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Sample records for household-wide ivermectin treatment

  1. Oral ivermectin in the treatment of scabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmogy, M; Fayed, H; Marzok, H; Rashad, A

    1999-12-01

    One hundred and twenty scabietic patients attending the outpatient clinic of the Department of Dermatology, Mansoura University Hospital, voluntarily participated in this uncontrolled, open label study to evaluate ivermectin 20 microg/kg as a scabietic after they had given their consent. The scabietic subjects included in this study were otherwise healthy, mentally competent, aged more than 18 years, and used no topical antiscabietic treatment in the week before ivermectin treatment, or during the 4-week study period. Patients were also required to show clinical evidence of scabies, and the microscopically demonstrated presence of Sarcoptes scabiei, their eggs, or their fecal pellets (scybala). A thorough history was taken, and a physical examination was conducted that included measurement of the pulse, blood pressure, temperature, and weight. For each participant, the distribution of scabies lesions was plotted on a body diagram, and the severity of disease was recorded as mild (10 or fewer lesions), moderate (11-49 lesions), or severe (50 or more lesions). Skin scrapings were examined for mites, eggs, or scybala. Urinalysis, stool analysis, a complete blood count, prothrombin time, and serum chemistry studies (serum creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and total bilirubin) were performed before treatment, and 2 and 4 weeks after the drug was given. Ivermectin was administered as scored 6-mg tablets with water, and the dose was designed to provide 200 micrograms/kg (ivermectin was provided by Delta Pharma, Tenth of Ramadan City, Egypt). The patients were instructed to have recently worn clothing, sheets, and towels washed in a hot cycle the day after treatment. The patients were interviewed 3 days after treatment about any symptoms or subjective evidence of adverse reactions. Follow-up examinations were carried out 2 and 4 weeks after intake of ivermectin, and all examination procedures and laboratory investigations were repeated. Cure criteria included

  2. Treatment of reindeer with ivermectin - effect on dung insect fauna

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    Arne C. Nilssen

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Ivermectin is an antiparasitic drug widely used in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus (L. in Fennoscandia and North America. Most of the ivermectin injected in the animal is excreted unchanged in the faeces. Several reports show that ivermectin in cattle dung disrupts colonisation and survival of beneficial dung breeding insects. The present study investigated the effect of ivermectin on the reindeer dung fauna. Four reindeer calves (males, 6 months of age were injected subcutaneously with standard doses of ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg body weight in early December. The daily produced faeces was collected until day 30 after treatment, and the concentration of ivermectin was determined by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC with fluorescence detection. The highest concentration measured (mean 1632 ng/g faeces (dry weight, range 907 to 2261 ng/g among the animals was on day 4 after treatment. The concentration decreased gradually to 28 ng/g (range 6 to 58 ng/g on day 30. Faeces portions from day 4 and from untreated reindeer were placed in the field on 2-4 July and recollected on 13-22 September in order to detect possible differences in decomposition fauna between the samples. The most important coprophilous beetles (Apbodius spp. and flies (Scatbophaga spp. were not detected in this winter dung whether it contained ivermectin or not, probably because of the dry consistency and small size of the pellets. On the other hand, these insects (larvae and imagines were common in summer dung, which had been deposited naturally in the field and later placed together with the ivermectin-containing winter dung for comparison. The summer dung has a more soft and lumpy consistency. Treatment in autumn or early winter implies that the bulk of the ivermectin from the animal will be present in faeces with winter consistency, since this bulk portion is excreted during the first 30 days after treatment. This dry and pelleted faeces is not utilized by the important

  3. Onchocerca Volvulus: Effects of Annual Treatment with Ivermectin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As an alternative to vector control, chemotherapy – based control has been revolutionized by the finding that ivermectin, a novel semi synthetic macrocyclic lactone, is safe and acceptable for mass ... The prevalence rate of infection obtained at post-treatment 2 was 9.1% while the intensity rate was 1.1mf/mg skin snip.

  4. Effects of continuous ivermectin treatment from birth to puberty on growth and reproduction in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, M; Gonzalez-Iglesias, A; Díaz-Torga, G S; Villafañe, P; Formía, N; Libertun, C; Becú-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M

    1999-06-01

    The effect of continuous ivermectin treatment from birth to puberty on growth and reproductive performance was studied in Holstein heifer calves grown on pastures in comparison to naturally nematode-infected, untreated animals. Ivermectin effectively abated the presence of nematode eggs in feces. Eggs per gram (EPG) in parasitized animals increased rapidly from wk 12 to 18 of age and then decreased. Animals treated with ivermectin grew faster than untreated ones, and differences in body weight became significant at 6 wk of life, even before eggs appeared in the feces of either treatment group. Ivermectin-treated heifers reached puberty 3 wk earlier than infected ones as assessed with serum progesterone concentrations (ivermectin, 30.4 +/- .8 vs untreated, 33.7 +/- 1.3 wk of age). This delay was not directly related to body weight. In addition, pelvic area at 39 wk and at 15 mo of age was increased in treated heifers (8 and 11%, respectively) compared with parasitized animals. No differences in the wither heights were observed. We conclude that ivermectin treatment in dairy heifers may increase growth rate during development, advance the onset of ovarian function, and positively affect yearling pelvic area.

  5. New developments in the treatment of rosacea – role of once-daily ivermectin cream

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    Cardwell LA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Leah A Cardwell,1 Hossein Alinia,1 Sara Moradi Tuchayi,1 Steven R Feldman,1–31Department of Dermatology, Center for Dermatology Research, 2Department of Pathology, 3Department of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Abstract: Rosacea is a chronic dermatological disorder with a variety of clinical manifestations localized largely to the central face. The unclear etiology of rosacea fosters therapeutic difficulty; however, subtle clinical improvement with pharmacologic treatments of various drug categories suggests a multifactorial etiology of the disease. Factors that may contribute to disease pathogenesis include immune abnormality, vascular abnormality, neurogenic dysregulation, presence of cutaneous microorganisms, UV damage, and skin barrier dysfunction. The role of ivermectin in the treatment of rosacea may be as an anti-inflammatory and anti-parasitic agent targeting Demodex mites. In comparing topical ivermectin and metronidazole, ivermectin was more effective; this treatment modality boasted more improved quality of life, reduced lesion counts, and more favorable participant and physician assessment of disease severity. Patients who received ivermectin 1% cream had an acceptable safety profile. Ivermectin is efficacious in decreasing inflammatory lesion counts and erythema. Keywords: papulopustular rosacea, topical ivermectin, metronidazole, azelaic acid, topical

  6. Strongylus vulgaris in the tunica media of arteries of ponies and treatment with ivermectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocombe, J O; McCraw, B M; Pennock, P W; Ducharme, N; Baird, J D

    1987-04-01

    A preliminary investigation was made into the effect of fourth-stage Strongylus vulgaris larvae sequestered in the tunica media of ileocolic arteries of pony foals treated with ivermectin. The foals had been reared parasite-free, inoculated with infective larvae and given orally a placebo or ivermectin paste. Two foals received subsequently one or two further inoculations with larvae and treatment with ivermectin. Arteriography was used to identify the lesions in the ileocolic artery following inoculation and their regression following treatment. At necropsy, foals were examined for lesions and larvae grossly and histologically. Ivermectin was highly effective against fourth-stage larvae and those present in the media appeared not to unduly affect the integrity of the ileocolic artery. Increased numbers of larvae were not found in the media of foals receiving repeat inoculations and repeat treatments. Larvae were not found in the media of foals treated with a placebo. The major pathological changes in the arterial wall of all foals were attributed to infection with S. vulgaris and there was no strong tendency for the damaged arteries to return to normal after the S. vulgaris were removed.

  7. Tolerance and efficacy of emamectin benzoate and ivermectin for the treatment of Pseudocapillaria tomentosa in laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collymore, Chereen; Watral, Virginia; White, Julie R; Colvin, Michael E; Rasmussen, Skye; Tolwani, Ravi J; Kent, Michael L

    2014-10-01

    Tolerance of adult zebrafish and efficacy of emamectin benzoate and ivermectin in eliminating Pseudocapillaria tomentosa infection were evaluated. In the tolerance study, behavioral changes, fecundity, histopathology, and mortality were evaluated for in-feed administration of emamectin (0.05, 0.10, and 0.25 mg/kg) and ivermectin (0.05 and 0.10 mg/kg). All doses of emamectin were well tolerated. Ivermectin 0.05 mg/kg administration resulted in mild behavioral changes and a transient decrease in fecundity. Ivermectin 0.10 mg/kg administration resulted in severe behavioral changes and some mortality. In the efficacy study, emamectin (0.05 and 0.25 mg/kg) and ivermectin (0.05 mg/kg) were evaluated for their efficacy in eliminating P. tomentosa infection. Emamectin reduced parasite burden in infected zebrafish, and ivermectin eliminated intestinal nematode infections. Despite a small margin of safety, ivermectin 0.05 mg/kg was effective at eliminating P. tomentosa infection in adult zebrafish. Higher doses or a longer course of treatment may be needed for complete elimination of P. tomentosa infection using emamectin. In this study, we propose two possible treatments for intestinal nematode infections in zebrafish.

  8. Efficacy of pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin for the treatment of canine nematodes

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    Ana Paula Jesus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the efficacy of pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin on gastrointestinal nematodes in dogs. Fecal egg counts per gram (EPG were measured by the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT in order to evaluate the anthelmintic efficiency and fecal float exams were also performed to assess the concordance between coproparasitological techniques. A total of 45 naturally infected dogs in the city of Bandeirantes, Paraná State, were selected and divided into three groups: Group 1, 15 animals that received pyrantel pamoate (145 mg in a single dose; Group 2, 15 animals that received ivermectin (3 mg; and Group 3, 15 animals that comprised an untreated control group. Fecal testing was performed two and 10 days after treatment. Toxocara was the most prevalent genus, followed by Ancylostoma and Trichuris. Ancylostoma had low resistance to ivermectin and pyrantel pamoate treatment, while Toxocara were resistant to both treatments. Statistical correlation testing to compare coproparasitogical techniques revealed moderate concordance, substantial and almost perfect concordance for detection of Ancylostoma, Trichuris, and Toxocara, respectively. The results of this study suggest that the gender Ancylostoma had low resistance and Toxocara is resistant to both drugs and because of their high prevalence in young animals means that others anthelmintic drugs may be recommended to combat infections. Additionally, the Gordon and Whitlock modified and Willis-Mollay techniques are effective for detection particularly of Toxocara in dogs.

  9. Factors associated with compliance with community directed treatment with ivermectin for onchocerciasis control in Southwestern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wondafrash Mekite

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although ivermectin is distributed free of charge through the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC, not all eligible individuals within communities receive the annual treatment. This poses a serious threat to efforts aimed to control onchocerciasis. This study attempts to determine factors associated with compliance to Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI and provides a basis for trying to understand how best to sustain long-term compliance in order to achieve success in the control of onchocerciasis. Methods An unmatched case-control study was conducted in Bebeka coffee plantation southwest Ethiopia. Cases were, compliant i.e., those individuals who had been registered on the relevant treatment registers and had taken all the five annual doses of Ivermectin. Controls were non-compliant, i.e. those individuals who had been recorded in the relevant treatment registers during the first treatment round(2003, and did not take at least two doses of which one being in the last treatment round (2007. Data were collected using a pre-tested interviewer administered structured questionnaire. Data were edited, cleaned, coded and analyzed using SPSS version 12.0.1 for Microsoft Windows. Multiple logistic regression models was used to identify factors associated with compliance to ivermectin. Results From the total of 456 individuals selected for administration of the survey questionnaire, 450(225 cases and 225 controls were contacted and completed the study 2 refused and 4 were unavailable. Five factors associated with compliance were identified: high risk perception [Adjusted Odds Ratio(AOR = 1.98, 95% Confidence Interval (CI, 1.32-2.95], one's family support [AOR = 1.86, 95% CI, 1.22-2.84], perceiving that the Community Drug Distributors (CDDs are doing their work well [AOR = 2.84, 95% CI, 1.50-5.37] and perceiving measuring height is the best way to determine a person's treatment dose [AOR = 6.37, 95% CI, 2

  10. Sequential mesenteric arteriography in pony foals during repeated inoculations of Strongylus vulgaris and treatments with ivermectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, R A; Klei, T R; McClure, J R; Turk, M A; Watters, J W; Chapman, M R

    1990-04-01

    Semiselective mesenteric arteriography was performed at regular intervals (inoculation weeks [IW] 0, 11, 18, and 24) in 9 of 10 pony foals raised to be free of parasites. Fifty infective larvae (L3) of Strongylus vulgaris were administered weekly for 4 weeks, then every 2 weeks through the 20th week. Three ponies were given ivermectin (oral paste, 0.2 mg/kg of body weight) treatment at IW 8, 16 and 24. Four ponies were inoculated, but did not receive ivermectin, and a third group of 2 ponies acted as uninoculated controls. Control ponies did not have gross or arteriographic lesions, whereas the inoculated untreated ponies had gross and progressive arteriographic lesions typical of verminous arteritis. Arteriographic lesions in the ivermectin-treated inoculated ponies were not as severe those in the untreated inoculated group, and there was either a partial resolution or a lack of progression of arteriographic lesions in all treated ponies. One untreated inoculated pony did not have progressive arterial lesions as did the 3 others in the group, and may develop resistance to the parasite.

  11. The curative and antioxidative efficiency of ivermectin and ivermectin + vitamin E-selenium treatment on canine Sarcoptes scabiei infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Suvendu Kumar; Dimri, Umesh; Singh, Shanker Kumar; Mohanta, Ranjan Kumar

    2011-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the curative and antioxidative efficacy of ivermectin and ivermectin + vitamin E-selenium, and the influence of these agents on oxidative stress parameters in canines infested by Sarcoptes scabiei. Twenty two sarcoptic mites infested dogs and nine healthy dogs of 6 months to 2 years of age were divided into three groups. Group I comprised of healthy dogs (n=9) whereas animals in group II (n=11) and III (n=11) were positive for scabies. Group II animals were treated with only 1% ivermectin @ 0.2 mg/kg SC whereas group III were additionally treated with Vitamin E and selenium (tocopherol 50 mg + Se 1.5 mg/ml) @ 0.5 ml/20 kg IM at weekly intervals for three times. Blood samples were collected on day 0 and 28 post therapy. The values for hemato-biochemical parameters and activities of antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased (Pdogs in comparison to the healthy dogs on day 0 which approached normalcy by day 28 post therapy. The dogs of group III showed better clinical recovery in comparison to group II at the end of therapy. Thus, administration of vitamin E and selenium in addition to standard therapy can alleviate these alterations hastening the clinical recovery of diseased dogs and can be recommended as an adjunct therapy with miticides for canine sarcoptic mange. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

  12. Effects of repeated Strongylus vulgaris inoculations and concurrent ivermectin treatments on mesenteric arterial lesions in pony foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klei, T R; Turk, M A; McClure, J R; Holmes, R A; Dennis, V A; Chapman, M R

    1990-04-01

    Eight of 10 pony foals reared under helminth-free conditions were inoculated PO with 50 Strongylus vulgaris infective larvae/week for 4 weeks, at which time 1 foal died of acute verminous arteritis. Inoculation of 7 remaining foals continued at 2-week intervals for 20 weeks. Of the 7 foals, 3 were treated with ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg of body weight) in an oral paste formulation at experiment weeks 8, 16, 24; 4 foals were not treated. Two foals were not inoculated or treated and served as controls. After the first ivermectin treatment, ivermectin-treated foals had fewer days (12 +/- 2.9) with rectal temperatures greater than 38.6 C than did nontreated foals (23.3 +/- 3.8). Mean baseline rectal temperatures were 38 +/- 0.2 C. Adverse clinical reactions to ivermectin treatment were not observed in foals. Foals were euthanatized and necropsied 3 weeks after the last ivermectin treatment (week 24). Ivermectin was effective in reducing S vulgaris arterial larval and intestinal adult parasite numbers by 100% in 3 treated foals. Strongylus vulgaris arterial larvae and/or adults were recovered from all 4 nontreated inoculated foals. One nontreated inoculated foal lacked arterial larvae or active arterial lesions, indicating that protective resistance had developed in this individual. Marked gross and histopathologic lesions typical of chronic S vulgaris infection were observed in the 3 nontreated inoculated foals with arterial larvae. Repeated killing of intra-arterial S vulgaris fourth-stage larvae in ivermectin-treated foals did not exacerbate lesions associated with verminous arteritis or induce unique lesions associated with repeated destruction of arterial larvae.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Onchocerciasis control in Nigeria: will households be able to afford community-directed treatment with ivermectin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwujekwe, O; Shu, E; Onwuameze, O; Ndum, C; Okonkwo, P

    2001-12-21

    To determine the level of affordability of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) to households living in two onchocerciasis endemic Nigerian communities namely Toro in the north and Nike in the south. The proportion of the cost of treating people with ivermectin will deplete in average monthly/projected annual household expenditure on food and health care, and on average monthly and projected annual household income were respectively calculated and used to determine the level of affordability of CDTI. Questionnaires administered to heads of households or their representatives were used to collect information on the household expenditures and income. The suggested unit CDTI cost of $0.20 was used. However, as a test of sensitivity, we also used the unit cost of $0.056 which some community based distributors are charging per treatment. Using $0.20 as the unit treatment cost, this will consume less than 0.05% of average annual household income in both communities. It will equally deplete 0.05% of combined annual household expenditures on food and health care in both communities. However, using $0.056 as the unit treatment cost, then 0.02% of average annual household expenditure on health care, 0.01% average annual expenditure on combined health care and food, and 0.01% of average annual household income will be depleted. The households living in both communities may be able to afford CDTI schemes. However, the final decision on levels of affordability lies with the households. They will decide whether they can afford to trade-off some household income for ivermectin distribution.

  14. Impact of 3 years ivermectin treatment on onchocerciasis in Yanomami communities in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banic, Dalma M; Calvão-Brito, Regina H S; Marchon-Silva, Verônica; Schuertez, Joana C; de Lima Pinheiro, Luís Renerys; da Costa Alves, Marilene; Têva, Antônio; Maia-Herzog, Marilza

    2009-11-01

    In the current study, it was assessed, for the first time, the effect of ivermectin treatment administered twice a year on the prevalence and morbidity of onchocerciasis in the hyperendemic Yanomami communities of the Roraima State (Brazil). Physical and parasitological examinations were carried out every 6 months until six drug rounds of treatment were completed. The coverage during the six rounds of ivermectin treatment ranged from 89% to 92% of the eligible Yanomami population. Overall, comparison of results at pre-treatment with results after six rounds of treatment, the prevalence of infection had declined from 87% to 42% (P0.05, for both). These findings suggest that mass population treatment should continue without interruption and achieve higher levels of drug coverage in order to alleviate disease manifestations and interrupt infection transmission to hasten the elimination of onchocerciasis in Yanomami communities. In addition, the sensitivity of iliac crest snips for parasitological assessment in epidemiological surveillance of Yanomami communities may increase the acceptance of the population in biopsy sampling and seems to be a good choice for assessing the success of control programs.

  15. Evaluation of ivermectin against later fourth-stage Strongylus vulgaris in ponies at two and five weeks after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocombe, J O; McCraw, B M

    1984-10-01

    The efficacy of ivermectin against later fourth-stage Strongylus vulgaris larvae was studied in pony foals at 14 and 35 days after treatment. These foals had been reared parasite-free, inoculated with 500 infective larvae and 56 days later given either ivermectin at 200 micrograms/kg or a placebo intramuscularly. At necropsy, foals were examined for lesions and larvae grossly and histologically. Ivermectin was found to be highly effective (98.6%) against later fourth-stage larvae in five foals which were examined at 35 days after treatment, but not in five others examined at 14 days (72.5%). In some foals larvae were found in the tunica media of the ileocolic arteries. The conformation of these larvae appeared normal, but there were degenerative changes which suggested that they were dying or dead. Questions as to how the larvae attained that site and the consequences of their presence there were raised.

  16. Ivermectin treatment of bovine psoroptic mange: effects on serum chemistry, hematology, organ weights, and leather quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehbein, S; Visser, M; Meyer, M; Lindner, T

    2016-04-01

    Psoroptic mange is a skin disease which may result in serious health and welfare problems and important economic losses. Apart from the effect on weight gain, little information is available concerning other responses of the organism consequent to the successful therapy of bovine psoroptic mange. Accordingly, serum chemistry, hematology, organ weights, and leather quality of young bulls with experimentally induced clinical Psoroptes ovis mange and treated with either ivermectin long-acting injection (IVM LAI; IVOMEC(®) GOLD, Merial) or saline (n = 16 each) were examined 8 weeks after treatment when all IVM LAI-treated bulls were free of live P. ovis mites while the saline-treated bulls maintained clinical mange. IVM LAI-treated bulls had higher (p levels and lower (p levels than the saline-treated bulls. Complete blood counts revealed higher leukocyte counts associated with higher eosinophil counts and higher platelet counts in the saline-treated compared to the IVM LAI-treated bulls (p energy metabolism, immune system function, and performance resultant from clinical psoroptic mange, improved substantially within 8 weeks of successful treatment with injectable ivermectin.

  17. Predictors for compliance with community directed ivermectin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition the FGDs elicited information regarding social influence towards ivermectin treatment and who the source of social influences are. Perceived barriers and supports towards ivermectin treatment were also explored. The key informant interviews mainly elicited the problems they face in ivermectin distribution and ...

  18. Efficacy of two anthelmintic treatments, spinosad/milbemycin oxime and ivermectin/praziquantel in dogs with natural Toxocara spp. infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia Cardenas, Rafael; Romero Núñez, Camilo; Miranda Contreras, Laura

    2017-11-30

    Toxocara canis is one of the most important zoonotic parasites of dogs. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of spinosad/milbemycin oxime and ivermectin/praziquantel in dogs naturally infected with Toxocara spp. We studied 200 dogs with a positive diagnosis of Toxocara spp. Through coproparasitoscopic analysis, two study groups of 100 dogs each were assigned: spinosad/milbemycin oxime at a dose of 30-60mg/kg and 0.75-1.0mg/kg, respectively, or ivermectin/praziquantel administered at a dose of 0.2mg/kg and 5mg/kg, respectively. Both groups received a single dose. Three stool samples, one at day 0 before treatment, and at 14 and 28days post-treatment were examined using concentration-flotation techniques. In both treatments, the number of Toxocara spp. eggs decreased; with spinosad/milbemycin oxime treatment, eggs decreased by 87% at 14days (P=0.008) and 94% at 28days after treatment, compared with 71% at day 14 and 88% at day 28 in dogs medicated with ivermectin/praziquantel. The spinosad/milbemycin oxime treated group showed a greater decrease in the number of Toxocara spp. positive dogs compared to the group receiving ivermectin/praziquantel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Immune responses of pony foals during repeated infections of Strongylus vulgaris and regular ivermectin treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, V A; Klei, T R; Miller, M A; Chapman, M R; McClure, J R

    1992-04-01

    Ten helminth-free pony foals divided into three groups were used in this study. Eight foals were each experimentally infected per os with 50 Strongylus vulgaris infective larvae weekly for 4 weeks, at which time one foal died of acute verminous arteritis. The remaining seven foals subsequently received 50 S. vulgaris infective larvae every 2 weeks for an additional 20 weeks. Four of the infected foals remained untreated (Group 1) and three of the infected foals were given ivermectin at 8, 16 and 24 weeks post initial infection (Group 2). Two foals served as controls (Group 3). Foals in Group 1 developed eosinophilia, which was sustained throughout the course of infection. A mild eosinophilia also developed in Group 2 foals; however, the eosinophil numbers were markedly reduced for 3 weeks after each ivermectin treatment. Only foals in Group 1 developed significant (P less than 0.05) hyperproteinemia, hyperbetaglobulinemia and a reversal of the albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio 4 weeks after initial infection. Significant (P less than 0.05) IgG anti-S. vulgaris ELISA titers developed in foals in Groups 1 and 2 3 weeks after infection and were sustained for the duration of the experiment. Western blot analysis of soluble somatic antigens of S. vulgaris adult female and male worms probed with sera from foals in Groups 1 and 2 revealed only subtle differences between these animals. The blastogenic reactivity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A was not significantly different between groups. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from foals in Groups 1 and 2 developed significant (P less than 0.05) blastogenic reactivity to S. vulgaris soluble adult somatic antigen when examined at 25 weeks after infection. Mesenteric lymph node cells from foals in Group 2, although not statistically significant, were more reactive to antigen than were the mesenteric lymph node cells from foals in Group 1 when examined at 27 weeks after infection

  20. Ivermectin excreted in cattle dung after subcutaneous injection or pour-on treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, C.; Steffansen, B.; Nielsen, B. Overgaard

    1992-01-01

    Heifers were treated with the recommended doses of ivermectin: 0.2 mg/kg bw by subcutaneous injection or 0.5 mg/kg bw by pour-on. An analytic procedure is described and used for the detection of ivermectin residues excreted in dung. A large amount of the higher pour-on dose was excreted during th...

  1. Impact of Long-Term Treatment with Ivermectin on the Prevalence and Intensity of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncayo, Ana Lucia; Vaca, Maritza; Amorim, Leila; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Erazo, Silvia; Oviedo, Gisela; Quinzo, Isabel; Padilla, Margarita; Chico, Martha; Lovato, Raquel; Gomez, Eduardo; Barreto, Mauricio L.; Cooper, Philip J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections relies on the periodic and long-term administration of anthelmintic drugs to high-risk groups, particularly school-age children living in endemic areas. There is limited data on the effectiveness of long-term periodic anthelmintic treatment on the prevalence of STHs, particularly from operational programmes. The current study investigated the impact of 15 to 17 years of treatment with the broad-spectrum anthelmintic ivermectin, used for the control of onchocerciasis, on STH prevalence and intensity in school-age and pre-school children. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted in communities that had received annual or twice-annual ivermectin treatments and geographically adjacent communities that had not received treatment in two districts of Esmeraldas Province in Ecuador. Stool samples were collected from school-age children and examined for STH infection using the Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration methods. Samples were collected also from pre-school children and examined by the formol-ether concentration method. Data on risk factors for STH infection were collected by parental questionnaire. We sampled a total of 3,705 school-age children (6–16 years) from 31 treated and 27 non-treated communities, and 1,701 pre-school children aged 0–5 years from 18 treated and 18 non-treated communities. Among school-age children, ivermectin treatment had significant effects on the prevalence (adjusted OR =  0.06, 95% CI 0.03–0.14) and intensity of Trichuris trichiura infection (adjusted RR = 0.28, 95% CI 0.11–0.70), but appeared to have no impact on Ascaris lumbricoides or hookworm infection. Reduced prevalence and intensities of T. trichiura infection were observed among children not eligible to receive ivermectina, providing some evidence of reduced transmission of T. trichiura infection in communities receiving mass ivermectin treatments. Conclusion Annual and twice

  2. Adverse reactions from community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI for onchocerciasis and loiasis in Ondo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A Otubanjo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Onchocerciasis is an endemic disease in Ondo state, Nigeria. Community directed distribution of ivermectin is currently on-going in some local government areas of the state. Randomly selected persons (2 331 males and 2 469 females were interviewed using a modified rapid assessment procedure for Loa loa (RAPLOA to assess community directed treatment with ivermectin. The retrospective study evaluated the coverage, impacts and adverse reactions to the drug treatment. A questionnaire was administered by house-to-house visit in six local government areas, implementing community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI in this bioclimatic zone. A total of 2,398 respondents were reported to have participated in the treatment. The overall ivermectin coverage of 49.96% was recorded (range 0 - 52% in different communities. Adverse reactions from ivermectin administration were experienced in 38% of individuals. Diverse adverse reactions experienced included predominantly itching (18.50%; oedema, especially of the face and the limbs (8.2%; rashes (3.4% and body weakness (2.4%. Expulsion of intestinal worms occurred in 0.96% of the respondents. The occurrence of adverse reactions in relation to age categories was statistically significant. Neither fatal nor severe adverse reactions were reported by respondents. Significantly, despite experienced adverse reactions, continued participation, acceptability and compliance to ivermectin treatment was expressed by the various communities. This attitude is in consonance with the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC objectives. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4: 1635-1643. Epub 2008 December 12.La oncocercosis es endémica en el estado Ondo, Nigeria. Se seleccionaron 4 800 personas al azar para evaluar con encuesta retrospectiva la cobertura, efectos y reacciones al tratamiento farmacológico con ivermectina administrado por la misma comunidad. La cobertura global de ivermectina fue 50 % con reacciones adversas en

  3. Predictors of compliance with community-directed treatment with ivermectin for onchocerciasis control in Kabo area, southwestern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endale, Adugna; Erko, Berhanu; Weldegebreal, Fitsum; Legesse, Mengistu

    2015-02-15

    Compliance with annual ivermectin treatment is a major challenge in community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) implementation. There are individuals who do not comply with the annual mass treatment, which contributes to the continuity for disease transmission. Hence, ensuring high treatment coverage and sustained compliance should be given due emphasis in the control of onchocerciasis. The aim of this study was to determine CDTI compliance rate and predictors of compliance where the CDTI was in its 9(th) round in Kabo area, southwestern Ethiopia. Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Kabo area, three weeks after the 9th round of annual ivermectin distribution. Systematic random sampling was used to select head of households and structured, pre-tested questionnaire was used to interview the study participants. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16. Descriptive statistics was used to compute mean and standard deviation of continuous variables and frequency for categorical variables, while bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to assess the effects of independent variables on the outcome variable. Variables which showed association in multivariate analysis were considered as final predictors of compliance and strength of association was measured through adjusted odds ratio (AOR). A total of 308 respondents (age range 18-70, mean age ± SD, 32.21 ± 9.64) participated in the study. Of these, 249 (80.8%) reported that they took ivermectin during the 9th round annual treatment. Significantly higher rate of treatment compliance was reported by participants age ≥35 years (AOR = 5.48, 95% CI; 1.97 - 15.23), participants who stayed in the area for more than ten years (AOR = 3.86, 95% CI; 1.83- 8.11), participants who perceive that they are at risk of contracting the disease(AOR = 7.05, 2.70- 18.43), participants who perceive community drug distributors (CDDs) are doing their work well (AOR = 2.35 95% CI; 1

  4. Efficacy, Safety, and Pharmacokinetics of Coadministered Diethylcarbamazine, Albendazole, and Ivermectin for Treatment of Bancroftian Filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Edward K; Sanuku, Nelly; Baea, Manasseh; Satofan, Samson; Maki, Elit; Lombore, Bart; Schmidt, Mark S; Siba, Peter M; Weil, Gary J; Kazura, James W; Fleckenstein, Lawrence L; King, Christopher L

    2016-02-01

    Available treatments for lymphatic filariasis (LF) are limited in their longterm clearance of microfilaria from the blood. The safety and efficacy of a single-dose triple-drug therapy of the antifilarial drugs diethylcarbamazine (DEC), ivermectin (IVM), and albendazole (ALB) for LF are unknown. We performed a pilot study to test the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of single-dose DEC, IVM, and ALB in Wuchereria bancrofti-infected Papua New Guineans. Adults were randomized into 2 treatment arms, DEC 6 mg/kg + ALB 400 mg (N = 12) or DEC 6 mg/kg + ALB 400 mg + IVM 200 μg/kg (N = 12), and monitored for microfilaria, parasite antigenemia, adverse events (AEs), and serum drug levels. Triple-drug therapy induced >2-log reductions in microfilaria levels at 36 and 168 hours after treatment compared with approximately 1-log reduction with 2 drugs. All 12 individuals who received 3 drugs were microfilaria negative 1 year after treatment, whereas 11 of 12 individuals in the 2-drug regimen were microfilaria positive. In 6 participants followed 2 years after treatment, those who received 3 drugs remained microfilaria negative. AEs, particularly fever, myalgias, pruritus, and proteinuria/hematuria, occurred in 83% vs 50% of those receiving triple-drug compared to 2-drug treatment respectively (P = .021); all resolved within 7 days after treatment. No serious AEs were observed in either group. There was no significant effect of IVM on DEC or ALB drug levels. Triple-drug therapy is safe and more effective than DEC + ALB for Bancroftian filariasis and has the potential to accelerate elimination of lymphatic filariasis. NCT01975441. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Drinking water ivermectin treatment for eradication of pinworm infections from laboratory rat colonies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lytvynets, Andrej; Langrová, I.; Lachout, Josef; Vadlejch, J.; Fučíková, A.; Jankovská, I.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 4 (2010), s. 233-237 ISSN 0440-6605 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Syphacia muris * Aspiculuris tetraptera * ivermectin * laboratory rat * pinworm Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.847, year: 2010

  6. Plasma dispositions and concentrations of ivermectin in eggs following treatment of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirak, V Y; Aksit, D; Cihan, H; Gokbulut, C

    2018-05-01

    To determine the plasma disposition and concentrations of ivermectin (IVM) in eggs produced by laying hens following S/C, oral and I/V administration. Twenty-four laying hens, aged 37 weeks and weighing 1.73 (SD 0.12) kg were allocated to three groups of eight birds. The injectable formulation of IVM was administered either orally, S/C, or I/V, at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg liveweight, following dilution (1:5, v/v) with propylene glycol. Heparinised blood samples were collected at various times between 0.25 hours and 20 days after drug administration. Eggs produced by hens were also collected daily throughout the study period. Samples of plasma and homogenised egg were analysed using HPLC. Maximum concentrations of IVM in plasma and mean residence time of IVM were lower after oral (10.2 (SD 7.2) ng/mL and 0.38 (SD 0.14) days, respectively) than after S/C (82.9 (SD 12.4) ng/mL and 1.05 (SD 0.24) days, respectively) administration (pV administration, and until 15 days after S/C administration. Peak concentrations of IVM were 15.7, 23.3 and 1.9 µg/kg, observed 2, 5 and 4 days after I/V, S/C and oral administration, respectively. The low plasma bioavailability of IVM observed after oral administration in laying hens could result in lower efficacy or subtherapeutic plasma concentrations, which may promote the development of parasitic drug resistance. Due to high IVM residues in eggs compared to the maximum residue limits for other food-producing animal species, a withdrawal period should be necessary for eggs after IVM treatment in laying hens.

  7. A clinical trial to evaluate the effects of flumethrin or ivermectin treatment on hemoparasites, gastrointestinal parasites, conception and daily weight gain in a dairy farm in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, I; Arai, S; Nakamura, Y; Hisashi, M; Fukazawa, Y; Onuki, T

    2000-02-01

    A clinical trial was performed to compare the effects of flumethrin and ivermectin treatments of grazing heifers at one farm in central Japan. 64 heifers were randomly allocated into two groups. Flumethrin (1 mg/kg pour on) was applied approximately once every 3 weeks to heifers in one group and heifers in the second group were injected approximately once every month with ivermectin (200 microg/kg; id). Between groups, no significant differences were detected in the proportions of animals that showed parasitemia of Theileria sergenti and conception risks. Significantly lower average log-transformed nematode-egg counts and higher average daily weight gain were observed in the ivermectin-treated group. Animals with higher body weight at the start of grazing and lower log-transformed total nematode-egg and coccidia-oocyst counts had higher odds of conceiving. Animals with ivermectin treatment, lower body weight at the start of grazing and lower log-transformed coccidia-oocyst count had higher daily weight gain. Ivermectin may be more useful in this farm because of the higher productivity for cattle and lower cost for its usage.

  8. Impact of repeated ivermectin treatments against onchocerciasis on the transmission of loiasis: an entomologic evaluation in central Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouam, Marc K; Tchatchueng-Mbougua, Jules B; Demanou, Maurice; Boussinesq, Michel; Pion, Sébastien D S; Kamgno, Joseph

    2013-09-27

    Annual community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) have been carried out since 1999 in the Lekie division (central region of Cameroon where most cases of Loa-related post ivermectin severe adverse events were reported) as part of the joined activities of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) and Mectizan® Donation Program (MDP). As large-scale administration of ivermetine was demonstrated to be an efficient means to control loiasis transmission, it was hypothesized that CDTI would have lowered or halted the transmission of Loa loa in the Lekie division after 13 years of annual drug administration, indicating a possible reduction in the occurrence of Loa-related post-ivermectin severe adverse events. A 4-month entomologic study was carried out from March to June 2012 in the Lekie division to evaluate the impact of 13 years of CDTI on the transmission of L. loa whose baseline data were recorded in 1999-2000. There was a significant reduction in the infection rate for Chrysops silacea and C. dimidiata from 6.8 and 9% in 1999-2000 to 3 and 3.6% in 2012, respectively. The differences in the infective rate (IR) (percentage of flies harboring head L3 larvae), potential infective rate (PIR) (percentage of flies bearing L3 larvae), mean head L3 larvae load (MHL3) (average L3 per infective fly) and mean fly L3 larvae load (MFL3) (average L3 per potentially infective fly) for both C. silacea and C. dimidiata were not significantly different between the two investigation periods. The biting density (BD) was almost three-fold higher in 2012 for C. silacea but not for C. dimidiata. The transmission potential (TP) which is a function of the BD, was higher in the present study than in the baseline investigation for each species. The infection rate remaining high, the high TP and the stability observed in the IR, PIR, MHL3 and MFL3 after 13 years of CDTI suggest that transmission of L. loa is still active. This is an indication that the risk of occurrence

  9. Differential effect of human ivermectin treatment on blood feeding Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derua, Yahya A.; Kisinza, William N.; Simonsen, Paul Erik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Widespread and large scale use of ivermectin in humans and domestic animals can have unexpected effects on non-target organisms. As a search for a possible explanation for an observed longitudinal decline in density of anopheline vector mosquitoes, but not in Culex quinquefasciatus...... to receive either ivermectin or placebo. Twenty four hours after treatment, one volunteer from each group was concurrently exposed to 50 laboratory reared An. gambiae on one arm and 50 laboratory reared Cx. quinquefasciatus on the other arm for 15-30 minutes. Engorged mosquitoes were maintained on 10...

  10. Drawing and interpreting data: Children's impressions of onchocerciasis and community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI in four onchocerciasis endemic countries in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Amuyunzu-Nyamongo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the depiction of a child leading a blind man is the most enduring image of onchocerciasis in Africa, research activities have hardly involved children. This paper aims at giving voice to children through drawings and their interpretation. The study was conducted in 2009 in Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, Nigeria and Uganda. Children aged 6–16 years were asked to draw their perceptions of onchocerciasis and community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI in their communities. A total of 50 drawings were generated. The drawings depicted four main aspects of onchocerciasis: (1 the disease symptoms, (2 the negative consequences of onchocerciasis among children and in the community generally, (3 the ivermectin distribution process, and (4 the benefits or effects of taking ivermectin. Out of the 50 drawings, 30 were on symptoms, 7 on effects of the disease on children, 8 on distribution process, and 5 represented multiple perceptions on symptoms, drug distribution processes, benefits, and effects of treatment. The lack of clarity when treatment with ivermectin can be stopped in endemic areas requires working with children to ensure continued compliance with treatment into the future. Children's drawings should be incorporated into health education interventions.

  11. Drawing and interpreting data: Children's impressions of onchocerciasis and community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in four onchocerciasis endemic countries in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuyunzu-Nyamongo, Mary; Tchounkeu, Yolande Flore Longang; Oyugi, Rahel Akumu; Kabali, Asaph Turinde; Okeibunor, Joseph C.; Manianga, Cele; Amazigo, Uche V.

    2011-01-01

    Although the depiction of a child leading a blind man is the most enduring image of onchocerciasis in Africa, research activities have hardly involved children. This paper aims at giving voice to children through drawings and their interpretation. The study was conducted in 2009 in Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Nigeria and Uganda. Children aged 6–16 years were asked to draw their perceptions of onchocerciasis and community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in their communities. A total of 50 drawings were generated. The drawings depicted four main aspects of onchocerciasis: (1) the disease symptoms, (2) the negative consequences of onchocerciasis among children and in the community generally, (3) the ivermectin distribution process, and (4) the benefits or effects of taking ivermectin. Out of the 50 drawings, 30 were on symptoms, 7 on effects of the disease on children, 8 on distribution process, and 5 represented multiple perceptions on symptoms, drug distribution processes, benefits, and effects of treatment. The lack of clarity when treatment with ivermectin can be stopped in endemic areas requires working with children to ensure continued compliance with treatment into the future. Children's drawings should be incorporated into health education interventions. PMID:21637349

  12. An evaluation of ivermectin in the treatment of sarcoptic mange in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidt, V J; Medleau, L; Seward, R L; Schwartzman, R M

    1984-06-01

    A colony of mixed-breed dogs (n = 298) naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei was treated, twice, with 200 micrograms of ivermectin/kg of body weight subcutaneously at 14-day intervals. After the initial injection, positive skin scrapings from 20 treated dogs decreased from 7 to 1 and the degree of pruritus decreased. In contrast, positive skin scrapings from 22 nontreated dogs increased from 10 to 14, and there was an additional deterioration in the condition of the skin and an increase in the degree of pruritus. Complete control was noticed in all treated dogs by posttreatment day 28 (14 days after a 2nd injection) based on negative skin scrapings.

  13. Ivermectina no tratamento de miíase orbitária: relato de caso Ivermectine in the treatment of orbital myiasis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Enrique Lovatón Rodriguez

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar um caso de miíase associada a carcinoma basocelular de órbita, tratada com ivermectina previamente ao ato cirúrgico. MÉTODOS: Apresentamos um caso e enfatizamos a eficácia da ivermectina no tratamento da miíase como terapêutica alternativa. RESULTADO: Após o tratamento com ivermectina via oral em dose única, observou-se a resolução completa do quadro de miíase num período de 48 horas. CONCLUSÃO: A ivermectina pode ser utilizada com eficácia no tratamento da miíase orbitária, tornado desnecessária a remoção mecânica das larvas.OBJECTIVE: We report a case of myiasis in a patient with basocellular carcinoma of the orbit, treated with ivermectine prior to surgery. METHODS: We report a case and emphasize the efficacy of ivermectine in the treatment of myiasis, as alternative therapy. RESULTS: After oral administration of a single dose of ivermectine we saw a complete resolution of the myiasis in a 48-hour period. CONCLUSION: Ivermectine can be used successfully in the treatment of orbital myiasis, turning the mechanical removal of larvae an unnecessary procedure.

  14. Serratospiculosis in falcons from Kuwait: incidence, pathogenicity and treatment with melarsomine and ivermectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarello W.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the incidence of the filarial avian nematode Serratospiculum seurati in falcons from Kuwait, report clinical signs and find an effective therapy. Naturally occurring S. seurati infestation was diagnosed in 149 (8.7 % out of 1,706 captive falcons examined between May 2003 and April 2005, and 140 of these were treated with melarsomine at dosage of 0.25 mg/kg injected intramuscularly for two days, and ivermectin, injected once at the dose of 1 mg/kg, 10 days later. Infestation was reportedly symptomatic in 107 (71.8 % and non-symptomatic in 42 (28.2 % falcons. Signs reported more often were dyspnoea (58.8 %, reduced speed and strength in flight (56 %, weight loss (38.3 %, anorexia/poor appetite (22.4 % and lethargy (16.8 %. After administration of melarsomine, signs disappeared within 1-10 days in symptomatic birds and improvement of flight performances was noted in non-symptomatic birds. Dead adult parasites were ejected in 22 cases. Embryonated eggs were not detected in coproscopic checks made 10 and 40 days after the end of therapy, in association with lasting clinical remission. The main conclusion is that Serratospiculum seurati is overall pathogenic for birds of prey in the Middle East and that melarsomine + ivermectin can be an effective protocol of therapy eliminating both clinical signs and parasites.

  15. Tolerance and Efficacy of Emamectin Benzoate and Ivermectin for the Treatment of Pseudocapillaria tomentosa in Laboratory Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    OpenAIRE

    Collymore, Chereen; Watral, Virginia; White, Julie R.; Colvin, Michael E.; Rasmussen, Skye; Tolwani, Ravi J.; Kent, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Tolerance of adult zebrafish and efficacy of emamectin benzoate and ivermectin in eliminating Pseudocapillaria tomentosa infection were evaluated. In the tolerance study, behavioral changes, fecundity, histopathology, and mortality were evaluated for in-feed administration of emamectin (0.05, 0.10, and 0.25 mg/kg) and ivermectin (0.05 and 0.10 mg/kg). All doses of emamectin were well tolerated. Ivermectin 0.05 mg/kg administration resulted in mild behavioral changes and a transient decrease i...

  16. Effect of ivermectin treatment on eosinophilic pneumonia and other extravascular lesions of late Strongylus vulgaris larval migration in foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, M A; Klei, T R

    1984-01-01

    Eighteen parasite-free pony foals were infected orally with 500 third stage larvae of Strongylus vulgaris. At 56 days after infection, six ponies were treated with intramuscular ivermectin (22, 23-dihydroavermectin B1); six were treated with oral ivermectin; and six were not treated. Necropsy was done 91 days after infection to study the pathologic effects of migrating S. vulgaris larvae and to determine the efficacy of ivermectin in attenuation of S. vulgaris-induced lesions. Larval migration induced eosinophilic inflammation of the liver, spleen, mesenteric, colic and cecal lymph nodes, and small and large intestine. Previously unreported parasitic lesions included eosinophilic pneumonia with eosinophilic granulomas and pulmonary lymphoid nodules. S. vulgaris larvae were observed in eosinophilic granulomas in the lung, epicardium, liver, and intestinal serosa. Injectable and oral ivermectin formulations were equally effective in reduction of these lesions.

  17. Community-directed treatment with ivermectin in two Nigerian communities: an analysis of first year start-up processes, costs and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwujekwe, Obinna; Chima, Reginald; Shu, Elvis; Okonkwo, Paul

    2002-10-01

    To determine the start-up processes, costs and consequences of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in two onchocerciasis endemic rural towns of Southeast Nigeria; namely Achi and Nike. The other objectives were to discover the community-financing mechanisms, local ivermectin distribution strategies and communities' organisational capacity to handle the programme. Structured questionnaires, informal interviews, observations, discussions with community members at general village assemblies and community outreach lectures were used at different stages of the study. The towns had the organisational capacity to implement the programme. Coverage with ivermectin was between 31-73% in Achi (mean = 58.6%), and 36.6-72% in Nike (mean = 61.95%). The unit financial costs were $0.17 in Nike and $0.13 in Achi, but the unit aggregate cost was $0.37 in Nike and $0.39 in Achi. When research costs were removed, the unit aggregate cost was $0.22 in Achi and $0.20 in Nike. Provider's financial costs and communities' non-financial costs were the biggest contributors to the aggregate cost. The cost would decrease in subsequent years since the research cost and parts of the mobilisation and training costs would not be incurred after the first year. Governments and sponsors of CDTI should find means of continuously strengthening the programme and providing technical support to the communities. As both CDTI and communities are dynamic entities, continuous health education campaigns are needed to keep reminding the people of the benefit of long-term ivermectin distribution, together with the need for community ownership of the programme.

  18. Proof-of-Principle of Onchocerciasis Elimination with Ivermectin Treatment in Endemic Foci in Africa: Final Results of a Study in Mali and Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traore, Mamadou O.; Sarr, Moussa D.; Badji, Alioune; Bissan, Yiriba; Diawara, Lamine; Doumbia, Konimba; Goita, Soula F.; Konate, Lassana; Mounkoro, Kalifa; Seck, Amadou F.; Toe, Laurent; Toure, Seyni; Remme, Jan H. F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Mass treatment with ivermectin controls onchocerciasis as a public health problem, but it was not known if it could also interrupt transmission and eliminate the parasite in endemic foci in Africa where vectors are highly efficient. A longitudinal study was undertaken in three hyperendemic foci in Mali and Senegal with 15 to 17 years of annual or six-monthly ivermectin treatment in order to assess residual levels of infection and transmission, and test whether treatment could be safely stopped. This article reports the results of the final evaluations up to 5 years after the last treatment. Methodology/Principal Findings Skin snip surveys were undertaken in 131 villages where 29,753 people were examined and 492,600 blackflies were analyzed for the presence of Onchocerca volvulus larva using a specific DNA probe. There was a declining trend in infection and transmission levels after the last treatment. In two sites the prevalence of microfilaria and vector infectivity rate were zero 3 to 4 years after the last treatment. In the third site, where infection levels were comparatively high before stopping treatment, there was also a consistent decline in infection and transmission to very low levels 3 to 5 years after stopping treatment. All infection and transmission indicators were below postulated thresholds for elimination. Conclusion/Significance The study has established the proof of principle that onchocerciasis elimination with ivermectin treatment is feasible in at least some endemic foci in Africa. The study results have been instrumental for the current evolution from onchocerciasis control to elimination in Africa. PMID:23029586

  19. [Sensibility of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites to ivermectin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Salazar, Francisco; Mata-Cárdenas, Benito D; Vargas-Villareal, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Amebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica is a problem of public world health. The most frequent clinical presentation are the dysentery and the amebic liver abscess. Fifty millions of cases and more than 100.000 deaths for this disease are reported annually worldwide. The life cycle of E. histolytica has two phases: trophozoite and cyst. Trophozoites are the causal agent of disease. The effective treatment for the amebiasis includes drugs with serious collateral effects. Ivermectin is a macrolid with activity against endoparasites and ectoparasites causing strongiloidosis, filariasis, oncocercosis, scabiasis and pediculosis. The use of ivermectin has been extended almost worldwide; it is recognized as a safe drug. The main objective of this study was to determine in vitro sensibility of trophozoites of E. histolytica was to the treatment with ivermectin. To determine the sensibility of the parasites to the drug, E. histolytica was cultivated in PEHPS medium. During its logarithmic growth phase the trophozoites were exposed to different concentrations of ivermectin. As controls other antiparasitic drugs were used. For each drug, serial dilutions were prepared, and mixed in culture tubes with parasites (2 x 104 cells/ml). They were incubated for 72 h and then the percentage of growth inhibition was calculated by Probit analysis. Ivermectin showed activity against trophozoites of E. histolytica. The 50% of growth inhibition of ivermectin was 6.40 mg/ml. This dose was higher than for other anti parasitic drugs. Its activity in vivo in animal models remains to be demonstrated.

  20. Ivermectin for onchocercal eye disease (river blindness)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejere, Henry OD; Schwartz, Ellen; Wormald, Richard; Evans, Jennifer R

    2015-01-01

    Background It is believed that ivermectin (a microfilaricide) could prevent blindness due to onchocerciasis. However, when given to everyone in communities where onchocerciasis is common, the effects of ivermectin on lesions affecting the eye are uncertain and data on whether the drug prevents visual loss are unclear. Objectives The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of ivermectin in preventing visual impairment and visual field loss in onchocercal eye disease. The secondary aim was to assess the effects of ivermectin on lesions affecting the eye in onchocerciasis. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 3), MEDLINE (January 1950 to April 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to April 2012), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 2 April 2012. Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials with at least one year of follow-up comparing ivermectin with placebo or no treatment. Participants in the trials were people normally resident in endemic onchocercal communities with or without one or more characteristic signs of ocular onchocerciasis. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. We contacted study authors for additional information. As trials varied in design and setting, we were unable to perform a meta-analysis. Main results The review included four trials: two small studies (n = 398) in which people with onchocercal infection were given one dose of ivermectin or placebo and followed up for one year; and two larger community-based studies (n = 4941) whereby all individuals in

  1. Changes with time after treatment in the concentrations of ivermectin in fresh cow dung and in cow pats aged in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, C; Steffansen, B

    1993-01-01

    An analytical procedure for detection of ivermectin in plasma samples was modified and used for measuring ivermectin concentrations in dung samples. The residues were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection after extraction, purification, and derivatization...

  2. Ongoing Transmission of Onchocerca volvulus after 25 Years of Annual Ivermectin Mass Treatments in the Vina du Nord River Valley, in North Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbarth, Albert; Achukwi, Mbunkah Daniel; Renz, Alfons

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent reports of transmission interruption of Onchocerca volvulus, the causing agent of river blindness, in former endemic foci in the Americas, and more recently in West and East Africa, raise the question whether elimination of this debilitating disease is underway after long-term treatment of the population at risk with ivermectin. The situation in Central Africa has not yet been clearly assessed. Methods and findings Entomologic data from two former endemic river basins in North Cameroon were generated over a period of 43 and 48 months to follow-up transmission levels in areas under prolonged ivermectin control. Moreover, epidemiologic parameters of animal-borne Onchocerca spp. transmitted by the same local black fly vectors of the Simulium damnosum complex were recorded and their impact on O. volvulus transmission success evaluated. With mitochondrial DNA markers we unambiguously confirmed the presence of infective O. volvulus larvae in vectors from the Sudan savannah region (mean Annual Transmission Potential 2009–2012: 98, range 47–221), but not from the Adamawa highland region. Transmission rates of O. ochengi, a parasite of Zebu cattle, were high in both foci. Conclusions/significance The high cattle livestock density in conjunction with the high transmission rates of the bovine filaria O. ochengi prevents the transmission of O. volvulus on the Adamawa plateau, whereas transmission in a former hyperendemic focus was markedly reduced, but not completely interrupted after 25 years of ivermectin control. This study may be helpful to gauge the impact of the presence of animal-filariae for O. volvulus transmission in terms of the growing human and livestock populations in sub-Saharan countries. PMID:26926855

  3. Still mesoendemic onchocerciasis in two Cameroonian community-directed treatment with ivermectin projects despite more than 15 years of mass treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy-Roger Kamga

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After more than a decade of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI in Centre and Littoral Regions of Cameroon, onchocerciasis endemicity was still high in some communities according to the 2011 epidemiological evaluations. Some corrective measures were undertaken to improve the CDTI process and therefore reduce the burden of the disease. The objective of the present study was to assess the progress made towards the elimination of onchocerciasis in the Centre 1 and Littoral 2 CDTI projects where the worst performances were found in 2011. To this end, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in April 2015 in eight communities in two health districts (HD, Bafia in Centre 1 and Yabassi in Littoral 2, chosen because assessed at baseline and in 2011. All volunteers living for at least five years in the community, aged five years or more, underwent clinical and parasitological examinations. Individual compliance to ivermectin treatment was also assessed. Analyses of data were weighted proportionally to age and gender distribution in the population. Results In the Bafia and Yabassi HD, 514 and 242 individuals were examined with a mean age of 35.1 (standard deviation, SD: 20.7 and 44.6 (SD: 16.3 years, respectively. In the Bafia HD, the weighted prevalences varied from 24.4 to 57.0 % for microfilaridermia and from 3.6 to 37.4 % for nodule presence across the surveyed communities. The community microfilarial load (CMFL, expressed in microfilariae/skin snip (mf/ss, significantly dropped from 20.84–114.50 mf/ss in 1991 to 0.31–1.62 mf/ss in 2015 in all the surveyed communities. In the Yabassi HD, the weighted prevalences varied from 12.3 to 59.3 % for microfilaridermia and from 1.5 to 3.7 % for nodule presence across the surveyed communities, while a significant drop was observed in CMFL, from 20.40–28.50 mf/ss in 1999 to 0.48–1.74 mf/ss in 2015. The 2014 weighted therapeutic coverage of participants varied from 65

  4. Failure of two consecutive annual treatments with ivermectin to eradicate the reindeer parasites (Hypoderma tarandi, Cephenemyia trompe and Linguatula arctica from an island in northern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne C. Nilssen

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The highly efficient endectocide ivermectin is used to reduce the burden of parasites in many semidomestic reindeer herds in northern Fennoscandia. In the autumn of 1995 and 1996 all reindeer on the island of Silda (42 km2 were treated with ivermectin in an attempt to eradicate the warble fly (Hypoderma (=Oedemagena tarandi (L., the nose bot fly (Cephenemyia trompe (Modeer (Diptera: Oestridae and the sinus worm (Linguatula arctica Riley, Haugerud and Nilssen (Pentastomida: Linguatulidae. Silda is situated 2-3 km off the mainland of Finnmark, northern Norway, and supports about 475 reindeer in summer. A year after the first treatment, the mean abundance of H. tarandi was reduced from 3.5 to 0.6, but a year after the second treatment the mean abundance unexpectedly had increased to 4.5. After one year without treatment, the mean abundance and prevalence of the three target parasites were at the same level, or higher, than pre-treatment levels. The main hypothesis for the failure to eliminate the parasites is that gravid H. tarandi and C. trompe females originating from untreated reindeer in adjacent mainland areas dispersed to the island during the warm summer of 1997 (possibly also in 1998. As these oestrids are strong flyers, it may not be too difficult for them to cross >2-3 km of oceanic waters. There are no good explanations for the failure to eradicate L. arctica, but the results indicate that there may be elements in its life cycle that are unknown. The conclusion of the study is that it may be difficult or impossible to eradicate these parasites permanently, even locally such as on islands unless adjacent areas on the mainland are also cleared.

  5. Determination of ivermectin efficacy against cyathostomins and Parascaris equorum on horse farms using selective therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette L.; Ritz, Christian; Petersen, Stig L.

    2011-01-01

    Ivermectin resistance has recently been described in Parascaris equorum and there have been reports from several countries of a shortened egg reappearance period (ERP) following ivermectin treatment for cyathostomins. This study was aimed at determining the efficacy of ivermectin in treating cyat...

  6. Canine generalized demodicosis treated with varying doses of a 2.5% moxidectin+10% imidacloprid spot-on and oral ivermectin: parasiticidal effects and long-term treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Tara E; Halliwell, Richard E; Fields, Paul J; Louw, Marta Lanza; Ball, Geoff; Louw, Jakobus; Pinckney, Rhonda

    2014-10-15

    Advocate(®) (2.5% moxidectin+10% imidacloprid) (Bayer HealthCare, Leverkusen, Germany) is a multiparasiticidal spot-on authorized for treating canine demodicosis in many countries. This blinded, randomized three-phase clinical trial compared its efficacy employing different dosing regimens with that of ivermectin. In the blinded first phase, 58 dogs suffering from generalized demodicosis were randomly assigned to one of four groups and treated with monthly, biweekly or weekly applications of Advocate(®), or with oral ivermectin (IVR) at 500 μg/kg daily. Dogs were evaluated clinically and multiple skin scrapings undertaken every 4 weeks until parasitological cure was achieved (defined as two consecutive series of deep skin scrapings at monthly intervals negative for all life forms). Forty dogs completed the 16-week initial blinded phase, with 5 cases achieving parasitological cure. Five dogs were deemed treatment failures and subsequently treated with ivermectin. The treatment protocol was then changed for the remaining 35 dogs and this cross-over phase (Phase 2) was maintained for a further 8 weeks with an additional 9 dogs achieving parasitological cure. Thereafter, all remaining animals were treated with IVR until cured (Phase 3). Overall, 26 dogs achieved parasitological cure during the clinical investigation. Of these, 23 remained disease-free for at least 12 months while two were lost to follow up and one died of unrelated causes. A total of 32 (55.2%) dogs were withdrawn at various stages of the investigation including the 5 dogs that were judged treatment failures. Other reasons for withdrawal included: non-compliance, lost to follow-up, ivermectin toxicity or reasons unrelated to the investigation. No adverse effects were attributable to the use of Advocate(®). Parasiticidal efficacy was assessed by changes in mite counts (live adult, juvenile and egg) and skin lesion extent & severity scores. Statistical significance was assessed using ANCOVA with

  7. Twelve-month longitudinal parasitological assessment of lymphatic filariasis-positive individuals: impact of a biannual treatment with ivermectin and albendazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamitie, John N; Ahorlu, Collins S; Otchere, Joseph; Aboagye-Antwi, Fred; Kwansa-Bentum, Bethel; Boakye, Daniel A; Biritwum, Nana-Kwadwo; Wilson, Michael D; de Souza, Dziedzom K

    2017-11-01

    Mass drug administration (MDA) for the control of lymphatic filariasis (LF), in Ghana, started in the year 2000. While this had great success in many implementation units, there remain areas with persistent transmission, after more than 10 years of treatment. A closer examination of the parasite populations could help understand the reasons for persistent infections and formulate appropriate strategies to control LF in these areas of persistent transmission. In a longitudinal study, we assessed the prevalence of microfilaraemia (mf) in two communities with 12 years of MDA in Ghana. In baseline surveys 6 months after the National MDA in 2014, 370 consenting individuals were tested for antigenaemia using immunochromatographic test (ICT) cards and had their mf count determined through night blood surveys. 48 ICT positives, of whom, 17 were positive for mf, were treated with 400 μg/kg ivermectin + 400 mg albendazole and subsequently followed for parasitological assessment at 3-month intervals for 1 year. This overlapped with the National MDA in 2015. There was a 68% parasite clearance 3 months after treatment. The pre-treatment mf count differed significantly from the post-treatment mf counts at 3 months (P = 0.0023), 6 months (P = 0.0051), 9 months (P = 0.0113) and 12 months (P = 0.0008). In these settings with persistent LF transmission, twice-yearly treatment may help accelerate LF elimination. Further large-scale evaluations are required to ascertain these findings. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Field-based evidence of single and few doses of annual ivermectin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Impact assessment of community-based ivermectin treatment control of onchocerciasis is required to determine its effectiveness. This study was conducted to evaluate geographic coverage and demographic ivermectin treatment compliance. Methods: The number of village dosage were obtained from the ...

  9. Anthelmintic drug ivermectin inhibits angiogenesis, growth and survival of glioblastoma through inducing mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yingying; Fang, Shanshan; Sun, Qiushi; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is one of the most vascular brain tumour and highly resistant to current therapy. Targeting both glioblastoma cells and angiogenesis may present an effective therapeutic strategy for glioblastoma. In our work, we show that an anthelmintic drug, ivermectin, is active against glioblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo, and also targets angiogenesis. Ivermectin significantly inhibits growth and anchorage-independent colony formation in U87 and T98G glioblastoma cells. It induces apoptosis in these cells through a caspase-dependent manner. Ivermectin significantly suppresses the growth of two independent glioblastoma xenograft mouse models. In addition, ivermectin effectively targets angiogenesis through inhibiting capillary network formation, proliferation and survival in human brain microvascular endothelial cell (HBMEC). Mechanistically, ivermectin decreases mitochondrial respiration, membrane potential, ATP levels and increases mitochondrial superoxide in U87, T98G and HBMEC cells exposed to ivermectin. The inhibitory effects of ivermectin are significantly reversed in mitochondria-deficient cells or cells treated with antioxidants, further confirming that ivermectin acts through mitochondrial respiration inhibition and induction of oxidative stress. Importantly, we show that ivermectin suppresses phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR and ribosomal S6 in glioblastoma and HBMEC cells, suggesting its inhibitory role in deactivating Akt/mTOR pathway. Altogether, our work demonstrates that ivermectin is a useful addition to the treatment armamentarium for glioblastoma. Our work also highlights the therapeutic value of targeting mitochondrial metabolism in glioblastoma. - Highlights: • Ivermectin is effective in glioblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo. • Ivermectin inhibits angiogenesis. • Ivermectin induces mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. • Ivermectin deactivates Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.

  10. Eficácia das lactonas macrocíclicas sistêmicas (ivermectina e moxidectina na terapia da demodicidose canina generalizada Efficacy of systemics macrocyclic lactones (ivermectin and moxidectin for the treatment of generalized canine demodicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.H. Delayte

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a eficácia de lactonas macrocíclicas (ivermectina e moxidectina sobre a eventual ocorrência de efeitos colaterais e acompanharam-se, após a alta parasitológica, por 12 meses, os cães tratados, visando detectar a recidiva do quadro dermatopático. Dos 63 animais, 59% eram fêmeas, 76% apresentavam precisa definição racial e 67% tinham pelame curto. A ivermectina (0,6mg/kg/dia foi administrada por via oral a 31 cães, e a moxidectina (0,5mg/kg/cada 72 horas, pela mesma via, a 32 animais. Os tempos médios para a obtenção da primeira negativação do exame parasitológico do raspado cutâneo e para a consecução da alta foram, respectivamente, de 90 e 130 dias para a ivermectina e de 108 e 147 dias para a moxidectina. A ivermectina acarretou menos (16,1% efeitos colaterais em relação à moxidectina (37,5% (P=0,03. As recidivas foram, respectivamente, 10,3% e 13% para ivermectina e moxidectina. Não houve diferença entre os dois protocolos de terapia quanto aos percentuais de recidiva (P=0,67 e eficácia (P=0,61. Ambas as lactonas macrocíclicas mostraram-se eficazes: ivermectina 89,7% e moxidectina 87%.The efficacy of ivermectin and moxidectin for treatment of generalized canine demodicosis, was evaluated to detect the eventual occurrence of side effects caused by the use of these drugs, and to follow the treated dogs for 12 months after obtaining parasitologic cure. Of 63 dogs, 59% were females, 76% were defined as purebred and 67% had short hair. Ivermectin (0.6mg/kg/daily was orally administered to 31 dogs and moxidectin (0.5mg/kg/every 72 hours to 32 dogs. The average number of days to obtain the first negative skin scraping results and the parasitologic cure were, respectively, 90 and 130 days for ivermectin, and 108 and 147 days for moxidectin. Ivermectin caused fewer side effects (16.1% than moxidectin (37.5% (P0.67 and efficacy (P>0.61. Both drugs were effective and safe to treat generalized canine demodicosis

  11. In vitro activity of ivermectin against Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates

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    Shoaib Ashraf

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ivermectin is an endectocide against many parasites. Though being a macrocyclic lactone, its activity against bacteria has been less known, possibly due to the fact that micromolar concentrations at tissue levels are required to achieve a therapeutic effect. Among pathogenic bacteria of major medical significance, Staphylococcus aureus cause a number of diseases in a wide variety of hosts including humans and animals. It has been attributed as one of the most pathogenic organisms. The emergence of methicillin resistance has made the treatment of S. aureus even more difficult as it is now resistant to most of the available antibiotics. Thus, search for alternate anti-staphylococcal agents requires immediate attention. Methods Twenty-one clinical isolates of S. aureus were isolated from bovine milk collected from Lahore and Faisalabad Pakistan. Different anthelmintics including levamisole, albendazole and ivermectin were tested against S. aureus to determine their minimum inhibitory concentrations. This was followed-up by growth curve analysis, spot assay and time-kill kinetics. Results The results showed that ivermectin but not levamisole or albendazole exhibited a potent anti-staphylococcal activity at the concentrations of 6.25 and 12.5 μg/ml against two isolates. Interestingly, one of the isolate was sensitive while the other was resistant to methicillin/cefoxitin. Conclusions Our novel findings indicate that ivermectin has an anti-bacterial effect against certain S. aureus isolates. However, to comprehend why ivermectin did not inhibit the growth of all Staphylococci needs further investigation. Nevertheless, we have extended the broad range of known pharmacological effects of ivermectin. As pharmacology and toxicology of ivermectin are well known, its further development as an anti-staphylococcal agent is potentially appealing.

  12. Programmatic factors associated with the limited impact of Community-Directed Treatment with Ivermectin to control Onchocerciasis in three drainage basins of South West Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Tetteh Duamor

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The CDTI model is known to have enhanced community participation in planning and resource mobilization toward the control of onchocerciasis. These effects were expected to translate into better individual acceptance of the intervention and hence high Treatment Coverage, leading to a sustainable community-led strategy and reduction in the disease burden. A survey revealed that after 10-12 rounds of treatment, prevalence of onchocerciasis was still high in three drainage basins of South West Cameroon and transmission was going on.We designed a three (3-year retrospective (2012, 2013 and 2014, descriptive cross-sectional study to explore the roles of operational challenges in the failure of CDTI to control the disease as expected. We administered 83 semi-structured questionnaires and conducted 12 in-depth interviews with Chiefs of Bureau Health, Chiefs of Centers, CDDs and Community Heads. Descriptive statistics was used to explore indicators of performance which were supported with views from in-depth interviews.We found that community participation was weak; communities were not deciding time and mode of distributions. Only 6 (15.0% of 40 Community Drug Distributors reported they were selected at general community meetings as required. The health service was not able to meet and discuss Community-Directed Treatment with Ivermectin activities with individual communities partly due to transportation challenges; this was mostly done through letters. Funding was reported to be inadequate and not timely. Funds were not available to conduct Community-Self Monitoring after the 2014 Mass Drug Administration. There was inadequate health staff at the frontline health facility levels, and some Chiefs of Center reported that Community-Directed Treatment with Ivermectin work was too much for them. The mean operational Community Drug Distributor-population ratio was 1 Community Drug Distributor per 317 populations (range: 194-464, expected is 1:250. Community

  13. Neglected Tropical Diseases: Treatment of Dermatological Manifestation of Filariasis with Combination Regimen of Albendazole, Ivermectin, and Loratadine: A Case Report from a Suburban Community in Nigeria

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    Osede Ignis Iribhogbe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Threadlike filarial nematodes have been identified as the causative agent of filariasis. Cutaneous filariasis is caused primarily by Loa loa, Onchocerca volvulus, and Mansonella streptocerca. These parasites occupy the subcutaneous layer of the skin. However, other filarial parasites are usually associated with varying degrees of dermatological manifestations. In the present discourse, two cases of cutaneous filariasis were diagnosed in two female patients (21 and 40 years old, respectively in Remitch Clinic and Maternity located in a nonriverine community in Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria. In this report, patients with body mass index (BMI of 18.97 and 23.45 kg/m2, respectively, presented on two different occasions at least 6 months apart with hyperpigmented skin lesions in the upper and lower limbs, respectively. There was associated intense pruritus with no evidence of lymphadenopathy and lymphoedema. Following laboratory confirmation of filariasis, the patients were placed on a single oral dose combination of albendazole (400 mg + ivermectin (200 mcg/kg, while oral doses of loratadine 10 mg were administered daily for 5 days. Patients were carefully followed up for 6 weeks during which recession of the lesion and untoward reactions were monitored. It was observed that within 6 weeks of treatment, there was a dramatic recession of skin lesion. Adverse effect reported from use of the combination was mild. This case report revealed that cutaneous filariasis is not an uncommon presentation of filariasis infestation in Nigeria. The report also validates the safety and efficacy of the combination in the management of cutaneous manifestation of the disease.

  14. Lack of effect of ivermectin on prepatent guinea-worm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issaka-Tinorgah, A.; Magnussen, P.; Bloch, P.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of ivermectin on prepatent guinea-worm was tested in a single-blind placebo-controlled trial; 400 adults were randomly allocated to a single dose of ivermectin (150 µg/kg) or placebo. Fifty-four of the 385 participants who were followed for 15 months developed a total of 69 emergent...... guinea-worms. There was no significant differencein the proportion of persons with emergent guinea-worms between the 2 treatment groups; 58% appeared in males. 80% of emergent guinea-worms were located below the knee. Migration of guinea-worms in the tissues was not affected. It is concluded...

  15. The lack of influence of food and local alcoholic brew on the blood level of Mectizan(®) (ivermectin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homeida, Mamoun M; Malcolm, Stephen B; ElTayeb, A Z; Eversole, Rob R; Elassad, Asma S; Geary, Timothy G; Ali, Magdi M; Mackenzie, Charles D

    2013-08-01

    There is concern that extraneous factors, such as food and drink, may alter the pharmacodynamics of Mectizan(®) (ivermectin) in patients receiving this important anti-parasitic drug, and thus might put such individuals in danger of serious adverse events. The effects of a common local alcohol-containing beverage and a local food on plasma levels of ivermectin were studied in Sudanese volunteers after administration of the standard dose used in mass drug administration programs for onchocerciasis and filariasis. Plasma levels of ivermectin at various time points (0-48h) after administration of ivermectin were ascertained by HPLC assay in ten volunteers given 150μgkg(-1) ivermectin together with either a local sorghum-based food ('assida'), or a locally brewed alcoholic beverage ('arangi' made from sorghum grain) or in those who were fasting. Maximum mean (±SD) plasma levels of ivermectin (67±49ngml(-1)) were reached within 2h in fasting patients, and had dropped to 26±20ngml(-1) after 30h. The coadministration of local food or alcoholic beverage did not cause an increase in ivermectin plasma levels above those observed in people who were fasting. However, at 2h after ivermectin administration, patients given alcohol had significantly lower plasma ivermectin levels than fed patients or fasting patients. There were no significant differences among treatments for AUC0-30, Cmax, or tmax, and so the coadministration of local food or alcoholic beverage did not cause any change in pharmacokinetic parameters of ivermectin in the plasma in comparison with fasting. None of the measured levels of plasma ivermectin were greater than those reported in previous studies with this compound. These findings do not support the hypothesis that acute intake of alcohol is an important factor in the development of the serious adverse reactions that can occur during the treatment of loaisis patients with ivermectin (Mectizan(®)). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Antiparasitic efficacy of ivermectin in naturally parasitized sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazwinski, T A; Greenway, T; Presson, B L; Pote, L M; Featherstone, H; Williams, M

    1983-11-01

    Sixteen sheep harboring naturally acquired parasitisms were allocated to 1 of 2 treatment groups: (i) sheep given ivermectin in an oral solution at the dosage rate of 200 micrograms/kg of body weight, and (ii) those given the vehicle at a dosage rate of 0.25 ml/kg. All animals were necropsied at 2 weeks after treatment. Parasites and percentages of parasitic reductions, as demonstrated in this trial, were: Dictyocaulus filaria (99.4%), Oestrus ovis first stage instars (100%), Trichuris ovis (98.9%), Strongyloides papillosus (99.8%), Nematodirus spathiger (100%), arrested 4th stage Nematodirus spp (96.2%), Trichostrongylus colubriformis (100%), T axei (100%), Oster tagia circumcincta (100%), Haemonchus contortus (100%), and arrested Haemonchus spp 4th stage larvae (99.9%). The sheep showed no adverse effects due to ivermectin or vehicle administration.

  17. Anthelmintic Resistance of Strongyle Nematodes to Ivermectin and Fenbendazole on Cart Horses in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zewdu Seyoum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted from November 2015 to April 2016 to determine fenbendazole and ivermectin resistance status of intestinal nematodes of cart horses in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. Forty-five strongyle infected animals were used for this study. The animals were randomly allocated into three groups (15 horses per group. Group I was treated with fenbendazole and Group II with ivermectin and Group III was left untreated. Faecal samples were collected from each cart horse before and after treatment. Accordingly, the reduction in the mean fecal egg count at fourteen days of treatment for ivermectin and fenbendazole was 97.25% and 79.4%, respectively. It was significantly different in net egg count between treatment and control groups after treatment. From the study, resistance level was determined for fenbendazole and suspected for ivermectin. In addition, a questionnaire survey was also conducted on 90 selected cart owners to assess their perception on anthelmintics. In the survey, the most available drugs in the study area used by the owners were fenbendazole and ivermectin. Most respondents have no knowledge about drug management techniques. Hence, animal health extension services to create awareness regarding anthelmintic management that plays a key role in reducing the anthelmintic resistance parasites.

  18. Anthelmintic Resistance of Strongyle Nematodes to Ivermectin and Fenbendazole on Cart Horses in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyoum, Zewdu; Zewdu, Alemu; Dagnachew, Shimelis; Bogale, Basazinew

    2017-01-01

    A study was conducted from November 2015 to April 2016 to determine fenbendazole and ivermectin resistance status of intestinal nematodes of cart horses in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. Forty-five strongyle infected animals were used for this study. The animals were randomly allocated into three groups (15 horses per group). Group I was treated with fenbendazole and Group II with ivermectin and Group III was left untreated. Faecal samples were collected from each cart horse before and after treatment. Accordingly, the reduction in the mean fecal egg count at fourteen days of treatment for ivermectin and fenbendazole was 97.25% and 79.4%, respectively. It was significantly different in net egg count between treatment and control groups after treatment. From the study, resistance level was determined for fenbendazole and suspected for ivermectin. In addition, a questionnaire survey was also conducted on 90 selected cart owners to assess their perception on anthelmintics. In the survey, the most available drugs in the study area used by the owners were fenbendazole and ivermectin. Most respondents have no knowledge about drug management techniques. Hence, animal health extension services to create awareness regarding anthelmintic management that plays a key role in reducing the anthelmintic resistance parasites.

  19. Effectiveness of ivermectin against later 4th-stage Strongylus vulgaris in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocombe, J O; McCraw, B M; Pennock, P W; Vasey, J

    1982-09-01

    Twelve pony foals were reared worm-free and inoculated with Strongylus vulgaris. Approximately 8 weeks after they were inoculated, 6 foals were given ivermectin IM at a dosage rate of 200 micrograms/kg of body weight and 6 were given a placebo. All foals were necropsied 35 days after treatment. Ivermectin was 98.9% effective in eliminating later 4th-stage S vulgaris larvae located near the origin of major intestinal arteries and in reducing clinical signs and permitting resolution of lesions associated with verminous arteritis. One pony foal reared on pasture and with evidence of arteritis of the cranial mesenteric and ileocolic arteries on arteriography was treated with ivermectin at a dosage rate of 200 micrograms/kg of body weight. On arteriographs taken subsequently, there was evidence of regression of the lesion, and at necropsy 9 weeks after treatment, there was no arteritis or larvae in those arteries.

  20. Successful management of ivermectin-induced blindness in an African lion (Panthera leo) by intravenous administration of a lipid emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqib, Muhammad; Abbas, Ghazanfar; Mughal, Mudassar Niaz

    2015-11-26

    Ivermectin is widely used in veterinary practice for the treatment of ecto- and endo-parasites. In wildlife, an extra-label use this parasiticide is sometimes associated with toxicity. Different treatment regimens have been used in ivermectin toxicosis. The present report describes a successful reversal of ivermectin toxicity by intravenous administration of a commercially available lipid emulsion in a captive African lion (Panthera leo). A 2-year old captive African lion (Panthera leo) weighing ~130 kg was presented with acute neurological impairment and bilateral blindness that had developed 24 h after ivermectin exposure. The animal was treated with a commercially available lipid emulsion along with supportive therapy and experienced complete recovery. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of the use of lipid emulsion in the management of ivermectin induced blindness in an African lion and it appears that intravenous lipid emulsion may be an effective therapy in ivermectin toxicity in lions. Further testing in expanded clinical trials is clearly warranted.

  1. 21 CFR 520.1200 - Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets... Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains either: (1) 68 micrograms (µg) ivermectin, 1.134 grams fenbendazole, and 57 milligrams (mg) praziquantel; or...

  2. Efficacy of ivermectin, closantel and fenbendazole against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in Kashmir valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramboo, S R; Shahardar, R A; Allaie, I M; Wani, Z A; Abbas, Maria

    2017-06-01

    The present work was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of ivermectin, closantel and fenbendazole under field conditions against Gastrointestinal Nematodes (GIN) of cross bred merino sheep in Budgam area of Kashmir Valley. A total of 115 sheep having Egg per gram of faeces (EPG) greater than or equal to 150 (mean EPG 258.89) were selected. The animals were randomly divided into four groups comprising of 30 animals each in three treatment groups (ivermectin, closantel and fenbendazole) and twenty-five in fourth untreated infected control group. Faecal samples from the selected animals were collected on day '0' pre treatment and on days 8th and 14th post treatment. Based on Faecal Egg Count Reduction Test (FECRT), ivermectin was found to be 98.80 % effective against strongyles on 8th day post treatment, however an efficacy of 100 % was seen against strongyle worms on 14th day post treatment. 98.80 and 100 % efficacy was observed on day 8th post treatment against strongyles in case of closantel and fenbendazole respectively, however efficacy decreased to 97.60 and 98.8 % respectively on 14th day post treatment. There was no evidence of development of resistance by GIN of cross bred merino sheep in District Budgam of Kashmir Valley to ivermectin, closantel and fenbendazole.

  3. The veterinary drug ivermectin influences immune response in the yellow dung fly (Scathophaga stercoraria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, Helen M.; Tracy, Saoirse R.

    2009-01-01

    Phenoloxidase (PO) is a key enzyme involved in the immune response of insects. We show that egg-to-adult exposure to residues of 0.001, but not 0.0005 mg kg -1 ivermectin elevated PO activity in yellow dung flies (Scathophaga stercoraria) developing in cattle dung. Fly fat content was unaffected by the treatments. Therefore, the response of PO was a direct effect of ivermectin and not an indirect one caused by an alteration in body 'condition'. This supports the non-intuitive conclusion that flies surviving exposure to faecal residues may have enhanced immune function. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the effects on PO activity of insecticidal residues in livestock dung. The non-target effects of such residues are of wide interest, given the global use of veterinary products. - Phenoloxidase activity in Scathophaga stercoraria is enhanced by ivermectin and that effect is transferred to the adult fly from the larval stage

  4. Endectocide activity of a pour-on formulation containing 1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Heloisa Cristina; Prette, Nancy; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Sakamoto, Cláudio Alessandro M; Buzzulini, Carolina; Dos Santos, Thais Rabelo; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Teixeira, Weslen F Pires; Felippelli, Gustavo; Carvalho, Rafael Silveira; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Soares, Vando Edésio; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2015-01-01

    The present work aimed to evaluate, through ten different studies, the therapeutic efficacy of a new pour-on formulation, containing 1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin, against parasites of cattle. Results obtained on trials against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus showed that the pour-on combination of 1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin obtained superior efficacy indexes against this ectoparasite, when compared with formulations containing 0.5 per cent ivermectin, 1 per cent ivermectin and the combination of 1 per cent abamectin +20 per cent levamisole. The results of efficacy of the ivermectin+abamectin and the 0.5 per cent ivermectin against Haematobia irritans were similar. Against Cochliomyia hominivorax larvae, all pour-on formulations tested (1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin, 0.5 per cent ivermectin and 0.5 per cent abamectin), as well as 1 per cent doramectin administered subcutaneously, were considered ineffective. Cattle medicated with 1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin, pour-on, remained free from parasitism by Dermatobia hominis larvae during 42 days (96 per cent efficacy), while values superior to 90 per cent were obtained by 0.5 per cent ivermectin (92 per cent) and 0.5 per cent abamectin (93 per cent) until the 42nd and 35th days post treatment, respectively. Against Haemonchus placei and Oesophagostomum radiatum, the pour-on of ivermectin+abamectin showed better efficacy than the 0.5 per cent ivermectin and 0.5 per cent abamectin. As to Cooperia punctata, there was no difference regarding efficacy results obtained by the avermectins combination and abamectin. The pour-on combination of 1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin obtained high efficacy against R. (B.) microplus, D. hominis and some species of cattle gastrointestinal helminths when compared with formulations of 0.5 per cent ivermectin and 0.5 per cent abamectin administered through the same route.

  5. Synergistic activity of antibiotics combined with ivermectin to kill body lice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangaré, Abdoul Karim; Rolain, Jean Marc; Gaudart, Jean; Weber, Pascal; Raoult, Didier

    2016-03-01

    Ivermectin and doxycycline have been found to be independently effective in killing body lice. In this study, 450 body lice were artificially fed on a Parafilm™ membrane with human blood associated with antibiotics (doxycycline, erythromycin, rifampicin and azithromycin) alone and in combination with ivermectin. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation and spectral deconvolution were performed to evaluate bacterial transcriptional activity following antibiotic intake by the lice. In the first series, a lethal effect of antibiotics on lice was observed compared with the control group at 18 days (log-rank test, P≤10(-3)), with a significant difference between groups in the production of nits (P=0.019, Kruskal-Wallis test). A high lethal effect of ivermectin alone (50ng/mL) was observed compared with the control group (log-rank test, P≤10(-3)). Fluorescence of bacteriocytes in lice treated with 20μg/mL doxycycline was lower than in untreated lice (PKruskal-Wallis test). In the second series with antibiotic-ivermectin combinations, a synergistic lethal effect on treated lice (log-rank test, PKruskal-Wallis test). Additionally, survival of lice in the combination treatment groups compared with ivermectin alone was significant (log-rank test, P=0.0008). These data demonstrate that the synergistic effect of combinations of antibiotics and ivermectin could be used to achieve complete eradication of lice and to avoid selection of a resistant louse population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  6. Ivermectin: activity against larval Strongylus vulgaris and adult Trichostrongylus axei in experimental infections in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, E T; Drudge, J H; Tolliver, S C

    1982-08-01

    Activity of ivermectin, administered IM at the dosage rate of 200 micrograms/kg of body weight, was evaluated in controlled tests against migrating larvae of Strongylus vulgaris and adult Trichostrongylus axei in experimental infections in 6 ponies raised worm-free. Ponies were given 2,190 or 2,400 infective 3rd-stage larvae of S vulgaris at 7 days before treatment and 22,000 or 22,750 infective 3rd-stage larvae of T axei at 42 or 45 days before treatment. Three ponies were given ivermectin plus vehicle, and 3 ponies were given the vehicle only; the ponies were euthanatized 7 or 9 days after treatment. At necropsy, 4th-stage S vulgaris larvae were not recovered from visceral arteries of the 3 ivermectin plus vehicle-treated ponies, but 21 to 40 larvae were recovered from each of the 3 vehicle-treated ponies. Also at necropsy, adult T axei (140 specimens) were recovered from only 1 ot the 3 ivermectin plus vehicle-treated ponies, but 4,610 to 6,410 specimens were found in each of the 3 vehicle-treated ponies. Toxicosis was not observed after treatment.

  7. Efficacy and Safety of Single and Double Doses of Ivermectin versus 7-Day High Dose Albendazole for Chronic Strongyloidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Premasathian, Nalinee; Bhumimuang, Kid; Waywa, Duangdao; Nilganuwong, Surasak; Karuphong, Ekkapun; Anekthananon, Thanomsak; Wanachiwanawin, Darawan; Silpasakorn, Saowaluk

    2011-01-01

    Background Strongyloidiasis, caused by an intestinal helminth Strongyloides stercoralis, is common throughout the tropics. It remains an important health problem due to autoinfection, which may result in hyperinfection and disseminated infection in immunosuppressed patients, especially patients receiving chemotherapy or corticosteroid treatment. Ivermectin and albendazole are effective against strongyloidiasis. However, the efficacy and the most effective dosing regimen are to be determined. Methods A prospective, randomized, open study was conducted in which a 7-day course of oral albendazole 800 mg daily was compared with a single dose (200 microgram/kilogram body weight), or double doses, given 2 weeks apart, of ivermectin in Thai patients with chronic strongyloidiasis. Patients were followed-up with 2 weeks after initiation of treatment, then 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, and 1 year after treatment. Combination of direct microscopic examination of fecal smear, formol-ether concentration method, and modified Koga agar plate culture were used to detect strongyloides larvae in two consecutive fecal samples in each follow-up visit. The primary endpoint was clearance of strongyloides larvae from feces after treatment and at one year follow-up. Results Ninety patients were included in the analysis (30, 31 and 29 patients in albendazole, single dose, and double doses ivermectin group, respectively). All except one patient in this study had at least one concomitant disease. Diabetes mellitus, systemic lupus erythrematosus, nephrotic syndrome, hematologic malignancy, solid tumor and human immunodeficiency virus infection were common concomitant diseases in these patients. The median (range) duration of follow-up were 19 (2–76) weeks in albendazole group, 39 (2–74) weeks in single dose ivermectin group, and 26 (2–74) weeks in double doses ivermectin group. Parasitological cure rate were 63.3%, 96.8% and 93.1% in albendazole, single dose oral ivermectin

  8. Efficacy of ivermectin as an anthelmintic in leopard frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, J; Glade, M

    1992-02-15

    Ivermectin administered cutaneously at dosages of 2 mg/kg of body weight eliminated nematode infections in leopard frogs. Three clinical trials were conducted. In the first trial, 5 groups of 11 frogs were given ivermectin IM at dosages of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 2, or 20 mg/kg. All frogs given ivermectin IM at dosages of 2.0 mg/kg or greater died. In trial 2, 44 frogs, allotted to 5 groups, were given ivermectin cutaneously at 0, 0.2, 2, or 20 mg/kg. Cutaneously administered ivermectin was not toxic at dosages up to 20 mg/kg. In trial 3, nematode infections were eliminated in all 10 frogs treated cutaneously with ivermectin at 2.0 mg/kg.

  9. Controlled tests of ivermectin against migrating Strongylus vulgaris in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocombe, J O; McCraw, B M

    1981-06-01

    Twelve pony foals were reared worm-free and inoculated with Strongylus vulgaris. On day 7 after inoculation, 6 ponies were given ivermectin IM at a dose of 200 micrograms/kg of body weight and on day 28 were necropsied. Ivermectin was effective in eliminating early 4th-stage S vulgaris larvae and reducing clinical signs associated with acute arteritis. After administrative ivermectin was effective against early 4th-stage Strongylus vulgaris larvae in ponies when administered at 100, 300, or 800 micrograms/kg of body weight. The purpose of the present study was to report on a more extensive trial, using a single dosage of ivermectin.

  10. Genome-wide analysis of ivermectin response by Onchocerca volvulus reveals that genetic drift and soft selective sweeps contribute to loss of drug sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R Doyle

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of onchocerciasis using mass ivermectin administration has reduced morbidity and transmission throughout Africa and Central/South America. Mass drug administration is likely to exert selection pressure on parasites, and phenotypic and genetic changes in several Onchocerca volvulus populations from Cameroon and Ghana-exposed to more than a decade of regular ivermectin treatment-have raised concern that sub-optimal responses to ivermectin's anti-fecundity effect are becoming more frequent and may spread.Pooled next generation sequencing (Pool-seq was used to characterise genetic diversity within and between 108 adult female worms differing in ivermectin treatment history and response. Genome-wide analyses revealed genetic variation that significantly differentiated good responder (GR and sub-optimal responder (SOR parasites. These variants were not randomly distributed but clustered in ~31 quantitative trait loci (QTLs, with little overlap in putative QTL position and gene content between the two countries. Published candidate ivermectin SOR genes were largely absent in these regions; QTLs differentiating GR and SOR worms were enriched for genes in molecular pathways associated with neurotransmission, development, and stress responses. Finally, single worm genotyping demonstrated that geographic isolation and genetic change over time (in the presence of drug exposure had a significantly greater role in shaping genetic diversity than the evolution of SOR.This study is one of the first genome-wide association analyses in a parasitic nematode, and provides insight into the genomics of ivermectin response and population structure of O. volvulus. We argue that ivermectin response is a polygenically-determined quantitative trait (QT whereby identical or related molecular pathways but not necessarily individual genes are likely to determine the extent of ivermectin response in different parasite populations. Furthermore, we propose that genetic

  11. A randomized, single-ascending-dose, ivermectin-controlled, double-blind study of moxidectin in Onchocerca volvulus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwablah Awadzi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Control of onchocerciasis as a public health problem in Africa relies on annual mass ivermectin distribution. New tools are needed to achieve elimination of infection. This study determined in a small number of Onchocerca volvulus infected individuals whether moxidectin, a veterinary anthelminthic, is safe enough to administer it in a future large study to further characterize moxidectin's safety and efficacy. Effects on the parasite were also assessed.Men and women from a forest area in South-eastern Ghana without ivermectin mass distribution received a single oral dose of 2 mg (N = 44, 4 mg (N = 45 or 8 mg (N = 38 moxidectin or 150 µg/kg ivermectin (N = 45 with 18 months follow up. All ivermectin and 97%-100% of moxidectin treated participants had Mazzotti reactions. Statistically significantly higher percentages of participants treated with 8 mg moxidectin than participants treated with ivermectin experienced pruritus (87% vs. 56%, rash (63% vs. 42%, increased pulse rate (61% vs. 36% and decreased mean arterial pressure upon 2 minutes standing still after ≥5 minutes supine relative to pre-treatment (61% vs. 27%. These reactions resolved without treatment. In the 8 mg moxidectin and ivermectin arms, the mean±SD number of microfilariae/mg skin were 22.9±21.1 and 21.2±16.4 pre-treatment and 0.0±0.0 and 1.1±4.2 at nadir reached 1 and 3 months after treatment, respectively. At 6 months, values were 0.0±0.0 and 1.6±4.5, at 12 months 0.4±0.9 and 3.4±4.4 and at 18 months 1.8±3.3 and 4.0±4.8, respectively, in the 8 mg moxidectin and ivermectin arm. The reduction from pre-treatment values was significantly higher after 8 mg moxidectin than after ivermectin treatment throughout follow up (p<0.01.The 8 mg dose of moxidectin was safe enough to initiate the large study. Provided its results confirm those from this study, availability of moxidectin to control programmes could help them achieve onchocerciasis elimination

  12. Genome-wide analysis of ivermectin response by Onchocerca volvulus reveals that genetic drift and soft selective sweeps contribute to loss of drug sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nana-Djeunga, Hugues C.; Kengne-Ouafo, Jonas A.; Pion, Sébastien D. S.; Bopda, Jean; Kamgno, Joseph; Wanji, Samuel; Che, Hua; Kuesel, Annette C.; Walker, Martin; Basáñez, Maria-Gloria; Boakye, Daniel A.; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y.; Boussinesq, Michel; Prichard, Roger K.; Grant, Warwick N.

    2017-01-01

    Background Treatment of onchocerciasis using mass ivermectin administration has reduced morbidity and transmission throughout Africa and Central/South America. Mass drug administration is likely to exert selection pressure on parasites, and phenotypic and genetic changes in several Onchocerca volvulus populations from Cameroon and Ghana—exposed to more than a decade of regular ivermectin treatment—have raised concern that sub-optimal responses to ivermectin's anti-fecundity effect are becoming more frequent and may spread. Methodology/Principal findings Pooled next generation sequencing (Pool-seq) was used to characterise genetic diversity within and between 108 adult female worms differing in ivermectin treatment history and response. Genome-wide analyses revealed genetic variation that significantly differentiated good responder (GR) and sub-optimal responder (SOR) parasites. These variants were not randomly distributed but clustered in ~31 quantitative trait loci (QTLs), with little overlap in putative QTL position and gene content between the two countries. Published candidate ivermectin SOR genes were largely absent in these regions; QTLs differentiating GR and SOR worms were enriched for genes in molecular pathways associated with neurotransmission, development, and stress responses. Finally, single worm genotyping demonstrated that geographic isolation and genetic change over time (in the presence of drug exposure) had a significantly greater role in shaping genetic diversity than the evolution of SOR. Conclusions/Significance This study is one of the first genome-wide association analyses in a parasitic nematode, and provides insight into the genomics of ivermectin response and population structure of O. volvulus. We argue that ivermectin response is a polygenically-determined quantitative trait (QT) whereby identical or related molecular pathways but not necessarily individual genes are likely to determine the extent of ivermectin response in different

  13. Interruption of infection transmission in the onchocerciasis focus of Ecuador leading to the cessation of ivermectin distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Lovato

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A clinically significant endemic focus of onchocerciasis existing in Esmeraldas Province, coastal Ecuador has been under an ivermectin mass drug administration program since 1991. The main transmitting vector in this area is the voracious blackfly, Simulium exiguum. This paper describes the assessments made that support the decision to cease mass treatment. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Thirty-five rounds of ivermectin treatment occurred between 1991-2009 with 29 of these carrying >85% coverage. Following the guidelines set by WHO for ceasing ivermectin distribution the impact on parasite transmission was measured in the two vector species by an O-150 PCR technique standard for assessing for the presence of Onchocerca volvulus. Up to seven collection sites in three major river systems were tested on four occasions between 1995 and 2008. The infectivity rates of 65.0 (CI 39-101 and 72.7 (CI 42-116 in 1995 dropped to zero at all seven collection sites by 2008. Assessment for the presence of antibodies against O. volvulus was made in 2001, 2006, 2007 and 2008 using standard ELISA assays for detecting anti-Ov16 antibodies. None of total of 1810 children aged 1-15 years (between 82 and 98% of children present in the surveyed villages tested in the above years were found to be carrying antibodies to this antigen. These findings were the basis for the cessation of mass drug treatment with ivermectin in 2009. SIGNIFICANCE: This fulfillment of the criteria for cessation of mass distribution of ivermectin in the only known endemic zone of onchocerciasis in Ecuador moves the country into the surveillance phase of official verification for national elimination of transmission of infection. These findings indicate that ivermectin given twice a year with greater than 85% of the community can move a program to the final stages of verification of transmission interruption.

  14. Interruption of infection transmission in the onchocerciasis focus of Ecuador leading to the cessation of ivermectin distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, Raquel; Guevara, Angel; Guderian, Ronald; Proaño, Roberto; Unnasch, Thomas; Criollo, Hipatia; Hassan, Hassan K; Mackenzie, Charles D

    2014-05-01

    A clinically significant endemic focus of onchocerciasis existing in Esmeraldas Province, coastal Ecuador has been under an ivermectin mass drug administration program since 1991. The main transmitting vector in this area is the voracious blackfly, Simulium exiguum. This paper describes the assessments made that support the decision to cease mass treatment. Thirty-five rounds of ivermectin treatment occurred between 1991-2009 with 29 of these carrying >85% coverage. Following the guidelines set by WHO for ceasing ivermectin distribution the impact on parasite transmission was measured in the two vector species by an O-150 PCR technique standard for assessing for the presence of Onchocerca volvulus. Up to seven collection sites in three major river systems were tested on four occasions between 1995 and 2008. The infectivity rates of 65.0 (CI 39-101) and 72.7 (CI 42-116) in 1995 dropped to zero at all seven collection sites by 2008. Assessment for the presence of antibodies against O. volvulus was made in 2001, 2006, 2007 and 2008 using standard ELISA assays for detecting anti-Ov16 antibodies. None of total of 1810 children aged 1-15 years (between 82 and 98% of children present in the surveyed villages) tested in the above years were found to be carrying antibodies to this antigen. These findings were the basis for the cessation of mass drug treatment with ivermectin in 2009. This fulfillment of the criteria for cessation of mass distribution of ivermectin in the only known endemic zone of onchocerciasis in Ecuador moves the country into the surveillance phase of official verification for national elimination of transmission of infection. These findings indicate that ivermectin given twice a year with greater than 85% of the community can move a program to the final stages of verification of transmission interruption.

  15. Interruption of Infection Transmission in the Onchocerciasis Focus of Ecuador Leading to the Cessation of Ivermectin Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, Raquel; Guevara, Angel; Guderian, Ronald; Proaño, Roberto; Unnasch, Thomas; Criollo, Hipatia; Hassan, Hassan K.; Mackenzie, Charles D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: A clinically significant endemic focus of onchocerciasis existing in Esmeraldas Province, coastal Ecuador has been under an ivermectin mass drug administration program since 1991. The main transmitting vector in this area is the voracious blackfly, Simulium exiguum. This paper describes the assessments made that support the decision to cease mass treatment. Methodology and Principle Findings: Thirty-five rounds of ivermectin treatment occurred between 1991–2009 with 29 of these carrying >85% coverage. Following the guidelines set by WHO for ceasing ivermectin distribution the impact on parasite transmission was measured in the two vector species by an O-150 PCR technique standard for assessing for the presence of Onchocerca volvulus. Up to seven collection sites in three major river systems were tested on four occasions between 1995 and 2008. The infectivity rates of 65.0 (CI 39–101) and 72.7 (CI 42–116) in 1995 dropped to zero at all seven collection sites by 2008. Assessment for the presence of antibodies against O. volvulus was made in 2001, 2006, 2007 and 2008 using standard ELISA assays for detecting anti-Ov16 antibodies. None of total of 1810 children aged 1–15 years (between 82 and 98% of children present in the surveyed villages) tested in the above years were found to be carrying antibodies to this antigen. These findings were the basis for the cessation of mass drug treatment with ivermectin in 2009. Significance: This fulfillment of the criteria for cessation of mass distribution of ivermectin in the only known endemic zone of onchocerciasis in Ecuador moves the country into the surveillance phase of official verification for national elimination of transmission of infection. These findings indicate that ivermectin given twice a year with greater than 85% of the community can move a program to the final stages of verification of transmission interruption. PMID:24853587

  16. [Lymphatic filariasis transmission assessment survey in schools three years after stopping mass drug treatment with albendazole and ivermectin in the 7 endemic districts in Togo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorkenoo, A M; Sodahlon, Y K; Bronzan, R N; Yakpa, K; Sossou, E; Ouro-Medeli, A; Teko, M; Seim, A; Mathieu, E

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to verify the level of transmission of lymphatic filariasis three years after stopping mass drug treatment in the 7 endemic districts in Togo. The survey was conducted in 2012 in Togo's 7 endemic districts grouped into four evaluation units (EU) using the WHO-recommended transmission assessment survey (TAS) protocol. Children aged 6-7 years were screened for Wuchereria bancofti antigen using the immunochromatographic card (ICT) method. A cluster sampling method was used to select eligible children in schools as the net primary-school enrolment ratio is greater than or equal to 75% in each of the four EUs. The number of children and schools to be selected in each EU, the randomization list for the selection of these children and the critical cut-off number of positive cases not to exceed were automatically generated using the Survey Sample Builder (SSB) tool, (NTD Support Center, Atlanta, Ga, USA). For confirmation, positive cases were subsequently tested for microfilaremia using nocturnal thick blood smear and for filarial antigen using Og4C3 antigen ELISA (TropBio ELISA Kit®, Townsville, Queensland, Australia). An EU is considered to have passed the test successfully (it is assumed that transmission can no longer be sustained), when the number of positive cases is below the critical cut-off number set by the SSB, which is roughly equivalent to 2% prevalence. Of the 1 706 children surveyed in Kpendjal-Tone's EU, 1 549 in Binah-Doufelgou's EU, 1 550 in Kozah's EU and the 1 575 in Amou-Haho's EU, 8 (0.46%), 1 (0.08%), 0 (0.00%) and 4 (0.25%) ICT positive cases respectively were detected. The number of positive ICT tests was well below 18, the critical cut number for each of the 4 EUs. All 13 ICT positive cases tested negative for nocturnal microfilaremia and Og4C3 ELISA. We conclude that all four EU passed the TAS with success, and the transmission of Wuchereria bancrofti is no longer likely to be sustained in the 7 endemic districts in Togo

  17. 21 CFR 524.1193 - Ivermectin topical solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ivermectin topical solution. 524.1193 Section 524...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1193 Ivermectin topical solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) of solution contains 5 milligrams of...

  18. 21 CFR 524.1140 - Imidacloprid and ivermectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Imidacloprid and ivermectin. 524.1140 Section 524... Imidacloprid and ivermectin. (a) Specifications. The product is available in unit applicator tubes containing 0.4, 1.0, 2.5, or 4.0 milliliters (mL). Each mL of solution contains 100 milligrams (mg) imidacloprid...

  19. Use of intravenous lipid emulsion to treat ivermectin toxicosis in a Border Collie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Dana L; Lee, Justine A; Murphy, Lisa A; Reineke, Erica L

    2011-11-15

    A 2-year-old spayed female Border Collie was treated with IV lipid emulsion (ILE) after ingesting 6 mg/kg (2.73 mg/lb) of an equine ivermectin anthelmintic paste 8 hours prior to examination. On initial examination, the dog had stable cardiovascular signs but had diffuse muscle tremors and was hyperthermic. Neurologic evaluation revealed that the dog was ataxic and had mydriasis with bilaterally absent menace responses and pupillary light reflexes. The remaining physical examination findings were unremarkable. Results of CBC, serum biochemical analysis, venous blood gas analysis, and measurement of plasma lactate concentration were also within reference limits. The dog was treated with ILE in addition to supportive care with IV fluid therapy and cardiovascular, respiratory, and neurologic monitoring. The use of ILE treatment was initiated in this patient on the basis of previous clinical and experimental evidence supporting its use for toxicosis resulting from lipid-soluble agents. An initial bolus of 1.5 mL/kg (0.68 mL/lb) of a 20% sterile lipid solution was administered IV over 10 minutes, followed by a constant rate infusion of 0.25 mL/kg/min (0.11 mL/lb/min) over 60 minutes that was administered twice to treat clinical signs of ivermectin toxicosis. The dog was discharged from the hospital 48 hours after admission and was clinically normal within 4 days after ivermectin ingestion. Further diagnostic evaluation subsequently revealed that this dog was unaffected by the multidrug resistance gene (MDR-1) deletion, known as the ATP-binding cassette polymorphism. Ivermectin toxicosis in veterinary patients can result in death without aggressive treatment, and severe toxicosis often requires mechanical ventilation and intensive supportive care. This is particularly true in dogs affected by the ATP-binding cassette polymorphism. Novel ILE treatment has been shown to be effective in human patients with lipid-soluble drug toxicoses, although the exact mechanism is

  20. An in vivo evaluation of induction of abnormal sperm morphology by ivermectin MSD (Mectizan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otubanjo, O A; Mosuro, A A; Ladipo, T F

    2007-01-01

    The in vivo effects of orally administered ivermectin (Mectizan) on sperm head morphology of albino mice were evaluated. Four different dose levels of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 x the human therapeutic dose of 150 g kg(-1) body weight, were administered to the animals. The animals were exposed to a single oral treatment. The sperm of the mice from the cauda epididymes were examined 5 and 7 weeks after treatment. Ivermectin (Mectizan) induced sperm head abnormalities; however, the induction was not significantly elevated above the negative control value. Furthermore, the induction of the sperm head abnormalities was not strictly dose-dependent and there was also no correlation between dose level of administered drug and incidence of abnormal sperms. This indicates that the drug might not be mutagenic.

  1. [The effect of ivermectin on reactivated somatic larva of Ancylostoma caninum Ercolani 1859 (Ancylostomidae) in the pregnant dog].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoye, M; Meyer, O; Schnieder, T

    1989-06-01

    It was evaluated by means of a controlled test to what extent reactivated larvae of Ancylostoma caninum were influenced by single or double treatment with ivermectin. The investigations were done with a total of ten experimentally infected bitches. The single treatment of dams two to ten days ante partum with 0.5 mg or 1 mg ivermectin per kg bodyweight reduced the wormburden of their puppies on an average by 96.6% and 98.5%, respectively. The double treatment with 0.5 mg/kg bodyweight ante and post partum each with an interval of ten days completely prevented lactogenic infections with Ancylostoma caninum. Following a single application of 0.5 mg ivermectin per kg bodyweight the excretion of larvae was markedly delayed and remained on a low level. In addition the infections of the puppies of single treated dams became patent on an average 9.5 and 14.5 days later than the controls. In the bitches no side-effects, neither local nor general, were seen after the treatment with ivermectin. All forty puppies of the treated bitches were born without visible damages.

  2. Efficacy of parenteral administration of ivermectin in the control of strongylidosis in donkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Binev

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigations into the efficacy of parenteral ivermectin (Pandex administration for strongylidosis control in donkeys were carried out. The preparation was applied subcutaneously at a dose of 0.2 mg / kg (1mℓ / 50 kg body weight. One day prior to the treatment and 14 days post-treatment, individual coprological samples were obtained for faecal nematode egg counts and larval culture. The study was performed on 263 donkeys originating from different regions of Bulgaria. Prior to the treatment and 20 days after that, blood samples were obtained from 64 previously infected animals for monitoring of changes in eosinophil leukocyte counts. The subcutaneous application of ivermectin had an efficacy of 96 % in terms of reduction of faecal egg counts. In 92.2%of infected donkeys, a complete reduction of faecal eggs count occurred (0 eggs per gram of faeces epg, whereas in the remaining 7.8%of the infected donkeys, the egg counts were reduced by 72 %. The reduction in faecal egg counts did not result in changes in eosinophil counts. The results obtained as well as the lack of local changes after the subcutaneous application of ivermectin in donkeys allow us to recommend its use for control of strongyles in donkeys.

  3. Safety and pharmacokinetic profile of fixed-dose ivermectin with an innovative 18mg tablet in healthy adult volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Muñoz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ivermectin is a pivotal drug for the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis, which is increasingly identified as a useful drug for the control of other Neglected Tropical Diseases. Its role in the treatment of soil transmitted helminthiasis through improved efficacy against Trichuris trichiura in combination with other anthelmintics might accelerate the progress towards breaking transmission. Ivermectin is a derivative of Avermectin B1, and consists of an 80:20 mixture of the equipotent homologous 22,23 dehydro B1a and B1b. Pharmacokinetic characteristics and safety profile of ivermectin allow to explore innovative uses to further expand its utilization through mass drug administration campaigns to improve coverage rates. We conducted a phase I clinical trial with 54 healthy adult volunteers who sequentially received 2 experimental treatments using a new 18 mg ivermectin tablet in a fixed-dose strategy of 18 and 36 mg single dose regimens, compared to the standard, weight based 150–200 μg/kg, regimen. Volunteers were recruited in 3 groups based on body weight. Plasma concentrations of ivermectin were measured through HPLC up to 168 hours post treatment. Safety data showed no significant differences between groups and no serious adverse events: headache was the most frequent adverse event in all treatment groups, none of them severe. Pharmacokinetic parameters showed a half-life between 81 and 91 h in the different treatment groups. When comparing the systemic bioavailability (AUC0t and Cmax of the reference product (WA-ref with the other two study groups using fixed doses, we observed an overall increase in AUC0t and Cmax for the two experimental treatments of 18 mg and 36 mg. Body mass index (BMI and weight were associated with t1/2 and V/F, probably reflecting the high liposolubility of IVM with longer retention times proportional to the presence of more adipose tissue. Systemic exposure to ivermectin (AUC0t or Cmax was not

  4. Efficacy of an ivermectin controlled-release capsule against nematode and arthropod endoparasites in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehbein, S; Batty, A F; Barth, D; Visser, M; Timms, B J; Barrick, R A; Eagleson, J S

    1998-03-28

    Five controlled trials were conducted in Germany or in the United Kingdom, using 74 female sheep of merino or Dorset horn breeds, to evaluate the efficacy of an ivermectin controlled-release capsule against naturally acquired or induced infections of gastrointestinal nematodes, lungworms and nasal bot larvae and against incoming infections with gastrointestinal and pulmonary nematodes. Half of the animals were treated with one ivermectin controlled-release capsule that delivered ivermectin at the rate of 1.6 mg per day for 100 days while the other half remained untreated. Parasites were counted 21, 28, 35 or 56 days after administration of the capsule. The treatment was highly effective (> or = 99 per cent) against established parasites of the following species: Haemonchus contortus (adults and fourth-stage larvae), Ostertagia circumcincta, O pinnata, O trifurcata, Ostertagia species fourth-stage larvae, Trichostrongylus axei, T colubriformis, T vitrinus, Cooperia curticei, Nematodirus battus, N filicollis, Strongyloides papillosus, Chabertia ovina, Oesophagostomum venulosum, Trichuris ovis, Tr skrjabini, Dictyocaulus filaria, Protostrongylus rufescens and Oestrus ovis (larvae). The treatment prevented the establishment of the gastrointestinal nematodes H contortus, O circumcincta, T axei, T colubriformis, C curticei, N battus, N filicollis, Ch ovina, Oe vennulosum and the establishment of the lungworm D filaria by > 99 per cent compared with untreated controls (P < or = 0.01).

  5. Use of high-dose, twice-yearly albendazole and ivermectin to suppress Wuchereria bancrofti microfilarial levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembele, Benoit; Coulibaly, Yaya I; Dolo, Housseini; Konate, Siaka; Coulibaly, Siaka Y; Sanogo, Dramane; Soumaoro, Lamine; Coulibaly, Michel E; Doumbia, Salif Seriba; Diallo, Abdallah A; Traore, Sekou F; Diaman Keita, Adama; Fay, Michael P; Nutman, Thomas B; Klion, Amy D

    2010-12-01

    Annual mass treatment with albendazole and ivermectin is the mainstay of current strategies to interrupt transmission of Wuchereria bancrofti in Africa. More-effective microfilarial suppression could potentially reduce the time necessary to interrupt transmission, easing the economic burden of mass treatment programs in countries with limited resources. To determine the effect of increased dose and frequency of albendazole-ivermectin treatment on microfilarial clearance, 51 W. bancrofti microfilaremic residents of an area of W. bancrofti endemicity in Mali were randomized to receive 2 doses of annual, standard-dose albendazole-ivermectin therapy (400 mg and 150 μg/kg; n = 26) or 4 doses of twice-yearly, increased-dose albendazole-ivermectin therapy (800 mg and 400 μg/kg; n = 25). Although microfilarial levels decreased significantly after therapy in both groups, levels were significantly lower in the high-dose, twice-yearly group at 12, 18, and 24 months. Furthermore, there was complete clearance of detectable microfilariae at 12 months in the 19 patients in the twice-yearly therapy group with data available at 12 months, compared with 9 of 21 patients in the annual therapy group (P < .001, by Fisher's exact test). This difference between the 2 groups was sustained at 18 and 24 months, with no detectable microfilariae in the patients receiving twice-yearly treatment. Worm nests detectable by ultrasonography and W. bancrofti circulating antigen levels, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were decreased to the same degree in both groups at 24 months, compared with baseline. These findings suggest that increasing the dosage and frequency of albendazole-ivermectin treatment enhances suppression of microfilariae but that this effect may not be attributable to improved adulticidal activity.

  6. Evaluation of Lymphatic Filariasis and Onchocerciasis in Three Senegalese Districts Treated for Onchocerciasis with Ivermectin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana O Wilson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In Africa, onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF are co-endemic in many areas. Current efforts to eliminate both diseases are through ivermectin-based mass drug administration (MDA. Years of ivermectin distribution for onchocerciasis may have interrupted LF transmission in certain areas. The Kédougou region, Senegal, is co-endemic for LF and onchocerciasis. Though MDA for onchocerciasis started in 1988, in 2014 albendazole had not yet been added for LF. The objective of this study was to assess in an integrated manner the LF and onchocerciasis status in the three districts of the Kédougou region after ≥10 years of ivermectin-based MDA. The study employed an African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC onchocerciasis-related methodology. In the three districts, 14 villages close to three rivers that have Simulium damnosum breeding sites were surveyed. Convenience sampling of residents ≥5 years old was performed. Assessment for LF antigenemia by immunochromatographic testing (ICT was added to skin snip microscopy for onchocerciasis. Participants were also tested for antibodies against Wb123 (LF and Ov16 (onchocerciasis antigens. In two districts, no participants were ICT or skin snip positive. In the third district, 3.5% were ICT positive and 0.7% were skin snip positive. In all the three districts, Wb123 prevalence was 0.6%. Overall, Ov16 prevalence was 6.9%. Ov16 prevalence among children 5-9 years old in the study was 2.5%. LF antigenemia prevalence was still above treatment threshold in one district despite ≥10 years of ivermectin-based MDA. The presence of Ov16 positive children suggested recent transmission of Onchocerca volvulus. This study showed the feasibility of integrated evaluation of onchocerciasis and LF but development of integrated robust methods for assessing transmission of both LF and onchocerciasis are needed to determine where MDA can be stopped safely in co-endemic areas.

  7. THERAPEUTIC MANAGEMENT OF SARCOPTIC MANGE IN RABBIT WITH IVERMECTIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyjit Mitra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoptic mange infected non-descriptive rabbits were successfully treated with Ivermectin @ 400 µg / kg body weight sub-cutaneously once weekly for 4 weeks resulted complete recovery within a month in Kalyani area, West Bengal, India.

  8. Efficacy and Safety of Ivermectin Against Trichuris trichiura in Preschool- and School-Aged Children: A Randomized Controlled Dose-Finding Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmersberger, David; Coulibaly, Jean T; Schulz, Jessica; Puchkow, Maxim; Huwyler, Jörg; N'Gbesso, Yves; Hattendorf, Jan; Keiser, Jennifer

    2018-03-30

    Although trichuriasis affects millions of children worldwide, recommended drugs lack efficacy and new treatment options are urgently needed. Ivermectin has promising potential to complement the anthelminthic armamentarium. A randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted in rural Côte d'Ivoire to provide evidence on the efficacy and safety of ascending oral ivermectin dosages in preschool-aged children and in schoolchildren infected with Trichuris trichiura. Primary outcome was cure rate on T. trichiura infection and secondary outcomes were safety, egg-reduction rates against T. trichiura infection, and cure and egg-reduction rates against other soil-transmitted helminth species. 126 preschool-aged and 166 school-aged children were included in an available case analysis. In preschool-aged children efficacy against T. trichiura did not differ between 200 µg/kg ivermectin and placebo as expressed in cure rates (20.9% [95% CI 11.9-52.8%] vs. 19.5% [95% CI 10.4-49.9%]) and geometric mean egg-reduction rates (78.6% [95% CI 60.1-89.5%] vs. 68.2% [95% CI 40.5 to 84.8%]). In school-aged children even a dose of 600 µg/kg ivermectin revealed a low cure rate (12.2% [95% CI 4.8-32.3%] and moderate egg-reduction rate (66.3% [95% CI 43.8-80.2%]. Only mild adverse events and no organ toxicity based on serum biomarkers was observed. Ivermectin can be administered safely to preschool-aged children suffering from trichuriasis. Given the low efficacy of ivermectin monotherapy against T. trichiura infection further research should investigate the optimal drug combinations and dosages with ivermectin against soil-transmitted helminthiasis. The trial is registered at www.isrctn.com, number ISRCTN15871729.

  9. Ivermectin versus albendazole or thiabendazole for Strongyloides stercoralis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriquez-Camacho, Cesar; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Echevarria, Juan; White, A Clinton; Terashima, Angelica; Samalvides, Frine; Pérez-Molina, José A; Plana, Maria N

    2016-01-18

    Strongyloidiasis is a gut infection with Strongyloides stercoralis which is common world wide. Chronic infection usually causes a skin rash, vomiting, diarrhoea or constipation, and respiratory problems, and it can be fatal in people with immune deficiency. It may be treated with ivermectin or albendazole or thiabendazole. To assess the effects of ivermectin versus benzimidazoles (albendazole and thiabendazole) for treating chronic strongyloides infection. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (24 August 2015); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE (January 1966 to August 2015); EMBASE (January 1980 to August 2015); LILACS (August 2015); and reference lists of articles. We also searched the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) using 'strongyloid*' as a search term, reference lists, and conference abstracts. Randomized controlled trials of ivermectin versus albendazole or thiabendazole for treating chronic strongyloides infection. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias in the included trials. We used risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and fixed- or random-effects models. We pooled adverse event data if the trials were sufficiently similar in their adverse event definitions. We included seven trials, enrolling 1147 participants, conducted between 1994 and 2011 in different locations (Africa, Southeast Asia, America and Europe).In trials comparing ivermectin with albendazole, parasitological cure was higher with ivermectin (RR 1.79, 95% CI 1.55 to 2.08; 478 participants, four trials, moderate quality evidence). There were no statistically significant differences in adverse events (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.09; 518 participants, four trials, low quality evidence).In trials comparing ivermectin with thiabendazole, there was little or no difference in parasitological cure (RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.20; 467

  10. Mange in dogs and its chemotherapy with ivermectin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqbool, A.

    2004-01-01

    Efficacy of ivermectin (Ivomec-R, MSD) at the rate of 0.2 mg/kg body weight was evaluated against naturally infested sarcoptic and demodectine mange in 40 dogs. It cured all cases of sarcoptic mange whereas it failed to cure all cases of demodectine mange. Therefore, a second injection was recommended after 21 days to cure 100% cases. No side effects were observed with Ivermectin. (author)

  11. A deworming field trial with ivermectin (MSD in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nordkvist

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is to be regarded as a follow-up under field conditions of Nordkvist et al. (1983 as far as ivermectin is concerned. 54 reindeer calves (29 males + 25 females, as far as possible of normal size, were selected November 15th, 1982 from a reindeer herd belonging to Maskaure sameby, Arvidsjaur. The calves were individually branded, by means of ear tags and weighed. 29 calves (15 males + 14 females were treated with ivermectin (Ivomec 1% MSD at a dose rate of 1 ml per calf (roughly corresponding to 200 meg ivermectin per kg body weight, subcutaneous injection. Remaining 25 calves (14 males + 11 females served as untreated controls. The entire group of calves was then returned to the herd for free grazing during winter. During the winter 3 treated calves were found dead, all three of them had been suffering from keratoconjunctivitis. If any of the control animals had succumbed during the same time is not known. On April 21st, 1983 (approx. 150 days post treatment 44 calves (24 treated + 20 controls were weighed. 5 treated and 5 controls were randomly selected for slaughter. Carcasses and organs were thoroughly examined from a parasitological and, as far as lungs were concerned, pathological point of view. The efficacy of the treatment was 100(M> or nearly 100% against Oedemagena tarandi, Cephenemyia trompe, Dictyocaulus viviparus, Elaphostrongylus rangiferi, and nematode eggs in faeces. The efficacy against gastrointestinal nematodes was, probably due to date of treatment, somewhat difficult to judge (Tab 1. A statistical analysis of the weight changes, relative to initial weights, (Tab. 2 supports the statements — that all animals had lost weight — that treated males had lost significantly less of their body weights than control males — That weight change of treated females did not differ significantly from that of control females — that the average weight loss of the entire treated group was significantly less than that of the

  12. Comparison of effect of nicotine and levamisole and ivermectin on mortality of leech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Bahmani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of different doses of nicotine on Limnatis in comparison with levamisole and ivermectin. Methods: In this interventional experimental study in July 2012, the amount of 61 mature leeches of Limnatis nilotica species were collected and anti-parasitic effects of drug treatments using anti-leech method were assessed. So that, a leech was placed in the dishes with 600 mL spring water and leech's paralysis and death time were recorded accurately for 720 min. A total of 9 replicates were considered for each treatment. Six drug treatments were considered. Pharmacological treatments include nicotine (5, 1 0 and 20 mg doses, levamisole (1 0 mg, ivermectin (10 mg and distilled water. Data were analyzed using the Sigma ASA 2 software and pair t-test method with less than 0.05 confidence levels. Results: The results of present study show that doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg of nicotine, with time average of 2.44依0.52, 1.88依0.78 and 1.55依0.72 min cause to death of leeches. Ivermectin and levamisole cause to death of leeches, averaging 7.44依1.12 and 14.66依5.09 min, respectively. Distilled water treatment has been reported as an ineffective group. Data analysis showed that the group receiving 5 mg nicotine, had minimum time of death and there are statistical differences among all groups (P>0.05, but there are not significant differences between treatments receiving 10 mg nicotine, with 5 and 20 mg nicotine treatments. Conclusions: It appears that nicotine compound as the effective substance of tobacco plant has the strong anti-leech effect on Limnatis nilotica species and can be used as leech purposes in the future.

  13. A fenbendazole oral drench in addition to an ivermectin pour-on reduces parasite burden and improves feedlot and carcass performance of finishing heifers compared with endectocides alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, C D; Hutcheson, J P; Nichols, W T

    2006-08-01

    Two studies utilizing 1,862 yearling heifers were conducted to determine the effects of a fenbendazole oral drench in addition to an ivermectin pour-on (SG+IVPO), compared with an ivermectin pour-on (IVPO) or a doramectin injectable (DMX) alone, on parasite burden, feedlot performance, and carcass merit of feedlot cattle. In the first study, heifers receiving the SG+IVPO had fewer (P = 0.02) cattle retreated for disease and 73% fewer (P = 0.06) worm eggs per fecal sample 98 d after treatment than heifers treated with IVPO. Heifers treated with SG+IVPO consumed more DM, had greater ADG, were heavier at slaughter, and had heavier carcasses than IVPO-treated heifers (P fenbendazole oral drench and an ivermectin pour-on reduced parasite burden and increased feed intake, ADG, and carcass weight in feedlot heifers compared with treatment with an endectocide alone.

  14. Comparative efficacy of pour-on and subcutaneous injection of ivermectin on Melophagus ovinus (L.) in Darab ecotype goats of Southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari Shoorijeh, S; Noori, A; Tamadon, A

    2007-09-01

    The efficacy of ivermectin was evaluated against Melophagus ovinus in Darab ecotype goats of Iran. Twenty-four healthy Iranian crossbreed male goats were randomly divided into three equal groups (n = 8). An experimental infestation was induced in all animals of the three groups with 100 M. ovinus on the body of each animal. Groups 1 and 2 were treated with 1% ivermectin solution at a dosage of 0.5 mg/kg of body weight applied as a pour-on along the dorsal midline and 0.2 mg/kg subcutaneously, respectively; while group 3 was kept as control group. Seven days after infestation ivermectin was administered then the goats were observed for a period of 7 days. Body surface of each goat of three groups was inspected daily and decreases in M. ovinus were recorded. The rate of elimination in keds was assessed on the basis of decrease in keds count on the skin and hairs. The results revealed that complete absence of keds were observed in 6 and 7 days post-treatment with injection and pour-on routes, respectively. The results of present study showed that subcutaneous injection of ivermectin more rapidly eliminated M. ovinus than pour-on route. Both routes were 100% effective against this parasite in the goats. Ivermectin can be a drug of choice against M. ovinus in long-hair Iranian goats due to its high efficacy, easy applicability and wide safety margin.

  15. 76 FR 81806 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ivermectin Topical Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    .... FDA-2011-N-0003] Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ivermectin Topical Solution... solution of ivermectin. DATES: This rule is effective December 29, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... ANADA 200-318 for [[Page 81807

  16. A field test of the effect of spiked ivermectin concentrations on the biodiversity of coprophagous dung insects in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochmann, Ralf; Lipkow, Erhard; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U

    2016-08-01

    Veterinary medical product residues can cause severe damage in the dung ecosystem. Depending on the manner of application and the time after treatment, the excreted concentration of a given pharmaceutical varies. The popular anthelmintic drug ivermectin can be applied to livestock in several different ways and is fecally excreted over a period of days to months after application. In a field experiment replicated in summer and autumn, the authors mixed 6 ivermectin concentrations plus a null control into fresh cow dung to assess the reaction of the dung insect community. Taxon richness of the insect dung fauna emerging from the dung, but not Hill diversity ((1) D) or the total number of individuals (abundance), decreased as ivermectin concentration increased. Corresponding declines in the number of emerging insects were found for most larger brachyceran flies and hymenopteran parasitoids, but not for most smaller nematoceran flies or beetles (except Hydrophilidae). Parallel pitfall traps recovered all major dung organism groups that emerged from the experimental dung, although at times in vastly different numbers. Ivermectin generally did not change the attractiveness of dung: differences in emergence therefore reflect differences in survival of coprophagous offspring of colonizing insects. Because sample size was limited to 6 replicates, the authors generally recommend more than 10 (seasonal) replicates and also testing higher concentrations than used in the present study as positive controls in future studies. Results accord with parallel experiments in which the substance was applied and passed through the cow's digestive system. In principle, therefore, the authors' experimental design is suitable for such higher-tier field tests of the response of the entire dung community to pharmaceutical residues, at least for ivermectin. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1947-1952. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  17. Clinical and parasitological evaluation of pour-on fluazuron and ivermectin for treating canine demodicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa P. Souza

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of pour-on formulations of fluazuron and ivermectin in different therapeutic protocols for treatment of demodicosis by means of quantifying mites with skin scraping, histological and clinical evaluation in dogs. Eighteen dogs with skin scrapings positive for Demodex canis were evaluated, divided into three groups. All the animals were treated every 14 days, completing 6 treatments for each animal (days 0, 14, 28, 42, 56 and 70. In group 1, pour-on 2.5% fluazuron was used at the dose of 20mg/kg; in the group 2 pour-on 2.5% fluazuron at a dose of 20 mg/kg in association with pour-on 0.5% ivermectin at the dose of 0.6mg/kg; and in group 3, pour-on 0.5% ivermectin alone was used, at the dose of 0.6mg/kg. The treatment was evaluated and monitored through skin scrapings and clinical follow-up of the lesions every 14 days for 84 days, and through histopathological examination at the end of each treatment protocol. The success rate was defined as the percentage of dogs in each group that had negative skin scrapings after the treatment: this was 16.67% for group 1, and 50% for groups 2 and 3. The reduction in mite counts reached effectiveness of 67.66%, 88.99% and 84.29% for groups 1, 2 and 3 respectively. The Wilcoxon test showed that there was a significant difference between the number of mites before and after treatment in groups 2 and 3. The histopathological examination revealed that only group 1 showed no significant difference in the intensity of infestation between days 0 and 84. Clinically, there was no significant difference between the evaluation before and after treatment in the three groups. pour-on 2.5% fluazuron and pour-on 0.5% ivermectin were not effective for treating canine demodicosis, either in association or as single therapy, when applied every 14 days for a period of 70 days. Quantification of mites using skin scrapings and histological evaluation proved to be ineffective

  18. 75 FR 26647 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ivermectin Topical Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    .... FDA-2010-N-0002] Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ivermectin Topical Solution... are treated with a topical solution of ivermectin. DATES: This rule is effective May 12, 2010. FOR... ANADA 200-340 for PRIVERMECTIN (ivermectin), a topical solution used on cattle to control infestations...

  19. Analysis of the population-level impact of co-administering ivermectin with albendazole or mebendazole for the control and elimination of Trichuris trichiura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo C. Turner

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Co-administering ivermectin notably increased the projected impact of preventive chemotherapy in high transmission settings and increased the feasibility for breaking transmission. This has important implications for control programmes, some of which may be shifting focus from morbidity control to interruption of transmission, and some of which may be logistically unable to provide preventive chemotherapy twice a year as recommended. However, the benefit of co-administering ivermectin is limited by the fact that 2–5 year olds are often ineligible to receive treatment.

  20. Comparison of a combination of oxfendazole and fenthion versus ivermectin in feedlot calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim, G. Kee; Booker, Calvin W.; Guichon, P. Timothy

    1992-01-01

    A trial involving 6,169 feedlot calves was conducted under commercial feedlot conditions in western Canada to compare the relative efficacy of treatment with a combination of oxfendazole and fenthion (O/F) versus ivermectin (I) with respect to the outcome variables, final weight, gain, days on feed (DOF), dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG), dry matter intake to gain ratio (DM:G), and morbidity, mortality, and carcass grade parameters. There were no significant differences (p ≥ 0.05) between the treatment groups for final weight, gain, DOF, DMI, ADG and DM:G. In addition, there were no significant differences (p ≥ 0.05) in the carcass grading parameters between the treatment groups. The bovine respiratory disease (BRD) relapse rates, the overall mortality rates, and the cause specific mortality rates were not significantly different (p ≥ 0.05) between the treatment groups. The BRD treatment rate in the O/F group was significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) than in the I group, but this difference was not economically important. These data indicate that a combination of oxfendazole and fenthion is comparable to ivermectin with respect to performance, animal health, and carcass grade parameters. PMID:17424076

  1. A study to evaluate the field efficacy of ivermectin, fenbendazole and pyrantel pamoate, with preliminary observations on the efficacy of doramectin, as anthelmintics in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Davies

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of ivermectin, fenbendazole, pyrantel pamoate and doramectin was evaluated under field conditions at 2 sites in the Free State Province of South Africa. The study involved 25 horses at each site, divided into 5 groups of equal size. Ivermectin, fenbendazole and pyrantel pamoate were administered orally at doses of 0.2, 10 and 19 mg/kg respectively. Doramectin was administered by intramuscular injection at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg. Treatment efficacy was based on the mean faecal egg count reduction 14 days post treatment. At site A a faecal egg count reduction of 100 % was found after treatment with ivermectin, fenbendazole and doramectin. A 96.1 % reduction was found after treatment with pyrantel pamoate. At site B ivermectin and doramectin produced a 100 %reduction in faecal egg counts, fenbendazole produced an 80.8 % reduction and pyrantel pamoate a 94.1 %reduction. Doramectin produced a 100 %reduction in faecal egg counts at both sites, despite not being registered for use in horses. In addition, the results indicated reduced efficacy of fenbendazole at site B, which suggested benzimidazole resistance. Larval cultures showed that cyathostomes accounted for between 86 and 96 %of pre-treatment parasite burdens at both sites. Other helminths identified in the faecal samples were Strongylus spp. and Trichostrongylus axei.

  2. Efficacy of closantel against ivermectin- and fenbendazole-resistant Haemonchus sp. in sheep in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westers, T; Jones-Bitton, A; Menzies, P; Van Leeuwen, J; Poljak, Z; Peregrine, A S

    2016-09-15

    In Ontario, Canada, widespread resistance to ivermectin and fenbendazole, the only readily available ovine anthelmintics, has been documented, primarily in Haemonchus sp. In other parts of the world, closantel has been used to control such infections; however, the drug was not currently licensed for use in Canada and the USA. A randomized controlled trial was conducted on six client-owned farms in Ontario in 2013 and 2014 to determine the efficacy of closantel (Flukiver ® 5% Oral Suspension, Elanco Animal Health, 10mg/kg bodyweight) against ivermectin- and fenbendazole-resistant Haemonchus sp. infections in periparturient ewes and grazing lambs. Three farms were randomly assigned to treat all ewes, and three farms were randomly assigned to selectively treat individual ewes at lambing, using predetermined criteria. Fecal samples were collected from a minimum of 15 randomly selected ewes and 13 lambs per group on each farm at the time of treatment and approximately 14days later. Trichostrongyle-type fecal egg counts (FEC) were performed using a modified McMaster technique with a lower detection limit of 8.3 eggs per gram of feces (epg). Haemonchus-specific FECs were determined by multiplying FECs by the proportion of Haemonchus sp. identified from coproculture for each farm; Haemonchus-specific FEC reductions were calculated for each farm. Twenty grazing lambs had FECs conducted monthly, and when mean monthly FECs surpassed 200 epg, all lambs were randomly allocated to either closantel, positive control (ivermectin, fenbendazole, or levamisole) or negative control groups. Pre-treatment Haemonchus-specific mean FECs ranged from 27 to 3359 epg in ewes and 0-5698 epg in lambs. Efficacy of closantel against Haemonchus sp. ranged from 99% (95% CI: 97%-99%) to 100% in recently lambed ewes on all farms in both years (total n=274 ewes), and from 99% (95% CI: 98%-99%) to 100% in grazing lambs in both years on all but one farm (total n=171 lambs). On the latter farm, a whole

  3. A deworming field trial with ivermectin (MSD) in reindeer

    OpenAIRE

    Nordkvist, M.; Christensson, D.; Rehbinder, C.

    1984-01-01

    This paper is to be regarded as a follow-up under field conditions of Nordkvist et al. (1983) as far as ivermectin is concerned. 54 reindeer calves (29 males + 25 females), as far as possible of normal size, were selected November 15th, 1982 from a reindeer herd belonging to Maskaure sameby, Arvidsjaur. The calves were individually branded, by means of ear tags and weighed. 29 calves (15 males + 14 females) were treated with ivermectin (Ivomec 1% MSD) at a dose rate of 1 ml per calf (roughly ...

  4. Fate of ivermectin residues in ewes' milk and derived products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerkvenik, V.; Perko, B.; Rogelj, I.; Doganoc, D.Z.; Skubic, V.; Beek, W.M.J.; Keukens, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    The fate of ivermectin (IVM) residues was studied throughout the processing of daily bulk milk from 30 ewes (taken up to 33 d following subcutaneous administration of 0·2 mg IVM/kg b.w.) in the following milk products: yoghurt made from raw and pasteurized milk; cheese after pressing; 30- and 60-day

  5. Eradication of pinworm infections from laboratory rat colonies using ivermectin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lytvynets, Andrej; Langrová, I.; Vadlejch, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 3 (2005), s. 185-185 ISSN 0440-6605. [Helminthological Days /13./. 09.05.2005-19.05.2005, Ředkovec] Keywords : Syphacia muris * Aspiculuris tetraptera * laboratory rat * ivermectin Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine

  6. Differential modulation of FXR activity by chlorophacinone and ivermectin analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Chia-Wen [NIH Chemical Genomics Center, National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Hsieh, Jui-Hua [National Toxicology Program, National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Huang, Ruili [NIH Chemical Genomics Center, National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Pijnenburg, Dirk [PamGene International B.V., Wolvenhoek 10, 5211 HH ' s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands); Khuc, Thai [NIH Chemical Genomics Center, National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Hamm, Jon [Integrated Laboratory System, Inc., Morrisville, NC (United States); Zhao, Jinghua; Lynch, Caitlin [NIH Chemical Genomics Center, National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Beuningen, Rinie van [PamGene International B.V., Wolvenhoek 10, 5211 HH ' s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands); Chang, Xiaoqing [Integrated Laboratory System, Inc., Morrisville, NC (United States); Houtman, René [PamGene International B.V., Wolvenhoek 10, 5211 HH ' s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands); Xia, Menghang, E-mail: mxia@mail.nih.gov [NIH Chemical Genomics Center, National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Chemicals that alter normal function of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) have been shown to affect the homeostasis of bile acids, glucose, and lipids. Several structural classes of environmental chemicals and drugs that modulated FXR transactivation were previously identified by quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) of the Tox21 10 K chemical collection. In the present study, we validated the FXR antagonist activity of selected structural classes, including avermectin anthelmintics, dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, 1,3-indandione rodenticides, and pyrethroid pesticides, using in vitro assay and quantitative structural-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis approaches. (Z)-Guggulsterone, chlorophacinone, ivermectin, and their analogs were profiled for their ability to alter CDCA-mediated FXR binding using a panel of 154 coregulator motifs and to induce or inhibit transactivation and coactivator recruitment activities of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), liver X receptor alpha (LXRα), or pregnane X receptor (PXR). Our results showed that chlorophacinone and ivermectin had distinct modes of action (MOA) in modulating FXR-coregulator interactions and compound selectivity against the four aforementioned functionally-relevant nuclear receptors. These findings collectively provide mechanistic insights regarding compound activities against FXR and possible explanations for in vivo toxicological observations of chlorophacinone, ivermectin, and their analogs. - Highlights: • A subset of Tox21 chemicals was investigated for FXR antagonism. • In vitro and computational approaches were used to evaluate FXR antagonists. • Chlorophacinone and ivermectin had distinct patterns in modulating FXR activity.

  7. In Vivo Protection against Strychnine Toxicity in Mice by the Glycine Receptor Agonist Ivermectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Maher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory glycine receptor, a ligand-gated ion channel that mediates fast synaptic inhibition in mammalian spinal cord and brainstem, is potently and selectively inhibited by the alkaloid strychnine. The anthelminthic and anticonvulsant ivermectin is a strychnine-independent agonist of spinal glycine receptors. Here we show that ivermectin is an effective antidote of strychnine toxicity in vivo and determine time course and extent of ivermectin protection. Mice received doses of 1 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg ivermectin orally or intraperitoneally, followed by an intraperitoneal strychnine challenge (2 mg/kg. Ivermectin, through both routes of application, protected mice against strychnine toxicity. Maximum protection was observed 14 hours after ivermectin administration. Combining intraperitoneal and oral dosage of ivermectin further improved protection, resulting in survival rates of up to 80% of animals and a significant delay of strychnine effects in up to 100% of tested animals. Strychnine action developed within minutes, much faster than ivermectin, which acted on a time scale of hours. The data agree with a two-compartment distribution of ivermectin, with fat deposits acting as storage compartment. The data demonstrate that toxic effects of strychnine in mice can be prevented if a basal level of glycinergic signalling is maintained through receptor activation by ivermectin.

  8. Fate of ivermectin residues in ewes' milk and derived products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerkvenik, Vesna; Perko, Bogdan; Rogelj, Irena; Doganoc, Darinka Z; Skubic, Valentin; Beek, Wim M J; Keukens, Henk J

    2004-02-01

    The fate of ivermectin (IVM) residues was studied throughout the processing of daily bulk milk from 30 ewes (taken up to 33 d following subcutaneous administration of 0.2 mg IVM/kg b.w.) in the following milk products: yoghurt made from raw and pasteurized milk; cheese after pressing; 30- and 60-day ripened cheese; and whey, secondary whey and whey proteins obtained after cheese-making (albumin cheese). The concentration of the H2B1a component of IVM was analysed in these dairy products using an HPLC method with fluorescence detection. The mean recovery of the method was, depending on the matrix, between 87 and 100%. Limits of detection in the order of only 0.1 microg H2B1a/kg of product were achieved. Maximum concentrations of IVM were detected mostly at 2 d after drug administration to the ewes. The highest concentration of IVM was found on day 2 in 60-day ripened cheese (96 microg H2B1a/kg cheese). Secondary whey was the matrix with the lowest concentration of IVM (milk fat and solid content were evident. During yoghurt production, fermentation and thermal stability of IVM was observed. During cheese production, approximately 35% of the IVM, present in the raw (bulk) milk samples, was lost. From the results it was concluded that the processing of ewes' milk did not eliminate the drug residues under investigation. The consequences of IVM in the human diet were discussed. Milk from treated animals should be excluded from production of fat products like cheese for longer after treatment with IVM than for lower fat products.

  9. Endocrine studies in ivermectin-treated heifers from birth to puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacau-Mengido, I M; Mejía, M E; Díaz-Torga, G S; Gonzalez Iglesias, A; Formía, N; Libertun, C; Becú-Villalobos, D

    2000-04-01

    Continuous treatment with ivermectin from birth to puberty advanced sexual maturation by 3.7 wk in Holstein heifers grazing pastures naturally infected with nematodes. Every 14 d jugular blood samples were taken from birth to 45 wk of age from all heifers. No differences in serum FSH, estradiol, or thyroxine levels were observed during the trial between the treated and untreated group. Mean LH levels were diminished in untreated heifers 4 wk before the first estrus and the amplitude of LH pulses was augmented in treated heifers when puberty was reached. Serum IGF-I levels increased from birth to 22 wk of age and then reached a plateau in both groups, but levels were consistently higher in treated heifers from 26 wk of age onward. Body weight gain was retarded in parasitized heifers and IGF-I values were positively correlated with body weight only during the first 20 wk of life. We suggest that enhanced prepubertal IGF-I levels in conjunction with increased prepubertal LH levels and pubertal LH pulse amplitude might be involved in the accelerated somatic maturation and in puberty advancement observed in ivermectin-treated heifers.

  10. Triple co-administration of ivermectin, albendazole and praziquantel in zanzibar: a safety study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalfan A Mohammed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Public health interventions based on distribution of anthelminthic drugs against lymphatic filariasis (LF, onchocerciasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH and schistosomiasis have been implemented separately to date. A better use of available resources might be facilitated by a more coordinated approach to control such infections, including the possibility of co-administering the three recommended anthelminthic drugs through a single, large-scale intervention. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ivermectin, albendazole and praziquantel were co-administered to 5,055 children and adults living in areas endemic for LF, STH and schistosomiasis in Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania, during a pilot intervention aimed at elucidating and quantifying possible side-effects. Subsequently, these drugs were co-administered to about 700,000 individuals during a countrywide intervention targeting a large part of the total population of Zanzibar. Passive and active surveillance measures carried out during both interventions showed that side-effects attributable to the three drugs given at the same time were mild and self-limiting events. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that co-administration of ivermectin, albendazole and praziquantel is safe in areas where lymphatic filariasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis are co-endemic and where several rounds of treatment with one or two drugs have been implemented in the past. Passive surveillance measures, however, should be continued and detection, management and reporting of possible side-effects should be considered a key component of any health intervention administering drugs.

  11. Triple Co-Administration of Ivermectin, Albendazole and Praziquantel in Zanzibar: A Safety Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Khalfan A.; Haji, Hamad J.; Gabrielli, Albis-Francesco; Mubila, Likezo; Biswas, Gautam; Chitsulo, Lester; Bradley, Mark H.; Engels, Dirk; Savioli, Lorenzo; Molyneux, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Background Public health interventions based on distribution of anthelminthic drugs against lymphatic filariasis (LF), onchocerciasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) and schistosomiasis have been implemented separately to date. A better use of available resources might be facilitated by a more coordinated approach to control such infections, including the possibility of co-administering the three recommended anthelminthic drugs through a single, large-scale intervention. Methodology/Principal Findings Ivermectin, albendazole and praziquantel were co-administered to 5,055 children and adults living in areas endemic for LF, STH and schistosomiasis in Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania, during a pilot intervention aimed at elucidating and quantifying possible side-effects. Subsequently, these drugs were co-administered to about 700,000 individuals during a countrywide intervention targeting a large part of the total population of Zanzibar. Passive and active surveillance measures carried out during both interventions showed that side-effects attributable to the three drugs given at the same time were mild and self-limiting events. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggest that co-administration of ivermectin, albendazole and praziquantel is safe in areas where lymphatic filariasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis are co-endemic and where several rounds of treatment with one or two drugs have been implemented in the past. Passive surveillance measures, however, should be continued and detection, management and reporting of possible side-effects should be considered a key component of any health intervention administering drugs. PMID:18235853

  12. Efficacy and safety of co-administered ivermectin plus albendazole for treating soil-transmitted helminths: A systematic review, meta-analysis and individual patient data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeirim, Marta S; Hürlimann, Eveline; Knopp, Stefanie; Speich, Benjamin; Belizario, Vicente; Joseph, Serene A; Vaillant, Michel; Olliaro, Piero; Keiser, Jennifer

    2018-04-01

    The soil-transmitted helminths (STH), Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms, infect 1.5 billion people worldwide and cause an estimated burden of 3.3 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Current control strategies focus on morbidity reduction through preventive chemotherapy (PC) but the most commonly used recommended drugs (albendazole and mebendazole) are particularly inefficacious against T. trichiura. This, together with the threat of emerging drug resistance, calls for new control strategies, including co-administration with other anthelminthics. Ivermectin plus albendazole is widely used against lymphatic filariasis, but its efficacy and safety against STH infections has not yet been fully understood. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis on the efficacy and safety of ivermectin-albendazole co-administration in five different databases (i.e. PubMed, ISI Web of Science, ScienceDirect, CENTRAL and clinicaltrials.gov) from 1960 to January 2018. Four studies reporting efficacy of ivermectin-albendazole against STH infections and five studies on its safety met the selection criteria and were included for quantitative analysis. Ivermectin-albendazole was significantly associated with lower risk (risk ratio (RR) = 0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.31-0.62) for T. trichiura infection after treatment compared to albendazole alone. The co-administration revealed no or only a marginal benefit on cure and egg reduction rates over albendazole alone for A. lumbricoides and hookworm infections. Adverse events (AEs) occurring after ivermectin-albendazole co-administration were mostly mild and transient. Overall, the number of individuals reporting any AE was not different (RR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.87-1.36) in co-treated and albendazole-treated patients. However, although not statistically significant, sub-group analysis showed a tendency for slightly more AEs in patients with filariasis treated with ivermectin

  13. Efficacy and safety of co-administered ivermectin plus albendazole for treating soil-transmitted helminths: A systematic review, meta-analysis and individual patient data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeirim, Marta S.; Hürlimann, Eveline; Knopp, Stefanie; Belizario, Vicente; Joseph, Serene A.; Olliaro, Piero

    2018-01-01

    Background The soil-transmitted helminths (STH), Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms, infect 1.5 billion people worldwide and cause an estimated burden of 3.3 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Current control strategies focus on morbidity reduction through preventive chemotherapy (PC) but the most commonly used recommended drugs (albendazole and mebendazole) are particularly inefficacious against T. trichiura. This, together with the threat of emerging drug resistance, calls for new control strategies, including co-administration with other anthelminthics. Ivermectin plus albendazole is widely used against lymphatic filariasis, but its efficacy and safety against STH infections has not yet been fully understood. Methods and findings We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis on the efficacy and safety of ivermectin-albendazole co-administration in five different databases (i.e. PubMed, ISI Web of Science, ScienceDirect, CENTRAL and clinicaltrials.gov) from 1960 to January 2018. Four studies reporting efficacy of ivermectin-albendazole against STH infections and five studies on its safety met the selection criteria and were included for quantitative analysis. Ivermectin-albendazole was significantly associated with lower risk (risk ratio (RR) = 0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.31–0.62) for T. trichiura infection after treatment compared to albendazole alone. The co-administration revealed no or only a marginal benefit on cure and egg reduction rates over albendazole alone for A. lumbricoides and hookworm infections. Adverse events (AEs) occurring after ivermectin-albendazole co-administration were mostly mild and transient. Overall, the number of individuals reporting any AE was not different (RR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.87–1.36) in co-treated and albendazole-treated patients. However, although not statistically significant, sub-group analysis showed a tendency for slightly more AEs in patients with filariasis

  14. Prevalence of strongyles and efficacy of fenbendazole and ivermectin in working horses in El Sauce, Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyvsgaard, Niels C; Lindbom, Jenny; Andreasen, Line Lundberg; Luna-Olivares, Luz Adilia; Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Monrad, Jesper

    2011-09-27

    Horses, mules and donkeys are indispensable farming and working animals in many developing countries, and their health status is important to the farmers. Strongyle parasites are ubiquitous in grazing horses world-wide and are known to constitute a threat to equine health. This study determined the prevalence of strongyle infection, the efficacy of ivermectin and fenbendazole treatment, and strongyle re-infection rates of working horses during the dry months in Nicaragua. One hundred and five horses used by farmers for transport of people and goods were randomly allocated into three treatment groups, i.e., the IVM group treated with ivermectin, the FBZ group treated with fenbendazole and the control group treated with placebo. Determined by pre-treatment faecal egg counts (FECs), horses showed a high prevalence (94%) of strongyle parasites with high intensities of infection (mean FEC of 1117 eggs per gram (EPG) with an SD of 860 EPG, n=102). Body condition scores of all horses ranged from 1.5 to 3.5 with a mean of 2.4 (scales 1-5). Fourteen days after treatment faecal egg count reductions (FECRs) were 100% and 94% in the IVM and the FBZ groups, respectively. The egg reappearance period (ERP) defined as the time until the mean FEC reached 20% of the pre-treatment level, was estimated as 42 days for the FBZ group and 60 days for the IVM group. Individual faecal cultures were set up and the larval differentiation revealed a 36% prevalence of Strongylus vulgaris before treatment (n=45). In the FBZ group, 25% of the horses were S. vulgaris-positive 70 days post treatment compared to 11% in the IVM group. Our results indicate that strongyle infection intensities in Nicaragua are high and that S. vulgaris is endemic in the area. Furthermore, efficacies and ERPs of IVM and FBZ were within the expected range with no signs of anthelmintic resistance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Factors affecting the attrition of community-directed distributors of ivermectin, in an onchocerciasis-control programme in the Imo and Abia states of south-eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emukah, E C; Enyinnaya, U; Olaniran, N S; Akpan, E A; Hopkins, D R; Miri, E S; Amazigo, U; Okoronkwo, C; Stanley, A; Rakers, L; Richards, F O; Katabarwa, M N

    2008-01-01

    In areas of Nigeria where onchocerciasis is endemic, community-directed distributors (CDD) distribute ivermectin annually, as part of the effort to control the disease. Unfortunately, it has been reported that at least 35% of the distributors who have been trained in Nigeria are unwilling to participate further as CDD. The selection and training of new CDD, to replace those unwilling to continue, leads to annual expense that the national onchocerciasis-programme is finding difficult to meet, given other programme priorities and the limited resources. If the reported levels of attrition are true, they seriously threaten the sustainability of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in Nigeria. In 2002, interviews were held with 101 people who had been trained as CDD, including those who had stopped serving their communities, from 12 communities in south-eastern Nigeria that had high rates of CDD attrition. The results showed that, although the overall reported CDD attrition was 40.6%, the actual rate was only 10.9%. The CDD who had ceased participating in the annual rounds of ivermectin blamed a lack of incentives (65.9%), the demands of other employment (14.6%), the long distances involved in the house-to-house distribution (12.2%) or marital duties (7.3%). Analysis of the data obtained from all the interviewed CDD showed that inadequate supplies of ivermectin (P<0.01), lack of supervision (P<0.05) and a lack of monetary incentives (P<0.001) led to significant increases in attrition. Conversely, CDD retention was significantly enhanced when the distributors were selected by their community members (P<0.001), supervised (P<0.001), supplied with adequate ivermectin tablets (P<0.05), involved in educating their community members (P<0.05), and/or involved in other health programmes (P<0.001). Although CDD who were involved in other health programmes were relatively unlikely to cease participating in the distributions, they were more likely to take longer

  16. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy in Caenorhabditis elegans and Globodera pallida: evidence for an ivermectin-activated decrease in lipid stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smus, Justyna P; Ludlow, Elizabeth; Dallière, Nicolas; Luedtke, Sarah; Monfort, Tual; Lilley, Catherine; Urwin, Peter; Walker, Robert J; O'Connor, Vincent; Holden-Dye, Lindy; Mahajan, Sumeet

    2017-12-01

    Macrocyclic lactones are arguably the most successful chemical class with efficacy against parasitic nematodes. Here we investigated the effect of the macrocyclic lactone ivermectin on lipid homeostasis in the plant parasitic nematode Globodera pallida and provide new insight into its mode of action. A non-invasive, non-destructive, label-free and chemically selective technique called Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy was used to study lipid stores in G. pallida. We optimised the protocol using the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and then used CARS to quantify lipid stores in the pre-parasitic, non-feeding J2 stage of G. pallida. This revealed a concentration of lipid stores in the posterior region of J2 s within 24 h of hatching which decreased to undetectable levels over the course of 28 days. We tested the effect of ivermectin on J2 viability and lipid stores. Within 24 h, ivermectin paralysed J2 s. Counterintuitively, over the same time-course ivermectin increased the rate of depletion of J2 lipid, suggesting that in ivermectin-treated J2 s there is a disconnection between the energy requirements for motility and metabolic rate. This decrease in lipid stores would be predicted to negatively impact on J2 infective potential. These data suggest that the benefit of macrocyclic lactones as seed treatments may be underpinned by a multilevel effect involving both neuromuscular inhibition and acceleration of lipid metabolism. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Binding Characteristics Of Ivermectin To Blood Cells | Nweke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The binding characteristics of Ivermectin were determined using scatchard plots. The percentage binding to platelet rich plasma, white blood cells and red blood cells were 90.00 + 1.00, 96-90 + 1.05 and 46.20 + 1.10 S.D respectively. It was found to bind the highest to white blood cells and the least to red blood cells.

  18. Strongyloides seroprevalence before and after an ivermectin mass drug administration in a remote Australian Aboriginal community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese M Kearns

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloides seroprevalence is hyper-endemic in many Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, ranging from 35-60%. We report the impact on Strongyloides seroprevalence after two oral ivermectin mass drug administrations (MDAs delivered 12 months apart in a remote Australian Aboriginal community.Utilizing a before and after study design, we measured Strongyloides seroprevalence through population census with sequential MDAs at baseline and month 12. Surveys at months 6 and 18 determined changes in serostatus. Serodiagnosis was undertaken by ELISA that used sonicated Strongyloides ratti antigen to detect anti-Strongyloides IgG. Non-pregnant participants weighing ≥15 kg were administered a single 200 μg/kg ivermectin dose, repeated after 10-42 days if Strongyloides and/or scabies was diagnosed; others followed a standard alternative algorithm. A questionnaire on clinical symptoms was administered to identify adverse events from treatment and self-reported symptoms associated with serostatus.We surveyed 1013 participants at the baseline population census and 1060 (n = 700 from baseline cohort and 360 new entrants at month 12. Strongyloides seroprevalence fell from 21% (175/818 at baseline to 5% at month 6. For participants from the baseline cohort this reduction was sustained at month 12 (34/618, 6%, falling to 2% at month 18 after the second MDA. For new entrants to the cohort at month 12, seroprevalence reduced from 25% (75/297 to 7% at month 18. Strongyloides positive seroconversions for the baseline cohort six months after each MDA were 2.5% (4/157 at month 6 and 1% at month 18, whilst failure to serorevert remained unchanged at 18%. At 12 months, eosinophilia was identified in 59% of baseline seropositive participants and 89% of seropositive new entrants, compared with 47%baseline seronegative participants and 51% seronegative new entrants. Seropositivity was not correlated with haemoglobin or any self-reported clinical

  19. A glycine residue essential for high ivermectin sensitivity in Cys-loop ion channel receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynagh, Timothy; Lynch, Joseph W.

    2010-01-01

    Ivermectin exerts its anthelmintic effect by activating nematode Cys-loop glutamate-gated receptors. Here we show that a glycine residue at a specific transmembrane domain location is essential for high ivermectin sensitivity in both glycine- and glutamate-gated Cys-loop receptors. We also show...

  20. Efficacy of ivermectin in injectable and oral paste formulations against eight-week-old Strongylus vulgaris larvae in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klei, T R; Torbert, B J; Chapman, M R; Turk, M A

    1984-01-01

    A controlled test method was used to evaluate the efficacy of injectable micelle and oral paste formulations of ivermectin (22,23-dihydroavermectin B1) against 8-week-old Strongylus vulgaris larvae in experimentally infected pony foals. The dosage level of the drug in both formulations tested was 0.2 mg/kg. Ponies were euthanatized and necropsied 5 weeks after treatment. Based on the recovery of live vs dead S vulgaris from mesenteric arteries, both formulations were greater than 99% effective. Increased weight gains and marked reductions in the severity of arterial lesions were observed in treated ponies.

  1. Efficacy and security of ivermectin given orally to rats naturally infected with Syphacia spp., Giardia spp. and Hymenolepis nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foletto, V R S; Vanz, F; Gazarini, L; Stern, C A J; Tonussi, C R

    2015-07-01

    The results of this study show that the oral administration of ivermectin (48 mg/L) repeatedly for 72 h used in accordance with the present protocol is a safe and highly effective treatment for Giardia spp. and Hymenolepis nana in laboratory rat colonies. The drug can be easily and safely administered using drinking water. This simple regimen should control pinworm infection (Syphacia muris), a problem that can be endemic in laboratory colonies. Experiments using healthy animals are likely to generate more consistent results, thereby requiring a reduced number of animals per group. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Randomised controlled clinical trial of increased dose and frequency of albendazole and ivermectin on Wuchereria bancrofti microfilarial clearance in northern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafatatha, Terence T; Ngwira, Bagrey M; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Phiri, Amos J; Wilson, Trevor P; Banda, Louis G; Piston, Wilson N; Koole, Olivier; Horton, John; French, Neil

    2015-06-01

    In Africa, albendazole and ivermectin are currently used in combination for annual mass drug administration (MDA) for lymphatic filariasis (LF) elimination. Rapid and sustained clearance is desirable for public health impact and elimination of LF. Increasing the dose and/or frequency of albendazole and ivermectin treatment may be more effective in clearing microfilariae than standard MDA. We conducted a randomised controlled open label trial in northern Malawi comparing three modified treatment groups to standard dosage of ivermectin and albendazole in adults with confirmed circulating LF antigen and microfilaria. Participants were followed-up every 6 months for 2 years for repeat microfilarial counts and safety assessments. A total of 1851 adults were screened and 70 with microfilarial counts >80 microfilariae/ml were randomised. All treatment groups achieved a significant reduction of microfilariae levels by 12- and 24-months of follow-up. Doubling the standard dose and administering it twice yearly showed a non-significant tendency towards faster and more complete clearance. There were no serious adverse reactions. In this small study, all regimens effectively cleared microfilaria. Standard treatment may be adequate in settings like Malawi but not in all endemic settings and larger studies are required to demonstrate benefit of higher dosages. [ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01213576]. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. 21 CFR 522.1192 - Ivermectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... injection. (ii) Indications for use. For the treatment and control of large strongyles (adult) (Strongylus vulgaris, S. edentatus, Triodontophorus spp.), small strongyles (adult and fourth stage larvae...

  4. Sensibilidad de trofozoítos de Entamoeba histolytica a ivermectina Sensibility of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites to ivermectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco González-Salazar

    2009-06-01

    . histolytica has two phases: trophozoite and cyst. Trophozoites are the causal agent of disease. The effective treatment for the amebiasis includes drugs with serious collateral effects. Ivermectin is a macrolid with activity against endoparasites and ectoparasites causing strongiloidosis, filariasis, oncocercosis, scabiasis and pediculosis. The use of ivermectin has been extended almost worldwide; it is recognized as a safe drug. The main objective of this study was to determine in vitro sensibility of trophozoites of E. histolytica was to the treatment with ivermectin. To determine the sensibility of the parasites to the drug, E. histolytica was cultivated in PEHPS medium. During its logarithmic growth phase the trophozoites were exposed to different concentrations of ivermectin. As controls other antiparasitic drugs were used. For each drug, serial dilutions were prepared, and mixed in culture tubes with parasites (2 x 10(4 cells/ml. They were incubated for 72 h and then the percentage of growth inhibition was calculated by Probit analysis. Ivermectin showed activity against trophozoites of E. histolytica. The 50% of growth inhibition of ivermectin was 6.40 mg/ml. This dose was higher than for other anti parasitic drugs. Its activity in vivo in animal models remains to be demonstrated.

  5. Ecotoxicity of the veterinary pharmaceutical ivermectin tested in a soil multi-species (SMS) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, John; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J.

    2012-01-01

    The present study tests the effect of antiparasitic compound ivermectin in a constructed food-web system, a soil multi-species (SMS) higher tier test system. Mutualism, competition and predation within the SMS system were introduced by the addition of five collembolan species, one enchytraeid and a predatory mite species. Bait lamina sticks were incorporated as a measure of functional toxicity, attempting to the integrated feeding activity of the invertebrates. The study showed that on the community level all treatments were significantly affecting the community abundance and composition and that the decrease in abundance corresponded well with increasing exposure concentration for all species. Since all concentrations had significant adverse effect on the community structure, the community-based no-effect-concentration is below the lowest test concentration of 0.25 mg kg −1 , whereas the EC10 for the individual species were as low as 0.05 mg kg −1 . The bait lamina respond was only affected at the highest exposure concentration. - Highlights: ► A multi-species test system was used to evaluate the impact of hazardous substances. ► The pharmaceutical ivermectin was toxic to a wide set of soil invertebrates. ► The toxicity to springtails was higher when exposed in co-existence with a predator. ► Structural endpoints were more sensitive than functional ditto measured by Bait lamina. - Hazardous substances are shown more toxic to soil dwelling invertebrates when exposed in co-existence with other species including a predator.

  6. Importance of ivermectin to human onchocerciasis: past, present, and the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cupp EW

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Ed W Cupp1, Charles D Mackenzie2, Thomas R Unnasch31Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA; 2Department of Pathobiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA; 3Department of Global Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: Ivermectin (registered for human use as Mectizan® was donated by Merck & Co Inc in 1987 for the treatment and control of human onchocerciasis ("river blindness". This philanthropic gesture has had a remarkable effect in reducing the incidence and prevalence of this serious ocular and dermatological disease, while changing health system support for millions of people worldwide. Over 800 million doses have been given to more than 80 million people for onchocerciasis during the past 23 years. As a result, onchocerciasis has been significantly reduced in more than 25 countries, transmission has been interrupted in foci in at least 10 countries, and the disease is no longer seen in children in many formerly endemic foci. Recent communications have suggested that the drug's efficacy as the major therapeutic agent for these control and elimination programs may be threatened, but alternative interpretations for suboptimal response/resistance suggest otherwise. Current research needs and control methods by which the public health community in endemic countries may respond to resistance, should it occur in their area, are discussed, along with the continuing importance of this anthelmintic as the mainstay in onchocerciasis control programs.Keywords: Ivermectin, Onchocerca volvulus, river blindness, resistance, African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control, Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas

  7. Integrated control of Strongylus vulgaris infection in horses using ivermectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsmore, J D

    1985-05-01

    An attempt was made to control or eliminate Strongylus vulgaris from a closed group of three horses at pasture near Perth, Western Australia, by dosing with ivermectin on four occasions during the time of year when it was believed that environmental conditions would eliminate all the non-parasitic stages of that species. At necropsy, five months after the last dose of anthelmintic and after continually grazing the same pastures, no S vulgaris or arterial lesions were found in those horses and S edentatus, Draschia megastoma and Habronema species were also almost completely eliminated.

  8. Strongyloides stercoralis Hyperinfection in an HIV-Infected Patient Successfully Treated with Subcutaneous Ivermectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Antonio Grossi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A 39-year-old Ethiopian HIV-positive man with peripheral T-cell lymphoma developed Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection. The patient was initially treated with oral ivermectin for three weeks without response, most likely due to malabsorption because of concomitant paralytic ileus. Given the persistence of larvae in the body fluids, the worsening respiratory status and clinical malabsorption, veterinary parenteral formulation of ivermectin was administered. The very high plasma concentration of ivermectin achieved in the patient after parenteral administration led to a rapid improvement in his clinical condition and rapid disappearance of the parasite from biological samples, without any adverse reaction.

  9. Effectiveness of Ivermectin and Albendazole against Haemonchus contortus in Sheep in West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspitasari, Silvia; Farajallah, Achmad; Sulistiawati, Erni; Muladno

    2016-01-01

    Administering a half dose of an anthelmintic is a simple method for detecting resistance in parasites infesting small ruminants. When a single anthelmintic fails in native sheep from Indonesia, a combination of anthelmintics from different chemical classes with different modes of action are administered as an alternative parasite-control strategy. This study compared the anthelmintic efficacy of ivermectin (IVM) and albendazole (ABZ) given either separately as a single dose or half dose or co-administered to sheep naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus. Twelve sheep from Bogor, West Java, Indonesia were divided into the following six treatment groups: half-dose IVM, full-dose IVM, half-dose ABZ, full-dose ABZ, combined IVM + ABZ, and control. The treatment efficacy was determined using the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) at day 0 (pre-treatment) and post-treatment at days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42. The efficacies of half-dose IVM, full-dose IVM, half-dose ABZ, full-dose ABZ, and the combination treatment ranged from −1900% to 100%, 99% to 100%, −167% to 100%, −467% to 89%, and −200% to 100%, respectively. The FECRT for the half-dose IVM, half-dose ABZ, full-dose ABZ showed that H. contortus is resistant to half-dose IVM and ABZ. Full-dose IVM was effective against H. contortus. The combined treatment was more effective against H. contortus than ABZ alone. PMID:27019686

  10. Effectiveness of Ivermectin and Albendazole against Haemonchus contortus in Sheep in West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspitasari, Silvia; Farajallah, Achmad; Sulistiawati, Erni; Muladno

    2016-02-01

    Administering a half dose of an anthelmintic is a simple method for detecting resistance in parasites infesting small ruminants. When a single anthelmintic fails in native sheep from Indonesia, a combination of anthelmintics from different chemical classes with different modes of action are administered as an alternative parasite-control strategy. This study compared the anthelmintic efficacy of ivermectin (IVM) and albendazole (ABZ) given either separately as a single dose or half dose or co-administered to sheep naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus. Twelve sheep from Bogor, West Java, Indonesia were divided into the following six treatment groups: half-dose IVM, full-dose IVM, half-dose ABZ, full-dose ABZ, combined IVM + ABZ, and control. The treatment efficacy was determined using the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) at day 0 (pre-treatment) and post-treatment at days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42. The efficacies of half-dose IVM, full-dose IVM, half-dose ABZ, full-dose ABZ, and the combination treatment ranged from -1900% to 100%, 99% to 100%, -167% to 100%, -467% to 89%, and -200% to 100%, respectively. The FECRT for the half-dose IVM, half-dose ABZ, full-dose ABZ showed that H. contortus is resistant to half-dose IVM and ABZ. Full-dose IVM was effective against H. contortus. The combined treatment was more effective against H. contortus than ABZ alone.

  11. The efficacy of ivermectin, pyrantel and fenbendazole against Parascaris equorum infection in foals on farms in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, S K; Woodgate, R G; Gough, S; Heller, J; Sangster, N C; Hughes, K J

    2014-10-15

    This study was performed to estimate the prevalence of patent Parascaris equorum infections and determine the efficacy of ivermectin, pyrantel and fenbendazole against P. equorum infection in foals on farms in southern Australia. Foals aged >3 months on five farms in the south-western slopes region of New South Wales were used. Faeces were collected from each foal and foals with a P. equorum faecal egg count (FEC) of >100 eggs per gram (EPG) were used to measure anthelmintic efficacy using the FEC reduction (FECR) test, after random allocation to a control group or an ivermectin, pyrantel embonate or fenbendazole treatment group. Treatment was administered on day 0 and faeces were collected on day 14 and a FEC was performed. For determination of anthelmintic efficacy, FECRs and lower 95% confidence intervals (LCL) were calculated using previously described methods, based on individual or group FECRs. P. equorum populations were considered susceptible when FECR was >90% and LCL >90%, suspected resistant when FECR was FECR was 80-90% and LCL Fenbendazole was effective on two farms, equivocal on one farm and ineffective on one farm. Pyrantel embonate was effective on three farms and ineffective on one farm. These data indicate that anthelmintic-resistant P. equorum populations are present on farms in Australia and multiple drug resistance may occur on individual farms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Onchocerciasis in the Amazonian focus of southern Venezuela: altitude and blackfly species composition as predictors of endemicity to select communities for ivermectin control programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas-Martinez, S; Basáñez, M G; Grillet, M E; Weiss, H; Botto, C; García, M; Villamizar, N J; Chavasse, D C

    1998-01-01

    In preparation for an ivermectin distribution programme, the prevalence and intensity of infection due to Onchocerca volvulus as well as the species composition and abundance of Simulium vectors were investigated in 22 Yanomami communities situated along 2 altitudinal transects in the southern Venezuelan onchocerciasis focus. These transects corresponded to the Ocamo-Putaco and Orinoco-Orinoquito river systems, covering a range of elevation between 50 m and 740 m above sea level (asl). A total of 831 people underwent parasitological examination in this survey and an additional 196 patients from a previous study, at an altitude of 950 m, were included in the analysis. A total of 92,659 man-biting blackflies were collected and identified to morphospecies. S. oyapockense s.l. was the predominant simuliid up to 150 m asl, whereas S. guianense s.l. and S. incrustatum s.l. prevailed above 150 m. Communities located below 150 m were found to range from hypo- to mesoendemic; all villages above 150 m proved to be hyperendemic (> 60% microfilarial prevalence) and mass ivermectin treatment should be implemented. Age above 10-14 years, altitude of the village and biting rate of S. guianense s.l. up to 200 m asl were found to be statistically significant independent predictors of infection by multivariate logistic regression using a spline model. There were no differences in infection status according to sex. Above 200 m, microfilarial rate and density remained approximately constant, prevalence averaging 79% regardless of blackfly abundance. For the implementation of ivermectin-based onchocerciasis control programmes in the Amazonian focus, altitude and species composition of the blackfly population might be adopted as useful indicators aiding selection of the most affected communities. However, below 200 m additional parasitological indicators may also be necessary. As a direct result of this study, regular mass-ivermectin delivery to meso- and hyperendemic communities is now

  13. Effect of the antiparasitic drugs fenbendazole and ivermectin on the soil nematode Pristionchus maupasi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønvold, Jørn; Svendsen, Tina Stendal; Kraglund, Hans-Ole; Bresciani, José; Monrad, Jesper

    2004-09-20

    Pristionchus maupasi, a soil nematode, was used to elucidate the potential ecotoxic effect of the two anthelmintics fenbendazole and ivermectin in cattle dung. The population growth of P. maupasi was greater in faeces from cattle harbouring active Panacur- or Ivomec-boli, which are releasing fenbendazole and ivermectin to the rumen, respectively, compared to the growth in control faeces. In dose-response experiments it could be shown that the pure chemical compound of fenbendazole was increasingly nematocidal to P. maupasi in concentrations from 10 to 20 microg/g faeces (ww, i.e. wet weight) and the pure compound of ivermectin was effective above 3 microg/g faeces (ww). The results indicate that neither fenbendazole nor ivermectin have any acute toxic effect on P. maupasi in naturally excreted concentrations of the pure drugs, together with their metabolites in faeces from bolus-treated cattle. Both drugs are excreted in concentrations that are non-toxic to P. maupasi.

  14. Anthelmintic Resistance of Strongyle Nematodes to Ivermectin and Fenbendazole on Cart Horses in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Seyoum, Zewdu; Zewdu, Alemu; Dagnachew, Shimelis; Bogale, Basazinew

    2017-01-01

    A study was conducted from November 2015 to April 2016 to determine fenbendazole and ivermectin resistance status of intestinal nematodes of cart horses in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. Forty-five strongyle infected animals were used for this study. The animals were randomly allocated into three groups (15 horses per group). Group I was treated with fenbendazole and Group II with ivermectin and Group III was left untreated. Faecal samples were collected from each cart horse before and after tre...

  15. Lessons from the History of Ivermectin and Other Antiparasitic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, William C

    2016-01-01

    The twentieth century's arsenal of chemical anthelmintics brought manifold improvement in human health and, more abundantly, in animal health. The benefits were not only in health per se but also in agricultural economics, livestock management, and the overall production of food and fiber to support expanding human populations. Nevertheless, there remains (due in large part to drug resistance and paucity of available vaccines) a great need for new means of controlling disease caused by parasitic worms. Prudence should persuade us to look to our past for lessons that might help in our quest for new drugs. The lessons suggested here derive from the history of ivermectin and other anthelmintics. They deal with the means of finding substances with useful antiparasitic activity and with alternative approaches to drug discovery.

  16. The current status of resistance to alpha-cypermethrin, ivermectin, and amitraz of the cattle tick (Rhipicephalus microplus) in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés-Carrera, Sandra; Vanwambeke, Sophie O.; Madder, Maxime; Benítez-Ortiz, Washington

    2017-01-01

    resistance, respectively. For adult tests with amitraz 50% and 17% of the field populations showed average and high resistance, with evidences of average resistance to alpha-cypermethrin in 50% of the samples and average resistance against ivermectin in 25% of the farms. No statistical difference amongst the three bioassays was found and acaricide resistance was confirmed by logistic regression analysis; hence resistance (dose-responses) in each field populations differed, depending on the choice of the acaricide, frequent usage, frequency of treatment and farm management. The effective estimated dose needed to eliminate 99% of ticks is higher than dose recommended by the manufacturer. In conclusion, amitraz showed the highest resistance followed by ivermectin and alpha-cypermethrin and reveals differences on resistance in each individual field population. This information is important in order to establish the monitoring of resistance on each farm individually, contributing to the rational use of acaricides included in an integrated control program for R. microplus. PMID:28388639

  17. [Strongyloidosis. Part IX. Treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroczan, Wiesław

    2002-01-01

    The treatment of chronic and massive (uncomplicated) and severe (complicated) disseminated strongyloidosis, was presented from the historical point of view. The sequence of achievements in regard of treatment of the gentian violet, dithiazine iodide, benzimidazoles (thiabendazole, mebendazole, albendazole, cambendazole), ivermectin and cyclosporin A, was described. The recommendations for treatment of strongyloidosis are also given.

  18. Ivermectin disposition kinetics after subcutaneous and intramuscular administration of an oil-based formulation to cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifschitz, A; Virkel, G; Pis, A; Imperiale, F; Sanchez, S; Alvarez, L; Kujanek, R; Lanusse, C

    1999-10-01

    Slight differences in formulation may change the plasma kinetics and ecto-endoparasiticide activity of endectocide compounds. This work reports on the disposition kinetics and plasma availability of ivermectin (IVM) after subcutaneous (SC) and intramuscular (IM) administration as an oil-based formulation to cattle. Parasite-free Aberdeen Angus calves (n = 24; 240-280 kg) were divided into three groups (n = 8) and treated (200 microg/kg) with either an IVM oil-based pharmaceutical preparation (IVM-TEST formulation) (Bayer Argentina S.A.) given by subcutaneous (Group A) and intramuscular (Group B) injections or the IVM-CONTROL (non-aqueous formulation) (Ivomec, MSD Agvet) subcutaneously administered (Group C). Blood samples were taken over 35 days post-treatment and the recovered plasma was extracted and analyzed by HPLC using fluorescence detection. IVM was detected in plasma between 12 h and 35 days post-administration of IVM-TEST (SC and IM injections) and IVM-CONTROL formulations. Prolonged IVM absorption half-life (p oil-based formulation examined in this trial, compared to the standard preparation, may positively impact on its strategic use in cattle.

  19. Low doses of ivermectin cause sensory and locomotor disorders in dung beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdú, José R.; Cortez, Vieyle; Ortiz, Antonio J.; González-Rodríguez, Estela; Martinez-Pinna, Juan; Lumaret, Jean-Pierre; Lobo, Jorge M.; Numa, Catherine; Sánchez-Piñero, Francisco

    2015-09-01

    Ivermectin is a veterinary pharmaceutical generally used to control the ecto- and endoparasites of livestock, but its use has resulted in adverse effects on coprophilous insects, causing population decline and biodiversity loss. There is currently no information regarding the direct effects of ivermectin on dung beetle physiology and behaviour. Here, based on electroantennography and spontaneous muscle force tests, we show sub-lethal disorders caused by ivermectin in sensory and locomotor systems of Scarabaeus cicatricosus, a key dung beetle species in Mediterranean ecosystems. Our findings show that ivermectin decreases the olfactory and locomotor capacity of dung beetles, preventing them from performing basic biological activities. These effects are observed at concentrations lower than those usually measured in the dung of treated livestock. Taking into account that ivermectin acts on both glutamate-gated and GABA-gated chloride ion channels of nerve and muscle cells, we predict that ivermectin’s effects at the physiological level could influence many members of the dung pat community. The results indicate that the decline of dung beetle populations could be related to the harmful effects of chemical contamination in the dung.

  20. Construction of ivermectin producer by domain swaps of avermectin polyketide synthase in Streptomyces avermitilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolin; Chen, Zhi; Li, Meng; Wen, Ying; Song, Yuan; Li, Jilun

    2006-10-01

    Ivermectin, 22, 23-dihydroavermectin B1, is commercially important in human, veterinary medicine, and pesticides. It is currently synthesized by chemical reduction of the double bond between C22 and C23 of avermectins B1, which are a mixture of B1a (>80%) and B1b (produced by fermentation of Streptomyces avermitilis. The cost of ivermectin is much higher than that of avermectins B1 owing to the necessity of region-specific hydrogenation at C22-C23 of avermectins B1 with rhodium chloride as the catalyst for producing ivermectin. Here we report that ivermectin can be produced directly by fermentation of recombinant strains constructed through targeted genetic engineering of the avermectin polyketide synthase (PKS) in S. avermitilis Olm73-12, which produces only avermectins B and not avermectins A and oligomycin. The DNA region encoding the dehydratase (DH) and ketoreductase (KR) domains of module 2 from the avermectin PKS in S. avermitilis Olm73-12 was replaced by the DNA fragment encoding the DH, enoylreductase, and KR domains from module 4 of the pikromycin PKS of Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439 using a gene replacement vector pXL211. Twenty-seven of mutants were found to produce a small amount of 22, 23-dihydroavermectin B1a and avermectin B1a and B2a by high performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analysis. This study might provide a route to the low-cost production of ivermectin by fermentation.

  1. Novel insertion mutation of ABCB1 gene in an ivermectin-sensitive Border Collie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jae-Ik; Son, Hyoung-Won; Park, Seung-Cheol; Na, Ki-Jeong

    2010-12-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is encoded by the ABCB1 gene and acts as an efflux pump for xenobiotics. In the Border Collie, a nonsense mutation caused by a 4-base pair deletion in the ABCB1 gene is associated with a premature stop to P-gp synthesis. In this study, we examined the full-length coding sequence of the ABCB1 gene in an ivermectin-sensitive Border Collie that lacked the aforementioned deletion mutation. The sequence was compared to the corresponding sequences of a wild-type Beagle and seven ivermectin-tolerant family members of the Border Collie. When compared to the wild-type Beagle sequence, that of the ivermectin-sensitive Border Collie was found to have one insertion mutation and eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding sequence of the ABCB1 gene. While the eight SNPs were also found in the family members' sequences, the insertion mutation was found only in the ivermectin-sensitive dog. These results suggest the possibility that the SNPs are species-specific features of the ABCB1 gene in Border Collies, and that the insertion mutation may be related to ivermectin intolerance.

  2. Ivermectin reduces motor coordination, serum testosterone, and central neurotransmitter levels but does not affect sexual motivation in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, N; Sandini, T M; Reis-Silva, T M; Navas-Suáresz, P; Auada, A V V; Lebrun, I; Flório, J C; Bernardi, M M; Spinosa, H S

    2017-12-01

    Ivermectin (IVM) is a macrocyclic lactone used for the treatment of parasitic infections and widely used in veterinary medicine as endectocide. In mammals, evidence indicates that IVM interacts with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated chloride channels. GABAergic system is involved in the manifestation of sexual behavior. We previously found that IVM at therapeutic doses did not alter sexual behavior in male rats, but at a higher dose, the appetitive phase of sexual behavior was impaired. Thus, we investigated whether the reduction of sexual behavior that was previously observed was a consequence of motor or motivational deficits that are induced by IVM. Data showed significant decrease in striatal dopaminergic system activity and lower testosterone levels but no effects on sexual motivation or penile erection. These findings suggest IVM may activate the GABAergic system and reduce testosterone levels, resulting in a reduction of motor coordination as consequence of the inhibition of striatal dopamine release. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficacy of ivermectin against gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle in Denmark evaluated by different methods for analysis of faecal egg count reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Denwood, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of ivermectin (IVM) against gastrointestinal nematodes in Danish cattle was assessed by faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). Six cattle farms with history of clinical parasitism and avermectin use were included. On the day of treatment (Day 0), 20 naturally infected calves per farm...... the performance of the different procedures to correctly identify FEC reduction percentages of simulated bovine FEC data representing the observed real data. In the FECRT, reduced IVM efficacy was detected in three farms by all procedures using data from treated animals only, and in one farm according...

  4. Therapy of the experimental infection by Strongyloides venezuelensis in rats with injectable ivermectin or levamizole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Campos

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available For the therapy of human strongyloidiasis, are necessary effective drugs to eliminate both larvae and adult worm parasitism, which may also be used by parenteral route, to obviate the particular conditions presented by many patients. A study based on the experimental infection by Strongyloides venezuelensis in rats was done, administering injectable ivermectin or levamizole. Both drugs were shown to be active, when used in single doses of 0.2 to 0.5 mg/kg of ivermectin, or 26 mg/kg for levamizole. Ivermectin was slightly more effective as far as larval stage of the infection is concerned, and the same happened for levamisole for the adult worm stage. Promising perspectives are visualized to improve the therapy of patients with serious disseminated infection by Strongyloides stercoralis.

  5. Molecular mechanisms of Cys-loop ion channel receptor modulation by ivermectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynagh, Timothy; Lynch, Joseph W.

    2012-01-01

    Ivermectin is an anthelmintic drug that works by inhibiting neuronal activity and muscular contractility in arthropods and nematodes. It works by activating glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluClRs) at nanomolar concentrations. These receptors, found exclusively in invertebrates, belong to the ...... to the neurotransmitter binding site, thus suggesting a mechanism by which ivermectin potentiates neurotransmitter-gated currents. Together, this information provides new insights into the mechanisms of action of this important drug.......) to its site. Several lines of evidence suggest that ivermectin opens the channel pore via a structural change distinct from that induced by the neurotransmitter agonist. Conformational changes occurring at locations distant from the pore can be probed using voltage-clamp fluorometry (VCF), a technique...

  6. Efficacy of ivermectin and oxfendazole against Taenia solium cysticercosis and other parasitoses in naturally infected pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo

    2013-01-01

    Smallholder semi-confined pig production is a fast growing practice in sub-Saharan Africa with an unfortunate outcome of high prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis and other parasitoses. The widely used anthelmintic for control of endo and ecto-parasites in pigs in the area is ivermectin...

  7. Non-compliance Factors and Side Effects of Ivermectin in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community directed ivermectin distribution was carried out in Jago Village around Asejire dam, Oyo State, Nigeria in 2004. Jago is a mesoendemic rainforest focus of onchocerciasis. A total of 550 residents including 50 distributors were randomly selected and mobilized. The community designed the method of delivery of ...

  8. 78 FR 63870 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Gonadorelin; Ivermectin; Ractopamine; Trimethoprim and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... review required under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and, for actions requiring review of... (ivermectin) Topical Solution to SmartVet USA, Inc., 22201 West Innovation Dr., Suite 170A, Olathe, KS 66061... action is categorically excluded (CE) from the requirement to submit an environmental assessment or an...

  9. Effect of ivermectin on the larvae of Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derua, Yahya A.; Malongo, Bernard B.; Simonsen, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    . Methods: A total of 1800 laboratory reared mosquito larvae of each species were used in the bioassays. Twelve replicates were performed, each testing 6 concentrations of ivermectin (0.0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 parts per million (ppm)) against third instar larvae of An. gambiae and Cx...

  10. Molecular determinants of ivermectin sensitivity at the glycine receptor chloride channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynagh, Timothy; Webb, Timothy I.; Dixon, Christine L.

    2011-01-01

    Ivermectin is an anthelmintic drug that works by activating glutamate-gated chloride channel receptors (GluClRs) in nematode parasites. GluClRs belong to the Cys-loop receptor family that also includes glycine receptor (GlyR) chloride channels. GluClRs and A288G mutant GlyRs are both activated...

  11. Deciphering the regulation of P2X4 receptor channel gating by ivermectin using Markov models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Mackay

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The P2X4 receptor (P2X4R is a member of a family of purinergic channels activated by extracellular ATP through three orthosteric binding sites and allosterically regulated by ivermectin (IVM, a broad-spectrum antiparasitic agent. Treatment with IVM increases the efficacy of ATP to activate P2X4R, slows both receptor desensitization during sustained ATP application and receptor deactivation after ATP washout, and makes the receptor pore permeable to NMDG+, a large organic cation. Previously, we developed a Markov model based on the presence of one IVM binding site, which described some effects of IVM on rat P2X4R. Here we present two novel models, both with three IVM binding sites. The simpler one-layer model can reproduce many of the observed time series of evoked currents, but does not capture well the short time scales of activation, desensitization, and deactivation. A more complex two-layer model can reproduce the transient changes in desensitization observed upon IVM application, the significant increase in ATP-induced current amplitudes at low IVM concentrations, and the modest increase in the unitary conductance. In addition, the two-layer model suggests that this receptor can exist in a deeply inactivated state, not responsive to ATP, and that its desensitization rate can be altered by each of the three IVM binding sites. In summary, this study provides a detailed analysis of P2X4R kinetics and elucidates the orthosteric and allosteric mechanisms regulating its channel gating.

  12. Introgression of ivermectin resistance genes into a susceptible Haemonchus contortus strain by multiple backcrossing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Redman

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintic drug resistance in livestock parasites is already widespread and in recent years there has been an increasing level of anthelmintic drug selection pressure applied to parasitic nematode populations in humans leading to concerns regarding the emergence of resistance. However, most parasitic nematodes, particularly those of humans, are difficult experimental subjects making mechanistic studies of drug resistance extremely difficult. The small ruminant parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus is a more amenable model system to study many aspects of parasite biology and investigate the basic mechanisms and genetics of anthelmintic drug resistance. Here we report the successful introgression of ivermectin resistance genes from two independent ivermectin resistant strains, MHco4(WRS and MHco10(CAVR, into the susceptible genome reference strain MHco3(ISE using a backcrossing approach. A panel of microsatellite markers were used to monitor the procedure. We demonstrated that after four rounds of backcrossing, worms that were phenotypically resistant to ivermectin had a similar genetic background to the susceptible reference strain based on the bulk genotyping with 18 microsatellite loci and individual genotyping with a sub-panel of 9 microsatellite loci. In addition, a single marker, Hcms8a20, showed evidence of genetic linkage to an ivermectin resistance-conferring locus providing a starting point for more detailed studies of this genomic region to identify the causal mutation(s. This work presents a novel genetic approach to study anthelmintic resistance and provides a "proof-of-concept" of the use of forward genetics in an important model strongylid parasite of relevance to human hookworms. The resulting strains provide valuable resources for candidate gene studies, whole genome approaches and for further genetic analysis to identify ivermectin resistance loci.

  13. Metabolic disposition of ivermectin in tissues of cattle, sheep, and rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, S.H.; Sestokas, E.; Taub, R.; Buhs, R.P.; Green, M.; Sestokas, R.; Vandenheuvel, W.J.; Arison, B.H.; Jacob, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    The metabolic disposition of ivermectin, a new antiparasitic drug, has been studied in cattle, sheep, and also in rats dosed with the drug labeled with tritium in the C-22,23 positions. In the edible tissues of these animals, the unaltered drug was the major tissue residue component and was quantitated by HPLC-reverse isotope dilution assay. The depletion half-lives of the drug ranged between 1 and 6 days, similar to those of the total tissue residue in these species. Most metabolites present in the liver tissues were more polar than the parent drug. Based on spectral (NMR, mass spectrometric) analysis and chromatographic comparison with authentic compounds prepared by in vitro rat or steer microsomal incubations, three of these metabolites have been isolated and identified as the hydroxylation derivatives of ivermectin, i.e. 24-hydroxymethyl-H 2 B1a, its monosaccharide, and 24-hydroxymethyl-H 2 B1b

  14. Short Communication: In Vitro Efficacy Testing of Praziquantel, Ivermectin, and Oxfendazole against Taenia Solium Cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cederberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxfendazole is recommended as the drug of choice for treating porcine cysticercosis. The drug does not kill brain cysts and is not registered for use in pigs. Latest its safety in the recommended dose has been questioned. The aim of this study was to investigate two alternative anthelminthics. The efficacy of praziquantel and ivermectin was compared to oxfendazole In Vitro on Taenia solium. Cysts of T. solium were isolated from infected pork and incubated in culture media together with the drugs. The degree of evagination was used as effect measurement and determined after 6 hours. Praziquantel had a half maximal effective concentration (EC50 of value 0.006 ± 0.001 μg/mL. Ivermectin did not show any impact on the evagination in concentrations from 0.001 to 30 μg/mL and neither did oxfendazole in concentrations from 0.001 to 50 μg/mL.

  15. Thermal and long-term freezing stability of ivermectin residues in sheep milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerkvenik, V.; Doganoc, D.Z.; Skubic, V.; Beek, W.M.J.; Keukens, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    The stability of ivermectin residues in sheep milk under conditions of pasteurization (74 °C, 40 s), high pasteurization (80 °C, 1 min), and boiling (100 °C, 10 s) based on residue content (at a level of concentration of about 2 ?g/kg and 30 ?g/kg of H2B1a) and sort of ingestion (in vitro, in vivo)

  16. Ivermectin resistant and susceptible third-stage larvae of Haemonchus contortus: cholinesterase and phosphatase activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Giménez-Pardo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Cholinesterase and acid phosphatase (AP, but not alkaline phosphatase activities, were detected in cytosolic and membrane-bound fractions of ivermectin resistant and susceptible Haemonchus contortus infective-stage larvae. Some differences in acetylcholinesterase activity of cytosolic fractions and in the AP activity of these fractions as well as in the response to AP inhibitors by membrane-bound fractions were detected. Data are discussed.

  17. Dual anti-inflammatory and anti-parasitic action of topical ivermectin 1% in papulopustular rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, M; Gonser, L; Belge, K; Braunsdorf, C; Nordin, R; Scheu, A; Borelli, C

    2017-11-01

    Recently, therapy of rosacea with inflammatory lesions (papulopustular) has improved substantially with the approval of topical ivermectin 1% cream. It is assumed to have a dual mode of action with anti-inflammatory capacities and anti-parasitic effects against Demodex, which however has not yet been demonstrated in vivo. To find scientific rationale for the dual anti-inflammatory and anti-parasitic mode of action of topical ivermectin 1% cream in patients with rosacea. A monocentric pilot study was performed including 20 caucasion patients with moderate to severe rosacea, as assessed by investigator global assessment (IGA score ≥3) and a Demodex density ≥15/cm 2 . Patients were treated with topical ivermectin 1% cream once daily (Soolantra ® ) for ≥12 weeks. The density of Demodex mites was assessed with skin surface biopsies. Expression of inflammatory and immune markers was evaluated with RT-PCR and by immunofluorescence staining. The mean density of mites was significantly decreased at week 6 and week 12 (P < 0.001). The gene expression levels of IL-8, LL-37, HBD3, TLR4 and TNF-α were downregulated at both time points. Reductions in gene expression were significant for LL-37, HBD3 and TNF-α at both follow-up time points and at week 12 for TLR4 (all P < 0.05). Reduced LL-37 expression (P < 0.05) and IL-8 expression were confirmed on the protein level by immunofluorescence staining. All patients improved clinically, and 16 of 20 patients reached therapeutic success defined as IGA score ≤1. Topical ivermectin 1% cream acts by a dual, anti-inflammatory and anti-parasitic mode of action against rosacea by killing Demodex spp. in vivo, in addition to significantly improving clinical signs and symptoms in the skin. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  18. Rationale for the Coadministration of Albendazole and Ivermectin to Humans for Malaria Parasite Transmission Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-28

    Exp Parasitol 88: 154–156. 86. Dow GS, O’Hara AJ, Newton SC, Reynoldson JA, Thompson RCA, 2000. Plasmodium berghei: the antimalarial activity of...Trichuris trichiura but not hookworm.18 Ivermectin exerts strongactivity againstAscaris,moderate activity againstTrichuris, andminimal tono effect against...programs and supported by global public health funding agencies. Albendazole belongs to the class of benzimidazole anthel- mintics that are active against

  19. Comet assay to determine genetic damage by the use of ivermectin in zebu cows (Bos taurus indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donicer Montes-Vergara

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of the work was evaluate the damage genetic caused by the use of ivermectin (IVM in cows zebu to concentrations of 1% and 3.15% through the test comet. Material and methods. 15 cows, were taken with age between 3 and 4 years old, average weight of 350 kg, body condition between 3 and 3.5. Three experimental groups with five animals per group, which were exposed to the concentration of IVM to 1% to 3.15% more group control (without application of IVM were used. Animal blood sample was performed by venipuncture jugular or medial flow with vacutainer® needle, extracting 8 ml of blood. The blood samples it was collected at 9, 18 and 27 days post-treatment. Results. The display of the comets is made by using fluorescence microscope, the cells were evaluated by means of visual log and the Comet image software. Evidenced the presence of nuclei with DNA migration in all analyzed plates. The values of classification of comets indicate cells with high levels of damage (grade 3: cells with high damage. The rate of DNA damage of the treatment to 1% to 3.15% was significant, to relate to the control group. Conclusions. The results obtained in this study demonstrate the likely genotoxic potential of the use of IVM in cattle.

  20. Quantitative Determination of Ivermectin in Raw Milk Using Positive ESI LC-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Dahiya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ivermectin, a veterinary drug, is commonly used endectocide for animal husbandry. The drug is available in the form of subcutaneous or topical formulations. Its application may cause accumulation of its residues into the animal tissues, which ultimately find their way into the food products, such as milk and meat products. In order to determine the residues of ivermectin in milk, a comparatively simple, sensitive and rapid method was developed and validated using LC-MS/MS. The MRM transitions corresponding to m/z 892.71>569.6, 892.71>551.5 and 892.71>307.3 were used for the purpose of quantification and evaluation of other parameters of the method. The limit of detection of the method was found to be 0.1 μg/kg and the limit of quantitation was calculated as 0.2 μg/kg. The method was found to be linear in the range of 1.0 ng/mL to 100.0 ng/mL with correlation coefficient of 0.9992 for pure calibration curve and 0.9990 for the matrix- matched calibration curve. The recoveries of ivermectin from the spiked samples of raw milk were found between 85 to 105%.

  1. Rab5 regulates internalisation of P2X4 receptors and potentiation by ivermectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Leanne

    2013-03-01

    The P2X4 receptor is an ATP-gated ion channel expressed in neurons, endothelia and immune cells. Plasma membrane expression of P2X4 is regulated by dynamin-dependent endocytosis, and this study identifies a Rab5-dependent pathway of receptor internalisation. Expression of Rab5 constructs altered the distribution of P2X4 in HEK-293 cells, and both constitutive internalisation and agonist-induced desensitisation of P2X4 were increased by co-expression of wild-type Rab5 or constitutively active Rab5 (Q79L). Expression of inactive dynamin K44A and Rab5 S34N constructs abolished agonist-induced desensitisation, suggesting internalisation as the underlying mechanism. Blocking P2X4 internalisation in this way also abolished potentiation of ATP-induced currents by the allosteric modulator ivermectin. This suggests that the dynamin-Rab5 internalisation pathway is essential for the ivermectin potentiation effect. In agreement with this hypothesis, the co-expression of wild-type dynamin, wild-type Rab5 or active Rab5 (Q79L) could increase the potentiation of the ATP-induced P2X4 response by ivermectin. These findings highlight Rab5 GTPase as a key regulator of P2X4 receptor cell surface expression and internalisation.

  2. Age and prior blood feeding of Anopheles gambiae influences their susceptibility and gene expression patterns to ivermectin-containing blood meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Jonathan A; Alout, Haoues; Meyers, Jacob I; Stenglein, Mark D; Dabiré, Roch K; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Burton, Timothy A; Kuklinski, Wojtek S; Black, William C; Foy, Brian D

    2015-10-15

    Ivermectin has been proposed as a novel malaria transmission control tool based on its insecticidal properties and unique route of acquisition through human blood. To maximize ivermectin's effect and identify potential resistance/tolerance mechanisms, it is important to understand its effect on mosquito physiology and potential to shift mosquito population age-structure. We therefore investigated ivermectin susceptibility and gene expression changes in several age groups of female Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. The effect of aging on ivermectin susceptibility was analyzed in three age groups (2, 6, and 14-days) of colonized female Anopheles gambiaemosquitoes using standard survivorship assays. Gene expression patterns were then analyzed by transcriptome sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. RT-qPCR was used to validate transcriptional changes and also to examine expression in a different, colonized strain and in wild mosquitoes, both of which blood fed naturally on an ivermectin-treated person. Mosquitoes of different ages and blood meal history died at different frequencies after ingesting ivermectin. Mortality was lowest in 2-day old mosquitoes exposed on their first blood meal and highest in 6-day old mosquitoes exposed on their second blood meal. Twenty-four hours following ivermectin ingestion, 101 and 187 genes were differentially-expressed relative to control blood-fed, in 2 and 6-day groups, respectively. Transcription patterns of select genes were similar in membrane-fed, colonized, and naturally-fed wild vectors. Transcripts from several unexpected functional classes were highly up-regulated, including Niemann-Pick Type C (NPC) genes, peritrophic matrix-associated genes, and immune-response genes, and these exhibited different transcription patterns between age groups, which may explain the observed susceptibility differences. Niemann-Pick Type 2 genes were the most highly up-regulated transcripts after ivermectin ingestion (up to 160 fold) and

  3. Macrofilaricidal activity after doxycycline only treatment of Onchocerca volvulus in an area of Loa loa co-endemicity: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph D Turner

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The risk of severe adverse events following treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin in areas co-endemic with loiasis currently compromises the development of control programmes and the treatment of co-infected individuals. We therefore assessed whether doxycycline treatment could be used without subsequent ivermectin administration to effectively deliver sustained effects on Onchocerca volvulus microfilaridermia and adult viability. Furthermore we assessed the safety of doxycycline treatment prior to ivermectin administration in a subset of onchocerciasis individuals co-infected with low to moderate intensities of Loa loa microfilaraemia.A double-blind, randomized, field trial was conducted of 6 weeks of doxycycline (200 mg/day alone, doxycycline in combination with ivermectin (150 microg/kg at +4 months or placebo matching doxycycline + ivermectin at +4 months in 150 individuals infected with Onchocerca volvulus. A further 22 individuals infected with O. volvulus and low to moderate intensities of Loa loa infection were administered with a course of 6 weeks doxycycline with ivermectin at +4 months. Treatment efficacy was determined at 4, 12 and 21 months after the start of doxycycline treatment together with the frequency and severity of adverse events.One hundred and four (60.5% participants completed all treatment allocations and follow up assessments over the 21-month trial period. At 12 months, doxycycline/ivermectin treated individuals had lower levels of microfilaridermia and higher frequency of amicrofilaridermia compared with ivermectin or doxycycline only groups. At 21 months, microfilaridermia in doxycycline/ivermectin and doxycycline only groups was significantly reduced compared to the ivermectin only group. 89% of the doxycycline/ivermectin group and 67% of the doxycycline only group were amicrofilaridermic, compared with 21% in the ivermectin only group. O. volvulus from doxycycline groups were depleted of Wolbachia and all

  4. Pilot Study to Assess the Efficacy of Ivermectin and Fenbendazole for Treating Captive-Born Olive Baboons (Papio anubis) Coinfected with Strongyloides fülleborni and Trichuris trichiura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Mason V; Thomas, Jennifer E; Chavez-Suarez, Maria; Cullin, Cassandra O; White, Gary L; Wydysh, Emily C; Wolf, Roman F

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of combined treatment with ivermectin and fenbendazole (IVM-FBZ) for treating captive olive baboons (Papio anubis) infected with Strongyloides fülleborni and Trichuris trichiura, 2 common nematode parasites of these NHP. Infected baboons were treated for a total of 9 wk with ivermectin (400 μg/kg IM twice weekly) and fenbendazole (50 mg/kg PO once daily for 3 d; 3 rounds of treatment, 21 d apart). Five baboons naturally infected with both S. fülleborni and T. trichiura (n = 4) or S. fülleborni alone (n = 1) received the combination therapy; an additional baboon infected with both parasites served as a nontreated control. The efficacy of IVM-FBZ was measured as the reduction in fecal egg counts of S. fülleborni and T. trichiura as determined by quantitative fecal flotation examination after treatment of baboons with IVM-FBZ. All baboons treated with IVM-FBZ stopped shedding S. fülleborni and T. trichiura eggs by 8 d after treatment and remained negative for at least 161 d. The nontreated control baboon shed S. fülleborni and T. trichiura eggs throughout the study period. Our results indicate that the IVM-FBZ regimen was efficacious for treating olive baboons infected with S. fülleborni and T. trichiura.

  5. Effect of ivermectin on the survival and fecundity of Euoniticellus intermedius (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Cruz Rosales

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The State of Veracruz in Mexico is one of the main cattle producers, and uses several veterinary products for disease and parasite control. For parasite control, ivermectin is one of the most frequently used substances. Nevertheless, even though previous research conducted in other countries has found that this product has negative effects on beneficial coprophagous fauna, no studies have descry ibed its effects on coprophagous insects at a local scale in Veracruz, Mexico. This study evaluated Euoniticellus intermedius survival, fecundity, fertility and preimaginal development under laboratory conditions when ivermectin was added to cattle dung at three different concentrations. The design included two controls (spiked dung, and the following product concentrations: 0.01, 1.0 and 100ppm, which were homogenized with wet cattle dung. 20 female-male E. intermedius couples between five and 15 days old were used and kept at 27°C, 70% RH, and 12h light for 10 days. The survival of all specimens, the fertility of 20 females and the gonadal maturity of 17 males were verified. The larval development in 162 pieces of brood-mass was examined, and a total of 974 larvae developed and reached adulthood. The highest ivermectin concentration was toxic at 1.0ppm dose, the survival of adults was reduced to almost the half, and at 100ppm, total mortality was observed. The effects on specimen reproductive systems showed that the ovary was not affected, that the testicle size increased, and that the fecundity and weight of brood-masses were reduced. Pre-imaginal development increased 0.5 times at 0.01ppm concentration, and the width of the cephalic capsule in third instar larvae diminished. The prolonging of development time may cause a phase lag in the field activity cycle, this lag may reduce the number of E. intermedius individuals and the efficiency of the environmental services that they provide.

  6. The development of an ivermectin-based attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) to target Anopheles arabiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenywa, Frank Chelestino; Kambagha, Athumani; Saddler, Adam; Maia, Marta Ferreira

    2017-08-15

    An increasing number of countries in sub-Saharan Africa are moving towards malaria-elimination, mostly thanks to successful vector control campaigns. However, elimination has proven challenging, resulting in the persistence of malaria transmission. It is now accepted that in order to eliminate malaria, new complementary vector control approaches must be developed. This study describes the development of a sugar-baited resting place containing a toxic dose of ivermectin for the control of Anopheles arabiensis. Dose response experiments were performed in insectary conditions to determine the LD90 of ivermectin against An. arabiensis. Over 95% of An. arabiensis were knocked down 48 h post-sugar feeding on 10% sucrose solutions containing 0.01% ivermectin. When investigating different juices as attractants, it was observed that An. arabiensis preferred orange, watermelon and commercial guava juice over pawpaw, tomato, mango or banana, but were most likely to feed on simple 10% sugar solution. Using recycled materials, different bait prototypes were tested to determine the best design to maximize sugar feeding. Baits that offered a resting place for the mosquito rather than just a surface to sugar feed were more likely to attract An. arabiensis to sugar feed. The optimized prototype was then placed in different locations within a screen-house, colour-coded with different food dyes, containing competing vegetation (Ricinus communis) and experimental huts where humans slept under bed nets. Around half of all the released An. arabiensis sugar fed on the sugar baits, and approximately 50% of all sugar fed mosquitoes chose the baits close to outdoor vegetation before entering the huts. Ivermectin is an effective insecticide for use in sugar baits. The design of the sugar bait can influence feeding rates and, therefore, efficacy. Sugar baits that offer a resting surface are more efficient and sugar feeding on the baits is maximized when these are placed close to peri

  7. An improved ivermectin-activated chloride channel receptor for inhibiting electrical activity in defined neuronal populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynagh, Timothy Peter; Lynch, Joseph W

    2010-01-01

    The ability to silence the electrical activity of defined neuronal populations in vivo is dramatically advancing our understanding of brain function. This technology may eventually be useful clinically for treating a variety of neuropathological disorders caused by excessive neuronal activity...... conductance, homomeric expression, and human origin may render the F207A/A288G alpha1 glycine receptor an improved silencing receptor for neuroscientific and clinical purposes. As all known highly ivermectin-sensitive GluClRs contain an endogenous glycine residue at the corresponding location, this residue...

  8. Efficacy of ivermectin (Ivomec® against intestinal capillariosis in falcons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarello W.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available 52 captive falcons out of 3,988 (1.3% raptors microscopically examined for intestinal parasites in the Middle East proved infested with hairworms (capillariid parasites. 26 of these (50% showed concurrent parasitoses. In the group of 26 falcons diagnosed with capillariosis as sole infestation (50% compatible clinical signs such as anorexia, weight loss, weakness, dyspnoea, regurgitation of food and blood, diarrhoea and dark tarry faeces, were recorded. These birds were treated intramuscularly with ivermectin at doses of 2 mg/kg. In fecal samples examined 10- 15 days later, the eggs of capillariid parasites had disappeared, in association with complete clinical recovery.

  9. HPLC DETERMINATION OF FENBENDAZOLE AND IVERMECTIN SIMULTANEOUSLY IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS

    OpenAIRE

    Battula Sreenivasa Rao, Mandapati Varaprasad Reddy*, Bhatraju Sreenivasa Rao

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, a simple, precise and accurate high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector was developed for the simultaneous estimation of ivermectin & fenbendazole in bulk and tablet dosage forms. A Zorbax C8 column (250 cm × 4.6 mm × 5 μm) with mobile phase consisting of 0.1 M potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate and methanol (60:40 v/v) having pH 4.5 (adjusted with orthophosphoric acid) was used. The flow rate was 1.2 ml/min and the effluents were detected a...

  10. Novel insertion mutation of ABCB1 gene in an ivermectin-sensitive Border Collie

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Jae-Ik; Son, Hyoung-Won; Park, Seung-Cheol; Na, Ki-Jeong

    2010-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is encoded by the ABCB1 gene and acts as an efflux pump for xenobiotics. In the Border Collie, a nonsense mutation caused by a 4-base pair deletion in the ABCB1 gene is associated with a premature stop to P-gp synthesis. In this study, we examined the full-length coding sequence of the ABCB1 gene in an ivermectin-sensitive Border Collie that lacked the aforementioned deletion mutation. The sequence was compared to the corresponding sequences of a wild-type Beagle and sev...

  11. Transport of oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, and ivermectin in surface runoff from irrigated pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, Daniel A; Popova, Ina E; Tate, Kenneth W; Parikh, Sanjai J

    2017-09-02

    The transport of oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, and ivermectin from manure was assessed via surface runoff on irrigated pasture. Surface runoff plots in the Sierra Foothills of Northern California were used to evaluate the effects of irrigation water application rates, pharmaceutical application conditions, vegetative cover, and vegetative filter strip length on the pharmaceutical discharge in surface runoff. Experiments were designed to permit the maximum potential transport of pharmaceuticals to surface runoff water, which included pre-irrigation to saturate soil, trimming grass where manure was applied, and laying a continuous manure strip perpendicular to the flow of water. However, due to high sorption of the pharmaceuticals to manure and soil, less than 0.1% of applied pharmaceuticals were detected in runoff water. Results demonstrated an increase of pharmaceutical transport in surface runoff with increased pharmaceutical concentration in manure, the concentration of pharmaceuticals in runoff water remained constant with increased irrigation flow rate, and no appreciable decrease in pharmaceutical runoff was produced with the vegetative filter strip length increased from 30.5 to 91.5 cm. Most of the applied pharmaceuticals were retained in the manure or within the upper 5 cm of soil directly beneath the manure application sites. As this study evaluated conditions for high transport potential, the data suggest that the risk for significant chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, and ivermectin transport to surface water from cattle manure on irrigated pasture is low.

  12. Community financing of local ivermectin distribution in Nigeria: potential payment and cost-recovery outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwujekwe, O E; Shu, E N; Okonkwo, P O

    2000-04-01

    The preferred payment mechanism in a community financing scheme for local ivermectin distribution was elicited from randomly selected household heads from three communities in Nigeria using interviewer-administered structured questionnaires. The majority of the respondents in the three communities were prepared to pay for local ivermectin distribution. Additionally, the average amounts the respondents were prepared to pay per person treated ($0.28, $0.30 and $0.38 in Nike, Achi and Toro, respectively) were all more than the $0.20 ceiling recommended by the partners of the African Programme on Onchocerciasis Control (APOC). Thus, the cost-recovery outlook is bright in these communities. However, the preferred payment modality varied. Fee-for-service was the predominant payment modality in the Achi and Nike communities, while the Toro community preferred pre-payment. This study demonstrates that many communities have different payment preferences for endemic disease control efforts. This knowledge will help in developing acceptable and sustainable schemes. The imposition of unacceptable payment mechanisms will lead to an unwillingness to pay.

  13. Serum Strongylus vulgaris-specific antibody responses to anthelmintic treatment in naturally infected horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Martin K; Vidyashankar, Anand N; Bellaw, Jennifer; Gravatte, Holli S; Cao, Xin; Rubinson, Emily F; Reinemeyer, Craig R

    2015-02-01

    Strongylus vulgaris is the most pathogenic helminth parasite of horses, causing verminous endarteritis with thromboembolism and infarction. A serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been validated for detection of antibodies to an antigen produced by migrating larvae of this parasite. The aim was to evaluate ELISA responses to anthelmintic treatment in cohorts of naturally infected horses. Fifteen healthy horses harboring patent S. vulgaris infections were turned out for communal grazing in May 2013 (day 0). On day 55, horses were ranked according to ELISA titers and randomly allocated to the following three groups: no treatment followed by placebo pellets daily; ivermectin on day 60 followed by placebo pellets daily; or ivermectin on day 60 followed by daily pyrantel tartrate. Fecal and serum samples were collected at ∼28-day intervals until study termination on day 231. Increased ELISA values were observed for the first 53 days following ivermectin treatment. Titers were significantly reduced 80 days after ivermectin treatment. Horses receiving daily pyrantel tartrate maintained lower ELISA values from 137 days post ivermectin treatment until trial termination. These results illustrate that a positive ELISA result is indicative of either current or prior exposure to larval S. vulgaris infection within the previous 5 months.

  14. Determination of Ivermectin in Medicated Feeds by Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A labour- and time-effective analytical procedure for determination of ivermectin in medicated feed at recommended level of 2.0 mg kg−1 has been developed and validated. The analyte was extracted from grinded feed samples with acetonitrile and derivatisated with N-methylimidazole and trifluoracetic anhydride. The fluorescent derivatives were analysed by liquid chromatography method using C8 column. The isocratic conditions using acetonitrile, methanol, water, and tetrahydrofuran were applied. Fluorescence detection was performed at 365 nm (excitation) and 475 nm (emission) wavelengths. The total analysis time was 10 min. The validation results of the method (within-laboratory reproducibility 4.0% CV, mean recovery 100.1%) confirm the appropriate precision and accuracy of the developed method. PMID:24453835

  15. Causal Interrogation of Neuronal Networks and Behavior through Virally Transduced Ivermectin Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obenhaus, Horst A; Rozov, Andrei; Bertocchi, Ilaria; Tang, Wannan; Kirsch, Joachim; Betz, Heinrich; Sprengel, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    The causal interrogation of neuronal networks involved in specific behaviors requires the spatially and temporally controlled modulation of neuronal activity. For long-term manipulation of neuronal activity, chemogenetic tools provide a reasonable alternative to short-term optogenetic approaches. Here we show that virus mediated gene transfer of the ivermectin (IVM) activated glycine receptor mutant GlyRα1 (AG) can be used for the selective and reversible silencing of specific neuronal networks in mice. In the striatum, dorsal hippocampus, and olfactory bulb, GlyRα1 (AG) promoted IVM dependent effects in representative behavioral assays. Moreover, GlyRα1 (AG) mediated silencing had a strong and reversible impact on neuronal ensemble activity and c-Fos activation in the olfactory bulb. Together our results demonstrate that long-term, reversible and re-inducible neuronal silencing via GlyRα1 (AG) is a promising tool for the interrogation of network mechanisms underlying the control of behavior and memory formation.

  16. [The effect of ivermectin on geohelminth frequency (i.e. as used in the onchocerciasis control program in Colombia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Angélica; Ariza, Yoseth; López, Myriam C; Fajardo, Oscar S; Reyes, Patricia; Moncada, Ligia I; Duque, Sofía; Álvarez, Carlos A; Nicholls, Rubén S

    2012-08-01

    Evaluating the effect of ivermectin on soil-transmitted helminthes (STH) infection frequency in a Colombian population included in the Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas (OEPA). This was an impact evaluation study which adopted a longitudinal approach using the population of Naicioná (1996) as baseline for comparison to people from the same population as controls (2008). The cross-sectional approach involved comparing the reference population of Naicioná (2008) to the population of Dos Quebradas (2008) used as controls. Fecal samples were processed by a modified Ritchie-Frick method. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most frequently found parasite in Naicioná (60/121; 49.6 %: 37.8-63.895%CI) and in Dos Quebradas (36/76; 47.4 %: 33.2-65.6 95 % CI). Ivermectin's main effect on the population aged over 5 years was a decreased risk of Trichiuris trichiura infection in both longitudinal assessment (86 % reduction: 74-93 95 % CI) and cross-sectional assessment (63 %:24-82 95 % CI). A 93 % reduction (45-99 95 % CI) in Strongyloides stercoralis frequency was found in longitudinal assessment, compared to 85 % in cross-sectional assessment (-031-99 95 % CI). Ivermectin use in the OEPA is not sufficient for STH morbidity control. Integrated programs including education and basic sanitation are required.

  17. Treatment and control of Trixacarus caviae infestation in a conventional guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) breeding colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Anjan Jyoti

    2016-12-01

    A case of sarcoptic mange caused by Trixacarus caviae in a conventional guinea pig breeding colony is reported. The infestation was reported in a large colony of guinea pigs during the month of July, 2013 affecting 30 breeder guinea pigs. Severely infested animals were treated individually with subcutaneous injection of ivermectin 1 % w/v (Neomec ® ) at the rate of 400 µg/kg body weight 10 days apart. Three doses of ivermectin were sufficient to eliminate the parasite which tested negative after 30 days of the first treatment. The entire colony was given preventive dose of ivermectin spray (2 mg/ml solution) following the same schedule. Strict hygienic measures were followed. New hair growth in the severely affected animals was evidenced on 30th day of treatment.

  18. Evaluation of parasiticidal activity of fenbendazole, ivermectin, oxibendazole, and pyrantel pamoate in horse foals with emphasis on ascarids (Parascaris equorum) in field studies on five farms in Central Kentucky in 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C; Ionita, M; Collins, S S

    2008-07-01

    Horse foals on five farms in Central Kentucky were used in field studies in 2007 evaluating activity of paste formulations of four compounds (fenbendazole-FBZ, ivermectin-IVM, oxibendazole-OBZ, and pyrantel pamoate-PRT) against internal parasites with emphasis on ascarids (Parascaris equorum). It has been well established the last few years that there is widespread resistance of P. equorum to ivermectin. The main purpose of the present research was to obtain current data on ascaridicidal activity of FBZ, OBZ, and PRT; also, to acquire further information on ascarid resistance to ivermectin. Additionally, data were documented on drug activity on small strongyles. Detection of ascarid and strongyle eggs in feces of foals was by a qualitative method (presence or absence) or a quantitative method (eggs per gram of feces). Strongyle eggs all were assumed to be from small strongyles. This is based on fecal cultures from horses on one farm and historic records from horses in this area on excellent deworming programs. A girth tape was used to estimate the body weight of each foal so that the appropriate dose rate of each drug could be given. Many of the foals were used in more than one cycle of treatments. Efficacy of the drugs, administered intraorally, was determined by calculating the average percentage reduction (% red.) of the number of foals passing eggs after vs. before treatment: (1) FBZ at 10 mg/kg was tested on four farms; 76 foals were examined, 50 with ascarid eggs (84% red.) and 62 with strongyle eggs (0% red.); (2) IVM at 200 microg/kg was tested on three farms; 58 foals were examined, 18 with ascarid eggs (0% red.) and 48 with strongyle eggs (100% red.); (3) OBZ at 10 mg/kg was tested on three farms; 181 foals were examined, 78 with ascarid eggs (94% red.) and 79 with strongyle eggs (0% red.); (4) PRT was tested on two farms, one farm at 1x (6.6 mg base/kg); 42 were foals examined, 16 with ascarid eggs (0% red.) and 33 with strongyle eggs (12% red.) and one

  19. Development and validation of a new HPLC-UV method for the simultaneous determination of triclabendazole and ivermectin B1a in a pharmaceutical formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurbaji, Maher; Abu Al Rub, Mohamad H; Saket, Munib M; Qaisi, Ali M; Salim, Maher L; Abu-Nameh, Eyad S M

    2010-01-01

    A rapid, simple, and sensitive RP-HPLC analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of triclabendazole and ivermectin in combination using a C18 RP column. The mobile phase was acetonitrile-methanol-water-acetic acid (56 + 36 + 7.5 + 0.5, v/v/v/v) at a pH of 4.35 and flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. A 245 nm UV detection wavelength was used. Complete validation, including linearity, accuracy, recovery, LOD, LOQ, precision, robustness, stability, and peak purity, was performed. The calibration curve was linear over the range 50.09-150.26 microg/mL for triclabendazole with r = 0.9999 and 27.01-81.02 microg/mL for ivermectin with r = 0.9999. Calculated LOD and LOQ for triclabendazole were 0.03 and 0.08 microg/mL, respectively, and for ivermectin 0.07 and 0.20 microg/mL, respectively. The intraday precision obtained was 98.71% with RSD of 0.87% for triclabendazole and 100.79% with RSD 0.73% for ivermectin. The interday precision obtained was 99.51% with RSD of 0.35% for triclabendazole and 100.55% with RSD of 0.59% for ivermectin. Robustness was also studied, and there was no significant variation of the system suitability of the analytical method with small changes in experimental parameters.

  20. Efficacy and safety of albendazole plus ivermectin, albendazole plus mebendazole, albendazole plus oxantel pamoate, and mebendazole alone against Trichuris trichiura and concomitant soil-transmitted helminth infections: a four-arm, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speich, Benjamin; Ali, Said M; Ame, Shaali M; Bogoch, Isaac I; Alles, Rainer; Huwyler, Jörg; Albonico, Marco; Hattendorf, Jan; Utzinger, Jürg; Keiser, Jennifer

    2015-03-01

    Existing anthelmintic drugs (eg, albendazole and mebendazole) have low efficacy against the intestinal nematode species Trichuris trichiura and the drug pipeline is exhausted. We aimed to investigate the strategy of combination chemotherapy with existing drugs to establish whether their efficacy could be enhanced and broadened. In this randomised controlled trial, we compared three drug combinations and one standard drug alone in children aged 6-14 years in two schools on Pemba Island, Tanzania infected with T trichiura and concomitant intestinal nematodes. We assigned children, via a randomisation list with block sizes of either four or eight, to orally receive albendazole (400 mg) plus ivermectin (200 μg/kg); albendazole (400 mg) plus mebendazole (500 mg); albendazole (400 mg) plus oxantel pamoate (20 mg/kg); or mebendazole (500 mg) alone. The primary endpoints were the proportion of children cured of T trichiura infection and the reduction of T trichiura eggs in stool based on geometric means, both analysed by available case. This study is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN80245406. We randomly assigned 440 eligible children infected with T trichiura between Sept 2, and Oct 18, 2013, to one of the four treatment groups (110 children per group). Data for 431 children were included in the analysis for the primary endpoints. Albendazole plus oxantel pamoate (74 of 108 children cured [68·5%, 95% CI 59·6-77·4]; egg reduction 99·2%, 98·7-99·6) and albendazole plus ivermectin (30 of 109 cured [27·5%, 19·0-36·0]; egg reduction 94·5%, 91·7-96·3) were significantly more effective against T trichiura than mebendazole alone (nine of 107 cured [8·4%, 3·1-13·8]; egg reduction 58·5%, 45·2-70·9). Albendazole plus mebendazole had similar low efficacy (nine of 107 cured [8·4%, 3·1-13·8; egg reduction 51·6%, 35·0-65·3) to mebendazole alone. About a fifth of the children reported adverse events, which were mainly mild. Abdominal cramps and headache were

  1. Changes in serum Strongylus vulgaris-specific antibody concentrations in response to anthelmintic treatment of experimentally-infected foals

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    Martin Krarup Nielsen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Strongylus vulgaris is the most pathogenic nematode parasite of horses. Its extensive migration in the mesenteric blood vessels can lead to life-threatening intestinal infarctions. Recent work has shown that this parasite is still identified among managed horse populations. A serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA has been developed for the detection of migrating larvae of S. vulgaris. Previous work has documented an increase in ELISA values following larvicidal treatment with ivermectin and suggested that the target parasite antigen is primarily produced by the later larval stages. The aim of this study was to experimentally inoculate cohorts of foals with S. vulgaris, and then compare ELISA responses to early or later ivermectin treatments. Fifteen foals were held in confinement and infected orally with ~ 25 S. vulgaris third-stage larvae on days 0, 7, 14, and 21. Foals were weaned on Day 43 and turned out to a pasture not previously grazed by horses. Foals remained at pasture continuously until the study was terminated on Day 196. On Day 55, foals were randomly allocated to three treatment groups of five each. Group 1 received ivermectin on Day 56, Group 2 received ivermectin on Day 112, and Group 3 foals served as untreated controls. Serum and fecal samples were collected at 28-day intervals throughout the study. Serum samples were analyzed with the S. vulgaris-specific ELISA and fecal samples were processed for fecal egg counting. The ELISA values of Group 1 foals were significantly lower than Groups 2 or 3 on days 140-196. Both treated groups exhibited increased ELISA values following ivermectin treatment. Results indicate that the target diagnostic antigen is produced throughout the course of arterial infection with S. vulgaris, but that an early ivermectin treatment can reduce the cumulative antigen produced over the course of an infection.

  2. Changes in Serum Strongylus Vulgaris-Specific Antibody Concentrations in Response to Anthelmintic Treatment of Experimentally Infected Foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Scare, Jessica; Gravatte, Holli Sullivan; Bellaw, Jennifer Lynn; Prado, Julio C; Reinemeyer, Craig Robert

    2015-01-01

    Strongylus vulgaris is the most pathogenic nematode parasite of horses. Its extensive migration in the mesenteric blood vessels can lead to life-threatening intestinal infarctions. Recent work has shown that this parasite is still identified among managed horse populations. A serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed for the detection of migrating larvae of S. vulgaris. Previous work has documented an increase in ELISA values following larvicidal treatment with ivermectin and suggested that the target parasite antigen is primarily produced by the later larval stages. The aim of this study was to experimentally inoculate cohorts of foals with S. vulgaris, and then compare ELISA responses to early or later ivermectin treatments. Fifteen foals were held in confinement and infected orally with ~25 S. vulgaris third-stage larvae on Days 0, 7, 14, and 21. Foals were weaned on Day 43 and turned out to a pasture not previously grazed by horses. Foals remained at pasture continuously until the study was terminated on Day 196. On Day 55, foals were randomly allocated to three treatment groups of five each. Group 1 received ivermectin on Day 56, Group 2 received ivermectin on Day 112, and Group 3 foals served as untreated controls. Serum and fecal samples were collected at 28-day intervals throughout the study. Serum samples were analyzed with the S. vulgaris-specific ELISA and fecal samples were processed for fecal egg counting. The ELISA values of Group 1 foals were significantly lower than Groups 2 or 3 on Days 140-196. Both treated groups exhibited increased ELISA values following ivermectin treatment. Results indicate that the target diagnostic antigen is produced throughout the course of arterial infection with S. vulgaris, but that an early ivermectin treatment can reduce the cumulative antigen produced over the course of an infection.

  3. Effect of ivermectin on the survival and fecundity of Euoniticellus intermedius (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae

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    Magdalena Cruz Rosales

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The State of Veracruz in Mexico is one of the main cattle producers, and uses several veterinary products for disease and parasite control. For parasite control, ivermectin is one of the most frequently used substances. Nevertheless, even though previous research conducted in other countries has found that this product has negative effects on beneficial coprophagous fauna, no studies have descry ibed its effects on coprophagous insects at a local scale in Veracruz, Mexico. This study evaluated Euoniticellus intermedius survival, fecundity, fertility and preimaginal development under laboratory conditions when ivermectin was added to cattle dung at three different concentrations. The design included two controls (spiked dung, and the following product concentrations: 0.01, 1.0 and 100ppm, which were homogenized with wet cattle dung. 20 female-male E. intermedius couples between five and 15 days old were used and kept at 27°C, 70% RH, and 12h light for 10 days. The survival of all specimens, the fertility of 20 females and the gonadal maturity of 17 males were verified. The larval development in 162 pieces of brood-mass was examined, and a total of 974 larvae developed and reached adulthood. The highest ivermectin concentration was toxic at 1.0ppm dose, the survival of adults was reduced to almost the half, and at 100ppm, total mortality was observed. The effects on specimen reproductive systems showed that the ovary was not affected, that the testicle size increased, and that the fecundity and weight of brood-masses were reduced. Pre-imaginal development increased 0.5 times at 0.01ppm concentration, and the width of the cephalic capsule in third instar larvae diminished. The prolonging of development time may cause a phase lag in the field activity cycle, this lag may reduce the number of E. intermedius individuals and the efficiency of the environmental services that they provide.El estado de Veracruz en México, es uno de los principales

  4. Efficacy of ivermectin against gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle in Denmark evaluated by different methods for analysis of faecal egg count reduction

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    Miguel Peña-Espinoza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of ivermectin (IVM against gastrointestinal nematodes in Danish cattle was assessed by faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT. Six cattle farms with history of clinical parasitism and avermectin use were included. On the day of treatment (Day 0, 20 naturally infected calves per farm (total n = 120 were stratified by initial faecal egg counts (FEC and randomly allocated to a treatment group dosed with 0.2 mg IVM kg−1 body weight s.c. (IVM; n = 10 or an untreated control group (CTL; n = 10. Individual FEC were obtained at Day 0 and Day 14 post-treatment and pooled faeces by group were cultured to isolate L3 for detection of Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora by qPCR. Treatment efficacies were analysed using the recommended WAAVP method and two open-source statistical procedures based on Bayesian modelling: ‘eggCounts’ and ‘Bayescount’. A simulation study evaluated the performance of the different procedures to correctly identify FEC reduction percentages of simulated bovine FEC data representing the observed real data. In the FECRT, reduced IVM efficacy was detected in three farms by all procedures using data from treated animals only, and in one farm according to the procedures including data from treated and untreated cattle. Post-treatment, O. ostertagi and C. oncophora L3 were detected by qPCR in faeces of treated animals from one and three herds with declared reduced IVM efficacy, respectively. Based on the simulation study, all methods showed a reduced performance when FEC aggregation increased post-treatment and suggested that a treatment group of 10 animals is insufficient for the FECRT in cattle. This is the first report of reduced anthelmintic efficacy in Danish cattle and warrants the implementation of larger surveys. Advantages and caveats regarding the use of Bayesian modelling and the relevance of including untreated cattle in the FECRT are discussed.

  5. Efficacy of ivermectin against gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle in Denmark evaluated by different methods for analysis of faecal egg count reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Espinoza, Miguel; Thamsborg, Stig M; Denwood, Matthew J; Drag, Markus; Hansen, Tina V; Jensen, Vibeke F; Enemark, Heidi L

    2016-12-01

    The efficacy of ivermectin (IVM) against gastrointestinal nematodes in Danish cattle was assessed by faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). Six cattle farms with history of clinical parasitism and avermectin use were included. On the day of treatment (Day 0), 20 naturally infected calves per farm (total n = 120) were stratified by initial faecal egg counts (FEC) and randomly allocated to a treatment group dosed with 0.2 mg IVM kg -1 body weight s.c. (IVM; n = 10) or an untreated control group (CTL; n = 10). Individual FEC were obtained at Day 0 and Day 14 post-treatment and pooled faeces by group were cultured to isolate L3 for detection of Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora by qPCR. Treatment efficacies were analysed using the recommended WAAVP method and two open-source statistical procedures based on Bayesian modelling: 'eggCounts' and 'Bayescount'. A simulation study evaluated the performance of the different procedures to correctly identify FEC reduction percentages of simulated bovine FEC data representing the observed real data. In the FECRT, reduced IVM efficacy was detected in three farms by all procedures using data from treated animals only, and in one farm according to the procedures including data from treated and untreated cattle. Post-treatment, O. ostertagi and C. oncophora L3 were detected by qPCR in faeces of treated animals from one and three herds with declared reduced IVM efficacy, respectively. Based on the simulation study, all methods showed a reduced performance when FEC aggregation increased post-treatment and suggested that a treatment group of 10 animals is insufficient for the FECRT in cattle. This is the first report of reduced anthelmintic efficacy in Danish cattle and warrants the implementation of larger surveys. Advantages and caveats regarding the use of Bayesian modelling and the relevance of including untreated cattle in the FECRT are discussed. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All

  6. The effect of sesame and sunflower oils on the plasma disposition of ivermectin in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokbulut, C; Karademir, U; Boyacioglu, M; McKellar, Q A

    2008-10-01

    The effect of sesame oil (SSO) and sunflower oil (SFO) (the excipients) on the plasma disposition of ivermectin (IVM) following intravenous (i.v.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) administration at a dosage of 200 microg/kg was investigated in goats. Ten clinically healthy crossbred goats were used in the study. The animals were allocated by weight and sex into two groups of five animals each. Group 1 (n = 5) received the drug and excipient by the i.v. route only and group 2 received drug and excipient by the s.c. route only. The study was designed according to a two-phase crossover design protocol. In the first phase three animals in group 1 were i.v. administered IVM (0.2 mg/kg) + SSO (1 mL) and the other two animals received IVM (0.2 mg/kg) + SFO (1 mL). In the second phase animals were crossed over and received the alternate excipient with IVM at the same dosages. In group 2 during the first phase, three animals were s.c. administered IVM (0.2 mg/kg) + SSO (1 mL) and the other two animals were received IVM (0.2 mg/kg) + SFO (1 mL). In the second phase animals were crossed over and received the alternate excipient with IVM at the same dosages. A 4-week washout period was allowed between the two phases. In group 2 significantly increased dermal thickness was observed at the s.c. injection site of the all animals which received IVM during phase I regardless of the excipient. There was almost no change observed at the injection site of any animal during the second phase of the study following s.c. administration. In group 2 the plasma concentrations of IVM in the second phase for both excipient combinations were much higher than the plasma concentrations following first administration and appeared to be related with the dermal changes. The mean plasma disposition of IVM in combination with SSO or SFO was similar following i.v. administration. Longer terminal elimination half-lives and resultant longer mean resident time were observed after s.c. administration of the both

  7. Comparison of two in vitro methods for the detection of ivermectin resistance in Haemonchus contortus in sheep

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    Urda Dolinská M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes in sheep cause severe economic losses. Anthelmintics are the most commonly used drugs for prophylaxis and therapy against parasitic helminths. The problem of drug resistance has developed for all commercially available anthelmintics in several genera and classes of helminths. In vitro and in vivo tests are used to detect anthelmintic resistance. Two in vitro methods (larval migration inhibition test and micromotility test for the detection of ivermectin (IVM resistance were compared using IVM-resistant and IVM-susceptible isolates of Haemonchus contortus. The degree of resistance for each test was expressed as a resistance factor (RF. The micromotility test was more sensitive for quantitatively measuring the degree of resistance between susceptible and resistant isolates. The RFs for this test for IVM and eprinomectin ranged from 1.00 to 108.05 and from 3.87 to 32.32, respectively.

  8. Ivermectin-related adverse clinical events in patients treated for Mansonella ozzardi infections Efectos clínicos adversos relacionados con ivermectina en pacientes tratados por infecciones con Mansonella ozzarddi

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    Alejandro J. Krolewiecki

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the occurrence of serious reactions after treatment with oral ivermectin in two patients with Mansonella ozzardi infections. Both had systemic and respiratory symptoms and recovered without sequelae. Follow-up revealed clearance of microfilaremia in both cases, with relapse in one of them. These reactions are well described in the treatment of other filarial infections, but have not yet been reported in the treatment of M. ozzardi. We are now reporting the first such known reactions with this helminthiasis.Se informa la aparición de reacciones adversas graves con el tratamiento con ivermectina oral en dos pacientes con infección por Mansonella ozzardi. Ambos presentaron síntomas respiratorios y sistémicos y se recuperaron sin secuelas. El seguimiento mostró ausencia de microfilaremia en ambos casos, con recidiva en uno de ellos. Estas reacciones, bien conocidas durante el tratamiento de otras filariosis, se describen por primera vez con esta helmintiasis.

  9. Nontarget effects of ivermectin residues on earthworms and springtails dwelling beneath dung of treated cattle in four countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffczyk, Adam; Floate, Kevin D; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Düring, Rolf-Alexander; Klockner, Andrea; Lahr, Joost; Lumaret, Jean-Pierre; Salamon, Jörg-Alfred; Tixier, Thomas; Wohde, Manuel; Römbke, Jörg

    2016-08-01

    The authorization of veterinary medicinal products requires that they be assessed for nontarget effects in the environment. Numerous field studies have assessed these effects on dung organisms. However, few studies have examined effects on soil-dwelling organisms, which might be exposed to veterinary medicinal product residues released during dung degradation. The authors compared the abundance of earthworms and springtails in soil beneath dung from untreated cattle and from cattle treated 0 d, 3 d, 7 d, 14 d, and 28 d previously with ivermectin. Study sites were located in different ecoregions in Switzerland (Continental), The Netherlands (Atlantic), France (Mediterranean), and Canada (Northern Mixed Grassland). Samples were collected using standard methods from 1 mo to 12 mo after pat deposition. Ivermectin concentrations in soil beneath dung pats ranged from 0.02 mg/kg dry weight (3 mo) to typically Earthworms were abundant and species-rich at the Swiss and Dutch sites, less common with fewer species at the French site, and essentially absent at the Canadian site. Diverse but highly variable communities of springtails were present at all sites. Overall, results showed little effect of residues on either earthworms or springtails. The authors recommend that inclusion of soil organisms in field studies to assess the nontarget effects of veterinary medicinal products be required only if earthworms or springtails exhibit sensitivity to the product in laboratory tests. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1959-1969. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  10. Evaluation of five treatments to control intestinal parasites in sheep in Ayapango, state of Mexico

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    Rafael Heredia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Intestinal parasites are one of the most common problems in sheep production systems. However, the strategies used to eliminate these parasites have not yielded satisfactory results. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of five anthelmintics (with different active ingredients on the parasite load in sheep. Materials and Methods: In this study, 107 Rambouillet breed sheep were randomly assigned to five groups. Next, fecal samples were taken directly from the rectum and sent to the laboratory for analysis. We then dewormed each group of sheep using different anthelmintic products: Ivermectin 1%/clorsulon 10%, levamisole 12%, closantel sodium 5%, ivermectin 10%, and closantel 5%/albendazole 3.75% with a dosage corresponding to each sheep. At 15 days post-treatment, we took fecal samples and performed a coproparasitoscopic study, using the Faust flotation technique to assess the presence or absence of parasite eggs and the McMaster technique to quantify eggs. Results: Ivermectin/clorsulon was more effective in eliminating parasites than other anthelmintics used, especially in Haemonchus spp. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that using ivermectin/clorsulon decreases the number of eggs in feces and is one alternative in controlling parasites in sheep, leading to a reduction in the incidence of health problems, and consequently, improved productivity.

  11. Targeting the environmental assessment of veterinary drugs with the multi-species-soil system (MS{center_dot}3) agricultural soil microcosms: the ivermectin case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonell-Martin, G.; Pro-Gonzalez, J.; Aragones-Grunert, P.; Babib-Vich, M. M.; Fernandez-Rorija, C.; Tarazona-Lafarga, J. V.

    2011-07-01

    The environmental risk assessment of the veterinary pharmaceutical ivermectin is receiving significant attention. This paper assesses the capacity of the MS{center_dot}3 soil microcosm as a tool for targeting the environmental impact assessment of veterinary drugs, using ivermectin as model. Two screening MS{center_dot}3 were performed using different European soils; one with a soil collected in an agricultural station near to Madrid, Spain and a second with a soil collected in a farm area close to York, UK. Soils were fortified with ivermectin at the following ranges: 0.01-10 mg kg{sup -}1 and 0.1-100 mg kg{sup -}1 in the Madrid and York studies, respectively. The effects on earthworms, plants and soil microorganisms were assessed in the Madrid soil. Toxicity tests on aquatic organisms (algae, cladocerans and in vitro fish cell line RTLW1) were also conducted with the leachates. No effects were observed in earthworms and plants at any tested concentration; reduction in the respiration rate (< 5%) of soil microorganisms was detected. Earthworm/soil bioconcentration factors decreased with the increase in soil concentrations and were higher for the York soil. Effects on daphnids were observed in tested leachates; based on measured levels of ivermectin in the leachates an EC50 of about 0.5{mu}gL{sup -}1 can be estimated. Comparisons based on toxicity data and equilibrium partitioning confirmed that the main risk is expected to be related to the high sensitivity of cladocerans. The results confirm that MS{center_dot}3 systems are cost-effective tools for assessing the impact of veterinary pharmaceuticals when applied to agricultural land, as previously demonstrated for antimicrobials. (Author) 39 refs.

  12. Efficacy and safety of tribendimidine, tribendimidine plus ivermectin, tribendimidine plus oxantel pamoate, and albendazole plus oxantel pamoate against hookworm and concomitant soil-transmitted helminth infections in Tanzania and Côte d'Ivoire: a randomised, controlled, single-blinded, non-inferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Wendelin; Coulibaly, Jean T; Ali, Said M; Ame, Shaali M; Amour, Amour K; Yapi, Richard B; Albonico, Marco; Puchkov, Maxim; Huwyler, Jörg; Hattendorf, Jan; Keiser, Jennifer

    2017-11-01

    Preventive chemotherapy is the current strategy to control soil-transmitted helminth infections (caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura). But, to improve efficacy and avoid emerging resistance, new drugs are warranted. Tribendimidine has shown good anthelmintic efficacy and is therefore a frontrunner for monotherapy and combination chemotherapy. We did a randomised, controlled, single-blinded, non-inferiority trial on Pemba Island, Tanzania, and in Côte d'Ivoire. We recruited adolescents aged 15-18 years from four primary schools on Pemba, and school attendees and non-schoolers from two districts in Côte d'Ivoire. Only hookworm-positive participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) to single, oral doses of tribendimidine 400 mg plus placebo (tribendimidine monotherapy), tribendimidine 400 mg plus ivermectin 200 μg/kg, tribendimidine 400 mg plus oxantel pamoate 25 mg/kg, or albendazole 400 mg plus oxantel pamoate 25 mg/kg. Randomisation was done via a computer-generated list in block sizes of four or eight. Participants were asked to provide two stool samples on 2 consecutive days at baseline and again 14-21 days at follow-up. The primary outcome was the difference in egg-reduction rates (ERRs; ie, the geometric mean reduction) in hookworm egg counts between treatment groups, measured by the Kato-Katz technique. Differences in coadministrated treatment groups were assessed for non-inferiority with a margin of -3% to albendazole plus oxantel pamoate based on the available-case population, analysed by intention to treat. Safety was assessed 3 h and 24 h after treatment. This study is registered with ISRCTN (number 14373201). Between July 26, and Dec 23, 2016, we treated 636 hookworm-positive participants, and outcome data were available for 601 participants (151 assigned to tribendimidine monotherapy, 154 to tribendimidine plus ivermectin, 148 to tribendimidine plus oxantel pamoate, and 148 to albendazole plus oxantel pamoate

  13. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL AND CYTOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF TRANSMISSIBLE VENEREAL TUMOR IN DOGS AFTER TWO TREATMENT PROTOCOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Aguena Sales Lapa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The transmissible venereal tumor (TVT is a contagious neoplasm of round cells that frequently affect dogs. The treatment consists of chemotherapy being more effective the vincristine alone, however the resistance emergence to this agent due multidrug resistance of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp, a transporter protein encoded by the MDR1 gene, has been taking the association with other drugs. Recent studies demonstrated the antitumoral effect of the avermectins when associated to the vincristine in the treatment of some neoplasms. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of standard treatment of TVT with vincristine only when compared to combined treatment with vincristine and ivermectin, evaluated through number of applications of the two protocols, histopathological and cytological analysis from 50 dogs diagnosed with TVT during the period of 2007 to 2010. The combined protocol significant reduced the number of applications and cytological and histopathological findings collaborate with the hypothesis that the combination of vincristine and ivermectin promotes faster healing than the use of vincristine alone. Combination treatment with vincristine and ivermectin could be in the future an excellent therapeutic alternative for the treatment of TVT for probably reducing the resistance to vincristine, simultaneously reducing the cost of TVT treatment and promoting a faster recovery of the dog.

  14. Anthelmintic efficacies of a tablet formula of ivermectin-praziquantel on horses experimentally infected with three Strongylus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneau, Stephane; Maynard, Laurence; Tomczuk, Krzysztof; Kok, Dawid; Eun, Hyone-Myong

    2009-09-01

    In this blinded randomized and controlled study, the anthelmintic efficacy of a tablet formula of ivermectin-praziquantel was evaluated in horses experimentally infected with three species of Strongylus larvae. Eighteen previously dewormed horses were inoculated on study day 0 with third-stage larvae of Strongylus vulgaris, Strongylus equinus, and Strongylus edentatus. The horses were randomly allocated to three groups (n = 6): test-drug (tablet formula), positive-control (reference gel), and negative-control (placebo tablet). On day 56, the horses were treated once with the respective drugs. On day 95, the horses were sacrificed, and necropsy examinations were performed to assess the status of the parasite burden (L4 and immature L5) and pathological lesions on selected organs and tissues. By the criteria of worm counts, the test-drug and positive-control showed, respectively, 100% and 97.3% anthelmintic efficacies on S. vulgaris, 100% and 81.4% on S. equinus, and equally 100% on S. edentatus. However, the efficacies on S. equinus and S. edentatus should be taken only as face values considering their respective low worm counts in the placebo group. The S. vulgaris-induced arterial lesions were also reduced in the test-drug and positive-control groups with efficacies of 73.9% and 62.9%, respectively. No adverse reactions were observed with either of the drugs. Our data demonstrate that the Equimax tablet formula was as safe and efficacious as the gel formula anthelmintic on large strongyles in horses.

  15. Simplified RP-HPLC method for multi-residue analysis of abamectin, emamectin benzoate and ivermectin in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xianchuan; Gong, Shu; Wang, Xiaorong; Wu, Yinxing; Zhao, Li

    2011-01-01

    A rapid, reliable and sensitive reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method with fluorescence detection (RP-FLD-HPLC) was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of the abamectin (ABA), emamectin (EMA) benzoate and ivermectin (IVM) residues in rice. After extraction with acetonitrile/water (2 : 1) with sonication, the avermectin (AVMs) residues were directly derivatised by N-methylimidazole (N-NMIM) and trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA) and then analysed on RP-FLD-HPLC. A good linear relationship (r(2 )> 0.99) was obtained for three AVMs ranging from 0.01 to 5 microg ml(-1), i.e. 0.01-5.0 microg g(-1) in rice matrix. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were between 0.001 and 0.002 microg g(-1) and between 0.004 and 0.006 microg g(-1), respectively. Recoveries were from 81.9% to 105.4% and precision less than 12.4%. The proposed method was successfully applied to routine analysis of the AVMs residues in rice.

  16. The In Vitro Effect of Ivermectin on the Activity of Trehalose Synthesis Pathway Enzymes and Their mRNA Expression in the Muscle of Adult Female Ascaris suum (Nematoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitryjuk, Małgorzata; Łopieńska-Biernat, Elżbieta; Zaobidna, Ewa Anna

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro effect of ivermectin lethal dose on the activity of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) and phosphatase (TPP) and the expression of their mRNA (tps1, tps2, and tpp genes) in the muscle of adult female Ascaris suum was investigated. The presence of ivermectin in the medium caused a decrease in TPS and TPP activities during the experiment compared with the start and control groups. The exception was the group of worms grown for 8 hours in a IVM solution, in which there was a littl...

  17. Effects of ivermectin application on the diversity and function of dung and soil fauna: Regulatory and scientific background information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Nicole; Bachmann, Jean; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Floate, Kevin D; Jensen, John; Römbke, Jörg

    2016-08-01

    The application of veterinary medical products to livestock can impact soil organisms in manure-amended fields or adversely affect organisms that colonize dung pats of treated animals and potentially retard the degradation of dung on pastures. For this reason, the authorization process for veterinary medicinal products in the European Union includes a requirement for higher-tier tests when adverse effects on dung organisms are observed in single-species toxicity tests. However, no guidance documents for the performance of higher-tier tests are available. Hence, an international research project was undertaken to develop and validate a proposed test method under varying field conditions of climate, soil, and endemic coprophilous fauna at Lethbridge (Canada), Montpellier (France), Zurich (Switzerland), and Wageningen (The Netherlands). The specific objectives were to determine if fecal residues of an anthelmintic with known insecticidal activity (ivermectin) showed similar effects across sites on 1) insects breeding in dung of treated animals, 2) coprophilous organisms in the soil beneath the dung, and 3) rates of dung degradation. By evaluating the effects of parasiticides on communities of dung-breeding insects and soil fauna under field conditions, the test method meets the requirements of a higher-tier test as mandated by the European Union. The present study provides contextual information on authorization requirements for veterinary medicinal products and on the structure and function of dung and soil organism communities. It also provides a summary of the main findings. Subsequent studies on this issue provide detailed information on different aspects of this overall project. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1914-1923. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  18. Status of forest onchocerciasis in the Lower Cross River basin, Nigeria: entomologic profile after five years of ivermectin intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Kenneth N; Fagbemi, Olakunle B; Ekwe, Asuquo; Okenu, Daniel M N

    2005-08-01

    In the Lower Cross River basin in Nigeria, no pre-control entomologic profile of Onchocerca volvulus infection in the local Simulium damnosum population was available prior to the initiation of an ivermectin control program in 1995. A longitudinal entomologic study was therefore carried out over a 12-month period (January-December 2001) at the Agbokim waterfalls and Afi River, which are breeding sites of S. damnosum in the river basin. A total of 9,287 adult S. damnosum were caught on human bait; 9,048 (97.43%) were dissected, of which 313 (3.46%) were infected. Annual biting rates (ABRs) of 42,419 and 28,346 bites per persons per year were recorded at the Agbokim Waterfalls and Afi River, respectively. The annual transmission potential (ATP) was 419 infective larvae per person per year at the Agbokim Waterfalls and 427 at the Afi River. Monthly biting rate and monthly transmission potential varied significantly (P < 0.05) at the two sites. Transmission was highly seasonal from April to September, corresponding to the peak biting period of the vector. The high ATP and ABR values are a measure of the mesoendemicity of onchocerciasis in the river basin. There was a significant F(0).05 (1, 10) (P < 0.05) variation in the relative fly abundance from both sites. It was observed that human activities such as farming, fishing, timber cutting, and hunting are done in the early morning and late afternoon, which corresponds to the peak diurnal biting period of the vector. Changes in these practices and attitudes may markedly affect the disease intensity and transmission.

  19. A four-country ring test of nontarget effects of ivermectin residues on the function of coprophilous communities of arthropods in breaking down livestock dung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tixier, Thomas; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Lahr, Joost; Floate, Kevin; Scheffczyk, Adam; Düring, Rolf-Alexander; Wohde, Manuel; Römbke, Jörg; Lumaret, Jean-Pierre

    2016-08-01

    By degrading the dung of livestock that graze on pastures, coprophilous arthropods accelerate the cycling of nutrients to maintain pasture quality. Many veterinary medicinal products, such as ivermectin, are excreted unchanged in the dung of treated livestock. These residues can be insecticidal and may reduce the function (i.e., dung-degradation) of the coprophilous community. In the present study, we used a standard method to monitor the degradation of dung from cattle treated with ivermectin. The present study was performed during a 1-yr period on pastures in Canada, France, The Netherlands, and Switzerland. Large effects of residue were detected on the coprophilous community, but degradation of dung was not significantly hampered. The results emphasize that failure to detect an effect of veterinary medicinal product residues on dung-degradation does not mean that the residues do not affect the coprophilous community. Rather, insect activity is only one of many factors that affect degradation, and these other factors may mask the nontarget effect of residues. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1953-1958. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  20. Eficácia anti-helmíntica comparativa da associação albendazole, levamisole e ivermectina à moxidectina em ovinos Comparative anthelmintic efficacy of the association albendazol, levamisol and ivermectin to moxidectin in sheep

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    Carolina Buzzulini

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a eficácia anti-helmíntica da associação de albendazole 2,0%, cloridrato de levamisole 2,55% e ivermectina 0,08% comparativamente à moxidectina 1% em ovinos naturalmente infectados. Foram selecionados 24 ovinos para a composição de três grupos experimentais com oito animais cada: T1, ovinos tratados com a associação albendazole, levamisole e ivermectina, na dosagem de 1 mL 4 kg-1 de peso corporal; T2, ovinos tratados com moxidectina, na dosagem de 1 mL 50 kg-1 de peso corporal e T3, ovinos sem tratamento anti-helmíntico. Foram realizadas contagens de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG no primeiro, terceiro, quinto e sétimo dia após os tratamentos. No sétimo dia todos os ovinos foram necropsiados e todos os helmintos encontrados no trato gastrintestinal foram quantificados e identificados quanto ao gênero e à espécie. A associação dos diferentes princípios ativos foi 100% eficaz no combate às espécies Cooperia punctata, C. pectinata, C. spatulata, Trichostrongylus axei, Oesophagostomum columbianum, Trichuris ovis, C. curticei e Strongyloides papillosus e, a moxidectina eliminou as seis primeiras espécies citadas. Contra Haemonchus contortus a associação apresentou eficácia superior (93% à moxidectina (51,4%. Ambas formulações foram eficazes contra Trichostrongylus colubriformis. A associação medicamentosa utilizada constitui alternativa no controle das nematodioses ovinas.The anthelmintic efficacy of 2.0% albendazol, 2.55% levamisol chloridrate and 0.08% ivermectin formulation to 1% moxidectin in sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes was compared. Twenty-four animals were selected by faecal egg counts (FEC means, composing three experimental groups with eight sheep each: T1, sheep treated with albendazol, levamisol and ivermectin association; T2, sheep treated with 1% moxidectin and T3, untreated group. FEC was estimated at 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th day post-treatment. All animals were

  1. Profiling extracellular vesicle release by the filarial nematode Brugia malayi reveals sex-specific differences in cargo and a sensitivity to ivermectin.

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    Hiruni Harischandra

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The filarial nematode Brugia malayi is an etiological agent of Lymphatic Filariasis. The capability of B. malayi and other parasitic nematodes to modulate host biology is recognized but the mechanisms by which such manipulation occurs are obscure. An emerging paradigm is the release of parasite-derived extracellular vesicles (EV containing bioactive proteins and small RNA species that allow secretion of parasite effector molecules and their potential trafficking to host tissues. We have previously described EV release from the infectious L3 stage B. malayi and here we profile vesicle release across all intra-mammalian life cycle stages (microfilariae, L3, L4, adult male and female worms. Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis was used to quantify and size EVs revealing discrete vesicle populations and indicating a secretory process that is conserved across the life cycle. Brugia EVs are internalized by murine macrophages with no preference for life stage suggesting a uniform mechanism for effector molecule trafficking. Further, the use of chemical uptake inhibitors suggests all life stage EVs are internalized by phagocytosis. Proteomic profiling of adult male and female EVs using nano-scale LC-MS/MS described quantitative and qualitative differences in the adult EV proteome, helping define the biogenesis of Brugia EVs and revealing sexual dimorphic characteristics in immunomodulatory cargo. Finally, ivermectin was found to rapidly inhibit EV release by all Brugia life stages. Further this drug effect was also observed in the related filarial nematode, the canine heartworm Dirofilaria immitis but not in an ivermectin-unresponsive field isolate of that parasite, highlighting a potential mechanism of action for this drug and suggesting new screening platforms for anti-filarial drug development.

  2. Community-based trial of annual versus biannual single-dose ivermectin plus albendazole against Wuchereria bancrofti infection in human and mosquito populations: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Dziedzom K; Ahorlu, Collins S; Adu-Amankwah, Susan; Otchere, Joseph; Mensah, Sedzro K; Larbi, Irene A; Mensah, George E; Biritwum, Nana-Kwadwo; Boakye, Daniel A

    2017-10-02

    The Global Programme for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) has been in operation since the year 2000, with the aim of eliminating the disease by the year 2020, following five to six rounds of effective annual mass drug administration (MDA). The treatment regimen is ivermectin (IVM) in combination with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) or albendazole (ALB). In Ghana, MDA has been undertaken since 2001. While the disease has been eliminated in many areas, transmission has persisted in some implementation units that had experienced 15 or more rounds of MDA. Thus, new intervention strategies could eliminate residual infection in areas of persistent transmission and speed up the lymphatic filariasis (LF)-elimination process. This study, therefore, seeks to test the hypothesis that biannual treatment of LF-endemic communities will accelerate the interruption of LF in areas of persistent transmission. A cluster randomised trial will be implemented in LF-endemic communities in Ghana. The interventions will be yearly or twice-yearly MDA delivered to entire endemic communities. Allocation to study group will be by clusters identified using the prevalence of LF. Clusters will be randomised to one of two groups: receiving either (1) annual treatment with IVM + ALB or (2) annual MDA with IVM + ALB, followed by an additional MDA 6 months later. The primary outcome measure is the prevalence of LF infection, assessed by four cross-sectional surveys. Entomological assessments will also be undertaken to evaluate the transmission intensity of the disease in the study clusters. Costs and cost-effectiveness will be evaluated. Among a random subsample of participants, microfilaria prevalence will be assessed longitudinally. A nested process evaluation, using semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions and a stakeholder analysis, will investigate the community acceptability, feasibility and scale-up of each delivery system. It is expected that this study will add to

  3. [Determination of tick species and treatment of cows, sheep and goats in the Sivas-Zara region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamak, Nuri; Gençer, Lütfiye; Ozkanlar, Yunus Emre; Ozçelik, Semra

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine tick infestation in cattle, sheep and goats in the Zara-Sivas region for one year and to determine the epizootiology of the tick species as well as to investigate treatment of the infested animals. Tick infestation was detected in 71 (29.6%) out of 240 cattle, 66 (24.0%) out of 275 sheep and 50 (19.9%) out of 252 goats in the Zara region. It has been shown that the tick infestation on cattle included Haemaphysalis parva (33.8%), Dermacentor marginatus (2.8%), Boophilus annulatus (21.1%), Haemaphysalis concinna (15.5%), Hyalomma marginatum (19.7%) and Rhipicephalus bursa (7%). Those on sheep included Dermacentor niveus (18.2%), Dermacentor marginatus (31.8%), Haemaphysalis parva (13.6%), Haemaphysalis concinna (4.5%), Hyalomma marginatum (4.5%) and Rhipicephalus bursa (27.3%). Those on goats included Dermacentor niveus (4%), Dermacentor marginatus (12%), Haemaphysalis parva (40%), Haemaphysalis concinna (2%), Boophilus annulatum (4%), Hyalomma marginatum (6%) and Rhipicephalus bursa (32%). Ivermectin was administered to the infested animals in a dose of 200 microg/kg subcutaneously. The administration of the ivermectin was effective. As a result, it has been shown that the tick infestation is present in cattle, sheep and goats in Zara region, the tick species differ according to the season and administration of ivermectin was an effective treatment.

  4. EFICÁCIA DA MOXIDECTINA, IVERMECTINA E ALBENDAZOLE CONTRA HELMINTOS GASTRINTESTINAIS EM PROPRIEDADES DE CRIAÇÃO CAPRINA E OVINA NO ESTADO DE PERNAMBUCO EFFICACY OF MOXIDECTIN, IVERMECTIN AND ALBENDAZOL AGAINST GASTROINTESTINAL HELMINTHS IN GOAT AND SHEEP FARMS FROM PERNAMBUCO STATE, BRAZIL

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    Leucio Câmara Alves

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    valiou-se a eficácia de produtos anti-helmínticos à base de moxidectina, ivermectina e albendazole em propriedades de criação caprina e ovina, localizadas em municípios pertencentes ao estado de Pernambuco. Os animais eram de ambos os sexos, idades e raças variadas, criados em sistema semi-intensivo e intensivo. A eficácia dos produtos foi avaliada pelo teste de redução do número de ovos por grama de fezes e calculada pela fórmula: %eficácia = 1- [(OPG médio pós-tratamento/OPG médio antes do tratamento] x 100, indicando ineficácia com índice inferior a 95%. A moxidectina mostrou-se eficiente tanto em propriedade de criação caprina como ovina, a ivermectina apresentou melhor desempenho nos ovinos, enquanto o albendazole não foi eficaz para nenhuma das duas espécies. O gênero Haemonchus foi o mais prevalente nas coproculturas.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Anti-helmíntico, caprino, ovino, Pernambuco, resistência.

    Anthelmintic products efficacy was evaluated within goat and sheep herds in municipalities belonging to the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.  The animals were male and female of various ages and breeds, reared under semi-intensive and intensive system. The effectiveness of Moxidectin, ivermectin and albendazole drugs was detected using the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT, calculated by the formula: %efficacy = 1 - [(Mean FEC post-treatment/Mean FEC pre-treatment] x 100, indicating inefficiency with index lower than 95%. Moxidectin was efficient in sheep and goat herds, ivermectin showed better performance in sheep, while albendazole was not effective for either species. Haemonchus sp. was the most prevalent in larval culture.

    KEY WORDS: Anthelmintic, caprine, ovine, Pernambuco-Brasil, resistence, sheep.

  5. Isolation and determination of ivermectin in post-mortem and in vivo tissues of dung beetles using a continuous solid phase extraction method followed by LC-ESI+-MS/MS.

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    Antonio J Ortiz

    Full Text Available A new analytical method based on solvent extraction, followed by continuous solid-phase extraction (SPE clean-up using a polymeric sorbent, was demonstrated to be applicable for the detection of ivermectin in complex biological matrices of dung beetles (hemolymph, excreta or dry tissues using liquid chromatography combined with positive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI+-MS/MS. Using a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1, the limit of detection (LOD in the insect matrices at trace levels was 0.01 ng g-1 and the limit of quantification (LOQ was 0.1 ng g-1. The proposed method was successfully used to quantitatively determine the levels of ivermectin in the analysis of small samples in in vivo and post mortem samples, demonstrating the usefulness for quantitative analyses that are focused on future pharmacokinetic and bioavailability studies in insects and the establishment of a new protocol to study the impact of ivermectin on non-target arthropods such as dung beetles and other insects that are related with the "dung community". Because satisfactory precision and accuracy values were obtained in both in vivo matrices, we suggest that the method can be consistently used for quantitative determinations that are focused on future pharmacokinetic and bioavailability studies in insects. Furthermore, this new analytical method was successfully applied to biological samples of dead dung beetles from the field suggesting that the method can be used to establish a new routine analysis of ivermectin residues in insect carcasses that is applied to complement typical mortality tests.

  6. Albendazole and ivermectin for the control of soil-transmitted helminths in an area with high prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm in northwestern Argentina: A community-based pragmatic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echazú, Adriana; Juarez, Marisa; Vargas, Paola A; Cajal, Silvana P; Cimino, Ruben O; Heredia, Viviana; Caropresi, Silvia; Paredes, Gladys; Arias, Luis M; Abril, Marcelo; Gold, Silvia; Lammie, Patrick; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J

    2017-10-01

    Recommendations for soil-transmitted helminth (STH) control give a key role to deworming of school and pre-school age children with albendazole or mebendazole; which might be insufficient to achieve adequate control, particularly against Strongyloides stercoralis. The impact of preventive chemotherapy (PC) against STH morbidity is still incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a community-based program with albendazole and ivermectin in a high transmission setting for S. stercoralis and hookworm. Community-based pragmatic trial conducted in Tartagal, Argentina; from 2012 to 2015. Six communities (5070 people) were enrolled for community-based PC with albendazole and ivermectin. Two communities (2721 people) were re-treated for second and third rounds. STH prevalence, anemia and malnutrition were explored through consecutive surveys. Anthropometric assessment of children, stool analysis, complete blood count and NIE-ELISA serology for S. stercoralis were performed. STH infection was associated with anemia and stunting in the baseline survey that included all communities and showed a STH prevalence of 47.6% (almost exclusively hookworm and S. stercoralis). Among communities with multiple interventions, STH prevalence decreased from 62% to 23% (palbendazole and ivermectin is effective for the reduction of STH prevalence and morbidity in communities with high prevalence of hookworm and S. stercoralis.

  7. Interactions of L-3,5,3'-Triiodothyronine [corrected], Allopregnanolone, and Ivermectin with the GABAA Receptor: Evidence for Overlapping Intersubunit Binding Modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westergard, Thomas; Salari, Reza; Martin, Joseph V; Brannigan, Grace

    2015-01-01

    Structural mechanisms of modulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptors by neurosteroids and hormones remain unclear. The thyroid hormone L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) inhibits GABAA receptors at micromolar concentrations and has common features with neurosteroids such as allopregnanolone (ALLOP). Here we use functional experiments on α2β1γ2 GABAA receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes to detect competitive interactions between T3 and an agonist (ivermectin, IVM) with a crystallographically determined binding site at subunit interfaces in the transmembrane domain of a homologous receptor (glutamate-gated chloride channel, GluCl). T3 and ALLOP also show competitive effects, supporting the presence of both a T3 and ALLOP binding site at one or more subunit interfaces. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations over 200 ns are used to investigate the dynamics and energetics of T3 in the identified intersubunit sites. In these simulations, T3 molecules occupying all intersubunit sites (with the exception of the α-β interface) display numerous energetically favorable conformations with multiple hydrogen bonding partners, including previously implicated polar/acidic sidechains and a structurally conserved deformation in the M1 backbone.

  8. Interactions of L-3,5,3'-Triiodothyronine, Allopregnanolone, and Ivermectin with the GABAA Receptor: Evidence for Overlapping Intersubunit Binding Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westergard, Thomas; Salari, Reza; Martin, Joseph V.; Brannigan, Grace

    2015-01-01

    Structural mechanisms of modulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptors by neurosteroids and hormones remain unclear. The thyroid hormone L-3,5,3’-triiodothyronine (T3) inhibits GABAA receptors at micromolar concentrations and has common features with neurosteroids such as allopregnanolone (ALLOP). Here we use functional experiments on α2β1γ2 GABAA receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes to detect competitive interactions between T3 and an agonist (ivermectin, IVM) with a crystallographically determined binding site at subunit interfaces in the transmembrane domain of a homologous receptor (glutamate-gated chloride channel, GluCl). T3 and ALLOP also show competitive effects, supporting the presence of both a T3 and ALLOP binding site at one or more subunit interfaces. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations over 200 ns are used to investigate the dynamics and energetics of T3 in the identified intersubunit sites. In these simulations, T3 molecules occupying all intersubunit sites (with the exception of the α-β interface) display numerous energetically favorable conformations with multiple hydrogen bonding partners, including previously implicated polar/acidic sidechains and a structurally conserved deformation in the M1 backbone. PMID:26421724

  9. Treatment of severe lipophilic intoxications with intravenous lipid emulsion: a case series (2011–2014

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    Becker MD

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Michael D Becker, Brian C YoungEmergency and Critical Care, Animal Specialty Group, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: The objective of this retrospective study was to describe the responses to treatment with intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE and the outcomes for a variety of severe intoxications. This case series includes 10 client-owned animals, 9 dogs and 1 cat, that underwent treatment with ILE for a variety of severe intoxications over a 4-year period. History, physical examination findings, clinical signs, clinicopathological test results, treatment, response to treatment, and outcome were recorded. Eight of the 10 patients survived to discharge. The toxicities included in this case series were baclofen, ivermectin and spinosad plus milbemycin oxime, baclofen and tadalafil, carbamate, methamphetamine, dextroamphetamine sulfate, amlodipine, bromethalin, and organophosphate. The two patients who died were intoxicated with bromethalin and an organophosphate. Six of the 10 patients developed lipemia secondary to ILE administration, and there were no other known adverse effects. Overall, ILE was a safe therapeutic option. This case series provides clinical evidence of successful treatment with ILE as an antidote for previously unpublished toxicities (amlodipine, carbamate, methamphetamine, and dextroamphetamine sulfate, additional evidence of success in treating baclofen and ivermectin toxicosis, as well as unsuccessful treatment of bromethalin and organophosphate toxicities.Keywords: intravenous lipid emulsion, toxicity, amlodipine 

  10. Treatment

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    Safaa M. Raghab

    2013-08-01

    The main goal of this study is to utilize a natural low cost material “as an accelerator additive to enhance the chemical treatment process using Alum coagulant and the accelerator substances were Perlite and Bentonite. The performance of the chemical treatment was enhanced using the accelerator substances with 90 mg/l Alum as a constant dose. Perlite gave better performance than the Bentonite effluent. The removal ratio for conductivity, turbidity, BOD and COD for Perlite was 86.7%, 87.4%, 89.9% and 92.8% respectively, and for Bentonite was 83.5%, 85.0%, 86.5% and 85.0% respectively at the same concentration of 40 mg/l for each.

  11. Albendazole and ivermectin for the control of soil-transmitted helminths in an area with high prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm in northwestern Argentina: A community-based pragmatic study.

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    Adriana Echazú

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recommendations for soil-transmitted helminth (STH control give a key role to deworming of school and pre-school age children with albendazole or mebendazole; which might be insufficient to achieve adequate control, particularly against Strongyloides stercoralis. The impact of preventive chemotherapy (PC against STH morbidity is still incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a community-based program with albendazole and ivermectin in a high transmission setting for S. stercoralis and hookworm.Community-based pragmatic trial conducted in Tartagal, Argentina; from 2012 to 2015. Six communities (5070 people were enrolled for community-based PC with albendazole and ivermectin. Two communities (2721 people were re-treated for second and third rounds. STH prevalence, anemia and malnutrition were explored through consecutive surveys. Anthropometric assessment of children, stool analysis, complete blood count and NIE-ELISA serology for S. stercoralis were performed.STH infection was associated with anemia and stunting in the baseline survey that included all communities and showed a STH prevalence of 47.6% (almost exclusively hookworm and S. stercoralis. Among communities with multiple interventions, STH prevalence decreased from 62% to 23% (p<0.001 after the first PC; anemia also diminished from 52% to 12% (p<0.001. After two interventions S. stercoralis seroprevalence declined, from 51% to 14% (p<0.001 and stunting prevalence decreased, from 19% to 12% (p = 0.009.Hookworm' infections are associated with anemia in the general population and nutritional impairment in children. S. stercoralis is also associated with anemia. Community-based deworming with albendazole and ivermectin is effective for the reduction of STH prevalence and morbidity in communities with high prevalence of hookworm and S. stercoralis.

  12. Albendazole and ivermectin for the control of soil-transmitted helminths in an area with high prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm in northwestern Argentina: A community-based pragmatic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Marisa; Vargas, Paola A.; Cajal, Silvana P.; Cimino, Ruben O.; Heredia, Viviana; Caropresi, Silvia; Paredes, Gladys; Arias, Luis M.; Abril, Marcelo; Gold, Silvia; Lammie, Patrick; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Recommendations for soil-transmitted helminth (STH) control give a key role to deworming of school and pre-school age children with albendazole or mebendazole; which might be insufficient to achieve adequate control, particularly against Strongyloides stercoralis. The impact of preventive chemotherapy (PC) against STH morbidity is still incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a community-based program with albendazole and ivermectin in a high transmission setting for S. stercoralis and hookworm. Methodology Community-based pragmatic trial conducted in Tartagal, Argentina; from 2012 to 2015. Six communities (5070 people) were enrolled for community-based PC with albendazole and ivermectin. Two communities (2721 people) were re-treated for second and third rounds. STH prevalence, anemia and malnutrition were explored through consecutive surveys. Anthropometric assessment of children, stool analysis, complete blood count and NIE-ELISA serology for S. stercoralis were performed. Principal findings STH infection was associated with anemia and stunting in the baseline survey that included all communities and showed a STH prevalence of 47.6% (almost exclusively hookworm and S. stercoralis). Among communities with multiple interventions, STH prevalence decreased from 62% to 23% (p<0.001) after the first PC; anemia also diminished from 52% to 12% (p<0.001). After two interventions S. stercoralis seroprevalence declined, from 51% to 14% (p<0.001) and stunting prevalence decreased, from 19% to 12% (p = 0.009). Conclusions Hookworm’ infections are associated with anemia in the general population and nutritional impairment in children. S. stercoralis is also associated with anemia. Community-based deworming with albendazole and ivermectin is effective for the reduction of STH prevalence and morbidity in communities with high prevalence of hookworm and S. stercoralis. PMID:28991899

  13. Simultaneous determination of residues of emamectin and its metabolites, and milbemectin, ivermectin, and abamectin in crops by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, K; Kaihara, A; Tsumura, Y; Ishimitsu, S; Tonogai, Y

    2001-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic (LC) method was developed for the determination of emamectin and its metabolites (8,9-Z-isomer, N-demethylated, N-formylated, and N-methylformylated emamectin) in various crops. The analytes were extracted with acetone, cleaned up on cartridge columns (C18 and NH2), derivatized with trifluoroacetic anhydride and 1-methylimidazole, and determined by LC with fluorescence detection. Because radish inhibited the formation of the fluorescent derivatives, an additional Bond Elut PRS cartridge was used in the cleanup of Japanese radish samples. During sample preparation, N-formylated emamectin partially degraded to emamectin B1b and emamectin B1a, and the 8,9-Z-isomer partially degraded to N-demethylated emamectin. Therefore, emamectin and its metabolites were determined as total emamectin, i.e., their sum was estimated as emamectin benzoate. Their recoveries from most crops were approximately 80-110% with the developed method. The detection limits for the analytes in vegetables were 0.1-0.3 parts per trillion (ppt). The results for these compounds were confirmed by LC/mass spectrometry (LC/MS; electrospray ionization mode). Because the fluorescent derivative of emamectin was undetectable by LC/MS, the results for the analyte were confirmed by using a sample solution without derivatization. Limits of detection by LC/MS were similar to the fluorescence detection limits, 0.1-0.3 ppt in vegetables. In addition to the emamectins, milbemectin, ivermectin, and abamectin were also determined by the developed method.

  14. Evaluation of resistance in a selected field strain of Haemonchus contortus to ivermectin and moxidectin using the Larval Migration on Agar Test

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    Fernanda S. Fortes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Haemonchus contortus is one of the most common and economically significant causes of disease in small ruminants worldwide, and the control programs of parasitic nematodes - including H. contortus - rely mostly on the use of anthelmintic drugs. The consequence of the use of this, as the sole sanitary strategy to avoid parasite infections, was the reduction of the efficacy of all chemotherapeutic products with a heavy selection for resistance. The widespread of anthelmintic resistance and the difficulty of its early diagnosis has been a major concern for the sustainable parasite management on farms. The objective of this research was to determine and compare the ivermectin (IVM and moxidectin (MOX effect in a selected field strain of H. contortus with a known resistance status, using the in vitro larval migration on agar test (LMAT. Third stage larvae of the selected isolate were obtained from faecal cultures of experimentally infected sheep and incubated in eleven increasing diluted concentrations of IVM and MOX (6, 12, 24, 48, 96, 192, 384, 768, 1536, 3072 and 6144µg/mL. The dose-response sigmoidal curves were obtained using the R² value of >0.90 and the lethal concentration (LC50 dose for the tested anthelmintic drugs using a four-parameter logistic model. The LC50 value for MOX was significantly lower than IVM (1.253µg/mL and 91.06µg/mL, identifying the H. contortus isolate as considerably less susceptible to IVM compared to MOX. Furthermore, the LMAT showed a high consistency (p<0.0001 and provided to be a useful diagnostic tool for monitoring the resistance status of IVM and MOX in H. contortus field isolate, as well as it may be used for official routine drug monitoring programs under the Ministry of Agriculture (MAPA guidance.

  15. Actions of Agonists, Fipronil and Ivermectin on the Predominant In Vivo Splice and Edit Variant (RDLbd, I/V) of the Drosophila GABA Receptor Expressed in Xenopus laevis Oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwanmanee, Siros; Buckingham, Steven David; Biggin, Philip; Sattelle, David

    2014-01-01

    Ionotropic GABA receptors are the targets for several classes of insecticides. One of the most widely-studied insect GABA receptors is RDL (resistance to dieldrin), originally isolated from Drosophila melanogaster. RDL undergoes alternative splicing and RNA editing, which influence the potency of GABA. Most work has focussed on minority isoforms. Here, we report the first characterisation of the predominant native splice variant and RNA edit, combining functional characterisation with molecular modelling of the agonist-binding region. The relative order of agonist potency is GABA> muscimol> TACA> β-alanine. The I/V edit does not alter the potency of GABA compared to RDLbd. Docking calculations suggest that these agonists bind and activate RDLbdI/V through a similar binding mode. TACA and β-alanine are predicted to bind with lower affinity than GABA, potentially explaining their lower potency, whereas the lower potency of muscimol and isoguvacine cannot be explained structurally from the docking calculations. The A301S (resistance to dieldrin) mutation reduced the potency of antagonists picrotoxin, fipronil and pyrafluprole but the I/V edit had no measurable effect. Ivermectin suppressed responses to GABA of RDLbdI/V, RDLbd and RDLbdI/VA301S. The dieldrin resistant variant also showed reduced sensitivity to Ivermectin. This study of a highly abundant insect GABA receptor isoform will help the design of new insecticides. PMID:24823815

  16. Effects of in vitro exposure to ivermectin and levamisole on the expression patterns of ABC transporters in Haemonchus contortus larvae

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    Ali Raza

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the interaction of ATP binding cassette (ABC transport proteins with ivermectin (IVM and levamisole (LEV in larvae of susceptible and resistant isolates of Haemonchus contortus in vitro by measuring transcription patterns following exposure to these anthelmintics. Furthermore, we studied the consequences of drug exposure by measuring the sensitivity of L3 to subsequent exposure to higher drug concentrations using larval migration assays. The most highly transcribed transporter genes in both susceptible and resistant L3 were pgp-9.3, abcf-1, mrp-5, abcf-2, pgp-3, and pgp-10. The resistant isolate showed significantly higher transcription of pgp-1, pgp-9.1 and pgp-9.2 compared to the susceptible isolate. Five P-gp genes and the haf-6 gene showed significantly higher transcription (up to 12.6-fold after 3 h exposure to IVM in the resistant isolate. Similarly, five P-gp genes, haf-6 and abcf-1 were transcribed at significantly higher levels (up to 10.3-fold following 3 h exposure to LEV in this isolate. On the other hand, there were no significant changes in transcriptional patterns of all transporter genes in the susceptible isolate following 3 and 6 h exposure to IVM or LEV. In contrast to these isolate-specific transcription changes, both isolates showed an increase in R-123 efflux following exposure to the drugs, suggesting that the drugs stimulated activity of existing transporter proteins in both isolates. Exposure of resistant larvae to IVM or LEV resulted, in some instances, in an increase in the proportion of the population able to migrate at the highest IVM concentrations in subsequent migration assays. The significant increase in transcription of some ABC transporter genes following 3 h exposure to both IVM and LEV in the resistant isolate only, suggests that an ability to rapidly upregulate protective pathways in response to drugs may be a component of the resistance displayed by this isolate.

  17. Relative Neurotoxicity of Ivermectin and Moxidectin in Mdr1ab (−/−) Mice and Effects on Mammalian GABA(A) Channel Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménez, Cécile; Sutra, Jean-François; Prichard, Roger; Lespine, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The anthelmintics ivermectin (IVM) and moxidectin (MOX) display differences in toxicity in several host species. Entrance into the brain is restricted by the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux transporter, while toxicity is mediated through the brain GABA(A) receptors. This study compared the toxicity of IVM and MOX in vivo and their interaction with GABA(A) receptors in vitro. Drug toxicity was assessed in Mdr1ab(−/−) mice P-gp-deficient after subcutaneous administration of increasing doses (0.11–2.0 and 0.23–12.9 µmol/kg for IVM and MOX in P-gp-deficient mice and half lethal doses (LD50) in wild-type mice). Survival was evaluated over 14-days. In Mdr1ab(−/−) mice, LD50 was 0.46 and 2.3 µmol/kg for IVM and MOX, respectively, demonstrating that MOX was less toxic than IVM. In P-gp-deficient mice, MOX had a lower brain-to-plasma concentration ratio and entered into the brain more slowly than IVM. The brain sublethal drug concentrations determined after administration of doses close to LD50 were, in Mdr1ab(−/−) and wild-type mice, respectively, 270 and 210 pmol/g for IVM and 830 and 740–1380 pmol/g for MOX, indicating that higher brain concentrations are required for MOX toxicity than IVM. In rat α1β2γ2 GABA channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes, IVM and MOX were both allosteric activators of the GABA-induced response. The Hill coefficient was 1.52±0.45 for IVM and 0.34±0.56 for MOX (p<0.001), while the maximum potentiation caused by IVM and MOX relative to GABA alone was 413.7±66.1 and 257.4±40.6%, respectively (p<0.05), showing that IVM causes a greater potentiation of GABA action on this receptor. Differences in the accumulation of IVM and MOX in the brain and in the interaction of IVM and MOX with GABA(A) receptors account for differences in neurotoxicity seen in intact and Mdr1-deficient animals. These differences in neurotoxicity of IVM and MOX are important in considering their use in humans. PMID:23133688

  18. Economic Analysis of the Impact of Overseas and Domestic Treatment and Screening Options for Intestinal Helminth Infection among US-Bound Refugees from Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Maskery

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Many U.S.-bound refugees travel from countries where intestinal parasites (hookworm, Trichuris trichuria, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Strongyloides stercoralis are endemic. These infections are rare in the United States and may be underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed, leading to potentially serious consequences. This evaluation examined the costs and benefits of combinations of overseas presumptive treatment of parasitic diseases vs. domestic screening/treating vs. no program.An economic decision tree model terminating in Markov processes was developed to estimate the cost and health impacts of four interventions on an annual cohort of 27,700 U.S.-bound Asian refugees: 1 "No Program," 2 U.S. "Domestic Screening and Treatment," 3 "Overseas Albendazole and Ivermectin" presumptive treatment, and 4 "Overseas Albendazole and Domestic Screening for Strongyloides". Markov transition state models were used to estimate long-term effects of parasitic infections. Health outcome measures (four parasites included outpatient cases, hospitalizations, deaths, life years, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs.The "No Program" option is the least expensive ($165,923 per cohort and least effective option (145 outpatient cases, 4.0 hospitalizations, and 0.67 deaths discounted over a 60-year period for a one-year cohort. The "Overseas Albendazole and Ivermectin" option ($418,824 is less expensive than "Domestic Screening and Treatment" ($3,832,572 or "Overseas Albendazole and Domestic Screening for Strongyloides" ($2,182,483. According to the model outcomes, the most effective treatment option is "Overseas Albendazole and Ivermectin," which reduces outpatient cases, deaths and hospitalization by around 80% at an estimated net cost of $458,718 per death averted, or $2,219/$24,036 per QALY/life year gained relative to "No Program".Overseas presumptive treatment for U.S.-bound refugees is a cost-effective intervention that is less expensive and at least as effective as

  19. Economic Analysis of the Impact of Overseas and Domestic Treatment and Screening Options for Intestinal Helminth Infection among US-Bound Refugees from Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskery, Brian; Coleman, Margaret S; Weinberg, Michelle; Zhou, Weigong; Rotz, Lisa; Klosovsky, Alexander; Cantey, Paul T; Fox, LeAnne M; Cetron, Martin S; Stauffer, William M

    2016-08-01

    Many U.S.-bound refugees travel from countries where intestinal parasites (hookworm, Trichuris trichuria, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Strongyloides stercoralis) are endemic. These infections are rare in the United States and may be underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed, leading to potentially serious consequences. This evaluation examined the costs and benefits of combinations of overseas presumptive treatment of parasitic diseases vs. domestic screening/treating vs. no program. An economic decision tree model terminating in Markov processes was developed to estimate the cost and health impacts of four interventions on an annual cohort of 27,700 U.S.-bound Asian refugees: 1) "No Program," 2) U.S. "Domestic Screening and Treatment," 3) "Overseas Albendazole and Ivermectin" presumptive treatment, and 4) "Overseas Albendazole and Domestic Screening for Strongyloides". Markov transition state models were used to estimate long-term effects of parasitic infections. Health outcome measures (four parasites) included outpatient cases, hospitalizations, deaths, life years, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). The "No Program" option is the least expensive ($165,923 per cohort) and least effective option (145 outpatient cases, 4.0 hospitalizations, and 0.67 deaths discounted over a 60-year period for a one-year cohort). The "Overseas Albendazole and Ivermectin" option ($418,824) is less expensive than "Domestic Screening and Treatment" ($3,832,572) or "Overseas Albendazole and Domestic Screening for Strongyloides" ($2,182,483). According to the model outcomes, the most effective treatment option is "Overseas Albendazole and Ivermectin," which reduces outpatient cases, deaths and hospitalization by around 80% at an estimated net cost of $458,718 per death averted, or $2,219/$24,036 per QALY/life year gained relative to "No Program". Overseas presumptive treatment for U.S.-bound refugees is a cost-effective intervention that is less expensive and at least as effective as domestic

  20. Rosacea – new data on pathogenesis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Placek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rosacea is a common dermatosis more prevalent in females, significantly impairing quality of life. Currently erythematous, papulo-pustular and phymatous subtypes are distinguished, which do not necessarily represent consecutive stages. Recent findings indicate in the pathogenesis of rosacea the role of the impaired innate immune system and vascular abnormalities. Additionally, the role of genetic and infectious factors is suggested. The therapy of rosacea is directed not only against inflammatory changes but also anti-parasitic. In topical treatment the most commonly used are metronidazole and azelaic acid. Other drugs are topical antibiotics, antiparasitic agents such as ivermectin and preparations directly influencing erythema. In more severe cases tetracyclines or macrolides are used, and in the most severe cases, isotretinoine. As ultraviolet light is a recognized trigger for rosacea, regular sunscreen use is necessary. Also, proper diet is indicated. Presently in the treatment of rosacea more and more techniques using different lights are employed.

  1. Nobel prize for the artemisinin and ivermectin discoveries: a great boost towards elimination of the global infectious diseases of poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Ernest; Khater, Emad I M; Chen, Jun-Hu; Bergquist, Robert; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2015-12-28

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) made a marked transformation for neglected and vulnerable communities in the developing countries from the start, but infectious diseases of poverty (IDoPs) continue to inflict a disproportionate global public health burden with associated consequences, thereby contributing to the vicious cycle of poverty and inequity. However, the effectiveness and large-scale coverage of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) have revolutionized malaria treatment just as the control of lymphatic filariasis (LF) and onchocerciasis have benefitted from harnessing the broad-spectrum effect of avermectin-based derivatives. The paradigm shift in therapeutic approach, effected by these two drugs and their impact on community-based interventions of parasitic diseases plaguing the endemic low- and middle-income countries (LIMCs), led to the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2015. However, the story would not be complete without mentioning praziquantel. The huge contribution of this drug in modernizing the control of schistosomiasis and also some intestinal helminth infections had already shifted the focus from control to potential elimination of this disease. Together, these new drugs have provided humankind with powerful new tools for the alleviation of infectious diseases that humans have lived with since time immemorial. These drugs all have broad-spectrum effects, yet they are very safe and can even be packaged together in various combinations. The strong effect on so many of the great infectious scourges in the developing countries has not only had a remarkable influence on many endemic diseases, but also contributed to improving the cost structure of healthcare. Significant benefits include improved quality of preventive and curative medicine, promotion of community-based interventions, universal health coverage and the fostering of global partnerships. The laudable progress and benefits achieved are indispensable in championing

  2. Variations in gut microbiota and fecal metabolic phenotype associated with Fenbendazole and Ivermectin Tablets by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and LC/MS-based metabolomics in Amur tiger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fengping; Zhai, Jiancheng; Zhang, Le; Liu, Dan; Ma, Yue; Rong, Ke; Xu, Yanchun; Ma, Jianzhang

    2018-05-15

    The Amur tiger is one of the most endangered species in the world, and the healthy population of captive Amur tigers assists the recovery of the wild population. Gut microbes have been shown to be important for human disease and health, but little research exists regarding the microbiome of Amur tigers in captivity. In this study, we used an integrated approach of 16S rRNA gene sequencing combined with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS)-based metabolomics to analyze the effects of Fenbendazole and Ivermectin Tablets on the gut microbiota and fecal metabolic phenotype of the Amur tiger. The relative abundances of the bacterial genera Collinsella, Clostridium XI and Megamonas were decreased, whereas those of Escherichia and Clostridium sensu stricto were increased in experimental Amur tigers compared with those in normal controls. Meanwhile, distinct changes in the fecal metabolic phenotype of the experimental Amur tigers were also found, including lower levels of acrylic acid, acetoacetate and catechol and higher amounts of 5,6-dihydrouracil, adenine hydrochloride hydrate and galactitol. Moreover, the differentially abundant gut microbes were substantially associated with the altered fecal metabolites, especially the bacteria in the Firmicutes and Actinomycetes, which were involved in the metabolism of 5,6-dihydrouracil, 6-phospho-d-gluconate and 1-methylnicotinamide. Our results indicate for the first time that Fenbendazole and Ivermectin Tablets not only disturb the gut microbiota at the abundance level but also alter the metabolic homeostasis of the Amur tiger. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Intestinal Parasites and Anthelmintic Treatments in a Laboratory Colony of Wild-caught African Pouched Rats (Cricetomys ansorgei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullin, Cassandra O; Sellers, Matthew S; Rogers, Erin R; Scott, Kathleen E; Lee, Danielle N; Ophir, Alexander G; Jackson, Todd A

    2017-01-01

    African giant pouched rats (Cricetomys spp.) are large rodents native to subSaharan Africa. Wild-caught pouched rats identified as Cricetomys ansorgei (n = 49) were imported from Tanzania. A survey of gastrointestinal parasitism by fecal flotation revealed the presence of multiple parasites, including Nippostrongylus spp., Heterakis spp., Trichuris spp., Hymenolepis spp., Raillietina spp., and Eimeria spp. Oral self-administered fenbendazole (150 ppm), topical moxidectin (2 mg/kg), pyrantel pamoate (15 mg/kg), piperazine (100 mg/kg daily), and injectable ivermectin (0.25 mg/kg) were used to determine effective treatment options for the gastrointestinal parasites present in the colony. Pyrantel pamoate in a treat vehicle and piperazine in water bottles were easily administered and significantly reduced the numbers of animals shedding Nippostrongylus spp. and Heterakis spp. during the study. Moxidectin and ivermectin were clinically ineffective at reducing fecal egg shedding. Fenbendazole was most effective at clearing infection with Trichuris spp. Although 10 mg/kg praziquantel was ineffective, a single dose of 30 mg/kg praziquantel significantly reduced the number of African pouched rats that shed cestode embryos. A combination treatment may be necessary to successfully treat all parasites present in any given animal. PMID:28935004

  4. Management and Treatment of Human Lice

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    Abdoul Karim Sangaré

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the three lice (head, body, and pubic louse that infest humans, the body louse is the species involved in epidemics of louse-borne typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever, but all the three cause pediculosis. Their infestations occur today in many countries despite great efforts to maintain high standards of public health. In this review, literature searches were performed through PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and EBSCOhost, with key search words of “Pediculus humanus”, “lice infestation”, “pediculosis”, and “treatment”; and controlled clinical trials were viewed with great interest. Removing lice by hand or with a lice comb, heating infested clothing, and shaving the scalp were some of the oldest methods of controlling human lice. Despite the introduction of other resources including cresol, naphthalene, sulfur, mercury, vinegar, petroleum, and insecticides, the numbers of lice infestation cases and resistance have increased. To date, viable alternative treatments to replace insecticides have been developed experimentally in vitro. Today, the development of new treatment strategies such as symbiotic treatment and synergistic treatment (antibiotics + ivermectin in vitro has proved effective and is promising. Here, we present an overview on managing and treating human lice and highlight new strategies to more effectively fight pediculosis and prevent resistance.

  5. The main factors influencing canine demodicosis treatment outcome and determination of optimal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenović, Milica; Pezo, Lato; Vasić, Nebojša; Ćirić, Rodoljub; Stefanović, Milan

    2015-07-01

    The main idea of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of canine demodicosis conventional treatments using mathematical analyses. All available papers published between 1980 and 2014 were used in this study. One hundred six clinical trials enrolling 3414 cases of generalized demodicosis in dogs are studied. Dogs entered in the analysis were only the ones in which the disease occurred naturally, excluding the studies in which transplantation of Demodex canis mites was done from other animals. In conventional acaricide treatments, sorted according to active substances (moxidectin, amitraz, doramectin, ivermectin, and milbemycin oxime), the way of application (spot-on, dips, orally, or subcutaneous), concentration, and interval of application were used as input parameters in mathematical modeling. Data of interest were the treatment outcome, the number of dogs that went into remission, the number of animals not responding to treatment microscopically, the average duration of therapy, the follow-up period, the number of patients with disease recurrence, the number of adverse effects, and the number of animals with side effects. Dogs lost to follow-up or when the treatment was discontinued, due to various reasons not in connection with the therapy protocol, were not considered. Statistical and mathematical analyses were applied for prediction of the drugs' effectiveness. Developed mathematical models showed satisfactorily r (2), higher than 0.87. Good evidence for recommending the use of milbemycin oxime PO (0.5 mg/kg, daily) and moxidectin spot-on (Advocate®, Bayer) weekly is found. A bit less effective therapies were based on ivermectin PO (0.5 mg/kg, daily), moxidectin PO (0.35 mg/kg, daily), and amitraz dips (0.05 % solution, weekly), respectively. It is important to keep in mind that Advocate® is recommended by the manufacturer for use in milder cases.

  6. Some herding, record keeping and treatment methods used in Alaskan reindeer herds

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    Robert A. Dieterich

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 20000 reindeer (Rangifer tarandus in Alaska are gathered once or twice yearly to facilitate identification, serologic sampling, treatment and antler removal. Various air and land craft are used to bring the animals into a corral system from which they can be herded into a padded, pneumatically operated, squeeze apparatus. Ear tags are applied or read if already in place and ears are notched. A portable, computerized rapid data retrieval system is used to record reproductive success, vaccination and treatment status and other miscellaneous information. Ivermectin is being administered in the early winter months to treat reindeer in many herds for warbles, nasal bots and internal parasites. A killed, homologous Brucella suis type 4 vaccine is being used in two large (3500 herds. Efforts are being made to incorporate other innovative methods to improve herding and corralling methods.

  7. The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis: History and achievements with special reference to annual single-dose treatment with diethylcarbamazine in Samoa and Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Eisaku

    2011-03-01

    Diethylcarbamazine (DEC), first introduced in 1947, was shown to have strong efficacy and safety for treatment of human lymphatic filariasis, which is caused mostly by a species Wuchereria bancrofti. Many studies to optimize the dosage and treatment schedule of DEC followed, and, based on the results, control programs with various regimens were implemented in different endemic areas/countries. By the mid 1970s, with endorsement by the WHO Expert Committee on Filariasis (3rd report, 1974), the standard DEC regimen for W. bancrofti infection in mass treatment had been established in principle: a total dose of 72 mg/kg of body weight given in 12 divided doses, once weekly or monthly, at 6 mg/kg each. Not long after the committee report, the efficacy of annual single-dose treatment at 6 mg/kg, which is only one twelfth of the WHO-recommended dose in a year, was reported effective in French Polynesia (study period: 1973-78), and later in Samoa (study period: 1979-81). These results were published between 1978 and 1985 in the Bulletin of WHO but received little attention. In the mid 1980s, the efficacy of ivermectin, the first-choice drug for onchocerciasis, against lymphatic filariae came to light. Since the effect at a single dose was remarkable, and often better than DEC, it was predicted that the newly introduced drug would replace DEC. Treatment experiments with ivermectin increased quickly in number. Meanwhile, annual single-dose mass drug administration (MDA) with DEC at 6 mg/kg was under scrutiny in Samoa and Fiji. In the early 1990s, the Samoan study, which covered the entire population of 160,000 with 3 annual MDAs, reported a significant reduction in microfilaria (mf) prevalence and mean mf density, while in Fiji, the efficacy of 5 rounds of annual MDA (total dose, 30 mg/kg) was shown to be as effective as 28 multi-dose MDA spread over 2 years (6 weekly plus 22 monthly treatments at 5 mg/kg; total dose, 140 mg/kg). Several additional studies carried out in

  8. Targeted Drug Delivery and Treatment of Endoparasites with Biocompatible Particles of pH-Responsive Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Patrick D; Fernandes Patta, Ana C M; Gonçalves, Joao V; Gama, Gabriella Dos Santos; Garcia, Irene Teresinha Santos; Mertins, Omar

    2018-02-12

    Biomaterials conceived for vectorization of bioactives are currently considered for biomedical, biological, and environmental applications. We have produced a pH-sensitive biomaterial composed of natural source alginate and chitosan polysaccharides for application as a drug delivery system via oral administration. The composite particle preparation was in situ monitored by means of isothermal titration calorimetry. The strong interaction established between the macromolecules during particle assembly led to 0.60 alginate/chitosan effective binding sites with an intense exothermic effect and negative enthalpy variation on the order of a thousand kcal/mol. In the presence of model drugs mebendazole and ivermectin, with relatively small and large structures, respectively, mebendazole reduced the amount of chitosan monomers available to interact with alginate by 27%, which was not observed for ivermectin. Nevertheless, a state of intense negative Gibbs energy and large entropic decrease was achieved, providing evidence that formation of particles is thermodynamically driven and favored. Small-angle X-ray scattering provided further evidence of similar surface aspects independent of the presence of drug. The physical responses of the particles to pH variation comprise partial hydration, swelling, and the predominance of positive surface charge in strong acid medium, whereas ionization followed by deprotonation leads to compaction and charge reversal rather than new swelling in mild and slightly acidic mediums, respectively. In vivo performance was evaluated in the treatment of endoparasites in Corydoras fish. Systematically with a daily base oral administration, particles significantly reduced the infections over 15 days of treatment. The experiments provide evidence that utilizing particles granted and boosted the action of the antiparasitic drugs, leading to substantial reduction or elimination of infection. Hence, the pH-responsive particles represent a biomaterial

  9. [Circumstances for diagnosis and treatment of intestinal parasitosis in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchaud, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    In a compatible context, hypereosinophilia is suggestive of helminthosis. When the count is higher than 1000/mm(3), a primo-invasion syndroma may be considered, especially if allergic signs are present. Below that level, the helminthosis is probably at the adult stage (chronic phase). In a chronic diarrhoea occurring after a journey abroad, "emerging" protozoa (crypto-microsporidia, Isospora, Cyclospora…) are possibly in cause. A presumptive treatment may be considered. A systematic screening for schistosomiasis (serology and stool examination) is recommended in travellers exposed to the risk (contacts with fresh water) and in immigrant from endemic areas (mainly sub-Saharan Africa) since the disease may be asymptomatic. In young children living communally, two courses at 15 days interval against giardiosis or enterobiasis are recommended for both infected and contact persons. In order to avoid disseminated strongyloidiasis, severe and possibly lethal, a systematic course of ivermectine is strongly recommended before any immunosuppressive treatment in patients having stayed in tropical areas even for a short period and even decades ago. Albendazole became the reference drug for intestinal helminthiasis with in addition a good efficacy on giardiasis. Since some intestinal parasites are not pathogenic, a treatment is not necessarily required when a parasite is found in a stool examination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficiency of modified therapeutic protocol in the treatment of some varieties of canine cardiovascular dirofilariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanović

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents clinical diagnostic approaches and therapeutic effects of a specific protocol for the treatment of dogs with cardiovascular dirofilariasis in the Belgrade City (Serbia territory. The study involved 50 privately owned dogs of different breeds, gender, and age, all showing signs of cardio - respiratory disorders. In addition to a general physical examination, blood tests were done to detect microfilaria and adult forms, and X-ray, ECG, and echocardiography were performed as well. At the first examination, 34 out of 50 examined dogs were positive for microfilaria and adult forms. Because of a lack of drug used as „the golden standard“ in dirofilariasis treatment, it involved a combination of doxycycline (10 mg/kg and ivermectin (6 μg/kg supported with Advocate - Bayer spot-on. After six months, the first control was performed while continuing treatment with the aforesaid protocol, and the second control was performed after 12 months. Of the 34 treated dogs, all were negative for microfilaria, as early as after the first six months of the treatment (100%. One dog was positive for adult forms of the parasite after six and 12 months. In echocardiography and X-ray examination after 12 months, six dogs showed evident chronic changes. At controls conducted at sixth month and at one year, the implemented therapy was successful in 97.05% (33/34 of primarily infected dogs.

  11. Fluralaner as a single dose oral treatment for Caparinia tripilis in a pygmy African hedgehog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Camilo; Sheinberg Waisburd, Galia; Pineda, Jocelyn; Heredia, Rafael; Yarto, Enrique; Cordero, Alberto M

    2017-12-01

    African pygmy hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) are popular pets belonging to the Erinaceidae family of spined mammals. Amongst the most common skin diseases occurring in this species is infestation caused by the mite Caparinia spp. Due to their skin anatomy and spiny coat, detection of skin lesions in these hedgehogs can be difficult. This may result in delays in seeking medical care, which may lead to secondary bacterial infection and self-inflicted trauma. Multiple therapies have been used in the treatment of this skin condition including ivermectin, amitraz, fipronil and selamectin. A drug which could be administered as a single oral dose would be advantageous to these pets and their owners. To evaluate the effect of a single oral dose (15 mg/kg) of fluralaner on Caparinia tripilis infestation in the African pygmy hedgehog. A 10-month-old African pygmy hedgehog weighing 184 g. Response to treatment was monitored by dermatological examination and superficial skin scrapings repeated at 7, 14, 21, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days following fluralaner administration. On Day 7 after treatment, adult mites were observed exhibiting normal movement. On Day 14, only dead mites were observed. No life stages of the mites were found after Day 21. A single oral dose at 15 mg/kg of fluralaner was effective within 21 days after treatment for capariniasis in this case. Further studies are required to evaluate the drug's safety and toxicology in hedgehogs, and to confirm efficacy. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  12. 21 CFR 520.1195 - Ivermectin liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...): Strongylus vulgaris (also early forms in blood vessels), S. edentatus (also tissue stages), S. equinus..., Onchocerca sp. (B) Large Strongyles (Strongylus equinus (adult), S. vulgaris (adult and arterial larval...

  13. 21 CFR 520.1192 - Ivermectin paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... See § 556.344 of this chapter. (d) Special considerations. See § 500.25 of this chapter. (e...): Dictyocaulus arnfieldi; Intestinal Threadworms (adults): Strongyloides westeri; Summer Sores caused by.... For oral use only. Do not treat cattle within 24 days of slaughter. Because withdrawal time in milk...

  14. [What's new in dermatological treatments?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, L

    2010-12-01

    demonstrating significant efficacy on the main criterion, but it did show a tendency to reduce the score used. This trial suffered from a weakness both in methodology and statistical power, thus precluding any conclusion. The rarity of therapeutic trials on drug eruptions warrants their mention. A French phase II study gives a glimpse of a trend toward efficacy in terms of survival in the treatment of toxic epidermal necrolysis with cyclosporine. As for infectious dermatosis and sexually transmitted infections, a French multicenter study has shown significantly higher efficacy with ivermectin than with malathion in treating pediculosis without increasing the side effects. Today, however, this systemic treatment cannot be a first-line treatment outside of certain specific situations. A large cohort study (somewhat unsatisfactory in its methodology) has not demonstrated the teratogenicity of antiherpes treatments in 830,000 infants. In prevention of HIV transmission, no microbicidal gel had shown efficacy to date. This has now been accomplished in South Africa with a 1% tenofovir gel. The results of a preliminary trial on therapeutic vaccination against HPV16 proposed to women who are carriers of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia opens the way for wide vaccine therapy of cutaneous virus-induced neoplasia. In conclusion, several articles analyzing the dermatology literature provide an opportunity to reflect on the quality of such articles, Boutron's being absolutely in-dis-pen-sa-ble! Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. U.S. Army Medical Department Journal, July-September 2007

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aldridge, Don; Aquino, Janet

    2007-01-01

    ...: Surgical Treatment for the Military Working Dog, A Clinical Trial of Ivermectin Against Eyeworms in German Shepherd Military Working Dogs, Using Predictive Microbiology to Evaluate Risk and Reduce...

  16. Cholera Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnosis and Detection Laboratory Testing for Cholera Treatment Rehydration Therapy Antibiotic Treatment Zinc Treatment Prevention & Control Five ... page for current cholera treatment recommendations. Cholera Treatments Rehydration therapy , meaning prompt restoration of lost fluids and ...

  17. Helminths in horses : use of selective treatment for the control of strongyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Matthee

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The current level of anthelmintic resistance in the horse-breeding industry is extremely high and therefore more emphasis is being placed on studies that focus on the judicious use of anthelmintic products. The aims of the study were to: 1 establish if there is variation in the egg excretion pattern of strongyles between the different age classes of Thoroughbred horses in the Western Cape Province (WCP, 2 test if a selective treatment approach successfully reduces the number of anthelmintic treatments and maintains acceptably low helminth burdens in adult Thoroughbred horses, and 3 evaluate the efficacy of subsampling large horse herds for faecal egg counts (FECs to monitor the strongyle burden. In 2001 the FECs of 4 adult mare, 5 yearling and 3 weanling herds from 8 different farms were compared in the WCP. Within the mare herds there were generally fewer eggexcreting individuals with lower mean FECs compared with the younger age classes. Individual faecal samples were collected every 3-4 weeks from 52 adult Thoroughbred mares from 1 farm in the WCP during a 12-month period (2002/2003. Animals with strongyle FECs > 100 eggs per gram (epg were treated with an ivermectin-praziquantel combination drug (Equimax oral paste, Virbac. The mean monthly strongyle FEC for the entire group was < 300 epg throughout the study and the number of treatments was reduced by 50 %. Resampling methods showed that an asymptote to mean FEC was reached at 55 animals for each of the pooled weanling, yearling and mare egg counts. Resampling within 4 different mare herds recorded asymptotes of between 24 and 28 animals. Subsampling entire herds for FECs therefore provided an effective approach to treatment management. This study demonstrates that selective treatment is both a practical and an effective approach to the management of anthelmintic resistance.

  18. Treatment and control of Trixacarus caviae infestation in a conventional guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) breeding colony

    OpenAIRE

    Nath, Anjan Jyoti

    2015-01-01

    A case of sarcoptic mange caused by Trixacarus caviae in a conventional guinea pig breeding colony is reported. The infestation was reported in a large colony of guinea pigs during the month of July, 2013 affecting 30 breeder guinea pigs. Severely infested animals were treated individually with subcutaneous injection of ivermectin 1 % w/v (Neomec®) at the rate of 400 µg/kg body weight 10 days apart. Three doses of ivermectin were sufficient to eliminate the parasite which tested negative afte...

  19. Prevalence of microfilaria load of Onchocercal volvulus in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This implied that treatment with ivermectin has a significant impact on the microfilaria load of Onchocerca volvulus therefore long term treatment with ivermectin after more than 15 years there is hope that there will be total elimination of onchocercoaisis in the study-area because many villages are having zero prevalence of ...

  20. Cryptosporidium: Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lt;/label> Parasites Home Treatment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Most people who have healthy immune systems will recover without treatment. Diarrhea can be managed by drinking plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration. ...

  1. Cancer treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000901.htm Cancer treatments To use the sharing features on this page, ... or IV. Immunotherapy Immunotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that relies on the body's ability to fight ...

  2. Treatment Wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Dotro, Gabriela; Langergraber, Günter; Molle, Pascal; Nivala, Jaime; Puigagut, Jaume; Stein, Otto; Von Sperling, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Overview of Treatment Wetlands; Fundamentals of Treatment Wetlands; Horizontal Flow Wetlands; Vertical Flow Wetlands; French Vertical Flow Wetlands; Intensified and Modified Wetlands; Free Water Surface Wetlands; Other Applications; Additional Aspects.

  3. Tuberculosis Treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis Treatment, Lusaka, Zambia. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3 ... TB treatment has contributed to the steady rise of TB incidence in ... respondents (89.4%) had positive attitude towards TB treatment ..... respondents described feelings of depression, anger and apathy .... Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,. 1979, 37:1-11.

  4. Multidisciplinary treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayabuchi, Naofumi; Jingu, Kenichi; Matsuura, Keiichi

    1985-01-01

    Multidisciplinary treatment for malignant lymphoma is reported in terms of indication, current status, and outcome of this approach to Hodgkin's disease (HD) and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NLH). HD is considered to be most successfully managed with multidisciplinary treatment. Success of treatment of HD in European countries and the US, which has resulted from accurate staging of HD and developments in radiotherapy and chemotherapy, is reviewed in the literature. Problems in the treatment of HD in Japan are presented. A treatment policy for NHL is discussed according to the original site, i.e. lymph nodes, Waldeyer's ring or other sites of tumor involvement. (Namekawa, K.)

  5. Treatment Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckman, James J.; Lopes, Hedibert F.; Piatek, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the emerging Bayesian literature on treatment effects. It derives treatment parameters in the framework of a potential outcomes model with a treatment choice equation, where the correlation between the unobservable components of the model is driven by a low-dimensional v......This paper contributes to the emerging Bayesian literature on treatment effects. It derives treatment parameters in the framework of a potential outcomes model with a treatment choice equation, where the correlation between the unobservable components of the model is driven by a low...... to observe the same person in both the treated and untreated states, but it also turns out to be straightforward to implement. Formulae are provided to compute mean treatment effects as well as their distributional versions. A Monte Carlo simulation study is carried out to illustrate how the methodology can...

  6. Follow-up survey of the prevalence, diagnosis, clinical manifestations and treatment of Spirocerca lupi in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remo Lobetti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Spirocercosis is an important disease in South Africa. The object of this study was to determine if there had been a change in the prevalence, clinical manifestations and treatment of Spirocerca lupi over a 14-year period. A questionnaire was sent to 577 veterinary practices throughout South Africa in 2012. Of responders, 76% indicated that S. lupi occurred in their area, whilst 24% indicated that it did not; 84% considered S. lupi not to be a new phenomenon, whereas 16% considered it to be new. Monthly or seasonal distribution of the disease was not reported, and 76% of responders reported it to occur in no specific breed of dog, whereas 24% reported a breed risk, most considering large breeds to be at greater risk. No specific age or sex was identified as at higher risk. Common owner complaints were vomiting, weight loss, cough, or regurgitation. Reported clinical findings tended to mirror the clinical signs reported by owners. Most common diagnostic methods used were radiology, endoscopy, faecal flotation, and post mortem examination. Forty-four percent did not report seeing asymptomatic cases, 40% reported asymptomatic cases and 16% did not know. Associated complications were reported by 85% of responders, and included oesophageal neoplasia, hypertrophic osteopathy and acute haemothorax. Four different drugs were used as therapy: doramectin, ivermectin, milbemycin and Advocate®, with 9% of the responders using a combination of these four; 85% considered treatment to be effective and 15% ineffective. Treatment was considered more effective if the disease was diagnosed early and there were no complications. Two important conclusions were that more cases are being seen and that efficacy of therapy has increased, with a decrease in the mortality rate.

  7. Osteoporosis treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazianas, Michael; Abrahamsen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The findings of the Women's Health Initiative study in 2002 marginalized the use of hormone replacement therapy and established bisphosphonates as the first line of treatment for osteoporosis. Denosumab could be used in selected patients. Although bisphosphonates only maintain the structure of bone...... to their benefits/harm ratio. Treatment of osteoporosis is a long process, and many patients will require treatment with more than one type of drug over their lifetime....

  8. Antihypertensive treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Cramer; Mogensen, C E

    1987-01-01

    This study was undertaken to clarify whether antihypertensive treatment has any effect on the rate of progression of kidney disease in patients with incipient diabetic nephropathy. Six insulin-dependent diabetic men with incipient nephropathy (urinary albumin excretion above 15 micrograms....../min and total protein excretion below 0.5 g/24 h) were first given metoprolol (200 mg daily) with the subsequent addition of hydroflumethiazide. At the start of antihypertensive treatment, mean patient age was 32 +/- 4.2 years (SD) and mean duration of diabetes was 18 +/- 1.2 years. The patients were followed...... with repeated measurements of urinary albumin excretion for a mean of 5.4 +/- 3.1 years prior to, and for 4.7 +/- 1.3 years (SD) during treatment. Mean arterial blood pressure declined significantly during treatment, e.g., the values at 6 months before initiation of treatment being compared with values during...

  9. [Headache Treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Hans Christoph; Holle-Lee, Dagny; Nägel, Steffen; Gaul, Charly

    2017-03-01

    A precondition for the successful treatment of headaches is the correct headache diagnosis. Triptans are effective for attack treatment of migraine and cluster headache. However, there are not effective for the treatment of tension-type headache. For the prevention of frequent episodic migraine betablockers, flunarizine, topiramate and amitriptyline are recommended. For the prevention of chronic migraine evidence is only available for onabotulinumtoxinA and topiramate. For prophylactic treatment of tension-type headaches tricyclic antidepressants are used. In cluster headache verapamil (in combination with steroids) is the most frequently used prophylactic agent. This article focusses on the current acute and prophylactic treatment of common headache syndromes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, D.; Hooper, E.W.

    1981-01-01

    In the treatment of wastes, such as liquid radioactive effluents, it is known to remove radionuclides by successive in situ precipitation of cobalt sulphide, an hydroxide, barium sulphate and a transition element ferrocyanide, followed by separation of the thereby decontaminated effluent. In this invention, use is made of precipitates such as obtained above in the treatment of further fresh liquid radioactive effluent, when it is found that the precipitates have additional capacity for extracting radionuclides. The resulting supernatant liquor may then be subjected to a further precipitation treatment such as above. Decontamination factors for radionuclides of Ce, Ru, Sr and Cs have been considerably enhanced. (author)

  11. Sarcoptes mite epidemiology and treatment in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer calves captured for translocation from the Kafue game management area to game ranches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munyeme Musso

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Zambia, translocation of wildlife from National Parks to private owned game ranches demands that only animals free of infectious diseases that could adversely affect the expansion of the wildlife industry should be translocated to game ranches. Sarcoptes mange (Sarcoptes scarbiei has been involved in the reduction of wildlife populations in some species. Results Sarcoptes mange (Sarcoptes scarbiei was detected and eradicated from two herds of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer calves captured in the Kafue GMA in July 2004 and August 2005. The overall prevalence was estimated at 89.5% (77/86. Sex had no influence on the occurrence and severity of the disease. Of the 86 calves used in the study, 72.1% had good body condition scores, 20.9% were fair and 7.0% were poor. Of the 77 infected calves, 53.2% were mildly infected, 28.6% were moderately and 18.2% were severely infected. Body condition score was correlated to the severity of the infection (r = 0.72, p n = 86 at capture. Eradication of Sarcoptes mites from the entire herd using ivermetcin was dependant on the severity of the infection. The overall ability of ivermectin to clear the infection after the first treatment was estimated at 81.8% (n = 77. It increased to 94.8% and 100% after the second and third treatments respectively. Conclusion This is the first report on the epidemiology and treatment of Sarcoptes mange in African buffaloes in Zambia. This study improves our understanding about Sarcoptes scabiei epidemiology and treatment which will have further applications for the safe animal translocation.

  12. Clinical benefits of incorporating doxycycline into a canine heartworm treatment protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Thomas Nelson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of heartworm treatment is to improve the clinical condition of the patient and to eliminate pre-cardiac, juvenile, and adult worm stages with minimal complications. Pulmonary thromboembolisms are an inevitable consequence of worm death and can result in severe pulmonary reactions and even death of the patient. To minimize these reactions, various treatment protocols involving melarsomine, the only adulticidal drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administrations (FDA, in conjunction with macrocyclic lactone heartworm preventives and glucocorticosteroids have been advocated. The discovery of the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia in Dirofilaria immitis has led to several experimental studies examining the effects of administering doxycycline to reduce or eliminate Wolbachia organism. These studies have shown a decrease in gross and microscopic pathology of pulmonary parenchyma in experimental heartworm infections pretreated with doxycycline before melarsomine administration. Methods Electronic medical records from a large veterinary practice in northeast Alabama were searched to identify dogs treated for heartworms with melarsomine from January 2005 through December 2012. The search was refined further to select for dogs that met the following criteria: 1 received two or three doses of ivermectin heartworm preventive prior to melarsomine injections, 2 received one injection of melarsomine followed by two injections 4 to 8 weeks later, and 3 were treated with prednisone following melarsomine injections. The dogs were then divided into those that also were treated with doxycycline 10 mg/kg BID for 4 weeks (Group A, n = 47 and those that did not receive doxycycline (Group B, n = 47. The medical notes of all 94 cases were then reviewed for comments concerning coughing, dyspnea, or hemoptysis in the history, physical exam template, or from telephone conversations with clients the week following each visit. Any

  13. Clinical benefits of incorporating doxycycline into a canine heartworm treatment protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, C Thomas; Myrick, Elizabeth S; Nelson, Thomas A

    2017-11-09

    The objective of heartworm treatment is to improve the clinical condition of the patient and to eliminate pre-cardiac, juvenile, and adult worm stages with minimal complications. Pulmonary thromboembolisms are an inevitable consequence of worm death and can result in severe pulmonary reactions and even death of the patient. To minimize these reactions, various treatment protocols involving melarsomine, the only adulticidal drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administrations (FDA), in conjunction with macrocyclic lactone heartworm preventives and glucocorticosteroids have been advocated. The discovery of the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia in Dirofilaria immitis has led to several experimental studies examining the effects of administering doxycycline to reduce or eliminate Wolbachia organism. These studies have shown a decrease in gross and microscopic pathology of pulmonary parenchyma in experimental heartworm infections pretreated with doxycycline before melarsomine administration. Electronic medical records from a large veterinary practice in northeast Alabama were searched to identify dogs treated for heartworms with melarsomine from January 2005 through December 2012. The search was refined further to select for dogs that met the following criteria: 1) received two or three doses of ivermectin heartworm preventive prior to melarsomine injections, 2) received one injection of melarsomine followed by two injections 4 to 8 weeks later, and 3) were treated with prednisone following melarsomine injections. The dogs were then divided into those that also were treated with doxycycline 10 mg/kg BID for 4 weeks (Group A, n = 47) and those that did not receive doxycycline (Group B, n = 47). The medical notes of all 94 cases were then reviewed for comments concerning coughing, dyspnea, or hemoptysis in the history, physical exam template, or from telephone conversations with clients the week following each visit. Any dog that died within one year of treatment

  14. Psychological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cognitive-behavioral therapy ), relaxation therapy , hypnotherapy , and biofeedback therapy . Psychological treatments can also be combined. Review of well- ... Antidepressant Medications Newer IBS Medications Probiotics and Antibiotics ... Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Relaxation Techniques for IBS Take Part in Online ...

  15. Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... day before releasing it back to the environment. Treatment plants reduce pollutants in wastewater to a level nature can handle. Wastewater is used water. It includes substances such as human waste, food ...

  16. Depression Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3286 After hours (404) 639-2888 Contact Media Depression Treatment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... How Do I Know if I Am Experiencing Depression? The following questions may help you determine if ...

  17. Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... one that is tailored to your symptoms. article Protecting your eyesight when taking Plaquenil Some lupus treatments have the potential for eye health side-effects. Know the warning signs. article ​ ...

  18. Intermediate treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; Wayne D. Shepperd

    1985-01-01

    Intermediate treatments are those applied after a new stand is successfully established and before the final harvest. These include not only intermediate cuttings - primarily thinning - but also fertilization, irrigation, and protection of the stand from damaging agents.

  19. Rotavirus Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rotavirus Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Rotavirus Home About Rotavirus Symptoms Transmission Treatment Photos Vaccination ...

  20. 21 CFR 520.1198 - Ivermectin and praziquantel paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... control of: (i) Tapeworms—Anoplocephala perfoliata; Large strongyles (adults)—Strongylus vulgaris (also...) Tapeworms—Anoplocephala perfoliata; Large Strongyles (adults)—Strongylus vulgaris (also early forms in blood...

  1. 21 CFR 520.1199 - Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...), hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala, Ancylostoma braziliense) and tapeworm (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis) infections. (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on...

  2. Sewage Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Stennis Space Center's aquaculture research program has led to an attractive wastewater treatment for private homes. The system consists of a septic tank or tanks for initial sewage processing and a natural secondary treatment facility for further processing of septic tanks' effluent, consisting of a narrow trench, which contains marsh plants and rocks, providing a place for microorganisms. Plants and microorganisms absorb and digest, thus cleansing partially processed wastewater. No odors are evident and cleaned effluent may be discharged into streams or drainage canals. The system is useful in rural areas, costs about $1,900, and requires less maintenance than mechanical systems.

  3. ESCHARS TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cioc Liliana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article carry out a modern research and principles of the main solutions for the treatment of eschars, including cleaning solutions for wound debridement, dressings, antibiotics, surgery and adjuvant therapies. The approach taken to achieve the research is justified by the fact that, despite current interest and progress in medicine, surgery, medical care and education for self-care, pressure sores remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality, affecting in particular, people with prolonged immobilization and the elderly. The conclusions of the paper are oriented towards to analysis of the efficiency of each treatment solutions presented in active control eschars and negative effects they generate.

  4. Transmission dynamics of Fasciola hepatica in the Plateau Region of Mexico. Effect of weather and treatment of mammals under current farm management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Mendoza, Irene; Quiroz-Romero, Héctor; Correa, Dolores; Gómez-Espinoza, Guillermo

    2011-01-10

    The aim of the present work was to study the dynamics of Fasciola hepatica natural infection in ovines, caprines, bovines and two mollusc species, Lymnaea (Fossaria) humilis and Lymnaea (F.) bulimoides, from 2004 to mid 2007 under normal farm management conditions, and the relation to climate changes. The study was performed in a research centre in the plateau of Mexico. Temperature and rainfall were registered every month, as well as the number and intensity of infection in livestock and molluscs, as determined by coprology and direct observation/cercariae release, respectively. The first two years mammals were treated with clorsulon/ivermectin because the animals were harbouring concomitant intestinal nematode infections and this was the available drug combination. During the second period treatment was with triclabendazole. The temperature ranged from around cero to 30 °C, except during September 2005 to January 2006, when a cold climate prevailed. The rainfall augmented every year in July-August, and slightly in April, 2006. Lymneid snails appeared during or immediately after the rainfall peaks of 2004 and 2006, while few L. humilis and no L. bulimoides were present during the same period of 2005, probably because it was cold. A total of 15564 cercariae were released from molluscs during the wet time of 2004, 76 during 2005 and 368 in 2006. Several peaks of infection in mammals were observed, most occurring up to 4 months after the snails had disappeared. As expected, the weather had strong impact on snails and then on livestock infection. Also, treatment given to livestock was related to reduced cercarieae release five months later. Therefore, the combination of treatment and inspection of snails in the biotopes where the livestock graze may facilitate control of fasciolosis under current farm management. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutson, G.V.

    1996-01-01

    Numerous types of waste are produced by the nuclear industry ranging from high-level radioactive and heat-generating, HLW, to very low-level, LLW and usually very bulky wastes. These may be in solid, liquid or gaseous phases and require different treatments. Waste management practices have evolved within commercial and environmental constraints resulting in considerable reduction in discharges. (UK)

  6. Catalytic treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindley, W T.R.

    1931-04-18

    An apparatus is described for the catalytic treatment of liquids, semi-liquids, and gases comprising a vessel into which the liquid, semi-liquid, or gas to be treated is introduced through a common inlet to a chamber within the vessel whence it passes to contact with a catalyst through radially arranged channels or passages to a common outlet chamber.

  7. Antimicrobials Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosinos, Eleftherios H.; Skandamis, Panagiotis N.; Mataragas, Marios

    The use of antimicrobials is a common practice for preservation of foods. Incorporation, in a food recipe, of chemical antimicrobials towards inhibition of spoilage and pathogenic micro-organisms results in the compositional modification of food. This treatment is nowadays undesirable for the consumer, who likes natural products. Scientific community reflecting consumers demand for natural antimicrobials has made efforts to investigate the possibility to use natural antimicrobials such us bacteriocins and essential oils of plant origin to inhibit microbial growth.

  8. Wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđel N. Kitanović

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life on Earth in the future will largely depend on the amount of safe water. As the most fundamental source of life, water is relentlessly consumed and polluted. To halt this trend, many countries are taking extensive measures and investing substantial resources in order to stop the contamination of water and return at least tolerably good water quality to nature. The goal of water purification is to obtain clean water with the sewage sludge as a by-product. Clean water is returned to nature, and further treatment of sludge may be subject to other procedures. The conclusion of this paper is simple. The procedure with purified water is easily achievable, purified water is discharged into rivers, lakes and seas, but the problem of further treatment of sludge remains. This paper presents the basic methods of wastewater treatment and procedures for processing the products from contaminated water. The paper can serve as a basis for further elaboration. Water Pollution In order to ensure normal life of living creatures, the water in which they live or the water they use must have a natural chemical composition and natural features. When, as a result of human activities, the chemical composition of water and the ratio of its chemical elements significantly change, we say that water is polluted. When the pollutants come from industrial plants, we are talking about industrial wastewater, and when they come from households and urban areas, we are talking about municipal wastewater. Both contain a huge amount of pollutants that eventually end up in rivers. Then, thousands of defenseless birds, fish and other animals suffer, and environmental consequences become immeasurable. In addition, the waste fed to the water often ends up in the bodies of marine animals, so they can return to us as food. Thermal water pollution also has multiple effects on the changes in the wildlife composition of aquatic ecosystems. Polluted water can be purified by

  9. Incontinence Treatment: Biofeedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel Management Biofeedback Surgical Treatments Newer Treatment Options Tips on Finding ... Treatment Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel Management Biofeedback Surgical Treatments Newer Treatment Options Tips on Finding ...

  10. [Pharmacological treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola Manchola, Enrique; Álaba Trueba, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic degenerative and inflammatory process leading to synapticdysfunction and neuronal death. A review about the pharmacological treatment alternatives is made: acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI), a nutritional supplement (Souvenaid) and Ginkgo biloba. A special emphasis on Ginkgo biloba due to the controversy about its use and the approval by the European Medicines Agency is made. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Platform treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammazi, Rochdi; M'henni, Wafa

    2008-01-01

    Our project consists of making of a punt forms test for the radioactive treatment in the research's unit of the CNSTN .First a complete functional analysis is carried out, this analysis comprises a comparative study between our work and a design already established in a preparatory project, it emphasizes the failures whose made proof the old design .Second the metallurgical study which must lead on the choice of materials is in its turn carried out. Thirdly the design with all the details and the plans is carried out by the intermediary of the software CATIA. This design is accompanied by the various bodies's dimensioning and the calculation of the various states of stresses to which the parts of the system are subjected: buckling, inflection fourthly an automatic study is carried out, this study contains the automation's step of the system using the software, SIMATIC STEP 7. It also contains the choice of the various position and velocity pick-ups. Finally we will finish by the presentation of maintenance and safety's instructions of the system and the operator working in this research's . (Author)

  12. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Youth Resources Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child with ADHD may fall behind in ... driving infractions. The good news is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children ...

  13. Absence of Loa loa Microfilaremia among Newly Arrived Congolese Refugees in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montour, Jessica; Lee, Deborah; Snider, Cathy; Jentes, Emily S; Stauffer, William

    2017-12-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that refugees at risk of Loa loa infection be tested for microfilaria before treatment with ivermectin. We report observational results of this approach in African refugees in Texas. Daytime blood smears were performed for microfilaria on at-risk African refugees who arrived in Texas from July 1, 2014 through December 30, 2016. Clinics were asked if there were any adverse events reported among those who received ivermectin. Of the 422 persons screened, 346 (82%) were born in L. loa -endemic countries, with 332 (96%) of these being born in the Democratic Republic of Congo. No smears detected microfilaria, and all received presumptive ivermectin with no reports of significant adverse events. In this investigation, the prevalence of significant microfilarial load in sub-Saharan African refugees appeared to be low, and ivermectin treatment was safe and well tolerated.

  14. Treatment goals and treatment in exercise therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuijderduin, W.M.; Dekker, J.

    1994-01-01

    In the present study a quantitative description is given of treatment in exercise therapy according to Cesar and according to Mensendieck. Information was gathered from saurvey on exercise therapy in the Netherlands. Characteristics of treatment are described including treatment goals, emphasis of

  15. Treatment diary for botulinum toxin spasticity treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Bo; Iversen, Helle K; Frederiksen, Inge M S

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a treatment diary for patients receiving spasticity treatment including botulinum toxin injection and physiotherapy and/or occupational therapy. The diary focuses on problems triggered by skeletal muscle overactivity; agreed goals for treatment and the patient...

  16. Antihypertrophic Effects of Small Molecules that Maintain Mitochondrial ATP Levels Under Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Nagai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Since impaired mitochondrial ATP production in cardiomyocytes is thought to lead to heart failure, a drug that protects mitochondria and improves ATP production under disease conditions would be an attractive treatment option. In this study, we identified small-molecule drugs, including the anti-parasitic agent, ivermectin, that maintain mitochondrial ATP levels under hypoxia in cardiomyocytes. Mechanistically, transcriptomic analysis and gene silencing experiments revealed that ivermectin increased mitochondrial ATP production by inducing Cox6a2, a subunit of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Furthermore, ivermectin inhibited the hypertrophic response of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. Pharmacological inhibition of importin β, one of the targets of ivermectin, exhibited protection against mitochondrial ATP decline and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. These findings indicate that maintaining mitochondrial ATP under hypoxia may prevent hypertrophy and improve cardiac function, providing therapeutic options for mitochondrial dysfunction.

  17. Ankle Sprain Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Ankle Sprain Treatment Page Content Article Body Acute ankle and ... Pediatrics summarizing the treatment phases of rehabilitation for ankle sprain. Phase Summary Description I Phase I treatment involves ...

  18. Working during cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000834.htm Working during cancer treatment To use the sharing features on this page, ... JavaScript. Many people continue to work throughout their cancer treatment. Cancer, or the side effects of treatment, may ...

  19. After Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Better Home Your Health Resources Healthcare Management After Cancer Treatment After Cancer Treatment Share Print From the day you were diagnosed ... of the questions you may have after your cancer treatment ends. Path to well being Will I need ...

  20. Hepatitis C: Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Home » Hepatitis C » Hepatitis C Treatment Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Hepatitis C Treatment for Veterans and the Public Treatment ...

  1. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... can be addressed as quickly as possible. Recurrent breast cancer If the cancer does return after treatment for ...

  2. Treatment Options for Retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other places in the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  3. Tuberculosis (TB): Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Training Home Conditions Tuberculosis (TB) Tuberculosis: Treatment Tuberculosis: Treatment Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask ... or bones is treated longer. NEXT: Preventive Treatment Tuberculosis: Diagnosis Tuberculosis: History Clinical Trials For more than ...

  4. NIAAA Alcohol Treatment Navigator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What to Know About Alcohol Treatment What Is Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD)? What Types of Alcohol Treatment Are Available? ... What to Know About Alcohol Treatment What is alcohol use disorder (AUD)? A health condition that can improve with ...

  5. Water Treatment Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This team researches and designs desalination, water treatment, and wastewater treatment systems. These systems remediate water containing hazardous c hemicals and...

  6. Optimizing clozapine treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Damkier, P; Lublin, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Clozapine treatment remains the gold standard for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but treatment with clozapine is associated with several side-effects that complicate the use of the drug. This clinical overview aims to provide psychiatrists with knowledge about how to optimize clozapine...... treatment. Relevant strategies for reducing side-effects and increasing the likelihood of response are discussed....

  7. Teaching Treatment Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Linda

    1993-01-01

    Describes approach to teaching treatment planning that author has used successfully in both seminars and graduate courses. Clarifies nature and importance of systematic treatment planning, then describes context in which treatment planning seems more effectively taught, and concludes with step-by-step plan for teaching treatment planning.…

  8. [Preprosthetic orthodontic treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prahl-Andersen, B.; Prahl, C.; Baat, C. de; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of a preprosthetic orthodontic treatment is to position the teeth in such a way that a treatment with (fixed) dental prostheses is made possible or simplified or to affect the result of this treatment positively. Conceivable preprosthetic orthodontic treatments are: correcting primary

  9. Land Treatment Digital Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.

    2013-01-01

    The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey to catalog legacy land treatment information on Bureau of Land Management lands in the western United States. The LTDL can be used by federal managers and scientists for compiling information for data-calls, producing maps, generating reports, and conducting analyses at varying spatial and temporal scales. The LTDL currently houses thousands of treatments from BLM lands across 10 states. Users can browse a map to find information on individual treatments, perform more complex queries to identify a set of treatments, and view graphs of treatment summary statistics.

  10. IV treatment at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other IV treatments you may receive after you leave the hospital include: Treatment for hormone deficiencies Medicines for severe nausea that cancer chemotherapy or pregnancy may cause Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for pain (this is IV ...

  11. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Treatment Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV Treatment: The Basics Last Reviewed: March 22, 2018 ...

  12. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Toggle search Toggle navigation Quick Links Family Resources ADHD Resource Center Resource Centers Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Resource ... Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child with ADHD may fall behind in school and continue having ...

  13. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Toggle search Toggle navigation Quick Links Family Resources ADHD Resource Center Resource Centers Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Resource ... Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child with ADHD may fall behind in school and continue having ...

  14. Nasal Wash Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medications Alternative Therapies Nasal Wash Treatment Nasal Wash Treatment Make an Appointment Ask a Question Refer Patient The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines for preparing water used in a nasal wash are listed below. Many ...

  15. Research Areas: Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of more effective and less toxic treatments is fundamental to improving outcomes for patients with cancer. NCI is leading efforts on several fronts to develop and evaluate new cancer treatments.

  16. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... news is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children with ADHD can improve their ability to pay attention and control their behavior. The right care can help them grow, learn, and feel ...

  17. Prostate cancer - treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000403.htm Prostate cancer - treatment To use the sharing features on this page, ... drugs is recommended. References National Cancer Institute. Prostate cancer treatment (PDQ): Stages of prostate cancer. Updated July 31, ...

  18. Cancer treatment - preventing infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation - preventing infection; Bone marrow transplant - preventing infection; Cancer treatment - immunosuppression ... this is a short-lived side effect of cancer treatment. Your provider may give you medicines to help ...

  19. Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research ... Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & ...

  20. Atrial Fibrillation: Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Atrial Fibrillation Atrial Fibrillation: Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents Treatment for atrial fibrillation depends on how often you have symptoms, how ...

  1. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compulsive Disorder Resource Center Youth Resources Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child ... ADHD. They know that biological substances in the brain, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, play a role ...

  2. Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment for information on diagnosis , staging , and treatment. Polycythemia Vera Key Points Polycythemia vera is a disease ... blood tests are used to diagnose polycythemia vera. Polycythemia vera is a disease in which too many ...

  3. Cholesterol - drug treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000314.htm Cholesterol - drug treatment To use the sharing features on ... treatment; Hardening of the arteries - statin Statins for Cholesterol Statins reduce your risk of heart disease, stroke, ...

  4. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also have higher rates of cigarette and drug addiction, and more driving infractions. The good news is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children with ADHD can improve their ability ...

  5. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and drug addiction, and more driving infractions. The good news is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children with ADHD can improve their ...

  6. Treatment of Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Funding IFFGD Symposium reports Industry Council Contact Us Treatment of Gas You are here: Home Symptoms & Causes Intestinal Gas ... Controlling Intestinal Gas Foods That May Cause Gas Treatment of Gas Tips on Controlling Gas Adapted from IFFGD Publication # ...

  7. HIV: Treatment and Comorbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Rokx (Casper)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractClinicians worldwide strive to improve HIV care for their patients. Antiretroviral therapy prevents HIV related mortality and is lifelong. A clinical evaluation of these treatment strategies is necessary to identify strategies that may jeopardize treatment effectiveness and patient

  8. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resource Center Youth Resources Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child with ADHD ... can help the child identify his or her strengths and build on them. Therapy can also help ...

  9. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Support AACAP Medical Students and Residents Toggle Child Psychiatry Residents (Fellows) Early Career Psychiatrists Medical Student ... Centers Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Resource Center Youth Resources Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, ...

  10. Antimicrobial Treatments and Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    To limit exposure to indoor biological contamination a risk-management approach which employs various antimicrobial treatments can effectively control contaminants and reduce exposure. Antimicrobial treatment of biological contaminants, especially mold in buildings, it is often n...

  11. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Providers, Emergency Consultations, and General Public. Contact Us Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  12. Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The actual treatment areas for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...

  13. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Demand Maintenance of Certification and Lifelong Learning Modules Online CME Pathways ... Treatment Without treatment, a child with ADHD may fall behind in school and continue having trouble with friendships. Family life may also suffer. Untreated ADHD can ...

  14. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children with ADHD can improve their ... to pay attention and control their behavior. The right care can help them grow, learn, and feel ...

  15. Health Issues and Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Information For… Media Policy Makers Health Issues & Treatments Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... people with spina bifida are exactly alike. Health issues and treatments for people with spina bifida will ...

  16. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compulsive Disorder Resource Center Youth Resources Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child ... ADHD will continue to benefit from it as teenagers. In fact, many adults with ADHD also find ...

  17. Inventtional treatment of varicocele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ji Hoon [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Varicocele is a dilatation of the veins in the pampiniform plexus and manifests as mass-effect, pain, testicular atrophy, or male infertility. Traditionally, surgical treatment has been the mainstay of treatment of varicocele, while interventional treatment, which is endovascular embolization of the testicular vein, has been gaining popularity recently. In this review, diagnosis of the disease, indications and procedure details of interventional treatment, results, and complications are discussed.

  18. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child with ADHD may fall behind in school and continue having trouble with friendships. Family life ... speak. Contents What is ADHD? How Common is ADHD? Common Signs and Symptoms Getting Treatment Supporting School Success The Teenage Years Working ... Connect ...

  19. Distributed Treatment Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgonc, David; Plante, Luke

    2017-10-01

    This section presents a review of the literature published in 2016 on topics relating to distributed treatment systems. This review is divided into the following sections with multiple subsections under each: constituent removal; treatment technologies; and planning and treatment system management.

  20. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children with ADHD can improve their ability to pay attention and control their behavior. The right care can help them grow, learn, and ... and help the child function at a normal level. Treatment may include ...

  1. Treatment of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronetskij, I.B.

    1990-01-01

    Peculiarities of thyroid cancer, producing direct influence on selection of treatment procedure are enumerated. It is shown that surgical treatment is the determining way of treatment, which is supplemented with hormonotherapy in case of differentiated forms of the tumor. In case of anaplasia cancer, sarcomas, propagation of tumor beyond the limits of the organ, inoperable processes, treatment of recurrences and functional inactivity of bone metastases the remote control gamma-therapy should be performed. Therapy by radioactive iodine is shown for the treatment of remote iodine-concentrating metastases for devitalization of residual thyroid tissue after thyroidectomy

  2. Endoscopic root canal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshonov, Joshua; Michaeli, Eli; Nahlieli, Oded

    2009-10-01

    To describe an innovative endoscopic technique for root canal treatment. Root canal treatment was performed on 12 patients (15 teeth), using a newly developed endoscope (Sialotechnology), which combines an endoscope, irrigation, and a surgical microinstrument channel. Endoscopic root canal treatment of all 15 teeth was successful with complete resolution of all symptoms (6-month follow-up). The novel endoscope used in this study accurately identified all microstructures and simplified root canal treatment. The endoscope may be considered for use not only for preoperative observation and diagnosis but also for active endodontic treatment.

  3. Treatment Option Overview (Kaposi Sarcoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Childhood Vascular Tumors Treatment Research Kaposi Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Kaposi Sarcoma ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  4. Treatment of Epileptic Encephalopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Simona; Sisodiya, Sanjay M

    2017-01-01

    Epileptic encephalopathies represent the most severe epilepsies, with onset in infancy and childhood and seizures continuing in adulthood in most cases. New genetic causes are being identified at a rapid rate. Treatment is challenging and the overall outcome remains poor. Available targeted treatments, based on the precision medicine approach, are currently few. To provide an overview of the treatment of epileptic encephalopathies with known genetic determinants, including established treatment, anecdotal reports of specific treatment, and potential tailored precision medicine strategies. Genes known to be associated to epileptic encephalopathy were selected. Genes where the association was uncertain or with no reports of details on treatment, were not included. Although some of the genes included are associated with multiple epilepsy phenotypes or other organ involvement, we have mainly focused on the epileptic encephalopathies and their antiepileptic treatments. Most epileptic encephalopathies show genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity. The treatment of seizures is difficult in most cases. The available evidence may provide some guidance for treatment: for example, ACTH seems to be effective in controlling infantile spams in a number of genetic epileptic encephalopathies. There are potentially effective tailored precision medicine strategies available for some of the encephalopathies, and therapies with currently unexplained effectiveness in others. Understanding the effect of the mutation is crucial for targeted treatment. There is a broad range of disease mechanisms underlying epileptic encephalopathies, and this makes the application of targeted treatments challenging. However, there is evidence that tailored treatment could significantly improve epilepsy treatment and prognosis. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Treatment of Functional Constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Karami

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Childhood constipation is ofton a long_term problem requiring treatment over months or years. There is no single treatment metod for constipation and many children do not respond and continue to have chronic problems. Treatment is consisted of: Disimpaction,Drug adminstration , Diet modilation, and behaverial therapy. It is necessary in all cases that not responding to conventional therapy, un diagnosed organic causes, non proper drug, short course therapy, behaverial disorder and withholding should be considered. Internal anal achalasia, Neural tube defect, Neurointestinal dysplasia. and food allergy are the most important predisposing factors in treatment failer . PEG is drug of choice for treatment and therapy must be continued for several months or years. Psycologic consulting should be considered in patients with severe behaverial disorder.   Key words: Children, Functional Constipation, Treatment.

  6. Hyperthermia treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagendijk, J.J.W.

    2000-01-01

    The development of hyperthermia, the treatment of tumours with elevated temperatures in the range of 40-44 deg. C with treatment times over 30 min, greatly benefits from the development of hyperthermia treatment planning. This review briefly describes the state of the art in hyperthermia technology, followed by an overview of the developments in hyperthermia treatment planning. It particularly highlights the significant problems encountered with heating realistic tissue volumes and shows how treatment planning can help in designing better heating technology. Hyperthermia treatment planning will ultimately provide information about the actual temperature distributions obtained and thus the tumour control probabilities to be expected. This will improve our understanding of the present clinical results of thermoradiotherapy and thermochemotherapy, and will greatly help both in optimizing clinical heating technology and in designing optimal clinical trials. (author)

  7. Equal treatment of shareholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Equal treatment of shareholders is regulated in Art.269 of Company Act (2011 of Republic of Serbia. Equal treatment of shareholders means that all shareholders are to be treated equally under same circumstances. Obligation to treat all shareholders equally rests on all company bodies, predominantly general meeting. The standard whether an action violates the principle of equal treatment of all shareholders regarding the main rights of shareholders (such as voting right etc. is the nominal value of shares, or the equal treatment per person regarding ancillary rights (such as right to speak in shareholders' meeting etc.. Any action deviating from this standard is unlawful if the unequal treatment is not justified on the facts. If the principle of equal treatment is violated by general meeting resolution, such resolution may be annulled by the court.

  8. Anaerobic treatment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehnke, B.; Bischofsberger, W.; Seyfried, C.F.

    1993-01-01

    This practical and theoretical guide presents the current state of knowledge in anaerobic treatment of industrial effluents with a high organic pollutant load and sewage sludges resulting from the treatment of municipal and industrial waste water. Starting from the microbiological bases of anaerobic degradation processes including a description and critical evaluation of executed plants, the book evolves the process-technical bases of anaerobic treatment techniques, derives relative applications, and discusses these with reference to excuted examples. (orig./UWA). 232 figs [de

  9. Greywater Treatment and Reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Ekrem ÜSTÜN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study, to examine grey water treatment and reuse. For this aim, previous literature studies been research on and interpreted. Project began with study of physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the gray water. At the second part; grey water treatment and reuse were examined. At the third part; the technologies used for the methods treatment of gray water were explained. Then from costs and previous studies about grey water reuse were mentioned.

  10. The treatment of hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klopper, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    The clinical picture of hyperthyroidism varies considerably and the diagnosis can easily be missed. The treatment of hyperthyroidism needs to be individualized, taking the patient's condition and preferences into account. There are three possible methods of treating hyperthyroidism, namely, medical treatment, including the use of beta-blockers and other antithyroid medications; surgery, and radio-iodine treatment. These three methods are briefly discussed. 3 refs., 3 tabs

  11. Ebola vaccine and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Ayato

    2015-01-01

    Filoviruses (Ebola and Marburg viruses) cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates. No effective prophylaxis or treatment for filovirus diseases is yet commercially available. The recent outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa has accelerated efforts to develop anti-Ebola virus prophylaxis and treatment, and unapproved drugs were indeed used for the treatment of patients during the outbreak. This article reviews previous researches and the latest topics on vaccine and therapy for Ebola virus disease.

  12. Herbal Treatment in Menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigdem Gun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The digest has been prepared to review available clinical evidence on herbs used in treatment of menopause symptoms. Effectiveness of Humulus lupulus, Vitex agnus-castus, Dioskorea vilosa, Linum usitatissimum, Pinus pinaster, cruciferous vegetables, Cimicifuga racemosa L., Angelica sinensis, Oenothera biennis L., Hypericum perforatum L., Panax ginseng, Ginkgo biloba, Glycine soja, Trifolium pratense and Piper methysticum herbs were assessed for treatment of menopausal symptoms in the studies. Herbs used as alternative supplementary treatment for menopause symptoms have been found to have a limited effect. Thus more studies are warranted to assess effectiveness of herbal treatments for menopausal symptoms. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(4.000: 520-530

  13. Waste Water Treatment Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.E.K.

    2004-01-01

    A wastewater treatment plant to treat both the sanitary and industrial effluent originated from process, utilities and off site units of the refinery is described. The purpose is to obtain at the end of the treatment plant, a water quality that is in compliance with contractual requirements and relevant environmental regulations. first treatment (pretreatment). Primary de-oiling, Equalization, Neutralization, Secondary de-oiling. Second treatment (Biological), The mechanism of BOD removal, Biological flocculation, Nutrient requirements, Nitrification, De-nitrification, Effect of temperature, Effect of ph, Toxicity

  14. Addic tion treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-01-29

    Jan 29, 2009 ... it does leave the profitability and viability of the more orthodox treatment centres at risk, and they now often seek improved income streams by sourcing patients from abroad. This effectively subsidises local patients whose treatment intervention is remunerated by discounted medical aid rates. South Africa is ...

  15. Treatment versus proportionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, David Woodrow Mattson

    2010-01-01

    Persons suffering from mental illness, retardation or other disturbances who commit crimes in Denmark cannot be punished, but are instead sentenced to treatment. In the past, these sentences were always indeterminate, meaning that treatment regimens were only terminated when psychiatrists judged ...

  16. Bell's Palsy Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Bell's Palsy Sections What Is Bell's Palsy? Bell's Palsy Symptoms Bell's Palsy Treatment Bell's Palsy Treatment Leer en Español: Tratamiento de la parálisis ...

  17. Treatments for Sleep Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contributing medical factors Non-drug strategies Medications Common sleep changes Many people with Alzheimer’s experience changes in ... at night. Subscribe now Non-drug treatments for sleep changes Non-drug treatments aim to improve sleep ...

  18. [Psychiatric treatment sentences.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevens, Hanne; Nordentoft, Merete; Agerbo, Esben

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Previous Danish studies of the increasing number of sentences to psychiatric treatment (SPT) have compared prevalent populations of persons undergoing treatment with incident measures of reported crimes. Examining the period 1990-2006, we studied incident sentences, taking the type...

  19. Treatment preference in hypochondriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J; Vincent, N; Furer, P; Cox, B; Kjernisted, K

    1999-12-01

    Promising cognitive-behavioral and medication treatments for hypochondriasis are in the early stages of evaluation. Little is known about the treatment preferences and opinions of individuals seeking help for this problem. In this exploratory study, 23 volunteers from the community with a DSM-IV diagnosis of hypochondriasis were recruited through a newspaper advertisement. Participants were presented with a survey which included balanced descriptions of both a medication and a cognitive-behavioral treatment for intense illness concerns (hypochondriasis). The brief descriptions of the treatments discussed the time commitment required as well as the major advantages and disadvantages of each. Results showed that, relative to medication treatment, cognitive-behavioral treatment was predicted to be more effective in both the short and long terms and was rated as more acceptable. Psychological treatment was indicated as the first choice by 74% of respondents, medication by 4%, and 22% indicated an equal preference. Forty-eight percent of respondents would only accept the psychological treatment.

  20. Immunotherapy in multimodality treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Application of immunotherapy for treatment of oncologic patients is considered. Monoclonal antibodies (MCA) are used for immunotherapy both independently and as carriers of various toxins, chemopreparations and radioactive isotopes. It is shown that immunotherapy should be considered as one of additional methods of multimodulity treatment of patients with malignant tumors

  1. Cradle Cap: Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cradle cap Treatment Cradle cap usually doesn't require medical treatment. It clears up on its own within a few months. In the meantime, wash ... tips can help you control and manage cradle cap. Gently rub your baby's scalp with your fingers ...

  2. Current obesity drug treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio C. Mancini

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological treatment of obesity is an area of sudden changes,development of new drugs and treatment propositions. This articlepresents information on physiological agents that are currentlybeing used as well as drugs that were widely used but are nomore available.

  3. Radwaste treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehn, L.; Breza, M.; Pekar, A.

    2000-01-01

    In this lecture is given the basic information, that is concerning on the RAW treatment and long term disposal of the treated RAW in repository at Mochovce. Then here is given the basic technical and technological information, that is concerning bituminization, plant, the vitrification unit, center for the RAW-treatment (BSC) and repository at Mochovce. (authors)

  4. Cyberknife stereotactic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lief, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    The topic discussed included, among others, the following: cyberknife capabilities; autonomous robotics; continuous image guidance; flexible robotics maneuverability; Dynamic motion targeting; intelligent patient positioning; 4D treatment optimization and planning system; X-ray sources; robotic manipulator; linear accelerator; MultiPlan treatment planning system; radiosurgery vs radiotherapy; radiation system delivery comparison; simplified contouring; plan optimization; QA and commissioning. (P.A.)

  5. Treatment of Schizoaffective Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Cascade, Elisa; Kalali, Amir H.; Buckley, Peter

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the range of treatments prescribed for schizoaffective disorder. The data show that the majority of those treated, 87 percent, receive two or more pharmaceutical classes. From a therapeutic class perspective, 93 percent of schizoaffective disorder patients receive an antipsychotic, 48 percent receive a mood disorder treatment, and 42 percent receive an antidepressant. An expert commentary is also included.

  6. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... They also have higher rates of cigarette and drug addiction, and more driving infractions. The good news is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children ... and develop new drugs for ADHD. It is important to confer with ...

  7. Treatment strategies in mastocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebenhaar, Frank; Akin, Cem; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Treatment recommendations for mastocytosis are based mostly on expert opinion rather than evidence obtained from controlled clinical trials. In this article, treatment options for mastocytosis are presented, with a focus on the control of mediator-related symptoms in patients with indolent disease....

  8. Adjunctive steroid treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshin, André; Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus; Meyer, Christian N

    2007-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate local guidelines regarding early steroid treatment in adult community acquired bacterial meningitis, and assess the actual treatment given and its correlation to clinical outcome. Patient outcome was obtained retrospectively from the medical records of 210 adults...... admitted to 47 hospitals in Denmark during 2002-2004 (population 5.4 million) and was combined with results from a questionnaire regarding treatment guidelines in these hospitals. In 36 of 47 departments responding to the questionnaire, 21 recommended early steroid treatment, but none did so initially...... during 2002. Early steroid treatment was given to 15% of patients and was given more often when recommended locally (41% vs 11%, OR=5.7 (2.4-13.5)). Unfavourable outcome was demonstrated rarely in patients treated with early steroids compared to the non-steroid group (17% vs 42%, p

  9. Radiation treatment of foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luther, T.; Huebner, G.

    1990-10-01

    In addition to fundamental demands on radiation and safety engineering of irradiation facilities, the necessity arises to optimize irradiation conditions by using facilities to capacity and thus reducing irradiation costs. The following subjects are dealt with in detail: rehabilitation of a pilot plant for radiation treatment of onions; examination of radiation resistance of components and equipment parts of food irradiation facilities; chemical dosimetry; relative measurement of the intensity of radioactive sources; thermo- and chemiluminescence to prove irradiation of foodstuffs; radiation induced sprout inhibition of potatoes; laboratory tests of delayed maturation of tomatoes; radiation treatment of strawberries; radiation treatment of forage; radiation induced sprout inhibition of acid-treated onions; radiation treatment of starch and potatoe products; radiation treatment of cosmetics; the universal radiation source UNI 88/26 for gamma irradiation facilities; microbiological aspects of food irradiation, and introduction of chicken irradiation on an industrial scale. (BBR) [de

  10. Emerging treatments in alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falto-Aizpurua, Leyre; Choudhary, Sonal; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-12-01

    Alopecia is a common concern encountered in the medical practice. Treatment approach varies according to the type and severity of alopecia. However, available treatment options have limited efficacy and several adverse effects. Presently, there are different treatment options being studied to overcome these limitations. Additionally, cellular pathways involved in the pathophysiology of alopecia are further being clarified to potentially target pathogenic molecules. We searched the literature for recently published articles discussing new treatment options as well as mechanisms involved in alopecia. We discuss the use of stem cells, growth factors, cellular pathways and robotic hair transplant, among other emerging therapies used for alopecia. Future looks very promising and new effective treatments such as janus kinase inhibitors could possibly be available for alopecia areata. The stem-cell technology is advancing and companies involved in hair follicle neogenesis are starting clinical trials on patients with androgenetic alopecia.

  11. Treatment Option Overview (Ewing Sarcoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ewing Sarcoma Treatment Osteosarcoma Treatment Research Ewing Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Ewing Sarcoma ... started or in another part of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types ...

  12. Life After Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... know what to expect after treatment ends. Emotional effects of treatment The last day of treatment It is normal to have different feelings, emotions and fears after treatment ends. Not everyone feels ...

  13. Effect of combinations of marketed human anthelmintic drugs against Trichuris muris in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiser Jennifer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections are responsible for a huge public health burden, however treatment options are limited. The discovery and development of novel efficacious drugs or drug combinations for the treatment of STH infections therefore has a high research priority. Methods We studied drug combination effects using the main standard anthelmintics, albendazole, mebendazole, levamisole, pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin in the Trichuris muris model. Drug combinations were first tested in vitro and additive and synergistic combinations investigated further in vivo in female mice using ratios based on the ED50 of the respective drugs. Results In vitro all 10 combinations of the standard anthelmintics tested against T. muris revealed synergistic behavior. We identified three drug combinations in vivo as strongly synergistic, namely mebendazole-ivermectin (Combination index (CI=0.16, mebendazole-levamisole (CI=0.17 and albendazole-mebendazole (CI=0.23. For albendazole-ivermectin, moderate synergism was observed (CI=0.81 and for albendazole-levamisole a nearly additive effect was documented (CI=0.93 in vivo. Five combinations (albendazole-pyrantel pamoate, mebendazole-pyrantel pamoate, levamisole-pyrantel pamoate, levamisole-ivermectin and pyrantel pamoate-ivermectin were antagonistic in vivo. Conclusion Our results strengthen the evidence that combination chemotherapy might play a role in the treatment of Trichuris infections. Albendazole-mebendazole should be studied in greater detail in preclinical studies.

  14. Nonpharmacological treatment of epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V S Saxena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonpharmacological treatment of epilepsy includes surgery, vagal nerve stimulation, ketogenic diet, and other alternative/complementary therapies, e.g., yoga, Ayurveda, electroencephalography (EEG biofeedback technique, aerobic exercise, music therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, acupuncture, and herbal remedies (traditional Chinese medicine. Alternative therapies, despite the term, should not be considered as an alternative to antiepileptic medication; they complement accepted drug treatment. Alternative therapies like yoga, through techniques that relax the body and mind, reduce stress, improve seizure control, and also improve quality of life. Ketogenic diet is a safe and effective treatment for intractable epilepsies; it has been recommended since 1921. The diet induces ketosis, which may control seizures. The most successful treatment of epilepsy is with modern antiepileptic drugs, which can achieve control of seizures in 70-80% cases. Patients opt for alternative therapies because they may be dissatisfied with antiepileptic drugs due to their unpleasant side effects, the long duration of treatment, failure to achieve control of seizures, cultural beliefs and, in the case of women, because they wish to get pregnant Surgical treatment may lead to physical and psychological sequelae and is an option only for a minority of patients. This article presents supportive evidence from randomized controlled trials done to assess the benefit of non-pharmacological treatment.

  15. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallman, Guy J.

    2012-01-01

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies. - Highlights: ► The history of phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is given. ► Generic PI treatments in use today are discussed. ► Suggestions for future research are presented. ► A dose of 250 Gy for most insects may suffice.

  16. Oral health: orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martonffy, Andrea Ildiko

    2015-01-01

    Improper tooth alignment due to crowding, malocclusion, and missing teeth can cause difficulties with eating and speech, and premature wear. It is estimated that more than 20% of children would benefit from orthodontic treatment to correct these conditions, many of which will persist into adulthood if not corrected. Orthodontic care is gaining popularity among adults for similar concerns, as well as for correction of cosmetic issues. The psychological effects of malocclusion should not be ignored. The American Association of Orthodontists recommends that all children undergo evaluation at the first recognition of an orthodontic condition and no later than age 7 years. Some children will need early treatment to help eliminate developing conditions and improve the foundations of the bite, which can ease later treatment in adolescence. For others, treatment in adolescence without early treatment is recommended. Standard cemented braces or clear, removable aligners may be used, depending on the patient's corrective needs. Average treatment time is approximately 2 years; this may be shortened by the use of accelerative techniques. Routine preventive dental care should be continued during the treatment period. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  17. [Treatment of selective mutism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melfsen, Siebke; Warnke, Andreas

    2007-11-01

    Selective mutism is a communication disorder of childhood in which the child does not speak in specific social situations despite the ability to speak in other situations. A literature review was completed in order to provide practical guidelines for the assessment and treatment of children with selective mutism. There are many different behavioral approaches in the treatment of this disorder, e.g. contingency management, shaping, stimulus fading, escape-avoidance, self-modeling, learning theory approaches. A clearer diagnostic understanding of the disorder as part of anxiety or oppositional disorders needs to be realized prior to generalize an effective treatment for this disorder.

  18. [Esthetic treatment of varicosities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vin, F

    2000-06-01

    Telangiectasia is dilatation of the subpapillary venous plexus of the epidermis of the lower limbs, which can lead to aesthetic embarrassment. Before treating telangiectasia, patient history and clinical examination help establishing its origin. It can be with isolated, associated reticular drainage veins, or be part of superficial venous insufficiency. Several types of treatment have been proposed. Microsclerotherapy is the most effective and least costly. Muller's phlebectomy can be performed when telangiectasia is fed by large reticular veins, either afferent or efferent. Treatment by laser and pulsed light appear best reserved to treatment of finer venous dilatations, either complementary or after failure of sclerotherapy.

  19. [Treatment possibilities and treatment results in pneumoconioses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, W T

    1983-01-01

    Some types of pneumoconiosis, such as asbestosis, are characterized by marked restrictive functional patterns. Treatment is begun when definite arterial hypoxemia appears, since the inhalation of oxygen clearly lowers pulmonary artery pressure. It is also important that the onset of concomitant airway obstruction is recognized promptly. From the sociomedical standpoint the most significant pneumoconiosis continues to be the miner's anthracosilicosis. The functional pattern of this pneumoconiosis is clearly airway obstruction, and such anthracosilicotic airway obstruction responds like all other forms of airway obstruction to antiobstructive therapy. The fundamentals of this therapy, which is based on the use of bronchodilators, adrenal cortical hormones and antibiotics, are described.

  20. Traditional preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    Preventive treatment options can be divided into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention techniques, which can involve patient- or professionally applied methods. These include: oral hygiene (instruction), pit and fissure sealants ('temporary' or 'permanent'), fluoride applications (patient...... options....

  1. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a child with ADHD may fall behind in school and continue having trouble with friendships. Family life ... ADHD? Common Signs and Symptoms Getting Treatment Supporting School Success The Teenage Years Working Together Resources Connect ...

  2. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... reduce symptoms and help the child function at a normal level. Treatment may include medication, therapy, family support, educational support, or a combination of these. A major study sponsored by ...

  3. Varicose vein - noninvasive treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spider veins. These are small varicose veins. Salt water (saline) or a chemical solution is injected into the varicose vein. The vein will harden and then disappear. Laser treatment can be used on the surface of the skin. Small bursts ...

  4. Electrochemical treatment of graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podlovilin, V.I.; Egorov, I.M.; Zhernovoj, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    In the course of investigating various modes of electrochemical treatment (ECT) it has been found that graphite anode treatment begins under the ''glow mode''. A behaviour of some marks of graphite with the purpose of ECT technique development in different electrolytes has been tested. Electrolytes have been chosen of three types: highly alkaline (pH 13-14), neutral (pH-Z) and highly acidic (pH 1-2). For the first time parallel to mechanical electroerosion treatment, ECT of graphite and carbon graphite materials previously considered chemically neutral is proposed. ECT of carbon graphite materials has a number of advantages as compared with electroerrosion and mechanical ones with respect to the treatment rate and purity (ronghness) of the surface. A small quantity of sludge (6-8%) under ECT is in highly alkali electrolytes.

  5. Electrochemical treatment of graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podlovilin, V.I.; Egorov, I.M.; Zhernovoj, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    In the course of investigating various modes of electroche-- mical treatment (ECT) it has been found that graphite anode treatment begins under the ''glow mode''. A behaviour of some marks of graphite with the purpose of ECT technique development in different electrolytes has been tested. Electrolytes have been chosen of three types: highly alkaline (pH 13-14), neutral (pH-Z) and highly acidic (pH 1-2). For the first time parallel to mechanical electroerosion treatment ECT graphite and carbon graphite materials previously considered chemically neutral is proposed. ECT of carbon graphite materials has a number of advantages as compared with electroerrosion and mechanical ones this is treatment rate and purity (ronghness) of the surface. A sMall quantity of sludge (6-8%) under ECT is in highly alkali electrolytes

  6. Parathyroid Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the following rare disorders that are inherited (passed down from parent to child): Familial isolated hyperparathyroidism (FIHP). Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome . Treatment with radiation therapy may increase the risk of ...

  7. Plague Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Plague Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Plague Home Ecology & Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis & Treatment Maps & Statistics ...

  8. Treatment and Follow Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Close Celiac Disease Understanding Celiac Disease What is Celiac Disease? Symptoms Screening and Diagnosis Treatment and Follow-Up Dermatitis ... you find the right healthcare practitioner to discuss symptoms, diagnose, and ... Our nationwide Healthcare Practitioner Directory lists primary care ...

  9. Alternative Menopause Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... menopausal symptoms. These include estrogen—still the most effective treatment for many menopausal symptoms—non-estrogen prescription drugs, and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). What is CAM? CAM refers to practices ...

  10. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to help find the medication and dosage that will work best for your child. Different medications work ... effects. Before medication treatment begins, your child’s doctor will do a thorough health evaluation. The doctor should ...

  11. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and drug addiction, and more driving infractions. The good news is that effective treatment is available . With ... to use point systems or charts to reward good behavior. When a child becomes too unruly or ...

  12. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medical treatment, children with ADHD can improve their ability to pay attention and control their behavior. The ... therapy. Since individual needs vary, however, you should work with your child’s doctor to help find most ...

  13. Head Lice: Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before treatment using the hot water (130°F) laundry cycle and the high heat drying cycle. Clothing ... does not imply endorsement by the Public Health Service or by the U.S. Department of Health and ...

  14. Patient Treatment File (PTF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This database is part of the National Medical Information System (NMIS). The Patient Treatment File (PTF) contains a record for each inpatient care episode provided...

  15. Treatment-Resistant Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on your own, talk to your doctor or mental health professional. Depression treatment may be unsuccessful until you address your substance use. Manage stress. Relationship issues, financial problems, an unhappy work life and many other issues can all contribute ...

  16. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ADHD will continue to benefit from it as teenagers. In fact, many adults with ADHD also find ... and Symptoms Getting Treatment Supporting School Success The Teenage Years Working Together Resources Connect With Us Contact ...

  17. Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howes, Oliver D; McCutcheon, Rob; Agid, Ofer

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Research and clinical translation in schizophrenia is limited by inconsistent definitions of treatment resistance and response. To address this issue, the authors evaluated current approaches and then developed consensus criteria and guidelines. METHOD: A systematic review of randomize...

  18. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... children with ADHD benefit from taking medication. Medications do not cure ADHD. Medications can control ADHD symptoms ... Before medication treatment begins, your child’s doctor will do a thorough health evaluation. The doctor should continue ...

  19. Treatment of Acoustic Neuroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Learn Treatment Options Overview English English Arabic Catalan Chinese (Simplified) Chinese (Traditional) Danish French German Greek ... for delivering stereotactic radiation have improved, an increasing number of patients have chosen to receive stereotactic radiosurgery ...

  20. Wastewater Treatment in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Ragnhildur

    treatment in these regions. However, designing, constructing and operating wastewater collection systems in the Arctic is challenging because of e.g. permafrost conditions, hard rock surfaces, freezing, limited quantity of water and high costs of electricity, fuel and transportation, as well as a settlement...... or water saving toilets. This opens up for co-treatment of organic waste fractions. Freezing and thawing has also been recognised as being a cost-effective wastewater treatment method in cold regions. Thus it was chosen to concentrate on the effect of the mentioned processes, namely freezing, anaerobic...... spreading of nutrients, diseases and potential pollution issues. Due to the above mentioned challenges alternative treatment methods are needed, especially in small and remotely located communities. Decentralized solutions are well suited for Greenland. Ideal solutions should reduce the need for expensive...

  1. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the right medical treatment, children with ADHD can improve their ability to pay attention and control their ... therapy helps the family develop a plan to improve a child’s behavior. For example, parents can learn ...

  2. Acid Mine Drainage Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fripp, Jon

    2000-01-01

    .... Acid mine drainage (AMD) can have severe impacts to aquatic resources, can stunt terrestrial plant growth and harm wetlands, contaminate groundwater, raise water treatment costs, and damage concrete and metal structures...

  3. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have been prescribing them for more than 60 years. More recently, non-stimulant medications have become available ... Symptoms Getting Treatment Supporting School Success The Teenage Years Working Together Resources Connect With Us Contact Us ...

  4. Dairy wastewater treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... treatment processes to treat dairy wastewater such as activated sludge system .... Gas chromatograph. (Perkin Elmer, Auto system XL), equipped with thermal conductivity ..... Enzymatic hydrolysis of molasses. Bioresour. Tech.

  5. Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Individual permits for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)...

  6. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and help the child function at a normal level. Treatment may include medication, therapy, family support, educational support, or a combination of these. A major study sponsored by the National Institute of Mental Health ...

  7. Glaucoma: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Glaucoma Symptoms, Treatment and Research Past Issues / Spring 2015 ... vision, without any pain. Photo courtesy of NEI Glaucoma Symptoms At first, open-angle glaucoma has no ...

  8. Childhood Astrocytomas Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the base of the brain. It controls body temperature, hunger, and thirst. Visual pathway : The group of ... the tumor may cause severe physical, emotional, or learning problems, a biopsy is done and more treatment ...

  9. The presentation and treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    tion of single collocations proposals are made for an implicit presentation of complex ... function lexicographers often include items to illustrate the typical use of the ... they have no items explicitly addressed at them to elevate them to treatment.

  10. Treatment of personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Anthony W; Gunderson, John; Mulder, Roger

    2015-02-21

    The evidence base for the effective treatment of personality disorders is insufficient. Most of the existing evidence on personality disorder is for the treatment of borderline personality disorder, but even this is limited by the small sample sizes and short follow-up in clinical trials, the wide range of core outcome measures used by studies, and poor control of coexisting psychopathology. Psychological or psychosocial intervention is recommended as the primary treatment for borderline personality disorder and pharmacotherapy is only advised as an adjunctive treatment. The amount of research about the underlying, abnormal, psychological or biological processes leading to the manifestation of a disordered personality is increasing, which could lead to more effective interventions. The synergistic or antagonistic interaction of psychotherapies and drugs for treating personality disorder should be studied in conjunction with their mechanisms of change throughout the development of each. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Addic tion treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-01-29

    Jan 29, 2009 ... to make any inroads in addressing this important public health problem: • Why does ... health insurance industry is delighted, as competition between various facilities .... the selection of a treatment programme for a particular ...

  12. Treatment of Essential Tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for PATIENTS and their FAMILIES TREATMENT OF ESSENTIAL TREMOR This fact sheet is provided to help you understand which therapies help treat essential tremor. Neurologists from the American Academy of Neurology are ...

  13. Thalassemia: Complications and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir If I have thalassemia, how does it affect my body? Since your ... like flu shots and other vaccines. How is thalassemia treated? The type of treatment a person receives ...

  14. Treatment with radioactive drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, I.R.

    1978-01-01

    The use of 131 I in the treatment of thyroid diseases is described. The therapeutic possibilities of application for ther radionuklide, e.g. phosphorus 32, gold 198, or yttrium 90 are discussed. (VJ) [de

  15. Cancer treatment - early menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premature menopause; Ovarian insufficiency - cancer ... Cancer treatments that can cause early menopause include: Surgery. Having both ovaries removed causes menopause to happen right away. If you are age 50 or younger, your provider may ...

  16. Skin Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase ... is based on the type of nonmelanoma skin cancer or other skin condition diagnosed: Basal cell carcinoma Enlarge Basal cell ...

  17. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... into the evening. ADHD medications can have side effects. Before medication treatment begins, your child’s doctor will ... should continue to monitor your child for side effects. A majority of children who benefit from medication ...

  18. TREATMENT OF TOXOPLASMOSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening tests of various kinds of compounds were carried out with the purpose of obtaining new drugs for toxoplasmosis . Compounds tested were 66...Nitro-4’-formylamino-difenylsulfone might be effective in treatments of human toxoplasmosis . (Author)

  19. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... level. Treatment may include medication, therapy, family support, educational support, or a combination of these. A major ... For example, parents can learn to use point systems or charts to reward good behavior. When a ...

  20. Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  1. Lewy Body Disease Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may experience severe neuroleptic sensitivity, such as worsening cognition, heavy sedation, increased or possibly irreversible parkinsonism, or ... addition to these forms of therapy and treatment, music and aroma therapy can also reduce anxiety and ...

  2. Techniques of Wastewater Treatment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of Chemical Engineering in UDCT and works ... tional methods of treatment. Currently the need is ... temperature causes the organic molecule to undergo oxidative degradation. ... When ultrasound is applied to effluent, water undergoes ther-.

  3. Thermal plasma waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heberlein, Joachim; Murphy, Anthony B

    2008-01-01

    Plasma waste treatment has over the past decade become a more prominent technology because of the increasing problems with waste disposal and because of the realization of opportunities to generate valuable co-products. Plasma vitrification of hazardous slags has been a commercial technology for several years, and volume reduction of hazardous wastes using plasma processes is increasingly being used. Plasma gasification of wastes with low negative values has attracted interest as a source of energy and spawned process developments for treatment of even municipal solid wastes. Numerous technologies and approaches exist for plasma treatment of wastes. This review summarizes the approaches that have been developed, presents some of the basic physical principles, provides details of some specific processes and considers the advantages and disadvantages of thermal plasmas in waste treatment applications. (topical review)

  4. Treatment of anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Bandelow, Borwin; Michaelis, Sophie; Wedekind, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder/agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder, and others) are the most prevalent psychiatric disorders, and are associated with a high burden of illness. Anxiety disorders are often underrecognized and undertreated in primary care. Treatment is indicated when a patient shows marked distress or suffers from complications resulting from the disorder. The treatment recommendations given in this article are based on guidelines, meta-analyses...

  5. Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Bošnjak-Pašić, Marija; Vidrih, Branka; Miškov, Snježana; Demarin, Vida

    2009-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, characterized by multifocal inflammatory destruction of myelin, axonal damage and loss of oligodendrocytes. The disease is carried through two stages: inflammatory and degenerative. The most common form of disease in approximately 85% of the cases is RRMS (relapsing-remitting form). The treatment of MS is divided into: treatment of the acute phase of illness, prevention of new relapses and di...

  6. Portable treatment systems study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherick, M.J.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Bechtold, T.E.; Cole, L.T.

    1997-03-01

    In developing their Site Treatment Plans (STPs), many of the Department of Energy installations identified some form of portable treatment, to facilitate compliant disposition of select mixed low-level wastestreams. The Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology requested that a systems study be performed to better define the potential role of portable treatment with respect to mixed low-level waste, highlight obstacles to implementation, and identify opportunities for future research and development emphasis. The study was performed by first establishing a representative set of mixed waste, then formulating portable treatment system concepts to meet the required processing needs for these wastes. The portable systems that were conceptualized were evaluated and compared to a fixed centralized treatment alternative. The system evaluations include a life-cycle cost analysis and an assessment of regulatory, institutional, and technical issues associated with the potential use of portable systems. The results of this study show that when all costs are included, there are no significant cost differences between portable systems and fixed systems. However, it is also emphasized that many uncertainties exist that could impact the cost of implementing portable treatment systems. Portable treatment could be made more attractive through private sector implementation, although there is little economic incentive for a commercial vendor to develop small, specialized treatment capabilities with limited applicability. Alternatively, there may also be valid reasons why fixed units cannot be used for some problematic wastestreams. In any event, there are some site-specific problems that still need to be addressed, and there may be some opportunity for research and development to make a positive impact in these areas.

  7. Current Treatments of Bruxism

    OpenAIRE

    Guaita, Marc; H?gl, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Opinion statement Despite numerous case reports, the evidence for treatment of bruxism is still low. Different treatment modalities (behavioral techniques, intraoral devices, medications, and contingent electrical stimulation) have been applied. A clinical evaluation is needed to differentiate between awake bruxism and sleep bruxism and rule out any medical disorder or medication that could be behind its appearance (secondary bruxism). A polysomnography is required only in a few cases of slee...

  8. Portable treatment systems study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherick, M.J.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Bechtold, T.E.; Cole, L.T.

    1997-03-01

    In developing their Site Treatment Plans (STPs), many of the Department of Energy installations identified some form of portable treatment, to facilitate compliant disposition of select mixed low-level wastestreams. The Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology requested that a systems study be performed to better define the potential role of portable treatment with respect to mixed low-level waste, highlight obstacles to implementation, and identify opportunities for future research and development emphasis. The study was performed by first establishing a representative set of mixed waste, then formulating portable treatment system concepts to meet the required processing needs for these wastes. The portable systems that were conceptualized were evaluated and compared to a fixed centralized treatment alternative. The system evaluations include a life-cycle cost analysis and an assessment of regulatory, institutional, and technical issues associated with the potential use of portable systems. The results of this study show that when all costs are included, there are no significant cost differences between portable systems and fixed systems. However, it is also emphasized that many uncertainties exist that could impact the cost of implementing portable treatment systems. Portable treatment could be made more attractive through private sector implementation, although there is little economic incentive for a commercial vendor to develop small, specialized treatment capabilities with limited applicability. Alternatively, there may also be valid reasons why fixed units cannot be used for some problematic wastestreams. In any event, there are some site-specific problems that still need to be addressed, and there may be some opportunity for research and development to make a positive impact in these areas

  9. Treatment of Schizoaffective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the range of treatments prescribed for schizoaffective disorder. The data show that the majority of those treated, 87 percent, receive two or more pharmaceutical classes. From a therapeutic class perspective, 93 percent of schizoaffective disorder patients receive an antipsychotic, 48 percent receive a mood disorder treatment, and 42 percent receive an antidepressant. An expert commentary is also included. PMID:19724749

  10. Endovascular treatment in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Akira; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    There is an increased risk of stroke during pregnancy and the puerperium. Decisions should be made immediately upon transfer to each institution, particularly with respect to when and how to treat the patient. This review highlights the feasibility of endovascular treatment in pregnancy. Most of the pharmaceutical agents and therapeutic devices used in clinical practice can be utilized in pregnant patients. Comprehensive information on the benefits and risks of treatment should be explained to the patient and her family, with particular attention to the safety of the mother and fetus. Radiation exposure to the fetus is also a concern; the hazard can be minimized with optimal protection. Several studies have demonstrated that conventional procedures do not cause serious radiation exposure exceeding the threshold of safety to the fetus. Endovascular therapy can be safely performed for the treatment of acute stroke as in non-pregnant patients with adequate attention to pharmaceutical agents and shielding from radiation. In contrast to therapy for acute stroke, preventive endovascular treatment for asymptomatic lesions remains controversial. Several conditions, such as cerebral aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations, are known to bleed more frequently in pregnancy, but whether the benefits of preventive treatment outweigh the associated risks is unknown. The decision for preventive treatment should be carefully made on a case-by-case basis after extensive discussion with the patient. (author)

  11. 40 CFR 133.105 - Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment. 133.105 Section 133.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS SECONDARY TREATMENT REGULATION § 133.105 Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment...

  12. HORMONAL TREATMENT IN UROGYNECOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolf Lukanović

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hormonal treatment in urogynecology is based on the knowledge, that urinary and reproductive tracts have common embriologic origin and are also linked anatomically and functionally. Both systems are functioning and changing due to sex steroids influence. Decreased estrogen concentrations are connected to metabolic and trophic changes in all organs with estrogen receptors, i.e. also in urogenital tract. Atrophy of urogenital system in postmenopause is a common causative factor for stress urinary incontinence (SUI and urge incontinence (UUI. In both estrogen replacement treatment have been introduced, but meta-analyses of the available literature indicate that estrogen therapy is effective only if given vaginaly. Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI occur in postmenopause often as a consequence of structural changes in urinary and reproductive tract to lowered immune protection and colonization with eneterobacteria. In RUTI too, estrogen replacement treatment have been used with the results similar to those with SUI and UUI. Effectiveness of estrogen treatment was evident only in topically applied vaginaly, while oral administration has the same effectiveness as placebo. Conclusions. Structural changes in urogenital tract in postmenopause are the results of estrogen depletion. Estrogen replacement is effective in cases of SUI, UUI and RUTI if it is applied topicaly, the efffect being influenced by the type of estrogen used and duration of treatment.

  13. Hyperthyroidism: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jeri R; Wheeler, Stephen F

    2005-08-15

    The proper treatment of hyperthyroidism depends on recognition of the signs and symptoms of the disease and determination of the etiology. The most common cause of hyperthyroidism is Graves' disease. Other common causes include thyroiditis, toxic multinodular goiter, toxic adenomas, and side effects of certain medications. The diagnostic workup begins with a thyroid-stimulating hormone level test. When test results are uncertain, measuring radionuclide uptake helps distinguish among possible causes. When thyroiditis is the cause, symptomatic treatment usually is sufficient because the associated hyperthyroidism is transient. Graves' disease, toxic multinodular goiter, and toxic adenoma can be treated with radioactive iodine, antithyroid drugs, or surgery, but in the United States, radioactive iodine is the treatment of choice in patients without contraindications. Thyroidectomy is an option when other treatments fail or are contraindicated, or when a goiter is causing compressive symptoms. Some new therapies are under investigation. Special treatment consideration must be given to patients who are pregnant or breastfeeding, as well as those with Graves' ophthalmopathy or amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism. Patients' desires must be considered when deciding on appropriate therapy, and dose monitoring is essential.

  14. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J.

    2012-07-01

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies.

  15. Computerized radiation treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laarse, R. van der.

    1981-01-01

    Following a general introduction, a chain consisting of three computer programs which has been developed for treatment planning of external beam radiotherapy without manual intervention is described. New score functions used for determination of optimal incidence directions are presented and the calculation of the position of the isocentre for each optimum combination of incidence directions is explained. A description of how a set of applicators, covering fields with dimensions of 4 to 20 cm, for the 6 to 20 MeV electron beams of a MEL SL75-20 linear accelerator was developed, is given. A computer program for three dimensional electron beam treatment planning is presented. A microprocessor based treatment planning system for the Selectron remote controlled afterloading system for intracavitary radiotherapy is described. The main differences in treatment planning procedures for external beam therapy with neutrons instead of photons is discussed. A microprocessor based densitometer for plotting isodensity lines in film dosimetry is described. A computer program for dose planning of brachytherapy is presented. Finally a general discussion about the different aspects of computerized treatment planning as presented in this thesis is given. (Auth.)

  16. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallman, Guy J [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Weslaco, TX (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies. (author)

  17. Preventive Migraine Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review: This article reviews the evidence base for the preventive treatment of migraine. Recent Findings: Evidence-based guidelines for the preventive treatment of migraine have recently been published by the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) and the Canadian Headache Society (CHS), providing valuable guidance for clinicians. Strong evidence exists to support the use of metoprolol, timolol, propranolol, divalproex sodium, sodium valproate, and topiramate for migraine prevention, according to the AAN. Based on best available evidence, adverse event profile, and expert consensus, topiramate, propranolol, nadolol, metoprolol, amitriptyline, gabapentin, candesartan, Petasites (butterbur), riboflavin, coenzyme Q10, and magnesium citrate received a strong recommendation for use from the CHS. Summary: Migraine preventive drug treatments are underutilized in clinical practice. Principles of preventive treatment are important to improve compliance, minimize side effects, and improve patient outcomes. Choice of preventive treatment of migraine should be based on the presence of comorbid and coexistent illness, patient preference, reproductive potential and planning, and best available evidence. PMID:26252585

  18. Treatment Deployment Evaluation Tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. A. Rynearson; M. M. Plum

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the final disposition of legacy spent nuclear fuel (SNF). As a response, DOE's National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) has been given the responsibility for the disposition of DOE-owned SNF. Many treatment technologies have been identified to treat some forms of SNF so that the resulting treated product is acceptable by the disposition site. One of these promising treatment processes is the electrometallurgical treatment (EMT) currently in development; a second is an Acid Wash Decladding process. The NSNFP has been tasked with identifying possible strategies for the deployment of these treatment processes in the event that a treatment path is deemed necessary. To support the siting studies of these strategies, economic evaluations are being performed to identify the least-cost deployment path. This model (tool) was developed to consider the full scope of costs, technical feasibility, process material disposition, and schedule attributes over the life of each deployment alternative. Using standard personal computer (PC) software, the model was developed as a comprehensive technology economic assessment tool using a Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis methodology. Model development was planned as a systematic, iterative process of identifying and bounding the required activities to dispose of SNF. To support the evaluation process, activities are decomposed into lower level, easier to estimate activities. Sensitivity studies can then be performed on these activities, defining cost issues and testing results against the originally stated problem

  19. Deciding treatment for miscarriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette Linnet; Graungaard, Anette H; Husted, Gitte R

    2015-01-01

    understanding of the women's reactions. In relation to theory about informed consent, our findings suggest that women need more understanding of the treatments before making a decision. This study is limited due to a small sample size, but it generates important findings that need to be examined in a larger...... to gain insight into this process and the circumstances that may affect it. METHOD: A qualitative study using a grounded theory approach. Data were obtained through semi-structured interviews with six women who had chosen and completed either surgical, medical or expectant treatment for miscarriage...... sample. CONCLUSION: Frequently, women did not use information provided about treatment pros and cons in their decision-making process. Because of unspoken thoughts, and women's needs being unexplored by healthcare professionals, information did not target women's needs and their reasoning remained...

  20. Treatment Algorithm for Ameloblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhumati Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ameloblastoma is the second most common benign odontogenic tumour (Shafer et al. 2006 which constitutes 1–3% of all cysts and tumours of jaw, with locally aggressive behaviour, high recurrence rate, and a malignant potential (Chaine et al. 2009. Various treatment algorithms for ameloblastoma have been reported; however, a universally accepted approach remains unsettled and controversial (Chaine et al. 2009. The treatment algorithm to be chosen depends on size (Escande et al. 2009 and Sampson and Pogrel 1999, anatomical location (Feinberg and Steinberg 1996, histologic variant (Philipsen and Reichart 1998, and anatomical involvement (Jackson et al. 1996. In this paper various such treatment modalities which include enucleation and peripheral osteotomy, partial maxillectomy, segmental resection and reconstruction done with fibula graft, and radical resection and reconstruction done with rib graft and their recurrence rate are reviewed with study of five cases.

  1. Treatment of midfacial fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, J.

    2007-01-01

    Fractures of the midface constitute half of all traumas involving facial bones. Computed tomography is very useful in primary diagnosis. Isolated fractures of the nasal bone and lateral midfacial structures may be diagnosed sufficiently by conventional X-rays. An exact description of the fracture lines along the midfacial buttresses is essential for treatment planning. For good aesthetics and function these have to be reconstructed accurately, which can be checked with X-rays. The treatment of midfacial fractures has been revolutionized over the last two decades. A stable three-dimensional reconstruction of the facial shape is now possible and the duration of treatment has shortened remarkably. The frequently occurring isolated fractures in the lateral part of the midface may be treated easily and effectively by semisurgical methods such as the Gillies procedure or hook-repositioning. (orig.)

  2. Treatment decisions under ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Loïc; Bleichrodt, Han; Eeckhoudt, Louis

    2013-05-01

    Many health risks are ambiguous in the sense that reliable and credible information about these risks is unavailable. In health economics, ambiguity is usually handled through sensitivity analysis, which implicitly assumes that people are neutral towards ambiguity. However, empirical evidence suggests that people are averse to ambiguity and react strongly to it. This paper studies the effects of ambiguity aversion on two classical medical decision problems. If there is ambiguity regarding the diagnosis of a patient, ambiguity aversion increases the decision maker's propensity to opt for treatment. On the other hand, in the case of ambiguity regarding the effects of treatment, ambiguity aversion leads to a reduction in the propensity to choose treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Emerging treatment of endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboubakr Elnashar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Current treatment of endometriosis is mainly based on surgery and ovarian suppressive agents (oral contraceptives, progestins, GnRh agonist and androgenic agents. Hormonal treatments are often associated with unwanted effects, delayed conception and recurrence of disease and symptoms when stopped. For these reasons, new drugs that aim new targets are required to cause regression of the disease & symptoms without adverse hypo-estrogenic effects. This review aims to provide an update on the new drugs used for treatment of endometriosis. These include the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device, GnRH antagonists, aromatase inhibitors, selective estrogen-receptor modulators, progesterone antagonist, selective progesterone receptor modulators, angiogenesis inhibitors, and immunomodulatory drugs.

  4. Cancer treatment: what's ahead?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvez, T.

    2005-01-01

    Surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy are standard modalities for cancer treatment. Biological therapy (immunotherapy, biotherapy, or biological response modifier therapy) is a comparatively novel addition to this armamentarium. Biological therapies use the body's immune system, either directly or indirectly, to fight cancer or to lessen the side effects that may be caused by some cancer treatments. Biological therapeutic agents include interferons, interleukins, colony-simulating factors, monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, gene therapy, and nonspecific immunomodulating agents. A promising form of cancer treatment is immunotherapy. Immunotherapy for cancer is essentially the stimulation of the immune system through a variety of reagents such as vaccines, infusion of T-cells, or cytokines. These reagents act through one of several mechanisms including stimulating the anti-tumour response, decreasing suppressor mechanisms, altering tumour cells to increase their immunogenicity and making them more susceptible to immunologic defenses, and improving tolerance to cytotoxic agents or radiotherapy. This review describes some novel approaches in the immunotherapy in cancer. (author)

  5. Epilepsy treatment and creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubkov, Sarah; Friedman, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Creativity can be defined as the ability to understand, develop, and express, in a systematic fashion, novel orderly relationships. It is sometimes difficult to separate cognitive skills requisite for the creative process from the drive that generates unique new ideas and associations. Epilepsy itself may affect the creative process. The treatment of epilepsy and its comorbidities, by altering or disrupting the same neural networks through antiseizure drugs (ASDs), treatment of epilepsy comorbidities, ablative surgery, or neurostimulation may also affect creativity. In this review, we discuss the potential mechanisms by which treatment can influence the creative process and review the literature on the consequences of therapy on different aspects of creativity in people with epilepsy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Epilepsy, Art, and Creativity". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hyperthyroidism: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravets, Igor

    2016-03-01

    Hyperthyroidism is an excessive concentration of thyroid hormones in tissues caused by increased synthesis of thyroid hormones, excessive release of preformed thyroid hormones, or an endogenous or exogenous extrathyroidal source. The most common causes of an excessive production of thyroid hormones are Graves disease, toxic multinodular goiter, and toxic adenoma. The most common cause of an excessive passive release of thyroid hormones is painless (silent) thyroiditis, although its clinical presentation is the same as with other causes. Hyperthyroidism caused by overproduction of thyroid hormones can be treated with antithyroid medications (methimazole and propylthiouracil), radioactive iodine ablation of the thyroid gland, or surgical thyroidectomy. Radioactive iodine ablation is the most widely used treatment in the United States. The choice of treatment depends on the underlying diagnosis, the presence of contraindications to a particular treatment modality, the severity of hyperthyroidism, and the patient's preference.

  7. Alopecia areata: Treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kasumagić-Halilović

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Alopecia areata (AA is a common cause of reversible hair loss afflictingapproximately1-2%ofthegeneralpopulation. It commonly present as round patches of hair loss which can be the firstmanifestationofamoreseverealopecia totalis or universalis. The cause of AA is unknown although most evidence supports the hypothesis that AA is an immunologically mediated disease. Treatment of AA may be divided into four different categories of widely accepted therapeutic modalities: immune inhibitors (steroid or psoralen and UVA light- PUVA, topicalsensitizers (squaric acid dibutylester and diphenylcyclopropenone, non-specificirritants(anthralinandthevasodilatator minoxidil. Improved future treatments may be immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory or they may otherwise protect hair follicles from the injurious effects of inflammation.Theaimofthisarticleistoreviewavailable data on current and potential agents for the treatment of AA.

  8. Childhood vitiligo: Treatment paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrinder Jit Kanwar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood vitiligo differs from the adults by showing a higher incidence in females, segmental vitiligo being more common and less frequent association with other systemic autoimmune and endocrine disorders.Childhood vitiligo is often associated with a marked psychosocial and long lasting effect on the self-esteem of the affected children and their parents, hence an adequate treatment is very essential. Treatment of vitiligo is indeed a tough challenge for the dermatologists′ more so in the background of childhood vitiligo. Although multiple therapeutic modalities are available in the therapeutic armamentarium, not all can be used in children. This brief report updates regarding various therapies available in the treatment of childhood vitiligo.

  9. New treatments for gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapa, Janet B; Pillinger, Michael H

    2010-05-01

    Gout is a commonly occurring medical condition that can lead to significant morbidity. Therapies available for the treatment of both acute and chronic gouty arthritis have not changed significantly since the 1960s. Although these treatments are well established, they are often contraindicated in the presence of various different comorbidities, including diabetes, renal insufficiency, hypertension and gastrointestinal disease, all of which can occur frequently in patients with gout. Therefore, new treatments are needed. This review describes recent advances in therapeutics for gout, including drugs designed to reduce levels of urate and to inhibit acute or chronic inflammation. While some of these strategies are currently available, others are undergoing regulatory evaluation or are at earlier stages of development.

  10. Amblyopia update: new treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagge, Aldo; Nelson, Leonard B

    2016-09-01

    This review article is an update on the current treatments for amblyopia. In particular, the authors focus on the concepts of brain plasticity and their implications for novel treatment strategies for both children and adults affected by amblyopia. A variety of strategies has been developed to treat amblyopia in children and adults. New evidence on the pathogenesis of amblyopia has been obtained both in animal models and in clinical trials. Mainly, these studies have challenged the classical concept that amblyopia becomes untreatable after the 'end' of the sensitive or critical period of visual development, because of a lack of sufficient plasticity in the adult brain. New treatments for amblyopia in children and adults are desirable and should be encouraged. However, further studies should be completed before such therapies are widely accepted into clinical practice.

  11. Novel preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    A number of novel preventive treatment options which, as with traditional methods, can be differentiated into 3 categories of prevention (primary, secondary and tertiary), have been and are being currently investigated. Those reviewed are either commercially available or appear relatively close...... of these techniques show considerable promise and dentists should be aware of these developments and follow their progress, the evidence for each of these novel preventive treatment options is currently insufficient to make widespread recommendations. Changes in dental practice should be explored to see how oral...

  12. Thyroxin hormone suppression treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    One of the important modalities of treatment of thyroid cancer (TC) after surgery is the administration of thyroxin as an adjuvant treatment. The analysis supports the theory that thyroid suppression plays an important role in patient management. 300 μg of thyroxin, as this is an adequate dose for suppression is given. Ideally the dose should be tailored by testing s-TSH levels. However, since a large number of the patients come from out station cities and villages this is impractical. We therefore depend on clinical criteria of hyperthyroid symptoms and adjust the dose. Very few patients need such adjustment

  13. Dermatological laser treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moerk, N.J.; Austad, J.; Helland, S.; Thune, P.; Volden, G.; Falk, E.

    1991-01-01

    The article reviews the different lasers used in dermatology. Special emphasis is placed on the treatment of naevus flammeus (''portwine stain'') where lasers are the treatment of choice. Argon laser and pulsed dye laser are the main lasers used in vascular skin diseases, and the article focuses on these two types. Copper-vapour laser, neodymium-YAG laser and CO 2 laser are also presented. Information is provided about the availability of laser technology in the different health regions in Norway. 5 refs., 2 figs

  14. Treatment of hay fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, S F

    1989-01-01

    The range of treatments for hay fever available to the general practitioner has changed considerably in recent years. New antihistamines have addressed the problem of sedation and moved towards one daily dose; nasally applied corticosteroids avoid the need for systemic steroid therapy and its potential adverse effect; and regulatory decisions have set a trend away from immunotherapy in general practice. However, knowledge about the mechanism of action of immunotherapy is increasing and new developments with improved safety profiles include allergen polymers, allergoids, oral immunotherapy and nasal immunotherapy. Choice of treatment depends, as always, on the individual circumstances of the patient and his or her disease. PMID:2556545

  15. Experimental pavement delineation treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryden, J. E.; Lorini, R. A.

    1981-06-01

    Visibility and durability of materials used to delineate shoulders and medians adjacent to asphalt pavements were evaluated. Materials evaluated were polysulfide and coal tar epoxies, one and two component polyesters, portland cement, acrylic paints, modified-alkyd traffic paint, preformed plastic tape, and thermoplastic markings. Neat applications, sand mortars, and surface treatments were installed in several geometric patterns including cross hatches, solid median treatments, and various widths of edge lines. Thermoplastic pavement markings generally performed very well, providing good visibility under adverse viewing conditions for at least 4 years. Thermoplastic 4 in. wide edge lines appear to provide adequate visibility for most conditions.

  16. Approaches to methadone treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järvinen, Margaretha

    2008-01-01

    and does not focus on the consequences of drug use alone but also on their problematic relationship to drugs (legal as well as illegal). Furthermore, the users’ attitudes towards methadone are far more ambivalent than the staff's. For the users, methadone is not just medicine; it is also a dependence...... in the model are three dimensions (1) treatment goals at the methadone centres (abstinence vs. stabilisation) (2) treatment focus (focus on addiction vs. focus on the consequences of addiction) and (3) conceptualisation of methadone (methadone as similar to or different from heroin). The paper shows......-producing and ‘dangerous’ drug....

  17. Current treatment of retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is a highly malignant intraocular tumor of childhood which requires prompt treatment once the diagnosis has been established. The traditionally accepted methods include enucleation, external irradiation, scleral plaque irradiation, photocoagulation, cryotherapy, chemotherapy. This article will provide an update on the modern methods of treatment which are available for retinoblastoma. It is based largely on personal experience with approximately 200 new patients with retinoblastoma who were evaluated and treated between 1974 and 1984 in the Oncology Service of Wills Eye Hospital with an overall survival of 97%. This article will be an overall review which will not go into statistical detail. (Auth.)

  18. LCA of Wastewater Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred

    2018-01-01

    of LCA studies addressing wastewater treatment have from the very first published cases, been on energy and resource consumption. In recent time, the use of characterisation has increased and besides global warming potential, especially eutrophication is in focus. Even the toxicity-related impact......The main purpose of wastewater treatment is to protect humans against waterborne diseases and to safeguard aquatic bio-resources like fish. The dominating environmental concerns within this domain are indeed still potential aquatic eutrophication/oxygen depletion due to nutrient/organic matter...

  19. Alopecia areata: medical treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonunsanga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alopecia areata (AA is a non-scarring, autoimmune, inflammatory, relapsing hair loss affecting the scalp and/or body. In acute-phase AA, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells infiltrated in the juxta-follicular area. In chronic-phase AACD8+ T cells dominated the infiltrate around hair bulbs which contributes to the prolonged state of hair loss. Treatments include mainly corticosteroids, topical irritants, minoxidil, cytotoxic drugs and biologicals. This review highlights mainly the pathomechanism and pathology, classifications and associated diseases with regard to their importance for current and future treatment.

  20. Completion of treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lief, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    The outline of the lecture included the following topics: entering prescription; plan printout; print and transfer DDR; segment BEV; export to R and V; physician approval; and second check. Considerable attention, analysis and discussion. The summary is as follows: Treatment planning completion is a very responsible process which requires maximum attention; Should be independently checked by the planner, physicist, radiation oncologist and a therapist; Should not be done in a last minute rush; Proper communication between team members; Properly set procedure should prevent propagation of an error by one individual to the treatment: the error should be caught by somebody else. (P.A.)

  1. Encounters in cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2014-01-01

    Based on extensive ethnographic material from in-depth interviews with Danish cancer patients after treatment, this study analyzes their stories to explore how interactions with the physician configures and situates a need for rehabilitation. We identify three themes in the illness stories: (1...... by this encounter. The significance of the social encounters in cancer treatment is elucidated through this analysis, and we demonstrate how the need for recognition of the complex effects of cancer on one's life is central to counter experiences of objectification and dehumanization....

  2. Factors influencing drug uptake during mass drug administration for control of lymphatic filariasis in rural and urban Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kisoka, William J.; Simonsen, Paul Erik; Malecela, Mwelecele N.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In most countries of Sub-Saharan Africa, control of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is based on annual mass drug administration (MDA) with a combination of ivermectin and albendazole. Treatment coverages are however often suboptimal for programmes to reach the goal of transmission interrupt......BACKGROUND: In most countries of Sub-Saharan Africa, control of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is based on annual mass drug administration (MDA) with a combination of ivermectin and albendazole. Treatment coverages are however often suboptimal for programmes to reach the goal of transmission...

  3. Treatment Options for Wilms Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... come back) after it has been treated. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  4. Treatment Options for Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... special light. Certain factors affect prognosis and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options ... age and general health of the patient. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Prostate Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  6. Treatment Option Overview (Myelodysplastic Syndromes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... special light. Certain factors affect prognosis and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options ... age and general health of the patient. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  7. Treatment Option Overview (Esophageal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  8. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Penile Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  10. Treatment Option Overview (Vulvar Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  11. Treatment Option Overview (Pancreatic Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  12. Treatment Option Overview (Adrenocortical Carcinoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect the prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  13. Stroke Prevention & Treatment: Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention & Treatment: Diet & Nutrition Stroke Prevention & Treatment: Diet & Nutrition A healthy diet can reduce your risk for ... Treatment How does a stroke affect eating and nutrition? Stroke can devastate a person's nutritional health because ...

  14. Cancer treatment: dealing with pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000827.htm Cancer treatment - dealing with pain To use the sharing features ... test, can cause pain. Treatment. Many types of cancer treatments can cause pain, including chemotherapy , radiation , and surgery. ...

  15. Treatment Options for Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  16. Treatment Options for Kaposi Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  17. Treatment Options for Childhood Craniopharyngioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... the brain where it was first found. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  18. Radiation treatment of benign diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitan, J.B.; Flatby, J.; Backe, S.; Lundgren, L.

    1984-01-01

    The report deals with an estimation of the volume of radiation treatment of benign diseases in Norway and gives a survey of the subjective opinion of patients regarding the result of the treatment. Reported subjective recovery after radiation treatment seems to be at the same level as recovery without treatment. For an indication of the objective effect of radiation treatment of benign diseases, the subjective effect of this treatment has to be compared with objective findings

  19. Hand Eczema: Treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Tamara Theresia; Agner, Tove

    2017-01-01

    Hand eczema is a common disease, it affects young people, is often work-related, and the burden of the disease is significant for the individual as well as for society. Factors to be considered when choosing a treatment strategy are, among others, whether the eczema is acute or chronic, the sever...

  20. Treatment Options in Kleptomania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lut Tamam

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Kleptomania is a rare disorder with inability or great difficulty in resisting impulses of stealing. People with this disorder are compelled to steal things, generally things of little or no value. This disorder usually begins during puberty and usually last until late adulthood; in some cases lasts throughout the person's life. People with this disorder are likely to have a comorbid conditions like mood disorders. Individuals with the disorder are usually referred for treatment due to the comorbid psychiatric complaints rather than kleptomanic behaviour per se. On the other hand literature lacks of studies about the treatment of kleptomania. A wide variety of therapeutic strategies have been proposed for its treatment, among them psychoanalytic oriented psychotherapy, behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy. Some medications that are used for people diagnosed with kleptomania are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, mood stabilizers and opioid antagonists. There is evidence from numerous case studies that a variety of cognitive behavioral therapy techniques are effective in the treatment of kleptomania and it is favored over other approaches such as psychodynamic and psychoanalytic therapies. Studies to date suggest that cognitive behavioral therapy when used in combination with medication, is more effective than medication alone.

  1. Hydrophobic treatment of concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J. de; Polder, R.B.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the maintenance policy of the Dutch Ministry of Transport, Civil Engineering Division, hydrophobic treatment of concrete was considered as an additional protective measure against penetration of aggressive substances, for instance deicing salts in bridge decks. A set of tests was designed

  2. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about themselves. The goal of any type of ADHD treatment is to reduce symptoms and help the child ... it as teenagers. In fact, many adults with ADHD also find that medication can be helpful. Therapy and Other Support A psychiatrist or other qualified ...

  3. Water Treatment Technology - Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on filtration provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purposes of sedimentation basins and flocculation…

  4. [Balneotherapy and osteoarthritis treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latrille, Christian Roques

    2012-09-01

    Balneotherapy is a complementary form of medicine which uses natural thermal mineral resources in situ. It provides patients with osteoarthritis with a full treatment to ease pain and improve functions in the long-term without causing any significant therapeutic risks.

  5. Dental Treatment Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... collect debris and saliva in patient’s mouth during treatment. • When having restorations (fillings) done, a rubber dam can be used to isolate teeth and keep the dentist’s water and restorative materials from getting near the throat. ...

  6. Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story: Leukemia/Lymphoma Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of Contents For an enhanced version of this page please turn Javascript on. Leukemia Symptoms Frequent infections Fever and chills Anemia Easy ...

  7. Multidimension Treatment Foster Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Maiken; Hansen, Helle; Deding, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Dette notat er en kort opsamling af den nyeste forskning af effekterne af Multidimension Treatment Foster Care (herefter MTFC). SFI lavede i 2010 en oversigt over forskningen om effekterne af MTFC i forbindelse med udarbejdelsen af en projektbeskrivelse. Dette notat sammenfatter den nyeste...

  8. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Common Signs and Symptoms Getting Treatment Supporting School Success The Teenage Years Working Together Resources Connect With Us Contact Us info@advsol.com My Profile Donate About AACAP Copyright © Advanced Solutions International . {1} ##LOC[OK]## {1} ##LOC[OK]## ##LOC[Cancel]## { ...

  9. Radiation treatment of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The techniques involved in the treatment of food by ionising radiation are explained. Radiation plant design, nutrition, microbiology and standards for irradiated foods are discussed. The potential applications for food irradiation in Australia are in the fields of quarantine control to disinfest fruit from fruit fly or mangoes from seed weevil, and decontamination of dried foods such as spices

  10. Marijuana Neurobiology and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkashef, Ahmed; Vocci, Frank; Huestis, Marilyn; Haney, Margaret; Budney, Alan; Gruber, Amanda; el-Guebaly, Nady

    2008-01-01

    Marijuana is the number one illicit drug of abuse worldwide and a major public health problem, especially in the younger population. The objective of this article is to update and review the state of the science and treatments available for marijuana dependence based on a pre-meeting workshop that was presented at ISAM 2006. At the workshop,…

  11. Treatments for Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Pietro, Nina C; Whiteley, Louise Emma; Mizgalewicz, Ania

    2013-01-01

    The Internet is a major source of health-related information for parents of sick children despite concerns surrounding quality. For neurodevelopmental disorders, the websites of advocacy groups are a largely unexamined source of information. We evaluated treatment information posted on nine highly...

  12. IBS Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 01 July 2017 Print A short bout of abdominal pain and diarrhea or constipation now and then is not unusual. But long-term or recurring symptoms are not normal. They may signal irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) – and are generally treatable. IBS Treatments Depend ...

  13. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the right medical treatment, children with ADHD can improve their ability to pay attention and control their behavior. The right care can ... with ADHD cope with daily problems, pay better attention, and learn to control ... develop a plan to improve a child’s behavior. For example, parents can learn ...

  14. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ADHD? Common Signs and Symptoms Getting Treatment Supporting School Success The Teenage Years Working Together Resources Connect With Us Contact Us info@advsol.com My Profile Donate About AACAP Copyright © Advanced Solutions International . {1} ##LOC[OK]## {1} ##LOC[OK]## ##LOC[Cancel]## { ...

  15. Plasma treatment of onychomycosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zilan; Roe, Jeff; Grammer, Tim; Him, Yeon-Ho; Graves, David B.

    2015-09-01

    Onychomycosis or fungal infection of the toenail or fingernail is a common affliction. Approximately 10% of the world's adult population is estimated to suffer from onychomycosis. Current treatment options such as topical creams, oral drugs, or laser treatments are generally limited by a variety of problems. We present results for an alternative onychomycosis treatment scheme using atmospheric pressure cold air plasmas. Using thinned cow hoof as a model nail material, we tested the ability of various plasma sources to act through the model nail to eradicate either bacteria or fungus deposited on the opposite side. Following 20 minute exposure to a surface microdischarge (SMD) device operating in room air, we observed a ~ 2 log reduction of E. coli. A similar result was obtained against T. rubrum after 45 min plasma treatment. NOx species concentration penetrating through the model nail as well as uptake into the nail were measured as a function of nail thickness. We propose that these plasma-generated species, or perhaps their reaction products, are responsible for at least part of the observed anti-microbial effect. We also explore the use of ultraviolet light acting in synergy with plasma-generated chemical species.

  16. Post-treatment CIN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bais, Aagje G; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; Rebolj, Mateja

    2009-01-01

    We investigated in a randomised clinical trial whether addition of hrHPV testing (high-risk human papillomavirus) to cytological follow-up after treatment for high-grade CIN (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2/3) can lead to a better selection of women at risk for residual/recurrent CIN. We...

  17. The Treatment of Vaginismus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, George; Stuart, Freida; Maurice, William L.; Garry, Matthew

    1977-01-01

    The treatment of vaginismus was the subject of grand rounds in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Vancouver General Hospital. Staff members of the UBC Sex Therapy Unit participated in the presentation of a case of unconsummated marriage. PMID:21304871

  18. Irrigation in endodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basrani, Bettina

    2011-01-01

    The primary endodontic treatment goal is to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal system. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are discussed and new delivery systems are introduced.

  19. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... should work with your child’s doctor to help find most effective treatment for your child. Medications Most ... to confer with your child’s doctor to help find the medication and dosage that will work best ...

  20. Water Treatment Technology - Wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on wells provides instructional materials for five competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: dug, driven, and chilled wells, aquifer types, deep well…

  1. Pediatric Neurodevelopmental Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Ricardo; McCauley, Brandon; Szczech Moser, Christy

    2016-01-01

    Over 70 years ago Dr. Karel Bobath and his wife Bertha Bobath began to craft the therapeutic intervention now known as neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT). This edition of Reviews, Tools, and Resources will highlight a historical review of research studies that have been completed, current websites, books, and blogs focusing on NDT.

  2. Treatment of pterygium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shobha

    Chemotherapy. Over the years, various chemotherapeutic agents have been used in the treatment of pterygium. All were applied as adjuvant therapy with the .... from other countries thereby adding to the cost of surgery. This is as a result of the present paucity of tissue banks on the continent. The advantages of. AMT over ...

  3. Fertility Treatments for Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on: The underlying cause of the problem The woman's age Her history of previous pregnancies How long she has had infertility issues The presence or absence of male factor infertility Fertility treatments are most likely to benefit women whose infertility is due to problems with ovulation. ...

  4. Treatment of vinasses - recirculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Andrés Castro Moreno

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this minireview is to give an overview of treatments that have been applied on the vinasse, residue from the alcoholic fermentation; appoint some of its advantages and disadvantages, and then submit recirculation, as one of the best options from an economic point of view and easy implementation, for those who are not interested in the ethanol byproducts.

  5. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... therapy. Since individual needs vary, however, you should work with your child’s doctor to help find most effective treatment for ... help find the medication and dosage that will work best for your child. Different medications work for different individuals. Some of ...

  6. Treatment Options for Narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barateau, Lucie; Lopez, Régis; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-05-01

    Narcolepsy type 1 and narcolepsy type 2 are central disorders of hypersomnolence. Narcolepsy type 1 is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy and is associated with hypocretin-1 deficiency. On the other hand, in narcolepsy type 2, cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 levels are normal and cataplexy absent. Despite major advances in our understanding of narcolepsy mechanisms, its current management is only symptomatic. Treatment options may vary from a single drug that targets several symptoms, or multiple medications that each treats a specific symptom. In recent years, narcolepsy treatment has changed with the widespread use of modafinil/armodafinil for daytime sleepiness, antidepressants (selective serotonin and dual serotonin and noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors) for cataplexy, and sodium oxybate for both symptoms. Other psychostimulants can also be used, such as methylphenidate, pitolisant and rarely amphetamines, as third-line therapy. Importantly, clinically relevant subjective and objective measures of daytime sleepiness are required to monitor the treatment efficacy and to provide guidance on whether the treatment goals are met. Associated symptoms and comorbid conditions, such as hypnagogic/hypnopompic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, disturbed nighttime sleep, unpleasant dreams, REM- and non REM-related parasomnias, depressive symptoms, overweight/obesity, and obstructive sleep apnea, should also be taken into account and managed, if required. In the near future, the efficacy of new wake-promoting drugs, anticataplectic agents, hypocretin replacement therapy and immunotherapy at the early stages of the disease should also be evaluated.

  7. Water Treatment Technology - Hydraulics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…

  8. Malaria prevention and treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to allow prompt and accurate treatment of malaria in areas out .... It is essential to seek medical advice promptly if ... Not ideal for machine operators, drivers or those that work at heights .... with food that contains oil e.g. chips, bread and butter.

  9. Treatment of subclinical hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Peter D; Andreassen, Mikkel; Petersen, Claus L

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate structure and function of the heart in subclinical hyperthyroidism (SH) before and after obtaining euthyroidism by radioactive iodine treatment, using high precision and observer-independent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology. METHODS...

  10. Treatment strategies for acromegaly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Pereira, Alberto M.

    2005-01-01

    Acromegaly is a chronic debilitating disorder caused by a growth hormone (GH)-producing pituitary adenoma. Active acromegaly is associated with a two- to fourfold increased mortality risk, mainly from cardiovascular disease. Transsphenoidal surgery is considered as the treatment of choice because of

  11. Treatment of plutonium contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafuma, J.

    1983-01-01

    Three kinds of plutonium contaminations were considered: skin contamination; contaminated wounds; contamination by inhalation. The treatment of these contaminations was studied for insoluble (oxide and metal forms) and soluble plutonium (complexes). The use of DTPA and therapeutic problems encountered with stable plutonium complexes were analyzed. The new possibilities of internal decontamination using Puchel and LICAM were evaluated [fr

  12. Principled Missing Data Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Kyle M; Little, Todd D

    2018-04-01

    We review a number of issues regarding missing data treatments for intervention and prevention researchers. Many of the common missing data practices in prevention research are still, unfortunately, ill-advised (e.g., use of listwise and pairwise deletion, insufficient use of auxiliary variables). Our goal is to promote better practice in the handling of missing data. We review the current state of missing data methodology and recent missing data reporting in prevention research. We describe antiquated, ad hoc missing data treatments and discuss their limitations. We discuss two modern, principled missing data treatments: multiple imputation and full information maximum likelihood, and we offer practical tips on how to best employ these methods in prevention research. The principled missing data treatments that we discuss are couched in terms of how they improve causal and statistical inference in the prevention sciences. Our recommendations are firmly grounded in missing data theory and well-validated statistical principles for handling the missing data issues that are ubiquitous in biosocial and prevention research. We augment our broad survey of missing data analysis with references to more exhaustive resources.

  13. Adherence to antidepressant treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Vibe; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2007-01-01

    Depression is a common disorder with painful symptoms and, frequently, social impairment and decreased quality of life. The disorder has a tendency to be long lasting, often with frequent recurrence of symptoms. The risk of relapse and the severity of the symptoms may be reduced by correct...... of dependence of antidepressant medicine, have a great influence on adherence to treatment....

  14. [Prophylactic treatments of migraine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massiou, H

    2000-01-01

    Prophylactic treatment is mainly intended to reduce the frequency of migraine attacks. It is usually proposed to patients who suffer from two or more attacks per month. It should also be considered in patients who suffer from less frequent, but prolonged, disabling attacks with a poor response to abortive treatment, and who consider that their quality of life is reduced between attacks. Excessive intake of acute medication, more than twice a week, is a strong indication for prophylactic treatment. In order to obtain a good compliance to treatment, the patient must be informed of the expected efficacy of the drugs, and of their most frequent side effects. Thus, the choice of a prophylactic drug is made together with the patient. Based on the results of published controlled trials, the main prophylactic drugs are some betablockers, methysergide, pizotifene, oxetorone, flunarizine, amitriptyline, NSAIDs, and sodium valproate. Some less evaluated drugs such as aspirin, DHE, indoramine, verapamil, may be useful. Other substances such as riboflavin and new antiepileptic dugs are being evaluated. The choice of the drug to start with depends on several considerations. The first step is to make sure that there are no contra indications, and no possible interaction with the abortive medications. Then, possible side effects will be taken into account, for example, weight gain is a problem for most young women and patients who practice sports may not tolerate betablockers. Associated pathologies have to be checked. For example, a hypertensive migraine sufferers may benefit from betablockers; in a patient who suffers both from migraine and tension type headaches or from depression, amitriptyline is the first choice drug. The type of migraine should also be considered; for instance, in frequent attacks with aura, aspirin is recommended and betablockers avoided. In most cases, prophylaxis should be given as monotherapy, and it is often necessary to try successively several drugs

  15. Treatment of tinea capitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, S M; Nahata, M C

    1997-03-01

    To review the epidemiology, pathogenesis, mycology, clinical presentation, and pharmacotherapy of tinea capitis, and describe the role of newer antimycotic agents. A MEDLINE search restricted to English-language articles published from 1966 through 1996 and journal references were used in preparing this review. The data on mycology, pharmacokinetics, adverse effects, and drug interactions were obtained from controlled studies and case reports appearing in the literature. Both open-label and comparative studies were evaluated to assess the efficacy of antimycotics in the treatment of this infection. Griseofulvin is the drug of choice in the treatment of tinea capitis. Newer agents with greater efficacy or shorter treatment durations continue to be explored. Ketoconazole, the first azole studied for efficacy in tinea capitis, has not demonstrated any clinical advantage over griseofulvin in several controlled clinical trials. Itraconazole is effective, but the available data are limited to case reports and a single uncontrolled study. Terbinafine similarly has shown promise in the treatment of tinea capitis, but the oral formulation was only recently approved in the US. Existing studies reflect the results in infection with pathogens not seen in the US. Both itraconazole and terbinafine achieve high concentrations in the hair and stratum corneum that persist for several weeks following drug administration. This may enable shorter courses of therapy; however, comparative studies need to be conducted in the US. Tinea capitis remains the most common dermatophyte infection in young urban children. Oral antifungal therapy is required for effective treatment, often for several months. The combination of griseofulvin with a selenium sulfide shampoo continues to be the mainstay of therapy until more experience is gained with the newer antimycotics.

  16. Personality does not predict treatment preference, treatment experience does: a study of four complementary pain treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasche, Gerhard; Melchart, Herbert; Leitner, Daniela; Marktl, Wolfgang

    2007-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the extent to which personality and treatment experience affect patients' appraisals of 4 complementary treatments for chronic pain. A total of 232 chronic pain patients (164 females, 68 males, average age 56.6 years) visiting a spa clinic in Austria returned a questionnaire on patient characteristics and personality (autonomy, depressiveness, assertiveness, self-control) as well as attitudes towards (i.e. appealing, effective, pleasant) and experience of the treatments. Results were analysed by use of linear regression analysis and confidence intervals. Although all treatments were appraised positively, the passive treatments (thermal water tub baths, classical massage) were favoured more than the active treatments (relaxation training or exercise therapy). Treatment appraisal was not predicted by any of the personality traits but to a large extent by treatment experience. Relaxing, not unpleasant treatments were the most highly esteemed treatments. How strenuous or tiring a treatment was only had a minor effect on its appraisal. Neither do dependent, passive patients prefer passive treatments, nor do conscientious patients prefer active treatments. Instead, the appraisal of treatments that induce specific somatosensory sensations is largely determined by treatment experiences, i.e. what the treatment feels like. Despite the popularity of CAM which encompasses many experientially intensive treatments, treatment experience has to date been a neglected topic of treatment research.

  17. Treatment-refractory anxiety; definition, risk factors, and treatment challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Byrne, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A sizable proportion of psychiatric patients will seek clinical evaluation and treatment for anxiety symptoms reportedly refractory to treatment. This apparent lack of response is either due to “pseudo-resistance” (a failure to have received and adhered to a recognized and effective treatment or treatments for their condition) or to true “treatment resistance.” Pseudo-resistance can be due to clinician errors in selecting and delivering an appropriate treatment effectively, or to patient nonadherence to a course of treatment. True treatment resistance can be due to unrecognized exogenous anxiogenic factors (eg, caffeine overuse, sleep deprivation, use of alcohol or marijuana) or an incorrect diagnosis (eg, atypical bipolar illness, occult substance abuse, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder). Once the above factors are eliminated, treatment should focus on combining effective medications and cognitive behavioral therapy, combining several medications (augmentation), or employing novel medications or psychotherapies not typically indicated as first-line evidence-based anxiety treatments. PMID:26246793

  18. Treatment-refractory anxiety; definition, risk factors, and treatment challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Byrne, Peter

    2015-06-01

    A sizable proportion of psychiatric patients will seek clinical evaluation and treatment for anxiety symptoms reportedly refractory to treatment. This apparent lack of response is either due to "pseudo-resistance" (a failure to have received and adhered to a recognized and effective treatment or treatments for their condition) or to true "treatment resistance." Pseudo-resistance can be due to clinician errors in selecting and delivering an appropriate treatment effectively, or to patient nonadherence to a course of treatment. True treatment resistance can be due to unrecognized exogenous anxiogenic factors (eg, caffeine overuse, sleep deprivation, use of alcohol or marijuana) or an incorrect diagnosis (eg, atypical bipolar illness, occult substance abuse, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder). Once the above factors are eliminated, treatment should focus on combining effective medications and cognitive behavioral therapy, combining several medications (augmentation), or employing novel medications or psychotherapies not typically indicated as first-line evidence-based anxiety treatments.

  19. Prevalence of strongyles and efficacy of fenbendazole and ivermectin in working horses in El Sauce, Nicaragua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian; Lindbom, Jenny Maria; Andreasen, Line Lundberg

    2011-01-01

    Horses, mules and donkeys are indispensable farming and working animals in many developing countries, and their health status is important to the farmers. Strongyle parasites are ubiquitous in grazing horses world-wide and are known to constitute a threat to equine health. This study determined t...

  20. Deciphering the regulation of P2X4 receptor channel gating by ivermectin using Markov models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mackay, L.; Zemková, Hana; Stojilkovic, S. S.; Sherman, A.; Khadra, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 7 (2017), č. článku e1005643. ISSN 1553-734X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Markov models * ion channel gating * sensory receptors * cation s Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Physiology (including cytology) Impact factor: 4.542, year: 2016