties. This study focuses on bacterial transport as stormwater runoff infiltrates into the subsurface. A microbial reactive transport model is developed using HP1(HYDRUS1D-PHREEQC), which accounts for changes in the physical and chemical factors that control bacterial attachment onto liquid-solid and liquid-air interfaces. Bacterial attachment efficiency to liquid-solid interfaces is considered both under unfavorable conditions, as predicted by DLVO theory and the Maxwell approach coupling both primary and secondary-minima deposition, and under favorable conditions. Bacterial attachment at the liquid-air interface is modeled using mass transfer equations, which vary with changes in the water content profile. Different scenarios are simulated to observe bacterial transport behavior in uniformly and variably unsaturated soil, under high and low surface ponding depths and with varied and constant rates of bacterial attachment. Column transport experiments have been developed to experimentally validate the microbial reactive transport model.

  15. The mechanism of coal gas desulfurization by iron oxide sorbents. (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Hsing; Chen, Yen-Chiao; Chu, Hsin


    This study aims to understand the roles of hydrogen and carbon monoxide during the desulfurization process in a coal gasification system that H2S of the syngas was removed by Fe2O3/SiO2 sorbents. The Fe2O3/SiO2 sorbents were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation. Through the breakthrough experiments and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses, the overall desulfurization mechanism of the Fe2O3/SiO2 sorbents was proposed in this study. The results show that the major reaction route is that Fe2O3 reacts with H2S to form FeS, and the existence of CO and H2 in the simulated gas significantly affects equilibrium concentrations of H2S and COS. The formation of COS occurs when the feeding gas is blended with CO and H2S, or CO2 and H2S. The pathways in the formation of products from the desulfurization process by the reaction of Fe2O3 with H2S have been successfully established. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular biological enhancement of coal desulfurization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, S.


    During the period from 1986 through 1993 the prospect of bacterial desulfurization of fossil fuel was transformed from a theoretically appealing concept to a demonstrable laboratory phenomenon. Results from several laboratories confirmed that there was not one but, rather, several metabolic bases of selectively removing sulfur from the carbon frame of sulfur-containing organic compounds characteristic of fossil fuels. Results in this report relate solely to the so-called ``4S`` pathway (named for the four sulfur-containing compounds in the sequence: (l) dibenzothiophene [DBT] {yields} (2) dibenzothiophene sulfoxide [DBTO] {yields} (3) dibenzosulfone [DBTO{sup 2}] {yields} (4) dibenzosulfonate {yields} monohydroxybiphenyl [OH-BP] + SO{sub 4}{sup =}. [An additional desulfurized product, biphenyl, has been hypothesized and another, o,o{prime}-biphenyl, observed.]) The following subjects are discussed: isolating bacteria with a DbtS{sup +} phenotype; confirming the production of a desulfurized product; determining the identity of the isolates; determining the growth characteristics of the isolates in batch and continuous cultures; determining the kinetics and yields of product in batch and continuous cultures.

  17. Experimental Study of Stabilized Soil Utilizing Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Desulfurization Ash with Carbide Slag and Desulfurization Gypsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezhi Shao


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the feasibility of preparing soil stabilizer which is circulating fluidized bed combustion ash-based, supplemented with carbide slag and desulfurization gypsum, composed entirely of complete industrial wastes. The results show that CFBC ash has better pozzolanic activity than fly ash. When stabilizer total content is 10% and the ratio of CFBC ash : carbide slag : desulfurization gypsum is 7.2 : 1.8 : 1, compressive strength of stabilized soil can reach the maximum of 2.12 MPa at the age of 28 d of curing. Stabilizer can meet the strength requirements of cement-soil mixing pile composite foundation and cement-soil mixing pile waterproof curtain.

  18. Operation results of in-line type flue gas desulfurization system for Thai Union Paper Public Co. Ltd.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamaru, T.; Nakamura, N.; Inoue, H.; Fujino, Y. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The in-line type flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system delivered to Thai Union Paper Public Co., Ltd, was inaugurated in July 1997 and demonstration operation was completed in March 1998. The project was supported by the Ministry International Trade and Industry of Japan as part of the Green Aid Plan. The FGD system has adopted the wet limestone-gypsum procees. The absorbent slurry is directly sprayed into the flue gas duct and does not require an absorber. This main feature minimizes the initial cost. The SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was more than 70% and the gypsum purity was of the same level as conventional FGD. (author)

  19. Reutilization of low-grade magnesium oxides for flue gas desulfurization during calcination of natural magnesite: A closed-loop process


    del Valle Zermeño, Ricardo; Formosa Mitjans, Joan; Aparicio, J.A,; Chimenos Ribera, Josep Maria


    The European Commission is encouraging the Cement, Lime and Magnesium Oxide Manufacturing Industries to reutilize collected particulate matter or wastes in the emission control of SO2 with a 100% removal efficiency. Following this directive, three different by-products from the calcination of natural magnesite were selected in order to evaluate their desulfurization capacity. The saturation time, defined as the time for the total neutralization of SO2 was used to determine consumption values ...

  20. Use of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Gypsum as a Heavy Metal Stabilizer in Contaminated Soils (United States)

    Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) gypsum is a synthetic by-product generated from the flue gas desulfurization process in coal power plants. It has several beneficial applications such as an ingredient in cement production, wallboard production and in agricultural practice as a soil...

  1. Inhibition of carbon disulfide on bio-desulfurization in the process of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biological desulfurization is a novel technology for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from some biogas or sour gas, in which there are always a certain amounts of carbon disulfide together with much hydrogen sulfide. Nowadays, carbon disulfide is found to have negative effect on the biological desulfurization, but seldom ...

  2. Experimental study and mechanism analysis of modified limestone by red mud for improving desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongtao; Han, Kuihua; Niu, Shengli; Lu, Chunmei; Liu, Mengqi; Li, Hui [Shandong Univ., Jinan (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering


    Red mud is a type of solid waste generated during alumina production from bauxite, and how to dispose and utilize red mud in a large scale is yet a question with no satisfied answer. This paper attempts to use red mud as a kind of additive to modify the limestone. The enhancement of the sulfation reaction of limestone by red mud (two kinds of Bayer process red mud and one kind of sintering process red mud) are studied by a tube furnace reactor. The calcination and sulfation process and kinetics are investigated in a thermogravimetric (TG) analyzer. The results show that red mud can effectively improve the desulfurization performance of limestone in the whole temperature range (1,073-1,373K). Sulfur capacity of limestone (means quality of SO{sub 2} which can be retained by 100mg of limestone) can be increased by 25.73, 7.17 and 15.31% while the utilization of calcium can be increased from 39.68 to 64.13%, 60.61 and 61.16% after modified by three kinds of red mud under calcium/metallic element (metallic element described here means all metallic elements which can play a catalytic effect on the sulfation process, including the Na, K, Fe, Ti) ratio being 15, at the temperature of 1,173K. The structure of limestone modified by red mud is interlaced and tridimensional which is conducive to the sulfation reaction. The phase composition analysis measured by XRD of modified limestone sulfated at high temperature shows that there are correspondingly more sulphates for silicate and aluminate complexes of calcium existing in the products. Temperature, calcium/metallic element ratio and particle diameter are important factors as for the sulfation reaction. The optimum results can be obtained as calcium/metallic element ratio being 15. Calcination characteristic of limestone modified by red mud shows a migration to lower temperature direction. The enhancement of sulfation by doping red mud is more pronounced once the product layer has been formed and consequently the promoting

  3. Comparing Hp(3) evaluated from the conversion coefficients from air kerma to personal dose equivalent for eye lens dosimetry calibrated on a new cylindrical PMMA phantom (United States)

    Esor, J.; Sudchai, W.; Monthonwattana, S.; Pungkun, V.; Intang, A.


    Based on a new occupational dose limit recommended by ICRP (2011), the annual dose limit for the lens of the eye for workers should be reduced from 150 mSv/y to 20 mSv/y averaged over 5 consecutive years in which no single year exceeding 50 mSv. This new dose limit directly affects radiologists and cardiologists whose work involves high radiation exposure over 20 mSv/y. Eye lens dosimetry (Hp(3)) has become increasingly important and should be evaluated directly based on dosimeters that are worn closely to the eye. Normally, Hp(3) dose algorithm was carried out by the combination of Hp(0.07) and Hp(10) values while dosimeters were calibrated on slab PMMA phantom. Recently, there were three reports from European Union that have shown the conversion coefficients from air kerma to Hp(3). These conversion coefficients carried out by ORAMED, PTB and CEA Saclay projects were performed by using a new cylindrical head phantom. In this study, various delivered doses were calculated using those three conversion coefficients while nanoDot, small OSL dosimeters, were used for Hp(3) measurement. These calibrations were performed with a standard X-ray generator at Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL). Delivered doses (Hp(3)) using those three conversion coefficients were compared with Hp(3) from nanoDot measurements. The results showed that percentage differences between delivered doses evaluated from the conversion coefficient of each project and Hp(3) doses evaluated from the nanoDots were found to be not exceeding -11.48 %, -8.85 % and -8.85 % for ORAMED, PTB and CEA Saclay project, respectively.

  4. Electron beam inspection of 16nm HP node EUV masks (United States)

    Shimomura, Takeya; Narukawa, Shogo; Abe, Tsukasa; Takikawa, Tadahiko; Hayashi, Naoya; Wang, Fei; Ma, Long; Lin, Chia-Wen; Zhao, Yan; Kuan, Chiyan; Jau, Jack


    EUV lithography (EUVL) is the most promising solution for 16nm HP node semiconductor device manufacturing and beyond. The fabrication of defect free EUV mask is one of the most challenging roadblocks to insert EUVL into high volume manufacturing (HVM). To fabricate and assure the defect free EUV masks, electron beam inspection (EBI) tool will be likely the necessary tool since optical mask inspection systems using 193nm and 199nm light are reaching a practical resolution limit around 16nm HP node EUV mask. For production use of EBI, several challenges and potential issues are expected. Firstly, required defect detection sensitivity is quite high. According to ITRS roadmap updated in 2011, the smallest defect size needed to detect is about 18nm for 15nm NAND Flash HP node EUV mask. Secondly, small pixel size is likely required to obtain the high sensitivity. Thus, it might damage Ru capped Mo/Si multilayer due to accumulated high density electron beam bombardments. It also has potential of elevation of nuisance defects and reduction of throughput. These challenges must be solved before inserting EBI system into EUV mask HVM line. In this paper, we share our initial inspection results for 16nm HP node EUV mask (64nm HP absorber pattern on the EUV mask) using an EBI system eXplore® 5400 developed by Hermes Microvision, Inc. (HMI). In particularly, defect detection sensitivity, inspectability and damage to EUV mask were assessed. As conclusions, we found that the EBI system has capability to capture 16nm defects on 64nm absorber pattern EUV mask, satisfying the sensitivity requirement of 15nm NAND Flash HP node EUV mask. Furthermore, we confirmed there is no significant damage to susceptible Ru capped Mo/Si multilayer. We also identified that low throughput and high nuisance defect rate are critical challenges needed to address for the 16nm HP node EUV mask inspection. The high nuisance defect rate could be generated by poor LWR and stitching errors during EB writing


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjiao Xiao


    Full Text Available The exhumation and tectonic emplacement of eclogites and blueschists take place in forearc accretionary complexes by either forearc- or backarc-directed extrusion, but few examples have been well analysed in detail. Here we present an example of oblique wedge extrusion of UHP/HP rocks in the Atbashi accretionary complex of the Kyrgyz South Tianshan.

  6. Investigation on the relationship between the fine particle emission and crystallization characteristics of gypsum during wet flue gas desulfurization process. (United States)

    Pan, Danping; Wu, Hao; Yang, Linjun


    The relationship between the fine particles emitted after desulfurization and gypsum crystals in the desulfurization slurry was investigated, and the crystallization characteristics varying with the operation parameters and compositions of the desulfurization slurry were discussed. The results showed that the fine particles generated during the desulfurization process were closely related to the crystal characteristics in the desulfurization slurry by comparison of their morphology and elements. With the higher proportion of fine crystals in the desulfurization slurry, the number concentration of fine particles after desulfurization was increased and their particle sizes were smaller, indicating that the optimization of gypsum crystallization was beneficial for the reduction of the fine particle emission. The lower pH value and an optimal temperature of the desulfurization slurry were beneficial to restrain the generation of fine crystals in the desulfurization slurry. In addition, the higher concentrations of the Fe(3+) ions and the F(-) ions in the desulfurization slurry both promoted the generation of fine crystals with corresponding change of the morphology and the effect of the Fe(3+) ions was more obvious. With the application of the desulfurization synergist additive, it was beneficial for the inhibition of fine crystals while the thinner crystals were generated. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Molecular biological enhancement of coal desulfurization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, S.


    Fresh isolates of bacteria presumptively identified as R. erythropolis unequivocally have a DbtS{sup +} phenotype. The production of OH-BP from either DBT or DBTO{sub 2} was confirmed by difference spectroscopy, HPLC, and mass spectrometry. The temperature, pH, and means of supplying the thiophenic or sulfonic sole source of sulfur were optimized. The maximal rate of growth of the organism, its affinity for sulfone, and the extent to which substrate was converted to product were determined by using batch, fed batch, and continuous cultures. For strain N1-36, the maximum specific growth rate was 0.235 hr{sup -1} which corresponds to a minimal generation time of 2.95 hr. The K{sub s} was estimated to be 0.39 {mu}M. With 100 {mu}M DBT as the sole sulfur source, approximately 40 {mu}M OH-BP are produced (after 40 hr of growth); with 100 {mu}M DBTO{sub 2} as the sole sulfur source, approximately 70 {mu}M OH-BP are produced (after 40 hr of growth). The desulfurization activity is repressed by SO{sub 4}{sup =} OH-BP does not serve as a carbon source. The DbtS{sup +} phenotype of the R. erythropolis isolates is stable and discrete. The isolates selectively remove sulfur from DBT, a compound which models a refractory form of organic sulfur in compounds characteristic of fossil fuels. The desulfurization occurs with no oxidation of carbon-carbon bonds. The stability and specificity (along with genetic regulation) indicate that microbial desulfurization in a real phenomenon in which a noxious element is removed without significantly affecting the calorific value of the substrate. Additional characterization (and optimization) would provide the basis of a very important form of fossil fuel beneficiation.

  8. Methods, systems, and devices for deep desulfurization of fuel gases (United States)

    Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA; Liu, Jun [Richland, WA; Huo, Qisheng [Richland, WA


    A highly effective and regenerable method, system and device that enables the desulfurization of warm fuel gases by passing these warm gasses over metal-based sorbents arranged in a mesoporous substrate. This technology will protect Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts and other sulfur sensitive catalysts, without drastic cooling of the fuel gases. This invention can be utilized in a process either alone or alongside other separation processes, and allows the total sulfur in such a gas to be reduced to less than 500 ppb and in some instances as low as 50 ppb.

  9. Influence of addition of alkali metal compounds to calcium carbonate on desulfurization characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naruse, Ichiro; Saito, Katsuhiro; Murakami, Takahiro


    Limestone is currently supplied as a desulfurizer into bubbling and circulating fluidized bed coal combustors since both combustors are operated at the temperature ranged from 1,073 to 1,173 K, where limestone can be calcined and sulfurized optimally. In the practical boilers, however, the limestone particles are fed to the combustor excessively since the utilization efficiency of CaO produced by the calcination of limestone is low. On the other hand, many kinds of sea-shell are clarified as one of industrial wastes, and also consist of CaCO{sub 3} similar to limestone. Therefore it would be possible for wasted sea-shell to be applied to one of the desulfurizers. In this case the CO{sub 2} produced by calcination of the shell is fixed and recycled naturally in obedience to the ecological law. From this viewpoint, desulfurization characteristics of wasted sea shell have been already studied fundamentally by using a thermobalance as compared with the results obtained by limestone. The results obtained by this study are summarized as follows. (1) The desulfurization activity for wasted sea-shell is much higher than that for limestone. (2) Even if the alkali metal compounds are partially removed from the sea shell, the desulfurization efficiency does not change. (3) The desulfurization activity can be enhanced by adding alkali metal compounds to limestone. Sodium compounds are more effective on the desulfurization efficiency than potassium compounds. Sodium chloride is the best agent among them.

  10. A methodology to split the total cumulative Hp(10) dose into the Hp(10) i doses received during various procedures performed by interventional cardiologist. (United States)

    Domienik, Joanna


    The methodology describing how to split the cumulative Hp(10) dose of interventional cardiologists into Hp(10) i doses received during procedures of various types based on procedure-specific ELDO coefficients and Hp(3) doses per procedure is presented. The appropriate equations for Hp(10) i (Hp(10) for procedure type i), depending on the number of various procedure types (i  =  1 … 4) performed by a particular physician, are derived. The methodology can be applied to whole-body doses measured on the lead apron and therefore can be used for optimisation of work practices in those catheterisation labs where routine dosimeter is worn above the apron.

  11. Desulfurization Of Gas-Turbine Blades (United States)

    Outlaw, Ronald A.


    Sulfur removed from nickel-base superalloy used to make gas-turbine blades by heating alloy and simultaneously subjecting it to sputtering by directed Ar(Sup+) ions from ion gun or from glow discharge. Reduction of sulfur content of superalloy by factor of 10 increases lifetime of turbine blade made of alloy by similar factor, because stability of protective surface oxide formed during operation of turbine increased.

  12. hp Spectral element methods for three dimensional elliptic problems ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This is the first of a series of papers devoted to the study of h-p spec- tral element methods for solving three dimensional elliptic boundary value problems on non-smooth domains using parallel computers. In three dimensions there are three different types of singularities namely; the vertex, the edge and the ...

  13. EV and HP Providing Ancillary Services in the Nordic Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhaoxi; Wu, Qiuwei

    This report covers the analysis of the electric vehicle (EV) and heat pump (HP) providing ancillary services to the power system of the Nordic region including Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The analysis is to investigate the feasibility of EVs and HPs to serve as demand as frequency reserve...... (DFR) providers in the distribution power system in the four mentioned Nordic countries....

  14. h-p Spectral element methods for three dimensional elliptic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The h-p version of the finite element method for solving three dimensional elliptic problems on non-smooth domains with exponential accuracy was proposed by Guo in [9,. 12]. To overcome the singularities which arise along vertices and edges they used geo- metric meshes which are defined in neighbourhoods of vertices, ...

  15. Printerite riigihanked libisevad HP-le / Askur Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Askur, 1973-


    AS Rapo turundusjuhi Andres Kaevu hinnangul oli maksuameti korraldatud riigihanke eesmärk osta HP printereid ning välistada konkurendid. Tema sõnul võimaldaksid mõne teise firma printerid riigil raha kokku hoida. Kommenteerib Konica Minolta Baltia Eesti filiaali juhataja Margus Vaino

  16. Enhanced desulfurizing flotation of coal using sonoelectrochemical method. (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Xi; Hou, Xiao-Yang; Xu, Shi-Xun; Li, Zhi-Long; Yu, Hai-Feng; Shen, Xue-Hua


    Enhanced desulfurizing flotation of low sulfur coal was investigated using sonoelectrochemical method. The supporting electrolyte used in this process was sodium chloride and the additive was anhydrous ethanol. The effects of treatment conditions on desulfurization were studied by a single-factor method. The conditions include anhydrous ethanol concentration, sodium chloride concentration, sonoelectrolytic voltage, sonoelectrolytic temperature, sonoelectrolytic time and coal sample granulometry. The optimal experimental conditions achieved for anhydrous ethanol concentration, sodium chloride concentration, sonoelectrolytic voltage, sonoelectrolytic temperature and sonoelectrolytic time are 1.7 mol L(-1), 5.1×10(-3) mol L(-1), 10 V, 70 °C, 50 min achieved for a -0.18 mm coal sample. Optimal conditions cause a sulfur reduction of up to 69.4%. The raw and treated coals were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy and a chemical method. Pyritic sulfur, organic sulfur, ash as well as moisture are partially removed. The combination of high sulfur reduction, high yield, as well as high ash reduction was obtained in the newly developed method of enhanced flotation by sonoelectrochemistry. Ultrasound irradiation promotes electron transfer efficiency and increases clean coal yield. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. HP1β is a biomarker for breast cancer prognosis and PARP inhibitor therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ho Lee

    Full Text Available Members of the heterochromatin protein 1 family (HP1α, β and γ are mostly associated with heterochromatin and play important roles in gene regulation and DNA damage response. Altered expression of individual HP1 subtype has profound impacts on cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. We analyzed the expression profile of HP1 family by data mining using a published microarray data set coupled with retrospective immunohistochemistry analyses of archived breast cancer biospecimens. We found that the patient group overexpressing HP1β mRNA is associated with poorly differentiated breast tumors and with a significantly lower survival rate. Immunohistochemical staining against HP1α, HP1β and HP1γ shows that respective HP1 expression level is frequently altered in breast cancers. 57.4-60.1% of samples examined showed high HP1β expression and 39.9-42.6 % of examined tumors showed no or low expression of each HP1 subtype. Interestingly, comparative analysis on HP1 expression profile and breast cancer markers revealed a positive correlation between the respective expression level of all three HP1 subtypes and Ki-67, a cell proliferation and well-known breast cancer marker. To explore the effect of individual HP1 on PARP inhibitor therapy for breast cancer, MCF7 breast cancer cells and individually HP1-depleted MCF7 cells were treated with PARP inhibitor ABT-888 with or without carboplatin. Notably, HP1β-knockdown cells are hypersensitive to the PARP inhibitor ABT-888 alone and its combination with carboplatin. In summary, while increased HP1β expression is associated with the poor prognosis in breast cancer, compromised HP1β abundance may serve as a useful predictive marker for chemotherapy, including PARP inhibitors against breast cancer.

  18. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The confined zone dispersion (CZD) process involves flue gas post-treatment, physically located between a boiler's outlet and its particulate collector, which in the majority of cases is an electrostatic precipitator. The features that distinguish this process from other similar injection processes are: Injection of an alkaline slurry directly into the duct, instead of injection of dry solids into the duct ahead of a fabric filter. Use of an ultrafine calcium/magnesium hydroxide, type S pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime. This commercial product is made from plentiful, naturally occurring dolomite. Low residence time, made possible by the high effective surface area of the Type S lime. Localized dispersion of the reagent. Slurry droplets contact only part of the gas while the droplets are drying, to remove up to 50 percent of the S0{sub 2} and significant amounts of NO{sub x}. The process uses dual fluid rather than rotary atomizers. Improved electrostatic precipitator performance via gas conditioning from the increased water vapor content, and lower temperatures. Supplemental conditioning with S0{sub 3} is not believed necessary for satisfactory removal of particulate matter.

  19. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The CZD process involves flue gas post-treatment, physically located between a boiler's outlet and its particulate collector, which in the majority of cases is an electrostatic precipitator. The features that distinguish this process from other similar injection processes are: Injection of an alkaline slurry directly into the duct, instead of injection of dry solids into the duct ahead of a fabric filter. Use of an ultrafine calcium/magnesium hydroxide, type S pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime. This commercial product is made from plentiful, naturally occurring dolomite. Low residence time, made possibly by the high effective surface area of the type S lime. Localized dispersion of the reagent. Slurry droplets contact only part of the gas while the droplets are drying, to remove up to 50 percent of the SO{sub 2} and significant amounts of NO{sub x}. The process uses dual fluid rather than rotary atomizers. Improved ESP performance via gas conditioning from the increased water vapor content, and lower temperatures. Supplemental conditioning with SO{sub 3} is not believed necessary for satisfactory removal of particulate matter. The waste product is composed of magnesium and calcium sulfite and sulfate, with some excess lime. This product mixed with fly ash is self-stabilizing because of the excess lime values, and thus tends to retain heavy metals in insoluble forms within the fly ash.

  20. Synthesis and application of different phthalocyanine molecular sieve catalyst for oxidative desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Na; Li, Siwen; Wang, Jinyi; Zhang, Ronglan [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Physico-Inorganic Chemistry, College of Chemistry & Material Science, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069, Shaanxi (China); Composites Research Institute, Weinan Normal University, Weinan 714000 (China); Gao, Ruimin [Research Institute of Shaanxi Yanchang Petroleum Group Corp. Ltd., Xi’an 710075 (China); Composites Research Institute, Weinan Normal University, Weinan 714000 (China); Zhao, Jianshe, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Physico-Inorganic Chemistry, College of Chemistry & Material Science, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069, Shaanxi (China); Composites Research Institute, Weinan Normal University, Weinan 714000 (China); Wang, Junlong [Research Institute of Shaanxi Yanchang Petroleum Group Corp. Ltd., Xi’an 710075 (China); Composites Research Institute, Weinan Normal University, Weinan 714000 (China)


    M{sub 2}(PcAN){sub 2} (M=Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Mn) anchored onto W-HZSM-5 (M{sub 2}(PcAN){sub 2}–W-HZSM-5) or the M{sub 2}(PcTN){sub 2} doping W-HZSM-5 (M{sub 2}(PcTN){sub 2}/W-HZSM-5) were prepared and their catalytic performances were tested for oxidative desulfurization in the presence of oxygen. Thiophene (T), benzothiophene (BT), and dibenzothiophene (DBT) were considered as sulfur compounds. Among zeolite-based catalysts, the Cu{sub 2}(PcAN){sub 2}–W-HZSM-5 and Cu{sub 2}(PcTN){sub 2}/W-HZSM-5 showed superior desulfurization performance and the activity of selectivity followed the order: T>BT>DBT. The effects of phthalocyanine concentration were studied by UV–Vis and calcination temperature was obtained by TG-DSC for Cu{sub 2}(PcTN){sub 2}/W-HZSM-5. Catalysts were characterized by EA, IR, XRD, SEM, TEM, ICP, and N{sub 2} adsorption. Reaction time, temperature and the amount of catalyst were investigated as the important parameters for optimization of the reaction. Furthermore, a possible process of oxidative desulfurization and the reaction products were proposed. - Graphical abstract: The ODS reaction schematic shows the reaction mechanism of ultra-deep desulfurization. The sulfur compounds are oxidized to their corresponding sulfoxides or sulfones through the use of oxygen and catalysts. The reaction process of ultra-deep desulfurization. - Highlights: • A kind of novel catalyst for deep desulfurization was synthesized. • Cu{sub 2}(PcAN){sub 2}–W-HZSM-5 exhibits excellent catalytic performance for desulfurization. • The reaction conditions that affect desulfurization efficiency are investigated. • The reaction process of model sulfur compounds is proposed.

  1. Characteristics of dibenzothiophene desulfurization by Rhodococcus erythropolis R1 and its Dsz-negative mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Etemadifar


    Full Text Available Introduction: Biodesulfurization is used as a selective method for lowering the sulfur content of petroleum products. Materials and methods: A sulfur-oxidation bacterial strain named Rhodococcus erythropolis R1 (NCBI GenBank Accession No. GU570564 was used in this study for desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT. Results: The induced culture of strain R1 was able to produce 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2- HBP from DBT followed 4S pathway without further degrading carbon backbone. This process confirmed by gas chromatography (GC analysis. The specific activity of DBT desulfurization by R1 was 45 µM (g dry wt-1 h-1. The addition of Tween 80 as surfactant and glycerol as carbon source determines a 100% rate of DBT-desulfurization during 3 days. The heavy plasmid detected in R1 strain carries dsz genes responsible for biodesulfurization of DBT that was shown by PCR reaction. The mutant strains which had lost this plasmid also had lost desulfurization phenotype. Both mutant and wild strain were sensitive to high concentration of 2-HBP and some antibiotics. Discussion and conclusion: Strain R1 desulfurize DBT through the sulfur-specific degradation pathway or 4S pathway with the selective cleavage of carbon-sulfur (C-S bonds without reducing the energy content. Addition of surfactant enhanced the desulfurization of DBT by increasing its bioavailability and also could improve the growth and desulfurization rate. The location of desulfurization genes was on a heavy plasmid in strain R1. Based on the results of this study, R. erythropolis R1 could serve as a model system for efficient biodesulfurization of petroleum oil without reducing the energy value.

  2. New reagents for coal desulfurization. Final technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, D.H.; Kalembasa, S.; Olson, D.; Wang, S.; Warfel, L.


    The primary goal of this project was development and exploration of potential new desulfurization reagents for the removal of ``organic sulfur`` from Illinois coals by mild chemical methods. Potential new desulfurization reagents were investigated using organic sulfur compounds of the types thought to be present in coals. Reagents included low-valent metal complexes based on nickel and on iron as well as possible Single Electron Transfer reagents. Soluble coal extracts served as second generation model compounds during this reagent development project.

  3. A Chaotic Oscillator Based on HP Memristor Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyi Wang


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a simple autonomous memristor-based oscillator for generating periodic signals. Applying an external sinusoidal excitation to the autonomous system, a nonautonomous oscillator is obtained, which contains HP memristor model and four linear circuit elements. This memristor-based oscillator can generate periodic, chaotic, and hyperchaotic signals under the periodic excitation and an appropriate set of circuit parameters. It also shows that the system exhibits alternately a hidden attractor with no equilibrium and a self-excited attractor with a line equilibrium as time goes on. Furthermore, some specialties including burst chaos, irregular periodic bifurcations, and nonintermittence chaos of the circuit are found by theoretical analysis and numerical simulations. Finally, a discrete model for the HP memristor is given and the main statistical properties of this memristor-based oscillator are verified via DSP chip experiments and NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology tests.

  4. AFRL’s HP3 60mm Powder Gun (United States)


    amount tissue paper for wadding. The primer is activated via a solenoid -driven firing pin. Once ignited, the black powder travels down the igniter...used at the HP3 facility. Both VISARs share a single Coherent Verdi (532 nm) 6 Watt Laser as the light source. The light is transmitted from the laser ...for the crush pin signals to propagate to the recorders is not matched to the time for the optical signals to reach the recorders, it is not expected

  5. Vibration and Stability of 3000-hp, Titanium Chemical Process Blower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Les Gutzwiller


    Full Text Available This 74-in-diameter blower had an overhung rotor design of titanium construction, operating at 50 pounds per square inch gauge in a critical chemical plant process. The shaft was supported by oil-film bearings and was directdriven by a 3000-hp electric motor through a metal disk type of coupling. The operating speed was 1780 rpm. The blower shaft and motor shaft motion was monitored by Bently Nevada proximity probes and a Model 3100 monitoring system.

  6. Adsorptive desulfurization of kerosene and diesel oil by Zn impregnated montmorollonite clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqas Ahmad


    Full Text Available In the present research work, desulfurization of kerosene and diesel oil has been carried out by selective adsorption through metals impregnated montmorollonite clay (MMT. Different metals were impregnated on MMT by wet impregnation method which included Fe, Cr, Ni, Co, Mn, Pb, Zn and Ag. The adsorption study was carried out in batch operation initially for 1 h time and at room temperature (25 °C. The results show that high desulfurization was brought about by Zn-MMT. In the case of kerosene highest desulfurization of 76% and in the case of diesel maximum desulfurization of 77% was achieved with adsorption through Zn-MMT. Conditions were also optimized for the desulfurization process. Highest yield of desulfurization was obtained at 1-h stirring period, at room temperature (25 °C and using oil to adsorbent ratio of 20:1.5. Under optimized conditions the adsorbent was found to adsorb about 81% of DBT from the model oil containing 1000 ppm DBT dissolved in cyclohexane. EDX, Surface characterization and SEM analysis of the adsorbents used in the study were conducted to evaluate their mineralogical nature and textural behavior. Results show that the surface area, pore size and pore volume of the MMT has been found to be increased many fold with Zn impregnation. Also the surface morphology of the MMT has also been improved with Zn impregnation.

  7. A novel semidry flue gas desulfurization process with the magnetically fluidized bed reactor. (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Gui, Keting


    The magnetically fluidized bed (MFB) was used as the reactor in a novel semidry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process to achieve high desulfurization efficiency. Experiments in a laboratory-scale apparatus were conducted to reveal the effects of approach to adiabatic saturation temperature, Ca/S molar ratio and applied magnetic field intensity on SO(2) removal. Results showed that SO(2) removal efficiency can be obviously enhanced by decreasing approach to adiabatic saturation temperature, increasing Ca/S molar ratio, or increasing applied magnetic field intensity. At a magnetic field intensity of 300Oe and a Ca/S molar ratio of 1.0, the desulfurization efficiency (excluding desulfurization efficiency in the fabric filter) was over 80%, while spent sorbent appeared in the form of dry powder. With the SEM, XRD and EDX research, it can be found that the increase of DC magnetic field intensity can make the surface morphology on the surface of the ferromagnetic particles loose and enhance the oxidation of S(IV), hence reducing the liquid phase mass transfer resistance of the slurry droplets and increasing desulfurization reaction rate, respectively. Therefore, the desulfurization efficiency increased obviously with the increase of DC field intensity.

  8. Mammalian HP1 Isoforms Have Specific Roles in Heterochromatin Structure and Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Bosch-Presegué


    Full Text Available HP1 is a structural component of heterochromatin. Mammalian HP1 isoforms HP1α, HP1β, and HP1γ play different roles in genome stability, but their precise role in heterochromatin structure is unclear. Analysis of Hp1α−/−, Hp1β−/−, and Hp1γ−/− MEFs show that HP1 proteins have both redundant and unique functions within pericentric heterochromatin (PCH and also act globally throughout the genome. HP1α confines H4K20me3 and H3K27me3 to regions within PCH, while its absence results in a global hyper-compaction of chromatin associated with a specific pattern of mitotic defects. In contrast, HP1β is functionally associated with Suv4-20h2 and H4K20me3, and its loss induces global chromatin decompaction and an abnormal enrichment of CTCF in PCH and other genomic regions. Our work provides insight into the roles of HP1 proteins in heterochromatin structure and genome stability.

  9. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berggren, M.H.; Jha, M.C.


    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) investigated methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbents. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For this program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such as size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation. Two base case sorbents, a spherical pellet and a cylindrical extrude used in related METC-sponsored projects, were used to provide a basis for the aimed enhancement in durability and reactivity. Sorbent performance was judged on the basis of physical properties, single particle kinetic studies based on thermogravimetric (TGA) techniques, and multicycle bench-scale testing of sorbents. A sorbent grading system was utilized to quantify the characteristics of the new sorbents prepared during the program. Significant enhancements in both reactivity and durability were achieved for the spherical pellet shape over the base case formulation. Overall improvements to reactivity and durability were also made to the cylindrical extrude shape. The primary variables which were investigated during the program included iron oxide type, zinc oxide:iron oxide ratio, inorganic binder concentration, organic binder concentration, and induration conditions. The effects of some variables were small or inconclusive. Based on TGA studies and bench-scale tests, induration conditions were found to be very significant.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John G. Verkade


    Remarkably mild conditions have been discovered for quantitative sulfur removal from dibenzothiophene and other organosulfur systems using relatively cheap elemental sodium. The project objectives are: (1) Optimize the coal desulfurization reaction with respect to time, temperature, coal type and the R groups (including R = H), and also on extraction, impregnation and sonication conditions; (2) Optimize the conditions for the HDS reaction (which allows the PR{sub 3} to function as an HDS catalyst for coal) with respect to R group, temperature, pressure, H{sub 2} gas flow rate and inert solvent presence; (3) Determine the product(s) and the pathway of the novel redox reaction that appears to quantitatively remove sulfur from dibenzothiophene (DBT) when R = Bu when FeCl{sub 3} is used as a catalyst; (4) Impregnate sulfur-laden coals with Fe{sup 3+} to ascertain if the PR{sub 3} desulfurization rate increases; (5) Determine the nature of the presently unextractable phosphorus compounds formed in solid coals by PR{sub 3}; (6) Explore the efficacy of PR{sub 3}/Fe{sup 3+} in removing sulfur from petroleum feedstocks, heavy ends (whether solid or liquid), coal tar and discarded tire rubber; (7) Explore the possibility of using water-soluble PR{sub 3} compounds and Fe{sup 3+} to remove sulfur from petroleum feedstocks and heavy ends in order to remove the SPR{sub 3} (and Fe{sup 3+} catalyst) by water extraction (for subsequent HDS of the SPR{sub 3}); and (8) Explore the possibility of using solid-supported PR{sub 3} compounds (plus Fe{sup 3+} catalyst) to remove sulfur from petroleum feedstocks and heavy ends in order to keep the oil and the SPR{sub 3} (formed in the reaction) in easily separable phases.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan J. Hycnar


    Full Text Available Most flue gas desulfurization products can be characterized by significant solubility in water and dusting in dry state. These characteristics can cause a considerable pollution of air, water, and soil. Among many approaches to utilization of this waste, the process of agglomeration using granulation or briquetting has proved very effective. Using desulfurization products a new material of aggregate characteristics has been acquired, and this material is resistant to water and wind erosion as well as to the conditions of transportation and storage. The paper presents the results of industrial trials granulation and briquetting of calcium desulphurization products. The granulation of a mixture of phosphogypsum used with fly ash (in the share 1:5. The resulting granules characterized by a compressive strength of 41.6 MPa, the damping resistance of 70% and 14.2% abrasion. The granulate was used for the production of cement mix. The produced concrete mortar have a longer setting and hardening time, as compared to the traditional ash and gypsum mortar, and have a higher or comparable flexural and compressive strength during hardening. Briquetting trials made of a product called synthetic gypsum or rea-gypsum both in pure form and with the addition of 5% and 10% of the limestone dust. Briquettes have a high initial strength and resistance to abrasion. The values ​​of these parameters increased after 72 hours of seasoning. It was found that higher hardiness of briquettes with rea-gypsum was obtained with the impact of atmospheric conditions and higher resistance to elution of water-soluble components in comparison to ash briquettes.

  12. A novel hp-FEM model for IPMC actuation (United States)

    Pugal, D.; Kim, K. J.; Solin, P.; Aabloo, A.


    The system of Poisson and Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations is used to describe the charge transport in ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) materials. This process is a key mechanism for the electromechanical transduction of the material. As the system coupled with elastostatic equations is nonlinear and for a domain with two electrodes, the charge concentration differences occur in a very narrow region near the boundaries, the required computing power for a full scale finite element (FE) model is, especially in 3D, rather significant. Furthermore, it is challenging to find a mesh that would be optimal in terms of calculation time, required computing resources, and calculation accuracy. Most of the commercially available FE software for multi-physics problems has rather strict restrictions in terms of element types, mesh types, and choice of polynomial degrees. In this paper, we explore the option of using hp-FEM modeling to solve the PNP and elastostatic equation system. First, we demonstrate how the multi-meshing and the time dependent adaptivity help to control the error of the solution and also how the problem size is reduced. This is done by studying Poisson-Nernst-Planck system of equations in a 2D domain with different hp-adaptivity types. Both 2D and 3D versions of the model are implemented in Hermes which is a space- and space-time adaptive hp-FEM solver. Full mathematical derivation of the weak formulation of the system of equations is presented. Furthermore, we show how the features of Hermes can be useful in modeling more complicated full scale actuation of IPMC.

  13. Assessment of the Hewlett-Packard HP47210A capnometer. (United States)

    Kinsella, S M


    The Hewlett-Packard HP47210A Capnometer, a "mainstream" infra-red carbon dioxide analyser, has a sensor in-line with the patient circuit. The calibration apparatus is included within the unit, and an internal microprocessor corrects for the presence of nitrous oxide and varying concentrations of oxygen. Maximum error was 0.37 kPa for carbon dioxide partial pressures less than 5.3 kPa, and less than 3.6% for partial pressures of carbon dioxide greater than 5.3 kPa.

  14. SGN III code conversion from Apollo to HP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hae Cho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    SGN III computer code is used to analyze transient behavior of reactor coolant system, pressurizer and steam generators in the event of main steam line break (MSLB), and to calculate mass and energy release for containment design. This report firstly describes detailed work carried out for installation of SFN III on Apollo DN 10000 and code validation results after installation. Secondly, a series of work is also describes in relation to installation of SGN III on HP 9000/700 series as well as relevant code validation results. Attached is a report on software verification and validation results. 8 refs. (Author) .new.

  15. P-B Desulfurization: An Enabling Method for Protein Chemical Synthesis and Site-Specific Deuteration. (United States)

    Jin, Kang; Li, Tianlu; Chow, Hoi Yee; Liu, Han; Li, Xuechen


    Cysteine-mediated native chemical ligation is a powerful method for protein chemical synthesis. Herein, we report an unprecedentedly mild system (TCEP/NaBH4 or TCEP/LiBEt3 H; TCEP=tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine) for chemoselective peptide desulfurization to achieve effective protein synthesis via the native chemical ligation-desulfurization approach. This method, termed P-B desulfurization, features usage of common reagents, simplicity of operation, robustness, high yields, clean conversion, and versatile functionality compatibility with complex peptides/proteins. In addition, this method can be used for incorporating deuterium into the peptides after cysteine desulfurization by running the reaction in D2 O buffer. Moreover, this method enables the clean desulfurization of peptides carrying post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation and crotonylation. The effectiveness of this method has been demonstrated by the synthesis of the cyclic peptides dichotomin C and E and synthetic proteins, including ubiquitin, γ-synuclein, and histone H2A. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Radiation-induced desulfurization of Arabian crude oil and straight-run diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basfar, A.A., E-mail: [Radiation Technology Center, Atomic Energy Research Institute, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia); Mohamed, K.A. [Radiation Technology Center, Atomic Energy Research Institute, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia)


    Radiation-induced desulfurization of four types of Arabian crude oils (heavy, medium, light and extra light) and straight-run diesel (SRD) was investigated over the range of 10-200 kGy. Results show that gamma radiation processing at absorbed doses up to 200 kGy without further treatment is not sufficient for desulfurization. However, the combination of gamma-irradiation with other physical/chemical processes (i.e. L/L extraction, adsorption and oxidation) may be capable of removing considerable levels of sulfur compounds in the investigated products. Currently, this approach of combined radiation/physical/chemical processes is under investigation. The findings of these attempts will be reported in the future. - Highlights: > Irradiation effect on desulfurization in Arabian crude oils and straight-run diesel was investigated. > No noticeable changes in sulfur content after irradiation up to 200 kGy were observed. > Stricter regulations on sulfur levels in fuels motivate search for improved desulfurization processes. > Limited investigations on radiation-induced desulfurization of oil products are conducted.

  17. Deep desulfurization of full range and low boiling diesel streams from Kuwait Lower Fars heavy crude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marafi, A.; Al-Hindi, A.; Stanislaus, A. [Petroleum and Refining Department, Petroleum Research and Studies Center, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (Kuwait)


    Information on feed quality and, in particular, various types of sulfur compounds present in the diesel (gas oil) fractions produced form different crudes and their HDS reactivities under different operating conditions are of a great value for the optimization and economics of the deep HDS process. This paper deals with deep desulfurization of gas oils obtained from a new heavy Kuwaiti crude, namely, Lower Fars (LF) which will be processed in the future at Kuwaiti refineries. Comparative studies were carried out to examine the extent of deep HDS, and the quality of diesel product using two gas oil feeds with different boiling ranges. The results revealed that the full range diesel feed stream produced from the LF crude was very difficult to desulfurize due to its low quality caused by high aromatics content (low feed saturation) together with the presence of high concentrations of organic nitrogen compounds and sterically hindered alkyl DBTs. The low-boiling range gas oil showed better desulfurization compared with the full range gas oil, however, deep desulfurization to 50 ppm sulfur was not achieved even at a temperature as high as 380 C for both feeds. The desulfurized diesel product from the low-boiling gas-oil feed was better in quality with respect to the S, N and PNA contents and cetane index than the full-range gas-oil feed. (author)

  18. [Difference in acclimation of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans by various substrates and its effect on coal desulfurization efficiency]. (United States)

    Zhang, De-Wei; Zhou, Li-Xiang; Yang, Xin-Ping; Wang, Shi-Mei


    In this study, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans LX5 was cultured in 9K medium with pyrite and ferrous sulfate as the substrates. Results showed that the number of A. ferrooxidans LX5 acclimated by pyrite for 20 d was 3.0 x 10(7) cell/mL in the liquid, and the oxidation activity to pyrite was stronger. A. ferrooxidans LX5 cultured for 48 h was 1.0 x 10(8) cell/mL in medium with FeSO4. Extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) produced from A. ferrooxidans LX5 acclimated by pyrite was 2 395 microg/(10(10) cells) three times as much as that cultured with FeSO4. A high-sulfur coal desulfurization experiment were carried out with A. ferrooxidans LX5 domesticated respectively in medium with ferrous sulfate and pyrite. The results showed that the coal desulfurization rate was up to 72.4% after bioleaching for 13 d by A. ferrooxidans LX5 acclimated by pyrite, at the same time, the desulfurization rate was only 47.2% with A. ferrooxidans LX5 cultured with ferrous sulfate and reached 65.8% in 20 d. Therefore, the desulfurization efficiency can be improved of coal and shorten the desulfurization time when A. ferrooxidans LX5 acclimated with pyrite as the substrate.

  19. Multi-objective optimization of oxidative desulfurization in a sono-photochemical airlift reactor. (United States)

    Behin, Jamshid; Farhadian, Negin


    Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize ultrasound/ultraviolet-assisted oxidative desulfurization in an airlift reactor. Ultrasonic waves were incorporated in a novel-geometry reactor to investigate the synergistic effects of sono-chemistry and enhanced gas-liquid mass transfer. Non-hydrotreated kerosene containing sulfur and aromatic compounds was chosen as a case study. Experimental runs were conducted based on a face-centered central composite design and analyzed using RSM. The effects of two categorical factors, i.e., ultrasound and ultraviolet irradiation and two numerical factors, i.e., superficial gas velocity and oxidation time were investigated on two responses, i.e., desulfurization and de-aromatization yields. Two-factor interaction (2FI) polynomial model was developed for the responses and the desirability function associate with overlay graphs was applied to find optimum conditions. The results showed enhancement in desulfurization ability corresponds to more reduction in aromatic content of kerosene in each combination. Based on desirability approach and certain criteria considered for desulfurization/de-aromatization, the optimal desulfurization and de-aromatization yields of 91.7% and 48% were obtained in US/UV/O3/H2O2 combination, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Roles of Electrolyte Characterization on Bauxite Electrolysis Desulfurization with Regeneration and Recycling (United States)

    Gong, Xuzhong; Wang, Zhi; Zhuang, Siyuan; Wang, Dong; Wang, Yuhua; Wang, Mingyong


    The recycling of NaCl used as supporting electrolyte for bauxite electrolysis was carried out in this study. The electrolyte was regenerated by adding anhydrous CaCl2 into the solution after filtration, and effects of electrolyte characterization on bauxite electrolysis were examined by observing the change in desulfurization ratio and cell voltage. The results indicated that the desulfurization ratio increased with increasing recycling times of electrolyte. In the meantime, the increase in recycling times has led to the decrease in pH value as well as the increase in Fe ion concentration in the electrolyte, which were the main reasons for the increase in the desulfurization ratio with increasing recycling of electrolyte. The pH value of electrolyte after second electrolysis was lower than 1.5, and the desulfurization ratio increased obviously due to the increase in Fe3+ concentration and suppression of jarosite formation. The increase in Ca2+ concentration did not apparently change desulfurization ratio and anode surface activity. However, with Ca2+ addition, the cathode surface was covered by CaSO4·nH2O, thus resulting in the increase of cell voltage.

  1. Simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification by microwave reactor with ammonium bicarbonate and zeolite. (United States)

    Wei, Zaishan; Lin, Zhehang; Niu, Hejingying; He, Haiming; Ji, Yongfeng


    Microwave reactor with ammonium bicarbonate (NH(4)HCO(3)) and zeolite was set up to study the simultaneous removal of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) from flue gas. The results showed that the microwave reactor filled with NH(4)HCO(3) and zeolite could reduce SO(2) to sulfur with the best desulfurization efficiency of 99.1% and reduce NO(x) to nitrogen with the best NO(x) purifying efficiency of 86.5%. Microwave desulfurization and denitrification effect of the experiment using ammonium bicarbonate and zeolite together is much higher than that using ammonium bicarbonate or zeolite only. NO(x) concentration has little effect on denitrification but has no influence on desulfurization, SO(2) concentration has no effect on denitrification. The optimal microwave power and empty bed residence time (EBRT) on simultaneous desulfurization and dentrification are 211-280 W and 0.315 s, respectively. The mechanism for microwave reduced desulfurization and denitrification can be described as the microwave-induced catalytic reduction reaction between SO(2), NO(x) and ammonium bicarbonate with zeolite being the catalyst and microwave absorbent.

  2. Use of Green Mussel Shell as a Desulfurizer in the Blending of Low Rank Coal-Biomass Briquette Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahidin Mahidin


    Full Text Available Calcium oxide-based material is available abundantly and naturally. A potential resource of that material comes from marine mollusk shell such as clams, scallops, mussels, oysters, winkles and nerites. The CaO-based material has exhibited a good performance as the desulfurizer oradsorbent in coal combustion in order to reduce SO2 emission. In this study, pulverized green mussel shell, without calcination, was utilized as the desulfurizer in the briquette produced from a mixture of low rank coal and palm kernel shell (PKS, also known as bio-briquette. The ratio ofcoal to PKS in the briquette was 90:10 (wt/wt. The influence of green mussel shell contents and combustion temperature were examined to prove the possible use of that materialas a desulfurizer. The ratio of Ca to S (Ca = calcium content in desulfurizer; S = sulfur content in briquette werefixed at 1:1, 1.25:1, 1.5:1, 1.75:1, and 2:1 (mole/mole. The burning (or desulfurization temperature range was 300-500 °C; the reaction time was 720 seconds and the air flow rate was 1.2 L/min. The results showed that green mussel shell can be introduced as a desulfurizer in coal briquette or bio-briquette combustions. The desulfurization process using that desulfurizer exhibited the first order reaction and the highest average efficiency of 84.5%.

  3. Enhanced adsorptive desulfurization with flexible metal-organic frameworks in the presence of diethyl ether and water. (United States)

    Khan, Nazmul Abedin; Yoon, Ji Woong; Chang, Jong-San; Jhung, Sung Hwa


    Several metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were employed in adsorptive desulfurization in the presence of oxygen-containing compounds (OCCs). Unlike conventional MOFs and activated carbon, flexible MOFs with a MIL-53 topology showed remarkable performances for the desulfurization in the presence of OCCs.

  4. Nektar++: An open-source spectral/ hp element framework (United States)

    Cantwell, C. D.; Moxey, D.; Comerford, A.; Bolis, A.; Rocco, G.; Mengaldo, G.; De Grazia, D.; Yakovlev, S.; Lombard, J.-E.; Ekelschot, D.; Jordi, B.; Xu, H.; Mohamied, Y.; Eskilsson, C.; Nelson, B.; Vos, P.; Biotto, C.; Kirby, R. M.; Sherwin, S. J.


    Nektar++ is an open-source software framework designed to support the development of high-performance scalable solvers for partial differential equations using the spectral/ hp element method. High-order methods are gaining prominence in several engineering and biomedical applications due to their improved accuracy over low-order techniques at reduced computational cost for a given number of degrees of freedom. However, their proliferation is often limited by their complexity, which makes these methods challenging to implement and use. Nektar++ is an initiative to overcome this limitation by encapsulating the mathematical complexities of the underlying method within an efficient C++ framework, making the techniques more accessible to the broader scientific and industrial communities. The software supports a variety of discretisation techniques and implementation strategies, supporting methods research as well as application-focused computation, and the multi-layered structure of the framework allows the user to embrace as much or as little of the complexity as they need. The libraries capture the mathematical constructs of spectral/ hp element methods, while the associated collection of pre-written PDE solvers provides out-of-the-box application-level functionality and a template for users who wish to develop solutions for addressing questions in their own scientific domains.

  5. HELOKA-HP thermal-hydraulic model validation and calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xue Zhou; Ghidersa, Bradut-Eugen; Badea, Aurelian Florin


    Highlights: • The electrical heater in HELOKA-HP has been modeled with RELAP5-3D using experimental data as input. • The model has been validated using novel techniques for assimilating experimental data and the representative model parameters with BEST-EST. • The methodology is successfully used for reducing the model uncertainties and provides a quantitative measure of the consistency between the experimental data and the model. - Abstract: The Helium Loop Karlsruhe High Pressure (HELOKA-HP) is an experimental facility for the testing of various helium-cooled components at high temperature (500 °C) and high pressure (8 MPa) for nuclear fusion applications. For modeling the loop thermal dynamics, a thermal-hydraulic model has been created using the system code RELAP5-3D. Recently, new experimental data covering the behavior of the loop components under relevant operational conditions have been made available giving the possibility of validating and calibrating the existing models in order to reduce the uncertainties of the simulated responses. This paper presents an example where such process has been applied for the HELOKA electrical heater model. Using novel techniques for assimilating experimental data, implemented in the computational module BEST-EST, the representative parameters of the model have been calibrated.

  6. Shigella flexneri targets the HP1γ subcode through the phosphothreonine lyase OspF. (United States)

    Harouz, Habiba; Rachez, Christophe; Meijer, Benoit M; Marteyn, Benoit; Donnadieu, Françoise; Cammas, Florence; Muchardt, Christian; Sansonetti, Philippe; Arbibe, Laurence


    HP1 proteins are transcriptional regulators that, like histones, are targets for post-translational modifications defining an HP1-mediated subcode. HP1γ has multiple phosphorylation sites, including serine 83 (S83) that marks it to sites of active transcription. In a guinea pig model for Shigella enterocolitis, we observed that the defective type III secretion mxiD Shigella flexneri strain caused more HP1γ phosphorylation in the colon than the wild-type strain. Shigella interferes with HP1 phosphorylation by injecting the phospholyase OspF. This effector interacts with HP1γ and alters its phosphorylation at S83 by inactivating ERK and consequently MSK1, a downstream kinase. MSK1 that here arises as a novel HP1γ kinase, phosphorylates HP1γ at S83 in the context of an MSK1-HP1γ complex, and thereby favors its accumulation on its target genes. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis reveals that this mechanism is linked to up-regulation of proliferative gene and fine-tuning of immune gene expression. Thus, in addition to histones, bacteria control host transcription by modulating the activity of HP1 proteins, with potential implications in transcriptional reprogramming at the mucosal barrier. © 2014 The Authors.

  7. Optimisation of Experimental Conditions for Ex-Bed Desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, J. M.; Ruiz, E.; Otero, J.


    This report compiles the results of the work conducted by CIEMAT for Task 6.3 Sulfur and Nitrogen Compounds Abatement of the FLEXGAS project Near Zero Emission Advanced Fluidized Bed Gasification, which has been carried out with financial support from the Research Fund for Coal and Steel, RFCR-CT-2007-00005. The assignment of CIEMAT in Task 6.3 has dealt with the experimental study of ex-bed desulfurization at high temperature and high pressure. Based on a review of the state of the art, a zinc oxide sorbent was chosen as a promising candidate for bulk sulfur removal in highly reducing gases such as those from coal and waste oxygen gasification or for a polishing stage in low sulfur content gases, which is typically the case in biomass gasification gases. The work accomplished has included the study of the sulfidation and regeneration stages in order to determine successful operating conditions and the assessment of the long term performance of the sorbent over subsequent sulfidation and regeneration cycles. (Author) 36 refs.

  8. Characterization of flue gas desulfurization particulates in equalization basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meg M. Iannacone; James W. Castle; John H. Rodgers Jr. [Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States). Department of Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences


    Particulates in pilot-scale flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber water were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy, and size analysis based on Stokes' Law after settling in an equalization basin of a pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment system. Three sources were interpreted for specific particle types identified in samples analyzed: FGD wet scrubbing processes, coal combustion byproducts, and uncombusted material from coal. Gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O) from the FGD scrubbing process comprises 95% of the particulates. Iron oxide particles and cenospheres in the particulate samples are interpreted as coal combustion products. Particles interpreted as originating from unburned coal contain carbon and metals including Zn and Fe. The most abundant elements in the particulates analyzed are O, C, Ca, S, Fe, and Si, with maximum mean content of individual elements ranging from 13% to 70% among particle types. Less abundant elements include Al, K, Mg, Ti, and Mo, with maximum mean content from 0.1% to 3.8%. 41 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Microbial communities associated with wet flue gas desulfurization systems (United States)

    Brown, Bryan P.; Brown, Shannon R.; Senko, John M.


    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are employed to remove SOx gasses that are produced by the combustion of coal for electric power generation, and consequently limit acid rain associated with these activities. Wet FGDs represent a physicochemically extreme environment due to the high operating temperatures and total dissolved solids (TDS) of fluids in the interior of the FGD units. Despite the potential importance of microbial activities in the performance and operation of FGD systems, the microbial communities associated with them have not been evaluated. Microbial communities associated with distinct process points of FGD systems at several coal-fired electricity generation facilities were evaluated using culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Due to the high solute concentrations and temperatures in the FGD absorber units, culturable halothermophilic/tolerant bacteria were more abundant in samples collected from within the absorber units than in samples collected from the makeup waters that are used to replenish fluids inside the absorber units. Evaluation of bacterial 16S rRNA genes recovered from scale deposits on the walls of absorber units revealed that the microbial communities associated with these deposits are primarily composed of thermophilic bacterial lineages. These findings suggest that unique microbial communities develop in FGD systems in response to physicochemical characteristics of the different process points within the systems. The activities of the thermophilic microbial communities that develop within scale deposits could play a role in the corrosion of steel structures in FGD systems. PMID:23226147

  10. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.


    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  11. Enhancement of Oxidative Desulfurization Performance over UiO-66(Zr) by Titanium Ion Exchange. (United States)

    Ye, Gan; Qi, Hui; Li, Xiaolin; Leng, Kunyue; Sun, Yinyong; Xu, Wei


    Oxidative desulfurization is considered to be one of the most promising methods for producing ultra-low-sulfur fuels because it can effectively remove refractory sulfur-containing aromatic compounds under mild conditions. In this work, the oxidative desulfurization performance over UiO-66(Zr) is greatly enhanced by Ti ion exchange. This strategy is not only efficient for UiO-66(Zr) with crystal defects but also for UiO-66(Zr) with high crystallinity. In particular, the performance of UiO-66(Zr) with high crystallinity in the oxidative desulfurization of dibenzothiophene can be improved more than 11-fold, which can be mainly attributed to the introduction of active Ti sites. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Theoretical study of the catalytic desulfurization mechanism of thiiren and its methyl derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.O. Olatunji


    Full Text Available The desulfurization process of compounds implicates two steps. The first step is the adsorption process on the catalytic site and the second, the breaking of the carbon-heteroatom bond leading to the heteroatom elimination. The adsorption process of thiiren have been studied and published in previous works. The results obtained on MoS3H3+ and MoS4H4 have shown that the adsorption of this molecule was very good on the two and three anionic vacancies sites based on molybdenum. In the present study, we have carried out the adsorption according to vertical and horizontal geometries of dihydrothiiren, methylthiiren, and methyldihydrothiiren, and the desulfurization of all these molecules including thiiren molecule. The results obtained have shown that, the desulfurization of thiiren and its methyl derivate pass through the hydrogenation of the aromatic ring on the two types of catalytic sites.

  13. Evaluation of sulfur-reducing microorganisms for organic desulfurization. [Pyrococcus furiosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, K.W.


    Because of substantial portion of the sulfur in Illinois coal is organic, microbial desulfurization of sulfidic and thiophenic functionalities could hold great potential for completing pyritic sulfur removal. We are testing the hypothesis that organic sulfur can be reductively removed as H{sub 2}S through the activities of anaerobic microorganisms. Our objectives for this year include the following: (1) To obtain cultures that will reductively desulfurize thiophenic model compounds. In addition to crude oil enrichments begun last year, we sampled municipal sewage sludge. (2) To continue to work toward optimizing the activity of the DBDS-reducing cultures obtained during the previous year. (3) To expand coal desulfurization work to include other coals including Illinois Basin Coal 101 and a North Dakota lignite, which might be more susceptible to the dibenzyldisulfide reducing cultures due to its lower rank. (4) To address the problem of sulfide sorption, by investigating the sorption capacity of coals in addition to Illinois Basin Coal 108.

  14. Analysis of the human HP1 interactome reveals novel binding partners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosnoblet, Claire; Vandamme, Julien; Völkel, Pamela


    Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) has first been described in Drosophila as an essential component of constitutive heterochromatin required for stable epigenetic gene silencing. Less is known about the three mammalian HP1 isotypes CBX1, CBX3 and CBX5. Here, we applied a tandem affinity purification...... approach coupled with tandem mass spectrometry methodologies in order to identify interacting partners of the mammalian HP1 isotypes. Our analysis identified with high confidence about 30-40 proteins co-eluted with CBX1 and CBX3, and around 10 with CBX5 including a number of novel HP1-binding partners. Our...... data also suggest that HP1 family members are mainly associated with a single partner or within small protein complexes composed of limited numbers of components. Finally, we showed that slight binding preferences might exist between HP1 family members....

  15. Biochemical mechanisms for the desulfurization of coal-relevant organic sulfur compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afferden, M. van; Tappe, D.; Beyer, M.; Trueper, H.G.; Klein, J. (DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany))


    Two microbial strains ([ital Brevibacterium] sp. DO, [ital Pseudomonas aeruginosa] OS1) were isolated for their ability to desulfurize dibenzothiophene (DBT) and benzyl methyl sulfide (BMS). Enrichment was achieved by a sulfur-selective screening system using the model compounds as the sole source of sulfur for bacterial growth. [ital Brevibacterium] sp. DO utilizes DBT as a sole source of sulfur, carbon and energy for growth, whereas [ital Pseudomonas aeruginosa] OS1 metabolizes BMS to only a small extent under sulfur-selective conditions. Investigations of the regulation of enzymes involved in the desulfurization of coal-relevant sulfur compounds indicate that in nature at least two mechanisms exist: 'carbon regulation' and 'sulfur regulation'. The biochemical mechanisms leading to the desulfurization of BMS and DBT are similar. The sulfur atom of both compounds is initially oxidized to the corresponding sulfone, and cleavage of the C-S bond proceeds via the formation of a chemically unstable hemimercaptal (S-oxidized form) by oxidation of the carbon atom adjacent to the sulfur atom. These results indicate that oxidation of sulfur to its highest oxidation state may be the precondition for the oxidative cleavage of the covalent C-S bonds. By isotope-labelling experiments using [sup 18]O[sub 2], the initial enzymes were identified as sulfoxygenases that use molecular oxygen. Cleavage of the C-S bond of DBT and BMS leads to the formation of organic sulfinic acids as intermediates. With DBT the sulfinic acid is desulfurized probably by hydrolysis; this results in the formation of sulfite and benzoate. The desulfurization of BMS proceeds by sulfonic acid-oxidation. The applicability of these biochemical mechanisms to the microbial desulfurization of coal is discussed. 39 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Preparation of WO3/g-C3N4 composites and their application in oxidative desulfurization (United States)

    Zhao, Rongxiang; Li, Xiuping; Su, Jianxun; Gao, Xiaohan


    WO3/graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) composites were successfully synthesized through direct calcining of a mixture of WO3 and g-C3N4 at 400 °C for 2 h. The WO3 was prepared by calcination of phosphotungstic acid at 550 °C for 4 h, and the g-C3N4 was obtained by calcination of melamine at 520 °C for 4 h. The WO3/g-C3N4 composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Brunner-Emmett-Teller analysis (BET). The WO3/g-C3N4 composites exhibited stronger XRD peaks of WO3 and g-C3N4 than the WO3 and pure g-C3N4. In addition, two WO3 peaks at 25.7° and 26.6° emerged for the 36% -WO3/g-C3N4 composite. This finding indicated that WO3 was highly dispersed on the surface of the g-C3N4 nanosheets and interacted with the nanosheets, which resulted in the appearance of (012) and (022) planes of WO3. The WO3/g-C3N4 composite also exhibited a larger specific surface area and higher degree of crystallization than WO3 or pure g-C3N4, which resulted in high catalytic activity of the catalyst. Desulfurization experiments demonstrated that the desulfurization rate of dibenzothiophene (DBT) in model oil reached 91.2% under optimal conditions. Moreover, the activity of the catalyst was not significantly decreased after five recycles.

  17. High-resolution mapping reveals links of HP1 with active and inactive chromatin components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzo de Wit


    Full Text Available Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1 is commonly seen as a key factor of repressive heterochromatin, even though a few genes are known to require HP1-chromatin for their expression. To obtain insight into the targeting of HP1 and its interplay with other chromatin components, we have mapped HP1-binding sites on Chromosomes 2 and 4 in Drosophila Kc cells using high-density oligonucleotide arrays and the DNA adenine methyltransferase identification (DamID technique. The resulting high-resolution maps show that HP1 forms large domains in pericentric regions, but is targeted to single genes on chromosome arms. Intriguingly, HP1 shows a striking preference for exon-dense genes on chromosome arms. Furthermore, HP1 binds along entire transcription units, except for 5' regions. Comparison with expression data shows that most of these genes are actively transcribed. HP1 target genes are also marked by the histone variant H3.3 and dimethylated histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4me2, which are both typical of active chromatin. Interestingly, H3.3 deposition, which is usually observed along entire transcription units, is limited to the 5' ends of HP1-bound genes. Thus, H3.3 and HP1 are mutually exclusive marks on active chromatin. Additionally, we observed that HP1-chromatin and Polycomb-chromatin are nonoverlapping, but often closely juxtaposed, suggesting an interplay between both types of chromatin. These results demonstrate that HP1-chromatin is transcriptionally active and has extensive links with several other chromatin components.

  18. Basic tests of in-furnace desulfurization in a circulating fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujima, Y.; Ichimura, S.; Ohshima, K.


    This paper reports a study of the relation between lime reactivity and the desulfurization efficiency achieved in a circulating fluidized bed equipped with lime injection. Theoretical calculations were made of the reaction between Ca and SO/sub 2/, based on the assumption that this reaction takes place in a dilute zone. The required reaction time for Ca particles was found to coincide closely with the residence time of particles in a dilute bed. The authors give an equation relating percentage desulfurization with the Ca particle circulation rate. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Application of Pt/CdS for the Photocatalytic Flue Gas Desulfurization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiulan Song


    Full Text Available A photocatalytic flue gas desulfurization technology was designed to control emissions of SO2 from the combustion of fossil fuels. With the photocatalytic technology, we cannot only achieve the purpose of solving the problem of SO2 emissions but also realize the desire of hydrogen production from water. CdS loaded with Pt were selected as the model photocatalyst for the photocatalytic flue gas desulfurization. The factors influencing the rate of hydrogen production and ammonia sulfite solution oxidation were detected.

  20. Effect of Slag Chemistry on the Desulfurization Kinetics in Secondary Refining Processes (United States)

    Kang, Jin Gyu; Shin, Jae Hong; Chung, Yongsug; Park, Joo Hyun


    Desulfurization behavior was investigated based on a wide slag composition and working temperature range. Moreover, the rate-controlling step (RCS) for desulfurization with regard to the ladle-refining conditions and the transition of the RCS by changing the slag composition was systematically discussed. The desulfurization ratio reached an equilibrium value within approximately 15 minutes irrespective of the CaO/Al2O3 (=C/A = 1.3 to 1.9) and CaO/SiO2 (=C/S = 3.8 to 6.3) ratios. However, the desulfurization behavior of less basic slags (C/A = 1.1 or C/S = 1.9) exhibited a relatively sluggish [S]-decreasing rate as a function of time. The equilibrium S partition ratio increased with an increase in slag basicity (C/A and C/S ratio), not only due to an increase in sulfide capacity but also due to a decrease in oxygen activity in the molten steel. There was a good correlation between the calculated and measured S partition ratios at various slag compositions. However, the measured S partition ratio increased by adding 5 pct CaF2, followed by a constant value. Multiphase slag exhibited a relatively slow desulfurization rate compared to that of fully liquid slag, possibly due to a decrease in the effective liquid slag volume, interfacial reaction area, and a relatively slow slag initial melting rate due to a high melting point. The activation energy of the desulfurization process was estimated to be 58.7 kJ/mol, from which it was proposed that the desulfurization reaction of molten steel via CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO-CaF2 ladle slag was generally controlled by the mass transfer of sulfur in the metal phase. However, there was a transitional period associated with the rate-controlling mechanism due to a change in the physicochemical properties of the slag. For slag with a viscosity greater than about 1.1 dPa·s and an equilibrium S partition ratio lower than about 400, the overall mass-transfer coefficient was affected by the slag properties. Hence, it was theoretically and

  1. Performance of a Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Pilot Plant under Oxy-Fuel Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Brun; Fogh, Folmer; Knudsen, Niels Ole


    Oxy-fuel firing is a promising technology that should enable the capture and storage of anthropogenic CO2 emissions from large stationary sources such as power plants and heavy industry. However, this new technology has a high energy demand for air separation and CO2 compression and storage...... desulfurization (FGD) process under operating conditions corresponding to oxy-fuel firing. The most important output parameters were the overall degree of desulfurization and the residual limestone concentration in the gypsum slurry. Pilot-scale experiments quantified that the introduction of a flue gas with 90...

  2. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) demonstration project: Volume 2, Project performance and economics. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The project objective is to demonstrate removal of 90--95% or more of the SO{sub 2} at approximately one-half the cost of conventional scrubbing technology; and to demonstrate significant reduction of space requirements. In this project, Pure Air has built a single SO{sub 2} absorber for a 528-MWe power plant. The absorber performs three functions in a single vessel: prequencher, absorber, and oxidation of sludge to gypsum. Additionally, the absorber is of a co- current design, in which the flue gas and scrubbing slurry move in the same direction and at a relatively high velocity compared to conventional scrubbers. These features all combine to yield a state- of-the-art SO{sub 2} absorber that is more compact and less expensive than conventional scrubbers. The project incorporated a number of technical features including the injection of pulverized limestone directly into the absorber, a device called an air rotary sparger located within the base of the absorber, and a novel wastewater evaporation system. The air rotary sparger combines the functions of agitation and air distribution into one piece of equipment to facilitate the oxidation of calcium sulfite to gypsum. Additionally, wastewater treatment is being demonstrated to minimize water disposal problems inherent in many high-chloride coals. Bituminous coals primarily from the Indiana, Illinois coal basin containing 2--4.5% sulfur were tested during the demonstration. The Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) process has demonstrated removal of 95% or more of the SO{sub 2} while providing a commercial gypsum by-product in lieu of solid waste. A portion of the commercial gypsum is being agglomerated into a product known as PowerChip{reg_sign} gypsum which exhibits improved physical properties, easier flowability and more user friendly handling characteristics to enhance its transportation and marketability to gypsum end-users.

  3. HP Memristor mathematical model for periodic signals and DC

    KAUST Repository

    Radwan, Ahmed G.


    In this paper mathematical models of the HP Memristor for DC and periodic signal inputs are provided. The need for a rigid model for the Memristor using conventional current and voltage quantities is essential for the development of many promising Memristors\\' applications. Unlike the previous works, which focuses on the sinusoidal input waveform, we derived rules for any periodic signals in general in terms of voltage and current. Square and triangle waveforms are studied explicitly, extending the formulas for any general square wave. The limiting conditions for saturation are also provided in case of either DC or periodic signals. The derived equations are compared to the SPICE model of the Memristor showing a perfect match.

  4. A nonlinear HP-type complementary resistive switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul K. Radtke


    Full Text Available Resistive Switching (RS is the change in resistance of a dielectric under the influence of an external current or electric field. This change is non-volatile, and the basis of both the memristor and resistive random access memory. In the latter, high integration densities favor the anti-serial combination of two RS-elements to a single cell, termed the complementary resistive switch (CRS. Motivated by the irregular shape of the filament protruding into the device, we suggest a nonlinearity in the resistance-interpolation function, characterized by a single parameter p. Thereby the original HP-memristor is expanded upon. We numerically simulate and analytically solve this model. Further, the nonlinearity allows for its application to the CRS.

  5. Catalytic oxidative desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbon fuels using air (United States)

    Sundararaman, Ramanathan

    Conventional approaches to oxidative desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbons involve use of high-purity, expensive water soluble peroxide for oxidation of sulfur compounds followed by post-treatment for removal of oxidized sulfones by extraction. Both are associated with higher cost due to handling, storage of oxidants and yield loss with extraction and water separation, making the whole process more expensive. This thesis explores an oxidative desulfurization process using air as an oxidant followed by catalytic decomposition of sulfones thereby eliminating the aforementioned issues. Oxidation of sulfur compounds was realized by a two step process in which peroxides were first generated in-situ by catalytic air oxidation, followed by catalytic oxidation of S compounds using the peroxides generated in-situ completing the two step approach. By this technique it was feasible to oxidize over 90% of sulfur compounds present in real jet (520 ppmw S) and diesel (41 ppmw S) fuels. Screening of bulk and supported CuO based catalysts for peroxide generation using model aromatic compound representing diesel fuel showed that bulk CuO catalyst was more effective in producing peroxides with high yield and selectivity. Testing of three real diesel fuels obtained from different sources for air oxidation over bulk CuO catalyst showed different level of effectiveness for generating peroxides in-situ which was consistent with air oxidation of representative model aromatic compounds. Peroxides generated in-situ was then used as an oxidant to oxidize sulfur compounds present in the fuel over MoO3/SiO2 catalyst. 81% selectivity of peroxides for oxidation of sulfur compounds was observed on MoO3/SiO2 catalyst at 40 °C and under similar conditions MoO3/Al2O3 gave only 41% selectivity. This difference in selectivity might be related to the difference in the nature of active sites of MoO3 on SiO2 and Al2O 3 supports as suggested by H2-TPR and XRD analyses. Testing of supported and bulk Mg

  6. Adsorptive desulfurization and denitrogenation using metal-organic frameworks. (United States)

    Ahmed, Imteaz; Jhung, Sung Hwa


    With the increasing worldwide demand for energy, utilization of fossil fuels is increasing proportionally. Additionally, new and unconventional energy sources are also being utilized at an increasing rate day-by-day. These sources, along with some industrial processes, result in the exposal of several sulfur- and nitrogen-containing compounds (SCCs and NCCs, respectively) to the environment, and the exposure is one of the greatest environmental threats in the recent years. Although, several methods were established for the removal of these pollutants during the last few decades, recent advancements in adsorptive desulfurization and denitrogenation (ADS and ADN, respectively) with metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) make this the most promising and remarkable method. Therefore, many research groups are currently involved with ADS and ADN with MOFs, and the results are improving gradually by modifying the MOF adsorbents according to several specific adsorption mechanisms. In this review, ADS and ADN studies are thoroughly discussed for both liquid-phase and gas-phase adsorption. The MOF modification procedures, which are important for improved adsorption, are also described. To improve the knowledge among the scientific community, it is very important to understand the detailed chemistry and mechanism involved in a chemical process, which also creates the possibility and pathway for further developments in research and applications. Therefore, the mechanisms related to the adsorption procedures are also discussed in detail. From this review, it can be expected that the scientific community will obtain an understanding of the current state of ADS and ADN, their importance, and some encouragement and insight to take the research knowledge base to a higher level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Kinetic behaviour of iron oxide sorbent in hot gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y.G. Pan; J.F. Perales; E. Velo; L. Puigjaner [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain). Department of Chemical Engineering


    Although a number of reports on sorbents containing ZnO for H{sub 2}S removal from coal-derived gases can be found in the literature, it is shown in our study that a special sorbent containing Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}FeO (SFO) with minor promoters (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, K{sub 2}O, and CaO) as the main active species is more attractive for both sulfidation and regeneration stages, also under economic considerations. This paper presents the kinetic behaviour of SFO in a hot gas desulfurization process using a thermogravimetric analysis under isothermal condition in the operating range between 500 and 800{sup o}C. The gas stream was N{sub 2} with a 2% wt of H{sub 2}S. Experiences carried out on sorbent sulfidation with SFO (particle sizes in the range of 0.042-0.12 mm) indicate that the sorbent sulfidation capacity sharply increases with temperature in the range of 500-600{sup o}C. It is also shown that the sample weight reaches its maximum absorption capacity, near saturation, at 600{sup o}C so that it makes no sense to increase the sulfidation temperature from this point. To make a comparison between SFO and a zinc titanate based sorbent, a set of sulfidation tests was carried out at 600{sup o}C during 7200 s using the same sieve range for both sorbents between 42 and 90 m. Results show that the sulfidation capacity of SFO is 1.9 times higher than that of zinc titanate. 11 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Through a cooperative agreement with DOE, the Research and Development Department of CONSOL Inc. (CONSOL R and D) is teaming with SynAggs, Inc. and Duquesne Light to design, construct, and operate a 500 lb/h continuous pilot plant to produce road construction aggregate from a mixture of wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge, fly ash, and other components. The proposed project is divided into six tasks: (1) Project Management; (2) Mix Design Evaluation; (3) Process Design; (4) Construction; (5) Start-Up and Operation; and (6) Reporting. In this quarter, Tasks 1 and 2 were completed. A project management plan (Task 1) was issued to DOE on October 22, 1998 . The mix design evaluation (Task 2) with Duquesne Light Elrama Station FGD sludge and Allegheny Power Hatfields Ferry Station fly ash was completed. Eight semi-continuous bench-scale tests were conducted to examine the effects of mix formulation on aggregate properties. A suitable mix formulation was identified to produce aggregates that meet specifications of the American Association of State High Transport Officials (AASHTO) as Class A aggregate for use in highway construction. The mix formulation was used in designing the flow sheet of the pilot plant. The process design (Task 3) is approximately 80% completed. Equipment was evaluated to comply with design requirements. The design for the curing vessel was completed by an outside engineering firm. All major equipment items for the pilot plant, except the curing vessel, were ordered. Pilot plant construction (Task 4) was begun in October. The Hazardous Substance Plan was issued to DOE. The Allegheny County (PA) Heat Department determined that an air emission permit is not required for operation of the pilot plant.

  9. Desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT) by a novel strain Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 isolated from diesel contaminated soil. (United States)

    Bahuguna, Ashutosh; Lily, Madhuri K; Munjal, Ashok; Singh, Ravindra N; Dangwal, Koushalya


    A new bacterial strain DMT-7 capable of selectively desulfurizing dibenzothiophene (DBT) was isolated from diesel contaminated soil. The DMT-7 was characterized and identified as Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 (NCBI GenBank Accession No. GQ496620) using 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The desulfurized product of DBT, 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2HBP), was identified and confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis respectively. The desulfurization kinetics revealed that DMT-7 started desulfurization of DBT into 2HBP after the lag phase of 24 hr, exponentially increasing the accumulation of 2HBP up to 15 days leading to approximately 60% desulfurization of the DBT. However, further growth resulted into DBT degradation. The induced culture of DMT-7 showed shorter lag phase of 6 hr and early onset of stationary phase within 10 days for desulfurization as compared to that of non-induced culture clearly indicating the inducibility of the desulfurization pathway of DMT-7. In addition, Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 also possess the ability to utilize broad range of substrates as sole source of sulfur such as benzothiophene, 3,4-benzo DBT, 4,6-dimethyl DBT, and 4,6-dibutyl DBT. Therefore, Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 could serve as model system for efficient biodesulfurization of diesel and petrol.

  10. Test of ring, eye lens and whole body dosemeters for the dose quantity Hp(3) to be used in interventional radiology (United States)

    Szumska, A.; Budzanowski, M.; Kopeć, R.


    In its statement on tissue reactions approved on 21st April 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP, 2012) reviewed its recommendation concerning the equivalent dose limit for the eye lens and reduced the dose limits for occupationally exposed persons to 20 mSv in a year, averaged over defined periods of 5 years, with no single year exceeding 50 mSv. This limit was approved and written down in the new EURATOM (European Atomic Energy Community) directive 2013/59 and in the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) BSS (Basic Safety Standard) of July 2014. For that reason, the necessity to monitor the eye lens may become more important than it was before. However, specially dedicated dosemeters for the dose quantity Hp(3) are using very rarely. Commonly use are only whole body personal dosemeters for the personal dose equivalent quantities Hp(10) worn on the trunk and ring dosemeters worn on finger to measure the quantity Hp(0.07). Therefore, in this work it was investigated whether dosemeters from routine use calibrated in terms of Hp(10) and Hp(0.07) and worn on thyroid collar and protective apron could deliver similar results like dedicated eye lens dosemeter worn close to the eyes. The results show that the best method if dedicated eye lens dosimeters is not used is to measure doses in terms of Hp(0.07) on the thyroid collar (Pearson product, r=0.85). Obtained results shows also importance of proper localization of eye lens dosimeter (close to the eye, from side of the X-ray source).

  11. Helicobacter pylori HP0425 Targets the Nucleus with DNase I-Like Activity. (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Min; Choe, Min-Ho; Asaithambi, Killivalavan; Song, Jae-Young; Lee, Yong Seok; Lee, Je Chul; Seo, Ji-Hyun; Kang, Hyung-Lyun; Lee, Kon Ho; Lee, Woo-Kon; Cho, Myung-Je; Rhee, Kwang-Ho; Youn, Hee-Shang; Baik, Seung-Chul


    Nuclear targeting of bacterial proteins has a significant impact on host cell pathology. Helicobacter pylori have many nuclear targeting proteins that translocate into the nucleus of host cells. H. pylori HP0425, annotated as hypothetical, has a nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequence, but its function has not been demonstrated. The aim of this experiment was to address the nuclear translocation of HP0425 and determine the effect of HP0425 pathology on host cells. To investigate the nuclear localization of HP0425, it was expressed in AGS and MKN-1 cells as a GFP fusion protein (pEGFP-HP0425), and its localization was analyzed by confocal microscopy. Recombinant HP0425 (rHP0425) protein was overproduced as a GST fusion protein in Escherichia coli and purified by glutathione-affinity column chromatography. Purified rHP0425 was examined for cytotoxicity and DNase activity. The pEGFP-HP0425 fluorescence was expressed in the nucleus and cytosol fraction of cells, while it was localized in the cytoplasm in the negative control. This protein exhibited DNase activity under various conditions, with the highest DNase activity in the presence of manganese. In addition, the rHP0425 protein efficiently decreased cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that HP0425 carrying a nuclear localization signal sequence translocates into the nucleus of host cells and degrades genomic DNA by DNase I-like enzymatic activity, which is a new pathogenic strategy of H. pylori in the host. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Analysis of Regolith Properties Using Seismic Signals Generated by InSight's HP3 Penetrator (United States)

    Kedar, Sharon; Andrade, Jose; Banerdt, Bruce; Delage, Pierre; Golombek, Matt; Grott, Matthias; Hudson, Troy; Kiely, Aaron; Knapmeyer, Martin; Knapmeyer-Endrun, Brigitte; Krause, Christian; Kawamura, Taichi; Lognonne, Philippe; Pike, Tom; Ruan, Youyi; Spohn, Tilman; Teanby, Nick; Tromp, Jeroen; Wookey, James


    InSight's Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure (SEIS) provides a unique and unprecedented opportunity to conduct the first geotechnical survey of the Martian soil by taking advantage of the repeated seismic signals that will be generated by the mole of the Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package (HP3). Knowledge of the elastic properties of the Martian regolith have implications to material strength and can constrain models of water content, and provide context to geological processes and history that have acted on the landing site in western Elysium Planitia. Moreover, it will help to reduce travel-time errors introduced into the analysis of seismic data due to poor knowledge of the shallow subsurface. The challenge faced by the InSight team is to overcome the limited temporal resolution of the sharp hammer signals, which have significantly higher frequency content than the SEIS 100 Hz sampling rate. Fortunately, since the mole propagates at a rate of ˜1 mm per stroke down to 5 m depth, we anticipate thousands of seismic signals, which will vary very gradually as the mole travels. Using a combination of field measurements and modeling we simulate a seismic data set that mimics the InSight HP3-SEIS scenario, and the resolution of the InSight seismometer data. We demonstrate that the direct signal, and more importantly an anticipated reflected signal from the interface between the bottom of the regolith layer and an underlying lava flow, are likely to be observed both by Insight's Very Broad Band (VBB) seismometer and Short Period (SP) seismometer. We have outlined several strategies to increase the signal temporal resolution using the multitude of hammer stroke and internal timing information to stack and interpolate multiple signals, and demonstrated that in spite of the low resolution, the key parameters—seismic velocities and regolith depth—can be retrieved with a high degree of confidence.

  13. Feasibility Study of Commercial Sorbent in Coal-derived Syngas Desulfurization Field.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chien, H.-Y.; Chyou, Y.-P.; Svoboda, Karel


    Roč. 6, č. 4 (2015), s. 236-242 ISSN 2078-0737 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC14-09692J Grant - others:MOST(TW) NSC 103-2923-E-042A-001 -MY3 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : gasification * desulfurization * sorbent Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  14. Synthesis, characterization and application of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil A. Dharaskar


    Full Text Available In the present paper the experimental data of extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [BMIM]BF4 have been presented. The data of FTIR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR have been discussed for the molecular confirmation of synthesized [BMIM]BF4. Further, the thermal properties, conductivity, solubility, and viscosity analysis of the [BMIM]BF4 were carried out. The effects of reaction time, reaction temperature, sulfur compounds, and recycling of ionic liquid without regeneration on dibenzothiophene removal of liquid fuel were presented. In extractive desulfurization process, the removal of dibenzothiophene in n-dodecane was 73.02% for mass ratio of 1:1 in 30 min at 30 °C under the mild reaction conditions. The ionic liquids could be reused four times without a significant decrease in activity. Also, the desulfurizations of real fuels, multistage extraction were presented. The data and results provided in the present paper explore the significant insights of imidazoled ILs for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuels.

  15. Extractive Deep Desulfurization of Liquid Fuels Using Lewis-Based Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil A. Dharaskar


    Full Text Available A new class of green solvents, known as ionic liquids (ILs, has recently been the subject of intensive research on the extractive desulfurization of liquid fuels because of the limitation of traditional hydrodesulfurization method. In present work, eleven Lewis acid ionic liquids were synthesized and employed as promising extractants for deep desulfurization of the liquid fuel containing dibenzothiophene (DBT to test the desulfurization efficiency. [Bmim]Cl/FeCl3 was the most promising ionic liquid and performed the best among studied ionic liquids under the same operating conditions. It can remove dibenzothiophene from the model liquid fuel in the single-stage extraction process with the maximum desulfurization efficiency of 75.6%. It was also found that [Bmim]Cl/FeCl3 may be reused without regeneration with considerable extraction efficiency of 47.3%. Huge saving on energy can be achieved if we make use of this ionic liquids behavior in process design, instead of regenerating ionic liquids after every time of extraction.

  16. Facile Fabrication of AgCl Nanoparticles and Their Application in Adsorptive Desulfurization. (United States)

    Li, Yan-Hua; Tan, Peng; Liu, Xiao-Qin; Zu, Dan-Dan; Huang, Chun-Ling; Sun, Lin-Bing


    Adsorption via π-complexation is highly promising for selective removal of aromatic sulfur from transportation fuels. Because adsorbents play a crucial role in the process of desulfurization, the development of efficient adsorbents attracts increasing attention recently. In the present study, AgCl nanoparticles were employed as π-complexation adsorbents for adsorptive desulfurization, for the first time. A facile strategy for the fabrication of AgCI nanoparticles was designed in aqueous phase with the assistance of surfactant (namely, cetyltrimethylammonium chloride). The present strategy avoids the use of cosurfactant and oil phase that is compulsory for the traditional microemulsion method. As a result, the synthetic system is greatly simplified and the synthetic controllability is improved. By adjusting the reaction temperature, both size and morphology of AgCl nanoparticles can be well controlled. We also demonstrate that the obtained AgCI nanoparticles are active in adsorptive desulfurization, and the adsorption capacity can be well correlated with the particle size of AgCl. The high accessibility of active Ag(I) sites in AgCl nanoparticles is believed to be responsible for the good adsorptive desulfurization capacity. The present study may open a way for the development of new, efficient adsorbents based on nanoparticles.


    The report documents a comparison of the actual cost retrofitting flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on Federal Republic of German (FRG) boilers to cost estimating procedures used in the U.S. to estimate the retrofit of these controls on U.S. b...


    Current methods designed to control and reduce the amount of sulfur dioxide emitted into the atmosphere from coal-fired power plants and factories rely upon the reaction between SO2 and alkaline earth compounds and are called flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. Of these met...

  19. Investigation Of A Mercury Speciation Technique For Flue Gas Desulfurization Materials (United States)

    Most of the synthetic gypsum generated from wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers is currently being used for wallboard production. Because oxidized mercury is readily captured by the wet FGD scrubber, and coal-fired power plants equipped with wet scrubbers desire to bene...

  20. Preferential desulfurization of dibenzyl sulfide by an isolated Gordonia sp. IITR100. (United States)

    Ahmad, Abrar; Chauhan, Ashok Kumar; Kushwaha, Hari Narayan; Javed, Saleem; Kumar, Ashwani


    Several organosulfur compounds are present in the crude oil, and are required to be removed before its processing into transport fuel. For this reason, biodesulfurization of thiophenic compounds has been studied extensively. However, studies on the sulfide compounds are scarce. In this paper, we describe desulfurization of a model sulfidic compound, dibenzyl sulfide (DBS) by an isolated Gordonia sp. IITR100. The reaction was accompanied with the formation of metabolites dibenzyl sulfoxide, dibenzyl sulfone and benzoic acid. Studies with recombinant E. coli revealed that enzyme DszC of this isolate metabolizes DBS into dibenzyl sulfoxide and dibenzyl sulfone, but the reaction downstream to it is mediated by some enzyme other than its DszA. In reactions where DBS and dibenzothiophene (DBT) were present together, both IITR100 and recombinant E. coli exhibited preference for the desulfurization of DBS over DBT. The newly identified capability of IITR100 for desulfurization of both thiophenic and sulfidic compounds suggests its potential use in improved desulfurization of petroleum fractions.

  1. L-proline-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) for deep catalytic oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of diesel. (United States)

    Hao, Lingwan; Wang, Meiri; Shan, Wenjuan; Deng, Changliang; Ren, Wanzhong; Shi, Zhouzhou; Lü, Hongying


    A series of L-proline-based DESs was prepared through an atom economic reaction between L-proline (L-Pro) and four different kinds of organic acids. The DESs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), H nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR), cyclic voltammogram (CV) and the Hammett method. The synthesized DESs were used for the oxidative desulfurization and the L-Pro/p-toluenesultonic acid (L-Pro/p-TsOH) system shows the highest catalytic activity that the removal of dibenzothiophene (DBT) reached 99% at 60°C in 2h, which may involve the dual activation of the L-Pro/p-TsOH. The acidity of four different L-proline-based DESs was measured and the results show that it could not simply conclude that the correlation between the acidity of DESs and desulfurization capability was positive or negative. The electrochemical measurements evidences and recycling experiment indicate a good stability performance of L-Pro/p-TsOH in desulfurization. This work will provide a novel and potential method for the deep oxidation desulfurization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A modeling and experimental study of flue gas desulfurization in a dense phase tower. (United States)

    Chang, Guanqin; Song, Cunyi; Wang, Li


    We used a dense phase tower as the reactor in a novel semi-dry flue gas desulfurization process to achieve a high desulfurization efficiency of over 95% when the Ca/S molar ratio reaches 1.3. Pilot-scale experiments were conducted for choosing the parameters of the full-scale reactor. Results show that with an increase in the flue gas flow rate the rate of the pressure drop in the dense phase tower also increases, however, the rate of the temperature drop decreases in the non-load hot gas. We chose a water flow rate of 0.6 kg/min to minimize the approach to adiabatic saturation temperature difference and maximize the desulfurization efficiency. To study the flue gas characteristics under different processing parameters, we simulated the desulfurization process in the reactor. The simulated data matched very well with the experimental data. We also found that with an increase in the Ca/S molar ratio, the differences between the simulation and experimental data tend to decrease; conversely, an increase in the flue gas flow rate increases the difference; this may be associated with the surface reactions caused by collision, coalescence and fragmentation between the dispersed phases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mercury isotope fractionation during transfer from post-desulfurized seawater to air. (United States)

    Huang, Shuyuan; Lin, Kunning; Yuan, Dongxing; Gao, Yaqin; Sun, Lumin


    Samples of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) in the post-desulfurized seawater discharged from a coal-fired power plant together with samples of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) over the post-desulfurized seawater surface were collected and analyzed to study the mercury isotope fractionation during transfer from post-desulfurized seawater to air. Experimental results showed that when DGM in the seawater was converted to GEM in the air, the δ202Hg and Δ199Hg values were changed, ranging from -2.98 to -0.04‰ and from -0.31 to 0.64‰, respectively. Aeration played a key role in accelerating the transformation of DGM to GEM, and resulted in light mercury isotopes being more likely to be enriched in the GEM. The ratio Δ199Hg/Δ201Hg was 1.626 in all samples, suggesting that mercury mass independent fractionation occurred owing to the nuclear volume effect during the transformation. In addition, mass independent fractionation of mercury even isotopes was found in the GEM above the post-desulfurized seawater surface in the aeration pool. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 75 FR 34169 - Hewlett-Packard Company, Inkjet Consumer Solutions, HP Consumer Hardware Inkjet Lab, Including... (United States)


    ... Employment and Training Administration Hewlett-Packard Company, Inkjet Consumer Solutions, HP Consumer... Alternative Trade Adjustment Assistance on October 23, 2008, applicable to all workers of Hewlett-Packard..., Washington location of Hewlett Packard Company, Inject Consumer Solutions, HP Consumer Hardware Inject Lab...

  5. Analysis of HP1α regulation in human breast cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rune; Christensen, Dennis B; Rosborg, Sanne


    immunoprecipitation analysis of the HP1α gene showed a decrease in the histone mark for transcriptional activity H3-K36 tri-methylation and RNA polymerase II in invasive breast cancer cells which correlated with a decreased abundance of basal transcription factors at the HP1α promoter. E2F transcription factors...

  6. Pulmonary haptoglobin (pHp) is part of the surfactant system in the human lung. (United States)

    Abdullah, Mahdi; Goldmann, Torsten


    Since the existence of pHp was demonstrated, it has been shown that this molecule and its receptor CD163 are regulated by different stimuli. Furthermore, a comparably fast secretion of pHp was described as well as the immuno-stimulatory effects. The intention of this study was to elucidate the role of pHp in the human lungs further. Here we show, by means of confocal microscopy and immune-electron-microscopy, a clear co-localization of pHp with surfactant protein-B in lamellar bodies of alveolar epithelial cells type II. These results are underlined by immunohistochemical stainings in differently fixed human lung tissues, which show pHp in vesicular and released form. The images of the released form resemble the intended position of surfactant in the human alveolus. pHp is secreted by Alveolar epithelial cells type II as previously shown. Moreover, pHp is co-localized with Surfactant protein-B. We conclude that the presented data shows that pHp is a native part of the surfactant system in the human lung.

  7. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP) in environmental and occupational studies--a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ase M; Mathiesen, Line; Pedersen, Marie


    -level occupational exposure to PAH it is crucial to provide knowledge on intra- and inter-individual variation in the evaluation of 1-HP. The highest contribution originates from environmental tobacco smoke, but also different country, cooking culture, and behavior influences urinary of 1-HP....

  8. Personal dosimetry in terms of HP(3): Monte Carlo and experimental studies. (United States)

    Ferrari, P; Gualdrini, G; Bedogni, R; Fantuzzi, E; Monteventi, F; Morelli, B


    Hp(3) has been defined as the operational quantity for eye lens dosimetry. Hp(3)/ka conversion coefficients were evaluated at the GSF (Germany) in a 30x30x15 cm3 4-elements ICRU slab phantom for various energies and incident angles through Monte Carlo. The ISO report 12,794 suggests to employ a PMMA water filled phantom, of the same dimensions, for dosemeter calibration in terms of Hp(3). The present paper briefly summarises the main aspects of a study carried out at ENEA-Radiation Protection Institute (Bologna, Italy) to provide practical procedures for the calibration of dosemeters in terms of Hp(3). Tabulations of a new set conversion coefficients and air kerma backscatter factors are provided as a function of energy and incident angle. The paper demonstrates that a more accurate approach to the dosimetric assessment in terms of Hp(3) could be rather simply introduced employing a reduced phantom.

  9. Experimental study on the stability of the ClHgSO3(-) in desulfurization wastewater. (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Chen, Yu; Guo, Xin; Zheng, Chu-Guang


    Wet flue gas desulfurization technologies have received much concern for their superior performance on co-controlling the acid gases and mercury. However, high concentrations of mercury-containing desulfurization wastewater, which discharge from wet flue gas desulfurization system regularly, have received researchers' attention since it might generate the risk of secondary pollution. In this paper, the species of mercuric complexes in the desulfurization wastewater was investigated. It speculated that ClHgSO3(-) might determine the residual rate of Hg(2+) in the desulfurization wastewater. Besides, the stability of ClHgSO3(-) on the condition of various wastewater features was also evaluated. The experiment revealed that the high temperature and high pH level promoted the decomposition of ClHgSO3(-). SO3(2-) could restrain the decomposition of ClHgSO3(-) gently; the Hg(2+) residual rate was determined by the new mercury complexes which compounded by Hg(2+) and SO3(2-). The decrease of SO4(2-) and increase of Ca(2+) concentrations could also stimulate the stability of ClHgSO3(-) in wastewater. Cu(2+) and Fe(2+) disturbed the stability of complexes for their catalysis and reduction activities. The study proposed that the ClHgSO3(-) probably decomposes and releases Hg(0) in two pathways. Furthermore, changes of the water's features could disturb the balance of Hg(2+)-Cl(-)-SO3(2-) systems, which might stimulate the decomposition of ClHgSO3.

  10. Spray-dry desulfurization of flue gas from heavy oil combustion. (United States)

    Scala, Fabrizio; Lancia, Amedeo; Nigro, Roberto; Volpicelli, Gennaro


    An experimental investigation on sulfur dioxide removal in a pilot-scale spray dryer from the flue gas generated by combustion of low-sulfur (S) heavy oil is reported. A limewater slurry was sprayed through an ultrasonic two-fluid atomizer in the spray-dry chamber, and the spent sorbent was collected downstream in a pulse-jet baghouse together with fly ash. Flue gas was sampled at different points to measure the desulfurization efficiency after both the spray-dry chamber and the baghouse. Parametric tests were performed to study the effect of the following variables: gas inlet temperature, difference between gas outlet temperature and adiabatic saturation temperature, lime-to-S ratio, and average size of lime particles in the slurry. Results indicated that spray drying is an effective technology for the desulfurization of low-S fuel oil flue gas, provided operating conditions are chosen carefully. In particular, the lowest gas inlet and outlet temperatures compatible with baghouse operation should be selected, as should a sufficiently high lime-to-S ratio. The attainment of a small lime particle size in the slurry is critical for obtaining a high desulfurization efficiency. A previously presented spray-dry flue gas desulfurization model was used to simulate the pilot-scale desulfurization tests, to check the ability of the model to predict the S capture data and its usefulness as a design tool, minimizing the need for pilot-scale experimentation. Comparison between model and experimental results was fairly good for the whole range of calcium/S ratios considered.

  11. Global investigations of the satellite-based Fugro OmniSTAR HP service (United States)

    Pflugmacher, Andreas; Heister, Hansbert; Heunecke, Otto


    OmniSTAR is one of the world's leading suppliers of satellite-based augmentation services for onshore and offshore GNSS applications. OmniSTAR currently offers three services: VBS, HP and XP. OmniSTAR VBS is the code-based service, suitable for sub-metre positioning accuracy. The HP and XP services provide sub-decimetre accuracy, with the HP service based on a precise differential methodology and the XP service uses precise absolute positioning. The sub-decimetre HP and XP services both have distinctive convergence behaviour, and the positioning task is essentially a time-dependent process during which the accuracy of the estimated coordinates continuously improves over time. To validate the capabilities of the OmniSTAR services, and in particular the HP (High Performance) service, globally distributed measurement campaigns were performed. The results of these investigations confirm that the HP service satisfies its high accuracy specification, but only after a sufficient initialisation phase. Two kinds of disturbances can handicap HP operation: lack of GNSS observations and outages of the augmentation signal. The most serious kind of disturbance is the former. Within a few seconds the achieved convergence level is completely lost. Outages in the reception of augmentation data merely affect the relevant period of the outage - the accuracy during the outage is degraded. Only longer interruptions lead to a loss of the HP solution. When HP convergence is lost, the HP process has to be re-initialized. If there are known points (so-called “seed points”) available, a shortened “kick-start”-initialization is possible. With the aid of seed points it only takes a few minutes to restore convergence.

  12. Assessment of the desulfurization of FCC vacuum gasoil and light cycle oil using ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octylsulfate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sefoka, Ramogohlo E; Mulopo, Jean


    ... ([BMIM][OcSO4]) for the desulfurization of the fluid catalytic cracking diesel fuels. The IL was found to be effective in the selective removal of sulfur from FCC light cycle oil than from the FCC vacuum gasoil stream...

  13. Mechanistic and chiroptical studies on the desulfurization of epidithiodioxopiperazines reveal universal retention of configuration at the bridgehead carbon atoms. (United States)

    Cherblanc, Fanny L; Lo, Ya-Pei; Herrebout, Wouter A; Bultinck, Patrick; Rzepa, Henry S; Fuchter, Matthew J


    The stereochemistry of the desulfurization products of chiral natural and synthetic 3,6-epidithiodiketopiperazines (ETPs) is specified inconsistently in the literature. Qualitative mechanisms have been put forward to explain apparently divergent stereochemical pathways, but the quantitative feasibility of such mechanistic pathways has not been assessed. We report a computational study revealing that desulfurization of ETPs should occur universally with retention of configuration. While the majority of stereochemically assigned and reassigned cases fit this model, until now desulfurization of the synthetic gliotoxin analogue shown has remained assigned as proceeding via inversion of configuration. Through detailed chiroptical studies comparing experimentally obtained optical rotation values, electronic circular dichroism spectra, and vibrational circular dichroism spectra to their computationally simulated counterparts as well as chemical derivatization studies, we have unambiguously demonstrated that contrary to its current assignment in the literature, the desulfurization of this synthetic ETP also proceeds with retention of configuration.

  14. Upper Cretaceous HP-LT metamorphism along the leading edge of the Mesozoic Bolkardag platform, southern Turkey (United States)

    Parlak, Osman; Kop, Alican; Robertson, Alastair; Karaoglan, Fatih; Neubauer, Franz; Koepke, Jürgen


    .38 Ma to 94.96±0.50 Ma (Turonian), similar to the Tavşanlı zone elsewhere. The oldest rocks unconformably overlying the HP/LT rocks are Upper Paleocene to Middle Eocene sediments. However, detrital glaucophane is present in Maastrichtian sediments which unconformably overlie the accretionary melange further NE. Taken together, the available data suggest the the meta-basic rocks and interbedded meta-carbonate rocks represent part of the northerly, leading edge of the Bolkar continental unit, which subducted at a N-dipping subduction zone during the Late Cretaceous. During the collision of the subduction trench with the passive margin, the leading edge of the Tauride microcontinent was deeply underthrust and metamorphosed under HP-LT conditions.The HP-LT rocks were exhumed by the Maastrichtian. The new evidence supports the existence of a Mesozoic basin directly north of the Bolkar continental unit, known as the Inner Tauride ocean.

  15. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Sulfur control. Topical report for Subtask 3.1, In-bed sulfur capture tests; Subtask 3.2, Electrostatic desulfurization; Subtask 3.3, Microbial desulfurization and denitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, M.J.; Abbasian, J.; Akin, C.; Lau, F.S.; Maka, A.; Mensinger, M.C.; Punwani, D.V.; Rue, D.M. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Gidaspow, D.; Gupta, R.; Wasan, D.T. [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States); Pfister, R.M.: Krieger, E.J. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)


    This topical report on ``Sulfur Control`` presents the results of work conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), and the Ohio State University (OSU) to develop three novel approaches for desulfurization that have shown good potential with coal and could be cost-effective for oil shales. These are (1) In-Bed Sulfur Capture using different sorbents (IGT), (2) Electrostatic Desulfurization (IIT), and (3) Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification (OSU and IGT). The objective of the task on In-Bed Sulfur Capture was to determine the effectiveness of different sorbents (that is, limestone, calcined limestone, dolomite, and siderite) for capturing sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) in the reactor during hydroretorting. The objective of the task on Electrostatic Desulfurization was to determine the operating conditions necessary to achieve a high degree of sulfur removal and kerogen recovery in IIT`s electrostatic separator. The objectives of the task on Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification were to (1) isolate microbial cultures and evaluate their ability to desulfurize and denitrify shale, (2) conduct laboratory-scale batch and continuous tests to improve and enhance microbial removal of these components, and (3) determine the effects of processing parameters, such as shale slurry concentration, solids settling characteristics, agitation rate, and pH on the process.

  16. Haplotype association between haptoglobin (Hp2 and Hp promoter SNP (A-61C may explain previous controversy of haptoglobin and malaria protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon E Cox


    Full Text Available Malaria is one of the strongest recent selective pressures on the human genome, as evidenced by the high levels of varying haemoglobinopathies in human populations-despite the increased risk of mortality in the homozygous states. Previously, functional polymorphisms of Hp, coded by the co-dominant alleles Hp1 and Hp2, have been variously associated with several infectious diseases, including malaria susceptibility.Risk of a clinical malarial episode over the course of a malarial transmission season was assessed using active surveillance in a cohort of Gambian children aged 10-72 months. We report for the first time that the major haplotype for the A-61C mutant allele in the promoter of haptoglobin (Hp-an acute phase protein that clears haemoglobin released from haemolysis of red cells-is associated with protection from malarial infection in older children, (children aged >or=36 months, >500 parasites/ul and temperature >37.5 degrees C; OR = 0.42; [95% CI 0.24-0.73] p = 0.002 (lr test for interaction, or=36 months, p = 0.014. Protection was also observed using two other definitions, including temperature >37.5 degrees C, dipstick positive, plus clinical judgement of malaria blinded to dipstick result (all ages, OR = 0.48, [95% CI 0.30-0.78] p = 0.003; >or=36 months, OR = 0.31, [95% CI 0.15-0.62] p = 0.001. A similar level of protection was observed for the known protective genetic variant, sickle cell trait (HbAS.We propose that previous conflicting results between Hp phenotypes/genotypes and malaria susceptibility may be explained by differing prevalence of the A-61C SNP in the populations studied, which we found to be highly associated with the Hp2 allele. We report the -61C allele to be associated with decreased Hp protein levels (independent of Hp phenotype, confirming in vitro studies. Decreased Hp expression may lead to increased oxidant stress and increased red cell turnover, and facilitate the development of acquired immunity, similar to

  17. Effect of KOH activation in the desulfurization process of activated carbon prepared by sewage sludge & corn straw. (United States)

    Zeng, Fan; Liao, Xiaofeng; Hu, Hui; Liao, Li


    Series sludge-straw based activated carbons were prepared by sewage sludge and corn straw with potassium hydroxide activation, and the desulfurization performance of activated carbons were studied. To obtain the best desulfurization performance, the optimum ratio between the raw materials and the activator was investigated. The results showed that as the mass ratio of sewage sludge, corn straw and potassium hydroxide was 3:7:2, the activated carbon obtained the best breakthrough and saturation sulfur sorption capacity, which were 12.38 and 5.74 times of sample prepared by the non-activated raw materials, respectively. The appropriate KOH could improve the microporosity and alkaline groups, meanwhile reduce the lactone groups, which were all beneficial to their desulfurization performance. The chemical adsorption process of desulfurization can be simplified to four main steps, and the main desulfurization products are elemental sulfur and sulfate. Implication Sewage sludge (SS) and corn straw (CS) both were great production, wide distribution, readily available in China. Much attention has been paid on how to deal with them effectively. Based on the environment protection idea of waste treatment with waste and resource recycling, low-cost adsorbents were prepared by them. The proposed method can be expanded to the municipal solid waste recycling programs and renewable energy plan. Thus, proceed with the study of prepared AC by SS and straw as a carbon-based dry desulfurization agent could obtain huge social, economical and environmental benefits.

  18. Preliminary assessment of Geant4 HP models and cross section libraries by reactor criticality benchmark calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Xiao-Xiao; Llamas-Jansa, Isabel; Mullet, Steven


    to reactor modelling. Before version 9.5, Geant4 HP thermal scattering model (i.e. the S(α; β) model ) supports only three bounded isotopes, namely, H in water and polyethylene, and C in graphite. Newly supported materials include D in heavy water, O and Be in beryllium oxide, H and Zr in zirconium hydride......, U and O in uranium dioxide, Al metal, Be metal, and Fe metal. The native HP cross section library G4NDL does not include data for elements with atomic number larger than 92. Therefore, transuranic elements, which have impacts for a realistic reactor, can not be simulated by the combination of the HP...

  19. File list: Oth.Lar.05.SuBRACKETLvarBRACKETR2-HP2.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Lar.05.SuBRACKETLvarBRACKETR2-HP2.AllCell dm3 TFs and others Su(var)2-HP2 Larva...e SRX287876 ...

  20. Investigation of organic desulfurization additives affecting the calcium sulfate crystals formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Lina


    Full Text Available In the study, the optimal experimental conditions for gypsum crystals formation were 323 K, 300 rpm stirring speed. The major impurities of Mg2+, Al3+ and Fe3+ were found to inhibit calcium sulfate crystals formation. Fe3+ caused the strongest inhibition, followed by Mg2+ and Al3+. The influence of desulfurization additives on the gypsum crystals formation was explored with the properties of moisture content, particle size distribution and crystal morphology. The organic desulfurization additives of adipic acid, citric acid, sodium citrate and benzoic acid were investigated. Citric acid and sodium citrate were found to improve the quality of gypsum. Moisture contents were reduced by more than 50%, gypsum particle sizes were respectively enlarged by 9.1 and 22.8%, induction time extended from 4.3 (blank to 5.3 and 7.8 min, and crystal morphology trended to be thicker.

  1. The Desulfurization of Magnetite Ore by Flotation with a Mixture of Xanthate and Dixanthogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yu


    Full Text Available The contamination of sulfur emanating from pyrrhotite in magnetite concentrates has been a problem in iron ore processing. This study utilized froth flotation to float pyrrhotite away from magnetite using collectors of xanthate and dixanthogen. It was found that xanthate or dixanthogen alone could not achieve selective separation between pyrrhotite and magnetite in flotation. A high loss of magnetite was obtained with xanthate, while a low desulfurization degree was obtained with dixanthogen. It was interesting that a high desulfurization ratio was achieved with little loss of magnetite when xanthate was mixed with dixanthogen as the collector. The synergistic effect of the mixed collector on pyrrhotite was studied by electrokinectic studies and FTIR measurements. It was found that xanthate was the anchor on pyrrhotite and determined its selectivity against magnetite, while dixanthogen associated with xanthate, enhancing its hydrophobicity. This study provides new insights into the separation of iron minerals.

  2. FBC desulfurization process using coal with low sulfur content, high oxidizing conditions and metamorphic limestones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Bragança


    Full Text Available A metamorphic limestone and a dolomite were employed as SO2 sorbents in the desulfurization of gas from coal combustion. The tests were performed in a fluidized bed reactor on a bench and pilot scale. Several parameters such as bed temperature, sorbent type, and sorbent particle size at different Ca/S molar ratios were analyzed. These parameters were evaluated for the combustion of coal with low-sulfur/high-ash content, experimental conditions of high air excess and high O2 level in fluidization air. Under these conditions, typical of furnaces, few published data can be found. In this work, a medium level of desulfurization efficiency (~60% for Ca/S = 2 was obtained.

  3. Gas-exfoliated porous monolayer boron nitride for enhanced aerobic oxidative desulfurization performance (United States)

    Wu, Yingcheng; Wu, Peiwen; Chao, Yanhong; He, Jing; Li, Hongping; Lu, Linjie; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Beibei; Li, Huaming; Zhu, Wenshuai


    Hexagonal boron nitride has been regarded to be an efficient catalyst in aerobic oxidation fields, but limited by the less-exposed active sites. In this contribution, we proposed a simple green liquid nitrogen gas exfoliation strategy for preparation of porous monolayer nanosheets (BN-1). Owing to the reduced layer numbers, decreased lateral sizes and artificially-constructed pores, increased exposure of active sites was expected, further contributed to an enhanced aerobic oxidative desulfurization (ODS) performance up to ∼98% of sulfur removal, achieving ultra-deep desulfurization. This work not only introduced an excellent catalyst for aerobic ODS, but also provided a strategy for construction of some other highly-efficient monolayer two-dimensional materials for enhanced catalytic performance.

  4. h-p adaptive finite element methods in computational fluid dynamics (United States)

    Oden, J. T.; Demkowicz, L.


    The principal ideas of h-p adaptive finite element methods for fluid dynamics problems are discussed. Applications include acoustics, compressible Euler and both compressible and incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Several numerical examples illustrate the presented concepts.

  5. Desulfurization of gas tailings in the petroleum industry; Dessulfuracao de efluentes gasosos na industria petrolifera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villegas, Edwin A.; Ribeiro, Eduardo D.L. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    A review of the main gas-stream desulfurization processes, as applied to the petroleum industry, is presented during this work. Technology in actual use for decontamination of natural gas and tail gas in oil refineries, in terms of H{sub 2} S removal, is also discussed. Main processes for oxidized-sulphur gases removal in gas tailings of this industry are described. (author). 6 figs., 2 tabs., 16 refs.

  6. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal. Second quarterly report, October 1--December 15, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquis, J.K. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). School of Medicine; Kitchell, J.P. [Holometrix, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)


    Our current efforts to develop clean coal technology emphasize the advantages of enzymatic desulfurization techniques and have specifically addressed the potential of using partially-purified extracellular microbial enzymes or commercially available enzymes. Our work is focused on the treatment of ``model`` organic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene (DBT) and ethylphenylsulfide (EPS). Furthermore, we are designing experiments to facilitate the enzymatic process by means of a hydrated organic solvent matrix.

  7. Biocatalytic desulfurization of thiophenic compounds and crude oil by newly isolated bacteria (United States)

    Mohamed, Magdy El-Said; Al-Yacoub, Zakariya H.; Vedakumar, John V.


    Microorganisms possess enormous highly specific metabolic activities, which enable them to utilize and transform nearly every known chemical class present in crude oil. In this context, one of the most studied biocatalytic processes is the biodesulfurization (BDS) of thiophenic sulfur-containing compounds such as benzothiophene (BT) and dibenzothiophene (DBT) in crude oils and refinery streams. Three newly isolated bacterial strains, which were affiliated as Rhodococcus sp. strain SA11, Stenotrophomonas sp. strain SA21, and Rhodococcus sp. strain SA31, were enriched from oil contaminated soil in the presence of DBT as the sole S source. GC-FID analysis of DBT-grown cultures showed consumption of DBT, transient formation of DBT sulfone (DBTO2) and accumulation of 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP). Molecular detection of the plasmid-borne dsz operon, which codes for the DBT desulfurization activity, revealed the presence of dszA, dszB, and dszC genes. These results point to the operation of the known 4S pathway in the BDS of DBT. The maximum consumption rate of DBT was 11 μmol/g dry cell weight (DCW)/h and the maximum formation rate of 2-HBP formation was 4 μmol/g DCW/h. Inhibition of both cell growth and DBT consumption by 2-HBP was observed for all isolates but SA11 isolate was the least affected. The isolated biocatalysts desulfurized other model DBT alkylated homologs. SA11 isolate was capable of desulfurizing BT as well. Resting cells of SA11 exhibited 10% reduction in total sulfur present in heavy crude oil and 18% reduction in total sulfur present in the hexane-soluble fraction of the heavy crude oil. The capabilities of the isolated bacteria to survive and desulfurize a wide range of S compounds present in crude oil are desirable traits for the development of a robust BDS biocatalyst to upgrade crude oils and refinery streams. PMID:25762990

  8. Study on optimum technological conditions of ore sintering flue gas desulfurization by using poor manganese (United States)

    Li, H. Y.; Li, S. E.; Long, Z. G.; Wu, F. Z.; Cui, T. M.; Zhou, X. Z.


    Orthogonal experiments were conducted to study the effect of each single factor on the desulfurization rate and leaching rate of Mn2+ to obtain improved process parameters. The results showed that the use of pyrolusite flue gas and the process method of by-product MnSO4 can not only effectively remove the sulfur in the gas, thereby controlling environmental pollution, but can also recover sulfur.

  9. The HP0256 gene product is involved in motility and cell envelope architecture of Helicobacter pylori

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Douillard, Francois P


    Abstract Background Helicobacter pylori is the causative agent for gastritis, and peptic and duodenal ulcers. The bacterium displays 5-6 polar sheathed flagella that are essential for colonisation and persistence in the gastric mucosa. The biochemistry and genetics of flagellar biogenesis in H. pylori has not been fully elucidated. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that the gene HP0256, annotated as hypothetical, was a FliJ homologue. In Salmonella, FliJ is a chaperone escort protein for FlgN and FliT, two proteins that themselves display chaperone activity for components of the hook, the rod and the filament. Results Ablation of the HP0256 gene in H. pylori significantly reduced motility. However, flagellin and hook protein synthesis was not affected in the HP0256 mutant. Transmission electron transmission microscopy revealed that the HP0256 mutant cells displayed a normal flagellum configuration, suggesting that HP0256 was not essential for assembly and polar localisation of the flagella in the cell. Interestingly, whole genome microarrays of an HP0256 mutant revealed transcriptional changes in a number of genes associated with the flagellar regulon and the cell envelope, such as outer membrane proteins and adhesins. Consistent with the array data, lack of the HP0256 gene significantly reduced adhesion and the inflammatory response in host cells. Conclusions We conclude that HP0256 is not a functional counterpart of FliJ in H. pylori. However, it is required for full motility and it is involved, possibly indirectly, in expression of outer membrane proteins and adhesins involved in pathogenesis and adhesion.

  10. Neutrophil-activating protein (HP-NAP) versus ferritin (Pfr): comparison of synthesis in Helicobacter pylori. (United States)

    Dundon, W G; Polenghi, A; Del Guidice, G; Rappuoli, R; Montecucco, C


    We recently reported that the neutrophil-activating protein (HP-NAP) of Helicobacter pylori is capable of binding iron in vitro. To more fully understand the relationship between iron and HP-NAP the synthesis of HP-NAP was compared to that of Pfr, another iron-binding protein of H. pylori. Synthesis of HP-NAP and Pfr in growing cultures of H. pylori was analysed under iron depletion and iron, copper, nickel and zinc overload. The synthesis of HP-NAP and Pfr in H. pylori was also analysed under conditions of varying pH and oxidative stress. In addition, recombinant HP-NAP and Pfr were produced in Escherichia coli to assess the contribution of the two proteins to increased survival of E. coli under heavy metal overload. Our data reveal that both HP-NAP and Pfr accumulate in the stationary phase of growth. HP-NAP synthesis is not regulated by iron depletion or overload or by the presence of copper, nickel or zinc in liquid medium and it does not confer resistance to these metals when produced in E. coli. Except for an increase in the synthesis of Pfr at pH 5.7 neither the pH or oxidative stress conditions investigated had an affect on the synthesis of either protein. An increase in Pfr synthesis was observed under iron overload and a decrease was observed under conditions of copper, nickel and zinc overload confirming previous reports. Recombinant Pfr, as well as conferring resistance to iron and copper as previously reported, also conferred resistance to zinc overload when produced in E. coli.

  11. Enhanced pervaporative desulfurization by polydimethylsiloxane membranes embedded with silver/silica core-shell microspheres. (United States)

    Cao, Ruijian; Zhang, Xiongfei; Wu, Hong; Wang, Jingtao; Liu, Xiaofei; Jiang, Zhongyi


    Pervaporative desulfurization based on membrane technology provides a promising alternative for removal of sulfur substances (as represented by thiophene) in fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) gasoline. The present study focused on the performance enhancement of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane by incorporation of core-shell structured silver/silica microspheres. A silane coupling agent, N-[3-(trimethoxysily)propyl]-ethylenediamine (TSD), was used to chelate the Ag(+) via its amino groups and attach the silver seeds onto the silica surface via condensation of its methoxyl groups. The resultant microspheres were characterized by Zeta-positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (ZetaPALS), inductively coupled plasmaoptical emission spectrophotometer (ICP), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The Ag(+)/SiO(2)-PDMS composite membranes were prepared by blending PDMS with the as-synthesized silver/silica microspheres. PALS analysis was used to correlate the apparent fractional free volume with permeation flux. The sorption selectivity towards thiophene was enhanced after incorporation of silver/silica microspheres due to the π-complexation between the silver on the microsphere surface and the thiophene molecules. The pervaporative desulfurization performance of the composite membrane was investigated using thiophene/n-octane mixture as a model gasoline. The composite membrane exhibited an optimum desulfurization performance with a permeation flux of 7.76 kg/(m(2)h) and an enrichment factor of 4.3 at the doping content of 5%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Experimental Study on Hot Metal Desulfurization Using Sintered Red Mud-Based Flux (United States)

    Li, Fengshan; Zhang, Yanling; Guo, Zhancheng


    This research presents the results of laboratory and pilot-scale tests conducted on the use of sintered red mud (RM)-based flux in the hot metal desulfurization (HMD) process. Al2O3/Na2O in RM can decrease the melting point of lime-based slag and can work as a flux in the HMD process. Good slag fluidity was observed throughout the process, and high desulfurization rates ( 80%) with a low final S content (<0.02%) were experimentally obtained when the RM:CaO ratio was between 1.2:1 and 2.4:1. The pilot-scale test results indicated that a desulfurization rate as high as 91% and a S content <0.0099% could be acquired when RM:lime = 1:1, verifying the feasibility of using sintered RM-based flux in HMD. The data obtained provide important information for promoting the large-scale application of sintered RM in steelmaking.

  13. Desulfurization of chemical waste gases and flue gases with economic utilization of air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, K.; Wischnewski, W.


    The technological state of recovery of sulfur dioxide from waste and flue gases in the GDR is discussed. Two examples of plants are presented: a pyrosulfuric acid plant in Coswig, recovering sulfur dioxide from gases by absorption with sodium hydroxide, followed by catalytic oxidation to sulfur trioxide, and a plant for waste sulfuric acid recovery from paraffin refining, where the diluted waste acid is sprayed into a furnace and recovered by an ammonium-sulfite-bisulfite solution from the combustion gas (with 4 to 10% sulfur dioxide content). Investment and operation costs as well as profits of both plants are given. Methods employed for power plant flue gas desulfurization in major industrial countries are further assessed: about 90% of these methods uses wet flue gas scrubbing with lime. In the USA flue gas from 25,000 MW of power plant capacity is desulfurized. In the USSR, a 35,000 m/sup 3//h trial plant at Severo-Donetzk is operating using lime, alkali and magnesite. At the 150 MW Dorogobush power plant in the USSR a desulfurization plant using a cyclic ammonia process is under construction.

  14. Preliminary evaluation of a process using plasma reactions to desulfurize heavy oils. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, P.W.; Miknis, F.P.


    Western Research Institute (WRI) has conducted exploratory experiments on the use of microwave-induced plasmas to desulfurize heavy oils. Batch mode experiments were conducted in a quartz reactor system using various reactive and nonreactive plasmas. In these experiments a high-sulfur asphalt was exposed to various plasmas, and the degree of conversion to distillate, gas, and solids was recorded. Products from selected experiments were analyzed to determine if the plasma exposure had resulted in a significant reduction in sulfur content. Exploratory experiments were conducted using reactive plasmas generated from hydrogen and methane and nonreactive plasmas generated from nitrogen. The effects of varying exposure duration, sample temperature, and location of the sample with respect to the plasma discharge were investigated. For comparative purposes two experiments were conducted in which the sample was heated under nitrogen with no plasma exposure. Distillates containing approximately 28% less sulfur than the feedstock represented the maximum desulfurization attained in the plasma experiments. It does not appear that plasma reactions using the simple configurations employed in this study represent a viable method for the desulfurization of heavy oils.

  15. Preparation of Ag/TiO2-zeolite adsorbents, their desulfurization performance, and benzothiophene adsorption isotherms (United States)

    Song, Hua; Yang, Gang; Song, Hua-Lin; Wang, Deng; Wang, Xue-Qin


    A series of Ag/TiO2-NaY (TY) composite adsorbents were successfully prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, BET, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. The effects of TiO2 and Ag contents on the structure and desulfurization performance of NaY zeolite were studied. The results show that anatase phase is the main form of TiO2 in AgTY adsorbent, and the Y-zeolite framework remained unchanged. AgTY with 6 wt % of Ag and 50 wt % of TiO2 exhibited the best desulfurization performance with the effluent volume of 63.2 mL/g at 10 mg/L sulfur breakthrough level (desulfurization rate of 95%). The benzothiophene (BT) removal performance of the various adsorbents follows the order: NaY < TiO2 < TY-50 < AgTY-50-6. The equilibrium data were modeled by Langmuir and Freundlich equations. The Langmuir model can describe well the adsorption isotherms of BT over AgTY.

  16. A multicomponent assembly approach for the design of deep desulfurization heterogeneous catalysts. (United States)

    Xu, Yanqi; Xuan, Weimin; Zhang, Mengmeng; Miras, Haralampos N; Song, Yu-Fei


    Deep desulfurization is a challenging task and global efforts are focused on the development of new approaches for the reduction of sulfur-containing compounds in fuel oils. In this work, we have proposed a new design strategy for the development of deep desulfurization heterogeneous catalysts. Based on the adopted design strategy, a novel composite material of polyoxometalate (POM)-based ionic liquid-grafted layered double hydroxides (LDHs) was synthesized by an exfoliation/grafting/assembly process. The structural properties of the as-prepared catalyst were characterized using FT-IR, XRD, TG, NMR, XPS, BET, SEM and HRTEM. The heterogeneous catalyst exhibited high activity in deep desulfurization of DBT (dibenzothiophene), 4,6-DMDBT (4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene) and BT (benzothiophene) at 70 °C in 25, 30 and 40 minutes, respectively. The catalyst can be easily recovered and reused at least ten times without obvious decrease of its catalytic activity. Such excellent sulfur removal ability as well as the cost efficiency of the novel heterogeneous catalyst can be attributed to the rational design, where the spatial proximity of the substrate and the active sites, the immobilization of ionic liquid onto the LDHs via covalent bonding and the recyclability of the catalyst are carefully considered.

  17. Controlling Peptide Self-Assembly through a Native Chemical Ligation/Desulfurization Strategy. (United States)

    Rasale, Dnyaneshwar B; Konda, Maruthi; Biswas, Sagar; Das, Apurba K


    Self-assembled peptides were synthesized by using a native chemical ligation (NCL)/desulfurization strategy that maintained the chemical diversity of the self-assembled peptides. Herein, we employed oxo-ester-mediated NCL reactions to incorporate cysteine, a cysteine-based dipeptide, and a sterically hindered unnatural amino acid (penicillamine) into peptides. Self-assembly of the peptides resulted in the formation of self-supporting gels. Microscopy analysis indicated the formation of helical nanofibers, which were responsible for the formation of gel matrices. The self-assembly of the ligated peptides was governed by covalent and non-covalent interactions, as confirmed by FTIR, CD, fluorescence spectroscopy, and MS (ESI) analyses. Peptide disassembly was induced by desulfurization reactions with tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) and glutathione at 80 °C. Desulfurization reactions of the ligated peptides converted the Cys and penicillamine functionalities into Ala and Val moieties, respectively. The self-supporting gels showed significant shear-thinning and thixotropic properties. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Catalytic Emulsion Based on Janus Nanosheets for Ultra-Deep Desulfurization. (United States)

    Xia, Lixin; Zhang, Hairan; Wei, Zhichao; Jiang, Yi; Zhang, Ling; Zhao, Jie; Zhang, Junhui; Dong, Li; Li, Erni; Ruhlmann, Laurent; Zhang, Qian


    Catalytic Janus nanosheets were synthesized by using an anion-exchange reaction between heteropolyacids (HPAs) and the modified ionic-liquid (IL) moieties of Janus nanosheets. Their morphology and surface properties were characterized by using SEM, energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), FTIR spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies. Because of their inherent Janus structure, the nanosheets exhibited good amphipathic character with ILs and oil to form a stable ILs-in-oil emulsion. Therefore, these Janus nanosheets can be used as both emulsifiers and catalysts to perform emulsive desulfurization. During this process, sulfur-containing compounds at the interface could be easily oxidized and efficiently removed from a model oil. Application of this Janus emulsion brings an efficient, useful, and green procedure to the desulfurization process. Compared with the desulfurization catalyzed by using HPAs in a conventional two-phase system, the sulfur removal of dibenzothiophene (DBT) achieved in a Janus emulsion system was improved from 68 to 97 % within 1.5 h. Moreover, this emulsion system could be demulsified easily by simple centrifugation to recover both the nanosheets and the ILs. Owing to the good structural stability of the Janus nanosheets, the sulfur removal efficiency of DBT could still reach 99.9 % after the catalytic nanosheets had been recycled at least six times. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Desulfurization with Thialkalivibrio versutus immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. (United States)

    Mu, Tingzhen; Zhao, Jixiang; Guan, Yueping; Tian, Jiangnan; Yang, Maohua; Guo, Chen; Xing, Jianmin


    Thialkalivibrio versutus D301 cells were immobilized on Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized by an improved chemical coprecipitation method and modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), then the immobilized cells were used in sulfur oxidation. The prepared Fe3O4-APTES NPs had a narrow size distribution (10 ± 2 nm) and were superparamagnetic, with a saturation magnetization of 60.69 emu/g. Immobilized cells had a saturation magnetization of 34.95 emu/g and retained superparamagnetism. The optimum conditions for cell immobilization were obtained at pH 9.5 and 1 M Na(+). The immobilization capacity of Fe3O4-APTES NPs was 7.15 g DCW/g-NPs that was 2.3-fold higher than that of Fe3O4 NPs. The desulfurization efficiency of the immobilized cells was close to 100%, having the same sulfur oxidation capacity as free cells. Further, the immobilized cells could be reused at least eight times, retaining more than 85% of their desulfurization efficiency. Immobilization of cells with the modified magnetic NPs efficiently increased cell controllability, have no effect on their desulfurization activity and could be effectively used in large-scale industrial applications.

  20. Illuminate the active sites of γ-FeOOH for low-temperature desulfurization (United States)

    Shen, Lijuan; Cao, Yanning; Du, Zhongjie; Zhao, Wentao; Lin, Ke; Jiang, Lilong


    FeOOH has been explored as a promising adsorbent for low-temperature H2S adsorption. However, the nature of the active sites toward the desulfurization has remained elusive. Here, a series of γ-FeOOH is prepared with well-defined lath-like and rod-like shapes by adjusting the pH value of the reaction system. The two shapes of γ-FeOOH have identical bulk structures but expose different distributions of surface OH groups, namely singly (tbnd FeOH, sbnd OH), doubly (tbnd Fe2OH, μsbnd OH), and triply coordinated (tbnd Fe3OH, μ3sbnd OH) hydroxyls, allowing us to investigate the geometrical-site-dependent desulfurization activity of γ-FeOOH at molecular-scale level. Following a thorough analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (In situ FT-IR), we demonstrate that singly hydroxyl (tbnd FeOH, sbnd OH) site is responsible for H2S adsorption, which acts as the active site for low-temperature desulfurization.

  1. Oxidation desulfurization of fuel using pyridinium-based ionic liquids as phase-transfer catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Dishun; Wang, Yanan; Duan, Erhong; Zhang, Juan


    In this work, several ionic liquids based on pyridinium cations are prepared. The ionic liquids are employed as phase-transfer catalysts (PTCs) for phase-transfer catalytic oxidation of dibenzothiophene (DBT) dissolved in n-octane. The partition coefficients of DBT between ionic liquids and n-octane are investigated. Then H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-formic acid is used as an oxidant and ionic liquids are used as PTCs. The reaction turns to be heterogeneous and desulfurization rate of DBT increased apparently. When IL ([BPy]HSO{sub 4}) is used as PTC, and the condition are: temperature is 60 C, time is 60 min, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/sulfur molar ratio (O/S) is 4, the desulfurization rate reaches the maximum (93.3%), and the desulfurization of the real gasoline is also investigated, 87.7% of sulfur contents are removed under optima reaction conditions. The PTC [BPy]HSO{sub 4} can be recycled for five times without significant decrease in activity. (author)

  2. Enhanced pervaporative desulfurization by polydimethylsiloxane membranes embedded with silver/silica core-shell microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Ruijian; Zhang Xiongfei [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology, Ministry of Education of China, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Wu Hong, E-mail: [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology, Ministry of Education of China, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Membrane Science and Desalination Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Wang Jingtao; Liu Xiaofei [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology, Ministry of Education of China, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Jiang Zhongyi [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology, Ministry of Education of China, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)


    Pervaporative desulfurization based on membrane technology provides a promising alternative for removal of sulfur substances (as represented by thiophene) in fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) gasoline. The present study focused on the performance enhancement of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane by incorporation of core-shell structured silver/silica microspheres. A silane coupling agent, N-[3-(trimethoxysily)propyl]-ethylenediamine (TSD), was used to chelate the Ag{sup +} via its amino groups and attach the silver seeds onto the silica surface via condensation of its methoxyl groups. The resultant microspheres were characterized by Zeta-positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (ZetaPALS), inductively coupled plasmaoptical emission spectrophotometer (ICP), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The Ag{sup +}/SiO{sub 2}-PDMS composite membranes were prepared by blending PDMS with the as-synthesized silver/silica microspheres. PALS analysis was used to correlate the apparent fractional free volume with permeation flux. The sorption selectivity towards thiophene was enhanced after incorporation of silver/silica microspheres due to the {pi}-complexation between the silver on the microsphere surface and the thiophene molecules. The pervaporative desulfurization performance of the composite membrane was investigated using thiophene/n-octane mixture as a model gasoline. The composite membrane exhibited an optimum desulfurization performance with a permeation flux of 7.76 kg/(m{sup 2} h) and an enrichment factor of 4.3 at the doping content of 5%.

  3. Deep-desulfurization of the petroleum diesel using the heterogeneous carboxyl functionalized poly-ionic liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamlesh Rudreshwar Balinge


    Full Text Available Acidic carboxyl functionalized poly(ionic liquid (CFPIL has been synthesized and characterized by various techniques like FT-NMR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. In this work, deep oxidative desulfurization of model oil (thiophene dissolved in iso-octane by CFPIL catalyst was carried out in presence of 30 wt% H2O2 solution as an oxidant. The effects of the hydrogen peroxide, amount of CFPIL, temperature-time and recyclability are scrutinized systematically. It was found that the effective molar proportion of H2O2 to sulfur was 4:1 at 70 °C in 180 min with 0.6 g catalyst, removing 100% thiophene from model oil. This method has shown high efficiency for the removal of thiophene, which is difficult to remove from the oil than benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene. Additionally, an oxidative desulfurization mechanism has been proposed according to the experimental results. This catalytic system by CFPIL offers advantages such as higher efficiency, low amount of ionic liquid, simple work up for separating oil from the catalyst and ease of recycling. This protocol inclines to show that diesel fuels in industry can be purified to sulfur-free or ultra-low sulfur fuels by further deep oxidative desulfurization with CFPILs after hydrodesulfurization.

  4. Serum protein polymorphism in Chuetas (Majorcan Jews)--GC, A2HS, ORM, ITI and HP. (United States)

    Picornell, A; Castro, J A; Ramon, M M


    A sample of 140 Chuetas (descendants of Majorcan Jews) were typed for the GC, A2HS, ORM, ITI and HP serum proteins. Studies on ORM and ITI markers have not yet been reported in other Jewish populations. The allele frequencies obtained were: GC*1 = 0.610; A2HS*1 = 0.787; ORM*F1 = 0.339; ORM*S = 0.497; ITI*1 = 0.581; ITI*2 = 0.414; HP*2FS = 0.625; HP*1S = 0.230; HP*1F = 0.135. Some rare variants were found in polymorphic frequencies (ORM*S1 = 0.043; ORMS*S2 = 0.096; A2HS*10 = 0.015). These results have been compared with those found in other Jewish and non-Jewish European populations. The relatively high frequency of the HP*2FS allele and the presence of ORM*S1 and ORM*S2 variants in Chuetas show the Jewish origin of this population. The frequencies of GC and A2HS in Chuetas are similar to those found in other surrounding non-Jewish populations. ITI results are similar to those found in the two European populations studied. HP frequencies suggest a Spanish admixture.

  5. Development and analytical performance evaluation of FREND-SAA and FREND-Hp (United States)

    Choi, Eunha; Seong, Jihyun; Lee, Seiyoung; Han, Sunmi


    The FREND System is a portable cartridge reader, quantifying analytes by measuring laser-induced fluorescence in a single-use reagent cartridge. The objective of this study was to evaluate FREND-SAA and FREND-Hp assays. The FREND-SAA and Hp assays were standardized to the WHO and IFCC reference materials. Analytical performance studies of Precision, Linearity, Limits of Detections, Interferences, and Method Comparisons for both assays were performed according to the CLSI guidelines. Both assays demonstrated acceptable imprecision of %CV in three different levels of samples. The linearity of the assays was found to be acceptable (SAA 5 150 mg/L, Hp 30 400 mg/dL). The detection limits were 3.8 mg/L (SAA) and 10.2 mg/dL (Hp). No significant interference and no significant deviation from linearity was found in the both comparison studies. In conclusion, NanoEnTek's FREND-SAA and Hp assays represent rapid, accurate and convenient means to quantify SAA and Hp in human serum on FREND system.

  6. Development of economical and high efficient desulfurization process using low rank coal; Teitankadotan wo mochiita ankana kokoritsu datsuryuho no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takarada, Y.; Kato, K.; Kuroda, M.; Nakagawa, N. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Roman, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)


    Experiment reveals the characteristics of low rank coal serving as a desulfurizing material in fluidized coal bed reactor with oxygen-containing functional groups exchanged with Ca ions. This effort aims at identifying inexpensive Ca materials and determining the desulfurizing characteristics of Ca-carrying brown coal. A slurry of cement sludge serving as a Ca source and low rank coal is agitated for the exchange of functional groups and Ca ions, and the desulfurizing characteristics of the Ca-carrying brown coal is determined. The Ca-carrying brown coal and high-sulfur coal char is mixed and incinerated in a fluidized bed reactor, and it is found that a desulfurization rate of 75% is achieved when the Ca/S ratio is 1 in the desulfurization of SO2. This rate is far higher than the rate obtained when limestone or cement sludge without preliminary treatment is used as a desulfurizer. Next, Ca-carrying brown coal and H2S are caused to react upon each other in a fixed bed reactor, and then it is found that desulfurization characteristics are not dependent on the diameter of the Ca-carrying brown coal grain, that the coal is different from limestone in that it stays quite active against H2S for long 40 minutes after the start of the reaction, and that CaO small in crystal diameter is dispersed in quantities into the char upon thermal disintegration of Ca-carrying brown coal to cause the coal to say quite active. 5 figs.

  7. 75 FR 62424 - EDS, an HP Company (Re-Branded as HP-Enterprise Services) Including On-Site Workers From: Abel... (United States)


    ... Floyd and Company, Trinity Government SYS a Private Co, Verizon Network Integration Corp, Vision... Provider Inc., Teksystems, The Experts Inc., TM Floyd and Company, Trinity Government SYS a Private Co... Company (Re-Branded as HP--Enterprise Services) Including On-Site Workers From: Abel Personnel Inc...

  8. Hot-gas desulfurization. II. Use of gasifier ash in a fluidized-bed process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrodt, J.T.


    Three gasifier coal ashes were used as reactant/sorbents in batch fluidized-beds to remove hydrogen sulfide from hot, made-up fuel gases. It is predominantly the iron oxide in the ash that reacts with and removes the hydrogen sulfide; the sulfur reappears in ferrous sulfide. Sulfided ashes were regenerated by hot, fluidizing streams of oxygen in air; the sulfur is recovered as sulfur dioxide, exclusively. Ash sorption efficiency and sulfur capacity increase and stabilize after several cycles of use. These two parameters vary directly with the iron oxide content of the ash and process temperature, but are independent of particle size in the range 0.01 - 0.02 cm. A western Kentucky No. 9 ash containing 22 weight percent iron as iron oxide sorbed 4.3 weight percent sulfur at 1200/sup 0/F with an ash sorption efficiency of 0.83 at ten percent breakthrough. A global, fluidized-bed, reaction rate model was fitted to the data and it was concluded that chemical kinetics is the controlling mechanism with a predicted activation energy of 19,600 Btu/lb mol. Iron oxide reduction and the water-gas-shift reaction were two side reactions that occurred during desulfurization. The regeneration reaction occurred very rapidly in the fluid-bed regime, and it is suspected that mass transfer is the controlling phenomenon.

  9. Writing time estimation of EB mask writer EBM-9000 for hp16nm/logic11nm node generation (United States)

    Kamikubo, Takashi; Takekoshi, Hidekazu; Ogasawara, Munehiro; Yamada, Hirokazu; Hattori, Kiyoshi


    The scaling of semiconductor devices is slowing down because of the difficulty in establishing their functionality at the nano-size level and also because of the limitations in fabrications, mainly the delay of EUV lithography. While multigate devices (FinFET) are currently the main driver for scalability, other types of devices, such as 3D devices, are being realized to relax the scaling of the node. In lithography, double or multiple patterning using ArF immersion scanners is still a realistic solution offered for the hp16nm node fabrication. Other lithography candidates are those called NGL (Next Generation Lithography), such as DSA (Directed-Self-Assembling) or nanoimprint. In such situations, shot count for mask making by electron beam writers will not increase. Except for some layers, it is not increasing as previously predicted. On the other hand, there is another aspect that increases writing time. The exposure dose for mask writing is getting higher to meet tighter specifications of CD uniformity, in other words, reduce LER. To satisfy these requirements, a new electron beam mask writer, EBM-9000, has been developed for hp16nm/logic11nm generation. Electron optical system, which has the immersion lens system, was evolved from EBM-8000 to achieve higher current density of 800A/cm2. In this paper, recent shot count and dose trend are discussed. Also, writing time is estimated for the requirements in EBM-9000.

  10. Stability analysis of arbitrarily shaped moderately thick viscoelastic plates using Laplace-Carson transformation and a simple hp cloud method (United States)

    Jafari, Nasrin; Azhari, Mojtaba


    In this paper, the stability analysis of moderately thick time-dependent viscoelastic plates with various shapes is studied using the Laplace-Carson transformation and simple hp cloud meshless method. The shear effect of the plate is described by the first order shear deformation theory. The mechanical properties of the materials are supposed to be linear viscoelastic based on the constant bulk modulus. The displacement field is assumed to be the product of two functions, one being a function of geometrical parameters and the other a known exponential function of time. The simple hp cloud method is used for discretization which is based on Kronecker-delta properties. Thus, the essential boundary conditions can be imposed directly. A numerical investigation is made by employing the inverse of Laplace-Carson transformation. The time history of buckling coefficients of viscoelastic plates of various shapes with different boundary conditions is considered. Moreover, a number of numerical results are presented to study the effect of thickness, aspect ratio, different boundary conditions, and various shapes on the time history of buckling coefficients of the viscoelastic plate.

  11. 76 FR 28635 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1... (United States)


    ... Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin 32-JA090240, Revision 1, dated January 18, 2010. (2... defined in paragraph 2.D.(4) of British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin 32... bores for cracks. Do the inspections following British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service...

  12. 75 FR 19209 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1... (United States)


    ... Register approved the incorporation by reference of British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin No. 32-JA030644, Revision No. 1, dated August 19, 2008; British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100... Register approved the incorporation by reference of BAE Systems British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100...

  13. Fructophilic behaviour of Gordonia alkanivorans strain 1B during dibenzothiophene desulfurization process. (United States)

    Alves, Luís; Paixão, Susana M


    Biodesulfurization (BDS) aims at the removal of recalcitrant sulfur from fossil fuels at mild operating conditions with the aid of microorganisms. These microorganisms can remove sulfur from dibenzothiphene (DBT), a model compound, or other polycyclic aromatic used as sulfur source, making BDS an easy and environmental friendly process. Gordonia alkanivorans strain 1B has been described as a desulfurizing bacterium, able to desulfurize DBT to 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP), the final product of the 4S pathway, using d-glucose as carbon source. However, both cell growth and desulfurization can be largely affected by the nutrient composition of the growth medium, due to cofactor requirements of many enzymes involved in the BDS biochemical pathway. In this study, the main goal was to investigate the influence of several sugars, as carbon source, on the growth and DBT desulfurization ability of G. alkanivorans strain 1B. The results of desulfurization tests showed that the lowest values for the growth rate (0.025 hour(-1)) and for the overall 2-HBP production rate (1.80 μm/hour) by the strain 1B were obtained in glucose grown cultures. When using sucrose, the growth rate increase exhibited by strain 1B led to a higher biomass productivity, which induced a slightly increase in the 2-HBP production rate (1.91 μm/hour), conversely in terms of 2-HBP specific production rate (q2-HBP) the value obtained was markedly lower (0.718 μmol/g/hour in sucrose versus 1.22 μmol/g/hour in glucose). When a mixture of glucose and fructose was used as carbon source, strain 1B reached a value of q2-HBP=1.90 μmol/g/hour, close to that in fructose (q2-HBP=2.12 μmol/g/hour). The highest values for both cell growth (μ=0.091 hour(-1)) and 2-HPB production (9.29μm/hour) were obtained when strain 1B was desulfurizing DBT in the presence of fructose as the only carbon source, indicating a fructophilic behaviour by this bacterium. This fact is in agreement with the highest value of biomass

  14. Visible-light photoredox-catalyzed desulfurization of thiol- and disulfide-containing amino acids and small peptides. (United States)

    Lee, Myungmo; Neukirchen, Saskia; Cabrele, Chiara; Reiser, Oliver


    A scalable protocol for the desulfurization of cysteine by using visible light, the photocatalyst Ir(dF(CF3 )ppy)2 (dtb-bpy)PF6 and triethylphosphite under biphasic reaction conditions has been developed. The loading of the catalyst can be as low as 0.01 mol%, which can be efficiently removed during the workup (≤0.3 ppm), giving rise to the corresponding desulfurized product in high yields. This method has been applied also to cystine, penicillamine, and reduced and oxidized glutathione. The desulfurization has been found to be pH sensitive, with an optimal pH value of 6.5 and 7.0 for the cysteine derivatives and glutathione, respectively. In addition, during the desulfurization of a decapeptide containing cysteine and methionine, concurrent oxidation of the two sulfur-containing residues to disulfide and sulfoxide has been observed. Therefore, whereas the presented protocol allows a straightforward visible light-mediated desulfurization of simple thiols by using very low catalyst loading and a cost-effective trialkylphosphite as thiyl radical trapping agent, its application to complex substrates needs to be carefully validated. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. [Effects of desulfurization waste on calcium distribution, Ca(2+)-ATPase activity, and antioxidant characteristics of rice leaf under alkali stress]. (United States)

    Mao, Gui-Lian; Xu, Xing; Zeng, Jin; Yue, Zi-Hui; Yang, Shu-Juan


    To approach the action mechanisms of desulfurization waste on alleviating alkali stress-induced injury of rice, a pot experiment was conducted to study the variations of leaf total calcium content, calcium distribution, plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase activity, and reactive oxygen content of rice seedlings under alkali stress after the application of desulfurization waste. In the control, a few calcium particulates scattered in the cell wall and chloroplasts, while applying desulfurization waste or CaSO4 increased the calcium particulates in the plasma membrane, intercellular space, cell wall, and vacuole significantly. With the increasing application rate of desulfurization waste or CaSO4, the leaf total calcium content increased, Ca(2+)-ATPase activity in plasma membrane and tonoplast presented an increasing trend, plasma membrane relative permeability, MDA content, and O2 production rate decreased, and SOD and POD activities increased. The desulfurization waste could relieve the alkali stress to rice in some extent, and the main reactive compound in the waste could be CaSO4.

  16. Interaction of APC/C-E3 Ligase with Swi6/HP1 and Clr4/Suv39 in Heterochromatin Assembly in Fission Yeast*S⃞♦ (United States)

    Dubey, Rudra Narayan; Nakwal, Nandni; Bisht, Kamlesh Kumar; Saini, Ashok; Haldar, Swati; Singh, Jagmohan


    Heterochromatin assembly in fission yeast is initiated by binding of Swi6/HP1 to the Lys-9-dimethylated H3 followed by spreading via cooperative recruitment of Swi6/HP1. Recruitment of Cohesin by Swi6/HP1 further stabilizes the heterochromatin structure and integrity. Subsequently, polyubiquitylation of Cut2 by anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome (APC/C)-ubiquitin-protein isopeptide ligase (E3 ligase) followed by degradation of Cut2 releases Cut1, which cleaves the Rad21 subunit of Cohesin, facilitating sister chromatid separation during mitosis. Here, we demonstrate a surprising role of APC/C in assembly of heterochromatin and silencing at mating type, centromere, and ribosomal DNA loci. Coincidentally with the loss of silencing, recruitment of Swi6, H3-Lys-9-Me2, and Clr4 at dg-dh repeats at cen1 and the K region of mat locus is abrogated in mutants cut4, cut9, and nuc2. Surprisingly, both Cut4 and Cut9 are also highly enriched at these regions in wild type and depleted in swi6Δ mutant. Cut4 and Cut9 interact directly with Swi6/HP1 and Clr4, whereas the mutant Cut4 does not, suggesting that a direct physical interaction of APC subunits Cut4 and Cut9 with Swi6 and Clr4 is instrumental in heterochromatin assembly. The silencing defect in APC mutants is causally related to ubiquitylation activity of APC-E3 ligase. Like swi6 mutant, APC mutants are also defective in Cohesin recruitment and exhibit defects like lagging chromosomes, chromosome loss, and aberrant recombination in the mat region. In addition, APC mutants exhibit a bidirectional expression of dh repeats, suggesting a role in the RNA interference pathway. Thus, APC and heterochromatin proteins Swi6 and Clr4 play a mutually cooperative role in heterochromatin assembly, thereby ensuring chromosomal integrity, inheritance, and segregation during mitosis and meiosis. PMID:19117951

  17. Lambton generating station's experience with HP turbine copper deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caravaggio, M. [Lambton Generating Station, Ontario Power Generation Inc., Courtright, ON (Canada)


    This paper covers the understanding developed from, as well as the timeline and techniques that were used to address, rapid, dramatic HP turbine performance losses associated with copper deposition on two of four 500 MW coal-fired drum units at Ontario power generation's (OPG's) Lambton generating station (GS) over the last three years. The two affected units both had greater than 20 MW de-rates caused by copper deposition and 5-10% losses in HP cylinder efficiency during the period. On one unit the HP cylinder was being replaced by a dense pack HP turbine (decision made prior to identifying the copper deposition issue), and on the other unit a physical clean of the turbine was opted for, with additional study being conducted for possible chemical cleans in the future. This paper outlines Lambton's current understanding of the copper transport cycle through a drum type boiler (based on industry literature and OPG/Lambton GS operating experience), as well as Lambton's experiences to date with the solutions chosen for addressing HP turbine copper deposition. (orig.)

  18. P-27/HP endolysin as antibacterial agent for antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus of human infections. (United States)

    Gupta, Ragini; Prasad, Yogendra


    Staphylococcus aureus causes a wide range of suppurative infections in humans and animals. Due to its high virulence, ability to adopt various environmental conditions, and acquired multiple drug resistance, treatment of such infections has become difficult. Therefore, there is an immense need to develop alternate drug modalities to control this pathogen. In past few years, phage-encoded endolysin therapy has emerged as a new hope not only due to its ability to specifically kill the target bacteria irrespective of their antibiotic sensitivity but also because of minimum or no side effects, a problem associated with antibiotic therapy. In this article, we report purification of a broad spectrum anti-staphylococcal endolysin (P-27/HP endolysin) encoded by phage P-27/HP isolated from sewage water. On SDS-PAGE endolysin resolved in three polypeptides of molecular weights 33.5, 48.6, and 62.2 kDa. Endolysin exhibited maximum in vitro lytic activity at temperature between 35 and 40°C and pH 7.0. In vivo experiments revealed considerable (99.9%) elimination of S. aureus 27/HP from spleens of endolysin-treated mice and had saved them from death due to bacteremia caused by S. aureus 27/HP challenge infection. Thus, P-27/HP endolysin offers suitable substitute of antibiotics to control S. aureus infections.

  19. Interaction between Ni and HZSM-5 in aromatization-enhanced reactive adsorption desulfurization catalysts for FCC gasoline upgrading. (United States)

    Zhao, Jinchong; Zhang, Lulu; She, Nannan; Liu, Yunqi; Chai, Yongming; Liu, Chenguang

    A compound catalyst (RA) consisted of Ni, ZnO and HZSM-5 with functions of reactive adsorption desulfurization (RADS) and olefin aromatization for fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) gasoline upgrading was prepared. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction and low-temperature N2 adsorption were used to characterize the properties of the catalysts. Performance evaluation by FCC gasoline was carried out, and the result showed that the catalyst RA performed well in desulfurization and aromatization. For comparison, RADS catalyst (represented by DS) consisted of Ni and ZnO and aromatization catalyst (represented by Ar) consisted of HZSM-5 were prepared, respectively. They were combined in different ways to help investigating interaction between Ni and HZSM-5. Performance evaluated by FCC gasoline showed that catalyst RA performed best in desulfurization with a slight octane number loss. Interaction between Ni and HZSM-5 is a significant factor which influences the performance of the catalyst.

  20. Synthesis of l- and d-Ubiquitin by One-Pot Ligation and Metal-Free Desulfurization. (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Chao; Chen, Chen-Chen; Gao, Shuai; Wang, Ye-Hai; Xiao, Hua; Wang, Feng; Tian, Chang-Lin; Li, Yi-Ming


    Native chemical ligation combined with desulfurization has become a powerful strategy for the chemical synthesis of proteins. Here we describe the use of a new thiol additive, methyl thioglycolate, to accomplish one-pot native chemical ligation and metal-free desulfurization for chemical protein synthesis. This one-pot strategy was used to prepare ubiquitin from two or three peptide segments. Circular dichroism spectroscopy and racemic protein X-ray crystallography confirmed the correct folding of ubiquitin. Our results demonstrate that proteins synthesized chemically by streamlined 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc) solid-phase peptide synthesis coupled with a one-pot ligation-desulfurization strategy can supply useful molecules with sufficient purity for crystallographic studies. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Evaluation of sulfur-reducing microorganisms for organic desulfurization. Final technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, K.W.


    Because of substantial portion of the sulfur in Illinois coal is organic, microbial desulfurization of sulfidic and thiophenic functionalities could hold great potential for completing pyritic sulfur removal. We are testing the hypothesis that organic sulfur can be reductively removed as H{sub 2}S through the activities of anaerobic microorganisms. Our objectives for this year include the following: (1) To obtain cultures that will reductively desulfurize thiophenic model compounds. In addition to crude oil enrichments begun last year, we sampled municipal sewage sludge. (2) To continue to work toward optimizing the activity of the DBDS-reducing cultures obtained during the previous year. (3) To expand coal desulfurization work to include other coals including Illinois Basin Coal 101 and a North Dakota lignite, which might be more susceptible to the dibenzyldisulfide reducing cultures due to its lower rank. (4) To address the problem of sulfide sorption, by investigating the sorption capacity of coals in addition to Illinois Basin Coal 108.

  2. Microwave-Assisted Adsorptive Desulfurization of Model Diesel Fuel Using Synthesized Microporous Rare Earth Metal-Doped Zeolite Y

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Salahudeen


    Full Text Available The microwave-assisted adsorptive desulfurization of model fuel (thiophene in n-heptane was investigated using a synthesized rare earth metal-doped zeolite Y (RE Y. Crystallinity of the synthesized zeolite was 89.5%, the silicon/aluminium (Si/Al molar ratio was 5.2, the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET surface area was 980.9 m2/g, and the pore volume and diameter was 0.3494 cm3/g and 1.425 nm, respectively. The results showed that the microwave reactor could be used to enhance the adsorptive desulfurization process with best efficiency of 75% at reaction conditions of 100 °C and 15 minutes. The high desulfurization effect was likely due to the higher efficiency impact of microwave energy in the interaction between sulfur in thiophene and HO-La(OSiAl.

  3. Ada Compiler Validation Summary Report. Certificate Number: 891019W1. 10178, Hewlett Packard Company HP 9000 Series 800 Ada Compiler, Version 4.35 HP 9000 Series 800 Model 850. Completion of On-Site Testing: 19 October 1989 (United States)


    34 HPC * HP Pascal " HP FORTRAN 77 for HP 9000 Series 800 computers Compiler products from vendors other than Hewlett-Packard may not conform to the...maximum number of elements needed U-SIZE: constant := U size; -- Subsitute U’SIZE here -- The constant U SIZE should also be: -- 1. a multiple of two... product does not support the association of an HP-UX signal such as SIGINT with an Ada procedure or a task entry. The signal must be handled inside an

  4. Desulfurization activity and reusability of magnetite nanoparticle-coated Rhodococcus erythropolis FMF and R. erythropolis IGTS8 bacterial cells. (United States)

    Bardania, Hassan; Raheb, Jamshid; Mohammad-Beigi, Hossein; Rasekh, Behnam; Arpanaei, Ayyoob


    The application of Fe3 O4 nanoparticles to the separation of desulfurizing bacterial cells and their influence on the desulfurization activity and reusability of the two bacterial strains Rhodococcus erythropolis FMF and R. erythropolis IGTS8 were investigated. Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized via the reverse coprecipitation method. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that the magnetite nanoparticles had sizes of 5.35 ± 1.13 (F1 nanoparticles) and 8.74 ± 1.18 nm (F2 nanoparticles) when glycine was added during the synthesis of nanoparticles and when it was absent from the reaction mixture, respectively. Glycine was added after the synthesis of both F1 and F2 nanoparticles to stabilize the nanoparticle dispersion. TEM images of cells treated with magnetite nanoparticles indicated that F1 nanoparticles were immobilized on the surface of bacterial cells more evenly than the F2 nanoparticles. Desulfurization activities of the F1 magnetite nanoparticle-coated R. erythropolis FMF and R. erythropolis IGTS8 cells (with sulfur-removal percentage values of 70 ± 4 and 73 ± 3, respectively), as examined with the spectrophotometric Gibbs assay (based on dibenzothiophene degradation and sulfur-removal percentage), were not significantly different from those for the free bacterial cells (67 ± 3 and 69 ± 4, respectively). These results indicate that magnetite nanoparticles cannot affect the desulfurization activity of cells examined in this work. Isolation of bacterial cells from the suspension using a magnet and evaluation of desulfurization activity of separated cells showed that Fe3 O4 nanoparticles can provide a high-efficiency recovery of bacterial cells from a suspension, with the reused magnetite nanoparticle-coated bacterial cells being able to maintain their desulfurization activity efficiently. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. C__Users_HP Pro 2000_Desktop_DAKUO.xps

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP Pro 2000

    EFFET DE L'INOCULUM «COMPOST PLUS». SUR LE COMPOSTAGE DES TIGES DE COTONNIER. ET LES RENDEMENTS EN COTON AU BURKINA FASO. D. DAKUO1, B. KOULIBALY2, C. TIAHOUN1 et F. LOMPO3. 1Société Burkinabé des fibres textiles (SOFITEX). Direction du développement de la production ...

  6. Fluence to Hp(3) conversion coefficients for neutrons from thermal to 15 MeV. (United States)

    Gualdrini, G; Ferrari, P; Tanner, R


    The recent statement on tissue reactions issued by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in April 2011 recommends a very significant reduction in the equivalent dose annual limit for the eye lens from 150 to 20 mSv y(-1); this has stimulated a lot of interest in eye lens dosimetry in the radiation protection community. Until now no conversion coefficients were available for the operational quantity Hp(3) for neutrons. The scope of the present work was to extend previous evaluations of H*(10) and Hp(10) performed at the PTB in 1995 to provide also Hp(3) data for neutrons. The present work is also intended to complete the studies carried out on photons during the last 4 y within the European Union-funded ORAMED (optimisation of radiation protection for medical staff) project.

  7. The Spectral/hp-Finite Element Method for Partial Differential Equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter


    This set of lecture notes provides an elementary introduction to both the classical Finite Element Method (FEM) and the extended Spectral/$hp$-Finite Element Method for solving Partial Differential Equations (PDEs). Many problems in science and engineering can be formulated mathematically...... independently. The original set of course notes has been modified and updated and additional chapters describing the high-order extensions to form the Spectral/$hp$-Finite Element Method have been included. Thus the significant contributions of Chapters 1, 2 and 5 covering the classical Finite Element Method...... are in large parts due to V. A. Barker and J. Reffstrup. With this set of lecture notes it should be possible for the reader to make a Spectral/$hp$-FEM toolbox in successive steps with the support given in the text. Emphasis is on the practical details supported with basic and sufficient theory to build...

  8. Advanced fuel gas desulfurization (AFGD) demonstration project. Technical progress report No. 19, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The {open_quotes}Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project{close_quotes} is a $150.5 million cooperative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy and Pure Air, a general partnership of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc. The AFGD process is one of several alternatives to conventional flue gas desulfurization (FGD) being demonstrated under the Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The AFGD demonstration project is located at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s Bailly Generating Station, about 12 miles northeast of Gary, Indiana.

  9. Prediction of extracellular proteases of the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori reveals proteolytic activity of the Hp1018/19 protein HtrA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Löwer

    Full Text Available Exported proteases of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori are potentially involved in pathogen-associated disorders leading to gastric inflammation and neoplasia. By comprehensive sequence screening of the H. pylori proteome for predicted secreted proteases, we retrieved several candidate genes. We detected caseinolytic activities of several such proteases, which are released independently from the H. pylori type IV secretion system encoded by the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI. Among these, we found the predicted serine protease HtrA (Hp1019, which was previously identified in the bacterial secretome of H. pylori. Importantly, we further found that the H. pylori genes hp1018 and hp1019 represent a single gene likely coding for an exported protein. Here, we directly verified proteolytic activity of HtrA in vitro and identified the HtrA protease in zymograms by mass spectrometry. Overexpressed and purified HtrA exhibited pronounced proteolytic activity, which is inactivated after mutation of Ser205 to alanine in the predicted active center of HtrA. These data demonstrate that H. pylori secretes HtrA as an active protease, which might represent a novel candidate target for therapeutic intervention strategies.

  10. HP0197 contributes to CPS synthesis and the virulence of Streptococcus suis via CcpA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anding Zhang

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2, a major swine pathogen and an emerging zoonotic agent, has greatly challenged global public health. The encoding proteins with unknown functions the bacterium encodes are an obstruction to studies of the pathogenesis. A novel surface protective antigen HP0197 is one of these proteins which have no sequence homology to any known protein. In the present study, the protein was determined to be involved in bacterial virulence through an evaluation of the isogenic mutant (Δhp0197 in both mice and pigs. The experimental infection also indicated that Δhp0197 could be cleared easily during infection, which could be attributed to the reduced thickness of the capsular polysaccharides (CPS and the significantly reduced phagocytotic resistance. Microarrays-based comparative transcriptome analysis suggested that the suppressed expression of the operon responsible for CPS synthesis might be reversed by CcpA activity, which controlled global regulation of carbon catabolite through the binding of the CcpA and HPr-Ser-46-P to the catabolite-responsive elements (cre of the target operons. The hypothesis was approved by the fact that the purified FLAG-tagged HPr from WT stain exhibited a higher binding activity to cre with CcpA compared to the Δhp0197 by the Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay, suggesting lower level of phosphorylation of the phosphocarrier protein HPr at residue Ser-46 (HPr-Ser-46P in Δhp0197. These indicated that HP0197 could enhance CcpA activity to control the expression of genes involved in carbohydrate utilization and CPS synthesis, thus contributing to the virulence of S. suis.

  11. Influence of Fe loadings on desulfurization performance of activated carbon treated by nitric acid. (United States)

    Guo, Jia-Xiu; Shu, Song; Liu, Xiao-Li; Wang, Xue-Jiao; Yin, Hua-Qiang; Chu, Ying-Hao


    A series of Fe supported on activated carbon treated by nitric acid are prepared by incipient wetness impregnation with ultrasonic assistance and characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrum and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It has shown that Fe loadings significantly influence the desulfurization activity. Fe/NAC5 exhibits an excellent removal ability of SO2, corresponding to breakthrough sulfur capacity of 323 mg/g. With the increasing Fe loadings, the generated Fe3O4 and Fe2SiO4 increase, but Fe2(SO4)3 is observed after desulfurization. Fe/NAC1 has a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of 925 m(2)/g with micropore surface area of 843 m(2)/g and total pore volume of 0.562 cm(3)/g including a micropore volume of 0.300 cm(3)/g. With the increasing Fe loadings, BET surface area and micropore volume decrease, and those of Fe/NAC10 decrease to 706 m(2)/g and 0.249 cm(3)/g. The Fe loadings influence the pore-size distribution, and SO2 adsorption mainly reacts in micropores at about 0.70 nm. C=O and C-O are observed for all samples before SO2 removal. After desulfurization, the C-O stretching is still detected, but the C=O stretching vibration of carbonyl groups disappears. The stretching of S-O or S=O in sulfate is observed at 592 cm(-1) for the used sample, proving that the existence of [Formula: see text].

  12. Phytane from chemolytic analysis of modern marine sediments: A product of desulfurization or not? (United States)

    Prahl, F. G.; Pinto, L. A.; Sparrow, M. A.


    A set of modern marine sediments was analyzed to evaluate the role of sulfurization as a mechanism for biomarker preservation during early diagenesis. The set consisted of sediments accumulating within various oxic to anoxic depositional environments. Raney nickel treatment of the polar fraction of total extractable lipids (pTEL) from each sample yielded 3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadecane ('phytane') as the dominant product, accompanied in several cases by minor levels of C 27, C 28, and C 29 5 α/ β(H)-steranes, n-C 31 alkane, and β-carotane. Although others have ascribed such products to a desulfurization reaction, our work reveals significant production of phytane from the action of Raney nickel on the esterified side chain of chlorophyll. Results suggest that catalytic dehydration/hydrogenation of chlorophyll accounts for ~50 and ~4% of the Raney nickel phytane (rnPhy) yield measured in suboxic sediments from the Washington shelf and anoxic sediments from Saanich Inlet, respectively. If 8-20% of the pheopigment detected in the suboxic sediments and all of the pheopigment detected in the anoxic sediment exists as pheophytin, the catalytic dehydration/hydrogenation process would account for 100 and 50%, respectively, of the observed rnPhy yield. The collective findings from our work underscore the necessity to exercise extreme caution when interpreting the geochemical significance of hydrocarbon products from Raney nickel treatment of pTEL from sediments. Despite the organic chemical fact that Raney nickel is a well-known desulfurizing agent, desulfurization cannot be assigned necessarily as the source of hydrocarbons generated by the action of this reagent on complex lipid extracts from sediments, particularly those from modern environments.

  13. Biocompatibility of New Pulp-capping Materials NeoMTA Plus, MTA Repair HP, and Biodentine on Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells. (United States)

    Tomás-Catalá, Christopher J; Collado-González, Mar; García-Bernal, David; Oñate-Sánchez, Ricardo E; Forner, Leopoldo; Llena, Carmen; Lozano, Adrián; Moraleda, José M; Rodríguez-Lozano, Francisco J


    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity of MTA Repair HP, NeoMTA Plus, and Biodentine, new bioactive materials used for dental pulp capping, on human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). Biological testing was carried out in vitro on hDPSCs. Cell viability and cell migration assays were performed using eluates of each capping material. To evaluate cell morphology and cell attachment to the different materials, hDPSCs were directly seeded onto the material surfaces and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The chemical composition of the pulp-capping materials was determined by energy-dispersive X-ray and eluates were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Statistical differences were assessed by analysis of variance and Tukey test (P Biodentine showed higher rates of cell viability than MTA Repair HP and NeoMTA Plus (P Biodentine (P Biodentine disks but moderate rates on MTA Repair HP and NeoMTA Plus disks. Energy-dispersive X-ray pointed to similar weight percentages of C, O, and Ca in all 3 materials, whereas other elements such as Al, Si, and S were also found. The new pulp-capping materials MTA Repair HP, NeoMTA Plus, and Biodentine showed a suitable degree of cytocompatibility with hDPSCs, and good cell migration rates, although Biodentine showed higher rates of proliferation time-dependent. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Monocrotophos, an organophosphorus insecticide, disrupts the expression of HpNetrin and its receptor neogenin during early development in the sea urchin (Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus). (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaona; Xu, Lei; Tian, Hua; Wang, Cuicui; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo


    Netrins, chemotropic guidance cues, can guide the extension of serotonergic axons by binding to netrin receptors during neural development. However, little is known about whether disruption of netrin signaling is involved in the mechanisms by which organophosphorus pesticides affect serotonergic nervous system (SNS) development. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the pesticide monocrotophos (MCP) on the expression patterns of HpNetrin and its receptor neogenin as well as on the intracellular calcium ion (Ca 2+ ) levels in Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus (sea urchin) by exposing fertilized embryos to 0, 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00mg/L MCP. The results showed that MCP disrupted HpNetrin and neogenin expression at different developmental stages in H. pulcherrimus and that Ca 2+ appeared to be involved in the MCP-induced developmental neurotoxicity. Specifically, the lower concentrations of MCP elevated HpNetrin and neogenin transcription, resulting in higher intracellular Ca 2+ levels during the early developmental stages in the sea urchin; this may affect netrin-directed cell migration/axon extension and subsequently disrupt serotonergic axon branching and synapse formation. In contrast, 1.00mg/L MCP exhibited an inhibitory effect on HpNetrin and neogenin transcription. This finding implies that the regulatory roles of these factors may be diminished during early development, thereby causing developmental defects in the sea urchin. Collectively, our results provide a basis for exploring the involvement of netrin and neogenin in the organophosphate-induced disruption of the SNS during development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A catalytic antibody heavy chain HpU-2 degrading its epitope peptide and H. pylori urease. (United States)

    Hifumi, Emi; Yamada, Yukiko; Uda, Taizo


    The HpU-2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) raised against Helicobacter pylori urease mainly recognized the alpha-subunit of the urease. On the other hand, the heavy chain of HpU-2 mAb (HpU-2-H) isolated from the parent mAb recognized both the alpha- and beta-subunit, in which the beta-subunit was recognized more strongly than the beta-subunit. HpU-2-H cleaved a peptide, SVELIDIGGNRRIFGFNALVD, which is the epitope sequence recognized by HpU-2 mAb, showing a double-phase reaction profile at 25 degrees C in a phosphate buffer. After an induction time of 24h, the cleavage of the peptide was initiated by HpU-2-H at a high rate and it was completed at 80 h of incubation. By mass spectroscopy, two main fragmented peptides, SVELIDIGGNRR and SVELIDIGGNRRIFG, were identified. In addition, many small peptide fragments were produced by successive cleavage of the fragmented peptides. Cleavage tests for H. pylori urease by HpU-2-H revealed that the beta-subunit of the urease was cleaved first and completely decomposed at 20 h of incubation. Cleavage of the alpha-subunit started after the complete decomposition of the beta-subunit. These cleavage results were in good agreement with the immunological features of HpU-2-H. The irrelevant proteins, BSA and HSA, were hardly cleaved by HpU-2-H.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Sri Ariyani


    Full Text Available Nowadays notebook is not a luxurious thing any more, but has been one of  the things that should be obligatorily owned by high school student, university student, and practitioners. The competition among the notebooks has been getting tight. The reason is that they have been produced with almost similar attributes, qualities, and design but different prices. This study aims at (1 identifying the similarity between the notebook produced by Hewlett Packard (hp and those produced by its competitors such as, IBM, Sony, Acer and Toshiba, (2 identifying the consumers perception of the notebook produced by Hewlett Packard (hp and of those produced by its competitors, (3 identifying what is the superiority of the notebook produced by Hewlett Packard (hp compared with the superiority of those produced by its competitors, and (4 identifying what strategy is relevant in strengthening the positioning of the notebook produced by Hewlett Packard (hp. The samples were determined by purposive sampling, and the respondents employed totaled 100 spreading over Denpasar City. To achieve maximum result, Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS was applied as the instrument of analysis to identify the similarity among the notebooks and Correspondence Analysis (CA was employed as the instrument of analysis to identify the superiority of each variable of every notebook. The result of the study show that the notebook produced by Hewlett Packard (hp is perceived to resemble those produced by IBM, Sony, and Toshiba. This means that the notebook produced by Hewlett Packard (hp competes against those produced by IBM, Sony, and Toshiba, and that it does not compete against that produced by Acer. The notebook produced by Hewlett Packard (hp is superior in the variables of product varieties, post sales, distribution channels, and promotion. The notebook produced by IBM superior in the variable product quality, while that produced by Sony is superior in the variable of product  design

  17. The next step in coastal numerical models: spectral/hp element methods?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskilsson, Claes; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Sherwin, Spencer J.


    In this paper we outline the application of spectral/hp element methods for modelling nonlinear and dispersive waves. We present one- and two-dimensional test cases for the shallow water equations and Boussinesqtype equations – including highly dispersive Boussinesq-type equations.......In this paper we outline the application of spectral/hp element methods for modelling nonlinear and dispersive waves. We present one- and two-dimensional test cases for the shallow water equations and Boussinesqtype equations – including highly dispersive Boussinesq-type equations....



    Lorena Lazo, Paul; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Ruiz Lizama, Edgar; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos


    The article presents a program in C++ language that emulates the behavior of a HP 48G calculator. For this, we use the concepts that the paradigm of the programming oriented to objects and battery algorithms for the polish notation provide. In the implementation of the program a Borland C++ 4.5 Compiler was used. El artículo presenta un programa en lenguaje C++ que emula el comportamiento de la calculadora HP 48G. Para ello se utiliza los conceptos que provee el paradigma de la programació...

  19. 210-HP Diesel Engine Endurance and Performance Testing with Fire Resistant Diesel Fuel (United States)


    containing 10.4 percent volume water. The specific fuel comsumption increased to 23.91 percent when the engine ran at the end of the 400-hour test with...Motor The motor which drives the pumps is manufactured by Reliance Electric Company. The motor’s performance specifications are as follows: 1.5 hp...BARREL BARRELS ON-OFF MANUAL SHUT-OFF VALVES 11 /OF2WAE 1 1/2 HP PUMP PUMP SURFACTANT PUMP ELECTRIC MOTOR 220/240 VAC 1 P M MICROMETER DIALS PRESSURE

  20. HP-67 calculator programs for thermodynamic data and phase diagram calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, L.


    This report is a supplement to a tabulation of the thermodynamic and phase data for the 100 binary systems of Mo with the elements from H to Lr. The calculations of thermodynamic data and phase equilibria were carried out from 5000/sup 0/K to low temperatures. This report presents the methods of calculation used. The thermodynamics involved is rather straightforward and the reader is referred to any advanced thermodynamic text. The calculations were largely carried out using an HP-65 programmable calculator. In this report, those programs are reformulated for use with the HP-67 calculator; great reduction in the number of programs required to carry out the calculation results.

  1. Adsorptive desulfurization with CPO-27/MOF-74: an experimental and computational investigation. (United States)

    Van de Voorde, Ben; Hezinová, Markéta; Lannoeye, Jeroen; Vandekerkhove, Annelies; Marszalek, Bartosz; Gil, Barbara; Beurroies, Isabelle; Nachtigall, Petr; De Vos, Dirk


    By combining experimental adsorption isotherms, microcalorimetric data, infrared spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations the adsorption behaviour of the CPO-27/MOF-74 series (Ni, Co, Mg, Cu, and Zn) in the desulfurization of fuels is evaluated. The results show a clear influence of the metal ion on the adsorption capacity and affinity for S-heterocyclic compounds, with CPO-27(Ni) being the best performing material both in terms of capacity and affinity. The microcalorimetric data and infrared spectroscopy confirm the high affinity of CPO-27(Ni) for thiophene and similar compounds, while the computational data reveal that the origin of this outstanding adsorption performance is the strong sulfur-metal interaction.

  2. Noncoplanar /sup 2/H(p,2p) n reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonbright, D.I.; McDonald, A.M.; van Oers, W.T.H.; Watson, J.W.; Caplan, H.S.; Cameron, J.M.; Rogers, J.G.; Soukup, J.; Kloet, W.M.; Stolk, C.; Tjon, J.A.


    Calculations based upon the Faddeev equations and measurements of proton-induced deuteron disintegration cross sections have been made at 23.0 and 39.5 MeV for two types of constant-relative-energy loci. In the first configuration the variation of the breakup cross section was studied for fixed values of the final state NN relative energies and a fixed momentum of one of the emerging protons. In the second configuration the variation of the breakup cross section was studied for equal relative energies between all three pairs of nucleons with the two protons emerging with equal momenta symmetrically with respect to the incident beam direction. At 39.5 MeV calculations and measurements were made of both types of loci while at 23.0 MeV only the second kinematical configuration was studied.

  3. Study of the inclusion interaction of HP-γ-cyclodextrin with bupropion and its analytical application (United States)

    Misiuk, Wieslawa; Jasiuk, Emilia


    Inclusion complex formation between bupropion (BUP) and hydroxypropyl-γ-cyclodextrin (HP-γ-CD) was studied by Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and UV spectroscopy. The main factors affecting inclusion interaction were discussed in detail. The inclusion complex of bupropion and hydroxypropyl-γ-cyclodextrin was studied at pH 5 in aqueous phase. Stoichiometry of the complex was found to be 1:1 and apparent formation constant (log K) was determined as 3.54 ± 0.01, suggesting a tendency of the drug to enter HP-γ-CD cavity. All obtained information proved the formation of BUP/HP-γ-CD inclusion complex. A significant enhancement of absorption intensity of bupropion in presence of HP-γ-CD was shown. Due to the property a sensitive spectrophotometric method was elaborated for determination of active substance in bulk solution. At optimum experimental conditions, a linear relationship between absorbance and concentration of bupropion is observed in range of 4-60 μg mL-1 with limit detection of 0.32 μg mL-1 and correlation coefficient of 0.9991. The proposed method was applied successfully to the determination of BUP in pharmaceutical preparations and the results were satisfactory in comparison to official method.

  4. Developing Consensus on the CompHP Professional Standards for Health Promotion in Europe (United States)

    Speller, Viv; Parish, Richard; Davison, Heather; Zilnyk, Anna


    Building on the CompHP Core Competencies for health promotion the Professional Standards for Health Promotion have been developed and consulted on across Europe. The standards were formulated to fit within the complexity of professional, occupational and educational standards frameworks in Europe as learning outcome standards with performance…

  5. 78 FR 48468 - Hewlett Packard Company, Hewlett Packard Enterprise Business Unit, EG HP Storage, Enterprise... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Packard Company, Hewlett Packard Enterprise Business Unit, EG... behalf of workers of Hewlett Packard Company, Hewlett Packard Enterprise Business Unit, EG HP Storage...

  6. Polymorphism of serum proteins (C3, BF, HP and TF) of six populations in Colombia. (United States)

    Bernal, J E; Sarmiento, P; Briceno, I; Papiha, S S


    Five hundred and eighty-five serum samples from six populations in Colombia (Baranoa, Choco, Uitoto Indians, Subachoque, Pasto and Urban Bogotan) were investigated for four genetic markers. For the HP, C3 and BF systems but not for TF there is a wide range of gene frequency variation and these differences are compared with those in the few previous studies.

  7. Critical Success Factors in Crafting Strategic Architecture for E-Learning at HP University (United States)

    Sharma, Kunal; Pandit, Pallvi; Pandit, Parul


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to outline the critical success factors for crafting a strategic architecture for e-learning at HP University. Design/methodology/approach: A descriptive survey type of research design was used. An empirical study was conducted on students enrolled with the International Centre for Distance and Open Learning…

  8. Mechanisms of continental subduction and exhumation of HP and UHP rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burov, Evgene; Francois, Thomas; Yamato, Philippe; Wolf, Sylvie

    We discuss possible scenarios of continental collision, and their relation to mechanisms of exhumation of HP and UHP rocks, inferred from thermo-mechanical numerical models accounting for thermo-rheological complexity of the continental lithosphere. Due to this complexity, mechanisms of continental

  9. HP-Xe to go: Storage and Transportation of Hyperpolarized 129-Xe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Repetto, M.; Zimmer, S.; Almendinger, F.; Blümler, P.; Doll, M.; Grasdijk, J.O.; Heil, W.; Jungmann, K.; Karpuk, S.; Krause, H.-J.; Offenhaeusser, A.; Schmidt, U.; Sobolev, Y.; Willmann, L.


    Recently the spin-lattice relaxation time T1 of hyperpolarized (HP)-129Xe was significantly improved by using uncoated and Rb-free storage vessels of GE180 glass. For these cells, a simple procedure was established to obtain reproducible wall relaxation times of about 18 h. Then the limiting

  10. Stability estimates for h-p spectral element methods for general ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    be noted that the method is assymptotically faster then the h-p finite element method. For problems with mixed boundary conditions we cannot use this stability theorem to parallelize our method since the factor in the stability estimate can grow as M4. To get around this problem we make the spectral element functions ...

  11. Helicobacter pylori HP1034 (ylxH) is required for motility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amsterdam, Karin; van der Ende, Arie


    Background. Helicobacter pylori motility is essential for the colonization and persistence in the human gastric mucosa. So far, more than 50 genes have been described to play a role in flagellar biosynthesis. H. pylori YlxH (HP1034) is annotated as an ATP-binding protein. However, H. pylori YlxH

  12. ViSION: a CERN openlab R&D partnership with HP on SDN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions


    CERN Communications Systems Group Leader Jean-Michel Jouanigot shares an inside view on the CERN openlab ViSION (Virtual Services In Openflow Networks) project, an R&D collaboration with HP on SDN to develop an application to orchestrate network traffic.

  13. GALILEO: un nuovo server HP SuperDome per il calcolo parallelo al CILEA


    Arlandini, Claudio


    Il CILEA potenzia il suo parco macchine per il calcolo parallelo ad alte prestazioni con un server HP Superdome a 64 processori, e 64GB di memoria centrale. Questa acquisizione conferma il CILEA tra le più importanti realtà del supercalcolo europeo.

  14. New approach to calculate the true-coincidence effect of HpGe detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alnour, I. A., E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Faculty of Pure and Applied Science, International University of Africa, 12223 Khartoum (Sudan); Wagiran, H. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai,Johor (Malaysia); Ibrahim, N. [Faculty of Defence Science and Technology, National Defence University of Malaysia, Kem Sungai Besi, 57000 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Hamzah, S.; Elias, M. S. [Malaysia Nuclear Agency (MNA), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor D.E. (Malaysia); Siong, W. B. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Resource Science & Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak (Malaysia)


    The corrections for true-coincidence effects in HpGe detector are important, especially at low source-to-detector distances. This work established an approach to calculate the true-coincidence effects experimentally for HpGe detectors of type Canberra GC3018 and Ortec GEM25-76-XLB-C, which are in operation at neutron activation analysis lab in Malaysian Nuclear Agency (NM). The correction for true-coincidence effects was performed close to detector at distances 2 and 5 cm using {sup 57}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 133}Ba and {sup 137}Cs as standard point sources. The correction factors were ranged between 0.93-1.10 at 2 cm and 0.97-1.00 at 5 cm for Canberra HpGe detector; whereas for Ortec HpGe detector ranged between 0.92-1.13 and 0.95-100 at 2 and 5 cm respectively. The change in efficiency calibration curve of the detector at 2 and 5 cm after correction was found to be less than 1%. Moreover, the polynomial parameters functions were simulated through a computer program, MATLAB in order to find an accurate fit to the experimental data points.

  15. On optimal node and polynomial degree distribution in one-dimensional hp -FEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chleboun, J.; Šolín, Pavel


    Roč. 95, č. 1 (2013), s. 75-88 ISSN 1436-5057 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP105/10/1682 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : hp * boundary value problem * optimal mesh Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  16. Stability estimates for h-p spectral element methods for elliptic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Stability estimates for h-p spectral element methods for elliptic problems. PRAVIR DUTT, SATYENDRA TOMAR. ∗ and. B V RATHISH KUMAR. Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016, India. ∗. Present address: Post Doctoral Researcher, Department of Mathematical Physics and.

  17. One step ahead of technology Cern and HP - an ideal team project

    CERN Multimedia

    Garvey, Kelsey


    "In 2004, the It team at Cern recognized the comprehensiveness and future of the LHC Computing Grid Project and realized that the IT infrastructures were not sufficient enough to manage the data. Cern therefore partnered with HP ProCurve the following year to minimize the day-to-day workload and improve infrastructure for data output" (1 page)

  18. Microstructure of Magnesium alloy AZ91-HP cast in permanent and non-permanent moulds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiedje, Niels; Sørensen, Rasmus Kirkegaard; Albachari, Sami


    Casting of different geometries were made with AZ91-HP in different moulding media, so that a range of cooling conditions were obtained. Cooling curves were measured and compared to the microstructures found in the castings. It was shown that segregation in the alloy is highly dependent on cooling...

  19. On Adjusting the H-P Filter for the Frequency of Observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlig, H.F.H.V.S.; Ravn, M.


    This paper studies how the HP-Filter should be adjusted, when changing the frequency of observations. The usual choices in the literature are to adjust the smoothing parameter by multiplying it with either the square of the observation frequency ratios or simply with the observation frequency. In

  20. Status of METC investigations of coal gas desulfurization at high temperature. [Zinc ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinfeld, G.


    This report documents the continuing effort at the US Department of Energy/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to develop a hot-gas desulfurization process for coal-derived gas, primarily for application to molten carbonate fuel cells. Metal oxide sorbents were tested on lab-scale test equipment, and it was determined that scale-up of the process was warranted. A larger, skid-mounted test unit was therefore designed, constructed, and installed on a sidestream of the DOE/METC fixed-bed gasifier. A first series of tests was conducted during Gasifier Run 101. These tests served to shake down the test unit, and provide data on the performance of the test unit operating on coal-derived gas. Overall, the process operated well on fixed-bed, air-blown gasifier gas. Sulfur levels in exit dry gas were reduced to less than 10 ppM. Regeneration appears to restore the sulfur-removing capacity of the sorbent. Sorbent integrity was maintained during the test period, which incorporated three sulfidations. It is recommended that treatment of the regeneration offgas be investigated, and that testing and development of a system to reduce the sulfur in this gas to elemental sulfur be initiated. In addition, it is suggested that a multiple reactor system be planned for continuous operation, to allow for long-term tests of downstream users of desulfurized gas. 7 references, 18 figures, 9 tables.

  1. The Stability of Lubricant Oil Acidity of Biogas Fuelled Engine due to Biogas Desulfurization (United States)

    Gde Tirta Nindhia, Tjokorda; Wayan Surata, I.; Wardana, Ari


    This research is established for the purpose of the understanding the stability of the acidity of lubricant oil in biogas fuelled engine due to the absence of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). As was recognized that other than Methane (CH4), there are also other gas impurities in the biogas such as carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), moisture (H2O) and ammonia (NH3). Due to H2S contents in the biogas fuel, the engine was found failure. This is caused by corrosion in the combustion chamber due to increase of lubricant acidity. To overcome this problem in practical, the lubricant is increased the pH to basic level with the hope will be decrease to normal value after several time use. Other method is by installing pH measurement sensor in the engine lubricant so that when lubricant is known turn to be acid, then lubricant replacement should be done. In this research, the effect of biogas desulfurization down to zero level to the acidity of lubricant oil in the four stroke engine was carried out with the hope that neutral lubrication oil to be available during running the engine. The result indicates that by eliminating H2S due desulfurization process, effect on stability and neutrality of pH lubricant. By this method the engine safety can be obtained without often replacement the lubricant oil.

  2. Three-dimensional interconnected nickel phosphide networks with hollow microstructures and desulfurization performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shuna, E-mail: [College of Textile Engineering, Zhejiang Industry Polytechnic College, Shaoxing 312000 (China); Zhang, Shujuan [College of Science, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Song, Limin, E-mail: [College of Environment and Chemical Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Hollow-Fiber Membrane Materials and Membrane Processes, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Wu, Xiaoqing [Institute of Composite Materials and Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Composite Materials, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Fang, Sheng, E-mail: [College of Environment and Chemical Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Hollow-Fiber Membrane Materials and Membrane Processes, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China)


    Graphical abstract: Three-dimensional interconnected nickel phosphide networks with hollow microstructures and desulfurization performance. - Highlights: • Three-dimensional Ni{sub 2}P has been prepared using foam nickel as a template. • The microstructures interconnected and formed sponge-like porous networks. • Three-dimensional Ni{sub 2}P shows superior hydrodesulfurization activity. - Abstract: Three-dimensional microstructured nickel phosphide (Ni{sub 2}P) was fabricated by the reaction between foam nickel (Ni) and phosphorus red. The as-prepared Ni{sub 2}P samples, as interconnected networks, maintained the original mesh structure of foamed nickel. The crystal structure and morphology of the as-synthesized Ni{sub 2}P were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, automatic mercury porosimetry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The SEM study showed adjacent hollow branches were mutually interconnected to form sponge-like networks. The investigation on pore structure provided detailed information for the hollow microstructures. The growth mechanism for the three-dimensionally structured Ni{sub 2}P was postulated and discussed in detail. To investigate its catalytic properties, SiO{sub 2} supported three-dimensional Ni{sub 2}P was prepared successfully and evaluated for the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT). DBT molecules were mostly hydrogenated and then desulfurized by Ni{sub 2}P/SiO{sub 2}.

  3. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products: Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.


    New flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Generally, dry FGD by-products are treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. Provided the environmental impacts are socially and scientifically acceptable, beneficial uses via recycling can provide economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD. A study titled ''Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products'' was initiated in December, 1990 to develop and demonstrate large volume, beneficial uses of FGD by-products. Phase 1 and Phase 2 reports have been published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA. Phase 3 objectives were to demonstrate, using field studies, the beneficial uses of FGD by-products (1) as an amendment material on agricultural lands and on abandoned surface coal mine land, (2) as an engineering material for soil stabilization and raid repair, and (3) to assess the environmental and economic impacts of such beneficial uses. Application of dry FGD by-product to three soils in place of agricultural limestone increased alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn (Zea may L.) yields. No detrimental effects on soil and plant quality were observed.

  4. Thermostabilization of desulfurization enzymes from Rhodococcos sp. IGTS8. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Kilbane II


    The objective of this project was to develop thermophilic cultures capable of expressing the desulfurization (dsz) operon of Rhodococcus sp. IGTS8. The approaches taken in this project included the development of plasmid and integrative expression vectors that function well in Thermus thermophilus, the cloning of Rhodococcus dsz genes in Thermus expression vectors, and the isolation of bacterial cultures that express the dsz operon at thermophilic temperatures. This project has resulted in the development of plasmid and integrative expression vectors for use in T. thermophilus. The dsz genes have been expressed at moderately thermophilic temperatures (52 C) in Mycobacterium phlei and at temperatures as high as 72 C in T. thermophilus. The tools and methods developed in this project will be generally useful for the expression of heterologous genes in Thermus. Key developments in the project have been the isolation of a Mycobacterium phlei culture capable of expressing the desulfurization operon at 52 C, development of plasmid and integrative expression vectors for Thermus thermophilus, and the development of a host-vector system based on the malate dehydrogenase gene that allows plasmids to be stably maintained in T. thermophilus and provides a convenient reporter gene for the accurate quantification of gene expression. Publications have been prepared regarding each of these topics; these preprints are included.

  5. Oxidative desulfurization of model diesel via dual activation by a protic ionic liquid. (United States)

    Lü, Hongying; Wang, Shunan; Deng, Changliang; Ren, Wanzhong; Guo, Baocun


    A novel and green carboxylate-anion-based protic ionic liquid (PIL), [Hnmp]HCOO, was prepared through a simple and atom economic neutralization reaction between N-methyl-2-pyrrolidonium (NMP) and formic acids. Both FT-IR spectra and (1)H NMR confirmed its simple salt structure. [Hnmp]HCOO exhibited so high catalytic activity that the dibenzothiophene (DBT) removal reached 99% at 50°C in 3h under conditions of VPIL/Vmodel oil=1:10 and H2O2/DBT (O/S, molar ratio)=5. The catalytic oxidation reactivity of S-compounds was found to be in the order of DBT>4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT)>benzothiophene (BT). The investigation on mechanism showed that oxidative desulfurization was realized through dual activation of PIL. Moreover, [Hnmp]HCOO can be recycled for five times with an unnoticeable decrease in desulfurization activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Desulfurization of Cysteine-Containing Peptides Resulting from Sample Preparation for Protein Characterization by MS (United States)

    Wang, Zhouxi; Rejtar, Tomas; Zhou, Zhaohui Sunny; Karger, Barry L.


    In this paper, we have examined two cysteine modifications resulting from sample preparation for protein characterization by MS: (1) a previously observed conversion of cysteine to dehydroalanine, now found in the case of disulfide mapping and (2) a novel modification corresponding to conversion of cysteine to alanine. Using model peptides, the conversion of cysteine to dehydroalanine via β-elimination of a disulfide bond was seen to result from the conditions of typical tryptic digestion (37 °C, pH 7.0– 9.0) without disulfide reduction and alkylation.. Furthermore, the surprising conversion of cysteine to alanine was shown to occur by heating cysteine containing peptides in the presence of a phosphine (TCEP). The formation of alanine from cysteine, investigated by performing experiments in H2O or D2O, suggested a radical-based desulfurization mechanism unrelated to β-elimination. Importantly, an understanding of the mechanism and conditions favorable for cysteine desulfurization provides insight for the establishment of improved sample preparation procedures of protein analysis. PMID:20049891

  7. Ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization and denitrogenation of liquid hydrocarbon fuels: A critical review. (United States)

    Ja'fari, Mahsa; Ebrahimi, Seyedeh Leila; Khosravi-Nikou, Mohammad Reza


    Nowadays, a continuously worldwide concern for development of process to produce ultra-low sulfur and nitrogen fuels have been emerged. Typical hydrodesulfurization and hydrodenitrogenation technology deals with important difficulties such as high pressure and temperature operating condition, failure to treat some recalcitrant compounds and limitations to meet the stringent environmental regulations. In contrary an advanced oxidation process that is ultrasound assisted oxidative desulfurization and denitrogenation satisfies latest environmental regulations in much milder conditions with more efficiency. The present work deals with a comprehensive review on findings and development in the ultrasound assisted oxidative desulfurization and denitrogenation (UAOD) during the last decades. The role of individual parameters namely temperature, residence time, ultrasound power and frequency, pH, initial concentration and types of sulfur and nitrogen compounds on the efficiency are described. What's more another treatment properties that is role of phase transfer agent (PTA) and solvents of extraction step, reaction kinetics, mechanism of the ultrasound, fuel properties and recovery in UAOD are reviewed. Finally, the required future works to mature this technology are suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A potassium tert-butoxide and hydrosilane system for ultra-deep desulfurization of fuels (United States)

    Toutov, Anton A.; Salata, Mike; Fedorov, Alexey; Yang, Yun-Fang; Liang, Yong; Cariou, Renan; Betz, Kerry N.; Couzijn, Erik P. A.; Shabaker, John W.; Houk, Kendall N.; Grubbs, Robert H.


    Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) is the process by which sulfur-containing impurities are removed from petroleum streams, typically using a heterogeneous, sulfided transition metal catalyst under high H2 pressures and temperatures. Although generally effective, a major obstacle that remains is the desulfurization of highly refractory sulfur-containing heterocycles, such as 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-Me2DBT), which are naturally occurring in fossil fuels. Homogeneous HDS strategies using well-defined molecular catalysts have been designed to target these recalcitrant S-heterocycles; however, the formation of stable transition metal sulfide complexes following C-S bond activation has largely prevented catalytic turnover. Here we show that a robust potassium (K) alkoxide (O)/hydrosilane (Si)-based ('KOSi') system efficiently desulfurizes refractory sulfur heterocycles. Subjecting sulfur-rich diesel (that is, [S] ∼ 10,000 ppm) to KOSi conditions results in a fuel with [S] ∼ 2 ppm, surpassing ambitious future governmental regulatory goals set for fuel sulfur content in all countries.

  9. Aerobic desulfurization of biogas by acidic biotrickling filtration in a randomly packed reactor. (United States)

    Montebello, Andrea M; Mora, Mabel; López, Luis R; Bezerra, Tercia; Gamisans, Xavier; Lafuente, Javier; Baeza, Mireia; Gabriel, David


    Biotrickling filters for biogas desulfurization still must prove their stability and robustness in the long run under extreme conditions. Long-term desulfurization of high loads of H2S under acidic pH was studied in a lab-scale aerobic biotrickling filter packed with metallic Pall rings. Reference operating conditions at steady-state corresponded to an empty bed residence time (EBRT) of 130s, H2S loading rate of 52gS-H2Sm(-3)h(-1) and pH 2.50-2.75. The EBRT reduction showed that the critical EBRT was 75s and the maximum EC 100gS-H2Sm(-3)h(-1). Stepwise increases of the inlet H2S concentration up to 10,000 ppmv lead to a maximum EC of 220gS-H2Sm(-3)h(-1). The H2S removal profile along the filter bed indicated that the first third of the filter bed was responsible for 70-80% of the total H2S removal. The oxidation rate of solid sulfur accumulated inside the bioreactor during periodical H2S starvation episodes was verified under acidic operating conditions. The performance under acidic pH was comparable to that under neutral pH in terms of H2S removal capacity. However, bioleaching of the metallic packing used as support and chemical precipitation of sulfide/sulfur salts occurred. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Desulfurization of 4-methyl dibenzothiophene using titanium supported Keggin type polyoxometalate (United States)

    Lesbani, Aldes; Anggraini, Ana; Mohadi, Risfidian; Rohendi, Dedi; Said, Muhammad


    Titanium supported Keggin type polyoxometalate H5PV2Mo10O40.nH2O has been prepared using tetra isopropyl orthotitanate by sol-gel method and microemulsion to form H5PV2Mo10O40/TiO2. Compound H5PV2Mo10O40.nH2O/TiO2 was characterized using FTTR spectroscopy, X-Ray analysis, and acidity measurement. FTTR spectrum showed that all vibration of titanium and polyoxometalate were appeared in H5PV2Mo10O40.nH2O/TiO2 with decreasing crystallinity. The acidity of H5PV2Mo10O40.nH2O/TiO2 was higher than H5PV2Mo10O40.nH2O. Desulfurization of 4-methyl dibenzothiophene (4-MDBT) using H5PV2Mo10O40.nH2O/TiO2 as catalyst resulted conversion of 4-MDBT was 99% and higher than desulfurization using H5PV2Mo10O40.nH2O under mild conditions.

  11. HPC Institutional Computing Project: W15_lesreactiveflow KIVA-hpFE Development: A Robust and Accurate Engine Modeling Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrington, David Bradley [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Waters, Jiajia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    KIVA-hpFE is a high performance computer software for solving the physics of multi-species and multiphase turbulent reactive flow in complex geometries having immersed moving parts. The code is written in Fortran 90/95 and can be used on any computer platform with any popular complier. The code is in two versions, a serial version and a parallel version utilizing MPICH2 type Message Passing Interface (MPI or Intel MPI) for solving distributed domains. The parallel version is at least 30x faster than the serial version and much faster than our previous generation of parallel engine modeling software, by many factors. The 5th generation algorithm construction is a Galerkin type Finite Element Method (FEM) solving conservative momentum, species, and energy transport equations along with two-equation turbulent model k-ω Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model and a Vreman type dynamic Large Eddy Simulation (LES) method. The LES method is capable modeling transitional flow from laminar to fully turbulent; therefore, this LES method does not require special hybrid or blending to walls. The FEM projection method also uses a Petrov-Galerkin (P-G) stabilization along with pressure stabilization. We employ hierarchical basis sets, constructed on the fly with enrichment in areas associated with relatively larger error as determined by error estimation methods. In addition, when not using the hp-adaptive module, the code employs Lagrangian basis or shape functions. The shape functions are constructed for hexahedral, prismatic and tetrahedral elements. The software is designed to solve many types of reactive flow problems, from burners to internal combustion engines and turbines. In addition, the formulation allows for direct integration of solid bodies (conjugate heat transfer), as in heat transfer through housings, parts, cylinders. It can also easily be extended to stress modeling of solids, used in fluid structure interactions problems, solidification, porous media

  12. Effects of foaming and antifoaming agents on the performance of a wet flue gas desulfurization pilot plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Siqiang; Hansen, Brian Brun; Kiil, Søren


    Foaming is a common phenomenon in industrial processes, including wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) plants. A systemic investigation of the influence of two foaming agents, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and egg white albumin (protein), and two commercial antifoams on a wet FGD pilot plant...

  13. Synthesis, Characterization and Application of 1-Butyl-3 Methylimidazolium Chloride as Green Material for Extractive Desulfurization of Liquid Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil A. Dharaskar


    Full Text Available The possible application of imidazolium ionic liquids as energy-efficient green material for extractive deep desulfurization of liquid fuel has been investigated. 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [BMIM]Cl was synthesized by nucleophilic substitution reaction of n-methylimidazolium and 1-chlorobutane. Molecular structures of the ILs were confirmed by FTIR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR. The thermal properties, conductivity, solubility, water content and viscosity analysis of [BMIM]Cl were carried out. The effects of reaction time, reaction temperature, sulfur compounds, and recycling of IL without regeneration on dibenzothiophene removal of liquid fuel were presented. In the extractive desulfurization process, the removal of dibenzothiophene in n-dodecane using [BMIM]Cl was 81% with mass ratio of 1 : 1, in 30 min at 30°C under the mild reaction conditions. Also, desulfurization of real fuels with IL and multistage extraction were studied. The results of this work might offer significant insights in the perceptive use of imidazoled ILs as energy-efficient green material for extractive deep desulfurization of liquid fuels as it can be reused without regeneration with considerable extraction efficiency.

  14. Mercury emission and plant uptake of trace elements during early stage of soil amendment using flue gas desulfurization materials. (United States)

    A pilot-scale field study was carried out to investigate the distribution of Hg and other selected elements in the three potential mitigation pathways, i.e., emission to ambient air, uptake by surface vegetation (i.e., grass), and rainfall infiltration, after flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material ...

  15. Desulfurization characteristics of rapidly hydrated sorbents with various adhesive carrier particles for a semidry CFB-FGD system. (United States)

    You, Changfu; Li, Yuan


    Semidry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) experiments were conducted using rapidly hydrated sorbents with four different adhesive carrier particles: circulation ash from a circulating fluidized bed boiler (CFBB circulation ash), fly ash from the first electrical field of the electrostatic precipitator of a circulating fluidized bed boiler (CFBB ESP ash), fly ash from a chain boiler (chain boiler ash), and river sand smaller than 1 mm. The influences of various adhesive carrier particles and operating conditions on the desulfurization characteristics of the sorbents were investigated, including sprayed water, reaction temperature, and the ratio of calcium to sulfur (Ca/S). The experimental results indicated that the rapidly hydrated sorbents had better desulfurization characteristics by using adhesive carrier particles which possessed better pore, adhesion, and fluidization characteristics. The desulfurization efficiency of the system increased as the reaction temperature decreased, it improved from 35% to 90% as the mass flow rate of the sprayed water increased from 0 to 10 kg/h, and it increased from 65.6% to 82.7% as Ca/S increased from 1.0 to 2.0. Based on these findings, a new semidry circulating fluidized bed (CFB)-FGD system using rapidly hydrated sorbent was developed. Using the rapidly hydrated sorbent, this system uses a cyclone separator instead of an ESP or a bag filter to recycle the sorbent particles, thereby decreasing the system flow resistance, saving investment and operating costs of the solids collection equipment.

  16. Structural Elucidation of DNA-Protein Crosslinks Using Reductive Desulfurization and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    Wickramaratne, Susith


    Structural characterization of DNA-protein crosslinks involving cysteine using reductive desulfurization in combination with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry is highlighted. The novel approach was used to identify hydrolytically stable DNA-protein lesions involving alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase (AGT). PMID:24436288

  17. Synthesis, characterization and application of 1-butyl-3 methylimidazolium chloride as green material for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel. (United States)

    Dharaskar, Swapnil A; Varma, Mahesh N; Shende, Diwakar Z; Yoo, Chang Kyoo; Wasewar, Kailas L


    The possible application of imidazolium ionic liquids as energy-efficient green material for extractive deep desulfurization of liquid fuel has been investigated. 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [BMIM]Cl was synthesized by nucleophilic substitution reaction of n-methylimidazolium and 1-chlorobutane. Molecular structures of the ILs were confirmed by FTIR, (1)H-NMR, and (13)C-NMR. The thermal properties, conductivity, solubility, water content and viscosity analysis of [BMIM]Cl were carried out. The effects of reaction time, reaction temperature, sulfur compounds, and recycling of IL without regeneration on dibenzothiophene removal of liquid fuel were presented. In the extractive desulfurization process, the removal of dibenzothiophene in n-dodecane using [BMIM]Cl was 81% with mass ratio of 1 : 1, in 30 min at 30°C under the mild reaction conditions. Also, desulfurization of real fuels with IL and multistage extraction were studied. The results of this work might offer significant insights in the perceptive use of imidazoled ILs as energy-efficient green material for extractive deep desulfurization of liquid fuels as it can be reused without regeneration with considerable extraction efficiency.

  18. High H2O-resistance CaO-MnOx/MSU-H sorbents for hot coal gas desulfurization. (United States)

    Xia, Hong; Liu, Bingsi


    A series of xMnyCa/MSU-H sorbents with various Mn/Ca molar ratio were first designed and synthesized with a sol-gel method. The desulfurization performance of the new sorbent was investigated at 600-800°C in hot coal gas. 90Mn10Ca/MSU-H exhibited better desulfurization performance at 750°C with a breakthrough sulfur capacity (BSC) of 18.69g S/100g sorbent compared to other supported Mn-based sorbents (13.2g S/100g sorbent) in similar desulfurization condition, and strong durability in multiple sulfidation-regeneration cycles using oxidation/reduction regeneration method which resolved the scientific issue of that CaSO4 is hardly decomposed to CaO. The introduction of Ca species effectively promoted the dispersion of active constituents, which improved the desulfurization activity. More importantly, 90Mn10Ca/MSU-H showed excellent H2O-resistance ability due to the fact that CaO enhanced the sorption of H2O. Moreover, the utilization of MSU-H with large pore size and excellent thermal stability effectively assured fast mass-transfer and confined the migration of active particles, which led to long lifetime stability of sorbents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of Leaching Conditions on Constituents Release from Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum (FGDG) and FGDG-Soil Mixture (United States)

    The interest in using Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum(FGDG) has increased recently. This study evaluates the leaching characteristics of trace elements in "modern" FGDG (produced after fly ash removal) and FGDG-mixed soil (SF) under different environmental conditions using rece...

  20. Deep desulfurization by amphiphilic lanthanide-containing polyoxometalates in ionic-liquid emulsion systems under mild conditions. (United States)

    Xu, Junhua; Zhao, Shen; Ji, Yuanchun; Song, Yu-Fei


    Amphiphilic lanthanide-containing polyoxometalates (POMs) were prepared by surfactant encapsulation. Investigation of these lanthanide-containing POMs in oxidative desulfurization (ODS) showed that highly efficient deep desulfurization could be achieved in only 14 min with 100% conversion of dibenzothiophene under mild conditions by using (DDA)(9)LaW(10)/[omim]PF(6) (DDA=dimethyldioctadecylammonium, omim=1-octyl-3-methyl-imidazolium) in the presence of H(2) O(2) . Furthermore, deep desulfurization proceeds smoothly in model oil with an S content as low as 50 ppm. A scaled-up experiment in which the volume of model oil was increased from 5 to 1000 mL with S content of 1000 ppm indicated that about 99% sulfur removal can be achieved in 40 mins in an ionic-liquid emulsion system. To the best of our knowledge, the (DDA)(9)LaW(10)/[omim]PF(6) catalyst system with H(2)O(2) as oxidant is one of the most efficient desulfurization systems reported so far. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. A green surfactant-assisted synthesis of hierarchical TS-1 zeolites with excellent catalytic properties for oxidative desulfurization. (United States)

    Du, Shuting; Li, Fen; Sun, Qiming; Wang, Ning; Jia, Mingjun; Yu, Jihong


    Hierarchical TS-1 zeolites with uniform intracrystalline mesopores have been successfully synthesized through the hydrothermal method by using the green and cheap surfactant Triton X-100 as the mesoporous template. The resultant materials exhibit remarkably enhanced catalytic activity in oxidative desulfurization reactions compared to the conventional TS-1 zeolite.

  2. Paleomagnetism of the Mississippian HP pipe and the western margin of the North American craton (United States)

    Symons, D. T. A.; Lewchuk, M. T.

    The HP pipe is a small oval (80m×40m) kimberlitic diatreme near Golden, B.C., in the fold-and-thrust belt of the Rocky Mountains. The pipe intrudes gently-dipping (˜10°S) Late Cambrian to Middle Ordovician limestones with nearly vertical contacts. It is comprised of carbonate breccia fragments and pyroxenite nodules in a light-green serpentine matrix and gives a Rb-Sr age of 348±7 Ma. A later phase of dark-green dikes cut the breccia and adjacent limestones. AF and thermal step demagnetization of 168 specimens from 42 oriented blocks was done using an automated cryogenic magnetometer in a shielded room for remanence measurement. The diatreme breccia and dikes retain a stable A remanence component after thermal cleaning above ˜400°C and AF cleaning above ˜20 mT. Their combined mean direction of 129.8°, -44.3° (α95 = 6.5°) after tilt correction gives a concordant Mississippian pole position of 138.5°E, 44.5°N (Dp = 5.1°, Dm = 8.2°). The limestones provide a positive contact test by giving a stable B component direction of 114.4°, -22.7° (α95 = 12.4°) with a concordant Late Cambrian to Middle Ordovician pole of 141.0°E, 24.3°N (δp = 7.0°, δm = 13.3°). These concordant poles indicate that the fold-and-thrust belt is part of the North American craton. Thus the suture with allochthonous terranes to the west must be located at or west of the Rocky Mountain Trench. Both the diatreme and limestones retain a low-coercivity and unblocking-temperature C component, isolated by vector subtraction without tilt correction, that records a minor overprint from the Laramide Orogeny combined with Pleistocene viscous remanence.

  3. LEO to GEO (and Beyond) Transfers Using High Power Solar Electric Propulsion (HP-SEP) (United States)

    Loghry, Christopher S.; Oleson, Steven R.; Woytach, Jeffrey M.; Martini, Michael C.; Smith, David A.; Fittje, James E.; Gyekenyesi, John Z.; Colozza, Anthony J.; Fincannon, James; Bogner, Aimee; hide


    Rideshare, or Multi-Payload launch configurations, are becoming more and more commonplace but access to space is only one part of the overall mission needs. The ability for payloads to achieve their target orbits or destinations can still be difficult and potentially not feasible with on-board propulsion limitations. The High Power Solar Electric Propulsion (HP-SEP) Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) provides transfer capabilities for both large and small payload in excess of what is possible with chemical propulsion. Leveraging existing secondary payload adapter technology like the ESPA provides a platform to support Multi-Payload launch and missions. When coupled with HP-SEP, meaning greater than 30 kW system power, very large delta-V maneuvers can be accomplished. The HP-SEP OMV concept is designed to perform a Low Earth Orbit to Geosynchronous Orbit (LEO-GEO) transfer of up to six payloads each with 300kg mass. The OMV has enough capability to perform this 6 kms maneuver and have residual capacity to extend an additional transfer from GEO to Lunar orbit. This high deltaV capability is achieved using state of the art 12.5kW Hall Effect Thrusters (HET) coupled with high power roll up solar arrays. The HP-SEP OMV also provides a demonstration platform for other SEP technologies such as advanced Power Processing Units (PPU), Xenon Feed Systems (XFS), and other HET technologies. The HP-SEP OMV platform can be leveraged for other missions as well such as interplanetary science missions and applications for resilient space architectures.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Nylo de Aguiar


    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the kinetics and thermodynamics of marble residue mixtures utilisation on desulfurization of pig iron. The desulfurization was carried out using lime, marble residue, fluorite and pig iron. Different mixtures of these materials were added into a bath of pig iron at 1,450°C. Metal samples were collected via vacuum samplers at times of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 minutes, in order to check the variation of sulfur content. Based on the results of chemical analysis of the metal and the desulfurizer mixture, the sulfide capacity of mixtures, the sulfur partition coefficient and the sulfur mass transport coefficient values were calculated.The results show the technical feasibility of using marble waste as desulfurizer agent.

  5. Aerobic desulfurization of biogas by acidic biotrickling filtration in a randomly packed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montebello, Andrea M.; Mora, Mabel; López, Luis R.; Bezerra, Tercia [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Gamisans, Xavier [Department of Mining Engineering and Natural Resources, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Bases de Manresa 61-73, 08240 Manresa (Spain); Lafuente, Javier [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Baeza, Mireia [Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Gabriel, David, E-mail: [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)


    Highlights: • Desulfurization of high loads of H{sub 2}S is feasible by acidic biotrickling filtration. • Robustness of the process is demonstrated in the long-term (550 d). • Biosulfur to sulfate oxidation under H{sub 2}S starvation was successfully performed. • Lower sulfate production found at acidic pH compared to that at neutral pH. • Plastic material is recommended for long-term acidic biotrickling filtration. - Abstract: Biotrickling filters for biogas desulfurization still must prove their stability and robustness in the long run under extreme conditions. Long-term desulfurization of high loads of H{sub 2}S under acidic pH was studied in a lab-scale aerobic biotrickling filter packed with metallic Pall rings. Reference operating conditions at steady-state corresponded to an empty bed residence time (EBRT) of 130 s, H{sub 2}S loading rate of 52 g S–H{sub 2}S m{sup −3} h{sup −1} and pH 2.50–2.75. The EBRT reduction showed that the critical EBRT was 75 s and the maximum EC 100 g S–H{sub 2}S m{sup −3} h{sup −1}. Stepwise increases of the inlet H{sub 2}S concentration up to 10,000 ppm{sub v} lead to a maximum EC of 220 g S–H{sub 2}S m{sup −3} h{sup −1}. The H{sub 2}S removal profile along the filter bed indicated that the first third of the filter bed was responsible for 70–80% of the total H{sub 2}S removal. The oxidation rate of solid sulfur accumulated inside the bioreactor during periodical H{sub 2}S starvation episodes was verified under acidic operating conditions. The performance under acidic pH was comparable to that under neutral pH in terms of H{sub 2}S removal capacity. However, bioleaching of the metallic packing used as support and chemical precipitation of sulfide/sulfur salts occurred.

  6. Identification and characterization of a nuclear localization signal of TRIM28 that overlaps with the HP1 box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyama, Tetsuji; Sangel, Percival [Laboratory of Nuclear Transport Dynamics, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition (NIBIOHN), Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Hiroki [School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Obuse, Chikashi [Graduate School of Life Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan); Miyamoto, Yoichi [Laboratory of Nuclear Transport Dynamics, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition (NIBIOHN), Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Oka, Masahiro, E-mail: [Laboratory of Nuclear Transport Dynamics, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition (NIBIOHN), Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Laboratory of Biomedical Innovation, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yoneda, Yoshihiro, E-mail: [National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition (NIBIOHN), Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Laboratory of Biomedical Innovation, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)


    Tripartite motif-containing 28 (TRIM28) is a transcription regulator, which forms a repressor complex containing heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1). Here, we report identification of a nuclear localization signal (NLS) within the 462-494 amino acid region of TRIM28 that overlaps with its HP1 binding site, HP1 box. GST-pulldown experiments revealed the interaction of the arginine-rich TRIM28 NLS with various importin α subtypes (α1, α2 and α4). In vitro transport assay demonstrated that nuclear localization of GFP-TRIM28 NLS is mediated by importin αs, in conjunction with importin β1 and Ran. Further, we demonstrated that HP1 and importin αs compete for binding to TRIM28. Together, our findings suggest that importin α has an essential role in the nuclear delivery and preferential HP1 interaction of TRIM28. - Highlights: • TRIM28 contains an NLS within the 462-494 amino acid region. • The nuclear import of TRIM28 is mediated by importin α/importin β1. • TRIM28 NLS overlaps with HP1 Box. • HP1 and importin α compete for binding to TRIM28.

  7. HP30-2, a mitochondrial PRAT protein for import of signal sequence-less precursor proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. (United States)

    Rossig, Claudia; Gray, John; Valdes, Oscar; Rustgi, Sachin; von Wettstein, Diter; Reinbothe, Christiane; Reinbothe, Steffen


    Chloroplasts and mitochondria contain a family of putative preprotein and amino acid transporters designated PRAT. Here, we analyzed the role of two previously characterized PRAT protein family members, encoded by At3g49560 (HP30) and At5g24650 (HP30-2), in planta using a combination of genetic, cell biological and biochemical approaches. Expression studies and green fluorescent protein tagging identified HP30-2 both in chloroplasts and mitochondria, whereas HP30 was located exclusively in chloroplasts. Biochemical evidence was obtained for an association of mitochondrial HP30-2 with two distinct protein complexes, one containing the inner membrane translocase TIM22 and the other containing an alternative NAD(P)H dehydrogenase subunit (NDC1) implicated in a respiratory complex 1-like electron transport chain. Through its association with TIM22, HP30-2 is involved in the uptake of carrier proteins and other, hydrophobic membrane proteins lacking cleavable NH2 -terminal presequences, whereas HP30-2's interaction with NDC1 may permit controlling mitochondrial biogenesis and activity. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. Single-molecule kinetic analysis of HP1-chromatin binding reveals a dynamic network of histone modification and DNA interactions. (United States)

    Bryan, Louise C; Weilandt, Daniel R; Bachmann, Andreas L; Kilic, Sinan; Lechner, Carolin C; Odermatt, Pascal D; Fantner, Georg E; Georgeon, Sandrine; Hantschel, Oliver; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily; Fierz, Beat


    Chromatin recruitment of effector proteins involved in gene regulation depends on multivalent interaction with histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) and structural features of the chromatin fiber. Due to the complex interactions involved, it is currently not understood how effectors dynamically sample the chromatin landscape. Here, we dissect the dynamic chromatin interactions of a family of multivalent effectors, heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) proteins, using single-molecule fluorescence imaging and computational modeling. We show that the three human HP1 isoforms are recruited and retained on chromatin by a dynamic exchange between histone PTM and DNA bound states. These interactions depend on local chromatin structure, the HP1 isoforms as well as on PTMs on HP1 itself. Of the HP1 isoforms, HP1α exhibits the longest residence times and fastest binding rates due to DNA interactions in addition to PTM binding. HP1α phosphorylation further increases chromatin retention through strengthening of multivalency while reducing DNA binding. As DNA binding in combination with specific PTM recognition is found in many chromatin effectors, we propose a general dynamic capture mechanism for effector recruitment. Multiple weak protein and DNA interactions result in a multivalent interaction network that targets effectors to a specific chromatin modification state, where their activity is required. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Fuzzy physical programming for Space Manoeuvre Vehicles trajectory optimization based on hp-adaptive pseudospectral method (United States)

    Chai, Runqi; Savvaris, Al; Tsourdos, Antonios


    In this paper, a fuzzy physical programming (FPP) method has been introduced for solving multi-objective Space Manoeuvre Vehicles (SMV) skip trajectory optimization problem based on hp-adaptive pseudospectral methods. The dynamic model of SMV is elaborated and then, by employing hp-adaptive pseudospectral methods, the problem has been transformed to nonlinear programming (NLP) problem. According to the mission requirements, the solutions were calculated for each single-objective scenario. To get a compromised solution for each target, the fuzzy physical programming (FPP) model is proposed. The preference function is established with considering the fuzzy factor of the system such that a proper compromised trajectory can be acquired. In addition, the NSGA-II is tested to obtain the Pareto-optimal solution set and verify the Pareto optimality of the FPP solution. Simulation results indicate that the proposed method is effective and feasible in terms of dealing with the multi-objective skip trajectory optimization for the SMV.

  10. Genetic polymorphism of AHSG, FXIIIB, HP and PLG serum proteins in six Jewish groups in Israel. (United States)

    Cleve, H; Nevo, S; Oppong-Nketiah, M; Schröder, M; Cleve, B; Nabulsi, A J; Chopra, V


    The allelic distribution of the polymorphic serum proteins AHSG, PLG, FXIIIB and HP was studied in six Jewish groups who migrated to Israel from the Middle East, North Africa, Rumania, Bulgaria, Central and Eastern Europe. The observed AHSG and PLG allele frequencies in these Jewish groups were more or less similar to the observed distributions in non-Jewish populations from their respective areas of origin, while FXIIIB and HP frequencies were similar to those in European populations. Therefore, no uniform pattern of genetic relationships between the Jewish groups was observed. A genetic distance analysis including comparative data from Europe and the Middle East reflected differences between the Jewish groups according to their areas of origin.

  11. Testování a test reporting v nástroji HP ALM


    Hoffmann, Patrik


    Bachelor thesis is devoted to detailed analysis of an issue of software testing, test reporting and quality assurance which is an integral part of software development. The main objective of this bachelor thesis is to elaborate on the importance of test reporting and report creation in HP Application Lifecycle Management tool. Expected contribution of this thesis is the possibility to utilize the information included as a tutorial for report and dashboard creation as a supportive role for tes...

  12. Substructuring preconditioners for an h-p domain decomposition method with interior penalty mortaring

    KAUST Repository

    Antonietti, P. F.


    We propose and study an iterative substructuring method for an h-p Nitsche-type discretization, following the original approach introduced in Bramble et al. Math. Comp. 47(175):103–134, (1986) for conforming methods. We prove quasi-optimality with respect to the mesh size and the polynomial degree for the proposed preconditioner. Numerical experiments assess the performance of the preconditioner and verify the theory. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Italia.

  13. Investigation of the $^{8}$Li($^{2}$H,p)$^{9}$Li Reaction at REX-ISOLDE

    CERN Multimedia


    We propose to investigate the $^{8}$Li($^{2}$H,p )$^{9}$Li reaction at REX-ISOLDE. The main aim is to test a recently found discrepancy in extracted spectroscopic factors for this reaction. As a byproduct we will obtain improved data relevant for predictions of the $^{8}$Li(n,$\\gamma$)$^{9}$Li rate in inhomogeneous nucleosynthesis. For the full experiment including beam tuning and background measurements we ask for 13 shifts.

  14. Simulation of marine controlled source electromagnetic measurements using a parallel fourier hp-finite element method


    Pardo D.; Nam M.J.; Torres-Verdín C.; Hoversten M.G.; Garay Iñ.


    We introduce a new numerical method to simulate geophysical marine controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) measurements for the case of 2D structures and finite 3D sources of electromagnetic (EM) excitation. The method of solution is based on a spatial discretization that combines a 1D Fourier transform with a 2D self-adaptive, goal-oriented, hp-Finite element method. It enables fast and accurate simulations for a variety of important, challenging and practical cases of marine CSEM acquisiti...

  15. Plant and soil responses to field-applied flue gas desulfurization residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloan, J.J.; Dowdy, R.H.; Dolan, M.S.; Rehm, G.W. [University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). Dept. of Soil, Water and Climate, USDA-ARS


    The objective of this study was to document the availability of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) residue-borne boron (B), sulfur (S), and molybdenum (Mo) for alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) uptake when applied at agronomic rates to marginally B deficient soils. The FGD residue was applied at rates of 0, 0.46 and 3.75 Mg ha{sup -1} on a silt loam soil immediately prior to alfalfa seeding. Alfalfa yields were unaffected by these rates of residue applications, but shoot concentrations of B and S in the second cutting, and B, S and Mo in the third cutting were increased by residue applications. Hence, FGD residue is a readily available B source, particularly later in the growing season when native soil B availability decreased. 31 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Microbial desulfurization of gasoline by free whole-cells of Rhodococcus erythropolis XP. (United States)

    Yu, Bo; Ma, Cuiqing; Zhou, Wenjuan; Wang, Ying; Cai, Xiaofeng; Tao, Fei; Zhang, Quan; Tong, Mingyou; Qu, Jingyao; Xu, Ping


    Rhodococcus erythropolis XP could grow well with condensed thiophenes, mono-thiophenic compounds and mercaptans present in gasoline. Rhodococcus erythropolis XP was also capable of efficiently degrading the condensed thiophenes in resting cell as well as biphasic reactions in which n-octane served as a model oil phase. Free whole cells of R. erythropolis XP were adopted to desulfurize fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) and straight-run (SR) gasoline oils. About 30% of the sulfur content of FCC gasoline and 85% of sulfur in SR gasoline were reduced, respectively. Gas chromatography analysis with atomic emission detection also showed depletion of sulfur compounds in SR gasoline. Rhodococcus erythropolis XP could partly resist the toxicity of gasoline and had an application potential to biodesulfurization of gasoline.

  17. A novel [Bmim]PW/HMS catalyst with high catalytic performance for the oxidative desulfurization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Ling; Luo, Guangqing; Kang, Lihua; Zhu, Mingyuan; Dai, Bin [Shihezi University, Shihezi (China)


    To effectively reduce the sulfur content in model fuel, [Bmim]PW/HMS catalyst was synthesized through impregnating the hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS) support by phosphotungstic acid (HPW) and ionic liquid [Bmim] HSO{sub 4}. Physical structure characterizations of the catalysts showed that HMS retained mesoporous structure, and [Bmim] PW was well dispersed on the support of HMS. The catalytic activity of the [Bmim]PW/HMS was evaluated in the oxidative desulfurization process, and the optimal reaction conditions including loading of the catalysts, reaction temperature, catalyst amount, O/S (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/sulfur) molar ratio and agitation speed were investigated. Under the optimal reaction conditions, the conversion of benzothiophene (BT), dibenzothiophene (DBT) and 4, 6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4, 6-DMDBT) could reach 79%, 98%, 88%, respectively.

  18. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal. Fifth quarterly report, June 16--September 15, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V. [DynaGen, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Marquis, J.K. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). School of Medicine


    Our experimental approach focuses on the use of enzymes which catalyze the addition of oxygen to organic compounds. In tailoring the application of these enzymes to coal processing, we are particularly interested in ensuring that oxidation occurs at sulfur and not at carbon-carbon bonds. Previous studies with DBT have shown that the reaction most frequently observed in microbial oxidative pathways is one in which DBT is oxidized at ring carbons. These reactions, as we have said, are accompanied by a considerable decrease in the energy content of the compound. In addition, microbial pathways have been identified in which the sulfur atom is sequentially oxidized to sulfoxide, to sulfone, to sulfonate, and finally to sulfuric acid. In this case, the fuel value of the desulfurized compounds is largely retained. We are evaluating the potential of commercially available enzymes to selectively catalyze oxidation at sulfur.

  19. PET-modified red mud as catalysts for oxidative desulfurization reactions. (United States)

    do Prado, Nayara T; Heitmann, Ana P; Mansur, Herman S; Mansur, Alexandra A; Oliveira, Luiz C A; de Castro, Cinthia S


    This work describes the synthesis of catalysts based on red mud/polyethylene terephthalate (PET) composites and their subsequent heat treatment under N2 atmosphere. The materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), temperature programmed reduction (TPR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric (TG) analysis and N2 adsorption/desorption. The catalysts were evaluated in the oxidative desulfurization reaction of dibenzothiophene (DBT) in a biphasic system. The results indicated that the PET impregnation on red mud increased the affinity of the catalyst with the nonpolar phase (fuel), in which the contaminant was dissolved, allowing a higher conversion (up to 80%) and selectivity to the corresponding dibenzothiophene sulfone. The sulfone compound is more polar than DBT and diffused into the polar solvent as indicated by the data obtained via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Screening of active metals for reactive adsorption desulfurization adsorbent using density functional theory (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zhao, Liang; Xu, Chunming; Wang, Yuxian; Gao, Jinsen


    To explore characteristics of active metals for reactive adsorption desulfurization (RADS) technology, the adsorption of thiophene on M (100) (M = Cr, Mo, Co, Ni, Cu, Au, and Ag) surfaces was systematically studied by density functional theory with vdW correction (DFT + D3). We found that, in all case, the most stable molecular adsorption site was the hollow site and adsorptive capabilities of thiophene followed the order: Cr > Mo > Co ≈ Ni > Cu > Au ≈ Ag. By analyzing the nature of binding between thiophene and corresponding metals and the electronic structure of metals, the excessive activities of Cr and Mo were found to have a negative regeneration, the passive activities of Au and Ag were found to have an inactive adsorption for RADS adsorbent alone, while Ni and Co have appropriate characteristics as the active metals for RADS, followed by Cu.

  1. Carbonation of gypsum from wet flue gas desulfurization process: experiments and modeling. (United States)

    Tan, Wenyi; Zhang, Zixin; Li, Hongyi; Li, Youxu; Shen, Zewen


    In this paper, waste gypsum from wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) mixed with NH3·H2O was applied for CO2 absorption in the solid-liquid-gas phase system. The effects of operation temperature, CO2 flow rates, and ammonia-to-gypsum ratio on carbonation process were discussed. Meanwhile, a model for CO2 absorption in the suspension of WFGD gypsum and ammonia was established. The results indicate that higher temperature favors the reaction, and WFGD gypsum conversion can be achieved above 90% even at lower ammonia-to-gypsum ratio, while CO2 conversion reaches 90% and ammonia utilization is up to 83.69%. The model fits well with the experimental results at various CO2 flow rates and predicts the concentration distribution of the main species, including CO2 absorbed, NH2COO(-), and HCO3(-).

  2. Use of flue gas desulfurization gypsum for leaching Cd and Pb in reclaimed tidal flat soil. (United States)

    Yang, Ping; Li, Xian; Tong, Ze-Jun; Li, Qu-Sheng; He, Bao-Yan; Wang, Li-Li; Guo, Shi-Hong; Xu, Zhi-Min


    A soil column leaching experiment was conducted to eliminate heavy metals from reclaimed tidal flat soil. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum was used for leaching. The highest removal rates of Cd and Pb in the upper soil layers (0-30 cm) were 52.7 and 30.5 %, respectively. Most of the exchangeable and carbonate-bound Cd and Pb were removed. The optimum FGD gypsum application rate was 7.05 kg·m(-2), and the optimum leaching water amount for the application was 217.74 L·m(-2). The application of FGD gypsum (two times) and the extension of the leaching interval time to 20 days increased the heavy metal removal rate in the upper soil layers. The heavy metals desorbed from the upper soil layers were re-adsorbed and fixed in the 30-70 cm soil layers.

  3. Mechanism of extractive/oxidative desulfurization using the ionic liquid inimidazole acetate: a computational study. (United States)

    Wang, Hanlu; Xu, Mingsheng; Zhou, Rujin


    The dual role of the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium trifluoroacetic acid ([C4mim]TFA) as an extractant for thiophene (TH) and a catalyst for the oxidation of TH was explored at the molecular level by performing density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The calculated interaction energies demonstrated why [C4mim]TFA is a better extractant for thiophene sulfone (THO2) than for TH. Two pathways were proposed for the oxidation of TH to THO2 with [C4mim]TFA acting as a catalyst. In the dominant pathway, a peracid is formed which then oxidizes TH to the sulfoxide and sulfones. The presence of [C4mim]TFA was found to greatly reduce the barrier to the oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of TH using H2O2 as an oxidant. Graphical Abstract Possible reaction mechanisms of TH with the aid of [C4mim]TFAᅟ.

  4. Controllability analysis and decentralized control of a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perales, A.L.V.; Ortiz, F.J.G.; Ollero, P.; Gil, F.M. [University of Seville, Seville (Spain)


    Presently, decentralized feedback control is the only control strategy used in wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (WLFGD) plants. Proper tuning of this control strategy is becoming an important issue in WLFGD plants because more stringent SO{sub 2} regulations have come into force recently. Controllability analysis is a highly valuable tool for proper design of control systems, but it has not been applied to WLFGD plants so far. In this paper a decentralized control strategy is designed and applied to a WLFGD pilot plant taking into account the conclusions of a controllability analysis. The results reveal that good SO{sub 2} control in WLFGD plants can be achieved mainly because the main disturbance of the process is well-aligned with the plant and interactions between control loops are beneficial to SO{sub 2} control.

  5. Model predictive control of a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perales, A.L.V.; Ollero, P.; Ortiz, F.J.G.; Gomez-Barea, A. [University of Seville, Seville (Spain). Dept. of Chemical & Environmental Engineering


    A model predictive control (MPC) strategy based on a dynamic matrix (DMC) is designed and applied to a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (WLFGD) pilot plant to evaluate what enhancement in control performance can be achieved with respect to a conventional decentralized feedback control strategy. The results reveal that MPC can significantly improve both reference tracking and disturbance rejection. For disturbance rejection, the main control objective in WLFGD plants, selection of tuning parameters and sample time, is of paramount importance due to the fast effect of the main disturbance (inlet SO{sub 2} load to the absorber) on the most important controlled variable (outlet flue gas SO{sub 2} concentration). The proposed MPC strategy can be easily applied to full-scale WLFGD plants.

  6. Mechanistic and kinetic studies of high-temperature coal gas desulfurization sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, S.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.


    The overall objective of this project was to investigate the properties of and evaluate mixed oxides of zinc and titanium for hot fuel gas desulfurization. Uncombined ZnO was also investigated as a base case. Detailed investigation of the reduction and sulfidation reactions of Zn-Ti-O sorbents was performed. The intrinsic kinetics and the product layer diffusion rates in reduction and sulfidation were determined. Kinetic experiments with sorbents containing various Zn/Ti atomic ratios were performed. Chemical phase and structural transformations were followed by various methods. The results were compared to similar experiments performed with ZnO. The purpose of these experiments was to determine how the presence of titanium dioxide affects the reduction and sulfidation of ZnO. This information would be used to identify and select the sorbent composition that gives the best combination of low reduction rate and acceptable sulfidation performance at temperatures exceeding 600{degree}C. (VC)

  7. Hot particulate removal and desulfurization results from the METC integrated gasification and hot gas cleanup facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockey, J.M.


    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is conducting experimental testing using a 10-inch diameter fluid-bed gasifier (FBG) and modular hot gas cleanup rig (MGCR) to develop advanced methods for removing contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas streams for commercial development of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The program focus is on hot gas particulate removal and desulfurization technologies that match the temperatures and pressures of the gasifier, cleanup system, and power generator. The purpose of this poster is to present the program objectives and results of the work conducted in cooperation with industrial users and vendors to meet the vision for IGCC of reducing the capital cost per kilowatt to $1050 and increasing the plant efficiency to 52% by the year 2010.

  8. The TIF1β-HP1 System Maintains Transcriptional Integrity of Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Miyagi


    Full Text Available TIF1β is a transcriptional corepressor that recruits repressive chromatin modifiers to target genes. Its biological function and physiological targets in somatic stem cells remain largely unknown. Here, we show that TIF1β is essential for the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs. Deletion of Tif1b in mice induced active cycling and apoptosis of HSCs and promoted egression of HSCs from the bone marrow, leading to rapid depletion of HSCs. Strikingly, Tif1b-deficient HSCs showed a strong trend of ectopic expression of nonhematopoietic genes. Levels of heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1α, β and γ proteins, which form a complex with TIF1β, were significantly reduced in the absence of TIF1β and depletion of HP1 recapitulated a part of the phenotypes of Tif1b-deficient HSCs. These results demonstrate that the TIF1β-HP1 system functions as a critical repressive machinery that targets genes not normally activated in the hematopoietic compartment, thereby maintaining the transcriptional signature specific to HSCs.

  9. Quaternionic soliton equations from Hamiltonian curve flows in HP{sup n}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anco, Stephen C; Asadi, Esmaeel [Department of Mathematics, Brock University, St Catharines, ON (Canada)], E-mail:, E-mail:


    A bi-Hamiltonian hierarchy of quaternion soliton equations is derived from geometric non-stretching flows of curves in the quaternionic projective space HP{sup n}. The derivation adapts the method and results in recent work by one of us on the Hamiltonian structure of non-stretching curve flows in Riemannian symmetric spaces M = G/H by viewing HP{sup n} as a symmetric space in terms of compact real symplectic groups and quaternion unitary groups. As main results, scalar-vector (multi-component) versions of the sine-Gordon (SG) equation and the modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation are obtained along with their bi-Hamiltonian integrability structure consisting of a shared hierarchy of quaternionic symmetries and conservation laws generated by a hereditary recursion operator. The corresponding geometric curve flows in HP{sup n} are shown to be described by a non-stretching wave map and a mKdV analog of a non-stretching Schroedinger map.

  10. 80- to 100-hp Stirling engine feasibility study. Progress report No. 21, January--March 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postma, N.D.


    Ford Motor Company has sponsored research and development of a 170 hp swashplate-type of Stirling engine suitable for application to a passenger car having a curb weight in the neighborhood of 4,600 pounds. The success of this program has justified the need for investigating the application of the Stirling engine to passenger vehicles of smaller size and lighter weight. Progress is reported for the research program which has two tasks. Task I provided for preparation of a report containing an evaluation and presentation of the results of Contractor-financed testing of a Torino passenger car powered by a 170 hp Stirling cycle engine. Task II provides for a feasibility study to evaluate the potential of a Stirling cycle engine for significant improvements in emissions and fuel economy over the present day internal combustion engine, and to develop a concept of an 80 to 100 hp engine design suitable for use in a passenger car in the 2500 to 3000 lb. weight class. The ultimate objective of this and other Ford programs is to develop technology to determine whether it is reasonable to undertake a high volume Stirling engine production program.

  11. 80-100 HP Stirling engine feasibility study. Progress report No. 15, July--September 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postma, N.D.


    Ford Motor Company has sponsored research and development of a 170-hp swashplate-type of Stirling engine suitable for application to a passenger car having a curb weight in the neighborhood of 4600 lb. The success of this application program has justified the need for investigating the application of the Stirling engine to passenger vehicles of smaller size and lighter weight. Progress is reported on a program which has as its objectives two tasks. Task I provides for preparation of a report containing an evaluation and presentation of the results of Contractor-financed testing of a Torino passenger car powered by a 170-hp Stirling cycle engine. Task II provides for the conduct of a feasibility study to evaluate the potential of a Stirling cycle engine for significant improvement in emissions and fuel economy over the present day internal combustion engine, and to develop a concept of an 80- to 100-hp engine design suitable for use in a passenger car in the 2500 to 3000 pound weight class. The ultimate objective of this and ensuing programs is to develop an engine design feasible for high volume production.

  12. An efficient algorithm for building locally refined hp - adaptive H-PCFE: Application to uncertainty quantification (United States)

    Chakraborty, Souvik; Chowdhury, Rajib


    Hybrid polynomial correlated function expansion (H-PCFE) is a novel metamodel formulated by coupling polynomial correlated function expansion (PCFE) and Kriging. Unlike commonly available metamodels, H-PCFE performs a bi-level approximation and hence, yields more accurate results. However, till date, it is only applicable to medium scaled problems. In order to address this apparent void, this paper presents an improved H-PCFE, referred to as locally refined hp - adaptive H-PCFE. The proposed framework computes the optimal polynomial order and important component functions of PCFE, which is an integral part of H-PCFE, by using global variance based sensitivity analysis. Optimal number of training points are selected by using distribution adaptive sequential experimental design. Additionally, the formulated model is locally refined by utilizing the prediction error, which is inherently obtained in H-PCFE. Applicability of the proposed approach has been illustrated with two academic and two industrial problems. To illustrate the superior performance of the proposed approach, results obtained have been compared with those obtained using hp - adaptive PCFE. It is observed that the proposed approach yields highly accurate results. Furthermore, as compared to hp - adaptive PCFE, significantly less number of actual function evaluations are required for obtaining results of similar accuracy.

  13. Professionalisierung in der Frühpädagogik. Qualifikationsniveau und -bedingungen des Personals in Kindertagesstätten. Gutachten


    Blossfeld, Hans-Peter; Bos, Wilfried; Daniel, Hans-Dieter; Hannover, Bettina; Lenzen, Dieter; Prenzel, Manfred; Roßbach, Hans-Günther; Tippelt, Rudolf; Wößmann, Ludger


    Das Gutachten skizziert zunächst "die gesellschaftlichen Erwartungen an die frühpädagogischen Einrichtungen als Bildungseinrichtungen [...], und es wird auf der Grundlage von neueren Forschungsbefunden diskutiert, welchen Beitrag der Besuch und vor allem die Qualität der frühpädagogischen Einrichtungen leisten können. Besonders wichtige Merkmale der Qualität sind dabei das Ausbildungsniveau und die Kompetenzen des frühpädagogischen Personals. In einemnächsten Schritt wird die gegenwärtige Aus...

  14. File list: Oth.CeL.50.SuBRACKETLvarBRACKETR2-HP2.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.CeL.50.SuBRACKETLvarBRACKETR2-HP2.AllCell dm3 TFs and others Su(var)2-HP2 Cell ...line ...

  15. File list: Oth.CeL.10.SuBRACKETLvarBRACKETR2-HP2.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.CeL.10.SuBRACKETLvarBRACKETR2-HP2.AllCell dm3 TFs and others Su(var)2-HP2 Cell ...line ...

  16. File list: Oth.CeL.20.SuBRACKETLvarBRACKETR2-HP2.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.CeL.20.SuBRACKETLvarBRACKETR2-HP2.AllCell dm3 TFs and others Su(var)2-HP2 Cell ...line ...

  17. Notes on HP1 a software package for simulating variably-saturated water flow, heat transport, solute transport, and biogeochemistry in porous media. HP1 Version 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques, D.; Simunek, J.


    HP1 is a comprehensive modeling tool in terms of processes and reactions for simulating reactive transport and biogeochemical processes in variably-saturated porous media. HP1 results from coupling the water and solute transport model HYDRUS-1D (Simunek et al., 2009a) and PHREEQC-2 (Parkhurst and Appelo, 1999). This note provides an overview of how to set up and execute a HP1 project using version 2.2.002 of HP1 and version 4.13 of the graphical user interface (GUI) of HYDRUS-1D. A large part of this note are step-by-step instructions for selected examples involving mineral dissolution and precipitation, cation exchange, surface complexation and kinetic degradation networks. The implementation of variably-saturated flow conditions, changing boundary conditions, a layered soil profile or immobile water is also illustrated.

  18. Heterochromatin marks HP1γ, HP1α and H3K9me3, and DNA damage response activation in human testis development and germ cell tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartkova, J; Moudry, P; Hodny, Z


    Heterochromatinization has been implicated in fundamental biological and pathological processes including differentiation, senescence, ageing and tumourigenesis; however, little is known about its regulation and roles in human cells and tissues in vivo. Here, we show distinct cell-type- and cancer...... protein and without DDR activation. Overall, these results provide novel insights into cell-related and tumour-related diversity of heterochromatin in human tissues in vivo, relevant for andrology and intrinsic anti-tumour defence roles attributed to activated DDR and cellular senescence.......-invasive carcinoma in situ (CIS; n=26) lesions and a series of overt germ cell tumours, including seminomas (n=26), embryonal carcinomas (n=18) and teratomas (n=11). Among striking findings were high levels of HP1γ in foetal gonocytes, CIS and seminomas; enhanced multimarker heterochromatinization without DDR...

  19. Coal desulfurization (United States)

    Corcoran, William H. (Inventor); Vasilakos, Nicholas P. (Inventor); Lawson, Daniel D. (Inventor)


    A method for enhancing solubilizing mass transport of reactive agents into and out of carbonaceous materials, such as coal. Solubility parameters of mass transfer and solvent media are matched to individual peaks in the solubility parameter spectrum of coals to enhance swelling and/or dissolution. Methanol containing reactive agent carriers are found particularly effective for removing organic sulfur from coals by chlorinolysis.

  20. Preparation of AAO-CeO2 nanotubes and their application in electrochemical oxidation desulfurization of diesel (United States)

    Du, Xiaoqing; Yang, Yumeng; Yi, Chenxi; Chen, Yu; Cai, Chao; Zhang, Zhao


    The coaxial arrays of AAO-CeO2 NTs have been successfully galvanostatically deposited on an anode, characterized and adopted as a catalyst for removing organic sulfurs from diesel. The influence of the main electrochemical oxidation factors on the efficiency of desulfurization have also been investigated. The results show that the fabrication process of AAO-CeO2 NTs is accompanied by the formation of a new phase, namely Al3Ce, and the main oxidation products of the diesel are soluble inorganic sulphides, especially Ce2(SO4)3. When compared with dibenzothiophene and 4, 6-dimethyldibenzothiophene, benzothiophene is much more easily removed, with a removal efficiency that reaches 87.2%. Finally, a possible electrochemical oxidation desulfurization pathway for diesel is proposed.

  1. Silver nanocrystal-decorated polyoxometalate single-walled nanotubes as nanoreactors for desulfurization catalysis at room temperature. (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Xu, Xiaobin; Lin, Haifeng; Ud Din, Muhammad Aizaz; Wang, Haiqing; Wang, Xun


    Ultrathin nanocrystals generally provide a remarkable catalytic performance due to their high specific surface area and exposure of certain active sites. However, deactivation caused by growth and gathering limits the catalytic application of ultrathin nanocrystals. Here we report Ag nanocrystal-decorated polyoxometalate (Ag-POM) single-walled nanotubes assembled via a concise, surfactant-free soaking method as a new kind of well-defined core-sheath nanoreactor. The diameter of Ag nanocrystals inside polyoxometalate nanotubes can be controlled via simply adjusting the reactant concentration. Ag-POM provided outstanding oxidative desulfurization (ODS) catalytic performance for aromatic sulfocompounds at room temperature. It was suggested that Ag nanocrystals decorated on the inner surface played a key role in adjusting the electronic distribution and enhancing the catalytic activity. The as-prepared Ag-POM nanotubes are promising candidate catalysts with enhanced performance for practical catalytic applications in the gasoline desulfurization industry.

  2. Degradation and desulfurization of dibenzothiophene sulfone and other sulfur compounds by Agrobacterium MC501 and a mixed culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constanti, M.; Giralt, J.; Bordons, A. [Universidad de Rovira y Virgili, Tarragona (Spain). Dept. de Bioquimia y Biotecnologia


    Agrobacterium MC501 and the mixed culture composed of Agrobacterium MC501, Xanthomonas MC701, Corynebacterium sp. MC401, and Corynebacterium sp. MC402, all previously isolated from a coal mine area by an enrichment culture with dibenzothiophene (DBT), were used to study DBT sulfone desulfurization. Both cultures were able to use DBT sulfone as a sole source of sulfur for growth. This compound was metabolized to 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2PP) and sulfate. Agrobacterium MC501 and the mixed culture could also utilize a wide range of organic and inorganic sulfur compounds as sources of sulfur such as DBT, thianthrene, diphenylsulfide, thiophene-2-carboxylate, dibutilsulfide, methionine, cysteine, sulfate, and sulfite. Based on these results, the above-mentioned strains can be used to characterize and study coal desulfurization.

  3. The HP10 Taenia monoclonal antibody-based ELISA detects a similar protein in the vesicular fluid of Taenia hydatigena. (United States)

    Cortez, Maria M; Rojas, Glenda C; Parkhouse, R Michael E


    Diagnosis of Taenia solium cysticercosis in endemic rural communities depends on serological tests, as typically there is no access to imaging facilities. The HP10 antigen ELISA (HP10 Ag ELISA), which detects a high molecular weight secreted protein of viable metacestodes, has been employed for the diagnosis of both human and porcine cysticercosis in such communities. In this communication, we formally demonstrate that the HP10 Ag ELISA, already known to function for the detection of T. saginata and T. solium cysticercosis, also detects a similar high molecular weight antigen of T. hydatigena. Thus, the HP10 Ag assay, while specific for human cysticercosis, may not be recommended for the diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis where there is co-infection of pigs with T. solium and T. hydatigena.

  4. Investigation into the Effects of VHF and UHF Band Radiation on Hewlett-Packard (HP) Cesium Beam Frequency Standards

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dickens, Andrew


    This paper documents an investigation into reports which have indicated that exposure to VHF and UHF band radiation has adverse effects on the frequency stability of HP cesium beam frequency standards...

  5. A novel metabolite (1,3-benzenediol, 5-hexyl) production by Exophiala spinifera strain FM through dibenzothiophene desulfurization. (United States)

    Elmi, Fatemeh; Etemadifar, Zahra; Emtiazi, Giti


    Sulfur dioxide which is released from petroleum oil combustion causes pollution over the atmosphere and the soil. Biodesulfurization can be used as a complementary method of hydrodesulfurization, the common method of petroleum desulfurization in refineries. Many studies have been carried out to develop biological desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT) with bacterial biocatalysts. However, fungi are capable to metabolize a wide range of aromatic hydrocarbons through cytochrome P450 and their extracellular enzymes. The aim of the present work was isolation and identification of fungi biocatalysts capable for DBT utilization as sulfur source and production of novel metabolites. DBT consumption and the related produced metabolites were analyzed by HPLC and GC-MS respectively. One of the isolated fungi that could utilize DBT as sole sulfur source was identified by both traditional and molecular experiments and registered in NCBI as Exophiala spinifera FM strain (accession no. KC952672). This strain could desulfurize 99 % of DBT (0.3 mM) as sulfur source by co-metabolism reaction with other carbon sources through the same pathway as 4S and produced 2-hydroxy biphenyl (2-HBP) during 7 days of incubation at 30 °C and 180 rpm shaking. However, the isolate was able to transform 2-HBP to 1,3-benzenediol, 5-hexyl. While biphenyl compounds are toxic to leaving cells, biotransformation of them can reduce their toxicity and the fungi will be more tolerant to the final product. These data are the first report about the desulfurization of DBT comparable to 4S-pathway and production of innovative metabolite by E. spinifera FM strain.

  6. Effect of Byproducts of Flue Gas Desulfurization on the Soluble Salts Composition and Chemical Properties of Sodic Soils


    Jinman Wang; Zhongke Bai; Peiling Yang


    The byproducts of flue gas desulfurization (BFGD) are a useful external source of Ca(2+) for the reclamation of sodic soils because they are comparatively cheap, generally available and have high gypsum content. The ion solution composition of sodic soils also plays an important role in the reclamation process. The effect of BFGD on the soluble salts composition and chemical properties of sodic soils were studied in a soil column experiment. The experiment consisted of four treatments using t...

  7. Multiphase Modeling of Bottom-Stirred Ladle for Prediction of Slag-Steel Interface and Estimation of Desulfurization Behavior (United States)

    Singh, Umesh; Anapagaddi, Ravikiran; Mangal, Saurabh; Padmanabhan, Kuppuswamy Anantha; Singh, Amarendra Kumar


    Ladle furnace is a key unit in which various phenomena such as deoxidation, desulfurization, inclusion removal, and homogenization of alloy composition and temperature take place. Therefore, the processes present in the ladle play an important role in determining the quality of steel. Prediction of flow behavior of the phases present in the ladle furnace is needed to understand the phenomena that take place there and accordingly control the process parameters. In this study, first a mathematical model is developed to analyze the transient three-phase flow present. Argon gas bottom-stirred ladle with off-centered plugs has been used in this study. Volume of fluid method is used in a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to capture the behavior of slag, steel, and argon interfaces. The results are validated with data from literature. Eye opening and slag-steel interfacial area are calculated for different operating conditions and are compared with experimental and simulated results cited in literature. Desulfurization rate is then predicted using chemical kinetic equations, interfacial area, calculated from CFD model, and thermodynamic data, obtained from the Thermo-Calc software. Using the model, it is demonstrated that the double plug purging is more suitable than the single plug purging for the same level of total flow. The advantage is more distinct at higher flow rates as it leads higher interfacial area, needed for desulfurization and smaller eye openings (lower oxygen/nitrogen pickup).

  8. Enhancing mercury removal across air pollution control devices for coal-fired power plants by desulfurization wastewater evaporation. (United States)

    Bin, Hu; Yang, Yi; Cai, Liang; Yang, Linjun; Roszak, Szczepan


    Desulfurization wastewater evaporation technology is used to enhance the removal of gaseous mercury (Hg) in conventional air pollution control devices (APCDs) for coal-fired power plants. Studies have affirmed that gaseous Hg is oxidized and removed by selective catalytic reduction (SCR), an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) in a coal-fired thermal experiment platform with WFGD wastewater evaporation. Effects of desulfurization wastewater evaporation position, evaporation temperature and chlorine ion concentration on Hg oxidation were studied as well. The Hg(0) oxidation efficiency was increased ranging from 30% to 60%, and the gaseous Hg removal efficiency was 62.16% in APCDs when wastewater evaporated before SCR. However, the Hg(0) oxidation efficiency was 18.99% and the gaseous Hg removal efficiency was 40.19% in APCDs when wastewater evaporated before ESP. The results show that WFGD wastewater evaporation before SCR is beneficial to improve the efficiency of Hg oxidized and removed in APCDs. Because Hg(2+) can be easily removed in ACPDs and WFGD wastewater in power plants is enriched with chlorine ions, this method realizes WFGD wastewater zero discharge and simultaneously enhances Hg removal in APCDs.

  9. Investigations in physical mechanism of the oxidative desulfurization process assisted simultaneously by phase transfer agent and ultrasound. (United States)

    Bhasarkar, Jaykumar B; Chakma, Sankar; Moholkar, Vijayanand S


    This paper attempts to discern the physical mechanism of the oxidative desulfurization process simultaneously assisted by ultrasound and phase transfer agent (PTA). With different experimental protocols, an attempt is made to deduce individual beneficial effects of PTA and ultrasound on the oxidative desulfurization system, and also the synergy between the effects of PTA and ultrasound. Effect of PTA is more marked for mechanically stirred system due to mass transfer limitations, while intense emulsification due to ultrasound helps overcome the mass transfer limitations and reduces the extent of enhancement of oxidation by PTA. Despite application of PTA and ultrasound, the intrinsic factors and properties of the reactants such as polarity (and hence partition coefficient) and diffusivity have a crucial effect on the extent of oxidation. The intrinsic reactivity of the oxidant also plays a vital role, as seen from the extent of oxidation achieved with performic acid and peracetic acid. The interfacial transport of oxidant in the form of oxidant-PTA complex reduces the undesired consumption of oxidant by the reducing species formed during transient cavitation in organic medium, which helps effective utilization of oxidant towards desulfurization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of Synthetic Gypsum Recovered via Wet Flue-Gas Desulfurization from Electric Power Plants for Use in Foundries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Biernacki


    Full Text Available This article investigates possible use of waste gypsum (synthetic, recovered via flue-gas desulfurization from coal-fired electric powerplants, in foundries. Energy sector, which in Eastern Europe is mostly composed from coal-fired electric power plants, is one of the largestproducers of sulfur dioxide (SO2.In order to protect the environment and reduce the amount of pollution flue-gas desulfurization (FGD is used to remove SO2 fromexhaust flue gases of fossil-fuel power plants. As a result of this process gypsum waste is produced that can be used in practicalapplications.Strength and permeability tests have been made and also in-depth analysis of energy consumption of production process to investigateways of preparing the synthetic gypsum for casting moulds application. This paper also assesses the chemical composition, strength andpermeability of moulds made with synthetic gypsum, in comparison with moulds made with traditional GoldStar XL gypsum and withceramic molds. Moreover examination of structure of synthetic gypsum, the investigations on derivatograph and calculations of energyconsumption during production process of synthetic gypsum in wet flue-gas desulfurization were made.After analysis of gathered data it’s possible to conclude that synthetic gypsum can be used as a material for casting mould. There is nosignificant decrease in key properties, and on the other hand there is many additional benefits including low energy consumption,decreased cost, and decreased environmental impact.

  11. Host-guest kinetic interactions between HP-β-cyclodextrin and drugs for prediction of bitter taste masking. (United States)

    Guo, Zhen; Wu, Fei; Singh, Vikramjeet; Guo, Tao; Ren, Xiaohong; Yin, Xianzhen; Shao, Qun; York, Peter; Patterson, Laurence H; Zhang, Jiwen


    Cyclodextrins (CD) are widely used bitter taste masking agents, for which the binding equilibrium constant (K) for the drug-CD complex is a conventional parameter for quantitating the taste masking effects. However, some exceptions have been reported to the expected relationship between K and bitterness reduction and the relationship between kinetic parameters of a drug-CD interaction, including association rate constant (K a ) and disassociation rate constant (K d ), and taste masking remains unexplored. In this study, based upon a database of kinetic parameters of drugs-HP-β-CD generated by Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging for 485 drugs, the host-guest kinetic interactions between drugs and HP-β-CD for prediction of taste masking effects have been investigated. The taste masking effects of HP-β-CD for 13 bitter drugs were quantitatively determined using an electronic gustatory system (α-Astree e-Tongue). Statistical software was used to establish a model based on Euclidean distance measurements, K a and K d of the bitter drugs/HP-β-CD-complexes (R 2 =0.96 and Ptaste masking by HP-β-CD and was successful in predicting the extent of taste masking by HP-β-CD of 44 bitter drugs, which was in accordance with the literature reported. In conclusion, the relationship between kinetics of drug-CD interactions and taste masking was established and providing a new strategy for predicting the cyclodextrin mediated bitter taste masking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A Comparison between the hp-version of Finite Element Method with EIDORS for Electrical Impedance Tomography. (United States)

    Saeedizadeh, N; Kermani, S; Rabbani, H


    In this study, a hp-version of Finite Element Method (FEM) was applied for forward modeling in image reconstruction of Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT). The EIT forward solver is normally based on the conventional Finite Element Method (h-FEM). In h-FEM, the polynomial order (p) of the element shape functions is constant and the element size (h) is decreasing. To have an accurate simulation with the h-FEM, a mesh with large number of nodes and elements is usually needed. In order to overcome this problem, the high order finite element method (p-FEM) was proposed. In the p-version, the polynomial order is increasing and the mesh size is constant. Combining the advantages of two previously mentioned methods, the element size (h) was decreased and the polynomial order (p) was increased, simultaneously, which is called the hp-version of Finite Element Method (hp-FEM). The hp-FEM needs a smaller number of nodes and consequently, less computational time and less memory to achieve the same or even better accuracy than h-FEM. The SNR value is 42db for hp-FEM and is 9db for h-FEM. The numerical results are presented and verified that the performance of the hp-version is better than of the h-version in image reconstruction of EIT.

  13. Desulfurization of phosphorothioate oligonucleotides via the sulfur-by-oxygen replacement induced by the hydroxyl radical during negative electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Wu, Lianming; White, David E; Ye, Connie; Vogt, Frederick G; Terfloth, Gerald J; Matsuhashi, Hayao


    While the occurrence of desulfurization of phosphorothioate oligonucleotides in solution is well established, this study represents the first attempt to investigate the basis of the unexpected desulfurization via the net sulfur-by-oxygen (S-O) replacement during negative electrospray ionization (ESI). The current work, facilitated by quantitative mass deconvolution, demonstrates that considerable desulfurization can take place even under common negative ESI operating conditions. The extent of desulfurization is dependent on the molar phosphorothioate oligonucleotide-to-hydroxyl radical ratio, which is consistent with the corona discharge-induced origin of the hydroxyl radical leading to the S-O replacement. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that an increase of the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) flow rate and the on-column concentration of a phosphorothioate oligonucleotide, as well as a decrease of the electrospray voltage reduce the degree of desulfurization. Comparative LC-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) sequencing of a phosphorothioate oligonucleotide and its corresponding desulfurization product revealed evidence that the S-O replacement occurs at multiple phosphorothioate internucleotide linkage sites. In practice, the most convenient and effective strategy for minimizing this P = O artifact is to increase the LC flow rate and the on-column concentration of phosphorothioate oligonucleotides. Another approach to mitigate possible detrimental effects of the undesired desulfurization is to operate the ESI source at a very low electrospray voltage to diminish the corona discharge; however this will significantly compromise sensitivity when analyzing the low-level P = O impurities in phosphorothioate oligonucleotides. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. HP2 survey. III. The California Molecular Cloud: A sleeping giant revisited (United States)

    Lada, Charles J.; Lewis, John A.; Lombardi, Marco; Alves, João


    We present new high resolution and dynamic range dust column density and temperature maps of the California Molecular Cloud derived from a combination of Planck and Herschel dust-emission maps, and 2MASS NIR dust-extinction maps. We used these data to determine the ratio of the 2.2 μm extinction coefficient to the 850 μm opacity and found the value to be close to that found in similar studies of the Orion B and Perseus clouds but higher than that characterizing the Orion A cloud, indicating that variations in the fundamental optical properties of dust may exist between local clouds. We show that over a wide range of extinction, the column density probability distribution function (pdf) of the cloud can be well described by a simple power law (i.e., PDFN ∝ AK -n) with an index (n = 4.0 ± 0.1) that represents a steeper decline with AK than found (n ≈ 3) in similar studies of the Orion and Perseus clouds. Using only the protostellar population of the cloud and our extinction maps we investigate the Schmidt relation, that is, the relation between the protostellar surface density, Σ∗, and extinction, AK, within the cloud. We show that Σ∗ is directly proportional to the ratio of the protostellar and cloud pdfs, i.e., PDF∗(AK)/PDFN(AK). We use the cumulative distribution of protostars to infer the functional forms for both Σ∗ and PDF∗. We find that Σ∗ is best described by two power-law functions. At extinctions AK ≲ 2.5 mag, Σ∗ ∝ AK β with β = 3.3 while at higher extinctions β = 2.5, both values steeper than those (≈2) found in other local giant molecular clouds (GMCs). We find that PDF∗ is a declining function of extinction also best described by two power-laws whose behavior mirrors that of Σ∗. Our observations suggest that variations both in the slope of the Schmidt relation and in the sizes of the protostellar populations between GMCs are largely driven by variations in the slope, n, of PDFN(AK). This confirms earlier studies

  15. Transcriptional Repression of Hox Genes by C. elegans HP1/HPL and H1/HIS-24 (United States)

    Studencka, Maja; Wesołowski, Radosław; Opitz, Lennart; Salinas-Riester, Gabriela; Wisniewski, Jacek R.; Jedrusik-Bode, Monika


    Elucidation of the biological role of linker histone (H1) and heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) in mammals has been difficult owing to the existence of a least 11 distinct H1 and three HP1 subtypes in mice. Caenorhabditis elegans possesses two HP1 homologues (HPL-1 and HPL-2) and eight H1 variants. Remarkably, one of eight H1 variants, HIS-24, is important for C. elegans development. Therefore we decided to analyse in parallel the transcriptional profiles of HIS-24, HPL-1/-2 deficient animals, and their phenotype, since hpl-1, hpl-2, and his-24 deficient nematodes are viable. Global transcriptional analysis of the double and triple mutants revealed that HPL proteins and HIS-24 play gene-specific roles, rather than a general repressive function. We showed that HIS-24 acts synergistically with HPL to allow normal reproduction, somatic gonad development, and vulval cell fate decision. Furthermore, the hpl-2; his-24 double mutant animals displayed abnormal development of the male tail and ectopic expression of C. elegans HOM-C/Hox genes (egl-5 and mab-5), which are involved in the developmental patterning of male mating structures. We found that HPL-2 and the methylated form of HIS-24 specifically interact with the histone H3 K27 region in the trimethylated state, and HIS-24 associates with the egl-5 and mab-5 genes. Our results establish the interplay between HPL-1/-2 and HIS-24 proteins in the regulation of positional identity in C. elegans males. PMID:23028351

  16. Growth promotion in pigs by oxytetracycline coincides with down regulation of serum inflammatory parameters and of hibernation-associated protein HP-27. (United States)

    Soler, Laura; Miller, Ingrid; Hummel, Karin; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Jessen, Flemming; Escribano, Damian; Niewold, Theo


    The growth promoting effect of supplementing animal feed with antibiotics like tetracycline has traditionally been attributed to their antibiotic character. However, more evidence has been accumulated on their direct anti-inflammatory effect during the last two decades. Here we used a pig model to explore the systemic molecular effect of feed supplementation with sub therapeutic levels of oxytetracycline (OTC) by analysis of serum proteome changes. Results showed that OTC promoted growth, coinciding with a significant down regulation of different serum proteins related to inflammation, oxidation and lipid metabolism, confirming the anti-inflammatory mechanism of OTC. Interestingly, apart from the classic acute phase reactants also down regulation was seen of a hibernation associated plasma protein (HP-27), which is to our knowledge the first description in pigs. Although the exact function in non-hibernators is unclear, down regulation of HP-27 could be consistent with increased appetite, which is possibly linked to the anti-inflammatory action of OTC. Given that pigs are good models for human medicine due to their genetic and physiologic resemblance, the present results might also be used for rational intervention in human diseases in which inflammation plays an important role such as obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Mihajlović


    Full Text Available This text is dealing with attempt of Management department, of Technical faculty in Bor, todevelop and further sustain the „entrepreneurial spirit“among young people. The subject of the paperis the HP LIFE program, in which Technical faculty in Bor is the only partner institution from Serbia.Besides up-to-date IT equipment obtained by Hewlett Packard in previous phases of this project,during 2012 this project was financially sustained by the Serbian institution „Centre for promotionof science“. This support will increase the scope of project activities during this year, including newtarget groups.

  18. Quantification of bitumen particles in aerosol and soil samples using HP-GPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik; Tjell, Jens Christian; Mosbæk, Hans


    A method for identifying and quantifying bitumen particles, generated from the wear of roadway asphalts, in aerosol and soil samples has been developed. Bitumen is found to be the only contributor to airborne particles containing organic molecules with molecular weights larger than 2000 g pr. mol....... These are separated and identified using High Performance Gel Permeation Chromatography (HP-GPC) with fluorescence detection. As an additional detection method Infra Red spectrometry (IR) is employed for selected samples. The methods have been used on aerosol, soil and other samples....

  19. Coupled-Flow Simulation of HP-LP Turbines Has Resulted in Significant Fuel Savings (United States)

    Veres, Joseph P.


    Our objective was to create a high-fidelity Navier-Stokes computer simulation of the flow through the turbines of a modern high-bypass-ratio turbofan engine. The simulation would have to capture the aerodynamic interactions between closely coupled high- and low-pressure turbines. A computer simulation of the flow in the GE90 turbofan engine's high-pressure (HP) and low-pressure (LP) turbines was created at GE Aircraft Engines under contract with the NASA Glenn Research Center. The three-dimensional steady-state computer simulation was performed using Glenn's average-passage approach named APNASA. The areas upstream and downstream of each blade row mutually interact with each other during engine operation. The embedded blade row operating conditions are modeled since the average passage equations in APNASA actively include the effects of the adjacent blade rows. The turbine airfoils, platforms, and casing are actively cooled by compressor bleed air. Hot gas leaks around the tips of rotors through labyrinth seals. The flow exiting the high work HP turbines is partially transonic and, therefore, has a strong shock system in the transition region. The simulation was done using 121 processors of a Silicon Graphics Origin 2000 (NAS 02K) cluster at the NASA Ames Research Center, with a parallel efficiency of 87 percent in 15 hr. The typical average-passage analysis mesh size per blade row was 280 by 45 by 55, or approx.700,000 grid points. The total number of blade rows was 18 for a combined HP and LP turbine system including the struts in the transition duct and exit guide vane, which contain 12.6 million grid points. Design cycle turnaround time requirements ran typically from 24 to 48 hr of wall clock time. The number of iterations for convergence was 10,000 at 8.03x10(exp -5) sec/iteration/grid point (NAS O2K). Parallel processing by up to 40 processors is required to meet the design cycle time constraints. This is the first-ever flow simulation of an HP and LP

  20. Protein-Loosing Entropathy Induced by Unique Combination of CMV and HP in an Immunocompetent Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chen


    Full Text Available Protein-losing gastroenteropathies are characterized by an excessive loss of serum proteins into the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in hypoproteinemia (detected as hypoalbuminemia, edema, and, in some cases, pleural and pericardial effusions. Protein-losing gastroenteropathies can be caused by a diverse group of disorders and should be suspected in a patient with hypoproteinemia in whom other causes, such as malnutrition, proteinuria, and impaired liver protein synthesis, have been excluded. In this paper, we present a case of protein-losing enteropathy in a 22-year-old immunocompetent male with a coinfection of CMV and Hp.

  1. Bio desulfurization of a system containing synthetic fuel by rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277; Remocao de compostos sulfurosos de sitema bifasico contendo combustivel sintetico por Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maass, Danielle; Souza, Antonio Augusto Ulson de; Souza, Selene Maria de Arruda Guelli Ulson de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), SC (Brazil)


    For decades the burning of fossil fuels released a lot of pollutants in the atmosphere. Among the most harmful is sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), which reacts with the moisture in the air and turns into sulfuric acid, being the main cause of acid rain. Acid rain is very harmful to animal and plant kingdoms; accelerates the corrosion's processes of buildings and monuments, and causes serious health problems for humans. As a result, many countries have reformed their legislation to require the sale of fuels with very low sulfur content. The existing processes of desulfurization are not capable of removing sulfur so low. Therefore, there has developed a new process called bio desulfurization. In this process, the degradation of sulfur occurs through the action of microorganisms that act as catalysts. The bacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis has emerged as one of the most promising for bio desulfurization because it removes the sulfur without breaking the benzene rings, thereby maintaining the potential energy of the same. Using dibenzothiophene as a model of sulfur compounds, the products of the bio desulfurization process are 2- hydroxybiphenyl and sulfate. In this study we sought to examine the desulfurizing capacity of national Rhodococcus erythropolis strain ATCC4277 in a batch reactor using concentrations of organic phase (n-dodecane) of 20 and 80% (v/v). Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC4277 was capable of degrading DBT in 93.3 and 98.0% in the presence of 20 and 80% (v/v) of synthetic fuel, respectively. (author)

  2. Ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization process of liquid fuel by phosphotungstic acid encapsulated in a interpenetrating amine-functionalized Zn(II)-based MOF as catalyst. (United States)

    Afzalinia, Ahmad; Mirzaie, Abbas; Nikseresht, Ahmad; Musabeygi, Tahereh


    In this work, ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization (UAOD) of liquid fuels performed with a novel heterogeneous highly dispersed Keggin-type phosphotungstic acid (H3PW12O40, PTA) catalyst that encapsulated into an amino-functionalized MOF (TMU-17-NH2). The prepared composite exhibits high catalytic activity and reusability in oxidative desulfurization of model fuel. Ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization (UAOD) is a new way to performed oxidation reaction of sulfur-contain compounds rapidly, economically, environment-friendly and safely, under mild conditions. Ultrasound waves can be apply as an efficient tool to decrease the reaction time and improves oxidative desulfurization system performance. PTA@TMU-17-NH2 could be completely performed desulfurization of the model oil by 20mg of catalyst, O/S molar ratio of 1:1 in presence of MeCN as extraction solvent. The obtained results indicated that the conversions of DBT to DBTO2 achieve 98% after 15min in ambient temperature. In this work, we prepared TMU-17-NH2 and PTA/TMU-17-NH2 composite by ultrasound irradiation for first time and employed in UAOD process. Prepared catalyst exhibit an excellent reusability without PTA leaching and loss of activity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. HP1-mediated formation of alternative lengthening of telomeres-associated PML bodies requires HIRA but not ASF1a.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Qin Jiang

    Full Text Available Approximately 10% of cancers use recombination-mediated Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT instead of telomerase to prevent telomere shortening. A characteristic of cells that utilize ALT is the presence of ALT-associated PML nuclear bodies (APBs containing (TTAGGGn DNA, telomere binding proteins, DNA recombination proteins, and heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1. The function of APBs is unknown and it is possible that they are functionally heterogeneous. Most ALT cells lack functional p53, and restoration of the p53/p21 pathway in these cells results in growth arrest/senescence and a substantial increase in the number of large APBs that is dependent on two HP1 isoforms, HP1α and HP1γ. Here we investigated the mechanism of HP1-mediated APB formation, and found that histone chaperones, HIRA and ASF1a, are present in APBs following activation of the p53/p21 pathway in ALT cells. HIRA and ASF1a were also found to colocalize inside PML bodies in normal fibroblasts approaching senescence, providing evidence for the existence of a senescence-associated ASF1a/HIRA complex inside PML bodies, consistent with a role for these proteins in induction of senescence in both normal and ALT cells. Moreover, knockdown of HIRA but not ASF1a significantly reduced p53-mediated induction of large APBs, with a concomitant reduction of large HP1 foci. We conclude that HIRA, in addition to its physical and functional association with ASF1a, plays a unique, ASF1a-independent role, which is required for the localization of HP1 to PML bodies and thus for APB formation.

  4. Lightning and Radar Observations of the 29 May 2004 Tornadic HP Supercell during TELEX (United States)

    Macgorman, D. R.; Kuhlman, K. M.


    On 29 May 2004, a tornadic heavy-precipitation (HP) supercell storm moved through central Oklahoma and through the Thunderstorm Electrification and Lightning Experiment (TELEX) domain. Three dimensional lightning location data from the Oklahoma Lightning Mapping Array (OK-LMA) depict the evolution of the storm, including convective surges, overshooting tops, and the formation and dissipation of lightning weak holes. In addition to the OK-LMA, the storm was also observed by two C-band mobile radars (SMART-R radars) providing three-minute volume scans and by the KOUN polarimetric S-band radar. Analysis of a lightning weak hole showed that it was co-located horizontally with a core of strong updrafts and with a bounded weak echo region. The majority of the cloud-to-ground lightning detected in the storm by the National Lightning Detection Network lowered negative charge to ground. However, during genesis of the strongest tornado, the dominant polarity of ground flashes near the reflectivity core of the storm evolved to positive. Also at approximately this time, negative ground strikes began occurring under the anvil, tens of kilometers from the reflectivity core, as lightning activity surged roughly 100 km into the anvil. Observations from these platforms provide insight into HP supercell evolution and structure and into relationships of lightning with other properties of the storm.

  5. Postharvest Analysis of Lowland Transgenic Tomato Fruits Harboring hpRNAi-ACO1 Construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Behboodian


    Full Text Available The plant hormone, ethylene, is an important regulator which involved in regulating fruit ripening and flower senescence. In this study, RNA interference (RNAi technology was employed to silence the genes involved in ethylene biosynthetic pathway. This was achieved by blocking the expression of specific gene encoding the ACC oxidase. Initially, cDNA corresponding to ACO1 of lowland tomato cultivar (MT1, which has high identity with ACO1 of Solanum lycopersicum in GenBank, was cloned through RT-PCR. Using a partial coding region of ACO1, one hpRNAi transformation vector was constructed and expressed ectopically under the 35S promoter. Results showed that transgenic lines harboring the hpRNA-ACO1 construct had lower ethylene production and a longer shelf life of 32 days as compared to 10 days for wild-type fruits. Changes in cell wall degrading enzyme activities were also investigated in cases where the transgenic fruits exhibited reduced rates of firmness loss, which can be associated with a decrease in pectin methylesterase (PME and polygalacturonase (PG activities. However, no significant change was detected in both transgenic and wild-type fruits in terms of β-galactosidase (β-Gal activity and levels of total soluble solid, titratable acid and ascorbic acid.

  6. Multi-level hp-finite cell method for embedded interface problems with application in biomechanics. (United States)

    Elhaddad, Mohamed; Zander, Nils; Bog, Tino; Kudela, László; Kollmannsberger, Stefan; Kirschke, Jan S; Baum, Thomas; Ruess, Martin; Rank, Ernst


    This work presents a numerical discretization technique for solving three-dimensional material interface problems involving complex geometry without conforming mesh generation. The finite cell method (FCM), which is a high-order fictitious domain approach, is used for the numerical approximation of the solution without a boundary-conforming mesh. Weak discontinuities at material interfaces are resolved by using separate FCM meshes for each material sub-domain, and weakly enforcing the interface conditions between the different meshes. Additionally, a recently developed hierarchical hp-refinement scheme is employed to locally refine the FCM meshes in order to resolve singularities and local solution features at the interfaces. Thereby, higher convergence rates are achievable for non-smooth problems. A series of numerical experiments with two- and three-dimensional benchmark problems is presented, showing that the proposed hp-refinement scheme in conjunction with the weak enforcement of the interface conditions leads to a significant improvement of the convergence rates, even in the presence of singularities. Finally, the proposed technique is applied to simulate a vertebra-implant model. The application showcases the method's potential as an accurate simulation tool for biomechanical problems involving complex geometry, and it demonstrates its flexibility in dealing with different types of geometric description. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimization and mechanisms for biodecoloration of a mixture of dyes by Trichosporon akiyoshidainum HP 2023. (United States)

    Martorell, María M; Rosales Soro, María Del M; Pajot, Hipólito F; de Figueroa, Lucía I C


    Trichosporon akiyoshidainum HP2023 is a basidiomycetous yeast isolated from Las Yungas rainforest (Tucumán, Argentina) and selected based on its outstanding textile-dye-decolorizing ability. In this work, the decolorization process was optimized using Reactive Black 5 as dye model. Lactose and urea were chosen as carbon and nitrogen sources through a one-at-time approach. Afterwards, factorial designs were employed for medium optimization, leading to the formulation of a simpler optimized medium which contains in g L(-1): lactose 10, yeast extract 1, urea 0.5, KH2PO4 1 and MgSO4 1. Temperature and agitation conditions were also optimized. The optimized medium and incubation conditions for dye removal were extrapolated to other dyes individually and a mixture of them. Dye removal process happened through both biosorption and biodegradation mechanisms, depending primarily on the dye structure. A positive relation between initial inoculum and dye removal rate and a negative relation between initial dye concentration and final dye removal percentages were found. Under optimized conditions, T. akiyoshidainum HP2023 was able to completely remove a mixture of dyes up to a concentration of 300 mg L(-1), a concentration much higher than those expected in real effluents.

  8. Dose rate constants for the quantity Hp(3) for frequently used radionuclides in nuclear medicine. (United States)

    Szermerski, Bastian; Bruchmann, Iris; Behrens, Rolf; Geworski, Lilli


    According to recent studies, the human eye lens is more sensitive to ionising radiation than previously assumed. Therefore, the dose limit for personnel occupationally exposed to ionising radiation will be lowered from currently 150 mSv to 20 mSv per year. Currently, no data base for a reliable estimation of the dose to the lens of the eye is available for nuclear medicine. Furthermore, the dose is usually not monitored. The aim of this work was to determine dose rate constants for the quantity Hp(3), which is supposed to estimate the dose to the lens of the eye. For this, Hp(3)-dosemeters were fixed to an Alderson Phantom at different positions. The dosemeters were exposed to radiation from nuclides typically used in nuclear medicine in their geometries analog to their application in nuclear medicine, e.g. syringe or vial. The results show that the handling of high-energy beta (i.e. electron or positron) emitters may lead to a relevant dose to the lens of the eye. For low-energy beta emitters and gamma emitters, an exceeding of the lowered dose limit seems to be unlikely. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  9. Response to Metronidazole and Oxidative Stress Is Mediated through Homeostatic Regulator HsrA (HP1043) in Helicobacter pylori (United States)

    Olekhnovich, Igor N.; Vitko, Serhiy; Valliere, Meaghan


    Metronidazole (MTZ) is often used in combination therapies to treat infections caused by the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Resistance to MTZ results from loss-of-function mutations in genes encoding RdxA and FrxA nitroreductases. MTZ-resistant strains, when cultured at sub-MICs of MTZ (5 to 20 μg/ml), show dose-dependent defects in bacterial growth; depressed activities of many Krebs cycle enzymes, including pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR); and low transcript levels of porGDAB (primer extension), phenotypes consistent with an involvement of a transcriptional regulator. Using a combination of protein purification steps, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs), and mass spectrometry analyses of proteins bound to porG promoter sequences, we identified HP1043, an essential homeostatic global regulator (HsrA [for homeostatic stress regulator]). Competition EMSAs and supershift analyses with HsrA-enriched protein fractions confirmed specific binding to porGDAB and hsrA promoter sequences. Exposure to MTZ resulted in >10-fold decreases in levels of HsrA and in levels of the HsrA-regulated gene products PFOR and TlpB. Exposure to paraquat (PQ), hydrogen peroxide, or organic peroxides showed near equivalence with MTZ, revealing a common oxidative stress response pathway. Finally, direct superoxide dismutase (SOD) assays showed an inverse relationship between HsrA levels and SOD activity, suggesting that HsrA may serve as a repressor of sodB. As a homeostatic sentinel, HsrA appears to be ideally positioned to enable rapid shutdown of genes associated with metabolism and growth while activating (directly or indirectly) oxidative defense genes in response to low levels of toxic metabolites (MTZ or oxygen) before they reach DNA-damaging levels. PMID:24296668

  10. Proposal of concentration limits for determining the hazard property HP 14 for waste using ecotoxicological tests. (United States)

    Hennebert, Pierre


    Different ecotoxicological test batteries and concentration limits have been proposed to assess the hazard property (HP) HP 14 'Ecotoxic' for waste in the European Union and its member states. In test batteries, if the concentration of waste in the culture/dilution medium producing 50% of inhibitory biological effect in one or more test(s) is below the concentration limit of the test, the waste is classified as hazardous. A summarized review of the test batteries proposed since 1998 is presented. The last proposed test battery uses seven aquatic and terrestrial species with standardized methods, but with options and uniform concentration limits of 10% of waste eluate or solid waste in the culture/dilution medium. No attempt was made to match this hazard assessment with the classification made in the European List of Waste (LoW). The aim of this paper is to propose for the same test battery (reduced to 6 tests without options) concentration limits that match with the European List of Waste. This list was taken as reference (despite the fact that waste can be hazardous for other properties than the most frequent HP 14, and its partly political nature for some opinions). The concentration limits (CLs) for tests are the concentrations producing the highest ecotoxicological effects for each test observed in a non-hazardous waste set. Data from Germany, France and Belgium (from in total 5 different sources from 2009 to 2016) with the above-mentioned test battery (without options) were gathered for 81 samples, being the largest set ever published. In total, ten non-hazardous (NH) waste samples (as defined by the LoW and for most of them checked by chemical composition) were used to establish CLs. These CLs were then applied to 13 hazardous (H) waste by the LoW, and all were classified as hazardous. The matching of the resulting classification with the LoW is convincing. For the 58 'mirror entries' in the LoW (hazardous or not depending of the presence of hazardous

  11. A replica exchange Monte Carlo algorithm for protein folding in the HP model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmygelska Alena


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ab initio protein folding problem consists of predicting protein tertiary structure from a given amino acid sequence by minimizing an energy function; it is one of the most important and challenging problems in biochemistry, molecular biology and biophysics. The ab initio protein folding problem is computationally challenging and has been shown to be NP MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafiart1ev1aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8akY=wiFfYdH8Gipec8Eeeu0xXdbba9frFj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqai=hGuQ8kuc9pgc9s8qqaq=dirpe0xb9q8qiLsFr0=vr0=vr0dc8meaabaqaciaacaGaaeqabaqabeGadaaakeaat0uy0HwzTfgDPnwy1egaryqtHrhAL1wy0L2yHvdaiqaacqWFneVtcqqGqbauaaa@3961@-hard even when conformations are restricted to a lattice. In this work, we implement and evaluate the replica exchange Monte Carlo (REMC method, which has already been applied very successfully to more complex protein models and other optimization problems with complex energy landscapes, in combination with the highly effective pull move neighbourhood in two widely studied Hydrophobic Polar (HP lattice models. Results We demonstrate that REMC is highly effective for solving instances of the square (2D and cubic (3D HP protein folding problem. When using the pull move neighbourhood, REMC outperforms current state-of-the-art algorithms for most benchmark instances. Additionally, we show that this new algorithm provides a larger ensemble of ground-state structures than the existing state-of-the-art methods. Furthermore, it scales well with sequence length, and it finds significantly better conformations on long biological sequences and sequences with a provably unique ground-state structure, which is believed to be a characteristic of real proteins. We also present evidence that our REMC algorithm can fold sequences which exhibit significant interaction between termini in the hydrophobic core relatively easily. Conclusion We demonstrate that REMC utilizing the pull move

  12. Flue gas desulfurization by-products additions to acid soil: alfalfa productivity and environmental quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L.; Dick, W.A.; Nelson, S.


    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are often alkaline and contain many plant nutrients. Land application of FGD by-products is encouraged but little information is available related to plant responses and environmental impacts concerning such use. Agricultural lime (ag-lime) and several new types of FGD by-products which contain either vermiculite or perlite were applied at 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 times the soil's lime requirement (LR) rate to an acidic soil (Wooster silt loam). The highest FGD by-products application rate was equivalent to 75.2 Mg ha{sup -1}. Growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was significantly increased compared to the untreated control in the second year after treatment with yields for the 1 x LR rate of FGD approximately 7-8 times greater compared to the untreated control and 30% greater than for the commercial ag-lime. Concentrations of Mo in alfalfa were significantly increased by FGD by-products application, compared to the untreated control, while compared to the ag-lime treatment, concentrations of B increased and Ba decreased. No soil contamination problems were observed, even at the 2xLR rate, indicating these materials can be safely applied to agricultural soils.

  13. Oxidative Desulfurization of Dibenzothiophene Using Dawson Type Heteropoly Compounds/Tantalum as Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risfidian Mohadi


    Full Text Available Catalyst (NH46[b-P2W18O62]/Ta has been synthesized by simple wet impregnation at 30-40 °C under atmospheric conditions using Dawson type polyoxometalate (NH46[b-P2W18O62] and tantalum. The catalyst was characterized by FTIR spectrophotometer, XRD, SEM, and N2 adsorption desorption methods. FTIR spectrum of (NH46[b-P2W18O62]/Ta showed that Dawson type polyoxometalate (NH46[b-P2W18O62] and Ta was successfully impregnated which was indicated by vibration spectrum at wavenumber of 900-1100 cm-1 for polyoxometalate and 550 cm-1 for Ta. The surface area of the (NH46[b-P2W18O62]/Ta after impregnation was higher than (NH46[b-P2W18O62]•nH2O and its morphology was found to be uniform. The catalytic activity of (NH46[b-P2W18O62]/Ta toward desulfurization of dibenzothiophene was three times higher than the original catalyst of (NH46[b-P2W18O62]•nH2O without impregnation. The catalytic regeneration test of catalyst (NH46[b-P2W18O62]/Ta showed that the catalytic activity for first regeneration of catalyst has similar catalytic activity with the fresh catalyst without loss of catalytic activity indicated by almost similar percent conversion.

  14. Adsorptive Desulfurization of Model Gasoline by Using Different Zn Sources Exchanged NaY Zeolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei Rui


    Full Text Available A series of Zn-modified NaY zeolites were prepared by the liquid-phase ion-exchange method with different Zn sources, including Zn(NO32, Zn(Ac2 and ZnSO4. The samples were tested as adsorbents for removing an organic sulfur compound from a model gasoline fuel containing 1000 ppmw sulfur. Zn(Ac2-Y exhibited the best performance for the desulfurization of gasoline at ambient conditions. Combined with the adsorbents’ characterization results, the higher adsorption capacity of Zn(Ac2-Y is associated with a higher ion-exchange degree. Further, the results demonstrated that the addition of 5 wt % toluene or 1-hexene to the diluted thiophene (TP solution in cyclohexane caused a large decrease in the removal of TP from the model gasoline fuel. This provides evidence about the competition through the π-complexation between TP and toluene for adsorption on the active sites. The acid-catalyzed alkylation by 1-hexene of TP and the generated complex mixture of bulky alkylthiophenes would adsorb on the surface active sites of the adsorbent and block the pores. The regenerated Zn(Ac2-Y adsorbent afforded 84.42% and 66.10% of the initial adsorption capacity after the first two regeneration cycles.

  15. Chemical desulfurization of petroleum fractions for ultra-low sulfur fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Mohammad Farhat; Ahmed, Shakil [H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan); Al-Malki, Abdullah [Research and Development Center, Saudi ARAMCO, Dhahran 31311 (Saudi Arabia)


    An improved desulfurization process for removing sulfur from hydro treated diesel oil based on the oxidation of thiophenic type sulfur-containing compounds with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and acetic acid (AcOH) using H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as catalyst has been studied. The experimental results show that the sulfone content in the oxidation product increased rapidly with an increase in acetic acid and sulfuric acid ratios from 1:0 to 2:1 mole ratios. The maximum DBT conversion (wt.%) was at 2:1 mole ratio of acetic acid/sulfuric acid. This oxidation process is found to be capable of removing up to 90% of the sulfur compounds in hydro treated real fuels and can provide an alternative way to meet the future sulfur environmental requirements. Fifty eight sulfur-containing compounds were identified in hydro treated diesel sample. The sulfur compounds that have been identified in the hydro treated diesel include mainly refractory sulfur compounds (thiophenes and multi ring aromatic sulfur compounds, such as dibenzothiophene (DBT)). Sulfur species in typically hydro treated diesel and ring number distribution in 254-385 C cut are also reported. (author)

  16. The optimization of saccharification of desulfurated red seaweed-derived polysaccharides and analysis of their composition. (United States)

    Li, Xiaolin; Li, Yinping; Mou, Haijin; Gao, Yan; Hwang, Hueymin; Wang, Peng


    Currently processes of ethanol production from desulfurated red seaweed derived polysaccharides (De-RSDP) are well established. However, the optimization of the enzymatic saccharification process has not been reported. In this study, De-RSDP from Kappaphycus alvarezii was subjected to saccharification by different enzymes, including pectinase, cellobiase, cellulase, and hemicellulase. The best saccharification enzyme was determined as pectinase. In order to obtain more reducing sugar (RS), the single-factor experiment followed by central composite rotatable design (CCD) was used to optimize the parameters for enzymatic hydrolysis. The optimal saccharification parameters of De-RSDP were 4400 U/g pectinase dosage, 96 hr, and 55.5°C, respectively, and the yield of RS reached 81.3%. Subsequently, the saccharification liquids of De-RSDP were isolated and purified with gel permeation chromatography (GPC) to separate saccharides with different molecular weights. Simultaneously, the composition of saccharification liquids was analyzed by 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone high-pressure liquid chromatography (PMP-HPLC) and mass spectroscopy (MS). The result showed that the content is mainly composed of galactose (65.2%) with the average molecular mass in the fourth peak 181.1 Da. The saccharification liquids of De-RSDP inoculated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae L-4 for ethanol fermentation produced 0.3 g ethanol/g De-RSDP, which corresponded to 71.8% of the theoretical yield (0.38 g ethanol/g).

  17. Preparation of ionic liquid-modified SBA-15 doped with molybdovanadophosphoric acid for oxidative desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Jiang Zhou; Jin, Xiao Yin; Shen, Xian Lin; Tan, Jun Jun; Nie, Long Hui; Xiang, Jian; Hu, Bing [Dept. of chool of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan (China)


    A series of catalysts, ionic liquid-modified SBA-15 (denoted ILSBA) doped with H{sub 5}PMo{sub 10}V{sub 2}O{sub 40} (HPMoV{sub 2}) have been synthesized and characterized by XRD, FT-IR, {sup 1}H NMR, TG-DTA, and TEM. The catalyst was used for the removal of dibenzothiophene (DBT) in model oil combined with hydrogen peroxide (the oxidant) and acetonitrile (the phase-transfer agent). It was observed that the sulfur content of DBT can be reduced from 500 to 2 ppm by adjusting the amount of catalyst, the reaction temperatures and the reaction time. Besides, the catalyst activity for different sulfur compounds showed a huge difference which may be mainly affected by the electron densities of sulfur atom. Moreover, the catalyst can be recycled seven times without a significant loss in activity, which could be ascribed to the strong electrostatic interaction between ILSBA and HPMoV{sub 2}. In addition, a postulated mechanism was proposed to reveal the oxidative desulfurization process.

  18. Adsorptive Desulfurization of Model Gasoline by Using Different Zn Sources Exchanged NaY Zeolites. (United States)

    Rui, Jingwei; Liu, Fei; Wang, Rijie; Lu, Yanfei; Yang, Xiaoxia


    A series of Zn-modified NaY zeolites were prepared by the liquid-phase ion-exchange method with different Zn sources, including Zn(NO₃)₂, Zn(Ac)₂ and ZnSO₄. The samples were tested as adsorbents for removing an organic sulfur compound from a model gasoline fuel containing 1000 ppmw sulfur. Zn(Ac)₂-Y exhibited the best performance for the desulfurization of gasoline at ambient conditions. Combined with the adsorbents' characterization results, the higher adsorption capacity of Zn(Ac)₂-Y is associated with a higher ion-exchange degree. Further, the results demonstrated that the addition of 5 wt % toluene or 1-hexene to the diluted thiophene (TP) solution in cyclohexane caused a large decrease in the removal of TP from the model gasoline fuel. This provides evidence about the competition through the π-complexation between TP and toluene for adsorption on the active sites. The acid-catalyzed alkylation by 1-hexene of TP and the generated complex mixture of bulky alkylthiophenes would adsorb on the surface active sites of the adsorbent and block the pores. The regenerated Zn(Ac)₂-Y adsorbent afforded 84.42% and 66.10% of the initial adsorption capacity after the first two regeneration cycles.

  19. Preparation of manganese dioxide loaded activated carbon adsorbents and their desulfurization performance (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaojing; Wang, Guojian; Wang, Wenyi; Song, Hua; Wang, Lu


    Manganese dioxide loaded activated carbon adsorbents (MnO2/AC) were prepared and characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, BET method, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Effects of preparation conditions and adsorption conditions on desulfurization performance of the adsorbents were studied in a fixed-bed adsorption apparatus. Experimental results show that the surface area and pore volume of MnO2/AC decreased compared with the unmodified activated carbon, but the adsorption capacity to H2S was improved greatly. A suitable H2S removal activity was obtained with manganese dioxide to activated carbon ratio of 1.1: 1 and the calcination temperature of 250°C. At the adsorption temperature of 40°C and gas flow rate of 20 mL/min, the H2S saturation capacity and H2S removal rate reached up to 713.25 mg/g and 89.9%, respectively.

  20. Sodic soil properties and sunflower growth as affected by byproducts of flue gas desulfurization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinman Wang

    Full Text Available The main component of the byproducts of flue gas desulfurization (BFGD is CaSO(4, which can be used to improve sodic soils. The effects of BFGD on sodic soil properties and sunflower growth were studied in a pot experiment. The experiment consisted of eight treatments, at four BFGD rates (0, 7.5, 15 and 22.5 t ha(-1 and two leaching levels (750 and 1200 m(3 ha(-1. The germination rate and yield of the sunflower increased, and the exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP, pH and total dissolved salts (TDS in the soils decreased after the byproducts were applied. Excessive BFGD also affected sunflower germination and growth, and leaching improved reclamation efficiency. The physical and chemical properties of the reclaimed soils were best when the byproducts were applied at 7.5 t ha(-1 and water was supplied at 1200 m(3·ha(-1. Under these conditions, the soil pH, ESP, and TDS decreased from 9.2, 63.5 and 0.65% to 7.8, 2.8 and 0.06%, and the germination rate and yield per sunflower reached 90% and 36.4 g, respectively. Salinity should be controlled by leaching when sodic soils are reclaimed with BFGD as sunflower growth is very sensitive to salinity during its seedling stage.

  1. Adsorptive desulfurization with metal-organic frameworks: A density functional theory investigation (United States)

    Chen, Zhiping; Ling, Lixia; Wang, Baojun; Fan, Huiling; Shangguan, Ju; Mi, Jie


    The contribution of each fragment of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to the adsorption of sulfur compounds were investigated using density functional theory (DFT). The involved sulfur compounds are dimethyl sulfide (CH3SCH3), ethyl mercaptan (CH3CH2SH) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). MOFs with different organic ligands (NH2-BDC, BDC and NDC), metal centers structures (M, M-M and M3O) and metal ions (Zn, Cu and Fe) were used to study their effects on sulfur species adsorption. The results revealed that, MOFs with coordinatively unsaturated sites (CUS) have the strongest binding strength with sulfur compounds, MOFs with NH2-BDC substituent group ligand comes second, followed by that with saturated metal center, and the organic ligands without substituent group has the weakest adsorption strength. Moreover, it was also found that, among different metal ions (Fe, Zn and Cu), MOFs with unsaturated Fe has the strongest adsorption strength for sulfur compounds. These results are consistent with our previous experimental observations, and therefore provide insights on the better design of MOFs for desulfurization application.

  2. Synthesis of magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon (Fe-OMC) adsorbent and its evaluation for fuel desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farzin Nejad, N., E-mail: [Petroleum Refining Technology Development Division, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry, Tehran 14857-33111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shams, E.; Amini, M.K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    In this work, magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon adsorbent was synthesized using soft templating method to adsorb sulfur from model oil (dibenzothiophene in n-hexane). Through this research, pluronic F-127, resorcinol-formaldehyde and hydrated iron nitrate were respectively used as soft template, carbon source and iron source. The adsorbent was characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherm and transmission electron microscopy. Nitrogen adsorption–desorption measurement revealed the high surface area (810 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}), maxima pore size of 3.3 nm and large pore volume (1.01 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}) of the synthesized sample. The adsorbent showed a maximum adsorption capacity of 111 mg dibenzothiophene g{sup −1} of adsorbent. Sorption process was described by the pseudo-second-order rate equation and could be better fitted by the Freundlich model, showing the heterogeneous feature of the adsorption process. In addition, the adsorption capacity of regenerated adsorbent was 78.6% of the initial level, after five regeneration cycles. - Highlights: • Adsorptive desulfurization of model oil with magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon adsorbent, Fe-OMC, was studied. • Maximum adsorption capacity (q{sub max}) of Fe-OMC for DBT was found to be 111.1 mg g{sup −1}. • Freundlich isotherm best represents the equilibrium adsorption data. • Rate of DBT adsorption process onto Fe-OMC is controlled by at least two steps.

  3. Bio-desulfurization of biogas using acidic biotrickling filter with dissolved oxygen in step feed recirculation. (United States)

    Chaiprapat, Sumate; Charnnok, Boonya; Kantachote, Duangporn; Sung, Shihwu


    Triple stage and single stage biotrickling filters (T-BTF and S-BTF) were operated with oxygenated liquid recirculation to enhance bio-desulfurization of biogas. Empty bed retention time (EBRT 100-180 s) and liquid recirculation velocity (q 2.4-7.1 m/h) were applied. H2S removal and sulfuric acid recovery increased with higher EBRT and q. But the highest q at 7.1 m/h induced large amount of liquid through the media, causing a reduction in bed porosity in S-BTF and H2S removal. Equivalent performance of S-BTF and T-BTF was obtained under the lowest loading of 165 gH2S/m(3)/h. In the subsequent continuous operation test, it was found that T-BTF could maintain higher H2S elimination capacity and removal efficiency at 175.6±41.6 gH2S/m(3)/h and 89.0±6.8% versus S-BTF at 159.9±42.8 gH2S/m(3)/h and 80.1±10.2%, respectively. Finally, the relationship between outlet concentration and bed height was modeled. Step feeding of oxygenated liquid recirculation in multiple stages clearly demonstrated an advantage for sulfide oxidation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigation on Mercury Reemission from Limestone-Gypsum Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Slurry (United States)

    Liu, Songtao; Liu, Yongchao


    Secondary atmospheric pollutions may result from wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) systems caused by the reduction of Hg2+ to Hg0 and lead to a damping of the cobenefit mercury removal efficiency by WFGD systems. The experiment on Hg0 reemission from limestone-gypsum WFGD slurry was carried out by changing the operating conditions such as the pH, temperature, Cl− concentrations, and oxygen concentrations. The partitioning behavior of mercury in the solid and liquid byproducts was also discussed. The experimental results indicated that the Hg0 reemission rate from WFGD slurry increased as the operational temperatures and pH values increased. The Hg0 reemission rates decreased as the O2 concentration of flue gas and Cl− concentration of WFGD slurry increased. The concentrations of O2 in flue gas have an evident effect on the mercury retention in the solid byproducts. The temperature and Cl− concentration have a slight effect on the mercury partitioning in the byproducts. No evident relation was found between mercury retention in the solid byproducts and the pH. The present findings could be valuable for industrial application of characterizing and optimizing mercury control in wet FGD systems. PMID:24737981

  5. Rate-limiting step analysis of the microbial desulfurization of dibenzothiophene in a model oil system (United States)

    Abin-Fuentes, Andres; Leung, James C.; Mohamed, Magdy El-Said; Wang, Daniel IC; Prather, Kristala LJ


    A mechanistic analysis of the various mass transport and kinetic steps in the microbial desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT) by Rhodococcus erythropolis IGTS8 in a model biphasic (oil-water), small-scale system was performed. The biocatalyst was distributed into three populations, free cells in the aqueous phase, cell aggregates and oil-adhered cells, and the fraction of cells in each population was measured. The power input per volume (P/V) and the impeller tip speed (vtip) were identified as key operating parameters in determining whether the system is mass transport controlled or kinetically controlled. Oil-water DBT mass transport was found to not be limiting under the conditions tested. Experimental results at both the 100 mL and 4L (bioreactor) scales suggest that agitation leading to P/V greater than 10,000 W/ m3 and/or vtip greater than 0.67 m/s is sufficient to overcome the major mass transport limitation in the system, which was the diffusion of DBT within the biocatalyst aggregates. PMID:24284557

  6. Bicarbonate-induced activation of H₂O₂ for metal-free oxidative desulfurization. (United States)

    Bokare, Alok D; Choi, Wonyong


    Efficient oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of model oil containing dibenzothiophene (DBT) and aromatic thiophenic derivatives has been achieved at room temperature using hydrogen peroxide activation by inorganic bicarbonate (HCO3(-)). Using in-situ formation of peroxymonocarbonate as oxidant, the transformation of main model substrate DBT to corresponding DBT-sulfone was easily accomplished in biphasic reaction conditions. In the presence of water-acetonitrile polar phase, increasing the water content upto 50% decreased the extraction capacity more than 3 times, but ∼ 90% DBT oxidation was still achieved. The oxidizing capacity of bicarbonate catalyst was maintained during repeated ODS cycles, but DBT removal efficiency was critically dependent on the extraction capacity of the polar phase. Under heterogeneous reaction conditions, bicarbonate-modified ion-exchange resin achieved similar ODS activity compared to the homogeneous catalytic system. Additionally, the efficient formation of peroxymonocarbonate using gaseous CO2 precursor in alkaline conditions was also utilized for DBT oxidation. The present study proposes the NaHCO3/H2O2 catalytic system as an efficient and cheap metal-free alternative for the oxidative removal of aromatic sulfur compounds from fuel oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Highly Efficient Air Desulfurization on Self-Assembled Bundles of Copper Hydroxide Nanorods. (United States)

    Giannakoudakis, Dimitrios A; Jiang, Mingyung; Bandosz, Teresa J


    Copper hydroxide and copper hydroxyl nitrate were successfully synthesized from copper nitrate. A slight alteration of a base addition pathway led to entirely different chemical and crystal structures. Structural, morphological, and surface chemical features were analyzed using various physical and chemical methods. The copper hydroxide texture consists of self-assembled bundles of nanorods with a diameter between 15 and 40 nm. They are stack together forming platelet-like particles. In the case of the copper hydroxyl nitrate, platelet-like particles with a smooth surface were detected. The fully hydroxylated sample showed a considerably higher surface area and mesoporous volume than those of copper hydroxyl nitrate. Both synthesized materials were used as air desulfurization media at moist or dry conditions. The results indicate a supreme chemical adsorption of H2S on copper hydroxide. Moisture in air has a positive effect on the adsorption performance. In humid conditions, almost 0.9 mol H2S/mol of Cu(OH)2 was adsorbed. CuS with almost a stoichiometric ratio was a product of surface reactions. The color change of the powder from sapphire blue to dark brown during the adsorption can be used as a fast indication of the adsorbent exhaustion level.

  8. Attapulgite-CeO2/MoS2 ternary nanocomposite for photocatalytic oxidative desulfurization (United States)

    Li, Xiazhang; Zhang, Zuosong; Yao, Chao; Lu, Xiaowang; Zhao, Xiaobing; Ni, Chaoying


    Novel attapulgite(ATP)-CeO2/MoS2 ternary nanocomposites were synthesized by microwave assisted assembly method. The structures of the nanocomposites were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, UV-vis, XPS and in situ TEM. The photocatalytic activities of ATP-CeO2/MoS2 composites were investigated by degradating dibenzothiophene (DBT) in gasoline under visible light irradiation. The effect of the mass ratio of CeO2 to MoS2 on photocatalytic activity was investigated. The results indicate that the three-dimensional network structure is firmly constructed by ATP skeleton, CeO2 particles and MoS2 nanosheet which effectively increase the surface area of the composites and promote the separation of electrons and holes by resulting electronic transmission channels of multi-channel in space. The degradation rate of DBT can reach 95% under 3 h irradiation when the mass ratio of CeO2/MoS2 is 4/10. A plausible mechanism for the photocatalytic oxidative desulfurization of this nanocomposite is put forward.

  9. Sodic Soil Properties and Sunflower Growth as Affected by Byproducts of Flue Gas Desulfurization (United States)

    Wang, Jinman; Bai, Zhongke; Yang, Peiling


    The main component of the byproducts of flue gas desulfurization (BFGD) is CaSO4, which can be used to improve sodic soils. The effects of BFGD on sodic soil properties and sunflower growth were studied in a pot experiment. The experiment consisted of eight treatments, at four BFGD rates (0, 7.5, 15 and 22.5 t ha−1) and two leaching levels (750 and 1200 m3 ha−1). The germination rate and yield of the sunflower increased, and the exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), pH and total dissolved salts (TDS) in the soils decreased after the byproducts were applied. Excessive BFGD also affected sunflower germination and growth, and leaching improved reclamation efficiency. The physical and chemical properties of the reclaimed soils were best when the byproducts were applied at 7.5 t ha−1 and water was supplied at 1200 m3·ha−1. Under these conditions, the soil pH, ESP, and TDS decreased from 9.2, 63.5 and 0.65% to 7.8, 2.8 and 0.06%, and the germination rate and yield per sunflower reached 90% and 36.4 g, respectively. Salinity should be controlled by leaching when sodic soils are reclaimed with BFGD as sunflower growth is very sensitive to salinity during its seedling stage. PMID:23285042

  10. A polyoxometalate-encapsulating cationic metal-organic framework as a heterogeneous catalyst for desulfurization. (United States)

    Hao, Xiu-Li; Ma, Yuan-Yuan; Zang, Hong-Ying; Wang, Yong-Hui; Li, Yang-Guang; Wang, En-Bo


    A new cationic triazole-based metal-organic framework encapsulating Keggin-type polyoxometalates, with the molecular formula [Co(BBPTZ)3][HPMo12O40]⋅24 H2O [compound 1; BBPTZ = 4,4'-bis(1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)biphenyl] is hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The structure of compound 1 contains a non-interpenetrated 3D CdSO4 (cds)-type framework with two types of channels that are interconnected with each other; straight channels that are occupied by the Keggin-type POM anions, and wavelike channels that contain lattice water molecules. The catalytic activity of compound 1 in the oxidative desulfurization reaction indicates that it is not only an effective and size-selective heterogeneous catalyst, but it also exhibits distinct structural stability in the catalytic reaction system. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Global evaluation of mass transfer effects: In-duct injection flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, J.A.; Newton, G.H.; Kramlich, J.C.; Payne, R.


    Sorbent injection is a low capital cost, low operating cost approach to SO{sub 2} control targeted primarily at older boilers for which conventional fuel gas desulfurization is not economically viable. Duct injection is one variation of this concept in which the sorbent, either a dry powder or a slurry, is injected into the cooler regions of the boiler, generally downstream of the air heaters. The attractiveness of duct injection is tied to the fact that it avoids much of the boiler heat transfer equipment and thus has minimal impact of boiler performance. Both capital and operating cost are low. This program has as its objectives three performance related issues to address: (1) experimentally identify limits on sorbent performance. (2) identify and test sorbent performance enhancement strategies. (3) develop a compute model of the duct injection process. Two major tasks are described: a laboratory-scale global experiment and development of process model. Both are aimed at understanding and quantifying the rate-limiting processes which control SO{sub 2} capture by lime slurry during boiler duct injection. 29 refs., 35 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Heterogeneous oxidative desulfurization of diesel fuel catalyzed by mesoporous polyoxometallate-based polymeric hybrid. (United States)

    Yang, Huawei; Jiang, Bin; Sun, Yongli; Zhang, Luhong; Huang, Zhaohe; Sun, Zhaoning; Yang, Na


    In this work, the simple preparation of novel polymer supported polyoxometallates (POMs) catalysts has been reported. Soluble task-specific cross-linked poly (ionic liquid) (PIL) was prepared with N,​N-​dimethyl-​dodecyl-​(4-​vinylbenzyl) ammonium chloride and divinylbenzene as co-monomers. The as-prepared cationic PILs were assembled with different commercial POMs to form the interlinked mesoporous catalysts, and the formation mechanism was provided. The catalytic oxidation activities of the catalysts were closely related to the formation pathway of their corresponding peroxide active species. The catalyst with H2W12O4210- as counterion, which exhibited the best activity in the oxidation of benzothiophene (BT) and dibenzothiophene (DBT) to sulfones in model oil with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 30wt%) as oxidant, was characterized by different techniques and systematically studied for its sulfur removal performance. As for the oxidative desulfurization of a real diesel, it was observed that almost all of the original sulfur compounds could be completely converted, and the catalyst could be reused for at least eight cycles without noticeable changes in both catalytic activity and chemical structure. In the end, a catalytic mechanism was put forward with the assistant of Raman analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sodic soil properties and sunflower growth as affected by byproducts of flue gas desulfurization. (United States)

    Wang, Jinman; Bai, Zhongke; Yang, Peiling


    The main component of the byproducts of flue gas desulfurization (BFGD) is CaSO(4), which can be used to improve sodic soils. The effects of BFGD on sodic soil properties and sunflower growth were studied in a pot experiment. The experiment consisted of eight treatments, at four BFGD rates (0, 7.5, 15 and 22.5 t ha(-1)) and two leaching levels (750 and 1200 m(3) ha(-1)). The germination rate and yield of the sunflower increased, and the exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), pH and total dissolved salts (TDS) in the soils decreased after the byproducts were applied. Excessive BFGD also affected sunflower germination and growth, and leaching improved reclamation efficiency. The physical and chemical properties of the reclaimed soils were best when the byproducts were applied at 7.5 t ha(-1) and water was supplied at 1200 m(3)·ha(-1). Under these conditions, the soil pH, ESP, and TDS decreased from 9.2, 63.5 and 0.65% to 7.8, 2.8 and 0.06%, and the germination rate and yield per sunflower reached 90% and 36.4 g, respectively. Salinity should be controlled by leaching when sodic soils are reclaimed with BFGD as sunflower growth is very sensitive to salinity during its seedling stage.

  14. LIFAC flue gas desulfurization process an alternative SO{sub 2} control strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, J.G. [Tampella Power Corp., Atlanta, GA (United States); Vilala, J. [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)


    This paper discusses the results from two recently completed LIFAC flue gas desulfurization plants - 300 MW Shand lignite powered station owned by Saskatchewan Power Corporation and 60 MW Whitewater Valley high sulfur coal fired station owned by Richmond Powerand Light. LIFACis a dry FGD process in which limestone is injected into the upper regions of the boiler furnace and an activation reactor is used to humidify the unreacted limestone to achieve additional sulfur capture. The performance in both plants indicates that 70 to 80% sulfur is removed at a Ca/S ratio of 2. Cost performance data from these plants has shown that LI FAC both on construction cost and $/ton SO{sub 2} removed basis is very cost competitive compared to other SO{sub 2} control technologies. The Richmond plant has been realized under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology program. The Shand plant is the first commercial installation in North America. The paper also discusses highlights of operating and maintenance experience, availability and handling of the solid waste product.

  15. Industrial application of gasoline aromatization and desulfurization technology in Hohhot refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zixia


    Full Text Available Gasoline aromatization and desulfurization (GARDES technology is extensively used in refineries of Petrochina, aiming to produce high quality ultraclean fluid catalytic cracking (FCC gasoline. This article introduces the industrial application results on the hydrodesulfurization unit of the Hohhot refinery, which plays an important role in guiding next round gasoline upgrading. The characteristics and the principle of GARDES technology were elaborated by analyzing the distribution of sulfur and hydrocarbon compounds in the feed and product. The analysis results proved that the presence of broad ranged sulfur types in the feed can be removed at different stages. Olefin can be decreased by saturation and conversion into i-paraffins and aromatics. The sulfur content of the blend product can be limited under 10 mg/kg, showing GARDES technology has excellent sulfur removal ability. The olefin reduction can also satisfy the ever-increasing severe requirement about the olefin limitation, while the loss of research octane number (RON can be minimized to an acceptable level. Furthermore, according to the demand of gasoline upgrading, GARDES technology has great flexibility by adjusting operation condition without any further investment, which brings more economic benefits for refinery.

  16. Adsorptive desulfurization of model oil using untreated, acid activated and magnetite nanoparticle loaded bentonite as adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ishaq


    Full Text Available The present research work focuses on a novel ultraclean desulfurization process of model oil by the adsorption method using untreated, acid activated and magnetite nanoparticle loaded bentonite as adsorbent. The parameters investigated are effect of contact time, adsorbent dose, initial dibenzothiophene (DBT concentration and temperature. Experimental tests were conducted in batch process. Pseudo first and second order kinetic equations were used to examine the experimental data. It was found that pseudo second order kinetic equation described the data of the DBT adsorption onto all types of adsorbents very well. The isotherm data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The Langmuir isotherm model fits the data very well for the adsorption of DBT onto all three forms of adsorbents. The adsorption of DBT was also investigated at different adsorbent doses and was found that the percentage adsorption of DBT was increased with increasing the adsorbent dose, while the adsorption in mg/g was decreased with increasing the adsorbent dose. The prepared adsorbents were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX and X-ray diffraction (XRD.

  17. Risk stratification for surgical outcomes in older colorectal cancer patients using ISAR-HP and G8 screening tools. (United States)

    Souwer, Esteban T D; Verweij, Norbert M; van den Bos, Frederiek; Bastiaannet, Esther; Slangen, Rob M E; Steup, Willem H; Hamaker, Marije E; Portielje, Johanna E A


    Older patients are at risk for adverse outcomes after surgical treatment of cancer. Identifying patients at risk could affect treatment decisions and prevent functional decline. Screening tools are available to select patients for Geriatric Assessment. Until now their predictive value for adverse outcomes in older colorectal cancer patients has not been investigated. To study the predictive value of the Geriatric 8 (G8) and Identification of Seniors at Risk for Hospitalized Patients (ISAR-HP) screening tools for adverse outcomes after elective colorectal surgery in patients older than 70years. Primary outcomes were 30-day complication rates, secondary outcomes were the length of hospital stay and six-month mortality. Multicentre cohort study from two hospitals in the Netherlands. Frail was defined as a G8 ≤14 and/or ISAR-HP ≥2. Odds ratio (OR) is given with 95% CI. Overall, 139 patients (52%) out of 268 patients were included; 32 patients (23%) were ISAR-HP-frail, 68 (50%) were G8-frail, 20 were frail on both screening tools. Median age was 77.7years. ISAR-HP frail patients were at risk for 30-day complications OR 2.4 (CI 1.1-5.4, p=0.03), readmission OR 3.4 (1.1-11.0), cardiopulmonary complications OR 5.9 (1.6-22.6), longer hospital stay (10.3 versus 8.9day) and six-months mortality OR 4.9 (1.1-23.4). When ISAR-HP and G8 were combined OR increased for readmission, 30-day and six-months mortality. G8 alone had no predictive value. ISAR-HP-frail patients are at risk for adverse outcomes after colorectal surgery. ISAR-HP combined with G8 has the strongest predictive value for complications and mortality. Patients screening frail on ISAR-HP are at increased risk for morbidity and mortality. Screening results of G8 alone was not predictive for postoperative outcomes. Predictive value increased when G8 and ISAR-HP were combined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Novel roles of Caenorhabditis elegans heterochromatin protein HP1 and linker histone in the regulation of innate immune gene expression. (United States)

    Studencka, Maja; Konzer, Anne; Moneron, Gael; Wenzel, Dirk; Opitz, Lennart; Salinas-Riester, Gabriela; Bedet, Cecile; Krüger, Marcus; Hell, Stefan W; Wisniewski, Jacek R; Schmidt, Henning; Palladino, Francesca; Schulze, Ekkehard; Jedrusik-Bode, Monika


    Linker histone (H1) and heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) are essential components of heterochromatin which contribute to the transcriptional repression of genes. It has been shown that the methylation mark of vertebrate histone H1 is specifically recognized by the chromodomain of HP1. However, the exact biological role of linker histone binding to HP1 has not been determined. Here, we investigate the function of the Caenorhabditis elegans H1 variant HIS-24 and the HP1-like proteins HPL-1 and HPL-2 in the cooperative transcriptional regulation of immune-relevant genes. We provide the first evidence that HPL-1 interacts with HIS-24 monomethylated at lysine 14 (HIS-24K14me1) and associates in vivo with promoters of genes involved in antimicrobial response. We also report an increase in overall cellular levels and alterations in the distribution of HIS-24K14me1 after infection with pathogenic bacteria. HIS-24K14me1 localization changes from being mostly nuclear to both nuclear and cytoplasmic in the intestinal cells of infected animals. Our results highlight an antimicrobial role of HIS-24K14me1 and suggest a functional link between epigenetic regulation by an HP1/H1 complex and the innate immune system in C. elegans.

  19. Theoretical investigation of the interaction between aromatic sulfur compounds and [BMIM](+)[FeCl4](-) ionic liquid in desulfurization: A novel charge transfer mechanism. (United States)

    Li, Hongping; Zhu, Wenshuai; Chang, Yonghui; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Ming; Yin, Sheng; Xia, Jiexiang; Li, Huaming


    In this work, interaction nature between a group of aromatic sulfur compounds and [BMIM](+)[FeCl4](-) have been investigated by density functional theory (DFT). A coordination structure is found to be critical to the mechanism of extractive desulfurization. Interaction energy and extractive selectivity follow the order: thiophene (TH)desulfurization is attributed to the charge transfer effect. During extractive desulfurization, electrons on aromatic sulfur compounds transfer into the Lewis part of ionic liquid, namely, [FeCl4](-). Furthermore, it is better to consider the Lewis acidity of Fe-containing ionic liquid by the whole unit (such as [FeCl4](-) and aromatic sulfur compounds (X)) rather than only Fe or S atom. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Imidazole-Aided Native Chemical Ligation: Imidazole as a One-Pot Desulfurization-Amenable Non-Thiol-Type Alternative to 4-Mercaptophenylacetic Acid. (United States)

    Sakamoto, Ken; Tsuda, Shugo; Mochizuki, Masayoshi; Nohara, Yukie; Nishio, Hideki; Yoshiya, Taku


    Various bioactive proteins have been synthesized by native chemical ligation (NCL) and its combination with subsequent desulfurization (e.g., conversion from Cys to Ala). In NCL, excess 4-mercaptophenylacetic acid (MPAA) is generally added to facilitate the reaction. However, co-elution of MPAA with the ligation product during preparative high-performance liquid chromatography sometimes reduces its usefulness. In addition, contamination of MPAA disturbs subsequent desulfurization. Here, we report for the first time that imidazole can be adopted as an alternative to MPAA in NCL using a peptide-alkylthioester. The efficiency of the imidazole-aided NCL (Im-NCL) is similar to that of traditional MPAA-aided NCL. As model cases, we successfully synthesized adiponectin(19-107) and [Ser(PO3 H2 )(65) ]-ubiquitin using Im-NCL with a one-pot desulfurization. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Hp(3)/Φ conversion coefficients for neutrons: discussion on the basis of the new ICRP recommended limit for the eye lens. (United States)

    Ferrari, P; Gualdrini, G; Tanner, R; Fantuzzi, E


    The new recommendation issued by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) introducing a 20-mSv annual dose limit for the eye lens stimulated an interesting debate among the radiation protection community. In the present work the problem of estimating Hp(3) for neutron realistic workplace spectra is treated, employing the recently published Hp(3)/Φ conversion coefficients with the aim of establishing a workplace-dependent relationship between Hp(10) and Hp(3). The results demonstrate that, whilst the two quantities can differ by less than 10 %, in general, Hp(10) cannot be considered a conservative estimate of Hp(3). © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  2. The negative-difference effect during the localized corrosion of magnesium and of the AZ91HP alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Cristina R.


    Full Text Available Galvanostatic tests with pure magnesium and with the AZ91HP alloy were performed in NaCl solutions, and the volume of hydrogen evolved during the tests was measured. In order to examine the negative-difference effect, a concept was developed to separate the hydrogen evolution (H.E. on the passive surface and the H.E. inside the pits. An analysis of the volumetric data showed that the current density of H.E. inside the pits is much higher for Mg than for the AZ91HP alloy. With the assumption, that the ratio between the hydrogen reduction rate and the rate of the anodic metal dissolution, expressed by the factor k, does not change with the polarization, a k value of ca. 0.5 for pure Mg was found, while for the AZ91HP alloy this value was only ca. 0.3.

  3. Improved Functional Properties and Efficiencies of Nitinol Wires Under High-Performance Shape Memory Effect (HP-SME) (United States)

    Casati, R.; Saghafi, F.; Biffi, C. A.; Vedani, M.; Tuissi, A.


    Martensitic Ti-rich NiTi intermetallics are broadly used in various cyclic applications as actuators, which exploit the shape memory effect (SME). Recently, a new approach for exploiting austenitic Ni-rich NiTi shape memory alloys as actuators was proposed and named high-performance shape memory effect (HP-SME). HP-SME is based on thermal recovery of de-twinned martensite produced by mechanical loading of the parent phase. The aim of the manuscript consists in evaluating and comparing the fatigue and actuation properties of austenitic HP-SME wires and conventional martensitic SME wires. The effect of the thermomechanical cycling on the actuation response and the changes in the electrical resistivity of both shape memory materials were studied by performing the actuation tests at different stages of the fatigue life. Finally, the changes in the transition temperatures before and after cycling were also investigated by differential calorimetric tests.

  4. Improved Functional Properties and Efficiencies of Nitinol Wires Under High-Performance Shape Memory Effect (HP-SME) (United States)

    Casati, R.; Saghafi, F.; Biffi, C. A.; Vedani, M.; Tuissi, A.


    Martensitic Ti-rich NiTi intermetallics are broadly used in various cyclic applications as actuators, which exploit the shape memory effect (SME). Recently, a new approach for exploiting austenitic Ni-rich NiTi shape memory alloys as actuators was proposed and named high-performance shape memory effect (HP-SME). HP-SME is based on thermal recovery of de-twinned martensite produced by mechanical loading of the parent phase. The aim of the manuscript consists in evaluating and comparing the fatigue and actuation properties of austenitic HP-SME wires and conventional martensitic SME wires. The effect of the thermomechanical cycling on the actuation response and the changes in the electrical resistivity of both shape memory materials were studied by performing the actuation tests at different stages of the fatigue life. Finally, the changes in the transition temperatures before and after cycling were also investigated by differential calorimetric tests.

  5. Measurement of personal equivalent dose Hp(3) during procedures involving in positron emission tomography; Medida del equivalente de dosis personal en cristalino Hp(3) durante los procedimientos asociados a la tomografía por emisión de positrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiu Souto, J.; Sánchez García, M.; Vázquez, R.; Pardo Montero, J.; Pombar Cameán, M.


    The aim of the present study consists to determinate the personal equivalent dose Hp(3) at eye lens during the procedures involved in positron emission tomography. We have monitored the nurse's staff which is responsible of handling and dispensing 18F. We characterize the relevant stages as the preparation, the transport and the administration of monodose syringes in terms of occupational dose. We observed that the preparation presents a major contribution to the occupational doses than the other stages. In addition, during those stage there is a correlation between the dose increments and handling activity. To establish the eye lens dose we use the following dosimetry set: a direct readout solid state dosimeter for general purposes calibrated at Hp(10) and a set of thermolumiscent dosimeters specific for 18F calibrated at Hp(3). Finally, for the dose intercomparison between above dosimeters we obtain a correction factor by Monte Carlo. The eye lens dose, with a value of 2.8 ± 0.4 mSv/yr, results more critical than the dose obtained in other locations, as extremities. [Spanish] El propósito del presente trabajo consiste en la determinación del equivalente de dosis personal Hp(3) en cristalino durante los procedimientos asociados a la tomografía por emisión de positrones. Se ha monitorizado al personal de enfermería que realiza las tareas de manipulación y dispensación del 18F. Se ha realizado un estudio caracterizando la dosis en las etapas más relevantes del procedimiento: la preparación manual de las jeringuillas, el transporte de las mismas y su posterior administración al paciente. Se observó que la preparación es la etapa que más contribuye a la dosis ocupacional, además durante dicha etapa se observa una clara correlación entre el incremento de dosis y la actividad manipulada. Para determinar la dosis en cristalino se ha utilizado el siguiente equipo dosimétrico: un detector de estado sólido de lectura directa de propósito general

  6. Development of a portable, modular unit for the optimization of ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization of diesel (United States)

    Wan, Meng-Wei

    Due to the stringent rules requiring ultra-low sulfur content in diesel fuels, it is necessary to develop alternative methods of desulfurization of fossil fuel derived oil, such as diesel. Current technology is not sufficient to solve this problem. Ultrasound applied to oxidative desulfurization which combined three complementary techniques: ultrasonication, phase transfer catalysis (PTC) and transition metal catalyzed oxidation, has accomplished high sulfur removal in a short contact time at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. This research has successfully demonstrated that the higher oxidation efficiency of BT to BTO and free of any by-products by using tetraoctylammonium fluoride as phase transfer agent. The oxidation rate of BT to BTO increased with increasing the carbon chain length of QAS cations. Under the same length of carbon chain, the oxidation rate of BT to BTO increased with decreasing the molecular size of QAS anions. Moreover, for diesel fuels containing various levels of sulfur content, UAOD process followed by solvent extraction has demonstrated that the sulfur reduction can reach above 95 % removal efficiency or final sulfur content below 15 ppm in mild condition. For large-scale commercial production, this research has successfully developed and operated a continuous desulfurization unit, which consists of a sonoractor, an RF amplifier, a function generator, a pretreatment tank, and a pipeline system. A single unit only needed 2' x 4' x 1' space for installation. The results indicated that the remarkable 92% removal efficiency for the sulfur in marine logistic diesel, even at a treatment rate as high as 25 lb/hour which is approximately 2 barrels per day. Therefore, this sonoreactor demonstrated the feasibility of large-scale operation even in a relatively small installation with low capital investment and maintenance cost. It also ensures the safety considerations by operating with diluted hydrogen peroxide under ambient temperature

  7. Helicobacter pylori antigen HP0986 (TieA) interacts with cultured gastric epithelial cells and induces IL8 secretion via NF-κB mediated pathway. (United States)

    Devi, Savita; Ansari, Suhail A; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Mégraud, Francis; Tenguria, Shivendra; Ahmed, Niyaz


    The envisaged roles and partly understood functional properties of Helicobacter pylori protein HP0986 are significant in the context of proinflammatory and or proapoptotic activities, the two important facilitators of pathogen survival and persistence. In addition, sequence analysis of this gene predicts a restriction endonuclease function which remained unknown thus far. To evaluate the role of HP0986 in gastric inflammation, we studied its expression profile using a large number of clinical isolates but a limited number of biopsies and patient sera. Also, we studied antigenic role of HP0986 in altering cytokine responses of human gastric epithelial (AGS) cells including its interaction with and localization within the AGS cells. For in vitro expression study of HP0986, 110 H. pylori clinical isolates were cultured from patients with functional dyspepsia. For expression analysis by qRT PCR of HP0986, 10 gastric biopsy specimens were studied. HP0986 was also used to detect antibodies in patient sera. AGS cells were incubated with recombinant HP0986 to determine cytokine response and NF-κB activation. Transient transfection with HP0986 cloned in pEGFPN1 was used to study its subcellular localization or homing in AGS cells. Out of 110 cultured H. pylori strains, 34 (31%) were positive for HP0986 and this observation was correlated with in vitro expression profiles. HP0986 mRNA was detected in 7 of the 10 biopsy specimens. Further, HP0986 induced IL-8 secretion in gastric epithelial cells in a dose and time-dependent manner via NF-κB pathway. Serum antibodies against HP0986 were positively associated with H. pylori positive patients. Transient transfection of AGS cells revealed both cytoplasmic and nuclear localization of HP0986. HP0986 was moderately prevalent in clinical isolates and its expression profile in cultures and gastric biopsies points to its being naturally expressed. Collective observations including the induction of IL-8 via TNFR1 and NF

  8. Evaluation of recombinant HP6-Tsag, an 18 kDa Taenia saginata oncospheral adhesion protein, for the diagnosis of cysticercosis. (United States)

    Ferrer, Elizabeth; González, Luís Miguel; Martínez-Escribano, José Angel; González-Barderas, María Eugenia; Cortéz, María Milagros; Dávila, Iris; Harrison, Leslie J S; Parkhouse, R Michael E; Gárate, Teresa


    With the objective of providing inexpensive and reproducible assays for the detection of antibodies indicating exposure to Taenia saginata and Taenia solium, we have evaluated the diagnostic utility of the T. saginata oncosphere adhesion protein (HP6-Tsag), expressed in baculovirus (HP6-Bac) and bacteria (HP6-GST [glutathione S-transferase]), employing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and sera from T. saginata infected cattle, T. solium infected pigs and serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from clinically defined T. solium neurocysticercosis (NCC) patients. The two recombinant proteins were antigenic in all three systems, with the signal to background ratio of the HP6-Bac ELISA slightly higher than that for the HP6-GST ELISA. Assay performance in cattle was similar to previously described peptide-based ELISA assays, although NCC sample sensitivity/specificity was marginally better. The sensitivity of the HP6-Bac and HP6-GST ELISAs was close for active human NCC (77.4 and 80.6% for serum and 76.9 and 73.1% for CSF samples, respectively). In inactive human NCC, however, the sensitivity of the HP6-Bac ELISA was almost twice that of the HP6-GST ELISA. Because peptides are relatively expensive and recombinant proteins are simple and economical to produce, the latter may provide useful reagents for antibody detection in countries with endemic cysticercosis/NCC.

  9. hp-version discontinuous Galerkin methods on polygonal and polyhedral meshes

    CERN Document Server

    Cangiani, Andrea; Georgoulis, Emmanuil H; Houston, Paul


    Over the last few decades discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods (DGFEMs) have been witnessed tremendous interest as a computational framework for the numerical solution of partial differential equations. Their success is due to their extreme versatility in the design of the underlying meshes and local basis functions, while retaining key features of both (classical) finite element and finite volume methods. Somewhat surprisingly, DGFEMs on general tessellations consisting of polygonal (in 2D) or polyhedral (in 3D) element shapes have received little attention within the literature, despite the potential computational advantages. This volume introduces the basic principles of hp-version (i.e., locally varying mesh-size and polynomial order) DGFEMs over meshes consisting of polygonal or polyhedral element shapes, presents their error analysis, and includes an extensive collection of numerical experiments. The extreme flexibility provided by the locally variable elemen t-shapes, element-sizes, and elemen...

  10. An hp-local Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Parabolic Integro-Differential Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Pani, Amiya K.


    In this article, a priori error bounds are derived for an hp-local discontinuous Galerkin (LDG) approximation to a parabolic integro-differential equation. It is shown that error estimates in L 2-norm of the gradient as well as of the potential are optimal in the discretizing parameter h and suboptimal in the degree of polynomial p. Due to the presence of the integral term, an introduction of an expanded mixed type Ritz-Volterra projection helps us to achieve optimal estimates. Further, it is observed that a negative norm estimate of the gradient plays a crucial role in our convergence analysis. As in the elliptic case, similar results on order of convergence are established for the semidiscrete method after suitably modifying the numerical fluxes. The optimality of these theoretical results is tested in a series of numerical experiments on two dimensional domains. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  11. Investigation of HP Turbine Blade Failure in a Military Turbofan Engine (United States)

    Mishra, R. K.; Thomas, Johny; Srinivasan, K.; Nandi, Vaishakhi; Bhatt, R. Raghavendra


    Failure of a high pressure (HP) turbine blade in a military turbofan engine is investigated to determine the root cause of failure. Forensic and metallurgical investigations are carried out on the affected blades. The loss of coating and the presence of heavily oxidized intergranular fracture features including substrate material aging and airfoil curling in the trailing edge of a representative blade indicate that the coating is not providing adequate oxidation protection and the blade material substrate is not suitable for the application at hand. Coating spallation followed by substrate oxidation and aging leading to intergranular cracking and localized trailing edge curling is the root cause of the blade failure. The remaining portion of the blade fracture surface showed ductile overload features in the final failure. The damage observed in downstream components is due to secondary effects.

  12. The implications of HP/HT reservoir conditions on the selection and application of scale inhibitors - some preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, M.M; Sorbie, K.S.; Graham, G.M.; Hennessey, S.; Hill, P.


    This paper presents some of the obtained initial results on the thermal stability of scale inhibitor chemicals under HP/HT conditions offshore. Very little information is available on this topic in the open literature, with only a few references to the treatment of geothermal systems. This topic will be a very important issue especially as squeeze treatments are carried out in the new HP/HT reservoirs, such as ETAP (Eastern Trough Area Project) due for first oil in early 1999, and in reservoirs of the new central fields which contain very high salinity brines. 6 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  13. HP3 on ExoMars - Cutting airbag cloths with the sharp tip of a mechanical mole (United States)

    Krause, C.; Izzo, M.; Re, E.; Mehls, C.; Richter, L.; Coste, P.


    The HP3 - Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package - is planned to be one of the Humboldt lander-based instruments on the ESA ExoMars mission. HP3 will allow the measurement of the subsurface temperature gradient and physical as well as thermophysical properties of the subsurface regolith of Mars down to a depth of 5 meters. From these measurements, the planetary heat flux can be inferred. The HP³ instrument package consists of a mole trailing a package of thermal and electrical sensors into the regolith. Beside the payload elements Thermal Excitation and Measurement Suite and a Permittivity Probe the HP3 experiment includes sensors to detect the forward motion and the tilt of the HP3 payload compartment. The HP3 experiment will be integrated into the lander platform of the ExoMars mission. The original accommodation featured a deployment device or a robotic arm to place HP3 onto the soil outside the deflated lander airbags. To avoid adding such deployment devices, it was suggested that the HP3 mole should be capable of piercing the airbags under the lander. The ExoMars lander airbag is made of 4 Kevlar layers (2 abrasive and 2 bladders). A double fold of the airbag (a worst case) would represent a pile of 12 layers. An exploratory study has examined the possibility of piercing airbag cloths by adding sharp cutting blades on the tip of a penetrating mole. In the experimental setup representative layers were laid over a Mars soil simulant. Initial tests used a hammer-driven cutting tip and had moderate to poor results. More representative tests used a prototype of the HP3 mole and were fully successful: the default 4 layer configuration was pierced as well as the 12 layer configuration, the latter one within 3 hours and about 3000 mole strokes This improved behaviour is attributed to the use of representative test hardware where guidance and suppression of mole recoil were concerned. The presentation will provide an explanation of the technical requirements on

  14. Foaming in wet flue gas desulfurization plants: Laboratory‐scale investigation of long‐term performance of antifoaming agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Siqiang; Hansen, Brian Brun; Kiil, Søren


    Spontaneous foaming can cause a range of operational problems in industrial processes such as wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). This work investigates the performance of selected antifoaming agents (Nalco FM‐37, Foamtrol 2290, and rapeseed oil) on foams generated by egg white albumin (protein......), sodium dodecyl sulfate, and adipic acid at conditions of relevance for wet FGD plants. The addition of antifoaming agents breaks any existing foam and causes an induction period without foaming, after which the foam gradually will begin to reappear. Foaming by egg white albumin (2 g/L) at 0.014 m/s could...

  15. Combination of Thiol-Additive-Free Native Chemical Ligation/Desulfurization and Intentional Replacement of Alanine with Cysteine. (United States)

    Tsuda, Shugo; Mochizuki, Masayoshi; Nishio, Hideki; Yoshiya, Taku


    We report a novel strategy for native chemical ligation (NCL). Alanines not located at a ligation site are temporarily replaced with cysteines, and this enables efficient thiol-additive-free NCL, with subsequent desulfurization to regenerate the target peptide. We synthesized stresscopin-related peptide and neuroendocrine regulatory peptide-2 (NERP-2) by this method. We confirmed that both conventional alkyl thioester and thioester-equivalent N-acyl-N'-methyl-benzimidazolinone (MeNbz) can be adopted as thioester components for thiol-additive-free NCL of multi-Cys-containing peptides. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheth, A.C.; Strevel, S.D.


    The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) has a Department of Energy grant to further develop the Institute`s anion-exchange resin-based flue gas, desulfurization concept. The developmental program proposed includes screening of commercially available resins to select three candidate resins for further study. These three resins will undergo a series of experiments designed to test the resins` performance under different process conditions (including the use of spent MHD seed material). The best of these resins will be used in optimizing the regeneration step and in testing the effects of performance enhancers. The process schematic developed from the results will be used to estimate the related economics.

  17. [Pr2(pdc3(Hpdc(H2O4]n·n(H3hp·8n(H2O, a One-Dimensional Coordination Polymer Containing PrO6N3 Tri-Capped Trigonal Prisms and PrO8N Mono-Capped Square Anti-Prisms (H2pdc = Pyridine 2,6-Dicarboxylic Acid, C7H5NO4; 3hp = 3-Hydroxy Pyridine, C5H5NO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahzad Sharif


    Full Text Available The synthesis, structure and some properties of the one-dimensional coordination polymer, [Pr2(pdc3(Hpdc]n·n(H3hp·8n(H2O, (H2pdc = pyridine 2,6-dicarboxylic acid, C7H5NO4; 3hp = 3-hydroxypyridine, C5H5NO are described. One of the Pr3+ ions is coordinated by two O,N,O-tridentate pdc2− ligands and one tridentate Hpdc− anion to generate a fairly regular PrO6N3 tri-capped trigonal prism, with the N atoms acting as the caps. The second Pr3+ ion is coordinated by one tridentate pdc2− dianion, four water molecules and two monodentate bridging pdc2− ligands to result in a PrO8N coordination polyhedron that approximates to a mono-capped square-anti-prism. The ligands bridge the metal-atom nodes into a chain, which extends in the [100] direction. The H3hp+ cation and uncoordinated water molecules occupy the inter-chain regions and an N–HLO and numerous O–HLO hydrogen bonds consolidate the structure. The H3hp+ species appears to intercalate between pendant pdc rings to consolidate the polymeric structure. Crystal data: 1 (C33H43N5O29Pr2, Mr = 1255.54, triclinic,  (No. 2, Z = 2, a = 13.2567(1 Å, b = 13.6304(2 Å, c = 13.6409(2 Å, α = 89.695(1°, β = 63.049(1°, γ = 86.105(1°, V = 2191.16(5 Å3, R(F = 0.033, wR(F2 = 0.084.

  18. LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project. Quarterly report No. 12, July--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    In December 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy selected 13 projects for funding under the Federal Clean Coal Technology Program (Round III). One of the projects selected was the project sponsored by LIFAC North America, (LIFAC NA), titled {open_quotes}LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project.{close_quotes} The LIFAC technology uses upper-furnace limestone injection with patented humidification of the flue gas to remove 75-85% of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in the flue gas. The host site for this $22 million, three-phase project is Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 in Richmond, Indiana. The three project phases are: (1) Design; (2A) Long Lead Procurement; (2B) Construction; and (3) Operations. The design phase began on August 8, 1990 and was scheduled to last six months. Phase 2A, long lead procurement, overlaps the design phase and was expected to require about four months to complete. The construction phase was then to continue for another seven months, while the operations phase was scheduled to last about twenty-six months. In November 1990, after a ten (10) month negotiation period, LIFAC NA and the U.S. DOE entered into a Cooperative Agreement for the design, construction, and demonstration of the LIFAC system. This report is the twelfth Technical Progress Report covering the period July 1, 1993 through the end of September 1993. Due to the power plant`s planned outage in March 1991, and the time needed for engineering, design and procurement of critical equipment, DOE and LIFAC NA agreed to execute the Design Phase of the project in August 1990, with DOE funding contingent upon final signing of the Cooperative Agreement.

  19. Genetic approach to microbial coal desulfurization: Final report, January 1--December 31, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D. P.


    Naturally occurring sulfur bacteria such as Thiobacillus and Sulfolobus have been shown to remove inorganic sulfur form coal. If genetically modified bacteria could be developed to attack the organic sulfur (which is not removed by natural sulfur bacteria) then it should be possible to devise a microbial process for coal desulfurization. Such a biological approach should be relatively cheap and safe and produce harmless waste products. We have developed a multiple mutant of Escherichia coli which can oxidize thiophene derivatives and are continuing to improve this strain. We have cloned DNA fragments from the chromosome of the triple mutant NAR30 thdA thdC thD. One plasmid pKA 15 carries what is presumably the thdA gene. Another plasmid, pKA 10, carries two genes designated thdF and thdG which, when present on a plasmid in multiple copies, confer the ability to oxidize thiophenes and furans. We think it probable that thdA is a regulator gene and that thdF and thdG are two of the structural genes which it regulates. Recently we have subcloned fragments of a large plasmid present in a natural isolate which degrades dibenzo-thiophene sulfone. No single fragment alone confers on an E. coli host the ability to degrade any aromatic substrate; however, certain mixtures of two or three fragments confer the ability to degrade benzoate. We have also mapped and partly characterized mutant affecting the enzyme thiosulfate: sulfur transferase (''rhodanese'') which removes (or inserts) sulfur from (or into) a variety of organic molecules. 26 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Flue gas desulfurization products as sulfur sources for alfalfa and soybean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L.M.; Dick, W.A.; Nelson, S. [Ohio State University, Wooster, OH (US). School of Natural Resources


    Sulfur deficiencies in soil are expected to increase due to growth of high-yielding crop varieties, use of S-free fertilizers, and removal of S from industrial emissions. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) products, created when coal is burned and SO{sub 2} is removed from the flue gases, may serve as efficient S sources. However, there are few reports on their use for the enhancement of crop growth. Agricultural gypsum and two types of FGD products, that contain either vermiculite or perlite, were applied at 0, 16, and 67 kg S ha{sup -1} to an agricultural soil (Wooster silt loam, Typic Fragiudalf). Dry weight of a new planting of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was increased up to 40% by the treatments of FGD products or gypsum compared with the untreated control. Gypsum and FGD products were also applied at 0, 8,16, and 24 kg S ha{sup -1} to five established alfalfa stands in different Ohio regions. Mean alfalfa yield was significantly (P {le} 0.05) increased by approximately 5.0% in 2001 and 6.0% in 2002 with the S treatments of FGD products or gypsum compared with the untreated control. Alfalfa yields for FGD products and gypsum treatments were similar. A slight positive yield response was observed for soybean (Glycine max L.) when soils were treated with S-containing materials. Soil and plant analyses were made to assess potential adverse environmental impacts and none were observed. Thus, these FGD products can be safely applied to agricultural soils as S sources and can improve alfalfa yields in S-deficient soils.

  1. Limestone scrubbing for 2000 flue gas desulfurization system. Final report, October 1, 1993--April 1, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    As emission limits for sulfur dioxide from utility coal-fired boilers become lower due to increased regulation and environmental concern around the globe, power generating companies require increasingly cost-effective pollution control technology in order to maintain or reduce the cost of electricity to the end user. Limestone based wet flue gas desulfurization, or WFGD, is the preferred sulfur dioxide removal technology for utilities in the US and worldwide. This is a result of its extensive reference list, lower risks, and lower evaluated overall costs. For more than two decades ABB has supplied WFGD systems and currently has greater than 29,000 MWe of scrubbing capacity in operation. Given the industry`s ever-present need for lower costs, ABB funds a continuous research and development program focused on technology advancements that will reduce both capital and operating costs for its customers. As a result of this effort the LS-2 Concept WFGD System was developed through revolutionary design changes in every significant subprocess of conventional WFGD technology. To demonstrate the cumulative effects of all the individual advancements of the LS-2 Concept and to prove the process`s viability and cost-efficiency under representative US power plant conditions, the Limestone Scrubbing for 2000 project was initiated. This report is the final submittal to the Ohio Coal Development Office to document the results of this demonstrate project. The four-phase project execution, from the initial design and procurement through erection and extensive testing, proceeded as scheduled and on budget. The project resulted in a successful reference program that illustrates, in detail, the improved efficiencies and costs of the LS-2 advancements.

  2. Influence of Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Amendments on Heavy Metal Distribution in Reclaimed Sodic Soils (United States)

    Chen, Qun; Wang, Shujuan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Ning; Zhao, Bo; Zhuo, Yuqun; Chen, Changhe


    Abstract Although flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum has become an effective soil amendment for sodic soil reclamation, it carries extra heavy metal contamination into the soil environment. The fate of heavy metals introduced by FGD gypsum in sodic or saline–alkali soils is still unclear. This work aims to investigate the effects of FGD gypsum addition on the heavy metal distributions in a sodic soil. Original soil samples were collected from typical sodic land in north China. Soil column leaching tests were conducted to investigate the influence of FGD gypsum addition on the soil properties, especially on distribution profiles of the heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, As, and Hg) in the soil layers. Results showed that pH, electrical conductivity, and exchangeable sodium percentage in amended soils were significantly reduced from 10.2 to 8.46, 1.8 to 0.2 dS/m, and 18.14% to 1.28%, respectively. As and Hg concentrations in the soils were found to be positively correlated with FGD gypsum added. The amount of Hg in the leachate was positively correlated with FGD gypsum application ratio, whereas a negative correlation was observed between the Pb concentration in the leachate and the FGD gypsum ratio. Results revealed that heavy metal concentrations in soils complied well with Environmental Quality Standard for Soils in China (GB15618-1995). This work helps to understand the fate of FGD gypsum-introduced heavy metals in sodic soils and provides a baseline for further environmental risk assessment associated with applying FGD gypsum for sodic soil remediation. PMID:26064038

  3. Desulfurizing Ability of the CaOsatd.-CaCl2-CaF2 Slags (United States)

    Liu, Jiazhan; Kobayashi, Yoshinao


    Desulfurizing ability of the CaO-CaCl2-CaF2 slags saturated with CaO has been investigated from the viewpoint of the sulfide capacity and CaO solubility. The CaO-CaCl2-CaF2 slags containing small amounts of Cu2O and CaS were inserted in a CaO crucible with metallic copper. The CaO crucible was sealed in a nickel holder to prevent the evaporation of CaCl2, then heated up and kept at temperatures from 1573 K (1300 °C) to 1673 K (1400 °C) for 24 hours, which enabled the system inside the CaO crucible to reach the equilibrium. As expected, the sulfide capacity derived from the data obtained as well as CaO solubility of the slag increase with an increase in temperature at a constant ratio of CaCl2/CaF2. The solubility of CaO increases by the replacement of CaF2 with CaCl2, whereas the sulfide capacity slightly decreases and the activity coefficient of CaS ( γ CaS) increases. This suggests that CaF2 has stronger interaction with CaS than CaCl2. The sulfur distribution ratio between carbon-saturated iron melts and the CaO-CaCl2 slag has been calculated to be about 10 000 at 1573 K (1300 °C) using the sulfide capacity obtained, which value is still large enough even with the replacement of CaF2 by CaCl2.

  4. Preparation of flexible zinc oxide/carbon nanofiber webs for mid-temperature desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soojung; Bajaj, Bharat [Carbon Convergence Materials Research Center, Institute of Advanced Composite Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, San 101, Eunha-ri, Bongdong-eup, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do 565-905 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Chang Ki; Kwon, Soon-Jin [Department of Chemical Engineering Education, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Joh, Han-Ik [Carbon Convergence Materials Research Center, Institute of Advanced Composite Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, San 101, Eunha-ri, Bongdong-eup, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do 565-905 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Kwang Bok, E-mail: [Department of Chemical Engineering Education, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sungho, E-mail: [Carbon Convergence Materials Research Center, Institute of Advanced Composite Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, San 101, Eunha-ri, Bongdong-eup, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do 565-905 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano Material Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and zinc precursor were electrospun and heat-treated for preparing zinc oxide (ZnO) modified carbon nanofibers (CNF). • A facile synthesis of composite webs resulted in uniformly loaded ZnO on the surface of CNFs. • The composites showed significant hydrogen sulfide adsorption efficiency at 300 °C. • The flexible webs can be applied for mid-temperature desulfurization. - Abstract: Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) derived carbon nanofiber (CNF) webs loaded with zinc oxide (ZnO) were synthesized using electrospinning and heat treatment at 600 °C. Uniformly dispersed ZnO nanoparticles, clarified by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, were observed on the surface of the nanofiber composites containing 13.6–29.5 wt% of ZnO. The further addition of ZnO up to 34.2 wt% caused agglomeration with a size of 50–80 nm. Higher ZnO contents led the concentrated ZnO nanoparticles on the surface of the nanofibers rather than uniform dispersion along the cross-section of the fiber. The flexible composite webs were crushed and tested for hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) adsorption at 300 °C. Breakthrough experiments with the ZnO/CNF composite containing 25.7 wt% of ZnO for H{sub 2}S adsorption showed three times higher ZnO utilization efficiency compared to pure ZnO nano powders, attributed to chemisorption of the larger surface area of well dispersed ZnO particles on nanofibers and physical adsorption of CNF.

  5. Sodic soils reclaimed with by-product from flue gas desulfurization: corn production and soil quality. (United States)

    Chun, S; Nishiyama, M; Matsumoto, S


    Interest is growing in the use of by-product from flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to reclaim sodic soils by controlling the pH and excessive Na+. This study evaluated the effects on corn (Zea mays) production and pH and electrical conductivity (EC) of calcareous sodic soil during four times of cultivation when the by-product was applied once at the first cultivation (Study I) and the impacts on plant and soil quality at first cultivation when the by-product was applied to the soil at 23,000 kg ha-1 (Study II). In Study I, the germination rate and corn production increased by applying the by-product (0, 5,800, 11,600, and 23,100 kg ha-1), and the greatest total amounts of corn production during the four times of cultivation was when the by-product was applied at 23,100 kg ha-1. In Study II, the pH, exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), clay dispersion and soluble Na+ in the soil decreased and soluble Mg2+ and soluble K+ in the soil increased. The soil pH was reduced from 9.0 to 7.7 by applying the by-product. However, the by-product decreased the concentrations of total N and P in corn leaves in this study. No significant difference in the concentrations of Mo, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd, Mn, Cr, Cu, and Al in corn leaves and the soil was observed between the by-product addition and the control except for B in the soil and Fe in corn leaves. The concentration of B in the soil was reduced from 28.7 mg kg-1 to 25.4 mg kg-1 and the concentration of Fe in corn leaves increased from 17.5 mg kg-1 to 22.6 mg kg-1 by applying the by-product in our study.

  6. Influence of Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Amendments on Heavy Metal Distribution in Reclaimed Sodic Soils. (United States)

    Chen, Qun; Wang, Shujuan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Ning; Zhao, Bo; Zhuo, Yuqun; Chen, Changhe


    Although flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum has become an effective soil amendment for sodic soil reclamation, it carries extra heavy metal contamination into the soil environment. The fate of heavy metals introduced by FGD gypsum in sodic or saline-alkali soils is still unclear. This work aims to investigate the effects of FGD gypsum addition on the heavy metal distributions in a sodic soil. Original soil samples were collected from typical sodic land in north China. Soil column leaching tests were conducted to investigate the influence of FGD gypsum addition on the soil properties, especially on distribution profiles of the heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, As, and Hg) in the soil layers. Results showed that pH, electrical conductivity, and exchangeable sodium percentage in amended soils were significantly reduced from 10.2 to 8.46, 1.8 to 0.2 dS/m, and 18.14% to 1.28%, respectively. As and Hg concentrations in the soils were found to be positively correlated with FGD gypsum added. The amount of Hg in the leachate was positively correlated with FGD gypsum application ratio, whereas a negative correlation was observed between the Pb concentration in the leachate and the FGD gypsum ratio. Results revealed that heavy metal concentrations in soils complied well with Environmental Quality Standard for Soils in China (GB15618-1995). This work helps to understand the fate of FGD gypsum-introduced heavy metals in sodic soils and provides a baseline for further environmental risk assessment associated with applying FGD gypsum for sodic soil remediation.

  7. Infectivity of H7 LP and HP influenza viruses at different temperatures and pH and persistence of H7 HP virus in poultry meat at refrigeration temperature. (United States)

    Beato, Maria Serena; Mancin, Marzia; Bertoli, Elena; Buratin, Alessandra; Terregino, Calogero; Capua, Ilaria


    The aims of this study were to assess the infectivity of highly pathogenic (HP) and low pathogenicity (LP) H7 AI viruses at different temperatures and pH values and to investigate the persistance of HP H7 virus in chicken, turkey and duck meat. The H7 viruses tested remained infectious at +4°C and +20°C for 200 and >50 days, respectively. At pH 5, H7 viruses retained their infectivity for a shorter period of time compared to pH 7. The infectivity of HP H7 was detected >2 months in meat maintained at +4°C and was higher in chicken meat compared to turkey and duck meat. Results of this study show that higher temperatures and lower pH values both reduce virus infectivity and demonstrate that HP H7 virus can remain infectious in meat for extended periods of time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ethnicity/culture modulates the relationships of the haptoglobin (Hp) 1-1 phenotype with cognitive function in older individuals with type 2 diabetes. (United States)

    Guerrero-Berroa, Elizabeth; Ravona-Springer, Ramit; Heymann, Anthony; Schmeidler, James; Hoffman, Hadas; Preiss, Rachel; Koifmann, Keren; Greenbaum, Lior; Levy, Andrew; Silverman, Jeremy M; Leroith, Derek; Sano, Mary; Schnaider-Beeri, Michal


    The haptoglobin (Hp) genotype has been associated with cognitive function in type 2 diabetes. Because ethnicity/culture has been associated with both cognitive function and Hp genotype frequencies, we examined whether it modulates the association of Hp with cognitive function. This cross-sectional study evaluated 787 cognitively normal older individuals (>65 years of age) with type 2 diabetes participating in the Israel Diabetes and Cognitive Decline study. Interactions in two-way analyses of covariance compared Group (Non-Ashkenazi versus Ashkenazi Jews) on the associations of Hp phenotype (Hp 1-1 versus non- Hp 1-1) with five cognitive outcome measures. The primary control variables were age, gender, and education. Compared with Ashkenazi Jews, non-Ashkenazi Jews with the Hp 1-1 phenotype had significantly poorer cognitive function than non-Hp 1-1 in the domains of Attention/Working Memory (p = 0.035) and Executive Function (p = 0.023), but not in Language/Semantic Categorization (p = 0.432), Episodic Memory (p = 0.268), or Overall Cognition (p = 0.082). After controlling for additional covariates (type 2 diabetes-related characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors, Mini-mental State Examination, and extent of depressive symptoms), Attention/Working Memory (p = 0.038) and Executive Function (p = 0.013) remained significant. Older individuals from specific ethnic/cultural backgrounds with the Hp 1-1 phenotype may benefit more from treatment targeted at decreasing or halting the detrimental effects of Hp 1-1 on the brain. Future studies should examine differential associations of Hp 1-1 and cognitive impairment, especially for groups with high prevalence of both, such as African-Americans and Hispanics. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. 75 FR 41531 - Hewlett Packard (HP) Global Product Development, Working On-Site at General Motors Corporation... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Packard (HP) Global Product Development, Working On-Site at General Motors Corporation, Milford, MI; Notice of Revised Termination of Investigation Pursuant to...

  10. Optimization of statistical methods for HpGe gamma-ray spectrometer used in wide count rate ranges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gervino, G., E-mail: [UNITO - Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Turin (Italy); INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. Torino, Turin (Italy); Mana, G. [INRIM - Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Turin (Italy); Palmisano, C. [UNITO - Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Turin (Italy); INRIM - Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Turin (Italy)


    The need to perform γ-ray measurements with HpGe detectors is a common technique in many fields such as nuclear physics, radiochemistry, nuclear medicine and neutron activation analysis. The use of HpGe detectors is chosen in situations where isotope identification is needed because of their excellent resolution. Our challenge is to obtain the “best” spectroscopy data possible in every measurement situation. “Best” is a combination of statistical (number of counts) and spectral quality (peak, width and position) over a wide range of counting rates. In this framework, we applied Bayesian methods and the Ellipsoidal Nested Sampling (a multidimensional integration technique) to study the most likely distribution for the shape of HpGe spectra. In treating these experiments, the prior information suggests to model the likelihood function with a product of Poisson distributions. We present the efforts that have been done in order to optimize the statistical methods to HpGe detector outputs with the aim to evaluate to a better order of precision the detector efficiency, the absolute measured activity and the spectra background. Reaching a more precise knowledge of statistical and systematic uncertainties for the measured physical observables is the final goal of this research project.

  11. The control of H2S in biogas using iron ores as in situ desulfurizers during anaerobic digestion process. (United States)

    Zhou, Qiying; Jiang, Xia; Li, Xi; Jiang, Wenju


    In this study, five kinds of iron ores, limonite, hematite, manganese ore, magnetite and lava rock, were used as the in situ desulfurizers in the anaerobic digestion reactors to investigate their effects on controlling H2S in biogas. The results show that the addition of the five iron ores could significantly control the content of H2S in biogas, with the best performance for limonite. As limonite dosages increase (10-60 g/L), the contents of H2S in biogas were evidently decreased in the digesters with different initial sulfate concentrations (0-1000 mg/L). After the anaerobic digestion, the removed sulfur was mostly deposited on the surface of limonite. A possible mechanism of H2S control in biogas by limonite was proposed preliminarily, including adsorption, FeS precipitation, and Fe (III) oxidation. The results demonstrated that limonite was a promising in situ desulfurizer for controlling H2S in biogas with low cost and high efficiency.

  12. Alloying effect of copper on the corrosion properties of low-alloy steel for flue gas desulfurization system (United States)

    Kim, Seon-Hong; Park, Sun-Ah; Kim, Jung-Gu; Shin, Kee-Sam; He, Yinsheng


    The alloying effect of Cu for a flue gas desulfurization materials was investigated using the electrochemical methods in the modified green death solution and the surface analyses. The test results demonstrated that the densely formed rust layer with high metallic Cu content improves the corrosion resistance of Cu-containing steel in the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) environment. The rust layer on the surface of the 0.02 wt% Cu steel, which has an insufficient Cu content, was less protective than others. The 0.05 wt% Cu steel represented the highest corrosion resistance due to the formation of the densely formed rust layer with optimum Cu content. Because the free standing Cu2S precipitates had the insoluble characteristic in highly acidic solution, it produced the relatively porous Cu-enriched layer on the 0.08 wt% Cu steel surface. From these phenomena, the corrosion resistance of specimen decreased as the Cu content of specimen increased from 0.05 wt% to 0.08 wt%.

  13. Efficient H2O2/CH3COOH oxidative desulfurization/denitrification of liquid fuels in sonochemical flow-reactors. (United States)

    Calcio Gaudino, Emanuela; Carnaroglio, Diego; Boffa, Luisa; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Moreira, Elizabeth M; Nunes, Matheus A G; Dressler, Valderi L; Flores, Erico M M


    The oxidative desulfurization/denitrification of liquid fuels has been widely investigated as an alternative or complement to common catalytic hydrorefining. In this process, all oxidation reactions occur in the heterogeneous phase (the oil and the polar phase containing the oxidant) and therefore the optimization of mass and heat transfer is of crucial importance to enhancing the oxidation rate. This goal can be achieved by performing the reaction in suitable ultrasound (US) reactors. In fact, flow and loop US reactors stand out above classic batch US reactors thanks to their greater efficiency and flexibility as well as lower energy consumption. This paper describes an efficient sonochemical oxidation with H2O2/CH3COOH at flow rates ranging from 60 to 800 ml/min of both a model compound, dibenzotiophene (DBT), and of a mild hydro-treated diesel feedstock. Four different commercially available US loop reactors (single and multi-probe) were tested, two of which were developed in the authors' laboratory. Full DBT oxidation and efficient diesel feedstock desulfurization/denitrification were observed after the separation of the polar oxidized S/N-containing compounds (S≤5 ppmw, N≤1 ppmw). Our studies confirm that high-throughput US applications benefit greatly from flow-reactors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Removal of hazardous gaseous pollutants from industrial flue gases by a novel multi-stage fluidized bed desulfurizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, C.R. [State Pollution Control Board, Bhubaneswar, Orissa (India); Adapala, Sivaji [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Kharagpur, P.O. Kharagpur Technology, Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal (India); Meikap, B.C., E-mail: [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Kharagpur, P.O. Kharagpur Technology, Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal (India)


    Sulfur dioxide and other sulfur compounds are generated as primary pollutants from the major industries such as sulfuric acid plants, cupper smelters, catalytic cracking units, etc. and cause acid rain. To remove the SO{sub 2} from waste flue gas a three-stage counter-current multi-stage fluidized bed adsorber was developed as desulfurization equipment and operated in continuous bubbling fluidization regime for the two-phase system. This paper represents the desulfurization of gas mixtures by chemical sorption of sulfur dioxide on porous granular calcium oxide particles in the reactor at ambient temperature. The advantages of the multi-stage fluidized bed reactor are of high mass transfer and high gas-solid residence time that can enhance the removal of acid gas at low temperature by dry method. Experiments were carried out in the bubbling fluidization regime supported by visual observation. The effects of the operating parameters such as sorbent (lime) flow rate, superficial gas velocity, and the weir height on SO{sub 2} removal efficiency in the multistage fluidized bed are reported. The results have indicated that the removal efficiency of the sulfur dioxide was found to be 65% at high solid flow rate (2.0 kg/h) corresponding to lower gas velocity (0.265 m/s), wier height of 70 mm and SO{sub 2} concentration of 500 ppm at room temperature.

  15. Improvement of desulfurizing activity of haloalkaliphilic Thialkalivibrio versutus SOB306 with the expression of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene. (United States)

    Mu, Tingzhen; Yang, Maohua; Zhao, Jixiang; Sharshar, Moustafa Mohammed; Tian, Jiangnan; Xing, Jianmin


    To construct efficient transformation and expression system and further improve desulfurizing activity of cells through expression of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb) in haloalkaliphilic Thialkalivibrio versutus SOB306. We transferred plasmids pKT230 and pBBR-smr into T. versutus SOB306 via a conjugation method. We identified four promoters from among several predicted promoters by scoring for streptomycin resistance, and finally selected tac and p3 based on the efficiency of expression of red fluorescent protein (RFP). Expression of RFP when regulated by tac was more than three times that of p3 in SOB306. Further, we expressed VHb under the control of tac promoter in SOB306. Expression of VHb was verified using CO-difference spectra. The results showed that VHb expression can boost sulfur metabolism, as evidenced by an increase of about 11.7 ± 1.8% in the average rate of thiosulfate removal in the presence of VHb. A conjugation transfer and an expression system for Thialkalivibrio, has been developed for the first time and used for expression of VHb to improve desulfurizing activity.

  16. The effect of hydrogen peroxide solution on SO2 removal in the semidry flue gas desulfurization process. (United States)

    Zhou, Yuegui; Zhu, Xian; Peng, Jun; Liu, Yaobin; Zhang, Dingwang; Zhang, Mingchuan


    The present study attempts to use hydrogen peroxide solution to humidify Ca(OH)(2) particles to enhance the absorption of SO(2) to achieve higher removal efficiency and to solve the valuable reuse of the reaction product in the semidry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process. Experiments were carried out to examine the effect of various operating parameters including hydrogen peroxide solution concentration, Ca/S molar ratio and approach to adiabatic saturation temperature on SO(2) removal efficiency in a laboratory scale spray reactor. The product samples were analyzed to obtain semi-quantitative measures of mineralogical composition by X-ray diffraction (XRD) with reference intensity ratio (RIR) method and the morphology of the samples was examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Compared with spraying water to humidify Ca(OH)(2), SO(2) removal efficiency was improved significantly by spraying hydrogen peroxide solution of 1-3 wt.% to humidify Ca(OH)(2) because hydrogen peroxide solution enhanced the dissolution and absorption rate of SO(2). Moreover, XRD and SEM analyses show that the desulfurization products contain less amount of unreacted Ca(OH)(2) and more amount of stable calcium sulfate with increasing hydrogen peroxide solution concentration. Thus, the process mechanism of the enhanced absorption of SO(2) by spraying hydrogen peroxide solution to humidify Ca(OH)(2) was elucidated on the basis of the experimental results.

  17. A review on prospects and challenges of biological H2S removal from biogas with focus on biotrickling filtration and microaerobic desulfurization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoshnevisan, Benyamin; Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Alfaro, Natalia


    is required to avoid damages to combustion equipment and prevent the formation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) which is an acid rain precursor. It has been well documented that physical, thermal, and chemical desulfurization approaches suffer from high operation costs as well as waste production needing...

  18. Inhibiting Mercury Re-emission and Enhancing Magnesia Recovery by Cobalt-Loaded Carbon Nanotubes in a Novel Magnesia Desulfurization Process. (United States)

    Wang, Lidong; Qi, Tieyue; Hu, Mengxuan; Zhang, Shihan; Xu, Peiyao; Qi, Dan; Wu, Siyu; Xiao, Huining


    Mercury re-emission, because of the reduction of Hg(2+) to form Hg(0) by sulfite, has become a great concern in the desulfurization process. Lowering the concentrations of Hg(2+) and sulfite in the desulfurization slurry can retard the Hg(0) formation and, thus, mitigate mercury re-emission. To that end, cobalt-based carbon nanotubes (Co-CNTs) were developed for the simultaneous Hg(2+) removal and sulfite oxidation in this work. Furthermore, the thermodynamics and kinetics of the Hg(2+) adsorption and effect of Hg(2+) adsorption on catalytic activity of Co-CNTs were investigated. Experimental results revealed that the Co-CNTs not only accelerated sulfite oxidation to enable the recovery of desulfurization by-products but also acted as an effective adsorbent of Hg(2+) removal. The Hg(2+) adsorption rate mainly depended on the structure of the adsorption material regardless of the cobalt loading and morphological distribution. The catalytic activity of the Co-CNTs for sulfite oxidation was not significantly affected due to the Hg(2+) adsorption. Additionally, the isothermal adsorption behavior was well-fitted to the Langmuir model with an adsorption capacity of 166.7 mg/g. The mercury mass balance analysis revealed that the Hg(0) re-emission was decreased by 156% by adding 2.0 g/L of Co-CNTs. These results can be used as a reference for the simultaneous removal of multiple pollutants in the wet-desulfurization process.

  19. Extended Pile Driving Model to Predict the Penetration of the Insight/HP3 Mole into the Martian Soil (United States)

    Poganski, Joshua; Kömle, Norbert I.; Kargl, Günter; Schweiger, Helmut F.; Grott, Matthias; Spohn, Tilman; Krömer, Olaf; Krause, Christian; Wippermann, Torben; Tsakyridis, Georgios; Fittock, Mark; Lichtenheldt, Roy; Vrettos, Christos; Andrade, José E.


    The NASA InSight mission will provide an opportunity for soil investigations using the penetration data of the heat flow probe built by the German Aerospace Center DLR. The Heat flow and Physical Properties Probe (HP3) will penetrate 3 to 5 meter into the Martian subsurface to investigate the planetary heat flow. The measurement of the penetration rate during the insertion of the HP3 will be used to determine the physical properties of the soil at the landing site. For this purpose, numerical simulations of the penetration process were performed to get a better understanding of the soil properties influencing the penetration performance of HP3. A pile driving model has been developed considering all masses of the hammering mechanism of HP3. By cumulative application of individual stroke cycles it is now able to describe the penetration of the Mole into the Martian soil as a function of time, assuming that the soil parameters of the material through which it penetrates are known. We are using calibrated materials similar to those expected to be encountered by the InSight/HP3 Mole when it will be operated on the surface of Mars after the landing of the InSight spacecraft. We consider various possible scenarios, among them a more or less homogeneous material down to a depth of 3-5 m as well as a layered ground, consisting of layers with different soil parameters. Finally we describe some experimental tests performed with the latest prototype of the InSight Mole at DLR Bremen and compare the measured penetration performance in sand with our modeling results. Furthermore, results from a 3D DEM simulation are presented to get a better understanding of the soil response.

  20. Effect of a long-chained fructan Raftiline HP on blood lipids and spontaneous atherosclerosis in low density receptor knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Alicja; Poulsen, Morten; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz


    The effect of a long-chained fructan Raftiline HP on spontaneous hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis was studied in 40 LDLR-/- male mice receiving isocaloric, balanced in fat content, purified diets with 0 or 10% Raftiline HP, for 16 weeks. The feed intake was comparable (3.9 v. 3.8 g/day) b...

  1. HP0902 from Helicobacter pylori is a thermostable, dimeric protein belonging to an all-beta topology of the cupin superfamily. (United States)

    Sim, Dae-Won; Lee, Yoo-Sup; Kim, Ji-Hun; Seo, Min-Duk; Lee, Bong-Jin; Won, Hyung-Sik


    Here, we report the first biochemical and structural characterization of the hypothetical protein HP0902 from Helicobacter pylori, in terms of structural genomics. Gel-permeation chromatography and dynamic light scattering indicated that the protein behaves as a dimer in solution. Circular dichroism spectroscopy showed that HP0902 primarily adopts a beta-structure and the protein was highly thermostable with a denaturing temperature higher than 70 degrees C. Finally, the backbone NMR assignments were obtained on the [(13)C,(15)N]HP0902 and the secondary structure was determined using the chemical shift data. Additionally, the local flexibility was assessed via a heteronuclear (1)H-(15)N steady state NOE experiment. The results revealed that HP0902 would adopt a compactly folded, all-beta topology with 11 beta-strands. All of the results clearly support the notion that HP0902 belongs to the cupin superfamily of proteins.

  2. Preparation of WO{sub 3}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composites and their application in oxidative desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Rongxiang, E-mail:; Li, Xiuping, E-mail:; Su, Jianxun; Gao, Xiaohan


    Highlights: • The WO{sub 3}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} was successfully synthesized through simple calcination. • The process is simple and the cost raw materials is cheap. • The WO{sub 3}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} firstly applied to ODS. • The desulpurization rate of WO{sub 3}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} may attach to 91.2%. • Five recycles of WO{sub 3}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} still attach to 89.5% due to heterogeneous catalysis. - Abstract: WO{sub 3}/graphitic carbon nitride (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) composites were successfully synthesized through direct calcining of a mixture of WO{sub 3} and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} at 400 °C for 2 h. The WO{sub 3} was prepared by calcination of phosphotungstic acid at 550 °C for 4 h, and the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} was obtained by calcination of melamine at 520 °C for 4 h. The WO{sub 3}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Brunner−Emmett−Teller analysis (BET). The WO{sub 3}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composites exhibited stronger XRD peaks of WO{sub 3} and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} than the WO{sub 3} and pure g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. In addition, two WO{sub 3} peaks at 25.7° and 26.6° emerged for the 36% −WO{sub 3}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composite. This finding indicated that WO{sub 3} was highly dispersed on the surface of the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets and interacted with the nanosheets, which resulted in the appearance of (012) and (022) planes of WO{sub 3}. The WO{sub 3}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composite also exhibited a larger specific surface area and higher degree of crystallization than WO{sub 3} or pure g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}, which resulted in high catalytic activity of the catalyst. Desulfurization experiments demonstrated that the desulfurization rate of dibenzothiophene (DBT) in model oil reached 91.2% under optimal conditions. Moreover, the activity of the catalyst was not significantly decreased after five recycles.

  3. Technoeconomic Optimization of Waste Heat Driven Forward Osmosis for Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gingerich, Daniel B [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Bartholomew, Timothy V [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Mauter, Meagan S [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    With the Environmental Protection Agency’s recent Effluent Limitation Guidelines for Steam Electric Generators, power plants are having to install and operate new wastewater technologies. Many plants are evaluating desalination technologies as possible compliance options. However, the desalination technologies under review that can reduce wastewater volume or treat to a zero-liquid discharges standard have a significant energy penalty to the plant. Waste heat, available from the exhaust gas or cooling water from coal-fired power plants, offers an opportunity to drive wastewater treatment using thermal desalination technologies. One such technology is forward osmosis (FO). Forward osmosis utilizes an osmotic pressure gradient to passively pull water from a saline or wastewater stream across a semi-permeable membrane and into a more concentrated draw solution. This diluted draw solution is then fed into a distillation column, where the addition of low temperature waste heat can drive the separation to produce a reconcentrated draw solution and treated water for internal plant reuse. The use of low-temperature waste heat decouples water treatment from electricity production and eliminates the link between reducing water pollution and increasing air emissions from auxiliary electricity generation. In order to evaluate the feasibility of waste heat driven FO, we first build a model of an FO system for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater treatment at coal-fired power plants. This model includes the FO membrane module, the distillation column for draw solution recovery, and waste heat recovery from the exhaust gas. We then add a costing model to account for capital and operating costs of the forward osmosis system. We use this techno-economic model to optimize waste heat driven FO for the treatment of FGD wastewater. We apply this model to three case studies: the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) 550 MW model coal fired power plant without carbon

  4. The Nuclear Oncogene SET Controls DNA Repair by KAP1 and HP1 Retention to Chromatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkmini Kalousi


    Full Text Available Cells experience damage from exogenous and endogenous sources that endanger genome stability. Several cellular pathways have evolved to detect DNA damage and mediate its repair. Although many proteins have been implicated in these processes, only recent studies have revealed how they operate in the context of high-ordered chromatin structure. Here, we identify the nuclear oncogene SET (I2PP2A as a modulator of DNA damage response (DDR and repair in chromatin surrounding double-strand breaks (DSBs. We demonstrate that depletion of SET increases DDR and survival in the presence of radiomimetic drugs, while overexpression of SET impairs DDR and homologous recombination (HR-mediated DNA repair. SET interacts with the Kruppel-associated box (KRAB-associated co-repressor KAP1, and its overexpression results in the sustained retention of KAP1 and Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1 on chromatin. Our results are consistent with a model in which SET-mediated chromatin compaction triggers an inhibition of DNA end resection and HR.

  5. Gr and hp-1 tomato mutants unveil unprecedented interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and fruit ripening. (United States)

    Chialva, Matteo; Zouari, Inès; Salvioli, Alessandra; Novero, Mara; Vrebalov, Julia; Giovannoni, James J; Bonfante, Paola


    Systemic responses to an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus reveal opposite phenological patterns in two tomato ripening mutants depending whether ethylene or light reception is involved. The availability of tomato ripening mutants has revealed many aspects of the genetics behind fleshy fruit ripening, plant hormones and light signal reception. Since previous analyses revealed that arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis influences tomato berry ripening, we wanted to test the hypothesis that an interplay might occur between root symbiosis and fruit ripening. With this aim, we screened seven tomato mutants affected in the ripening process for their responsiveness to the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Funneliformis mosseae. Following their phenological responses we selected two mutants for a deeper analysis: Green ripe (Gr), deficient in fruit ethylene perception and high-pigment-1 (hp-1), displaying enhanced light signal perception throughout the plant. We investigated the putative interactions between ripening processes, mycorrhizal establishment and systemic effects using biochemical and gene expression tools. Our experiments showed that both mutants, notwithstanding a normal mycorrhizal phenotype at root level, exhibit altered arbuscule functionality. Furthermore, in contrast to wild type, mycorrhization did not lead to a higher phosphate concentration in berries of both mutants. These results suggest that the mutations considered interfere with arbuscular mycorrhiza inducing systemic changes in plant phenology and fruits metabolism. We hypothesize a cross talk mechanism between AM and ripening processes that involves genes related to ethylene and light signaling.

  6. Endogenous retrovirus EAV-HP linked to blue egg phenotype in Mapuche fowl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wragg

    Full Text Available Oocyan or blue/green eggshell colour is an autosomal dominant trait found in native chickens (Mapuche fowl of Chile and in some of their descendants in European and North American modern breeds. We report here the identification of an endogenous avian retroviral (EAV-HP insertion in oocyan Mapuche fowl and European breeds. Sequencing data reveals 100% retroviral identity between the Mapuche and European insertions. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of European oocyan chicken indicates over-expression of the SLCO1B3 gene (P<0.05 in the shell gland and oviduct. Predicted transcription factor binding sites in the long terminal repeats (LTR indicate AhR/Ar, a modulator of oestrogen, as a possible promoter/enhancer leading to reproductive tissue-specific over-expression of the SLCO1B3 gene. Analysis of all jungle fowl species Gallus sp. supports the retroviral insertion to be a post-domestication event, while identical LTR sequences within domestic chickens are in agreement with a recent de novo mutation.

  7. KIVA-hpFE. Predictive turbulent reactive and multiphase flow in engines - An Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrington, David Bradley [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Research and development of KIVA-hpFE for turbulent reactive and multiphase flow particularly as related to engine modeling program has relevance to National energy security and climate change. Climate change is a source problem, and energy national security is consumption of petroleum products problem. Accurately predicting engine processes leads to, lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, where engines in the transportation sector currently account for 26% of the U.S. GHG emissions. Less dependence on petroleum products leads to greater energy security. By Environmental Protection Agency standards, some vehicles are now reaching 42 to the 50 mpg mark. These are conventional gasoline engines. Continued investment and research into new technical innovations, the potential exists to save more than 4 million barrels of oil per day or approximately $200 to $400 million per day. This would be a significant decrease in emission and use of petroleum and a very large economic stimulus too! It is estimated with further advancements in combustion, the current emissions can be reduced up to 40%. Enabling better understanding of fuel injection and fuel-air mixing, thermodynamic combustion losses, and combustion/emission formation processes enhances our ability to help solve both problems. To provide adequate capability for accurately simulating these processes, minimize time and labor for development of engine technology, are the goals of our KIVA development program.

  8. Functional and evolutionary analyses of Helicobacter pylori HP0231 (DsbK protein with strong oxidative and chaperone activity characterized by a highly diverged dimerization domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Marta Bocian-Ostrzycka


    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori does not encode the classical DsbA/DsbB oxidoreductases that are crucial for oxidative folding of extracytoplasmic proteins. Instead, this microorganism encodes an untypical two proteins playing a role in disulfide bond formation – periplasmic HP0231, which structure resembles that of EcDsbC/DsbG, and its redox partner, a membrane protein HpDsbI (HP0595 with a -propeller structure. The aim of presented work was to assess relations between HP0231 structure and function.We showed that HP0231 is most closely related evolutionarily to the catalytic domain of DsbG, even though it possesses a catalytic motif typical for canonical DsbA proteins. Similarly, the highly diverged N-terminal dimerization domain is homologous to the dimerization domain of DsbG. To better understand the functioning of this atypical oxidoreductase, we examined its activity using in vivo and in vitro experiments. We found that HP0231 exhibits oxidizing and chaperone activities but no isomerizing activity, even though H. pylori does not contain a classical DsbC. We also show that HP0231 is not involved in the introduction of disulfide bonds into HcpC (Helicobacter cysteine-rich protein C, a protein involved in the modulation of the H. pylori interaction with its host. Additionally, we also constructed a truncated version of HP0231 lacking the dimerization domain, denoted HP0231m, and showed that it acts in E. coli cells in a DsbB-dependent manner. In contrast, HP0231m and classical monomeric EcDsbA (Escherichia coli DsbA protein were both unable to complement the lack of HP0231 in H. pylori cells, though they exist in oxidized forms. HP0231m is inactive in the insulin reduction assay and possesses high chaperone activity, in contrast to EcDsbA. In conclusion, HP0231 combines oxidative functions characteristic of DsbA proteins and chaperone activity characteristic of DsbC/DsbG, and it lacks isomerization activity.

  9. Studies involving high temperature desulfurization/regeneration reactions of metal oxides for fuel cell development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalan, V.


    Research conducted at Giner, Inc. during 1981 to 1983 under the present contract has been a continuation of the investigation of a high temperature regenerable desulfurization process capable of reducing the sulfur content in coal gases from 200 ppM to 1 ppM. The overall objective has been the integration of a coal gasifier with a molten carbonate fuel cell, which requires that the sulfur content be below 1 ppM. Commercially available low temperature processes incur an excessive energy penalty. Results obtained with packed-bed and fluidized bed reactors have demonstrated that a CuO/ZnO mixed oxide sorbent is regenerable and capable of lowering the sulfur content (as H/sub 2/S and COS) from 200 ppM in simulated hot coal-derived gases to below 1 ppM level at 600 to 650/sup 0/C. Four potential sorbents (copper, tungsten oxide, vanadium oxide and zinc oxide) were initially selected for experimental use in hot regenerable desulfurization in the temperature range 500 to 650/sup 0/C. Based on engineering considerations, such as desulfurization capacity in per weight or volume of sorbents, a coprecipitated CuO/ZnO was selected for further study. A structural reorganization mechanism, unique to mixed oxides, was identified: the creation of relatively fine crystallites of the sulfided components (Cu/sub 2/S and ZnS) to counteract the loss of surface area due to sintering during regeneration. Studies with 9 to 26% water vapor in simulated coal gases show that sulfur levels below 1 ppM can be achieved in the temperature range of 500/sup 0/ to 650/sup 0/C. The ability of CuO/ZnO to remove COS, CS/sub 2/ and CH/sub 3/SH at these conditions has been demonstrated in this study. Also a previously proposed pore-plugging model was further developed with good success for data treatment of both packed bed and fluidized-bed reactors. 96 references, 42 figures, 21 tables.

  10. Evaluation des fluides de forage HP/HT pour forages profonds Evaluation of Hp/Ht Drilling Fluid Formulations for Deep Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argillier J. F.


    Full Text Available Le forage de puits profonds exige la mise au point de fluides de forage dont la formulation est adaptée aux températures élevées de formation : l'une des principales difficultés est la dégradation thermique des additifs chimiques utilisés dans les formulations à base d'eau qui se produit fréquemment lors du forage de puits à température élevée. Cette dégradation peut conduire à des variations importantes des caractéristiques rhéologiques et de filtration et à une perte de propriétés nécessaires à leur performance. De plus, même s'il n'y a pas de dégradation des composants la viscosité des solutions de polymères hydrosolubles couramment utilisés dans les formulations de fluides diminue fortement avec l'augmentation de la température au-dessus de 60°C. Une autre source de difficulté qui apparaît à forte température avec les boues à base d'eau est la gélification des argiles utilisées dans la formulation. Ce phénomène provoque une forte augmentation de la viscosité de la formulation et des pertes de charges, en particulier en cas de reprise de forage. Diverses méthodes ont été mises au point pour étudier le comportement des boues à base d'eau dans des conditions de pression et de température élevées, entre autres : - des expériences de laboratoire, pour étudier par exemple la stabilité en conditions anaérobies des solutions de polymères et le comportement rhéologique des suspensions d'argile dans des conditions de pression et de température élevées afin de simuler les caractéristiques de gélification des argiles à haute température; - des essais sur boucle d'étude HP/HT en utilisant une boucle expérimentale conçue pour étudier les fluides de forage dans des conditions de fond réalistes, c'est-à-dire des températures atteignant 180°C, des pressions atteignant 500 bar et des taux de cisaillement atteignant 10 000 s puissance( -1 Cette méthodologie a permis d'étudier un certain

  11. Dynamic and flexible H3K9me3 bridging via HP1β dimerization establishes a plastic state of condensed chromatin (United States)

    Hiragami-Hamada, Kyoko; Soeroes, Szabolcs; Nikolov, Miroslav; Wilkins, Bryan; Kreuz, Sarah; Chen, Carol; De La Rosa-Velázquez, Inti A.; Zenn, Hans Michael; Kost, Nils; Pohl, Wiebke; Chernev, Aleksandar; Schwarzer, Dirk; Jenuwein, Thomas; Lorincz, Matthew; Zimmermann, Bastian; Walla, Peter Jomo; Neumann, Heinz; Baubec, Tuncay; Urlaub, Henning; Fischle, Wolfgang


    Histone H3 trimethylation of lysine 9 (H3K9me3) and proteins of the heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) family are hallmarks of heterochromatin, a state of compacted DNA essential for genome stability and long-term transcriptional silencing. The mechanisms by which H3K9me3 and HP1 contribute to chromatin condensation have been speculative and controversial. Here we demonstrate that human HP1β is a prototypic HP1 protein exemplifying most basal chromatin binding and effects. These are caused by dimeric and dynamic interaction with highly enriched H3K9me3 and are modulated by various electrostatic interfaces. HP1β bridges condensed chromatin, which we postulate stabilizes the compacted state. In agreement, HP1β genome-wide localization follows H3K9me3-enrichment and artificial bridging of chromatin fibres is sufficient for maintaining cellular heterochromatic conformation. Overall, our findings define a fundamental mechanism for chromatin higher order structural changes caused by HP1 proteins, which might contribute to the plastic nature of condensed chromatin. PMID:27090491

  12. The Effect of Replacing Fish Meal in the Diet with Enzyme-Treated Soybean Meal (HP310) on Growth and Body Composition of Rainbow Trout Fry. (United States)

    Haghbayan, Samira; Shamsaie Mehrgan, Mehdi


    The potential of enzyme-treated soybean meal powder (HP310) as fish meal alternative in diets for rainbow trout weighing 1.17 ± 0.3 g was evaluated for 60 days. Fish meal was replaced with HP310 at 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of experimental diets. A control group was also considered. The results showed that diets containing 75% and 100% HP310 had significantly higher feed conversion ratio and lower feed intake, weight gain and specific growth rate compared to fish feed diets containing higher levels of fish protein ingredients (p growth performance (p fish feed diets with HP310 had lower hematocrit, hemoglobin and red blood cells compared to the control group, but the differences between the control and the other treatments up to 75% HP310 replacement levels of diet (p > 0.05). However increasing in level of HP310 in the diet caused a significant increase of the white blood cells (p fish fed with a diet totally replaced by HP310 showed the highest values of ash and moisture content among the diets and showed significantly different levels when compared with the control and other feeding treatments (p < 0.05).

  13. Synchrotron topographic and photoluminescence investigations of porous layer in HT-HP treated silicon implanted with deuterium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieteska, K. [Institute of Atomic Energy, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Wierzchowski, W.; Surma, B. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Misiuk, A.; Prujszczyk, M. [Institute of Electron Technology, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Graeff, W. [HASYLAB at DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Antonova, I.V. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, RAS, Lavrentieva 13, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)


    The 001 oriented Cz-Si samples were implanted at room temperature with 200 keV deuterium ions to the dose 1.7 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2} and treated at up to 950 C under hydrostatic Ar pressure (HP) up to 11 kbar for up to 10 h. The sample properties were studied by means of monochromatic synchrotron X-ray diffraction topography as well as by rocking curve (RC) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The thermal annealing caused rapid disappearance of interference effects in RCs and topographs. This process was significantly moderated by HP providing the layers with spongy like structure owing the presence of deuterium - filled inclusions. In the last case the most significant contribution of the PL peaks attributed to dislocations was observed. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Desulfurization of fuel oils using an advanced oxidation method; Desulfuracion de combustibles usando un metodo de oxidacion avanzada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Velazquez, Roberto; Rodas Grapain, Arturo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)


    In the present work, the oxidative desulfurization of fuel oils assisted by ultrasound was analyzed. It was studied the effect of hydrogen peroxide concentration, the fuel oil to aqueous solution volumetric ratio, and type of catalyst. The Fenton-like catalysts studied were ferric chloride and copper sulfate. [Spanish] En esta investigacion se analiza la desulfuracion oxidativa de combustoleo asistida con ultrasonido. Tambien se estudia el efecto de la concentracion de peroxido de hidrogeno (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), la relacion volumetrica combustoleo/solucion acuosa y el tipo de catalizador. Los catalizadores tipo Fenton que se estudiaron fueron el cloruro ferrico (FeCl{sub 3}) y el sulfato de cobre (CuSO{sub 4}).

  15. Summary and assessment of METC zinc ferrite hot coal gas desulfurization test program, final report: Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underkoffler, V.S.


    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has conducted a test program to develop a zinc ferrite-based high temperature desulfurization process which could be applied to fuel gas entering downstream components such as molten carbonate fuel cells or gas turbines. As a result of prior METC work with iron oxide and zinc oxide sorbents, zinc ferrite evolved as a candidate with the potential for high capacity, low equilibrium levels of H/sub 2/S, and structural stability after multiple regenerations. The program consisted of laboratory-scale testing with a two-inch diameter reactor and simulated fixed-bed gasifier gas; bench-scale testing with a six-inch diameter reactor and actual gas from the METC 42-inch fixed bed gasifier; as well as laboratory-scale testing of zinc ferrite with simulated fluidized bed gasifier gas. Data from sidestream testing are presented. 18 refs.

  16. Synthesis of 1,2-cis-2-C-branched aryl-C-glucosides via desulfurization of carbohydrate based hemithioacetals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henok H. Kinfe


    Full Text Available 1-C and 2-C-branched carbohydrates are present as substructures in a number of biologically important compounds. Although the synthesis of such carbohydrate derivatives is extensively studied, the synthesis of 1,2-cis-2-C-branched C-, S-, and N-glycosides is less explored. In this article a synthetic strategy for the synthesis of 1,2-cis-2-C-branched-aryl-C-glucosides is reported via a hydrogenolytic desulfurization of suitably orientated carbohydrate based hemithioacetals. 1,2-cis-2-Hydroxymethyl and 2-carbaldehyde of aryl-C-glucosides have been synthesized using the current strategy in very good yields. The 2-carbaldehyde-aryl-C-glucosides have been identified as suitable substrates for the stereospecific preparation of 2,3-unsaturated-aryl-C-glycosides (Ferrier products.

  17. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Annual report, October 1994--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S. [and others


    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy-Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues (CCBs) in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground CCB placement. This report describes progress in the following areas: environmental characterization, mix development and geotechnical characterization, material handling and system economics, underground placement, and field demonstration.

  18. Efficacy, safety and mechanism of HP-β-CD-PEI polymers as absorption enhancers on the intestinal absorption of poorly absorbable drugs in rats. (United States)

    Zhang, Hailong; Huang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yongjing; Gao, Yang


    Oral bioavailability of some hydrophilic therapeutic macromolecules was very poor, thus leading to their limited application in clinic. To investigate the efficacy, safety and mechanism of HP-β-CD-PEI polymers on the intestinal absorption of some poorly absorbable drugs in rats. Effects of HP-β-CD-PEI polymers on the intestinal absorptions of drugs were investigated by an in situ closed loop method in rats. The safety of HP-β-CD-PEI polymer was evaluated by measurement of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and amount of protein released from rat intestinal perfusate. The absorption enhancing mechanisms were explored by the measurement of zeta potential, transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and in vitro transport of FD4 (a paracellular marker) across rat intestinal membranes, respectively. HP-β-CD-PEI polymers, especially HP-β-CD-PEI1800, demonstrated excellent absorption enhancing effects on drug absorption in a concentration-dependent manner and the enhancing effect was more efficient in the small intestine than that in the large intestine. Five percent (w/v) HP-β-CD-PEI1800 obviously decreased the TEER, accompanied with increase in the intestinal transport of FD4, indicating that absorption enhancing actions of HP-β-CD-PEI polymers were possibly performed by loosening tight junctions of intestinal epithelium cells, thereby increasing drug permeation via a paracellular pathway. A good liner relationship between absorption enhancing effects of HP-β-CD-PEI polymers and their zeta potentials suggested the contribution of positive charge on the surface of these polymers to their absorption enhancing effects. HP-β-CD-PEI polymers might be potential and safe absorption enhancers for improving oral delivery of poorly absorbable macromolecules including peptides and proteins.

  19. Investigation into the effects of VHF and UHF band radiation on Hewlett-Packard (HP) Cesium Beam Frequency Standards (United States)

    Dickens, Andrew


    This paper documents an investigation into reports which have indicated that exposure to VHF and UHF band radiation has adverse effects on the frequency stability of HP cesium beam frequency standards. Tests carried out on the basis of these reports show that sources of VHF and UHF radiation such as two-way hand held police communications devices do cause reproducible adverse effects. This investigation examines reproducible effects and explores possible causes.

  20. Calculation of Ambient (H*(10)) and Personal (Hp(10)) Dose Equivalent from a 252Cf Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traub, Richard J.


    The purpose of this calculation is to calculate the neutron dose factors for the Sr-Cf-3000 neutron source that is located in the 318 low scatter room (LSR). The dose factors were based on the dose conversion factors published in ICRP-21 Appendix 6, and the Ambient dose equivalent (H*(10)) and Personal dose equivalent (Hp(10)) dose factors published in ICRP Publication 74.

  1. 80-100 HP Stirling engine feasbility study. Progress report No. 18, for the quarter October--December 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postma, N.D.


    Progress is reported for a program to investigate the use of an 80 to 100 hp Stirling engine in a 2500 to 3000 lb. passenger car. The engine was installed in a dynamometer test cell, and dynamometer emissions of HC, CO, and NO/sub x/ were measured. Fuel economy data are also given, and various engine design modifications (seals, fuel system, exhaust gas recirculation system, burner) are discussed. (PMA)

  2. Comparison of properties and microstructures of Trefimetaux and Hycon 3HP{trademark} after neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, D.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Singh, B.N.; Toft, P.; Eldrup, M. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)


    The precipitation strengthened CuNiBe alloys are among three candidate copper alloys being evaluated for application in the first wall, divertor, and limiter components of ITER. Generally, CuNiBe alloys have higher strength but poorer conductivity compared to CuCrZr and CuAl{sub 2}O{sub 3} alloys. Brush-Wellman Inc. has manufactured an improved version of their Hycon CuNiBe alloy that has higher conductivity while maintaining a reasonable level strength. It is of interest, therefore, to investigate the effect of radiation on the physical and mechanical properties of this alloy. In the present work the authors have investigated the physical and mechanical properties of the Hycon 3HP{trademark} alloy both before and after neutron irradiation and have compared its microstructure and properties with the European CuNiBe candidate alloy manufactured by Trefirmetaux. Tensile specimens of both alloys were irradiated in the DR-3 reactor at Risoe to displacement dose levels up to 0.3 dpa at 100, 250 and 350 C. Both alloys were tensile tested in the unirradiated and irradiated conditions at 100, 250 and 350 C. Both pre- and post-irradiation microstructures of the alloys were investigated in detail using transmission electron microscopy. Fracture surfaces were examined under a scanning electron microscope. Electrical resistivity measurements were made on tensile specimens before and after irradiation; all measurements were made at 23 C. At this point it seems unlikely that CuNiBe alloys can be recommended for applications in neutron environments where the irradiation temperature exceeds 200 C. Applications at temperatures below 200 C might be plausible, but only after careful experiments have determined the dose dependence of the mechanical properties and the effect of sudden temperature excursions on the material to establish the limits on the use of the alloy.

  3. Reactor Lithium Heat Pipes for HP-STMCs Space Reactor Power System (United States)

    Tournier, Jean-Michel; El-Genk, Mohamed S.


    Design and performance analysis of the nuclear reactor's lithium heat pipes for a 110-kWe Heat Pipes-Segmented Thermoelectric Module Converters (HP-STMCs) Space Reactor Power system (SRPS) are presented. The evaporator length of the heat pipes is the same as the active core height (0.45 m) and the C-C finned condenser is of the same length as the STMC panels (1.5 m). The C-C finned condenser section is radiatively coupled to the collector shoes of the STMCs placed on both sides. The lengths of the adiabatic section, the values of the power throughput and the evaporator wall temperature depend on the radial location of the heat pipe in the reactor core and the number and dimensions of the potassium heat pipes in the heat rejection radiator. The reactor heat pipes have a total length that varies from 7.57 to 7.73 m, and a 0.2 mm thick Mo-14%Re wick with an average pore radius of 12 μm. The wick is separated from the Mo-14%Re wall by a 0.5 mm annulus filled with liquid lithium, to raise the prevailing capillary limit. The nominal evaporator (or reactor) temperature varies from 1513 to 1591 K and the thermal power of the reactor is 1.6 MW, which averages 12.7 kW for each of the 126 reactor heat pipes. The power throughput per heat pipe increase to a nominal 15.24 kW at the location of the peak power in the core and to 20.31 kW when an adjacent heat pipe fails. The prevailing capillary limit of the reactor heat pipes is 28.3 kW, providing a design margin >= 28%.

  4. Effects of pore sizes and oxygen-containing functional groups on desulfurization activity of Fe/NAC prepared by ultrasonic-assisted impregnation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Song [College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); Guo, Jia-Xiu, E-mail: [College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); National Engineering Technology Research Center for Flue Gas Desulfurization, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); Sichuan Provincial Environmental Protection Environmental Catalysis and Materials Engineering Technology Center, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); Liu, Xiao-Li [National Engineering Technology Research Center for Flue Gas Desulfurization, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); Wang, Xue-Jiao [College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); Yin, Hua-Qiang [College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); National Engineering Technology Research Center for Flue Gas Desulfurization, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); Sichuan Provincial Environmental Protection Environmental Catalysis and Materials Engineering Technology Center, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); Luo, De-Ming [National Engineering Technology Research Center for Flue Gas Desulfurization, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Fe/NAC-60 exhibits the best desulfurization activity. • Different oscillation time can change surface area and pore volume of catalysts. • Ultrasonic oscillation increases Fe dispersion on carrier and effective pores. • Pore sizes play a crucial role during the SO{sub 2} removal. - Abstract: A series of Fe-loaded activated carbons treated by HNO{sub 3} (Fe/NAC) were prepared by incipient impregnation method with or without ultrasonic assistance and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy with energy disperse spectroscope (SEM-EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption. The desulfurization activities were evaluated at a fixed bed reactor under a mixed gas simulated from flue gas. The results showed that desulfurization activity from excellent to poor is as follows: Fe/NAC-60 > Fe/NAC-80 > Fe/NAC-30 > Fe/NAC-15 > Fe/NAC-0 > Fe/NAC-100 > NAC. Fe/NAC-60 exhibits the best desulfurization activity and has breakthrough sulfur capacity of 319 mg/g and breakthrough time of 540 min. The introduction of ultrasonic oscillation does not change the form of Fe oxides on activated carbon but can change the dispersion and relative contents of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. The types of oxygen-containing functional groups have no obvious change for all samples but the texture properties show some differences when they are oscillated for different times. The fresh Fe/NAC-60 has a surface area of 1045 m{sup 2}/g and total pore volume of 0.961 cm{sup 3}/g with micropore volume of 0.437 cm{sup 3}/g and is larger than Fe/NAC-0 (823 m{sup 2}/g, 0.733 and 0.342 cm{sup 3}/g). After desulfurization, surface area and pore volume of all samples decrease significantly, and those of the exhausted Fe/NAC-60 decrease to 233 m{sup 2}/g and 0.481 cm{sup 3}/g, indicating that some byproducts deposit on surface to cover pores. Pore size distribution

  5. Recovery of SO2 and MgO from By-Products of MgO Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization. (United States)

    Yan, Liyun; Lu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Quanhai; Guo, Qiang


    An industrial demonstration unit using natural gas as a heat source was built to calcine the by-products of MgO wet flue gas desulfurization from power plants; influencing factors on the SO2 content in calciner gas were comprehensively analyzed; and an advantageous recycling condition of MgO and SO2 from by-products was summarized. Results showed that the SO2 content in the calciner gas was increased by more than 10 times under a lower excess air coefficient, a higher feed rate, a lower crystal water in by-products, and a higher feed port position. For the tests conducted under the excess air coefficient above and below one, the effect of the furnace temperature on the SO2 content in the calciner gas was reversed. Results of activity analysis indicate that particles of MgO generated under the calcination temperature of 900-1,000°C had a high activity. In contrast, due to the slight sintering, MgO generated under the calcination temperature of 1,100°C had a low activity. To recycle SO2 as well as MgO, a temperature range of 900-927°C for TE103 is proposed. These studies will prompt the desulfurization market diversification, reduce the sulfur's dependence on imports for making sulfuric acid, be meaningful to balance the usage of the natural resource in China, and be regarded as a reference for the development of this technology for other similar developing countries.

  6. Attapulgite-CeO{sub 2}/MoS{sub 2} ternary nanocomposite for photocatalytic oxidative desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiazhang, E-mail: [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Environment Functional Materials, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009 (China); W.M.Keck Center for Advanced Microscopy and Microanalysis, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Zhang, Zuosong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Yao, Chao [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Lu, Xiaowang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Zhao, Xiaobing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Environment Functional Materials, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009 (China); Ni, Chaoying [W.M.Keck Center for Advanced Microscopy and Microanalysis, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Novel attapulgite(ATP)-CeO{sub 2}/MoS{sub 2} ternary nanocomposites were fabricated. • ATP possessed outstanding adsorption property and enhanced the stability of the network structure. • CeO{sub 2}/MoS{sub 2} couples facilitated the separation of photo-induced electrons and holes. • Mass ratio of CeO{sub 2}/MoS{sub 2} influenced the photocatalytic oxidation desulfurization. - Abstract: Novel attapulgite(ATP)-CeO{sub 2}/MoS{sub 2} ternary nanocomposites were synthesized by microwave assisted assembly method. The structures of the nanocomposites were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, UV–vis, XPS and in situ TEM. The photocatalytic activities of ATP-CeO{sub 2}/MoS{sub 2} composites were investigated by degradating dibenzothiophene (DBT) in gasoline under visible light irradiation. The effect of the mass ratio of CeO{sub 2} to MoS{sub 2} on photocatalytic activity was investigated. The results indicate that the three-dimensional network structure is firmly constructed by ATP skeleton, CeO{sub 2} particles and MoS{sub 2} nanosheet which effectively increase the surface area of the composites and promote the separation of electrons and holes by resulting electronic transmission channels of multi-channel in space. The degradation rate of DBT can reach 95% under 3 h irradiation when the mass ratio of CeO{sub 2}/MoS{sub 2} is 4/10. A plausible mechanism for the photocatalytic oxidative desulfurization of this nanocomposite is put forward.

  7. Recovery of SO2 and MgO from By-Products of MgO Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization (United States)

    Yan, Liyun; Lu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Quanhai; Guo, Qiang


    Abstract An industrial demonstration unit using natural gas as a heat source was built to calcine the by-products of MgO wet flue gas desulfurization from power plants; influencing factors on the SO2 content in calciner gas were comprehensively analyzed; and an advantageous recycling condition of MgO and SO2 from by-products was summarized. Results showed that the SO2 content in the calciner gas was increased by more than 10 times under a lower excess air coefficient, a higher feed rate, a lower crystal water in by-products, and a higher feed port position. For the tests conducted under the excess air coefficient above and below one, the effect of the furnace temperature on the SO2 content in the calciner gas was reversed. Results of activity analysis indicate that particles of MgO generated under the calcination temperature of 900–1,000°C had a high activity. In contrast, due to the slight sintering, MgO generated under the calcination temperature of 1,100°C had a low activity. To recycle SO2 as well as MgO, a temperature range of 900–927°C for TE103 is proposed. These studies will prompt the desulfurization market diversification, reduce the sulfur's dependence on imports for making sulfuric acid, be meaningful to balance the usage of the natural resource in China, and be regarded as a reference for the development of this technology for other similar developing countries. PMID:25371652

  8. The Effect of Oxygen Supply on the Dual Growth Kinetics of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans under Acidic Conditions for Biogas Desulfurization (United States)

    Namgung, Hyeong-Kyu; Song, JiHyeon


    In this study, to simulate a biogas desulfurization process, a modified Monod-Gompertz kinetic model incorporating a dissolved oxygen (DO) effect was proposed for a sulfur-oxidizing bacterial (SOB) strain, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, under extremely acidic conditions of pH 2. The kinetic model was calibrated and validated using experimental data obtained from a bubble-column bioreactor. The SOB strain was effective for H2S degradation, but the H2S removal efficiency dropped rapidly at DO concentrations less than 2.0 mg/L. A low H2S loading was effectively treated with oxygen supplied in a range of 2%–6%, but a H2S guideline of 10 ppm could not be met, even with an oxygen supply greater than 6%, when the H2S loading was high at a short gas retention time of 1 min and a H2S inlet concentration of 5000 ppm. The oxygen supply should be increased in the aerobic desulfurization to meet the H2S guideline; however, the excess oxygen above the optimum was not effective because of the decline in oxygen efficiency. The model estimation indicated that the maximum H2S removal rate was approximately 400 ppm/%-O2 at the influent oxygen concentration of 4.9% under the given condition. The kinetic model with a low DO threshold for the interacting substrates was a useful tool to simulate the effect of the oxygen supply on the H2S removal and to determine the optimal oxygen concentration. PMID:25633028

  9. Investigation of the potential for mercury release from flue gas desulfurization solids applied as an agricultural amendment. (United States)

    Briggs, Christian W; Fine, Rebekka; Markee, Melissa; Gustin, Mae Sexauer


    The potential for beneficial use of flue gas desulfurization-derived gypsum (FGDG), a coal combustion byproduct, as an agricultural soil amendment is currently being debated. This study investigated the hypothesis that Hg released to air from FGDG will be reduced when amended to planted and bare soils. The potential for enhanced methylmercury (MeHg) production and Hg uptake by plants in soils amended with FGDG was also investigated. Flue gas desulfurization-derived gypsum from three sources was homogenized into three soils at 4.5, 45, and 170 t ha and applied at 4.9 t ha as a thin layer to simulate tilled and no-till applications, respectively. Twenty-four-hour Hg flux was measured from unamended and FGDG-amended soils on a seasonal time step over 1 yr and after disturbing, watering, and planting. Methylmercury in soil, irrigation drainage, and total Hg in plant tissues were quantified. Results should be interpreted within the confines of the experimental setting and materials used for this study. Total Hg concentrations in soils, homogenized with FGDG, were below that considered representative of soil with background values (<100 ng g). Emissions from amended soils were higher initially relative to unamended soils but became similar over time. Significantly less Hg (2%) was lost to the air from FGDG-amended soils (90 g FGDG added for lowest application) than that released from the FGDG alone (30-70%) (50 g FGDG) over 1 yr. Total Hg and MeHg in irrigation drainage and total Hg concentrations measured in plants were similar for amended and unamended soils. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  10. Optical studies of defects generated in neutron-irradiated Cz-Si during HP-HT treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surma, B.; Wnuk, A. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Misiuk, A. [Institute of Electron Technology, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Londos, C.A. [Department of Physics, Panepistimiopolis, GR-15784 Zografos, Athens (Greece); Bukowski, A. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Silicon CEMAT, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland)


    Neutron-irradiated Czochralski grown silicon subjected to heat treatment (HT) at 350 C and 1000 C under enhanced hydrostatic pressure (HP) was studied in this work. It has been shown that external hydrostatic pressure enhances the creation of VO{sub 2} defects in neutron irradiated silicon subjected to the HP-HT treatment at 350 C. Enhanced formation of platelet-like oxygen precipitates was found in the samples treated at 1000 C under 1.1 GPa. This effect was more pronounced in the samples with VO{sub 2} defects. Presented results seem to suggest that probably HP helps to transform VO{sub 2} to some kind of defects or change alone VO{sub 2} defects in the form that can act as an additional nucleus for an additional oxygen precipitation at 1000 C. No correlation between the plate-like oxygen precipitates related absorption at 1225 cm{sup -1} and dislocation-related emission has been confirmed. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. HP3-RAD: a compact radiometer design with on-site calibration for in-situ exploration (United States)

    Kopp, Emanuel; Mueller, Nils; Grott, Matthias; Walter, Ingo; Knollenberg, Jörg; Hanschke, Frank; Kessler, Ernst; Meyer, Hans-Georg


    Many processes on planetary bodies are driven by their respective surface energy balance, and while planetary climate is influenced by the dynamics of the atmospheric boundary layer, surface radiation drives the Yarkovksy and YORB effects on small airless bodies. In addition, insolation governs cometary activity and drives the dust cycle on Mars. The radiative flux received and emitted at the surface of solar system bodies is thus a fundamental quantity, which is driven by the reception of solar radiation in the visible wavelength band, while re-radiation primarily occurs in the thermal infrared. Knowledge of the relevant radiative fluxes enables studies of thermo-physical surface properties, and radiometers to measure surface brightness temperatures have been payloads on many missions. The HP3-RAD is part of the Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package (HP3) on the InSight mission to Mars. It is a light-weight thermal infrared radiometer with compact design. HP3-RAD measures radiative flux in 3 spectral bands using thermopile detectors. The 120 g device includes integrated front-end electronics as well as a deployable cover that protects the sensors from dust contamination during landing. In addition, the cover is simultaneously used as a calibration target. The instrument concept as well as its implementation will be described, and special emphasis will be put on technological challenges encountered during instrument development. Potential future improvements of the design will be discussed.

  12. Comparative study on the regeneration of flue-gas desulfurizing agents by using conventional electrodialysis (ED) and bipolar membrane electrodialysis (BMED)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuanhui Huang; Tongwen Xu [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China). Laboratory of Functional Membranes, School of Chemistry and Material Science


    Piperazine (Pz) is an ideal desulfurizing agent but the heat-stable salts formed in desulfurization have caused secondary pollution and waste of resources. In the previous paper, a method was reported to regenerate piperazine by using bipolar membrane electrodialysis (BMED). To find the variety of that regeneration process, experiments were performed on the regeneration of piperazine by using ED. In comparison, ED has higher piperazine yield and current efficiency, and much lower voltage drop and energy consumption. However, its process cost is higher than that of BMED due to an extra expenditure for the base and its tank and pumps. The process cost is estimated to be 0.96 $/kg Pz for BMED and 1.14 $/kg Pz for ED. Notably, BMED has more environmental benefits and will be more economically attractive as the control on secondary pollution is strengthened and the bipolar membrane cost decreases. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Cross-Validation of the Spanish HP-Version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy Confirmed with Some Cross-Cultural Differences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alcorta-Garza, Adelina; San-Martín, Montserrat; Delgado-Bolton, Roberto; Soler-González, Jorge; Roig, Helena; Vivanco, Luis


    .... The Health Professional Version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE-HP) was developed in response to a need for a psychometrically sound instrument to measure empathy in the context of patient care...

  14. Analysis of the effect of true coincidence summing on efficiency calibration for an HP GE detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodenas, J.; Gallardo, S.; Ballester, S.; Primault, V. [Valencia Univ. Politecnica, Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear (Spain); Ortiz, J. [Valencia Univ. Politecnica, Lab. de Radiactividad Ambiental (Spain)


    The H.P. (High Purity) Germanium detector is commonly used for gamma spectrometry in environmental radioactivity laboratories. The efficiency of the detector must be calibrated for each geometry considered. This calibration is performed using a standard solution containing gamma emitter sources. The usual goal is the obtaining of an efficiency curve to be used in the determination of the activity of samples with the same geometry. It is evident the importance of the detector calibration. However, the procedure presents some problems as it depends on the source geometry (shape, volume, distance to detector, etc.) and shall be repeated when these factors change. That means an increasing use of standard solutions and consequently an increasing generation of radioactive wastes. Simulation of the calibration procedure with a validated computer program is clearly an important auxiliary tool for environmental radioactivity laboratories. This simulation is useful for both optimising calibration procedures and reducing the amount of radioactivity wastes produced. The M.C.N.P. code, based on the Monte Carlo method, has been used in this work for the simulation of detector calibration. A model has been developed for the detector as well as for the source contained in a Petri box. The source is a standard solution that contains the following radionuclides: {sup 241}Am, {sup 109}Cd, {sup 57}Co, {sup 139}Ce, {sup 203}Hg, {sup 113}Sn, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 88}Y and {sup 60}Co; covering a wide energy range (50 to 2000 keV). However, there are two radionuclides in the solution ({sup 60}Co and {sup 88}Y) that emit gamma rays in true coincidence. The effect of the true coincidence summing produces a distortion of the calibration curve at higher energies. To decrease this effect some measurements have been performed at increasing distances between the source and the detector. As the true coincidence effect is observed in experimental measurements but not in the Monte Carlo

  15. Design of small diameter HT/HP sour service reeled rigid pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Daniel; Gouveia, Joao; Tardelli, Luciano [Tecnitas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail:; Parrilha, Rafael [Bureau Veritas Group, London (United Kingdom); Oazen, Eduardo; Cardoso, Carlos [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The paper presents an overview of the challenges overcome in the engineering design of two 219 mm diameter, 6 km length oil production pipelines, to be installed by reeling at Espirito Santo Basin, offshore Brazilian coast in 1500 m water depth. The high temperature and high pressure (HT/HP) operating conditions and sour content associated with the small diameter required to single well oil production would usually lead to flexible flow line solution in Brazilian fields. The decision of employing small diameter thick-walled rigid C-Mn steel pipelines with thick thermal insulation made necessary extensive engineering work to achieve a safe and robust thermal expansion control arrangement, including the design of walking mitigation and buckle initiation apparatus; a feasible weld acceptance criterion covering both high cycle fatigue due to pipe lay and vortex induced vibration (VIV) at free spans, and high strain low cycle fatigue and fracture growth induced by reeling installation and in-service lateral buckling. Several studies were performed using highly non-linear three-dimensional finite element models considering: pipe-soil interaction with full 3D seabed bathymetry; load history maintained from pipe lay to operational cycles, including temperature transient effects; high plastic strains (including steel properties de-rating due to high temperature) and section ovalization; mechanical contact between pipe and appurtenances during both installation and operational phases. Pipe-soil interaction comprised embedment considering dynamic effects of pipe lay and full non-linear lateral and axial response curves including break-out and residual resistance. Strain concentration factors due to field joints were evaluated using detailed solid models considering non-linear response of both steel and insulation materials. Susceptibility to VIV at free spans was assessed considering post loaded deformed span natural frequencies, including multi-span interaction effects and

  16. Modification of C/TiO2@MCM-41 with nickel nanoparticles for photocatalytic desulfurization enhancement of a diesel fuel model under visible light. (United States)

    Zarrabi, M; Entezari, M H


    Ni metal nanoparticles were attached on the C/TiO2@MCM-41 (CTM-41) via facile and fast method based on dispersing of C/TiO2@MCM-41 in aqueous solution containing nickel ions by ultrasonic bath. Then, for the first time, the Ni ions were converted to Ni nanoparticles under UV light (photo-assisted deposition, PAD method), without using reducing agents and hydrogen gas. This process was carried out under the relatively mild conditions. The results showed that Ni (II) was reduced to Ni metallic nanoparticle in the size of about 2.7 nm on the surface of CTM-41 (Ni/CTM-41) with specific surface area of 754.37 m(2) g(-1). The photocatalytic ultra-deep desulfurization of a fuel-like n-octane containing dibenzothiophene (DBT) was conducted over the Ni/CTM-41 nanophotocatalyst. Using this method, the total sulfur content efficiently decreased under mild conditions in one phase and without using an oxidant. The synthesized Ni/CTM-41 (3% Ni) exhibited the maximum photocatalytic desulfurization of DBT for all different ratios of Si/Ti. In contrast, the synthesized CTM-41 (without Ni) exhibited the maximum photocatalytic desulfurization of DBT only for minimum ratio of Si/Ti. The Ni/CTM-41 was characterized by several techniques including N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, XRD, TEM, and atomic absorption spectroscopy techniques. The results confirmed that Ni was highly dispersed on the support phase. The GC-MS analysis confirmed the photocatalytic removal of DBT. Based on the experimental results, it is proposed that the hydroxyl radical and hole have key role in the photocatalytic desulfurization process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1a positively regulates euchromatic gene expression through RNA transcript association and interaction with hnRNPs in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Piacentini


    Full Text Available Heterochromatin Protein 1 (HP1a is a well-known conserved protein involved in heterochromatin formation and gene silencing in different species including humans. A general model has been proposed for heterochromatin formation and epigenetic gene silencing in different species that implies an essential role for HP1a. According to the model, histone methyltransferase enzymes (HMTases methylate the histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9me, creating selective binding sites for itself and the chromodomain of HP1a. This complex is thought to form a higher order chromatin state that represses gene activity. It has also been found that HP1a plays a role in telomere capping. Surprisingly, recent studies have shown that HP1a is present at many euchromatic sites along polytene chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster, including the developmental and heat-shock-induced puffs, and that this protein can be removed from these sites by in vivo RNase treatment, thus suggesting an association of HP1a with the transcripts of many active genes. To test this suggestion, we performed an extensive screening by RIP-chip assay (RNA-immunoprecipitation on microarrays, and we found that HP1a is associated with transcripts of more than one hundred euchromatic genes. An expression analysis in HP1a mutants shows that HP1a is required for positive regulation of these genes. Cytogenetic and molecular assays show that HP1a also interacts with the well known proteins DDP1, HRB87F, and PEP, which belong to different classes of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs involved in RNA processing. Surprisingly, we found that all these hnRNP proteins also bind heterochromatin and are dominant suppressors of position effect variegation. Together, our data show novel and unexpected functions for HP1a and hnRNPs proteins. All these proteins are in fact involved both in RNA transcript processing and in heterochromatin formation. This suggests that, in general, similar epigenetic mechanisms

  18. Comparative analysis of the folding dynamics and kinetics of an engineered knotted protein and its variants derived from HP0242 of Helicobacter pylori (United States)

    Wang, Liang-Wei; Liu, Yu-Nan; Lyu, Ping-Chiang; Jackson, Sophie E.; Hsu, Shang-Te Danny


    Understanding the mechanism by which a polypeptide chain thread itself spontaneously to attain a knotted conformation has been a major challenge in the field of protein folding. HP0242 is a homodimeric protein from Helicobacter pylori with intertwined helices to form a unique pseudo-knotted folding topology. A tandem HP0242 repeat has been constructed to become the first engineered trefoil-knotted protein. Its small size renders it a model system for computational analyses to examine its folding and knotting pathways. Here we report a multi-parametric study on the folding stability and kinetics of a library of HP0242 variants, including the trefoil-knotted tandem HP0242 repeat, using far-UV circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy. Equilibrium chemical denaturation of HP0242 variants shows the presence of highly populated dimeric and structurally heterogeneous folding intermediates. Such equilibrium folding intermediates retain significant amount of helical structures except those at the N- and C-terminal regions in the native structure. Stopped-flow fluorescence measurements of HP0242 variants show that spontaneous refolding into knotted structures can be achieved within seconds, which is several orders of magnitude faster than previously observed for other knotted proteins. Nevertheless, the complex chevron plots indicate that HP0242 variants are prone to misfold into kinetic traps, leading to severely rolled-over refolding arms. The experimental observations are in general agreement with the previously reported molecular dynamics simulations. Based on our results, kinetic folding pathways are proposed to qualitatively describe the complex folding processes of HP0242 variants.

  19. Animation company "Fast Forwards" production with HP Utility Data Center; film built using Adaptive Enterprise framework enabled by shared, virtual resource

    CERN Document Server


    Hewlett Packard have produced a commercial-quality animated film using an experimental rendering service from HP Labs and running on an HP Utility Data Center (UDC). The project demonstrates how computing resources can be managed virtually and illustrates the value of utility computing, in which an end-user taps into a large pool of virtual resources, but pays only for what is used (1 page).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Karakaya


    Full Text Available This research was conducted on the laboratory conditions. Different levels of K2HP04 (0.00%, 0.25%, 0.30% and NaCl (2.5%, 3.0% were applied on the goat meat and the pH, water holding capacity and cooking loss were observed. According to the results the effects of 0.25% K2HP04 addition was found statistically insignificant (p

  1. Ultra-deep adsorptive desulfurization of a model diesel fuel on regenerable Ni-Cu/γ-Al₂O₃ at low temperatures in absence of hydrogen. (United States)

    Mansouri, Ali; Khodadadi, Abbas Ali; Mortazavi, Yadollah


    A model diesel fuel containing 250 ppmw sulfur (as dibenzothiophene) in n-hexadecane was desulfurized at low temperatures in absence of hydrogen, down to about zero ppmwS on a novel adsorbent of well dispersed 3-12 nm Nix-Cu10-x (x=Ni wt%) nanoparticles formed by impregnation on γ-Al2O3 and reduced in H2 at 275 or 450°C. The sorbents were characterized by XRD, TEM-EDX, FESEM-EDS, H2-TPR, TPO, BJH and BET surface area measurement techniques. Effects of various parameters comprising Cu content, reduction and desulfurization temperatures, inhibition by naphthalene, and regeneration of spent sorbents were investigated. As copper is added to nickel: (a) the sorbent reduction temperature shifts to dramatically lower values, (b) sulfur adsorption capacity of the sorbents at lower reduction and desulfurization temperatures is significantly improved, and when 14 wt% Ni5Cu5 sorbent is added to the fuel, the sulfur content reduces from 250 ppmwS to about zero in less than 1 min, (c) loss of adsorption capacity after the regeneration of the spent sorbent reduced at 275°C is significantly diminished, and (d) the selectivity of the sorbents to dibenzothiophene in the presence of naphthalene is improved. A higher reduction temperature tends to agglomerate nickel nanoparticles and reduce the sulfur adsorption capacity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Carbonate Minerals with Magnesium in Triassic Terebratula Limestone in the Term of Limestone with Magnesium Application as a Sorbent in Desulfurization of Flue Gases (United States)

    Stanienda-Pilecki, Katarzyna


    This article presents the results of studies of Triassic (Muschelkalk) carbonate rock samples of the Terebratula Beds taken from the area of the Polish part of the Germanic Basin. It is the area of Opole Silesia. The rocks were studied in the term of possibility of limestone with magnesium application in desulfurization of flue gases executed in power plants. Characteristic features of especially carbonate phases including magnesium-low-Mg calcite, high-Mg calcite, dolomite and huntite were presented in the article. They were studied to show that the presence of carbonate phases with magnesium, especially high-Mg calcite makes the desulfurization process more effective. Selected rock samples were examined using a microscope with polarized, transmitted light, X-ray diffraction, microprobe measurements and FTIR spectroscopy. The results of studies show a domination of low magnesium calcite in the limestones of the Terebratula Beds. In some samples dolomite and lower amounts of high-Mg calcite occurred. Moreover, huntite was identified. The studies were very important, because carbonate phases like high-Mg calcite and huntite which occurred in rocks of the Triassic Terebratula Beds were not investigated in details by other scientists but they presence in limestone sorbent could influence the effectiveness of desulfurization process.

  3. (18)O(2) label mechanism of sulfur generation and characterization in properties over mesoporous Sm-based sorbents for hot coal gas desulfurization. (United States)

    Liu, B S; Wan, Z Y; Wang, F; Zhan, Y P; Tian, M; Cheung, A S C


    Using a sol-gel method, SmMeOx/MCM-41 or SBA-15 (Me=Fe, Co and Zn) and corresponding unsupported sorbents were prepared. The desulfurization performance of these sorbents was evaluated over a fixed-bed reactor and the effects of reaction temperature, feed and sorbent composition on desulfurization performance were studied. Samarium-based sorbents used to remove H2S from hot coal gas were reported for the first time. The results of successive sulfidation/regeneration cycles revealed that SmFeO3/SBA-15 sorbent was suitable for desulfurization of hot coal gas in the chemical industry. The formation of elemental sulfur during both sulfidation and regeneration processes depended strongly on the catalytic action of Sm2O2S species, which was confirmed for the first time via high sensitive time of flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) using 6%vol(18)O2/Ar regeneration gas and can reduce markedly procedural complexity. The sorbents were characterized using N2-adsorption, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction of H2 (H2-TPR), thermogravimetry (TG) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A novel resource utilization of the calcium-based semi-dry flue gas desulfurization ash: As a reductant to remove chromium and vanadium from vanadium industrial wastewater. (United States)

    Fang, Dean; Liao, Xiang; Zhang, Xuefei; Teng, Aijun; Xue, Xiangxin


    A novel resource utilization of the calcium-based semi-dry flue gas desulfurization ash is investigated. In the present study, the semi-dry desulfurization ash is used as a reductant for chromium and vanadium removal by chemical reduction precipitation, the byproduct gypsum and chromium-contained sludge are obtained. Besides, the effects of main operational parameters (reaction pH, desulfurization ash dosage and reaction time) on the heavy metal removal are investigated, and the main reaction mechanism for this treatment technology is also proposed. Under the optimal conditions, the residual concentrations of Cr(VI), total Cr and V are 0.163mg/L, 0.395mg/L and 0.155mg/L, respectively. Additionally, byproduct gypsum and chromium-contained sludge are characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) and thermogravimetry differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC), respectively. Finally, the resource utilization methods of the byproduct gypsum and chromium-contained sludge from this technology are also submitted. The byproduct gypsum can be utilized to produce hemihydrate calcium sulfate whisker, and the roasted heavy metal precipitation can be used as a primary chromium raw material (Cr2O3 content is about 83%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Raman spectroscopy of detrital garnet from the (U)HP terrane of eastern Papua New Guinea (United States)

    Andò, Sergio; Baldwin, Suzanne L.; Fitzgerald, Paul G.; Malusà, Marco G.; Aliatis, Irene; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Garzanti, Eduardo


    Garnet is one of the most widespread heavy minerals in sediments derived from orogenic systems. Its chemical composition varies systematically with temperature and pressure conditions, and thus provides information on the metamorphic evolution of source areas that is crucial in tectonic and geodynamic reconstructions. Garnet is easily identified in mineral grain mounts and is relatively stable during burial diagenesis. Raman spectroscopy allows rapid determination of garnet compositions in grain mounts or thin sections of sand and sandstone samples, and can be used to assess their density and chemical composition quite accurately ("MIRAGEM" method of Bersani et al., 2009; Andò et al., 2009). In the D'Entrecastreaux Islands of southeastern Papua New Guinea, the world's youngest (U)HP rocks are exposed. There, mafic rocks and their felsic host gneisses were metamorphosed under eclogite facies conditions from late Miocene to Pliocene, before being exhumed from depths of ~90 km (Baldwin et al., 2004, 2008). The eclogite preserves a peak assemblage of garnet, omphacite, rutile, phengite and Si02 (Hill and Baldwin, 1993). A coesite-eclogite has been found in one small island outcrop. In order to sample garnet populations representative of a larger geographical area, we sampled and studied a heavy-mineral-dominated placer sand (HMC 80) from a beach from SE Goodenough Island. Garnet grains in beach sand are associated with blue-green to subordinately green-brown amphibole and minor epidote, omphacitic clinopyroxene, titanite, apatite and rutile. The subordinate low-density fraction is feldspatho-quartzose with high-rank metamorphic rock fragments and biotite (Q62 F35 Lm2; MI 360). Detrital garnets are mostly classified as almandine with relatively high Mg and Ca and lacking Mn, typical of the eclogite facies (Win et al., 2007; type Ci garnets of Mange and Morton 2007; Andò et al., 2013). In well-described stratigraphic sequences within syn-and post-tectonic basins

  6. 3-Hydroxypropionic acid production by recombinant Escherichia coli ZJU-3HP01 using glycerol-glucose dual-substrate fermentative strategy. (United States)

    Niu, Kun; Xiong, Tao; Qin, Hai-Bin; Wu, Hao; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Zheng, Yu-Guo


    3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) is an important platform synthesis block for sets of chemicals, but the relatively low production of 3-HP from biological sources presented major barriers for its industrial applications. In this study, a dual-substrate fermentative strategy by glycerol and glucose was proposed, and the aim was to evaluate the effect of different substrate addition strategies on the fermentation process. The results indicated that the optimal cosubstrate was glucose (20 g/L), and the enzymatic activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase (AldH) could be improved 3.5-fold as compared with no glucose addition. Continuous fed-batch fermentation at a constant speed displayed better 3-HP production of 17.20 g/L and highest specific 3-HP productivity of 1.79 mmol/(g cell·H) than the other fed-batch mode. The addition of glucose could greatly reduce the imbalance of the activity between glycerol dehydratase and AldH and provide a feasible method for improving 3-HP production. These results would be helpful in developing the 3-HP fermentation process. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Simultaneous frequency stabilization and high-power dense wavelength division multiplexing (HP-DWDM) using an external cavity based on volume Bragg gratings (VBGs) (United States)

    Hengesbach, Stefan; Klein, Sarah; Holly, Carlo; Witte, Ulrich; Traub, Martin; Hoffmann, Dieter


    Multiplexing technologies enable the development of high-brightness diode lasers for direct industrial applications. We present a High-Power Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexer (HP-DWDM) with an average channel spacing of 1.7 (1.5) nm and a subsequent external cavity mirror to provide feedback for frequency stabilization and multiplexing in one step. The "self-optimizing" multiplexing unit consists of four reflective Volume Bragg Gratings (VBGs) with 99% diffraction efficiency and seven dielectric mirrors to overlay the radiation of five input channels with an adjustable channel spacing of 1-2 nm. In detail, we focus on the analysis of the overall optical efficiency, the change of the beam parameter product and the spectral width. The performance is demonstrated using five 90 μm multimode 9xx single emitters with M2<=17. Because of the feedback the lateral (multimodal) spatial and angular intensity distribution changes strongly and the beam parameter product decreases by a factor of 1.2 to 1.9. Thereby the angular intensity distribution is more affected than the width of the beam waist. The spectral width per emitter decreases to 3-200 pm (FWHM) depending on the injection current and the reflectance of the feedback mirror (0.75%, 1.5%, 4%, 6% or 8%). The overall optical multiplexing efficiency ranges between 77% and 86%. With some modifications (e.g. enhanced AR-coatings) we expect 90-95%.

  8. Industrial scale HP-HT synthesis of hard and wear resistant c-Zr3N4 (United States)

    Dzivenko, Dmytro; Riedel, Ralf; Taniguchi, Takashi; Chauveau, Thierry; Zerr, Andreas


    We present a large scale high-pressure high-temperature (HP-HT) synthesis of hard and wear resistant cubic zirconium nitride having Th3P4-type structure,c-Zr3N4. This material, also available as well-adhesive coatings with exceptional wear resistance, represents a compound competitive to diamond and c-BN with respect to machining of low-carbon steels and other ferrous alloys. We obtained c-Zr3N4 powder at pressures as low as 6.5 GPa and temperatures of 1400-1600 °C from nanocrystalline Zr3N4+x precursor using a belt-type apparatus - a static HP-HT device widely employed for the commercial production of diamond and c-BN. The HP products are characterized in details by means of powder X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and combustion elemental analysis. In addition to major polycrystalline c-Zr3N4, we unveil the formation of a quaternary compound c-(Zr1-xTax)3 (N1-yOy)4 which indicates the possibility of doping of c-Zr3N4, thus introducing it for practical application as a multifunctional material. Moreover, we consider ways of cementing the c-Zr3N4 powders (similar to cemented tungsten carbides) which would allow economic fabrication of large bodies based on this compound. Supported by the DFG (Bonn, Germany) within SPP 1236 and by the IFR ``Paris Nord Plaine de France''.

  9. An EAV-HP insertion in 5' Flanking region of SLCO1B3 causes blue eggshell in the chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhepeng Wang

    Full Text Available The genetic determination of eggshell coloration has not been determined in birds. Here we report that the blue eggshell is caused by an EAV-HP insertion that promotes the expression of SLCO1B3 gene in the uterus (shell gland of the oviduct in chicken. In this study, the genetic map location of the blue eggshell gene was refined by linkage analysis in an F(2 chicken population, and four candidate genes within the refined interval were subsequently tested for their expression levels in the shell gland of the uterus from blue-shelled and non-blue-shelled hens. SLCO1B3 gene was found to be the only one expressed in the uterus of blue-shelled hens but not in that of non-blue-shelled hens. Results from a pyrosequencing analysis showed that only the allele of SLCO1B3 from blue-shelled chickens was expressed in the uterus of heterozygous hens (O*LC/O*N. SLCO1B3 gene belongs to the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP family; and the OATPs, functioning as membrane transporters, have been reported for the transportation of amphipathic organic compounds, including bile salt in mammals. We subsequently resequenced the whole genomic region of SLCO1B3 and discovered an EAV-HP insertion in the 5' flanking region of SLCO1B3. The EAV-HP insertion was found closely associated with blue eggshell phenotype following complete Mendelian segregation. In situ hybridization also demonstrated that the blue eggshell is associated with ectopic expression of SLCO1B3 in shell glands of uterus. Our finding strongly suggests that the EAV-HP insertion is the causative mutation for the blue eggshell phenotype. The insertion was also found in another Chinese blue-shelled breed and an American blue-shelled breed. In addition, we found that the insertion site in the blue-shelled chickens from Araucana is different from that in Chinese breeds, which implied independent integration events in the blue-shelled chickens from the two continents, providing a parallel evolutionary

  10. Subduction and exhumation structures preserved in Cerro del Almirez HP metaserpentinites (Betic Cordillera, SE Spain) (United States)

    Jabaloy-Sánchez, Antonio; López Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Gómez-Pugnaire, María Teresa; Padrón-Navarta, José Alberto; Garrido, Carlos J.


    The Cerro del Almirez massif (Nevado-Filábride Complex, Betic Cordillera, SE Spain) is composed of antigorite serpentinite and chlorite harzburgite separated by a thin reaction front in a paleo-subduction setting. Structural analysis of ultramafic lithologies and metasedimentary host rocks provides information on the tectonic evolution of this massif during prograde metamorphism in a subduction zone and during subsequent exhumation. Here we report for the first time HP structures related to a subduction event underwent by ultramafic rocks of the Nevado-Filábride Complex. The oldest subduction-related structures are preserved in Atg-serpentinites: a penetrative S1 foliation and associated L1 stretching lineation were formed in a non-coaxial regime with a top-to-the-W sense of shearing. This planar linear fabric is crosscut by olivine ± Ti-clinohumite veins formed during the prograde breakdown of brucite and pre-metamorphic clinopyroxene at temperatures ranging from 465 to 500 ºC [1]. Veins occur as a system of decimetric long joints, some of them hybrid open and sheared veins with associated drag folds. They recorded embrittlement processes due to the release of 6% vol. H2O of the rock. S1 foliation can, however, be simultaneous with or be overgrown by olivine and/or tremolite porphyroblasts, product of the prograde reaction Di + Atg → Fo + Tr + H2O, which occurred at T > 600 ºC and P = 1.7-1.9 GPa [1]. Generation of S1/L1 fabric was followed by static annealing at ca. 680 ºC and 1.6-1.9 GPa [2]. The S1/L1 fabric in Atg-serpentinite is crosscut by the Atg-out isograd and overgrown by the Atg-serpentinite dehydration products that gave place to Chl-harzburgite. Peak metamorphic conditions of the Chl-harzburgite assemblage reached 680-710 ºC and 1.6-1.9 GPa [3]. Prograde Chl-harzburgite is crosscut by sets of conjugate zones associated to grain-size reduction of olivine grains [3]. These grain size reduction zones are interpreted as brittle structures

  11. A Hybrid Neural Network and H-P Filter Model for Short-Term Vegetable Price Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youzhu Li


    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with time series data for vegetable prices, which have a great impact on human’s life. An accurate forecasting method for prices and an early-warning system in the vegetable market are an urgent need in people’s daily lives. The time series price data contain both linear and nonlinear patterns. Therefore, neither a current linear forecasting nor a neural network can be adequate for modeling and predicting the time series data. The linear forecasting model cannot deal with nonlinear relationships, while the neural network model alone is not able to handle both linear and nonlinear patterns at the same time. The linear Hodrick-Prescott (H-P filter can extract the trend and cyclical components from time series data. We predict the linear and nonlinear patterns and then combine the two parts linearly to produce a forecast from the original data. This study proposes a structure of a hybrid neural network based on an H-P filter that learns the trend and seasonal patterns separately. The experiment uses vegetable prices data to evaluate the model. Comparisons with the autoregressive integrated moving average method and back propagation artificial neural network methods show that our method has higher accuracy than the others.

  12. Influence of the phantom shape (slab, cylinder or Alderson) on the performance of an Hp(3) eye dosemeter. (United States)

    Behrens, R; Hupe, O


    In the past, the operational quantity Hp(3) was defined for calibration purposes in a slab phantom. Recently, an additional phantom in the form of a cylinder has been suggested for eye lens dosimetry, as a cylinder much better approximates the shape of a human head. Therefore, this work investigates which of the two phantoms, slab or cylinder, is more suitable for calibrations and type tests of eye dosemeters. For that purpose, a typical Hp(3) eye dosemeter was irradiated on a slab, a cylinder and on a human-like Alderson phantom. It turned out that the response on the three phantoms is nearly equal for angles of radiation incidence up to 45° and deviates only at larger angles of incidence. Thus, calibrations (usually performed at 0° radiation incidence) are practically equivalent on both the slab and the cylinder phantoms. However, type tests (up to 75° or even 90° radiation incidence) should be carried out on a cylinder phantom, as also for large angles of incidence the response on the cylinder and the Alderson phantoms is rather similar, whereas the response on the slab significantly deviates from the one on the Alderson phantom. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  13. Developmental validation of the Quantifiler(®) HP and Trio Kits for human DNA quantification in forensic samples. (United States)

    Holt, Allison; Wootton, Sharon Chao; Mulero, Julio J; Brzoska, Pius M; Langit, Emanuel; Green, Robert L


    The quantification of human genomic DNA is a necessary first step in the DNA casework sample analysis workflow. DNA quantification determines optimal sample input amounts for subsequent STR (short tandem repeat) genotyping procedures, as well as being a useful screening tool to identify samples most likely to provide probative genotypic evidence. To better mesh with the capabilities of newest-generation STR analysis assays, the Quantifiler(®) HP and Quantifiler(®) Trio DNA Quantification Kits were designed for greater detection sensitivity and more robust performance with samples that contain PCR inhibitors or degraded DNA. The new DNA quantification kits use multiplex TaqMan(®) assay-based fluorescent probe technology to simultaneously quantify up to three human genomic targets, allowing samples to be assessed for total human DNA, male contributor (i.e., Y-chromosome) DNA, as well as a determination of DNA degradation state. The Quantifiler HP and Trio Kits use multiple-copy loci to allow for significantly improved sensitivity compared to earlier-generation kits that employ single-copy target loci. The kits' improved performance provides better predictive ability for results with downstream, newest-generation STR assays, and their shortened time-to-result allows more efficient integration into the forensic casework analysis workflow. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. TIPT, a male germ cell-specific partner of TRF2, is chromatin-associated and interacts with HP1. (United States)

    Brancorsini, Stefano; Davidson, Irwin; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo


    The differentiation process of spermatogenesis is based on a finely timed program of transcriptional regulation and chromatin remodeling. Male germ cells utilize specialized transcription complexes, which display specific differences in the components of the general transcription machinery. The TATA-binding protein (TBP)-related protein 2 (TRF2) is essential for progression in spermiogenesis and for the structuring of the chromocenter, an heterochromatic structure unique of round spermatids. To decipher the molecular pathways of TRF2 action, we have searched for TRF2 partners in male germ cells. We have isolated TIPT (TRF2 interacting protein in testis), a relatively small protein that associates with TRF2 with affinity comparable to TFIIA. TIPT is uniquely expressed in testis, with a developmental pattern that temporally parallels the one of TRF2. Importantly, TIPT interacts also with HP1 proteins, thereby establishing an intriguing link between transcription and chromatin condensation. Association of TIPT with either TRF2 or HP1 occurs through the C-terminal domain in a mutually exclusive manner. These findings indicate that TIPT could contribute to the precise timing of the molecular events in male germ cells, specifically by linking transcription to chromatin remodeling in round spermatids.

  15. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report. Volume 2. Appendices G, H, and I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.


    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final report, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluation, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as Appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  16. Desulfurization and de-ashing of a mixture of subbituminous coal and gangue minerals by selective oil agglomeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayhan, F.D. [Dicle University, Diyarbakir (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering


    The aim of this study was to investigate desulfurization and de-ashing of a mixture of subbituminous coal and gangue minerals by the agglomeration method. For this purpose, experimental studies were conducted on a mixture containing subbituminous coal, pyrite, quartz and calcite. The effects of some parameters that markedly influence the effectiveness of selective oil agglomeration, such as solid concentration, pH, bridging liquid type and concentration, and depressant type and amount, were investigated. Agglomeration results showed that the usage of various depressants (Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}, FeCl3, corn starch, wheat starch) in the agglomeration medium has a positive effect on the reduction of ash and total sulfur content of agglomerates. It was found that an agglomerate product containing 3.03% total sulfur and 25.01% ash with a total sulfur reduction of 56.71% was obtained from a feed that contained 7% total sulfur and 43.58% ash when FeCl{sub 3} was used in the agglomeration medium.

  17. Flue-gas desulfurization gypsum effects on urea-degrading bacteria and ammonia volatilization from broiler litter. (United States)

    Burt, Christopher D; Cabrera, Miguel L; Rothrock, Michael J; Kissel, D E


    A major concern of the broiler industry is the volatilization of ammonia (NH3) from the mixture of bedding material and broiler excretion that covers the floor of broiler houses. Gypsum has been proposed as a litter amendment to reduce NH3 volatilization, but reports of NH3 abatement vary among studies and the mechanism responsible for decreasing NH3 volatilization is not well understood. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding 20 or 40% flue-gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) to broiler litter on pH, electrical conductivity (EC), water potential, urea-degrading bacteria abundance, NH3 and carbon dioxide (CO2) evolution, and nitrogen (N) mineralization in several 21-d experiments. The addition of FGDG to broiler litter increased EC by 24 to 33% (P broiler litter decreased NH3 volatilization by 18 to 28% (P broiler litter with 20% FGDG can decrease NH3 volatilization and increase the fertlizer value of broiler litter. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Extractive oxidative desulfurization of model oil/crude oil using KSF montmorillonite-supported 12-tungstophosphoric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzat Rafiee


    Full Text Available Abstract 12-Tungstophosphoric acid (PW supported on KSF montmorillonite, PW/KSF, was used as catalyst for deep oxidative desulfurization (ODS of mixed thiophenic compounds in model oil and crude oil under mild conditions using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 as an oxidizing agent. A one-factor-at-a-time method was applied for optimizing the parameters such as temperature, reaction time, amount of catalyst, type of extractant and oxidant-to-sulfur compounds (S-compounds molar ratio. The corresponding products can be easily removed from the model oil by using ethanol as the best extractant. The results showed high catalytic activity of PW/KSF in the oxidative removal of dibenzothiophene (DBT and mixed thiophenic model oil under atmospheric pressure at 75 °C in a biphasic system. To investigate the oxidation and adsorption effects of crude oil composition on ODS, the effects of cyclohexene, 1,7-octadiene and o-xylene with different concentrations were studied.

  19. Effect of pH on elemental sulfur conversion and microbial communities by autotrophic simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification. (United States)

    Xu, Jinlan; Fan, Yimin; Li, Zhixu


    pH has an important influence on the elemental sulfur accumulated in an autotrophic simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification process. The influent nitrate to sulfide (N/S) mole ratio was set to 0.5, 0.67, 1.0, 1.33 and 2.0 with a 200 mg/L sulfide concentration. The effect of pH on elemental sulfur conversion and microbial communities was studied. Sulfide removal was achieved to the extent of 98% under near-neutral and weak base conditions after 24 h of reaction. The conversion rate of elemental sulfur was 29.41% under the near-neutral condition. The weak base condition led to greater formation of sulfate, and the nitrate used by the microorganisms was transformed mainly to N2 with a removal rate of 96%. Increasing the retention time from 24 to 48 h caused the removal rate of nitrate increased from 63.58% to 90% under the near-neutral condition. Sulfurovum sp. was the functioning bacterial species, and bands 1 and 2 represent different species of Sulfurovum sp. in the system according to the PCR-DGGE analysis of the microbial community structure. The functional bacteria represented by band 1 produced mainly sulfate, but the functional bacteria represented by band 2 produced mainly elemental sulfur.

  20. The efficient removal of thallium from sintering flue gas desulfurization wastewater in ferrous metallurgy using emulsion liquid membrane. (United States)

    Yang, Li; Xiao, Jiangping; Shen, Yi; Liu, Xian; Li, Wensong; Wang, Weiyan; Yang, Yunquan


    The removal of thallium ions in flue gas desulfurization wastewater from ferrous metallurgic industry was studied by emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) method using 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid-2-ethylhexyl ester (P507) as carrier, aviation kerosene (AK) as organic solvent, polyisobutylene succinimide (T154) as surfactant, polyisobutylene (PIB) as additive, and sulfuric acid as internal reagent. Some important influence parameters such as concentrations of carrier, surfactant and stripping agent, agitation speed, extraction time, volume ratios of feed solution to emulsion phase and internal phase to membrane phase, and their effects on the removal efficiency of Tl in the ELM process were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum operating conditions of 2% of carrier, 5% of surfactant, 0.5 M of stripping agent, 350 rpm of agitation speed, 12.5:1 of volume ratio of feed solution to emulsion phase, and 3:1 volume ratio of membrane to internal phase, the maximum extraction efficiency of thallium reached 99.76% within 15-min reaction time. The ICP-MS analysis indicated that the thallium concentration in treated wastewater was below 5 μg/L and could meet the emission standard demand for industrial wastewater enacted by the local government of Hunan province of China. Meanwhile, the extraction of impurity ions calcium and magnesium in the ELM system was investigated. The result showed that an acidic environment would be in favor of the removal of Tl from calcium and magnesium contained in wastewater. Graphical abstract ᅟ.