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Sample records for houston ship channel

  1. The Houston Ship Channel security: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Han Q.; Bellamy, P. A.; Pei, S. S. S.

    2007-04-01

    The Houston Ship Channel (HSC) is a 50-mile long shipping channel that contains many private ports including the Port of Houston Authority. It has a uniquely critical role with respect to the US petroleum energy supply. The HSC security is currently planned for significant enhancement under the auspices of the Harris County and the Houston-based Port Strategic Security Council. The ultimate objective is to comprehensively address the HSC threat matrix. This paper describes the technical effort in support of this program. The HSC security is a complex system of systems that includes the physical control access system, the command, control, communication, and information (C4I) system, and the telecom infrastructure. The strategy is to coordinate the improvements of different components to achieve a high-impact net effectiveness. A key element is a planned high-capacity backbone optical network for integrating the C4I of many different HSC administrative-jurisdictional authorities, which will allow unified situational awareness for a more effective cooperation and coordination. Enhancement of surveillance and intrusion protection is crucial. A feasibility study was conducted for the HSC assuming common surveillance technologies including visible/IR camera, radar, and sonar. The method includes survey and theoretical modeling to detect threats of concern in the HSC natural environment. The result indicates that the HSC unique river-like geography offers both advantages and challenges. The narrow channel allows ease of waterside surveillance, but likely incurs high cost for its great length. In addition, landside security is also important owing to its location amidst urban-industrial zone. Lastly, limitation of the various technologies is discussed by considering the broader challenges of the intrusion problem.

  2. Characterizing spatial variability of air pollution from vehicle traffic around the Houston Ship Channel area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueying; Craft, Elena; Zhang, Kai

    2017-07-01

    Mobile emissions are a major source of urban air pollution and have been associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes. The Houston Ship Channel area is the home of a large number of diesel-powered vehicles emitting fine particulate matter (PM2.5; ≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). However, the spatial variability of traffic-related air pollutants in the Houston Ship Channel area has rarely been investigated. The objective of this study is to characterize spatial variability of PM2.5 and NOx concentrations attributable to on-road traffic in the Houston Ship Channel area in the year of 2011. We extracted the road network from the Texas Department of Transportation Road Inventory, and calculated emission rates using the Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator version 2014a (MOVES2014a). These parameters and preprocessed meteorological parameters were entered into a Research LINE-source Dispersion Model (RLINE) to conduct a simulation. Receptors were placed at 50 m resolution within 300 m to major roads and at 150 m resolution in the rest of the area. Our findings include that traffic-related PM2.5 were mainly emitted from trucks, while traffic-related NOx were emitted from both trucks and cars. The traffic contributed 0.90 μg/m3 PM2.5 and 29.23 μg/m3 NOx to the annual average mass concentrations of on-road air pollution, and the concentrations of the two pollutants decreased by nearly 40% within 500 m distance to major roads. The pollution level of traffic-related PM2.5 and NOx was higher in winter than those in the other three seasons. The Houston Ship Channel has earlier morning peak hours and relative late afternoon hours, which indicates the influence of goods movement from port activity. The varied near-road gradients illustrate that proximities to major roads are not an accurate surrogate of traffic-related air pollution.

  3. Industrial, agricultural, and petroleum contaminants in cormorants wintering near the Houston Ship Channel, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, K.A.; Stafford, C.J.; Cain, B.W.; Mueller, A.J.; Hall, H.D.

    1987-01-01

    Double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus ) collected in the Houston Ship Channel, Texas, USA, in November shortly after their fall migration contained residues of several industrial, agricultural, and petroleum contaminants including polychlorinated styrenes (PCS's), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), DDE, and petroleum hydrocarbons. PCS concentrations in over-wintering birds collected in late February were three times higher than those in birds collected in November. PCB and petroleum concentrations remained at about the same level throughout the 3-month winter period. Petroleum hydrocarbons were present in all cormorants and residues in some individuals exceeded 25 ppm (wet weight). Mean DDE residues in samples collected in November and February were less than 1 ppm. Low concentrations of five other organochlorine compounds, not detected in cormorants collected in November, were recovered in birds collected in February.

  4. Modeling Stochastic Boundary Conditions in a Coastal Catchment using a Bayesian Network: An Application to the Houston Ship Channel, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couasnon, Anaïs; Sebastian, Antonia; Morales-Nápoles, Oswaldo

    2017-04-01

    Recent research has highlighted the increased risk of compound flooding in the U.S. In coastal catchments, an elevated downstream water level, resulting from high tide and/or storm surge, impedes drainage creating a backwater effect that may exacerbate flooding in the riverine environment. Catchments exposed to tropical cyclone activity along the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coasts are particularly vulnerable. However, conventional flood hazard models focus mainly on precipitation-induced flooding and few studies accurately represent the hazard associated with the interaction between discharge and elevated downstream water levels. This study presents a method to derive stochastic boundary conditions for a coastal watershed. Mean daily discharge and maximum daily residual water levels are used to build a non-parametric Bayesian network (BN) based on copulas. Stochastic boundary conditions for the watershed are extracted from the BN and input into a 1-D process-based hydraulic model to obtain water surface elevations in the main channel of the catchment. The method is applied to a section of the Houston Ship Channel (Buffalo Bayou) in Southeast Texas. Data at six stream gages and two tidal stations are used to build the BN and 100-year joint return period events are modeled. We find that the dependence relationship between the daily residual water level and the mean daily discharge in the catchment can be represented by a Gumbel copula (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient of 0.31) and that they result in higher water levels in the mid- to upstream reaches of the watershed than when modeled independently. This indicates that conventional (deterministic) methods may underestimate the flood hazard associated with compound flooding in the riverine environment and that such interactions should not be neglected in future coastal flood hazard studies.

  5. Limited mobility of dioxins near San Jacinto super fund site (waste pit) in the Houston Ship Channel, Texas due to strong sediment sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louchouarn, Patrick; Seward, Shaya M; Cornelissen, Gerard; Arp, Hans Peter H; Yeager, Kevin M; Brinkmeyer, Robin; Santschi, Peter H

    2018-02-20

    Sediments from a waste pit in Houston Ship Channel (HSC) were characterized using a number of molecular markers of natural organic matter fractions (e.g., pyrogenic carbon residues, PAHs, lignins), in addition to dioxins, in order to test the hypothesis that the dispersal and mobility of dioxins from the waste pit in the San Jacinto River is minimal. Station SG-6, sampled at the site of the submerged waste pit, had the highest dioxin/furan concentrations reported for the Houston Ship Channel/Galveston Bay (HSC/GB) system (10,000-46,000 pg/g), which translated into some of the highest reported World Health Organization Toxic Equivalents (TEQs: 2000-11,000 pg/g) in HSC sediments. Using a multi-tracer approach, this study confirmed our hypothesis that sludges from chlorinated pulps are a very likely source of dioxins/furans to this pit. However, this material also contained large quantities of additional hydrophobic organic contaminants (PAHs) and pyrogenic markers (soot-BC, levoglucosan), pointing to the co-occurrence of petroleum hydrocarbons and combustion byproducts. Comparison of dioxin/furan signatures in the waste pit with those from sediments of the HSC and a control site suggests that the remobilization of contaminated particles did not occur beyond the close vicinity of the pit itself. The dioxins/furans in sediments outside the waste pit within the HSC are rather from other diffuse inputs, entering the sedimentary environment through the air and water, and which are comprised of a mixture of industrial and municipal sources. Fingerprinting of waste pit dioxins indicates that their composition is typical of pulp and paper sources. Measured pore water concentrations were 1 order of magnitude lower than estimated values, calculated from a multiphase sorption model, indicating low mobility of dioxins within the waste pit. This is likely accomplished by co-occurring and strong sorbing pyrogenic and petrogenic residues in the waste pit, which tend to keep

  6. Real-time ambient air monitoring adjacent to the Houston ship channel for volatile organic compounds associated with the refinery operations using the trace atmospheric gas analyzer (TAGA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickunas, D.B.

    2009-01-01

    An Urban Air Toxic Monitoring Program was developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) to help evaluate the potential toxic air pollution in urban areas. The Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA) was used to monitor the ambient air for target compounds associated with industrial, motor vehicle, and natural emissions sources in areas adjacent to the Houston Ship Channel in Texas. In this study, the TAGA used triple quadrupole technology to perform qualitative and quantitative analyses for benzene, toluene, xylenes, styrene, 1,3-butadiene, methyl tert-butyl ether, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane. The concentrations for the various ion pairs of the target compounds were updated approximately every 2 seconds. The information was incorporated into the geographic information system (GIS) along with the global positioning system (GPS) information for the TAGA location, aerial views of the monitoring area, and meteorological data for the associated region. The information is used to isolate the emission sources and help reduce air pollution. The GPS output helps determine a path-averaged concentration along various routes. Combined with meteorological data, this information can be used in risk assessment to calculate downwind impacts associated with the target compounds under other meteorological conditions and to determine health impacts. It was concluded that the TAGA can provide rapid, accurate and reliable analytical information for monitoring ambient air. 2 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs

  7. Real-time ambient air monitoring adjacent to the Houston ship channel for volatile organic compounds associated with the refinery operations using the trace atmospheric gas analyzer (TAGA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickunas, D.B. [United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Environmental Response Team; Wood, J.; Weeks, W. [Lockheed Martin Response Engineering and Analytical Contract, Edison, NJ (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    An Urban Air Toxic Monitoring Program was developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) to help evaluate the potential toxic air pollution in urban areas. The Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA) was used to monitor the ambient air for target compounds associated with industrial, motor vehicle, and natural emissions sources in areas adjacent to the Houston Ship Channel in Texas. In this study, the TAGA used triple quadrupole technology to perform qualitative and quantitative analyses for benzene, toluene, xylenes, styrene, 1,3-butadiene, methyl tert-butyl ether, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane. The concentrations for the various ion pairs of the target compounds were updated approximately every 2 seconds. The information was incorporated into the geographic information system (GIS) along with the global positioning system (GPS) information for the TAGA location, aerial views of the monitoring area, and meteorological data for the associated region. The information is used to isolate the emission sources and help reduce air pollution. The GPS output helps determine a path-averaged concentration along various routes. Combined with meteorological data, this information can be used in risk assessment to calculate downwind impacts associated with the target compounds under other meteorological conditions and to determine health impacts. It was concluded that the TAGA can provide rapid, accurate and reliable analytical information for monitoring ambient air. 2 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  8. Source apportionment of particulate matter and trace gases near a major refinery near the Houston Ship Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Henry W.; Sanchez, Nancy P.; Flynn, James H.; Erickson, Mathew H.; Lefer, Barry L.; Griffin, Robert J.

    2018-01-01

    From February 7 to 27, 2015, a mobile air quality laboratory was deployed to a location proximate to a major refinery, the Port of Houston, and several neighborhoods to conduct measurements of atmospheric trace gases and particulate matter. Two statistical models were utilized to apportion the sources of pollution impacting this site and the denizens of the nearby neighborhoods. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was performed on the organic signal of the aerosol mass spectra, resulting in five factors totaling an average of 4.1 μg/m3 of the organic aerosol: hydrocarbon-like (0.67 μg/m3), cooking (0.35 μg/m3) biomass burning (1.14 μg/m3), low-volatility oxidized (1.15 μg/m3), and semi-volatile oxidized (0.78 μg/m3). Principal component analysis was performed on daytime and nighttime data, including concentrations from PMF output, of other PM1 components, and of trace gases. This generated five daytime and five nighttime factors that explained 74.5% and 73.0% of the variance, respectively. The most important factors impacting this site were from mobile source exhaust and petrochemical aromatic compound emissions. Together these two factors also constitute most of the observed carcinogens.

  9. Houston-Galveston Navigation Channel Shoaling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Roads, which is bordered by Bolivar Peninsula to the northeast and Galveston Island to the southwest (Figure 1). Two jetties approximately 6,900 ft...USACE SWG. In 2008, the USACE SWG, and the Port of Houston tasked a joint venture formed by Turner Collie & Braden, Inc., and Gahagan & Bryant

  10. Houston Ship Channel 1993-1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Between May 5, 1993 and September 19, 1994, we collected quantitative 1-m2 area drop samples and measured a variety of habitat attributes using field surveys and...

  11. Enhanced situational technologies applied to ship channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Michael A.; Wacker, Roger A.

    1997-06-01

    The Houston Ship Channel ranks as America's number one port in foreign tonnage by welcoming more than 50,000 cargo ships and barges annually. Locally 196,000 jobs, 5.5 billion dollars in business revenue and 213 million dollars in taxes are generated. Unfortunately, 32 days of each year vessel traffic stops for hours due to fog causing an estimated 40- 100 million dollars loss as ships idly wait in the channel for weather to clear. In addition, poor visibility has contributed to past vessel collisions which have resulted in channel closure, and associated damage to property and the environment. Today's imaging technology for synthetic vision systems and enhanced situational awareness systems offers a new solution to this problem. Whereas, typically these systems have been targeted at aircraft landing systems the channel navigation application provides a peripheral ground based market. This paper describes two imaging solutions to the problem. One using an active 35 GHz scanning radar and the other using a 94 GHz passive millimeter wave camera.

  12. 78 FR 8492 - Foreign-Trade Zone 84-Houston, TX Application for Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ..., industrial parks and warehouse facilities in Houston and the Harris County area. The sites--which are in Houston unless otherwise stated--are as follows: Site 1 (421 acres)--Houston Ship Channel Turning Basin, Clinton Drive at Highway 610 East Loop; Site 2 (97 acres)--Houston Ship Channel (Bulk Materials Handling...

  13. 33 CFR 165.814 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Houston-Galveston Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Port Houston-Galveston Zone. 165.814 Section 165.814 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.814 Security Zones; Captain of the Port Houston-Galveston Zone. (a) Location. The following areas are designated as security zones: (1) Houston, Texas. The Houston Ship Channel and all associated...

  14. 76 FR 27337 - Houston/Galveston Navigation Safety Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [USCG-2010-1116] Houston/Galveston Navigation Safety...: The Houston/Galveston Navigation Safety Advisory Committee postponed its originally scheduled February... Houston Ship Channel, and various other navigation safety matters in the Galveston Bay area. The meeting...

  15. 78 FR 39254 - Foreign-Trade Zone 84-Houston, Texas; Application for Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ...). FTZ 84 currently consists of 25 sites (2,756.74 acres total) at port facilities, industrial parks and... stated--are as follows: Site 1 (420.70 acres)--Houston Ship Channel Turning Basin, Clinton Drive at Highway 610 East Loop; Site 2 (97 acres)--Houston Ship Channel (Bulk Materials Handling Plant), north bank...

  16. Matagorda Ship Channel, Texas: Jetty Stability Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kraus, Nicholas C; Lin, Lihwa; Batten, Brian K; Brown, Gary L

    2006-01-01

    .... The current has produced a large area of scour on the bay side of the inlet adjacent to the west jetty, and vessels encountering a strong along-channel and cross-channel current at the entrance...

  17. The investigation of ship maneuvering with hydrodynamic effects between ships in curved narrow channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ki Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrodynamic interaction between two large vessels can't be neglected when two large vessels are closed to each other in restricted waterways such as in a harbor or narrow channel. This paper is mainly concerned with the ship maneuvering motion based on the hydrodynamic interaction effects between two large vessels moving each other in curved narrow channel. In this research, the characteristic features of the hydrodynamic interaction forces between two large vessels are described and illustrated, and the effects of velocity ratio and the spacing between two vessels are summarized and discussed. Also, the Inchon outer harbor area through the PALMI island channel in Korea was selected, and the ship maneuvering simulation was carried out to propose an appropriate safe speed and distance between two ships, which is required to avoid sea accident in confined waters. From the inspection of this investigation, it indicates the following result. Under the condition of SP12≤0.5L, it may encounter a dangerous tendency of grounding or collision due to the combined effect of the interaction between ships and external forces. Also considering the interaction and wind effect as a parameter, an overtaken and overtaking vessel in narrow channel can navigate while keeping its own original course under the following conditions; the lateral separation between two ships is about kept at 0.6 times of ship length and 15 degrees of range in maximum rudder angle. On the other hand, two ships while overtaking in curved narrow channel such as Inchon outer harbor in Korea should be navigated under the following conditions; SP12 is about kept at 1.0 times of ship length and the wind velocity should not be stronger than 10 m/s.

  18. The Mystery of Historical Channel Shoaling at Houston-Galveston Navigation Channel, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    channel traverses through Galveston Inlet, also called Bolivar Roads, which is bordered by Bolivar Island to the north and Galveston Island to the...www.hurricanecity.com/city/galveston.htm. 573 HVJ Associates, Inc. (2003). “Evaluation of Atkinson and Bolivar exhibits.” Turner Collie & Braden, Inc., and

  19. Ship localization in Santa Barbara Channel using machine learning classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Haiqiang; Ozanich, Emma; Gerstoft, Peter

    2017-11-01

    Machine learning classifiers are shown to outperform conventional matched field processing for a deep water (600 m depth) ocean acoustic-based ship range estimation problem in the Santa Barbara Channel Experiment when limited environmental information is known. Recordings of three different ships of opportunity on a vertical array were used as training and test data for the feed-forward neural network and support vector machine classifiers, demonstrating the feasibility of machine learning methods to locate unseen sources. The classifiers perform well up to 10 km range whereas the conventional matched field processing fails at about 4 km range without accurate environmental information.

  20. Influences of the separation distance, ship speed and channel dimension on ship maneuverability in a confined waterway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Peng; Ouahsine, Abdellatif; Sergent, Philippe

    2018-05-01

    Ship maneuvering in the confined inland waterway is investigated using the system-based method, where a nonlinear transient hydrodynamic model is adopted and confinement models are implemented to account for the influence of the channel bank and bottom. The maneuvering model is validated using the turning circle test, and the confinement model is validated using the experimental data. The separation distance, ship speed, and channel width are then varied to investigate their influences on ship maneuverability. With smaller separation distances and higher speeds near the bank, the ship's trajectory deviates more from the original course and the bow is repelled with a larger yaw angle, which increase the difficulty of maneuvering. Smaller channel widths induce higher advancing resistances on the ship. The minimum distance to the bank are extracted and studied. It is suggested to navigate the ship in the middle of the channel and with a reasonable speed in the restricted waterway.

  1. Use of navigation channels by Lake Sturgeon: Does channelization increase vulnerability of fish to ship strikes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl W Hondorp

    Full Text Available Channelization for navigation and flood control has altered the hydrology and bathymetry of many large rivers with unknown consequences for fish species that undergo riverine migrations. In this study, we investigated whether altered flow distributions and bathymetry associated with channelization attracted migrating Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens into commercial navigation channels, potentially increasing their exposure to ship strikes. To address this question, we quantified and compared Lake Sturgeon selection for navigation channels vs. alternative pathways in two multi-channel rivers differentially affected by channelization, but free of barriers to sturgeon movement. Acoustic telemetry was used to quantify Lake Sturgeon movements. Under the assumption that Lake Sturgeon navigate by following primary flow paths, acoustic-tagged Lake Sturgeon in the more-channelized lower Detroit River were expected to choose navigation channels over alternative pathways and to exhibit greater selection for navigation channels than conspecifics in the less-channelized lower St. Clair River. Consistent with these predictions, acoustic-tagged Lake Sturgeon in the more-channelized lower Detroit River selected the higher-flow and deeper navigation channels over alternative migration pathways, whereas in the less-channelized lower St. Clair River, individuals primarily used pathways alternative to navigation channels. Lake Sturgeon selection for navigation channels as migratory pathways also was significantly higher in the more-channelized lower Detroit River than in the less-channelized lower St. Clair River. We speculated that use of navigation channels over alternative pathways would increase the spatial overlap of commercial vessels and migrating Lake Sturgeon, potentially enhancing their vulnerability to ship strikes. Results of our study thus demonstrated an association between channelization and the path use of migrating Lake Sturgeon that could prove

  2. 33 CFR 117.753 - Ship Channel, Great Egg Harbor Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship Channel, Great Egg Harbor Bay. 117.753 Section 117.753 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.753 Ship Channel, Great Egg Harbor Bay. The draw of the S52 (Ship...

  3. Characterizing the Sources and Processing of Submicron Aerosols at a Coastal Site near Houston, TX, with a Specific Focus on the Impact of Regional Shipping Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, B.; Wallace, H. W., IV; Bui, A.; Flynn, J. H., III; Erickson, M. H.; Griffin, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Texas Gulf Coast region historically has been influenced heavily by regional shipping emissions. However, the effects of the recent establishment of the North American Emissions Control Area (ECA) on aerosol properties in this region are presently unknown. In order to understand better the current sources and processing mechanisms influencing coastal aerosol near Houston, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed for three weeks at a coastal location during May-June 2016. Total mass loadings of organic and inorganic non-refractory aerosol components during onshore flow periods were similar to those published before establishment of the regulations. Using estimated methanesulfonic acid (MSA) mass loadings and published biogenic MSA:non-sea-salt-sulfate (nss-SO4) ratios, we determined that over 70% of nss-SO4 over the Gulf was from anthropogenic sources, predominantly shipping emissions. Mass spectral analysis indicated that for periods with similar backward-trajectory-averaged meteorological conditions, air masses influenced by shipping emissions have an increased mass fraction of ions related to carboxylic acids and a significantly larger oxygen-to-carbon (O:C) ratio than air masses that stay within the ECA boundary, suggesting that shipping emissions impact marine organic aerosol (OA) oxidation state. Amine fragment mass loadings were positively correlated with anthropogenic nss-SO4 during onshore flow, implying anthropogenic-biogenic interaction in marine OA production. Five OA factors were resolved by positive matrix factorization, corresponding to a hydrocarbon-like OA, a semi-volatile OA, and three different oxygenated organic aerosols ranked by their O:C ratio (OOA-1, OOA-2, and OOA-3). OOA-1 constituted the majority of OA mass during a period likely influenced by aqueous-phase processing and may be linked to local glyoxal/methylglyoxal-related sources. OOA-2 was produced within the Houston urban region and was

  4. Effect of Water Flows on Ship Traffic in Narrow Water Channels Based on Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Hongtao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In narrow water channels, ship traffic may be affected by water flows and ship interactions. Studying their effects can help maritime authorities to establish appropriate management strategies. In this study, a two-lane cellular automation model is proposed. Further, the behavior of ship traffic is analyzed by setting different water flow velocities and considering ship interactions. Numerical experiment results show that the ship traffic density-flux relation is significantly different from the results obtained by classical models. Furthermore, due to ship interactions, the ship lane-change rate is influenced by the water flow to a certain degree.

  5. 2017 NOAA NGS Ortho-rectified Color Mosaic of Houston Ship Channel, Texas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  6. 33 CFR 165.835 - Security Zone; Port of Mobile, Mobile Ship Channel, Mobile, AL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Port of Mobile, Mobile Ship Channel, Mobile, AL. 165.835 Section 165.835 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.835 Security Zone; Port of Mobile, Mobile Ship Channel, Mobile, AL. (a) Definition. As used in...

  7. Tier I ecological evaluation for phase III channel improvements to the John. F. Baldwin ship channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienert, R.W.; Shreffler, D.K.; Word, J.Q.; Kohn, N.P. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    To assist the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) in determing whether the material from proposed dredging of the John F. Baldwin Ship Channel (JFBSC) is suitable for unrestricted, unconfined open-ocean disposal, Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) prepared this report. Based on these findings, sediments that would be removed during Phase III improvements to the JFBSC fail to meet the three suitability criteria for open-ocean disposal. Firstly, fine-grained sediments comprise a significant fraction of the bottom material in some areas of the channel, and this material is not exposed to high current or wave energy. Dredged material from the JFBSC is not being proposed for beach nourishment; therefore the second criterion is not met. JFBSC sediments do not meet the third criterion because, although they may be substantially similar to substrates at several of the proposed disposal sites, they are from an area that historically has experienced loading of contaminants, which toxicology studies have shown have the potential to result in acute toxicity or significant bioaccumulation.

  8. Shipping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnolst, N.; Wergeland, T.

    1996-01-01

    Shipping is a multi-faceted industry which is rather complex to define from an academic point of view. This book attempts to grasp these complexities and provide the reader with an overview of the main topics and terminology in shipping. The book is based on material from our courses in shipping at

  9. A study for bank effect on ship traffic in narrow water channels using cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhuo; Cong, Shuang; Pan, Junnan; Zheng, Jianfeng

    2017-12-01

    In narrow water channels, bank might affect nearby ships due to hydrodynamic forces (bank effect). To avoid accidents, different sailing rules (i.e., lane-changing, speed control) are required. In this paper, a two-lane cellular automata model is proposed to evaluate such phenomena. Numerical experiments show that ships will form a “slow-moving chunk” in the bank area, which will significantly block the flux. As further study demonstrated to alleviate bank effect, ship speed and bank length should be controlled.

  10. Construction of shipping channels in the Detroit River—History and environmental consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennion, David H.; Manny, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    The Detroit River is one of the most biologically diverse areas in the Great Lakes basin. It has been an important international shipping route since the 1820s and is one of the busiest navigation centers in the United States. Historically, it supported one of the most profitable Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) commercial fisheries in the Great Lakes. Since 1874, the lower Detroit River has been systematically and extensively modified, by construction of deepwater channels, to facilitate commercial shipping. Large-scale dredging, disposal of dredge spoils, and construction of water-level compensating works has greatly altered channel morphology and flow dynamics of the river, disrupting ecological function and fishery productivity of the river and influencing Great Lakes water levels. From 1874 to 1968, major construction projects created 96.5 kilometers (60 miles) of shipping channels, removed over 46,200,000 m3 of material, covered 4,050 hectares (40.5 square kilometers) of river bottom with dredge spoils, and built 85 hectares of above-waterline compensating works at a total cost of US$283 million. Interest by industries and government agencies to develop the river further for shipping is high and increasing. Historically, as environmental protection agencies were created, construction impacts on natural resources were increasingly addressed during the planning process and, in some cases, assessments of these impacts greatly altered or halted proposed construction projects. Careful planning of future shipping-channel construction and maintenance projects, including a thorough analysis of the expected environmental impacts, could greatly reduce financial costs and ecological damages as compared to past shipping-channel construction projects.

  11. 33 CFR 165.808 - Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX, safety zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Petroleum Gas, the waters within a 500 yard radius of the LPG carrier while the vessel transits the Corpus Christi Ship Channel to the LPG receiving facility. The safety zone remains in effect until the LPG vessel is moored at the LPG receiving facility. (2) For outgoing tank vessels loaded with LPG, the waters...

  12. 33 CFR 167.405 - Off San Francisco: Main ship channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off San Francisco: Main ship channel. 167.405 Section 167.405 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY OFFSHORE TRAFFIC SEPARATION SCHEMES Description of Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas...

  13. Shipping

    OpenAIRE

    Wijnolst, N.; Wergeland, T.

    1996-01-01

    Shipping is a multi-faceted industry which is rather complex to define from an academic point of view. This book attempts to grasp these complexities and provide the reader with an overview of the main topics and terminology in shipping. The book is based on material from our courses in shipping at the universities in Delft and Bergen. As with our lectures, we draw upon quite a va ried material, from research studies at a high academic level to lower level student work and purely descriptive ...

  14. Attribution of atmospheric sulfur dioxide over the English Channel to dimethyl sulfide and changing ship emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingxi; Bell, Thomas G.; Hopkins, Frances E.; Smyth, Timothy J.

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric sulfur dioxide (SO2) was measured continuously from the Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory (PPAO) near Plymouth, United Kingdom, between May 2014 and November 2015. This coastal site is exposed to marine air across a wide wind sector. The predominant southwesterly winds carry relatively clean background Atlantic air. In contrast, air from the southeast is heavily influenced by exhaust plumes from ships in the English Channel as well as near Plymouth Sound. A new International Maritime Organization (IMO) regulation came into force in January 2015 to reduce the maximum allowed sulfur content in ships' fuel 10-fold in sulfur emission control areas such as the English Channel. Our observations suggest a 3-fold reduction in ship-emitted SO2 from 2014 to 2015. Apparent fuel sulfur content calculated from coincidental SO2 and carbon dioxide (CO2) peaks from local ship plumes show a high level of compliance to the IMO regulation (> 95 %) in both years (˜ 70 % of ships in 2014 were already emitting at levels below the 2015 cap). Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is an important source of atmospheric SO2 even in this semi-polluted region. The relative contribution of DMS oxidation to the SO2 burden over the English Channel increased from about one-third in 2014 to about one-half in 2015 due to the reduction in ship sulfur emissions. Our diel analysis suggests that SO2 is removed from the marine atmospheric boundary layer in about half a day, with dry deposition to the ocean accounting for a quarter of the total loss.

  15. 33 CFR 165.813 - Security Zones; Ports of Houston and Galveston, TX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zones; Ports of Houston... Security Zones; Ports of Houston and Galveston, TX. (a) Location. Within the Ports of Houston and Galveston... yards of a cruise ship unless expressly authorized by the Coast Guard Captain of the Port Houston...

  16. Regional Sediment Management Studies of Matagorda Ship Channel and Matagorda Bay System, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    undisturbed free water surface.” The USACE presently has no standardized method to measure the fluid mud to determine nautical depth. The Engineer Manual...structural member in the bottom of the hull and channel bottom) is used to account for parameters such as ship motion from waves, squat , safety...distance between the nautical bottom and undisturbed free water surface. To complete the definition of nautical bottom, the physical characteristic(s) on

  17. Ship

    OpenAIRE

    Keuning, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    The invention concerns a ship designed for use at high speed and heavy seas having a single long and slender hull with a narrow beam and a more or less vertical bow, whereby the front half of the hull has more or less vertical sides, minimal flare in the bow sections and towards the bow an increase in draught at its center line combined with a more or less similar increase of freeboard and whereby the aft end of the hull has a flat or slightly V-shaped bottom with one or more propellers and/o...

  18. 75 FR 18755 - Security Zone; Calcasieu River and Ship Channel, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ...The Coast Guard is disestablishing the permanent safety zone at Trunkline LNG in Lake Charles, LA and replacing it with a security zone with new boundaries. The Coast Guard is also establishing two additional permanent security zones on the waters of the Calcasieu River for the mooring basins at Cameron LNG in Hackberry, LA and PPG Industries in Lake Charles, LA. The Coast Guard is also disestablishing the Calcasieu River ship channel moving safety zone and replacing it with a moving security zone. The revised moving security zone extends channel edge to channel edge on the Calcasieu Channel and shoreline to shoreline on the Calcasieu River, 2 miles ahead and 1 mile astern of certain designated vessels while in transit on the Calcasieu Channel or Calcasieu River. Meeting, crossing or overtaking situations are not permitted within the security zone unless specifically authorized by the Captain of the Port. The moving security zone may commence at any point while certain vessels are transiting the Calcasieu Channel or Calcasieu River on U.S. territorial waters (12 nautical miles) in the Captain of the Port (COTP) Port Arthur zone. These security zones are needed to protect vessels, waterfront facilities, the public, and other surrounding areas from destruction, loss, or injury caused by sabotage, subversive acts, accidents, or other actions of a similar nature. Unless exempted under this rule, entry into or movement within these security zones is prohibited without permission from the Captain of the Port or a designated representative.

  19. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from the John F. Baldwin Ship Channel: Phase 3 -- biological testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, N.P.; Karle, L.M.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; White, P.J.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The John F. Baldwin Ship Channel is a 28-mile-long portion of the San Francisco Bay to Stockton Ship Channel, the primary shipping lane through San Francisco Bay and Delta. The San Francisco District of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is responsible for construction of the John F. Baldwin Ship Channel, which is authorized to be deepened to a project depth of {minus}45 ft relative to mean lower low water (MLLW). Approximately 8.5 million cubic yards (mcy) of sediment will be removed from the channel to reach this project depth. The USACE requested Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to conduct testing for ocean disposal under the guidelines in Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal-Testing Manual (EPA/USACE 1991). This testing manual contains a tiered evaluation approach developed specifically for ocean disposal of dredged material at a selected site. In this study, John F. Baldwin Ship Channel sediments were evaluated under the Tier III (biological) testing guidance, which is considered to be highly stringent and protective of the environment. The Tier III guidance for ocean disposal testing requires tests of water column effects, (following dredged material disposal), deposited sediment toxicity, and bioaccumulation of contaminants from deposited sediment (dredged material).

  20. the Underestimation of Isorene in Houston during the Texas 2013 DISCOVER-AQ Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y.; Diao, L.; Czader, B.; Li, X.; Estes, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    This study applies principal component analysis to aircraft data from the Texas 2013 DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) field campaign to characterize isoprene sources over Houston during September 2013. The biogenic isoprene signature appears in the third principal component and anthropogenic signals in the following two. Evaluations of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations of isoprene with airborne measurements are more accurate for suburban areas than for industrial areas. This study also compares model outputs to eight surface automated gas chromatograph (Auto-GC) measurements near the Houston ship channel industrial area during the nighttime and shows that modeled anthropogenic isoprene is underestimated by a factor of 10.60. This study employs a new simulation with a modified anthropogenic emissions inventory (constraining using the ratios of observed values versus simulated ones) that yields closer isoprene predictions at night with a reduction in the mean bias by 56.93%, implying that model-estimated isoprene emissions from the 2008 National Emission Inventory are underestimated in the city of Houston and that other climate models or chemistry and transport models using the same emissions inventory might also be underestimated in other Houston-like areas in the United States.

  1. A decision support system for real-time management of dissolvedoxygen in the Stockton deep water ship channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.; Chen, Carl W.; Stringfellow, William T.

    2003-07-16

    A decision support system(DSS)is under development to assistin the control and management of episodes of dissolved oxygen sag in aDeep Water Ship Channel (DWSC), located in Stockton, California. The DWSCwas formed by excavating the bed of the San Joaquin River in the 1950'sto allow navigation by ocean-going cargo ships to the Port of Stockton.The deepened channel has the effect of increasing hydraulic residencetime by a factor of ten. allowing accumulation of decaying algae andother oxygen demanding substances - which creates a barrier to themigration of anadromous fish. This problem, which manifests itself inlate summer and early autumn, is an impediment to a multimillion dollarhabitat restoration effort for the salmon fishery in the San JoaquinRiver basin (SJRB). A hydrodynamic and water quality model of the Deltaand San Joaquin River forms the basis of the DSS which will provideforecasts of dissolved oxygen sag in the DWSC and provide modelingsupport for management actions such as forced aeration to improvedissolved oxygen concentrations in the Ship Channel. A graphical userinterlace, currently used for displaying flow and salinity forecasts onthe San Joaquin River, is being adapted to allow the display of dissolvedoxygen forecasts and to encourage the formation of a stakeholder-ledentity or institution to adaptively manage the problem.

  2. Assessment of emerging contaminants including organophosphate esters and pyrethroids during DISCOVER-AQ in Houston, Texas, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usenko, Sascha; Clark, Addie; Sheesley, Rebecca

    2015-04-01

    DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) is a NASA-funded air quality research program that focused on Houston, Texas, United States in September 2013. In conjunction with DISCOVER-AQ, particulate matter was collected for the month of September from four ground-based sampling sites across the Houston metropolitan area. The Houston metropolitan area is one of the most populous cities in the United States. Sampling sites included an upwind and downwind site as well as an urban (i.e. downtown) and industrial/port areas (i.e. Houston Ship Channel). Particulate matter samples were collected to examine both spatial and temporal trends (including day versus night). Particulate matter was collected on quartz fiber filters, which were analyzed for emerging classes of concern including organophosphate esters (OPEs; including flame retardants) and pyrethroids. OPEs have in recent years increased in both use and production as they replaced polybrominated diphenyl ethers flame retardants. Permethrin is one of the most commonly used mosquito adulticides in the United States.

  3. Ground-water resources of the Houston district, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Walter N.; Rose, N.A.; Guyton, William F.

    1944-01-01

    This report covers the current phase of an investigation of the supply of ground water available for the Houston district and adjacent region, Texas,- that has been in progress during the past 10 years. The field operations included routine inventories of pumpage, measurements of water levels in observation wells and collection of other hydrologic data, pumping tests on 21 city-owned wells to determine coefficients of permeability and storage, and the drilling of 13 deep test wells in unexplored parts of the district. Considerable attention has been given to studies of the location of areas or beds of sand that contain salt water. The ground water occurs in beds of sand, sandstone, and gravel of Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene age. These formations crop out in belts that dip southeastward from their outcrop areas and are encountered by wells at progressively greater depths toward the southeast. The beds throughout the section are lithologically similar, and there is little agreement among geologists as to their correlation. -In this investigation, however, the sediments, penetrated by the wells are separated into six zones, chiefly on the basis of electrical logs. Most of the water occurs in zone 3, which ranges in thickness from 800 to 1,200 feet. Large quantities of ground water are pumped in three areas in the Houston district, as follows: The Houston tromping area, which includes Houston and the areas immediately adjacent; the Pasadena pumping area, which includes the industrial section extending along the ship channel from the Houston city limits eastward to Deer Park; and the Katy pumping area, an irregular-shaped area of several hundred square miles, which is roughly centered around the town of Katy, 30 miles west of Houston. In 1930 the total combined withdrawal of ground water in the Houston and Pasadena pumping areas averaged about 50 million gallons a day. It declined somewhat during 1932 and 1933 and then gradually increased, until in 1935 the total

  4. 77 FR 23119 - Annual Marine Events in the Eighth Coast Guard District, Smoking the Sound; Biloxi Ship Channel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ...The Coast Guard will enforce Special Local Regulations for the Smoking the Sound boat races in the Biloxi Ship Channel, Biloxi, MS from 8 a.m. until 6 p.m. on April 28 and April 29, 2012. This action is necessary for the safeguard of participants and spectators, including all crews, vessels, and persons on navigable waters during the Smoking the Sound boat races. During the enforcement period, entry into, transiting or anchoring in the regulated area is prohibited to all vessels not registered with the sponsor as participants or official patrol vessels, unless specifically authorized by the Captain of the Port (COTP) Mobile or the designated Coast Guard Patrol Commander.

  5. Hydrocarbon Source Signatures in Houston, Texas: Influence of the Petrochemical Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobson, B Tom T; Berkowitz, Carl M; Kuster, W C; Goldan, P D; Williams, E J; Fesenfeld, F; Apel, Eric; Karl, Thomas G; Lonneman, William A; Riemer, D

    2004-12-22

    Observations of C1-C10 hydrocarbon mixing ratios measured by in-situ instrumentation at the La Porte super site during the TexAQS 2000 field experiment are reported. The La Porte data were compared to a roadway vehicle exhaust signature obtained from canister samples collected in the Houston Washburn tunnel during the same summer to better understand the impact of petrochemical emissions of hydrocarbons at the site. It is shown that the abundance of ethene, propene, 1-butene, C2-C4 alkanes, hexane, cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, isopropylbenzene, and styrene at La Porte were systematically impacted by petrochemical industry emissions. Coherent power law relationships between frequency distribution widths of hydrocarbon mixing ratios and their local lifetimes clearly identify two major source groups, roadway vehicle emissions and industrial emissions. Distributions of most aromatics and long chain alkanes were consistent with roadway vehicle emissions as the dominant source. Airmass reactivity was generally dominated by C1-C3 aldehydes. Propene and ethene sometimes dominated air mass reactivity with HO loss frequencies often greater than 10 s-1. Ozone mixing ratios near 200 ppbv were observed on two separate occasions and these air masses appear to have been impacted by industrial emissions of alkenes from the Houston Ship Channel. The La Porte data provide evidence of the importance of industrial emissions of ethene and propene on air masses reactivity and ozone formation in Houston.

  6. Channel crossing: how are proteins shipped across the bacterial plasma membrane?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, Ian; Corey, Robin A; Allen, William J

    2015-10-05

    The structure of the first protein-conducting channel was determined more than a decade ago. Today, we are still puzzled by the outstanding problem of protein translocation--the dynamic mechanism underlying the consignment of proteins across and into membranes. This review is an attempt to summarize and understand the energy transducing capabilities of protein-translocating machines, with emphasis on bacterial systems: how polypeptides make headway against the lipid bilayer and how the process is coupled to the free energy associated with ATP hydrolysis and the transmembrane protein motive force. In order to explore how cargo is driven across the membrane, the known structures of the protein-translocation machines are set out against the background of the historic literature, and in the light of experiments conducted in their wake. The paper will focus on the bacterial general secretory (Sec) pathway (SecY-complex), and its eukaryotic counterpart (Sec61-complex), which ferry proteins across the membrane in an unfolded state, as well as the unrelated Tat system that assembles bespoke channels for the export of folded proteins. © 2015 The Authors.

  7. Houston Pre-Freshman Enrichment Program (Houston PREP). Final report, June 9, 1997--July 25, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The 1997 Houston Pre-Freshman Enrichment Program (PREP) was conducted at the campus of the University of Houston-Downtown from June 9 to July 25, 1997. Program participants were recruited from the Greater Houston Area. All participants were identified as high-achieving students with an interest in learning about the engineering and science professions. The goal of the program was to better prepare our pre-college youth prior to entering college as mathematics, science and engineering majors. The program participants were middle school and high school students from the Aldine, Alief, Channel View, Clear Creek, Cypress-Fairbanks, Fort Bend, Galena Park, Houston, Humble, Katy, Klein, North Forest, Pasadena, Private, and Spring Branch Independent School Districts. Of the 194 students starting the program, 165 students were from economically and socially disadvantage groups under-represented in the engineering and science professions, and 118 of the 194 were women. Our First Year group for 1997 composed of 96% minority and women students. Second and Third Year students combined were 96% minority or women. With financial support from the Center for Computational Sciences and Advanced Distributed Simulation, the Fourth Year Program was added to PREP this year. Twelve students completed the program (83% minority or women).

  8. Houston prefreshman enrichment program (Houston PREP). Final report, June 10, 1996--August 1, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The 1996 Houston Pre-freshman Enrichment Program (PREP) was conducted on the campus of the University of Houston-Downtown from June 10 to August 1, 1996. Program Participants were recruited from the Greater Houston area. All participants were identified as high achieving students with an interest in learning about the engineering and science professions. The goal of the program was to better prepare our pre-college youth prior to entering college as mathematics, science and engineering majors. The program participants were middle school and high school students from the Aldine, Alief, Channel View, Crockett, Cypress-Fairbanks, Fort Bend, Galena Park, Houston, Humble, Katy, Klein, North Forest, Pasadena, Private, and Spring Branch Independent School Districts. Of the 197 students starting the program, 170 completed, 142 students were from economically and socially disadvantage groups underrepresented in the engineering and science professions, and 121 of the 197 were female. Our First Year group for 1996 composed of 96% minority and women students. Our Second and Third Year students were 100% and 93.75% minority or women respectively. This gave an overall minority and female population of 93.75%. This year, special efforts were again made to recruit students from minority groups, which caused a significant increase in qualified applicants. However, due to space limitations, 140 applicants were rejected. Investigative and discovery learning were key elements of PREP. The academic components of the program included Algebraic Structures, Engineering, Introduction to Computer Science, Introduction to Physics, Logic and Its Application to Mathematics, Probability and Statistics, Problem Solving Seminar using computers and PLATO software, SAT Preparatory Seminars, and Technical Writing.

  9. European astronaut training in Houston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarenza, O

    1993-11-01

    Three European astronauts are currently training as Space Shuttle Mission Specialists at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston. Two of the astronauts, Maurizio Cheli and Jean-Francois Clervoy, recently became members of NASA's 'astronaut pool' and have entered the Advanced Training phase. The third one, Claude Nicollier, is now preparing for the mission to service the Hubble Space Telescope in December.

  10. ERDC Ship/Tow Simulator

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Performing Advanced Hydrodynamic ModelingEngineers and ship pilots can now overcome the challenges of evaluating navigation channel designs, modifications and safety...

  11. Risks to Navigation at the Matagorda Ship Channel Entrance, Texas, Phase 2: Evaluation of Significant Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    jetties are deteriorating. As a result of this deterioration and lowered beach and dunes adjacent to the jetties, there are overwash occurrences during...the toe . An example slope stability analysis is presented in Figure 51. This figure shows a typical cross section or model properties (soil layers...depth caused by the ship passage. Any area of influence will be localized and, in light of a critical gradient analysis, near- toe scouring effects

  12. Solar Leasing Summary, Houston Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, Mary [City of San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2013-02-14

    A relatively new option for homeowners looking to add solar to their home is the solar lease. At present, the solar lease option can be found in California, Arizona, Texas, Colorado, Hawaii, New York and Oregon. The most active companies currently offering solar leases are NRG Energy, Sungevity, Solar City and Sun Run. With the uncertainty and/or lack of subsidies the states participating in these programs have ebbed and flowed over the last few years. However, there is an expectation that in the current market solar leasing will make solar viable without the utility and federal subsidies. NRG Energy is currently testing this expectation in Houston, TX where currently no subsidies or incentives beyond the federal tax incentives, exist. Following is an explanation on the state of solar leasing in Houston, TX and explanation of the current financing options.

  13. Overview of surface measurements and spatial characterization of submicrometer particulate matter during the DISCOVER-AQ 2013 campaign in Houston, TX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Y J; Sanchez, N P; Wallace, H W; Karakurt Cevik, B; Hernandez, C S; Han, Y; Flynn, J H; Massoli, P; Floerchinger, C; Fortner, E C; Herndon, S; Bean, J K; Hildebrandt Ruiz, L; Jeon, W; Choi, Y; Lefer, B; Griffin, R J

    2017-08-01

    The sources of submicrometer particulate matter (PM 1 ) remain poorly characterized in the industrialized city of Houston, TX. A mobile sampling approach was used to characterize PM 1 composition and concentration across Houston based on high-time-resolution measurements of nonrefractory PM 1 and trace gases during the DISCOVER-AQ Texas 2013 campaign. Two pollution zones with marked differences in PM 1 levels, character, and dynamics were established based on cluster analysis of organic aerosol mass loadings sampled at 16 sites. The highest PM 1 mass concentrations (average 11.6 ± 5.7 µg/m 3 ) were observed to the northwest of Houston (zone 1), dominated by secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mass likely driven by nighttime biogenic organonitrate formation. Zone 2, an industrial/urban area south/east of Houston, exhibited lower concentrations of PM 1 (average 4.4 ± 3.3 µg/m 3 ), significant organic aerosol (OA) aging, and evidence of primary sulfate emissions. Diurnal patterns and backward-trajectory analyses enable the classification of airmass clusters characterized by distinct PM sources: biogenic SOA, photochemical aged SOA, and primary sulfate emissions from the Houston Ship Channel. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicates that secondary biogenic organonitrates primarily related with monoterpenes are predominant in zone 1 (accounting for 34% of the variability in the data set). The relevance of photochemical processes and industrial and traffic emission sources in zone 2 also is highlighted by PCA, which identifies three factors related with these processes/sources (~50% of the aerosol/trace gas concentration variability). PCA reveals a relatively minor contribution of isoprene to SOA formation in zone 1 and the absence of isoprene-derived aerosol in zone 2. The relevance of industrial amine emissions and the likely contribution of chloride-displaced sea salt aerosol to the observed variability in pollution levels in zone 2 also are captured by PCA. This

  14. Elements of a decision support system for real-time management ofdissolved oxygen in the San Joaquin River deep water ship channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.; Jacobs, Karl; Chen, Carl W.; Stringfellow, WilliamT.

    2004-07-15

    A decision support system (DSS) has been designed and will be implemented over the next three years to assist in the control and management of episodes of low dissolved oxygen (DO) in a Deep Water Ship Channel (DWSC), located near Stockton, California. The DSS integrates three information technology functions. The first part is the collection and management of data on flow, pollution loads and water quality. The second part is the simulation model which can forecast the dissolved oxygen sag in the DWSC and determine management actions necessary to improve dissolved oxygen concentrations. The third part is the graphical user interface, which facilitates the computer simulations and posting of the forecasted dissolved oxygen and remedial measures to a stakeholder group for implementations.

  15. 33 CFR 117.457 - Houston River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Houston River. 117.457 Section 117.457 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.457 Houston River. The draw of the...

  16. Laulja Whitney Houston sõlmis rekordlepingu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Popstaar Whitney Houston pikendas oma plaadifirmaga Arista lepingut ja tegi artistina popmuusika ajaloo kõige kallima tehingu, mis garanteerib talle kuue stuudioalbumi ja kahe hitikogumiku eest 100 miljonit dollarit

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from NOAA Ship DAVID STARR JORDAN in the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary, Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary and others from 2007-07-25 to 2007-10-28 (NCEI Accession 0144352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144352 includes Surface underway data collected from NOAA Ship DAVID STARR JORDAN in the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary, Cordell Bank...

  18. Shipping Fairways

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Various shipping zones delineate activities and regulations for marine vessel traffic. Traffic lanes define specific traffic flow, while traffic separation zones...

  19. Ship Vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1997-01-01

    Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board......Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board...

  20. The state of public transportation in Houston

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-14

    This full text of a speech delivered at a luncheon in Harris County,Texas on December 14, 1994, gives a status report on METRO and how Houston's key transportation providers plan to meet the challenges of the twenty-first century. Many improvements h...

  1. 76 FR 24080 - Houston District Office Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Houston District Office Advisory Committee AGENCY: U.S. Small... Houston District Office Advisory committee. The meeting will be open to the public. DATES: The meeting...; located at 8701 South Gessner, Houston, TX 77074. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Pursuant to section 10(a)(2...

  2. 76 FR 64990 - Houston District Office Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Houston District Office Advisory Committee AGENCY: U.S. Small... Houston District Office Advisory committee. The meeting will be open to the public. DATES: The meeting...; located at 8701 South Gessner, Houston, TX. 77074. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Pursuant to section 10(a)(2...

  3. 76 FR 2431 - Houston District Office Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Houston District Office Advisory Committee AGENCY: U.S. Small... issuing this notice to announce the location, date, time, and agenda for the next meeting of the Houston..., located at 8701 South Gessner, Suite 1200, Houston, TX. 77074. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Pursuant to...

  4. 75 FR 51473 - Houston/Galveston Navigation Safety Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [Docket No. USCG-2010-0656] Houston/Galveston... Houston/Galveston Navigation Safety Advisory Committee (HOGANSAC) and its working groups will meet in Houston, Texas, to discuss waterway improvements, aids to navigation, area projects impacting safety on...

  5. 75 FR 23793 - Houston/Galveston Navigation Safety Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [Docket No. USCG-2010-0032] Houston/Galveston... Houston/Galveston Navigation Safety Advisory Committee (``HOGANSAC'' or ``the Committee'') and its working groups will meet in Houston, Texas to discuss waterway improvements, aids to navigation, area projects...

  6. 77 FR 29875 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Houston, MO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ...-0903; Airspace Docket No. 11-ACE-20] Establishment of Class E Airspace; Houston, MO AGENCY: Federal... at Houston, MO. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures at Houston Memorial Airport. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the...

  7. Test Ship

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U. S. Navy dedicated the decommissioned Spruance Class destroyer ex-PAUL F. FOSTER (EDD 964), Test Ship, primarily for at sea demonstration of short range weapon...

  8. Treatment for cracked and permeable Houston clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vipulanandan, C.; Leung, M.

    1991-01-01

    In this study, the treatability of a field clay (obtained from Houston, Texas) and a clay-sand mixture to reduce their hydraulic conductivity was evaluated. Remolded field clay and clay-sand mixture with and without methanol contamination were treated to reduce their hydraulic conductivity by permeating very dilute grout solutions. The concentration of sodium silicate in the grout solution was 8%, while the solid content in the cement grout was 0.3%. The hydraulic conductivity of permeable Houston clay (hydraulic conductivity >10 -5 cm/sec) could be reduced to less than 10 -7 cm/sec (U.S. EPA limit for soil barriers) by permeating with a selected combination of grout solutions

  9. Hurricane Harvey & Houston: Hell or High Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedient, P. B.

    2017-12-01

    Harvey was the largest rainfall and most damaging flood event in US history. By all measures the widespread impact was a devastating blow to all of Houston and surrounding areas. It dropped between 36 and 52 inches along the Texas coast over 5 days, exceeding all previous rainfall records, with up to 20 inches in a day. However, two earlier events from 2015 and 2016 also brought widespread flooding to many parts of Houston, especially concentrated in a few watersheds. Most bayous during Harvey were over bank by as much as 10 ft, and flooded an estimated 136000 homes in Harris county alone, greatly exceeding the massive TS Allison impact of 2001. While the area deals with a significant recovery effort, there is a massive call to action on the part of politicians, governmental agencies, and those affected by this event. There is need for a better statistical basis of rainfalls and floodplain mapping in Houston. Development patterns and density have come into question, as homes have been either built in 100 yr floodplains or taken into those floodplains over time. Estimates say > 47 % of homes flooded in TS Allison were outside the floodplain. Many homes were built behind Addicks/Barker reservoirs that protect downtown, many with no knowledge that they were in harms way (over 8000 were flooded there alone), and flooded as water reached record setting levels. New technologies have allowed the measurement and prediction of floods to make great strides since the mid 1990s, (Radar, LIDAR, GIS, hydrologic models, floodplain updates) and the Houston area has benefited from these efforts. While the plan going forward is daunting, there are a number of positive steps that are occurring and should lead to more resiliency. There needs to be policy changes on storage and detention requirements, green space & infrastructure improvements, and perhaps a third regional reservoir above Addicks. Also there is a renewed interest in flood warning systems to better inform the public

  10. Fast ship

    OpenAIRE

    Keuning, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The invention concerns a ship whereby the hull and the mechanical propulsion device are designed such that the Froude number is larger than 0.5. In the aft ship the hull has a bottom with V-shaped bottom surfaces with a deadrise angle that is less than 40 degrees and the hull has substantially vertical sides. In the hull are a passenger compartment and a trim tank. The trim tank volume is such that the weight of a filled trim tank is more than 30 % of the weight of displacement of the hull wi...

  11. 75 FR 6215 - Houston/Galveston Navigation Safety Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... groups will meet in Houston, Texas to discuss waterway improvements, aids to navigation, area projects...; (b) Dredging subcommittee report; (c) Technology subcommittee report; (d) Waterways Optimization...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea, Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary and others from 1997-07-28 to 1997-11-14 (NODC Accession 0081011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0081011 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea, Channel...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Bering Sea, Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary and others from 2001-02-07 to 2001-12-03 (NODC Accession 0081015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0081015 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Bering Sea, Channel Islands National...

  14. Ship's barbers

    OpenAIRE

    Unknown

    2003-01-01

    Showing two sailors having their hair cut (? one is possibly being shaved) on board ship. Three other sailors can be seen standing on the right-hand side of the photograph. The photograph is from an album inscribed 'H.M.S. Lancaster; Mediterranean Photographic Album: Diary of Events and Important Places Visited during the Commission 1910-1912' on the cover. This album was the property of Sydney Harold Liddle.

  15. University of Houston Undergraduate Student Instrumentation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bering, E. A., III; Talbot, R. W.; Hampton, D. L.; Molders, N.; Millan, R. M.; Halford, A. J.; Dunbar, B.; Morris, G. A.; Prince, J.; Gamblin, R.; Ehteshami, A.; Lehnen, J. N.; Greer, M.; Porat, I.; Alozie, M.; Behrend, C. C.; Bias, C.; Fenton, A.; Gunawan, B.; Harrison, W.; Martinez, A.; Mathur, S.; Medillin, M.; Nguyen, T.; Nguyen, T. V.; Nowling, M.; Perez, D.; Pham, M.; Pina, M.; Thomas, G.; Velasquez, B.; Victor, L.

    2017-12-01

    The Undergraduate Student Instrumentation Project (USIP) is a NASA program to engage undergraduate students in rigorous scientific research, for the purposes of innovation and developing the next generation of professionals for an array of fields. The program is student led and executed from initial ideation to research to the design and deployment of scientific payloads. The University of Houston has been selected twice to participate in the USIP programs. The first program (USIP_UH I) ran from 2013 to 2016. USIP_UH II started in January of 2016, with funding starting at the end of May. USIP_UH I (USIP_UH II) at the University of Houston was (is) composed of eight (seven) research teams developing six (seven), distinct, balloon-based scientific instruments. These instruments will contribute to a broad range of geophysical sciences from Very Low Frequency recording and Total Electron Content to exobiology and ozone profiling. USIP_UH I had 12 successful launches with 9 recoveries from Fairbanks, AK in March 2015, and 4 piggyback flights with BARREL 3 from Esrange, Kiruna, Sweden in August, 2015. USIP_UH II had 8 successful launches with 5 recoveries from Fairbanks, AK in March 2017, 3 piggyback flights with BARREL 4 from Esrange, Kiruna, Sweden in August, 2016, and 1 flight each from CSBF and UH. The great opportunity of this program is capitalizing on the proliferation of electronics miniaturization to create new generations of scientific instruments that are smaller and lighter than ever before. This situation allows experiments to be done more cheaply which ultimately allows many more experiments to be done.

  16. RadNet Air Data From Houston, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Houston, TX from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  17. Simulation of atmospheric oxidation capacity in Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air quality model simulations are performed and evaluated for Houston using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. The simulations use two different emissions estimates: the EPA 2005 National Emissions Inventory (NEI) and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality ...

  18. Green Shipping Practices of Shipping Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Tae Chang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to provide an empirical research using structural equation modeling to identify the factors that motivate shipping firms to adopt green shipping practices (GSP. Furthermore, it also examines if adopting GSP can enhance the shipping firms’ environmental and productivity performance. The findings show that shipping firms are motivated to adopt GSP mostly by industrial norms set by institutionalized associations. They are also motivated by customers’ demand for environmental friendliness and their own strategy to make good image. Unlike our expectation, government regulations and international environmental laws are not significant in influencing shipping firms to adopt GSP. Moreover, adoption of green shipping practices can improve the environmental and productivity performance of the shipping firms.

  19. The phosphoric acid leak from the wreck of the MV Ece in the English Channel in 2006: Assessment with a ship of opportunity, an operational ecosystem model and historical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly-Gerreyn, Boris A. [National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, Waterfront Campus, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: bag@noc.soton.ac.uk; Hydes, David J. [National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, Waterfront Campus, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom); Hartman, Mark C. [National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, Waterfront Campus, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom); Siddorn, John [Ocean Forecasting Research and Development, Met Office, FitzRoy Road, Exeter EX1 3PB (United Kingdom); Hyder, Patrick [Ocean Forecasting Research and Development, Met Office, FitzRoy Road, Exeter EX1 3PB (United Kingdom); Holt, Martin W. [Ocean Forecasting Research and Development, Met Office, FitzRoy Road, Exeter EX1 3PB (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-15

    This study evaluates the ship of opportunity (Ferrybox) concept for both sustained monitoring of UK shelf sea waters and numerical model validation. Release of phosphate from the wreck of a chemical tanker (MV Ece) in the western English Channel (49.73{sup o}N, 3.25{sup o}W) in March 2006 is used to demonstrate the importance of sustained observations in decision support systems and policy development. The Ferrybox system continuously collects sea surface (5 m) data from a suite of autonomous electronic sensors installed on a passenger ferry operating year-round between Portsmouth (UK) and Bilbao (Spain). The detection of anomalously high concentrations of phosphate (1.54 mmol m{sup -3}, four times the usual level) and onset of phytoplankton growth close to the wreck site in March 2006 was placed in the context of multiple years of measurements (phosphate, nitrate, silicate and chlorophyll) collected from the Ferrybox system (2003-2006) and the long-term time series station E1 (50.03{sup o}N, 4.65{sup o}W, 1930-1987) in the English Channel. With regard to decision support, release of phosphate from the tanker is unlikely to pose a threat as phytoplankton growth at the end of winter is not unusual in this region and dissolved inorganic nitrogen rather than phosphate (DIN:DIP = 10-18) is likely to ultimately limit algal growth in spring 2006. With regard to policy development, the Oslo and Paris (OSPAR) commissions recommendation of sampling every three years in 'non-problem areas' is likely to provide statistically inadequate data, given the interannual and decadal variability identified in the Ferrybox and E1 data: the Ferrybox data show that oceanic winter nutrient concentrations varied by 35-50% between 2003/2004 and 2005/2006 due to deeper mixing of water off-shelf in early 2005/2006 and comparisons between the Ferrybox and E1 years show that the western English Channel is currently experiencing a low in phosphate concentrations similar to those in the

  20. The phosphoric acid leak from the wreck of the MV Ece in the English Channel in 2006: Assessment with a ship of opportunity, an operational ecosystem model and historical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly-Gerreyn, Boris A.; Hydes, David J.; Hartman, Mark C.; Siddorn, John; Hyder, Patrick; Holt, Martin W.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the ship of opportunity (Ferrybox) concept for both sustained monitoring of UK shelf sea waters and numerical model validation. Release of phosphate from the wreck of a chemical tanker (MV Ece) in the western English Channel (49.73 o N, 3.25 o W) in March 2006 is used to demonstrate the importance of sustained observations in decision support systems and policy development. The Ferrybox system continuously collects sea surface (5 m) data from a suite of autonomous electronic sensors installed on a passenger ferry operating year-round between Portsmouth (UK) and Bilbao (Spain). The detection of anomalously high concentrations of phosphate (1.54 mmol m -3 , four times the usual level) and onset of phytoplankton growth close to the wreck site in March 2006 was placed in the context of multiple years of measurements (phosphate, nitrate, silicate and chlorophyll) collected from the Ferrybox system (2003-2006) and the long-term time series station E1 (50.03 o N, 4.65 o W, 1930-1987) in the English Channel. With regard to decision support, release of phosphate from the tanker is unlikely to pose a threat as phytoplankton growth at the end of winter is not unusual in this region and dissolved inorganic nitrogen rather than phosphate (DIN:DIP = 10-18) is likely to ultimately limit algal growth in spring 2006. With regard to policy development, the Oslo and Paris (OSPAR) commissions recommendation of sampling every three years in 'non-problem areas' is likely to provide statistically inadequate data, given the interannual and decadal variability identified in the Ferrybox and E1 data: the Ferrybox data show that oceanic winter nutrient concentrations varied by 35-50% between 2003/2004 and 2005/2006 due to deeper mixing of water off-shelf in early 2005/2006 and comparisons between the Ferrybox and E1 years show that the western English Channel is currently experiencing a low in phosphate concentrations similar to those in the 1960s. The importance of

  1. The phosphoric acid leak from the wreck of the MV Ece in the English Channel in 2006: Assessment with a ship of opportunity, an operational ecosystem model and historical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly-Gerreyn, Boris A; Hydes, David J; Hartman, Mark C; Siddorn, John; Hyder, Patrick; Holt, Martin W

    2007-07-01

    This study evaluates the ship of opportunity (Ferrybox) concept for both sustained monitoring of UK shelf sea waters and numerical model validation. Release of phosphate from the wreck of a chemical tanker (MV Ece) in the western English Channel (49.73 degrees N, 3.25 degrees W) in March 2006 is used to demonstrate the importance of sustained observations in decision support systems and policy development. The Ferrybox system continuously collects sea surface (5m) data from a suite of autonomous electronic sensors installed on a passenger ferry operating year-round between Portsmouth (UK) and Bilbao (Spain). The detection of anomalously high concentrations of phosphate (1.54mmolm(-3), four times the usual level) and onset of phytoplankton growth close to the wreck site in March 2006 was placed in the context of multiple years of measurements (phosphate, nitrate, silicate and chlorophyll) collected from the Ferrybox system (2003-2006) and the long-term time series station E1 (50.03 degrees N, 4.65 degrees W, 1930-1987) in the English Channel. With regard to decision support, release of phosphate from the tanker is unlikely to pose a threat as phytoplankton growth at the end of winter is not unusual in this region and dissolved inorganic nitrogen rather than phosphate (DIN:DIP=10-18) is likely to ultimately limit algal growth in spring 2006. With regard to policy development, the Oslo and Paris (OSPAR) commissions recommendation of sampling every three years in "non-problem areas" is likely to provide statistically inadequate data, given the interannual and decadal variability identified in the Ferrybox and E1 data: the Ferrybox data show that oceanic winter nutrient concentrations varied by 35-50% between 2003/2004 and 2005/2006 due to deeper mixing of water off-shelf in early 2005/2006 and comparisons between the Ferrybox and E1 years show that the western English Channel is currently experiencing a low in phosphate concentrations similar to those in the 1960s. The

  2. Green shipping management

    CERN Document Server

    Lun, Y H Venus; Wong, Christina W Y; Cheng, T C E

    2016-01-01

    This book presents theory-driven discussion on the link between implementing green shipping practices (GSP) and shipping firm performance. It examines the shipping industry’s challenge of supporting economic growth while enhancing environmental performance. Consisting of nine chapters, the book covers topics such as the conceptualization of green shipping practices (GSPs), measurement scales for evaluating GSP implementation, greening capability, greening and performance relativity (GPR), green management practice, green shipping network, greening capacity, and greening propensity. In view of the increasing quest for environment protection in the shipping sector, this book provides a good reference for firms to understand and evaluate their capability in carrying out green operations on their shipping activities.

  3. The shipping man adventures in ship finance

    CERN Document Server

    McCleery, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    When restless New York City hedge fund manager Robert Fairchild watches the Baltic Dry Cargo Index plunge 97%, registering an all-time high and a 25-year low within the span of just six months, he decides to buy a ship. Immediately fantasizing about naming a vessel after his wife, carrying a string of worry beads and being able to introduce himself as a "shipowner" at his upcoming college reunion, Fairchild immediately embarks on an odyssey into the most exclusive, glamorous and high stakes business in the world. From pirates off the coast of Somalia and on Wall Street to Greek and Norwegian shipping magnates, the education of Robert Fairchild is an expensive one. In the end, he loses his hedge fund, but he gains a life - as a Shipping Man. Part fast paced financial thriller, part ship finance text book, The Shipping Man is 310 pages of required reading for anyone with an interest in capital formation for shipping.

  4. Nuclear ship engineering simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Yasuyoshi; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Hashidate, Koji

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear ship engineering simulator, which analyzes overall system response of nuclear ship numerically, is now being developed by JAERI as an advanced design tool with the latest computer technology in software and hardware. The development of the nuclear ship engineering simulator aims at grasping characteristics of a reactor plant under the situation generated by the combination of ocean, a ship hull and a reactor. The data from various tests with the nuclear ship 'MUTSU' will be used for this simulator to modulate and verify its functions of reproducing realistic response of nuclear ship, and then the simulator will be utilized for the research and development of advanced marine reactors. (author)

  5. Lyondell plans to hike heavy crude runs at Houston

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, R.

    1992-01-01

    Lyondell Petrochemical Co. has outlined a venture that would allow increased runs of heavy crude oil at its 265,000 b/cd Houston refiner. Preliminary plans call for Lyondell, Houston, to ally with subsidiaries of Venezuela's Petroleos de Venezuela SA to upgrade heavy crude processing capabilities of the refiner and obtain supplies of heavy crude feedstock. Lyondell proposes to form a jointly owned company with Pdvsa's Citgo Petroleum Corp. subsidiary to take over ownership of the Houston plant. This paper reports that upgrades would not significantly change the plant's crude capacity but would allow the refiner to process as much as 200,000 b/d of heavy crude feedstock, up from 120,000 b/d at present. Following completion of the upgrade, Citgo could increase its interest to 50% with Lyondell retaining remaining venture interest. Upgrade design and engineering are to begin immediately, with regulatory permitting and construction expected to be complete in 3-4 years

  6. A comprehensive study of benzene concentrations and emissions in Houston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Markus; Eichler, Philipp; Berk Knighton, W.; Estes, Mark; Crawford, James H.; Mikoviny, Tomas; Wisthaler, Armin

    2014-05-01

    The Houston Metropolitan Area (Greater Houston) has a population of over 6 million people, it ranks among the three fastest growing metropolises in the developed world and population growth scenarios predict it to reach megacity status in the coming two to four decades. Greater Houston is home to the largest petrochemical-manufacturing complex in the world with important consequences for the environment in the region. Direct and fugitive emissions of hydrocarbons adversely affect Houston's air quality which has been subject to intense studies over the past two decades. In 2013, NASA conducted the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign in support of developing a satellite-based capability to assess Houston's air quality in the future. Amongst other measurements, airborne, mobile ground-based and stationary ground-based measurements of benzene were carried out. Benzene is a carcinogenic air toxic with strict exposure regulations in the U.S. and in Europe. We have used the obtained comprehensive dataset to map benzene concentrations in the Houston metropolitan area, locate and identify point sources, compare industrial and traffic emissions and put them in relation to previous measurements and emission inventories. The obtained data will allow a better assessment of health risks associated with benzene exposure in a large metropolitan area that includes both traffic and industrial benzene sources. This work was funded by BMVIT / FFG-ALR in the frame of the Austrian Space Application Programme (ASAP 8, project 833451). PE was funded through the PIMMS ITN (EU-FP7, agreement number 287382). Additional resources were provided through NASA's Earth Venture program (EV-1) and the NASA Postdoctoral Program (NPP). We want to thank Scott Herndon and Aerodyne Research for their support.

  7. Monitoring and Mapping the Hurricane Harvey Flooding in Houston, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji Bhaskar, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Monitoring and Mapping the Hurricane Harvey Flooding in Houston, Texas.Urban flooding is a hazard that causes major destruction and loss of life. High intense precipitation events have increased significantly in Houston, Texas in recent years resulting in frequent river and bayou flooding. Many of the historical storm events such as Allison, Rita and Ike have caused several billion dollars in losses for the Houston-Galveston Region. A category 4 Hurricane Harvey made landfall on South Texas resulting in heavy precipitation from Aug 25 to 29 of 2017. About 1 trillion gallons of water fell across Harris County over a 4-day period. This amount of water covers Harris County's 1,800 square miles with an average of 33 inches of water. The long rain event resulted in an average 40inch rainfall across the area in several rain gauges and the maximum rainfall of 49.6 inches was recorded near Clear Creek. The objectives of our study are to 1) Process the Geographic Information System (GIS) and satellite data from the pre and post Hurricane Harvey event in Houston, Texas and 2) Analyze the satellite imagery to map the nature and pattern of the flooding in Houston-Galveston Region. The GIS data of the study area was downloaded and processed from the various publicly available resources such as Houston Galveston Area Council (HGAC), Texas Commission of Environmental Quality (TCEQ) and Texas Natural Resource Information Systems (TNRIS). The satellite data collected soon after the Harvey flooding event were downloaded and processed using the ERDAS image processing software. The flood plain areas surrounding the Brazos River, Buffalo Bayou and the Addicks Barker reservoirs showed severe inundation. The different watershed areas affected by the catastrophic flooding in the wake of Hurricane Harvey were mapped and compared with the pre flooding event.

  8. Guide to ship sanitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2011-01-01

    "The third edition of the Guide to Ship Sanitation presents the public health significance of ships in terms of disease and highlights the importance of applying appropriate control measures"--Back cover...

  9. Recycling of merchant ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Klopott

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly outlines the issues concerning ship recycling. It highlights ships' high value as sources of steel scrap and non-ferrous metals, without omitting the fact that they also contain a range of hazardous substances. Moreover, the article also focuses on basic ship demolition methods and their environmental impact, as well as emphasizes the importance of “design for ship recycling” philosophy.

  10. Dutch Ships and Sailors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Victor; Hoekstra, F.G.; Leinenga, Jurjen; van Rossum, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Dutch Ships and Sailors provides an infrastructure for maritime historical datasets, linking correlating data through semantic web technology. It brings together datasets related to recruitment and shipping in the East-India trade (mainly 18th century) and in the shipping of the northern provinces

  11. Reactors. Nuclear propulsion ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fribourg, Ch.

    2001-01-01

    This article has for object the development of nuclear-powered ships and the conception of the nuclear-powered ship. The technology of the naval propulsion P.W.R. type reactor is described in the article B.N.3 141 'Nuclear Boilers ships'. (N.C.)

  12. 7 CFR 984.472 - Reports of merchantable walnuts shipped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... shipped; whether they were shipped into domestic or export channels; and for exports, the quantity by... remainder of that marketing year. (b) Reports of walnuts purchased directly from growers by handlers who are...

  13. 78 FR 14909 - Amendment of Class B Airspace Description; Houston, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ...-0079; Airspace Docket No. 13-AWA-1] RIN 2120-AA66 Amendment of Class B Airspace Description; Houston.... SUMMARY: This action amends the description of the Houston, TX, Class B airspace area by changing the... 14910

  14. Nuclear merchant ship propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, E.; Jager, W.; Schafstall, H.G.

    1977-01-01

    The operation of about 300 nuclear naval vessels has proven the feasibility of nuclear ship propulsion. Until now six non military ships have been built or are under construction. In the Soviet Union two nuclear icebreakers are in operation, and a third one is under construction. In the western world three prototype merchant ships have been built. Of these ships only the NS OTTO HAHN is in operation and provides valuable experience for future large scale use of nuclear merchant ship propulsion. In many countries studies and plans are made for future nuclear merchant ships. Types of vessels investigated are large containerships, tankers and specialized ships like icebreakers or ice-breaking ships. The future of nuclear merchant ship propulsion depends on three interrelated items: (1) nuclear ship technology; (2) economy of nuclear ship propulsion; (3) legal questions. Nuclear merchant ship technology is based until now on standard ship technology and light water reactor technology. Except for special questions due to the non-stationary type of the plant entirely new problems do not arise. This has been proven by the recent conceptual licensing procedure for a large nuclear containership in Germany. The economics of nuclear propulsion will be under discussion until they are proven by the operation of privately owned lead ships. Unsolved legal questions e.g. in connection with port entry permissions are at present another problem for nuclear shipping. Efforts are made to solve these questions on an international basis. The future development of nuclear energy electricity production in large land based plants will stimulate the employment of smaller units. Any future development of long distance sea transport will have to take this opportunity of a reliable and economic energy supply into account

  15. Houston Community College 2011-2012 Fact Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston Community College System, Office of Institutional Research, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Houston Community College (HCC) 2011-2012 Fact Book provides statistical information about the college district. It is important for the reader to be aware that data presented in this publication may differ slightly from statistics found in other district reports. Such variances may result from differences methodology including the source of…

  16. Houston Community College (HCC)-Mobile Go Center Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Daniel; Sterling, Cheryl; Grays, Shantay R.

    2010-01-01

    The Houston Community College Mobile Go Center brings college enrollment assistance to the doorstep of our community. It operates in a variety of settings, offering college-going material and person-to-person assistance at numerous city events. Services include assistance with academic advising, completing the FAFSA, college application process,…

  17. University of Houston: Engagement, Workforce, and Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Marshall E.

    2012-01-01

    At the University of Houston (UH), the arrival of a new chancellor/president in 2007 resulted in a strategic environmental scan to determine areas where the university's efforts should be focused over the next ten years. Several major initiatives were launched, including one that sought to make UH a major energy university. The decision to embrace…

  18. Houston Community College 2010-2011 Fact Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston Community College System, Office of Institutional Research, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Houston Community College (HCC) 2010-2011 Fact Book provides statistical information about the college district. It is important for the reader to be aware that data presented in this publication may differ slightly from statistics found in other district reports. Such variances may result from differences methodology including the source of…

  19. The search for adenovirus 14 in children in Houston, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laham, Federico R; Jewell, Alan M; Schoonover, Shauna L; Demmler, Gail J; Piedra, Pedro A

    2008-07-01

    Adenovirus (Ad)14 has recently emerged in the United States causing outbreaks of severe respiratory disease. To determine if Ad14 circulated in Houston, Texas, during the same time as an outbreak in military recruits in nearby San Antonio, 215 pediatric adenovirus isolates were serotyped using microneutralization. None were Ad14; Ad1, Ad2, and Ad3 were the most common identified serotypes.

  20. 78 FR 36523 - Foreign-Trade Zone 84-Houston, Texas; Authorization of Production Activity; Toshiba International...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-17-2013] Foreign-Trade Zone 84--Houston, Texas; Authorization of Production Activity; Toshiba International Corporation; (Hybrid Electric Vehicle Motors and Generators Production); Houston, Texas On February 11, 2013, the Port of Houston Authority, grantee of FTZ 84...

  1. 78 FR 46947 - Adequacy Status of the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria, Texas Reasonable Further Progress and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9841-2] Adequacy Status of the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria... has found that the motor vehicle emissions budgets (MVEBs) in the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria, Texas... 2: Table 1-- Houston-Galveston-Brazoria 1997 8-Hour Ozone Reasonable Further Progress NOX and VOC...

  2. 75 FR 22168 - Region VI-Houston District; Advisory Council Meeting; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Region VI--Houston District; Advisory Council Meeting; Public Meeting The Small Business Administration-Region VI--Houston Advisory Council, located in the geographical Area of Houston, Texas will hold a federal public meeting on--Thursday, May 20, 2010, starting at 10:30...

  3. 76 FR 2916 - Houston/Galveston Navigation Safety Advisory Committee; Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [USCG-2010-1116] Houston/Galveston Navigation Safety Advisory Committee; Meetings AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Meetings. SUMMARY: The Houston... will meet in Texas City, Texas and Houston, Texas to discuss waterway improvements, aids to navigation...

  4. 78 FR 15682 - Foreign-Trade Zone 84-Houston, Texas, Authorization of Production Activit, Mitsubishi Caterpillar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-88-2012] Foreign-Trade Zone 84--Houston, Texas, Authorization of Production Activit, Mitsubishi Caterpillar Forklift America Inc. (Forklift Trucks), Houston, TX On November 2, 2012, the Port of Houston Authority, grantee of FTZ 84, submitted a notification of...

  5. 78 FR 53426 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 84; Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... 84; Houston, Texas Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as..., the Port of Houston Authority, grantee of Foreign-Trade Zone 84, submitted an application to the Board for authority to expand FTZ 84 to include a site in Brazos County, Texas, adjacent to the Houston...

  6. 78 FR 49254 - Foreign-Trade Zone 84-Houston, Texas; Application for Subzone; Toshiba International Corporation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-77-2013] Foreign-Trade Zone 84--Houston, Texas; Application for Subzone; Toshiba International Corporation; Houston, Texas An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board by the Port of Houston Authority, grantee of FTZ 84...

  7. 75 FR 39149 - Establishment of Low Altitude Area Navigation Route (T-284); Houston, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... (T-284); Houston, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule... area navigation (RNAV) route T-284 for the Houston, TX, terminal area, is being withdrawn. As a result of Houston Area Air Traffic System (HAATS) Project, Phase 3C, program actions, the route is pending...

  8. 75 FR 6319 - Proposed Amendment of Low Altitude Area Navigation Route T-254; Houston, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... Amendment of Low Altitude Area Navigation Route T-254; Houston, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... altitude Area Navigation (RNAV) route T-254 in the Houston, TX, terminal area by eliminating the segment... safety and the efficient use of the navigable airspace in the Houston, TX, terminal area. DATES: Comments...

  9. 40 CFR 81.38 - Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metropolitan Houston-Galveston... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.38 Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Texas) has been...

  10. 76 FR 4342 - Adequacy Status of the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria, Texas Reasonable Further Progress and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9256-8] Adequacy Status of the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria... vehicle emissions budgets (MVEBs) in the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria, Texas (HGB) Reasonable Further... Progress (RFP) SIP and an Attainment Demonstration SIP for the Houston- Galveston-Brazoria (HGB) ozone...

  11. 76 FR 30396 - Deloitte Financial Advisory Services LLP, Real Estate Consulting, Houston, TX; Amended...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... Advisory Services LLP, Real Estate Consulting, Houston, TX; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To... Financial Advisory Services LLP, Real Estate Consulting, Houston, Texas (subject firm). The Department's... Services LLP, Real Estate Consulting, Houston, Texas who were adversely affected by a shift in services to...

  12. 75 FR 16336 - Establishment of Low Altitude Area Navigation Route (T-284); Houston, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (T-284); Houston, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes a low altitude area navigation (RNAV) route, designated T-284, in the Houston... navigable airspace in the Houston, TX, terminal area. DATES: Effective date 0901 UTC, July 29, 2010. The...

  13. 77 FR 4711 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Houston, MO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ...-0903; Airspace Docket No. 11-ACE-20] Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Houston, MO AGENCY... action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Houston, MO. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) at Houston Memorial Airport. The FAA is taking...

  14. World of Learning: Houston Independent School District 2014 Annual Report and 2015 Calendar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston Independent School District, 2015

    2015-01-01

    No other city in the nation more clearly exemplifies the dramatically changing social, political, and economic landscape of America's urban centers than Houston. Houston has transformed from a bi-racial southern city on the bayou to one of the most ethnically and culturally diverse communities in the nation. Houston Independent School District…

  15. 78 FR 69078 - Houston Pipe Line Company LP; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP14-13-000] Houston Pipe Line Company LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 28, 2013, Houston Pipe Line Company LP (HPL), 1300 Main Street, Houston, Texas 77002, filed an application in Docket No. CP14-13-000...

  16. 75 FR 18047 - Amendment of Low Altitude Area Navigation Route T-254; Houston, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ...-254; Houston, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends low altitude Area Navigation (RNAV) route T-254 in the Houston, TX, terminal area by... Houston, TX, terminal area. DATES: Effective Dates: 0901 UTC, June 3, 2010. The Director of the Federal...

  17. VOC flux measurements using a novel Relaxed Eddy Accumulation GC-FID system in urban Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C.; Schade, G.; Boedeker, I.

    2008-12-01

    Houston experiences higher ozone production rates than most other major cities in the US, which is related to high anthropogenic VOC emissions from both area/mobile sources (car traffic) and a large number of petrochemical facilities. The EPA forecasts that Houston is likely to still violate the new 8-h NAAQS in 2020. To monitor neighborhood scale pollutant fluxes, we established a tall flux tower installation a few kilometers north of downtown Houston. We measure energy and trace gas fluxes, including VOCs from both anthropogenic and biogenic emission sources in the urban surface layer using eddy covariance and related techniques. Here, we describe a Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) system combined with a dual-channel GC-FID used for VOC flux measurements, including first results. Ambient air is sampled at approximately 15 L min-1 through a 9.5 mm OD PFA line from 60 m above ground next to a sonic anemometer. Subsamples of this air stream are extracted through an ozone scrubber and pushed into two Teflon bag reservoirs, from which they are transferred to the GC pre-concentration units consisting of carbon-based adsorption traps encapsulated in heater blocks for thermal desorption. We discuss the performance of our system and selected measurement results from the 2008 spring and summer seasons in Houston. We present diurnal variations of the fluxes of the traffic tracers benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) during different study periods. Typical BTEX fluxes ranged from -0.36 to 3.10 mg m-2 h-1 for benzene, and -0.47 to 5.04 mg m-2 h-1 for toluene, and exhibited diurnal cycles with two dominant peaks related to rush-hour traffic. A footprint analysis overlaid onto a geographic information system (GIS) will be presented to reveal the dominant emission sources and patterns in the study area.

  18. Safety of nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Interest in the utilization of nuclear steam supply systems for merchant ships and icebreakers has recently increased considerably due to the sharp rise in oil prices and the continuing trend towards larger and faster merchant ships. Canada, for example, is considering construction of an icebreaker in the near future. On the other hand, an accident which could result in serious damage to or the sinking of a nuclear ship is potentially far more dangerous to the general public than a similar accident with a conventional ship. Therefore, it was very important to evaluate in an international forum the safety of nuclear ships in the light of our contemporary safety philosophy, taking into account the results of cumulative operating experience with nuclear ships in operation. The philosophy and safety requirement for land-based nuclear installations were outlined because of many common features for both land-based nuclear installations and nuclear ships. Nevertheless, essential specific safety requirements for nuclear ships must always be considered, and the work on safety problems for nuclear ships sponsored by the NEA was regarded as an important step towards developing an international code of practice by IMCO on the safety of nuclear merchant ships. One session was devoted to the quantitative assessment of nuclear ship safety. The probability technique of an accident risk assessment for nuclear power plants is well known and widely used. Its modification, to make it applicable to nuclear propelled merchant ships, was discussed in some papers. Mathematical models for describing various postulated accidents with nuclear ships were developed and reported by several speakers. Several papers discussed a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) with nuclear steam supply systems of nuclear ships and engineering design features to prevent a radioactive effluence after LOCA. Other types of postulated accidents with reactors and systems in static and dynamic conditions were also

  19. Recommendations for the Interagency Ship Structure Committee’s Fiscal 1985 Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    of the World War II 70 ship fracture problems. For over 30 years, the SSC has undertaken ,merous efforts to study the problem of brittle fracture. An...Research & Development Company, Houston, TX Prof. N. A. Hamlin, Webb Institute of Naval Architecture, Glen Cove, NY Prof. W. H. C. Maxwell...Institute of Naval Architecture, Glen Cove, NY OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to determine sloshing loads on the boundaries, swash bulkheads, and

  20. Buckling of Ship Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Shama, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Buckling of Ship Structures presents a comprehensive analysis of the buckling problem of ship structural members. A full analysis of the various types of loadings and stresses imposed on ship plating and primary and secondary structural members is given. The main causes and consequences of the buckling mode of failure of ship structure and the methods commonly used to control buckling failure are clarified. This book contains the main equations required to determine the critical buckling stresses for both ship plating and the primary and secondary stiffening structural members. The critical buckling stresses are given for ship plating subjected to the induced various types of loadings and having the most common boundary conditions encountered in ship structures.  The text bridges the gap existing in most books covering the subject of buckling of ship structures in the classical analytical format, by putting the emphasis on the practical methods required to ensure safety against buckling of ship structur...

  1. Continuous and discrete water-quality data collected at five sites on Lake Houston near Houston, Texas, 2006-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beussink, Amy M.; Burnich, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Lake Houston, a reservoir impounded in 1954 by the City of Houston, Texas, is a primary source of drinking water for Houston and surrounding areas. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Houston, developed a continuous water-quality monitoring network to track daily changes in water quality in the southwestern quadrant of Lake Houston beginning in 2006. Continuous water-quality data (the physiochemical properties water temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration, and turbidity) were collected from Lake Houston to characterize the in-lake processes that affect water quality. Continuous data were collected hourly from mobile, multi-depth monitoring stations developed and constructed by the U.S. Geological Survey. Multi-depth monitoring stations were installed at five sites in three general locations in the southwestern quadrant of the lake. Discrete water-quality data (samples) were collected routinely (once or twice each month) at all sites to characterize the chemical and biological (phytoplankton and bacteria) response to changes in the continuous water-quality properties. Physiochemical properties (the five continuously monitored plus transparency) were measured in the field when samples were collected. In addition to the routine samples, discrete water-quality samples were collected synoptically (one or two times during the study period) at all sites to determine the presence and levels of selected constituents not analyzed in routine samples. Routine samples were measured or analyzed for acid neutralizing capacity; selected major ions and trace elements (calcium, silica, and manganese); nutrients (filtered and total ammonia nitrogen, filtered nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen, total nitrate nitrogen, filtered and total nitrite nitrogen, filtered and total orthophosphate phosphorus, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, total organic carbon); fecal indicator bacteria (total coliform and Escherichia coli); sediment

  2. Crushing Strength of Ship Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerup-Simonsen, Bo; Abramowicz, W.; Høstgaard-Brene, C.N.S.

    1999-01-01

    The crushing response of ship structures is of primary importance to the designers and practicing engineers concerned with accidental loading and accident reconstruction of marine vehicles. Ship to-ship collisions, ship-harbor infrastructure interaction or ship-offshore structure interaction are ...

  3. Shipping Information Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    and national borders within international shipping which is a rather complex domain. The intellectual objective is to generate and evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of design principles for inter-organizational information infrastructures in the international shipping domain that can have positive...

  4. Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2011-01-01

    Liner shipping fleet repositioning consists of moving vessels between services in a liner ship- ping network in order to better orient the overall network to the world economy, and to ensure the proper maintenance of vessels. Thus, fleet repositioning involves sailing and loading activities subject...

  5. Handbook of nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    First, the government organs and other organizations related to nuclear ships and their tasks are described. The fundamental plan for the development of nuclear ships had been determined in July, 1963, and was revised three times thereafter. However in December, 1980, new determination to carry out the research works also was made. The course of the construction of the nuclear ship ''Mutsu'' from 1955 to 1980, the main particulars of the nuclear ship ''Mutsu'' and the drawing of the general arrangement are shown. The designated port for berthing the Mutsu was completed in 1972 in Ominato, Aomori Prefecture, but after the happening of radiation leak during the trial operation of the Mutsu in 1974, it was agreed to remove the port. The main works to be carried out at the port and the port facilities are explained. The progress of the examination of safety of the Mutsu and the result, the test of raising the power output carried out in 1974, and the course of selecting the port for making the repair works of the Mutsu are described. The law concerning Japan Nuclear Ship Research and Development Agency had been instituted in 1963, and was revised four times thereafter. The change of the budget for the tests and researches related to nuclear ships in Japan is shown. The state of development of nuclear ships in foreign countries, the international organs related to atomic energy, shipping, shipbuilding and energy, and chronological table are introduced. (Kako, I.)

  6. Effective and Safe Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Amdahl, Jørgen; Rutgersson, Olle

    1996-01-01

    A Joint Nordic Research project "Effecive and Safe Ships" is presented. The project is aiming to develop methods and tools for quantitative evaluation fo ship safety. This report is the report of the preliminary phase where the plan for the main project is developed. The objectives of the project...

  7. An Adaptive Ship Detection Scheme for Spaceborne SAR Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangguang Leng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR and the increasing need of ship detection, research on adaptive ship detection in spaceborne SAR imagery is of great importance. Focusing on practical problems of ship detection, this paper presents a highly adaptive ship detection scheme for spaceborne SAR imagery. It is able to process a wide range of sensors, imaging modes and resolutions. Two main stages are identified in this paper, namely: ship candidate detection and ship discrimination. Firstly, this paper proposes an adaptive land masking method using ship size and pixel size. Secondly, taking into account the imaging mode, incidence angle, and polarization channel of SAR imagery, it implements adaptive ship candidate detection in spaceborne SAR imagery by applying different strategies to different resolution SAR images. Finally, aiming at different types of typical false alarms, this paper proposes a comprehensive ship discrimination method in spaceborne SAR imagery based on confidence level and complexity analysis. Experimental results based on RADARSAT-1, RADARSAT-2, TerraSAR-X, RS-1, and RS-3 images demonstrate that the adaptive scheme proposed in this paper is able to detect ship targets in a fast, efficient and robust way.

  8. Shipping Information Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    to creating a more efficient shipping industry, and a number of critical issues are identified. These include that shipments depend on shipping information, that shipments often are delayed due to issues with documentation, that EDI messages account for only a minor part of the needed information......This thesis applies theoretical perspectives from the Information Systems (IS) research field to propose how Information Technology (IT) can improve containerized shipping. This question is addressed by developing a set of design principles for an information infrastructure for sharing shipping...... information named the Shipping Information Pipeline (SIP). Review of the literature revealed that IS research prescribed a set of meta-design principles, including digitalization and digital collaboration by implementation of Inter-Organizational Systems based on Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) messages...

  9. Methods for estimating concentrations and loads of selected constituents in tributaries to Lake Houston near Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Since December 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Houston, Texas, has been assessing the quality of the water flowing into Lake Houston. Continuous in-stream water-quality monitors measured streamflow and other physical water quality properties at stations in Spring Creek near Spring, Tex., and East Fork San Jacinto River near New Caney, Tex. Additionally, discrete water-quality samples were periodically collected on these tributaries and analyzed for selected constituents of concern. Data from the discrete water-quality samples collected during 2005-9, in conjunction with the real-time streamflow data and data from the continuous in-stream water-quality monitors, provided the basis for developing regression equations for the estimation of concentrations of water-quality constituents of these source watersheds to Lake Houston. The output of the regression equations are available through the interactive National Real-Time Water Quality Web site (http://nrtwq.usgs.gov).

  10. Nuclear ships and their safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-04-15

    Several aspects of nuclear ship propulsion, with special reference to nuclear safety, were discussed at an international symposium at Taormina, Italy, from 14-18 November 1960. Discussions on specific topics are conducted, grouped under the following headings: Economics and National Activities in Nuclear Ship Propulsion; International Problems and General Aspects of Safety for Nuclear Ships; Nuclear Ship Projects from the Angle of Safety; Ship Reactor Problems; Sea Motion and Hull Problems; Maintenance and Refuelling Problems; and Safety Aspects of Nuclear Ship Operation.

  11. Hydrodynamics of Ship Propellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breslin, John P.; Andersen, Poul

    This book deals with flows over propellers operating behind ships, and the hydrodynamic forces and moments which the propeller generates on the shaft and on the ship hull.The first part of the text is devoted to fundamentals of the flow about hydrofoil sections (with and without cavitation...... of an intermittently cavitating propeller in a wake and the pressures and forces it exerts on the shaft and on the ship hull is examined. A final chapter discusses the optimization of efficiency of compound propulsors. The authors have taken care to clearly describe physical concepts and mathematical steps. Appendices...

  12. Tools to Study Interfaces for Superconducting, Thermoelectric, and Magnetic Materials at the University of Houston

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0303 Tools to Study Interfaces for Superconducting ,Thermoelectric, and Magnetic Materials Paul C. W. Chu UNIVERSITY OF HOUSTON...8/28/2014 - 8/27/2016 Title: Tools to Study Interfaces for Superconducting , Thermoelectric, and Magnetic Materials at the University of Houston...effort. Tools to Study Interfaces for Superconducting , Thermoelectric, and Magnetic Materials at the University of Houston Grant/Contract Number AFOSR

  13. Designing Adaptable Ships: Modularity and Flexibility in Future Ship Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    with motors, belts, shafts , seals, valves, hose spindles , and switches. If ship installation is not installed, the system will be status quo. Ship...Impact: the current centrifugal purifiers (Alfa-Laval) have experienced frequent failures with motor, belts, shafts , seals, valves, hose spindles ... Designing Adaptable Ships Modularity and Flexibility in Future Ship Designs John F. Schank, Scott Savitz, Ken Munson, Brian Perkinson, James

  14. Optimization in liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Karsten, Christian Vad; Pisinger, David

    2017-01-01

    Seaborne trade is the lynchpin in almost every international supply chain, and about 90% of non-bulk cargo worldwide is transported by container. In this survey we give an overview of data-driven optimization problems in liner shipping. Research in liner shipping is motivated by a need for handling...... still more complex decision problems, based on big data sets and going across several organizational entities. Moreover, liner shipping optimization problems are pushing the limits of optimization methods, creating a new breeding ground for advanced modelling and solution methods. Starting from liner...... shipping network design, we consider the problem of container routing and speed optimization. Next, we consider empty container repositioning and stowage planning as well as disruption management. In addition, the problem of bunker purchasing is considered in depth. In each section we give a clear problem...

  15. Civilian nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report contains a review of the information available on nuclear powered ships, built for civilian purposes. In the introduction a short discussion is given of the reasons for the limited use of nuclear ships for these purposes. In the second section a brief review is presented of data for the three experimental/merchant ships build by the United States, Germany and Japan, i.e. NS Savannah, NS Otto Hahn and NS Mutsu. In the third section the Soviet/Russian icebreaker NS Lenin is considered. Its design, operational experience and the introduction of a new nuclear propulsion plant is reviewed. In the fourth section the newer Soviet/Russian icebreakers with nuclear propulsion are considered. Finally design of the Soviet/Russian icebreaker transport/container ship NS Sevmorput is reviewed in the fifth section. The future Russian plans for nuclear vessels for the arctic waters are briefly discussed. (au)

  16. Ship propulsion reactors technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fribourg, Ch.

    2002-01-01

    This paper takes the state of the art on ship propulsion reactors technology. The french research programs with the corresponding technological stakes, the reactors specifications and advantages are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  17. Ship construction and welding

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Nisith R

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses various aspects of ship construction, from ship types and construction materials, to welding technologies and accuracy control. The contents of the book are logically organized and divided into twenty-one chapters. The book covers structural arrangement with longitudinal and transverse framing systems based on the service load, and explains basic structural elements like hatch side girders, hatch end beams, stringers, etc. along with structural subassemblies like floors, bulkheads, inner bottom, decks and shells. It presents in detail double bottom construction, wing tanks & duct keels, fore & aft end structures, etc., together with necessary illustrations. The midship sections of various ship types are introduced, together with structural continuity and alignment in ship structures. With regard to construction materials, the book discusses steel, aluminum alloys and fiber reinforced composites. Various methods of steel material preparation are discussed, and plate cutting and form...

  18. Nuclear ship accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1993-05-01

    In this report available information on 28 nuclear ship accident and incidents is considered. Of these 5 deals with U.S. ships and 23 with USSR ships. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions and sea water leaks into the submarines are considered. Comments are made on each of the events, and at the end of the report an attempt is made to point out the weaknesses of the submarine designs which have resulted in the accidents. It is emphasized that much of the available information is of a rather dubious nature. consequently some of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  19. Performance Monitoring of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren Vinther

    is used as input to the system and by comparing model and ship behaviour, an index describing the ship’s performance is generated. The work in this thesis is based on data logged through the automation system on board a PostPanmax container ship where data have been logged through a year. A routine...... in the models have been identified. The models used in this work are based on empirical relations or based on regression analyses of model tests and full-scale trials. In order to achieve valid results the conditions where performance is estimated have to be inside the boundaries of the model. Filters have been......The purpose of the research project is to establish a reliable index in the performance evaluation of ships. During operation the ship will experience added resistance due to fouling of hull and propeller. The added resistance will lead to increased fuel consumption and thus increased emissions...

  20. Distributed propulsion for ships

    OpenAIRE

    Nylund, Vilde

    2017-01-01

    It is anticipated that using distributed electric propulsion (DEP) on conventional ships will increase the total propulsive efficiency. This is mainly due to two reasons; firstly, because the total propeller disk area can be increased. Secondly, because each propeller can be optimised for the local wake where it is operating. In this work, the benefits of using DEP has been investigated for a 14 000 TEU container ship. Based on a literary study of the present state of propeller modelling ...

  1. SHIPPING REQUESTS ON EDH

    CERN Multimedia

    Logistics Group

    2001-01-01

    Users are informed that as from 1 September 2001 all Shipping Requests must be made on EDH using the appropriate electronic form. The submission of user requests directly into EDH will help rationalise the activities of the Shipping Service (Import & Export), with requests being automatically forwarded to hierarchical supervisors thereby improving the processing speed and facilitating the follow-up. Thank you for your collaboration.

  2. Plastic Pollution from Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Čulin, Jelena; Bielić, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The environmental impact of shipping on marine environment includes discharge of garbage. Plastic litter is of particular concern due to abundance, resistance to degradation and detrimental effect on marine biota. According to recently published studies, a further research is required to assess human health risk. Monitoring data indicate that despite banning plastic disposal at sea, shipping is still a source of plastic pollution. Some of the measures to combat the problem are discussed.

  3. On the Global Ship Hull Bending Energy in Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Li, Y.

    2004-01-01

    During ship collisions part of the kinetic energy of the involved vessels prior to contact is absorbed as energy dissipated by crushing of the hull structures, by friction and by elastic energy. The purpose of this report is to present an estimate of the elastic energy that can be stored in elastic...... hull vibrations during a ship collision. When a ship side is strengthened in order to improve the crashworthiness it has been argued in the scientific literature that a non trivial part of the energy released for structural deformation during the collision can be absorbed as elastic energy in global...... ship hull vibrations, such that with strong ship sides less energy has to be spent in crushing of the striking ship bow and/or the struck ship side. In normal ship-ship collision analyses both the striking and struck ship are usually considered as rigid bodies where structural crushing is confined...

  4. Outer Dynamics of Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The purpose is to present analysis procedures for the motion of ships during ship-ship collisions and for ship collisions with offshore structures. The aim is to estimate that part of the lost kinetic energy which will have to be absorbed by rupture and plastic damage of the colliding structures....

  5. Recent situations around nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Hiroshi

    1978-01-01

    The philosophy when the safety standard for nuclear ships is drawn up and the international rules specifically for nuclear ships are summarized. As for the safety standard for nuclear ships, the safety requirements for ordinary ships, for the ships transporting nuclear reactors, for ordinary nuclear reactors, and for the reactors moving around the seas must be included. As for the international rules for nuclear ships, there are chapter 8 ''Nuclear ships'' in the International Convention on the Safety of Life at Sea, 1960 and 1974, and Safety Consideration in the Use of Ports and Approaches by Nuclear Merchant Ships. Also there are national rules and standards in Japan and foreign countries. One of the means to explore the practicality of nuclear ships is the investigation of the economy. At this time, the social merits and demerits of nuclear ships must be compared with conventional ships by taking total expenses into account without omission. When oil is depleted, the age of nuclear ships will not necessarily begin, and the will be still some competitors. The investigations concerning the economy of nuclear ships have been carried out in various countries. The present state of the development of nuclear ships in Japan and foreign countries is explained. Many conferences and symposia have been held concerning nuclear ships, and those held recently are enumerated. The realization of nuclear ship age cannot be anticipated from existing papers and shipbuilding projects. (Kako, I.)

  6. Outer Dynamics of Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of these notes is to present analysis procedures for the motion of ships during ship-ship collisions and for ship collisons with offshore structures. The aim is to estimate that part of the lost kinetic energy which will have to be absorbed by rupture and plastic damage of the colliding...

  7. Dark matter at the SHiP experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timiryasov, Inar

    2016-01-01

    We study prospects of dark matter searches in the SHiP experiment. SHiP (Search for Hidden Particles) is the recently proposed fixed target experiment which will exploit the high-intensity beam of 400 GeV protons from the CERN SPS. In addition to the hidden sector detector, SHiP will be equipped with the ν_τ detector, which presumably would be sensitive to dark matter particles. We describe appropriate production and detection channels and estimate SHiP’s sensitivity for a scalar dark matter coupled to the Standard model through the vector mediator

  8. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelgaard, P L [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10{sup -3} per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au).

  9. Accidents in nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10 -3 per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  10. On the global ship hull bending energy in ship collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Li, Yujie

    2009-01-01

    During ship collisions part of the kinetic energy of the involved vessels immediately prior to contact is absorbed as energy dissipated by crushing of the hull structures, by friction and by elastic energy. The purpose of this report is to present an estimate of the elastic energy that can...... be stored in elastic hull vibrations during a ship collision. When a ship side is strengthened in order to improve the crashworthiness it has been argued in the scientific literature that a non-trivial part of the energy released for structural deformation during the collision can be absorbed as elastic...... energy in global ship hull vibrations, such that with strong ship sides less energy has to be spent in crushing of the striking ship bow and/or the struck ship side. In normal ship–ship collision analyses both the striking and struck ship are usually considered as rigid bodies where structural crushing...

  11. The History of the Austin College Building and Old Main at Sam Houston State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Erin; Shields, Samantha

    2017-01-01

    Austin Hall and Old Main serve as the heart of what is now Sam Houston State University. The buildings' rich histories help one to understand how Sam Houston State University and its proud teacher education heritage came to be. To begin with Austin Hall's story, the University's original building has a unique and interesting tale that journeys…

  12. 77 FR 1077 - Houston/Galveston Navigation Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ... letter and resume to the following address: USCG Sector Houston-Galveston, Waterway Management Division... utilize the port facilities at Galveston, Houston, and Texas City. (b) One member representing labor... support of the Coast Guard policy on gender and ethnic nondiscrimination, we encourage qualified men and...

  13. Huelga Schools in Houston: Community-Based Education in the Struggle for Legal Recognition, 1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Miguel, Guadalupe, Jr.

    2016-01-01

    This essay provides an overview of the huelga schools established in Houston, Texas, in 1970. For 2 years, from 1970 to 1972, the Mexican American community opposed the Houston Independent School District's plan to integrate the schools by pairing so-called White Mexican Americans with African American students. While they protested this decision,…

  14. 78 FR 11639 - Houston Pipe Line Company LP; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR13-31-000] Houston Pipe Line Company LP; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval Take notice that on February 1, 2013, Houston Pipe Line Company LP (HPL) filed for approval of rates for transportation service pursuant to section...

  15. Physical Activity Among Asian American Adults in Houston, Texas: Data from the Health of Houston Survey 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Dennis; Carvalho Gulati, Amy; Lee, Rebecca E

    2016-12-01

    This study used the 2010 Health of Houston Survey to examine the physical activity of Asian American adults living in Houston, Texas. Multivariate regression models were conducted to examine the number of moderate leisure physical activity days in the past week and likelihood of having sufficient levels of physical activity. The results showed that Asians were among the least physically active of the major racial/ethnic groups. Most notably, Asians were less likely than whites to have sufficient levels of physical activity and had similarly lower expected numbers of physical activity minutes and days. Within the Asian American population, Vietnamese adults had more physical activity minutes and days than their Chinese counterparts-after controlling for other sociodemographic and health factors. Age- and gender-adjusted rates suggested a significant gender disparity among the Vietnamese and South Asian adults (less so for the Chinese adults), but this varied across different age groups. Several factors emerged as significant predictors of physical activity for Asian Americans, including age, immigration status, speaking a non-English language at home, marital status, and neighborhood incivilities. Findings highlight the need for targeted, culturally appropriate interventions to promote physical activity in Asian American communities.

  16. Ship operations report, 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The NOAA Fleet Operations Report 1973 was developed to provide a summary of project accomplishments during calendar year 1973. The report was prepared from season, cruise and special reports submitted by ships of the fleet. Centralized management of the NOAA Fleet was finalized by changing the operational control of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Ships DAVID STARR JORDAN (FRS 44), TOWNSEND CROMWELL (FRS 43) and MURRE II (FRV 63) from NMFS to the National Ocean Survey on July 1, 1973. Throughout the year, ships routinely collected and transmitted weather data. Similarly, as NOAA participants in the Integrated Global Ocean Station System (IGOSS) service program, XBT observations were taken and either radioed or submitted in log form via mail. In addition, particulate and radionuclide samples were taken in cooperation with the Atomic Energy Commission, sediment samples were obtained for the Smithsonian Institution and observations were made of marine mammals

  17. Ship operations report, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The NOAA Ship Operations Report 1975 was developed to provide a summary of projects undertaken during calendar year 1975. The report was prepared from season, cruise and special reports submitted by ships of the fleet. This report is promulgated for inhouse dissemination in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, for collaborating and interested agencies, and for use by members of the scientific community. Throughout the year, ships routinely collected and transmitted weather data. Similarly, as NOAA participants in the Integrated Global Ocean Station System (IGOSS) service program, XBT observations were taken and either radioed or submitted in log form via mail. In addition, particulate and radionuclide samples were taken in cooperation with the Atomic Energy Commission, sediment samples were obtained for the Smithsonian Institution and observations were made of marine mammals

  18. Internationalisation Within Liner Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prockl, Günter; Kinra, Aseem; Kotzab, Herbert

    2018-01-01

    , the degree of internationalisation, measured on the basis of sea-oriented operations, differs from that measured according to land-oriented front-end marketing and sales activities. The purpose of this study is to further examine the internationalisation patterns of shipping lines. An examination...... of the front-end activities and the structures of leading container-shipping companies is conducted. The sales office networks of the sector’s 20 largest companies worldwide (by twenty-foot equivalent unit capacity) are analysed as key indicators. The numbers of sales offices are measured by analysing...... the websites of the sample (20 companies), as well as annual reports and other publicly available data sources. The findings show that not all shipping companies are international, by virtue of the industry. While it is difficult to observe differences in the overall patterns of the sales networks at a macro...

  19. Simulation of the effects of different inflows on hydrologic conditions in Lake Houston with a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model, Houston, Texas, 2009–10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon, Samuel H.; Lee, Michael T.

    2015-12-08

    Lake Houston, an important water resource for the Houston, Texas, area, receives inflows from seven major tributaries that compose the San Jacinto River Basin upstream from the reservoir. The effects of different inflows from the watersheds drained by these tributaries on the residence time of water in Lake Houston and closely associated physical and chemical properties including lake elevation, salinity, and water temperature are not well known. Accordingly, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Houston, developed a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model of Lake Houston as a tool for evaluating the effects of different inflows on residence time of water in the lake and associated physical and chemical properties. The Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC), a grid-based, surface-water modeling package for simulating three-dimensional circulation, mass transport, sediments, and biogeochemical processes, was used to develop the model of Lake Houston. The Lake Houston EFDC model was developed and calibrated by using 2009 data and verified by using 2010 data. Three statistics (mean error, root mean square error, and the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient) were used to evaluate how well the Lake Houston EFDC model simulated lake elevation, salinity, and water temperature. The residence time of water in reservoirs is associated with various physical and chemical properties (including lake elevation, salinity, and water temperature). Simulated and measured lake-elevation values were compared at USGS reservoir station 08072000 Lake Houston near Sheldon, Tex. The accuracy of simulated salinity and water temperature values was assessed by using the salinity (computed from measured specific conductance) and water temperature at two USGS monitoring stations: 295826095082200 Lake Houston south Union Pacific Railroad Bridge near Houston, Tex., and 295554095093401 Lake Houston at mouth of Jack’s Ditch near Houston, Tex. Specific conductance

  20. Significance of Waterway Navigation Positioning Systems On Ship's Manoeuvring Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galor, W.

    The main goal of navigation is to lead the ship to the point of destination safety and efficiently. Various factors may affect ship realisating this process. The ship movement on waterway are mainly limited by water area dimensions (surface and depth). These limitations cause the requirement to realise the proper of ship movement trajectory. In case when this re requirement cant't fulfil then marine accident may happend. This fact is unwanted event caused losses of human health and life, damage or loss of cargo and ship, pollution of natural environment, damage of port structures or blocking the port of its ports and lost of salvage operation. These losses in same cases can be catas- trophical especially while e.i. crude oil spilling could be place. To realise of safety navigation process is needed to embrace the ship's movement trajectory by waterways area. The ship's trajectory is described by manoeuvring lane as a surface of water area which is require to realise of safety ship movement. Many conditions affect to ship manoeuvring line. The main are following: positioning accuracy, ship's manoeuvring features and phenomena's of shore and ship's bulk common affecting. The accuracy of positioning system is most important. This system depends on coast navigation mark- ing which can range many kinds of technical realisation. Mainly used systems based on lights (line), radionavigation (local system or GPS, DGPS), or radars. If accuracy of positiong is higer, then safety of navigation is growing. This article presents these problems exemplifying with approaching channel to ports situated on West Pomera- nian water region.

  1. Shipping emissions in ports

    OpenAIRE

    Merk, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Shipping emissions in ports are substantial, accounting for 18 million tonnes of CO2 emissions, 0.4 million tonnes of NOx, 0.2 million of SOx and 0.03 million tonnes of PM10 in 2011. Around 85% of emissions come from containerships and tankers. Containerships have short port stays, but high emissions during these stays. Most of CO2 emissions in ports from shipping are in Asia and Europe (58%), but this share is low compared to their share of port calls (70%). European ports have much less emi...

  2. SU-E-P-02: Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core (IROC) Houston QA Center (RPC) Credentialing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amador, C; Keith, T; Nguyen, T; Molineu, A; Followill, D [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To provide information pertaining to IROC Houston QA Center's (RPC) credentialing process for institutions participating in NCI-sponsored clinical trials. Methods: IROC Houston issues credentials for NCI sponsored study groups. Requirements for credentialing might include any combination of questionnaires, knowledge assessment forms, benchmarks, or phantom irradiations. Credentialing requirements for specific protocols can be found on IROC Houston's website (irochouston.mdanderson.org). The website also houses the credentialing status inquiry (CSI) form. Once an institution has reviewed the protocol's credentialing requirements, a CSI form should be completed and submitted to IROC Houston. This form is used both to request whether requirements have been met as well as to notify IROC Houston that the institution requests credentialing for a specific protocol. IROC Houston will contact the institution to discuss any delinquent requirements. Once the institution has met all requirements IROC Houston issues a credentialing letter to the institution and will inform study groups and other IROC offices of the credentials. Institutions can all phone the IROC Houston office to initiate credentialing or ask any credentialing related questions. Results: Since 2010 IROC has received 1313 credentialing status inquiry forms. We received 317 in 2010, 266 in 2011, 324 in 2012, and 406 in 2013. On average we receive 35 phone calls per week with multiple types of credentialing questions. Decisions regarding credentialing status are based on the protocol specifications and previous completed credentialing by the institution. In some cases, such as for general IMRT credentialing, up to 5 sites may be credentialed based on the credentialing of one main center. Each of these situations is handled individually. Conclusion: IROC Houston will issue radiation therapy credentials for the NCI trials in the National Clinical Trials Network. Credentialing requirements

  3. SU-E-P-02: Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core (IROC) Houston QA Center (RPC) Credentialing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador, C; Keith, T; Nguyen, T; Molineu, A; Followill, D

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To provide information pertaining to IROC Houston QA Center's (RPC) credentialing process for institutions participating in NCI-sponsored clinical trials. Methods: IROC Houston issues credentials for NCI sponsored study groups. Requirements for credentialing might include any combination of questionnaires, knowledge assessment forms, benchmarks, or phantom irradiations. Credentialing requirements for specific protocols can be found on IROC Houston's website (irochouston.mdanderson.org). The website also houses the credentialing status inquiry (CSI) form. Once an institution has reviewed the protocol's credentialing requirements, a CSI form should be completed and submitted to IROC Houston. This form is used both to request whether requirements have been met as well as to notify IROC Houston that the institution requests credentialing for a specific protocol. IROC Houston will contact the institution to discuss any delinquent requirements. Once the institution has met all requirements IROC Houston issues a credentialing letter to the institution and will inform study groups and other IROC offices of the credentials. Institutions can all phone the IROC Houston office to initiate credentialing or ask any credentialing related questions. Results: Since 2010 IROC has received 1313 credentialing status inquiry forms. We received 317 in 2010, 266 in 2011, 324 in 2012, and 406 in 2013. On average we receive 35 phone calls per week with multiple types of credentialing questions. Decisions regarding credentialing status are based on the protocol specifications and previous completed credentialing by the institution. In some cases, such as for general IMRT credentialing, up to 5 sites may be credentialed based on the credentialing of one main center. Each of these situations is handled individually. Conclusion: IROC Houston will issue radiation therapy credentials for the NCI trials in the National Clinical Trials Network. Credentialing requirements and the CSI form

  4. Are nuclear ships environmentally safer than conventionally powered ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone, C.A.; Molgaard, C.A.; Helmkamp, J.C.; Golbeck, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    An epidemiologic analysis was conducted to determine if risk of hospitalization varied by age, ship type, or occupation between nuclear and conventional powered ship crews in the U.S. Navy. Study cohorts consisted of all male enlisted personnel who served exclusively aboard conventional or nuclear powered aircraft carriers and cruisers during the years 1975-1979; cases were those men hospitalized during this period (N = 48,242). Conventional ship personnel showed significantly elevated rates of injury and disease when compared to nuclear ship personnel. The largest relative risks by age occurred for conventional ship crewmen less than 30 years old. Seaman, logistics (supply), and healthcare personnel serving aboard conventional ships comprised the occupational groups exhibiting the highest hospitalization rate differentials. The results strongly suggest that nuclear ships provide a healthier, safer working and living environment than conventional ships

  5. 76 FR 70479 - Draft Environmental Assessment and Safe Harbor Agreement for the Houston Toad Within Nine Texas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ...] Draft Environmental Assessment and Safe Harbor Agreement for the Houston Toad Within Nine Texas Counties... of the endangered Houston toad (Bufo houstonensis) as a result of conservation actions, land...: [email protected] . Include ``Clear Lake Ecological Services Field Office draft Houston Toad...

  6. 77 FR 70174 - Waterway Suitability Assessment for Expansion of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Houston and Texas City, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... Assessment for Expansion of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Houston and Texas City, TX AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Assessment to the Coast Guard Captain of the Port, Sector Houston-Galveston regarding the company's proposed expansion of its Liquefied Hazardous Gas (LHG) facilities in Houston and Texas City, Texas, and increased...

  7. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bott...

  8. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  9. Ship Roll Motion Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    . This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems and the challenges associated with their design. The paper discusses how to assess performance, the applicability of dierent models, and control methods that have been applied in the past....

  10. Ship Roll Damping Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    limitations and large variations of the spectral characteristics of wave-induced roll motion. This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems together with the challenges associated with their design. It discusses the assessment of performance...

  11. Options of ship discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    Environmental performance is a key design consideration for manufacturers of bulk handling machines, not least ship unloaders, with features being introduced to minimise dust and noise pollution. The article reports on developments in grab unloaders, slewing grabcranes and mobile grabcranes by manufacturers such as Konecrane, EMS-Tech, Liebherr-Werk Nenzing and Gottwald. 2 photos.

  12. Hydroelastic Vibrations of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Folsø, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    A formula for the necessary hull girder bending stiffness required to avoid serious springing vibrations is derived. The expression takes into account the zero crossing period of the waves, the ship speed and main dimensions. For whipping vibrations the probability of exceedance for the combined...

  13. Classification of Ship Routing and Scheduling Problems in Liner Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a classification scheme for ship routing and scheduling problems in liner shipping in line with the current and future operational conditions of the liner shipping industry. Based on the classification, the literature is divided into groups whose main characteristics...

  14. Wallops Ship Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donna C.

    2011-01-01

    Approved as a Wallops control center backup system, the Wallops Ship Surveillance Software is a day-of-launch risk analysis tool for spaceport activities. The system calculates impact probabilities and displays ship locations relative to boundary lines. It enables rapid analysis of possible flight paths to preclude the need to cancel launches and allow execution of launches in a timely manner. Its design is based on low-cost, large-customer- base elements including personal computers, the Windows operating system, C/C++ object-oriented software, and network interfaces. In conformance with the NASA software safety standard, the system is designed to ensure that it does not falsely report a safe-for-launch condition. To improve the current ship surveillance method, the system is designed to prevent delay of launch under a safe-for-launch condition. A single workstation is designated the controller of the official ship information and the official risk analysis. Copies of this information are shared with other networked workstations. The program design is divided into five subsystems areas: 1. Communication Link -- threads that control the networking of workstations; 2. Contact List -- a thread that controls a list of protected item (ocean vessel) information; 3. Hazard List -- threads that control a list of hazardous item (debris) information and associated risk calculation information; 4. Display -- threads that control operator inputs and screen display outputs; and 5. Archive -- a thread that controls archive file read and write access. Currently, most of the hazard list thread and parts of other threads are being reused as part of a new ship surveillance system, under the SureTrak project.

  15. Added masses of ship structures

    CERN Document Server

    Korotkin, Alexandr I

    2008-01-01

    This essentially self-contained reference book contains data on added masses of ships and various ship and marine engineering structures. Theoretical and experimental methods for determining added masses of these objects are described.

  16. Ship Observations - VOS and Navy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Combination of Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) and US Navy Ship weather observations. Obs generally taken 2-4 times daily at 00, 06, 12, and 18z.

  17. Ship for the cleaning of water from oil, fuel oil, and other floating objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nentvih, V

    1969-12-31

    The newly designed ship for the cleaning of water surface from floating pollution has its bow section built much lower than its main hull. A slanted platform leads to a channel guiding the water into a centrifuge which separates oil from water. Oil proceeds to a reservoir for reprocessing while water is discharged from the ship. A variable ballast controls the depth of submersion of the platform. The ship is equilibrated by means of a built-in air float.

  18. Trends of shipping markets development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Nowosielski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shipping markets are dependent on international trade transactions that generate transport needs. These needs can dynamically change depending on global natural resources and commodity markets situation. The changes affecting shipping markets can also be caused by changes to the existing cargo flows and by establishing new ones in different geographies. It is anticipated that in the future shipping markets will change, visible by a decline in shipping in North America and Europe and an increase in Asia.

  19. High cost for drilling ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooghiemstra, J.

    2007-01-01

    Prices for the rent of a drilling ship are very high. Per day the rent is 1% of the price for building such a ship, and those prices have risen as well. Still, it is attractive for oil companies to rent a drilling ship [nl

  20. Probability and risk criteria for channel depth design and channel operation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moes, H

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the various levels of probability of bottom touching and risk criteria which are being used. This leads to a relationship between the statistically expected number of vertical ship motions in the channel during a single shipping...

  1. Developing a collaboration with the Houston independent school district: testing the generalizability of a partnership model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poduska, Jeanne; Gomez, Mary Jane; Capo, Zeph; Holmes, Venita

    2012-07-01

    Moving evidence-based practices into real-world settings is a high priority for education and public health. This paper describes the development of a partnership among the Houston Independent School District, the American Institutes of Research, and the Houston Federation of Teachers to support research on and program sustainability for the Good Behavior Game, a team-based classroom behavior management strategy that has shown positive impact in randomized field trials. The conceptual framework guiding partnership development is presented, followed by an application of the framework in Houston. Lessons learned and implications for the next stage of research and practice are then discussed.

  2. Towards Real Time Simulation of Ship-Ship Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Ole; Bingham, Harry B.; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2012-01-01

    We present recent and preliminary work directed towards the development of a simplified, physics-based model for improved simulation of ship-ship interaction that can be used for both analysis and real-time computing (i.e. with real-time constraints due to visualization). The goal is to implement...... accurate (realistic) and much faster ship-wave and ship-ship simulations than are currently possible. The coupling of simulation with visualization should improve the visual experience such that it can be perceived as more realistic in training. Today the state-of-art in real-time ship-ship interaction...... is for efficiency reasons and time-constraints in visualization based on model experiments in towing tanks and precomputed force tables. We anticipate that the fast, and highly parallel, algorithm described by Engsig-Karup et al. [2011] for execution on affordable modern high-throughput Graphics Processing Units...

  3. EMP coupling to ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deadrick, F.J.; Cabayan, H.S.; Kunz, K.F.; Bevensee, R.M.; Martin, L.C.; Egbert, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    Scale-model tests were conducted to establish the adequacy and limitations of model measurements as tools for predicting electromagnetic pulse (EMP) coupling voltages and currents to the critical antennas, cables, and metallic structures on ships. The scale-model predictions are compared with the results of the full-scale EMP simulation test of the Canadian ASW ship, HMCS Huron. (The EMP coupling predictions in this report were made without prior knowledge of the results of the data from the HMCS Huron tests.) This report establishes that the scale-model tests in conjunction with the data base from EMP coupling modules provides the necessary information for source model development and permits effective, low-cost study of particular system configurations. 184 figures, 9 tables

  4. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate, preparation of the package and related paperwork). Large and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  5. Ship and Shoot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Ron Woods shared incredibly valuable insights gained during his 28 years at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) packaging Flight Crew Equipment for shuttle and ISS missions. In particular, Woods shared anecdotes and photos from various processing events. The moral of these stories and the main focus of this discussion were the additional processing efforts and effects related to a "ship-and-shoot" philosophy toward flight hardware.

  6. Cooley building opens in Houston. Demonstrates value of fully integrated marketing communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Tom

    2002-01-01

    The Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke's Episcopal HospiTal in Houston dedicated its new 10-story Denton A. Cooley Building in January. The structure opened with a fanfare, thanks to a well-integrated marketing communications program.

  7. Houston, we have a narrative why science needs story

    CERN Document Server

    Olson, Randy

    2015-01-01

    Ask a scientist about Hollywood, and you ll probably get eye rolls. But ask someone in Hollywood about science, and they ll see dollar signs: moviemakers know that science can be the source of great stories, with all the drama and action that blockbusters require. That s a huge mistake, says Randy Olson: Hollywood has a lot to teach scientists about how to tell a story and, ultimately, how to "do" science better. With "Houston, We Have a Narrative," he lays out a stunningly simple method for turning the dull into the dramatic. Drawing on his unique background, which saw him leave his job as a working scientist to launch a career as a filmmaker, Olson first diagnoses the problem: When scientists tell us about their work, they pile one moment and one detail atop another moment and another detail a stultifying procession of and, and, and. What we need instead is an understanding of the basic elements of story, the narrative structures that our brains are all but hardwired to look for which Olson boils down, bril...

  8. An application of LOTEM around salt dome near Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paembonan, Andri Yadi; Arjwech, Rungroj; Davydycheva, Sofia; Smirnov, Maxim; Strack, Kurt M.

    2017-07-01

    A salt dome is an important large geologic structure for hydrocarbon exploration. It may seal a porous reservoir of rocks that form petroleum reservoirs. Several techniques such as seismic, gravity, and electromagnetic including magnetotelluric have successfully yielded salt dome interpretation. Seismic has difficulties seeing through the salt because the seismic energy gets trapped by the salt due to its high velocity. Gravity and electromagnetics are more ideal methods. Long Offset Transient Electromagnetic (LOTEM) and Focused Source Electromagnetic (FSEM) were tested over a salt dome near Houston, Texas. LOTEM data were recorded at several stations with varying offset, and the FSEM tests were also made at some receiver locations near a suspected salt overhang. The data were processed using KMS's processing software: First, for assurance, including calibration and header checking; then transmitter and receiver data are merged and microseismic data is separated; Finally, data analysis and processing follows. LOTEM processing leads to inversion or in the FSEM case 3D modeling. Various 3D models verify the sensitivity under the salt dome. In addition, the processing was conducted pre-stack, stack, and post-stack. After pre-stacking, the noise was reduced, but showed the ringing effect due to a low-pass filter. Stacking and post-stacking with applying recursive average could reduce the Gibbs effect and produce smooth data.

  9. The Advanced Lab Course at the University of Houston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Rebecca

    2009-04-01

    The University of Houston Advanced Lab course is designed to help students understand the physics in classic experiments, become familiar with experimental equipment and techniques, gain experience with independent experimentation, and learn to communicate results orally and in writing. It is a two semester course, with a Lab Seminar also required during the first semester. In the Seminar class we discuss keeping a notebook and writing a laboratory report, error analysis, data fitting, and scientific ethics. The students give presentations, in pairs, on the workings and use of basic laboratory equipment. In the Lab courses students do a one week introductory experiment, followed by six two-week experiments each semester. These range from traditional experiments in modern physics to contemporary experiments with superconductivity and chaos. The students are required to keep a laboratory notebook and to write a four-page paper for each experiment in the publication style of the American Institute of Physics. This course introduces students to the experimental tools and techniques used in physics, engineering, and industry laboratories, and allows them to mature as experimentalists.

  10. Analysis of a ship-to-ship collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, V.L.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is involved in a safety assessment for the shipment of radioactive material by sea. One part of this study is investigation of the consequences of ship-to-ship collisions. This paper describes two sets of finite element analyses performed to assess the structural response of a small freighter and the loading imparted to radioactive material (RAM) packages during several postulated collision scenarios with another ship. The first series of analyses was performed to evaluate the amount of penetration of the freighter hull by a striking ship of various masses and initial velocities. Although these analyses included a representation of a single RAM package, the package was not impacted during the collision so forces on the package could not be computed. Therefore, a second series of analyses incorporating a representation of a row of seven packages was performed to ensure direct package impact by the striking ship. Average forces on a package were evaluated for several initial velocities and masses of the striking ship. In addition to. providing insight to ship and package response during a few postulated ship collisions scenarios, these analyses will be used to benchmark simpler ship collision models used in probabilistic risk assessment analyses

  11. Ship Emission Inventories in Estuary of the Yangtze River Using Terrestrial AIS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Estuary forms a transition zone between inland river and open sea. In China, the estuary of the Yangtze River plays a vital role in connecting the inland and oversea shipping, and witnesses heavy vessel traffic in the recent decades. Nowadays, more attentions have been directed to the issue of ship pollution in busy waterways. In order to investigate the ship emission inventory, this paper presents an Automatic Identification System(AIS based method. AIS data is the realistic data of vessel traffic including dynamic information (position, speed, course, etc. and static information (ship type, dimensions, name, etc.. According to ship dimensions, the power of engines is estimated for different ship types. By using AIS based bottom-up approach, ship emission inventories and shares of air pollutants and GHGs (Greenhouse gases are developed. Spatial distribution of ship emissions is illustrated in the form of heat map. As a case study, the emission inventories are analyzed using AIS data of 2010 in the estuary, and following results are made:(1 shares of the emission are cruise ships 6.59%, bulk carriers 5.16%, container ships 52.96%, tankers 15.16%, fishing ships 9.16%, other ships 10.97%; (2 CO2 is the dominant part of the emission. (3 Areas of highest emission intensity are generally clustered around the South Channel, the North Channel and ports in the vicinity. The proposed method is promising because it is derived from the AIS data which contains not only real data of individual ship but also vessel traffic situation in the study area. It can server as a reference for other researchers and policy makers working in this field.

  12. Hospital Ship Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    serious contender. Although it is a proven hull design for stability, integrating the ability to quickly transfer patients aboard is challenging . The...Waste management afloat is a constant challenge for the Navy. It is even more so when designing a hospital ship. In addition to the typical waste...0.97 Optbrs: Corrmon rail fuellrijacllon,crude oil. Rated power generating sets 61:ili:ln()q;to~ 50Htl760rpm &.gne type -1801.\\ Vlc )l ~W.’/cyl SI;O k

  13. Texas Solar Collaboration DOE Rooftop Solar Challenge City of Houston Project Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronk, Jennifer [Houston Advanced Research Center, TX (United States)

    2013-02-14

    The City of Houston is committed to achieving a sustainable solar infrastructure. In 2008, Houston was named a United States Department of Energy (DOE) Solar America City. As a Solar America City, Houston teamed with the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC), Sandia National Laboratory (Sandia), industry, and academia, to implement the Solar Houston Initiative and prepare the Solar Houston Plan. The Solar Houston initiative was focused on identifying and overcoming barriers associated with establishing a solar infrastructure that is incorporated into the City of Houston’s overall energy plan. A broad group of Houston area stakeholders, facilitated by HARC, came together to develop a comprehensive solar plan that went beyond technology to address barriers and establish demonstrations, public outreach, education programs and other activities. The plan included proposed scopes of work in four program areas: policies, solar integration, public outreach, and education. Through the support of the DOE SunShot Rooftop Solar Challenge (RSC) grant to the Texas Collaboration (San Antonio, Austin, and Hosuton), Houston has been able to implement several of the recommendations of the Solar Houston Plan. Specific recommendations that this project was able to support include; Working with the other Texas Solar America Cities (San Antonio and Austin), to harmonize permitting and inspection processes to simplify for installers and lower soft costs of installation; Participating in state level solar policy groups such as the Texas Renewable Energy Industries Association (TRIEA); Continued coordination with the local transmission and distribution utility (CenterPoint) and retail electric providers (REP); Identification of opportunities to improve permitting and interconnection; Providing training on PV systems to City inspectors; Educating the public by continuing outreach, training, and workshops, particularly using the the Green Building Resources Center; Evaluating methods of

  14. Ship Creek bioassessment investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

  15. On Impact Mechanics in Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present analytical, closed-form expressions for the energy released for crushing and the impact impulse during ship collisions. Ship-ship collisions, ship collisions with rigid walls and ship collisions with flexible offshore structures are considered. The derived ...

  16. Luggage and shipped goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.; Haller, D.

    2007-01-01

    Summary: Purpose: Control of luggage and shipped goods are frequently carried out. The possibilities of X-ray technology shall be demonstrated. Materials and methods: There are different imaging techniques. The main concepts are transmission imaging, backscatter imaging, computed tomography, and dual energy imaging and the combination of different methods The images come from manufacturers and personal collections. Results: The search concerns mainly, weapons, explosives, and drugs; furthermore animals, and stolen goods, Special problems offer the control of letters and the detection of Improvised Explosive Devices (IED). Conclusion: One has to expect that controls will increase and that imaging with X-rays will have their part. Pattern recognition software will be used for analysis enforced by economy and by demand for higher efficiency - man and computer will produce more security than man alone

  17. Global Shipping Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    information please contact the Chairman, War Gaming Department, Naval War College, 686 Cushing Road, Newport, RI 02841 or via electronic mail at... Game ……………………………………………...9 c. Overarching Research Question……………………………………………..…10 d. Subsidiary Questions…………………………………………………………...10 e ...An e -SLOC is the “cyber network that supports the global maritime trade network.” Industry Global Shipping Game Report 27 experts felt that

  18. Single liner shipping service design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Pisinger, David; Salazar-González, Juan-José

    2014-01-01

    The design of container shipping networks is an important logistics problem, involving assets and operational costs measured in billions of dollars. To guide the optimal deployment of the ships, a single vessel round trip is considered by minimizing operational costs and flowing the best paying...

  19. Towards a nuclear merchant ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, R.L.R.; Llewelyn, G.I.W.; Farmer, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    The operation of nuclear merchant ships is likely to be attended by a number of constraints and requirements. Not all of these can be fully resolved until such ships come into use and the necessary experience and confidence have been acquired. But the timing of commercial introduction, if it comes about, will depend on the relative economics of nuclear versus fossil fuel propulsion, and the differences in turn depend in part on the operating costs particular to nuclear ships. A review of operation aspects is essential not only to commercial appraisal; each country whose trade may be carried in nuclear ships - whether it will build such ships or not - will have occasion to give some attention to the problems. It is an international problem and is, as noted later, being considered internationally. This paper; i) reviews some of the operational aspects as seen in the U.K.; ii) summarizes views received by the Nuclear Merchant Ship Unit (NMSU) from U.K. shipping, shipbuilding and nuclear industries on the prospects of a U.K. nuclear merchant ship. (author)

  20. Ship exhaust gas plume cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleijpen, H.M.A.; Neele, P.P.

    2004-01-01

    The exhaust gas plume is an important and sometimes dominating contributor to the infrared signature of ships. Suppression of the infrared ship signatures has been studied by TNO for the Royal Netherlands Navy over considerable time. This study deals with the suppression effects, which can be

  1. Navy Hospital ships in history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sougat Ray

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hospital ships are operated by the Naval forces in or near war zones to provide medical assistance to the wounded personnel of all nationalities and not be used for any military purpose. Hospital ships possibly existed in ancient times and the Athenian Navy had a ship named Therapia. However, it was only during the 17th century that it became a common practice for the naval squadrons to be accompanied by large ships with the facilities of carrying the wounded after each engagement. In 1860, the steamships HMS Melbourne and HMS Mauritius were equipped with genuine medical facilities. They were manned by the Medical Staff Corps and provided services to the British expedition to China. During the World War I and World War II, passenger ships were converted for use as hospital ships and were started to be used on a massive scale. RMS Aquitania and HMHS Britannic were two famous examples of hospital ships used extensively. Modern US hospital ships USNS Mercy and USNS Comfort are operated by Military Sealift Command of the US Navy. Their primary mission is to provide emergency on-site care for US combatant forces deployed in war or other operations.

  2. Vitamin D: Findings from Antarctic, Bed Rest, Houston, and ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Sara R.; Locke, J.; Pierson, D.; Mehta, S.; Bourbeau, Y.; Parsons, H.; Smith, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    Obtaining vitamin D is critical for space travelers because they lack ultraviolet light exposure and have an insufficient dietary supply of vitamin D. Despite the provision of 400 IU vitamin D supplements to International Space Station (ISS) early crewmembers, vitamin D status was consistently lower after flight than before flight, and in several crewmembers has decreased to levels considered clinically significant. Vitamin D has long been known to play a role in calcium metabolism, and more recently its non-calcitropic functions have been recognized. According to the results of several recent studies, functionally relevant measures indicate that the lower limit of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (a marker of vitamin D status) should be raised from the current 23 nmol/L to 80 nmol/L. The mean preflight serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH vit D) for U.S. ISS crewmembers to date is 63 +/- 16 nmol/L, and after a 4- to 6-mo space flight it typically decreases 25-30% despite supplementation (400 IU/d). The sub-optimal pre- and postflight vitamin D status is an issue that needs to be addressed, to allow NASA to better define the appropriate amount of supplemental vitamin D to serve as a countermeasure against vitamin D deficiency in astronaut crews. A series of ground-based and flight studies in multiple models have been conducted, including Antarctica in winter months when UV-B radiation levels are essentially zero, bed rest where subjects are not exposed to UV-B radiation for 60-90 days, in free-living individuals in Houston, and in International Space Station crewmembers. In these studies, we looked at dose regimen and efficacy, compliance issues, as well as toxicity. Preliminary results from these studies will be presented. Together, the data from these studies will enable us to provide space crews with evidence-based recommendations for vitamin D supplementation. The findings also have implications for other persons with limited UV light exposure, including polar workers and

  3. Identification of Dynamically Positioned Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor I. Fossen

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Todays model-based dynamic positioning (DP systems require that the ship and thruster dynamics are known with some accuracy in order to use linear quadratic optical control theory. However, it is difficult to identify the mathematical model of a dynamically posititmed (DP ship since the ship is not persistently excited under DP. In addition the ship parameter estimation problem is nonlinear and multivariable with only position and thruster state measurements available for parameter estimation. The process and measurement noise must also be modeled in order to avoid parameter drift due to environmental disturbances and sensor failure. This article discusses an off-line parallel extended Kalman filter (EKF algorithm utilizing two measurement series in parallel to estimate the parameters in the DP ship model. Full-scale experiments with a supply vessel are used to demonstrate the convergence and robustness of the proposed parameter estimator.

  4. Regression models to estimate real-time concentrations of selected constituents in two tributaries to Lake Houston near Houston, Texas, 2005-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden, Timothy D.; Asquith, William H.; Milburn, Matthew S.

    2009-01-01

    In December 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the City of Houston, Texas, began collecting discrete water-quality samples for nutrients, total organic carbon, bacteria (total coliform and Escherichia coli), atrazine, and suspended sediment at two U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations upstream from Lake Houston near Houston (08068500 Spring Creek near Spring, Texas, and 08070200 East Fork San Jacinto River near New Caney, Texas). The data from the discrete water-quality samples collected during 2005-07, in conjunction with monitored real-time data already being collected - physical properties (specific conductance, pH, water temperature, turbidity, and dissolved oxygen), streamflow, and rainfall - were used to develop regression models for predicting water-quality constituent concentrations for inflows to Lake Houston. Rainfall data were obtained from a rain gage monitored by Harris County Homeland Security and Emergency Management and colocated with the Spring Creek station. The leaps and bounds algorithm was used to find the best subsets of possible regression models (minimum residual sum of squares for a given number of variables). The potential explanatory or predictive variables included discharge (streamflow), specific conductance, pH, water temperature, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, rainfall, and time (to account for seasonal variations inherent in some water-quality data). The response variables at each site were nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, total phosphorus, organic carbon, Escherichia coli, atrazine, and suspended sediment. The explanatory variables provide easily measured quantities as a means to estimate concentrations of the various constituents under investigation, with accompanying estimates of measurement uncertainty. Each regression equation can be used to estimate concentrations of a given constituent in real time. In conjunction with estimated concentrations, constituent loads were estimated by multiplying the

  5. Cybersecurity Framework for Ship Industrial Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Maule, R. William; Hake, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Ship mechanical and electrical control systems, and the communications grid through which these devices operate, are a high priority concern for Navy leadership. Ship systems use microprocessor-based controls to interface with physical objects, and Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) to automate ship electromechanical processes. Ship operations are completely dependent on these devices. The commercial security products upon which ships depend do not work on ICS, leaving ships vulnerable. Th...

  6. A pilot study to assess tobacco use among sexual minorities in Houston, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamí-Maury, Irene; Lin, Mi-Ting; Lapham, Hillary L; Hong, Judy H; Cage, Catherine; Shete, Sanjay; Gritz, Ellen R

    2015-08-01

    To assess tobacco use among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals from the 2014 Houston Pride Parade and Festival in Houston, Texas (TX). Cross-sectional study using convenience sample of LGBT individuals (n = 99) examining tobacco use, sexual orientation, and other socio-demographic factors through survey participation. Findings showed a high prevalence of tobacco and electronic cigarettes use. White LGBT individuals had greater odds of using any type of tobacco product. Despite a high smoking prevalence among the surveyed LGBT individuals, this study sample did not identify tobacco use as a health issue. Supports the need for further investigation on tobacco-related disparities among LGBT individuals in Houston, TX. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  7. Containment of spills from ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engerer, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Oil escaping from a ship is contained within a limited area surrounding the ship by means of a flexible ring structure. The ring structure is stored in a collapsed state in a compartment extending around the ship. In response to an oil spill, the ring structure is dropped from the compartment and immediately surrounds the ship. A circular inflatable flotation section of the ring structure is charged with gas under pressure. The gas is supplied from a bottle cascade aboard the ship, through lines preconnected to the flotation section and paid out from free-wheeling reels. The flotation section supports a thin circumferential wall of predetermined height that submerges and assumes a vertical cylinder-like shape surrounding the escaping oil. The oil floats within the confines of the ring structure, and the ring structure is progressively expanded to a predetermined size selected to accommodate the total volume of oil carried by the ship. When the ring structure achieves its expanded state, pressure in the flotation section is raised to render the structure relatively rigid and resistant to collapse in response to wave action. Oil can be removed from the interior of the ring structure by recovery ships using suction lines or other conventional recovery methods. 12 figs

  8. WE-G-BRA-05: IROC Houston On-Site Audits and Parameters That Affect Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kry, S; Dromgoole, L; Alvarez, P; Lowenstein, J; Molineu, A; Taylor, P; Followill, D [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To highlight the IROC Houston on-site dosimetry audit program, and to investigate the impact of clinical conditions on the frequency of errors/recommendations noted by IROC Houston. Methods: The results of IROC Houston on-site audits from 2000-present were abstracted and compared to clinical parameters, this included 409 institutions and 1020 linacs. In particular, we investigated the frequency of recommendations versus year, and the impact of repeat visits on the number of recommendations. We also investigated the impact on the number of recommendations of several clinical parameters: the number and age of the linacs, the linac/TPS combination, and the scope of the QA program. Results: The number of recommendations per institution (3.1 average) has shown decline between 2000 and present, although the number of recommendations per machine (0.89) has not changed. Previous IROC Houston site visits did not Result in fewer recommendations on a repeat visit, but IROC Houston tests have changed substantially during the last 15 years as radiotherapy technology has changed. There was no impact on the number of recommendations based on the number of machines at the institution or the age of a given machine. The fewest recommendations were observed for Varian-Eclipse combinations (0.71 recs/machine), while Elekta- Pinnacle combinations yielded the most (1.62 recs/machine). Finally, in the TG-142 era (post-2010), those institutions that had a QA recommendation (n=77) had significantly more other recommendations (1.83 per institution) than those that had no QA rec (n=12, 1.33 per institution). Conclusion: Establishing and maintaining a successful radiotherapy program is challenging and areas of improvement can routinely be identified. Clinical conditions such as linac-TPS combinations and the establishment of a good QA program impact the frequency of errors/deficiencies identified by IROC Houston during their on-site review process.

  9. WE-G-BRA-05: IROC Houston On-Site Audits and Parameters That Affect Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kry, S; Dromgoole, L; Alvarez, P; Lowenstein, J; Molineu, A; Taylor, P; Followill, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To highlight the IROC Houston on-site dosimetry audit program, and to investigate the impact of clinical conditions on the frequency of errors/recommendations noted by IROC Houston. Methods: The results of IROC Houston on-site audits from 2000-present were abstracted and compared to clinical parameters, this included 409 institutions and 1020 linacs. In particular, we investigated the frequency of recommendations versus year, and the impact of repeat visits on the number of recommendations. We also investigated the impact on the number of recommendations of several clinical parameters: the number and age of the linacs, the linac/TPS combination, and the scope of the QA program. Results: The number of recommendations per institution (3.1 average) has shown decline between 2000 and present, although the number of recommendations per machine (0.89) has not changed. Previous IROC Houston site visits did not Result in fewer recommendations on a repeat visit, but IROC Houston tests have changed substantially during the last 15 years as radiotherapy technology has changed. There was no impact on the number of recommendations based on the number of machines at the institution or the age of a given machine. The fewest recommendations were observed for Varian-Eclipse combinations (0.71 recs/machine), while Elekta- Pinnacle combinations yielded the most (1.62 recs/machine). Finally, in the TG-142 era (post-2010), those institutions that had a QA recommendation (n=77) had significantly more other recommendations (1.83 per institution) than those that had no QA rec (n=12, 1.33 per institution). Conclusion: Establishing and maintaining a successful radiotherapy program is challenging and areas of improvement can routinely be identified. Clinical conditions such as linac-TPS combinations and the establishment of a good QA program impact the frequency of errors/deficiencies identified by IROC Houston during their on-site review process

  10. Ships and the Sailors Inside Them

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sims, Philip

    2004-01-01

    .... Iron shipbuilding allowed safer and healthier ships but their internal compartmentation created communication problems which were gradually solved with mechanical systems Ships developed their own...

  11. Impact of Emissions from Commercial Shipping During TexAQS 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E.; Lerner, B.; Murphy, P.

    2007-12-01

    Commercial marine vessels range in size from small fishing boats (20-30 meters in length) to extremely large container ships (over 300 meters in length). These ships almost without exception use diesel engines for propulsion and auxiliary power generation. The larger ships, comprising bulk carriers, tankers and container carriers, utilize diesel engines that produce power in the 10 MW to 100 MW range. These engines typically consume heavy fuel oils which are high in sulfur content (1%-4.5% by weight). These engines are also extremely efficient, converting essentially all of the carbon in the fuel to CO2, but also emitting NOx, CO, SO2, VOCs, and PM. During TexAQS 2006 our measurements on board the NOAA research ship Ronald H. Brown allowed us to characterize the emissions from a large number of commercial marine vessels. The measurements provided the means to calculate mass-based emission factors for many of the compounds noted above. With the information broadcast by these vessels over the Automated Information System, we have unequivocally determined the emission factors for over 200 vessels both at dock and underway. Our data largely confirm published average emission factors, but also show significant variability especially with NOx. This talk will present those results and then use the data to show that emissions of NOx and SO2 from these vessels are not negligible in the Houston-Galveston region.

  12. Bio-indications of sunken ships and ship wrecks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A

    An evaluation of bottom fauna of ship-wreck sites in estuarine and coastal waters of Goa, India, revealed an exceptionally high biotic enrichment. In terms of number of species, faunal dispersion, faunal diversity, biomass and productivity, in space...

  13. Neutrino physics with SHIP

    CERN Document Server

    van Herwijnen, Eric

    2016-01-01

    SHIP is a new general purpose fixed target facility, whose Technical Proposal has been recently reviewed by the CERN SPS Committee. It recommended that the experiment proceed further to a Comprehensive Design phase. In its initial phase, the 400 GeV proton beam extracted from the SPS will be dumped on a heavy target with the aim of integrating 2×1020 POT (Protons On Target) in 5 years. A dedicated detector, based on a long vacuum tank followed by a spectrometer and particle identification detectors, will allow probing a variety of models with light long-lived exotic particles and masses below O(10) GeV/c 2 . The main focus will be the physics of the so-called Hidden Portals. The sensitivity to Heavy Neutrinos will allow to probe for the first time the mass range between the kaon and the charm meson mass, and a range of couplings for which Baryogenesis and active neutrino masses could also be explained. Another dedicated detector will allow the study of neutrino cross-sections and angular distributions. ντ ...

  14. Production Balance of Ship Erection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ru-hong; TAN Jia-hua; LIU Cun-gen

    2008-01-01

    A network plan model of ship erection was established based on the network planning technologyand the work-package breakdown system. The load-oriented production control method was introduced to buildup a throughput diagram model thus it is possible to describe the ship erection process numerically. Based onthe digitaiized models some cases of production balance of ship erection were studied and three balance indexeswere put forward, they are the load balance rate, the input manpower balance rate and the maximum gantrycrane operating times. Such an analytic method based on the balance evaluation is the important foundationfor digitization and intelligentization of shipyard production management.

  15. 78 FR 78350 - Houston Pipe Line Company, LP; Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP14-13-000] Houston Pipe Line Company, LP; Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed 24-Inch... Hidalgo County, Texas by Houston Pipe Line Company, LP (HPL). The Commission will use this EA in its...

  16. LNG systems for natural gas propelled ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorowski, M.; Duda, P.; Polinski, J.; Skrzypacz, J.

    2015-12-01

    In order to reduce the atmospheric pollution generated by ships, the International Marine Organization has established Emission Controlled Areas. In these areas, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and particulates emission is strongly controlled. From the beginning of 2015, the ECA covers waters 200 nautical miles from the coast of the US and Canada, the US Caribbean Sea area, the Baltic Sea, the North Sea and the English Channel. From the beginning of 2020, strong emission restrictions will also be in force outside the ECA. This requires newly constructed ships to be either equipped with exhaust gas cleaning devices or propelled with emission free fuels. In comparison to low sulphur Marine Diesel and Marine Gas Oil, LNG is a competitive fuel, both from a technical and economical point of view. LNG can be stored in vacuum insulated tanks fulfilling the difficult requirements of marine regulations. LNG must be vaporized and pressurized to the pressure which is compatible with the engine requirements (usually a few bar). The boil-off must be controlled to avoid the occasional gas release to the atmosphere. This paper presents an LNG system designed and commissioned for a Baltic Sea ferry. The specific technical features and exploitation parameters of the system will be presented. The impact of strict marine regulations on the system's thermo-mechanical construction and its performance will be discussed. The review of possible flow-schemes of LNG marine systems will be presented with respect to the system's cost, maintenance, and reliability.

  17. Recent results of experiments at SHIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, S.

    1997-10-01

    The new elements 110, 111 and 112 were synthesized and unambiguously identified in experiments at SHIP. The decay data were compared with the predictions of theoretical models. Good agreement was obtained for the nuclei up to element Z=112. Theory predicts deformed nuclei with minimum (negative) shell-correction energy at Z=108 and N=162. Candidates for an experimental investigation of spherical superheavy nuclei (SHE) are selected on the basis of the predictions of the nuclear models and extrapolation of experimental results. The production cross-sections up to element Z=112 were measured, partly accurate excitation functions were obtained. The data allow to fix a narrow energy window for production of SHE by ln-emission channels. Possibilities to broaden the energy window by radiative capture reactions, use of neutron deficient projectile isotopes and use of actinide targets are discussed. (orig.)

  18. Potential risks of nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1994-07-01

    This report represents an attempt to evaluate the potential risks of nuclear ships. Firstly reasons are given why nuclear ship accidents will not lead to accidents of the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. This is due to much lower content of radioactive material and to different reactor designs. Next a review is given of the types of accidents which have actually occurred. Of these the reactor accidents which may lead to serious consequences for the crew and the environment are considered further. These are reactivity accidents and loss of coolant accidents. In addition the long term risks of sunken nuclear ships and sea disposed reactor compartments etc. are also discussed. Based on available accident data an attempt is made to estimate the probability of serious nuclear ship accidents. (au)

  19. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may...... be initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were...... aboard. Relative risks for notified accidents and accidents causing permanent disability of 5% or more were calculated in a multivariate analysis including ship type, occupation, age, time on board, change of ship since last employment period, and nationality. Foreigners had a considerably lower recorded...

  20. Travelers' Health: Cruise Ship Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and territories). Zika virus was first reported in Brazil in 2015 and subsequently spread across the Caribbean ... 11. Mouchtouri VA, Rudge JW. Legionnaires’ disease in hotels and passenger ships: a systematic review of evidence, ...

  1. Ship Repair Workflow Cost Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDevitt, Mike

    2003-01-01

    The effects of intermittent work patterns and funding on the costs of ship repair and maintenance were modeled for the San Diego region in 2002 for Supervisor of Shipbuilding and Repair (SUPSHIP) San Diego...

  2. TMI-2 spent fuel shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, G.J.; Burton, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    TMI-2 failed fuel will be shipped to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for use in the DOE Core Examination Program. The fuel debris will be loaded into three types of canisters during defueling and dry loaded into a spent fuel shipping cask. The cask design accommodates seven canisters per cask and has two separate containment vessels with ''leaktight'' seals. Shipments are expectd to begin in early 1986

  3. On impact mechanics in ship collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present analytical, closed-form expressions for the energy released for crushing and the impact impulse during ship collisions. Ship–ship collisions, ship collisions with rigid walls and ship collisions with flexible offshore structures are considered. The derived ...

  4. The True Voice of Whitney Houston: Commodification, Authenticity, and African American Superstardom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, J.

    2014-01-01

    Taking its title from the 1994 AT&T commercial starring Whitney Houston, this article examines how Houston’s voice has functioned in the construction of her star persona from her 1985 debut album to her premature death on 11 February 2012, recognising three phases: the formative years (1985-1991);

  5. Learning Communities for Students in Developmental Math: Impact Studies at Queensborough and Houston Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Evan; Butcher, Kristin F.; Schneider, Emily; Teres, Jedediah; Collado, Herbert; Greenberg, David

    2011-01-01

    Queensborough Community College and Houston Community College are two large, urban institutions that offer learning communities for their developmental math students, with the goals of accelerating students' progress through the math sequence and of helping them to perform better in college and ultimately earn degrees or certificates. They are…

  6. West Nile Virus Outbreak in Houston and Harris County, Texas, USA, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Diana; Murray, Kristy O; Reyna, Martin; Arafat, Raouf R; Gorena, Roberto; Shah, Umair A; Debboun, Mustapha

    2017-08-01

    Since 2002, West Nile virus (WNV) has been detected every year in Houston and the surrounding Harris County, Texas. In 2014, the largest WNV outbreak to date occurred, comprising 139 cases and causing 2 deaths. Additionally, 1,286 WNV-positive mosquito pools were confirmed, the most reported in a single mosquito season.

  7. Modeling the Impact of CINO2 on Ozone Formation in the Houston Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the summer of 2006, nitryl chloride (ClNO2) mixing ratios of over 1 ppb were measured in the Houston urban area. Nitryl chloride is potentially important to atmospheric chemistry in urban environments because its photolysis products include both NO2 a...

  8. A Heart as Big as Texas: Small-Town Roots Nurture a Houston Music Teacher's Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Patience

    2011-01-01

    Teaching music to nearly a thousand elementary students each week would make any educator break a sweat. But one would never know that from talking to MaryElla Neeley Stevens. After 30-plus years teaching K-4 music in the Aldine Independent School District of Houston, Texas, she still radiates positivity. Whether it's mentoring and training…

  9. Hydrologic data for urban studies in the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area, 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liscum, Fred; Hutchison, J.S.; Bruchmiller, J.P.; Walther, L.S.

    1983-01-01

    Hydrologic investigations of urban watersheds in Texas were begun by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1954. Studies are now in progress in Austin, and Houston. Studies have been completed in the Dallas-Fort Worth and San Antonio areas.

  10. Hydrologic data for urban studies in the Houston metropolitan area, Texas, 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liscum, Fred

    1986-01-01

    Hydro!ogic investigations of urban watersheds in Texas were begun by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1954. Studies are now in progress in the Austin and Houston areas, and have been completed in the Dallas-Fort Worth and San Antonio areas.

  11. Hydrologic data for urban studies in the Houston metropolitan area, Texas, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liscum, Fred; Bruchmiller, J.P.; Brown, D.W.; Paul, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    Hydrologic investigations of urban watersheds in Texas were begun by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1954. Studies are now in progress in the Austin and Houston areas, and have been completed in the Dallas-Fort Worth and San Antonio areas.

  12. Hydrologic data for urban studies in the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area, 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liscum, Fred

    1985-01-01

    Hydro! oqic investigations of urban watersheds in Texas were begun by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1954. Studies are now in progress in Austin, and Houston. Studies have been completed in the Dallas-Fort Worth and San Antonio areas.

  13. 33 CFR 3.40-28 - Sector Houston-Galveston Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone; Marine Safety Unit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sector Houston-Galveston Marine....40-28 Sector Houston-Galveston Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone; Marine Safety Unit Port Arthur. Sector Houston-Galveston's office is located in Galena Park, TX. A subordinate unit...

  14. 78 FR 19985 - Modification of VOR Federal Airways V-68, V-76, V-194, and V-548 in the Vicinity of Houston, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ..., and V-548 in the Vicinity of Houston, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... airways V-68, V-76, V-194, and V-548 in the vicinity of Houston, TX. The FAA is taking this action to... vicinity of Houston, TX. Specifically, the FAA amends V-68 and V-76 to reflect the Hobby VOR/DME 289[deg...

  15. Development of the nuclear ship MUTSU spent fuel shipping cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, M.; Umeda, M.; Nawata, Y.; Sato, H.; Honami, M.; Nomura, T.; Ohashi, M.; Higashino, A.

    1989-01-01

    After the planned trial voyage (4700 MWD/MTU) of the nuclear ship MUTSU in 1990, her spent fuel assemblies, initially made of two types of enriched UO 2 (3.2wt% and 4.4wt%), will be transferred to the reprocessing plant soon after cooling down in the ship reactor for more than one year. For transportation, the MUTSU spent fuel shipping casks will be used. Prior to transportation to the reprocessing plant, the cooled spent fuel assemblies will be removed from the reactor to the shipping casks and housed at the spent fuel storage facility on site. In designing the MUTSU spent fuel shipping cask, considerations were given to make the leak-tightness and integrity of the cask confirmable during storage. The development of the cask and the storage function demonstration test were performed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI). One prototype cask for the storage demonstration test and licensed thirty-five casks were manufactured between 1987 and 1988

  16. Ozone production by corona discharges during a convective event in DISCOVER-AQ Houston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsakis, Alexander; Morris, Gary A.; Lefer, Barry; Jeon, Wonbae; Roy, Anirban; Minschwaner, Ken; Thompson, Anne M.; Choi, Yunsoo

    2017-07-01

    An ozonesonde launched near electrically active convection in Houston, TX on 5 September 2013 during the NASA DISCOVER-AQ project measured a large enhancement of ozone throughout the troposphere. A separate ozonesonde was launched from Smith Point, TX (∼58 km southeast of the Houston site) at approximately the same time as the launch from Houston and did not measure that enhancement. Furthermore, ozone profiles for the descent of both sondes agreed well with the ascending Smith Point profile, suggesting a highly localized event in both space and time in which an anomalously large enhancement of 70-100 ppbv appeared in the ascending Houston ozonesonde data. Compared to literature values, such an enhancement appears to be the largest observed to date. Potential sources of the localized ozone enhancement such as entrainment of urban or biomass burning emissions, downward transport from the stratosphere, photochemical production from lightning NOx, and direct ozone production from corona discharges were investigated using model simulations. We conclude that the most likely explanation for the large ozone enhancement is direct ozone production by corona discharges. Integrating the enhancement seen in the Houston ozone profile and using the number of electrical discharges detected by the NLDN (or HLMA), we estimate a production of 2.48 × 1028 molecules of ozone per flash which falls within the range of previously recorded values (9.89 × 1026-9.82 × 1028 molecules of ozone per flash). Since there is currently no parameterization for the direct production of ozone from corona discharges we propose the implementation of an equation into a chemical transport model. Ultimately, additional work is needed to further understand the occurrence and impact of corona discharges on tropospheric chemistry on short and long timescales.

  17. Total Analysis System for Ship Structural Strength

    OpenAIRE

    Takuya, Yoneya; Hiroyuki, Kobayashi; Abdul M., Rahim; Yoshimichi, Sasaki; Masaki, Irisawa; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center; Singapore Office; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center

    2001-01-01

    This paper outlines a total analysis system for ship hull structures, which integrates a wide variety of analysis functions to realise practical applications of rational methods for assessing ship structural strength. It is based on direct calculation of wave-induced loads as well as three-dimensional structural analysis of an entire-ship or hold structure. Three major analysis functions of the total system are ship motion and wave load analysis, ship structural analysis and statistical analy...

  18. CHANNEL MORPHOLOGY TOOL (CMT): A GIS-BASED AUTOMATED EXTRACTION MODEL FOR CHANNEL GEOMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JUDI, DAVID [Los Alamos National Laboratory; KALYANAPU, ALFRED [Los Alamos National Laboratory; MCPHERSON, TIMOTHY [Los Alamos National Laboratory; BERSCHEID, ALAN [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-17

    This paper describes an automated Channel Morphology Tool (CMT) developed in ArcGIS 9.1 environment. The CMT creates cross-sections along a stream centerline and uses a digital elevation model (DEM) to create station points with elevations along each of the cross-sections. The generated cross-sections may then be exported into a hydraulic model. Along with the rapid cross-section generation the CMT also eliminates any cross-section overlaps that might occur due to the sinuosity of the channels using the Cross-section Overlap Correction Algorithm (COCoA). The CMT was tested by extracting cross-sections from a 5-m DEM for a 50-km channel length in Houston, Texas. The extracted cross-sections were compared directly with surveyed cross-sections in terms of the cross-section area. Results indicated that the CMT-generated cross-sections satisfactorily matched the surveyed data.

  19. Transnucleaire's experience in ship adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachet, Y.; Vallette-Fontaine, M.

    2000-01-01

    Due to the application of the new IMDG regulations for the transport of radioactive material by sea, the conditions of transport of MTR spent fuel have drastically changed five years ago. In this paper, TRANSNUCLEAIRE analyses the necessary modifications to apply to existing ships in order to comply with the IMDG/INF regulations as well as with the Japanese KAISA 520 regulation. In the MTR spent fuel transport market characterized by a competitive approach, TRANSNUCLEAIRE has carried out many transports by sea in full compliance with the regulations at a price which is as close as possible to that of other industrial goods and without the need to fully dedicate the BOUGUENAIS ship to nuclear transports. Innovative ship design solutions have been implemented and accepted by different Authorities uncluding the Advisory Committee of the Japanese MOT. Due to efficient finite element calculations, benchmarked by laboratory large scale tests, high performances crushing materials have been developed in order to absorb the energy of collision between ships. These developments have led ta propose an efficient ship design complying with all the existing worldwide nuclear regulations. (author)

  20. Effect of Buffer Bow Structure in Ship-Ship Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Endo, Hisayoshi; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2008-01-01

    tankers, the introduction of buffer bulbous bows has been proposed. Relatively soft buffer bows absorb part of the kinetic energy of the striking ship before penetrating the inner hull of the struck vessel. The purpose of the present paper is to verify the effectiveness of a prototype buffer bulbous bow......) and the forward velocity of the struck ship on the collapse mode of the bow of the striking vessel are investigated. Collapse modes, contact forces and energy absorption capabilities of the buffer bows are compared with those of conventional bows....

  1. Advanced Whale Detection Methods to Improve Whale-Ship Collision Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillivary, P. A.; Tougher, B.

    2010-12-01

    Collisions between whales and ships are now estimated to account for fully a third of all whale deaths worldwide. Such collisions can incur costly ship repairs, and may damage or disable ship steering requiring costly response efforts from state and federal agencies. While collisions with rare whale species are problematic in further reducing their low population numbers, collisions with some of the more abundant whale species are also becoming more common as their populations increase. The problem is compounded as ship traffic likewise continues to grow, thus posing a growing risk to both whales and ships. Federal agencies are considering policies to alter shipping lanes to minimize whale-ship collisions off California and elsewhere. Similar efforts have already been undertaken for the Boston Harbor ship approach, where a bend in the shipping lane was introduced to reduce ship traffic through a favorite area of the highly endangered North Atlantic Right Whale. The Boston shipping approach lane was also flanked with a system of moorings with whale detection hydrophones which broadcast the presence of calling whales in or near the ship channel to approaching ships in real time. When so notified, ships can post lookouts to avoid whale collisions, and reduce speed to reduce the likelihood of whale death, which is highly speed dependent. To reduce the likelihood and seriousness of whale-ship collisions off California and Alaska in particular, there is a need to better know areas of particularly high use by whales, and consider implementation of reduced ship speeds in these areas. There is also an ongoing discussion of altering shipping lanes in the Santa Barbara Channel to avoid habitual Blue whales aggregation areas in particular. However, unlike the case for Boston Harbor, notification of ships that whales are nearby to reduce or avoid collisions is complicated because many California and Alaska whale species do not call regularly, and would thus be undetected by

  2. EX1001 Ship Shakedown (EX1001, EM302) on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ship has been alongside for repairs and leave since November, 2009. The ship shakedown cruise is scheduled to provide an opportunity for the ship to get underway...

  3. Reliability Based Ship Structural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogliani, M.; Østergaard, C.; Parmentier, G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of different methods that allow the reliability-based design of ship structures to be transferred from the area of research to the systematic application in current design. It summarises the achievements of a three-year collaborative research project dealing...... with developments of models of load effects and of structural collapse adopted in reliability formulations which aim at calibrating partial safety factors for ship structural design. New probabilistic models of still-water load effects are developed both for tankers and for containerships. New results are presented...... structure of several tankers and containerships. The results of the reliability analysis were the basis for the definition of a target safety level which was used to asses the partial safety factors suitable for in a new design rules format to be adopted in modern ship structural design. Finally...

  4. Design of Crashworthy Ship Strucures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toernqvist, Rikard

    2003-01-01

    The main purpose of the project has been to develop a rational procedure for designing new crashworthy side structures for those ship types where it could be expected that a substantial improvement of the crashworthiness and the related safety could be achieved by careful consideration of the str......The main purpose of the project has been to develop a rational procedure for designing new crashworthy side structures for those ship types where it could be expected that a substantial improvement of the crashworthiness and the related safety could be achieved by careful consideration...... in collision and grounding analysis is the prediction of the onset of fracture and crack propagation in the shell plating. In simulations of accidental loading on ships it is crucial that fracture is determined correctly, as it will influence the global deformation mode and the amount of damage to the hull...

  5. On Grounding of Fast Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with analysis of grounding of high-speed crafts. It is the purpose to present a comprehensive mathematical model for calculation of the overall dynamic ship response during grounding. This procedure is applied to derive the motions, the time varying sectional forces and the local...... loads during grounding on plane, sloping, sandy bottoms for six different designs of fast monohull ships made from steel, aluminium or GRP sandwich materials. The results show that the effect of the hull flexibility is to reduce the overall dynamic sectional loads on the hull girder. The considered...... numerical examples also indicate that, even with impact speeds of 40 knots against a 1:10 sloping bottom, the global strength of the hull girder is not exceeded by the grounding induced loads.For the local deformation of high-speed ship hulls at the point of contact with the ground, the paper presents...

  6. Fuel exchanger for nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, Koji; Kanbara, Takahisa; Watanabe, Masaharu.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent enviromental contamination landing radioactive materials from the inside of a ship. Constitution: A provisional cabin having a shape covering a reactor hatch and a hatch cover is disposed on the upper deck of a ship body. A ceiling shutter is disposed to the cabin. A protection cylinder having a shutter and a filter fan is attached on the cabin. Materials to be discharged out of the ship are transported to a fuel exchange tower on land by using a crane while being contained in the protection cylinder with the shutter being closed. The protection cylinder is connected by means of a wire rope to a loop-wheel machine which disposed on the trolly of a crane. While the bellows through which the suspending wire for the discharged products passes is perforated, since the inside of the cylinder is depressurized by a filter fan, there is no air leakage through the perforation to the outside. (Ikeda, J.)

  7. Fuel exchanger for nuclear ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suda, Koji; Kanbara, Takahisa; Watanabe, Masaharu

    1984-11-29

    To prevent enviromental contamination by radioactive materials from the inside of a ship a provisional cabin having a shape covering a reactor hatch and a hatch cover is disposed on the upper deck of a ship body. A ceiling shutter is disposed to the cabin. A protection cylinder having a shutter and a filter fan is attached on the cabin. Materials to be discharged out of the ship are transported to a fuel exchange tower on land by using a crane while being contained in the protection cylinder with the shutter being closed. The protection cylinder is connected by means of a wire rope to a loop-wheel machine which is disposed on the trolly of a crane. While the bellows through which the suspending wire for the discharged products passes is perforated, since the inside of the cylinder is depressurized by a filter fan, there is no air leakage through the perforation to the outside.

  8. Ships - inspiring objects in architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczak, Elzbieta

    2017-10-01

    Sea-going vessels have for centuries fascinated people, not only those who happen to work at sea, but first and foremost, those who have never set foot aboard a ship. The environment in which ships operate is reminiscent of freedom and countless adventures, but also of hard and interesting maritime working life. The famous words of Pompey: “Navigare necesseest, vivere non estnecesse” (sailing is necessary, living - is not necessary), which he pronounced on a stormy sea voyage, arouse curiosity and excitement, inviting one to test the truth of this saying personally. It is often the case, however, that sea-faring remains within the realm of dreams, while the fascination with ships demonstrates itself through a transposition of naval features onto land constructions. In such cases, ship-inspired motifs bring alive dreams and yearnings as well as reflect tastes. Tourism is one of the indicators of people’s standard of living and a measure of a society’s civilisation. Maritime tourism has been developing rapidly in recent decades. A sea cruise offers an insight into life at sea. Still, most people derive their knowledge of passenger vessels and their furnishings from the mass media. Passenger vessels, also known as “floating cities,” are described as majestic and grand, while their on-board facilities as luxurious, comfortable, exclusive and inaccessible to common people on land. Freight vessels, on the other hand, are described as enormous objects which dwarf the human being into insignificance. This article presents the results of research intended to answer the following questions: what makes ships a source of inspiration for land architecture? To what extent and by what means do architects draw on ships in their design work? In what places can we find structures inspired by ships? What ships inspire architects? This article presents examples of buildings, whose design was inspired by the architecture and structural details of sea vessels. An analysis of

  9. Wind Forces on Container Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the wind forces acting on a 9,000+ TEU container ship has been carried out through a series of wind tunnel tests. It was investigated how the wind forces depend on the container configuration on the deck using a 1:450 scale model and a series of appropriate container...... are presented as nondimensional coefficients. It is concluded, that the measured forces and moment depend on the container configuration on deck, and the results may provide a general idea of how the magnitude of the wind forces is affected by a given container stacking configuration on a similar container ship....

  10. Quality management in shipping companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đergović Dragana M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As international business becomes more competitive, companies are finding that they need to work more effectively to stay in business. Quality assurance has become very important to the majority of production and service companies with international activity. Shipping companies were also required to implement a quality management system. The huge importance of safety in maritime transport operations resulted in the International Safety Management Code (ISM Code by the International Maritime Organization. The general management system principles embodied by the maritime ISM Code and generics ISO standards, have enabled their complementary application in establishing a quality management system in shipping companies, within a safety management system as its subset.

  11. Faults in parts of north-central and western Houston metropolitan area, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Earl R.; Ratzlaff, Karl W.; Clanton, Uel S.

    1979-01-01

    Hundreds of residential, commercial, and industrial structures in the Houston metropolitan area have sustained moderate to severe damage owing to their locations on or near active faults. Paved roads have been offset by faults at hundreds of locations, butted pipelines have been distorted by fault movements, and fault-induced gradient changes in drainage lines have raised concern among flood control engineers. Over 150 faults, many of them moving at rates of 0.5 to 2 cm/yr, have been mapped in the Houston area; the number of faults probably far exceeds this figure.This report includes a map of eight faults, in north-central and western Houston, at a scale useful for land-use planning. Seven of the faults, are known, to be active and have caused considerable damage to structures built on or near them. If the eighth fault is active, it may be of concern to new developments on the west side of Houston. A ninth feature shown on the map is regarded only as a possible fault, as an origin by faulting has not been firmly established.Seismic and drill-hold data for some 40 faults, studied in detail by various investigators have verified connections between scarps at the land surface and growth faults in the shallow subsurface. Some scarps, then, are known to be the surface manifestations of faults that have geologically long histories of movement. The degree to which natural geologic processes contribute to current fault movement, however, is unclear, for some of man’s activities may play a role in faulting as well.Evidence that current rates of fault movement far exceed average prehistoric rates and that most offset of the land surface in the Houston area has occurred only within the last 50 years indirectly suggest that fluid withdrawal may be accelerating or reinitiating movement on pre-existing faults. This conclusion, however, is based only on a coincidence in time between increased fault activity and increased rates of withdrawal of water, oil, and gas from

  12. The SUMO Ship Detector Algorithm for Satellite Radar Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harm Greidanus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Search for Unidentified Maritime Objects (SUMO is an algorithm for ship detection in satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images. It has been developed over the course of more than 15 years, using a large amount of SAR images from almost all available SAR satellites operating in L-, C- and X-band. As validated by benchmark tests, it performs very well on a wide range of SAR image modes (from Spotlight to ScanSAR and resolutions (from 1–100 m and for all types and sizes of ships, within the physical limits imposed by the radar imaging. This paper describes, in detail, the algorithmic approach in all of the steps of the ship detection: land masking, clutter estimation, detection thresholding, target clustering, ship attribute estimation and false alarm suppression. SUMO is a pixel-based CFAR (Constant False Alarm Rate detector for multi-look radar images. It assumes a K distribution for the sea clutter, corrected however for deviations of the actual sea clutter from this distribution, implementing a fast and robust method for the clutter background estimation. The clustering of detected pixels into targets (ships uses several thresholds to deal with the typically irregular distribution of the radar backscatter over a ship. In a multi-polarization image, the different channels are fused. Azimuth ambiguities, a common source of false alarms in ship detection, are removed. A reliability indicator is computed for each target. In post-processing, using the results of a series of images, additional false alarms from recurrent (fixed targets including range ambiguities are also removed. SUMO can run in semi-automatic mode, where an operator can verify each detected target. It can also run in fully automatic mode, where batches of over 10,000 images have successfully been processed in less than two hours. The number of satellite SAR systems keeps increasing, as does their application to maritime surveillance. The open data policy of the EU

  13. Helicopter-Ship Qualification Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoencamp, A.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this research project is to develop a novel test methodology which can be used for optimizing cost and time efficiency of helicopter-ship qualification testing without reducing safety. For this purpose, the so-called “SHOL-X” test methodology has been established, which includes the

  14. Container for shipping dangerous material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, P.T.

    1987-01-01

    This container for shipping dangerous material is made by a cylindrical casing of austenitic stainless steel with rounded ends and walls of uniform thickness with welded joins, a tubular metal shock absorber fixed over each end of the casing, removable lugs fixed to the casing, optionally retainers for the material within the casing [fr

  15. Modeling of Ship Propulsion Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Benjamin Pjedsted; Larsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Full scale measurements of the propulsion power, ship speed, wind speed and direction, sea and air temperature, from four different loading conditions has been used to train a neural network for prediction of propulsion power. The network was able to predict the propulsion power with accuracy...

  16. Lifecycle Readiness and Ship Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    incidence of vomiting reported on military transport ships traveling across the Atlantic to vary from 8.5% to 22.1% on three crossings. Bruner (1955...Butterworth (pp. 455-471). Bruner , J. M. (1955). Seasickness in a destroyer escort squadron. United States Armed Forces Medical Journal, 6(4), 469-490

  17. Rudder roll stabilization for ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amerongen, J.; van der Klugt, P.G.M.; van Nauta lemke, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the design of an autopilot for rudder roll stabilization for ships. This autopilot uses the rudder not only for course keeping but also for reduction of the roll. The system has a series of properties which make the controller design far from straightforward: the process has

  18. Designing Indonesian Liner Shipping Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armand Omar Moeis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As the largest archipelago nation in the world, Indonesia’s logistics system has not shown excellence according to the parameters of logistics performance index and based on logistics costs percentages from overall GDP. This is due to the imbalances of trading on the western and eastern regions in Indonesia, which impacts the transportation systems costs to and from the eastern regions. Therefore, it is imperative to improve the competitiveness of Indonesian maritime logistics through maritime logistics network design. This research will focus on three levels of decision making in logistics network design, which include type of ships in the strategic level, shipping routes in the tactical level, and container allocation in the operational level with implementing butterfly routes in Indonesia’s logistics networking problems. Furthermore, this research will analyze the impact of Pendulum Nusantara and Sea Toll routes against the company profits and percentages of containers shipped. This research will also foresee how demand uncertainties and multi-period planning should affect decision making in designing the Indonesian Liner Shipping Network.

  19. Legal risk management in shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siig, Kristina

    The book discusses the most typical legal challenges met in the chartering, broker, agent or port management part of the shipping industry. It discusses these issues in both English and Scandinavian law and gives indications on how to best ensure your legal risk management in these parts...

  20. Variations in tropical cyclone-related discharge in four watersheds near Houston, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laiyin Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined a 60-year record of daily precipitation and river discharge related to tropical cyclones (TCs in four watersheds undergoing land use and land cover change near Houston, Texas. Results show that TCs are responsible for ∼20% of the annual maximum discharge events in the four selected watersheds. Although there are no trends in TC precipitation, increasing trends were observed in daily extreme discharge and TC-related discharge. The more developed watersheds (Whiteoak Bayou and Brays Bayou, tend to have higher extreme discharge and steeper trends in extreme discharge than the less developed watersheds (Cypress Creek. Increases in TC-related extreme discharges correspond with increases in developed land and decreases in vegetated land between 1980 and 2006. Therefore, changes in land cover/use in watersheds near Houston are a major cause of the increased flooding risk in recent years.

  1. Ion channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erramli, H.; Blondiaux, G.

    1994-01-01

    Channeling phenomenon was predicted, many years ago, by stark. The first channeling experiments were performed in 1963 by Davies and his coworkers. Parallely Robinson and Oen have investigated this process by simulating trajectories of ions in monocrystals. This technique has been combined with many methods like Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (R.B.S.), Particles Induced X-rays Emission (P.I.X.E) and online Nuclear Reaction (N.R.A.) to localize trace elements in the crystal or to determine crystalline quality. To use channeling for material characterization we need data about the stopping power of the incident particle in the channeled direction. The ratios of channeled to random stopping powers of silicon for irradiation in the direction have been investigated and compared to the available theoretical results. We describe few applications of ion channeling in the field of materials characterization. Special attention is given to ion channeling combined with Charged Particle Activation Analysis (C.P.A.A.) for studying the behaviour of oxygen atoms in Czochralski silicon lattices under the influence of internal gettering and in different gaseous atmospheres. Association between ion channeling and C.P.A.A was also utilised for studying the influence of the growing conditions on concentration and position of carbon atoms at trace levels in the MOVPE Ga sub (1-x) Al sub x lattice. 6 figs., 1 tab., 32 refs. (author)

  2. Groundwater quality of the Gulf Coast aquifer system, Houston, Texas, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden, Jeannette H.; Brown, Dexter W.; Oden, Timothy D.

    2011-01-01

    During March–December 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Houston, collected source-water samples from 60 municipal supply wells in the Houston area. These data were collected as part of an ongoing study to determine concentrations, spatial extent, and associated geochemical conditions that might be conducive for mobility and transport of selected naturally occurring contaminants (selected trace elements and radionuclides) in the Gulf Coast aquifer system in the Houston area. In the summers of 2007 and 2008, a reconnaissance-level survey of these constituents in untreated water from 28 municipal supply wells was completed in the Houston area. Included in this report are the complete analytical results for 47 of the 60 samples collected in 2010—those results which were received from the laboratories and reviewed by the authors as of December 31, 2010. All of the wells sampled were screened in the Gulf Coast aquifer system; 22 were screened entirely in the Evangeline aquifer, and the remaining 25 wells contained screened intervals that intersected both Evangeline and Chicot aquifers. The data documented in this report were collected as part of an ongoing study to characterize source-water-quality conditions in untreated groundwater prior to drinking-water treatment. An evaluation of contaminant occurrence in source water provides background information regarding the presence of a contaminant in the environment. Because source-water samples were collected prior to any treatment or blending that potentially could alter contaminant concentrations, the water-quality results documented by this report represent the quality of the source water, not the quality of finished drinking water provided to the public.

  3. The William Houston Medal of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, A M

    2004-06-01

    The William Houston medal is a prestigious prize awarded to the individual achieving the most outstanding examination performance at the Membership in Orthodontics examination for the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh. Five clinical cases treated by the candidate are presented as part of the final examination; two of these cases are described below. The first a Class III malocclusion, and the second a Class II division 1 malocclusion, were both treated by orthodontic camouflage.

  4. Everything is bigger in Texas : Reflection program case ‘Houston Galveston Bay, Texas’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, M.; Brand, A.D.; Kothuis, Baukje; Kok, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    The saying goes that ‘Everything is bigger in Texas.’ This holds true for both the flood risk in the Houston-Galveston Bay Area, and for the complexity of issues that need to be dealt with in order to reduce it – assuming there is agreement that the current risk is

  5. Cell Mergers and Their Impact on Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Over the Houston Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Michael L.; Petersen, Walter A.; Carey, Lawrence D.

    2009-01-01

    A previous hypothesis advanced from observational studies such as METROMEX suggests that the intensity, frequency, and organization of cumulus convection may be impacted by the forcing of enhanced merger activity downstream of urban zones. A resulting corollary is that cities may exert an indirect anthropogenic forcing of parameters related to convection and associated phenomena such as lightning and precipitation. This paper investigates the urban merger hypothesis by examining the role of convective cell mergers on the existence and persistence of the Houston lightning "anomaly", a local maximum in cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning activity documented to exist over and east of Houston. Using eight summer seasons of peak columnar radar reflectivity, CG lightning data and a cell-tracking algorithm, a two-dimensional cell merger climatology is created for portions of eastern Texas and Louisiana. Results from the tracking and analysis of over 3.8 million cells indicate that merger-driven enhancements in convection induce a positive response (O 46%) in ground-flash densities throughout the domain, with areas of enhanced lightning typically being co-located with areas of enhanced merger activity. However, while mergers over the Houston area (relative to elsewhere in the domain) do result in more vigorous convective cells that produce larger CG flash densities, we find that CG lightning contributions due to mergers are distributed similarly throughout the domain. Hence while we demonstrate that cell mergers do greatly impact the production of lightning, the urban cell merger hypothesis does not uniquely explain the presence of a local lightning maximum near and downstream of Houston.

  6. Understanding the world energy challenges. CERAWeek 2015 - Houston / April 20-24, 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-04-01

    The 34. CERAWeek conference of Houston is a major meeting for worldwide energy actors. The aim of this note is not to present a structured synthesis of the debates, but to point out some of the experts' or politicians' position regarding: the proven predominance of fossil fuels, the challenge of prices, the market design change in the electric power industry, the 21. conference of parties (COP 21) on climate change, and the most original regional initiatives

  7. The InterCon network: a program for education partnerships at the University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, G A; Bouldin, P A; Farver, D W; Maugans, L A; Sanders, L C; Booker, J

    1999-04-01

    The University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center (UT-Houston) has created programs and activities to address the state's pressing needs in minority education. Through InterCon, a network of universities and K-12 schools, UT-Houston works with its partners to identify competitive candidates in the current pool of minority graduates with bachelor's degrees and to help them--along with their non-minority counterparts--progress in their education. Another objective is to expand the pool of minorities underrepresented in medicine who complete high school and go to college. In 1994 UT-Houston and Prairie View A&M University created a collaborative venture to provide new educational opportunities at UT-Houston for Prairie View's predominantly African American students. A three-track summer internship program--a result of that collaboration--has since been expanded to partnerships with other minority and majority universities throughout Texas. In 1998, for example, 108 undergraduate students from these universities (and 40 other universities nationwide) participated in research, professional, and administrative summer internships at UT-Houston. The InterCon network also has partnerships with K-12 schools. UT-Houston works with inner-city, suburban, and rural school districts to develop education models that can be transferred throughout the state. The partnerships deal with helping to teach basic academic skills and computer literacy, improve science-related instruction, meet demands for health promotion materials and information for school-initiated health and wellness programs, and develop distance-learning paradigms. UT-Houston views InterCon as a program helping Texas institutions to engage and adapt to the socioeconomic factors, demographic changes, and technology explosion that currently challenge public education.

  8. Houston Recovery Initiative: A Rich Case Study of Building Recovery Communities One Voice at a Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitting, Sara; Nash, Angela; Ochoa, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Recovery from alcohol and drug problems is a process of change through which an individual achieves control and improved quality of life. Recovery is a primary goal for individuals with substance use disorder as it provides hope that treatment and overall health are possible for every individual. More than 23 million Americans are in recovery from addiction to alcohol and other drugs.Recovery-oriented systems of care (ROSC) are networks of community services and peer support that help individuals and families achieve recovery from substances and improve overall health. ROSC is a strengths-based and person-centered model that leverages existing community resources to address the needs of individuals and families as they progress through the journey of recovery. The ROSC model serves as the foundation of the Houston Recovery Initiative (HRI).The purpose of this article is to describe the history, development, and infrastructure of the HRI, which is a volunteer collaboration whose main goal is to educate the community on recovery and broaden the recovery safety net for people with substance use disorder in Houston, Texas. Since 2010, the HRI has grown to include more than 200 agencies across the spectrum of treatment and recovery support services in Houston so as to provide a resource for the community. Herein, we detail efforts to grow the HRI, lessons learned, future plans, and resources needed to move the HRI forward.

  9. Efficacy of fenbendazole and levamisole treatments in captive Houston toads (Bufo [Anaxyrus] houstonensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Catherine M; Johnson, Cassidy B; Howard, Lauren L; Crump, Paul

    2014-09-01

    Effective disease monitoring and prevention is critical to the success of captive amphibian care. Nematodes, including the genera Rhabdias and Strongyloides, are known to contribute to mortality in captive amphibians and have been identified in the Houston Zoo's endangered Houston toad (Bufo [Anaxyrus] houstonensis) captive assurance colony. Five years of fecal data for the toad colony were compiled and analyzed in order to investigate the efficacy of two anthelminthic medications, fenbendazole (FBZ) and levamisole (LMS), which were used to control nematode infections. Both FBZ (dusted onto food items) and topical LMS (6.5 to 13.5 mg/kg) significantly reduced the number of nematode eggs, larvae, and adults observed by fecal parasitologic examination. There were no significant differences between treatments, and egg reappearance periods were difficult to compare as a result of low sample size. No adverse effects from either anthelminthic treatment were observed. Both topical LMS and oral FBZ appear to be safe and efficacious treatments for the reduction of the internal nematode burden in captive Houston toads.

  10. Torres Strait: A channel clearing project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bankert, Stanley [Department of Applied Science, University of California - Davis (United States)

    1970-05-15

    The Torres Strait is a reef-laden stretch of water lying south of New Guinea and north of the tip of the Cape York Peninsula of northeastern Australia. Because of its location and geologic structure it is particularly hazardous to shipping, and limits passage through the area. It was suggested that nuclear explosives might be used to create a safe shipping channel through the strait, and in this paper that possibility will be explored. While the construction of the Torres Strait Channel appears feasible from both a technical and an economic point of view, a great deal of further research will have to be done in a number of areas. The Channel would be a great economic boost to northwestern Australia and to trade between southeast Asia and Australia, but its effect on the Great Barrier Reef and the people of the region will require serious consideration.

  11. Torres Strait: A channel clearing project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bankert, Stanley

    1970-01-01

    The Torres Strait is a reef-laden stretch of water lying south of New Guinea and north of the tip of the Cape York Peninsula of northeastern Australia. Because of its location and geologic structure it is particularly hazardous to shipping, and limits passage through the area. It was suggested that nuclear explosives might be used to create a safe shipping channel through the strait, and in this paper that possibility will be explored. While the construction of the Torres Strait Channel appears feasible from both a technical and an economic point of view, a great deal of further research will have to be done in a number of areas. The Channel would be a great economic boost to northwestern Australia and to trade between southeast Asia and Australia, but its effect on the Great Barrier Reef and the people of the region will require serious consideration

  12. Logistical Analysis of the Littoral Combat Ship

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rudko, David

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) is to provide the Navy with an affordable, small, multi-mission ship capable of independent, interdependent, and integrated operations inside the littorals...

  13. Facts about Noroviruses on Cruise Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cruise Tips for Healthy Cruising Related Resources Cruise Ship Inspection Scores & Information Inspection Scores Cruise Line Directory Green ... 800-CDC-INFO ( 1-800-232-4636 ). Cruise Ship Inspection Scores & Information Inspection Scores Cruise Line Directory Green ...

  14. New Zealand code for nuclear powered shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    This report recommends guidelines for the safety precautions and procedures to be implemented when New Zealand ports and approaches are used by nuclear powered merchant ships and nuclear powered naval ships

  15. International climate policy : consequences for shipping

    OpenAIRE

    Mæstad, Ottar; Evensen, Annika Jaersen; Mathiesen, Lars; Olsen, Kristian

    2000-01-01

    This report summarises the main results from the project Norwegian and international climate policy consequences for shipping. The aim of the project has been to shed light on how climate policies might affect shipping, both from the cost side and from the demand side. The project has been divided into three sub-projects, investigating the consequences of climate policies for 1. Optimal shipping operations and management 2. The competitiveness of shipping relative to land transport 3. The tra...

  16. Note from the radioprotection group's shipping service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The service for the import/export of radioactive materials reminds you that shipping requests for potentially radioactive materials must be made via the EDH request form by ticking the box 'radioactive material'. All the necessary information is given on the web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Requests not complying with the above procedure will not be taken into account. Radioactive Shipping Service http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Tel. 73171 Fax: 69200

  17. Real-Time Simulation of Ship-Structure and Ship-Ship Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Ole; Glimberg, Stefan Lemvig; Bingham, Harry B.

    2013-01-01

    , because it is simple, easy to implement and computationally efficient. Multiple many-core graphical processing units (GPUs) are used for parallel execution and the model is implemented using a combination of C/C++, CUDA and MPI. Two ship hydrodynamic cases are presented: Kriso Container Carrier at steady...

  18. Ship-to-Ship Radiocommunication Trial by Using Wireless LAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Niwa

    2015-12-01

    In a former field radiocommunication trial, omni-directional antennas were used and a few hundred kbps throughput between two ships was measured, which was not enough for our research target (over 1Mbps. In order to get faster throughput, a field radiocommunication trial was carried out again with a few types of directional antennas and RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indication and the throughput between two ships was measured simultaneously. As a result, multi-path (2-path model affected by the reflection of the sea surface was confirmed and also the characteristics of the directional antennas such as half-power angle were confirmed, but the measured throughput was fast enough to meet our expectation.

  19. Accidents on ships in the Danish International Ship register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ádám, Balázs; Rasmussen, Hanna Barbara

    to report accidents causing at least one day off work beyond the day of accident but the first source contains several accidents not fulfilling this criterion, too. Radio Medical is an independent service where all Danish ships may seek medical advice. The data sets were merged by identification number...... of our study is to describe trend of accidents and their contributing factors, with special focus on nationality, occurring in ships under Danish flag in the period 2010-2012. The study used two independent data sources, the Danish Maritime Authority and the Danish Radio Medical. It is mandatory...... to create a single database that has been studied by descriptive statistics and regression analysis. Findings show a stabilised number of accidents in the analysed period. The occurrence of accidents is influenced by nationality. There is a higher frequency of reported injuries found among Danish and other...

  20. 19 CFR 4.69 - Shipping articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping articles. 4.69 Section 4.69 Customs... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.69 Shipping articles. No vessel of the U.S... officer, of the shipping articles agreements, including any seaman's allotment agreement, required by 46 U...

  1. 15 CFR 750.11 - Shipping tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in the ECCN applicable to your item reads “ $ value” or “in $ value”, there is no shipping tolerance... is no shipping tolerance with respect to the number of units. However, the value of all of your... shipping tolerance on this license because the items are controlled by an ECCN where “$ value” is the...

  2. 29 CFR 1915.162 - Ship's boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's boilers. 1915.162 Section 1915.162 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Ship's Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.162 Ship's boilers. (a) Before...

  3. 27 CFR 44.187 - Shipping containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping containers. 44... Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container in which tobacco products, or cigarette... same containers in which they were received from the factory. (72 Stat. 1418, as amended; 26 U.S.C...

  4. 27 CFR 44.254 - Shipping containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping containers. 44.254 Section 44.254 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Requirements § 44.254 Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container, in which cigars are...

  5. 49 CFR 176.24 - Shipping papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 176.24 Section 176.24... Requirements § 176.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by vessel unless that person has received a shipping paper prepared in...

  6. 49 CFR 177.817 - Shipping papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 177.817 Section 177.817... Information and Regulations § 177.817 Shipping papers. (a) General requirements. A person may not accept a... received a shipping paper prepared in accordance with part 172 of this subchapter or the material is...

  7. 49 CFR 174.24 - Shipping papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 174.24 Section 174.24... Requirements § 174.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by rail unless that person receives a shipping paper prepared in accordance...

  8. Improving the competitiveness of green ship recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, K.P.

    2017-01-01

    The end of life of a ship is determined by its owner on the basis of various commercial and technical factors. Once decided to scrap a ship, almost all end-of-life (EOL) ships are sold to recycling yards for dismantling; except for a few which are converted into museums, hotels, storage, and

  9. Channel box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Akira.

    1993-01-01

    In a channel box of a BWR type reactor, protruding pads are disposed in axial position on the lateral side of a channel box opposing to a control rod and facing the outer side portion of the control rod in a reactor core loaded state. In the initial loading stage of fuel assemblies, channel fasteners and spacer pads are abutted against each other in the upper portion between the channel boxes sandwiching the control rod therebetween. Further, in the lower portion, a gap as a channel for the movement of the control rod is ensured by the support of fuel support metals. If the channel box is bent toward the control rod along with reactor operation, the pads are abutted against each other to always ensure the gap through which the control rod can move easily. Further, when the pads are brought into contact with each other, the bending deformation of the channel box is corrected by urging to each other. Thus, the control rod can always be moved smoothly to attain reactor safety operation. (N.H.)

  10. The perceptions of inquiry held by greater Houston area science supervisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Jon Michael

    The purpose of this study was to describe the perceptions of inquiry held by responding greater Houston area science supervisors. Leading science organizations proposed that students might be better served if students are mentally and physically engaged in the process of finding out about natural phenomena rather than by didactic modes of teaching and learning. During the past fifty years, inquiry-based instruction has become a significant theme of new science programs. Students are more likely to make connections between classroom exercises and their personal lives through the use of inquiry-based instruction. Learning becomes relevant to students. Conversely, traditional science instruction often has little or no connection to students' everyday lives (Papert, 1980). In short, inquiry-based instruction empowers students to become independent thinkers. The utilization of inquiry-based instruction is essential to a successful reform in science education. However, a reform's success is partly determined by the extent to which science supervisors know and understand inquiry and consequently promote its integration in the district's science curricula. Science supervisors have the role of providing curriculum and instructional support to science teachers and for implementing science programs. There is a fundamental need to assess the perceptions of inquiry held by greater Houston area science supervisors. Science supervisor refers to a class of job titles that include department chairperson, science specialist, science consultant, and science coordinator. The target population was greater Houston area science supervisors in Texas. This study suggests that there are three major implications for educational practice. First, there is the implication that responding greater Houston area science supervisors need an inclusive perception of inquiry. Second, responding greater Houston area science supervisors' perception of inquiry may affect the perceptions and understandings

  11. 78 FR 19103 - Safety Zone; Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian El Cano Escort; Bahia de San Juan; San Juan, PR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Spanish Navy School Ship San Sebastian El Cano Escort; Bahia de San Juan; San Juan... temporary moving safety zone on the waters of Bahia de San Juan during the transit of the Spanish Navy... Channel entrance, and to protect the high ranking officials on board the Spanish Navy School Ship San...

  12. The Impact of TexAQS 2000 on Air Quality Planning in Houston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J. W.; Price, J. H.

    2002-12-01

    Before the Texas 2000 Air Quality Study (TexAQS 2000) the State used the Urban Airshed Model to model nine different episodes in Houston with very poor results: only one episode met EPA model performance criteria. Questions existed regarding emissions uncertainties, meteorological modeling, and model chemistry. NOAA, DOE, and SOS led more than 35 organizations and 250 investigators who participated in TexAQS 2000. Major findings from TexAQS 2000 are: 1. There are two types of meteorological patterns that lead to ozone episodes in the Houston area: (i) stagnation associated with the sea breeze flow reversal causes a pool of industrial emissions and ozone to accumulate, then to move across the city as the wind flow picks up and (ii) plumes of ozone form when relatively persistent winds carry the emissions away from the city and industrial areas. 2. The chemistry that produces high ozone concentrations and rapid rises in ozone in the Houston area has been explained: multiple investigators in TexAQS 2000 have documented more rapid and more efficient formation of ozone in the plume from the Houston industrial area than any of them has observed in any previous field study. Houston's exceptionally rapid ozone formation arises from large amounts of anthropogenic VOCs in the atmosphere, often from the same plants that provide sufficient NOx. 3. This rapid and efficient ozone formation results most often from the presence of a specific subclass of hydrocarbons called light olefins, primarily ethylene and propylene. 4. Sometimes it is other specific hydrocarbons that cause the rapid formation of high concentrations of ozone, and sometimes it is just the total mass of a lot of relatively unreactive hydrocarbons. 5. The current emissions inventory for ethylene and propylene, as well as other VOCs, underestimates their routine emissions by a factor of roughly five to ten or perhaps even more. 6. It is not clear whether the emissions causing Houston's rapid ozone formation are

  13. Intelligent Prediction of Ship Maneuvering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslaw Lacki

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author presents an idea of the intelligent ship maneuvering prediction system with the usage of neuroevolution. This may be also be seen as the ship handling system that simulates a learning process of an autonomous control unit, created with artificial neural network. The control unit observes input signals and calculates the values of required parameters of the vessel maneuvering in confined waters. In neuroevolution such units are treated as individuals in population of artificial neural networks, which through environmental sensing and evolutionary algorithms learn to perform given task efficiently. The main task of the system is to learn continuously and predict the values of a navigational parameters of the vessel after certain amount of time, regarding an influence of its environment. The result of a prediction may occur as a warning to navigator to aware him about incoming threat.

  14. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad

    .The contributions of this thesis cover modeling, methodology, and applications.The developed methods address operational (cargo routing), tactical (speed optimization and service selection), and strategic (network design) planning problems faced by liner shipping companies. Ultimately, the proposed methods help...... take the container transportation times that can be realized in the network nor the number of transshipments into consideration. This is mainly because the optimization problem is based on other transportation networks where these constraints are not decisive to the quality of the network. Furthermore......, the problem in itself is challenging to optimize due to its size and complexity. However, the field has seen crucial progress and is mature to include handling of competitiveness in the actual design of the network.As a liner shipping network is an organic entity, which is constantly changed to reflect...

  15. Approximate Method of Calculating Forces on Rudder During Ship Sailing on a Shipping Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zelazny

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Service speed of a ship in real weather conditions is a basic design parameter. Forecasting of this speed at preliminary design stage is made difficult by the lack of simple but at the same accurate models of forces acting upon a ship sailing on a preset shipping route. The article presents a model for calculating forces and moment on plane rudder, useful for forecasting of ship service speed at preliminary stages of ship design.

  16. Surface channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizmann, R.; Varelas, C.

    1976-01-01

    There is experimental evidence that swift light ions incident at small angles towards single crystalline surfaces can lose an appreciable fraction of their kinetic energy during reflection. It is shown that these projectiles penetrate into the bulk surface region of the crystal. They can travel as channeled particles along long paths through the solid (surface channeling). The angular distribution and the depth history of the re-emerged projectiles are investigated by computer simulations. A considerable fraction of the penetrating projectiles re-emerges from the crystal with constant transverse energy if the angle of incidence is smaller than the critical angle for axial channeling. Analytical formulae are derived based on a diffusion model for surface channeling. A comparison with experimental data exhibits the relevance of the analytical solutions. (Auth.)

  17. Evaluation of the Service Performance of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; Borrod, Anne-Sophie; Blanchot, Hervé

    2005-01-01

    A simple method has been established for the evaluation of the service performance of ships. Input data are easily collected daily on board and transformed to a well-defined condition that makes possible the comparison between ships, for instance, sister ships, and between different time periods...... of voyages for the same ship. The procedure has been applied to two ships that are identical, with the exception that one has a conventional propeller, whereas the other one is fitted with a high-efficiency propeller of the KAPPEL type. The results are obtained from a period of 2 years steaming for both...

  18. Naval Ship Database: Database Design, Implementation, and Schema

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    ClassId Class identifier Name Ship name Pendant Ship pendant CommissionDate Ship commission date DecommissionDate Ship decommission date; NULL if still...active FlagshipId Ship Id of the ship Figure 3: Ship table definition Table 3: Ship table example rows Id Prefix ClassId Name Pendant ...computation if required. A bridged connection will allow computation analysis to be done in Matlab and allow the processed data to be imported back

  19. Nuclear structure studies in the seaborgium region at SHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antalic, S., E-mail: Stanislav.Antalic@fmph.uniba.sk; Andel, B. [Comenius University in Bratislava, 84248 Bratislava (Slovakia); Heßberger, F. P.; Khuyagbaatar, J. [GSI - Helmhotzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz Institute in Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Ackermann, D. [GSI - Helmhotzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); GANIL, 14074 Caen (France); Heinz, S.; Hofmann, S.; Kindler, B.; Laatiaoui, M.; Lommel, B. [GSI - Helmhotzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Kalaninová, Z. [Comenius University in Bratislava, 84248 Bratislava (Slovakia); Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Piot, J.; Vostinar, M. [GANIL, 14074 Caen (France)

    2015-10-15

    New decay data for the isotopes {sup 259}Sg and {sup 255}Rf were obtained at the velocity filter SHIP using an α-decay spectroscopy measurement. Both isotopes were produced and studied via a one neutron evaporation channel in the compound fusion reaction {sup 54}Cr+{sup 208}Pb. New isomeric states were observed and the single-particle level systematics for isotones with 151 and 153 neutrons were extended. A change of the ground-state configuration for the heaviest N = 151 isotones was observed. Detailed Monte-Carlo simulation for the α decay of {sup 259}Sg applying the GEANT4 toolkit was performed and compared with experimental data.

  20. Spark Channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haydon, S. C. [Department of Physics, University of New England, Armidale, NSW (Australia)

    1968-04-15

    A brief summary is given of the principal methods used for initiating spark channels and the various highly time-resolved techniques developed recently for studies with nanosecond resolution. The importance of the percentage overvoltage in determining the early history and subsequent development of the various phases of the growth of the spark channel is discussed. An account is then given of the recent photographic, oscillographic and spectroscopic investigations of spark channels initiated by co-axial cable discharges of spark gaps at low [{approx} 1%] overvoltages. The phenomena observed in the development of the immediate post-breakdown phase, the diffuse glow structure, the growth of the luminous filament and the final formation of the spark channel in hydrogen are described. A brief account is also given of the salient features emerging from corresponding studies of highly overvolted spark gaps in which the spark channel develops from single avalanche conditions. The essential differences between the two types of channel formation are summarized and possible explanations of the general features are indicated. (author)

  1. The Human Element and Autonomous Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauli Ahvenjärvi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The autonomous ship technology has become a “hot” topic in the discussion about more efficient, environmentally friendly and safer sea transportation solutions. The time is becoming mature for the introduction of commercially sensible solutions for unmanned and fully autonomous cargo and passenger ships. Safety will be the most interesting and important aspect in this development. The utilization of the autonomous ship technology will have many effects on the safety, both positive and negative. It has been announced that the goal is to make the safety of an unmanned ship better that the safety of a manned ship. However, it must be understood that the human element will still be present when fully unmanned ships are being used. The shore-based control of a ship contains new safety aspects and an interesting question will be the interaction of manned and unmanned ships in the same traffic area. The autonomous ship technology should therefore be taken into account on the training of seafarers. Also it should not be forgotten that every single control algorithm and rule of the internal decision making logic of the autonomously navigating ship has been designed and coded by a human software engineer. Thus the human element is present also in this point of the lifetime navigation system of the autonomous ship.

  2. TU-G-BRD-06: The Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Houston (IROC Houston) QA Center International Activities Outside North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Followill, D; Kry, S; Molineu, A; Lowenstein, J; Alvarez, P; Taylor, P; Nguyen, H; Hernandez, N; Lujano, C; Nguyen, T; Keith, T; Roll, J; Tailor, A [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To describe the extent of IROC Houston’s (formerly the RPC) QA activities and audit results for radiotherapy institutions outside of North America (NA). Methods: The IROC Houston’s QA program components were designed to audit the radiation dose calculation chain from the NIST traceable reference beam calibration, to inclusion of dosimetry parameters used to calculate tumor doses, to the delivery of the radiation dose. The QA program provided to international institutions includes: 1) remote TLD/OSLD audit of machine output, 2) credentialing for advanced technologies, and 3) review of patient treatment records. IROC Houston uses the same standards and acceptance criteria for all of its audits whether for North American or international sites. Results: IROC Houston’s QA program has reached out to radiotherapy sites in 43 different countries since 2013 through their participation in clinical trials. In the past two years, 2,778 international megavoltage beam outputs were audited with OSLD/TLD. While the average IROC/Inst ratio is near unity for all sites monitored, there are international regions whose results are significantly different from the NA region. In the past 2 years, 477 and 87 IMRT H&N phantoms were irradiated at NA and international sites, respectively. Regardless of the OSLD beam audit results, the overall pass rate (87 percent) for all international sites (no region separation) is equal to the NA sites. Of the 182 international patient charts reviewed, 10.7 percent of the dose calculation points did not meet our acceptance criterion as compared to 13.6 percent for NA sites. The lower pass rate for NA sites results from a much larger brachytherapy component which has been shown to be more error prone. Conclusion: IROC Houston has expanded its QA services worldwide and continues a long history of improving radiotherapy dose delivery in many countries. Funding received for QA audit services from the Korean GOG, DAHANCA, EORTC, ICON and CMIC

  3. TU-G-BRD-06: The Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Houston (IROC Houston) QA Center International Activities Outside North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Followill, D; Kry, S; Molineu, A; Lowenstein, J; Alvarez, P; Taylor, P; Nguyen, H; Hernandez, N; Lujano, C; Nguyen, T; Keith, T; Roll, J; Tailor, A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the extent of IROC Houston’s (formerly the RPC) QA activities and audit results for radiotherapy institutions outside of North America (NA). Methods: The IROC Houston’s QA program components were designed to audit the radiation dose calculation chain from the NIST traceable reference beam calibration, to inclusion of dosimetry parameters used to calculate tumor doses, to the delivery of the radiation dose. The QA program provided to international institutions includes: 1) remote TLD/OSLD audit of machine output, 2) credentialing for advanced technologies, and 3) review of patient treatment records. IROC Houston uses the same standards and acceptance criteria for all of its audits whether for North American or international sites. Results: IROC Houston’s QA program has reached out to radiotherapy sites in 43 different countries since 2013 through their participation in clinical trials. In the past two years, 2,778 international megavoltage beam outputs were audited with OSLD/TLD. While the average IROC/Inst ratio is near unity for all sites monitored, there are international regions whose results are significantly different from the NA region. In the past 2 years, 477 and 87 IMRT H&N phantoms were irradiated at NA and international sites, respectively. Regardless of the OSLD beam audit results, the overall pass rate (87 percent) for all international sites (no region separation) is equal to the NA sites. Of the 182 international patient charts reviewed, 10.7 percent of the dose calculation points did not meet our acceptance criterion as compared to 13.6 percent for NA sites. The lower pass rate for NA sites results from a much larger brachytherapy component which has been shown to be more error prone. Conclusion: IROC Houston has expanded its QA services worldwide and continues a long history of improving radiotherapy dose delivery in many countries. Funding received for QA audit services from the Korean GOG, DAHANCA, EORTC, ICON and CMIC

  4. 46 CFR 167.05-25 - Nautical school ship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nautical school ship. 167.05-25 Section 167.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Definitions § 167.05-25 Nautical school ship. The term nautical school ship means a vessel operated by or in connection with a nautical school...

  5. Modeling the regional impact of ship emissions on NOx and ozone levels over the Eastern Atlantic and Western Europe using ship plume parameterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pisoft

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In general, regional and global chemistry transport models apply instantaneous mixing of emissions into the model's finest resolved scale. In case of a concentrated source, this could result in erroneous calculation of the evolution of both primary and secondary chemical species. Several studies discussed this issue in connection with emissions from ships and aircraft. In this study, we present an approach to deal with the non-linear effects during dispersion of NOx emissions from ships. It represents an adaptation of the original approach developed for aircraft NOx emissions, which uses an exhaust tracer to trace the amount of the emitted species in the plume and applies an effective reaction rate for the ozone production/destruction during the plume's dilution into the background air. In accordance with previous studies examining the impact of international shipping on the composition of the troposphere, we found that the contribution of ship induced surface NOx to the total reaches 90% over remote ocean and makes 10–30% near coastal regions. Due to ship emissions, surface ozone increases by up to 4–6 ppbv making 10% contribution to the surface ozone budget. When applying the ship plume parameterization, we show that the large scale NOx decreases and the ship NOx contribution is reduced by up to 20–25%. A similar decrease was found in the case of O3. The plume parameterization suppressed the ship induced ozone production by 15–30% over large areas of the studied region. To evaluate the presented parameterization, nitrogen monoxide measurements over the English Channel were compared with modeled values and it was found that after activating the parameterization the model accuracy increases.

  6. MO-F-CAMPUS-T-01: IROC Houston QA Center’s Anthropomorphic Proton Phantom Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lujano, C; Hernandez, N; Keith, T; Nguyen, T; Taylor, P; Molineu, A; Followill, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the proton phantoms that IROC Houston uses to approve and credential proton institutions to participate in NCI-sponsored clinical trials. Methods: Photon phantoms cannot necessarily be used for proton measurements because protons react differently than photons in some plastics. As such plastics that are tissue equivalent for protons were identified. Another required alteration is to ensure that the film dosimeters are housed in the phantom with no air gap to avoid proton streaming. Proton-equivalent plastics/materials used include RMI Solid Water, Techron HPV, blue water, RANDO soft tissue material, balsa wood, compressed cork and polyethylene. Institutions wishing to be approved or credentialed request a phantom and are prioritized for delivery. At the institution, the phantom is imaged, a treatment plan is developed, positioned on the treatment couch and the treatment is delivered. The phantom is returned and the measured dose distributions are compared to the institution’s electronically submitted treatment plan dosimetry data. Results: IROC Houston has developed an extensive proton phantom approval/credentialing program consisting of five different phantoms designs: head, prostate, lung, liver and spine. The phantoms are made with proton equivalent plastics that have HU and relative stopping powers similar (within 5%) of human tissues. They also have imageable targets, avoidance structures, and heterogeneities. TLD and radiochromic film are contained in the target structures. There have been 13 head, 33 prostate, 18 lung, 2 liver and 16 spine irradiations with either passive scatter, or scanned proton beams. The pass rates have been: 100%, 69.7%, 72.2%, 50%, and 81.3%, respectively. Conclusion: IROC Houston has responded to the recent surge in proton facilities by developing a family of anthropomorphic phantoms that are able to be used for remote audits of proton beams. Work supported by PHS grant CA10953 and CA081647

  7. MO-F-CAMPUS-T-01: IROC Houston QA Center’s Anthropomorphic Proton Phantom Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lujano, C; Hernandez, N; Keith, T; Nguyen, T; Taylor, P; Molineu, A; Followill, D [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To describe the proton phantoms that IROC Houston uses to approve and credential proton institutions to participate in NCI-sponsored clinical trials. Methods: Photon phantoms cannot necessarily be used for proton measurements because protons react differently than photons in some plastics. As such plastics that are tissue equivalent for protons were identified. Another required alteration is to ensure that the film dosimeters are housed in the phantom with no air gap to avoid proton streaming. Proton-equivalent plastics/materials used include RMI Solid Water, Techron HPV, blue water, RANDO soft tissue material, balsa wood, compressed cork and polyethylene. Institutions wishing to be approved or credentialed request a phantom and are prioritized for delivery. At the institution, the phantom is imaged, a treatment plan is developed, positioned on the treatment couch and the treatment is delivered. The phantom is returned and the measured dose distributions are compared to the institution’s electronically submitted treatment plan dosimetry data. Results: IROC Houston has developed an extensive proton phantom approval/credentialing program consisting of five different phantoms designs: head, prostate, lung, liver and spine. The phantoms are made with proton equivalent plastics that have HU and relative stopping powers similar (within 5%) of human tissues. They also have imageable targets, avoidance structures, and heterogeneities. TLD and radiochromic film are contained in the target structures. There have been 13 head, 33 prostate, 18 lung, 2 liver and 16 spine irradiations with either passive scatter, or scanned proton beams. The pass rates have been: 100%, 69.7%, 72.2%, 50%, and 81.3%, respectively. Conclusion: IROC Houston has responded to the recent surge in proton facilities by developing a family of anthropomorphic phantoms that are able to be used for remote audits of proton beams. Work supported by PHS grant CA10953 and CA081647.

  8. Impact of the 2011 heat wave on mortality and emergency department visits in Houston, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Chen, Tsun-Hsuan; Begley, Charles E

    2015-01-27

    Heat waves have been linked to increased risk of mortality and morbidity, and are projected to increase in frequency and intensity in a changing climate. Houston and other areas in Texas experienced an exceptional heat wave in the summer of 2011 producing the hottest August on record. This study aims to assess the health-related impact of this heat wave. Distributed lag models were used to estimate associations between the 2011 heat wave and all-cause mortality and emergency department (ED) visits from May 1 through September 30 for the five-year period 2007-2011. The 2011 heat wave is defined as a continuous period from August 2 through 30, 2011 according to the heat advisories issued by the local National Weather Service office, and is included in the models as a dummy variable. We compared the estimated excess risk among the models with and without adjustment of continuous temperature and ozone. The 2011 heat wave in Houston was associated with a 3.6% excess risk in ED visits (95% CI: 0.6%, 6.6%) and 0.6% increase in mortality risk (95% CI: -5.5%, 7.1%). The elderly over 65 years of age were at the greatest risk in ED visits. These patterns are consistent across different heat-wave definitions, and results are similar when adjusting for continuous temperature and ozone. The 2011 heat wave in Houston had a substantial impact on ED visits and no significant impact on mortality. Our findings provide insights into local heat-wave and health preparations and interventions.

  9. Development of nuclear powered ship in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroshi

    1976-01-01

    The development of nuclear merchant ship in Japan was started in 1955 by the establishment of Nuclear Ship Study Group, and since then, the investigation, test and research on nuclear ships have been continued. As a result, a nuclear ocean observation and supply ship was designed for trial. Researches were carried out also in JAERI and Institute for Technical Research of Ships. Meanwhile, the nuclear icebreaker Lenin was completed in Soviet Union in 1959, the nuclear ship Savannah set out for maiden voyage in U.S. in 1962, and the construction of the nuclear ore carrier Otto Hahn was prepared in FRG. Japan Nuclear Ship Development Corp. was established in 1963, and started the design and construction of the first nuclear ship in Japan, Mutsu. The basic policy in the construction is the improvement of nuclear ship technology, the securing of safety, and the use of domestic technologies as far as possible. The progress of the design, construction and test of the Mutsu is described. Owing to the problem of radiation leak, the development of nuclear ships stagnated for a while, but the nuclear plant of the Mutsu demonstrated the expected performance in the functional test, land criticality test and zero output test, and it is expected that the bud of the independent development brought up so far can bear valuable fruit. The independent development of marine nuclear reactors should be continued by selecting the way most suitable to Japan. (Kako, I.)

  10. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Durable Energy Builders - Houston, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-11-01

    This case study describes a DOE Zero Energy Ready Home in Houston, Texas, that scored HERS 39 without PV and HERS 29 with PV. This 5,947 ft2 custom home has 11.5-inch ICF walls. The attic is insulated along the roof line with 5 to 7 inches of open-cell spray foam. Most of the home's drinking water is supplied by a 11,500-gallon rainwater cistern. Hurricane strapping connects the roof to the walls. The triple-pane windows are impact resistant. The foundation is a raised slab.

  11. MARKETING CHANNELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Marketing channel is a set of entities and institutions, completion of distribution and marketing activities, attend the efficient and effective networking of producers and consumers. Marketing channels include the total flows of goods, money and information taking place between the institutions in the system of marketing, establishing a connection between them. The functions of the exchange, the physical supply and service activities, inherent in the system of marketing and trade. They represent paths which products and services are moving after the production, which will ultimately end up buying and eating by the user.

  12. Analytical support management shipping company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Tarasenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article to determine areas of improvement of the economic analysis of the shipping companies tested, allowing to identify the problems of organization and methods, which are as follows: lack of regulation of economic analysis, unregulated and methods of economic analysis, using methods such as coefficient method, absolute differences method relative differences groupings balance method, while as factor analysis and correlation are ignored. Proved that today the priority targets of management that should be subject to economic analysis are: analysis of the efficiency of the fleet; analysis of the efficiency of transport services; analysis of the cost of transport services and costs; analysis of the efficiency of resource use.

  13. Japan nuclear ship sea trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Toshikatus; Mizushima, Toshihiko

    1992-01-01

    The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship 'MUTSU' was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author)

  14. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Pisinger, David

    2017-01-01

    We present a solution method for the liner shipping network design problem which is a core strategic planning problem faced by container carriers. We propose the first practical algorithm which explicitly handles transshipment time limits for all demands. Individual sailing speeds at each service...... leg are used to balance sailing speed against operational costs, hence ensuring that the found network is competitive on both transit time and cost. We present a matheuristic for the problem where a MIP is used to select which ports should be inserted or removed on a route. Computational results...

  15. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Pisinger, David

    We present a solution method for the liner shipping network design problem which is a core strategic planning problem faced by container carriers. We propose the first practical algorithm which explicitly handles transshipment time limits for all demands. Individual sailing speeds at each service...... leg are used to balance sailings speed against operational costs, hence ensuring that the found network is competitive on both transit time and cost. We present a matheuristic for the problem where a MIP is used to select which ports should be inserted or removed on a route. Computational results...

  16. Decommission of nuclear ship 'MUTSU'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateyama, Takeshi

    1996-01-01

    The nuclear-powered ship 'MUTSU' was decommissioned by removing the reactor room in June 1995, which was hoisted and transported by a floating crane to a shore storage room at Sekinehama, Aomori Prefecture. This work was carried out in three stages: extraction of the spent fuel assemblies and neutron sources, dismantling of the machinery in the reactor auxiliary room, and separation and transportation of the reactor together with the secondary shielding structure and surrounding hull. IHI mainly conducted the third stage work. The separation work of the reactor room structure using a semisubmersible barge is outlined. Stress analysis and design of the reactor room for lifting work is also described. (author)

  17. TMI-2 Core Shipping Preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, L.J.; Barkanic, R.J.; Conaway, W.T. II; Schmoker, D. S.; Post, Roy G.

    1988-01-01

    Shipping the damaged core from the Unit 2 reactor of Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station near Harrisburg, PA, to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory near Idaho Falls, ID, required development and implementation of a completely new spent fuel transportation system. This paper describes of the equipment developed, the planning and activities used to implement the hard-ware-systems into the facilities, and the planning involved in making the rail shipments. It also includes a summary of recommendations resulting from this experience. (author)

  18. Development of a nuclear ship safety philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, T.E.

    1978-01-01

    A unique safety philosophy must be recognized and accepted as an integral part of the design and operation of a nuclear ship. For the nuclear powered ship, the ultimate safety of the reactor and therefore the crew and the environment lies with the safety of the ship itself. The basis for ship safety is its ability to navigate and survive the conditions or the environment in which it may find itself. The subject of traditional ship safety is examined along with its implication for reactor protection and safety. Concepts of reactor safety are also examined. These two philosophies are combined in a manner so as to provide a sound philosophy for the safety of nuclear ships, their crews, and the environment

  19. Ship emissions and air pollution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Helge Rørdam; Winther, Morten; Ellermann, Thomas

    A project has been carried out to map the contribution from ship traffic to air pollution in Denmark. A main element in the project is the establishment of a new, improved inventory of ship emissions for the waters around Denmark. The inventory makes use of the so-called AIS system, which...... continuously keeps track of ship positions. The inventory provides basis for model calculations of air quality in Denmark for the years 2007, 2011 and 2020. The study has focus on identifying the contribution from ships, and on assessing the effect of international regulations of ship pollution. A minor...... component of the study concerns the contribution to local air pollution from ships at port....

  20. On the collision protection of ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, N.

    1976-01-01

    A brief survey of the literature extant on the collision protection of ships is presented herein. An examination of the characteristics of different energy-absorbing methods suggests that honeycomb structures provide an alternative to deck structures which are currently used to achieve the collision protection of ships. Various features of honeycomb panels are explored and a particular structural arrangement which utilizes both sides of a hull and incorporates honeycomb panels is proposed for the collision protection of a ship. (Auth.)

  1. Auxiliary facilities on nuclear ship 'MUTSU'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimura, Shotaro; Takigami, Yoshio.

    1989-01-01

    The nuclear ship 'MUTSU' has been moored at SEKINEHAMA, MUTU City in AOMORI Prefecture and several tests and works are being carried out on the ship. The construction of the auxiliary facilities for these works on the ship was completed in safety in August 1988. After that the facilities have fulfilled their function. The outlines of design, fabrication and construction of the facilities are described in this paper. (author)

  2. MASTER OF THE SHIP, MANAGER AND INSTRUCTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Florin IORDANOAIA

    2010-01-01

    The master of the ship is the person on the board who has the qualification and the necessary certificate of competency for running a maritime transport ship. He is the one who takes the ship into administration from the ship-owner, he is the only leader, the legal and direct chief of the entire crew, being invested with authority upon all the members of the crew. The master fulfils the attributes and displays his activity according to the legal laws of his flag, of the marine regulations and...

  3. Nuclear powered freight ships - safe and reliable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schafstall, H.C.

    1978-12-01

    The five nuclear-powered ships built in the world so far have entered over 100 ports in 14 countries about 1000 times in 15 years, during which there were no accidents endangering the safety of a ship. However, for the expansion of freight shipping with nuclear power, comprehensive international regulations for safety requirements, responsibility etc., are necessary. Although the NEA/IAEO symposium excluded economic questions on the safety of nuclear powered ships, the trends regarding further development in individual countries became clear

  4. Shipping/Receiving and Quality Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Shipping receiving, quality control, large and precise inspection and CMM machines. Coordinate Measuring Machines, including "scanning" probes, optical comparators,...

  5. Potential of biofuels for shipping. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florentinus, A.; Hamelinck, C.; Van den Bos, A.; Winkel, R.; Cuijpers, M. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    Biofuels could be one of the options to realize a lower carbon intensity in the propulsion of ships and also possibly reduce the effect of ship emissions on local air quality. Therefore, EMSA, the European Maritime Safety Agency, is evaluating if and how biofuels could be used in the shipping sector as an alternative fuel. To determine the potential of biofuels for ships, a clearer picture is needed on technical and organizational limitations of biofuels in ships, both on board of the ship as in the fuel supply chain to the ship. Economic and sustainability analysis of biofuels should be included in this picture, as well as an overview on current and potential policy measures to stimulate the use of biofuels in shipping. Ecofys has determined the potential of biofuels, based on analysis of collected data through literature review, own expertise and experiences, direct communication with EMSA, research publications, market developments based on press and other media, and consultations with relevant stakeholders in the shipping market.

  6. Ship emissions and their externalities for Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzannatos, Ernestos

    2010-06-01

    The existing and emerging international and European policy framework for the reduction of ship exhaust emissions dictates the need to produce reliable national, regional and global inventories in order to monitor emission trends and consequently provide the necessary support for future policy making. Furthermore, the inventories of ship exhaust emissions constitute the basis upon which their external costs are estimated in an attempt to highlight the economic burden they impose upon the society and facilitate the cost-benefit analysis of the proposed emission abatement technologies, operational measures and market-based instruments prior to their implementation. The case of Greece is of particular interest mainly because the dense ship traffic within the Greek seas directly imposes the impact of its exhaust emission pollutants (NO x, SO 2 and PM) upon the highly populated, physically sensitive and culturally precious Greek coastline, as well as upon the land and seas of Greece in general, whereas the contribution of Greece in the global CO 2 inventory at a time of climatic change awareness cannot be ignored. In this context, this paper presents the contribution of Greece in ship exhaust emissions of CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM from domestic and international shipping over the last 25 years (1984-2008), utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) emission methodology. Furthermore, the ship exhaust emissions generated within the Greek seas and their externalities are estimated for the year 2008, through utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) approach for domestic shipping and the activity-based (ship traffic) approach for international shipping. On this basis, it was found that during the 1984 to 2008 period the fuel-based (fuel sales) ship emission inventory for Greece increased at an average annual rate of 2.85%. In 2008, the CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM emissions reached 12.9 million tons (of which 12.4 million tons of CO 2) and their externalities were found to be around 3

  7. Note from the radioprotection group's shipping service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Le service SHIPPING du groupe de radioprotection souhaite vous rappeler qu'avant toute expédition de matériel susceptible d'être radioactif, une demande de transport doit être établie par EDH en cochant la case appropriée (danger radioactif). Merci de bien vouloir prendre note des informations figurant dans le site Web: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Toute demande non conforme ne sera pas prise en compte. Radioactive Shipping Service http://cern.ch/service-rp-shippingTél: 73171Fax: 69200

  8. The IROC Houston Quality Assurance Program: Potential benefits of 3D dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Followill, D S; Molineu, H A; Lafratta, R; Ibbott, G S

    2017-01-01

    The IROC Houston QA Center has provided QA core support for NCI clinical trials by ensuring that radiation doses delivered to trial patients are accurate and comparable between participating institutions. Within its QA program, IROC Houston uses anthropomorphic QA phantoms to credential sites. It is these phantoms that have the highest potential to benefit from the use of 3D dosimeters. Credentialing is performed to verify that institutions that are using advanced technologies to deliver complex treatment plans that conform to targets. This makes it increasingly difficult to assure the intended calculated dose is being delivered correctly using current techniques that are 2D-based. A 3D dosimeter such as PRESAGE® is able to provide a complete 3D measured dosimetry dataset with one treatment plan delivery. In our preliminary studies, the 3D dosimeters in our H and N and spine phantoms were found to be appropriate for remote dosimetry for relative dose measurements. To implement 3D dosimetry in IROC Houston’s phantoms, the benefit of this significant change to its current infrastructure would have to be assessed and further work would be needed before bringing 3D dosimeters into the phantom dosimetry program. (paper)

  9. Prioritizing recovery of urban lifelines in the aftermath of hazards: Transportation in post-Harvey Houston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, M. E.; Bhatia, U.; Sela, L.; Wang, R.; Kodra, E.; Ganguly, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    A well-designed recovery strategy for lifeline infrastructure networks can lead to faster and more reliable restoration of essential services in the aftermath of natural catastrophes such as hurricanes or earthquakes. Urban and regional lifelines impact one another, while the recovery of urban lifelines in turn impacts regional infrastructural resilience, owing to the interdependence of lifelines across scales. Prior work by our team, often in collaboration, has led to the development of new recovery approaches based on network science and engineering, including centrality measures from network science, information theoretic metrics, and network optimization approaches. We have developed proof-of-concept demonstrations at both regional scales, such as for the Indian Railways Network and the US National Airspace System both subjected to multiple hazards, and to urban settings, such as the post-Hurricane recovery of combined power-subway system-of-systems in Boston and the New York City MTA after Hurricane Sandy. Here we make an attempt to understand how such methods may have been, or continue to be, applicable to the transportation network in Houston post-Harvey, and more broadly, how and to what extent lessons learned in urban and regional resilience may generalize across cases. We make an assessment of the state of the literature, process understanding, simulation models, data science methods, and best practices, necessary to address problems of this nature, with a particular focus on post-Harvey recovery of transportation services in Houston.

  10. Composition and Sources of Particulate Matter Measured near Houston, TX: Anthropogenic-Biogenic Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey K. Bean

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter was measured in Conroe, Texas (~60 km north of downtown Houston, Texas during the September 2013 DISCOVER-AQ campaign to determine the sources of particulate matter in the region. The measurement site is influenced by high biogenic emission rates as well as transport of anthropogenic pollutants from the Houston metropolitan area and is therefore an ideal location to study anthropogenic-biogenic interactions. Data from an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM suggest that on average 64 percent of non-refractory PM1 was organic material, including a high fraction (27%–41% of organic nitrates. There was little diurnal variation in the concentrations of ammonium sulfate; however, concentrations of organic and organic nitrate aerosol were consistently higher at night than during the day. Potential explanations for the higher organic aerosol loadings at night include changing boundary layer height, increased partitioning to the particle phase at lower temperatures, and differences between daytime and nighttime chemical processes such as nitrate radical chemistry. Positive matrix factorization was applied to the organic aerosol mass spectra measured by the ACSM and three factors were resolved—two factors representing oxygenated organic aerosol and one factor representing hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol. The factors suggest that the measured aerosol was well mixed and highly processed, consistent with the distance from the site to major aerosol sources, as well as the high photochemical activity.

  11. Chagas Disease Knowledge and Risk Behaviors of the Homeless Population in Houston, TX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingber, Alexandra; Garcia, Melissa N; Leon, Juan; Murray, Kristy O

    2018-04-01

    Chagas disease is a parasitic infection, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, endemic in Latin America. Sylvatic T. cruzi-infected triatomine vectors are present in rural and urban areas in the southern USA and may transmit T. cruzi infection to at-risk populations, such as homeless individuals. Our study aimed to evaluate Chagas disease knowledge and behaviors potentially associated with transmission risk of Chagas disease among Houston, Texas' homeless population by performing interviews with 212 homeless individuals. The majority of the 212 surveyed homeless individuals were male (79%), African-American (43%), American-born individuals (96%). About 30% of the individuals reported having seen triatomines in Houston, and 25% had evidence of blood-borne transmission risk (IV drug use and/or unregulated tattoos). The median total time homeless was significantly associated with recognition of the triatomine vector. Our survey responses indicate that the homeless populations may exhibit potential risks for Chagas disease, due to increased vector exposure, and participation in blood-borne pathogen risk behaviors. Our findings warrant additional research to quantify the prevalence of Chagas disease among homeless populations.

  12. Development of the Spanish Language Houston Pain Outcome Instrument for Spanish Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Jeanette; Sherwood, Gwen

    2017-12-01

    To address reported disparities in pain management among Hispanic patients, this article reports the psychometrics of the newly developed Spanish language Houston Pain Outcome Instrument (HPOI) with postoperative Hispanic patients. Findings from qualitative interviews conducted with 35 self-identified Hispanics in Phase 1 of the overall project were used to generate items for a new Spanish language instrument, Cuestionario de Houston Sobre el Dolor (HPOI). The second phase tested the psychometric properties with 95 self-identified Hispanic postoperative inpatients in three Texas hospitals. HPOI subscale reliabilities ranged from .63 to .91, with similar reliabilities for Spanish and English versions. Concurrent validity was demonstrated by moderate significant correlations with similar items on the Brief Pain Inventory. Participants reported moderate and severe worst pain in the last 24 hours; 38% were undertreated for pain according to the Pain Management Index; and 75% reported nonpharmacologic strategies including family support, prayer, and position change as highly effective in managing pain. The HPOI is a reliable instrument for addressing disparities in pain management for the rapidly growing Hispanic population in the United States. Subscales for interference with mood and physical function and patient-reported nonpharmacologic strategies facilitate a more comprehensive assessment of the pain experience.

  13. Hurricane Harvey, Houston's Petrochemical Industry, and US Chemical Safety Policy: Impacts to Environmental Justice Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, G. T.; Johnson, C.; Gutierrez, A.; Declet-Barreto, J.; Berman, E.; Bergman, A.

    2017-12-01

    When Hurricane Harvey made landfall outside Houston, Texas, the storm's wind speeds and unprecedented precipitation caused significant damage to the region's petrochemical infrastructure. Most notably, the company Arkema's Crosby facility suffered a power failure that led to explosions and incineration of six of its peroxide tanks. Chemicals released into the air from the explosions sent 15 emergency responders to the hospital with severe respiratory conditions and led to the evacuation of hundreds of surrounding households. Other petrochemical facilities faced other damages that resulted in unsafe and acute chemical releases into the air and water. What impacts did such chemical disasters have on the surrounding communities and emergency responders during Harvey's aftermath? What steps might companies have taken to prevent such chemical releases? And what chemical safety policies might have ensured that such disaster risks were mitigated? In this talk we will report on a survey of the extent of damage to Houston's oil and gas infrastructure and related chemical releases and discuss the role of federal chemical safety policy in preventing and mitigating the potential for such risks for future storms and other extreme weather and climate events. We will also discuss how these chemical disasters created acute toxics exposures on environmental justice communities already overburdened with chronic exposures from the petrochemical industry.

  14. OPERATION OF A PUBLIC GEOLOGIC CORE AND SAMPLE REPOSITORY IN HOUSTON TEXAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott W. Tinker

    2003-06-01

    In the spring of 2002, the Department of Energy provided an initial 1-year grant to the Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) at The University of Texas at Austin (UT). The grant covered the one-year operational expenses of a worldclass core and cuttings facility located in Houston, Texas, that BP America donated to the BEG. The DOE investment of $300,000, matched by a $75,000 UT contribution, provided critical first-year funds that were heavily leveraged by the BP gift of $7.0 million in facilities and cash. DOE also provided a one-month extension and grant of $30,000 for the month of May 2003. A 5-year plan to grow a permanent endowment in order to manage the facility in perpetuity is well under way and on schedule. The facility, named the Houston Research Center, represents an ideal model for a strong Federal, university, and private partnership to accomplish a national good. This report summarizes the activities supported by the initial DOE grant during the first 13 months of operation and provides insight into the activities and needs of the facility in the second year of operation.

  15. Compact Polarimetric SAR Ship Detection with m-δ Decomposition Using Visual Attention Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A few previous studies have illustrated the potentials of compact polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (CP SAR in ship detection. In this paper, we design a ship detection algorithm of CP SAR from the perspective of computer vision. A ship detection algorithm using the pulsed cosine transform (PCT visual attention model is proposed to suppress background clutter and highlight conspicuous ship targets. It is the first time that a visual attention model is introduced to CP SAR application. The proposed algorithm is a quick and complete framework for practical use. Polarimetric features—the relative phase δ and volume scattering component—are extracted from m-δ decomposition to eliminate false alarms and modify the PCT model. The constant false alarm rate (CFAR algorithm based on lognormal distribution is adopted to detect ship targets, after a clutter distribution fitting procedure of the modified saliency map. The proposed method is then tested on three simulated circular-transmit-linear-receive (CTLR mode images, which covering East Sea of China. Compared with the detection results of SPAN and the saliency map with only single-channel amplitude, the proposed method achieves the highest detection rates and the lowest misidentification rate and highest figure of merit, proving the effectiveness of polarimetric information of compact polarimetric SAR ship detection and the enhancement from the visual attention model.

  16. International Standardization in the Design of "Shore to Ship" - Power Supply Systems of Ships in Port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnapowicz, Dariusz; German-Galkin, Sergiej

    2018-03-01

    The decisive source of air pollution emissions in ports is the berthed ships. This is primarily caused by the work of ship's autonomous generator sets. One way of reducing the air pollution emissions in ports is the supply of ships from electricity inland system. The main problem connected with the power connection of ships to the inland network is caused by different values of levels and frequencies of voltages in these networks (in various countries) in relation to different values of levels and frequencies of voltages present in the ship's network. It is also important that the source power can range from a few hundred kW up to several MW. In order to realize a universal „Shore to Ship" system that allows the connection of ships to the electricity inland network, the international standardization is necessary. This article presents the current recommendations, standards and regulations for the design of „Shore to Ship" systems.

  17. Navy Ships: Turning Over Auxiliary Ship Operations to the Military Sealift Command Could Save Millions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... One additional multiproduct ship of a new class is currently under construction. The Navy has delegated operational control of 27 of these ships to MSC, the military's single manager for sealift, to better...

  18. Ship Technology Workshop Materials from Collaboration with Mexico to Reduce Emissions from Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    On September 26, 2012, a ship technology seminar was held to provide Mexican stakeholders with information about some of the ship technologies needed to meet the requirements of MARPOL Annex VI and an ECA.

  19. Risk Modelling for Passages in Approach Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Smolarek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods of multivariate statistics, stochastic processes, and simulation methods are used to identify and assess the risk measures. This paper presents the use of generalized linear models and Markov models to study risks to ships along the approach channel. These models combined with simulation testing are used to determine the time required for continuous monitoring of endangered objects or period at which the level of risk should be verified.

  20. Advanced ship systems condition monitoring for enhanced inspection, maintenance and decision making in ship operations

    OpenAIRE

    Lazakis, Iraklis; Dikis, Konstantinos; Michala, Anna Lito; Theotokatos, Gerasimos

    2016-01-01

    Structural and machinery failures in the day-to-day ship operations may lead to major accidents, endangering crew and\\ud passengers onboard, posing a threat to the environment, damaging the ship itself and having a great impact in terms of business\\ud losses. In this respect, this paper presents the INCASS (Inspection Capabilities for Enhanced Ship Safety) project which aims\\ud bringing an innovative solution to the ship inspection regime through the introduction of enhanced inspection of shi...

  1. Channel Power in Multi-Channel Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik); B. Skiera (Bernd)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn the literature, little attention has been paid to instances where companies add an Internet channel to their direct channel portfolio. However, actively managing multiple sales channels requires knowing the customers’ channel preferences and the resulting channel power. Two key

  2. Viking FellowSHIP: Norwegian hydrogen ship on the right course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larssen-Aas, Kari

    2006-01-01

    In the future fuel cells will change the world of shipping's economical conditions, and environmental effects from this industry. A new model of a hydrogen fuelled ship was presented at the ONS exhibition in Stavanger 2006. The technology may revolutionize the shipping industry. A brief description of the project is presented (ml)

  3. Contribution of ship emissions to the concentration and deposition of air pollutants in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Aksoyoglu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Emissions from the marine transport sector are one of the least-regulated anthropogenic emission sources and contribute significantly to air pollution. Although strict limits were introduced recently for the maximum sulfur content in marine fuels in the SECAs (sulfur emission control areas and in EU ports, sulfur emissions outside the SECAs and emissions of other components in all European maritime areas have continued to increase in the last two decades. We have used the air quality model CAMx (Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions with and without ship emissions for the year 2006 to determine the effects of international shipping on the annual as well as seasonal concentrations of ozone, primary and secondary components of PM2.5, and the dry and wet deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds in Europe. The largest changes in pollutant concentrations due to ship emissions were predicted for summer. Concentrations of particulate sulfate increased due to ship emissions in the Mediterranean (up to 60 %, the English Channel and the North Sea (30–35 %, while increases in particulate nitrate levels were found especially in the north, around the Benelux area (20 %, where there were high NH3 land-based emissions. Our model results showed that not only are the atmospheric concentrations of pollutants affected by ship emissions, but also depositions of nitrogen and sulfur compounds increase significantly along the shipping routes. NOx emissions from the ships, especially in the English Channel and the North Sea, cause a decrease in the dry deposition of reduced nitrogen at source regions by moving it from the gas phase to the particle phase which then contributes to an increase in the wet deposition at coastal areas with higher precipitation. In the western Mediterranean region, on the other hand, model results show an increase in the deposition of oxidized nitrogen (mostly HNO3 due to the ship traffic. Dry deposition of SO2 seems to

  4. LCA-ship. Design tool for energy efficient ships. A Life Cycle Analysis Program for Ships. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiven, Karl; Sjoebris, Anders [MariTerm AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Nilsson, Maria [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Stiftelsen TEM; Ellis, Joanne; Traegaardh, Peter; Nordstroem, Malin [SSPA Sweden AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    In order to make it easier to include aspects during ship design that will improve environmental performance, general methods for life cycle calculations and a prototype tool for LCA calculations of ships and marine transportation have been developed. The base of the life cycle analyses is a comprehensive set of life cycle data that was collected for the materials and consumables used in ship construction and vessel operations. The computer tool developed makes it possible to quickly and simply specify (and calculate) the use of consumables over the vessel's life time cycle. Special effort has been made to allow the tool to be used for different types of vessels and sea transport. The main result from the project is the computer tool LCA ship, which incorporates collected and developed life cycle data for some of the most important materials and consumables used in ships and their operation. The computer application also contains a module for propulsion power calculations and a module for defining and optimising the energy system onboard the vessel. The tool itself is described in more detail in the Computer application manual. The input to the application should, as much as possible, be the kind of information that is normally found in a shipping company concerning vessel data and vessel movements. It all starts with defining the ship to be analysed and continues with defining how the ship is used over the lifetime. The tool contains compiled and processed background information about specific materials and processes (LCA data) connected to shipping operations. The LCA data is included in the tool in a processed form. LCA data for steel will for example include the environmental load from the steel production, the process to build the steel structure of the ship, the scrapping and the recycling phase. To be able to calculate the environmental load from the use of steel the total amount of steel used over the life cycle of the ship is also needed. The

  5. Simple analytical relations for ship bow waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblesse, Francis; Delhommeau, G.?Rard; Guilbaud, Michel; Hendrix, Dane; Yang, Chi

    Simple analytical relations for the bow wave generated by a ship in steady motion are given. Specifically, simple expressions that define the height of a ship bow wave, the distance between the ship stem and the crest of the bow wave, the rise of water at the stem, and the bow wave profile, explicitly and without calculations, in terms of the ship speed, draught, and waterline entrance angle, are given. Another result is a simple criterion that predicts, also directly and without calculations, when a ship in steady motion cannot generate a steady bow wave. This unsteady-flow criterion predicts that a ship with a sufficiently fine waterline, specifically with waterline entrance angle 2, may generate a steady bow wave at any speed. However, a ship with a fuller waterline (25E) can only generate a steady bow wave if the ship speed is higher than a critical speed, defined in terms of αE by a simple relation. No alternative criterion for predicting when a ship in steady motion does not generate a steady bow wave appears to exist. A simple expression for the height of an unsteady ship bow wave is also given. In spite of their remarkable simplicity, the relations for ship bow waves obtained in the study (using only rudimentary physical and mathematical considerations) are consistent with experimental measurements for a number of hull forms having non-bulbous wedge-shaped bows with small flare angle, and with the authors' measurements and observations for a rectangular flat plate towed at a yaw angle.

  6. A Study to Evaluate the Organization and the Operating Procedures of the Patient Assistance Function at Brooke Army Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    15 March 1979. 59Interview with Wendy L. Farace , Head Nurse, Obstetrics/Gynecology Clinic, Brooke Army Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, Texas, 8...6 February 1979. Farace , Wendy L. Head Nurse, Obstetrica/Gynecology Clinic, Brooke Army Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, Texas. Interview, 8 January

  7. 40 CFR 52.2285 - Control of evaporative losses from the filling of gasoline storage vessels in the Houston and San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of evaporative losses from the filling of gasoline storage vessels in the Houston and San Antonio areas. 52.2285 Section 52.2285... of gasoline storage vessels in the Houston and San Antonio areas. (a) Definitions: (1) Gasoline means...

  8. 75 FR 42436 - Houston Pipe Line Company LP-Bammel Storage, Docket No. PR10-51-000, et. al.; Notice of Baseline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Houston Pipe Line Company LP--Bammel Storage, Docket No. PR10-51- 000, et. al.; Notice of Baseline Filings July 14, 2010. Houston Pipe Line..., 2010, respectively the applicants listed above submitted their baseline filing of its Statement of...

  9. 46 CFR 148.02-1 - Shipping papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 148.02-1 Section 148.02-1 Shipping... MATERIALS IN BULK Vessel Requirements § 148.02-1 Shipping papers. (a) Carriers may not accept for..., unless the hazardous materials offered for such shipment is accompanied by a shipping paper on which the...

  10. 46 CFR 151.45-7 - Shipping papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 151.45-7 Section 151.45-7 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-7 Shipping papers. Each barge carrying... towing vessel shall either have a copy of the shipping papers for each barge in his tow or he shall make...

  11. 46 CFR 173.051 - Public nautical school ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public nautical school ships. 173.051 Section 173.051 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.051 Public nautical school ships. Each public nautical school...

  12. SNF shipping cask shielding analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.O.; Pace, J.V. III.

    1996-01-01

    The Waste Management and Remedial Action Division has planned a modification sequence for storage facility 7827 in the Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA). The modification cycle is: (1) modify an empty caisson, (2) transfer the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of an occupied caisson to a hot cell in building 3525 for inspection and possible repackaging, and (3) return the package to the modified caisson in the SWSA. Although the SNF to be moved is in the solid form, it has different levels of activity. Thus, the following 5 shipping casks will be available for the task: the Loop Transport Carrier, the In- Pile Loop LITR HB-2 Carrier, the 6.5-inch HRLEL Carrier, the HFIR Hot Scrap Carrier, and the 10-inch ORR Experiment Removal Shield Cask. This report describes the shielding tasks for the 5 casks: determination of shielding characteristics, any streaming avenues, estimation of thermal limits, and shielding calculational uncertainty for use in the transportation plan

  13. Impact analysis of shipping casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Kennedy, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Shipping casks are being used in the United States Department of Energy to transport irradiated experiments, reactor fuel, radioactive waste, etc. One of the critical requirements in shipping cask analysis is the necessity to withstand severe impact environments. It is still conventional to develop the design and to verify the design requirements by hand calculations. Full three dimensional computations of impact scenarios have been performed but they are too expensive and time consuming for design purposes. Typically, on the order of more than an hour of CRAY time is required for a detailed, three dimensional analysis. The paper describes how simpler two- and three-dimensional models can be used to provide an intermediate level of detail between full three dimensional finite element calculations and hand calculations. The regulation that is examined here is: 10 CFR-71.73 hypothetical accident conditions, free drop. Free drop for an accident condition of a Class I package (approximate weight of 22,000 lb) is defined as a 30 foot drop onto a flat, essentially unyielding, horizontal surface, striking the surface in a position for which maximum damage is expected. Three free drop scenarios are analyzed to assess the integrity of the cask when subjected to large bending and axial stresses. These three drop scenarios are: (1) a thirty foot axial drop on either end, (2) a thirty foot oblique angle drop with the cask having several different orientations from the vertical with impact on the top end cask corner, and (3) a thirty foot side drop with simultaneous impact on the strength of the various components that comprise the cask. The predicted levels of deformation and stresses in the cask will be used to assess the potential damage level. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  14. Channel Access Algorithm Design for Automatic Identification System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oh Sang-heon; Kim Seung-pum; Hwang Dong-hwan; Park Chan-sik; Lee Sang-jeong

    2003-01-01

    The Automatic Identification System (AIS) is a maritime equipment to allow an efficient exchange of the navigational data between ships and between ships and shore stations. It utilizes a channel access algorithm which can quickly resolve conflicts without any intervention from control stations. In this paper, a design of channel access algorithm for the AIS is presented. The input/output relationship of each access algorithm module is defined by drawing the state transition diagram, dataflow diagram and flowchart based on the technical standard, ITU-R M.1371. In order to verify the designed channel access algorithm, the simulator was developed using the C/C++ programming language. The results show that the proposed channel access algorithm can properly allocate transmission slots and meet the operational performance requirements specified by the technical standard.

  15. The mechanics of ship impacts against bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    a glancing blow between the ship and the bridge structure. This model is based on rigid body mechanics and well suited for inclusion in a probabilistic analysis procedure. Finally, some empirical expressions are presented which relate the energy absorbed by crushing of ship structures to the maximum impact...

  16. Mathematical Ship Modeling for Control Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    In this report, we review the models for describing the motion of a ship in four degrees of freedom suitable for control applications. We present the hydrodynamic models of two ships: a container and a multi-role naval vessel. The models are based on experimental results in the four degrees...

  17. Some concepts of future nuclear ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujino, Masataka

    2000-01-01

    Characteristic features of nuclear power generation are as follows: (1) Thermal energy can be continuously extracted for a long time without fuel feed, (2) Nuclear energy is suitable for generating huge power, (3) Oxygen is unnecessary for combustion of fuel, and (4) Unlike fossil fuel, nuclear power generation does not exhaust NOx, SOx, and CO 2 : it can be considered environmentally friendly. In view of these features, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute commissioned the Shipbuilding Research Association of Japan (JSRA) to survey what kinds of nuclear ship would be put to practical use in the near future. For this purpose, a research committee was organized in 1992 by the JSRA, and concluded its investigation in 1996. The main aim of this research was to clarify the requirements of ship performance as nuclear ships, and then to extract the technical issues of the marine reactor installed in nuclear ships to be solved. As a result of the survey, it was suggested that displacement-type large high-speed container ship would be one of the promising future nuclear merchant ships, and 6500 m deep-sea and 600 m undersea scientific research submersibles would be other promising nuclear special purpose ships. At the same time, various requirements of marine reactors, which are expected to be installed in these ships, were clarified mainly from the technical viewpoints. (author)

  18. Detecting potential ship objects from satellite pictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, B.; Yang, C.C.; Chang, S.K.; Yang, M.C.K.

    1984-01-01

    Heuristic techniques are presented to detect potential ship objects from satellite pictures. These techniques utilize some noise structures of the pixel gray levels, and certain inherent features of a ship in a satellite picture. The scheme has been implemented and successfully tested on SEASAT satellite pictures. A general approach for database-oriented object detection is also suggested

  19. Infrared ship signature analysis and optimisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neele, F.P.

    2005-01-01

    The last decade has seen an increase in the awareness of the infrared signature of naval ships. New ship designs show that infrared signature reduction measures are being incorporated, such as exhaust gas cooling systems, relocation of the exhausts and surface cooling systems. Hull and

  20. India's ship recycling trade-off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worrell, E.; Athanasopoulou, V.

    2014-01-01

    The special nature of India's steel industry lends particular importance to ship recycling as a source of scrap. Ship recycling in upgraded 'green' facilities can substitute other 'dirty' ironmaking processes, resulting in energy savings and air pollutant emission reductions for the Indian steel

  1. Automatic temperature control method of shipping can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Kaoru.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of rapidly and accurately controlling the temperature of a shipping can, which is used upon shipping inspection for a nuclear fuel assembly. That is, a measured temperature value of the shipping can is converted to a gas pressure setting value in a jacket of the shipping can by conducting a predetermined logic calculation by using a fuzzy logic. A gas pressure control section compares the pressure setting value of a fuzzy estimation section and the measured value of the gas pressure in the jacket of the shipping can, and conducts air supply or exhaustion of the jacket gas so as to adjust the measured value with the setting value. These fuzzy estimation section and gas pressure control section control the gas pressure in the jacket of the shipping can to control the water level in the jacket. As a result, the temperature of the shipping can is controlled. With such procedures, since the water level in the jacket can be controlled directly and finely, temperature of the shipping can is automatically controlled rapidly and accurately compared with a conventional case. (I.S.)

  2. Underactuated ship tracking control : theory and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pettersen, K.Y.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2001-01-01

    We consider complete state tracking feedback control of a ship having two controls, namely surge force and yaw moment. The ship model has similarities with chained form systems but cannot directly be transformed in chained form. In particular, the model has a drift vector field as opposed to the

  3. Strength of Ship Plates under Combined Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, W.; Wang, Y.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2002-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role in the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified analytical methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates subjec...

  4. Strength of ship plates under combined loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Weiching; Wang, Yongjun; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2000-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role for the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates subjected to lon...

  5. El Discurso de Pasado en el Espanol de Houston: Imperfectividad Y Perfectividad Verbal en una Situacion de Contacto (Past Tense in the Discourse of Spanish Speakers in Houston: Use of Preterite and Imperfect in a Language Contact Situation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrak, N. Ariana

    1998-01-01

    Investigates whether, due to the language contact situation in Houston in a group of a Mexican-American speakers, the imperfect forms of subordinate language (Spanish) are going through a process of reduction in favor of the forms of the superordinate language (English) when compared to the speech of Spanish monolinguals. (Author/VWL)

  6. Establishment of a National Wind Energy Center at University of Houston

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Su Su [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-10-31

    The DOE-supported project objectives are to: establish a national wind energy center (NWEC) at University of Houston and conduct research to address critical science and engineering issues for the development of future large MW-scale wind energy production systems, especially offshore wind turbines. The goals of the project are to: (1) establish a sound scientific/technical knowledge base of solutions to critical science and engineering issues for developing future MW-scale large wind energy production systems, (2) develop a state-of-the-art wind rotor blade research facility at the University of Houston, and (3) through multi-disciplinary research, introducing technology innovations on advanced wind-turbine materials, processing/manufacturing technology, design and simulation, testing and reliability assessment methods related to future wind turbine systems for cost-effective production of offshore wind energy. To achieve the goals of the project, the following technical tasks were planned and executed during the period from April 15, 2010 to October 31, 2014 at the University of Houston: (1) Basic research on large offshore wind turbine systems (2) Applied research on innovative wind turbine rotors for large offshore wind energy systems (3) Integration of offshore wind-turbine design, advanced materials and manufacturing technologies (4) Integrity and reliability of large offshore wind turbine blades and scaled model testing (5) Education and training of graduate and undergraduate students and post- doctoral researchers (6) Development of a national offshore wind turbine blade research facility The research program addresses both basic science and engineering of current and future large wind turbine systems, especially offshore wind turbines, for MW-scale power generation. The results of the research advance current understanding of many important scientific issues and provide technical information for solving future large wind turbines with advanced design

  7. Control mechanisms for Nordic ship emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinsen, K. [DNV, Oslo (Norway); Torvanger, A. [Cicero, Oslo (Norway)

    2013-04-15

    Shipping today operates under a complex set of international and domestic regulations. However, the environmental regulations have lagged behind those of other industries. This situation is now changing quite dramatically. The increased focus on environmental issues, combined with the growing realisation of the actual pollution burden imposed by shipping, has led to an upsurge in both international and national regulations. Some are ready and will enter into force in the near future, while others are still being developed. On behalf of the Nordic Council of Ministers DNV has carried out a study on possible control mechanisms for Nordic ship emission. The aim is to assess the baseline shipping emissions and reduction potential and the possible controlling mechanisms (both incentives and regulations) available for reducing the emissions to air from shipping within the Nordic region. (Author)

  8. Spent fuel shipping cask sealing concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnier, C.S.

    1989-05-01

    In late 1985, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) requested the US Program for Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS) to provide a study which examined sealing concepts for application to spent fuel shipping casks. This request was approved, and assigned to Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia). In the course of this study, discussions were held with personnel in the International Safeguards Community who were familiar with the shipping casks used in their States. A number of shipping casks were examined, and discussions were held with two shipping cask manufacturers in the US. As a result of these efforts, it was concluded that the shipping casks provided an extremely good containment, and that many of the existing casks can be effectively sealed by applying the seal to the cask closure bolts/nuts

  9. Constraints on Eurasian ship NOx emissions using OMI NO2 observations and GEOS-Chem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinken, Geert C. M.; Boersma, Folkert; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Zhang, Lin

    2013-04-01

    Ships emit large quantities of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2), important precursors for ozone (O3) and particulate matter formation. Ships burn low-grade marine heavy fuel due to the limited regulations that exist for the maritime sector in international waters. Previous studies showed that global ship NOx emission inventories amount to 3.0-10.4 Tg N per year (15-30% of total NOx emissions), with most emissions close to land and affecting air quality in densely populated coastal regions. Bottom-up inventories depend on the extrapolation of a relatively small number of measurements that are often unable to capture annual emission changes and can suffer from large uncertainties. Satellites provide long-term, high-resolution retrievals that can be used to improve emission estimates. In this study we provide top-down constraints on ship NOx emissions in major European ship routes, using observed NO2 columns from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and NO2 columns simulated with the nested (0.5°×0.67°) version of the GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model. We use a plume-in-grid treatment of ship NOx emissions to account for in-plume chemistry in our model. We ensure consistency between the retrievals and model simulations by using the high-resolution GEOS-Chem NO2 profiles as a priori. We find evidence that ship emissions in the Mediterranean Sea are geographically misplaced by up to 150 km and biased high by a factor of 4 as compared to the most recent (EMEP) ship emission inventory. Better agreement is found over the shipping lane between Spain and the English Channel. We extend our approach and also provide constraints for major ship routes in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean. Using the full benefit of the long-term retrieval record of OMI, we present a new Eurasian ship emission inventory for the years 2005 to 2010, based on the EMEP and AMVER-ICOADS inventories, and top-down constraints from the satellite retrievals. Our work shows that satellite retrievals can

  10. 78 FR 48467 - CompuCom Systems, Inc., Tewksbury, Massachusetts; CompuCom Systems, Inc. Houston, Texas; Amended...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... information technology outsourcing services. Specifically, the workers are subcontractors working in a call... workers of the subject firm. New information shows that the Houston, Texas and Tewksbury, Massachusetts locations of CompuCom Systems are engaged in activities related to the supply of information technology...

  11. Teacher Certification and Academic Growth among English Learner Students in the Houston Independent School District. REL 2018-284

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Castilla, Verónica

    2018-01-01

    Aware of the challenges set before the Houston Independent school District by rapid growth in the numbers of English learner students, and a critical shortage of teachers with bilingual certification for more than a decade, members of Regional Educational Laboratory Southwest's English Learners Research Alliance sought information that districts…

  12. Accessibility assessment of Houston's roadway network during Harvey through integration of observed flood impacts and hydrologic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidaris, I.; Gori, A.; Panakkal, P.; Padgett, J.; Bedient, P. B.

    2017-12-01

    The record-breaking rainfall produced over the Houston region by Hurricane Harvey resulted in catastrophic and unprecedented impacts on the region's infrastructure. Notably, Houston's transportation network was crippled, with almost every major highway flooded during the five-day event. Entire neighborhoods and subdivisions were inundated, rendering them completely inaccessible to rescue crews and emergency services. Harvey has tragically highlighted the vulnerability of major thoroughfares, as well as neighborhood roads, to severe inundation during extreme precipitation events. Furthermore, it has emphasized the need for detailed accessibility characterization of road networks under extreme event scenarios in order to determine which areas of the city are most vulnerable. This analysis assesses and tracks the accessibility of Houston's major highways during Harvey's evolution by utilizing road flood/closure data from the Texas DOT. In the absence of flooded/closure data for local roads, a hybrid approach is adopted that utilizes a physics-based hydrologic model to produce high-resolution inundation estimates for selected urban watersheds in the Houston area. In particular, hydrologic output in the form of inundation depths is used to estimate the operability of local roads. Ultimately, integration of hydrologic-based estimation of road conditions with observed data from DOT supports a network accessibility analysis of selected urban neighborhoods. This accessibility analysis can identify operable routes for emergency response (rescue crews, medical services, etc.) during the storm event.

  13. The Evolution of Discovery Systems in Academic Libraries: A Case Study at the University of Houston Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo, Richard; Brett, Kelsey; Young, Frederick

    2017-01-01

    For the past several years academic libraries have been adopting discovery systems to provide a search experience that reflects user expectations and improves access to electronic resources. University of Houston Libraries has kept pace with this evolving trend by pursuing various discovery options; these include an open-source tool, a federated…

  14. Blockchain technology and its impact on financial and shipping services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Diordiiev

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Blockchain technology is becoming one of the main drivers of innovation in the global economy. Its adoption will have a huge impact on how businesses and governments operate and on the way people organize their everyday lives. Financial services industry is the one experiencing the biggest impact of the blockchain disruption so far, while financial institutions are among the first adopters of the technology. At the same time, being a relatively traditional industry, shipping has not yet seen many use cases with blockchain, but the technology is able to change this industry dramatically. Aim and tasks. As the industries of finance and shipping have huge potential in the blockchain space and often interact, determining how the blockchain technology adoption can influence the industries of finance and shipping in the future was the main purpose of this article. Research results. To fulfill this purpose, it was important to describe the origins of the blockchain technology, its main characteristics, functioning principles and consensus algorithms. Supported by the recent hype, cryptocurrencies are the biggest use case for blockchain so far, therefore, the article analyzes the largest of them, including Bitcoin, Ethereum and some others, as well as the cryptocurrency market as a whole. The level of worldwide adoption of blockchain and the overall market size are defined further in the article. Various applications in finance are also mentioned, paying particular attention to the insurance industry. Based on this information, the key areas in which blockchain can disrupt finance and insurance are identified. As the number of blockchain companies increases rapidly, the two main fundraising channels for such companies, venture capital and initial coin offering, are analyzed and compared. The ways in which blockchain may impact the shipping services industry are identified further. Conclusion. Afterwards, the article describes a number of

  15. Groundwater quality of the Gulf Coast aquifer system, Houston, Texas, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden, Jeannette H.; Oden, Timothy D.; Szabo, Zoltan

    2010-01-01

    In the summers of 2007 and 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Houston, Texas, completed an initial reconnaissance-level survey of naturally occurring contaminants (arsenic, other selected trace elements, and radionuclides) in water from municipal supply wells in the Houston area. The purpose of this reconnaissance-level survey was to characterize source-water quality prior to drinking water treatment. Water-quality samples were collected from 28 municipal supply wells in the Houston area completed in the Evangeline aquifer, Chicot aquifer, or both. This initial survey is part of ongoing research to determine concentrations, spatial extent, and associated geochemical conditions that might be conducive for mobility and transport of these constituents in the Gulf Coast aquifer system in the Houston area. Samples were analyzed for major ions (calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, bromide, chloride, fluoride, silica, and sulfate), selected chemically related properties (residue on evaporation [dissolved solids] and chemical oxygen demand), dissolved organic carbon, arsenic species (arsenate [As(V)], arsenite [As(III)], dimethylarsinate [DMA], and monomethylarsonate [MMA]), other trace elements (aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, strontium, thallium, vanadium, and zinc), and selected radionuclides (gross alpha- and beta-particle activity [at 72 hours and 30 days], carbon-14, radium isotopes [radium-226 and radium-228], radon-222, tritium, and uranium). Field measurements were made of selected physicochemical (relating to both physical and chemical) properties (oxidation-reduction potential, turbidity, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, specific conductance, water temperature, and alkalinity) and unfiltered sulfides. Dissolved organic carbon and chemical oxygen demand are presented but not discussed in the

  16. PTM Modeling of Dredged Suspended Sediment at Proposed Polaris Point and Ship Repair Facility CVN Berthing Sites - Apra Harbor, Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    sedimentation outside of the channel footprint. For example, dredging near the edge of the footprint can be confined to time periods when tidal currents...Cases 1 or 2 due to the lower loss rate. Sedimentation rates outside the channel prism are further reduced because all sediment is introduced in the...ER D C/ CH L TR -1 7- 16 PTM Modeling of Dredged Suspended Sediment at Proposed Polaris Point and Ship Repair Facility CVN Berthing

  17. Comparing residential contamination in a Houston environmental justice neighborhood before and after Hurricane Harvey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Horney

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are complex environmental toxicants. Exposure to them has been linked to adverse health outcomes including cancer, as well as diseases of the skin, liver, and immune system. Based on an ongoing community engagement partnership with stakeholder groups and residents, we conducted a small longitudinal study to assess domestic exposure to PAHs among residents of Manchester, an environmental justice neighborhood located in the East End of Houston, TX.In December, 2016, we used fiber wipes to collect samples of household dust from 25 homes in Manchester. Following Hurricane Harvey, in September 2017, we revisited 24 of the 25 homes to collect soil samples from the front yards of the same homes. Wipes and soil were analyzed for the presence of PAHs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS methods. Principal component analysis plots, heatmaps, and PAH ratios were used to compare pre- and post-Hurricane Harvey samples.While direct comparison is not possible, we present three methods for comparing PAHs found in pre-hurricane fiber wipes and post-hurricane soil samples. The methods demonstrate that the PAHs found before and after Hurricane Harvey are likely from similar sources and that those sources are most likely to be associated with combustion. We also found evidence of redistribution of PAHs due to extreme flooding associated with Hurricane Harvey.Residents of the Manchester neighborhood of Houston, TX, are exposed to a range of PAHs in household dust and outdoor soil. While it was not possible to compare directly, we were able to use several methods to assess detected concentrations, changes in site-specific PAH allocations, and PAH origination. Additional research is needed to identify specific sources of domestic PAH exposure in these communities and continued work involving community members and policy makers should aim to develop interventions to reduce domestic exposure to and prevent negative

  18. Radar-based Flood Warning System for Houston, Texas and Its Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, N.; Bedient, P.

    2009-12-01

    Houston has a long history of flooding problems as a serious nature. For instance, Houstonians suffered from severe flood inundation during Tropical Storm Allison in 2001 and Hurricane Ike in 2008. Radar-based flood warning systems as non-structural tools to provide accurate and timely warnings to the public and private entities are greatly needed for urban areas prone to flash floods. Fortunately, the advent of GIS, radar-based rainfall estimation using NEXRAD, and real-time delivery systems on the internet have allowed flood alert systems to provide important advanced warning of impending flood conditions. Thus, emergency personnel can take proper steps to mitigate against catastrophic losses. The Rice and Texas Medical Center (TMC) Flood Alert System (FAS2) has been delivering warning information with 2 to 3 hours of lead time to facility personnel in a readily understood format for more than 40 events since 1997. The system performed well during these major rainfall events with R square value of 93%. The current system has been improved by incorporating a new hydraulic prediction tool - FloodPlain Map Library (FPML). The FPML module aims to provide visualized information such as floodplain maps and water surface elevations instead of just showing hydrographs in real time based on NEXRAD radar rainfall data. During Hurricane Ike (September, 2008), FAS2 successfully provided precise and timely flood warning information to TMC with the peak flow difference of 3.6% and the volume difference of 5.6%; timing was excellent for this double-peaked event. With the funding from the Texas Department of Transportation, a similar flood warning system has been developed at a critical transportation pass along Highway 288 in Houston, Texas. In order to enable emergency personnel to begin flood preparation with as much lead time as possible, FAS2 is being used as a prototype to develop warning system for other flood-prone areas such as City of Sugar Land.

  19. Time of travel of solutes in Buffalo Bayou and selected tributaries, Houston, Texas, August 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Jeffery W.; Schaer, Jasper D.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, conducted a time-of-travel study in the Buffalo Bayou watershed during low flow in August 1999. The study was done as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Monitoring for Public Access and Community Tracking (EMPACT) program. The EMPACT program was designed for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to work with communities to “make timely, accurate, and understandable environmental information available to millions of people in the largest metropolitan areas across the country.” (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2000). Buffalo Bayou, located in Houston, Texas, was chosen as a pilot project because it is a frequently used recreational water source, it has many water-treatment facilities located along its stream segments, and it has a history of water-quality problems (Houston-Galveston Area Council, 2000). One component of the pilot project is to develop a water-quality simulation model that can be used to assess the effects of noncompliance events on Buffalo Bayou. Because accurate estimates of time of travel during low flow are required to develop the model, the time of travel of solutes in Buffalo Bayou and selected tributaries was determined using dye tracing methods. The study was conducted during low flow in a 38.7-mile reach of Buffalo Bayou, a 9.6-mile reach of Whiteoak Bayou, a 5.9-mile reach of Mason Creek, and a 6.6-mile reach of Bear Creek. Efforts to determine the time of travel in a 7.5-mile reach of Horsepen Creek were unsuccessful. This report explains the approach used to conduct the study and presents the results of the study

  20. The location of late night bars and alcohol-related crashes in Houston, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Ned

    2017-10-01

    A study in the City of Houston, Texas, related the location of establishments primarily serving alcohol ("bars") after midnight to late night alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes. There were three data sets for 2007-09: 1) 764bars that were open after midnight; 2) 1660 alcohol-related crashes that occurred within the City of Houston between midnight and 6 am; and 3) 4689 modeling network road segments to which bars and alcohol-related crashes were assigned. Forty-five percent of the late night alcohol-related crashes were within a quarter mile of a late night bar. The bars were highly concentrated in 17 small bar clusters. Using the modeling network, Poisson-Gamma-CAR and Poisson-Lognormal-CAR spatial regression models showed a positive exponential relationship between late night alcohol-related crashes and the number of late nights bars and bar clusters, and a negative exponential relationship to distance to the nearest late night bar controlling for the type of road segment (freeway, principal arterial, minor arterial). A more general model dropped the bar cluster variable. Further, the Poisson-Gamma-CAR model appeared to produce a better representation than the Poisson-Lognormal-CAR model though the errors were different. The general Poisson-Gamma-CAR model showed that each late night bar increased the frequency of alcohol-related crashes on a segment by approximately 190%. For each mile closer a segment was to a late night bar, the likelihood increased by 42%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparing residential contamination in a Houston environmental justice neighborhood before and after Hurricane Harvey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horney, Jennifer A; Casillas, Gaston A; Baker, Erin; Stone, Kahler W; Kirsch, Katie R; Camargo, Krisa; Wade, Terry L; McDonald, Thomas J

    2018-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are complex environmental toxicants. Exposure to them has been linked to adverse health outcomes including cancer, as well as diseases of the skin, liver, and immune system. Based on an ongoing community engagement partnership with stakeholder groups and residents, we conducted a small longitudinal study to assess domestic exposure to PAHs among residents of Manchester, an environmental justice neighborhood located in the East End of Houston, TX. In December, 2016, we used fiber wipes to collect samples of household dust from 25 homes in Manchester. Following Hurricane Harvey, in September 2017, we revisited 24 of the 25 homes to collect soil samples from the front yards of the same homes. Wipes and soil were analyzed for the presence of PAHs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods. Principal component analysis plots, heatmaps, and PAH ratios were used to compare pre- and post-Hurricane Harvey samples. While direct comparison is not possible, we present three methods for comparing PAHs found in pre-hurricane fiber wipes and post-hurricane soil samples. The methods demonstrate that the PAHs found before and after Hurricane Harvey are likely from similar sources and that those sources are most likely to be associated with combustion. We also found evidence of redistribution of PAHs due to extreme flooding associated with Hurricane Harvey. Residents of the Manchester neighborhood of Houston, TX, are exposed to a range of PAHs in household dust and outdoor soil. While it was not possible to compare directly, we were able to use several methods to assess detected concentrations, changes in site-specific PAH allocations, and PAH origination. Additional research is needed to identify specific sources of domestic PAH exposure in these communities and continued work involving community members and policy makers should aim to develop interventions to reduce domestic exposure to and prevent negative health outcomes

  2. Treatment Planning System Calculation Errors Are Present in Most Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core-Houston Phantom Failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, James R; Stingo, Francesco; Followill, David S; Howell, Rebecca M; Melancon, Adam; Kry, Stephen F

    2017-08-01

    The anthropomorphic phantom program at the Houston branch of the Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core (IROC-Houston) is an end-to-end test that can be used to determine whether an institution can accurately model, calculate, and deliver an intensity modulated radiation therapy dose distribution. Currently, institutions that do not meet IROC-Houston's criteria have no specific information with which to identify and correct problems. In the present study, an independent recalculation system was developed to identify treatment planning system (TPS) calculation errors. A recalculation system was commissioned and customized using IROC-Houston measurement reference dosimetry data for common linear accelerator classes. Using this system, 259 head and neck phantom irradiations were recalculated. Both the recalculation and the institution's TPS calculation were compared with the delivered dose that was measured. In cases in which the recalculation was statistically more accurate by 2% on average or 3% at a single measurement location than was the institution's TPS, the irradiation was flagged as having a "considerable" institutional calculation error. The error rates were also examined according to the linear accelerator vendor and delivery technique. Surprisingly, on average, the reference recalculation system had better accuracy than the institution's TPS. Considerable TPS errors were found in 17% (n=45) of the head and neck irradiations. Also, 68% (n=13) of the irradiations that failed to meet the IROC-Houston criteria were found to have calculation errors. Nearly 1 in 5 institutions were found to have TPS errors in their intensity modulated radiation therapy calculations, highlighting the need for careful beam modeling and calculation in the TPS. An independent recalculation system can help identify the presence of TPS errors and pass on the knowledge to the institution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Arctic shipping emissions inventories and future scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Corbett

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents 5 km×5 km Arctic emissions inventories of important greenhouse gases, black carbon and other pollutants under existing and future (2050 scenarios that account for growth of shipping in the region, potential diversion traffic through emerging routes, and possible emissions control measures. These high-resolution, geospatial emissions inventories for shipping can be used to evaluate Arctic climate sensitivity to black carbon (a short-lived climate forcing pollutant especially effective in accelerating the melting of ice and snow, aerosols, and gaseous emissions including carbon dioxide. We quantify ship emissions scenarios which are expected to increase as declining sea ice coverage due to climate change allows for increased shipping activity in the Arctic. A first-order calculation of global warming potential due to 2030 emissions in the high-growth scenario suggests that short-lived forcing of ~4.5 gigagrams of black carbon from Arctic shipping may increase global warming potential due to Arctic ships' CO2 emissions (~42 000 gigagrams by some 17% to 78%. The paper also presents maximum feasible reduction scenarios for black carbon in particular. These emissions reduction scenarios will enable scientists and policymakers to evaluate the efficacy and benefits of technological controls for black carbon, and other pollutants from ships.

  4. MASTER OF THE SHIP, MANAGER AND INSTRUCTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin IORDANOAIA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The master of the ship is the person on the board who has the qualification and the necessary certificate of competency for running a maritime transport ship. He is the one who takes the ship into administration from the ship-owner, he is the only leader, the legal and direct chief of the entire crew, being invested with authority upon all the members of the crew. The master fulfils the attributes and displays his activity according to the legal laws of his flag, of the marine regulations and of the international conventions. In all the relationships which he establishes with physical or juridical people, the master represents the ship-owner, in a double condition, as an officer and as a commercial manager. In this paper, it is analysed the situation of the ship masters, the relationships which these masters have with the crew and the problems which appear during their voyage. At the end of the paper there are proposed measures to increase the quality of the training of the ship masters, to solve the situations connected with the members of the crew.

  5. Report of Nuclear Powered Ship Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The development of nuclear-powered ships in Japan broke down due to the radiation leak on the nuclear ship ''Mutsu'' in 1974, and the objective has not yet been attained. The Japan Nuclear Ship Research and Development Agency was reorganized to advance the development of nuclear-powered ships and to develop marine nuclear reactors. Recently, various opinions have been expressed regarding the development of nuclear-powered ships and Mutsu, accordingly, it is necessary to clarify the way it should be. The Atomic Energy Commission organized this meeting to discuss the problem. The practical use of nuclear-powered ships is expected at the beginning of the 21st century, but it is only the guess. But it is important to accumulate the technology, knowledge and experience to prepare for the use of nuclear-powered ships. The continuation of the development of Mutsu is important for the future, and the construction of the new home port is unavoidable. The aim of the research and development, and the concrete way of advancing the research and development of Mutsu are discussed. It is scheduled that the Agency is integrated with other atomic energy organizations by March, 1985. The consideration to be given for implementing the integration is described. (Kako, I.)

  6. Ship-induced solitary Riemann waves of depression in Venice Lagoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parnell, Kevin E.; Soomere, Tarmo; Zaggia, Luca; Rodin, Artem; Lorenzetti, Giuliano; Rapaglia, John; Scarpa, Gian Marco

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that ships of moderate size, sailing at low depth Froude numbers (0.37–0.5) in a navigation channel surrounded by shallow banks, produce depressions with depths up to 2.5 m. These depressions (Bernoulli wakes) propagate as long-living strongly nonlinear solitary Riemann waves of depression substantial distances into Venice Lagoon. They gradually become strongly asymmetric with the rear of the depression becoming extremely steep, similar to a bore. As they are dynamically similar, air pressure fluctuations moving over variable-depth coastal areas could generate meteorological tsunamis with a leading depression wave followed by a devastating bore-like feature. - Highlights: • Unprecedently deep long-living ship-induced waves of depression detected. • Such waves are generated in channels with side banks under low Froude numbers. • The propagation of these waves is replicated using Riemann waves. • Long-living waves of depression form bore-like features at rear slope

  7. Ship-induced solitary Riemann waves of depression in Venice Lagoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parnell, Kevin E. [College of Marine and Environmental Sciences and Centre for Tropical Environmental and Sustainability Sciences, James Cook University, Queensland 4811 (Australia); Institute of Cybernetics at Tallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia tee 21, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Soomere, Tarmo, E-mail: soomere@cs.ioc.ee [Institute of Cybernetics at Tallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia tee 21, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Estonian Academy of Sciences, Kohtu 6, 10130 Tallinn (Estonia); Zaggia, Luca [Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council, Castello 2737/F, 30122 Venice (Italy); Rodin, Artem [Institute of Cybernetics at Tallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia tee 21, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Lorenzetti, Giuliano [Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council, Castello 2737/F, 30122 Venice (Italy); Rapaglia, John [Sacred Heart University Department of Biology, 5151 Park Avenue, Fairfield, CT 06825 (United States); Scarpa, Gian Marco [Università Ca' Foscari, Dorsoduro 3246, 30123 Venice (Italy)

    2015-03-06

    We demonstrate that ships of moderate size, sailing at low depth Froude numbers (0.37–0.5) in a navigation channel surrounded by shallow banks, produce depressions with depths up to 2.5 m. These depressions (Bernoulli wakes) propagate as long-living strongly nonlinear solitary Riemann waves of depression substantial distances into Venice Lagoon. They gradually become strongly asymmetric with the rear of the depression becoming extremely steep, similar to a bore. As they are dynamically similar, air pressure fluctuations moving over variable-depth coastal areas could generate meteorological tsunamis with a leading depression wave followed by a devastating bore-like feature. - Highlights: • Unprecedently deep long-living ship-induced waves of depression detected. • Such waves are generated in channels with side banks under low Froude numbers. • The propagation of these waves is replicated using Riemann waves. • Long-living waves of depression form bore-like features at rear slope.

  8. Channelling and electromagnetic radiation of channelling particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikov, N.

    1983-01-01

    A brief description is presented of the channelling of charged particles between atoms in the crystal lattice. The specificities are discussed of the transverse motion of channelling particles as are the origin and properties of quasi-characteristic radiation of channelling particles which accompany transfers from one band of permissible energies of the transverse motion of channelling particles to the other. (B.S.)

  9. Nuclear fuel shipping inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Toshio; Hada, Koji.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To provide an nuclear fuel shipping inspection device having a high detection sensitivity and capable of obtaining highly reliable inspection results. Constitution: The present invention concerns a device for distinguishing a fuel assembly having failed fuel rods in LMFBR type reactors. Coolants in a fuel assembly to be inspected are collected by a sampling pipeway and transferred to a filter device. In the filter device, granular radioactive corrosion products (CP) in the coolants are captured, to reduce the background. The coolants, after being passed through the filter device, are transferred to an FP catching device and gamma-rays of iodine and cesium nuclides are measured in FP radiation measuring device. Subsequently, the coolants transferred to a degasing device to separate rare gas FP in the coolants from the liquid phase. In a case if rare gas fission products are detected by the radiation detector, it means that there is a failed fuel rod in the fuel assembly to be inspected. Since the CP and the soluble FP are separated and extracted for the radioactivity measurement, the reliability can be improved. (Kamimura, M.)

  10. Merchant shipping (Safety Convention) Act 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    When this Act comes into force, it will enable the United Kingdom to ratify and to give effect to the 1974 International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (the SOLAS Convention) which replaces the SOLAS Convention of 1960. Under the Act, the Secretary of State may make such rules as he considers appropriate regarding ships provided with nuclear power plants in accordance with Chapter VIII of the Annex to the 1974 Convention and to Recommendations attached to it, dealing with nuclear ships, and insofar as those provisions have not been implemented by the Merchant Shipping Acts 1894 to 1974. (NEA) [fr

  11. Improving the competitiveness of green ship recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, K.P.

    2017-01-01

    The end of life of a ship is determined by its owner on the basis of various commercial and technical factors. Once decided to scrap a ship, almost all end-of-life (EOL) ships are sold to recycling yards for dismantling; except for a few which are converted into museums, hotels, storage, and artificial reefs. As the decision is a commercial one, the selection of a yard is predominantly based on the offer price, which depends on the location of the yard and the recycling process employed.Among...

  12. Channel Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Arne; Schinnenburg, Marc; Gross, James; Aguiar, Ana

    For any communication system the Signal-to-Interference-plus-Noise-Ratio of the link is a fundamental metric. Recall (cf. Chapter 9) that the SINR is defined as the ratio between the received power of the signal of interest and the sum of all "disturbing" power sources (i.e. interference and noise). From information theory it is known that a higher SINR increases the maximum possible error-free transmission rate (referred to as Shannon capacity [417] of any communication system and vice versa). Conversely, the higher the SINR, the lower will be the bit error rate in practical systems. While one aspect of the SINR is the sum of all distracting power sources, another issue is the received power. This depends on the transmitted power, the used antennas, possibly on signal processing techniques and ultimately on the channel gain between transmitter and receiver.

  13. Channeling experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelin, H.; Birgersson, L.; Widen, H.; Aagren, T.; Moreno, L.; Neretnieks, I.

    1990-07-01

    Channeling of water flow and tracer transport in real fractures in a granite body at Stripa have been investigated experimentally. The experimental site was located 360 m below the ground level. Two kinds of experiments were performed. In the single hole experiments, 20 cm diameter holes were drilled about 2.5 m into the rock in the plane of the fracture. Specially designed packers were used to inject water into the fracture in 5 cm intervals all along the fracture trace in the hole. The variation of the injection flowrates along the fracture were used to determine the transmissivity variations in the fracture plane. Detailed photographs were taken from inside the hole and the visual fracture aperture was compared with the injection flowrates in the same locations. Geostatistical methods were used to evaluate the results. Five holes were measured in great detail. In addition 7 holes were drilled and scanned by simpler packer systems. A double hole experiment was performed where two parallel holes were drilled in the same fracture plane at nearly 2 m distance. Pressure pulse tests were made between the holes in both directions. Tracers were injected in 5 locations in one hole and monitored for in many locations in the other hole. The single hole experiment and the double hole experiment show that most of the fracture planes are tight but that there are open sections which form connected channels over distances of at least 2 meters. It was also found in the double hole experiment that the investigated fracture was intersected by at least one fracture between the two holes which diverted a large amount of the injected tracers to several distant locations at the tunnel wall. (authours)

  14. The salvaging of the Mont Louis cargo ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vastel, D.

    1985-01-01

    On Saturday the 25th of August 1984, at 2:20 P.M., the German car ferry Olau Britannia with 800 passengers aboard rammed the rear starboard side of the French cargo ship Mont Louis. The collision occurred in the English Channel at a point 18 kilometers north of Ostend. At 7:00 P.M. the Mont Louis sank to a depth of 15 meters at a distance of several miles by rail from Antwerp. Half the ship's hull lay uncovered at low tide. The cargo included 30 type 48-Y containers, each filled with 12 tons of UF 6 , and 22 empty type 30-B containers for return of the enriched uranium. The UF 6 was to be enriched to 4% in the Soviet Union for use as fuel in nuclear power plants. The table below details the nature of the UF 6 . After salvaging operation the containers have been inspected and no damage or leaks have been detected. The accident involved no risk of radioactive or chemical contamination of the sea water. The systematic misinformation campaign by Greenpeace and news media is briefly described. (orig./HP)

  15. AIS Ship Traffic: Hawaii: 2011-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ship position data from a satellite-based Automatic Identification System (AIS) were obtained jointly by PacIOOS (J. Potemra), SOEST/ORE of the University of Hawaii...

  16. Fuel exchanging machine for a nuclear ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Tetsuji.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent atmospheric contaminations upon fuel exchange thereby keep the environmental circumstance clean in the periphery of the nuclear ship. Constitution: A nuclear reactor container is disposed to the inside of a containing vessel in the ship body and a shutter is mounted to the upper opening of the ship body. Further, a landing container having a bottom opening equipped with shutter for alingning the upper opening equipped with shuuter of the ship is elevatably suspended to the trolley of a crane by way of a wire rope and a winch, and a fuel exchange cask is elevatably disposed to the inside of the landing container. Further, airs in the inside of the container is adapted to be discharged externally through a filter by means of a blower and the inside is kept at a negative pressure. Thus, since the containing vessel is covered with the landing container upon fuel exchanging operation, atmospheric contamination can be prevented sufficiently. (Sekiya, K.)

  17. Solvency and Liquidity in Shipping Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heejung Yeo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines factors affecting the solvency of shipping firms. The paper uses a panel dataset and employs the GLM and FGLS regression analyses. This study explores the financial structure of top 130 shipping firms provided by the Factiva database during the period between 2009 and 2013. The paper finds that liquidity is closely related to the leverage of shipping companies. The negative association between the asset liquidity and the leverage level implies that there exist conflicts of interest between managers and investors. Shipping firms have a comfortable high liquidity position, but they have a high degree of leverage. They need to take steps to reduce debts. There is evidence of heterogeneity in the determinants of leverage level. The paper also finds that the variables such as profitability, FSIZE, FAGE influence differently the leverage level whether the debt is short-term or long-term.

  18. Review of ship slamming loads and responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan; Guedes Soares, C.

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents an overview of studies of slamming on ship structures. This work focuses on the hull slamming, which is one of the most important types of slamming problems to be considered in the ship design process and the assessment of the ship safety. There are three main research aspects related to the hull slamming phenomenon, a) where and how often a slamming event occurs, b) slamming load prediction and c) structural response due to slamming loads. The approaches used in each aspect are reviewed and commented, together with the presentation of some typical results. The methodology, which combines the seakeeping analysis and slamming load prediction, is discussed for the global analysis of the hull slamming of a ship in waves. Some physical phenomena during the slamming event are discussed also. Recommendations for the future research and developments are made.

  19. Dynamic Escape Routes for Naval Ships

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Villalonga, Francisco J

    2005-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problem of optimal evacuation of a naval ship. We propose the use of a dynamic escape-route system which employs a signaling system to adapt the emergency egress process to the instigating contingency...

  20. Ship dynamics for maritime ISAR imaging.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2008-02-01

    Demand is increasing for imaging ships at sea. Conventional SAR fails because the ships are usually in motion, both with a forward velocity, and other linear and angular motions that accompany sea travel. Because the target itself is moving, this becomes an Inverse- SAR, or ISAR problem. Developing useful ISAR techniques and algorithms is considerably aided by first understanding the nature and characteristics of ship motion. Consequently, a brief study of some principles of naval architecture sheds useful light on this problem. We attempt to do so here. Ship motions are analyzed for their impact on range-Doppler imaging using Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR). A framework for analysis is developed, and limitations of simple ISAR systems are discussed.

  1. Nuclear ship accidents, description and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1993-03-01

    In this report available information on 44 reported nuclear ship events is considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships and 38 with USSR ships. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/ explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. Comments are made on each of the events, and at the end of the report an attempt is made to point out the weaknesses of the submarine designs which have resulted in the accidents. It is emphasized that some of the information of which this report is based, may be of dubious nature. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  2. Communication from the Radioactive Shipping Service

    CERN Multimedia

    DDGS Unit

    2011-01-01

    The radioactive materials Import/Export service reminds you that all movements of potentially radioactive material must be declared in advance. For exports, shipping requests must be made via the EDH request form, ticking the box “radioactive material”. For imports, an electronic form must be completed before the arrival of the material. Requests which do not comply with the above procedure and any unauthorized imports of radioactive material will be refused.The same applies to imports/exports of radioactive sources. All necessary information is given in the web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Yann Donjoux / Radioactive Shipping Service Phone: +41 22 767.31.71 Fax: +41 22 766.92.00 Email: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch

  3. Ships as future floating farm systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2018-04-03

    Environmental and agriculture challenges such as severe drought, desertification, sprawling cities and shrinking arable lands in large regions in the world compel us to think about alternative and sustainable farming systems. Ongoing projects to build floating cities in the sea suggest that building specific ships for farming purposes (as farming ships or farming boats) would also be attainable to introduce new farming surfaces and boost food production worldwide to cope with food insecurity issues.

  4. A Nonlinear Ship Manoeuvering Model: Identification and adaptive control with experiments for a model ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Skjetne

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Complete nonlinear dynamic manoeuvering models of ships, with numerical values, are hard to find in the literature. This paper presents a modeling, identification, and control design where the objective is to manoeuver a ship along desired paths at different velocities. Material from a variety of references have been used to describe the ship model, its difficulties, limitations, and possible simplifications for the purpose of automatic control design. The numerical values of the parameters in the model is identified in towing tests and adaptive manoeuvering experiments for a small ship in a marine control laboratory.

  5. Ultimate Strength of Ship Hulls under Torsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paik, Jeom Kee; Thayamballi, Anil K.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2001-01-01

    For a ship hull with large deck openings such as container vessels and some large bulk carriers, the analysis of warping stresses and hatch opening deformations is an essential part of ship structural analyses. It is thus of importance to better understand the ultimate torsional strength characte......For a ship hull with large deck openings such as container vessels and some large bulk carriers, the analysis of warping stresses and hatch opening deformations is an essential part of ship structural analyses. It is thus of importance to better understand the ultimate torsional strength...... characteristics of ships with large hatch openings. The primary aim of the present study is to investigate the ultimate strength characteristics of ship hulls with large hatch openings under torsion. Axial (warping) as well as shear stresses are normally developed for thin-walled beams with open cross sections...... subjected to torsion. A procedure for calculating these stresses is briefly described. As an illustrative example, the distribution and magnitude of warping and shear stresses for a typical container vessel hull cross section under unit torsion is calculated by the procedure. By theoretical and numerical...

  6. Ship design methodologies of preliminary design

    CERN Document Server

    Papanikolaou, Apostolos

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with ship design and in particular with methodologies of the preliminary design of ships. The book is complemented by a basic bibliography and five appendices with useful updated charts for the selection of the main dimensions and other basic characteristics of different types of ships (Appendix A), the determination of hull form  from the data of systematic hull form series (Appendix B), the detailed description of the relational method for the preliminary estimation of ship weights (Appendix C), a brief review of the historical evolution of shipbuilding science and technology from the prehistoric era to date (Appendix D) and finally a historical review of regulatory developments of ship's damage stability to date (Appendix E).  The book can be used as textbook for ship design courses or as additional reading for university or college students of naval architecture courses and related disciplines; it may also serve as a reference book for naval architects, practicing engineers of rel...

  7. Report of Nuclear Powered Ship Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    From the forecast of energy balance in the world to 21st century, the diversification of energy supply and the technical development enabling it are necessary in Japan. The stable supply of marine fuel is important to maintain and develop the national life. At present, as the marine fuel substituting for petroleum, atomic energy is at the position nearest to practical use. In advanced countries, the basic technology required for the practical use of nuclear-powered merchant ships seems to have been established, but Japan is about 10 years behind them due to the delay of the Mutsu project. In order to maintain and improve the technical level of shipbuilders, the independent technology related to nuclear-powered ships must be established in Japan. In the economical examination of nuclear-powered ships, ice breakers and ice breaking tankers are advantageous, but in other types of ships, a number of conditions must be satisfied to be economical. The Mutsu must be operated to collect the data and experience, and the project of an improved marine prototype reactor must be decided. Also a demonstration ship must be built. The standards for the design, construction and operation of nuclear-powered ships and the public acceptance are necessary. (Kako, I.)

  8. Structural health monitoring for ship structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Angel, Marian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bement, Matthew [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salvino, Liming [NSWC, CADEROCK

    2009-01-01

    Currently the Office of Naval Research is supporting the development of structural health monitoring (SHM) technology for U.S. Navy ship structures. This application is particularly challenging because of the physical size of these structures, the widely varying and often extreme operational and environmental conditions associated with these ships missions, lack of data from known damage conditions, limited sensing that was not designed specifically for SHM, and the management of the vast amounts of data that can be collected during a mission. This paper will first define a statistical pattern recognition paradigm for SHM by describing the four steps of (1) Operational Evaluation, (2) Data Acquisition, (3) Feature Extraction, and (4) Statistical Classification of Features as they apply to ship structures. Note that inherent in the last three steps of this process are additional tasks of data cleansing, compression, normalization and fusion. The presentation will discuss ship structure SHM challenges in the context of applying various SHM approaches to sea trials data measured on an aluminum multi-hull high-speed ship, the HSV-2 Swift. To conclude, the paper will discuss several outstanding issues that need to be addressed before SHM can make the transition from a research topic to actual field applications on ship structures and suggest approaches for addressing these issues.

  9. Automatic production planning for the construction of complex ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rose, C.D.

    2017-01-01

    European shipyards specialize in building complex ship types including offshore vessels, yachts, dredgers, and cruise ships. One key difference between these ships and the simple cargo ships typically built in the Far East is the amount and variety of mission-related equipment required to operate

  10. Solving the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Askelsdottir, Björg; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2015-01-01

    We solve a central problem in the liner shipping industry called the liner shipping fleet repositioning problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between routes in a liner shipping network. Liner carriers wish...

  11. Computational methods for more fuel-efficient ship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koren, B.

    2008-01-01

    The flow of water around a ship powered by a combustion engine is a key factor in the ship's fuel consumption. The simulation of flow patterns around ship hulls is therefore an important aspect of ship design. While lengthy computations are required for such simulations, research by Jeroen Wackers

  12. 48 CFR 1371.118 - Changes-ship repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1371.118 Section 1371.118 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTAL REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.118 Changes—ship repair. Insert clause...

  13. 46 CFR 169.817 - Master to instruct ship's company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Master to instruct ship's company. 169.817 Section 169.817 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.817 Master to instruct ship's company. The master shall conduct drills and give instructions as necessary to insure that al...

  14. 46 CFR 71.75-5 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 71.75-5 Section 71.75-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS INSPECTION AND... Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) All vessels on an international voyage are required to have a...

  15. Modelling ship operational reliability over a mission under regular inspections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christer, A.H.; Lee, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    A ship is required to operate for a fixed mission period. Should a critical item of equipment fail at sea, the ship is subject to a costly event with potentially high risk to ship and crew. Given warning of a pending defect, the ship can try to return to port under its own power and thus attempt to

  16. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Measures to protect ship's payrolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Measures to protect ship's payrolls. Sec. 5 Section 5... SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 5 Measures to protect ship's payrolls. (a) General Agents are not required to consider the amount of the payroll delivered to the Master at the conclusion of a voyage in determining the...

  17. 32 CFR 700.872 - Ships and craft in drydock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ships and craft in drydock. 700.872 Section 700... Special Circumstances/ships in Naval Stations and Shipyards § 700.872 Ships and craft in drydock. (a) The... ship or craft, not in commission, is in a naval drydock, the provisions of this article shall apply...

  18. A building cost estimation method for inland ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekkenberg, R.G.

    2014-01-01

    There is very little publicly available data about the building cost of inland ships, especially for ships that have dimensions that differ significantly from those of common ships. Also, no methods to determine the building cost of inland ships are described in literature. In this paper, a method

  19. The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2012-01-01

    We solve an important problem for the liner shipping industry called the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. Shippers wish...

  20. Investigation of the correlation between odd oxygen and secondary organic aerosol in Mexico City and Houston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Wood

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Many recent models underpredict secondary organic aerosol (SOA particulate matter (PM concentrations in polluted regions, indicating serious deficiencies in the models' chemical mechanisms and/or missing SOA precursors. Since tropospheric photochemical ozone production is much better understood, we investigate the correlation of odd-oxygen ([Ox]≡[O3]+[NO2] and the oxygenated component of organic aerosol (OOA, which is interpreted as a surrogate for SOA. OOA and Ox measured in Mexico City in 2006 and Houston in 2000 were well correlated in air masses where both species were formed on similar timescales (less than 8 h and not well correlated when their formation timescales or location differed greatly. When correlated, the ratio of these two species ranged from 30 μg m−3/ppm (STP in Houston during time periods affected by large petrochemical plant emissions to as high as 160 μg m−3/ppm in Mexico City, where typical values were near 120 μg m−3/ppm. On several days in Mexico City, the [OOA]/[Ox] ratio decreased by a factor of ~2 between 08:00 and 13:00 local time. This decrease is only partially attributable to evaporation of the least oxidized and most volatile components of OOA; differences in the diurnal emission trends and timescales for photochemical processing of SOA precursors compared to ozone precursors also likely contribute to the observed decrease. The extent of OOA oxidation increased with photochemical aging. Calculations of the ratio of the SOA formation rate to the Ox production rate using ambient VOC measurements and traditional laboratory SOA yields are lower than the observed [OOA]/[Ox] ratios by factors of 5 to 15, consistent with several other models' underestimates of SOA. Calculations of this ratio using emission factors for organic compounds from gasoline and diesel exhaust do not reproduce the observed

  1. Exploratory study of atmospheric methane enhancements derived from natural gas use in the Houston urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Nancy P.; Zheng, Chuantao; Ye, Weilin; Czader, Beata; Cohan, Daniel S.; Tittel, Frank K.; Griffin, Robert J.

    2018-03-01

    The extensive use of natural gas (NG) in urban areas for heating and cooking and as a vehicular fuel is associated with potentially significant emissions of methane (CH4) to the atmosphere. Methane, a potent greenhouse gas that influences the chemistry of the atmosphere, can be emitted from different sources including leakage from NG infrastructure, transportation activities, end-use uncombusted NG, landfills and livestock. Although significant CH4 leakage associated with aging local NG distribution systems in the U.S. has been reported, further investigation is required to study the role of this infrastructure component and other NG-related sources in atmospheric CH4 enhancements in urban centers. In this study, neighborhood-scale mobile-based monitoring of potential CH4 emissions associated with NG in the Greater Houston area (GHA) is reported. A novel dual-gas 3.337 μm interband cascade laser-based sensor system was developed and mobile-mode deployed for simultaneous CH4 and ethane (C2H6) monitoring during a period of over 14 days, corresponding to ∼ 90 h of effective data collection during summer 2016. The sampling campaign covered ∼250 exclusive road miles and was primarily concentrated on eight residential zones with distinct infrastructure age and NG usage levels. A moderate number of elevated CH4 concentration events (37 episodes) with mixing ratios not exceeding 3.60 ppmv and associated with atmospheric background enhancements below 1.21 ppmv were observed during the field campaign. Source discrimination analyses based on the covariance between CH4 and C2H6 levels indicated the predominance of thermogenic sources (e.g., NG) in the elevated CH4 concentration episodes. The volumetric fraction of C2H6 in the sources associated with the thermogenic CH4 spikes varied between 2.7 and 5.9%, concurring with the C2H6 content in NG distributed in the GHA. Isolated CH4 peak events with significantly higher C2H6 enhancements (∼11%) were observed at industrial

  2. Atmospheric Methane Enhancements Related with Natural Gas Usage in the Greater Houston Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, N. P.; Zheng, C.; Ye, W.; Czader, B.; Cohan, D. S.; Tittel, F. K.; Griffin, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Natural gas (NG) usage as a replacement of oil and coal has increased significantly in the U.S in recent years. Despite the benefits associated with this fuel, leakage from NG distribution systems and in-use uncombusted NG (e.g., compressed natural gas vehicles) can be relevant sources of methane (CH4) emissions in urban centers. Methane, the main constituent of NG, is a potent greenhouse gas impacting the chemistry of the atmosphere, whose emission might outweigh the potential environmental advantages of NG use. Although the Greater Houston area (GHA) is the fifth-largest metropolitan area in the U.S, no studies on the potential impact of NG usage on atmospheric CH4 levels have been published in the scientific literature to date. In this work, a mobile-based study of CH4 and ethane (C2H6) concentration levels in eight residential zones with different expected probability of NG leakage in the GHA was conducted in the summer of 2016. A novel laser-based sensor system for simultaneous detection of CH4 and C2H6 was developed and deployed in a mid-sized vehicle, and monitoring of these gas species was conducted for over 14 days covering 250 road miles. Both linear discriminant and cluster analyses were performed to assess the spatial variability of atmospheric CH4 concentrations in the GHA. These analyses showed clear differences in the CH4 mixing ratios in an inter- and intra-neighborhood level and indicated the presence of high CH4 concentration clusters mainly located in the central and west central parts of the GHA. Source discrimination analyses based on orthogonal regression analysis and a Keeling-like plot method were conducted to establish the predominant origin of CH4 in the identified high concentration clusters and in over 30 CH4 concentration peaks observed during the field campaign. Results of these analyses indicate that thermogenic sources of CH4 (e.g., NG) were predominant in short-duration concentration spikes (lasting less than 10 minutes), while CH4

  3. Development of software for handling ship's pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittari, Giulio; Peretti, Alessandro; Sibilio, Fabio; Ioannidis, Nicholas; Amenta, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Ships are required to carry a given amount of medicinal products and medications depending on the flag and the type of vessel. These medicines are stored in the so called ship's "medicine chest" or more properly - a ship pharmacy. Owing to the progress of medical sciences and to the increase in the mean age of seafarers employed on board ships, the number of pharmaceutical products and medical devices required by regulations to be carried on board ships is increasing. This may make handling of the ship's medicine chest a problem primarily on large ships sailing on intercontinental routes due to the difficulty in identifying the correspondence between medicines obtained abroad with those available at the national market. To minimise these problems a tool named Pharmacy Ship (acronym: PARSI) has been developed. The application PARSI is based on a database containing the information about medicines and medical devices required by different countries regulations. In the first application the system was standardised to comply with the Italian regulations issued on the 1st October, 2015 which entered into force on the 18 January 2016. Thanks to PARSI it was possible to standardize the inventory procedures, facilitate the work of maritime health authorities and make it easier for the crew, not professional in the field, to handle the 'medicine chest' correctly by automating the procedures for medicines management. As far as we know there are no other similar tools available at the moment. The application of the software, as well as the automation of different activities, currently carried out manually, will help manage (qualitatively and quantitatively) the ship's pharmacy. The system developed in this study has proved to be an effective tool which serves to guarantee the compliance of the ship pharmacy with regulations of the flag state in terms of medicinal products and medications. Sharing the system with the Telemedical Maritime Assistance Service may result in

  4. A Ship Cargo Hold Inspection Approach Using Laser Vision Systems

    OpenAIRE

    SHEN Yang; ZHAO Ning; LIU Haiwei; MI Chao

    2013-01-01

    Our paper represents a vision system based on the laser measurement system (LMS) for bulk ship inspection. The LMS scanner with 2-axis servo system is installed on the ship loader to build the shape of the ship. Then, a group of real-time image processing algorithms are implemented to compute the shape of the cargo hold, the inclination angle of the ship and the relative position between the ship loader and the cargo hold. Based on those computed inspection data of the ship, the ship loader c...

  5. Development of the Nuclear Ship Database. 1. Outline of the Nuclear Ship Experimental Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyouya, Masahiko; Ochiai, Masa-aki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Hashidate, Kouji

    1995-03-01

    We obtained the experimental data on the effects of the ship motions and the change in load and caused by the ship operations, the waves, the winds etc., to the nuclear power plant behavior, through the Power-up Tests and Experimental Voyages of the Nuclear Ship MUTSU. Moreover, we accumulated the techniques, the knowledge and others on the Nuclear Ship development at the each stage of the N.S. MUTSU Research and Development program, such as the design stage, the construction stage, the operation stage and others. These data, techniques, knowledge and others are the assembly of the experimental data and the experiences through the design, the construction and the operation of the first nuclear ship in JAPAN. It is important to keep and pigeonhole these products of the N.S. MUTSU program in order to utilize them effectively in the research and development of the advanced marine reactor, since there is no construction plan of the nuclear ship for the present in JAPAN. We have been carrying out the development of the Nuclear Ship Database System since 1991 for the purpose of effective utilization of the N.S. MUTSU products in the design study of the advanced marine reactors. The part of the Nuclear Ship Database System on the experimental data, called Nuclear Ship Experimental Database, was already accomplished and utilized since 1993. This report describes the outline and the use of the Nuclear Ship Experimental Database.The remaining part of the database system on the documentary data, called Nuclear Ship Documentary Database, are now under development. (author).

  6. Development of the Nuclear Ship Database. 1. Outline of the Nuclear Ship Experimental Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyouya, Masahiko; Ochiai, Masa-aki; Hashidate, Kouji.

    1995-03-01

    We obtained the experimental data on the effects of the ship motions and the change in load and caused by the ship operations, the waves, the winds etc., to the nuclear power plant behavior, through the Power-up Tests and Experimental Voyages of the Nuclear Ship MUTSU. Moreover, we accumulated the techniques, the knowledge and others on the Nuclear Ship development at the each stage of the N.S. MUTSU Research and Development program, such as the design stage, the construction stage, the operation stage and others. These data, techniques, knowledge and others are the assembly of the experimental data and the experiences through the design, the construction and the operation of the first nuclear ship in JAPAN. It is important to keep and pigeonhole these products of the N.S. MUTSU program in order to utilize them effectively in the research and development of the advanced marine reactor, since there is no construction plan of the nuclear ship for the present in JAPAN. We have been carrying out the development of the Nuclear Ship Database System since 1991 for the purpose of effective utilization of the N.S. MUTSU products in the design study of the advanced marine reactors. The part of the Nuclear Ship Database System on the experimental data, called Nuclear Ship Experimental Database, was already accomplished and utilized since 1993. This report describes the outline and the use of the Nuclear Ship Experimental Database.The remaining part of the database system on the documentary data, called Nuclear Ship Documentary Database, are now under development. (author)

  7. Feasibility Study on Nuclear Propulsion Ship according to Economic Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Youngmi; Yoo, Seongjin; Oh, June; Byun, Yoonchul; Woo, Ilguk [Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Co., Ltd, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jiho; Choi, Suhn [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The use of nuclear ships has been extending to the icebreaker, the deep-water exploration ship, and the floating nuclear power plant. Prior to developing the new ship, the relevant regulations need to be considered. In this study, we reviewed the nuclear ship-related regulations. In addition, economic value is one of the most important factors which should be considered in the pre-design phase. To evaluate the economics of the nuclear ship, we calculated Capital Expenditure (abbreviated as CAPEX) and Operation Expenditure (abbreviated as OPEX) for various types of ships. We reviewed the nuclear ship-related regulations and evaluated the economics of the nuclear ship compared to the diesel ship. The calculation result shows that economic feasibility of the nuclear ship depends on the oil price as well as the cost of the nuclear reactor.

  8. Analysis of ship maneuvering data from simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frette, V.; Kleppe, G.; Christensen, K.

    2011-03-01

    We analyze complex manuevering histories of ships obtained from training sessions on bridge simulators. Advanced ships are used in fields like offshore oil exploration: dive support vessels, supply vessels, anchor handling vessels, tugs, cable layers, and multi-purpose vessels. Due to high demands from the operations carried out, these ships need to have very high maneuverability. This is achieved through a propulsion system with several thrusters, water jets, and rudders in addition to standard propellers. For some operations, like subsea maintenance, it is crucial that the ship accurately keeps a fixed position. Therefore, bridge systems usually incorporate equipment for Dynamic Positioning (DP). DP is a method to keep ships and semi submersible rigs in a fixed position using the propulsion systems instead of anchors. It may also be used for sailing a vessel from one position to another along a predefined route. Like an autopilot on an airplane, DP may operate without human involvement. The method relies on accurate determination of position from external reference systems like GPS, as well as a continuously adjusted mathematical model of the ship and external forces from wind, waves and currents. In a specific simulator exercise for offshore crews, a ship is to be taken up to an installation consisting of three nearby oil platforms connected by bridges (Frigg field, North Sea), where a subsea inspection is to be carried out. Due to the many degrees of freedom during maneuvering, including partly or full use of DP, the chosen routes vary significantly. In this poster we report preliminary results on representations of the complex maneuvering histories; representations that allow comparison between crew groups, and, possibly, sorting of the different strategic choices behind.

  9. Proposing transportation designs and concepts to make Houston METRO's southeast line at the Palm Center area more walkable, bikeable, and livable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Over the years, the Palm Center (PC) in Houston, Texas, has been the beneficiary of several economic : development endeavors designed to ignite economic and community growth and revitalization. While : these endeavors brought forth initial success, t...

  10. The Transformation of Swedish Shipping, 1970-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Sjögren, Hans; Taro Lennerfors, Thomas; Taudal Poulsen, Rene

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, as shipping has undergone a period of structural change, Swedish shipping has rapidly declined from a position of global importance. The Swedish-controlled fleet has dwindled, and the structure of the industry itself has changed. This article explores the influence of shipping markets, shipping regulations, company strategies, maritime know-how, and financial resources on the development of Swedish shipping from 1970 to 2010. A comparison is made between, on the one han...

  11. Clinic access and teenage birth rates: Racial/ethnic and spatial disparities in Houston, TX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Megan M; O'Connell, Heather A

    2018-03-01

    Teenage motherhood is a pressing issue in the United States, and one that is disproportionately affecting racial/ethnic minorities. In this research, we examine the relationship between the distance to the nearest reproductive health clinic and teenage birth rates across all zip codes in Houston, Texas. Our primary data come from the Texas Department of State Health Services. We use spatial regression analysis techniques to examine the link between clinic proximity and local teenage birth rates for all females aged 15 to 19, and separately by maternal race/ethnicity. We find, overall, limited support for a connection between clinic distance and local teenage birth rates. However, clinics seem to matter most for explaining non-Hispanic white teenage birth rates, particularly in high-poverty zip codes. The racial/ethnic and economic variation in the importance of clinic distance suggests tailoring clinic outreach to more effectively serve a wider range of teenage populations. We argue social accessibility should be considered in addition to geographic accessibility in order for clinics to help prevent teenage pregnancy. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Predictors of Intention to Quit Waterpipe Smoking: A Survey of Arab Americans in Houston, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqa Athamneh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Waterpipe smoking has been described as “the second global tobacco epidemic since the cigarette.” Both Middle Eastern ethnicity and having a friend of Middle Eastern ethnicity have been reported as significant predictors of waterpipe smoking. Addressing waterpipe smoking in this ethnic minority is essential to controlling this growing epidemic in the US. We investigated the predictors of an intention to quit waterpipe smoking by surveying 340 Arab American adults in the Houston area. Primary analyses were conducted using stepwise logistic regression. Only 27% of participants reported having an intention to quit waterpipe smoking. Intention to quit waterpipe smoking was significantly higher with history of cigar use, a prior attempt to quit, and not smoking when seriously ill and significantly lower with increasing age, medium cultural acceptability of using waterpipe among family, high cultural acceptability of using waterpipe among friends, longer duration of smoking sessions, and perceiving waterpipe smoking as less harmful than cigarettes. Educational programs that target Arab Americans in general, and specifically older adults, those who smoke waterpipe for more than 60 minutes, those whose family and friends approve waterpipe smoking, and those with no former attempts to quit, may be necessary to increase the intention to quit waterpipe smoking.

  13. A contribution to the development of an economic atlas of the Houston Area Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    An outine description of the Houston Area Test Site was prepared, in the form of an atlas-catalog of Universal Transverse Mercator grid coordinate locations, building on the manufacturing sector and expanding along agreed lines as far as possible. It was concluded that (1) the effort expended in securing and verifying the locations of larger manufacturing plants yielded 5,000-plus usable entries, in addition to certain valuable conclusions about the general feasibility of obtaining ground information by economic sector; (2) on the basis of the number and the quality of the usable entries obtained, the resources expended on nonmanufacturing sectors and on historical data cannot be wholly justified; and (3) even without the 5,000-odd locations of completely satisfactory quality, the relatively modest cost of this pilot study secured enough data to provide a sound basis for obtaining feasibly and systematically some appropriate ground information on almost any economic or social activity, together with some indication of their relative areal and economic significance.

  14. Accessing Disadvantaged Pregnant Women in Houston, Texas, and Characterizing Biomarkers of Metal Exposure: A Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina W. Whitworth

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Communities of color or low socioeconomic status are disproportionately affected by metal exposure given spatial variability of the ambient levels of these contaminants. Despite this, there is little research characterizing metal concentrations in blood among disadvantaged populations in the U.S., especially among pregnant women who are particularly vulnerable and difficult to access. Thus, we conducted a pilot study among disadvantaged pregnant women in Houston, Texas to assess willingness to participate in key activities of an epidemiologic study and characterize exposures to 16 metals. Thirty-one women attending a Medicaid-serving prenatal clinic were included in this pilot study and completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire. We obtained and measured metal compounds in whole blood samples for 22 of these women during third-trimester prenatal visits. Median whole blood concentrations of Ni, As, Cd, and Pb were 27, 1.4, 0.6, and 6.3 µg/L, respectively. Most women were willing to participate in critical aspects of a research study, including wearing a personal air-sampling badge for 2–3 days (87.1%, receiving ultrasounds (83.9%, and providing blood draws (64.5%. Despite the small sample, our results provide evidence of women’s metal exposure and their willingness to participate in future research studies to elucidate exposure pathways and explore related health effects experienced among this population of disadvantaged pregnant women.

  15. The melding of drug markets in Houston after Katrina: dealer and user perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, Joseph A; Fackler, Jennifer; Johnson, Bruce D; Dunlap, Eloise

    2010-07-01

    In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, the majority of routine activities in New Orleans were disrupted, including the illegal drug market. The large-scale relocation of New Orleans evacuees (NOEs), including many illegal drug users and sellers, to host cities led to a need for new sources of illegal drugs. This need was quickly satisfied by two initially distinct drug markets (1) drug dealers from New Orleans who were themselves evacuees and (2) established drug dealers in the host cities. To be expected, the two markets did not operate indefinitely in parallel fashion. This paper describes the evolving, operational relationship between these two drug markets over time, with a focus on Houston. We analyze the reciprocal evolution of these two markets at two significant points in time: at the beginning of the relocation (2005) and two years later (2007). The overall trend is towards a melding of the two drug markets, as evidenced primarily by decreases in drug-related violence and the cross-fertilization of drug tastes. We describe the process by which the two drug markets are melded over time, in order to seek a better understanding of the social processes by which drug markets in general evolve.

  16. Learning from Katrina: environmental health observations from the SWCPHP response team in Houston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elledge, Brenda L; Boatright, Daniel T; Woodson, Paul; Clinkenbeard, Rodney E; Brand, Michael W

    2007-09-01

    Hurricane Katrina provided an opportunity to observe the public health and medical care response system in practice and provided vital lessons about identifying and learning critical response measures as well as about ineffective investments of time and effort. The Southwest Center for Public Health Preparedness (SWCPHP) response team, while working among evacuees housed at Reliant Park in Houston, Texas, made a number of observations related to environmental public health. This summary reports firsthand observations which are, to a great extent, supported by the Federal Response to Hurricane Katrina: Lessons Learned report, and it provides a contextual backdrop for improvement in the areas of volunteer and citizen preparedness training and education. Katrina provided an opportunity to see public health in a highly stressed practice setting and to identify and reinforce the fundamental tenets of public health with which all individuals responding to an event should be familiar. Knowledge gained from Katrina should be integrated into future efforts related to disaster response planning; specifically, it is imperative that volunteers receive standardized training in the areas of incident command systems (ICS), basic hygiene, transmission of disease, and food and water safety principles.

  17. Effects of cold fronts on ozone in the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, R.; Talbot, R. W.; Wang, Y.; Wang, S. C.; Estes, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    A cold front may have confounding effects on ozone by bringing in contaminated air masses to an area and causing lower temperatures which likely lead to low ozone production rates. Literature reports on individual cold front events showing increasing and decreasing effects on ozone. The Houston-Galveston-Brazoria (HGB) area as the energy capital of USA suffers relatively high ozone levels. The effect of cold fronts on HGB ozone in the long-term range remains unknown. Weather Prediction Center (WPC) Surface Analysis Archive from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) which records cold fronts' positions since 2003 has been employed in this study. The results show the count of cold fronts passing the HGB area shows no clear trend but great interannual variation. Cold front appearance in summer is much less than in other seasons. In general, both mean MDA8 and background ozone during cold front days increased compared non-cold front days. This increasing effect has been enhanced during post-front days and summer season. Cluster analysis on meteorological parameters shows cold front days with high precipitation or wind speed could lower the MDA8 and background ozone but the proportion of those days are low in all cold front days. It may explain why cold fronts show increasing effects on ozone in the HGB area.

  18. Rapid assessment of household needs in the Houston area after Tropical Storm Allison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Stephen C; Reynolds, Kaye M; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Arafat, Raouf R

    2002-09-01

    Tropical Storm Allison, which hit landfall near Galveston, Texas, on June 5, 2001, caused the most severe flood-related damage ever recorded in the Houston metropolitan area. The main goal of the public health response to tropical storm Allison was to evaluate the immediate health needs of the community. To estimate damage and household needs, we conducted a rapid needs assessment in the areas most affected by flooding with use of a modified cluster sampling method facilitated by Geographical Information Systems methodology. A total of 420 households participated in the survey, 210 each from the 2 sampling areas. We found a 4-fold increase in illness among persons living in flooded homes compared with those living in nonflooded homes. These findings suggest a need for rapid resolution of flood-related damage and the possibility that residents should seek temporary housing during clean-up and repair. In addition, we obtained reliable estimates of damage and household needs to help guide relief efforts. The findings underscore the usefulness of a rapid-needs assessment as a tool to identify actual health threats and to facilitate delivery of resources to those with the greatest and most immediate need.

  19. Analysis of ship life cycles: the impact of economic cycles and ship inspection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijwaard, G.E.; Knapp, S.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the shipping industry's international legal framework, there are loopholes in the system, which can increase the risk of incidents with high economic costs due to the substandard operation of vessels. This article uses duration analysis and through the creation of ship life cycles provides

  20. Ship Acquisition of Shipping Companies by Sale & Purchase Activities for Sustainable Growth: Exploratory Fuzzy-AHP Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun-Sik Park

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Strengthening sale and purchase (S&P capacity has become a fundamental requirement for sustainable growth and corporate competitiveness in the modern shipping market. However, there is a lack of research related to S&P and its priority when shipping companies attempt to implement ship acquisition through S&P activities. To fill this gap, this paper conducts an empirical analysis to analyze priority factors during the acquisition of second-hand ships from the perspective of shipping companies. Business criteria are considered to be the most important factors in the analysis of the priority of ship acquisition and investment in shipping companies. To the best of our knowledge, this research is the first exploration covering Korean shipping companies’ ship acquisition through S&P activities. This study is expected to contribute to the better understanding of the role of S&P in ensuring the sustainability of shipping companies and to provide stakeholders with valuable insights.

  1. Houston's Novel Strategy to Control Hazardous Air Pollutants: A Case Study in Policy Innovation and Political Stalemate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Ken; Linder, Stephen H

    2015-01-01

    Although ambient concentrations have declined steadily over the past 30 years, Houston has recorded some of the highest levels of hazardous air pollutants in the United States. Nevertheless, federal and state regulatory efforts historically have emphasized compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone, treating "air toxics" in Houston as a residual problem to be solved through application of technology-based standards. Between 2004 and 2009, Mayor Bill White and his administration challenged the well-established hierarchy of air quality management spelled out in the Clean Air Act, whereby federal and state authorities are assigned primacy over local municipalities for the purpose of designing and implementing air pollution control strategies. The White Administration believed that existing regulations were not sufficient to protect the health of Houstonians and took a diversity of both collaborative and combative policy actions to mitigate air toxic emissions from stationary sources. Opposition was substantial from a local coalition of entrenched interests satisfied with the status quo, which hindered the city's attempts to take unilateral policy actions. In the short term, the White Administration successfully raised the profile of the air toxics issue, pushed federal and state regulators to pay more attention, and induced a few polluting facilities to reduce emissions. But since White left office in 2010, air quality management in Houston has returned to the way it was before, and today there is scant evidence that his policies have had any lasting impact.

  2. Impact of sulfur content regulations of shipping fuel on coastal air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyler, André; Wittrock, Folkard; Kattner, Lisa; Mathieu-Üffing, Barbara; Weigelt, Andreas; Peters, Enno; Richter, Andreas; Schmolke, Stefan; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    Shipping traffic is a sector that faces an enormous growth rate and contributes substantially to the emissions from the transportation sector, but lacks regulations and controls. Shipping is not enclosed in the Kyoto Protocol. However, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) introduced sufhur limits for marine heavy fuels, nitrogen oxide limits for newly-built ship engines and established Emission Control Areas (ECA) in the North and Baltic Sea as well as around North America with the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78 Annex VI). Recently, on the 1st of January 2015, the allowed sulfur content of marine fuels inside Sulfur Emission Control Areas has been significantly decreased from 1.0% to 0.1%. However, measurements of reactive trace gases and the chemical composition of the marine troposphere along shipping routes are sparse and up to now there is no regular monitoring system available. The project MeSmarT (measurements of shipping emissions in the marine troposphere) is a cooperation between the University of Bremen, the German Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie, BSH) and the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht. This study aims to analyse the influence of shipping emissions on the coastal air quality by evaluating ground-based remote sensing measurements using the MAX-DOAS (Multi AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) technique. Measurements of the atmospheric trace gases nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) have been carried out in the marine troposphere at the MeSmarT measurement sites in Wedel and on Neuwerk and on-board several ship cruises on the North and Baltic Sea. The capability of two-channel MAX-DOAS systems to do simultaneous measurements in the UV and visible spectral range has been used in the so called "onion-peeling" approach to derive spatial distributions of ship emissions and to analyse the movement of the exhausted

  3. Risk Analysis on Ship Wreck and Container Cargo to Ship Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Badrus Zaman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wreck of a ship is an incident that must be avoided. Ship accidents are generally caused by a several cases, such as human error, natural disaster, technical errors, missed communication, poor condition of the ship, and many more. Ship wreckage have huge impact for ship navigation, environment, economics, and others. Those impact have many disadvantages for the shipowners, and also for environment. For examples the fuel spills that pollute the environment, make disturbance to sailing ship because the track for those navigation is blocked by the ship wreck and their cargo especially on shallow location (<50 m. These research will discuss the effect the container when it is floats on the sea and its interference other ships. The main objective of this study is to present a risk assessment on the environmental impact of the wreck and container cargo. Wrecks on the seabed is likely to pose a risk to passing ships. container and its contents as well as the possibility of refloat, and also their environmental risks emanating from the wreck and container cargo, such as fuels, lubricants, and chemical cargo. Variations scenario is a collision between ships that pass by floating containers. The frequency of refloating container, and the consequences of the passing ship depends on several factors, which will be the subject of research. However, because of the frequency of refloating containers is unlikely, then the risk is low and does not pose a danger to navigation. These risk assessment using risk matrix 5x5 which is the combined value of the frequency and consequences of the incident. The results of this study indicate the level of risk, whether the risk is accepted, not accepted or received by considering the costs and benefits (ALARP. To consequence, there are two parameters which energy is absorbed and the penetration occurs. The absorbed energy is divided into two, namely the energy absorbed by ship and the energy absorbed by containers. In this

  4. 33 CFR 161.35 - Vessel Traffic Service Houston/Galveston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; Gulf ICW and Galveston-Freeport Cut-Off from Mile 346 to Mile 352; Texas City Channel; Texas City...′ N 94°47.0′ W Red Fish Bar 4000 29°29.8′ N 94°51.9′ W Bayport Channel 4000 29°36.7′ N 94°57.2′ W... Galveston Bay Entrance Channel LB 11 and 12 29° 20.6′ N; 94° 44.6′ W E Bolivar Land Cut Mile 349...

  5. An assessment of simplified methods to determine damage from ship-to-ship collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, M.B.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is studying the safety of shipping, radioactive materials (RAM) by sea, the SeaRAM project (McConnell, et al. 1995), which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The project is concerned with the potential effects of ship collisions and fires on onboard RAM packages. Existing methodologies are being assessed to determine their adequacy to predict the effect of ship collisions and fires on RAM packages and to estimate whether or not a given accident might lead to a release of radioactivity. The eventual goal is to develop a set of validated methods, which have been checked by comparison with test data and/or detailed finite element analyses, for predicting the consequences of ship collisions and fires. These methods could then be used to provide input for overall risk assessments of RAM sea transport. The emphasis of this paper is on methods for predicting- effects of ship collisions

  6. Radiative Forcing Over Ocean by Ship Wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Wilcox, E.; Poudyal, R.; Wang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in surface albedo represent one of the main forcing agents that can counteract, to some extent, the positive forcing from increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. Here, we report on enhanced ocean reflectance from ship wakes over the Pacific Ocean near the California coast, where we determined, based on airborne radiation measurements that ship wakes can increase reflected sunlight by more than 100%. We assessed the importance of this increase to climate forcing, where we estimated the global radiative forcing of ship wakes to be -0.00014 plus or minus 53% Watts per square meter assuming a global distribution of 32331 ships of size of greater than or equal to 100000 gross tonnage. The forcing is smaller than the forcing of aircraft contrails (-0.007 to +0.02 Watts per square meter), but considering that the global shipping fleet has rapidly grown in the last five decades and this trend is likely to continue because of the need of more inter-continental transportation as a result of economic globalization, we argue that the radiative forcing of wakes is expected to be increasingly important especially in harbors and coastal regions.

  7. Quantitative analysis method for ship construction quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FU Senzong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The excellent performance of a ship is assured by the accurate evaluation of its construction quality. For a long time, research into the construction quality of ships has mainly focused on qualitative analysis due to a shortage of process data, which results from limited samples, varied process types and non-standardized processes. Aiming at predicting and controlling the influence of the construction process on the construction quality of ships, this article proposes a reliability quantitative analysis flow path for the ship construction process and fuzzy calculation method. Based on the process-quality factor model proposed by the Function-Oriented Quality Control (FOQC method, we combine fuzzy mathematics with the expert grading method to deduce formulations calculating the fuzzy process reliability of the ordinal connection model, series connection model and mixed connection model. The quantitative analysis method is applied in analyzing the process reliability of a ship's shaft gear box installation, which proves the applicability and effectiveness of the method. The analysis results can be a useful reference for setting key quality inspection points and optimizing key processes.

  8. Orchestrating Transnational Environmental Governance in Maritime Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lister, Jane; Taudal Poulsen, René; Ponte, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Maritime shipping is the transmission belt of the global economy. It is also a major contributor to global environmental change through its under-regulated air, water and land impacts. It is puzzling that shipping is a lagging sector as it has a well-established global regulatory body—the Interna......Maritime shipping is the transmission belt of the global economy. It is also a major contributor to global environmental change through its under-regulated air, water and land impacts. It is puzzling that shipping is a lagging sector as it has a well-established global regulatory body......—the International Maritime Organization. Drawing on original empirical evidence and archival data, we introduce a four-factor framework to investigate two main questions: why is shipping lagging in its environmental governance; and what is the potential for the International Maritime Organization to orchestrate......, and growing regulatory fragmentation and uncertainty. The paper concludes with pragmatic recommendations for the International Maritime Organization to acknowledge the regulatory difficulties and seize the opportunity to orchestrate environmental progress....

  9. Report of nuclear powered ship meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The research and development of nuclear powered ships in Japan have been advanced centering around the Japan Nuclear Ship Development Agency established in 1963. It is regretful that the development of ''Mutsu'' is largely behind the schedule due to the radiation leak in 1974, and the expected objective has not yet been attained even today. The government decided to advance the research on the improvement of marine nuclear reactors in 1980, and this new research function was given to the Agency by changing its organization. However, recently various arguments have arisen concerning the way of the research and development of nuclear ships in Japan centering around ''Mutsu'', such as the necessity of developing nuclear ships, the enormous expenditure for the development, the aging of ''Mutsu'' more than 10 years after the construction, the introduction of nuclear ship technology from foreign countries and so on. By the end of fiscal 1984, the Agency is expected to merge with other organization related to atomic energy, therefore, it is necessary to decide the way of research and development. This meeting organized by the Atomic Energy Commission makes this report to show the way of thinking about the above arguments. (Kako, I.)

  10. Capital structure in the global shipping industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paun Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis emerged from a particular financial crisis that started in the United States and being rapidly propagated all over the world. It did not affect a limited region or a limited economic sector. This crisis induced significant changes in all management areas, including financial management. This study is focused on financing strategies adopted by shipping companies during the crisis, analyzing relevant factors for a specific issue - the capital structure. The research methodology proposed for this analysis on relevant factors that could explain the capital structure of shipping is OLS regression applied on selected variables derived from the financial statements of the major shipping companies. The dependent variables reflecting capital structure are book value to total liabilities ratio and book value to total debt ratio. The explanatory variables are derived from the theory of capital structure. This study empirically illustrates the relevance of the capital structure theory for the studied economic sector and is a useful tool for the shipping companies, providing relevant information about the optimal capital structure adopted by shipping companies and about factors that influence this decision during a crisis period.

  11. Ship information system: overview and research trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ship Information Systems (SISs have been one of the main research focuses in ship design and become a multidisciplinary area. With these growing research trends, it is important to consolidate the latest knowledge and information to keep up with the research needs. In this paper, the SIS and its different forms are introduced and discussed. The beginning of this paper discusses the history and evolution of SIS. The next part of this paper focuses on different fields and research areas such as networking technology, information fusion, information decision, message display, ship control in real-time SISs. A Semi-Physical Simulation Platform (SPSIM designed for SIS research and its running effect through a new Fuzzy-PID fusion algorithm are introduced in this paper then. A brief literature survey and possible future direction concerning each topic is included.

  12. Standardized analyses of nuclear shipping containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, C.V.; Hermann, O.W.; Petrie, L.M.; Hoffman, T.J.; Tang, J.S.; Landers, N.F.; Turner, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes improved capabilities for analyses of nuclear fuel shipping containers within SCALE -- a modular code system for Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation. Criticality analysis improvements include the new KENO V, a code which contains an enhanced geometry package and a new control module which uses KENO V and allows a criticality search on optimum pitch (maximum k-effective) to be performed. The SAS2 sequence is a new shielding analysis module which couples fuel burnup, source term generation, and radial cask shielding. The SAS5 shielding sequence allows a multidimensional Monte Carlo analysis of a shipping cask with code generated biasing of the particle histories. The thermal analysis sequence (HTAS1) provides an easy-to-use tool for evaluating a shipping cask response to the accident capability of the SCALE system to provide the cask designer or evaluator with a computational system that provides the automated procedures and easy-to-understand input that leads to standarization

  13. The Two Regimes of Postwar Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Martin Jes; Tenold, Stig

    2014-01-01

    the bargaining that accompanied the shift from the national regime to the competitive regime. Specifically, we show that the new regime primarily accommodated the interests of private actors such as shipping companies, rather than the interests of the authorities and the trade unions.......The aim of this article is to illustrate the most important changes in the regulatory framework of the shipping sector from the 1960s to 2010, and to analyse the basis for, and effects of, these changes. In order to explain how the transformation has occurred, we use two traditional maritime...... nations—Denmark and Norway—as case studies. First, we introduce the two regimes of Danish and Norwegian shipping: ‘the national regime’ from the early 1960s to the mid-1970s; and ‘the competitive regime’, which was fully established by the middle of the 1990s and still persists. Then, we briefly sketch...

  14. BALTIC CONTAINER SHIPPING MARKET GOES GLOBAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Czermański

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at summarizing the last period of the Baltic container shipping mar-ket’s development, especially after 2000. The author, taking especially into account changes that have occurred in 2010, ultimately demonstrate that through the analyzed changes, this market has become a global one - thus being shaped by global determinants influencing its further development. Author selected and analyzed some chosen, most important factors influencing future market development. Secondly, some chances and threats resulting from the described changes were presented, either for the entire market as a base for international trade of Baltic Sea Region countries, and for its actors, mainly shipping owners and operators acting as a supply side of the Baltic container market. Finally, author has tried to verify and questioned the doubts and strong concerns about the future of the Baltic container shipping, especially about the feeder services, as because there are real indications and arguments against these concern.

  15. Malaria infections in crews of Japanese ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoda, M; Shimizu, K; Nagano, M; Ishii, M

    2001-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria is the most dangerous infection for seafarers in West Africa. In December 1998, five cases of this infection occurred among Japanese seafarers in West Africa, two of them died, one on board ship, and another died five days after the admission to the hospital in Reunion island, East Africa. Six other cases of falciparum malaria infection occurred among Japanese seafarers on another ship in December 1999. Three infected persons were admitted to hospitals in Abidjan (Ivory Coast) and Point Noire (Congo). In Japan, over 100 cases of imported malaria were recorded each year during the period from 1990 to 1997, and about 40% of these cases were falciparum infections. It is not known how many of them occurred among seafarers. We estimate that at least 5% of all malaria cases in Japan are seafarers. Measures to protect crews of ships against malaria are discussed.

  16. Applicabilities of ship emission reduction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guleryuz, Adem [ARGEMAN Research Group, Marine Division (Turkey)], email: ademg@argeman.org; Kilic, Alper [Istanbul Technical University, Maritime Faculty, Marine Engineering Department (Turkey)], email: enviromarineacademic@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    Ships, with their high consumption of fossil fuels to power their engines, are significant air polluters. Emission reduction methods therefore need to be implemented and the aim of this paper is to assess the advantages and disadvantages of each emissions reduction method. Benefits of the different methods are compared, with their disadvantages and requirements, to determine the applicability of such solutions. The methods studied herein are direct water injection, humid air motor, sea water scrubbing, diesel particulate filter, selected catalytic reduction, design of engine components, exhaust gas recirculation and engine replacement. Results of the study showed that the usefulness of each emissions reduction method depends on the particular case and that an evaluation should be carried out for each ship. This study pointed out that methods to reduce ship emissions are available but that their applicability depends on each case.

  17. Marine traffic model based on cellular automaton: Considering the change of the ship's velocity under the influence of the weather and sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Le; Zheng, Zhongyi; Gang, Longhui

    2017-10-01

    It was found that the ships' velocity change, which is impacted by the weather and sea, e.g., wind, sea wave, sea current, tide, etc., is significant and must be considered in the marine traffic model. Therefore, a new marine traffic model based on cellular automaton (CA) was proposed in this paper. The characteristics of the ship's velocity change are taken into account in the model. First, the acceleration of a ship was divided into two components: regular component and random component. Second, the mathematical functions and statistical distribution parameters of the two components were confirmed by spectral analysis, curve fitting and auto-correlation analysis methods. Third, by combining the two components, the acceleration was regenerated in the update rules for ships' movement. To test the performance of the model, the ship traffic flows in the Dover Strait, the Changshan Channel and the Qiongzhou Strait were studied and simulated. The results show that the characteristics of ships' velocities in the simulations are consistent with the measured data by Automatic Identification System (AIS). Although the characteristics of the traffic flow in different areas are different, the velocities of ships can be simulated correctly. It proves that the velocities of ships under the influence of weather and sea can be simulated successfully using the proposed model.

  18. Global Loads on FRP Ship Hulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    Fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) composites used for high-speed vessels have lower modulus of elasticity than the conventionally used steels.Therefore, for large fast ships the lowest natural frequencies of the global hull modes can be relatively low compared to the frequency of waveencounter....... As part of the NoKoS project it was decided to investigate the effect of hull flexibility on the wave-induced as well as accidental structural loads on high-speed ships.Especially it was decided to determine whether there is an upper size of FRP and aluminium mono-hulls caused by continuous wave action...

  19. Network Design Models for Container Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Kallehauge, Brian; Nielsen, Anders Nørrelund

    This paper presents a study of the network design problem in container shipping. The paper combines the network design and fleet assignment problem into a mixed integer linear programming model minimizing the overall cost. The major contributions of this paper is that the time of a vessel route...... is included in the calculation of the capacity and that a inhomogeneous fleet is modeled. The model also includes the cost of transshipment which is one of the major cost for the shipping companies. The concept of pseudo simple routes is introduced to expand the set of feasible routes. The linearization...

  20. Code of safety for nuclear merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The Code is in chapters, entitled: general (including general safety principles and principles of risk acceptance); design criteria and conditions; ship design, construction and equipment; nuclear steam supply system; machinery and electrical installations; radiation safety (including radiological protection design; protection of persons; dosimetry; radioactive waste management); operation (including emergency operation procedures); surveys. Appendices cover: sinking velocity calculations; seaway loads depending on service periods; safety assessment; limiting dose-equivalent rates for different areas and spaces; quality assurance programme; application of single failure criterion. Initial application of the Code is restricted to conventional types of ships propelled by nuclear propulsion plants with pressurized light water type reactors. (U.K.)

  1. Absorbed Energy in Ship Collisions and Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    is that the absorbed energy does not depend on the arrangement of the structure, the material properties, and the damage mode.The purpose of the present paper is to establish a new simple relation between the absorbed energy and the destroyed material volume, which can be used as a design tool for analysis of ship...... collisions and grounding. The developed expressions reflect the structural arrangement, the material properties and different damage patterns.The present method is validated against a large number of existing experimental results and detailed numerical simulation results. Applications to full-sale ship...

  2. Transport impacts on atmosphere and climate: Shipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyring, Veronika; Isaksen, Ivar S. A.; Berntsen, Terje; Collins, William J.; Corbett, James J.; Endresen, Oyvind; Grainger, Roy G.; Moldanova, Jana; Schlager, Hans; Stevenson, David S.

    2010-12-01

    Emissions of exhaust gases and particles from oceangoing ships are a significant and growing contributor to the total emissions from the transportation sector. We present an assessment of the contribution of gaseous and particulate emissions from oceangoing shipping to anthropogenic emissions and air quality. We also assess the degradation in human health and climate change created by these emissions. Regulating ship emissions requires comprehensive knowledge of current fuel consumption and emissions, understanding of their impact on atmospheric composition and climate, and projections of potential future evolutions and mitigation options. Nearly 70% of ship emissions occur within 400 km of coastlines, causing air quality problems through the formation of ground-level ozone, sulphur emissions and particulate matter in coastal areas and harbours with heavy traffic. Furthermore, ozone and aerosol precursor emissions as well as their derivative species from ships may be transported in the atmosphere over several hundreds of kilometres, and thus contribute to air quality problems further inland, even though they are emitted at sea. In addition, ship emissions impact climate. Recent studies indicate that the cooling due to altered clouds far outweighs the warming effects from greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO 2) or ozone from shipping, overall causing a negative present-day radiative forcing (RF). Current efforts to reduce sulphur and other pollutants from shipping may modify this. However, given the short residence time of sulphate compared to CO 2, the climate response from sulphate is of the order decades while that of CO 2 is centuries. The climatic trade-off between positive and negative radiative forcing is still a topic of scientific research, but from what is currently known, a simple cancellation of global mean forcing components is potentially inappropriate and a more comprehensive assessment metric is required. The CO 2 equivalent emissions using

  3. Superconducting DC homopolar motors for ship propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiberger, M.; Reed, M.R.; Creedon, W.P.; O' Hea, B.J. [General Atomic (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Superconducting DC homopolar motors have undergone recent advances in technology, warranting serious consideration of their use for ship propulsion. Homopolar motor propulsion is now practical because of two key technology developments: cryogen-free superconducting refrigeration and high performance motor fiber brushes. These compact motors are ideal for podded applications, where reduced drag and fuel consumption are predicted. In addition, the simple DC motor controller is more efficient and reliable compared with AC motor controllers. Military ships also benefit from increased stealth implicit in homopolar DC excitation, which also allows the option for direct hull or pod mounting. (authors)

  4. Probabilistic Damage Stability Calculations for Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1996-01-01

    The aim of these notes is to provide background material for the present probabilistic damage stability rules fro dry cargo ships.The formulas for the damage statistics are derived and shortcomings as well as possible improvements are discussed. The advantage of the definiton of fictitious...... compartments in the formulation of a computer-based general procedure for probabilistic damaged stability assessment is shown. Some comments are given on the current state of knowledge on the ship survivability in damaged conditions. Finally, problems regarding proper account of water ingress through openings...

  5. Load and Global Response of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    The present monograph covers wave load and global structural response for ships. It is primary written as a textbook for students with an introductionary background in naval architecture and a basic knowledge of statistics and strength of materials. The subjects are treated in details starting from...... first principles. The aim has been to derive and present the necessary theoretical framework for predicting the extreme loads and the corresponding hull girder stresses the ship may be subjected to during its operational lifetime.Although some account is given to reliabiity analysis, the present...

  6. Nuclear shipping and waste disposal cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, C.R. II.

    1977-11-01

    Cost estimates for the shipping of spent fuel from the reactor, shipping of waste from the reprocessing plant, and disposal of reprocessing plant wastes have been made for five reactor types. The reactors considered are the light-water reactor (LWR), the mixed-oxide-fueled light-water reactor (MOX), the Canadian deuterium-uranium reactor (CANDU), the fast breeder reactor (FBR), and the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). In addition to the cost estimates, this report provides details on the bases and assumptions used to develop the cost estimates

  7. Time constrained liner shipping network design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Desaulniers, Guy

    2017-01-01

    We present a mathematical model and a solution method for the liner shipping network design problem. The model takes into account coordination between vessels and transit time restrictions on the cargo flow. The solution method is an improvement heuristic, where an integer program is solved...... iteratively to perform moves in a large neighborhood search. Our improvement heuristic is applicable as a real-time decision support tool for a liner shipping company. It can be used to find improvements to the network when evaluating changes in operating conditions or testing different scenarios...

  8. A numerical study on ship-ship interaction in shallow and restricted waterway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwook Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a numerical prediction method on the hydrodynamic interaction force and moment between two ships in shallow and restricted waterway is presented. Especially, the present study proposes a methodology to overcome the limitation of the two dimensional perturbation method which is related to the moored-passing ship interaction. The validation study was performed and compared with the experiment, firstly. Afterward, in order to propose a methodology in terms with the moored-passing ship interaction, further studies were performed for the moored-passing ship case with a Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS calculation which is using OpenFOAM with Arbitrary Coupled Mesh Interface (ACMI technique and compared with the experiment result. Finally, the present study proposes a guide to apply the two dimensional perturbation method to the moored-passing ship interaction. In addition, it presents a possibility that the RANS calculation with ACMI can applied to the ship-ship interaction without using a overset moving grid technique.

  9. SENTINEL-1/2 DATA FOR SHIP TRAFFIC MONITORING ON THE DANUBE RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dana Negula

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available After a long period of drought, the water level of the Danube River has significantly dropped especially on the Romanian sector, in July-August 2015. Danube reached the lowest water level recorded in the last 12 years, causing the blockage of the ships in the sector located close to Zimnicea Harbour. The rising sand banks in the navigable channel congested the commercial traffic for a few days with more than 100 ships involved. The monitoring of the decreasing water level and the traffic jam was performed based on Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 free data provided by the European Space Agency and the European Commission within the Copernicus Programme. Specific processing methods (calibration, speckle filtering, geocoding, change detection, image classification, principal component analysis, etc. were applied in order to generate useful products that the responsible authorities could benefit from. The Sentinel data yielded good results for water mask extraction and ships detection. The analysis continued after the closure of the crisis situation when the water reached the nominal level again. The results indicate that Sentinel data can be successfully used for ship traffic monitoring, building the foundation of future endeavours for a durable monitoring of the Danube River.

  10. An assessment of the transportation costs of shipping non-fuel assembly hardware to FWMS facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shappert, L.B.; Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.; Danese, F.L.; Best, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the cost of using Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Initiative I casks for transporting 62,700 MTU of spent fuel plus associated non-fuel assembly hardware (NFAH) between reactor sites and either a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) or a repository facility. The study further considers the benefits of increasing the cell size of the Initiative I BWR cask baskets to accommodate the fuel plus channels (which also would decrease the capacity of the cask to carry BWR fuel without channels) and the use of a commercial, non-spent-fuel cask to carry compacted NFAH that could not be shipped integrally. Costs that are developed involve transportation charges, capital costs for casks, and canning costs of NFAH that have been separated from the fuel. The results indicate that significant cost savings are possible if NFAH is accepted into the Federal Waste Management System (FWMS) that is either integral with the spent fuel, or consolidated if it has been separated. Shipment of unconsolidated NFAH is very expensive. Transportation costs for shipping to a western repository are approximately 50 to 75% higher than the costs for shipping to an eastern MRS

  11. Environmental literacy of Hispanic, urban, middle school students in Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuth, Amber M.

    With the global crises facing the planet that bring major implications, (Hart & Nolan, 1999; Hungerford & Simmons, 2003) it is imperative that there be an environmentally literate citizenry who can identify, solve, and prevent environmental issues. Since middle school students are evolving into participating citizens and are developing the ability to think in abstract terms, they are a critical group to study regarding levels of environmental literacy. Additionally, with the increased resource needs and decreased air and water quality in highly populated urban areas, focusing on the environmental literacy of students living and attending school in urban areas is essential. The purpose of this study was to describe the levels of environmental literacy of a group of Hispanic, urban, middle school students in Houston, Texas. Sixth, seventh, and eighth grade students who attend a charter school in Houston, Texas were given, the Middle School Environmental Literacy Survey (MSELS). This survey has been developed to measure components of environmental literacy as related to domains identified critical to environmental literacy (McBeth et al., 2008). The four domains include ecological knowledge, environmental affect, cognitive skills, and behavior. Data collected from the survey was used to determine levels of environmental literacy in the following variables: ecological knowledge, verbal commitment, actual commitment, environmental sensitivity, general environmental feelings, and environmental issue and action skills. Descriptive statistics were calculated and analyzed for each grade level and as an entire sample for each variable in order to generate a profile of the group. Composite scores were calculated in the four domains (ecological knowledge, environmental affect, cognitive skills, and behavior) and were compared to high, moderate, and low levels of environmental literacy set forth by top environmental education researchers (McBeth et al., 2008). Additionally, two

  12. Achieving Energy Efficient Ship Operations Under Third Party Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudal Poulsen, René; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Profitable energy saving measures are often not fully implemented in shipping, causing energy efficiency gaps. The paper identifies energy efficiency gaps in ship operations, and explores their causes. Lack of information on energy efficiency, lack of energy training at sea and onshore and lack...... of time to produce and provide reliable energy efficiency information cause energy efficiency gaps. The paper brings together the energy efficiency and ship management literatures, demonstrating how ship management models influence energy efficiency in ship operations. Achieving energy efficiency in ship...

  13. Prototypic fabrication of TRIGA irradiated fuel shipping casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B.K.; Lee, Y.W.; Whang, C.K.; Lee, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    This is the safety analysis report on the prototypic fabrication of ''TRIGA Irradiated Fuel Shipping Cask'' conducted by KAERI in 1980. The results of the evaluation show that the shipping cask is in compliance with the applicable regulation for the normal conditions of transport as well as hypothetical accident conditions. The prototypic fabrication of the shipping cask (type B) was carried out for the first time in Korea after getting technical experience from fabrication of the ''TRIGA Spent Fuel Shipping Cask'' and ''the KO-RI Unit 1 surveillance capsule shipping cask'' in 1979. This report contains structural evaluation, thermal evaluation, shielding, criticality, quality assurance, and handling procedures of the shipping cask

  14. Challenges to Ship Hydrodynamics in the XXI Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Kobylinski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of twenty-first century is characterized with important changes in world shipping and exploitation of ocean resources. Three important trends are clearly visible: environment protection, safety and economy. They materialize in important changes in the structure of world fleet where some existing ship types are going to disappear and new ship types emerge. Increasing the size of some ship types is another visible tendency. Stress on environment protection has serious impact on the hydrodynamic characteristics of ships whether with regard to safety zero accident rate is the goal. Important challenges to ship hydrodynamics caused by those tendencies are discussed in the paper.

  15. Mouthguard usage by middle and high school student-athletes in Houston, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael B; Johnson, Cleverick D; Cooley, Ralph A; Sharp, Holly; Servos, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    This survey recorded utilization levels of stock and custom mouthguards among middle and high school athletes in a US metropolitan area and gathered data on the prevalence of traumatic injuries that have occurred as a consequence of school-based athletic competition. The data also included reasons for the athletes' noncompliance. A 23-question, online survey form was developed. A geographically diverse list of public and private schools in the Houston metropolitan area was identified and included 30 public middle schools, 32 public high schools, 8 private middle schools, and 10 private high schools. The sports surveyed were baseball, basketball, field hockey, football, lacrosse, soccer, softball, volleyball, and wrestling. Only 1 private middle school participated. Only 5 of 32 public high schools and 1 private high school participated, representing response rates of 16% and 10%, respectively. Overall, there were 503 responses, and 56% of the respondents did not have a mouthguard. Among athletes who owned a mouthguard, most (70%) had stock versions purchased in a retail store, while 11% had a custom mouthguard fabricated by a dentist, and 19% had both types. The most frequent reasons cited for not wearing a mouthguard were forgetting to use it and a lack of comfort. The injury rates reported by respondents in the stock and custom mouthguard groups were 26% and 9%, respectively. A consistent, concerted effort by local dental societies should be aimed at school administrators and coaches to encourage enforcement or reinforcement of mouthguard usage policies among high school athletes, but, ultimately, parents need to step up to protect their children.

  16. Citizens and service channels: channel choice and channel management implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterson, Willem Jan

    2010-01-01

    The arrival of electronic channels in the 1990s has had a huge impact on governmental service delivery. The new channels have led to many new opportunities to improve public service delivery, not only in terms of citizen satisfaction, but also in cost reduction for governmental agencies. However,

  17. Carrier portfolio management for shipping seasonal products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, T.; Fransoo, J.C.; Lee, C.-Y.

    2017-01-01

    Many seasonal products are transported via ocean carriers from origin to destination markets. The shipments arriving earlier in the market may sell at higher prices, but faster shipping services can be costly. In this paper, we study a newsvendor-type shipper who transports and sells seasonal

  18. Exergy Analysis of Complex Ship Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Marty

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With multiple primary and secondary energy converters (diesel engines, steam turbines, waste heat recovery (WHR and oil-fired boilers, etc. and extensive energy networks (steam, cooling water, exhaust gases, etc., ships may be considered as complex energy systems. Understanding and optimizing such systems requires advanced holistic energy modeling. This modeling can be done in two ways: The simpler approach focuses on energy flows, and has already been tested, approved and presented; a new, more complicated approach, focusing on energy quality, i.e., exergy, is presented in this paper. Exergy analysis has rarely been applied to ships, and, as a general rule, the shipping industry is not familiar with this tool. This paper tries to fill this gap. We start by giving a short reminder of what exergy is and describe the principles of exergy modeling to explain what kind of results should be expected from such an analysis. We then apply these principles to the analysis of a large two-stroke diesel engine with its cooling and exhaust systems. Simulation results are then presented along with the exergy analysis. Finally, we propose solutions for energy and exergy saving which could be applied to marine engines and ships in general.

  19. Statistical modelling for ship propulsion efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jóan Petur; Jacobsen, Daniel J.; Winther, Ole

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a state-of-the-art systems approach to statistical modelling of fuel efficiency in ship propulsion, and also a novel and publicly available data set of high quality sensory data. Two statistical model approaches are investigated and compared: artificial neural networks...

  20. Flooding and sinking of nuclear merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettnin, H.K.J.; Wehowsky, P.

    1978-01-01

    In contrast to land-based power plants for ship reactors the marine environment brings up the peril of sinking. But this peril is low for nuclear ships with its high safety standard. An evaluation of casualties from 1964 - 1974 for ships>8000 GRT allows to estimate a very low sink probability for nuclear ships in the range of 10 -7 to 10 -8 p.a. In spite of this low probability a sinking cannot be excluded absolutely. Therefore passive means must be provided for sinking in deep waters: to maintain the integrity of at least one enclosure as activity barrier; to supply seawater into the safety containment for decay heat removal. For sinking in shallow waters and flooding at least one of the redundant decay heat removal systems including power supply stays operable. A mathematical tool is available for the design of flood openings of sufficient cross sections to flood the containment and to reach a pressure balance in case of postulated sinking in deep waters of any depth

  1. Reconfigurable Control of a Ship Propulsion Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, M.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    1998-01-01

    -tolerant control is a fairly new area. Thise paper presents a ship propulsion system as a benchmark that should be useful as a platform for the development of new ideas and a comparison of methods. The benchmark has two main elements. One is the development of efficient FDI algorithms, and the other...

  2. Trace of the nuclear powered ship 'Mutsu'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The development of the nuclear powered ship 'Mutsu' required the long period of about 30 years from 1963 to 1992. When this period is looked back, it is roughly divided into the period from the initial planning to the construction, the period of the power increase test and the occurrence of radiation leak, the period of the repair of shielding and the general safety checkup as the countermeasures, the period of the checkup and maintenance based on the new research plan, the period of the power increase test and the sea trial, and the period of the experimental voyage after the completion. The course of the development of the nuclear powered ship 'Mutsu' is shown. The design of Mutsu, the incidental land facilities for Mutsu, the power increase test and the experimental voyage of Mutsu, the law system for nuclear powered ships, the research and development of an improved marine nuclear reactor and the development of nuclear powered ships in the world are reported. Nuclear powered warships are operated in USA, USSR, UK, France and China. (K.I.)

  3. Speed Optimization in Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Karsten, Christian Vad; Pisinger, David

    In the Liner Shipping Network Design Problem (LSNDP) services sail at a given speed throughout a round trip. In reality most services operate with a speed differentiated head- and back-haul, or even individual speeds on every sailing between two ports. The speed of a service is decisive...

  4. Wave energy extraction using decommisioned ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansour, A.E.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Paik, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    is to tune the ship to have rigid body resonance, or close to it, and resist that motion to absorb power. A hydraulic ramp connected to an accumulator feeding a hydraulic motor that generates power is one possibility. Several other energy extraction mechanisms such as turbines connected to oscillating water...

  5. NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Video Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During each NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer field season, full-resolution video in a ProRes 422 format at a bitrate of 145 Mbps is produced during each deployment of the...

  6. Microbiologically influenced corrosion in ship ballast tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyer, A.

    2013-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is known to be a dangerous process in ship tanks due to its rapid and yet unpredictable occurrence, leading to extremely fast local corrosion, possibly jeopardizing the structural integrity, in a relatively short time. This project focuses on a

  7. Detection of Parametric Roll on Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2012-01-01

    phenomenon could make the navigator change ship’s speed and heading, and these remedial actions could make the vessel escape the bifurcation. This chapter proposes non-parametric methods to detect the onset of parametric roll resonance. Theoretical conditions for parametric resonance are re...... on experimental data from towing tank tests and data from a container ship passing an Atlantic storm....

  8. Key Design Properties for Shipping Information Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Tan, Yao-Hua

    2015-01-01

    on paper, e-mail, phone and text message, and far too costly. This paper explores the design properties for a shared information infrastructure to exchange information between all parties in the supply chain, commercial parties as well as authorities, which is called a Shipping Information Pipeline...

  9. Near Real Time Ship Detection Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusch, S.; Lehner, S.; Schwarz, E.; Fritz, T.

    2010-04-01

    A new Near Real Time (NRT) ship detection processor SAINT (SAR AIS Integrated Toolbox) was developed in the framework of the ESA project MARISS. Data are received at DLRs ground segment DLR-BN (Neustrelitz, Germany). Results of the ship detection are available on ftp server within 30 min after the acquisition started. The detectability of ships on Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) ERS-2, ENVISAT ASAR and TerraSAR-X (TS-X) images is validated by coastal (live) AIS and space AIS. The monitoring areas chosen for surveillance are the North-, Baltic Sea, and Cape Town. The detectability in respect to environmental parameters like wind field, sea state, currents and changing coastlines due to tidal effects is investigated. In the South Atlantic a tracking experiment of the German research vessel Polarstern has been performed. Issues of piracy in particular in respect to ships hijacked at the Somali coast are discussed. Some examples using high resolution images from TerraSAR-X are given.

  10. PARTICIPATION BASED MODEL OF SHIP CREW MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Bielić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 This paper analyse the participation - based model on board the ship as possibly optimal leadership model existing in the shipping industry with accent on decision - making process. In the paper authors have tried to define master’s behaviour model and management style identifying drawbacks and disadvantages of vertical, pyramidal organization with master on the top. Paper describes efficiency of decision making within team organization and optimization of a ship’s organisation by introducing teamwork on board the ship. Three examples of the ship’s accidents are studied and evaluated through “Leader - participation” model. The model of participation based management as a model of the teamwork has been applied in studying the cause - and - effect of accidents with the critical review of the communication and managing the human resources on a ship. The results have showed that the cause of all three accidents is the autocratic behaviour of the leaders and lack of communication within teams. Normal 0 21 false false false HR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  11. IS INLAND SHIPPING NEEDED IN POLAND?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Rolbiecki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, inland shipping plays only a mariginal role in transport needs fulfillment. Inland shipping has a share of mere 0,3% in goods transport modal split. The reason for this is poor and variable technical parameters of inland waterways together with adverse legal regulations. Different situation takes place in Western European countries, in which the development of this mode of transport is viewed as a way of road transport develop-ment restraint. In Poland, the need to move some of the volume from road transport to in-land shipping is specifically observed within marine ports surroundings. Because of their complex nature, the investments in inland shipping infrastructure would also be helpful in solving the current problems of water management. Inland waterways in Poland guaran-tee neither an adequate level of flood protection, nor the water needs fulfillment of do-mestic economy. When it comes to water reserves, Poland is one of the most deficient countries in Europe. Thus there is a need to invest in inland waterways in Poland.

  12. Automated intelligent video surveillance system for ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hai; Nguyen, Hieu; Ramu, Prakash; Raju, Chaitanya; Liu, Xiaoqing; Yadegar, Jacob

    2009-05-01

    To protect naval and commercial ships from attack by terrorists and pirates, it is important to have automatic surveillance systems able to detect, identify, track and alert the crew on small watercrafts that might pursue malicious intentions, while ruling out non-threat entities. Radar systems have limitations on the minimum detectable range and lack high-level classification power. In this paper, we present an innovative Automated Intelligent Video Surveillance System for Ships (AIVS3) as a vision-based solution for ship security. Capitalizing on advanced computer vision algorithms and practical machine learning methodologies, the developed AIVS3 is not only capable of efficiently and robustly detecting, classifying, and tracking various maritime targets, but also able to fuse heterogeneous target information to interpret scene activities, associate targets with levels of threat, and issue the corresponding alerts/recommendations to the man-in- the-loop (MITL). AIVS3 has been tested in various maritime scenarios and shown accurate and effective threat detection performance. By reducing the reliance on human eyes to monitor cluttered scenes, AIVS3 will save the manpower while increasing the accuracy in detection and identification of asymmetric attacks for ship protection.

  13. Towards seasonal Arctic shipping route predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, K.; Melia, N.; Hawkins, E.; Day, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    In our previous work [1] we showed how trans-Arctic shipping routes would become more available through the 21st century as sea ice declines, using CMIP5 models with means and stds calibrated to PIOMAS sea ice observations. Sea ice will continue to close shipping routes to open water vessels through the winter months for the foreseeable future so the availability of open sea routes will vary greatly from year to year. Here [2] we look at whether the trans-Arctic shipping season period can be predicted in seasonal forecasts, again using several climate models, and testing both perfect and imperfect knowledge of the initial sea ice conditions. We find skilful predictions of the upcoming summer shipping season can be made from as early as January, although typically forecasts may show lower skill before a May `predictability barrier'. Focussing on the northern sea route (NSR) off Siberia, the date of opening of this sea route is twice as variable as the closing date, and this carries through to reduced predictability at the start of the season. Under climate change the later freeze-up date accounts for 60% of the lengthening season, Fig1 We find that predictive skill is state dependent with predictions for high or low ice years exhibiting greater skill than for average ice years. Forecasting the exact timing of route open periods is harder (more weather dependent) under average ice conditions while in high and low ice years the season is more controlled by the initial ice conditions from spring onwards. This could be very useful information for companies planning vessel routing for the coming season. We tested this dependence on the initial ice conditions by changing the initial ice state towards climatologically average conditions and show directly that early summer sea-ice thickness information is crucial to obtain skilful forecasts of the coming shipping season. Mechanisms for this are discussed. This strongly suggests that good sea ice thickness observations

  14. EX1101: Ship Shakedown and Patch Tests on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer (EM302)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project will involve the shakedown of all Okeanos Explorer ship capabilities and a patch test of the Kongsberg EM302 multibeam system. Operations for this...

  15. A Novel Fusion-Based Ship Detection Method from Pol-SAR Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenguang Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel fusion-based ship detection method from polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (Pol-SAR images is proposed in this paper. After feature extraction and constant false alarm rate (CFAR detection, the detection results of HH channel, diplane scattering by Pauli decomposition and helical factor by Barnes decomposition are fused together. The confirmed targets and potential target pixels can be obtained after the fusion process. Using the difference degree of the target, potential target pixels can be classified. The fusion-based ship detection method works accurately by utilizing three different features comprehensively. The result of applying the technique to measured Airborne Synthetic Radar (AIRSAR data shows that the novel detection method can achieve better performance in both ship’s detection and ship’s shape preservation compared to the result of K-means clustering method and the Notch Filter method.

  16. A quantitative assessment of Arctic shipping in 2010–2014

    KAUST Repository

    Eguí luz, Victor M.; Ferná ndez-Gracia, Juan; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2016-01-01

    considerable uncertainty because Arctic shipping was previously considered too sparse to allow for adequate validation. Here, we provide quantitative evidence that the extent of Arctic shipping in the period 2011–2014 is already significant

  17. Virtual Ship Architecture Description Document Issue 1.00

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Best, John

    2000-01-01

    The Virtual Ship concept calls for simulation models of systems to be brought together to create a virtual representation of a warship, in a process analogous to the construction of a physical ship...

  18. INFLUENCE OF OPERABILITY CRITERIA LIMITING VALUES ON SHIP SPEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Prpić-Oršić

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available When the ship is caught in heavy seas, there are two manoeuvres that the shipmaster can undertake to avoid excessive ship motion and hull damage: changing course or voluntary speed reduction. This paper presents a study of the effect of the various voluntary speed reduction criteria to attainable speed of ship on seaway. The speed loss is calculated by taking into account wind and wave effect on ship speed, the engine and propeller performance in actual seas as well as the mass inertia of the ship. The attainable ship speed for ship in head, following and beam waves by accounting for voluntary speed reduction is estimated for various significant wave height. The criteria of slamming, deck wetness, propeller emergence, excessive accelerations and roll are taken into account. The impact of variations of the limiting values of certain criteria due to which the captain intentionally reduces the ship speed is analysed and discussed.

  19. Ship Track for Lost City 2005 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ship track of the NOAA ship Ronald H. Brown during the "Lost City 2005" expedition sponsored by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of...

  20. Protection of Shipping: A Forgotten Mission with Many New Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grubb, Michael C

    2006-01-01

    ..." mission status, often leading to devastating losses of shipping when war came. Today, the protection of shipping mission still finds itself behind more high-profile missions such as strike warfare and ballistic missile defense...