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Sample records for household rabbit exposure

  1. Role of Households in Rabbit Production in Enugu-North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    North Agricultural Zone of Enugu State. It determined rabbit management and breeding practices of respondents, roles of households in rabbit production and constraints associated with rabbit production in the area. Multistage sampling technique ...

  2. Controlled doe exposure as biostimulation of buck rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-De Lara, R; Noguez-Estrada, J; Rangel-Santos, R; García-Muñiz, J G; Martínez-Hernández, P A; Fallas-López, M; Maldonado-Siman, E

    2010-12-01

    Female exposure of males could be a low-cost biostimulation option that benefits AI in commercial rabbit operations by improving buck rabbits reproductive performance. The objective of the study was to evaluate exposure of buck rabbits to females as a biostimulation option to improve reproductive potential. Treatments were: exposure (biostimulated) or not (control) of bucks to does. Bucks were New Zealand White, 15-month-old, sexually experienced and fertile. Experimental design was completely random with nine replications, experimental unit was one buck. Doe exposure was permanent using replacement pubertal does housed in an adjacent wire-mesh cage and changed for new ones every other week. Semen collection lasted 14 weeks (late winter and early spring) twice a week with two ejaculates at each collection. Analyses of variance were under a mixed model: treatments, ejaculate number and season were fixed and rabbit random effects and buck weight at each collection as covariable. Biostimulated bucks showed greater (Pdoe exposed bucks (treatment × ejaculate number, PDoe exposure is a biostimulation method that improves sexual drive and sperm production and quality of buck rabbits. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Bisphenol A exposure enhances atherosclerosis in WHHL rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Fang

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is an environmental endocrine disrupter. Excess exposure to BPA may increase susceptibility to many metabolic disorders, but it is unclear whether BPA exposure has any adverse effects on the development of atherosclerosis. To determine whether there are such effects, we investigated the response of Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL rabbits to 400-µg/kg BPA per day, administered orally by gavage, over the course of 12 weeks and compared aortic and coronary atherosclerosis in these rabbits to the vehicle group using histological and morphometric methods. In addition, serum BPA, cytokines levels and plasma lipids as well as pathologic changes in liver, adipose and heart were analyzed. Moreover, we treated human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVECs and rabbit aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs with different doses of BPA to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in BPA action(s. BPA treatment did not change the plasma lipids and body weights of the WHHL rabbits; however, the gross atherosclerotic lesion area in the aortic arch was increased by 57% compared to the vehicle group. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses revealed marked increases in advanced lesions (37% accompanied by smooth muscle cells (60% but no significant changes in the numbers of macrophages. With regard to coronary atherosclerosis, incidents of coronary stenosis increased by 11% and smooth muscle cells increased by 73% compared to the vehicle group. Furthermore, BPA-treated WHHL rabbits showed increased adipose accumulation and hepatic and myocardial injuries accompanied by up-regulation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and inflammatory and lipid metabolism markers in livers. Treatment with BPA also induced the expression of ER stress and inflammation related genes in cultured HUVECs. These results demonstrate for the first time that BPA exposure may increase susceptibility to atherosclerosis in WHHL rabbits.

  4. Minimizing Onsite Organic Household Left-Over Waste: The Emission Benefits of Keeping Pet Rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos P. Tsagarakis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available As waste management is becoming all the more crucial, this study investigates the way in which house left-over organic waste can be better managed on site, in order to minimize the off-site treatment cost and maximize environmental performance. For the implementation of this research, a full year measurement was recorded, showing the organic leftover waste food intake of two rabbits in a household of four. The organic food, collected in two separate baskets suitable for composting—though one for rabbit intake—was 168.5 kg in total, plus 68.8 kg, which was delivered directly to the composting bin, along with food remains and rabbit feces. The results show that, over the examined year, a total of up to 0.417 metric tons of CO2 equivalent per year emissions was avoided, suggesting that if 30 houses were to apply this methodology, one garbage truck journey per year would be saved. Overall, this study suggests that better information and environmental awareness can result in on-site, low cost, individual management of recyclable organic material, which would assist with the decrease in the cost of management, along with increased environmental performance.

  5. Household interventions for prevention of domestic lead exposure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoh, B; Woolfenden, S; Wheeler, D; Alperstein, G; Lanphear, B

    2008-04-16

    Lead poisoning is associated with physical, cognitive and neurobehavioral impairment in children and many household interventions to prevent lead exposure have been trialled. To determine the effectiveness of household interventions in preventing or reducing lead exposure in children as measured by reductions in blood lead levels and/or improvements in cognitive development. Trials were identified through electronic searches of CENTRAL 2006 (Issue 1), MEDLINE 1966 to March 2006, and thirteen other electronic databases and contacting experts to find unpublished studies. Randomised and quasi randomised trials of household educational or environmental interventions to prevent lead exposure in children where at least one standardised outcome measure was reported. Two reviewers independently reviewed all eligible studies for inclusion, assessed study quality and extracted data. Triallists were contacted to obtain missing information. Twelve studies (2239 children) were included. All studies reported blood lead level outcomes and none reported on cognitive or neurobehavioural outcomes. Studies were subgrouped according to their intervention type. Meta-analysis of both continuous and dichotomous data was performed for subgroups where appropriate. Educational interventions were not effective in reducing blood lead levels (continuous: WMD 0.13, 95% CI -0.30, 0.56, I2 = 41.6; dichotomous >/= 10 microg/dL (>/= 0.48 micromol/l): RR 1.02 (95% CI 0.79, 1.30, I2 = 0); dichotomous >/= 15 microg/dL (>/=0.72 micromol/l): RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.33, 1.09, I2 = 0). Meta-analysis of the dichotomous data for the dust control subgroup found no evidence of effectiveness. The studies using soil abatement (removal and replacement) and combination intervention groups were not able to be meta-analysed due to substantial differences between studies. Currently there is no evidence of effectiveness for household interventions for education or dust control measures in reducing blood lead levels in

  6. Immunobiological effect of bitemporal exposure of rabbits to microwaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogolyubov, V.M.; Pershin, S.B.; Frenkel' , I.D.; Sidorov, V.D.; Galenchik, A.I.; Ponomarev, Yu.T.; Bobkova, A.S.; Kuz' min, S.N.; Moshiashvili, I.Ya.; Kozlova, N.N.; Korovkina, E.G.; Agibalov, Yu.V.

    1987-01-01

    The authors investigate the effects of microwave radiation on the immunological behavior of the thyroid and various hormones of rabbits. Irradiation was carried out on the heads of the animals. They were then divided into four groups depending on the period of exposure. The number of hemolysis-forming cells against sheep red blood cells and the concentration of serum immunoglobulins were determined. Levels of TSH, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, testosterone and prostaglandins in serum or blood plasma were determined by radioimmunoassay and the concentration of total 11-hydroxycorticosteroids in the adrenals and plasma were determined by fluorimetry. Microwave radiation of the temporo-parietal region of the head was found to decrease the number of background hemolysis-forming cells. An increase in glucocorticoid function was recorded. Thyroid function was depressed. The plasma 11-hydroxycorticosteroid level was significantly raised. It is concluded in general that microwave irradiation leads to activation of the hypothalamo-hypophyseo-adrenal system with consequent enhancement of the glucocorticoid function of the adrenal cortex and depression of thyroid function.

  7. Household interventions for preventing domestic lead exposure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaumer-Streit, Barbara; Yeoh, Berlinda; Griebler, Ursula; Pfadenhauer, Lisa M; Busert, Laura K; Lhachimi, Stefan K; Lohner, Szimonetta; Gartlehner, Gerald

    2016-10-16

    Lead poisoning is associated with physical, cognitive and neurobehavioural impairment in children, and trials have tested many household interventions to prevent lead exposure. This is an update of the original review, first published in 2008. To assess the effects of household interventions for preventing or reducing lead exposure in children, as measured by improvements in cognitive and neurobehavioural development, reductions in blood lead levels and reductions in household dust lead levels. In May 2016 we searched CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, nine other databases and two trials registers: the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov. We also checked the reference lists of relevant studies and contacted experts to find unpublished studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of household educational or environmental interventions, or combinations of interventions to prevent lead exposure in children (from birth to 18 years of age), where investigators reported at least one standardised outcome measure. Two authors independently reviewed all eligible studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We contacted trialists to obtain missing information. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We included 14 studies involving 2643 children: 13 RCTs (involving 2565 children) and one quasi-RCT (involving 78 children). Children in all studies were under six years of age. Thirteen studies took place in urban areas of North America, and one was in Australia. Most studies were in areas with low socioeconomic status. Girls and boys were equally represented in all studies. The duration of the intervention ranged from 3 months to 24 months in 12 studies, while 2 studies performed interventions on a single occasion. Follow-up periods ranged from 6 months to 48 months. Three RCTs were at low risk of bias in all assessed domains. We rated two RCTs and

  8. The effects of inhalation exposure to sulfuryl fluoride on fetal development in rats and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, T R; Calhoun, L L; Kociba, R J; Greene, J A

    1989-07-01

    Sulfuryl fluoride is a fumigant insecticide used for soils and permanent structures. Pregnant Fischer 344 rats and New Zealand White rabbits were exposed to 0, 25, 75, or 225 ppm of sulfuryl fluoride vapor via inhalation for 6 hr/day on Days 6-15 and 6-18 of gestation, respectively. Among rats, maternal water consumption was increased in the 225 ppm exposure group, but there were no indications of embryotoxicity, fetotoxicity, or teratogenicity in any of the exposed groups. Among rabbits, maternal weight loss during the exposure period (Days 6-18) was observed in the 225 ppm group. Decreased fetal body weights, considered secondary to maternal weight loss, were also observed at 225 ppm. However, no evidence of embryotoxicity or teratogenicity was observed among rabbits in any exposure group. Thus, inhalation exposure to sulfuryl fluoride was not teratogenic in either rats or rabbits exposed to levels of up to 225 ppm, and fetotoxic effects (reduced body weights) were observed among fetal rabbits only at an exposure level that produced maternal weight loss.

  9. PARENTAL KNOWLEDGE OF THE ADVERSE EFFECTS OF HOUSEHOLD TOBACCO SMOKE EXPOSURE IN ASTHMATIC CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poopat, Supanun; Sritippayawan, Suchada; Kamalaporn, Hanrutai; Phumethum, Sintra

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of household tobacco smoke exposure in children presenting to asthma clinic at Prapokklao Hospital and to survey parental knowledge and perception to the dangers of household smoke exposure. Parents/guardians who brought their children to asthma clinic during June-September 2014 were interviewed to complete survey questionnaires. If there were smokers in the household, questionnaires with a postage paid self-addressed envelopes were given to the family to take back home for other household smokers to complete. There were 149 asthmatic children who attended the asthma clinic during the study period. Seventy-one pediatric patients (47.7%) lived with at least one household smoker. Thirty-one smokers completed the questionnaires. Only five (16.1%) accompanied the patients to asthma clinic. Almost all of the smokers had a desire to quit smoking, and 58.1% of the smokers and 63.2% of the non-smokers had received information regarding the dangers of household smoke exposure. The knowledge test scores were not different between the two groups. The prevalence of household smoke exposure in asthmatic children was high, despite most of the smokers knew about the adverse effects of household smoke exposure on their children' s health and desired to quit smoking.

  10. Prevalence of Environmental Smoke Exposure in Households with Children in Jodhpur District, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Anita; Dhawan, Anju; Sethi, Hem; Mohan, Devinder

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The present study assessed the prevalence of child exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) among families with smoking members. Methods: Secondary analysis was conducted on data from a survey done in Jodhpur district (Rajasthan) on substance use in 11459 households. Frequency of smoking by residents in households with children below 10…

  11. Household air pollution and personal exposure to nitrated and oxygenated polycyclic aromatics (PAHs) in rural households: Influence of household cooking energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Du, W; Shen, G; Zhuo, S; Zhu, X; Shen, H; Huang, Y; Su, S; Lin, N; Pei, L; Zheng, X; Wu, J; Duan, Y; Wang, X; Liu, W; Wong, M; Tao, S

    2017-01-01

    Residential solid fuels are widely consumed in rural China, contributing to severe household air pollution for many products of incomplete combustion, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their polar derivatives. In this study, concentrations of nitrated and oxygenated PAH derivatives (nPAHs and oPAHs) for household and personal air were measured and analyzed for influencing factors like smoking and cooking energy type. Concentrations of nPAHs and oPAHs in kitchens were higher than those in living rooms and in outdoor air. Exposure levels measured by personal samplers were lower than levels in indoor air, but higher than outdoor air levels. With increasing molecular weight, individual compounds tended to be more commonly partitioned to particulate matter (PM); moreover, higher molecular weight nPAHs and oPAHs were preferentially found in finer particles, suggesting a potential for increased health risks. Smoking behavior raised the concentrations of nPAHs and oPAHs in personal air significantly. People who cooked food also had higher personal exposures. Cooking and smoking have a significant interaction effect on personal exposure. Concentrations in kitchens and personal exposure to nPAHs and oPAHs for households using wood and peat were significantly higher than for those using electricity and liquid petroleum gas (LPG). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Experimental infection of rabbits with bovine viral diarrhoea virus by a natural route of exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an important pathogen of cattle that can naturally infect a wide range of even-toed ungulates. Non-bovine hosts may represent reservoirs for the virus that have the potential to hamper BVDV eradication programs usually focused on cattle. Rabbits are very abundant in countries such as the United Kingdom or Australia and are often living on or near livestock pastures. Earlier reports indicated that rabbits can propagate BVDV upon intravenous exposure and that natural infection of rabbits with BVDV may occur but experimental proof of infection of rabbits by a natural route is lacking. Therefore, New Zealand White rabbits were exposed to a Scottish BVDV field strain intravenously, oro-nasally and by contaminating their hay with virus. None of the animals showed any clinical signs. However, the lymphoid organs from animals sacrificed at day five after exposure showed histological changes typical of transient infection with pestivirus. Most organ samples and some buffy coat samples were virus positive at day five but saliva samples remained negative. Development of antibodies was observed in all intravenously challenged animals, in all of the nebulised group and in four of six animals exposed to contaminated hay. To our knowledge this is the first report of BVDV propagation in a species other than ruminants or pigs after exposure to the virus by a natural route. However, to assess the role of rabbits as a potential reservoir for BVDV it remains to be determined whether persistent infection caused by intra-uterine infection is possible and whether BVDV is circulating in wild rabbit populations. PMID:24690167

  13. Aging With Rising Risk: Have Older Households Experienced Faster-Growing Risk Exposure Than Younger Ones Since the 1990s?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Christian; Bernardo, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Financial markets have been characterized by boom and bust cycles since the 1980s, while the responsibility for managing retirement wealth has increasingly shifted onto individual households at the same time. Policy makers and experts have expressed concern over rising risk exposure among older householders, who appear to be increasingly exposed to the growing financial risks just as they near retirement. We consider household data from the Federal Reserve's Survey of Consumer Finances from 1989 to 2010 to analyze the correlation between age and risk exposure. We test whether older householders' risk exposure has indeed grown over time, whether it has increased more than that of younger householders, whether changes in the demographic composition of older householders have contributed to older households' rising risk exposure, and the degree to which increases in risk exposure can be traced to a growing concentration of household assets held in stocks and housing and to rising householder indebtedness. Our results indicate that risk exposure has grown more for older householders than for younger ones, that demographic changes among older householders have contributed to additional increases in older householders' risk exposure, and that the growth of older householders' risk exposure is driven more by rising risky asset concentration and less by greater indebtedness.

  14. EFFECTS OF DIBUTYL PHTHALATE IN MALE RABBITS FOLLOWING IN UTERO, ADOLESCENT OR POST-PUBERTAL EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of dibutyl phthalate in male rabbits following in utero, adolescent, or post-pubertal exposureTy T. Higuchi1, Jennifer S. Palmer1, L. Earl Gray Jr2., and D. N. Rao Veeramachaneni11Animal Reproduction and Biotechnology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort

  15. GSM-like radiofrequency exposure induces apoptosis via caspase-dependent pathway in infant rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meral, O; Ozgur, E; Kismali, G; Guler, G; Alpay, M; Sel, T; Seyhan, N

    2016-01-01

    There have been several Radio Frequency (RF) field researches on various populations and groups of different ages in recent years. However, the most important group for research has been declared as the pregnant women and their babies. The aim of the study was to analyse the effect on apoptotic factors of RF fields on newborn rabbit liver tissues. Cytochrome c and AIF (Apoptosis Inducing Factor) levels were measured by western blot and caspase 1, 3 and 9 activities were measured by colorimetric method. Cytochrome c and AIF levels were not altered, but all caspase activities were increased in female infant rabbits that exposed to 1800 MHz GSM-like RF signals when they reached 1 month of age and caspase 1 and caspase 3 levels were decreased in male infant rabbits that exposed to 1800 MHz GSM-like RF signals between 15th and 22nd days of the gestational period. Results showed that 1800 MHz GSM-like RF exposure might lead to apoptosis in infant rabbit's liver tissues. According to the results, we suggest that postnatal RF exposure causes caspase dependent apoptosis in female infant rabbits liver tissues (Tab. 1, Fig. 2, Ref. 27).

  16. Exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides induces embryotoxicity in mice and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babeľová, Janka; Šefčíková, Zuzana; Čikoš, Štefan; Špirková, Alexandra; Kovaříková, Veronika; Koppel, Juraj; Makarevich, Alexander V; Chrenek, Peter; Fabian, Dušan

    2017-12-01

    The potential toxicity of neonicotinoids (thiacloprid, acetamiprid, thiamethoxam and clothianidin) as well as related commercial products Calypso 480SC (thiacloprid mixture), Mospilan 20SP (acetamiprid mixture) and Agita 10WG (thiamethoxam mixture) on developmental capacities and quality of preimplantation embryos was evaluated. During in vitro tests, isolated 2-cell stage mice embryos were cultured in media with various concentrations of active compounds or commercial products until blastocyst formation. As found using stereomicroscopic examination, all neonicotinoids at highest (100μM) concentration negatively affected embryonic development (Pneonicotinoids is in the order of thiacloprid>acetamiprid, thiomethoxam>clothianidin. Thiacloprid impairs development and quality of both mouse and rabbit preimplantation embryos, and shows embryotoxicity even at acute reference dose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Exposure to high ambient temperatures alters embryology in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, M. L.; Argente, M. J.

    2017-09-01

    High ambient temperatures are a determining factor in the deterioration of embryo quality and survival in mammals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat stress on embryo development, embryonic size and size of the embryonic coats in rabbits. A total of 310 embryos from 33 females in thermal comfort zone and 264 embryos of 28 females in heat stress conditions were used in the experiment. The traits studied were ovulation rate, percentage of total embryos, percentage of normal embryos, embryo area, zona pellucida thickness and mucin coat thickness. Traits were measured at 24 and 48 h post-coitum (hpc); mucin coat thickness was only measured at 48 hpc. The embryos were classified as zygotes or two-cell embryos at 24 hpc, and 16-cells or early morulae at 48 hpc. The ovulation rate was one oocyte lower in heat stress conditions than in thermal comfort. Percentage of normal embryos was lower in heat stress conditions at 24 hpc (17.2%) and 48 hpc (13.2%). No differences in percentage of zygotes or two-cell embryos were found at 24 hpc. The embryo development and area was affected by heat stress at 48 hpc (10% higher percentage of 16-cells and 883 μm2 smaller, respectively). Zona pellucida was thicker under thermal stress at 24 hpc (1.2 μm) and 48 hpc (1.5 μm). No differences in mucin coat thickness were found. In conclusion, heat stress appears to alter embryology in rabbits.

  18. Child's play: Exposure to household pesticide use among children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research highlighted considerable home environment pesticide exposure of South African children in lower socio-economic groups in rural, urban and informal areas. As children are particularly vulnerable to the short- and long-term health effects of pesticide exposure, further indepth investigation is needed to ...

  19. Late skin damage in rabbits and monkeys after exposure to particulate radiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergtold, D. S.; Cox, A. B.; Lett, J. T.; Su, C. M.

    Skin biopsies were taken from the central regions of the ears of New Zealand white rabbits following localized exposure of one ear of each rabbit to 530 MeV/amu Ar or 365 MeV/amu Ne ions. The unirradiated ears served as controls. Biopsies were taken also from the chests and inner thighs of rhesus monkeys after whole-body exposure to 32 MeV protons and from unirradiated control animals. The linear energy transfers (LET∞'s) for the radiations were 90 +/- 5, 35 +/- 3, and ~1.2 keV/μm, respectively. In the rabbit studies, explants were removed with a 2 mm diameter dermal punch at post-irradiation times up to five years after exposure. Similar volumes of monkey tissue were taken from skin samples excised surgically 16-18 years following proton irradiation. Fibroblast cultures were initiated from the explants and were propagated in vitro until terminal senescence (cessation of cell division) occurred. Cultures from irradiated tissue exhibited decreases in doubling potential that were dependent on radiation dose and LET∞ and seemed to reflect damage to stem cell populations. The implications of these results for astronauts exposed to heavy ions and/or protons in space include possible manifestations of residual effects in the skin many years after exposure (e.g. unsatisfactory responses to trauma or surgery).

  20. Iron deposition in rabbit cerebellum after exposure to generated and mobile GSM electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopani, M; Filova, B; Sevcik, P; Kosnac, D; Misek, J; Polak, S; Kohan, M; Major, J; Zdimalova, M; Jakus, J

    2017-01-01

    Mobile phone application may cause structural, functional changes and accumulation of toxic elements in brain. The aim of this study was to investigate iron accumulation in rabbit cerebellum after exposure to RF EMF with light and scanning electron microscopy. Histochemical analysis of iron distribution by light and electron microscopy with energy-dispersive microanalysis was used. Light microscopy revealed dystrophic changes of Purkinje cells in irradiated groups and iron deposits located in various parts of cerebellum. Deposits consists of C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ca and Fe. Our experiment revealed structural changes of Purkinje cells and iron and aluminium accumulations in stratum granulosum of rabbit's cerebellum after exposure to RF EMF (Fig. 6, Ref. 33).

  1. Environmental household exposures to asbestos and occurrence of pleural mesothelioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodoli, D.; Del Nevo, M.; Fiumalbi, C.; Iaia, T.E.; Cristaudo, A.; Comba, P.; Viti, C.; Battista, G. (Unit of Occupational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Pisa (Italy))

    1992-01-01

    The authors reviewed the certificates of 39,650 deaths which occurred in the period 1975-1988 in Leghorn and of 45,900 in La Spezia (Italy) in the period 1958-1988. In total 262 cases have been recorded as pleural mesothelioma. The main occupational exposures occurred in the shipbuilding industry. Regarding non-occupational exposures to asbestos, 13 cases of mesothelioma were found in women who had washed the work clothes of their relatives at home; we also found other domestic uses of asbestos which were rarely or never discussed previously in the literature: six cases might be explained by the installation of fireproof or non-conductive materials in the domestic environment. These exposures probably are more frequent than realized until now.

  2. Ocular injury by transient formaldehyde exposure in a rabbit eye model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ju Lai

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde (FA is frequently used in sterilizing surgical instruments and materials. Exposure to FA is highly concerned for eye tissues. Rabbit corneal epithelial cells were examined for changes after FA exposure. Our results showed that cell survival decreased 7 days after transient 3 min exposure to more than 100 ppm FA by trypan blue staining while MTT assay detected significant decrease at 20 ppm at 24 hours observation. The decrease of cell survival rate was concentration (up to 600 ppm- and observation time (1-7 day- dependent. The cell number decreased after 100 ppm FA exposure for more than 10 min at 7-day observation. The FA treated cells showed increased apoptosis/necrosis and cell cycle accumulation at sub G1 phase as well as mitochondria clustering around nucleus. The in vivo rabbit eye exposure for tear production by Schirmer's test revealed that the FA-induced overproduction of tear also exhibited observation time (1-10 day- and FA concentration (20-300 ppm for 5 min exposure-dependent. Activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK2 in cornea explants by western blotting was reduced and increased c-Jun amino - terminal kinase (JNK activation (pJNK in cornea and conjunctiva was evident at 2 month after exposure to 50-200 ppm FA for 5 min. In conclusion, injury to the eye with transient exposure of up to 100 ppm FA for 3 min decreased corneal cell survival while a more sensitive MTT test detected the cell decrease at 20 ppm FA exposure. Morphology changes can be observed even at 5 ppm FA exposure for 3 min at 7 days after. The FA exposure also increased apoptotic/necrotic cells and sub-G1 phase in cell cycle. Long term effect (2 months after exposure on the eye tissues even after the removal of FA can be observed with persistent JNK activation in cornea and conjunctiva.

  3. Achieving consistent multiple daily low-dose Bacillus anthracis spore inhalation exposures in the rabbit model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy E Barnewall

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Repeated low-level exposures to Bacillus anthracis could occur before or after the remediation of an environmental release. This is especially true for persistent agents such as Bacillus anthracis spores, the causative agent of anthrax. Studies were conducted to examine aerosol methods needed for consistent daily low aerosol concentrations to deliver a low-dose (less than 106 colony forming units (CFU of B. anthracis spores and included a pilot feasibility characterization study, acute exposure study, and a multiple fifteen day exposure study. This manuscript focuses on the state-of-the-science aerosol methodologies used to generate and aerosolize consistent daily low aerosol concentrations and resultant low inhalation doses. The pilot feasibility characterization study determined that the aerosol system was consistent and capable of producing very low aerosol concentrations. In the acute, single day exposure experiment, targeted inhaled doses of 1 x 102, 1 x 103, 1 x 104, and 1 x 105 CFU were used. In the multiple daily exposure experiment, rabbits were exposed multiple days to targeted inhaled doses of 1 x 102, 1 x 103, and 1 x 104 CFU. In all studies, targeted inhaled doses remained fairly consistent from rabbit to rabbit and day to day. The aerosol system produced aerosolized spores within the optimal mass median aerodynamic diameter particle size range to reach deep lung alveoli. Consistency of the inhaled dose was aided by monitoring and recording respiratory parameters during the exposure with real-time plethysmography. Overall, the presented results show that the animal aerosol system was stable and highly reproducible between different studies and multiple exposure days.

  4. Household smoking restrictions related to secondhand smoke exposure in Guangdong, China: a population representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaolin; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Song, Xiuling; Xu, Yanjun; Wu, Wei; Lao, Xiangqian; Ma, Wenjun

    2014-04-01

    China has a higher household secondhand smoke exposure rate than other countries. This study aims to estimate the prevalence rate of households implementing smoking bans in Guangdong and to identify factors correlated with household smoking bans. A cross-sectional, stratified random cluster sampling survey was conducted in Guangdong in 2010. A total of 2,114 adults aged 15 and older completed the face-to-face interviews with a response rate of 70%. The survey employed an adapted and validated questionnaire from the China Global Adult Tobacco Survey. Household smoking policy was divided into 3 groups: full ban, partial ban, and no ban. A multiple logistic regression model was employed to explore factors related to a full household smoking ban. The survey found 14.2% of respondents reported a full ban, 23.6% reported a partial ban, and 62.2% reported no ban of smoking at home. Current smoking status was the strongest predictor for less restrictive household smoking policies (odds ratio [OR] = 4.9, 95% CI = 2.634-8.999). Our study suggested that people with a high level of education were more likely to implement a full household smoking ban (OR = 4.4, 95% CI = 2.388-8.178). Additionally, urban residents were significantly more likely to report a full household smoking ban than rural residents (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.202-2.322). Household smoking bans were not sufficiently established in Guangdong, China. Intensified efforts were called to promote home smoking bans, especially for those with a lower education level, with lower income, and living in rural areas.

  5. Pollution Comes Home and Gets Personal: Women's Experience of Household Chemical Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Rebecca Gasior; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann; Brown, Phil; Averick, Mara

    2008-01-01

    We report on interviews conducted with participants in a novel study about environmental chemicals in body fluids and household air and dust. Interviews reveal how personal and collective environmental history influence the interpretation of exposure data, and how participants fashion an emergent understanding of environmental health problems from…

  6. Indoor Air Pollutant Exposure for Life Cycle Assessment: Regional Health Impact Factors for Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Meijer, Arjen; Demou, Evangelia

    2015-01-01

    Human exposure to indoor pollutant concentrations is receiving increasing interest in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). We address this issue by incorporating an indoor compartment into the USEtox model, as well as by providing recommended parameter values for households in four different regions of t...

  7. Second-hand smoke exposure and household smoking bans in Chinese families: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Abu S; Hua, Fu; Xia, Xiao; Hurlburt, Sarah; Ng, Patrick; MacLeod, William; Siegel, Michael; Griffiths, Sian; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2012-07-01

    As workplace smoking restrictions spread, smoking in the home is becoming the predominant source of exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) among children and other non-smokers in the household. This study explored issues around children's exposure to SHS. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDI) were conducted among 31 Chinese households in urban Shanghai, China. All FGDs/IDIs were audio recorded and analysed thematically. The findings suggest that there are gaps in knowledge of the health consequences of smoking and SHS among the participants. Although there was a lack of knowledge about the health risk of exposure to SHS, most were willing to protect their child from the SHS exposure. In 16/31 households, families had partial home-smoking restrictions; there were no complete restrictions in any of the smokers' homes. Many families do not openly discuss smoking or smoking restrictions at home. Barriers to adopting a smoke-free home included the social acceptability of smoking (22/31), hosting social gatherings at home, which would involve smoking (12/31), authoritative attitudes of the husband or father-in-law (10/31), and difficulties with visitors who smoke (7/31). Most (28/31) participants stated they would accept a counselling intervention to reduce SHS exposure to children and suggested various measures to implement it. The findings from this intervention have implications for designing intervention strategies to reduce SHS exposure at home among children in China. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Measurement and human exposure assessment of brominated flame retardants in household products from South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, She-Jun; Ma, Yun-Juan; Wang, Jing; Tian, Mi; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Da; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2010-04-15

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) were examined in household products in the Pearl River Delta, South China, including electronic appliances, furniture and upholstery, car interiors, and raw materials for electronics. The concentrations of PBDEs derived from penta-BDE mixture were much lower (products. Our findings suggest the recycling of old electronic products and their reuse might be also a potential important source of discontinued PBDEs to the environment. DBDPE was found in 20.0% of all the samples, ranging from 311 to 268,230 ng/g. PBDE congener profiles in both the household products and raw materials suggest that some less brominated BDEs in the environment may be derived from the decomposition of higher brominated PBDEs in PBDE-containing products in process of the manufacturing, use and/or recycling. Human exposure to PBDEs from household products via inhalation ranged from 175 to 612 pg/kg bw day, accounting for a small proportion of the total daily exposure via indoor inhalation. Despite the low deleterious risk associated with household products with regard to PBDEs, they are of special concern because of the relatively higher exposures observed for young children and further work is required. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Early Childhood Household Smoke Exposure Predicts Less Task-Oriented Classroom Behavior at Age 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Linda S; Fitzpatrick, Caroline

    2016-10-01

    Secondhand tobacco smoke is considered a developmental neurotoxicant especially given underdeveloped vital systems in young children. An ecological test of its negative influence on brain development can be made by examining the prospective association between early childhood household smoke exposure and later classroom behavior. Using a longitudinal birth cohort, we examined the unique contribution of household tobacco smoke exposure to children's subsequent classroom engagement at age 10. From child ages 1.5 to 7 years, parents of 2,055 participants from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development reported on household smoking by themselves and other home occupants. At age 10, fourth-grade teachers reported on the child's classroom engagement. In terms of prevalence, 58% of parents reported that their children were never exposed to smoke in the home, while 34% and 8% of children were exposed to transient and continuous household smoke, respectively. Compared with never exposed children, those who were exposed to transient and continuous household smoke scored 13% and 9% of a standard deviation lower on classroom engagement in fourth grade, standardized B = -.128 (95% confidence interval = -.186, -.069) and standardized B = -.093 (95% confidence interval = -.144, -.043), respectively. Compared with their never exposed peers, children exposed to transient and continuous early childhood household smoke showed proportionately less classroom engagement, which reflects task-orientation, following directions, and working well autonomously and with others. This predisposition poses risks for high school dropout, which from a population health perspective is closely linked with at-risk lifestyle habits and unhealthy outcomes. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  10. Effects of long-term cadmium exposure on the testis of rabbits: ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscolo, P; Sacchettoni-Logroscino, G; Ranelletti, F O; Gioia, A; Carmignani, M

    1985-01-01

    Six male rabbits received for 9 months drinking water containing 20 micrograms/ml of cadmium (Cd). At the end of the treatment, the Cd contents of kidney and testis were 175 +/- 34 and 0.8 +/- 0.2 micrograms/g wet weight, respectively. Ultrastructural examination by transmission electron microscopy (EM) showed that, in the Sertoli cells, the size of the lysosomes was increased; spermatogenetic cells, vessels and Leydig cells showed no significant alterations. Observations with both transmission and scanning EM did not evidence changes in the blood-testis barrier, but our results do not exclude that male fertility may be affected by chronic exposure to cadmium.

  11. Toxicokinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate in rabbits under environmentally realistic exposure conditions and comparative assessment between mammals and birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazona, J V; Rodríguez, C; Alonso, E; Sáez, M; González, F; San Andrés, M D; Jiménez, B; San Andrés, M I

    2016-01-22

    This article describes the toxicokinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in rabbits under low repeated dosing, equivalent to 0.085μg/kg per day, and the observed differences between rabbits and chickens. The best fitting for both species was provided by a simple pseudo monocompartmental first-order kinetics model, regulated by two rates, and accounting for real elimination as well as binding of PFOS to non-exchangeable structures. Elimination was more rapid in rabbits, with a pseudo first-order dissipation half-life of 88 days compared to the 230 days observed for chickens. By contrast, the calculated assimilation efficiency for rabbits was almost 1, very close to full absorption, significantly higher than the 0.66 with confidence intervals of 0.64 and 0.68 observed for chickens. The results confirm a very different kinetics than that observed in single-dose experiments confirming clear dose-related differences in apparent elimination rates in rabbits, as previously described for humans and other mammals; suggesting the role of a capacity-limited saturable process resulting in different kinetic behaviours for PFOS in high dose versus environmentally relevant low dose exposure conditions. The model calculations confirmed that the measured maximum concentrations were still far from the steady state situation, and that the different kinetics between birds and mammals should may play a significant role in the biomagnifications assessment and potential exposure for humans and predators. For the same dose regime, the steady state concentration was estimated at about 36μg PFOS/L serum for rabbits, slightly above one-half of the 65μg PFOS/L serum estimated for chickens. The toxicokinetic parameters presented here can be used for higher-tier bioaccumulation estimations of PFOS in rabbits and chickens as starting point for human health exposure assessments and as surrogate values for modeling PFOS kinetics in wild mammals and bird in exposure assessment of predatory

  12. EVALUATION OF SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN RABBITS BLOOD AFTER TWO WEEKS EXPOSURE OF EPICATECHIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Zbynovska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to analyse biochemical parameters in blood of rabbits after epicatechin administration during two weeks. Animals (adult female rabbits, body weight 4 ± 0.5 kg were divided into four groups: control group (C and experimental groups (E1 – E3. Experimental groups received epicatechin in injectable form at 10 µg.kg-1 in E1, 100 µg.kg-1 in E2 and 1000 µg.kg-1 in E3 for 14 days three times a week. After two weeks of exposure the blood was collected, in blood serum selected biochemical parameters [(glucose, urea, bilirubin, cholesterol, triglycerides, total proteins, calcium (Ca2+, magnesium (Mg2+, phosphorus (P] were analysed by automatic analyzer Microlab 300 (Merck®, Germany. Potassium (K+, sodium (Na+, chlorides (Cl- were analysed by EasyLyte Plus (Medica Corporation, USA. Epicatechin had no significant influence on the observed parameters (P > 0.05. The present study has shown that the serum cholesterol level and triglycerides levels in the E2 and E3 groups were higher than in the control group, however without significant differences (P > 0.05. Two weeks exposure of epicatehin caused also insignificant increase of glucose in all experimental groups in comparison with the control group. Epicatechin had no effect on the others analysed biochemical parameters.

  13. Late skin damage in rabbits and monkeys after exposure to particulate radiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergtold, D. S.; Cox, A. B.; Lett, J. T.; Su, C. M.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary results are reported of experiments on the late effects of exposure to particulate radiations on stem cell populations. Skin biopsies were taken from the ears of rabbits irradiated 2-5 years previously with 530 MeV/amu Ar ions (LET 90 keV/micron), or 365 MeV/amu Ne ions (LET 35 keV micron), and from the chests and inner thighs of rhesus monkeys irradiated 16-18 years previously with 32-MeV protons (LET about 1.2 keV/micron). Skin fibroblast cultures obtained from the biopsy samples in rabbits were observed to undergo dose-dependent decreases in in vitro life span, with estimated survival curves showing the effects of Ar-ion irradiation to be more severe than those of Ne-ion irradiation. In addition, the healing of the biopsy wound was observed to become slower as radiation dose increased. In the monkey, radiation reduced the average number of fibroblasts at the time of cessation of growth in culture. Results thus demonstrate the capacity of skin sampling to reveal stem cell destruction, and have important implications for astronauts and other persons at risk of particle exposure with regard to healing responses to trauma or surgery.

  14. Exposure-Specific and Age-Specific Attack Rates for Ebola Virus Disease in Ebola-Affected Households, Sierra Leone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bower, Hilary; Johnson, Sembia; Bangura, Mohamed S; Kamara, Alie Joshua; Kamara, Osman; Mansaray, Saidu H; Sesay, Daniel; Turay, Cecilia; Checchi, Francesco; Glynn, Judith R

    2016-01-01

    Using histories of household members of Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors in Sierra Leone, we calculated risk of EVD by age and exposure level, adjusting for confounding and clustering, and estimated relative risks...

  15. Studies on the prenatal toxicity of toluene in rabbits following inhalation exposure and proposal of a pregnancy guidance value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimisch, H.J.; Hellwig, J. (BASF AG, Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany). Abt. fuer Toxikologie); Hofmann, A. (Merck (E.), Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Toxikologie)

    1992-07-01

    Prenatal toxicity of toluene was determined in two separate studies by inhalation exposure of Himalayan rabbits. In the first study 15 artificially inseminated females per group were exposed to 30, 100, or 300 ppm and in the second study 20 artificially inseminated females per group inhaled 100 or 500 ppm. In each case the rabbits were exposed for 6 hours per day from day 6 post-insemination (p.i.) to day 18 p.i. The respective controls inhaled conditioned clean air under the same exposure conditions. No signs of maternal toxicity were observed. All data obtained on gestational parameters were found to be within the variation range reported for this rabbit strain. The fetal external, soft tissue and skeletal findings, were seen in toluene exposed fetuses in a frequency similar to the corresponding and/or historical controls. Differences observed between the groups were not concentration dependent and were considered incidental rather than compound related. Therefore, toluene was not embryotoxic, fetotoxic, or teratogenic for rabbits exposed during the period of organogenesis. The highest concentration tested under these conditions (500 ppm) was found to be a no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for both the adult and the fetal Himalayan rabbit. Based on these and previous results of animal studies of prenatal toxicity, a safety or uncertainty factor approach is considered for setting limits of exposure for women at workplaces. A pregnancy guidance value of 20 ppm is proposed. (orig.).

  16. A GIS-based method for household recruitment in a prospective pesticide exposure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allpress, Justine L E; Curry, Ross J; Hanchette, Carol L; Phillips, Michael J; Wilcosky, Timothy C

    2008-04-30

    Recent advances in GIS technology and remote sensing have provided new opportunities to collect ecologic data on agricultural pesticide exposure. Many pesticide studies have used historical or records-based data on crops and their associated pesticide applications to estimate exposure by measuring residential proximity to agricultural fields. Very few of these studies collected environmental and biological samples from study participants. One of the reasons for this is the cost of identifying participants who reside near study fields and analyzing samples obtained from them. In this paper, we present a cost-effective, GIS-based method for crop field selection and household recruitment in a prospective pesticide exposure study in a remote location. For the most part, our multi-phased approach was carried out in a research facility, but involved two brief episodes of fieldwork for ground truthing purposes. This method was developed for a larger study designed to examine the validity of indirect pesticide exposure estimates by comparing measured exposures in household dust, water and urine with records-based estimates that use crop location, residential proximity and pesticide application data. The study focused on the pesticide atrazine, a broadleaf herbicide used in corn production and one of the most widely-used pesticides in the U.S. We successfully used a combination of remotely-sensed data, GIS-based methods and fieldwork to select study fields and recruit participants in Illinois, a state with high corn production and heavy atrazine use. Our several-step process consisted of the identification of potential study fields and residential areas using aerial photography; verification of crop patterns and land use via site visits; development of a GIS-based algorithm to define recruitment areas around crop fields; acquisition of geocoded household-level data within each recruitment area from a commercial vendor; and confirmation of final participant household

  17. Household dietary exposure to aflatoxins from maize and maize products in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilonzo, Robert M; Imungi, Jasper K; Muiru, William M; Lamuka, Peter O; Njage, Patrick M Kamau

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxicosis has repeatedly affected Kenyans, particularly in the eastern region, due to consumption of contaminated maize. However, save for the cases of acute toxicity, the levels of sub-lethal exposure have not been adequately assessed. It is believed that this type of exposure does exist even during the seasons when acute toxicity does not occur. This study, therefore, was designed to assess the exposure of households to aflatoxins through consumption of maize and maize products. Twenty samples each of maize kernels, muthokoi and maize meal were randomly sampled from households in Kibwezi District of Makueni County in Eastern Kenya and analysed for aflatoxin contamination. The samples were quantitatively analysed for aflatoxin contamination using HPLC. The uncertainty and variability in dietary exposure was quantitatively modelled in Ms Excel using Monte Carlo simulation in @Risk software. Aflatoxins were found in 45% of maize kernels at between 18 and 480 μg kg⁻¹, 20% of muthokoi at between 12 and 123 μg kg⁻¹, and 35% of maize meal at between 6 and 30 μg kg⁻¹. The mean dietary exposure to aflatoxin in maize kernels was 292 ± 1567 ng kg⁻¹ body weight day⁻¹, while the mean dietary exposure to aflatoxin in maize meal and muthokoi were 59 ± 62 and 27 ± 154 ng kg⁻¹ body weight day⁻¹ respectively. The results showed that the amount and frequency of consumption of the three foods is the more important contributing factor than the mean aflatoxin concentration levels, to the risk of dietary exposure to aflatoxins.

  18. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in association with household exposure to fibrous insulation material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, J W; Alvarez, F; Keller, C A

    2000-06-01

    We report the case of a 35-year-old woman who developed pulmonary alveolar proteinosis requiring multiple lavage treatments, in association with household exposure to ventilation system dust comprised at least partially by a cellulose fire-resistant fibrous insulation material. Scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray analysis documented the presence of spectral peaks consistent with the insulation material in transbronchial biopsy tissue. The patient showed symptomatic improvement once exposure to the insulation material had ceased. We believe that this case demonstrates an unusual association with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. This case emphasizes the broad differential diagnosis for this histologic injury pattern and the need to thoroughly investigate environmental exposures in patients with unexplained pulmonary disease.

  19. Occupational Exposure to Diesel Particulate Matter in Municipal Household Waste Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyong-Hui; Jung, Hye-Jung; Park, Dong-Uk; Ryu, Seung-Hun; Kim, Boowook; Ha, Kwon-Chul; Kim, Seungwon; Yi, Gwangyong; Yoon, Chungsik

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purposes of this study were to determine the following: 1) the exposure levels of municipal household waste (MHW) workers to diesel particulate matter (DPM) using elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), total carbon (TC), black carbon (BC), and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) as indicators; 2) the correlations among the indicators; 3) the optimal indicator for DPM; and 4) factors that influence personal exposure to DPM. Methods A total of 72 workers in five MHW collection companies were assessed over a period of 7 days from June to September 2014. Respirable EC/OC samples were quantified using the thermal optical transmittance method. BC and PM 2.5 were measured using real-time monitors, an aethalometer and a laser photometer. All results were statistically analyzed for occupational and environmental variables to identify the exposure determinants of DPM. Results The geometric mean of EC, OC, TC, BC and PM 2.5 concentrations were 4.8, 39.6, 44.8, 9.1 and 62.0 μg/m3, respectively. EC concentrations were significantly correlated with the concentrations of OC, TC and BC, but not with those of PM 2.5. The exposures of the MHW collectors to EC, OC, and TC were higher than those of the drivers (pEuro 3 emission standard had higher exposures to EC, OC, TC and PM 2.5 than those working on Euro 4 trucks (p<0.05). Multiple regression analysis revealed that the job task, European engine emission standard, and average driving speed were the most influential factors in determining worker exposure. Conclusions We assessed MHW workers’ exposure to DPM using parallel sampling of five possible indicators. Of these five indicators, EC was shown to be the most useful indicator of DPM exposure for MHW workers, and the job task, European emission standard, and average driving speed were the main determinants of EC exposure. PMID:26248196

  20. Trajectory of inflammatory and microglial activation markers in the postnatal rabbit brain following intrauterine endotoxin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi; Jyoti, Amar; Balakrishnan, Bindu; Williams, Monica; Singh, Sarabdeep; Chugani, Diane C; Kannan, Sujatha

    2018-03-01

    Maternal infection is a risk factor for periventricular leukomalacia and cerebral palsy (CP) in neonates. We have previously demonstrated hypomyelination and motor deficits in newborn rabbits, as seen in patients with cerebral palsy, following maternal intrauterine endotoxin administration. This was associated with increased microglial activation, primarily involving the periventricular region (PVR). In this study we hypothesized that maternal intrauterine inflammation leads to a pro-inflammatory environment in the PVR that is associated with microglial activation in the first 2 postnatal weeks. Timed pregnant New Zealand white rabbits underwent laparotomy on gestational day 28 (G28). They were randomly divided to receive lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 20μg/kg in 1mL saline) (Endotoxin group) or saline (1mL) (control saline, CS group), administrated along the wall of the uterus. The PVR from the CS and Endotoxin kits were harvested at G29 (1day post-injury), postnatal day1 (PND1, 3day post-injury) and PND5 (7days post-injury) for real-time PCR, ELISA and immunohistochemistry. Kits from CS and Endotoxin groups underwent longitudinal MicroPET imaging, with [ 11 C]PK11195, a tracer for microglial activation. We found that intrauterine endotoxin exposure resulted in pro-inflammatory microglial activation in the PVR of rabbits in the first postnatal week. This was evidenced by increased TSPO (translocator protein) expression co-localized with microglia/macrophages in the PVR, and changes in the microglial morphology (ameboid soma and retracted processes). In addition, CD11b level significantly increased with a concomitant decline in the CD45 level in the PVR at G29 and PND1. There was a significant elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and iNOS, and decreased anti-inflammatory markers in the Endotoxin kits at G29, PND1 and PND5. Increased [ 11 C]PK11195 binding to the TSPO measured in vivo by PET imaging in the brain of Endotoxin kits was present up to PND14-17. Our

  1. Estimating population food and nutrient exposure: a comparison of store survey data with household panel food purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, Helen; Neal, Bruce; Jiang, Yannan; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2016-05-28

    Population exposure to food and nutrients can be estimated from household food purchases, but store surveys of foods and their composition are more available, less costly and might provide similar information. Our aim was to compare estimates of nutrient exposure from a store survey of packaged food with those from household panel food purchases. A cross-sectional store survey of all packaged foods for sale in two major supermarkets was undertaken in Auckland, New Zealand, between February and May 2012. Longitudinal household food purchase data (November 2011 to October 2012) were obtained from the nationally representative, population-weighted New Zealand Nielsen HomeScan® panel. Data on 8440 packaged food and non-alcoholic beverage products were collected in the store survey. Food purchase data were available for 1229 households and 16 812 products. Store survey data alone produced higher estimates of exposure to Na and sugar compared with estimates from household panel food purchases. The estimated mean difference in exposure to Na was 94 (95 % CI 72, 115) mg/100 g (20 % relative difference; Psurvey data provided a reasonable estimate of average population exposure to key nutrients from packaged foods. However, caution should be exercised in using such data to estimate population exposure to Na and sugar and in generalising these findings to other countries, as well as over time.

  2. Exposure-Specific and Age-Specific Attack Rates for Ebola Virus Disease in Ebola-Affected Households, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Hilary; Johnson, Sembia; Bangura, Mohamed S; Kamara, Alie Joshua; Kamara, Osman; Mansaray, Saidu H; Sesay, Daniel; Turay, Cecilia; Checchi, Francesco; Glynn, Judith R

    2016-08-01

    Using histories of household members of Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors in Sierra Leone, we calculated risk of EVD by age and exposure level, adjusting for confounding and clustering, and estimated relative risks. Of 937 household members in 94 households, 448 (48%) had had EVD. Highly correlated with exposure, EVD risk ranged from 83% for touching a corpse to 8% for minimal contact and varied by age group: 43% for children 60% for adults >30 years of age. Compared with risk for persons 20-29 years of age, exposure-adjusted relative risks were lower for those 5-9 (0.70), 10-14 (0.64), and 15-19 (0.71) years of age but not for children <2 (0.92) or 2-4 (0.97) years of age. Lower risk for 5-19-year-olds, after adjustment for exposure, suggests decreased susceptibility in this group.

  3. Household mold and dust allergens: exposure, sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, Janneane F; Kezik, Julie M; Hill, Melissa E; Tsai, Eling; Li, De-Wei; Leaderer, Brian P

    2012-10-01

    Few studies address concurrent exposures to common household allergens, specific allergen sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity. To identify levels of allergen exposures that trigger asthma exacerbations in sensitized individuals. We sampled homes for common indoor allergens (fungi, dust mites (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1) and cockroach (Bla g 1)) for levels associated with respiratory responses among school-aged children with asthma (N=1233) in a month-long study. Blood samples for allergy testing and samples of airborne fungi and settled dust were collected at enrollment. Symptoms and medication use were recorded on calendars. Combined effects of specific allergen sensitization and level of exposure on wheeze, persistent cough, rescue medication use and a 5-level asthma severity score were examined using ordered logistic regression. Children sensitized and exposed to any Penicillium experienced increased risk of wheeze (odds ratio [OR] 2.12 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12, 4.04), persistent cough (OR 2.01 95% CI 1.05, 3.85) and higher asthma severity score (OR 1.99 95% CI 1.06, 3.72) compared to those not sensitized or sensitized but unexposed. Children sensitized and exposed to pet allergen were at significantly increased risk of wheeze (by 39% and 53% for Fel d 1>0.12 μg/g and Can f 1>1.2 μg/g, respectively). Increased rescue medication use was significantly associated with sensitization and exposure to Der p 1>0.10 μg/g (by 47%) and Fel d 1>0.12 μg/g (by 32%). Asthmatic children sensitized and exposed to low levels of common household allergens Penicillium, Der p 1, Fel d 1 and Can f 1 are at significant risk for increased morbidity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A cross-sectional study of determinants of indoor environmental exposures in households with and without chronic exposure to biomass fuel smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Suzanne L; Williams, D'Ann L; Breysse, Patrick N; Baron, Patrick A; Grajeda, Laura M; Gilman, Robert H; Miranda, J Jaime; Checkley, William

    2014-03-24

    Burning biomass fuels indoors for cooking is associated with high concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide (CO). More efficient biomass-burning stoves and chimneys for ventilation have been proposed as solutions to reduce indoor pollution. We sought to quantify indoor PM and CO exposures in urban and rural households and determine factors associated with higher exposures. A secondary objective was to identify chronic vs. acute changes in cardiopulmonary biomarkers associated with exposure to biomass smoke. We conducted a census survey followed by a cross-sectional study of indoor environmental exposures and cardiopulmonary biomarkers in the main household cook in Puno, Peru. We measured 24-hour indoor PM and CO concentrations in 86 households. We also measured PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations gravimetrically for 24 hours in urban households and during cook times in rural households, and generated a calibration equation using PM2.5 measurements. In a census of 4903 households, 93% vs. 16% of rural vs. urban households used an open-fire stove; 22% of rural households had a homemade chimney; and <3% of rural households participated in a national program encouraging installation of a chimney. Median 24-hour indoor PM2.5 and CO concentrations were 130 vs. 22 μg/m3 and 5.8 vs. 0.4 ppm (all p<0.001) in rural vs. urban households. Having a chimney did not significantly reduce median concentrations in 24-hour indoor PM2.5 (119 vs. 137 μg/m3; p=0.40) or CO (4.6 vs. 7.2 ppm; p=0.23) among rural households with and without chimneys. Having a chimney did not significantly reduce median cook-time PM2.5 (360 vs. 298 μg/m3, p=0.45) or cook-time CO concentrations (15.2 vs. 9.4 ppm, p=0.23). Having a thatched roof (p=0.007) and hours spent cooking (p=0.02) were associated with higher 24-hour average PM concentrations. Rural participants had higher median exhaled CO (10 vs. 6 ppm; p=0.01) and exhaled carboxyhemoglobin (1.6% vs. 1.0%; p=0.04) than urban

  5. Association of pediatric asthma severity with exposure to common household dust allergens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gent, Janneane F., E-mail: janneane.gent@yale.edu [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Belanger, Kathleen [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Triche, Elizabeth W. [Brown University, Department of Community Health/Epidemiology, Providence, RI (United States); Bracken, Michael B. [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Beckett, William S. [Mount Auburn Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Cambridge, MA (United States); Leaderer, Brian P. [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    Background: Reducing exposure to household dust inhalant allergens has been proposed as one strategy to reduce asthma. Objective: To examine the dose-response relationships and health impact of five common household dust allergens on disease severity, quantified using both symptom frequency and medication use, in atopic and non-atopic asthmatic children. Methods: Asthmatic children (N=300) aged 4-12 years were followed for 1 year. Household dust samples from two indoor locations were analyzed for allergens including dust mite (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1), cockroach (Bla g 1). Daily symptoms and medication use were collected in monthly telephone interviews. Annual disease severity was examined in models including allergens, specific IgE sensitivity and adjusted for age, gender, atopy, ethnicity, and mother's education. Results: Der p 1 house dust mite allergen concentration of 2.0 {mu}g/g or more from the main room and the child's bed was related to increased asthma severity independent of allergic status (respectively, OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.37, 6.30 for 2.0-10.0 {mu}g/g and OR 2.55 95% CI 1.13, 5.73 for {>=}10.0 {mu}g/g). Higher pet allergen levels were associated with greater asthma severity, but only for those sensitized (cat OR 2.41 95% CI 1.19, 4.89; dog OR 2.06 95% CI 1.01, 4.22). Conclusion: Higher levels of Der p 1 and pet allergens were associated with asthma severity, but Der p 1 remained an independent risk factor after accounting for pet allergens and regardless of Der p 1 specific IgE status.

  6. Household mold and dust allergens: Exposure, sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gent, Janneane F., E-mail: janneane.gent@yale.edu [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Kezik, Julie M., E-mail: julie.colburn@yale.edu [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Hill, Melissa E., E-mail: melissa.hill@yale.edu [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Tsai, Eling, E-mail: tsai.umiami@gmail.com [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Li, De-Wei, E-mail: DeWei.Li@ct.gov [Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, Valley Laboratory, 153 Cook Hill Road, Windsor, CT 06095 (United States); Leaderer, Brian P., E-mail: brian.leaderer@yale.edu [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Background: Few studies address concurrent exposures to common household allergens, specific allergen sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity. Objective: To identify levels of allergen exposures that trigger asthma exacerbations in sensitized individuals. Methods: We sampled homes for common indoor allergens (fungi, dust mites (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1) and cockroach (Bla g 1)) for levels associated with respiratory responses among school-aged children with asthma (N=1233) in a month-long study. Blood samples for allergy testing and samples of airborne fungi and settled dust were collected at enrollment. Symptoms and medication use were recorded on calendars. Combined effects of specific allergen sensitization and level of exposure on wheeze, persistent cough, rescue medication use and a 5-level asthma severity score were examined using ordered logistic regression. Results: Children sensitized and exposed to any Penicillium experienced increased risk of wheeze (odds ratio [OR] 2.12 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12, 4.04), persistent cough (OR 2.01 95% CI 1.05, 3.85) and higher asthma severity score (OR 1.99 95% CI 1.06, 3.72) compared to those not sensitized or sensitized but unexposed. Children sensitized and exposed to pet allergen were at significantly increased risk of wheeze (by 39% and 53% for Fel d 1>0.12 {mu}g/g and Can f 1>1.2 {mu}g/g, respectively). Increased rescue medication use was significantly associated with sensitization and exposure to Der p 1>0.10 {mu}g/g (by 47%) and Fel d 1>0.12 {mu}g/g (by 32%). Conclusion: Asthmatic children sensitized and exposed to low levels of common household allergens Penicillium, Der p 1, Fel d 1 and Can f 1 are at significant risk for increased morbidity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Few studies address concurrent allergen exposures, sensitization and asthma morbidity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Children with asthma were tested for sensitivity to common indoor allergens

  7. Household Air Pollution Exposures of Pregnant Women Receiving Advanced Combustion Cookstoves in India: Implications for Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Sambandam, Sankar; Ghosh, Santu; Mukhopadhyay, Krishnendu; Vaswani, Mayur; Arora, Narendra K; Jack, Darby; Pillariseti, Ajay; Bates, Michael N; Smith, Kirk R

    2015-01-01

    Household air pollution (HAP) resulting from the use of solid cooking fuels is a leading contributor to the burden of disease in India. Advanced combustion cookstoves that reduce emissions from biomass fuels have been considered potential interventions to reduce this burden. Relatively little effort has been directed, however, to assessing the concentration and exposure changes associated with the introduction of such devices in households. The aim of this study was to describe HAP exposure patterns in pregnant women receiving a forced-draft advanced combustion cookstove (Philips model HD 4012) in the SOMAARTH Demographic Development & Environmental Surveillance Site (DDESS) Palwal District, Haryana, India. The monitoring was performed as part of a feasibility study to inform a potential large-scale HAP intervention (Newborn Stove trial) directed at pregnant women and newborns. This was a paired comparison exercise study with measurements of 24-hour personal exposures and kitchen area concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), before and after the cookstove intervention. Women (N = 65) were recruited from 4 villages of SOMAARTH DDESS. Measurements were performed between December 2011 and March 2013. Ambient measurements of PM2.5 were also performed throughout the study period. Measurements showed modest improvements in 24-hour average concentrations and exposures for PM2.5 and CO (ranging from 16% to 57%) with the use of the new stoves. Only those for CO showed statistically significant reductions. Results from the present study did not support the widespread use of this type of stove in this population as a means to reliably provide health-relevant reductions in HAP exposures for pregnant women compared with open biomass cookstoves. The feasibility assessment identified multiple factors related to user requirements and scale of adoption within communities that affect the field efficacy of

  8. EPHECT III: Health risk assessment of exposure to household consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trantallidi, M; Dimitroulopoulou, C; Wolkoff, P; Kephalopoulos, S; Carrer, P

    2015-12-01

    In the framework of the EU EPHECT project (Emissions, Exposure Patterns and Health Effects of Consumer Products in the EU), irritative and respiratory effects were assessed in relation to acute (30-min) and long-term (24-h) inhalation exposure to key and emerging indoor air pollutants emitted during household use of selected consumer products. A detailed Health Risk Assessment (HRA) was performed for five selected pollutants of respiratory health relevance, namely acrolein, formaldehyde, naphthalene, d-limonene and α-pinene. For each pollutant, the Critical Exposure Limit (CEL) was compared to indoor air concentrations and exposure estimates for the use of 15 selected consumer products by two population groups (housekeepers and retired people) in the four geographical regions of Europe (North, West, South, East), which were derived previously based on microenvironmental modelling. For the present HRA, health-based CELs were derived for certain compounds in case indoor air quality guidelines were not available by the World Health Organization for end-points relevant to the current study. For each pollutant, the highest indoor air concentrations in each microenvironment and exposure estimates across home microenvironments during the day were lower than the corresponding acute and long-term CELs. However, considerable contributions, especially to acute exposures, were obtained in some cases, such as formaldehyde emissions resulting from single product use of a floor cleaning agent (82% CEL), a candle (10% CEL) and an electric air freshener (17% CEL). Regarding multiple product use, the case of 30-min formaldehyde exposure reaching 34% CEL when eight product classes were used across home microenvironments, i.e. all-purpose/kitchen/floor cleaning agents, furniture/floor polish, combustible/electric air fresheners, and perfume, needs to be highlighted. Such estimated values should be evaluated with caution, as these may be attributed to the exposure scenarios

  9. Occupational Exposure to Diesel Particulate Matter in Municipal Household Waste Workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyong-Hui Lee

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to determine the following: 1 the exposure levels of municipal household waste (MHW workers to diesel particulate matter (DPM using elemental carbon (EC, organic carbon (OC, total carbon (TC, black carbon (BC, and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 as indicators; 2 the correlations among the indicators; 3 the optimal indicator for DPM; and 4 factors that influence personal exposure to DPM.A total of 72 workers in five MHW collection companies were assessed over a period of 7 days from June to September 2014. Respirable EC/OC samples were quantified using the thermal optical transmittance method. BC and PM 2.5 were measured using real-time monitors, an aethalometer and a laser photometer. All results were statistically analyzed for occupational and environmental variables to identify the exposure determinants of DPM.The geometric mean of EC, OC, TC, BC and PM 2.5 concentrations were 4.8, 39.6, 44.8, 9.1 and 62.0 μg/m3, respectively. EC concentrations were significantly correlated with the concentrations of OC, TC and BC, but not with those of PM 2.5. The exposures of the MHW collectors to EC, OC, and TC were higher than those of the drivers (p<0.05. Workers of trucks meeting Euro 3 emission standard had higher exposures to EC, OC, TC and PM 2.5 than those working on Euro 4 trucks (p<0.05. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the job task, European engine emission standard, and average driving speed were the most influential factors in determining worker exposure.We assessed MHW workers' exposure to DPM using parallel sampling of five possible indicators. Of these five indicators, EC was shown to be the most useful indicator of DPM exposure for MHW workers, and the job task, European emission standard, and average driving speed were the main determinants of EC exposure.

  10. TOXIC EXPOSURES IN CHILDREN INVOLVING LEGALLY AND ILLEGALLY COMMERCIALIZED HOUSEHOLD SANITIZERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Alessandra Marcuz de Souza; Bucaretchi, Fábio; Fernandes, Luciane Cristina Rodrigues; Fernandes, Carla Borrasca; de Capitani, Eduardo Mello; Beck, Ana Raquel Medeiros

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To analyze and to compare clinical repercussions of accidents involving legally and illegally commercialized household sanitizers in children under 7 years of age. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional design was used to collect data from electronic database of a regional Poison Control Center during one year. Data were analyzed by means of descriptive non-parametric statistics and association tests. Results: The sample had 737 reported cases. Most of the accidents occurred with children under 3 years of age (median: 1 year of age; interquartile interval: 1-3 years of age), at home (92.9%), by ingestion (97.2%). Products involved were cleaning products with low toxicity and no caustic effects (38.9%); caustics (24.1%); hydrocarbons (19.3%); pesticides/rodenticides (16.6%), and other products (1.1%). Seventy accidents were due to exposures to illegal products, mainly caustics (n=47) and rodenticides (n=15). Among the 337 children presenting post-exposure clinical manifestations, the most frequent were vomiting (n=125), oral burns (n=74), cough (n=35), drooling (n=26), and abdominal pain (n=25). Clinical manifestations were significantly more frequent after illegal products exposure (55/70 versus 282/667, psanitizer products are associated with greater morbidity when compared with legal ones. PMID:28977311

  11. Household exposure and animal-bite surveillance following human rabies detection in Southern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afakye, Kofi; Kenu, Ernest; Nyarko, Kofi Mensah; Johnson, Sherry Ama Mawuko; Wongnaah, Florence; Bonsu, George Kwame

    2016-01-01

    Rabies remains a neglected tropical zoonotic disease with 100% case fatality rate and estimated 6,000 global mortality annually, and yet vaccine preventable. In Ghana, rabies outbreaks receive poor response. We investigated rabies in a 5-year old boy to find the source of infection, identify exposed persons for post-exposure prophylaxis and describe animal-bite surveillance in Manya-Krobo District of Ghana. We actively searched for cases and exposures by interviewing household members of the victim, schoolmates, and health professionals using WHO case definition, interview guide and checklist. We reviewed health and veterinary records and reports, and interviewed stakeholders. Descriptive data analyses were carried out and presented using tables and charts. Recorded responses were transcribed into thematic areas and analysed. Child had dog-bite at the wrist, and developed hyperactivity, hydrophobia and hyperventilation 2 months post bite. He was hospitalised and died from respiratory failure day 3 after admission. Thirty-three persons were exposed to rabies infectious material. Females were 66%, age-groups 5-15yrs and 30-59 yrs were 33.3% and 39.4% respectively. A third (11/33) were category II exposure by WHO classification and were recommended for post-exposure prophylaxis. Surveillance records showed ninety-two animal-bite cases were reported for past 12 months. Half were females, and 18-59yrs age-group was 43%. Surveillance data quality was poor. Rabies remains a public health burden inGhana with domestic dog as reservoir of the virus and females more vulnerable to secondary exposures. Health education on rabies should be intensified, and robust animal-bite surveillance system put in place.

  12. Histopathological changes in the livers of rabbit fish (Siganus canaliculatus) following exposure to crude oil and dispersed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agamy, Esam

    2012-12-01

    The present study aimed to assess the impact of acute exposure to crude oil, dispersed oil, and dispersant alone on the liver of the rabbit fish (Siganus canaliculatus). Histopathological effects in the liver were observed at different time points (3 to 21 days) and different concentrations (3-100% water accommodated fraction [WAF]) to simulate a range of possible oil pollution events. The main alterations observed in this study include lipid accumulation, necrosis, bile stagnation, megalocytosis, cholangitis, and spongiosis hepatis. The liver of fish exposed to WAF, dispersed oil, or dispersant showed significant histopathologic alterations compared with the control fish (Mann-Whitney U test; p fish differed significantly from the control groups. There was a significant correlation between exposure time and the occurrence of most lesions (Spearman correlation; p > .05). The present study indicates that oil pollution can cause important alterations to livers of adult rabbit fish and that the dispersed oil is slightly more toxic than crude oil or dispersant.

  13. Exposure to electromagnetic fields in households--trends from 2006 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomitsch, Johannes; Dechant, Engelbert

    2015-01-01

    This article is a follow-up study of extremely low-frequency electric and magnetic fields (ELF-EFs, ELF-MFs) and radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) using data collected in 2012 following earlier data sets from 2006 and 2009. Measurements were conducted in 219 bedrooms in Lower Austria. Out of these rooms 113 measurements were done in the same households in 2006, 2009 and 2012, and 106 were conducted in neighbouring buildings added in 2009 and newly recruited buildings in mainly urban areas in 2012. In revisited places the median of the ELF-EFs decreased from 23.20 V/m in 2006 to 13.90 V/m in 2012. The median of all-night measurements of ELF-MFs at 50 Hz decreased from 13.50 to 11.37 nT. The median of total RF-EMFs increased from 28.13 to 52.16 µW/m(2). Highest increases were found for universal mobile telecommunication system (UMTS) and wireless local area networks (WLAN). The analysis of all households showed higher total RF-EMFs in urban (median = 117.73 µW/m(2)) than in rural (median = 34.52 µW/m(2)) areas. Long-term evolution (LTE) in the 2600 MHz frequency range was detected at 17 locations with a maximum of 38.20 µW/m(2). Indoor RF-EMF sources resulted in decreased exposure in the frequency range of digital enhanced cordless telecommunications telephones (DECT) and increased exposure in the frequency range of WLAN. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Prospective Associations Between Early Long-Term Household Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Subsequent Indicators of Metabolic Risk at Age 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Linda S; Nguyen, A K Danny; Fitzpatrick, Caroline

    2016-05-01

    Although there are established risks associated with gestational tobacco smoke exposure, few studies have addressed the metabolic hazards of domestic exposure in early childhood. This study prospectively examines the long-term relationship between early childhood exposure to household smoke and two adiposity-related measures at age 10. Participants from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development birth cohort were categorized into one of three groups of early childhood household exposure to tobacco smoke over four time points (from ages 1 to 7 years): never-exposed; transient exposure; and continuous exposure. Follow-up measures of body mass index and waist circumference were independently assessed at age 10. Compared to being never exposed, transient and continuous household smoke exposure predicted increases of 0.93 cm (95% confidence interval [CI] between 0.05 and 1.82 cm; P = .03) and 1.56 cm (95% CI between 0.07 and 3.05 cm; P = .04) in children's waist circumference, respectively. Children exposed to transient and continuous household smoke, compared to unexposed children, also showed 0.48 and 0.81 point increases in their body mass index, respectively, both Ps = .005. Once adjusted, for confounding variables, only transient household smoke remained associated with 43% greater odds of belonging to the overweight/obese category (95% CI between 1.12 and 1.81 cm; P early childhood years. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The prevalence of household second-hand smoke exposure and its correlated factors in six counties of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C-P; Ma, S J; Xu, X F; Wang, J-F; Mei, C Z; Yang, G-H

    2009-04-01

    To study the prevalence of, and discuss factors contributing to, household second-hand smoke exposure in six counties in China, providing scientific support for the need to establish tobacco control measures in these areas. A cross-sectional survey was performed. Investigators conducted face-to-face interviews using a standardised questionnaire to collect information on demographics, passive smoking behaviours and knowledge, and attitudes towards tobacco control. The setting was six counties from the three provinces: Mianzhu and Xichong counties in Sichuan Province; Anyi and Hukou counties in Jiangxi Province; and Xinan and Yanshi counties in Henan Province. A total of 8142 non-smokers (aged 18-69) in 2004 were included in the data analysis. Household second-hand smoke exposure rate as defined as the proportion of household passive smokers in the non-smoker population was used as the measure of household second-hand smoke exposure. The analysis of 8142 non-smokers revealed that, in these selected counties, the household second-hand smoke exposure rate was 48.3%. Respondents had positive attitudes towards tobacco control. Of 6972 respondents, 84.4% supported all the three tobacco control policies (banning smoking in public places, banning the selling of cigarettes to minors, banning all cigarette advertisements). In 3165 families with smokers, 87.2% of respondents reported that smokers would smoke in front of them. In 2124 families with smokers and children, 76.5% of respondents reported that smokers would smoke in front of children. As many as 42.1% of non-smokers would offer cigarettes to their guests, and only 46.8% of respondents would ask smokers to smoke outdoors. Only 6.3% of families completely forbade smoking at home. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed high second-hand smoke exposure for the following demographic groups: Jiangxi Province inhabitants, females, those with low education level, farmers and married respondents. Household second

  16. Mercury exposure among household users and nonusers of skin-lightening creams produced in Mexico - California and Virginia, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    Mercury exposure has been reported among users of skin-lightening creams produced outside the United States but not among nonusers in their households. Mercury exposure can result in irreversible renal and central nervous system damage or death. In March 2010, coordinators of a health study notified members of a Mexican-American family in California with four study participants that they had elevated blood mercury levels and also notified the local health department, which in turn asked the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) to investigate. CDPH interviewed the four study participants and a fifth household member and identified unlabeled skin-lightening creams with mercury content measured at 2.0%-5.7% by weight as the likely source of mercury exposure. CDPH also interviewed friends of the study participants in California who had used similar skin-lightening products, and the Virginia Department of Health (VDH) interviewed relatives in that state who had used skin-lightening products. In all, investigators in the two states collected information and urine specimens for 22 persons in five households. The results indicated that 15 persons had elevated urinary mercury concentrations, including nine users of the cream (six with nonspecific symptoms) and six nonusers. Mercury vapor concentrations as high as 50 µg/m3 were measured in spot household locations; however, the overall concentration for each room in all five households was creams and issued clinical health alerts notifying physicians about this potential cause of mercury toxicity.

  17. [Occupational exposure to airborne fungi and bacteria in a household recycled container sorting plant ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solans, Xavier; Alonso, Rosa María; Constans, Angelina; Mansilla, Alfonso

    2007-06-01

    Several studies have showed an association between the work in waste treatment plants and occupational health problems such as irritation of skin, eyes and mucous membranes, pulmonary diseases, gastrointestinal problems and symptoms of organic dust toxic syndrome (ODTS). These symptoms have been related to bioaerosol exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate the occupational exposure to biological agents in a plant sorting source-separated packages (plastics materials, ferric and non-ferric metals) household waste. Airborne samples were collected with M Air T Millipore sampler. The concentration of total fungi and bacteria and gram-negative bacteria were determined and the most abundant genera were identified. The results shown that the predominant airborne microorganisms were fungi, with counts greater than 12,000 cfu/m(3) and gram-negative bacteria, with a environmental concentration between 1,395 and 5,280 cfu/m(3). In both cases, these concentrations were higher than levels obtained outside of the sorting plant. Among the fungi, the predominant genera were Penicillium and Cladosporium, whereas the predominant genera of gram-negative bacteria were Escherichia, Enterobacter, Klebsiella and Serratia. The present study shows that the workers at sorting source-separated packages (plastics materials, ferric and non-ferric metals) domestic waste plant may be exposed to airborne biological agents, especially fungi and gram-negative bacteria.

  18. Associations between children's television advertising exposure and their food consumption patterns: A household diary-survey study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.A.; Schuurman, J.; Bomhof, E.

    2008-01-01

    In a diary–survey study in 234 households with children aged 4–12 years, we investigated the associations between children's exposure to food advertising and their consumption of (a) advertised food brands, (b) advertised energy-dense food product categories, and (c) food products overall. Relations

  19. Associations between children's television advertising exposure and their food consumption patterns: a household diary-survey study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.; Schuurman, J.; Bomhof, E.

    2008-01-01

    In a diary-survey study in 234 households with children aged 4-12 years, we investigated the associations between children's exposure to food advertising and their consumption of (a) advertised food brands, (b) advertised energy-dense food product categories, and (c) food products overall. Relations

  20. Susceptibility to cartap-induced lethal effect and diaphragmatic injury via ocular exposure in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Pang, Victor Fei; Jeng, Chian-Ren; Chang, Shao-Kuang; Hwang, Jenn-Sheng; Wang, Shun-Cheng

    2003-11-05

    Cartap is extensively used to control agricultural pests. Pertinent literatures have indicated that it causes no eye irritation [D.E. Ray, Insecticides derived from plants and other organisms, in: W.J. Hayes, E.R. Laws (Eds.), Handbook of Insecticide Toxicology, Classes of Insecticides, vol. 2, Academic Press, New York, 1991, p. 611; C. Tomlin, Cartap, in: C. Tomlin (Ed.), The Insecticide Manual, 12th ed., British Crop Protection Council, Surrey, UK, 2000, p. 144]; however, the instillation of a little cartap through the eye has caused death in rabbits. The aim of this study was to determine the ocular toxicity of cartap in New Zealand White rabbits. Cartap was directly instilled into the low conjunctival sac of eyes, at doses of 0, 5, 7.5, 10 and 12.5 mg/kg body weight. The changes in the enzymes and isoenzymes of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LD), as well as pathological changes in the muscles of the heart, thigh and diaphragm were determined in the cartap-treated rabbits. Moreover, the neuromuscular effect of cartap was examined using the isolated rabbit phrenic-nerve diaphragm model. The results indicated that rabbits developed severe signs and they died within 20 min of ocular instillation. The ocular LD50 of cartap was 8.1 mg/kg body weight. Treatment with cartap increased the activities of CK and LD enzymes and their isoenzymes, CK-1, CK-2, and CK-3 in serum, and CK-3 and LD-5 in the diaphragm. Microscopically, hypercontraction bands and the rupture of myofibers of the diaphragm were observed in dead rabbits. Cartap did not affect nerve-evoked twitch but induced irreversible contracture and twitch depression on the isolated rabbit's diaphragm. These results indicate that the rabbit is susceptible to cartap toxicity; the effect of cartap caused contracture and damage to the diaphragm might play a pivotal role in respiratory paralysis and death of rabbits during intoxication.

  1. Effects of acute exposure to WIFI signals (2.45GHz) on heart variability and blood pressure in Albinos rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saili, Linda; Hanini, Amel; Smirani, Chiraz; Azzouz, Ines; Azzouz, Amina; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh; Bouslama, Zihad

    2015-09-01

    Electrocardiogram and arterial pressure measurements were studied under acute exposures to WIFI (2.45GHz) during one hour in adult male rabbits. Antennas of WIFI were placed at 25cm at the right side near the heart. Acute exposure of rabbits to WIFI increased heart frequency (+22%) and arterial blood pressure (+14%). Moreover, analysis of ECG revealed that WIFI induced a combined increase of PR and QT intervals. By contrast, the same exposure failed to alter maximum amplitude and P waves. After intravenously injection of dopamine (0.50ml/kg) and epinephrine (0.50ml/kg) under acute exposure to RF we found that, WIFI alter catecholamines (dopamine, epinephrine) action on heart variability and blood pressure compared to control. These results suggest for the first time, as far as we know, that exposure to WIFI affect heart rhythm, blood pressure, and catecholamines efficacy on cardiovascular system; indicating that radiofrequency can act directly and/or indirectly on cardiovascular system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Children, smoking households and exposure to second-hand smoke in the home in rural Australia: analysis of a national cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longman, Jo M; Passey, Megan E

    2013-01-01

    This paper aimed to explore the association between rurality and (1) household smoking status and (2) home second-hand smoke exposure, in households with children aged 0-14 years. Cross-sectional study. Households across Australia. Households across the country were randomly selected to provide a nationally representative sample. Respondents were persons aged 12 years or older in each household who were next going to celebrate their birthday. Household smoking status and smoking inside the home. The 2010 Australian National Drug Strategy Household survey data were analysed to explore the prevalence of household smoking and home second-hand smoke exposure in rural and urban households with children. Multivariable logistic regression was used to explore the association of rurality with household smoking and with home second-hand smoke exposure, controlling for potential confounders. Households with children were more likely to be smoking households (35.4%, 95% CI 34.2% to 36.5%) than households without children (32.1%, 95% CI 31.3% to 32.8%). Both household smoking (43.6% (95% CI 41.5% to 45.7%) vs 31.4% (95% CI 30.0% to 32.8%)) and home second-hand smoke exposure (8.0% (95% CI 6.8% to 9.1%) vs 5.2% (95% CI 4.5% to 5.8%)) were significantly more common for rural children. In multivariate analyses controlling for confounding factors, rurality remained associated with smoking households (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.37), whereas it did not remain associated with children's home second-hand smoke exposure (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.35). Larger household size, low socioeconomic status and being a single-parent household were the main drivers of home second-hand smoke exposure. The proportion of smoking households with children, and the number of children regularly exposed to second-hand smoke in their homes remain important public health concerns. Smoking cessation support and tobacco control policies might benefit from targeting larger and/or socioeconomically

  3. Embryo-fetal exposure and developmental outcome of thalidomide following oral and intravaginal administration to pregnant rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Julia Y; Hoffmann, Matthew; Kumar, Gondi

    2014-09-01

    Studies in pregnant rabbits were conducted to evaluate if there are any differences in the uptake of thalidomide into the intrauterine compartment and developmental toxicity risk following oral and intravaginal administration. Thalidomide concentrations in maternal plasma, yolk sac cavity (YSC) fluid and embryo following intravaginal administration were 2- to 7-fold lower than their respective levels after oral administration. Ratios of thalidomide concentration in YSC fluid to maternal plasma were similar between these two routes, indicating no difference in uptake into the intrauterine compartment. A rabbit embryo-fetal development study using oral and intravaginal thalidomide administration at 2mg/kg/day (a dose >10,000-fold higher than the expected amount of thalidomide in human semen) did not result in any developmental abnormalities. These data demonstrated no preferential transfer mechanism of thalidomide from vagina to conceptus, and no additional embryo-fetal developmental toxicity risks with thalidomide exposure via the vaginal route. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Children's exposure to second-hand smoke in the home: a household survey in the North of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwan, Nisreen; Siddiqi, Kamran; Thomson, Heather; Cameron, Ian

    2010-05-01

    Exposure of children to second-hand smoke (SHS) leads to increased risk of health and social problems and uptake of smoking in the future. We aimed to assess the prevalence of children's exposure to SHS in their homes, in a deprived area in the North of England and identify what people thought would help them achieve a smoke-free home (SFH). We performed a cross-sectional survey of 318 households with at least one child aged under 16 years in Beeston Hill, a deprived locality in Leeds, England in June 2008. One hundred and seventy-three households [54%, 95% confidence interval (C.I.) 49-60] had at least one smoker in the house. In 42% (95% C.I. 35-50) of these households (n = 73), smoking took place in the presence of children. The odds of allowing smoking in front of children were 2.2 (95% C.I. 1.1-4.5) times greater in households whose head had less than A-level (national exams at 18 years) or equivalent qualification than in homes with a more qualified head of household. 92% of respondents were aware that SHS has negative effects on children's health. However, 71% felt more information about health risks to children would help reduce exposure to SHS in the home. Smoking in the presence of children takes place in a relatively high proportion of households with smoker(s), despite media awareness campaigns regarding the dangers of passive smoking launched alongside the recently enforced smoke-free public and workplaces legislation. Specific promotion of SFHs is needed to protect the health of children.

  5. Chemical pneumonitis and subsequent reactive airways dysfunction syndrome after a single exposure to a household product: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Imran

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Household products are usually safe to use. Adverse events arising from their use are mostly reported in patients with pre-existing atopy or pulmonary problems and usually only after a prolonged exposure to such products. We report the case of a patient with no prior problems who developed significant side effects from a single exposure to a domestic product. Case presentation A 43-year-old Caucasian American man, previously in good health, used a domestic aerosol product called 'Stand N' Seal "Spray-On" Grout Sealer' in an enclosed room in his house. The product contained n-butyl acetate ( Conclusion A household product may still prove unsafe to use even after it has gone through vigorous testing and approval processes. Even healthy individuals are susceptible to adverse outcomes after a brief exposure. Extra precautions should be taken when using any chemical product at home.

  6. Association Between Household Air Pollution Exposure and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Outcomes in 13 Low- and Middle-income Country Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddharthan, Trishul; Grigsby, Matthew R; Goodman, Dina; Chowdhury, Muhammad; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Irazola, Vilma; Gutierrez, Laura; Miranda, J Jaime; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Alam, Dewan; Kirenga, Bruce; Jones, Rupert; van Gemert, Frederick; Wise, Robert A; Checkley, William

    2018-01-11

    Forty percent of households worldwide burn biomass fuels for energy, which may be most the important contributor to household air pollution. To examine the association between household air pollution exposure and COPD outcomes in 13 resource-poor settings. We analyzed data from 12,396 adult participants living in 13 resource-poor, population-based settings. Household air pollution exposure was defined as using biomass materials as the primary fuel source in the home. We used multivariable regressions to assess the relationship between household air pollution exposure and COPD outcomes, evaluated for interactions, and conducted sensitivity analyses to test the robustness of our findings. Average age was 54.9 years (44.2-59.6 years across settings), 48.5% were women (38.3%-54.5%), prevalence of household air pollution exposure was 38% (0.5%-99.6%), and 8.8% (1.7%-15.5%) had COPD. Participants with household air pollution exposure were 41% more likely to have COPD (adjusted OR=1.41, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.68) than those without the exposure, and 13.5% (6.4% to 20.6%) of COPD prevalence may due to household air pollution exposure, compared with 12.4% due to cigarette smoking. The association between household air pollution exposure and COPD was stronger in women (1.70, 1.24 to 2.32) than in men (1.21, 0.92 to 1.58). Household air pollution exposure was associated with a higher prevalence of COPD, particularly among women, and it is likely a leading population attributable risk factor for COPD in resource-poor settings.

  7. Small, Smart, Fast, and Cheap: Microchip-Based Sensors to Estimate Air Pollution Exposures in Rural Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillarisetti, Ajay; Allen, Tracy; Ruiz-Mercado, Ilse; Edwards, Rufus; Chowdhury, Zohir; Garland, Charity; Johnson, Michael; Litton, Charles D.; Lam, Nicholas L.; Pennise, David; Smith, Kirk R.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, the Kirk R. Smith research group at the University of California Berkeley—in collaboration with Electronically Monitored Ecosystems, Berkeley Air Monitoring Group, and other academic institutions—has developed a suite of relatively inexpensive, rugged, battery-operated, microchip-based devices to quantify parameters related to household air pollution. These devices include two generations of particle monitors; data-logging temperature sensors to assess time of use of household energy devices; a time-activity monitoring system using ultrasound; and a CO2-based tracer-decay system to assess ventilation rates. Development of each system involved numerous iterations of custom hardware, software, and data processing and visualization routines along with both lab and field validation. The devices have been used in hundreds of studies globally and have greatly enhanced our understanding of heterogeneous household air pollution (HAP) concentrations and exposures and factors influencing them. PMID:28812989

  8. Effects of +G_z exposure on gallbladder emptying function,cholecystokinin,and somatostatin in rabbits with high cholesterol diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-feng XIAO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The present study explores the effects of +Gz exposure on the gallbladder emptying function,cholecystokinin(CCK,and somatostatin(SS in rabbits with high cholesterol diets and investigates its mechanism in the occurrence of cholecystolithiasis.Methods Twenty-four male New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into the high cholesterol diet(control group,n=8 and high cholesterol diet plus +Gz exposure groups.The latter was divided into the four-and six-week +Gz exposure groups(n=8 based on the exposure time.Radioimmunoassay was used to determine the CCK and SS contents of the gallbladder at the end of the experiment in the fourth and sixth weeks and to calculate the gallbladder volume and maximum emptying ratio.A microcomputer biodynamic pressure monitor was used to record the hydrostatic pressure in the gallbladder to measure its capacity.Moreover,the bile properties and formation of concretion were observed with the naked eye,and polarized light microscopy was used to observe cholesterin crystallization on the gallbladder wall.Results The gallbladder capacity increased upon +Gz exposure for four and six weeks,indicating that the maximum emptying ratio(E% decreased,the empty and residual volumes improved,and the pressure increased(P < 0.05.After +Gz exposure for four and six weeks,the CCK contents in the experimental groups were evidently lower than that in the control group and gradually decreased(P < 0.05 as the +Gz exposure time increased.On the other hand,after +Gz exposure for four and six weeks,the SS contents in the experimental groups were higher than that in the control group and gradually improved(P < 0.05 as the +Gz exposure time increased.After +Gz exposure for four and six weeks,bile was turbid and sticky with cholesterol crystals and without visible concretion.Conclusions Therefore,+Gz exposure may cause abnormal gallbladder emptying functions,decrease CCK content,increase SS content,and thus cause bile stasis

  9. Pertussis post-exposure prophylaxis among household contacts: a cost-utility analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thampi, Nisha; Gurol-Urganci, Ipek; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Sander, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Recent pertussis outbreaks have prompted re-examination of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) strategies, when immunization is not immediately protective. Chemoprophylaxis is recommended to household contacts; however there are concerns of clinical failure and significant adverse events, especially with erythromycin among infants who have the highest disease burden. Newer macrolides offer fewer side effects at higher drug costs. We sought to determine the cost-effectiveness of PEP strategies from the health care payer perspective. A Markov model was constructed to examine 4 mutually exclusive strategies: erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, or no intervention, stratified by age group of contacts ("infant", "child", and "adult"). Transition probabilities, costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were derived from the literature. Chronic neurologic sequelae were modeled over a lifetime, with costs and QALYs discounted at 5%. Associated health outcomes and costs were compared, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were calculated in 2012 Canadian dollars. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate the degree of uncertainty in the results. Azithromycin offered the highest QALYs in all scenarios. While this was the dominant strategy among infants, it produced an ICER of $16,963 per QALY among children and $2,415 per QALY among adults. Total QALYs with azithromycin were 19.7 for a 5-kg infant, 19.4 for a 10-year-old child, and 18.8 for a 30-year-old adult. The costs of azithromycin PEP among infants, children and adults were $1,976, $132 and $90, respectively. While results were sensitive to changes in PEP effectiveness (11% to 87%), disease transmission (variable among age groups) and hospitalization costs ($379 to $59,644), the choice of strategy remained unchanged. Pertussis PEP is a cost-effective strategy compared with no intervention and plays an important role in contact management, potentially in outbreak

  10. Effects of intrauterine and extrauterine exposure to GSM-like radiofrequency on distortion product otoacoustic emissions in infant male rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budak, Gürer G; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Budak, Bilgehan; Oztürk, Göknur Güler; Apan, Alpaslan; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential hazardous effects of intrauterine (IU) and/or extrauterine (EU) exposure to 1800 MHz Global System for Mobile Communications-like (GSM-like) radiofrequency (RF) on the cochlear functions of infant rabbits by measuring distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) response amplitudes. Thirty-six white infant male New Zealand rabbits each 1-month-old were included in the study. The animals were randomly divided into four groups. Nine infant rabbits (Group 1) were not exposed to 1800 MHz GSM-like RF (Control-C). Nine infant rabbits (Group 2) were exposed to 1800 MHz GSM-like RF, 15 min daily for 14 days after they reached 1-month of age (extrauterine-EU). Nine infant rabbits (Group 3) were exposed to 1800 MHz GSM-like RF, 15 min daily for 7 days in the intrauterine period (between 15th and 22nd days of the gestational period) (intrauterine-IU). Nine infant rabbits (Group 4) were exposed to 1800 MHz GSM-like RF, 15 min daily for 7 days in the intrauterine period (between 15th and 22nd days of the gestational period) and 15 min daily for 14 days after they reached to 1-month of age (IU+EU). The cochlear functions were assessed by DPOAEs at 1.0-8.0 kHz. At 1.5 kHz, the mean DPOAE amplitude of Group 3 was higher than that of the controls and Group 2; and the mean DPOAE value of Group 4 was higher than that of the controls and Group 2. At 2.0 kHz, the mean DPOAE amplitude of Group 4 was higher than that of Group 2. At 3.0 kHz, the mean DPOAE amplitude of Group 4 was higher than that of the controls and Group 2. At 4.0 kHz, the mean DPOAE amplitude of Group 2 was lower than that of the controls, while the mean value of Group 4 was higher than the mean value of the controls and Group 2. At 6.0 kHz, the mean DPOAE amplitude of Group 2 was lower than that of the control group; however, the mean value of Group 4 was higher than that of Group 2. At 1.0 and 8.0 kHz, no significant differences were found among the four

  11. PATULIN - INDUCED CHANGES IN HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF RABBITS FED BY STRAWBERRY LEAVES AFTER 3 WEEKS EXPOSURE

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    Jana Emrichova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the present study was to determinate the effect of strawberry leaves inclusion into the feed mixture and single dose of patulin on haematological parameters of rabbits: white blood cell count (WBC, lymphocytes count (LYM, medium size cell count (MID, granulocytes count (GRA, lymphocyte percentage (LYM%, medium size cell percentage (MI%, granulocytes percentage (GRA%, red blood cell count (RBC, haemoglobin (HGB, haematocrit (HCT, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC, red cell distribution width (RDWc, platelet count (PLT, platelet percentage (PCT, mean platelet volume (MPV and platelet distribution width (PDWc. Fifteen rabbits of broiler line Californian were used in this experiment. Animals were divided into four groups, one control group C (n =3 and three experimental groups E1, E2 and E3 (n = 4 in each group. Rabbits were fed with a granular feed mixture (FM with strawberry leaves in various doses and all groups received patulin in injectable form at 10 µg.kg-1 for 21 days 2 times a week. The investigation was performed with haematology analyzer Abacus junior VET (Diatron®, Vienna, Austria. Significant decrease in MI% and MID in experimental group E3 in comparison with the control group was found. The values of other parameters (WBC, LYM, LY%, GRA, GR%, RBC, HGB, HCT, MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDWc, PLT, MPV and PDWc in all groups corresponded with normal haematological values in rabbit´s blood.

  12. Personal exposures to fine particulate matter and black carbon in households cooking with biomass fuels in rural Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vliet, Eleanne D.S.; Asante, Kwakupoku; Jack, Darby W.; Kinney, Patrick L.; Whyatt, Robin M.; Chillrud, Steven N.; Abokyi, Livesy; Zandoh, Charles; Owusu-Agyei, Seth

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine cooking practices and 24-h personal and kitchen area exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and black carbon in cooks using biomass in Ghana. Methods Researchers administered a detailed survey to 421 households. In a sub-sample of 36 households, researchers collected 24-h integrated PM2.5 samples (personal and kitchen area); in addition, the primary cook was monitored for real-time PM2.5. All filters were also analyzed for black carbon using a multi-wavelength reflectance method. Predictors of PM2.5 exposure were analyzed, including cooking behaviors, fuel, stove and kitchen type, weather, demographic factors and other smoke sources. Results The majority of households cooked outdoors (55%; 231/417), used biomass (wood or charcoal) as their primary fuel (99%; 412/413), and cooked on traditional fires (77%, 323/421). In the sub-sample of 29 households with complete, valid exposure monitoring data, the 24-h integrated concentrations of PM2.5 were substantially higher in the kitchen sample (mean 446.8 μg/m3) than in the personal air sample (mean 128.5 μg/m3). Black carbon concentrations followed the same pattern such that concentrations were higher in the kitchen sample (14.5 μg/m3) than in the personal air sample (8.8 μg/m3). Spikes in real-time personal concentrations of PM2.5 accounted for the majority of exposure; the most polluted 5%, or 72 min, of the 24-h monitoring period accounted for 75% of all exposure. Two variables that had some predictive power for personal PM2.5 exposures were primary fuel type and ethnicity, while reported kerosene lantern use was associated with increased personal and kitchen area concentrations of black carbon. Conclusion Personal concentrations of PM2.5 exhibited considerable inter-subject variability across kitchen types (enclosed, semi-enclosed, outdoor), and can be elevated even in outdoor cooking settings. Furthermore, personal concentrations of PM2.5 were not associated with kitchen type and were

  13. Household Air Pollution: Sources and Exposure Levels to Fine Particulate Matter in Nairobi Slums

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    Kanyiva Muindi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With 2.8 billion biomass users globally, household air pollution remains a public health threat in many low- and middle-income countries. However, little evidence on pollution levels and health effects exists in low-income settings, especially slums. This study assesses the levels and sources of household air pollution in the urban slums of Nairobi. This cross-sectional study was embedded in a prospective cohort of pregnant women living in two slum areas—Korogocho and Viwandani—in Nairobi. Data on fuel and stove types and ventilation use come from 1058 households, while air quality data based on the particulate matters (PM2.5 level were collected in a sub-sample of 72 households using the DustTrak™ II Model 8532 monitor. We measured PM2.5 levels mainly during daytime and using sources of indoor air pollutions. The majority of the households used kerosene (69.7% as a cooking fuel. In households where air quality was monitored, the mean PM2.5 levels were high and varied widely, especially during the evenings (124.6 µg/m3 SD: 372.7 in Korogocho and 82.2 µg/m3 SD: 249.9 in Viwandani, and in households using charcoal (126.5 µg/m3 SD: 434.7 in Korogocho and 75.7 µg/m3 SD: 323.0 in Viwandani. Overall, the mean PM2.5 levels measured within homes at both sites (Korogocho = 108.9 µg/m3 SD: 371.2; Viwandani = 59.3 µg/m3 SD: 234.1 were high. Residents of the two slums are exposed to high levels of PM2.5 in their homes. We recommend interventions, especially those focusing on clean cookstoves and lighting fuels to mitigate indoor levels of fine particles.

  14. FDTD analysis of temperature elevation in the lens of human and rabbit models due to near-field and far-field exposures at 2.45 GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oizumi, Takuya; Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa; Fujiwara, Osamu; Watanabe, Soichi; Taki, Masao; Kojima, Masami; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Kazuyuki

    2013-07-01

    The eye is said to be one of the most sensitive organs to microwave heating. According to previous studies, the possibility of microwave-induced cataract formation has been experimentally investigated in rabbit and monkey eyes, but not for the human eye due to ethical reasons. In the present study, the temperature elevation in the lens, the skin around the eye and the core temperature of numerical human and rabbit models for far-field and near-field exposures at 2.45 GHz are investigated. The temperature elevations in the human and rabbit models were compared with the threshold temperatures for inducing cataracts, thermal pain in the skin and reversible health effects such as heat exhaustion or heat stroke. For plane-wave exposure, the core temperature elevation is shown to be essential both in the human and in the rabbit models as suggested in the international guidelines and standards. For localised exposure of the human eye, the temperature elevation of the skin was essential, and the lens temperature did not reach its threshold for thermal pain. On the other hand, the lens temperature elevation was found to be dominant for the rabbit eye.

  15. Maternal endotoxin exposure results in abnormal neuronal architecture in the newborn rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Bindu; Dai, Hui; Janisse, James; Romero, Roberto; Kannan, Sujatha

    2013-01-01

    Maternal intrauterine inflammation/infection is a potential risk factor for the development of neurologic disorders such as cerebral palsy (CP) in preterm and term infants. CP is associated with white matter and grey matter injury. In the current study, we used a rabbit model of CP in which pregnant rabbits are administered intrauterine injections of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide. We then investigated the extent of neuronal damage in the newborn kit brain. We observed an overall decrease in the number of MAP2-stained neurons and an increase in Fluoro-Jade C-stained cells in the anterior thalamus of 1-day-old rabbit brain. We also observed an overall decrease in the number of branching points and spine density in the retrosplenial cortex, a major output region of the anterior thalamus that is involved in cognition and memory. The loss of spines and dendritic atrophy in the retrosplenial cortex may be caused by loss of presynaptic input from the thalamus. Our study indicates that the cognitive impairments seen in patients with CP may be related to the degeneration of neurons and abnormal arborization of the thalamic and cortical neurons.

  16. Emotional reactivity and exposure to household stress in childhood predict psychological problems in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapero, Benjamin G; Steinberg, Laurence

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, research has examined the role of heightened emotional reactivity and poor regulation on maladjustment during childhood and adolescence. Although much of this research has shown a direct link between high emotional reactivity and maladjustment, there is less research on the ways in which reactivity interacts with contextual factors. Using data from the National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD), the current study asks how emotional reactivity in childhood, household chaos, and household income impact changes in emotional and behavioral problems between childhood and adolescence. Participants in the SECCYD were followed from birth until adolescence. Of these, 958 youth (52 % male; 80 % Caucasian, 13 % African American, 2 % Asian, and 5 % Other) who completed measures at age 15 were included in the current study. Results indicate that emotional reactivity and low household income during childhood directly predict higher levels of emotional and behavioral problems in adolescence. In contrast, the impact of household chaos on adolescent mental health depends on the child's emotional reactivity. Specifically, the adverse impact of household chaos on emotional problems was observed among adolescents who were highly emotionally reactive as children, but not among their less reactive counterparts. Taken together, the relationship between an individual's childhood context and temperament are important aspects in the prediction of outcomes in adolescents.

  17. Model framework for integrating multiple exposure pathways to chemicals in household cleaning products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, H-M; McKone, T E; Bennett, D H

    2017-07-01

    We present a screening-level exposure-assessment method which integrates exposure from all plausible exposure pathways as a result of indoor residential use of cleaning products. The exposure pathways we considered are (i) exposure to a user during product use via inhalation and dermal, (ii) exposure to chemical residues left on clothing, (iii) exposure to all occupants from the portion released indoors during use via inhalation and dermal, and (iv) exposure to the general population due to down-the-drain disposal via inhalation and ingestion. We use consumer product volatilization models to account for the chemical fractions volatilized to air (fvolatilized ) and disposed down the drain (fdown-the-drain ) during product use. For each exposure pathway, we use a fate and exposure model to estimate intake rates (iR) in mg/kg/d. Overall, the contribution of the four exposure pathways to the total exposure varies by the type of cleaning activities and with chemical properties. By providing a more comprehensive exposure model and by capturing additional exposures from often-overlooked exposure pathways, our method allows us to compare the relative contribution of various exposure routes and could improve high-throughput exposure assessment for chemicals in cleaning products. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Media use and depression: exposure, household rules, and symptoms among young adolescents in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickham, David S; Hswen, Yulin; Rich, Michael

    2015-02-01

    To determine the longitudinal and cross-sectional associations between different types of electronic media use (mobile phones, TV, computers, video games, and music) and young adolescents' depressive symptoms, and to explore the potential for household media rules to reduce young people's depression. 126 young adolescents were recruited from the Northeastern USA. Each type of media use was assessed using survey questions, time use diaries, and ecological momentary assessment. The Beck Depression Index for Primary Care was administered at baseline and 1 year later as part of a questionnaire that also included items assessing the presence of household rules about TV and video games. Baseline use of mobile phones and TV viewing were associated with higher levels of depression 1 year later controlling for demographic information and baseline depression score. Having household rules about TV at baseline predicted lower levels of depression at follow-up. Both TV viewing and mobile phone use may contribute to the development of depressive symptoms. Implementing household rules about the duration and content of TV could help reduce depression in young adolescents.

  19. The potential role of lung microbiota in lung cancer attributed to household coal burning exposures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosgood, H. Dean; Sapkota, Amy R.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Rohan, Thomas; Hu, Wei; Xu, Jun; Vermeulen, Roel; He, Xingzhou; White, James Robert; Wu, Guoping; Wei, Fusheng; Mongodin, Emmanuel F.; Lan, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria influence site-specific disease etiology and the host's ability to metabolize xenobiotics, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Lung cancer in Xuanwei, China has been attributed to PAH-rich household air pollution from burning coal. This study seeks to explore the role of lung

  20. Histological evaluation of high-intensity focused ultrasound with lower-intensity focused ultrasound pre-exposure on the treatment of rabbit VX2 liver tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou Hairong; Zou Jianzhong; Wang Yan; Ou Xia [State Key Laboratory of Ultrasound Engineering in Medicine Co-founded by Chongqing and the Ministry of Science and Technology, Chongqing Key laboratory of Ultrasound in Medicine and Engineering, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chongqing Medical (China)

    2012-10-03

    This study was to evaluate the effect of pre-exposure lower-intensity focused ultrasound(US), or LIFU, in high-intensity focused ultrasound(HIFU) ablation of rabbit VX2 liver tumors . Liver VX2 tumor models were established in 30 rabbits, which were divided randomly into two groups. The liver tumors of rabbits in Group A underwent single HIFU ablation; those in Group B were given LIFU exposure before HIFU treatment. Five rabbits from each of the two groups were sacrificed at 0 hours, 3 days, and 7 days after HIFU ablation. Tissue samples that included targeted and short-range sounding (s-RS, within 5 mm of the targeted) and far-range sounding (f-RS, more than 5 mm of the targeted) tissues were observed using light microscope and transmission electron microscopy. The histological examination indicated that not only the targeted tumor cells became irreversible damage, but also the short-range sounding tumors were severely damaged by the HIFU with LIFU pre-exposure in group B. It is concluded that LIFU pre-exposure can enhance the effects of HIFU ablation on the destruction of cell ultrastructures and can enlarge the region of HIFU ablation.

  1. Skin sensitisation quantitative risk assessment (QRA) based on aggregate dermal exposure to methylisothiazolinone in personal care and household cleaning products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezendam, J; Bokkers, B G H; Bil, W; Delmaar, J E

    2017-12-25

    Contact allergy to preservatives is an important public health problem. Ideally, new substances should be evaluated for the risk on skin sensitisation before market entry, for example by using a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) as developed for fragrances. As a proof-of-concept, this QRA was applied to the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI), a common cause of contact allergy. MI is used in different consumer products, including personal care products (PCPs) and household cleaning products (HCPs). Aggregate exposure to MI in PCPs and HCPs was therefore assessed with the Probabilistic Aggregated Consumer Exposure Model (PACEM). Two exposure scenarios were evaluated: scenario 1 calculated aggregate exposure on actual MI product concentrations before the restricted use in PCPs and scenario 2 calculated aggregate exposure using the restrictions for MI in PCPs. The QRA for MI showed that in scenarios 1 and 2, the proportion of the population at risk for skin sensitisation is 0.7% and 0.5%, respectively. The restricted use of MI in PCPs does not seem very effective in lowering the risk on skin sensitization. To conclude, it is important to consider aggregate exposure from the most important consumer products into consideration in the risk assessment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Exposure of pregnant women to cookstove-related household air pollution in urban and periurban Trujillo, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Helen, Gideon; Aguilar-Villalobos, Manuel; Adetona, Olorunfemi; Cassidy, Brandon; Bayer, Charlene W; Hendry, Robert; Hall, Daniel B; Naeher, Luke P

    2015-01-01

    Although evidence suggests associations between maternal exposure to air pollution and adverse birth outcomes, pregnant women's exposure to household air pollution in developing countries is understudied. Personal exposures of pregnant women (N = 100) in Trujillo, Peru, to air pollutants and their indoor concentrations were measured. The effects of stove-use-related characteristics and ambient air pollution on exposure were determined using mixed-effects models. Significant differences in 48-hour kitchen concentrations of particulate matter (PM2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations were observed across fuel types (p < 0.05). Geometric mean PM2.5 concentrations where 112 μg/m(3) (confidence limits [CLs]: 52, 242 μg/m(3)) and 42 μg/m(3) (21, 82 μg/m(3)) in homes where wood and gas were used, respectively. PM2.5 exposure was at levels that recent exposure-response analyses suggest may not result in substantial reduction in health risks even in homes where cleaner burning gas stoves were used.

  3. Exposure to household painting and floor treatments, and parental occupational paint exposure and risk of childhood brain tumors: results from an Australian case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenop, Kathryn R; Peters, Susan; Fritschi, Lin; Glass, Deborah C; Ashton, Lesley J; Bailey, Helen D; Scott, Rodney J; Daubenton, John; de Klerk, Nicholas H; Armstrong, Bruce K; Milne, Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    Childhood brain tumors (CBT) are the leading cause of cancer death in children, yet their etiology remains largely unknown. This study investigated whether household exposure to paints and floor treatments and parental occupational painting were associated with CBT risk in a population-based case-control study conducted between 2005 and 2010. Cases were identified through all ten Australian pediatric oncology centers, and controls via nationwide random-digit dialing, frequency matched to cases on age, sex, and state of residence. Data were obtained from parents in mailed questionnaires and telephone interviews. Information on domestic painting and floor treatments, and parental occupational exposure to paint, in key periods relating to the index pregnancy and childhood was obtained for 306 cases and 950 controls. Data were analyzed using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for frequency matching variables and potential confounders. Overall, we found little evidence that parental, fetal, or childhood exposure to home painting or floor treatments was associated with risk of CBT. There was, though, some evidence of a positive association between childhood exposure to indoor painting and risk of high-grade glioma [odds ratio (OR) 3.31, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.29, 8.52] based on very small numbers. The OR for the association between CBT and paternal occupational exposure to paint any time before the pregnancy was 1.32 (95 % CI 0.90, 1.92), which is consistent with the results of other studies. Overall, we found little evidence of associations between household exposure to paint and the risk of CBT in any of the time periods investigated.

  4. Extension of the sorting instructions for household plastic packaging and changes in exposure to bioaerosols at materials recovery facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, O; Déportes, I Z; Facon, B; Fromont, E

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess how extending the sorting instructions for plastic packaging would affect the exposure of workers working at materials recovery facility (MRF) to dust, endotoxins, fungi and bacteria, taking into consideration other factors that could have an influence on this exposure. Personal sampling was carried out at four MRFs during six sampling campaigns at each facility, both in sorting rooms and when the workers were involved in "mobile tasks" away from the rooms. The data was analysed by describing the extension of sorting instructions both using a qualitative variable (after vs before) and using data for the pots and trays recycling stream, including or excluding plastic film. Overall, before the extension of the sorting guidelines, the geometric mean of personal exposure levels in sorting rooms was 0.3mg/m(3) for dust, 27.7 EU/m(3) for endotoxins, 13,000 CFU/m(3) for fungi and 1800 CFU/m(3) for bacteria. When workers were involved in mobile tasks away from the rooms, these averages were 0.5mg/m(3), 25.7 EU/m(3), 28,000 CFU/m(3) and 5100 CFU/m(3) respectively.The application by households of instructions to include pots, trays and film with other recyclable plastic packaging led to an increase in exposure to endotoxins, fungi and bacteria at MRFs. For an increase of 0.5 kg per inhabitant per year in the pots, trays and film recycling stream, exposure in sorting rooms rose by a factor of 1.4-2.2, depending on the biological agent. Exposure during mobile tasks increased by a factor of 3.0-3.6. The age of the waste amplified the effect of the extension of sorting instructions on exposure to fungi, bacteria and endotoxins. Factors that had a significant influence on the exposure of workers to dust and/or bioaerosols included the presence of paper, newspapers and magazines in the sorted waste, the order in which incoming waste was treated and the quality of the ventilation system in the sorting rooms. The levels of exposure observed in

  5. Welfare assessment in pet rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, F.; Koene, P.; Beerda, B.

    2009-01-01

    One million pet rabbits are kept in The Netherlands, but there are no data available on their behaviour and welfare. This study seeks to assess the welfare of pet rabbits in Dutch households and is a first step in the development of a welfare assessment system. In an internet survey, housing

  6. Transcriptome Analysis of the Preterm Rabbit Lung after Seven Days of Hyperoxic Exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Salaets

    Full Text Available The neonatal management of preterm born infants often results in damage to the developing lung and subsequent morbidity, referred to as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. Animal models may help in understanding the molecular processes involved in this condition and define therapeutic targets. Our goal was to identify molecular pathways using the earlier described preterm rabbit model of hyperoxia induced lung-injury. Transcriptome analysis by mRNA-sequencing was performed on lungs from preterm rabbit pups born at day 28 of gestation (term: 31 days and kept in hyperoxia (95% O2 for 7 days. Controls were preterm pups kept in normoxia. Transcriptomic data were analyzed using Array Studio and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA, in order to identify the central molecules responsible for the observed transcriptional changes. We detected 2217 significantly dysregulated transcripts following hyperoxia, of which 90% could be identified. Major pathophysiological dysregulations were found in inflammation, lung development, vascular development and reactive oxygen species (ROS metabolism. To conclude, amongst the many dysregulated transcripts, major changes were found in the inflammatory, oxidative stress and lung developmental pathways. This information may be used for the generation of new treatment hypotheses for hyperoxia-induced lung injury and BPD.

  7. Quantitative Evaluation of Rabbit Brain Injury after Cerebral Hemisphere Radiation Exposure Using Generalized q-Sampling Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Yu Shen

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy is widely used for the treatment of brain tumors and may result in cellular, vascular and axonal injury and further behavioral deficits. The non-invasive longitudinal imaging assessment of brain injury caused by radiation therapy is important for determining patient prognoses. Several rodent studies have been performed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, but further studies in rabbits and large mammals with advanced magnetic resonance (MR techniques are needed. Previously, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to evaluate radiation-induced rabbit brain injury. However, DTI is unable to resolve the complicated neural structure changes that are frequently observed during brain injury after radiation exposure. Generalized q-sampling imaging (GQI is a more accurate and sophisticated diffusion MR approach that can extract additional information about the altered diffusion environments. Therefore, herein, a longitudinal study was performed that used GQI indices, including generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA, quantitative anisotropy (QA, and the isotropic value (ISO of the orientation distribution function and DTI indices, including fractional anisotropy (FA and mean diffusivity (MD over a period of approximately half a year to observe long-term, radiation-induced changes in the different brain compartments of a rabbit model after a hemi-brain single dose (30 Gy radiation exposure. We revealed that in the external capsule, the GFA right to left (R/L ratio showed similar trends as the FA R/L ratio, but no clear trends in the remaining three brain compartments. Both the QA and ISO R/L ratios showed similar trends in the all four different compartments during the acute to early delayed post-irradiation phase, which could be explained and reflected the histopathological changes of the complicated dynamic interactions among astrogliosis, demyelination and vasogenic edema. We suggest that GQI is a promising non-invasive technique and

  8. Household exposure to violence and human rights violations in western Bangladesh (I): prevalence, risk factors and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shr-Jie; Modvig, Jens; Montgomery, Edith

    2009-11-21

    The ruling parties in Bangladesh have systematically used violence against political opponents and criminals. It is essential to 1) determine the magnitude and burden of organised crime and political violence (OPV) and human rights violations in the affected community, and to 2) identify the risk factors and key indicators for developing effective health intervention and prevention measures. The population-based study consisted of two parts: a household survey and OPV screening at mobile clinics (presented in Part II). A cross-sectional, multistage cluster household survey was conducted in the Meherpur district in February-March 2008; 22 clusters with a sample size of 1,101 households (population of 4,870) were selected. Around 83% of households reported being exposed to at least two categories of OPV or human rights violations: 29% reported that the family members had been arrested or detained; 31% reported torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Crude mortality rate was 17.9/1,000 and under 5 mortality rate was 75/1,000. The annual injury rate was 36%, lifetime experience of violence-related injury was 50%, and pain experience within 2 weeks was reported by 57%. Over 80% of the population over 35 years old complained of pain. High prevalence of injury, lifetime experience of OPV-related injury and pain complaints are related to the level of exposure to OPV and human rights violations. A financial burden was imposed on families with an injured person. A geographical variation was revealed regarding reports of torture and lifetime experience of violence-related injury. A combination of individual, relational, community and societal factors, including variables such as political party affiliation, conflict with other families, household income and residential area, affected the risk of victimisation in the household. The odds ratio for reporting extrajudicial execution of a family member was 9.22 for Awami League supporters, 9.15 for

  9. Biotransformation of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf) in male, pregnant and non-pregnant female rabbits after single high dose inhalation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Tobias [Institut für Toxikologie, Universität Würzburg, Versbacher Str. 9, 97078 Würzburg (Germany); Bertermann, Rüdiger [Institut für Anorganische Chemie, Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Rusch, George M. [Honeywell, P.O. Box 1057, Morristown, NJ 07962–1057 (United States); Hoffman, Gary M. [Huntingdon Life Sciences., East Millstone, NJ (United States); Dekant, Wolfgang, E-mail: dekant@toxi.uni-wuerzburg.de [Institut für Toxikologie, Universität Würzburg, Versbacher Str. 9, 97078 Würzburg (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    2,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf) is a novel refrigerant intended for use in mobile air conditioning. It showed a low potential for toxicity in rodents studies with most NOAELs well above 10,000 ppm in guideline compliant toxicity studies. However, a developmental toxicity study in rabbits showed mortality at exposure levels of 5,500 ppm and above. No lethality was observed at exposure levels of 2,500 and 4,000 ppm. Nevertheless, increased subacute inflammatory heart lesions were observed in rabbits at all exposure levels. Since the lethality in pregnant animals may be due to altered biotransformation of HFO-1234yf and to evaluate the potential risk to pregnant women facing a car crash, this study compared the acute toxicity and biotransformation of HFO-1234yf in male, female and pregnant female rabbits. Animals were exposed to 50,000 ppm and 100,000 ppm for 1 h. For metabolite identification by {sup 19}F NMR and LC/MS-MS, urine was collected for 48 h after inhalation exposure. In all samples, the predominant metabolites were S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-mercaptolactic acid and N-acetyl-S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-L-cysteine. Since no major differences in urinary metabolite pattern were observed between the groups, only N-acetyl-S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-L-cysteine excretion was quantified. No significant differences in recovery between non-pregnant (43.10 ± 22.35 μmol) and pregnant female (50.47 ± 19.72 μmol) rabbits were observed, male rabbits exposed to 100,000 ppm for one hour excreted 86.40 ± 38.87 μmol. Lethality and clinical signs of toxicity were not observed in any group. The results suggest that the lethality of HFO-1234yf in pregnant rabbits unlikely is due to changes in biotransformation patterns or capacity in pregnant rabbits. -- Highlights: ► No lethality and clinical signs were observed. ► No differences in metabolic pattern between pregnant and non-pregnant rabbits. ► Rapid and similar metabolite

  10. Assessment of traditional and improved stove use on household air pollution and personal exposures in rural western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Fuyuen; Christensen, Bryan; Sircar, Kanta; Naeher, Luke; Bruce, Nigel; Pennise, David; Lozier, Matthew; Pilishvili, Tamara; Loo Farrar, Jennifer; Stanistreet, Debbi; Nyagol, Ronald; Muoki, Justus; de Beer, Lindsey; Sage, Michael; Kapil, Vikas

    2017-02-01

    Over 40% of the world's population relies on solid fuels for heating and cooking. Use of improved biomass cookstoves (ICS) has the potential to reduce household air pollution (HAP). As part of an evaluation to identify ICS for use in Kenya, we collected indoor air and personal air samples to assess differences between traditional cookstoves (TCS) and ICS. We conducted a cross-over study in 2012 in two Kenyan villages; up to six different ICS were installed in 45 households during six two-week periods. Forty-eight hour kitchen measurements of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and carbon monoxide (CO) were collected for the TCS and ICS. Concurrent personal CO measurements were conducted on the mother and one child in each household. We performed descriptive analysis and compared paired measurements between baseline (TCS only) and each ICS. The geometric mean of 48-hour baseline PM 2.5 and CO concentrations in the kitchen was 586μg/m 3 (95% CI: 460, 747) and 4.9ppm (95% CI: 4.3, 5.5), respectively. For each ICS, the geometric mean kitchen air pollutant concentration was lower than the TCS: median reductions were 38.8% (95% CI: 29.5, 45.2) for PM 2.5 and 27.1% (95% CI: 17.4, 40.3) for CO, with statistically significant relationships for four ICS. We also observed a reduction in personal exposures to CO with ICS use. We observed a reduction in mean 48-hour PM 2.5 and CO concentrations compared to the TCS; however, concentrations for both pollutants were still consistently higher than WHO air quality guidelines. Our findings illustrate that ICS tested in real-world settings can reduce exposures to HAP, but implementation of cleaner fuels and related stove technologies may also be necessary to optimize public health benefits. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Macrocyclic-, polycyclic-, and nitro musks in cosmetics, household commodities and indoor dusts collected from Japan: implications for their human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Haruhiko; Hinosaka, Mari; Yanagimoto, Hayato

    2015-01-01

    This paper reported the occurrence and concentrations of macrocyclic-, polycyclic- and nitro musks in cosmetics and household commodities collected from Japan. The high concentrations and detection frequencies of Musk T, habanolide, and exaltolides were found in commercial products, suggesting their large amounts of production and usage in Japan. Polycyclic musks, HHCB and OTNE, also showed high concentrations in cosmetics and products. The estimated dairy intakes of Musk T and HHCB by the dermal exposure to commercial products were 7.8 and 7.9 μg/kg/day in human, respectively, and perfume and body lotion are dominant exposure sources. We also analyzed synthetic musks in house dusts. Polycyclic musks, HHCB and OTNE, showed high concentrations in samples, but macrocyclic musks were detected only in a few samples, although these types of musks were highly detected in commercial products. This is probably due to easy-degradation of macrocyclic musks in indoor environment. The dairy intakes of HHCB by dust ingestions were 0.22 ng/kg/day in human, which were approximately five orders of magnitudes lower than those of dermal absorption from commercial household commodities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantitative risk assessment of the aggregate dermal exposure to the sensitizing fragrance geraniol in personal care products and household cleaning agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijkamp, M M; Bokkers, B G H; Bakker, M I; Ezendam, J; Delmaar, J E

    2015-10-01

    A quantitative risk assessment was performed to establish if consumers are at risk for being dermally sensitized by the fragrance geraniol. Aggregate dermal exposure to geraniol was estimated using the Probabilistic Aggregate Consumer Exposure Model, containing data on the use of personal care products and household cleaning agents. Consumer exposure to geraniol via personal care products appeared to be higher than via household cleaning agents. The hands were the body parts receiving the highest exposure to geraniol. Dermal sensitization studies were assessed to derive the point of departure needed for the estimation of the Acceptable Exposure Level (AEL). Two concentrations were derived, one based on human studies and the other from dose-response analysis of the available murine local lymph node assay data. The aggregate dermal exposure assessment resulted in body part specific median exposures up to 0.041 μg/cm(2) (highest exposure 102 μg/cm(2)) for hands. Comparing the exposure to the lowest AEL (55 μg/cm(2)), shows that a range of 0.02-0.86% of the population may have an aggregated exposure which exceeds the AEL. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that personal care products contribute more to the consumer's geraniol exposure compared to household cleaning agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The impact of multiple interventions to reduce household exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke among women: a cluster randomized controlled trial in Kalutara district, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagiyawanna, A M A A P; Rajapaksa-Hewageegana, N; Gunawardena, N

    2017-10-16

    Second-hand smoke (SHS) in households remains a serious public health problem in Sri Lanka, partly due to a lack of voluntary prohibitions of tobacco smoking inside houses. Women are especially at risk of being exposed. Effective community based interventions to reduce the SHS in households targeting women is scarce. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of a multi-component intervention on household SHS exposure among Sri Lankan women. Thirty clusters of 25 women (aged 18-65) from 750 households were randomized into the intervention and control groups. Women in the intervention group were exposed to activities which focused on improving knowledge on the health effects of SHS, attitudes towards SHS exposure, right to a smoke-free living and women empowerment against smoking. The duration of the intervention was six months. The comparison group received no intervention. The primary outcome of interest was self-reported SHS exposure in the household within 7 days prior to data collection. The secondary outcomes were exposure in the past 30 days, knowledge of the health risks of exposure, attitudes towards exposure, right to smoke-free living, women empowerment against smoking, and smoking inside the homes. Final assessment was in 329 (89.6%) in the intervention group and 309 (85.8%) in the comparison group. Following the intervention, significantly lower proportion of women in the intervention group as compared to the control group reported SHS exposure in their households within 7-days (9.2% vs. 15.3%, p = 0.02) and 30-days (13.6% vs. 21.6%, p = 0.008) prior to the post survey. As compared to the control group, significantly higher median scores were observed in the intervention group on the knowledge of the health risks of exposure to SHS (p Sri Lanka Clinical Trials Registry SLCTR/2014/033.

  14. Maternal exposure to diluted diesel engine exhaust alters placental function and induces intergenerational effects in rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentino, Sarah A; Tarrade, Anne; Aioun, Josiane; Mourier, Eve; Richard, Christophe; Dahirel, Michèle; Rousseau-Ralliard, Delphine; Fournier, Natalie; Aubrière, Marie-Christine; Lallemand, Marie-Sylvie; Camous, Sylvaine; Guinot, Marine; Charlier, Madia; Aujean, Etienne; Al Adhami, Hala; Fokkens, Paul H; Agier, Lydiane; Boere, John A; Cassee, Flemming R; Slama, Rémy; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Airborne pollution is a rising concern in urban areas. Epidemiological studies in humans and animal experiments using rodent models indicate that gestational exposure to airborne pollution, in particular diesel engine exhaust (DE), reduces birth weight, but effects depend on exposure

  15. Household exposure to pesticides and bladder exstrophy in a newborn baby boy: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Marlene

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Bladder exstrophy is a rare urogenital abnormality. Other urogenital malformations have been associated with exposure to hormonal pesticide disruptors during critical developmental periods. This is the first report in the literature to associate household exposure to pesticides with bladder exstrophy. Case presentation We describe the pediatric environmental history of a newborn baby boy with isolated bladder exstrophy. In this case the pediatric environmental history includes the constitutional, genealogical, genetic and environmental factors related to bladder exstrophy, which revealed a cockroach infestation in the parents' home and the daily use of bug spray to kill them. The mother used one bottle of spray every 2 days (1000cc and more in the summer, when the problem was worse. During gestational weeks 0-12, the mother intensively used a domestic pesticide consisting of a mixture of pyrethroids (cyfenothrin 0.5%, and tetramethrin 0.31% and pyriproxyfen (0.01%. She described repeated episodes of mild to moderate poisoning that are associated with the use of household pesticides. The mother is a housewife and the father works as a fumigator of fruit fields and he reported gastrointestinal symptoms associated with the use of occupational pesticides. However, he did not believe he carried traces of these products into the home and his wife washed his work clothes separately. The pyrethroids and pyriproxyfen were detected in a urine sample obtained from the child 4 months after he was born. No other risk factors were identified. Conclusions A detailed and carefully conducted pediatric environmental history, which includes information about home pesticide use, should be carried out for all children with bladder exstrophy. Domestic exposure to pesticides during critical developmental periods may have deleterious effects for the fetus.

  16. Household and caregiver characteristics and behaviours as predictors of unsafe exposure of children to paraffin appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Niekerk, A; Govender, R; Hornsby, N; Swart, L

    2017-06-01

    This study examines adult safety knowledge and practices regarding the use of paraffin cooking appliances. The use of these is common in South Africa with injury risks that are poorly understood. This cross-sectional study was in an informal settlement in Johannesburg, South Africa, where children were reportedly at high risk for burns. This study sought to clarify relationships between key risks and developed individual and composite variables from theoretical constructs and operational definitions of risks for burns. Risks included Child Use of Paraffin Appliances, Child Proximity to Cooking, Risky Stove Use, Caregiver's Burn Treatment Knowledge, Children Locked in House, Children Alone in House. Number of children remains as in proof as this was not a composite scale. Child Proximity to Cooking was associated with more children in the home. Households where children were in greater proximity to cooking were 6 times more likely to be left alone at home, with caregivers with no education over 100 times more likely to lock their children at home. Children locked in were often from homes where caregivers used appliances unsafely. In settings with hazardous energy use, compressed household configurations, and families with multiple children, Risky Stove Use and the practice of locking children in the home may be catastrophic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to GSM-like radiofrequency on blood chemistry and oxidative stress in infant rabbits, an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgur, Elcin; Kismali, Gorkem; Guler, Goknur; Akcay, Aytac; Ozkurt, Guzin; Sel, Tevhide; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2013-11-01

    We aimed to investigate the potential hazardous effects of prenatal and/or postnatal exposure to 1800 MHz GSM-like radiofrequency radiation (RFR) on the blood chemistry and lipid peroxidation levels of infant rabbits. A total of 72 New Zealand female and male white rabbits aged 1-month were used. Thirty-six female and 36 male were divided into four groups which were composed of nine infants: (i) Group 1 were the sham exposure (control), (ii) Group 2 were exposed to RFR, 15 min daily for 7 days in the prenatal period (between 15th and 22nd days of the gestational period) (prenatal exposure group). (iii) Group 3 were exposed to RFR 15 min/day (14 days for male, whereas 7 days for female) after they reached 1-month of age (postnatal exposure group). (iv) Group 4 were exposed to RFR for 15 min daily during 7 days in the prenatal period (between 15th and 22nd days of the gestational period) and 15 min/day (14 days for male, whereas 7 days for female) after they reached 1-month of age (prenatal and postnatal exposure group). Results showed that serum lipid peroxidation level in both female and male rabbits changed due to the RFR exposure. However, different parameters of the blood biochemistry were affected by exposure in male and female infants. Consequently, the whole-body 1800 MHz GSM-like RFR exposure may lead to oxidative stress and changes on some blood chemistry parameters. Studies on RFR exposure during prenatal and postnatal periods will help to establish international standards for the protection of pregnants and newborns from environmental RFR.

  18. Air pollution from household solid fuel combustion in India: an overview of exposure and health related information to inform health research priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Ramaswamy, Padmavathi; Sambandam, Sankar; Thangavel, Gurusamy; Ghosh, Santu; Johnson, Priscilla; Mukhopadhyay, Krishnendu; Venugopal, Vidhya; Thanasekaraan, Vijayalakshmi

    2011-01-01

    Environmental and occupational risk factors contribute to nearly 40% of the national burden of disease in India, with air pollution in the indoor and outdoor environment ranking amongst leading risk factors. It is now recognized that the health burden from air pollution exposures that primarily occur in the rural indoors, from pollutants released during the incomplete combustion of solid fuels in households, may rival or even exceed the burden attributable to urban outdoor exposures. Few environmental epidemiological efforts have been devoted to this setting, however. We provide an overview of important available information on exposures and health effects related to household solid fuel use in India, with a view to inform health research priorities for household air pollution and facilitate being able to address air pollution within an integrated rural–urban framework in the future. PMID:21987631

  19. EFFECT OF QUERCETIN ON ANTIOXIDANT STATUS OF RABBITS AFTER ONE MONTH EXPOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Petruška

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the short-term effect of quercetin in various doses on level of antioxidant enzymes in rabbit’s blood. Adult rabbits were divided into three experimental groups (E1, E2 and E3 and the control group without quercetin addition. Quercetin was applied intramuscularly in various concentrations; 10 µg.kg-1 in E1 group, 100 µg.kg-1 in E2 group, and 1000 µg.kg-1 in E3 group for 30 days, 3 times per week. Application of quercetin insignificantly increased the level of SOD in the experimental groups in comparison with the control group. Gender comparison showed higher level of SOD in all experimental male groups in comparison with the female groups. The level of GPx activity decreased in all experimental groups but without significant differences. In gender comparison we found higher activity of GPx in female groups in comparison with the male groups. In conclusion, as the quercetin serves in organism as antioxidant with the ability to scavenge free radicals, our results could contribute to the positive effect of quercetin on antioxidant balance, however further studies are needed.

  20. Blood plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones of rabbits after apricot seed exposure in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína MICHALCOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes possible changes in plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones induced by bitter apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. seeds in young female rabbits in vivo. Prunus armeniaca L. is an important medicinal edible plant species commonly known as “apricot”. The apricot is a member of the Rosaceae and subfamily Prunoideae. It is one of the most delicious and commercially traded fruits in the world. Apricot kernel is the inner part of the seed of the apricot fruit. The kernel is used to produce oil and other chemicals used for medicinal purposes. The seeds are potentially useful in human nutrition and for treatment several diseases especially cancer. In the present study apricot seeds were mixed with feed at different doses 0, 60, 300, 420 mg*kg-1 of body weight. ELISA was used to determine the levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and prolactin (PRL. 58-days application of apricot seeds did not affect the concentration (P≥0.05 of PRL, LH in blood plasma. Significant (P≤0.01 inhibition of FSH levels induced by the seeds was found at the dose of 420 mg*kg-1 but not at 60 and 300 mg*kg-1 of body weight. These results are suggesting that the natural substances present in apricot seeds may be involved in mechanisms of ovarian folliculogenesis.

  1. The impact of multiple interventions to reduce household exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke among women: a cluster randomized controlled trial in Kalutara district, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. A. A. P. Alagiyawanna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Second-hand smoke (SHS in households remains a serious public health problem in Sri Lanka, partly due to a lack of voluntary prohibitions of tobacco smoking inside houses. Women are especially at risk of being exposed. Effective community based interventions to reduce the SHS in households targeting women is scarce. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of a multi-component intervention on household SHS exposure among Sri Lankan women. Methods Thirty clusters of 25 women (aged 18–65 from 750 households were randomized into the intervention and control groups. Women in the intervention group were exposed to activities which focused on improving knowledge on the health effects of SHS, attitudes towards SHS exposure, right to a smoke-free living and women empowerment against smoking. The duration of the intervention was six months. The comparison group received no intervention. The primary outcome of interest was self-reported SHS exposure in the household within 7 days prior to data collection. The secondary outcomes were exposure in the past 30 days, knowledge of the health risks of exposure, attitudes towards exposure, right to smoke-free living, women empowerment against smoking, and smoking inside the homes. Results Final assessment was in 329 (89.6% in the intervention group and 309 (85.8% in the comparison group. Following the intervention, significantly lower proportion of women in the intervention group as compared to the control group reported SHS exposure in their households within 7-days (9.2% vs. 15.3%, p = 0.02 and 30-days (13.6% vs. 21.6%, p = 0.008 prior to the post survey. As compared to the control group, significantly higher median scores were observed in the intervention group on the knowledge of the health risks of exposure to SHS (p < 0.001, attitudes on exposure to SHS (p = 0.004, right to smoke free living (p = 0.001 and women empowerment (p < 0.001. Conclusion Multi

  2. Relationship between Exposure to Household Humidifier Disinfectants and Risk of Lung Injury: A Family-Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Uk Park

    Full Text Available In South Korea, a cluster of acute lung disease patients included lung injury disease suspected of being caused by the use of humidifier disinfectants. We examined the relationship between humidifier disinfectant exposure and clinically diagnosed humidifier disinfectant-associated lung injury (HDLI in a family-based study.This case-control study included 169 clinically confirmed HDLI cases and 303 family controls who lived with the HDLI patients. A range of information on exposure to humidifier disinfectants was obtained using a structured questionnaire and field investigations. Odds ratios (ORs and confidence intervals (CIs were estimated using unconditional logistic regression models that were adjusted for age, sex, presence of a factory within 1 km of residence, and the number of household chemical products used.HDLI risk increased approximately two-fold or more among the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile in terms of the hours sleeping in a room with an operating humidifier treated with disinfectant (adjusted OR = 2.0, 95 % CI = 1.1-3.7, average hours of disinfectant-treated humidifier use per day (adjusted OR = 2.1, 95 % CI = 1.0-4.5, airborne disinfectant intensity (adjusted OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.2-5.3, and cumulative disinfectant inhalation level (adjusted OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.0-4.1. HDLI risk increased as the distance of the bed from humidifier gets shorter; compared with longer distance (> 1 m, the odds ratio was 2.7 for 0.5 to 1 m (95 % CI = 1.5-5.1 and 13.2 for <0.5 m (95 % CI = 2.4-73.0.The use of household humidifier disinfectants was associated with HDLI risk in a dose-response manner.

  3. Impact of parathion exposure on some biochemical parameters in rabbit as a non target organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagat Aly

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: The results indicated that changes in body and organ weights have been used as indicators of adverse effects of parathion and also alteration in tested enzymes activity can be used as relevant biomarkers for monitoring toxicity due to parathion exposure in non target organisms.

  4. Achieving Consistent Multiple Daily Low-Dose Bacillus anthracis Spore Inhalation Exposures in the Rabbit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    humidity (Tempera- ture Stick, Testo, Sparta , NJ, USA) and one 1/4 inch diameter port to measure the differential pressure within the exposure cham...a human anthrax vaccine in guinea pigs, rab- bits, and rhesus macaques against challenge by Bacillus anthracis iso- lates of diverse geographical

  5. Effect of gestational and lactational exposure to heat stress on performance in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Marco-Jiménez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive performance is greatly affected by environmental factors such as temperature. Heat stress (HS during pregnancy and lactation can influence not only foetal growth but also postnatal development of kits. The aim of this study was to test the effect of HS during gestation and lactation on postnatal growth till Spanish commercial liveweight. To investigate this, 32 primiparous non lactating rabbit does were exposed to 1 of 2 environmental treatments: high temperature (between 25 and 36°C, HS group; n=16 or thermoneutral conditions (between 14 and 20°C, TN group; n=16. Does were allowed to acclimate 30 d before the artificial insemination. At birth, kits were allocated into 4 groups: HS was only applied during gestation (G group; n=54; HS was applied during gestation and lactation period (GL group; n=85; HS was only applied during lactation period (L group; n=60; and TN was applied during gestation and lactation period (C group; n=77. All litters were kept under each experimental environment until weaning at day 30. Then, litters were moved to TN temperatures until slaughter at day 63. Compared with TN does, the HS does presented lower litter size (9.7 and 11.4; P<0.05, litter weight (503.0 vs. 630.5 g; P<0.05 and kit weight at birth (56.6 vs. 61.4 g; P<0.05, as well as a higher stillborn rate (25.4 vs. 9.9%; P<0.05. The kits from does subjected to HS during gestation (G group had similar postnatal growth compared to offspring from does gestated in TN conditions (C group, whereas kits from does that experienced HS during gestation and lactation (GL group and during their lactation (L group presented decreased postnatal growth. Together, these results demonstrate that kits from does that underwent HS during gestation did not alter postnatal growth until Spanish commercial liveweight, whereas HS during lactation resulted in decreased postnatal growth.

  6. Household exposure to paint and petroleum solvents, chromosomal translocations, and the risk of childhood leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scélo, Ghislaine; Metayer, Catherine; Zhang, Luoping; Wiemels, Joseph L; Aldrich, Melinda C; Selvin, Steve; Month, Stacy; Smith, Martyn T; Buffler, Patricia A

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have examined the association between home use of solvents and paint and the risk of childhood leukemia. In this case-control study, we examined whether the use of paint and petroleum solvents at home before birth and in early childhood influenced the risk of leukemia in children. We based our analyses on 550 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), 100 cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and one or two controls per case individually matched for sex, age, Hispanic status, and race. We conducted further analyses by cytogenetic subtype. We used conditional logistic regression techniques to adjust for income. ALL risk was significantly associated with paint exposure [odds ratio (OR) = 1.65; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.26-2.15], with a higher risk observed when paint was used postnatally, by a person other than the mother, or frequently. The association was restricted to leukemia with translocations between chromosomes 12 and 21 (OR = 4.16; 95% CI, 1.66-10.4). We found no significant association between solvent use and ALL risk overall (OR = 1.15; 95% CI, 0.87-1.51) or for various cytogenetic subtypes, but we observed a significant association in the 2.0- to 5.9-year age group (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.07-2.25). In contrast, a significant increased risk for AML was associated with solvent (OR = 2.54; 95% CI, 1.19-5.42) but not with paint exposure (OR = 0.64; 95% CI, 0.32-1.25). The association of ALL risk with paint exposure was strong, consistent with a causal relationship, but further studies are needed to confirm the association of ALL and AML risk with solvent exposure.

  7. Linking Exposure Assessment Science With Policy Objectives for Environmental Justice and Breast Cancer Advocacy: The Northern California Household Exposure Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Zota, Ami; Brown, Phil; Pérez, Carla; Rudel, Ruthann A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We compared an urban fence-line community (neighboring an oil refinery) and a nonindustrial community in an exposure study focusing on pollutants of interest with respect to breast cancer and environmental justice. Methods. We analyzed indoor and outdoor air from 40 homes in industrial Richmond, California, and 10 in rural Bolinas, California, for 153 compounds, including particulates and endocrine disruptors. Results. Eighty compounds were detected outdoors in Richmond and 60 in Bolinas; Richmond concentrations were generally higher. Richmond's vanadium and nickel levels indicated effects of heavy oil combustion from oil refining and shipping; these levels were among the state's highest. In nearly half of Richmond homes, PM2.5 exceeded California's annual ambient air quality standard. Paired outdoor–indoor measurements were significantly correlated for industry- and traffic-related PM2.5, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, elemental carbon, metals, and sulfates (r = 0.54–0.92, P environmental injustice concerns in communities that host polluters. Community-based participatory exposure research can contribute to science and stimulate and inform action on the part of community residents and policymakers. PMID:19890164

  8. Does longstanding nicotine exposure impair bone healing and osseointegration? An experimental study in rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, Klaus; Lindh, Christian H; Berglundh, Tord

    2009-01-01

    weeks. The implants in the tibial site were subjected to removal torque test (RMT) 2 weeks later. Block biopsies of the two other osteotomy sites were prepared for histological analysis. RESULTS: Although no differences in RMT values were found between test and control groups, there was a significant...... increase in RMT between 2 and 4 weeks within each group. The histomorphometric analysis of bone-to-implant contact and bone density in the bone defects revealed no differences between the test and the control group after 2 or 4 weeks of healing. CONCLUSION: Longstanding (6 months) nicotine exposure did...

  9. Transfer of ochratoxin A during lactation: exposure of suckling via the milk of rabbit does fed a naturally-contaminated feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrufino-Guardia, E V; Tangni, E K; Larondelle, Y; Ponchaut, S

    2000-02-01

    The transfer of ochratoxin A from the blood to the milk of lactating rabbit does and subsequently the exposure of their sucklings to the mycotoxin were investigated. An effective transfer of ochratoxin A from blood to milk was shown in lactating rabbit does fed a naturally-contaminated diet (10-20 g/kg of body weight/day) throughout a lactation period of 19 days. The ochratoxin A concentrations in plasma and in milk did not significantly change throughout the lactation period with a mean milk/plasma concentration ratio of 0.015. These variables were however significantly correlated (p ochratoxin A accumulated in the body of the rabbit does were found in kidney (1.2 g/kg) followed by liver (158 ng/kg), mammary gland (105 ng/kg) and muscle (38 ng/kg). A linear relationship was found between the ochratoxin A concentrations in milk and in the plasma of the sucklings, indicating an effective transfer of the toxin to the sucklings. If the same is true in humans, the exposure of the breast-fed infant to the toxin, which has been largely reported in the literature, should be a major matter of concern for human health.

  10. Prolonged exposure to loteprednol etabonate in human tear fluid and rabbit ocular tissues following topical ocular administration of Lotemax gel, 0.5%.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glogowski, Shellise; Lowe, Ezra; Siou-Mermet, Raphaele; Ong, Tuyen; Richardson, Mary

    2014-02-01

    A new gel formulation containing loteprednol etabonate (LE), a C-20 ester corticosteroid used to treat ocular inflammation, was developed to provide increased retention on the ocular surface for improved drug delivery to intraocular tissues. This investigation evaluated concentrations of LE in tear fluid following topical instillation of LE gel to humans and the ocular and systemic pharmacokinetics of LE following administration to rabbits. LE ophthalmic gel 0.5% was administered as a single topical dose to human volunteers (n=12) and Dutch Belted rabbits (n=40). In the human study, tear sampling was performed at 6, 9, 12, and 24 h after instillation. In the rabbit study, tears and ocular tissues were collected from 5 min through 24 h postdose. Serial blood samples were collected from one cohort of rabbits for plasma analysis. Concentrations of LE were determined by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. In humans, LE was detected in tears at all the time points assessed with mean concentrations of 114 μg/g at 6 h declining to 2.41 μg/g at 24 h postdose. In rabbits, LE was detected in all ocular tissues within 5 min after dosing. Maximum concentrations of LE were achieved within 0.5 h and were highest in tear fluid (1560 μg/g), followed by bulbar conjunctiva (4.03 μg/g), cornea, (2.18 μg/g), iris/ciliary body (0.162 μg/g), and aqueous humor (0.0138 μg/mL). LE remained measurable in all ocular tissues through 24 h with the exception of aqueous humor. In contrast, plasma levels of LE were low with no detectable levels after 4 h. The gel formulation of LE provided prolonged exposure to LE on the ocular surface, with measurable levels in tears through 24 h in both humans and rabbits, for delivery of LE to anterior segment tissues, as evidenced by sustained levels of LE in rabbit conjunctiva, cornea, and iris/ciliary body.

  11. Socioeconomic Differences in Exposure to Tobacco Smoke Pollution (TSP in Bangladeshi Households with Children: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC Bangladesh Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey T. Fong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the pattern of exposure to tobacco smoke pollution (TSP; also known as, secondhand smoke in Bangladeshi households with children and examined the variations in household smoking restrictions and perception of risk for children’s exposure to TSP by socioeconomic status. We interviewed 1,947 respondents from Bangladeshi households with children from the first wave (2009 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC Bangladesh Survey. 43.5% of the respondents had complete smoking restrictions at home and 39.7% were very or extremely concerned about TSP risk to children’s health. Participants with lower level of education were significantly less likely to be concerned about the risk of TSP exposure to children’s health and less likely to adopt complete smoking restrictions at home. Logistic regression revealed that the predictors of concern for TSP exposure risk were educational attainment of 1 to 8 years (OR = 1.94 or 9 years or more (OR = 4.07 and being a smoker (OR = 0.24. The predictors of having complete household smoking restrictions were: urban residence (OR = 1.64, attaining education of 9 years or more (OR = 1.94, being a smoker (OR = 0.40 and being concerned about TSP exposure risk to children (OR = 3.25. The findings show that a high proportion of adults with children at home smoke tobacco at home and their perceptions of risk about TSP exposure to children’s health were low. These behaviours were more prevalent among rural smokers who were illiterate. There is a need for targeted intervention, customized for low educated public, on TSP risk to children’s health and tobacco control policy with specific focus on smoke-free home.

  12. Socioeconomic differences in exposure to tobacco smoke pollution (TSP) in Bangladeshi households with children: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Bangladesh Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Abu S; Hitchman, Sara C; Driezen, Pete; Nargis, Nigar; Quah, Anne C K; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2011-03-01

    This study assessed the pattern of exposure to tobacco smoke pollution (TSP; also known as, secondhand smoke) in Bangladeshi households with children and examined the variations in household smoking restrictions and perception of risk for children's exposure to TSP by socioeconomic status. We interviewed 1,947 respondents from Bangladeshi households with children from the first wave (2009) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Bangladesh Survey. 43.5% of the respondents had complete smoking restrictions at home and 39.7% were very or extremely concerned about TSP risk to children's health. Participants with lower level of education were significantly less likely to be concerned about the risk of TSP exposure to children's health and less likely to adopt complete smoking restrictions at home. Logistic regression revealed that the predictors of concern for TSP exposure risk were educational attainment of 1 to 8 years (OR = 1.94) or 9 years or more (OR = 4.07) and being a smoker (OR = 0.24). The predictors of having complete household smoking restrictions were: urban residence (OR = 1.64), attaining education of 9 years or more (OR = 1.94), being a smoker (OR = 0.40) and being concerned about TSP exposure risk to children (OR = 3.25). The findings show that a high proportion of adults with children at home smoke tobacco at home and their perceptions of risk about TSP exposure to children's health were low. These behaviours were more prevalent among rural smokers who were illiterate. There is a need for targeted intervention, customized for low educated public, on TSP risk to children's health and tobacco control policy with specific focus on smoke-free home.

  13. Role of household exposure, dietary habits and glutathione S-Transferases M1, T1 polymorphisms in susceptibility to lung cancer among women in Mizoram India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phukan, Rup Kumar; Saikia, Bhaskar Jyoti; Borah, Prasanta Kumar; Zomawia, Eric; Sekhon, Gaganpreet Singh; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2014-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted to evaluate the effect of household exposure, dietary habits, smoking and Glutathione S-Transferases M1, T1 polymorphisms on lung cancer among women in Mizoram, India. We selected 230 newly diagnosed primary lung cases and 460 controls from women in Mizoram. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate adjusted odds ratio (OR). Exposure of cooking oil fumes (phabits. We confirmed the important role of exposure of cooking oil emission and wood smoke, intake of smoked meat, smoked fish and soda (an alkali preparation used as food additives in Mizoram) and tobacco consumption for increase risk of lung cancer among Women in Mizoram.

  14. Exposure to household furry pets influences the gut microbiota of infant at 3-4 months following various birth scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tun, Hein M; Konya, Theodore; Takaro, Tim K; Brook, Jeffrey R; Chari, Radha; Field, Catherine J; Guttman, David S; Becker, Allan B; Mandhane, Piush J; Turvey, Stuart E; Subbarao, Padmaja; Sears, Malcolm R; Scott, James A; Kozyrskyj, Anita L

    2017-04-06

    Early-life exposure to household pets has the capacity to reduce risk for overweight and allergic disease, especially following caesarean delivery. Since there is some evidence that pets also alter the gut microbial composition of infants, changes to the gut microbiome are putative pathways by which pet exposure can reduce these risks to health. To investigate the impact of pre- and postnatal pet exposure on infant gut microbiota following various birth scenarios, this study employed a large subsample of 746 infants from the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development Study (CHILD) cohort, whose mothers were enrolled during pregnancy between 2009 and 2012. Participating mothers were asked to report on household pet ownership at recruitment during the second or third trimester and 3 months postpartum. Infant gut microbiota were profiled with 16S rRNA sequencing from faecal samples collected at the mean age of 3.3 months. Two categories of pet exposure (i) only during pregnancy and (ii) pre- and postnatally were compared to no pet exposure under different birth scenarios. Over half of studied infants were exposed to at least one furry pet in the prenatal and/or postnatal periods, of which 8% were exposed in pregnancy alone and 46.8% had exposure during both time periods. As a common effect in all birth scenarios, pre- and postnatal pet exposure enriched the abundance of Oscillospira and/or Ruminococcus (P bacteria, Ruminococcus and Oscillospira, which have been negatively associated with childhood atopy and obesity.

  15. Effects of fast neutrons on rabbits. I. Comparison of pathologic effects of fractionated neutron and photon exposures of the head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, E.W.; Zook, B.C.; Casarett, G.W.; Bondelid, R.O.; Maier, J.G.; Rogers, C.C.

    1977-01-01

    Adult New Zealand white rabbits received one of four head irradiation doses of neutrons (mean energy 15 MeV) (1680 to 6720 rad) or photons (4800 to 19,200 rad). Each of the photon dose levels was 2.86 times as large in rad than the corresponding neutron dose level. The fast neutrons were produced at the Naval Research Cyclotron in Washington, D.C. by bombarding a thick beryllium target with 35 MeV deuterons. The photon irradiation was produced by means of a 4 MV linear accelerator at The George Washington University Medical Center. Control rabbits received no irradiation. The neutron and photon rabbits were irradiated twice weekly for 6 weeks, the fractionation schedule in use for treatment of advanced malignancies by the Middle Atlantic Neutron Therapy Association at the time of initiation of this experiment. The onset and severity of skin lesions and mucosal reactions in irradiated regions appeared to be dose dependent and somewhat more severe in photon-irradiated rabbits. Death was commonly caused by complications of mucosal reactions. Three of the 5 rabbits which had received the lowest neutron dose (1680 rad), a dose commonly administered to neutron-irradiated patients, developed invasive and metastasizing osteosarcomas within the irradiated field less than 1 year after completion of irradiation.

  16. Impact of Indocyanine Green Concentration, Exposure Time, and Degree of Dissolution in Creating Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome: Evaluation in a Rabbit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Tandogan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the role of indocyanine green (ICG dye as a causative material of toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS in an experimental rabbit model. Method. Eight eyes of four rabbits were allocated to this study. Capsular staining was performed using ICG dye, after which the anterior chamber was irrigated with a balanced salt solution. The effects of different concentrations (control, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0%, exposure times (10 and 60 seconds, and the degree of dissolution (differently vortexed were investigated. The analysis involved anterior segment photography, ultrasound pachymetry, prostaglandin assay (PGE2 Parameter Assay, R&D systems, Inc., and scanning electron microscopy of each iris. Result. There was no reaction in the control eye. A higher aqueous level of PGE2 and more severe inflammatory reaction were observed in cases of eyes with higher concentration, longer exposure time, and poorly dissolved dye. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy revealed larger and coarser ICG particles. Conclusion. TASS occurrence may be associated with the concentration, exposure time, and degree of dissolution of ICG dye during cataract surgery.

  17. Computational model for calculating body-core temperature elevation in rabbits due to whole-body exposure at 2.45 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Sugiyama, Hironori; Kojima, Masami; Kawai, Hiroki; Yamashiro, Yoko; Fujiwara, Osamu; Watanabe, Soichi; Sasaki, Kazuyuki

    2008-06-01

    In the current international guidelines and standards with regard to human exposure to electromagnetic waves, the basic restriction is defined in terms of the whole-body average-specific absorption rate. The rationale for the guidelines is that the characteristic pattern of thermoregulatory response is observed for the whole-body average SAR above a certain level. However, the relationship between energy absorption and temperature elevation was not well quantified. In this study, we improved our thermal computation model for rabbits, which was developed for localized exposure on eye, in order to investigate the body-core temperature elevation due to whole-body exposure at 2.45 GHz. The effect of anesthesia on the body-core temperature elevation was also discussed in comparison with measured results. For the whole-body average SAR of 3.0 W kg-1, the body-core temperature in rabbits elevates with time, without becoming saturated. The administration of anesthesia suppressed body-core temperature elevation, which is attributed to the reduced basal metabolic rate.

  18. Arsenic in residential soil and household dust in Cornwall, south west England: potential human exposure and the influence of historical mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Daniel R S; Watts, Michael J; Beriro, Darren J; Hamilton, Elliott M; Leonardi, Giovanni S; Fletcher, Tony; Close, Rebecca M; Polya, David A

    2017-04-19

    Exposure to arsenic (As) via residential soil and dust is a global concern, in regions affected by mining or with elevated concentrations present in underlying geology. Cornwall in south west England is one such area. Residential soil (n = 127) and household dust (n = 99) samples were collected from across Cornwall as part of a wider study assessing exposure to environmental As. Samples were analysed for total As (soil and dust samples) and human ingestion bioaccessible As (soil samples from properties with home-grown produce). Arsenic concentrations ranged from 12 to 992 mg kg(-1) in soil and 3 to 1079 mg kg(-1) in dust and were significantly higher in areas affected by metalliferous mineralisation. Sixty-nine percent of soils exceeded the 37 mg kg(-1) Category 4 Screening Level (C4SL), a generic assessment criteria for As in residential soils in England, which assumes 100% bioavailability following ingestion. The proportion of exceedance was reduced to 13% when the bioavailability parameter in the CLEA model was changed to generate household specific bioaccessibility adjusted assessment criteria (ACBIO). These criteria were derived using bioaccessibility data for a sub-set of individual household vegetable patch soils (n = 68). Proximity to former As mining locations was found to be a significant predictor of soil As concentration. This study highlights the value of bioaccessibility measurements and their potential for adjusting generic assessment criteria.

  19. Sub chronic exposure to crude oil, dispersed oil and dispersant induces histopathological alterations in the gills of the juvenile rabbit fish (Siganus canaliculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agamy, Esam

    2013-06-01

    There is little existing information on the sub-lethal effects of experimental exposure of Arabian Gulf fish to oil pollution. This study investigated the potential sub-lethal effects of the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of light Arabian crude oil, dispersed oil and dispersant (Maxi Clean 2) on the gills of the juvenile rabbit fish (Siganus canaliculatus), observing several histopathological biomarkers at different time points and different doses. These laboratory exposures simulated a range of possible oil pollution events. Significant alterations in four health categories (circulatory, proliferative, degenerative and inflammatory) were identified and form the basis for understanding the short-term response of fish to oil. Evaluations of histopathological lesions in gill tissue were carried out following 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21 days of exposure. The main lesions observed and quantified were lamellar capillary aneurysms, vasodilatation of lamellae, hemorrhage, edema, lifting of lamellar and filamentary epithelium and epithelium necrosis, epithelial and chloride cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia, fusion of adjacent lamellae, epitheliocystis and inflammatory infiltration. Exposure of juvenile fish to WAF, dispersant oil and dispersant caused significant changes in the gill lesions and reaction patterns. Dispersed oil caused the most significant effect followed by WAF and then dispersant. The present study is one of the first which explores the relationship between oil pollution and epitheliocystis and reports that exposure to crude oil and dispersed oil increases the prevalence of epitheliocystis formation under controlled laboratory conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Campylobacter spp. Prevalence and Concentration in Household Pets and Petting Zoo Animals for Use in Exposure Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintar, Katarina D M; Christidis, Tanya; Thomas, M Kate; Anderson, Maureen; Nesbitt, Andrea; Keithlin, Jessica; Marshall, Barbara; Pollari, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Animal contact is a potential transmission route for campylobacteriosis, and both domestic household pet and petting zoo exposures have been identified as potential sources of exposure. Research has typically focussed on the prevalence, concentration, and transmission of zoonoses from farm animals to humans, yet there are gaps in our understanding of these factors among animals in contact with the public who don't live on or visit farms. This study aims to quantify, through a systematic review and meta-analysis, the prevalence and concentration of Campylobacter carriage in household pets and petting zoo animals. Four databases were accessed for the systematic review (PubMed, CAB direct, ProQuest, and Web of Science) for papers published in English from 1992-2012, and studies were included if they examined the animal population of interest, assessed prevalence or concentration with fecal, hair coat, oral, or urine exposure routes (although only articles that examined fecal routes were found), and if the research was based in Canada, USA, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. Studies were reviewed for qualitative synthesis and meta-analysis by two reviewers, compiled into a database, and relevant studies were used to create a weighted mean prevalence value. There were insufficient data to run a meta-analysis of concentration values, a noted study limitation. The mean prevalence of Campylobacter in petting zoo animals is 6.5% based on 7 studies, and in household pets the mean is 24.7% based on 34 studies. Our estimated concentration values were: 7.65x103cfu/g for petting zoo animals, and 2.9x105cfu/g for household pets. These results indicate that Campylobacter prevalence and concentration are lower in petting zoo animals compared with household pets and that both of these animal sources have a lower prevalence compared with farm animals that do not come into contact with the public. There is a lack of studies on Campylobacter in petting zoos and/or fair animals in

  1. Household air pollution and personal inhalation exposure to particles (TSP/PM2.5/PM1.0/PM0.25) in rural Shanxi, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ye; Du, Wei; Chen, Yuanchen; Shen, Guofeng; Su, Shu; Lin, Nan; Shen, Huizhong; Zhu, Dan; Yuan, Chenyi; Duan, Yonghong; Liu, Junfeng; Li, Bengang; Tao, Shu

    2017-12-01

    Personal exposure to size-segregated particles among rural residents in Shanxi, China in summer, 2011 were investigated using portable carried samplers (N = 84). Household air pollution was simultaneously studied using stationary samplers in nine homes. Information on household fuel types, cooking activity, smoking behavior, kitchen ventilation conditions etc., were also collected and discussed. The study found that even in the summer period, the daily average concentrations of PM2.5 and PM1.0 in the kitchen were as high as 376 ± 573 and 288 ± 397 μg/m(3) (N = 6), that were nearly 3 times of 114 ± 81 and 97 ± 77 μg/m(3) in the bedroom (N = 8), and significantly higher than those of 64 ± 28 and 47 ± 21 μg/m(3) in the outdoor air (N = 6). The personal daily exposure to PM2.5 and PM1.0 were 98 ± 52 and 77 ± 47 μg/m(3), respectively, that were lower than the concentrations in the kitchen but higher than the outdoor levels. The mass fractions of PM2.5 in TSP were 90%, 72%, 65% and 68% on average in the kitchen, bedroom, outdoor air and personal inhalation exposure, respectively, and moreover, a majority of particles in PM2.5 had diameters less than 1.0 μm. Calculated time-weighted average exposure based on indoor and outdoor air concentrations and time spent indoor and outdoor were positively correlated but, was ∼33% lower than the directly measured exposure. The daily exposure among those burning traditional solid fuels could be lower by ∼41% if the kitchen was equipped with an outdoor chimney, but was still 8-14% higher than those household using cleaning energies, like electricity and gas. With a ventilator in the kitchen, the exposure among the population using clean energies could be further reduced by 10-24%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Validity of a Job-Exposure Matrix for Psychosocial Job Stressors: Results from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, A.; Niedhammer, I.; Chastang, J.-F.; Spittal, M. J.; LaMontagne, A. D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A Job Exposure Matrix (JEM) for psychosocial job stressors allows assessment of these exposures at a population level. JEMs are particularly useful in situations when information on psychosocial job stressors were not collected individually and can help eliminate the biases that may be present in individual self-report accounts. This research paper describes the development of a JEM in the Australian context. Methods The Household Income Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey was used to construct a JEM for job control, job demands and complexity, job insecurity, and fairness of pay. Population median values of these variables for all employed people (n = 20,428) were used to define individual exposures across the period 2001 to 2012. The JEM was calculated for the Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations (ANZSCO) at the four-digit level, which represents 358 occupations. Both continuous and binary exposures to job stressors were calculated at the 4-digit level. We assessed concordance between the JEM-assigned and individually-reported exposures using the Kappa statistic, sensitivity and specificity assessments. We conducted regression analysis using mental health as an outcome measure. Results Kappa statistics indicate good agreement between individually-reported and JEM-assigned dichotomous measures for job demands and control, and moderate agreement for job insecurity and fairness of pay. Job control, job demands and security had the highest sensitivity, while specificity was relatively high for the four exposures. Regression analysis shows that most individually reported and JEM measures were significantly associated with mental health, and individually-reported exposures produced much stronger effects on mental health than the JEM-assigned exposures. Discussion These JEM-based estimates of stressors exposure provide a conservative proxy for individual-level data, and can be applied to a range of health and

  3. Validity of a Job-Exposure Matrix for Psychosocial Job Stressors: Results from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, A; Niedhammer, I; Chastang, J-F; Spittal, M J; LaMontagne, A D

    2016-01-01

    A Job Exposure Matrix (JEM) for psychosocial job stressors allows assessment of these exposures at a population level. JEMs are particularly useful in situations when information on psychosocial job stressors were not collected individually and can help eliminate the biases that may be present in individual self-report accounts. This research paper describes the development of a JEM in the Australian context. The Household Income Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey was used to construct a JEM for job control, job demands and complexity, job insecurity, and fairness of pay. Population median values of these variables for all employed people (n = 20,428) were used to define individual exposures across the period 2001 to 2012. The JEM was calculated for the Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations (ANZSCO) at the four-digit level, which represents 358 occupations. Both continuous and binary exposures to job stressors were calculated at the 4-digit level. We assessed concordance between the JEM-assigned and individually-reported exposures using the Kappa statistic, sensitivity and specificity assessments. We conducted regression analysis using mental health as an outcome measure. Kappa statistics indicate good agreement between individually-reported and JEM-assigned dichotomous measures for job demands and control, and moderate agreement for job insecurity and fairness of pay. Job control, job demands and security had the highest sensitivity, while specificity was relatively high for the four exposures. Regression analysis shows that most individually reported and JEM measures were significantly associated with mental health, and individually-reported exposures produced much stronger effects on mental health than the JEM-assigned exposures. These JEM-based estimates of stressors exposure provide a conservative proxy for individual-level data, and can be applied to a range of health and organisational outcomes.

  4. Daily exposure to summer circadian cycles affects spermatogenesis, but not fertility in an in vivo rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabés-Alsina, Maria; Planell, Núria; Torres-Mejia, Elen; Taberner, Ester; Maya-Soriano, Maria José; Tusell, Llibertat; Ramon, Josep; Dalmau, Antoni; Piles, Miriam; Lopez-Bejar, Manel

    2015-01-15

    Heat stress (HS) in mammals is a determining factor in the deterioration of spermatogenesis and can cause infertility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of continuous summer circadian cycles on semen production, sperm cell features, fertility, prolificacy, and fecal cortisol metabolites from rabbits kept under an in vivo HS model. We split randomly 60 New Zealand White rabbits into two temperature-controlled rooms: The control group was maintained at comfort temperature (18 °C-22 °C) and an HS group, where the environmental temperature was programmed to increase from 22 °C to 31 °C and be maintained for 3 hours to this temperature at the central part of the day. Fecal cortisol metabolites were assessed to evaluate the stress conditions. Seminal parameters were analyzed. Although animals exposed to HS showed higher values of fecal cortisol metabolites (P = 0.0003), no differences were detected in fertility or prolificacy. Semen samples from HS males showed a significant decrease (P natural conditions. Although negative effects have been detected in several sperm parameters, fertility and prolificacy were not affected, suggesting a recovery of the reproductive function when normal conditions are reestablished. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of average household income and damage exposure on post-earthquake distress and functioning: A community study following the February 2011 Christchurch earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorahy, Martin J; Rowlands, Amy; Renouf, Charlotte; Hanna, Donncha; Britt, Eileen; Carter, Janet D

    2015-08-01

    Post-traumatic stress, depression and anxiety symptoms are common outcomes following earthquakes, and may persist for months and years. This study systematically examined the impact of neighbourhood damage exposure and average household income on psychological distress and functioning in 600 residents of Christchurch, New Zealand, 4-6 months after the fatal February, 2011 earthquake. Participants were from highly affected and relatively unaffected suburbs in low, medium and high average household income areas. The assessment battery included the Acute Stress Disorder Scale, the depression module of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), along with single item measures of substance use, earthquake damage and impact, and disruptions in daily life and relationship functioning. Controlling for age, gender and social isolation, participants from low income areas were more likely to meet diagnostic cut-offs for depression and anxiety, and have more severe anxiety symptoms. Higher probabilities of acute stress, depression and anxiety diagnoses were evident in affected versus unaffected areas, and those in affected areas had more severe acute stress, depression and anxiety symptoms. An interaction between income and earthquake effect was found for depression, with those from the low and medium income affected suburbs more depressed. Those from low income areas were more likely, post-earthquake, to start psychiatric medication and increase smoking. There was a uniform increase in alcohol use across participants. Those from the low income affected suburb had greater general and relationship disruption post-quake. Average household income and damage exposure made unique contributions to earthquake-related distress and dysfunction. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Associations between Caries among Children and Household Sugar Procurement, Exposure to Fluoridated Water and Socioeconomic Indicators in the Brazilian Capital Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Martins Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this ecological study was to investigate the association between caries experience in 5- and 12-year-old Brazilian children in 2010 and household sugar procurement in 2003 and the effects of exposure to water fluoridation and socioeconomic indicators. Sample units were all 27 Brazilian capital cities. Data were obtained from the National Surveys of Oral Health; the National Household Food Budget Survey; and the United Nations Program for Development. Data analysis included correlation coefficients, exploratory factor analysis, and linear regression. There were significant negative associations between caries experience and procurement of confectionery, fluoridated water, HDI, and per capita income. Procurement of confectionery and soft drinks was positively associated with HDI and per capita income. Exploratory factor analysis grouped the independent variables by reducing highly correlated variables into two uncorrelated component variables that explained 86.1% of total variance. The first component included income, HDI, water fluoridation, and procurement of confectionery, while the second included free sugar and procurement of soft drinks. Multiple regression analysis showed that caries is associated with the first component. Caries experience was associated with better socioeconomic indicators of a city and exposure to fluoridated water, which may affect the impact of sugars on the disease.

  7. Effects of Sachet Water Consumption on Exposure to Microbe-Contaminated Drinking Water: Household Survey Evidence from Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Wright

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There remain few nationally representative studies of drinking water quality at the point of consumption in developing countries. This study aimed to examine factors associated with E. coli contamination in Ghana. It drew on a nationally representative household survey, the 2012−2013 Living Standards Survey 6, which incorporated a novel water quality module. E. coli contamination in 3096 point-of-consumption samples was examined using multinomial regression. Surface water use was the strongest risk factor for high E. coli contamination (relative risk ratio (RRR = 32.3, p < 0.001, whilst packaged (sachet or bottled water use had the greatest protective effect (RRR = 0.06, p < 0.001, compared to water piped to premises. E. coli contamination followed plausible patterns with digit preference (tendency to report values ending in zero in bacteria counts. The analysis suggests packaged drinking water use provides some protection against point-of-consumption E. coli contamination and may therefore benefit public health. It also suggests viable water quality data can be collected alongside household surveys, but field protocols require further revision.

  8. Effects of Sachet Water Consumption on Exposure to Microbe-Contaminated Drinking Water: Household Survey Evidence from Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jim; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Wardrop, Nicola A.; Johnston, Richard; Hill, Allan; Aryeetey, Genevieve; Adanu, Richard

    2016-01-01

    There remain few nationally representative studies of drinking water quality at the point of consumption in developing countries. This study aimed to examine factors associated with E. coli contamination in Ghana. It drew on a nationally representative household survey, the 2012−2013 Living Standards Survey 6, which incorporated a novel water quality module. E. coli contamination in 3096 point-of-consumption samples was examined using multinomial regression. Surface water use was the strongest risk factor for high E. coli contamination (relative risk ratio (RRR) = 32.3, p water use had the greatest protective effect (RRR = 0.06, p water piped to premises. E. coli contamination followed plausible patterns with digit preference (tendency to report values ending in zero) in bacteria counts. The analysis suggests packaged drinking water use provides some protection against point-of-consumption E. coli contamination and may therefore benefit public health. It also suggests viable water quality data can be collected alongside household surveys, but field protocols require further revision. PMID:27005650

  9. Effects of Sachet Water Consumption on Exposure to Microbe-Contaminated Drinking Water: Household Survey Evidence from Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jim; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Wardrop, Nicola A; Johnston, Richard; Hill, Allan; Aryeetey, Genevieve; Adanu, Richard

    2016-03-09

    There remain few nationally representative studies of drinking water quality at the point of consumption in developing countries. This study aimed to examine factors associated with E. coli contamination in Ghana. It drew on a nationally representative household survey, the 2012-2013 Living Standards Survey 6, which incorporated a novel water quality module. E. coli contamination in 3096 point-of-consumption samples was examined using multinomial regression. Surface water use was the strongest risk factor for high E. coli contamination (relative risk ratio (RRR) = 32.3, p water use had the greatest protective effect (RRR = 0.06, p water piped to premises. E. coli contamination followed plausible patterns with digit preference (tendency to report values ending in zero) in bacteria counts. The analysis suggests packaged drinking water use provides some protection against point-of-consumption E. coli contamination and may therefore benefit public health. It also suggests viable water quality data can be collected alongside household surveys, but field protocols require further revision.

  10. Seroprevalence and risk factors for canine H3N8 influenza virus exposure in household dogs in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrell, E A; Pecoraro, H L; Torres-Henderson, C; Morley, P S; Lunn, K F; Landolt, G A

    2010-01-01

    Since 2004, canine influenza virus (CIV) has spread throughout the United States. While studies suggest that CIV is commonly detected in shelter dogs, little is known about its prevalence in household dogs. To evaluate the seroprevalence of CIV in pet dogs presented for care in a veterinary hospital in Colorado and to investigate risk factors that might predispose these dogs to CIV infection. One hundred and forty dogs presenting to the Community Practice service, 110 dogs seen at other clinical services at Colorado State University's Veterinary Teaching Hospital in 2009, and samples from 75 dogs seen before 2004. In this prospective study, samples were tested with hemagglutination inhibition assays, using 3 CIV isolates. To identify risk factors for CIV infection, 140 owners completed questionnaires at time of sampling. CIV seroprevalence was 2.9% (4/140) for dogs seen by the Community Practice service and 4.5% (5/110) for dogs seen by other hospital services (P=.48). All sera collected before 2004 tested negative for CIV. No differences were seen in antibody titers to the 3 CIV isolates tested. Data from the questionnaires indicated an association between CIV seropositivity and canine daycare visits (PCIV seropositivity in household dogs in Colorado is low, although it has increased since 2004. Antibody titers to the 3 CIV isolates were comparable, suggesting that measurable antigenic drift has not yet occurred. Finally, dogs boarded in kennels or attending daycare might be at an increased risk of CIV infection.

  11. Exposure to household air pollution from wood combustion and association with respiratory symptoms and lung function in nonsmoking women: results from the RESPIRE trial, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Daniel; Diaz, Esperanza; Smith-Sivertsen, Tone; Lie, Rolv T; Bakke, Per; Balmes, John R; Smith, Kirk R; Bruce, Nigel G

    2015-04-01

    With 40% of the world's population relying on solid fuel, household air pollution (HAP) represents a major preventable risk factor for COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). Meta-analyses have confirmed this relationship; however, constituent studies are observational, with virtually none measuring exposure directly. We estimated associations between HAP exposure and respiratory symptoms and lung function in young, nonsmoking women in rural Guatemala, using measured carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations in exhaled breath and personal air to assess exposure. The Randomized Exposure Study of Pollution Indoors and Respiratory Effects (RESPIRE) Guatemala study was a trial comparing respiratory outcomes among 504 women using improved chimney stoves versus traditional cookstoves. The present analysis included 456 women with data from postintervention surveys including interviews at 6, 12, and 18 months (respiratory symptoms) and spirometry and CO (ppm) in exhaled breath measurements. Personal CO was measured using passive diffusion tubes at variable times during the study. Associations between CO concentrations and respiratory health were estimated using random intercept regression models. Respiratory symptoms (cough, phlegm, wheeze, or chest tightness) during the previous 6 months were positively associated with breath CO measured at the same time of symptom reporting and with average personal CO concentrations during the follow-up period. CO in exhaled breath at the same time as spirometry was associated with lower lung function [average reduction in FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec) for a 10% increase in CO was 3.33 mL (95% CI: -0.86, -5.81)]. Lung function measures were not significantly associated with average postintervention personal CO concentrations. Our results provide further support for the effects of HAP exposures on airway inflammation. Further longitudinal research modeling continuous exposure to particulate matter against lung function will

  12. Potential Impacts of Modifiable Behavioral and Environmental Exposures on Reducing Burden of Under-five Mortality Associated with Household Air Pollution in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Sabrina; Page, Andrew; Agho, Kingsley Emwinyore

    2017-07-28

    Objectives Household air pollution (HAP) is one of the leading causes of respiratory illness and deaths among young children in low and lower-middle income countries. This study examines for the first time trends in the association between HAP from cooking fuel and under-five mortality and measures the potential impact of interventions to reduce HAP using Nepal Demographic and Health Survey datasets (2001-2011). Methods A total of 17,780 living children across four age-groups (neonatal 0-28 days, post-neonatal 1-11 months, child 12-59 months and under-five 0-59 months) were included and multi-level logistic regression models were used for analyses. Population attributable fractions of key risk factors and potential impact fractions assessing the impact of previous interventions to reduce exposure prevalence were also calculated. Results Use of cooking fuel was associated with total under-five mortality (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.37-3.51, P = 0.001) in Nepal, with stronger associations evident for sub-group analyses of neonatal mortality (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.47-4.82, P = 0.001). Higher association was found in rural areas and for households without a separate kitchen using polluting fuel for cooking, and in women who had never breastfed for all age-groups of children. PIF estimates, assuming a 63% of reduction of HAP based on previously published interventions in Nepal, suggested that a burden of 40% of neonatal and 33% of under-five mortality cases associated with an indoor kitchen using polluting fuel could be avoidable. Conclusion Improved infrastructure and behavioral interventions could help reduce the pollution from cooking fuel in the household resulting in further reduction in under-five mortality in Nepal.

  13. Proteomic Analyses of the Acute Tissue Response for Explant Rabbit Corneas and Engineered Corneal Tissue Models Following In Vitro Exposure to 1540 nm Laser Light

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eurell, T. E; Johnson, T. E; Roach, W. P

    2005-01-01

    Two-dimensional electrophoresis and histomorphometry were used to determine if equivalent protein changes occurred within native rabbit corneas and engineered corneal tissue models following in vitro...

  14. Household Air Pollution Exposure and Influence of Lifestyle on Respiratory Health and Lung Function in Belizean Adults and Children: A Field Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie P. Kurti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Household air pollution (HAP contributes to the global burden of disease. Our primary purpose was to determine whether HAP exposure was associated with reduced lung function and respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms in Belizean adults and children. Our secondary purpose was to investigate whether lifestyle (physical activity (PA and fruit and vegetable consumption (FV is associated with reported symptoms. Belizean adults (n = 67, 19 Male and children (n = 23, 6 Male from San Ignacio Belize and surrounding areas participated in this cross-sectional study. Data collection took place at free walk-in clinics. Investigators performed initial screenings and administered questionnaires on (1 sources of HAP exposure; (2 reported respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms and (3 validated lifestyle questionnaires. Participants then performed pulmonary function tests (PFTs and exhaled breath carbon monoxide (CO. There were no significant associations between HAP exposure and pulmonary function in adults. Increased exhaled CO was associated with a significantly lower forced expiratory volume in 1-s divided by forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC in children. Exposed adults experienced headaches, burning eyes, wheezing and phlegm production more frequently than unexposed adults. Adults who met PA guidelines were less likely to experience tightness and pressure in the chest compared to those not meeting guidelines. In conclusion, adults exposed to HAP experienced greater respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms, which may be attenuated by lifestyle modifications.

  15. Biomonitoring Human Exposure to Household Air Pollution and Association with Self-reported Health Symptoms - A Stove Intervention Study in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Commodore, Adwoa; Hartinger, Stella; Lewin, Michael; Sjödin, Andreas; Pittman, Erin; Trinidad, Debra; Hubbard, Kendra; Lanata, Claudio F; Gil, Ana I; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Naeher, Luke P

    2016-12-01

    Household air pollution (HAP) from indoor biomass stoves contains harmful pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and is a leading risk factor for global disease burden. We used biomonitoring to assess HAP exposure and association with self-reported symptoms in 334 non-smoking Peruvian women to evaluate the efficacy of a stove intervention program. We conducted a cross-sectional study within the framework of a community randomized control trial. Using urinary PAH metabolites (OH-PAHs) as the exposure biomarkers, we investigated whether the intervention group (n=155, with new chimney-equipped stoves) were less exposed to HAP compared to the control group (n=179, with mostly open-fire stoves). We also estimated associations between the exposure biomarkers, risk factors, and self-reported health symptoms, such as recent eye conditions, respiratory conditions, and headache. We observed reduced headache and ocular symptoms in the intervention group than the control group. Urinary 2-naphthol, a suggested biomarker for inhalation PAH exposure, was significantly lower in the intervention group (GM with 95% CI: 13.4 [12.3, 14.6] μg/g creatinine) compared to control group (16.5 [15.0, 18.0] μg/g creatinine). Stove type and/or 2-naphthol was associated with a number of self-reported symptoms, such as red eye (adjusted OR with 95% CI: 3.80 [1.32, 10.9]) in the past 48h. Even with the improved stoves, the biomarker concentrations in this study far exceeded those of the general populations and were higher than a no-observed-genotoxic-effect-level, indicating high exposure and a potential for increased cancer risk in the population. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Biomonitoring Human Exposure to Household Air Pollution and Association with Self-reported Health Symptoms – A Stove Intervention Study in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Commodore, Adwoa; Hartinger, Stella; Lewin, Michael; Sjödin, Andreas; Pittman, Erin; Trinidad, Debra; Hubbard, Kendra; Lanata, Claudio F.; Gil, Ana I.; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Naeher, Luke P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Household air pollution (HAP) from indoor biomass stoves contains harmful pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and is a leading risk factor for global disease burden. We used biomonitoring to assess HAP exposure and association with self-reported symptoms in 334 non-smoking Peruvian women to evaluate the efficacy of a stove intervention program. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study within the framework of a community randomized control trial. Using urinary PAH metabolites (OH-PAHs) as the exposure biomarkers, we investigated whether the intervention group (n = 155, with new chimney-equipped stoves) were less exposed to HAP compared to the control group (n = 179, with mostly open-fire stoves). We also estimated associations between the exposure biomarkers, risk factors, and self-reported health symptoms, such as recent eye conditions, respiratory conditions, and headache. Results We observed reduced headache and ocular symptoms in the intervention group than the control group. Urinary 2-naphthol, a suggested biomarker for inhalation PAH exposure, was significantly lower in the intervention group (GM with 95% CI: 13.4 [12.3, 14.6] μg/g creatinine) compared to control group (16.5 [15.0, 18.0] μg/g creatinine). Stove type and/or 2-naphthol was associated with a number of self-reported symptoms, such as red eye (adjusted OR with 95% CI: 3.80 [1.32, 10.9]) in the past 48 h. Conclusions Even with the improved stoves, the biomarker concentrations in this study far exceeded those of the general populations and were higher than a no-observed-genotoxic-effect-level, indicating high exposure and a potential for increased cancer risk in the population. PMID:27680405

  17. Comparison of intervention methods for reducing human exposure to Mycobacterium bovis through milk in pastoralist households of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roug, Annette; Perez, Andres; Mazet, Jonna A K; Clifford, Deana L; VanWormer, Elizabeth; Paul, Goodluck; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Smith, Woutrina A

    2014-08-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a disease of zoonotic concern, especially in countries with no control programs in livestock and where routine pasteurization of milk is not practiced. In Tanzania, bTB is widespread in livestock and has been diagnosed in humans; however, herd bTB testing is primarily carried out for bTB-free certification in commercial dairy herds at the expense of the dairy cattle owner. For rural livestock holders, such an expense is prohibitive, and consequently there is no control of bTB in most areas. Although effective long-term solutions to control bTB in livestock are desirable, there is a need to assess the effect of preventive measures on reducing human exposure to bTB in such settings. We utilized locally relevant cattle herd characteristics and management data from the Health for Animals and Livelihood Improvement (HALI) project in south-central Tanzania to build a Reed-Frost model that compared the efficacy of alternative methods aimed at reducing the exposure of humans to infectious milk from a typical pastoralist cattle herd. During a 10-year simulation period, the model showed that boiling milk 80% of the time is necessary to obtain a reduction in liters of infectious milk approximately equivalent to what would be obtained with a standard 2-year testing and removal regimen, and that boiling milk was more effective than animal test and removal early in the time period. In addition, even with testing and removing infected cattle, a residual risk of exposure to infectious milk remained due to imperfect sensitivity of the skin test and a continuous risk of introduction of infectious animals from other herds. The model was sensitive to changes in initial bTB prevalence but not to changes in herd size. In conclusion, continuous complimentary treatment of milk may be an effective strategy to reduce human exposure to M. bovis-infected milk in settings where bTB is endemic and a comprehensive bTB control program

  18. Assessment of dermal exposure and histopathologic changes of different sized nano-silver in healthy adult rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koohi, Mohammad kazem; Hejazy, Marzie [Toxicology division, Basic science department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Qareeb Street, Azadi Av. PO Box: 14155-6453, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Asadi, Farzad [Biochemistry division, Basic science department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Qareeb Street, Azadi Av. PO Box: 14155-6453, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Asadian, Peyman, E-mail: mkkoohi@ut.ac.ir [Clinical pathology department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Khorramabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-06

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dermal toxicity (Irritation/Corrosion) of three sizes of nanosilver particles (10, 20 and 30 nm) during 3 min, 1 and 4 hours according to the OECD/OCDE guideline Histopathological effects in secondary organs from liver, kidney, heart, spleen and brain 14 day post dermal administration are also reported. 10 and 20 nm Ag nanoparticles treated group showed well defined dermal erythema and oedema. Histopathological findings of 10 and 20 nm (4 hours exposure) on 14-day post dermal administration showed hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, hair-filled follicles and papillomatosis in an irregular epidermis, fibrosis, hyperemia, erythema, intracellular oedema and hyalinisation of collagen in dermis of skin. Liver revealed midzonal and periacinar necrosis, portal mononuclear infiltration, liver fatty change, liver congestion and hyperemic central vein. Splenic red pulp congestion and white pulp hyperreactivity, splenic trabeculae and sinusoidal congestion and hyaline change were found in spleen. Fatty degeneration in some cardiovascular cells and subendocardial hemorrhage without inflammation was perceived. Picnotic appearance of pyramidal neurons in the brain cortex, gliosis and mild perineuronal oedema ischemic cell change and hyperemic meninges was observed in brain. Our research concluded that dermal exposure to lesser sizes of silver nanoparticles is more disastrous than greater ones.

  19. Assessment of dermal exposure and histopathologic changes of different sized nano-silver in healthy adult rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    kazem Koohi, Mohammad; Hejazy, Marzie; Asadi, Farzad; Asadian, Peyman

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dermal toxicity (Irritation/Corrosion) of three sizes of nanosilver particles (10, 20 and 30 nm) during 3 min, 1 and 4 hours according to the OECD/OCDE guideline Histopathological effects in secondary organs from liver, kidney, heart, spleen and brain 14 day post dermal administration are also reported. 10 and 20 nm Ag nanoparticles treated group showed well defined dermal erythema and oedema. Histopathological findings of 10 and 20 nm (4 hours exposure) on 14-day post dermal administration showed hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, hair-filled follicles and papillomatosis in an irregular epidermis, fibrosis, hyperemia, erythema, intracellular oedema and hyalinisation of collagen in dermis of skin. Liver revealed midzonal and periacinar necrosis, portal mononuclear infiltration, liver fatty change, liver congestion and hyperemic central vein. Splenic red pulp congestion and white pulp hyperreactivity, splenic trabeculae and sinusoidal congestion and hyaline change were found in spleen. Fatty degeneration in some cardiovascular cells and subendocardial hemorrhage without inflammation was perceived. Picnotic appearance of pyramidal neurons in the brain cortex, gliosis and mild perineuronal oedema ischemic cell change and hyperemic meninges was observed in brain. Our research concluded that dermal exposure to lesser sizes of silver nanoparticles is more disastrous than greater ones.

  20. WHO indoor air quality guidelines on household fuel combustion: Strategy implications of new evidence on interventions and exposure-risk functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Nigel; Pope, Dan; Rehfuess, Eva; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Adair-Rohani, Heather; Dora, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    Background: 2.8 billion people use solid fuels as their primary cooking fuel; the resulting high levels of household air pollution (HAP) were estimated to cause more than 4 million premature deaths in 2012. The people most affected are among the world's poorest, and past experience has shown that securing adoption and sustained use of effective, low-emission stove technologies and fuels in such populations is not easy. Among the questions raised by these challenges are (i) to what levels does HAP exposure need to be reduced in order to ensure that substantial health benefits are achieved, and (ii) what intervention technologies and fuels can achieve the required levels of HAP in practice? New WHO air quality guidelines are being developed to address these issues. Aims: To address the above questions drawing on evidence from new evidence reviews conducted for the WHO guidelines. Methods: Discussion of key findings from reviews covering (i) systematic reviews of health risks from HAP exposure, (ii) newly developed exposure-response functions which combine combustion pollution risk evidence from ambient air pollution, second-hand smoke, HAP and active smoking, and (iii) a systematic review of the impacts of solid fuel and clean fuel interventions on kitchen levels of, and personal exposure to, PM2.5 and carbon monoxide (CO). Findings: Evidence on health risks from HAP suggest that controlling this exposure could reduce the risk of multiple child and adult health outcomes by 20-50%. The new integrated exposure-response functions (IERs) indicate that in order to secure these benefits, HAP levels require to be reduced to the WHO IT-1 annual average level (35 μg/m3 PM2.5), or below. The second review found that, in practice, solid fuel 'improved stoves' led to large percentage and absolute reductions, but post-intervention kitchen levels were still very high, at several hundreds of μg/m3 of PM2.5, although most solid fuel stove types met the WHO 24-hr average guideline

  1. Can early household exposure influence the development of rhinitis symptoms in infancy? Findings from the PARIS birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Marie; Nikasinovic, Lydia; Foucault, Christophe; Le Marec, Anne-Marie; Giordanella, Jean-Pierre; Just, Jocelyne; Momas, Isabelle

    2011-10-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) has become the most prevalent chronic allergic disorder in childhood, and the role of environment has been questioned, particularly in early life. To investigate the risk factors for rhinitis symptoms in infants included in the PARIS (Pollution and Asthma Risk: an Infant Study) birth cohort. Infants were invited to participate at age 18 months in a health examination conducted by a pediatrician. Allergic rhinitis was defined as the presence of rhinitis symptoms (runny nose, blocked nose, sneezing in the absence of a cold) combined with biological atopy (elevated total immunoglobulin E [IgE], specific IgE, or eosinophilia) and nonallergic rhinitis (NAR) as symptoms without biological atopy. Information about indoor exposures and lifestyle was collected during a telephone interview when the child was 1 month of age. Risk factors for AR and NAR were studied by using a polytomous regression model. The prevalence of AR and NAR was 70/1,850 (3.8%) and 99/1,850 (5.4%), respectively. Allergic rhinitis and NAR did not share similar risk factors. Male sex (odds ratio [OR] = 1.99 [1.19-3.32]), parental history of AR (OR = 1.89 [1.16-3.08]), low socioeconomic class (OR = 2.23 [1.05-4.72] for low vs high level), and the presence of cockroaches in the home (OR = 3.15 [1.67-5.96]) were risk factors for AR. Conversely, the presence of particle-board furniture less than 12 months old in the child's bedroom was associated with an increased risk of NAR (OR = 1.87 [1.21-2.90]). This study should raise awareness about the impact of indoor exposures, particularly with regard to cockroaches and particle-board furniture, because they could influence the occurrence of noninfectious rhinitis. Copyright © 2011 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of fast neutrons on rabbits. II. Comparison of pathologic effects of fractionated neutron and photon exposures of the lung and spinal cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, E.W. (George Washington Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC); Zook, B.C.; Casarett, G.W.; Mossman, K.L.; Rogers, C.C.

    1979-06-01

    Young adult rabbits were irradiated at high intensity twice weekly for 6 weeks to the cervical and thoracic spinal cord region (> 50% of lungs included in field); they were irradiated with photons (4 MeV) to 4 cumulative doses (from 4800 to 19,200 rad) or fast neutrons (15 MeV) to 4 cumulative doses (from 1680 to 6720 rad), with photon doses 2.86 times as large (assumed relative biological effectiveness) as corresponding neutron doses. The rabbits were observed especially for pulmonary and neurologic signs; when they became paralyzed or moribund, they were sacrificed for histopathologic study. Paraplegia occurred only after 6720 rad of photons or after neutron doses of 2520 rad or greater. Only in these rabbits were spinal cord lesions observed; they varied from occasional swollen axons to extensive necrosis and myelin loss, and were much more severe in the white than in the gray matter. Malignant bone tumors were found only in the irradiated field in 2 of the 3 rabbits receiving 2520 rad of neutrons. Radiation-induced lung changes were found in all irradiated rabbits, with the character of the lesions not depending upon dose but dependent on time after irradiation. Signs of severe respiratory diseases were seldom observed until just before death.

  3. Rural Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive survey and subsequent fieldwork, this chapter introduces the socio-economic characteristics and common livelihood strategies of rural households in Quang Nam, Central Vietnam. It demonstrates the basic premise of self-reliance in rural society and the decreasing economic...

  4. Chronic exposure to low levels of dibromoacetic acid, a water disinfection by-product, adversely affects reproductive function in male rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four groups (minimum of 10/dose group) of male Dutch-Belted rabbits were treated daily to dibromoacetic acid (DBA) via drinking water beginning in utero from gestation day 15 throughout life; target dosages were 1, 5, and 50 mg DBA /kg body weight. Developmental, prepubertal as ...

  5. Enhanced Phenylephrine Contractions in Rabbit Carotid Arteries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carotid arteries were isolated from rabbits and cut into 2mm rings, suspended in 20ml organ baths and bubbled with 95% O2, 5% CO2 and isometric ... There were no significant differences in PE contractions following exposure to intact erythrocytes and ghosts from subjects with different Hb genotypes; however, exposure ...

  6. Assessing the risk of an excess fluoride intake among Swedish children in households with private wells--expanding static single-source methods to a probabilistic multi-exposure-pathway approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustsson, Anna; Berger, Tobias

    2014-07-01

    It is often assumed that water consumption is the major route of exposure for fluoride and analysis of water fluoride content is the most common approach for ensuring that the daily intake is not too high. In the present study, the risk of excess intake was characterized for children in households with private wells in Kalmar County, Sweden, where the natural geology shows local enrichments in fluorine. By comparing water concentrations with the WHO drinking water guideline (1.5 mg/L), it was found that 24% of the ca. 4800 sampled wells had a concentration above this limit, hence providing a figure for the number of children in the households concerned assessed to be at risk using this straightforward approach. The risk of an excess intake could, alternatively, also be characterized based on a tolerable daily intake (in this case the US EPA RfD of 0.06 mg/kg-day). The exposure to be evaluated was calculated using a probabilistic approach, where the variability in all exposure factors was considered, again for the same study population. The proportion of children assessed to be at risk after exposure from drinking water now increased to 48%, and when the probabilistic model was adjusted to also include other possible exposure pathways; beverages and food, ingestion of toothpaste, oral soil intake and dust inhalation, the number increased to 77%. Firstly, these results show how the risk characterization is affected by the basis of comparison. In this example, both of the reference values used are widely acknowledged. Secondly, it illustrates how much of the total exposure may be overlooked when only focusing on one exposure pathway, and thirdly, it shows the importance of considering the variability in all relevant pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. TRANSFER EFFICIENCIES OF PESTICIDES FROM HOUSEHOLD FLOORING SURFACES TO FOODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The transfer of pesticides from household surfaces to foods was measured to determine if excess dietary exposure potentially occurs when children's foods contact contaminated surfaces prior to being. Three common household surfaces (ceramic tile, hardwood flooring, and carpet) w...

  8. Household Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Lusardi, Annamaria

    In this survey, we review the recent theoretical and empirical literature on household saving and consumption. The discussion is structured around a list of motives for saving and how well the standard theory captures these motives. We show that almost all of the motives for saving that have been...... of standard optimization techniques and focuses instead on direct consideration on saving. We provide a section on facts: who save and how much. We then discuss informally the recent decline in the U.S. saving rate and whether the theory is of much use in understanding this and other changes in aggregate...... be rationalized within a simple life cycle model. We also review a great number of studies of the consumption Euler equations. Based on our analysis of the studies cited we conclude that there is still mixed evidence that consumption is excessively sensitive to income. We also examine in depth the recent...

  9. The Rabbit Stream Cipher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Martin; Vesterager, Mette; Zenner, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The stream cipher Rabbit was first presented at FSE 2003, and no attacks against it have been published until now. With a measured encryption/decryption speed of 3.7 clock cycles per byte on a Pentium III processor, Rabbit does also provide very high performance. This paper gives a concise...... description of the Rabbit design and some of the cryptanalytic results available....

  10. Incisor adjustment in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cyndi

    2009-06-01

    Rabbit incisor teeth are open-rooted and, in healthy animals, grow continuously. Incisor adjustments are often necessary to maintain the health and well-being of rabbits with incisor malocclusion. This column will describe some techniques used to manage incisor malocclusion in the rabbit.

  11. Efficacy of CMX001 as a post exposure antiviral in New Zealand White rabbits infected with rabbitpox virus, a model for orthopoxvirus infections of humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Amanda D; Adams, Mathew M; Wallace, Greg; Burrage, Andrew M; Lindsey, Scott F; Smith, Andrew J; Swetnam, Daniele; Manning, Brandi R; Gray, Stacey A; Lampert, Bernhard; Foster, Scott; Lanier, Randall; Robertson, Alice; Painter, George; Moyer, Richard W

    2011-01-01

    CMX001, a lipophilic nucleotide analog formed by covalently linking 3-(hexdecyloxy)propan-1-ol to cidofovir (CDV), is being developed as a treatment for smallpox. In the absence of human cases of smallpox, new treatments must be tested for efficacy in animal models. Previously, we demonstrated the efficacy of CMX001 in protecting New Zealand White rabbits from mortality following intradermal infection with rabbitpox virus as a model for smallpox, monkeypox and for treatment of adverse reactions to smallpox vaccination. Here we extend these studies by exploring different dosing regimens and performing randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled studies. In addition, because rabbitpox virus can be transmitted via naturally generated aerosols (animal to animal transmission), we report on studies to test the efficacy of CMX001 in protecting rabbits from lethal rabbitpox virus disease when infection occurs by animal to animal transmission. In all cases, CMX001 treatment was initiated at the onset of observable lesions in the ears to model the use of CMX001 as a treatment for symptomatic smallpox. The results demonstrate that CMX001 is an effective treatment for symptomatic rabbitpox virus infection. The rabbitpox model has key similarities to human smallpox including an incubation period, generalized systemic disease, the occurrence of lesions which may be used as a trigger for initiating therapy, and natural animal to animal spread, making it an appropriate model.

  12. Household Income Composition and Household Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Voynov, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    The paper focuses on the change in household income composition and the factors that determine it. The results bring additional knowledge about household poverty dynamics. Based on the collective approach to the family and the cooperative game theory it is constructed theoretical model of household income composition change. The change in income composition is a result from bargaining between household members in attempt to defend the most suitable for them income source. Decisive influence i...

  13. Household Transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Jonathan D; Koepke, Amanda A; Kenah, Eben E; Halloran, M Elizabeth; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraful I; LaRocque, Regina C; Yang, Yang; Ryan, Edward T; Qadri, Firdausi; Calderwood, Stephen B; Harris, Jason B; Longini, Ira M

    2014-11-01

    Vibrio cholerae infections cluster in households. This study's objective was to quantify the relative contribution of direct, within-household exposure (for example, via contamination of household food, water, or surfaces) to endemic cholera transmission. Quantifying the relative contribution of direct exposure is important for planning effective prevention and control measures. Symptom histories and multiple blood and fecal specimens were prospectively collected from household members of hospital-ascertained cholera cases in Bangladesh from 2001-2006. We estimated the probabilities of cholera transmission through 1) direct exposure within the household and 2) contact with community-based sources of infection. The natural history of cholera infection and covariate effects on transmission were considered. Significant direct transmission (p-valuelevels of pre-existing immunity to cholera infection. Transmission via direct exposure occurring outside of the household was not considered. Direct exposure contributes substantially to endemic transmission of symptomatic cholera in an urban setting. We provide the first estimate of the transmissibility of endemic cholera within prospectively-followed members of households. The role of direct transmission must be considered when planning cholera control activities.

  14. Household Saving in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Finlay; Fiona Price

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates household saving behaviour in Australia, as well as the drivers behind the recent rise in the aggregate household saving ratio. Our results explaining differences in saving behaviour across households are consistent with theory and previous findings. As might be expected, households' saving ratios tend to increase with income, but decrease with wealth and gearing. Financially constrained and migrant households tend to save more than other households, all else equal. Wh...

  15. Inhalation toxicity of sulfuryl fluoride in rats and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbrandt, D L; Nitschke, K D

    1989-04-01

    The inhalation toxicity of the structural fumigant sulfuryl fluoride (SO2F2) was evaluated in rats and rabbits. Exposures for a preliminary 2-week study were 6 hr/day, 5 days/week, to 0, 100, 300, or 600 ppm SO2F2. Nine of ten rats at 600 ppm died or were moribund between the second and sixth exposures. Extensive kidney lesions were present in all rats exposed to 600 ppm, whereas only minimal renal changes were noted in rats at 300 ppm. Upper and lower respiratory tissues were inflamed in the single rat that survived the 2-week exposure to 600 ppm. Rabbits exposed to 600 ppm SO2F2 were hyperactive and one animal had a convulsion. Exposure to 300 or 600 ppm for 2 weeks resulted in vacuolation and/or malacia in the cerebrum of all rabbits and most of these rabbits also had moderate inflammation of nasal tissues; a few rabbits at 600 ppm had inflammation of the trachea or bronchi. A subsequent 13-week study evaluated rats and rabbits exposed to 0, 30, 100, or 300 ppm SO2F2 (337 ppm TWA for rabbits). Rabbits initially were exposed to a high concentration of 600 ppm; however, convulsions were noted in two animals after nine exposures and the concentration subsequently was reduced to 300 ppm. Vacuolation and/or malacia were observed in the cerebrum of all rabbits at the highest concentration; one rabbit exposed to 100 ppm also had cerebral vacuolation. Rabbits at the highest concentration, as well as one rabbit exposed to 100 ppm, had inflammation of the nasal tissues. Rats exposed to 300 ppm SO2F2 for 13 weeks had mottled incisor teeth, minimal renal effects, pulmonary histiocytosis, inflammation of nasal tissues, and cerebral vacuolation. Also, rats exposed to 100 ppm SO2F2 for 13 weeks had mottled teeth. Fluoride toxicity was suggested by mottled teeth in rats as well as elevation of serum fluoride levels in rats and rabbits exposed to SO2F2 for 13 weeks. Although repeated exposure of rats and rabbits to 100-600 ppm SO2F2 resulted in toxicity of the kidneys (rats only

  16. Factors associated with adoption of improved rabbit management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was undertaken to identify factors affecting the adoption of improved rabbit management practices and its implication on household food security in Ogun State, Nigeria. A structured interview schedule was utilized in obtaining information from one hundred and seventy eight (178) respondents. Data were ...

  17. Household organophosphorus pesticide use and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Shilpa; Liew, Zeyan; Paul, Kimberly; Lee, Pei-Chen; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Bronstein, Jeff M; Ritz, Beate

    2013-10-01

    Household pesticide use is widespread in the USA. Since the 1970s, organophosphorus chemicals (OPs) have been common active ingredients in these products. Parkinson's disease (PD) has been linked to pesticide exposures but little is known about the contributions of chronic exposures to household pesticides. Here we investigate whether long-term use of household pesticides, especially those containing OPs, increases the odds of PD. In a population-based case-control study, we assessed frequency of household pesticide use for 357 cases and 807 controls, relying on the California Department of Pesticide Regulation product label database to identify ingredients in reported household pesticide products and the Pesticide Action Network pesticide database of chemical ingredients. Using logistic regression we estimated the effects of household pesticide use. Frequent use of any household pesticide increased the odds of PD by 47% [odds ratio (OR)=1.47, (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13, 1.92)]; frequent use of products containing OPs increased the odds of PD more strongly by 71% [OR=1.71, (95% CI: 1.21, 2.41)] and frequent organothiophosphate use almost doubled the odds of PD. Sensitivity analyses showed that estimated effects were independent of other pesticide exposures (ambient and occupational) and the largest odds ratios were estimated for frequent OP users who were carriers of the 192QQ paraoxonase genetic variant related to slower detoxification of OPs. We provide evidence that household use of OP pesticides is associated with an increased risk of developing PD.

  18. Rabbit Production in Selected Urban Areas of Southern Ghana: Status and Implications for Policy and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DY Osei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted to elicit information on rabbit keeping in 26 urban areas of southern Ghana. The average age of the rabbit keepers was 44.3 years, and 95.5% of the keepers had formal education. Most of the producers got into rabbit keeping for money to meet urgent family needs, while household consumption was a major factor influencing the decision for rearing rabbits. Personal savings was the main source of income for the establishment of the rabbit enterprises. The major breeds of rabbits kept were the California White, New Zealand White and crossbreds of varied genetic variations. Backyard, small-scale and medium-scale commercial rabbit holdings were held by 18.2, 51.7 and 30.2% of the keepers respectively. The average rabbit population per farm was 77.8, with an average of 8.4 bucks, 21.6 does. Young rabbits formed 70.0% of the rabbit population. Owners of rabbitries usually cared for their animals as hired labour was expensive and often not available. High cost of feed was the most significant constraint to rabbit keeping, and mange was the most common disease affecting the rabbits. Marketing of rabbits was not organized, and this served as a disincentive to expanding the holdings. The rabbits were mostly sold either life or as fresh carcasses at the farm gate. To ensure a rapid growth of the rabbit industry, research should be undertaken to address the identified constraints to production while appropriate policies are put in place to enhance the growth of the industry. Keywords: rabbit keeping, socio-economic characteristics, farming technologies   Animal Production 14(2:131-139

  19. Development of a Zealand white rabbit deposition model to study inhalation anthrax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; Kabilan, Senthil; Jacob, Richard E.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Corley, Richard A.

    2016-01-28

    Despite using rabbits in several inhalation exposure experiments to study diseases such as anthrax, there is a lack of understanding regarding deposition characteristics and fate of inhaled particles (bio-aerosols and viruses) in the respiratory tracts of rabbits. Such information allows dosimetric extrapolation to humans to inform human outcomes. The lung geometry of the New Zealand white rabbit (referred to simply as rabbits throughout the article) was constructed using recently acquired scanned images of the conducting airways of rabbits and available information on its acinar region. In addition, functional relationships were developed for the lung and breathing parameters of rabbits as a function of body weight. The lung geometry and breathing parameters were used to extend the existing deposition model for humans and several other species to rabbits. Evaluation of the deposition model for rabbits was made by comparing predictions with available measurements in the literature. Deposition predictions in the lungs of rabbits indicated smaller deposition fractions compared to those found in humans across various particle diameter ranges. The application of the deposition model for rabbits was demonstrated by extrapolating deposition predictions in rabbits to find equivalent human exposure concentrations assuming the same dose-response relationship between the two species. Human equivalent exposure concentration levels were found to be much smaller than those for rabbits.

  20. Comparing rat and rabbit embryo-fetal developmental toxicity ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A database of embryo-fetal developmental toxicity (EFDT) studies of 379 pharmaceutical compounds in rat and rabbit was analyzed for species differences based on toxicokinetic parameters of area under the curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (Cmax) at the developmental adverse effect level (dLOAEL). For the vast majority of cases (83% based on AUC of n=283), dLOAELs in rats and rabbits were within the same order of magnitude (less than 10-fold different) when compared based on available data on AUC and Cmax exposures. For 13.5% of the compounds the rabbit was more sensitive and for 3.5% of compounds the rat was more sensitive when compared based on AUC exposures. For 12% of the compounds the rabbit was more sensitive and for 1.3% of compounds the rat was more sensitive based on Cmax exposures. When evaluated based on human equivalent dose (HED) conversion using standard factors, the rat and rabbit were equally sensitive. The relative extent of embryo-fetal toxicity in the presence of maternal toxicity was not different between species. Overall effect severity incidences were distributed similarly in rat and rabbit studies. Individual rat and rabbit strains did not show a different general distribution of systemic exposure LOAELs as compared to all strains combined for each species. There were no apparent species differences in the occurrence of embryo-fetal variations. Based on power of detection and given differences in the nature of developmental effects betwe

  1. Household vulnerability to climate change: examining perceptions of households of flood risks in Georgetown and Paramaribo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnekamp, F.; Koedam, A.; Baud, I.S.A.

    2011-01-01

    The article examines household perceptions of flooding as part of climate change in two low elevation coastal zone cities in the Caribbean. The research examines differences in vulnerability of households as the combined results of socio-economic inequalities in entitlements and exposure to natural

  2. [The electroretinogram parameters and the state of the cornea in the rabbit following acute exposure of the eye to UV-radiation of different intensities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousov, V V; Gramenitskiĭ, A E

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate wave amplitudes and latencies of electroretinograms (ERG) and to examine the eye cornea of rabbits a month after their eye UV-B-irradiation with a biologically effective dose of 1.3 kJ/m2 at three intensities of 1.62, 0.567 or 0.157 W/m2. It was demonstrated that ERG a- and b-waves decreased significantly 7-20 days after irradiation while latencies remained unchanged. It was also found that during this time period ERG wave amplitudes were dependent on the intensity: at higher intensities amplitudes of both waves diminished to a greater extent. After irradiation with a peak intensity photokeratoconjunctivitis was more severe and prolonged; however, the effect of irradiation with two other intensities was very similar. In view of the fact that the highest intensity of UV-B-radiation was comparable with that beyond the Earth's atmosphere while the lowest intensity was close to that near the Earth's surface, the above findings can be used to solve space biology problems and to assess potential effects of the ozone layer destruction on the eye.

  3. Human Handling Promotes Compliant Behavior in Adult Laboratory Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swennes, Alton G; Alworth, Leanne C; Harvey, Stephen B; Jones, Carolyn A; King, Christopher S; Crowell-Davis, Sharon L

    2011-01-01

    Routine laboratory procedures can be stressful for laboratory animals. We wanted to determine whether human handling of adult rabbits could induce a degree of habituation, reducing stress and facilitating research-related manipulation. To this end, adult New Zealand white rabbits were handled either frequently or minimally. After being handled over 3 wk, these rabbits were evaluated by novel personnel and compared with minimally handled controls. Evaluators subjectively scored the rabbits for their relative compliance or resistance to being scruffed and removed from their cages, being transported to a treatment room, and their behavior at all stages of the exercise. Upon evaluation, handled rabbits scored significantly more compliant than nontreated controls. During evaluation, behaviors that the rabbits displayed when they were approached in their cages and while being handled outside their cages were recorded and compared between study groups. Handled rabbits displayed behavior consistent with a reduction in human-directed fear. This study illustrates the potential for handling to improve compliance in laboratory procedures and reduce fear-related behavior in laboratory rabbits. Such handling could be used to improve rabbit welfare through the reduction of stress and exposure to novel stimuli. PMID:21333162

  4. Effects of a Parent-Child Interactive Program for Families on Reducing the Exposure of School-Aged Children to Household Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Ting; Hsiao, Fei-Hsiu; Lee, Ching-Mei; Wang, Ruey-Hsia; Chen, Ping-Ling

    2016-03-01

    Parental smoking has been identified as the major source of children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Therefore, parental involvement is critical in ETS exposure prevention programs. This study examined the effects of a parent-child interactive program on reducing children's exposure to ETS at home and enhancing parents' and children's prevention strategies. A clustered randomized controlled trial was administered to 75 families of school-aged children from six primary schools in New Taipei City, Taiwan. Families in the intervention group received a parent-child interactive intervention, and parents in the control group received written materials on tobacco hazards. Data on children's exposure and the prevention of children's exposure to ETS at home were obtained at baseline, 8-week, and 20-week or 6-month assessments. The percentage of children with urine cotinine levels greater than or equal to 6 ng/ml was significantly lower in the intervention group than it was in the control group at both the 8-week and 6-month assessments. The intervention significantly reduced parental smoking in the presence of children and increased parents' prevention of children's ETS exposure and children's ETS avoidance behavior from the baseline to the 20-week assessment. This is a preliminary study design aimed at creating a program for reducing children's ETS exposure at home. Further research to produce evidence supporting the application of the parent-child interactive program in primary schools is suggested. The theoretical basis of the intervention design can serve as a reference for nursing education and the design of health education programs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Utilization of tropical rabbits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The productive performance of rabbits was evaluated on diets of alfalfa meal and tropical forages. The results showed that rabbits can utilize high forage diets wlth little or no cereal grain. Several tropical legumes (Desmodium distortum, Macrop tilium lathyroides, Clitoria ternata and Cassra tora) have the same feeding ...

  6. Wintertime pollution level, size distribution and personal daily exposure to particulate matters in the northern and southern rural Chinese homes and variation in different household fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Shen, Guofeng; Chen, Yuanchen; Zhuo, Shaojie; Xu, Yang; Li, Xinyue; Pan, Xuelian; Cheng, Hefa; Wang, Xilong; Tao, Shu

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated and compared wintertime air pollution and personal exposure in the rural northern and southern Chinese homes. Daily indoor and outdoor particle samples were simultaneously collected by using stationary samplers, and personal exposure was directly measured using portable carried samplers. The daily average concentrations of indoor and outdoor PM 2.5 were 521 ± 234 and 365 ± 185 μg/m 3 in the northern village, that were about 2.3-2.7 times of 188 ± 104 and 150 ± 29 μg/m 3 in indoor and outdoor air in the southern villages. Particle size distribution was similar between indoor and outdoor air, and had relatively smaller difference between the two sites, relative to the particle mass concentration difference. PM 2.5 contributed to ∼80% of the TSP mass, and in PM 2.5 , near 90% were PM 1.0 . In homes using electricity in the southern villages, outdoor air pollution could explain 70-80% of the variation in indoor air pollution. The daily exposure to PM 2.5 measured using personal carried samplers were 451 ± 301 μg/m 3 in the northern villages with traditional solid fuels used for daily cooking and heating, and in the southern villages without heating, the exposure to PM 2.5 were 184 ± 83 and 166 ± 45 μg/m 3 , respectively, for the population using wood and electricity for daily cooking. Time-weighted daily average exposure estimated from area concentration and time spent indoor and outdoor was generally correlated the directly measured exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Exposure to the World Trade Center Disaster and 9/11-Related Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Household Disaster Preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargano, Lisa M; Caramanica, Kimberly; Sisco, Sarah; Brackbill, Robert M; Stellman, Steven D

    2015-12-01

    In a population with prior exposure to the World Trade Center disaster, this study sought to determine the subsequent level of preparedness for a new disaster and how preparedness varied with population characteristics that are both disaster-related and non-disaster-related. The sample included 4496 World Trade Center Health Registry enrollees who completed the Wave 3 (2011-2012) and Hurricane Sandy (2013) surveys. Participants were considered prepared if they reported possessing at least 7 of 8 standard preparedness items. Logistic regression was used to determine associations between preparedness and demographic and medical factors, 9/11-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) assessed at Wave 3, 9/11 exposure, and social support. Over one-third (37.5%) of participants were prepared with 18.8% possessing all 8 items. The item most often missing was an evacuation plan (69.8%). Higher levels of social support were associated with being prepared. High levels of 9/11 exposure were associated with being prepared in both the PTSD and non-PTSD subgroups. Our findings indicate that prior 9/11 exposure favorably impacted Hurricane Sandy preparedness. Future preparedness messaging should target people with low social support networks. Communications should include information on evacuation zones and where to find information about how to evacuate.

  8. Household Transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Sugimoto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae infections cluster in households. This study's objective was to quantify the relative contribution of direct, within-household exposure (for example, via contamination of household food, water, or surfaces to endemic cholera transmission. Quantifying the relative contribution of direct exposure is important for planning effective prevention and control measures.Symptom histories and multiple blood and fecal specimens were prospectively collected from household members of hospital-ascertained cholera cases in Bangladesh from 2001-2006. We estimated the probabilities of cholera transmission through 1 direct exposure within the household and 2 contact with community-based sources of infection. The natural history of cholera infection and covariate effects on transmission were considered. Significant direct transmission (p-value<0.0001 occurred among 1414 members of 364 households. Fecal shedding of O1 El Tor Ogawa was associated with a 4.9% (95% confidence interval: 0.9%-22.8% risk of infection among household contacts through direct exposure during an 11-day infectious period (mean length. The estimated 11-day risk of O1 El Tor Ogawa infection through exposure to community-based sources was 2.5% (0.8%-8.0%. The corresponding estimated risks for O1 El Tor Inaba and O139 infection were 3.7% (0.7%-16.6% and 8.2% (2.1%-27.1% through direct exposure, and 3.4% (1.7%-6.7% and 2.0% (0.5%-7.3% through community-based exposure. Children under 5 years-old were at elevated risk of infection. Limitations of the study may have led to an underestimation of the true risk of cholera infection. For instance, available covariate data may have incompletely characterized levels of pre-existing immunity to cholera infection. Transmission via direct exposure occurring outside of the household was not considered.Direct exposure contributes substantially to endemic transmission of symptomatic cholera in an urban setting. We provide the first estimate of

  9. Pharmacokinetics of chloroquine in diabetic rabbits | Adelusi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pharmacokinetic parameters derived from diabetic rabbits have been compared to those of normal rabbits. Two sets of rabbits were used, normal rabbits and diabetic rabbits. The diabetic rabbits were obtained by inducing diabetes in rabbits using streptozotocin. Chloroquine at a dose of 10 mg/kg was administered to ...

  10. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Sara A; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; van der Poel, Wim H M

    2016-09-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (0, 60, and 23 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates. Dutch rabbits are unlikely to be a zoonotic source.

  11. Household exposure to violence and human rights violations in western Bangladesh (II: history of torture and other traumatic experience of violence and functional assessment of victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswas Shuvodwip

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organised crime and political violence (OPV and human rights violations have marred Bangladesh history since 1971. Little is known about the consequences for the oppressed population. This study describes the patterns of OPV and human rights violations in a disturbed area of Bangladesh and assesses the physical, emotional and social functioning of victims. Methods A total of 236 of selected participants in a household survey in Meherpur district were recruited for a detailed study. Interviews and physical examinations were used to obtain information about history of torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment (TCIDTP, and about injuries, pain frequency and intensity. Handgrip strength and standing balance performance were measured. The "WHO-5 Well-being" scale was used to assess the subjective emotional well-being of study participants. Results The majority of the reported cases of TCIDTP occurred in 2000-2008, 51% of incidents occurred during winter; 32.0% between 20:00 and midnight. Police involvement was reported in 75% of cases. Incidents took place at victims' homes (46.7%, or at the police station, military camp, in custody or in prison (21.9%. Participants experienced 1-10 TCIDTP methods and reported 0-6 injury locations on their bodies; 77.5% reported having at least two injuries. Less than half of the participants were able to stand on one leg for 30 seconds. Only 7.5% of males aged 25-44 had handgrip strength in both hands exceeding average values for healthy people at the same age. Over 85% of participants scored low ( Conclusion A detailed picture of characteristics of the victimisation is presented. The participants showed poor emotional well-being and reduced physical capacity. The results indicated that the simple and rapid method of assessment used here is a promising tool that could be used to monitor the quality and outcome of rehabilitation.

  12. RabbitMQ essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Dossot, David

    2014-01-01

    This book is a quick and concise introduction to RabbitMQ. Follow the unique case study of Clever Coney Media as they progressively discover how to fully utilize RabbitMQ, containing clever examples and detailed explanations.Whether you are someone who develops enterprise messaging products professionally or a hobbyist who is already familiar with open source Message Queuing software and you are looking for a new challenge, then this is the book for you. Although you should be familiar with Java, Ruby, and Python to get the most out of the examples, RabbitMQ Essentials will give you the push y

  13. PCB-containing wood floor finish is a likely source of elevated PCBs in residents' blood, household air and dust: a case study of exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seryak Liesel M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are persistent pollutants identified worldwide as human blood and breast milk contaminants. Because they bioaccumulate, consumption of meat, fish, and dairy products predicts human blood concentrations. PCBs were also used widely in building materials, including caulks and paints, but few studies have evaluated the contribution of these exposures to body burden. Methods In an earlier study, we detected PCBs in indoor air in 31% of 120 homes on Cape Cod, MA. Two of the homes had much higher concentrations than the rest, so we retested to verify the initial finding, evaluate blood PCB concentrations of residents, and identify the PCB source. Results Air and dust concentrations remained elevated over 5 years between initial and follow-up sampling. Blood serum concentrations of PCBs in residents of the homes were generally elevated above the 95th percentile of a representative sample of the US population. Serum concentrations in residents and air and dust concentrations were especially high in a home where a resident reported use of PCB-containing floor finish in the past, and where the floor of one room was sanded and refinished just prior to sample collection. Conclusion This case-study suggests that PCB residues in homes may be more significant contributors to overall exposure than diet for some people, and that use of a commercially-available PCB-containing wood floor finish in residences during the 1950s and 1960s is an overlooked but potentially important source of current PCB exposure in the general population.

  14. Prescription diets for rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proença, Laila Maftoum; Mayer, Jörg

    2014-09-01

    Dietary management can be used with drug therapy for the successful treatment of many diseases. Therapeutic nutrition is well-recognized in dogs and cats and is beginning to increase among other pet species, including rabbits. The nutritional component of some rabbit diseases (eg, urolithiasis) is not completely understood, and the clinician should evaluate the use of prescription diets based on the scientific literature and individual needs. Long-term feeding trials are needed to further evaluate the efficacy of prescription diets in rabbits. Prescription diets are available for selected diseases in rabbits, including diets for immediate-term, short-term, and long-term management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical Application of Cone Beam Computed Tomography of the Rabbit Head: Part 2-Dental Disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Riggs, G. G.; Cissell, Derek D.; Arzi, Boaz; Hatcher, David C.; Kass, Philip H; Zhen, Amy; Verstraete, Frank J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Domestic rabbits are increasing in popularity as household pets; therefore, veterinarians need to be familiar with the most common diseases afflicting rabbits including dental disease. Current diagnostic approaches include gross oral examination, endoscopic oral examination, skull radiography, and computed tomography (CT). Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), a new oral and maxillofacial imaging modality that has the capability to produce high-resolution images, has not yet been described fo...

  16. Household indebtedness in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Abid, Lobna; Zouari Dorra; Zouari Ghorbel Sonia

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze the development of household indebtedness in Tunisia and its microeconomic determinants. The probit method was used to identify the determinants of household indebtedness with reference to gender. The results show that the Tunisian household indebtedness is in continuous increase and each type of credit is associated with specific determinants. The findings show that only some variables are significant in explaining the differences between the number of credit.

  17. Human and rabbit eye responses to chemical insult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeberg, F E; Nixon, G A; Reer, P J; Weaver, J E; Bruce, R D; Griffith, J F; Sanders, L W

    1986-11-01

    Groups of eight human volunteers and eight albino rabbits, under controlled laboratory conditions, were exposed in one eye without subsequent rinsing to the same concentrations and volumes of four prototype consumer products: fabric softener, shampoo, hand soap, and laundry detergent. Dose volume was 0.10 or 0.01 ml. The dose concentrations were selected to produce moderate effects with recovery within 24 to 48 hr. Two irritation scales were employed with both human and animal subjects: the Draize scale by a technician and a medical scale used with slit lamp examination by an ophthalmologist. Eyes were examined by both graders before and after dosing at specified intervals until recovery. Mean and maximum irritation scores are presented for each grading time, method, and exposure, as are the mean hours to recovery (clearing) for each exposure. Recovery times for human eyes were consistent with those reported previously for accidental human exposures to similar materials. Correlation coefficients for time to clear, comparing human vs rabbit for each dose volume-species combination across the four test products, were 0.72, 0.1 ml-human vs 0.01 ml-rabbit; 0.66, 0.01 ml-human vs 0.01 ml-rabbit; 0.40, 0.01 ml-human vs 0.1 ml-rabbit; 0.35, 0.1 ml-human vs 0.1 ml-rabbit. Thus, recovery time obtained under conditions of the "Low-Volume" test (0.01 ml-rabbit) better correlates with human eye recovery time (either dose volume) than does recovery time under Draize test conditions (0.10 ml-rabbit).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Pharmacology and placental transfer of a human alphav integrin monoclonal antibody in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Pauline L; Zhou, Zhao; Van den Bulck, Kathleen; Kwok, Deborah; Powers, Gordon; Jiao, Qun; Schantz, Allen; Treacy, George

    2010-04-01

    Intetumumab is a human IgG1 anti-alphav-integrin monoclonal antibody that inhibits angiogenesis. Integrin binding and angiogenesis are important in reproduction including fertilization, implantation, and embryofetal development. These studies were designed to determine the pharmacological relevance of the rabbit for the evaluation of potential effects on embryofetal development and to evaluate the placental transfer of intetumumab in rabbits. In vitro pharmacology studies evaluated the binding of intetumumab to rabbit cells and the inhibition of vessel sprouting from rabbit aorta. For the evaluation of placental transfer, pregnant rabbits (8/group) were injected intravenously with intetumumab 50 or 100 mg/kg every 2 days from Gestation Day (GD)7 to GD19. Maternal sera, fetal homogenates/sera, and amniotic fluid were collected at necropsy on GD19 or GD28 for evaluation of intetumumab concentrations. Clinical condition of the dams was monitored and fetuses were screened for abnormalities. Intetumumab (5-40 microg/mL) inhibited aortic cell adhesion to vitronectin and vessel sprouting from rabbit aortic rings. Immunohistochemical staining of rabbit tissues demonstrated binding of intetumumab to placenta. Administration of intetumumab to pregnant rabbits was well tolerated by the dams and the fetuses did not show major abnormalities. Fetal exposure to intetumumab relative to maternal exposure was rabbit is a pharmacologically relevant species for evaluation of potential developmental effects of intetumumab. Intetumumab crosses the rabbit placenta during the fetal period (GD 19-28). 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Nutrition of the domestic rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheeke, P R

    1976-08-01

    Recent studies on the nutritional needs of the rabbit were reviewed. Emphasis was placed on fiber utilization by rabbits, digestibility of forage protein, and unique aspects of mineral and vitamin requirements. In spite of the herbivorous nature of rabbits, their ability to digest fiber is low. Indigestible fiber may have a role in preventing enteritis. While lacking the ability to efficiently digest fiber, rabbits do make efficient use of forage protein, in contrast to most other monogastric animals. Differences in serum calcium homeostasis and calcium excretion as compared with other animals were discussed. The interrelationship between vitamin E and selenium appears different in the rabbit compared with other species. The limited information available on rabbit nutrition suggests that rabbits are unusual in their metabolism of several nutrients; because of their wide use in biological research, more extensive information on nutritional and metabolic characteristics of rabbits is needed.

  20. Household food waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahlen, S.; Winkel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Food waste is debated not only in the light of sustainable consumption in research and policy, but also in the broader public. This article focuses on food waste in household contexts, what is widely believed the end of the food chain. However, household food waste is far more complex and intricate

  1. Household financial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brounen, Dirk; Koedijk, Kees; Pownall, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Greater personal responsibility toward financial decision-making is being advocated on a global basis. Individuals and households are encouraged to take a more active approach to personal finance. In this paper, we examine behavioral factors, which lead households toward savings and financial

  2. Essays in household finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djordjevic, Ljubica

    2015-01-01

    Household finance is a young and vibrant research field that continuously attracts public attention. There may be very few matters that people care so much about as their personal finance. Recent rise of academic interest in household finance is to a great extent due to households’ more active role

  3. Household Wealth in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Jin, Yongai

    With new nationwide longitudinal survey data now available from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we study the level, distribution, and composition of household wealth in contemporary China. We find that the wealth Gini coefficient of China was 0.73 in 2012. The richest 1 percent owned more than one-third of the total national household wealth, while the poorest 25 percent owned less than 2 percent. Housing assets, which accounted for over 70 percent, were the largest component of household wealth. Finally, the urban-rural divide and regional disparities played important roles in household wealth distribution, and institutional factors significantly affected household wealth holdings, wealth growth rate, and wealth mobility.

  4. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Burt, Sara A.; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; Poel, van der, J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60?% respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates. Dutch rabbits are unlikely to be a zoonotic source. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12560-016-9239-3) contains supplementary material, which is avail...

  5. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, S.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/140114432; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; van der Poel, Wim H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates.

  6. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, Sara A.; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; Poel, van der Wim H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates.

  7. Household Hazardous Waste and Demolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Household wastes that are toxic, corrosive, ignitable, or reactive are known as Household Hazardous Waste (HHW). Household Hazardous Waste may be found during residential demolitions, and thus require special handling for disposal.

  8. Household air pollution and childhood pneumonia in South Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 2012, exposure to household air pollution (HAP) ... causes more childhood deaths compared to other infectious diseases. ... “under five”, and “acute respiratory infections”, The ... choosing improved and less environmentally degrading.

  9. Rabbit Repellent Paint

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Five gallons of rabbit repellent paint were sent to George Wilson to be applied on the trees of the Tewaukon tree plot. Mr. Wilson requires a 3 or 4 in. brush for...

  10. Correlates of household smoking bans among Chinese Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Shelley, Donna; Fahs, Marianne C.; Yerneni, Rajeev; Qu, Jiaojie; Burton, Dee

    2006-01-01

    No population-based data are available on the degree to which Chinese Americans have adopted smoke-free household policies and whether these policies are effective in reducing environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure. The present study examines the prevalence of smoke-free home rules among Chinese Americans living in New York City, describes predictors of adopting full smoking bans in the home, and explores the association between household smoking restrictions and ETS exposure at home. In-...

  11. Household hazardous waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    .) comprised 15-25% and foreign items comprised 10-20%. Water-based paint was the dominant part of the paint waste. The chemical composition of the paint waste and the paint-like waste was characterized by an analysis of 27 substances in seven waste fractions. The content of critical substances was tow......'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc...... and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when...

  12. Household Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and clearly labeled. Never store hazardous products in food containers. Never mix household hazardous chemicals or waste with ... a newspaper and placing them in a sealed plastic bag in your trash can. Dispose of hazardous ...

  13. Anatomy and Surgical Approaches to the Rabbit Nasal Septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badran, Karam W; Chang, John C; Kuan, Edward C; Wong, Brian J F

    2017-09-01

    The rabbit is the primary animal model used to investigate aspects of nasal surgery. Although several studies have used this model, none has provided a comprehensive analysis of the surgical anatomy and techniques used to gain access to the rabbit nasal fossae and septum. To describe and optimize the surgical anatomy and approach to the rabbit nasal vault and septal cartilage. In an ex vivo animal study conducted at an academic medical center, preliminary cadaveric dissections were performed on rabbit head specimens to establish familiarity with relevant anatomy and rehearse various approaches. Live Pasteurella-free New Zealand white rabbits (3.5-4.0 kg) were used to further develop this surgical technique developed here. Access of the nasal vault was gained through a midline nasal dorsum incision and creation of an osteoplastic flap with a drill. Submucosal resection was performed with preservation of the mucoperichondrium. All rabbits were monitored daily for 4 weeks in the postoperative period for signs of infection, pain, and complications. The study was conducted from June 1, 2014, to December 1, 2014. Surgical anatomy and techniques used to gain access to the rabbit nasal vault and harvest septal cartilage. Four Pasteurella-free New Zealand white rabbits (Western Organ Rabbit Co), ranging in age from 9 to 12 months and weighing between 3.5 and 4.0 kg, were used in this study. Initial dissections demonstrated the feasibility of harvesting septal cartilage while preserving the mucoperichondrial envelope. Access to the nasal vault through this 3-osteotomy approach allowed for maximal exposure to the nasal cavity bilaterally while maintaining the integrity of the mucoperichondrium following septal cartilage harvest. The maximum amount of bulk, en bloc, cartilage harvested was 1.0 × 2.5 cm. Following surgical dissection, all animals maintained adequate airway patency and support to midface structures. Furthermore, all specimens preserved the integrity of the

  14. Environmental oestrogens and breast cancer: evidence for combined involvement of dietary, household and cosmetic xenoestrogens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Darbre, Philippa D; Charles, Amelia K

    2010-01-01

    .... Exposure to environmental oestrogens occurs through diet, household products and cosmetics, but concentrations of single compounds in breast tissue are generally lower than needed for assayable oestrogenic responses...

  15. Household Wealth in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Yu; Jin, Yongai

    2015-01-01

    With new nationwide longitudinal survey data now available from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we study the level, distribution, and composition of household wealth in contemporary China. We find that the wealth Gini coefficient of China was 0.73 in 2012. The richest 1 percent owned more than one-third of the total national household wealth, while the poorest 25 percent owned less than 2 percent. Housing assets, which accounted for over 70 percent, were the largest component of househ...

  16. Household electricity demand profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Larsen, Olena Kalyanova

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •A 1-min resolution household electricity load model is presented. •Model adapts a bottom-up approach with single appliance as the main building block. •Load profiles are used to analyse the flexibility potential of household appliances. •Load profiles can be applied in other domains, e.......g. building energy simulations. •The demand level of houses with different number of occupants is well captured....

  17. Nitrite therapy prevents chlorine gas toxicity in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honavar, Jaideep; Doran, Stephen; Ricart, Karina; Matalon, Sadis; Patel, Rakesh P

    2017-04-05

    Chlorine (Cl 2 ) gas exposure and toxicity remains a concern in military and industrial sectors. While post-Cl 2 exposure damage to the lungs and other tissues has been documented and major underlying mechanisms elucidated, no targeted therapeutics that are effective when administered post-exposure, and which are amenable to mass-casualty scenarios have been developed. Our recent studies show nitrite administered by intramuscular (IM) injection post-Cl 2 exposure is effective in preventing acute lung injury and improving survival in rodent models. Our goal in this study was to develop a rabbit model of Cl 2 toxicity and test whether nitrite affords protection in a non-rodent model. Exposure of New Zealand White rabbits to Cl 2 gas (600ppm, 45min) caused significant increases in protein and neutrophil accumulation in the airways and ∼35% mortality over 18h. Nitrite administered 30min post Cl 2 exposure by a single IM injection, at 1mg/kg or 10mg/kg, prevented indices of acute lung injury at 6h by up to 50%. Moreover, all rabbits that received nitrite survived over the study period. These data provide further rationale for developing nitrite as post-exposure therapeutic to mitigate against Cl 2 gas exposure injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Damage Threshold of In Vivo Rabbit Cornea by 2 micron Laser Irradiation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Bo; Oliver, Jeffery; Dutta, Soumak; Rylander, III, Grady H; Thomsen, Sharon L; Welch, Ashley J

    2007-01-01

    To support refinement of the Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) safety limits, a series of experiments were conducted in vivo on Dutch Belted rabbit corneas to determine corneal minimum visible lesion thresholds...

  19. Determinants of fuels stacking behaviour among households in Bauchi Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ado Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption is an important determinant of the socio economic status of citizens across the globe especially the consumption of modern energy. According to the energy ladder hypothesis households move along the energy ladder as their income increases. At the lower rung of the ladder are the low income and usually uneducated households who mainly consume traditional fuels while the middle class and those at upper echelon of the society largely consume transitional and modern fuels. However the prevalence of energy stacking behaviour where households adopt more than one fuel type has been observed even among the middle and upper income families. The question is why is the observed energy consumption pattern in violation of the energy ladder hypothesis? The paper assesses the combined influence of four variables which include income level of households, education level/exposure of households, households’ size and modern fuels supply security on fuels stacking behaviour of households. Multivariate analysis was conducted to assess the combined influence of the IVs on the DV. The model has an R2 value of .252 meaning that the model explains about 25% variation in the DV. Individually the variables that make significant and unique contribution to the model are educational level of households, income level of households and family size of households. We therefore recommend improved macroeconomic management to improve households’ income, improved educational system and increased supply and diffusion of modern fuel as a way of reducing the prevalence of energy stacking behaviour of households.

  20. Laparoscopic ovariectomy in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Al-Badrany

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative evaluation of three different techniques of laparoscopic ovariectomy was carried out in 33 healthy female in rabbits, which included resection and removal of ovary after clip application, electrocautery of the ovary, then resection, and pulling ovary outside abdomen, ligation by silk, then ovary was removed. The ovaries and associated structures were better visualized by laparoscopy and all three techniques were carried out perfectly. All rabbits after operation were healthy and they were monitored for one month after operation. However, 3 of them died after operation, two of them died due to bleeding and the other of them died due to unknown causes. General anesthesia by using ketamine-xylazine i.m., was suitable for this technique, and the anesthesia provided good analgesia and good muscle relaxation. CO2 was used to establish pneumoperitoneum. In conclusion, resection and removal of the ovaries after clip application technique was found superior to the other two techniques.

  1. Rabbit renotropic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Areas, J.; Yun, G.C.; Rahmat, J.; Gersten, D.; Goel, R.; Preuss, H.G.

    1988-04-01

    Elevated levels of a specific renal growth factor, renotropin, have been associated with spontaneous hypertension. To examine this association more closely, we have undertaken the development of a better assay system to characterize and purify renotropin. Sera from rabbits prior to operation (control) and at a specified time after unilateral nephrectomy (uni) were examined for renotropic activity. Comparing the effects of uni to control sera in the same rabbit, significant stimulation of 3H-thymidine incorporation into the DNA of primary rabbit kidney cultures incubated in D-valine medium to eliminate fibroblast growth was noted: at 3 days postoperatively 73% (n = 13), at 7 days 103% (n = 39), at 10 days 130% (n = 31), at 21 days 101% (n = 24), at 42 days 89% (n = 13). All values were at least P less than 0.01. The stimulatory properties were dose-dependent but reached a plateau at high serum concentrations. Comparing CPM/mg protein in uni/control in different concentrations of sera 7 days postoperatively, uni versus control were 67/44 at 5% v/v, 139/72 at 10% v/v, 261/161 at 20% v/v, and 243/136 at 40% v/v. The renotropic effect of uni sera remained after dialysis in incubation medium and after sera were heated in boiling water for 5 minutes. Renal extracts obtained from growing kidneys 7 days postnephrectomy augmented renotropic activity. Atrial natriuretic factor, ouabain, PGF2 alpha, PGE1, and cAMP did not possess renotropic activity. We conclude that the primary rabbit kidney culture assay for renotropin is highly sensitive and will be an important tool to comprehend the role of renotropin in the pathogenesis of hypertension.

  2. A bladder diverticulum model in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelebi, Süleyman; Kuzdan, Özgür; Özaydın, Seyithan; Başdaş, Cemile Beşik; Özaydın, İpek; Erdoğan, Cankat; Sander, Serdar

    2016-10-01

    Shuttling of some of the bladder volume into the bladder diverticulum (BD) can cause urinary retention, lower urinary tract dysfunction, infection, and stone formation. This experimental study is the first to create a rabbit BD to study micturition physiology (urodynamics and pathology) that mimics clinical findings. The study included 16 New Zealand adult male rabbits in the BD group and 16 sham-operated controls. BD creation consisted of a lower midline laparotomy and bladder entry via the spacing between the detrusor muscle fibers and the mucosa, posterolaterally from the bladder wall. The detrusor was excised to provide a mucosal prolapsus, creating a narrow BD neck (Figure). The sham group underwent bladder exposure with a midline incision. All rabbits underwent urodynamic study preoperatively and postoperatively, consisting of postmicturition residue (PMR), maximum bladder capacity (MBC), voiding detrusor pressure (VPdet), filling detrusor pressure (FPdet), compliance, and urine flow (Qflow). The animals were then sacrificed and their bladders assessed for pathology and stone formation. Preoperative MBC, Pdet, and Qmax were within reference ranges. No animals had PMR or urinary tract infections (UTIs). The BD group showed urodynamic and pathologic bladder changes, including decreased (28%) cystometric bladder capacity and compliance (Sham: 26.8 ± 0.4; BD: 4.46 ± 1.08, p = 0.0001) and increased post-void residual PMR (8.3 ± 2.4 mL). Pathology revealed increased bladder detrusor thickness correlated with urodynamic findings of increased filling detrusor pressures (Sham: 1.58 ± 0.2; BD: 4.89 ± 0.93, p = 0.0001). Urodynamics revealed intermittent BD bladder contraction during the filling phases. Eight BD group rabbits had UTIs; five had stone formation (4-9 mm). In the literature, it has not been determined whether lower urinary tract disorders (LUTD) could cause diverticula, or if a congenital diverticula could be reason for LUTD. Anatomical

  3. Essays in Household Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanspal, Tobin

    This Ph.D. thesis, entitled Essays in Household Finance, analyzes the determinants and implications of investment biases, personal experiences in financial markets, and financing disruptions on households, individual investors, and entrepreneurs and small business owners. The first essay...... on risk taking is the potential bias resulting from inertia and inattention, which has been shown to be endemic in household finance. If individuals are inert or inattentive, it is difficult to establish whether changes in risk taking are caused by personal experiences or whether the change in risk taking...... advantage of this identification strategy is that inheritances from estates that hold risky assets alter the active decision from one of choosing to take risk to one of choosing not to take risk. Our measure of experience derives from investments in banks that defaulted following the financial crisis. We...

  4. Ultrastructure of Reissner's membrane in the rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K.; Rostgaard, Jørgen; Bretlau, P.

    1994-01-01

    Anatomy, Reissner's membrane, electron microscopy, tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum, subsurface cisterns, rabbit......Anatomy, Reissner's membrane, electron microscopy, tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum, subsurface cisterns, rabbit...

  5. The Australian Electoral Commission Roll has good utility for 'niche' household recruitment in population health studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Joanne; Rodrigo, Shelly; Sinclair, Martha; Leder, Karin

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the recruitment of 'niche' household populations, defined by their household characteristics and/or water supply type for health studies. The Australian Electoral Commission (AEC) database was used to recruit households for participation in two health-related studies, the first, a recycled water usage study and the second, an epidemiological study investigating household rainwater use. The AEC database facilitated the identification and recruitment of households using a particular water supply from among the general household population. The good utility of the AEC roll in household recruitment was associated with its coverage, accuracy and the ability to delimit the sampling frame according to the geographical area(s) and household characteristics of interest. Its use also allowed personalised contact to be made with potential survey participants by mail, contact that is not otherwise possible using existing telephone and on-line databases. The AEC database is a valuable resource for household recruitment in a diversity of health and environmental exposure surveys.

  6. Associations with rabbits and rabbit meat of three different ethnic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Associations with rabbits and rabbit meat of three different ethnic groups in Stellenbosch, South Africa. LC Hoffman, C Vosloo, P Nkhabutlane, DW Schutte. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  7. Promoting household energy conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, Linda

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil energy use. Strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. Therefore, this paper first

  8. Households at Pella, Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan George

    2007-01-01

    about the layout of buildings and the contextual origin of the many domestic objects recovered permit a full reconstruction of life in the household, especially the use of space. Generally, the upstairs area served as the primary living quarters, whereas the ground floor was used to house valuable...

  9. The White Rabbit project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Gousiou, E; van der Bij, E; Wlostowski, T; Daniluk, G; Lipinski, M

    2013-01-01

    White Rabbit (WR) is a multi-laboratory, multi- company collaboration for the development of a new Ethernet-based technology which ensures sub-nanosecond synchronisation and deterministic data transfer. The project uses an open source paradigm for the development of its hardware, gateware and software components. This article provides an introduction to the technical choices and an explanation of the basic principles underlying WR. It then describes some possible applications and the current status of the project. Finally, it provides insight on current developments and future plans.

  10. INFECTIOUS MYXOMATOSIS OF RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smadel, Joseph E.; Ward, S. M.; Rivers, Thomas M.

    1940-01-01

    A second soluble antigen, separable from the virus, occurs in extracts of infected skin and in the serum of rabbits acutely ill with infectious myxomatosis. Like the first antigen (A), the second (B) is heat labile and has certain characteristics of a globulin. The two antigens precipitate in different concentrations of ammonium sulfate and can be separated by this method. Neither of the antigens after being heated at 56°C. precipitates in the presence of specific antibody but each is capable of inhibiting the activity of its antibody. PMID:19871012

  11. Household Financial Distress and Initial Endowments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsson, Arna

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies in utero exposure to the 2008 financial crisis. Exploiting the sudden and unexpected collapse of the Icelandic economy, I find that first-trimester exposure to the crisis led to a sizable and significant reduction in birth weight, increased the probability of a low birth weight...... – because children with worse health at birth can expect substantially lower lifetime earnings – and suggest that economic hardships may in general exacerbate income inequalities in the long run as low-income households are typically more exposed to financial distress....

  12. Household Adjustments to Hurricane Katrina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meri Davlasheridze; Qin Fan

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines household adjustments to Hurricane Katrina by estimating the effects of Katrina-induced damages on changes in household demographics and income distributions in the Orleans Parish...

  13. Acupuncture analgesia in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, C; Leung, C Y; Robitaille, R; Roy-Chabot, T

    1979-02-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the validity and reliability of analgesia elicited by acupuncture stimulation in rabbits. Ninety-five experiments were performed using 21 adult animals. The reaction time of the avoidance response elicited by noxious heat stimulation on the snout, and the presence or absence of the start response elicited by pin-prick and clamping of the skin were studied. Bilateral electric acupuncture stimulation in the area of Tsu-san-li and Shang-chu-hsu points in the hind legs was used. The animals were either held in a soft bag, loosely attached by cords, or suspended in a hammock; the eyes were either free of blindfolded. On the basis of operational behavioral measurements, it was found that acupuncture stimulation did not produce analgesia in undisturbed, placid animals. However, during agitated or fighting periods and the immobility reflex-like state, sometimes associated with acupuncture maneuvers, long reaction times were observed. Pin-pricking and clamping stimulation of the skin were not reliable methods of noxious stimulation in the rabbit.

  14. Household air pollution and its effects on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apte, Komalkirti; Salvi, Sundeep

    2016-01-01

    Household air pollution is a leading cause of disability-adjusted life years in Southeast Asia and the third leading cause of disability-adjusted life years globally. There are at least sixty sources of household air pollution, and these vary from country to country. Indoor tobacco smoking, construction material used in building houses, fuel used for cooking, heating and lighting, use of incense and various forms of mosquito repellents, use of pesticides and chemicals used for cleaning at home, and use of artificial fragrances are some of the various sources that contribute to household air pollution. Household air pollution affects all stages of life with multi-systemic health effects, and its effects are evident right from pre-conception to old age. In utero exposure to household air pollutants has been shown to have health effects which resonate over the entire lifetime. Exposures to indoor air pollutants in early childhood also tend to have repercussions throughout life. The respiratory system bears the maximum brunt, but effects on the cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and nervous system are largely underplayed. Household air pollutants have also been implicated in the development of various types of cancers. Identifying household air pollutants and their health implications helps us prepare for various health-related issues. However, the real challenge is adopting changes to reduce the health effects of household air pollution and designing innovative interventions to minimize the risk of further exposure. This review is an attempt to understand the various sources of household air pollution, the effects on health, and strategies to deal with this emergent risk factor of global mortality and morbidity.

  15. Households, Migration, and Community Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Janet E.

    1990-01-01

    Studies why Vietnamese and Laotian refugee households take the forms they do in a small southwestern Kansas community. Argues that extended family and other nonnuclear family households facilitate refugee adaptation. Economic conditions, labor and housing markets, and refugee legal status all influence household composition, members' roles, and…

  16. Primary and secondary experimental infestation of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) with Sarcoptes scabiei from a wild rabbit: factors determining resistance to reinfestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casais, Rosa; Dalton, Kevin P; Millán, Javier; Balseiro, Ana; Oleaga, Alvaro; Solano, Paloma; Goyache, Félix; Prieto, José Miguel; Parra, Francisco

    2014-06-16

    Studies of sarcoptic mange and immunity are hampered by lack of mite sources and natural infestation models. We have investigated the clinical and pathological signs, specific IgG response and acquired immunity in naïve New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) experimentally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei originally isolated from a clinically affected free-living European wild rabbit. Twenty rabbits were infested using two methods, direct contact for a 24 h period with a seeder rabbit simulating the natural process of infestation and application of a dressing holding approximately 1800 live mites on each hind limb (foot area) for a 24h period. Eight weeks post infestation, rabbits were treated with ivermectin and infestation cleared. Eight weeks later seventeen previously infested and four uninfested naïve controls were then re-exposed to the same S. scabiei variety using the same methods and followed for another 8 weeks. The progress of the disease was markedly more virulent in the animals infested by contact, indicating that the effective dose of mites managing to thrive and infest each rabbit by this method was higher. Nevertheless, infestation by contact resulted in partial protection to reexposure, rabbits developed high non-protective antibody titres upon reinfestation and presented severe clinical signs. However, rabbits reinfested by dressing developed lower IgG titres, and presented high levels of resistance to reinfestation, which might be due to induction of a strong local cellular response in the inoculation point that killed the mites and resulted in a lower mite effective dose, with subsequent reduced lesion development. Statistical analysis showed that sex, method of infestation and previous exposure are key factors determining the ability of rabbits to develop immunity to this disease. The rabbit-mange model developed will allow the further study of immunity and resistance to this neglected pathogen using a natural host system. Copyright

  17. Study of electromagnetic radiation produced by household equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iagăr, A.; Popa, G. N.; Diniş, C. M.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents the experimental study of electromagnetic radiation produced by different household equipment. Measurements were performed at various distances from the tested devices and in different operating modes of these, using the FA306 electromagnetic field analyzer. Also, it has been analyzed the cumulative effect of multiple sources. The experiments allowed the identification of measures to minimize the effects of exposure to artificial electromagnetic radiation produced by electrical household equipment.

  18. Household Characteristics That Influence Simple Household Demand on Electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongam Sihol Nababan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the characteristics of households that affect the electric energy consumption of simple households. The second objective is to analyze the probability of each of the factors affecting the electricity energy consumption of small household. The research was conducted in Medan City in the period of March 2014 to November 2014 with samples of 143 small households, the customer of PT. PLN (Persero Medan, which use the power of electricity for TR-1 /450VA. Data were analyzed by using the logistic regression model. The estimation results indicated that (1 the higher the willingnes to pay (WTP of households, the higher the tendency to consume elec trical energy per month. (2 the closer the households residence to the city center, the higher the tendency to consume electrical energy than of the households residence in the suburbs, (3 increasingly unfavourable response to electrical quality, the higher the opportunity to consume a greater electric power monthly.

  19. A case of low success of blind vaccination campaigns against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease on survival of adult European wild rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouco, Carlos; Moreno, Sacramento; Santoro, Simone

    2016-10-01

    Vaccination campaigns against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) are commonly used in translocation programs conducted for the purpose of recovering wild European rabbit populations in Iberian Mediterranean ecosystems. In most cases rabbits are vaccinated 'blind' (i.e. without assessing their prior immunological status) for economic and logistic reasons. However, there is conflicting evidence on the effectiveness of such an approach. We tested whether blind vaccination against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease improved rabbit survival in a rabbit translocation program where wild rabbits were kept in semi-natural conditions in three enclosures. We conducted nine capture sessions over two years (2008-2010) and used the information collected to compare the survival of vaccinated (n=511) versus unvaccinated (n=161) adult wild rabbits using capture-mark-recapture analysis. Average monthly survival was no different for vaccinated versus unvaccinated individuals, both in the period between release and first capture (short-term) and after the first capture onward (long-term). Rabbit survival was lower in the short term than in the long term regardless of whether rabbits were vaccinated or not. Lower survival in the short-term could be due to the stress induced by the translocation process itself (e.g. handling stress). However, we did not find any overall effect of vaccination on survival which could be explained by two non-exclusive reasons. First, interference of the vaccine with the natural antibodies in the donor population. Due to donor populations have high density of rabbits with, likely, high prevalence of antibodies as a result of previous natural exposure to these diseases. Second, the lack of severe outbreaks during the study period. Based on our findings we argue that blind vaccination of adult rabbits in translocation programs may be often mostly ineffective and unnecessarily costly. In particular, since outbreaks are hard to predict

  20. Household transmission of leptospira infection in urban slum communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elves A P Maciel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis, a spirochaetal zoonotic disease, is the cause of epidemics associated with high mortality in urban slum communities. Infection with pathogenic Leptospira occurs during environmental exposures and is traditionally associated with occupational risk activities. However, slum inhabitants reside in close proximity to environmental sources of contamination, suggesting that transmission during urban epidemics occurs in the household environment.A survey was performed to determine whether Leptospira infection clustered within households located in slum communities in the city of Salvador, Brazil. Hospital-based surveillance identified 89 confirmed cases of leptospirosis during an outbreak. Serum samples were obtained from members of 22 households with index cases of leptospirosis and 52 control households located in the same slum communities. The presence of anti-Leptospira agglutinating antibodies was used as a marker for previous infection. In households with index cases, 22 (30% of 74 members had anti-Leptospira antibodies, whereas 16 (8% of 195 members from control households had anti-Leptospira antibodies. Highest titres were directed against L. interrogans serovars of the Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup in 95% and 100% of the subjects with agglutinating antibodies from case and control households, respectively. Residence in a household with an index case of leptospirosis was associated with increased risk (OR 5.29, 95% CI 2.13-13.12 of having had a Leptospira infection. Increased infection risk was found for all age groups who resided in a household with an index case, including children <15 years of age (P = 0.008.This study identified significant household clustering of Leptospira infection in slum communities where recurrent epidemics of leptospirosis occur. The findings support the hypothesis that the household environment is an important transmission determinant in the urban slum setting. Prevention therefore needs to target

  1. Oculoscopy in Rabbits and Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jekl, Vladimir; Hauptman, Karel; Knotek, Zdenek

    2015-09-01

    Ophthalmic diseases are common in rabbits and rodents. Fast and definitive diagnosis is imperative for successful treatment of ocular diseases. Ophthalmic examination in rabbits and rodents can be challenging. Oculoscopy offers great magnification for the examination of the ocular structures in such animals, including the evaluation of cornea, anterior eye chamber, limbus, iris, lens, and retina. To date, oculoscopy has been described only sporadically and/or under experimental conditions. This article describes the oculoscopy technique, normal and abnormal ocular findings, and the most common eye disorders diagnosed with the aid of endoscopy in rabbits and rodents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficacy of CMX001 as a Post Exposure Antiviral in New Zealand White Rabbits Infected with Rabbitpox Virus, a Model for Orthopoxvirus Infections of Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Foster

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available CMX001, a lipophilic nucleotide analog formed by covalently linking 3-(hexdecyloxypropan-1-ol to cidofovir (CDV, is being developed as a treatment for smallpox. In the absence of human cases of smallpox, new treatments must be tested for efficacy in animal models. Previously, we demonstrated the efficacy of CMX001 in protecting New Zealand White rabbits from mortality following intradermal infection with rabbitpox virus as a model for smallpox, monkeypox and for treatment of adverse reactions to smallpox vaccination. Here we extend these studies by exploring different dosing regimens and performing randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled studies. In addition, because rabbitpox virus can be transmitted via naturally generated aerosols (animal to animal transmission, we report on studies to test the efficacy of CMX001 in protecting rabbits from lethal rabbitpox virus disease when infection occurs by animal to animal transmission. In all cases, CMX001 treatment was initiated at the onset of observable lesions in the ears to model the use of CMX001 as a treatment for symptomatic smallpox. The results demonstrate that CMX001 is an effective treatment for symptomatic rabbitpox virus infection. The rabbitpox model has key similarities to human smallpox including an incubation period, generalized systemic disease, the occurrence of lesions which may be used as a trigger for initiating therapy, and natural animal to animal spread, making it an appropriate model.

  3. Efficient Intra-Household Allocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin

    . The tests of the usual symmetry conditions are rejected for two person households but not for one person households. We also show that income pooling is rejected for two person households. We then test for our collective setting conditions on the couples data. None of the collective setting restrictions......The neo-classical theory of demand applies to individuals yet in empirical work it is usually taken as valid for households with many members. This paper explores what the theory of individuals implies for households with many members. This paper explores what the theory of individuals implies...

  4. Good householder and corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Petar M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, in Serbia, it's fashionable to talk about the fight against corruption. 'The spook of fighting corruption circulates through Serbia'. Is there a chance the fight will win the way it's lead? We are convinced there isn't. Since corruption is a process caused by 'rotten' characters, the anti-corruption fight must also be a process of rehabilitation and creation of the right character - the good householder's character. In this process each aspect is important (legal, economic… but for permanent eradication of the evil or the sin of corruption the most important segment is educational because it creates the genuine moral and spiritual value in a hardworking and long-term manner. In 'the period rich in disasters' (Tacitus, in the hard circumstances lasting too long, which would not be endured by any other nation, many values​​, material and moral have inevitably failed. A Serb has endured but also has worn out and lost many virtues, particularly the spirit of a good householder. Mutual hatred seems to be stronger than love, distrust greater than confidence, doubt stronger than faith, and robbery and spoils stronger than charity and solidarity. We need to restore the balance and despite the hardships, and because of them, we must foster mutual love, harmony, unwavering patriotism and value of domesticity. In other words, we must ensure victory of virtue over vice that threatens us from everywhere, both from inside and outside. At the time of 'nuclear techniques and jungle ethics' (Justin Popović the dispersed home of the Serbs can be turned again into a proper home only if we 'have the spirit of domesticity reigning' (Nikolaj Velimirović. To be a successful householder is to be responsible in relation to the state, institution, household that he was entrusted with: add, not to waste, create not to destroy, enlarge rather than reduce, preserve not to destroy a household. 'Do not steal from a country, it was overpaid. Your brothers

  5. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia Infection in Domestic Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoting Ni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria distributed all over the world, known to cause various forms of diseases in animals and humans. In the present study, a serological survey was conducted to detect the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with rabbit chlamydiosis in northeast China, including Liaoning province, Jilin province, Heilongjiang province, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Antibodies to Chlamydia were determined by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA. The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 17.88% in total of 800 blood samples. The Chlamydia seroprevalence varied in domestic rabbits from different factors, and genders of domestic rabbits were considered as major risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in northeast China, with higher exposure risk in female domestic rabbits. These findings suggested the potential importance of domestic rabbits in the transmission of zoonotic Chlamydia infection, and thus Chlamydia should be taken into consideration in diagnosing rabbit diseases. To our knowledge, there is no report of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in China and the results extend the host range for Chlamydia, which has important implications for public health and the local economy.

  6. The Household Registration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Although longitudinal experimental community health research is crucial to testing hypotheses about the demographic impact of health technologies, longitudinal demographic research field stations are rare, owing to the complexity and high cost of developing requisite computer software systems. This paper describes the Household Registration System (HRS, a software package that has been used for the rapid development of eleven surveillance systems in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Features of the HRS automate software generation for a family of surveillance applications, obviating the need for new and complex computer software systems for each new longitudinal demographic study.

  7. The Household Planning Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Louise; Ramsøy, Thomas Z.; Nyström, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    on the same schedule as in the IGT. Eighteen university students performed the HPG, which was separated into three conditions containing 100 trials. During the game, participants were asked to; 1) pay a number of fixed monthly costs or save money for various household costs; 2) purchase a number of consumer...... goods like groceries or presents; and 3) prioritize between paying bills at the beginning of a month or go out and spend money on shopping. Eye tracking was used to assess visual attention while participants performed the task. The results showed that the two non-risky decks were selected 30% and 37...

  8. Household Income Volatility in U.S. Farm Households

    OpenAIRE

    Key, Nigel; Prager, Daniel; Burns, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Farm households are subject to several sources of income instability, including yield and production fluctuations, disasters such as droughts or disease, input and output price changes, and varying levels of off-farm income. This paper assesses the income variability of households operating family farms in the continental United States. We find that income volatility varies between farm household subgroups, such as farm size, commodity specialization, and geographic location and that volatili...

  9. Temporal and Quantitative Analysis of Atherosclerotic Lesions in Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Yu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet-induced atherosclerotic rabbit is an ideal model for atherosclerosis study, but temporal changes in atherosclerotic development in hypercholesterolemic rabbits are poorly understood. Japanese white rabbits were fed a high-cholesterol diet to induce sustained hypercholesterolemia, and each group of 10–12 animals was then sacrificed at 6, 12, 16, or 28 weeks. The rabbit aortas were harvested, and the sizes of the gross and intima atherosclerotic lesions were quantified. The cellular component of macrophages (Mφs and smooth muscle cells (SMCs in aortic intimal lesions was also quantified by immunohistochemical staining, and the correlation between plasma cholesterol levels and the progress of atherosclerotic lesions was studied. The ultrastructure of the atherosclerotic lesions was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Widely variable atherosclerotic plaques were found from 6 weeks to 28 weeks, and the lesional progress was closely correlated with cholesterol exposure. Interestingly, a relatively reduced accumulation of Mφ, an increased numbers of SMCs, and a damaged endothelial layer were presented in advanced lesions. Moreover, SMCs were closely correlated with cholesterol exposure and lesional progress for the whole period. Cholesterol exposure directly determines atherosclerotic progress in a rabbit model, and the changes in the cellular component of advanced lesions may affect plaque stability in an atherosclerotic rabbit model.

  10. The multitasking of household production

    OpenAIRE

    Kalenkoski, Charlene Marie; Foster, Gigi

    2010-01-01

    The standard household production model does not incorporate multitasking, although time-diary data reveal that individuals regularly multi-task. We formulate a model where time spent in child care can be sole-tasked or multitasked with other household production activities. This model implies associations between household productivity factors and both child outcomes and parental time use. We then use data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children and the Australian Time Use Surveys...

  11. The White Rabbit Project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Cattin, M; Garcia Cota, E; Lewis, J; Moreira, P; Wlostowski, T; Gaderer, G; Loschmidt, P; Dedic, J; Bär, R; Fleck, T; Kreider, M; Prados, C; Rauch, S

    2009-01-01

    Reliable, fast and deterministic transmission of control information in a network is a need formany distributed systems. One example is timing systems, where a reference frequency is used to accurately schedule time-critical messages. TheWhite Rabbit (WR) project is a multi-laboratory and multi-company effort to bring together the best of the data transfer and timing worlds in a completely open design. It takes advantage of the latest developments for improving timing over Ethernet, such as IEEE 1588 (Precision Time Protocol) and Synchronous Ethernet. The presented approach aims for a general purpose, fieldbus-like transmission system, which provides deterministic data and timing (sub-ns accuracy and ps jitter) to around 1000 stations. It automatically compensates for fiber lengths in the order of 10 km. This paper describes the WR design goals and the specification used for the project. It goes on to describe the central component of the WR system structure - the WR switch - with theoretical considerations a...

  12. Transpupillary thermotherapy threshold parameters: funduscopic, angiographic, and histologic findings in pigmented and nonpigmented rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyman, Gholam A; Genaidy, Mahmoud; Moshfeghi, Darius M; Ghahramani, Fatemah; Yoneya, Shin; Men, Gamze; Kuo, Po-Cheng; Bezerra, Yanno; Nishiyama-Ito, Yoko

    2003-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of pigmentation on threshold fluence levels, needed to produce visible and angiographic lesions, of transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT) in rabbits. Six pigmented and nine nonpigmented rabbits underwent TTT with an 810-nm diode laser coupled to a slit-lamp biomicroscope using a spot size of 2 or 3 mm. The power ranged from 80 to 200 mW with 1 to 3 minutes of laser exposure for pigmented rabbits and 750 to 1800 mW with 1 minute of exposure for albino rabbits. These parameters were also evaluated after compression of the globe using the contact lens to induce blanching of the optic nerve head. After the experiment, the eyes were enucleated under deep anesthesia, and the animals were killed immediately. In pigmented rabbits, the threshold fluence with the 2-mm spot size was 229 J/cm2 without compression and 153 J/cm2 with compression. With the 3-mm spot size, the threshold decreased from 200 to 150 mW as the duration of exposure lengthened (2 or 3 minutes), increasing the fluence from 170 to 382 J/cm2. In nonpigmented rabbits, the threshold fluence with the 2-mm spot size was 2,865 J/cm2 without compression and 2,674 J/cm2 with compression. With the 3-mm spot size, the threshold fluence of 1,528 J/cm2 was not affected by compression. Histopathologic studies showed transretinal damage at the lowest levels necessary to achieve angiographic evidence of a treatment lesion or a barely visible funduscopic lesion at the time of treatment. Nonpigmented rabbits required more than a 12-fold increase in total TTT fluence compared with pigmented rabbits with the 2-mm spot size and a ninefold increase with the 3-mm spot size. Inner and outer retinal damage was seen histopathologically at these levels.

  13. Farm Households Food Production and Households' Food Security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food is an important basic human need for survival, growth, and good health. Most rural households in Tanzania, Kahama district inclusive produce the food they consume. Despite this reality, a number of households in the district suffer from food insecurity. However, there are inequalities across the districtfs ecological ...

  14. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Encephalitozoon cuniculi in rabbits from different farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumayerová, Helena; Juránková, Jana; Jeklová, Edita; Kudláčková, Hana; Faldyna, Martin; Kovařčík, Kamil; Jánová, Eva; Koudela, Břetislav

    2014-08-29

    The breeding of domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) for human consumption has a long tradition mainly in European and Asian countries. Infections that can affect the production of meat or even be transmitted from animals to humans are important to monitor, especially for public health reasons as well as for their impact on animals health. This study aimed to collect sera from rabbits bred in different conditions and test the presence of Toxoplasma gondii and Encephalitozoon cuniculi antibodies. Whether infections were active or latent was assessed by determining the occurrence of IgM or IgM together with IgG antibodies which indicated active infection whereas latent infection was characterized by finding IgG antibodies only. An ELISA test was performed with 1883 sera samples collected throughout the Czech and Slovak Republics. The seroprevalence of T. gondii in 902 samples from 6 commercial farms (CF) was very low with only 4 rabbits (0.4%) being positive. In total 99 (10.1%) individuals out of 981 samples from 29 household farms (HF) were positive for T. gondii antibodies. Only 2 (50%) of the T. gondii positive CF rabbits had active infections while the rest were latently infected. The serological results showed that 35 (35.4%) rabbits from the T. gondii positive HF group suffered from active infection. Out of CF samples 185 (20.5%) were positive for E. cuniculi. Antibodies of E. cuniculi were detected in 497 (50.7%) HF rabbits. Active E. cuniculi infections were determined in 85.9% of CF and 56.3% of HF rabbits; respectively. Interestingly, the E. cuniculi positive rabbits were significantly more often positive for anti-T. gondii antibodies in comparison to E. cuniculi negative individuals. Prevalence of T. gondii in CF rabbits was negligible. According to our results meat of HF rabbits still poses a risk of T. gondii infection. Nevertheless, the risk is on its lowest level in 20 years which is apparently caused due to changes in feeding practices. The

  15. Frequency and longitudinal trends of household care product use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Rebecca E.; Bennett, Deborah H.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Wu, Xiangmei (May); Ritz, Beate; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2012-08-01

    The use of household cleaning products and air fresheners exposes people to a variety of chemicals, including some that have been shown to be irritants, potential carcinogens and endocrine disrupting compounds. In addition, some react with ambient ozone infiltrating to the indoor environment to form potentially toxic secondary pollutants. Although realistic estimates of usage patterns are necessary for modeling potential exposures in risk assessments, few studies have documented cleaning habits and product usage to characterize how they vary between households and over time. In addition, understanding within-household temporal variability of use is important to assess the reliability of exposure questionnaires used in epidemiological surveys and improve the cost-efficiency of data collection. In the SUPERB (Study of Use of Products and Exposure-Related Behavior) study, frequencies of use of eight types of household cleaning products and air fresheners and the performance of different types of cleaning tasks are collected in three annual telephone and six quarterly web-based surveys. All-purpose and glass cleaners were the products most frequently used among all products surveyed. Use frequencies differed by demographic and other household characteristics for some products. Product usage was internally consistent, with over 75% of pairwise cross-sectional correlations between product types statistically significantly different from zero. In addition, each product type was correlated with at least one cleaning habit. Frequency of cleaning product use and performing cleaning tasks did not vary by season. An examination of intra-household variability showed moderately to highly consistent usage patterns over time, with lower temporal consistency observed among products used more frequently, such as all-purpose cleaners. Frequency of household care product usage was consistent enough that in epidemiologic studies, participants can be classified, for example, into three

  16. Full-Mouth Intraoral Radiographic Survey in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalado, Adriana; Legendre, Loïc

    2017-09-01

    Dental pathologies are highly prevalent in pet rabbit populations, making oral radiography an essential tool in the evaluation of lagomorph dentitions. The unique anatomy of the rabbit's mouth limits the examination of the conscious animal to the rostral portion of it's mouth. In addition, the oral examination of an aradicular hypsodont tooth is restricted to the short coronal fraction of its crown. Erstwhile images obtained by the extraoral technique were once considered the most practical and informative tool in rabbit dentistry; however, limited visualization of the key structures of individual teeth became the major drawback of this technique. As new imaging technologies are becoming widely available and affordable for veterinarians, intraoral radiography offers the ability to prevent, diagnose, and treat oral pathologies in lagomorphs. This article describes a step-by-step procedure to obtain a full-mouth radiographic survey in rabbits. For this technique, a standard dental X-ray generator and intraoral storage phosphor plates are used while applying the bisecting angle technique. Among the advantages of this technique are detailed visualization of internal and external dental structures, identification of early lesions, and detection of occult pathologies. Furthermore, intraoral images offer superior resolution and higher diagnostic quality with minimal radiation exposure, making this method safer for the veterinarian, staff members, and their patients.

  17. Correlation with OCT and histology of photocoagulation lesions in patients and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koinzer, Stefan; Saeger, Mark; Hesse, Carola; Portz, Lea; Kleemann, Susanne; Schlott, Kerstin; Brinkmann, Ralf; Roider, Johann

    2013-12-01

    To examine spectral domain optical coherence tomographic (OCT) and histological images from comparable retinal photocoagulation lesions in rabbits, and to correlate these images with comparable OCT images from patients. 508 rabbit lesions were examined by HE-stained paraffin histology. 1019 rabbit lesions versus 236 patient lesions were examined by OCT, all at the time-points 1 hr, 1 week and 4 weeks after photocoagulation. We analysed 100 μm lesions (in humans) and 133 μm lesions (in rabbits) of 200 ms exposures at powers titrated from the histological threshold up to intense damage. Lesions were matched according to morphological criteria. Dome-shaped layer alterations, retinal infiltration by round, pigmented cells, outer nuclear layer interruption, and eventually full thickness retinal coagulation are detectable in histology and OCT. Horizontal damage extensions are found 1½ times larger in OCT. More intense irradiation was necessary to induce comparable layer affection in rabbit OCT as in histology. Restoration of the inner retinal layers is only shown in the OCT images. Comparable primary lesions caused more pronounced OCT changes in patients than in rabbits during healing. Optical coherence tomographic images indicate different tissue changes than histologic images. After photocoagulation, they show wider horizontal damage diameters, but underestimate axial damage particularly during healing. Conclusions on retinal restoration should not be drawn from OCT findings alone. Retinal recovery after comparable initial lesions appears to be more complete in rabbit than in patient OCTs. © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Production of Polyclonal Antibodies in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Increased hemosiderin pigment within splenic macrophages was seen in four of the rabbits. The reports by the histopathologist are included in Appendix A...hypoplasia in the spleens of all five rabbits and varying levels of increased U I I Page 21 hemosiderin pigment within splenic macrophages in four of the...99 and 443. Increased hemosiderin pigment within splenic macrophages was noted in 5/6 rabbits and was especially prominent in rabbit #99. I

  19. Avian Influenza H5N1 Transmission in Households, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusriastuti, Rita; Sampurno, Ondri Dwi; Purba, Wilfried; Misriyah; Santoso, Hari; Bratasena, Arie; Maruf, Anas; Sariwati, Elvieda; Setiawaty, Vivi; Glass, Kathryn; Lokuge, Kamalini; Kelly, Paul M.; Kandun, I. Nyoman

    2012-01-01

    Background Disease transmission patterns are needed to inform public health interventions, but remain largely unknown for avian influenza H5N1 virus infections. A recent study on the 139 outbreaks detected in Indonesia between 2005 and 2009 found that the type of exposure to sources of H5N1 virus for both the index case and their household members impacted the risk of additional cases in the household. This study describes the disease transmission patterns in those outbreak households. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared cases (n = 177) and contacts (n = 496) in the 113 sporadic and 26 cluster outbreaks detected between July 2005 and July 2009 to estimate attack rates and disease intervals. We used final size household models to fit transmission parameters to data on household size, cases and blood-related household contacts to assess the relative contribution of zoonotic and human-to-human transmission of the virus, as well as the reproduction number for human virus transmission. The overall household attack rate was 18.3% and secondary attack rate was 5.5%. Secondary attack rate remained stable as household size increased. The mean interval between onset of subsequent cases in outbreaks was 5.6 days. The transmission model found that human transmission was very rare, with a reproduction number between 0.1 and 0.25, and the upper confidence bounds below 0.4. Transmission model fit was best when the denominator population was restricted to blood-related household contacts of index cases. Conclusions/Significance The study only found strong support for human transmission of the virus when a single large cluster was included in the transmission model. The reproduction number was well below the threshold for sustained transmission. This study provides baseline information on the transmission dynamics for the current zoonotic virus and can be used to detect and define signatures of a virus with increasing capacity for human-to-human transmission. PMID

  20. Noncooperative Household Consumption with Caring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherchye, L.J.H.; Demuynck, T.; de Rock, B.

    2011-01-01

    We present a household consumption model that accounts for caring house- hold members, while allowing for noncooperative behavior in decisions on pub- lic goods. The intrahousehold consumption outcome critically depends on the degree of caring between the household members. By varying the degree of

  1. Feedback on household electricity consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

    2011-01-01

    consumption, we evaluate the effects of giving households detailed feedback about their electricity consumption on a small liquid crystal display (LCD) screen. Twenty Danish households participated in the study over a 5-month period. A new feedback system was developed in a user-involved innovation process...

  2. Household Finance: An Emerging Field

    OpenAIRE

    Guiso, Luigi; Sodini, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Household finance - the normative and positive study of how households use financial markets to achieve their objectives - has gained a lot of attention over the past decade and has become a field with its own identity, style and agenda. In this chapter we review its evolution and most recent developments.

  3. European Rabbits as Reservoir for Coxiella burnetii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Barrio, David; Maio, Elisa; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco

    2015-06-01

    We studied the role of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as a reservoir for Coxiella burnetii in the Iberian region. High individual and population seroprevalences observed in wild and farmed rabbits, evidence of systemic infections, and vaginal shedding support the reservoir role of the European rabbit for C. burnetii.

  4. Low viral doses are sufficient to infect cottontail rabbits with avian influenza A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, J Jeffrey; Shriner, Susan A; Ellis, Jeremy W; VanDalen, Kaci K; Sullivan, Heather J

    2017-11-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) have been reported in wild lagomorphs in environments where they share resources with waterfowl. Recent studies have conclusively shown that a North American lagomorph, cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus sp.), become infected following exposure to IAVs and can shed significant quantities of virus. However, the minimum infectious dose and the efficiency of various routes of infection have not been evaluated. Thirty-six cottontail rabbits were used in a dose response study assessing both the oral and nasal routes of infection. The nasal route of infection proved to be the most efficient, as all cottontail rabbits shed viral RNA following inoculation with doses as low as 102 EID50. The oral route of infection was less efficient, but still produced infection rates of ≥ 50% at relatively low doses (i.e., 103 and 104 EID50). These results suggest that cottontail rabbits are highly susceptible to IAVs at low exposure doses that have been routinely observed in environments contaminated by waterfowl. Furthermore, this study supports earlier observations that cottontail rabbits may pose a biosecurity risk to poultry operations, as a virus-contaminated water source or contaminated environment, even at low viral titers, could be sufficient to initiate viral replication in cottontail rabbits.

  5. Changing Age and Household Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the effects on tax revenues and welfare expenditures in Denmark caused by changes in age and household structures over the years 1982-2007. During that period, there has been a minor fall in the old-age dependency ratio, and a major increase in the number of people living alone......, lone parents and cohabiting couples. Focusing on components of welfare services with noticeable differences in unit costs across age and household status, we find that changes in age structures have improved public finances by 1.6% of GDP whereas changing household structures have worsened public...... finances by almost 1% of GDP on the yearly budget. While the net fiscal effect of changing household structures is minor, the gross effects are substantial. In a future characterized by population ageing, public finances may be adversely affected by changes in both age and household structures, thus...

  6. pollution from household use of solid fuels in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To estimate the burden of respiratory ill health in. South African children and adults in 2000 from exposure to indoor air pollution associated with household use of solid fuels. Design. World Health Organization comparative risk assessment. (CRA) methodology was followed. The South African Census. 2001 was ...

  7. Cocoa farming households' vulnerability to climate variability in Ekiti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural livelihoods in south western Nigeria are at risk to climate variability on the short run and climate change on the long run. This subjects agro ecological niches to high sensitivity and exposure thus reducing the adaptive capacity. Vulnerability results and the cocoa farming households, the major contributors to the ...

  8. Occurrence of Legionella in UK household showers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Samuel; Stevenson, David; Bennett, Allan; Walker, Jimmy

    2017-04-01

    Household water systems have been proposed as a source of sporadic, community acquired Legionnaires' disease. Showers represent a frequently used aerosol generating device in the domestic setting yet little is known about the occurrence of Legionella spp. in these systems. This study has investigated the prevalence of Legionella spp. by culture and qPCR in UK household showers. Ninety nine showers from 82 separate properties in the South of England were sampled. Clinically relevant Legionella spp. were isolated by culture in 8% of shower water samples representing 6% of households. Legionella pneumophila sg1 ST59 was isolated from two showers in one property and air sampling demonstrated its presence in the aerosol state. A further 31% of showers were positive by Legionella spp. qPCR. By multi-variable binomial regression modelling Legionella spp. qPCR positivity was associated with the age of the property (p=0.02), the age of the shower (p=0.01) and the frequency of use (p=0.09). The concentration of Legionella spp. detected by qPCR was shown to decrease with increased frequency of use (p=0.04) and more frequent showerhead cleaning (p=0.05). There was no association between Legionella spp. qPCR positivity and the cold water supply or the showerhead material (p=0.65 and p=0.71, respectively). Household showers may be important reservoirs of clinically significant Legionella and should be considered in source investigations. Simple public health advice may help to mitigate the risk of Legionella exposure in the domestic shower environment. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical Application of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography of the Rabbit Head: Part 1 - Normal Dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GG Comet Riggs

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus are increasingly popular as household pets; therefore, veterinarians need to be familiar with the most common diseases afflicting rabbits including dental diseases. Diagnostic approaches for dental disease include gross oral examination, endoscopic oral examination, skull radiography, and computed tomography (CT. CT overcomes many limitations of standard radiography by permitting cross-sectional images of the rabbit head in multiple planes without superimposition of anatomic structures. Cone-beam CT (CBCT is an oral and maxillofacial imaging modality that produces high-resolution images. The objective of this study was to describe and compare the normal anatomic features of the dentition and surrounding maxillofacial structures in healthy rabbits on CBCT and conventional CT. Ten New Zealand white rabbit cadaver heads were scanned using CBCT and conventional CT. Images were evaluated using Anatomage Invivo 5 software. The maxillofacial anatomy was labeled on CBCT images and the mean lengths and widths of the teeth were determined. The visibility of relevant dental and anatomic features (pulp cavity, germinal center, tooth outline, periodontal ligament were scored and compared between conventional CT and CBCT. The thinnest teeth were the maxillary second incisor teeth at 1.29 ± 0.26 mm and the maxillary third molar teeth at 1.04 ±0.10 mm. In general, it was found that CBCT was superior to conventional CT when imaging the dentition. Importantly, the periodontal ligament was significantly (P<0.01 more visible on CBCT than on conventional CT. Ability to see the periodontal ligament with such detail may allow earlier detection and treatment of periodontal disease in rabbits. This study is the first of its kind and shows the feasibility and yield of CBCT when evaluating the maxillofacial features and dentition in rabbits.

  10. Antiarrhythmic properties of a rapid delayed-rectifier current activator in rabbit models of acquired long QT syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Thomas G; Yeh, Yung-Hsin; Qi, Xiao Yan

    2008-01-01

    effect of a novel compound (NS1643) that activates the rapid delayed-rectifier K+ current, I(Kr), in two rabbit models of acquired LQTS. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used two clinically relevant in vivo rabbit models of TdP in which we infused NS1643 or vehicle: (i) three-week atrioventricular block...... with ventricular bradypacing; (ii) dofetilide-induced I(Kr) inhibition in methoxamine-sensitized rabbits. In addition, we studied effects on ionic currents in cardiomyocytes with I(Kr) suppressed by bradycardia remodelling or dofetilide exposure. Bradypaced rabbits developed QT interval prolongation, spontaneous...... ventricular ectopy, and TdP. Infusion of NS1643 completely suppressed arrhythmic activity and shortened the QT interval; vehicle had no effect. NS1643 also suppressed ventricular tachyarrhythmias caused by infusion of dofetilide to methoxamine-sensitized rabbits, and reversed dofetilide-induced QT...

  11. Disorders of the Reproductive Tract of Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt-Brown, Frances Margaret

    2017-05-01

    Disorders of the reproductive tract are common in rabbits. Conditions are different in rabbits that are farmed for their meat or fur and those that are kept as pets. Farmed rabbits suffer from infections and diseases associated with pregnancy. Congenital abnormalities are more likely to be recognized and treated in pet rabbits. Pet rabbits suffer from age-related changes to their genital tract (hyperplasia, neoplasia, or hernias). Neutering is an important part of prevention and treatment of reproductive disorders. Knowledge of normal male and female reproductive anatomy is essential to prevent complications. These are described and illustrated. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evidence-Based Advances in Rabbit Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summa, Noémie M; Brandão, João

    2017-09-01

    Rabbit medicine has been continuously evolving over time with increasing popularity and demand. Tremendous advances have been made in rabbit medicine over the past 5 years, including the use of imaging tools for otitis and dental disease management, the development of laboratory testing for encephalitozoonosis, or determination of prognosis in rabbits. Recent pharmacokinetic studies have been published, providing additional information on commonly used antibiotics and motility-enhancer drugs, as well as benzimidazole toxicosis. This article presents a review of evidence-based advances for liver lobe torsions, thymoma, and dental disease in rabbits and controversial and new future promising areas in rabbit medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  14. Adverse fetal outcomes in pregnant rabbits experimentally infected with rabbit hepatitis E virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hee-Seop; Han, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Park, Byung-Joo; Kim, Dong-Hwi; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Sang-Won; Choi, Changsun; Myoung, Jinjong; Choi, In-Soo

    2017-12-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes severe hepatitis in pregnant women, with associated poor fetal outcomes. To study HEV viral pathogenesis, pregnant rabbits were infected with low- and high-dose rabbit HEV at 2 weeks gestation. HEV was identified in the serum, feces, and liver tissue of infected rabbits, and dose-dependent fetal mortality rates ranging from 67% to 80% were observed. The aspartate transaminase (AST)/alanine transaminase ratio was significantly higher (P rabbits than low-dose infected and negative control rabbits 14 days post infection (dpi). Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was significantly higher in low-dose (P rabbits (P rabbits produced significantly more interferon-γ (IFN-γ; P rabbits at 7 and 14 dpi. High levels of AST, TNF-α, and IFN-γ may substantially influence adverse fetal outcomes in pregnant rabbits infected with high-dose HEV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Model of evoked rabbit phonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ping Jiang; French, Lesley C; Ohno, Tsunehisa; Zealear, David L; Rousseau, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    We describe a method for eliciting phonation in an in vivo rabbit preparation using low-frequency, bipolar pulsed stimulation of the cricothyroid muscles with airflow delivered to the glottis. Ten New Zealand White breeder rabbits weighing 3 to 5 kg were used in this study. The cricothyroid muscles were isolated bilaterally, and separate pairs of anode-cathode hooked-wire electrodes were inserted into each muscle. A Grass S-88 stimulator and 2 constant-current PSIU6 isolation units were used to deliver bipolar square wave pulses to each cricothyroid muscle, with airflow delivered to the glottis through a cuffed endotracheal tube. Phonation was evoked with a 50-Hz, 4-mA stimulus train of 1-ms pulses delivered to each cricothyroid muscle. The pulse trains were on for 2 seconds and were repeated every 5 seconds over a period of 180 minutes. Airflow was delivered at 143 cm3/s, producing phonation measuring 71 to 85 dB sound pressure level. Evoked phonation is feasible in rabbits by use of bipolar stimulation of the cricothyroid muscles with airflow delivered to the glottis. The in vivo rabbit preparation described may provide a useful small animal option for studies of evoked phonation. From the level and consistency of the adduction observed, we hypothesize that current spreading to the underlying adductor muscles and nerves resulted in neural pathway involvement beyond discrete activation of the cricothyroid muscle, providing sufficient approximation of the vocal folds for phonation.

  16. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of Bacillus anthracis spore deposition in rabbit and human respiratory airways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabilan, S.; Suffield, S. R.; Recknagle, K. P.; Jacob, R. E.; Einstein, D. R.; Kuprat, A. P.; Carson, J. P.; Colby, S. M.; Saunders, J. H.; Hines, S. A.; Teeguarden, J. G.; Straub, T. M.; Moe, M.; Taft, S. C.; Corley, R. A.

    2016-09-01

    Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics and Lagrangian particle deposition models were developed to compare the deposition of aerosolized Bacillus anthracis spores in the respiratory airways of a human with that of the rabbit, a species commonly used in the study of anthrax disease. The respiratory airway geometries for each species were derived respectively from computed tomography (CT) and µCT images. Both models encompassed airways that extended from the external nose to the lung with a total of 272 outlets in the human model and 2878 outlets in the rabbit model. All simulations of spore deposition were conducted under transient, inhalation–exhalation breathing conditions using average species-specific minute volumes. Two different exposure scenarios were modeled in the rabbit based upon experimental inhalation studies. For comparison, human simulations were conducted at the highest exposure concentration used during the rabbit experimental exposures. Results demonstrated that regional spore deposition patterns were sensitive to airway geometry and ventilation profiles. Due to the complex airway geometries in the rabbit nose, higher spore deposition efficiency was predicted in the nasal sinus compared to the human at the same air concentration of anthrax spores. In contrast, higher spore deposition was predicted in the lower conducting airways of the human compared to the rabbit lung due to differences in airway branching pattern. This information can be used to refine published and ongoing biokinetic models of inhalation anthrax spore exposures, which currently estimate deposited spore concentrations based solely upon exposure concentrations and inhaled doses that do not factor in species-specific anatomy and physiology for deposition.

  17. Raising household saving: does financial education work?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gale, William G; Harris, Benjamin H; Levine, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights the prevalence and economic outcomes of financial illiteracy among American households, and reviews previous research that examines how improving financial literacy affects household saving...

  18. Household vehicles energy consumption 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-09

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Included are data about: the number and type of vehicles in the residential sector, the characteristics of those vehicles, the total annual Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT), the per household and per vehicle VMT, the vehicle fuel consumption and expenditures, and vehicle fuel efficiencies. The data for this report are based on the household telephone interviews from the 1991 RTECS, conducted during 1991 and early 1992. The 1991 RTECS represents 94.6 million households, of which 84.6 million own or have access to 151.2 million household motor vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

  19. Car use within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects...... of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  20. EXPERIMENTAL LIPEMIA IN RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, Thomas R.; Morris, Roger S.

    1909-01-01

    In reviewing the literature, no description of a lipemia occurring in relation to simple hemorrhage was found, so that the observation of the phenomenon here recorded would seem to be new. Very high percentages of fat have been found in the blood of diabetics. Fischer's case showed 18.1 per cent total ether extract. Of this very little was free fat (0.0018 gm. potassium hydroxide per gram of fat); iodine absorption was 60.6 per cent.; cholesterin, 2.6 per cent. Chatin's case, cited by Fischer, showed 1.2 per cent. cholesterin, 66.5 per cent. olein, 32.2 per cent. margarin in the fat. Neisser and Derlin in the ether extract of blood from a patient with diabetic coma found 19.7 per cent. fat, with melting point of from 39° to 41° C.; iodine absorption was 53.6 per cent. Javal in a similar case found 25.4 per cent. of fat in ether extract of dry serum (perhaps by Soxhlet method); 21 per cent. of the fat was lecithin. Bleibtreu produced alimentary lipemia in geese by feeding barley and butter. Ether extract of serum showed 6 per cent. of fat. The serum was milky with invisible droplets. Iodine absorption was 57 to 58 per cent. The fat was quite different, chemically, from the fat in the food. Lipemia disappeared a few days after discontinuing the forced feeding. Our experiments suggest, by analogy, the possible occurrence of lipemia in human anemias. In this connection it is of interest to note that we have recently demonstrated a moderate lipemia in a case of marked secondary anemia from hemorrhoids. The emaciation in such cases, as contrasted with the well-recognized conservation of the fat in pernicious anemia, suggests in human pathology a still further analogy which we now have under investigation. The fat in our lipemic rabbits differs from fats described above in its insolubility, as well as in its "constants." The change after precipitation of calcium from the serum suggests that the fat may be present in the serum as a protein-calcium-lecithin combination

  1. Household behavior and individual autonomy

    OpenAIRE

    d'Aspremont-Lynden, Claude; Dos Santos Ferreira, Rodolphe

    2009-01-01

    The paper proposes a model of household behavior with both private and public consumption where the spouses independently maximize their utilities, but taking into account, together with their own individual budget constraints, the collective household budget constraint (with public goods evaluated at Lindahl prices). The Lagrange multipliers associated with these constraints are used to parameterize the set of equilibria, in addition to the usual parameterization by income shares. The pr...

  2. Household External Finance and Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Besley, Timothy J.; Meads, Neil; Surico, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses mortgage data to construct a measure of terms on which households access to external finance, and relates it to consumption at both the aggregate and cohort levels. The Household External Finance (HEF) index is based on the spread paid by risky borrowers in the mortgage market. There is evidence that the terms of access to external finance matter more for the consumption of young cohorts in U.K. data. Results are robust to a wide variety of specifications.

  3. A survey exploring factors associated with 2890 companion-rabbit owners' knowledge of rabbit care and the neuter status of their companion rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Tasha; Coe, Jason B; Niel, Lee; McCobb, Emily

    2017-02-01

    Pet owners' knowledge of pet care has been shown to affect the human-animal relationship and the welfare of companion animals. With rabbits being the third most common companion animal in many regions, and evidence of owners' lack of awareness for the standards of care required to care for companion rabbits, it is important to understand the knowledge level of rabbit owners and determine how companion rabbits are being cared for. The purpose of this study was to survey rabbit owners in order to explore factors associated with their knowledge of rabbit care, and the neuter status of their companion rabbit. Current rabbit owners (n=2890) completed an online survey investigating acquisition of their companion rabbit, husbandry and care of their current rabbit, neuter status of their rabbit, owners' knowledge of rabbit care and owners' attachment to their current rabbit. An approximation of logistic regression modeling revealed increasing attachment (powners, the current study suggests acquisition sources, veterinarians, and companion-animal professionals can have an important role in the development of companion-rabbit owners' knowledge of rabbit care and in promoting the importance of neutering companion rabbits. Efforts to develop accessible resources to assist with educating companion-rabbit owners is important to ensuring successful rabbit-owner relationships. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Embryo-Fetal Developmental Toxicity Studies with Pregabalin in Mice and Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Dennis C

    2016-04-01

    Pregabalin was evaluated for potential developmental toxicity in mice and rabbits. Pregabalin was administered once daily by oral gavage to female albino mice (500, 1250, or 2500 mg/kg) and New Zealand White rabbits (250, 500, or 1250 mg/kg) during organogenesis (gestation day 6 through 15 [mice] or 6 through 20 [rabbits]). Fetuses were evaluated for viability, growth, and morphological development. Pregabalin administration to mice did not induce maternal or developmental toxicity at doses up to 2500 mg/kg, which was associated with a maternal plasma exposure (AUC0-24 ) of 3790 μg•hr/ml, ≥30 times the expected human exposure at the maximum recommended daily dose (MRD; 600 mg/day). In rabbits, treatment-related clinical signs occurred at all doses (AUC0-24 of 1397, 2023, and 4803 μg•hr/ml at 250, 500, and 1250 mg/kg, respectively). Maternal toxicity was evident at all doses and included ataxia, hypoactivity, and cool to touch. In addition, abortion and females euthanized moribund with total resorption occurred at 1250 mg/kg. There were no treatment-related malformations at any dose. At 1250 mg/kg, compared with study and historical controls, the percentage of fetuses with retarded ossification was significantly increased and the mean number of ossification sites was decreased, which correlated with decreased fetal and placental weights, consistent with in utero growth retardation. Therefore, the no-effect dose for developmental toxicity in rabbits was 500 mg/kg, which produced systemic exposure approximately 16-times human exposure at the MRD. These findings indicate that pregabalin, at the highest dose tested, was not teratogenic in mice or rabbits. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Urbanization and Household Structure in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinner, William F.

    1977-01-01

    This study analyzes urban-rural variations in Philippine household size and components of household size, as well as the relative contribution of these components to household size. Household size is larger in urban than in rural areas and the difference largely reflects the presence of extended family members and non-relatives. (Author)

  6. Immunosuppression abrogates resistance of young rabbits to Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease (RHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease (RHD) is caused by a calicivirus (RHDV) that kills 90% of infected adult European rabbits within 3 days. Remarkably, young rabbits are resistant to RHD. We induced immunosuppression in young rabbits by treatment with methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) and challenged the animals with RHDV by intramuscular injection. All of these young rabbits died within 3 days of infection due to fulminant hepatitis, presenting a large number of RHDV-positive dead or apoptotic hepatocytes, and a significant seric increase in cytokines, features that are similar to those of naïve adult rabbits infected by RHDV. We conclude that MPA-induced immunosuppression abrogates the resistance of young rabbits to RHD, indicating that there are differences in the innate immune system between young and adult rabbits that contribute to their distinct resistance/susceptibility to RHDV infection. PMID:24490832

  7. Experimental Infection of Rabbits with Rabbit and Genotypes 1 and 4 Hepatitis E Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, H. X.; Zheng, L.; Liu, Y. B.; Zhao, C. Y.; Harrison, T. J.; Ma, Y. Y.; Sun, S. H.; Zhang, J. G.; Wang, Y. C.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A recent study provided evidence that farmed rabbits in China harbor a novel hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype. Although the rabbit HEV isolate had 77-79% nucleotide identity to the mammalian HEV genotypes 1 to 4, their genomic organization is very similar. Since rabbits are used widely experimentally, including as models of infection, we investigated whether they constitute an appropriate animal model for human HEV infection. METHODS: Forty-two SPF rabbits were divided randomly in...

  8. White Rabbit Status and Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Cattin, M; van der Bij, E; Wlostowski, T; Daniluk, G; Lipinski, M; Beck, D; Hoffmann, J; Kreider, M; Prados, C; Rauch, S; Terpstra, W W; Zweig, M

    2014-01-01

    The White Rabbit (WR) project started off to provide a sequencing and synchronisation solution for the needs of CERN and GSI. Since then, many other users have adopted it to solve problems in the domain of distributed hard realtime systems. The paper discusses the current performance of WR hardware, along with present and foreseen applications. It also describes current efforts to standardise WR under IEEE 1588 and recent developments on reliability of timely data distribution, finishing with an outline of future plans.

  9. Sensory Preconditioning in Newborn Rabbits: From Common to Distinct Odor Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coureaud, Gerard; Tourat, Audrey; Ferreira, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated whether olfactory preconditioning is functional in newborn rabbits and based on joined or independent memory of odorants. First, after exposure to odorants A+B, the conditioning of A led to high responsiveness to odorant B. Second, responsiveness to B persisted after amnesia of A. Third, preconditioning was also functional…

  10. Household composition and psychological health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Lene Eide; Willaing, Ingrid; Holt, Richard I G

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: 1) To explore the effect of household composition on the psychological health of adults with diabetes by comparing those living with other adult(s) including a partner with those living with neither partner nor other adult(s); 2) to examine potential mediation of social support in the assoc......AIMS: 1) To explore the effect of household composition on the psychological health of adults with diabetes by comparing those living with other adult(s) including a partner with those living with neither partner nor other adult(s); 2) to examine potential mediation of social support...... in the association between household composition and psychological health. METHODS: The study is part of the DAWN2 study conducted in 17 countries. The population comprised 8596 people with diabetes (PWD). Multiple regression models (linear and binary) were applied. RESULTS: People living with 'other adult...... to the other household composition groups. The association between household composition and psychological health was not mediated by diabetes-specific social support. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates the psychological vulnerability of respondents living without a partner but with other adult(s). Appropriate...

  11. Household air pollution, health, and climate change: cleaning the air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldemberg, Jose; Martinez-Gomez, Javier; Sagar, Ambuj; Smith, Kirk R.

    2018-03-01

    Air pollution from the use of solid household fuels is now recognized to be a major health risk in developing countries. Accordingly, there has been some shift in development thinking and investment from previous efforts, which has focused only on improving the efficiency of household fuel use, to those that focus on reducing exposure to the air pollution that leads to health impact. Unfortunately, however, this is occurring just as the climate agenda has come to dominate much of the discourse and action on international sustainable development. Thus, instead of optimizing approaches that centrally focus on the large health impact, the household energy agenda has been hampered by the constraints imposed by a narrow definition of sustainability—one primarily driven by the desire to mitigate greenhouse emissions by relying on renewable biomass fueling so-called improved cookstoves. In reality, however, solid biomass is extremely difficult to burn sufficiently cleanly in household stoves to reach health goals. In comparison to the international development community, however, some large countries, notably Brazil historically and more recently, India have substantially expanded the use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) in their household energy mix, using their own resources, having a major impact on their national energy picture. The net climate impact of such approaches compared to current biomass stoves is minimal or non-existent, and the social and health benefits are, in contrast, potentially great. LPG can be seen as a transition fuel for clean household energy, with induction stoves powered by renewables as the holy grail (an approach already being adopted by Ecuador as also discussed here). The enormous human and social benefits of clean energy, rather than climate concerns, should dominate the household energy access agenda today.

  12. Rabbit model for Chlamydia pneumoniae infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Fong, I W; Chiu, B.; Viira, E; Fong, M W; Jang, D.; Mahony, J

    1997-01-01

    A rabbit model was established for Chlamydia pneumoniae infection that may be helpful to understand the pathogenesis of disease in humans. Twelve, pathogen-free, 1-month-old New Zealand White rabbits were inoculated with 1.0 x 10(7) to 5.0 x 10(7) CFU of purified C. pneumoniae (ATCC strain VR 1310) via the nasopharynx (1 rabbit died immediately postinoculation, and 11 were available for study). Five controls were inoculated with the carrier buffer. Ten of the 11 study rabbits demonstrated ser...

  13. Fibronectin promotes epithelial migration of cultured rabbit cornea in situ

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    We investigated the effect of fibronectin on epithelial migration onto the stroma in cultured rabbit cornea. Rabbit plasma fibronectin was purified by affinity chromatography using gelatin-Sepharose 4B, and its purity was confirmed by SDS polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis. Antibody against rabbit plasma fibronectin raised in guinea pigs formed a single precipitin line against rabbit plasma and purified rabbit plasma fibronectin by Ouchterlony double diffusion test. When rabbit cornea wa...

  14. The human, primate and rabbit ultraviolet action spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, D. G.; Gibbons, W. D.

    1972-01-01

    A 5000 watt xenon-mercury high pressure lamp was used to produce a continuous ultraviolet spectrum. Human and animal exposures were made to establish the photokeratitis threshold and abiotic action spectrum. The lower limit of the abiotic action spectrum was 220 nm while the upper limit was 310 nm. The radiant exposure threshold at 270 nm was 0.005 watts/sq cm for the rabbit, 0.004 watts/sq cm for the primate, and 0.004 watts/ sq cm for the human. The rabbit curve was bi-peaked with minimums at 220 nm, 240 nm and 270 nm. The primate curve was tri-peaked with minimums at 220 nm, 240 nm and 270 nm. The human data showed a rather shallow curve with a minimum at 270 nm. Formulas and calculations are given to predict minimum exposure times for ocular damage to man in outer space, to establish valid safety criteria, and to establish protective design criteria.

  15. Experimental Infection of Rabbits with Rabbit and Genotypes 1 and 4 Hepatitis E Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongxia; Zheng, Lin; Liu, Yunbo; Zhao, Chenyan; Harrison, Tim J.; Ma, Yuyuan; Sun, Shuhua; Zhang, Jingang; Wang, Youchun

    2010-01-01

    Background A recent study provided evidence that farmed rabbits in China harbor a novel hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype. Although the rabbit HEV isolate had 77–79% nucleotide identity to the mammalian HEV genotypes 1 to 4, their genomic organization is very similar. Since rabbits are used widely experimentally, including as models of infection, we investigated whether they constitute an appropriate animal model for human HEV infection. Methods Forty-two SPF rabbits were divided randomly into eleven groups and inoculated with six different isolates of rabbit HEV, two different doses of a second-passage rabbit HEV, and with genotype 1 and 4 HEV. Sera and feces were collected weekly after inoculation. HEV antigen, RNA, antibody and alanine aminotransferase in sera and HEV RNA in feces were detected. The liver samples were collected during necropsy subject to histopathological examination. Findings Rabbits inoculated with rabbit HEV became infected with HEV, with viremia, fecal virus shedding and high serum levels of viral antigens, and developed hepatitis, with elevation of the liver enzyme, ALT. The severity of disease corresponded to the infectious dose (genome equivalents), with the most severe hepatic disease caused by strain GDC54-18. However, only two of nine rabbits infected with HEV genotype 4, and none infected with genotype 1, developed hepatitis although six of nine rabbits inoculated with the genotype 1 HEV and in all rabbits inoculated with the genotype 4 HEV seroconverted to be positive for anti-HEV IgG antibody by 14 weeks post-inoculation. Conclusions These data indicate that rabbits are an appropriate model for rabbit HEV infection but are not likely to be useful for the study of human HEV. The rabbit HEV infection of rabbits may provide an appropriate parallel animal model to study HEV pathogenesis. PMID:20161794

  16. Experimental infection of rabbits with rabbit and genotypes 1 and 4 hepatitis E viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongxia; Zheng, Lin; Liu, Yunbo; Zhao, Chenyan; Harrison, Tim J; Ma, Yuyuan; Sun, Shuhua; Zhang, Jingang; Wang, Youchun

    2010-02-11

    A recent study provided evidence that farmed rabbits in China harbor a novel hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype. Although the rabbit HEV isolate had 77-79% nucleotide identity to the mammalian HEV genotypes 1 to 4, their genomic organization is very similar. Since rabbits are used widely experimentally, including as models of infection, we investigated whether they constitute an appropriate animal model for human HEV infection. Forty-two SPF rabbits were divided randomly into eleven groups and inoculated with six different isolates of rabbit HEV, two different doses of a second-passage rabbit HEV, and with genotype 1 and 4 HEV. Sera and feces were collected weekly after inoculation. HEV antigen, RNA, antibody and alanine aminotransferase in sera and HEV RNA in feces were detected. The liver samples were collected during necropsy subject to histopathological examination. Rabbits inoculated with rabbit HEV became infected with HEV, with viremia, fecal virus shedding and high serum levels of viral antigens, and developed hepatitis, with elevation of the liver enzyme, ALT. The severity of disease corresponded to the infectious dose (genome equivalents), with the most severe hepatic disease caused by strain GDC54-18. However, only two of nine rabbits infected with HEV genotype 4, and none infected with genotype 1, developed hepatitis although six of nine rabbits inoculated with the genotype 1 HEV and in all rabbits inoculated with the genotype 4 HEV seroconverted to be positive for anti-HEV IgG antibody by 14 weeks post-inoculation. These data indicate that rabbits are an appropriate model for rabbit HEV infection but are not likely to be useful for the study of human HEV. The rabbit HEV infection of rabbits may provide an appropriate parallel animal model to study HEV pathogenesis.

  17. Experimental infection of rabbits with rabbit and genotypes 1 and 4 hepatitis E viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A recent study provided evidence that farmed rabbits in China harbor a novel hepatitis E virus (HEV genotype. Although the rabbit HEV isolate had 77-79% nucleotide identity to the mammalian HEV genotypes 1 to 4, their genomic organization is very similar. Since rabbits are used widely experimentally, including as models of infection, we investigated whether they constitute an appropriate animal model for human HEV infection. METHODS: Forty-two SPF rabbits were divided randomly into eleven groups and inoculated with six different isolates of rabbit HEV, two different doses of a second-passage rabbit HEV, and with genotype 1 and 4 HEV. Sera and feces were collected weekly after inoculation. HEV antigen, RNA, antibody and alanine aminotransferase in sera and HEV RNA in feces were detected. The liver samples were collected during necropsy subject to histopathological examination. FINDINGS: Rabbits inoculated with rabbit HEV became infected with HEV, with viremia, fecal virus shedding and high serum levels of viral antigens, and developed hepatitis, with elevation of the liver enzyme, ALT. The severity of disease corresponded to the infectious dose (genome equivalents, with the most severe hepatic disease caused by strain GDC54-18. However, only two of nine rabbits infected with HEV genotype 4, and none infected with genotype 1, developed hepatitis although six of nine rabbits inoculated with the genotype 1 HEV and in all rabbits inoculated with the genotype 4 HEV seroconverted to be positive for anti-HEV IgG antibody by 14 weeks post-inoculation. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that rabbits are an appropriate model for rabbit HEV infection but are not likely to be useful for the study of human HEV. The rabbit HEV infection of rabbits may provide an appropriate parallel animal model to study HEV pathogenesis.

  18. Determinants of Soviet Household Income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    by Kenneth Smith

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available World Values Survey data are used to examine household income in the Soviet Union. The data, gathered Summer/Fall 1990, provide a rare opportunity to empirically examine microeconomic factors influencing a Soviet household’s position in the regional/national income distribution. The survey contains data - collected regionally - from the three Baltic republics, Belarus, and the Moscow region. The data indicate certain patterns that existed and determined Soviet household income though there are often considerable regional variations. Further, there are marked differences between income distribution determinants in the Soviet Union and the U.S. and West Germany though similarities exist as well

  19. Sustainable household egg production to enhance household food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple method of keeping laying hens has been developed with the aim of improving family nutrition through the provision of high quality egg protein at low cost. A unit is kept at a family's home and provides on average six eggs per day for daily household consumption after a number of eggs have been sold to cover the ...

  20. Ocular toxicity of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, T.C.; Hahn, F.F.; Merickel, B.S.; Hobbs, C.H.

    Three commercial formulations of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) were applied to eyes of rabbits and evaluated for their potential to cause ocular damage. All three products were severe eye irritants and water irrigation shortly after exposure was not effective in reducing ocular damage. Gross and histological observations revealed marked conjunctivitis, moderate to severe ulcerative keratitis, and hyperemia and edema of the iris, all of which showed evidence of resolution over the three-week course of investigation. However, complete reversal of all effects was not attained. TFE and its commercial formulations should be viewed as potentially severe human ocular irritants.

  1. Acute lung injury and persistent small airway disease in a rabbit model of chlorine inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musah, Sadiatu; Schlueter, Connie F; Humphrey, David M; Powell, Karen S; Roberts, Andrew M; Hoyle, Gary W

    2017-01-15

    Chlorine is a pulmonary toxicant to which humans can be exposed through accidents or intentional releases. Acute effects of chlorine inhalation in humans and animal models have been well characterized, but less is known about persistent effects of acute, high-level chlorine exposures. In particular, animal models that reproduce the long-term effects suggested to occur in humans are lacking. Here, we report the development of a rabbit model in which both acute and persistent effects of chlorine inhalation can be assessed. Male New Zealand White rabbits were exposed to chlorine while the lungs were mechanically ventilated. After chlorine exposure, the rabbits were extubated and were allowed to survive for up to 24h after exposure to 800ppm chlorine for 4min to study acute effects or up to 7days after exposure to 400ppm for 8min to study longer term effects. Acute effects observed 6 or 24h after inhalation of 800ppm chlorine for 4min included hypoxemia, pulmonary edema, airway epithelial injury, inflammation, altered baseline lung mechanics, and airway hyperreactivity to inhaled methacholine. Seven days after recovery from inhalation of 400ppm chlorine for 8min, rabbits exhibited mild hypoxemia, increased area of pressure-volume loops, and airway hyperreactivity. Lung histology 7days after chlorine exposure revealed abnormalities in the small airways, including inflammation and sporadic bronchiolitis obliterans lesions. Immunostaining showed a paucity of club and ciliated cells in the epithelium at these sites. These results suggest that small airway disease may be an important component of persistent respiratory abnormalities that occur following acute chlorine exposure. This non-rodent chlorine exposure model should prove useful for studying persistent effects of acute chlorine exposure and for assessing efficacy of countermeasures for chlorine-induced lung injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Spermicidal effects of amphotericin B and nystatin on bull and rabbit sperm and contraceptive effects in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Robert H

    2002-09-01

    Vaginal contraceptives have potential for controlling reproduction as well as sexually transmitted diseases. Two extensively used fungicides, amphotericin B and nystatin, were found to be highly spermicidal to bull and rabbit sperm even in the presence of organic material found in milk and egg yolk, both excellent components of media designed to preserve sperm. In repeated tests with many samples of bull and rabbit sperm, as little as 0.5 micro g/mL of amphotericin B completely immobilized sperm after prolonged exposure, and 1000 micro g/mL immobiled sperm in less than 1 min. Treatment of rabbit sperm with 1000 micro g of solubilized amphotericin B in 0.4 ml of a glucose-semen mixture before insemination resulted in a total of 2 young born from 9 inseminated Dutch does, compared with 55 young from 9 control does. As this inhibition was achieved without the use of enhancing foams or gels, these results provide promising leads for contraceptive research.

  3. The Determinants of Rural Household Food Security for Landless Households of the Punjab, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Bashir, Muhammad Khalid; Schilizzi, Steven; Pandit, Ram

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the situation of food security for the landless rural households of the Punjab province in Pakistan. Primary data from 576 landless households were collected from 12 districts of the province. About 27% of the sample households were measured to be food insecure. Household’s monthly income and household head’s education levels of middle and intermediate were positively impacting household food security. On the other hand, household heads’ age and family size were negatively...

  4. Analysis of pre- and postsynaptic factors of the serotonin system in rabbit retina

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    [3H]Serotonin is accumulated by a specific set of amacrine cells in the rabbit retina. These cells also accumulate the neurotoxin, 5,7- dihydroxytryptamine, and show signs of necrosis within 4 h of in vivo exposure to the drug. Biochemical analysis of [3H]serotonin uptake reveal a sodium- and temperature-dependent, high affinity uptake system with a Km of 0.94 microM and Vmax of 1.08 pmol/mg protein/min. [3H]Tryptophan is also accumulated in rabbit retinal homogenates by a high affinity proce...

  5. Semen characteristics and sexual hormones of Hy-Plus rabbit bucks influenced by a dietary multi-enzymes additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 144 adult Hy-Plus rabbit bucks were randomly assigned into  four treatments of 36 replicates each, in a completely randomized design. Animals were fed ad libitum on basal diet supplemented with an enzyme complex (EZ at 0 (EZ0, 1 (EZ1, 3 (EZ3 and 5 (EZ5 kg/ton of feed. Total sperm count was higher (P<0.05 in EZ5 than in EZ0. Sperm motility increased with increasing levels of the EZ additive being lowest for EZ0 and highest for EZ5 rabbits (P<0.05. Percentage of dead sperm was higher (P<0.05 in EZ0 than in EZ5 rabbits. Rabbit bucks received the highest levele of EZ in their diet, had the shorter reaction time (22.31±3.17 sec; P<0.05,whereas EZ5 bucks took 43.56±5.89 sec to mount does for the first time after exposure. Blood testosterone, 17α-estradiol and progesterone levels were highest in EZ5 rabbits and lowest in EZ0 rabbits. Enzyme addition increased (P<0.05 sperm transit in estrus doe cervical mucus. Data suggested that the EZ additive in diets of  adult Hy-Plus rabbit bucks was effective to improve both semen characteristics and sexual drive.

  6. Inflation differentials among Czech households

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janský, Petr; Hait, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2016), s. 71-84 ISSN 1210-0455 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TD020188 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : households * inflation * inflation differentials Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.710, year: 2016

  7. Financial planning for young households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Marie Boiden; Weissensteiner, Alex; Poulsen, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the financial planning problems of young households whose main decisions are how to finance the purchase of a house (liabilities) and how to allocate investments in pension savings schemes (assets). The problems are solved using a multi-stage stochastic programming model where...

  8. Household Arthropod Allergens in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong

    2009-01-01

    Arthropods are important in human health, which can transmit pathogens to humans, parasitize, or produce important allergens. Allergy prevalence becomes higher in Korea recently as well as other developed countries in contrast to a decrease of infectious diseases. Allergic diseases caused by household arthropods have increased dramatically during the last few decades since human beings spend more their time for indoor activities in modernized life style. Household arthropods are one of the most common causes of allergic diseases. Biological characterization of household arthropods and researches on their allergens will provide better understanding of the pathogenesis of allergic diseases and suggest new therapeutic ways. Therefore, studies on arthropods of allergenic importance can be considered one of the major research areas in medical arthropodology and parasitology. Here, the biology of several household arthropods, including house dust mites and cockroaches, the 2 most well known arthropods living indoor together with humans worldwide, and characteristics of their allergens, especially the research activities on these allergens performed in Korea, are summarized. PMID:19885330

  9. Collecting household water usage data: telephone questionnaire or diary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair Martha I

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA, a modelling approach, is used to assess health risks. Inputs into the QMRA process include data that characterise the intensity, frequency and duration of exposure to risk(s. Data gaps for water exposure assessment include the duration and frequency of urban non-potable (non-drinking water use. The primary objective of this study was to compare household water usage results obtained using two data collection tools, a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI and a 7-day water activity diary, in order to assess the effect of different methodological survey approaches on derived exposure estimates. Costs and logistical aspects of each data collection tool were also examined. Methods A total of 232 households in an Australian dual reticulation scheme (where households are supplied with two grades of water through separate pipe networks were surveyed about their water usage using both a CATI and a 7-day diary. Householders were questioned about their use of recycled water for toilet flushing, garden watering and other outdoor activities. Householders were also questioned about their water use in the laundry. Agreement between reported CATI and diary water usage responses was assessed. Results Results of this study showed that the level of agreement between CATI and diary responses was greater for more frequent water-related activities except toilet flushing and for those activities where standard durations or settings were employed. In addition, this study showed that the unit cost of diary administration was greater than for the CATI, excluding consideration of the initial selection and recruitment steps. Conclusion This study showed that it is possible to successfully 'remotely' coordinate diary completion providing that adequate instructions are given and that diary recording forms are well designed. In addition, good diary return rates can be achieved using a monetary incentive

  10. Mapping superficial lymphatic territories in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Miranda, Miguel A; Suami, Hiroo; Chang, David W

    2013-06-01

    Little is known about the anatomy of the lymphatic system in the rabbit with regard to relationships between the lymphatic vessel and lymph node. According to our previous studies in human cadavers and canines, the superficial lymphatic system could be divided into lymphatic territories. The aim of this study was to completely map the superficial lymphatic system in the rabbit. We used our microinjection technique and histological analysis for dissecting studies and recently developed indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescent lymphography for demonstrating dynamic lymph flow in living rabbits. Real-time ICG fluorescent lymphography was performed in two living New Zealand White rabbits, and direct dye microinjection of the lymphatic vessels was performed in eight dead rabbits. To assess the relationships between the vascular and lymphatic systems in rabbits, we performed radiocontrast injection into arteries in two dead rabbits prior to the lymphatic injection. The ICG fluorescent lymphography revealed eight lymphatic territories in the preauricular, submandibular, root of the lateral neck, axillary, lumbar, inguinal, root of the tail, and popliteal regions. We injected blue acrylic dye into every lymphatic vessel 0.1 mm in diameter or larger. We then dissected and chased the stained lymphatic vessels proximally until the vessels connected to the first tier lymph node. This procedure was repeated throughout the body until all the relationships between the lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes were defined. The lymphatic system of the rabbit could be defined as eight lymphatic territories, each with its own lymphatic vessels and lymph node. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. VASCULAR EFFECTS OF KETAMINE IN ISOLATED RABBIT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Owu

    Summary: The precise mechanism by which ketamine induces relaxation of vascular smooth muscle is not clear. The goal of this study was to further characterize the vascular actions of ketamine in rabbit aortic smooth muscles. Ring segments (2mm) of rabbit aortae were suspended in 20ml organ baths containing ...

  12. Uterine disorders in 50 pet rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzel, Frank; Grinninger, Petra; Shibly, Sarina; Hassan, Jasmin; Tichy, Alexander; Berghold, Petra; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Although the incidence of uterine disorders in pet rabbits is high there are only a few retrospective studies and case reports on genital tract disease in female rabbits. Uterine disorders were assessed in 50 pet rabbits. In 31 pet rabbits with suspected clinical uterine disease, medical records were further reviewed regarding clinical signs, diagnostic workup, treatment as well as the outcome itself. Uterine adenocarcinoma (54%) was most frequently diagnosed, followed by endometrial hyperplasia (26%). Serosanguineous vaginal discharge was the predominant clinical sign observed by the rabbit owners. In approximately 50% of the rabbits with suspected uterine disorders, abdominal palpation revealed enlarged and/or irregular masses in the caudoventral abdomen indicating uterine lesions. Out of 23 rabbits undergoing ovariohysterectomy, four were either euthanized or died shortly after surgery because they were clinically unstable. Overall, 80% of the ovariohysterectomized animals were still alive 6 mo after surgery. In female pet rabbits that are not breeding, either ovariohysterectomy should be performed at an early age or routine checks including ultrasonography of the abdomen are recommended on a regular basis.

  13. Viral skin diseases of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Anna L

    2013-09-01

    This article describes the viral skin diseases affecting the domestic rabbit, the most important being myxomatosis. Transmission and pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and control are described and the article will be of interest to veterinary practitioners who treat rabbits. Shope fibroma virus, Shope papilloma virus, and rabbitpox are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Welfare and the intensive production of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisse, J P; Maurice, R

    1994-03-01

    Rabbit production in Europe is concentrated largely in the "Latin" countries of Italy, France and Spain, in which animal protectionist attitudes are considered moderate. However, in the case of rabbits, the intensification of husbandry necessitates strict observance of physiological, behavioural and health requirements, in view of the very special needs of the species and the sensitivity of rabbits to environmental conditions. Rabbits are described as anxious, timid and emotional, with unusual arrangements for reproduction (induced ovulation) and digestion (caecotrophy). Therefore, these animals could not be reared intensively until the completion of extensive research, which has been conducted over the past twenty years, into the environmental and nutritional needs of rabbits, and the selection of lines having a calm temperament and maternal aptitude. This research was required to meet the welfare needs of this species. These concepts are perfectly integrated into the current operation of intensive units, and should not be brought into question on the basis of fragmentary observations by some researchers who would wish to see a return to rearing on litter. A discussion of rabbit welfare conducted in 1992 by specialists of the German branch of the World Rabbit Science Association approved modern methods of keeping rabbits on wire grids, provided that some changes were made to current procedures.

  15. Experimental Infections Of Domestic Rabbits ( Oryctolagus cuniculus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Animal Production ... Comparative study of single infections of domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) with Nigerian isolates of Trypanosoma brucei (Gboko strain), and Trypanosoma congolense (Binchi ... Eighteen rabbits of 10-14 weeks old weighing between 600-1200 grams were used for the study.

  16. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Eggs Are Present in Soil at Multiple Locations within Households in Rural Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Steinbaum

    Full Text Available Almost one-quarter of the world's population is infected with soil-transmitted helminths (STH. We conducted a study to determine the prevalence and location of STH-Ascaris, Trichuris, and hookworm spp.-egg contamination in soil within rural household plots in Kenya. Field staff collected soil samples from July to September 2014 from the house entrance and the latrine entrance of households in Kakamega County; additional spatial sampling was conducted at a subset of households (N = 22 samples from 3 households. We analyzed soil samples using a modified version of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA method for enumerating Ascaris in biosolids. We found 26.8% of households had one or more species of STH eggs present in the soil in at least one household location (n = 18 out of 67 households, and Ascaris was the most commonly detected STH (19.4%, n = 13 out of 67 households. Prevalence of STH eggs in soil was equally likely at the house entrance (19.4%, N = 67 as at the latrine entrance (11.3%, N = 62 (p = 0.41. We also detected STH eggs at bathing and food preparation areas in the three houses revisited for additional spatial sampling, indicating STH exposure can occur at multiple sites within a household plot, not just near the latrine. The highest concentration of eggs in one house occurred in the child's play area. Our findings suggest interventions to limit child exposure to household soil could complement other STH control strategies.

  17. Kafka versus RabbitMQ

    OpenAIRE

    Dobbelaere, Philippe; Esmaili, Kyumars Sheykh

    2017-01-01

    Publish/subscribe is a distributed interaction paradigm well adapted to the deployment of scalable and loosely coupled systems. Apache Kafka and RabbitMQ are two popular open-source and commercially-supported pub/sub systems that have been around for almost a decade and have seen wide adoption. Given the popularity of these two systems and the fact that both are branded as pub/sub systems, two frequently asked questions in the relevant online forums are: how do they compare against each other...

  18. Inhalational anthrax (Ames aerosol in naive and vaccinated New Zealand rabbits: characterizing the spread of bacteria from lung deposition to bacteremia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford eGutting

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to better understand inhalational anthrax in relevant animal models. This understanding could aid risk assessment, help define therapeutic windows, and provide a better understanding of disease. The aim here was to characterize and quantify bacterial deposition and dissemination in rabbits following exposure to single high aerosol dose (>100LD50 of Bacillus anthracis (Ames spores immediately following exposure through 36 hours. The primary goal of collecting the data was to support investigators in developing computational models of inhalational anthrax disease. Rabbits were vaccinated prior to exposure with the human vaccine (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed, AVA or were sham-vaccinated, and were then exposed in pairs (1 sham and 1 AVA so disease kinetics could be characterized in equally-dosed hosts where one group is fully protected and is able to clear the infection (AVA-vaccinated, while the other is susceptible to disease, in which case the bacteria are able to escape containment and replicate uncontrolled (sham-vaccinated rabbits. Between 4-5% of the presented aerosol dose was retained in the lung of sham- and AVA-vaccinated rabbits as measured by dilution plate analysis of homogenized lung tissue or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid. After 6 and 36 hours, >80% and >96%, respectively, of the deposited spores were no longer detected in BAL, with no detectable difference between sham- or AVA-vaccinated rabbits. Thereafter, differences between the two groups became noticeable. In sham-vaccinated rabbits the bacteria were detected in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN 12 hours post exposure and in the circulation at 24 hours, a time point which was also associated with dramatic increases in vegetative CFU in the lung tissue of some animals. In all sham-vaccinated rabbits, bacteria increased in both TBLN and blood through 36 hours at which point in time some rabbits succumbed to disease. In contrast, AVA-vaccinated rabbits showed

  19. Clinical Application of Cone Beam Computed Tomography of the Rabbit Head: Part 2—Dental Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, G. G.; Cissell, Derek D.; Arzi, Boaz; Hatcher, David C.; Kass, Philip H.; Zhen, Amy; Verstraete, Frank J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Domestic rabbits are increasing in popularity as household pets; therefore, veterinarians need to be familiar with the most common diseases afflicting rabbits including dental disease. Current diagnostic approaches include gross oral examination, endoscopic oral examination, skull radiography, and computed tomography (CT). Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), a new oral and maxillofacial imaging modality that has the capability to produce high-resolution images, has not yet been described for use in evaluating dental disease in rabbits. A total of 15 client-owned rabbits had CBCT, oral examination, dental charting, and dental treatment performed under general anesthesia. Images were evaluated using transverse and custom multiplanar (MPR), 3D, and panoramic reconstructed images. The CBCT findings were grouped into abnormalities that could be detected on conscious oral examination vs. abnormalities that could not be detected by conscious oral examination. Potential associations between the two categories were examined by pairwise Fisher’s exact test with statistical significance determined by P oral examination, coronal elongation (detectable on oral examination) was significantly associated with apical elongation (P = 0.029). There were no other significant associations between CBCT findings that are also clinically detectable and CBCT findings that are not be detectable on oral examination. This suggests that pathology often exists that is not apparent upon oral examination. This study establishes the common CBCT findings associated with dental disease in rabbits and demonstrates the feasibility of this technology to diagnose and plan treatment in dental disorders in this species. PMID:28194401

  20. Variability in Intrahousehold Transmission of Ebola Virus, and Estimation of the Household Secondary Attack Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Judith R; Bower, Hilary; Johnson, Sembia; Turay, Cecilia; Sesay, Daniel; Mansaray, Saidu H; Kamara, Osman; Kamara, Alie Joshua; Bangura, Mohammed S; Checchi, Francesco

    2018-01-04

    Transmission between family members accounts for most Ebola virus transmission, but little is known about determinants of intrahousehold spread. From detailed exposure histories, intrahousehold transmission chains were created for 94 households of Ebola survivors in Sierra Leone: 109 (co-)primary cases gave rise to 317 subsequent cases (0-100% of those exposed). Larger households were more likely to have subsequent cases, and the proportion of household members affected depended on individual and household-level factors. More transmissions occurred from older than from younger cases, and from those with more severe disease. The estimated household secondary attack rate was 18%. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  1. PATHOGENESIS AND IMMUNE RESPONSES OF FRANCISELLA TULARENSIS STRAINS IN WILD-CAUGHT COTTONTAIL RABBITS (SYLVILAGUS SPP.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Vienna R; Adney, Danielle R; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Gordy, Paul W; Felix, Todd A; Olea-Popelka, Francisco J; Bowen, Richard A

    2015-07-01

    Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent, zoonotic bacterium that causes significant natural disease and is of concern as an organism for bioterrorism. Serologic testing of wildlife is frequently used to monitor spatial patterns of infection and to quantify exposure. Cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus spp.) are a natural reservoir for F. tularensis in the US, although very little work has been done experimentally to determine how these animals respond to infection; thus, information gathered from field samples can be difficult to interpret. We characterized clinical disease, bacteremia, pathology, and antibody kinetics of North American cottontail rabbits experimentally infected with five strains of F. tularensis. Rabbits were infected with four field strains, including MA00-2987 (type A1b), WY96-3418 (type A2), KY99-3387, and OR96-0246 (type B), and with SchuS4 (type A1a), a widely used, virulent laboratory strain. Infection with the different strains of the bacterium resulted in varied patterns of clinical disease, gross pathology, and histopathology. Each of the type A strains were highly virulent, with rabbits succumbing to infection 3-13 d after infection. At necropsy, numerous microabscesses were observed in the livers and spleens of most rabbits, associated with high bacterial organ burdens. In contrast, most rabbits infected with type B strains developed mild fever and became lethargic, but the disease was infrequently lethal. Those rabbits infected with type B strains that survived past 14 d developed a robust humoral immune response, and F. tularensis was not isolated from liver, spleen, or lung of those animals. Understanding F. tularensis infection in a natural reservoir species can guide serosurveillance and generate new insights into environmental maintenance of this pathogen.

  2. N-nitrosamines induced infertility and hepatotoxicity in male rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheweita, S A; El Banna, Y Y; Balbaa, M; Abdullah, I A; Hassan, H E

    2017-09-01

    fibrosis around portal areas were seen in hepatic tissues. In the testes, histopathological examination displayed disorganized seminiferous tubules with degeneration of germinal epithelium and Sertoli cells. Also, spermatogenic cells had pyknotic nuclei and others were detached from basement membranes of seminiferous tubules, edema was seen between seminiferous tubules. Moreover, the present data showed that MEN and DEN down-regulated the protein expression of both CYP19A1 and 21A2 in both livers and testes of male rabbits. In addition, both MEN and DEN decreased levels of testosterone and estradiol in plasma of treated rabbits. On the one hand, DMN and DPN markedly up-regulated the protein expression of CYP19A1 in both hepatic and testicular tissues of treated rabbits. These compounds potentially increased estradiol and decreased testosterone levels. On the other hand, no correlation was found between the expression of CYP11A1 and levels of both testosterone and estradiol. It is concluded that most of tested N-nitrosamines induce different changes, which could be a new mechanism of infertility due to exposure to N-nitrosamines from different environmental sources. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A Picture of Subsidized Households 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Picture of Subsidized Households describes the nearly 5 million households living in HUD-subsidized housing in the United States for the year 2009. Picture 2009...

  4. Household Credit and Saving: Does Policy Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Lawrence

    2002-01-01

    This paper surveys the existing literature on the determinants of household savings and credit in developing countries and examines the ways in which macro-level policies might impact on household financial behaviour.

  5. Behavioral fever in newborn rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satinoff, E.; Mcewen, G. N., Jr.; Williams, B. A.

    1976-01-01

    New Zealand white rabbit pups aged 12 to 72 hr were divided into three groups and given an intraperitoneal injection of Pseudomonas polysaccharide, a saline vehicle alone, and no treatment, respectively. The animals injected with pyrogen and maintained at an ambient temperature of 32 C for 2 hr did not develop fever. When placed in a thermally graded alleyway, the animals injected with pyrogen selected gradient positions that represented significantly higher temperatures than controls injected with saline. Further stay at selected positions for 5 min caused a considerable increase in the rectal temperature of the pyrogen-injected pups but not that of controls. The results support the hypothesis that newborn rabbits will develop a fever by behavioral means after a single injection of an exogenous pyrogen if the opportunity for thermoregulatory behavior is present. No fever develops if the pups must rely solely on internal thermoregulatory mechanisms. The behavioral system for producing a fever is mature at birth, but an adequate system of internal reflexes does not appear to develop for some days.

  6. Household air pollution and its effects on health [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komalkirti Apte

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Household air pollution is a leading cause of disability-adjusted life years in Southeast Asia and the third leading cause of disability-adjusted life years globally. There are at least sixty sources of household air pollution, and these vary from country to country. Indoor tobacco smoking, construction material used in building houses, fuel used for cooking, heating and lighting, use of incense and various forms of mosquito repellents, use of pesticides and chemicals used for cleaning at home, and use of artificial fragrances are some of the various sources that contribute to household air pollution. Household air pollution affects all stages of life with multi-systemic health effects, and its effects are evident right from pre-conception to old age. In utero exposure to household air pollutants has been shown to have health effects which resonate over the entire lifetime. Exposures to indoor air pollutants in early childhood also tend to have repercussions throughout life. The respiratory system bears the maximum brunt, but effects on the cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and nervous system are largely underplayed. Household air pollutants have also been implicated in the development of various types of cancers. Identifying household air pollutants and their health implications helps us prepare for various health-related issues. However, the real challenge is adopting changes to reduce the health effects of household air pollution and designing innovative interventions to minimize the risk of further exposure. This review is an attempt to understand the various sources of household air pollution, the effects on health, and strategies to deal with this emergent risk factor of global mortality and morbidity.

  7. Characterization of household food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, C.; Scheutz, Charlotte

    to the household food waste were avoidable vegetable food waste and non-avoidable vegetable food waste. Statistical analysis found a positive linear relationship between household size and the amount of the household food waste.......This paper presents a methodology and the results of compositional analysis of food waste from Danish families living in single-family houses. Residual household waste was sampled and manually sorted from 211 single-family houses in the suburb of Copenhagen. The main fractions contributing...

  8. Peanut protein in household dust is related to household peanut consumption and is biologically active.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brough, Helen A; Santos, Alexandra F; Makinson, Kerry; Penagos, Martin; Stephens, Alick C; Douiri, Abdel; Fox, Adam T; Du Toit, George; Turcanu, Victor; Lack, Gideon

    2013-09-01

    Peanut allergy is an important public health concern. To understand the pathogenesis of peanut allergy, we need to determine the route by which children become sensitized. A dose-response between household peanut consumption (HPC; used as an indirect marker of environmental peanut exposure) and the development of peanut allergy has been observed; however, environmental peanut exposure was not directly quantified. We sought to explore the relationship between reported HPC and peanut protein levels in an infant's home environment and to determine the biological activity of environmental peanut. Peanut protein was quantified in wipe and dust samples collected from 45 homes with infants by using a polyclonal peanut ELISA. Environmental peanut protein levels were compared with peanut consumption assessed by using a validated peanut food frequency questionnaire and other clinical and household factors. Biological activity of peanut protein in dust was assessed with a basophil activation assay. There was a positive correlation between peanut protein levels in the infant's bed, crib rail, and play area and reported HPC over 1 and 6 months. On multivariate regression analysis, HPC was the most important variable associated with peanut protein levels in the infant's bed sheet and play area. Dust samples containing high peanut protein levels induced dose-dependent activation of basophils in children with peanut allergy. We have shown that an infant's environmental exposure to peanut is most likely to be due to HPC. Peanut protein in dust is biologically active and should be assessed as a route of possible early peanut sensitization in infants. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Using light and melatonin in the management of New Zealand White rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Mousa-Balabel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lighting system is a stimulant for reproduction in some species (Horses and an inhibitor for others (Sheep. This study started on September 1st and planned to study the effects of different lighting regimes and melatonin treatment on the receptivity and performance of 78 (60-does and 18-bucks New Zealand White rabbits, which were reared in a private Rabbitary in Menuofia Governorate, Egypt. These rabbits were randomly assigned to six treatment groups of 10 does and three bucks for each (8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 hours light (HL and melatonin- treated. Ejaculate traits, sexual activity of bucks, sexual receptivity and reproductive performance of does were recorded. Results revealed that exposure of rabbits to long photoperiods (14 and 16HL or treatment with melatonin improved the quantity and quality of ejaculate traits and buck sexual activity. Moreover, does sexual receptivity, feed intake, litter size and weight at birth and weaning were increased by long photoperiods (14 and 16HL or treatment with melatonin. On the other hand, gestation period and pre-weaning mortality rate were decreased. It can be concluded that application of long photoperiods is beneficial to rabbit producers and 14 HL : 10 hours dark is optimal for satisfying the biological requirements of the rabbits. Finally, the light schedules can be used for biostimulation instead of melatonin.

  10. Household metabolism in European countries and cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, R.; Falkena, H.J.; Benders, R.M.J.; Moll, H.C.; Noorman, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    The concept of household metabolism was applied to enhance the understanding of the environmental impacts of household consumption in cities during the second phase of the ToolSust project. The household metabolism in four European cities was determined in terms of total energy requirements,

  11. Division of household tasks and financial management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonides, G.

    2011-01-01

    Both the standard economic model and bargaining theory make predictions about financial management and the division of household labor between household partners. Using a large Internet survey, we have tested several predictions about task divisions reported by Dutch household partners. The division

  12. Fairness judgments in household decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonides, G.; Kroft, M.

    2005-01-01

    The behavioral economic study of fairness was applied to household decision making. A sample of household partners judged the fairness of a number of hypothetical decisions of a household partner, varying in the context of the decision. Decisions made by the partner to make a large personal

  13. Spending time and money within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Gørtz, Mette

    We consider theoretically and empirically the allocation of time and money within the household. The novelty of our empirical work is that we have a survey which provides information on both time use and the allocation of some goods within the household, for the same households. We can consider...

  14. Does participatory forest management change household attitudes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The study assessed the impact of participatory forest management (PFM) on household attitudes towards conservation and management of Arabuko–Sokoke Forest. The results obtained show that the impact of the forest on households was positive and higher in households in PFM zones than in those in non-PFM zones.

  15. 7 CFR 273.1 - Household concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Household concept. 273.1 Section 273.1 Agriculture... FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM CERTIFICATION OF ELIGIBLE HOUSEHOLDS § 273.1 Household concept... under 22 years of age who is living with his or her natural or adoptive parent(s) or step-parent(s); and...

  16. Substitution between cars within the household

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Borger, B.; Mulalic, I.; Rouwendal, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars of different fuel efficiency in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate - for each car owned by the household

  17. Household Consumption, Investment and Life Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Kenneth; Steffensen, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a continuous-time Markov model for utility optimization of households. The household optimizes expected future utility from consumption by controlling consumption, investments and purchase of lifeinsurance for each person in the household. The optimal controls are investigated...

  18. Clinical Application of Cone Beam Computed Tomography of the Rabbit Head: Part 2-Dental Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, G G; Cissell, Derek D; Arzi, Boaz; Hatcher, David C; Kass, Philip H; Zhen, Amy; Verstraete, Frank J M

    2017-01-01

    Domestic rabbits are increasing in popularity as household pets; therefore, veterinarians need to be familiar with the most common diseases afflicting rabbits including dental disease. Current diagnostic approaches include gross oral examination, endoscopic oral examination, skull radiography, and computed tomography (CT). Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), a new oral and maxillofacial imaging modality that has the capability to produce high-resolution images, has not yet been described for use in evaluating dental disease in rabbits. A total of 15 client-owned rabbits had CBCT, oral examination, dental charting, and dental treatment performed under general anesthesia. Images were evaluated using transverse and custom multiplanar (MPR), 3D, and panoramic reconstructed images. The CBCT findings were grouped into abnormalities that could be detected on conscious oral examination vs. abnormalities that could not be detected by conscious oral examination. Potential associations between the two categories were examined by pairwise Fisher's exact test with statistical significance determined by P malocclusion (13/15), apical elongation (13/15), coronal elongation (12/15), inflammatory tooth resorption (12/15), periapical lucency (11/15), moth-eaten pattern of osteolysis of the alveolar bone (9/15), ventral mandibular border contour changes (9/15), and missing teeth (8/15). Of the CBCT abnormalities likely to be observed on oral examination, coronal elongation (detectable on oral examination) was significantly associated with apical elongation (P = 0.029). There were no other significant associations between CBCT findings that are also clinically detectable and CBCT findings that are not be detectable on oral examination. This suggests that pathology often exists that is not apparent upon oral examination. This study establishes the common CBCT findings associated with dental disease in rabbits and demonstrates the feasibility of this technology to diagnose and

  19. Multiple Introductions of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis into Households, Lima, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Megan; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Zhang, Zibiao; Sloutsky, Alexander; Arteaga, Fernando; Chalco, Katiuska; Franke, Molly F.; Becerra, Mercedes C.

    2011-01-01

    Two cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) in a household are assumed to reflect within-household transmission. However, in high-incidence areas of MDR TB, secondary cases may arise through exposure to MDR TB in the community. To estimate the frequency of multiple introductions of MDR TB into households, we used spoligotyping and 24-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit–variable number tandem repeats to classify isolates from 101 households in Lima, Peru, in which >1 MDR TB patient received treatment during 1996–2004. We found different MDR TB strains in >10% of households. Alternate approaches for classifying matching strains produced estimates of multiple introductions in <38% of households. At least 4% of MDR TB patients were reinfected by a second strain of MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These findings suggest that community exposure to MDR TB in Lima occurs frequently. Rapid drug sensitivity testing of strains from household contacts of known MDR TB patients is needed to identify optimal treatment regimens. PMID:21749756

  20. Parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the most important parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares, which harmful effect in this animal population is manifested as a gradual weakening of the immune system, reduction in fertility, weight loss and constant exhaustion. Order of Lagomorpha (hares or lagomorphs belongs to superorder of higher mammals which includes the family of rabbits (Leporidae which are represented in Europe as well as the family of whistleblowers (Ochotonidae which live only in North America and Northern regions of Asia. The most important representatives of Leporidae family are European hare (Lepus europeus and wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The most important endoparasitosis of hares and wild rabbits are: coccidiosis, encephalitozoonosis (nosemosis, toxoplasmosis, sarcocystosis, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, protostrongylosis, trichostrngylodosis, passalurosis, anoplocephalidosis, cysticercosis and fasciolosis. The most frequent ectoparasites of rabbits and wild hares are fleas, lice and ticks. Reduction in hare population, which is noticed in whole Europe including Serbia, is caused by changed living conditions, quantitatively and qualitatively insufficient nutrition, increased use of herbicides as well as various infectious diseases and the diseases of parasitic etiology. Since wild rabbits and hares pose a threat to health of domestic rabbits and people, knowledge of parasitic fauna of these wild animals is of extreme epizootiological and epidemiological importance.

  1. Welfare aspects in rabbit rearing and transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Cavani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The review starts with the description of the rabbits’ (Oryctolagus cuniculus main habits and the current situation concerning the rabbit husbandry and management systems, as well as their effects on the welfare of these animals. As far as the intensive rabbit husbandry systems are concerned, the main problems are related to the time since rabbits have been domesticated and their adaptive capacity and coping styles as respects the farming environment and management systems. Both these aspects have implications in the present and future of rabbit rearing for different purposes. Examples are given on the effects of different housing and management systems on rabbit welfare, as well as examples of the ethological, physiological and productive indicators used to evaluate these effects. Transportation and, more generally, preslaughter phases including catching, fasting and lairage at the abattoir are considered major stressors for farmed rabbits and might have deleterious effects on health, well-being, performance, and finally, product quality. A general statement of the recent scientific studies considering the effects of pre-slaughter factors on physiological and productive measurements are reported. Finally, some indications in order to improve rabbit welfare, already present at the European level, are also outlined, together with the European Food Safety Authority opinions.

  2. Pneumonic Tularemia in Rabbits Resembles the Human Disease as Illustrated by Radiographic and Hematological Changes after Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Douglas S.; Smith, Le'Kneitah; Dunsmore, Tammy; Trichel, Anita; Ortiz, Luis A.; Cole, Kelly Stefano; Barry, Eileen

    2011-01-01

    Background Pneumonic tularemia is caused by inhalation of the gram negative bacterium, Francisella tularensis. Because of concerns that tularemia could be used as a bioterrorism agent, vaccines and therapeutics are urgently needed. Animal models of pneumonic tularemia with a pathophysiology similar to the human disease are needed to evaluate the efficacy of these potential medical countermeasures. Principal Findings Rabbits exposed to aerosols containing Francisella tularensis strain SCHU S4 developed a rapidly progressive fatal pneumonic disease. Clinical signs became evident on the third day after exposure with development of a fever (>40.5°C) and a sharp decline in both food and water intake. Blood samples collected on day 4 found lymphopenia and a decrease in platelet counts coupled with elevations in erythrocyte sedimentation rate, alanine aminotransferase, cholesterol, granulocytes and monocytes. Radiographs demonstrated the development of pneumonia and abnormalities of intestinal gas consistent with ileus. On average, rabbits were moribund 5.1 days after exposure; no rabbits survived exposure at any dose (190–54,000 cfu). Gross evaluation of tissues taken at necropsy showed evidence of pathology in the lungs, spleen, liver, kidney and intestines. Bacterial counts confirmed bacterial dissemination from the lungs to the liver and spleen. Conclusions/Significance The pathophysiology of pneumonic tularemia in rabbits resembles what has been reported for humans. Rabbits therefore are a relevant model of the human disease caused by type A strains of F. tularensis. PMID:21931798

  3. Pneumonic tularemia in rabbits resembles the human disease as illustrated by radiographic and hematological changes after infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas S Reed

    Full Text Available Pneumonic tularemia is caused by inhalation of the gram negative bacterium, Francisella tularensis. Because of concerns that tularemia could be used as a bioterrorism agent, vaccines and therapeutics are urgently needed. Animal models of pneumonic tularemia with a pathophysiology similar to the human disease are needed to evaluate the efficacy of these potential medical countermeasures.Rabbits exposed to aerosols containing Francisella tularensis strain SCHU S4 developed a rapidly progressive fatal pneumonic disease. Clinical signs became evident on the third day after exposure with development of a fever (>40.5°C and a sharp decline in both food and water intake. Blood samples collected on day 4 found lymphopenia and a decrease in platelet counts coupled with elevations in erythrocyte sedimentation rate, alanine aminotransferase, cholesterol, granulocytes and monocytes. Radiographs demonstrated the development of pneumonia and abnormalities of intestinal gas consistent with ileus. On average, rabbits were moribund 5.1 days after exposure; no rabbits survived exposure at any dose (190-54,000 cfu. Gross evaluation of tissues taken at necropsy showed evidence of pathology in the lungs, spleen, liver, kidney and intestines. Bacterial counts confirmed bacterial dissemination from the lungs to the liver and spleen.The pathophysiology of pneumonic tularemia in rabbits resembles what has been reported for humans. Rabbits therefore are a relevant model of the human disease caused by type A strains of F. tularensis.

  4. Pneumonic tularemia in rabbits resembles the human disease as illustrated by radiographic and hematological changes after infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Douglas S; Smith, Le'kneitah; Dunsmore, Tammy; Trichel, Anita; Ortiz, Luis A; Cole, Kelly Stefano; Barry, Eileen

    2011-01-01

    Pneumonic tularemia is caused by inhalation of the gram negative bacterium, Francisella tularensis. Because of concerns that tularemia could be used as a bioterrorism agent, vaccines and therapeutics are urgently needed. Animal models of pneumonic tularemia with a pathophysiology similar to the human disease are needed to evaluate the efficacy of these potential medical countermeasures. Rabbits exposed to aerosols containing Francisella tularensis strain SCHU S4 developed a rapidly progressive fatal pneumonic disease. Clinical signs became evident on the third day after exposure with development of a fever (>40.5°C) and a sharp decline in both food and water intake. Blood samples collected on day 4 found lymphopenia and a decrease in platelet counts coupled with elevations in erythrocyte sedimentation rate, alanine aminotransferase, cholesterol, granulocytes and monocytes. Radiographs demonstrated the development of pneumonia and abnormalities of intestinal gas consistent with ileus. On average, rabbits were moribund 5.1 days after exposure; no rabbits survived exposure at any dose (190-54,000 cfu). Gross evaluation of tissues taken at necropsy showed evidence of pathology in the lungs, spleen, liver, kidney and intestines. Bacterial counts confirmed bacterial dissemination from the lungs to the liver and spleen. The pathophysiology of pneumonic tularemia in rabbits resembles what has been reported for humans. Rabbits therefore are a relevant model of the human disease caused by type A strains of F. tularensis.

  5. Household Clearances in Victorian Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Trotter

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The deathbed apart, there are few scenes more profoundly disturbing in nineteenth-century fiction than the household clearance, or the process of 'selling up': the identification of domestic material goods for sale at auction, either in situ, or elsewhere. Of course, we shouldn't be surprised at this, if the Victorians took the idea of home anything like as seriously as they made out. How could such a violation or wilful sacrifice of domesticity not be profoundly disturbing? This essay argues that scenes of household clearance in nineteenth-century fiction possess a density and an edge which exceed any shock they might have administered to the sensibilities of the house-proud. Such scenes expose to critical view an aspect of existence otherwise generally understood, then as now, not to require or to benefit from illumination. The aims of the essay are twofold: 1 to demonstrate the pervasiveness of scenes of household clearance in Victorian fiction, with reference to Dickens, Thackeray, Eliot, Hardy, and others; 2 to put forward an explanation for the imaginative charge they carry, which runs counter to a strong emphasis in the current understanding of nineteenth-century fiction's perspective on a newly abundant material culture.

  6. Benign Rabbit Calicivirus in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Leila J; Mahar, Jackie E; Strive, Tanja; Zheng, Tao; Holmes, Edward C; Ward, Vernon K; Duckworth, Janine A

    2017-06-01

    The Czech v351 strain of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV1) is used in Australia and New Zealand as a biological control agent for rabbits, which are important and damaging introduced vertebrate pests in these countries. However, nonpathogenic rabbit caliciviruses (RCVs) can provide partial immunological cross-protection against lethal RHDV infection and thus interfere with effective rabbit biocontrol. Antibodies that cross-reacted against RHDV antigens were found in wild rabbits before the release of RHDV1 in New Zealand in 1997, suggesting that nonpathogenic RCVs were already present in New Zealand. The aim of this study was to confirm the presence of nonpathogenic RCV in New Zealand and describe its geographical distribution. RCV and RHDV antibody assays were used to screen serum samples from 350 wild rabbits from 14 locations in New Zealand. The serological survey indicated that both RCV and RHDV are widespread in New Zealand wild rabbits, with antibodies detected in 10 out of 14 and 12 out of 14 populations, respectively. Two closely related RCV strains were identified in the duodenal tissue from a New Zealand wild rabbit (RCV Gore-425A and RCV Gore-425B). Both variants are most closely related to Australian RCV strains, but with 88% nucleotide identity, they are genetically distinct. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the New Zealand RCV strains fall within the genetic diversity of the Australian RCV isolates, indicating a relatively recent movement of RCVs between Australia and New Zealand. IMPORTANCE Wild rabbits are important and damaging introduced vertebrate pests in Australia and New Zealand. Although RHDV1 is used as a biological control agent, some nonpathogenic RCVs can provide partial immunological cross-protection against lethal RHDV infection and thus interfere with its effectiveness for rabbit control. The presence of nonpathogenic RCVs in New Zealand wild rabbits has been long hypothesized, but earlier attempts to isolate a New Zealand

  7. A Review of Rabbit Diseases in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed A Mohammed

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Promising approaches of the Egyptian governmental as well as non-governmental society to rabbit industry to overcome the unemployment of youth in the society required more efforts from scientific institutes to help in development of such industry. Epidemiological studies are of outmost importance to highlight disease nature and to help in meantime implement of successful preventive and control measures. The aim of this paper is to review the situation of rabbit diseases of economic impact in Egypt (1952 to 2013. The review will highlight the viral infection of rabbit hemorrhagic disease, bacterial disease of colibacillosis, clostridiosis, salmonellosis, pasteurellosis, staphylococcosis and listeriosis and parasitic infection of coccidiosis and mange.

  8. Effects of GSM-like radiofrequency on distortion product otoacoustic emissions of rabbits: comparison of infants versus adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budak, Gürer G; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Budak, Bilgehan; Oztürk, Göknur Güler; Apan, Alpaslan; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the potential hazardous effects of 1800 MHz Global System for Mobile Communications-like (GSM-like) Radiofrequency (RF) exposure on the cochlear functions of female infant and adult rabbits by measuring Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emission (DPOAE) response amplitudes. Eighteen each one-month-old New Zealand White female rabbits and eighteen each 13-month-old adult rabbits were included into the study. They were randomly divided into four groups. Nine infant rabbits (Group 1) were not exposed to 1800 MHz GSM-like RF (Infant Control, C-In). Nine infant rabbits (Group 2) were exposed to 1800 MHz GSM-like RF, 15 min daily for 7 days after they reached one-month of age (Infant RF, RF-In). Nine adult rabbits were not exposed to 1800 MHz GSM-like RF, 15 min daily for 7 (Adult Control, C-Ad). Nine adult rabbits were exposed to 1800 MHz GSM-like RF, 15 min daily for 7 days (Adult RF, RF-Ad). Cochlear functions were assessed by DPOAEs at 1.0-8.0 kHz. At 1.0-2.0 and 6.0 kHz, the mean DPOAE values of Group 2 were significantly higher than that of Group 1. At 3.0-8.0 kHz, the mean DPOAE values of Group 4 were significantly lower than that of Group 1. At 6.0-8.0 kHz, the mean DPOAE values of Group 2 were significantly higher than that of Group 3. At 1.0-8.0 kHz, the mean DPOAE values of Group 4 were significantly lower than that of Group 2. At 1.0-8.0 kHz, the mean DPOAE values of Group 4 were significantly lower than that of Group 3. Harmful effects of GSM-like 1800 MHz RF exposure was detected more in the adult female rabbits than infant female rabbits by DPOAE measurement. Prolonged exposure and hyperthermia related to the power density of applied RFR, increasing the temperature in the ear canal, may decrease the DPOAE amplitudes. Water containing medium in the middle ear of infant rabbits may play the protective role **from the RF damage.

  9. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Bacillus anthracis Spore Deposition in Rabbit and Human Respiratory Airways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabilan, Senthil; Suffield, Sarah R.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Jacob, Rick E.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Carson, James P.; Colby, Sean M.; Saunders, James H.; Hines, Stephanie; Teeguarden, Justin G.; Straub, Tim M.; Moe, M.; Taft, Sarah; Corley, Richard A.

    2016-09-30

    Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics and Lagrangian particle deposition models were developed to compare the deposition of aerosolized Bacillus anthracis spores in the respiratory airways of a human with that of the rabbit, a species commonly used in the study of anthrax disease. The respiratory airway geometries for each species were derived from computed tomography (CT) or µCT images. Both models encompassed airways that extended from the external nose to the lung with a total of 272 outlets in the human model and 2878 outlets in the rabbit model. All simulations of spore deposition were conducted under transient, inhalation-exhalation breathing conditions using average species-specific minute volumes. The highest exposure concentration was modeled in the rabbit based upon prior acute inhalation studies. For comparison, human simulation was also conducted at the same concentration. Results demonstrated that regional spore deposition patterns were sensitive to airway geometry and ventilation profiles. Due to the complex airway geometries in the rabbit nose, higher spore deposition efficiency was predicted in the upper conducting airways compared to the human at the same air concentration of anthrax spores. As a result, higher particle deposition was predicted in the conducting airways and deep lung of the human compared to the rabbit lung due to differences in airway branching pattern. This information can be used to refine published and ongoing biokinetic models of inhalation anthrax spore exposures, which currently estimate deposited spore concentrations based solely upon exposure concentrations and inhaled doses that do not factor in species-specific anatomy and physiology.

  10. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Developmental toxicity of chloroprene vapors in New Zealand white rabbits. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Westerberg, R.B.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.

    1994-04-01

    Chloroprene, 2-chloro-1,3-butadiene, is a colorless liquid with a pungent ethereal odor that is primarily used as an intermediate in the manufacture of neoprene rubber, and has been used as such since about 1930. This study addressed the potential for chloroprene to cause developmental toxicity in New Zealand white rabbits following gestational exposure to 0, 10, 40, or 175 ppm chloroprene vapors, 6h/dy, 7dy/wk. Each treatment group consisted of 15 artificially inseminated females exposed on 6 through 28 days of gestation (dg). Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice on 29 dg. Implants were enumerated and their status recorded and live fetuses were examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. There were no overt signs of maternal toxicity and the change in maternal body weight over the course of the study was not affected. Exposure of pregnant rabbits to chloroprene vapors on 6-28 dg had no effect on the number of implantation, the mean percent of live pups per litter, or on the incidence of resorptions per litter. The incidence of fetal malformations was not increased by exposure to chloroprene. Results of this study indicate that gestational exposure of New Zealand white rabbits to 10, 40, or 175 ppm chloroprene did not result in observable toxicity to either the dam or the offspring.

  11. Rabbit muscle proteomics: a great leap forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, André Martinho

    2013-08-01

    The rabbit is an important species as both a production animal and as a model organism in physiology, pharmaceutical, and numerous other studies. Similar to other species, the rabbit skeletal muscle proteome has been characterized, first using 2DE mapping and more recently using high-throughput shotgun proteomics. This article is a commentary on "Shotgun proteomics analysis of the sarcoplasmic reticulum preparations from rabbit skeletal muscle" (Z. Liu et al., Proteomics, 2013, 13, 2335-2338). Herein, we present the reasons why the manuscript is of high relevance to three major fields: farm animal, rabbit, and muscle/meat proteomics. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. TOXIC EFFECTS OF CYPERMETHRIN IN FEMALE RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. ULLAH, M. AHMAD, N. AHMAD, M. Z. KHAN1 AND I. AHMAD

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to explore the fetotoxic effects of cypermethrin (CY in female rabbits with low and high doses. For this purpose, 32 adult female rabbits were divided in to four equal groups A, B, C and D. Rabbits of groups A, B and C were treated with different levels of CY at the dose rate of 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally, while the group D served as a control and was given equal volume of normal saline intraperitoneally. The clinical signs exhibited by the rabbits treated with CY included salivation, licking of different body parts, muscular tremors, ataxia and convulsions. There was a significant difference in the numbers of CL and number of fetuses which mean the early embryonic death and post implantation loses at the high dose. There were microscopic changes in the ovaries and uteri of animals treated with CY.

  13. Knowledge of reproduction management practices among rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty-four (44) commercial rabbit farmers from two urban centers (Abeokuta and Ijebu-Ode) in Ogun State were studied in this research. Majority (63.64%) are small-scale farmers with a stock size of between 20 and 50 animals. About 27% of the farmers have a stock size of 52-100 rabbits while only 9.09% have a stock size ...

  14. INFECTIOUS MYXOMATOSIS (SANARELLI) IN PREGNANT RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprunt, Douglas H.

    1932-01-01

    Pregnancy in rabbits alters the reactivity of the tissues to the virus of infectious myxomatosis. The livers of pregnant animals with the myxoma have a central acidophilic necrosis. Secondary lesions in the lungs are much more numerous and larger in the pregnant than in the non-gravid animals. In like manner the lesions in the spleen are more extensive in the pregnant rabbit. On the other hand the skin lesions of the pregnant animal are decreased in size. PMID:19870088

  15. Evaluation of the effect of cigarette smoking on the olfactory neuroepithelium of New Zealand white rabbit, using scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskander, Nagi M; El-Hennawi, Diaa M; Yousef, Tarek F; El-Tabbakh, Mohammed T; Elnahriry, Tarek A

    2017-06-01

    To detect ultra-structural changes of Rabbit's olfactory neuro-epithelium using scanning electron microscope after exposure to cigarette smoking. Sixty six rabbits (Pathogen free New Zealand white rabbits weighing 1-1.5 kg included in the study were randomly assigned into one of three groups: control group did not expose to cigarette smoking, study group 1 was exposed to cigarette smoking for 3 months and study group 2 was exposed to cigarette smoking 3 months and then stopped for 2 months. Olfactory neuro-epithelium from all rabbits were dissected and examined under Philips XL-30 scanning electron microscope. Changes that were found in the rabbits of study group 1 in comparison to control group were loss of microvilli of sustentacular cells (p = 0.016) and decreases in distribution of specialized cilia of olfactory receptor cells (p = 0.046). Also respiratory metaplasia was detected. These changes were reversible in study group 2. Cigarette smoking causes ultra-structural changes in olfactory neuro-epithelium which may explain why smell was affected in cigarette smokers. Most of these changes were reversible after 45 days of cessation of cigarette smoking to the rabbits.

  16. Exposure to household pesticide use among children in rural, urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-03-01

    Mar 1, 2009 ... wood or corrugated iron with cardboard and paper insulation. Lights were provided in open areas, but no legal electricity was available in the shacks, and paraffin was predominantly used for cooking. Free-standing toilet facilities and refuse collection were provided by the local authorities in both informal.

  17. Encephalitozoon cuniculi in rabbits: Serological screening and histopathological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestrini, Giovanni; Ricci, Emanuele; Cantile, Carlo; Mannella, Riccardo; Mancianti, Francesca; Paci, Gisella; D'Ascenzi, Carlo; Perrucci, Stefania

    2017-02-01

    Serological prevalence of E. cuniculi infection was assessed in 183 rabbits from central Italy. In seropositive deceased rabbits, histopathological lesions were also evaluated. Sera from 118 rabbits from 6 intensive farms, 10 rabbits from 6 family farms, 16 rabbits from a zoo, 30 rabbits from 5 research laboratories and 9 pet rabbits from 9 different owners, were tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data were statistically analysed. Tissue samples from brain and kidney of 10 deceased rabbits were formalin-fixed and subsequently analysed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Anti-E. cuniculi antibodies were found in 129/183 (70.5%) analysed sera. At statistical analysis, E. cuniculi seropositivity was significantly higher (prabbits. At histology, different degrees of pathological lesions were found in serological positive (9) deceased animals. In three rabbits deceased after showing neurological signs, the severity of the lesions was interpreted as a likely cause for their death. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Endotoxemia accelerates diaphragm dysfunction in ventilated rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Yu, Tao; Pan, Chun; Longhini, Federico; Liu, Ling; Huang, Yingzi; Guo, Fengmei; Qiu, Haibo

    2016-12-01

    Ventilators may induce diaphragm dysfunction, and most of the septic population who are admitted to the intensive care unit require mechanical ventilation. However, there is no evidence that sepsis accelerates the onset of ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction or affects the microcirculation. Our study investigated whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia accelerated diaphragm dysfunction in ventilated rabbits by evaluating microcirculation, lipid accumulation, and diaphragm contractility. After anesthesia and tracheostomy, 25 invasively monitored and mechanically ventilated New Zealand white rabbits were randomized to control (n = 5), controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) (n = 5), pressure support ventilation (PSV; n = 5), CMV or PSV with LPS-induced endotoxemia (CMV-LPS and PSV-LPS, respectively; n = 5 for each). Rabbits were anesthetized and ventilated for 24 h, except the control rabbits (30 min). Diaphragmatic contractility was evaluated using neuromechanical and neuroventilatory efficiency. We evaluated the following at the end of the protocol: (1) diaphragm microcirculation; (2) lipid accumulation; and (3) diaphragm muscular fibers structure. Diaphragm contractility, microcirculation, lipid accumulation, and fiber structures were severely compromised in endotoxemic animals after 24 h compared to nonendotoxemic rabbits. Moreover, a slight but significant increase in lipid accumulation was observed in CMV and PSV groups compared with controls (P rabbits, affects the microcirculation, and results in diaphragmatic lipid accumulation and contractility impairment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Light colour preference of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Szendrő

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the light colour preference of growing rabbits placed in a free-choice cage. The experiment was carried out on 128 Pannon White growing rabbits weaned at the age of 5 weeks and placed into blocks (2m2 of four cages. The rabbits could move freely among the four cages (0.5m2 each through swing doors. The cages differed only in the colour of the light applied (white, yellow, green or blue. The lighting schedule was 16L: 8D. From 6 until 10 weeks of age, infrared video recording was performed once a week (24 hours. The number of rabbits in each cage was counted every 15 minutes. Feed consumption was measured weekly. Between 6 and 10 weeks of age the rabbits significantly preferred white light (28.0%. The preference order was the following: yellow (26.3%, blue (23.4% and green (22.3% (P<0.001. No significant differences were recorded in the feed consumption among the cages. In conclusion, the cage preference of the rabbits was slightly affected by the light colour.

  20. Household routines and obesity in US preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sarah E; Whitaker, Robert C

    2010-03-01

    To determine the association between the prevalence of obesity in preschool-aged children and exposure to 3 household routines: regularly eating the evening meal as a family, obtaining adequate sleep, and limiting screen-viewing time. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative sample of approximately 8550 four-year-old US children who were assessed in 2005 in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort. Height and weight were measured. We assessed the association of childhood obesity (BMI > or = 95th percentile) with 3 household routines: regularly eating the evening meal as a family (>5 nights per week); obtaining adequate nighttime sleep on weekdays (> or =10.5 hours per night); and having limited screen-viewing (television, video, digital video disk) time on weekdays (routines, and 12.4% were exposed to none of the routines. The prevalence of obesity was 14.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.3%-17.2%) among children exposed to all 3 routines and 24.5% (95% CI: 20.1%-28.9%) among those exposed to none of the routines. After adjusting for covariates, the odds of obesity associated with exposure to all 3, any 2, or only 1 routine (compared with none) were 0.63 (95% CI: 0.46-0.87), 0.64 (95% CI: 0.47-0.85), and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.63-1.12), respectively. US preschool-aged children exposed to the 3 household routines of regularly eating the evening meal as a family, obtaining adequate nighttime sleep, and having limited screen-viewing time had an approximately 40% lower prevalence of obesity than those exposed to none of these routines. These household routines may be promising targets for obesity-prevention efforts in early childhood.

  1. Enhanced inflammation in New Zealand white rabbits when MERS-CoV reinfection occurs in the absence of neutralizing antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Katherine V; Broadbent, Andrew J; Gretebeck, Lisa; Vogel, Leatrice; Lamirande, Elaine W; Sutton, Troy; Bock, Kevin W; Minai, Mahnaz; Orandle, Marlene; Moore, Ian N; Subbarao, Kanta

    2017-08-01

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a zoonotic betacoronavirus that was first detected in humans in 2012 as a cause of severe acute respiratory disease. As of July 28, 2017, there have been 2,040 confirmed cases with 712 reported deaths. While many infections have been fatal, there have also been a large number of mild or asymptomatic cases discovered through monitoring and contact tracing. New Zealand white rabbits are a possible model for asymptomatic infection with MERS-CoV. In order to discover more about non-lethal infections and to learn whether a single infection with MERS-CoV would protect against reinfection, we inoculated rabbits with MERS-CoV and monitored the antibody and inflammatory response. Following intranasal infection, rabbits developed a transient dose-dependent pulmonary infection with moderately high levels of viral RNA, viral antigen, and perivascular inflammation in multiple lung lobes that was not associated with clinical signs. The rabbits developed antibodies against viral proteins that lacked neutralizing activity and the animals were not protected from reinfection. In fact, reinfection resulted in enhanced pulmonary inflammation, without an associated increase in viral RNA titers. Interestingly, passive transfer of serum from previously infected rabbits to naïve rabbits was associated with enhanced inflammation upon infection. We further found this inflammation was accompanied by increased recruitment of complement proteins compared to primary infection. However, reinfection elicited neutralizing antibodies that protected rabbits from subsequent viral challenge. Our data from the rabbit model suggests that people exposed to MERS-CoV who fail to develop a neutralizing antibody response, or persons whose neutralizing antibody titers have waned, may be at risk for severe lung disease on re-exposure to MERS-CoV.

  2. Fuel choices in urban Indian households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farsi, Mehdi; Filippini, Massimo [Centre for Energy Policy and Economics, Department of Management, Technology and Economics, ETH Zurich, Switzerland and Department of Economics, University of Lugano, (Switzerland); Pachauri, Shonali [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, A-2361, Laxenburg, (Austria)

    2007-12-15

    This paper applies an ordered discrete choice framework to model fuel choices and patterns of cooking fuel use in urban Indian households. The choices considered are for three main cooking fuels: firewood, kerosene, and LPG (liquid petroleum gas). The models, estimated using a large microeconomic dataset, show a reasonably good performance in the prediction of households' primary and secondary fuel choices. This suggests that ordered models can be used to analyze multiple fuel use patterns in the Indian context. The results show that lack of sufficient income is one of the main factors that retard households from using cleaner fuels, which usually also require the purchase of relatively expensive equipment. The results also indicate that households are sensitive to LPG prices. In addition to income and price, several socio-demographic factors such as education and sex of the head of the household are also found to be important in determining household fuel choice. (Author).

  3. Exploring family home food environments: Household resources needed to utilise weekly deliveries of free fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carty, Sophie A; Mainvil, Louise A; Coveney, John D

    2017-04-01

    An adapted ethnographic approach was used to explore household factors that influence family fruit and vegetable consumption when access and cost barriers are removed. 'Structural' barriers, such as food affordability and accessibility, are likely to influence fruit and vegetable consumption in disadvantaged households, but households may require additional resources (human and social) to increase consumption. Five low-income and five high-income households with children (N = 39 individuals) were observed in their home environment for three months. Including both advantaged and disadvantaged families allowed exploration of socioeconomic factors influencing these households. Each household received a free box of fresh fruit and vegetables each week for 10-12 weeks, delivered to their home, and were home-visited twice a week by a researcher (40+ hours per household). An inductive analysis of rich observational and discussion data revealed themes describing factors influencing household fruit and vegetable consumption. Household food cultures were dynamic and influenced by available resources. Even when free produce was delivered to homes, these households required human resource (personal drivers influenced by early life exposure and household dynamics) and external social networks to make use of them. When household finances and/or labour were limited, there was greater dependence on external organisations for tangible support. Even when structural barriers were removed, disadvantaged families needed a range of resources across the life course to improve eating behaviours, including sufficient, motivated and skilled labour and harmonious family relationships. Strategies targeting these households must consider structural, social, cultural and intra-familial influences on food choice. © 2016 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  4. Household reporting of childhood respiratory health and air pollution in rural Alaska Native communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desirae N. Ware

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Air pollution is an important contributor to respiratory disease in children. Objective: To examine associations between household reporting of childhood respiratory conditions and household characteristics related to air pollution in Alaska Native communities. Design: In-home surveys were administered in 2 rural regions of Alaska. The 12-month prevalence of respiratory conditions was summarized by region and age. Odds ratios (ORs were calculated to describe associations between respiratory health and household and air quality characteristics. Results: Household-reported respiratory health data were collected for 561 children in 328 households. In 1 region, 33.6% of children aged <5 years had a recent history of pneumonia and/or bronchitis. Children with these conditions were 2 times more likely to live in a wood-heated home, but these findings were imprecise. Resident concern with mould was associated with elevated prevalence of respiratory infections in children (ORs 1.6–2.5, while reported wheezing was associated with 1 or more smokers living in the household. Reported asthma in 1 region (7.6% was lower than national prevalence estimates. Conclusions: Findings suggest that there may be preventable exposures, including wood smoke and mould that affect childhood respiratory disease in these rural areas. Additional research is needed to quantify particulate matter 2.5 microns in aerodynamic diameter or less and mould exposures in these communities, and to objectively evaluate childhood respiratory health.

  5. Recent Trends in Household Financial Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Ana C.; Teles, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    This paper identifies general patterns of household financial behaviour for three groups of countries: The Early Financialisers, the Economic and Monetary Union Core and the Latecomers. Even though they stand in different positions as regards the development of their respective financial systems and household engagement with finance, there is a shared trend of growth of household debt and financial wealth, denoting common institutional changes across Europe and thus the systematic character o...

  6. Age-dependent effect of ozone on pulmonary eicosanoid metabolism in rabbits and rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnison, A.F.; Finkelstein, I.; Weideman, P.; Su, W.Y.; Sobo, M.; Schlesinger, R.B. (New York Univ. Medical Center, New York (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Acute exposures to ozone have previously been shown to cause quantitative changes in the spectrum of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites in lung lavage fluid. Since age appears to be an important variable in the toxicity of inhaled ozone, we investigated its effect on ozone-induced changes in pulmonary eicosanoid metabolism. Rats and rabbits ranging in age from neonates to young adults were exposed either to air or to 1 ppm ozone for 2 hr. Lung lavage fluid was collected within 1 hr following exposure and analyzed for its content of selected eicosanoids. In both species, there was a pronounced effect of age on ozone-induced pulmonary eicosanoid metabolism. Ozone-exposed animals at the youngest ages examined had severalfold greater amounts of two products of the cyclooxygenase pathway, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha), than did age-matched controls. This effect lessened and eventually disappeared as the animals grew toward adulthood. In rabbits, ozone also induced increases in 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha and thromboxane B2, but these changes were of lesser magnitude and evident only in the youngest rabbits exposed. There was no observed effect of ozone on lung lavage content of leukothriene B4. Indices of nonspecific pulmonary damage, i.e., protein concentration in lung lavage fluid and total number and viability of lavaged lung cells, were affected by ozone exposure, but not in an age-dependent manner that correlated with changes in pulmonary eicosanoid metabolism. In vitro ozone exposure of lung macrophages from naive rabbits of the same age range as those exposed in vivo demonstrated that ozone is capable of stimulating the elaboration of PGF2 alpha and especially PGE2. However, the increase in lavage fluid PGE2 and PGF2 alpha caused by ozone inhalation could not be attributed to macrophage metabolism conclusively.

  7. Protection of rabbits and immunodeficient mice against lethal poxvirus infections by human monoclonal antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Crickard

    Full Text Available Smallpox (variola virus is a bioweapon concern. Monkeypox is a growing zoonotic poxvirus threat. These problems have resulted in extensive efforts to develop potential therapeutics that can prevent or treat potentially lethal poxvirus infections in humans. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs against smallpox are a conservative approach to this problem, as the licensed human smallpox vaccine (vaccinia virus, VACV primarily works on the basis of protective antibody responses against smallpox. Fully human mAbs (hmAbs against vaccinia H3 (H3L and B5 (B5R, targeting both the mature virion (MV and extracellular enveloped virion (EV forms, have been developed as potential therapeutics for use in humans. Post-exposure prophylaxis was assessed in both murine and rabbit animal models. Therapeutic efficacy of the mAbs was assessed in three good laboratory practices (GLP studies examining severe combined immunodeficiency mice (SCID given a lethal VACV infection. Pre-exposure combination hmAb therapy provided significantly better protection against disease and death than either single hmAb or vaccinia immune globulin (VIG. Post-exposure combination mAb therapy provided significant protection against disease and death, and appeared to fully cure the VACV infection in ≥50% of SCID mice. Therapeutic efficacy was then assessed in two rabbit studies examining post-exposure hmAb prophylaxis against rabbitpox (RPXV. In the first study, rabbits were infected with RPVX and then provided hmAbs at 48 hrs post-infection, or 1 hr and 72 hrs post-infection. Rabbits in both groups receiving hmAbs were 100% protected from death. In the second rabbitpox study, 100% of animal treated with combination hmAb therapy and 100% of animals treated with anti-B5 hmAb were protected. These findings suggest that combination hmAb treatment may be effective at controlling smallpox disease in immunocompetent or immunodeficient humans.

  8. Smart Energy Management for Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja van Dam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to infer design-related insights and guidelines to improve the use and effectiveness of home energy management systems (HEMS. This was done through an empirical evaluation of the longitudinal effectiveness of these devices and an exploration of factors that influence their use and effectiveness. Three case studies executed with three different HEMS in households, a life cycle assessment (LCA on those three HEMS, as well as a reflection on the challenges of both researching and implementing HEMS in existing housing gave a comprehensive picture of the opportunities and barriers for HEMS. The research revealed five typical use patterns that emerged amongst households. It also revealed average energy savings of 7.8%, which however decreased in the follow-up that was conducted, and factors that may influence the use and effectiveness of HEMS. Nonetheless, the LCA calculations divulged that the HEMS can achieve net energy savings when taking their embedded energy into account. Problem statement The goal of reducing the energy consumption of existing housing formed the basis for this research. There are many facets to this energy consumption, including the characteristics of the house, its appliances, and the behaviours of its inhabitants. Because of this complexity, addressing only one of these facets is not effective in substantially reducing the overall energy consumption of households. This called for an interdisciplinary approach, merging the domains of design for sustainability, sustainable housing transformation and environmental psychology. In this thesis, HEMS were chosen as the intervention to address the various elements that contribute to household energy consumption, thereby functioning as a pivot. By giving feedback and/or helping manage consumption they can assist households in changing their behaviour and help save energy. However, in analysing literature on HEMS, four critique points

  9. Smart Energy Management for Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja van Dam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to infer design-related insights and guidelines to improve the use and effectiveness of home energy management systems (HEMS. This was done through an empirical evaluation of the longitudinal effectiveness of these devices and an exploration of factors that influence their use and effectiveness. Three case studies executed with three different HEMS in households, a life cycle assessment (LCA on those three HEMS, as well as a reflection on the challenges of both researching and implementing HEMS in existing housing gave a comprehensive picture of the opportunities and barriers for HEMS. The research revealed five typical use patterns that emerged amongst households. It also revealed average energy savings of 7.8%, which however decreased in the follow-up that was conducted, and factors that may influence the use and effectiveness of HEMS. Nonetheless, the LCA calculations divulged that the HEMS can achieve net energy savings when taking their embedded energy into account.Problem statementThe goal of reducing the energy consumption of existing housing formed the basis for this research. There are many facets to this energy consumption, including the characteristics of the house, its appliances, and the behaviours of its inhabitants. Because of this complexity, addressing only one of these facets is not effective in substantially reducing the overall energy consumption of households. This called for an interdisciplinary approach, merging the domains of design for sustainability, sustainable housing transformation and environmental psychology. In this thesis, HEMS were chosen as the intervention to address the various elements that contribute to household energy consumption, thereby functioning as a pivot. By giving feedback and/or helping manage consumption they can assist households in changing their behaviour and help save energy. However, in analysing literature on HEMS, four critique points

  10. Usage pattern of personal care products in California households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiangmei May; Bennett, Deborah H; Ritz, Beate; Cassady, Diana L; Lee, Kiyoung; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2010-11-01

    Given the concern over the potential for health risks associated with certain ingredients (e.g., phthalates) in personal care products, usage patterns of ∼30 types of personal care products (e.g., shampoo, sunscreen, fragrance, etc.) were collected in 604 California households through a telephone interview. Preferences in selecting products, e.g., scented or unscented, aerosol, and brand loyalty, were also investigated. Participants were recruited in three age groups, children (mostly preschoolers), their parents, and adults age 55 or older. Use frequencies of various product types varied by sex, age group, race, education, and climatic region. Product use by parent and child from the same household were correlated. Use frequencies of products in the same class (e.g., skincare) were moderately correlated, which may impact aggregate exposures. Use frequencies observed in this study were generally in the same range as those reported in the EPA Exposure Factor Handbook, but we found differences for some individual products. Our study provides additional data on population-based usage patterns of a large collection of commonly used personal care products pertaining to several age groups and socio-demographic strata. This information will be valuable for exposure and risk assessments. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. National Alcohol Survey of households in Trinidad and Tobago (NASHTT: Alcohol use in households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Maharaj

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the patterns of alcohol use among households in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T and to estimate the association between alcohol use and negative psychological, social, or physical events experienced by the household. Methods A convenience sample of 1837 households across T&T. We identified bivariate correlates of alcohol use, and heavy episodic drinking using chi-square and t-test analyses and used multivariable logistic regression to estimate adjusted associations between household alcohol use and experiences within the past 12 months adjusted for sociodemographic covariates. Results One thousand five hundred two households had complete data for all variables (82% response rate. Nearly two thirds (64% of households included alcohol users; 57% of household that consumed alcohol also reported heavy episodic drinking. Households that reported alcohol consumption were significantly more likely to report illnesses within the households, relationship problems, and behavioral and antisocial problems with children. Among households where a member was employed, those who consumed alcohol were nearly twice as likely (OR = 1.98; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.03, 3.82 to have a household member call in sick to work and 2.9 times as likely (OR = 2.9; CI 1.19, 7.04 to have a household member suffer work related problems compared with households who reported not consuming alcohol. Conclusions Approximately two thirds of households in T&T reported using alcohol. These households were more likely to report psychological, physical, and social problems. These findings would support efforts to enforce current policies, laws, and regulations as well as new strategies to reduce the impact of harmful alcohol consumption on households in T&T.

  12. ATTITUDES AND HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS INFLUENCING SOLID WASTE GENERATION: A HOUSEHOLD GARBAGE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Epp, Donald J.; Mauger, Paul C.

    1989-01-01

    A survey of household decision-makers and an analysis of their garbage was used to suggest factors affecting the weight of household contributions to municipal solid waste. Iterative regression was used to build a model from the data that is hypothesized to explain garbage weight. Food expenditure, environmental attitude, consumption of soft drinks in plastic bottles, and cats in the household were significant for all households. Self-sufficiency and energy-conscious behavioral scales also af...

  13. Financial behaviour of dutch households: analysis of the dnb household survey 2003

    OpenAIRE

    P.J.A. van Els; W.A. van den End; M.C.J. van Rooij

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the financial behaviour of Dutch households on the basis of the DNB Household Survey. The results of this survey provide insight into the backgrounds and consequences of the persistent rise of household debt. The increase in mortgage debt is related to mortgage equity withdrawal. The financial vulnerability of households turns out to have increased, especially the sensitivity to interest rate movements. This contribution also looks into investors' response t...

  14. Respiratory risks from household air pollution in low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Stephen B; Bruce, Nigel G; Grigg, Jonathan; Hibberd, Patricia L; Kurmi, Om P; Lam, Kin-bong Hubert; Mortimer, Kevin; Asante, Kwaku Poku; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Balmes, John; Bar-Zeev, Naor; Bates, Michael N; Breysse, Patrick N; Buist, Sonia; Chen, Zhengming; Havens, Deborah; Jack, Darby; Jindal, Surinder; Kan, Haidong; Mehta, Sumi; Moschovis, Peter; Naeher, Luke; Patel, Archana; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Pope, Daniel; Rylance, Jamie; Semple, Sean; Martin, William J

    2014-10-01

    A third of the world's population uses solid fuel derived from plant material (biomass) or coal for cooking, heating, or lighting. These fuels are smoky, often used in an open fire or simple stove with incomplete combustion, and result in a large amount of household air pollution when smoke is poorly vented. Air pollution is the biggest environmental cause of death worldwide, with household air pollution accounting for about 3·5-4 million deaths every year. Women and children living in severe poverty have the greatest exposures to household air pollution. In this Commission, we review evidence for the association between household air pollution and respiratory infections, respiratory tract cancers, and chronic lung diseases. Respiratory infections (comprising both upper and lower respiratory tract infections with viruses, bacteria, and mycobacteria) have all been associated with exposure to household air pollution. Respiratory tract cancers, including both nasopharyngeal cancer and lung cancer, are strongly associated with pollution from coal burning and further data are needed about other solid fuels. Chronic lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis in women, are associated with solid fuel use for cooking, and the damaging effects of exposure to household air pollution in early life on lung development are yet to be fully described. We also review appropriate ways to measure exposure to household air pollution, as well as study design issues and potential effective interventions to prevent these disease burdens. Measurement of household air pollution needs individual, rather than fixed in place, monitoring because exposure varies by age, gender, location, and household role. Women and children are particularly susceptible to the toxic effects of pollution and are exposed to the highest concentrations. Interventions should target these high-risk groups and be of sufficient quality to make the air clean. To make clean energy

  15. Cerebellar nodulectomy impairs spatial memory of vestibular and optokinetic stimulation in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmack, N H; Errico, P; Ferraresi, A; Fushiki, H; Pettorossi, V E; Yakhnitsa, V

    2002-02-01

    Natural vestibular and optokinetic stimulation were used to investigate the possible role of the cerebellar nodulus in the regulation and modification of reflexive eye movements in rabbits. The nodulus and folium 9d of the uvula were destroyed by surgical aspiration. Before and after nodulectomy the vertical and horizontal vestibuloocular reflexes (VVOR, HVOR) were measured during sinusoidal vestibular stimulation about the longitudinal (roll) and vertical (yaw) axes. Although the gain of the HVOR (G(HVOR) = peak eye movement velocity/peak head velocity) was not affected by the nodulectomy, the gain of the VVOR (G(VVOR)) was reduced. The gains of the vertical and horizontal optokinetic reflexes (G(VOKR), G(HOKR)) were measured during monocular, sinusoidal optokinetic stimulation (OKS) about the longitudinal and vertical axes. Following nodulectomy, there was no reduction in G(VOKR) or G(HOKR). Long-term binocular OKS was used to generate optokinetic afternystagmus, OKAN II, that lasts for hours. After OKAN II was induced, rabbits were subjected to static pitch and roll, to determine how the plane and velocity of OKAN II is influenced by a changing vestibular environment. During static pitch, OKAN II slow phase remained aligned with earth-horizontal. This was true for normal and nodulectomized rabbits. During static roll, OKAN II remained aligned with earth-horizontal in normal rabbits. During static roll in nodulectomized rabbits, OKAN II slow phase developed a centripetal vertical drift. We examined the suppression and recovery of G(VVOR) following exposure to conflicting vertical OKS for 10-30 min. This vestibular-optokinetic conflict reduced G(VVOR) in both normal and nodulectomized rabbits. The time course of recovery of G(VVOR) after conflicting OKS was the same before and after nodulectomy. In normal rabbits, the head pitch angle, at which peak OKAN II velocity occurred, corresponded to the head pitch angle maintained during long-term OKS. If the head was

  16. Performance of rabbits fed diets containing graded levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chinchilla x New Zealand white) weaned rabbits with average initial weights of 540g to evaluate the performance of rabbits fed diets containing graded ... Only ash content was affected by the processing method in the result of nutrient digestibility.

  17. Simple suture and anchor in rabbit hips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Filho, Fernando Cal; Guarniero, Roberto; de Godoy Júnior, Rui Maciel; Pereira, César Augusto Martins; Matos, Marcos Almeida; Garcia, Lucas Cortizo

    2012-01-01

    Objective Using biomechanical studies, this research aims to compare hip capsulorrhaphy in rabbits, carried out with two different techniques: capsulorrhaphy with simple sutures and with anchors. Method Thirteen New Zealand Albino (Oryctolaguscuniculus) male rabbits, twenty-six hip joints, were used. First, a pilot project was performed with three rabbits (six hip joints). This experiment consisted of ten rabbits divided into two groups: group 1 underwent capsulorrhaphy on both right and left hips with simple suture using polyglycolic acid absorbable thread, and group 2 underwent capsulorrhaphy with titanium anchors. After a four-week postoperative period, the animals were euthanized and the hip joints were frozen. On the same day of the biomechanical studies, after the hip joints were previously unfrozen, the following parameters were evaluated: rigidity, maximum force, maximum deformity and energy. Results There was no relevant statistical difference in rigidity, maximum force, maximum deformity and energy between the simple suture and anchor groups. Conclusion Through biomechanical analyses, using parameters of rigidity, maximum force, maximum deformity and energy, it has been shown that capsulorrhaphy with simple suture and with anchors has similar results in rabbit hip joints. Level of Evidence II, Prospective Comparative Study. PMID:24453618

  18. Household governance and time allocation : Structures and processes of social control in Dutch households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wotschack, Philip

    2005-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of ‘household governance’ and investigates empirical differences in governance practices among Dutch households. It stresses informal household rules and conflict-handling strategies of cohabiting couples as important means to govern daily time allocation. The

  19. Evaluation of toxicity after periocular and intravitreal administration of carboplatin in rabbit eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa Darsová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the extent of toxicity of focal carboplatin administration and to identify the dose limiting toxicity in rabbit eyes depending on administered concentrations. New Zealand white male rabbits (n = 18 were treated with 1 of 3 regimens: a single periocular injection of 15 mg of carboplatin (group I, a single periocular injection of 30 mg of carboplatin (group II and a single transcorneal intravitreal injection of 0.05 mg of carboplatin (group III. Ophthalmologic examinations and vitreous samplings were performed under dissociative anaesthesia at regular intervals during next 2 (groups I and III or 3 (group II weeks. Carboplatin concentrations in vitreous samples were assessed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. At the end of experiments, all rabbit eyes were obtained for histopathologic examination. Clinical and histological evidence of toxicity was graded into four grades according to anatomical structures of the rabbit eye. The dose limiting toxicity was reached in group II after periocular injection of 30 mg of carboplatin and in group III after intravitreal injection of 0.05 mg of carboplatin. No systemic toxicity was observed in any group. Focal carboplatin administration may decrease systemic exposure to this cytotoxic drug in the retinoblastoma treatment. This moreover suggests that focal carboplatin administration is a promising approach and challenge for advanced retinoblastoma chemotherapy.

  20. Household energy, air pollution and health in Maputo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellegaard, A.

    1997-05-01

    A survey was carried out in 1188 low-income households in Maputo, Mocambique, in order to assess the degree of exposure to air pollution and health effects associated with this exposure. The hypothesis was that pollution from biomass fuels, especially wood, impairs the health of the women using them, and that it would be possible to discern this effect in a general population. Average exposure levels during cooking time were found to be high, with a level of respirable particulates at 1200, 540 and 380 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for wood, charcoal and electricity users respectively. Similarly carbon monoxide levels were 42, 37 and 5 ppm for the same groups. Wood users were found to have significantly more symptoms of respiratory problems than users of other fuels, but also significantly more symptoms that could not be immediately associated with household fuel pollution. Thus, wood users had lower literacy, poorer housing, and more primitive access to water and sanitation. There was little difference in health aspects between charcoal users and users of modern fuels, though exposure to air pollution was higher among charcoal users. In statistical analysis it was found that cough were significantly associated with the use of wood as a principal fuel, but not with the use of charcoal. Other variables that influenced the health outcome were the age when a woman started helping her mother to cook, daily cooking time and kitchen ventilation. Most of the variables associated to ill health were correlated to wood use. In contrast, charcoal use was associated with a better health status in many respects. From the point of pollution exposure and health, wood use should be limited, while charcoal appears to be a feasible intermediate substitute for wood in the short term in Maputo. 48 refs, 31 figs, 33 tabs

  1. Effect of household pet ownership on infant immune response and subsequent sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Angela

    2010-08-30

    Sensitization to pets is a major risk factor for asthma. There are many reports on the relationship between household pets, sensitization to the pet, and sensitization to other allergens, often with conflicting results. Pet ownership is not random, and household pets are associated with exposures other than pet allergens. We will review some of the evidence regarding the effects of household pets on infant immune responses, focusing on data from birth cohort studies. It remains unclear precisely why some children develop specific sensitizations to pets whilst others do not in the face of equivalent exposures, but it is likely to be due to gene-environment interactions. Further long-term follow-up of children in whom neonatal and infant immune responses have been measured is necessary to understand how these events occur and how they relate to subsequent disease.

  2. Rabbit meat processing: historical perspective to future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Petracci, Massimiliano; Cavani, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    In past centuries, because rabbits are relatively small, animals slaughtered for consumption were generally eaten immediately. However, since a single rabbit would offer little more product than could be consumed at one sitting, little effort was devoted to developing preserved rabbit products (such as salted or dried meat, sausages, etc.). For this reason, although there is a rich history of recipes using rabbit meat in the Mediterranean area, there are few traditional further-processed prod...

  3. Supplementary household water sources to augment potable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An end-use model is presented and used to assess the theoretical impact of household water sources on potable water demand in formal residential areas. Reliable potable municipal supply to urban consumers via the water distribution system is typically linked to relatively low uptake of household water sources. However ...

  4. Micro Econometric Modelling of Household Energy Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2002-01-01

    Presents a micro econometric analysis of household electricity and natural gas demand for Danish households observed in 1996. Dependence between demand for gas and demand for electricity; Separability of demand for gas from demand for electricity; Relation between energy consumption and the age...

  5. Can survey participation alter household saving behaviour?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crossley, Thomas; de Bresser, Jochem; Delaney, L.; Winter, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    We document an effect of survey participation on household saving. Indentification comes from random assignment to modules within a population-representative internet panel. The saving measure is based on linked administrative wealth data. Households that responded to a detailed questionnaire on

  6. Gamification in a Prototype Household Energy Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijnheer, J.D.L.; van Oostendorp, H.; Veltkamp, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Research where gamification is used to influence household energy consumption is an emerging field. This paper reviews design features of the prototype Powersaver Game. The aim of this game is to influence household energy consumption in the long-term. The evaluation of the design of the prototype,

  7. Steps to design a household energy game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijnheer, J.D.L.; van Oostendorp, H.

    2016-01-01

    Research where gamification is used to influence household energy consumption is an emerging field. This paper reviews the design and effectiveness of ten games that aim to influence household energy consumption and presents a novel gamification approach in which real world activities are

  8. Gaming for energy conservation in households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelen, D.V.; Brezet, J.C.; Keyson, D.V.; Boess, S.U.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a study about a ‘serious game’, “Energy Battle”, as a means to influence energy-related behavior in households. The Energy Battle is designed to engage home occupants in a fun way in energy conservation via a competition with other households. The challenge enabled home occupants

  9. Spending Time and Money within the Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Gørtz, Mette

    2012-01-01

    We consider, both theoretically and empirically, the allocation of time and money within the household. The research question is whether a married person who enjoys more leisure than their partner also receives more consumption (which seems to indicate the outcome of power within the household...

  10. Power in Households: Disentangling Bargaining Power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Mabsout (Ramzi); I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction Within the household bargaining literature, bargaining power is generally understood in terms of economic resources, such as income or assets. Empirical analyses of women’s bargaining power in households in developed and developing countries find that, in general, higher

  11. Modelling household responses to energy effciency interventions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An application of building a system dynamics model of the way households might respond to interventions aimed at reducing energy consumption (specically the ... intervention conducted in a town in the South African Western Cape in which households were able to exchange regular light bulbs for more effcient compact

  12. Household food security and environmental management practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In adjusting to the different agro-ecological and socio-cultural background, some household food security and environmental management systems are likely to have emerged. This assumption found the basis for this study focusing on Household Food Security and Environmental Management Systems in Ogun State.

  13. Religion, economic attitudes, and household finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Spaenjers, C.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the differences in economic attitudes and financial decisions between religious and non-religious households. Using Dutch survey data, we find that religious households consider themselves more trusting, and have a stronger bequest motive and a longer planning horizon. Furthermore,

  14. Analysis of expired medications in Serbian households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Ana; Tomic, Zdenko; Bukumiric, Dragica; Corac, Aleksandar; Horvat, Olga; Sabo, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction An ongoing issue of expired medications accumulating in some households is a universal problem around the world. The aim of the study was to investigate the extent and structure of expired medications in Serbian households, and to determine which therapeutic groups generated the most waste. Methods This was an observational, cross-sectional study conducted in households in the city of Novi Sad, Serbia. The study had been performed over 8 month period (December 2011 - July 2012) and it consisted of personal insights into the medication inventory in households. Results Of 1008 families, 383 agreed to participate and complete the questionnaire (38.3% response rate). In almost a half of households (44.4%), expired medications were maintained. The amount of expired medications was 402 items, corresponding to 9.2% of total medications presented in surveyed households. The majority of expired medications (64.7%) was in solid dosage (tablets, capsules, granules, lozenges), following semisolid (ointments, creams, gel, suppositories) and liquid dosage forms (drops, syrups). Expired medications in the households belonged mostly to 3 categories: antimicrobials for systemic use (16.7%), dermatological preparation (15.9%) and medications for alimentary tract and metabolism (14.2%). Conclusions This study revealed that there were relatively large quantities of expired medications in Serbian households, with a high prevalence of antibiotics for systemic use, anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products, and medications for alimentary tract and metabolism. PMID:27703539

  15. Cassava household expenditure and anthropometric indices of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expenditure on cassava and other staple foods was determined for each household of the preschool children and classified into two groups and the average determined. Significance of difference between the mean Z – scores of the children for above and below average expenditure households was determined by Student ...

  16. Household energy and gender : the global context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy S.

    2003-01-01

    The substantive issue of development is addressing poverty. Therefore, this paper examines what are the linkages between gender, household energy and moving people out poverty. The first section looks at the gender-energy-poverty nexus in general and then how household energy can contribute to

  17. Spermatological Parameters of Extended Rabbit Semen in 5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    These problems range from nutritional challenges to availability of assisted reproductive techniques, most especially artificial insemination (AI) technique. Despite the use of AI in the large rabbit farms of several European countries, rabbit AI has certainly not become a common practice in the rabbit meat producing areas of.

  18. Energy partitioning for growth by rabbits fed groundnut and stylo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty eight crossbred (California X New Zealand White) rabbits were used to evaluate energy partitioning of rabbits fed forages supplemented with concentrate. The rabbits were randomly allocated to three treatments consisting of sole Stylosanthes hamata (stylo),sole Arachis hypogea (groundnut) haulms and 50:50 mixture ...

  19. Performance characteristics of Weaner rabbits fed Moringa oleifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the utilization of Moringa oleifera (MO) and Moringa stenopetala (MS) by weaner rabbit. In a twelve week feeding trial, forty eight weaner rabbits of about five weeks old were allotted into three treatments with each treatment consisting of sixteen rabbits in a completely randomized ...

  20. Effect of genotype on growth traits of rabbits | Oke | International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genotype effect on growth traits of rabbits were investigated in a randomised complete block design using one hundred and twenty - 10-week-old breeding rabbits. The breeds of rabbits used were New Zealand white, Dutch, chinchilla and were characterized using body weight (BW), heart girth (HG), shoulder to tail (ST), ...

  1. Determination of the Tetramer-Dimer Equilibrium Constant of Rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... derivatives of rabbit hemoglobin. The constant has been found to be the same for all the derivatives of rabbit hemoglobin, implying that the ligand bound on the heme has no significant effect on the tetramer-dimer dissociation of rabbit hemoglobin. African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences Vol.

  2. Problems and prospects of rabbit production in Nigeria - a review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is apparent that in many areas in developing countries, rabbit production could be an effective means of converting forages and by-products into high quality animal protein for human consumption. The study provides a benchmark for the understanding of prospects of rabbit production in Nigeria. Keywords: Rabbit ...

  3. Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Rabbit Testicular Lipid Peroxidation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of cigarette smoke on oxidative status of liver and testis was evaluated. Three groups of male weaned rabbits (1.0 – 1.5kg) were used. Group 1, the basal control group consisted of 2 rabbits which were sacrificed immediately after one week acclimatization (week O). Group 2 – (S) group consisted of 6 rabbits.

  4. 9 CFR 354.124 - Quarantine of diseased rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Procedures; Ante-Mortem Inspections § 354.124 Quarantine of diseased rabbits. If live rabbits, which are... inspection shall be made, and all rabbits found to be, or which are suspected of being, affected with the...

  5. Performance and nutrient digestibility of rabbits fed urea treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to investigate the effect of varying levels of urea treated and untreated cowpea husk on the performance of weaner rabbits. Thirty-two mongrel weaner rabbits of both sexes, 6 – 8 weeks old with an average weight of 822g were randomly distributed to four dietary treatments with four rabbits per ...

  6. A Preliminary internet survey of pet rabbit owners’ characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Oxley

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to conduct a preliminary survey to investigate basic ownership factors, frequency of microchipping and insurance and views of pet rabbit owners  n these areas and general rabbit management. More specifically, we aimed to investigate whether owners possess insurance, whether their rabbits are microchipped, and owners’ views on the recommendations relating to rabbits (e.g. recommended enclosure sizes and the law. A questionnaire was designed and promulgated through social media sites and rabbit forums. A total of 1183 responses were received. Just over 29% of respondents sourced their rabbits through rescue centres. 73.9% (867/1174 of owners stated that they had no pet insurance for their rabbits. Concerning microchips, 78.3% (919/1173 of rabbits were not microchipped, while 21.7% (254/1173 were. This preliminary study found that the majority of individuals are of the opinion that the relevant law is insufficiently publicised. A more detailed study would be beneficial to investigate and provide further insight into rabbit owners and their views and concerns for rabbits. The results of such a study could help formulate rabbit-related information and guidelines which in turn could have a direct impact on pet rabbit welfare.

  7. General intravenous anesthesia for brachial plexus surgery in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, P; Rutowski, R; Kielbowicz, Z; Kuryszko, J; Kielbowicz, M

    2013-01-01

    The rabbit is a good experimental model for brachial plexus surgery. The risks of death during anesthesia were significantly greater in rabbits than cats or dogs. This article presents the protocol of injectable anesthesia for a short surgical procedure, safe for the rabbit patient and convenient for the surgeon.

  8. Performance and digestibility of weaner rabbits fed graded levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weaner crossbred rabbits were allocated to five treatment groups in a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of 100, 75, 50 and 25% levels of soybean cheese waste/maize offal diet (SBW). 100% rabbit meal served as control. Each rabbit received chopped Bracharia decumbens hay ad libitum. Water was ...

  9. Amino acid and mineral composition of meat from rabbits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eighty one weaned composite breeds of rabbits (males and females) were randomly allotted to nine treatment groups with nine rabbits per treatment. Each treatment had three replicates with three rabbits per replicate. Processed tallow meal was included in the diets as a source of protein which was set at 16 % CP.

  10. Performance evaluation and nutrient digestibility of rabbits fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 32 weaned rabbits (56 days old; 586 ± 60.31g body weight) were selected to investigate the effect of dietary growth promoters on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass characteristics of rabbits. The rabbits were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (n = 8) including a basal diet (control), ...

  11. Hematology and Serum Biochemistry of Rabbits Fed Dried Sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... were within the normal range for rabbits. The sweet orange fruit pulp meal based diets were nutritionally adequate to meet rabbit requirements for accretion and safe consumption at 25% level of maize replacement. This shows that sweet orange fruit pulp meal is a possible feed resource for rabbit production.

  12. Multiphoton microscopic imaging of rabbit dorsal skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoqin; Xu, Yahao; Hong, Zhipeng; Chen, Jing; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Jianxin

    2015-01-01

    Rabbits are often preferred to be experimental animals during the skin research. The visualizing and understanding the full-thickness structure of rabbit skin has significance in biology, medicine, and animal husbandry. In this study, multiphoton microscopy (MPM) was employed to examine the rabbit skin on the back, which was based on second harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence. High-resolution images were achieved from the fresh, unfixed, and unstained tissues, showing detailed microstructure of the skin without the administration of exogenous contrast agents. The morphology and distribution of the main components of epidermis and dermis, such as keratin, collagen fibers, elastic fibers, and hair follicles, can be distinctly identified in MPM images. Since the changes in these components are tightly related to skin diseases and wound healing, the noninvasive nature of MPM enables it become a valuable tool in skin research for detecting and monitoring. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Ovarian lesions in 44 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    BERTRAM, Christof Albert; KLOPFLEISCH, Robert; MÜLLER, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    The clinical and pathological records of 44 domestic, female rabbits with an age ranging from 6–124 months (median age: 63.5 month) were assessed retrospectively for ovarian lesions. Included were all rabbits that underwent an ovariohysterectomy with a subsequent pathological examination of the genital tract between March 1997 and June 2016. Pathological examination revealed ovarian lesions in 12 of the 44 rabbits including follicular cysts (n=7), cystic rete ovarii (n=3), widespread ovarian necrosis with dystrophic calcification (n=2), ovarian adenoma (n=1). Clinical examination including radiographs only suggested ovarian disorders in two cases of ovarian necrosis with dystrophic calcification and in two cases of cystic rete ovarii. Clinical significance was only conclusive in a case of cystic rete ovarii. PMID:29057758

  14. Rabbit tissue model (RTM) harvesting technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Marelyn

    2002-01-01

    A method for creating a tissue model using a female rabbit for laparoscopic simulation exercises is described. The specimen is called a Rabbit Tissue Model (RTM). Dissection techniques are described for transforming the rabbit carcass into a small, compact unit that can be used for multiple training sessions. Preservation is accomplished by using saline and refrigeration. Only the animal trunk is used, with the rest of the animal carcass being discarded. Practice exercises are provided for using the preserved organs. Basic surgical skills, such as dissection, suturing, and knot tying, can be practiced on this model. In addition, the RTM can be used with any pelvic trainer that permits placement of larger practice specimens within its confines.

  15. Which U.S. Households Use Education Loans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chungwen; Fisher, Patti J.

    2016-01-01

    This empirical study uses the 2013 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF) to investigate the characteristics of households that hold at least one loan for educational expenses. The benefit of using household-level data is that a single household may have education loans for multiple people in the household, including the household head, spouse/partner,…

  16. Characterization of household waste in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eisted, Rasmus; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    . The collection bags were sorted manually into 10 material fractions. The household waste composition consisted primarily of biowaste (43%) and the combustible fraction (30%), including anything combustible that did not belong to other clean fractions as paper, cardboard and plastic. Paper (8%) (dominated......The composition of household waste in Greenland was investigated for the first time. About 2tonnes of household waste was sampled as every 7th bag collected during 1week along the scheduled collection routes in Sisimiut, the second largest town in Greenland with about 5400 inhabitants...... by magazine type paper) and glass (7%) were other important material fractions of the household waste. The remaining approximately 10% constituted of steel (1.5%), aluminum (0.5%), plastic (2.4%), wood (1.0%), non-combustible waste (1.8%) and household hazardous waste (1.2%). The high content of biowaste...

  17. Rabbit model for Chlamydia pneumoniae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, I W; Chiu, B; Viira, E; Fong, M W; Jang, D; Mahony, J

    1997-01-01

    A rabbit model was established for Chlamydia pneumoniae infection that may be helpful to understand the pathogenesis of disease in humans. Twelve, pathogen-free, 1-month-old New Zealand White rabbits were inoculated with 1.0 x 10(7) to 5.0 x 10(7) CFU of purified C. pneumoniae (ATCC strain VR 1310) via the nasopharynx (1 rabbit died immediately postinoculation, and 11 were available for study). Five controls were inoculated with the carrier buffer. Ten of the 11 study rabbits demonstrated serological evidence of acute infection (immunoglobulin G antibodies, 1:8 to > 1:16), with the weakest response at 7 days and the strongest response at 28 days, whereas none of the controls showed any seroconversion. Study animals were sacrificed in batches of three, on days 7, 14, 21, and 28, but controls were sacrificed on days 7 and 28. Two-thirds of the animals demonstrated evidence of bronchiolitis and pneumonia on days 7 and 14 and resolution by day 21. Two study rabbits demonstrated, on histology, early and intermediate lesions of atherosclerosis: one animal (day 7) showed the accumulation of foamy macrophages (fatty streak) in the arch of the aorta, and the other animal (day 14) showed spindle cell proliferation of smooth muscle cells (intermediate lesion). Focal periaortitis was seen in the same animal (day 7). C. pneumoniae elementary bodies were demonstrated by immunocytochemical stain in the lungs (n = 2), liver (n = 3), spleen (n = 5), and aorta (n = 2), one of which corresponded to the intermediate lesion. C. pneumoniae was cultured from the lungs (n = 2), liver (n = 2), spleen (n = 2), and aortic arch (n = 1). All histopathological, immunocytochemical, and cultural studies were negative in the controls. Hence, the rabbit provides a useful animal model for the study of C. pneumoniae infection and its complications, particularly atherosclerosis.

  18. The Genetic Structure of Domestic Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Miguel; Afonso, Sandra; Geraldes, Armando; Garreau, Hervé; Bolet, Gerard; Boucher, Samuel; Tircazes, Aurélie; Queney, Guillaume; Nachman, Michael W.; Ferrand, Nuno

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the genetic structure of domestic species provides a window into the process of domestication and motivates the design of studies aimed at making links between genotype and phenotype. Rabbits exhibit exceptional phenotypic diversity, are of great commercial value, and serve as important animal models in biomedical research. Here, we provide the first comprehensive survey of nucleotide polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium (LD) within and among rabbit breeds. We resequenced 16 genomic regions in population samples of both wild and domestic rabbits and additional 35 fragments in 150 rabbits representing six commonly used breeds. Patterns of genetic variation suggest a single origin of domestication in wild populations from France, supporting historical records that place rabbit domestication in French monasteries. Levels of nucleotide diversity both within and among breeds were ∼0.2%, but only 60% of the diversity present in wild populations from France was captured by domestic rabbits. Despite the recent origin of most breeds, levels of population differentiation were high (FST = 17.9%), but the majority of polymorphisms were shared and thus transferable among breeds. Coalescent simulations suggest that domestication began with a small founding population of less than 1,200 individuals. Taking into account the complex demographic history of domestication with two successive bottlenecks, two loci showed deviations that were consistent with artificial selection, including GPC4, which is known to be associated with growth rates in humans. Levels of diversity were not significantly different between autosomal and X-linked loci, providing no evidence for differential contributions of males and females to the domesticated gene pool. The structure of LD differed substantially within and among breeds. Within breeds, LD extends over large genomic distances. Markers separated by 400 kb typically showed r2 higher than 0.2, and some LD extended up to 3,200 kb

  19. Effect of chronic microwave radiation on T cell-mediated immunity in the rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageswari, K. Sri; Sarma, K. R.; Rajvanshi, V. S.; Sharan, R.; Sharma, Manju; Barathwal, Vinita; Singh, Vinod

    1991-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to elucidate the effects of chronic low power-level microwave radiation on the immunological systems of rabbits. Fourteen male Belgian white rabbits were exposed to microwave radiation at 5 mW/cm2, 2.1 GHz, 3 h daily, 6 days/week for 3 months in two batches of 7 each in specially designed miniature anechoicchambers. Seven rabbits were subjected to sham exposure for identical duration. The microwave energy was provided through S band standard gain horns connected to a 4K3SJ2 Klystron power amplifier. The first batch of animals were assessed for T lymphocyte-mediated cellular immune response mechanisms and the second batch of animals for B lymphocyte-mediated humoral immune response mechanisms. The peripheral blood samples collected monthly during microwave/sham exposure and during follow-up (5/14 days after termination of exposures, in the second batch animals only) were analysed for T lymphocyte numbers and their mitogen responsiveness to ConA and PHA. Significant suppression of T lymphocyte numbers was noted in the microwave group at 2 months ( Plymphocyte counts (spleen and lymph node) were analysed. No significant variation was observed in the tissue T lymphocyte counts of microwave-irradiated rabbits. From these results it is speculated that the T lymphocytes are sequestered to various lymphoid organs under the influence of microwaves. A sub-population of T cells known as T helper cells (mediating DTH response) are probably not affected by microwave radiation. It is clear from our experiments that although chronic microwave radiation at 5 mW/cm2 leads to suppression of peripheral T lymphocyte numbers, there is no concomitant functional impairment of these cells as evidenced by functional assays.

  20. UV-induced changes in cell cycle and gene expression within rabbit lens epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidjanin, D. [Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Grdina, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Woloschak, G.E. [Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1994-11-01

    Damage to lens epithelial cells is a probable initiation process in cataract formation induced by ultraviolet radiation. These experiments investigated the ability of 254 nm radiation on cell cycle progression and gene expression in rabbit lens epithelial cell line N/N1003A. No changes in expression of c-fos, c-jun, alpha- tubulin, or vimentin was observed following UV exposure. Using flow cytometry, an accumulation of cells in G1/S phase of the cell cycle 1 hr following exposure. The observed changes in gene expression, especially the decreased histone transcripts reported here may play a role in UV induced inhibition of cell cycle progression.

  1. The Impact of Financial Risk on Household Income in Nigeria | Obim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of the human society the world over, particularly the rural poor in developing countries, has remained a key challenge because of exposure to varying forms of risks, including income risk and widespread corruption. The attendant shocks have had a devastating effect on the poor and rural households in ...

  2. Sensitivity of rabbit fibrochondrocytes to mycoplasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento Carlos Manuel de Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary cell culture from rabbit meniscus (fibrochondrocytes-FcrC was infected for 24 hours with different inocula (10² to 10(7 Colony Forming Units-CFU of Mycoplasma hominis PG-21, M. pneumoniae FH and 1428 or M. arthritidis PG-6. The severity of the different obtained cytophatic effects-CPE was inoculum, Mycoplasma species and strain dependant. These bacteria were recovered from all infected FcrC and the SP4 medium for mycoplasmas also caused toxic effect on the FcrC. It was concluded that rabbit fibrochondrocytes were sensitive to mycoplasma infection, as well as to the SP4 mycoplasma medium.

  3. BIORESORBABLE POLYMERIC MENISCAL PROSTHESIS: STUDY IN RABBITS

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Tulio Pereira; de Rezende Duek, Eliana Aparecida; Amatuzzi,Marco Martins; Caetano, Edie Benedito

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To induce growth of a neomeniscus into the pores of a prosthesis in order to protect the knee joint cartilage. Methods: 70 knees of 35 New Zealand rabbits were operated. The rabbits were five to seven months old, weighed 2 to 3.8 kilograms, and 22 were male and 13 were female. Each animal underwent medial meniscectomy in both knees during a single operation. A bioabsorbable polymeric meniscal prosthesis composed of 70% polydioxanone and 30% L-lactic acid polymer was implanted in on...

  4. Ultrastructure of Reissner's membrane in the rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K; Rostgaard, J; Bretlau, P

    1994-01-01

    The ultrastructure of Reissner's membrane in the rabbit is described following vascular perfusion-fixation of live, anesthetized and artificially respirated healthy animals. A new and improved technique of fixation is employed that includes a pressure feedback controlled peristaltic pump and an o......The ultrastructure of Reissner's membrane in the rabbit is described following vascular perfusion-fixation of live, anesthetized and artificially respirated healthy animals. A new and improved technique of fixation is employed that includes a pressure feedback controlled peristaltic pump...

  5. Trichostatin A (TSA) improves the development of rabbit-rabbit intraspecies cloned embryos, but not rabbit-human interspecies cloned embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Li-Hong; Miao, Yi-Liang; Ouyang, Ying-Chun; Huang, Jun-Cheng; Lei, Zi-Li; Yang, Ji-Wen; Han, Zhi-Ming; Song, Xiang-Fen; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Chen, Da-Yuan

    2008-03-01

    The interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) technique for therapeutic cloning gives great promise for treatment of many human diseases. However, the incomplete nuclear reprogramming and the low blastocyst rate of iSCNT are still big problems. Herein, we observed the effect of TSA on the development of rabbit-rabbit intraspecies and rabbit-human interspecies cloned embryos. After treatment with TSA for 6 hr during activation, we found that the blastocyst rate of rabbit-rabbit cloned embryos was more than two times higher than that of untreated embryos; however, the blastocyst rate of TSA-treated rabbit-human interspecies cloned embryos decreased. We also found evident time-dependent histone deacetylation-reacetylation changes in rabbit-rabbit cloned embryos, but not in rabbit-human cloned embryos from fusion to 6 hr after activation. Our results suggest that TSA-treatment does not improve blastocyst development of rabbit-human iSCNT embryos and that abnormal histone deacetylation-reacetylation changes in iSCNT embryos may account for their poor blastocyst development. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. The three-dimensional microanatomy of the rabbit and human cornea. A chemical and mechanical microdissection-SEM approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    OJEDA, JOSÉ L.; VENTOSA, JUAN A.; PIEDRA, SONSOLES

    2001-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) microanatomy of the cornea is the major determinant of its optical and mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is the most commonly used method to obtain information on the overall 3D microanatomy of organs. However, SEM has not been successful in revealing the 3D microanatomy of the cornea, because the interior of the cornea is too compact to be explored by the electron beam. In this study, the 3D organisation of the cells and extracellular materials of human and rabbit corneas was examined after exposure by HCl and NaOH digestion, and by microdissection by the adhesive tape method. In the cornea of both species, all epithelial cells exhibited microplicae regardless of their location. This raises doubts about the tear film-holding role assigned to the microplicae of the superficial cells. Human and rabbit corneas differed in the collagen fibre patterns of the epithelial basement membranes. The 3D organisation of the stromal lamellae was similar in both species. In humans and rabbits, the keratocytes showed similar 3D features. However, the surface of human keratocytes located near Descemet's membrane exhibited small fenestrations that were not present in the rabbit keratocytes. The pattern of keratocyte innervation by the stromal neural plexus and 3D keratocyte microanatomy confirms that keratocytes form a large intercommunicating network within the corneal stroma. Two morphologically discrete subpopulations of keratocytes located at different stromal levels were identified in both human and rabbit corneas, suggesting that keratocytes are not functionally homogeneous. In addition, the density of the stromal neural plexus appeared to be greater in rabbits than in humans. Clear differences between human and rabbit corneas were observed in the collagen arrangement in Descemet's membrane, which may reflect their different biomechanical requirements. PMID:11760887

  7. Household food insecurity and hunger among households in Sidama district, southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regassa, Nigatu; Stoecker, Barbara J

    2012-07-01

    To examine household food insecurity and hunger in Sidama Zone, one of the most populous zones in southern Ethiopia. Cross-sectional survey administered individually by trained interviewers. Food insecurity was calculated with both the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) and the Household Hunger Scale (HHS), developed by the Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project. Rural households from ten kebeles (the smallest administrative district) selected from two agro-climatic zones in Sidama, southern Ethiopia, from December 2010 to January 2011. Men and women respondents from 1094 rural households were selected using multistage sampling techniques. Using the HFIAS, 17·7 % of households were food secure. The percentage of households that were mildly, moderately and severely food insecure was 6·8 %, 27·7 % and 47·8 %, respectively. Using the HHS, 29·0 % and 5·6 % of households fell into the moderate and severe household hunger categories. Using multivariate statistical techniques, five variables were significant predictors of both food insecurity and hunger. These variables were migration of a household member, agro-climatic zone, and younger age, less education and lower radio access for the woman. Being eligible for safety-net credit programmes also was a predictor of hunger, while limited animal ownership and household wealth as well as alcohol use by the household head added to the prediction of food insecurity. The study documented that food insecurity is a major concern of smallholder farming households in the study area. A substantial majority of the households were facing mild to severe food insecurity and hunger for an extended period of time.

  8. Prevalence of Giardia infection in households of Giardia cases and risk factors for household transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldram, Alison; Vivancos, Roberto; Hartley, Catherine; Lamden, Kenneth

    2017-07-11

    Giardia is a leading but neglected cause of infectious gastroenteritis worldwide and is treatable. There is a substantial burden of undetected Giardia in the UK and for every one case of Giardia reported to national surveillance there are 14 cases in the community. We aimed to ascertain the prevalence of, and risk factors associated with secondary household Giardia infections to assess the burden of infection and inform control measures. We identified all giardiasis cases notified in nine local authorities in Lancashire between June 2014 and June 2015, and invited their household contacts to submit faecal specimens for Giardia testing and complete a risk factor questionnaire. We estimated the proportion of households with additional Giardia infection. We compared household risk factors between households with and without additional Giardia using Fisher's exact test. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify independent risk factors for additional Giardia infections. We identified additional Giardia infections in 30% (27/91) of included households. A total of 41 infections were found from 212 household members, of which 37 were asymptomatic. The majority of infections were assemblage B (57%) but there were also a high number of mixed infections (20%). Risk factors significantly associated with additional household infections were; having children under 5 years in the household (odds ratio 42; 95% confidence intervals 10-178) and the presence of gastrointestinal illness in the household before the onset of the index case (odds ratio 9; 95% confidence intervals 1.5-48). Our finding of a high household prevalence of asymptomatic infection has raised the public health question of whether treatment of asymptomatic household contacts may be justified in preventing Giardia re-infection of the index case or in preventing secondary cases and household clusters. We recommend the communication of this risk in household contacts of Giardia and reinforcement of

  9. Extremophiles in Household Water Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilpiszeski, R.; House, C. H.

    2016-12-01

    A significant fraction of Earth's microbial diversity comes from species living in extreme environments, but natural extreme environments can be difficult to access. Manmade systems like household water heaters serve as an effective proxy for thermophilic environments that are otherwise difficult to sample directly. As such, we are investigating the biogeography, taxonomic distribution, and evolution of thermophiles growing in domestic water heaters. Citizen scientists collected hot tap water culture- and filter- samples from 101 homes across the United States. We recovered a single species of thermophilic heterotroph from culture samples inoculated from water heaters across the United States, Thermus scotoductus. Whole-genome sequencing was conducted to better understand the distribution and evolution of this single species. We have also sequenced hyper-variable regions of the 16S rRNA gene from whole-community filter samples to identify the broad diversity and distribution of microbial cells captured from each water heater. These results shed light on the processes that shape thermophilic populations and genomes at a spatial resolution that is difficult to access in naturally occurring extreme ecosystems.

  10. Possible interaction between myxomatosis and calicivirosis related to rabbit haemorrhagic disease affecting the European rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchandeau, S; Bertagnoli, S; Peralta, B; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Letty, J; Reitz, F

    2004-11-06

    Serological data on myxoma virus, rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) virus and RHD-like viruses in juvenile rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) trapped in 1995, 1996 and 1997 in two areas of France were analysed. For each disease, the effects of bodyweight, year, month and seropositivity for the other disease were modelled by using logistic regressions. In one area, a model including RHD seropositivity was selected to explain the myxoma virus seropositivity. Models including myxoma virus seropositivity were selected to explain the RHD seropositivity in both areas, and the odds of a rabbit being seropositive to both viruses were 5.1 and 8.4 times higher than the odds of a rabbit being seronegative to myxoma virus and seropositive to RHD. The year and bodyweight had significant effects for myxomatosis in one area and for RHD in both areas.

  11. Household burden of chronic diseases in Ghana | Togoe | Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    communicable diseases on households in the midst of a paradigm change in Ghana's health policy that shifts healthcare costs to persons and households. Method: Using data on 4,121 households from the World Health Survey for Ghana 2003, ...

  12. Analysis of Capability of Households to Finance Higher Education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tarasenko Yuliya V

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses possibilities of financing higher education by households, it proves, using example of households of Ukraine and Russia, wish and capability of households to finance higher education...

  13. ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Klaas Jan; Homan, Greg; Brown, Rich; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2009-04-15

    The term ?household carbon footprint? refers to the total annual carbon emissions associated with household consumption of energy, goods, and services. In this project, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed a carbon footprint modeling framework that characterizes the key underlying technologies and processes that contribute to household carbon footprints in California and the United States. The approach breaks down the carbon footprint by 35 different household fuel end uses and 32 different supply chain fuel end uses. This level of end use detail allows energy and policy analysts to better understand the underlying technologies and processes contributing to the carbon footprint of California households. The modeling framework was applied to estimate the annual home energy and supply chain carbon footprints of a prototypical California household. A preliminary assessment of parameter uncertainty associated with key model input data was also conducted. To illustrate the policy-relevance of this modeling framework, a case study was conducted that analyzed the achievable carbon footprint reductions associated with the adoption of energy efficient household and supply chain technologies.

  14. Sources of household salt in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooste, Pieter L

    2005-01-01

    Marketing of non-iodized salt through unconventional distribution channels is one of the factors weakening the national salt iodization program in South Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to quantify the various sources of household salt, and to relate this information to socio-economic status. Questionnaire information was collected by personal interview during home visits from a multistage, cluster, probability sample of 2164 adults representative of the adult population. Nationally 77.7% of households obtained their table salt from the typical food shops distributing iodized salt. However, in the nine different provinces between 8 and 37.3% of households used unconventional sources, distributing mainly non-iodized salt, to obtain their household salt. These alternative sources include distributors of agricultural salt, small general dealer shops called spaza shops, in peri-urban and rural townships, street vendors and salt saches placed in the packaging of maize meal bags. Country-wide around 30% of low socio-economic households obtained their salt from unconventional sources compared to less than 5% in high socio-economic households, emphasizing the vulnerability of low socio-economic groups to the use of non-iodized salt. Intervention strategies should mobilize all role players involved in unconventional marketing channels of household salt to provide only iodized salt to consumers, as required by law.

  15. Household food insecurity and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeer, Kammi K; Piperata, Barbara A

    2017-04-01

    Food insecurity, the lack of consistent access to sufficient quality and quantity of food, affects an estimated 800 million people around the world. Although household food insecurity is generally associated with poor child nutrition and health in the USA, we know less about household food insecurity and child health in developing countries. Particularly lacking is research assessing how associations between household food insecurity and children's health outcomes may differ by child age and among children beyond age 5 years in low-income settings. We use data from a population-based sample of households with children ages 3-11 years (N = 431) in León, Nicaragua to consider how household food insecurity is associated with three measures of child health: illness, anaemia and low height-for-age. Our results provide new evidence that even mild household food insecurity is detrimental to children's health; and that child age conditions the associations between household food insecurity and child health. We find that food insecurity is especially harmful to health during early childhood, but continues to have significant associations with health into middle childhood (up to ages 7-8 years). We discuss the potential implications of these results for future child health research and policies in low-income countries. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Aerosolized Bacillus anthracis Infection in New Zealand White Rabbits: Natural History and Intravenous Levofloxacin Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Steven B; Hatkin, Joshua M; Dyer, David N; Orr, Steven A; Pitt, M Louise M

    2010-01-01

    The natural history for inhalational Bacillus anthracis (Ames strain) exposure in New Zealand white rabbits was investigated to better identify potential, early biomarkers of anthrax. Twelve SPF Bordetella-free rabbits were exposed to 150 LD50 aerosolized B. anthracis spores, and clinical signs, body temperature, complete blood count, bacteremia, and presence of protective antigen in the blood (that is, antigenemia) were examined. The development of antigenemia and bacteremia coincided and preceded both pyrexia and inversion of the heterophil:lymphocyte ratio, an indicator of infection. Antigenemia was determined within 1 h by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, compared with the 24-h traditional culture needed for bacteremia determination. Rabbits appeared clinically normal until shortly before succumbing to anthrax approximately 47 h after challenge or approximately 22 h after antigenemia, which suggests a relatively narrow therapeutic window of opportunity. To evaluate the therapeutic rabbit model, B. anthracis-exposed rabbits were treated (after determination of antigenemia and later confirmed to be bacteremic) intravenously with the fluoroquinolone antibiotic levofloxacin for 5 d at a total daily dose of 25 or 12.5 mg/kg, resulting in nearly 90% and 70% survival, respectively, to the study end (28 d after challenge). The peak level for 12.5 mg/kg was equivalent to that observed for a 500-mg daily levofloxacin dose in humans. These results suggest that intravenous levofloxacin is an effective therapeutic against inhalational anthrax. Taken together, our findings indicate that antigenemia is a viable and early biomarker for B. anthracis infection that can be used as a treatment trigger to allow for timely intervention against this highly pathogenic disease. PMID:21262133

  17. Effects of Loud Noise on Oxidation and Lipid peroxidation Variations of Liver Tissue of Rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirzaei Ramazan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In today's world, noise is one of the major physical pollutants. The exact mechanism leading to tissue damage in loud noise is not clear. There are increasing evidences that show damage to cochlear tissue by noise is linked to cell injury induced by free radical species. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between change in liver tissue glutathione (anti- oxidant and malondialdehyde (one metabolite of lipid oxidation levels that occur in rabbits which were exposed to continuous loud noise.Materials and Methods: This experimental study was performed on 12 white Newzeland male rabbits in Tarbiat Modarres University in 2004. The rabbits were assigned to the following two groups: control, and exposed to continuous loud noise for 96 hours (8 h/day for 12 days, SPL=110dBA and 250Hz to 20 KHz. The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA and glutathione (GSH in liver tissue samples were measured in rabbits after exposure to noise. Thiobarbituric acid reacting substance, Ellman's reagent and spectrophotometry techniques were used for this measurement. The data were statically analyzed by SPSS software and 2 groups were compared by t-test. Differences at the level of P<0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results: Comparison of the biochemical parameters of GSH and MDA measured in treated group with control indicated that antioxidant and lipid peroxidants parameters were suppressed in treated group compared to control group (p<0.05.Conclusion: Possible similarities between rabbit and human biological system indicate the possible role of noise in causation of oxidative stress in context with liver tissue impairm

  18. Individual and Household Willingness to Pay for Public Goods

    OpenAIRE

    John Quiggin

    1998-01-01

    The issue of whether willingness to pay (WTP) for the benefits generated by a public good should be elicited on an individual or on a household basis is addressed. Differences between individual and household WTP may arise when members of the household are mutually altruistic. It is shown that, for general specifications of altruism, household WTP is less than the sum of household members' individual WTP. Implications for the choice between household and individual measures of WTP are conside...

  19. Risk factors for indoor air pollution in rural households in Mauche division, Molo district, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moturi, N W

    2010-09-01

    Exposure to indoor air pollution may be responsible for nearly 2 million per year deaths in developing countries. In Kenya, it is among the factors linked to high morbidity, especially in children aged below five years. The survey was conducted in 2005 in 350 rural households to identify household factors that are likely to enhance indoor air pollution. Questionnaire, continuous and spot observations were used to collect data on household characteristics, type of primary building in homestead, number of rooms, type of ventilation present and type of fuel used by the household. State of housing and type of fuel used were found to be likely risk factors for indoor air pollution. Fifty two point six percent of those interviewed live in mud walled houses with iron sheet roofs. Ninety one percent live in either single or two roomed houses. Ventilation is provided both by small windows and a space left in between the wall and roof. Thirty seven percent of observed houses have no windows. In all households, fuel wood is used for cooking. State of housing and fuel used in sampled households encourage indoor air pollution, which has been associated with various diseases.

  20. Household Air Pollution and Acute Lower Respiratory Infections in Adults: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Jary

    Full Text Available Household air pollution from solid fuel burning kills over 4 million people every year including half a million children from acute lower respiratory infections. Although biologically plausible, it is not clear whether household air pollution is also associated with acute lower respiratory infections in adults. We systematically reviewed the literature on household air pollution and acute lower respiratory infection in adults to identify knowledge gaps and research opportunities.Ten bibliographic databases were searched to identify studies of household air pollution and adult acute lower respiratory infection. Data were extracted from eligible studies using standardised forms.From 4617 titles, 513 abstracts and 72 full-text articles were reviewed. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria of which 2 found a significant adjusted increased risk of acute lower respiratory infection, 2 identified a univariate association whilst 4 found no significant association. Study quality was generally limited. Heterogeneity in methods and findings precluded meta-analysis.A systematic review of the literature found limited evidence for an association between household air pollution and risk of acute lower respiratory infection in adults. Additional research, with carefully defined exposure and outcome measures, is required to complete the risk profile caused by household air pollution in adults.CRD42015028042.

  1. Household Air Pollution and Acute Lower Respiratory Infections in Adults: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jary, Hannah; Simpson, Hope; Havens, Deborah; Manda, Geoffrey; Pope, Daniel; Bruce, Nigel; Mortimer, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Household air pollution from solid fuel burning kills over 4 million people every year including half a million children from acute lower respiratory infections. Although biologically plausible, it is not clear whether household air pollution is also associated with acute lower respiratory infections in adults. We systematically reviewed the literature on household air pollution and acute lower respiratory infection in adults to identify knowledge gaps and research opportunities. Ten bibliographic databases were searched to identify studies of household air pollution and adult acute lower respiratory infection. Data were extracted from eligible studies using standardised forms. From 4617 titles, 513 abstracts and 72 full-text articles were reviewed. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria of which 2 found a significant adjusted increased risk of acute lower respiratory infection, 2 identified a univariate association whilst 4 found no significant association. Study quality was generally limited. Heterogeneity in methods and findings precluded meta-analysis. A systematic review of the literature found limited evidence for an association between household air pollution and risk of acute lower respiratory infection in adults. Additional research, with carefully defined exposure and outcome measures, is required to complete the risk profile caused by household air pollution in adults. CRD42015028042.

  2. Characterization of Pasteurella multocida involved in rabbit infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massacci, Francesca Romana; Magistrali, Chiara Francesca; Cucco, Lucilla

    2018-01-01

    In rabbit, P. multocida is considered a predominant pathogenic agent; despite this, few data on the molecular epidemiology are available so far. The aim of this work was to characterize P. multocida isolates from rabbit affected by various diseases in Italy. Comparison was made to reference strains...... belonged to the LPS genotypes 3 (22/39) or 6 (17/39). The clonal relationships of the Italian strains from rabbit had similarity to previously reported rabbit isolates that belonged to ST9, ST74, ST204 and ST206, however, they differed from other rabbit references strains that belonged to six other STs....... In particular, ST9 with capsular type F has been previously reported from diseased rabbit in Czech Republic and ST74 has been observed for older rabbit isolates. ST50 has probably been reported from Spain. ST9 and ST50 have previously also been reported from birds and pig, respectively, whereas ST74 has...

  3. Individual welfare analysis for collective households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherchye, Laurens; Cosaert, Sam; de Rock, Bram

    We propose novel tools for the analysis of individual welfare on the basis of aggregate household demand behavior. The method assumes a collective model of household consumption with the public and private nature of goods specified by the empirical analyst. A main distinguishing feature of our...... method is that it builds on a revealed preference characterization of the collective model that is intrinsically nonparametric. We show how to identify individual money metric welfare indices from observed household demand, along with the intrahousehold sharing rule and the individuals’ willingness...

  4. Household food waste in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Gaiani, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on food waste generated by households in four Nordic countries: Finland, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Based on existing literature we present (A) comparable data on amounts and monetary value of food waste; (B) explanations for food waste at household level; (C) a number...... of public and private initiatives at national levels aiming to reduce food waste; and (D) a discussion of ethical issues related to food waste with a focus on possible contributions from ecocentric ethics. We argue that reduction of food waste at household level, which has an impact on issues...

  5. Future Changes in Age and Household Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2014-01-01

    Using stochastic forecasting techniques, this paper assesses the consequences for public finances of changes in age and household structures in Denmark over the period 2008–2037. Focusing on components of welfare provisions and tax payments with noticeable differences across age and household...... status, we show that, based on a point forecast, the fiscal impact of changes in household structures amounts to an annual negative effect of 0.5% of GDP, and the effect of changes in age structures is forecast to worsen the public budget by 3.7% of GDP per year. While being subject to a considerable...... of population ageing....

  6. An individual-based model of rabbit viral haemorrhagic disease on European wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, John E.; Sharples, Colin M.; Bell, Diana J.; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2001-01-01

    We developed an individual-based model of Rabbit Viral Hemorrhagic Disease (RVHD) for European wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.), representing up to 1000 rabbits in four hectares. Model output for productivity and recruitment matched published values. The disease was density-dependent and virulence affected outcome. Strains that caused death after several days produced greater overall mortality than strains in which rabbits either died or recovered very quickly. Disease effect also depended on time of year. We also elaborated a larger scale model representing 25 km2 and 100,000+ rabbits, split into a number of grid-squares. This was a more traditional model that did not represent individual rabbits, but employed a system of dynamic equations for each grid-square. Disease spread depended on probability of transmission between neighboring grid-squares. Potential recovery from a major population crash caused by the disease relied on disease virulence and frequency of recurrence. The model's dependence on probability of disease transmission between grid-squares suggests the way that the model represents the spatial distribution of the population affects simulation. Although data on RVHD in Europe are lacking, our models provide a basis for describing the disease in realistic detail and for assessing influence of various social and spatial factors on spread.

  7. Strategies for rearing of rabbit does

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommers, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of different rearing strategies for young rabbit does on body development and reproduction performance. In current rearing, does are often fed to appetite from weaning to first insemination. First insemination is applied when 75 to 80% of mature body weight (BW) is

  8. Eyeblink conditioning in the developing rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kevin L; Woodruff-Pak, Diana S

    2012-05-01

    Eyeblink classical conditioning in pre-weanling rabbits was examined in the present study. Using a custom lightweight headpiece and restrainer, New Zealand white littermates were trained once daily in 400 ms delay eyeblink classical conditioning from postnatal days (PD) 17-21 or PD 24-28. These ages were chosen because eyeblink conditioning emerges gradually over PD 17-24 in rats [Stanton et al., (1992) Behavioral Neuroscience, 106(4):657-665], another altricial species with neurodevelopmental features similar to those of rabbits. Consistent with well-established findings in rats, rabbits trained from PD 24-28 showed greater conditioning relative to littermates trained from PD 17-21. Both age groups displayed poor retention of eyeblink conditioning at retraining 1 month after acquisition. These findings are the first to demonstrate eyeblink conditioning in the developing rabbit. With further characterization of optimal conditioning parameters, this preparation may have applications to neurodevelopmental disease models as well as research exploring the ontogeny of memory. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. ALANINE - VALINE DYNAMICS IN PREGNANT RABBITS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    [15N]-alanine and [15N]–valine dynamics were studied in 29 -30 days pregnant New-Zealand rabbits. Over the experimental period, there was no detectable significant difference of mean ± SD of alanine concentrations within the sampling intervals in maternal, umbilical venous and arterial blood samples suggesting that ...

  10. Measures For Achieving Sustainable Rabbit Production In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to ascertain ways of achieving sustainable rabbits production in Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Area of Rivers State. The study population involved 120 respondents comprising 40 students and 80 farmers. Two sets of structured questionnaire designed with a 4-point Likert type rating scale ...

  11. Postanaesthetic tracheal strictures in three rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grint, N J; Sayers, I R; Cecchi, R; Harley, R; Day, M J

    2006-07-01

    Within an 11-day period, three rabbits were anaesthetized for neutering. All were endotracheally intubated with 12 cm long, 2.5 mm (inner diameter [ID]) polyvinylchloride (PVC) tubes. All rabbits developed clinical signs of dyspnoea and upper respiratory tract obstruction, 17-21 days later. One rabbit was found dead; the other two were treated, but one was euthanized and one died. At necropsy examination, focal chronic inflammation and significant localized narrowing of the tracheal lumen was found in all cases. The affected sites corresponded to the position of the bevel of the endotracheal tube (ETT) during anaesthesia. Histopathology could not differentiate between a traumatic or chemical cause for the narrowing. Possible causes include trauma by the bevel of the ETT when turning the rabbit or preparing the surgical site or a chemical burn from incorrect disinfection or inadequate rinsing of the tubes. Iatrogenic tracheitis should be considered as a cause of dyspnoea, when clinical signs arise 2-3 weeks after anaesthesia.

  12. Ficus mucoso and Senna occidentalis in rabbits.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rev Olaleye

    ABSTRACT: A total of 20 domestic rabbits divided into 4 groups of 5 animals per group were used in this study to assess the haematinic potencies of the aqueous crude extracts of Ficus mucoso and Senna occidentalis and this was then compared with that of a proprietary haematinic, Haematopan B12®. Group A animals ...

  13. Muscle weakness causes joint degeneration in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan Youssef, A; Longino, D; Seerattan, R; Leonard, T; Herzog, W

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of botulinum toxin type-A (BTX-A) induced quadriceps weakness on micro-structural changes in knee cartilage of New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. Fifteen rabbits were divided randomly into an experimental and a sham control group. Each group received a unilateral single quadriceps muscle injection either with saline (sham control; n=4) or BTX-A (experimental; n=11). BTX-A injection produced significant quadriceps muscle weakness (Pmuscle mass (Pknee cartilage, assessed with the Mankin grading system, were the same for the injected and non-injected hind limbs of the experimental group animals. Sham injection had no effect on joint degeneration but all control animals showed some degenerative changes in the knee. Degenerative changes of the retro-patellar cartilage were more severe in the experimental compared to sham control group rabbits (P0.05). Quadriceps muscle weakness caused increased degeneration in the retro-patellar cartilage of NZW rabbits, providing evidence that muscle weakness might be a risk factor for the onset and progression of osteoarthritis (OA). Future work needs to delineate whether muscle weakness directly affects joint degeneration, or if changes in function and movement execution associated with muscle weakness are responsible for the increased rate of OA onset and progression observed here.

  14. Ultrastructural researches on rabbit myxomatosis. Lymphnodal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcato, P S; Simoni, P

    1977-07-01

    Ultrastructural examination of head and neck lymph nodes in rabbits with spontaneous subacute myxomatosis showed fusion of immature reticuloendothelial cells which lead to the formation of polykarocytes. There was no ultrastructural evidence of viral infection of these polykaryocytes. Histiosyncytial lymphadenitis can be considered a specific lesion of myxomatosis.

  15. Immunostimulant Effect of Egyptian Propolis in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Somya A.; Mohamed, Amira H.; Soufy, Hamdy; Nasr, Soad M.; Mahran, K. M.

    2012-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to study the effect of ethanolic extract of Egyptian propolis given alone or in combination with inactivated Pasteurella multocida vaccine on rabbits challenged with a virulent strain of Pasteurella multocida. Fifty-six New-Zealand rabbits, 6–8 weeks old and non-vaccinated against pasteurellosis, were randomly divided into eight equal groups. The first group was kept as a control for the experiment. The other groups received different treatments with propolis extract, inactivated vaccine, or both. The experiment continued for seven weeks during which clinical signs, body weight, and mortality rate were monitored, and blood samples were collected weekly for evaluating the leukogram, serum biochemistry, and immune response in all groups of animals. At the end of the seventh week, the animals were subjected to challenge with a virulent strain of Pasteurella multocida. Two weeks later, tissue specimens were collected from different organs for histopathological examination. Results showed that rabbits of the groups treated with both propolis and the vaccine by different routes appeared healthy after challenge. It has been concluded that alcoholic extract of propolis administrated in combination with inactivated Pasteurella multocida vaccine has no adverse effects on the general health conditions and enhances immune response in rabbits. PMID:22654648

  16. Immunostimulant Effect of Egyptian Propolis in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somya A. Nassar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was conducted to study the effect of ethanolic extract of Egyptian propolis given alone or in combination with inactivated Pasteurella multocida vaccine on rabbits challenged with a virulent strain of Pasteurella multocida. Fifty-six New-Zealand rabbits, 6–8 weeks old and non-vaccinated against pasteurellosis, were randomly divided into eight equal groups. The first group was kept as a control for the experiment. The other groups received different treatments with propolis extract, inactivated vaccine, or both. The experiment continued for seven weeks during which clinical signs, body weight, and mortality rate were monitored, and blood samples were collected weekly for evaluating the leukogram, serum biochemistry, and immune response in all groups of animals. At the end of the seventh week, the animals were subjected to challenge with a virulent strain of Pasteurella multocida. Two weeks later, tissue specimens were collected from different organs for histopathological examination. Results showed that rabbits of the groups treated with both propolis and the vaccine by different routes appeared healthy after challenge. It has been concluded that alcoholic extract of propolis administrated in combination with inactivated Pasteurella multocida vaccine has no adverse effects on the general health conditions and enhances immune response in rabbits.

  17. histopathological changes in female rabbits adminstered

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SWEET

    2016-03-23

    Mar 23, 2016 ... generalised cell necrosis and erosion of the villi of the small intestine. All the rabbits that survived gained weight, which is .... photometer, (AAS, Unicam Solar 969 - Unicam), (Haswell, 1991). Phytochemical screening ..... Haswell SJ (1991). Atomic Absorption Spectrometry; Theory, Design and Applications.

  18. International Conference on Immunogenetics of the Rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-09

    crowded cell cultures and is removed by extensive dialysis of the CCSup. We concluded that the GM present in rabbit lymphoid cell cultures maintained in...inbred species. We were confronted with the expected marked decline in fertility and fecundity, but the persistence of hetero- zygosis for blood group

  19. Anesthetic protocol for videolaparoscopic surgery in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbinotto, Rosi Pereira; Trindade, Manoel Roberto Maciel; Meyer, Fabíola Schons; Muller, Ana Lucia Letti; Rosa, Arlindo da; Nunes, André Gorgen; da Silva, Rodrigo

    2010-02-01

    To describe the anesthetic protocol and the intubation technique without visualizing the trachea in rabbits, in order to enable the videolaparoscopic surgical procedure. The experiment was performed on 33 female rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), aged from 5 to 7 months. It consisted of general anesthesia and endotracheal intubation by manual palpation of the trachea of the rabbits, without using the laryngoscope, orally, for later videolaparoscopic surgical access to the abdominal cavity. The mean values and standard deviation of vital parameters of the animals were 223.8 + or - 15.61 beats per minute for heart rate; 35 + or - 9 movements per minute for respiratory rate; 96.94 + or - 0.99% of oxymetry and 42.82 + or - 4.02 mmHg for capnometry; 16.7 + or - 4.3 minutes for pneumoperitoneum (duration of surgery) and 1 hour and 14 + or - 8.52 minutes for time of observation (from induction to recovery from anesthesia). All animals were intubated in at most three attempts. No animals were lost after the introduction of this anesthetic technique. This protocol proved adequate, safe and easy to perform, on rabbits submitted to videolaparoscopic surgery.

  20. How Do Families Smooth Household Heads` Earnings Volatility?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ki Seong Park; ; Dong Gyun Shin

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the extent to which household heads` earnings volatility is translated into household consumption volatility, and, in the process, identify measures of smoothing idiosyncratic earnings variation...

  1. THE EFFECT OF PATULIN ON RABBIT SPERM MOTILITY AND PROGRESSIVE MOTILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Schneidgenová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to compare the motility and progressive motility of rabbit sperm after patulin intramuscular administration twice a week for two weeks. Adult male rabbits (n= 30 were used in experiment. Animals were divided into two groups: control group (C without patulin exposure and experimental group (E with addition of patulin (10 μg.kg-1 of body weight. Semen collection was performed using an artificial vagina. All samples were analysed using CASA (Computer Assisted Semen Analysis system and following parameters were evaluated: percentage of motile spermatozoa and percentage of progressive motile spermatozoa. The sperm motility (p˂0.05 as well as the progressive motility (p˂0.05 was significantly lower in E group when compared to the control.

  2. Enhancing the bioavailability of magnolol in rabbits using melting solid dispersion with polyvinylpyrrolidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shiuan-Pey; Hou, Yu-Chi; Liao, Tzu-Yun; Tsai, Shang-Yuan

    2014-03-01

    Preparation of magnolol-loaded amorphous solid dispersion was investigated for improving the bioavailability. A solid dispersion of magnolol was prepared with polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30 (PVP) by melting method, and the physical properties were characterized by using differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffractometry, Fourier transformation-infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope. In addition, dissolution test was also performed. Subsequently, the bioavailability of magnolol pure compound, its physical mixture and solid dispersion were compared in rabbits. The blood samples withdrawn via marginal ear vein at specific time points were assayed by HPLC method. Oral administration of the solid dispersion of magnolol with PVP significantly increased the systemic exposures of magnolol and magnolol sulfates/glucuronides by 80.1% and 142.8%, respectively, compared to those given with magnolol pure compound. Magnolol-loaded amorphous solid dispersion with PVP has demonstrated enhanced bioavailability of magnolol in rabbits.

  3. The impact of nicotine on osseointegration. An experimental study in the femur and tibia of rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balatsouka, Dimitra; Gotfredsen, Klaus; Lindh, Christian H

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of an enhanced systematic dose of nicotine on osseointegration of titanium implants. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixteen female rabbits received either nicotine (n=8) or saline (n=8) administered subcutaneously via mini-osmotic pumps...... for 2 months. The pump delivered 6 mug/kg/min of nicotine for the animals in the test group. Blood was withdrawn and plasma cotinine levels were measured weekly. Thirty-two titanium implants were inserted into the femur and tibia of all rabbits after 4 weeks and after 6 weeks of nicotine....../placebo exposure. Thus, 2- and 4-week healing groups were created. Biomechanical evaluation by (i) resonance frequency analysis test (RFA) on all implants after insertion and before sacrifice and (ii) removal torque test (RMT) on tibial implants before sacrifice was performed. All implants placed in the femur were...

  4. Household-level predictors of maternal mental health and systemic inflammation among infants in Mwanza, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Jason A; Manyama, Mange; Wilson, Warren

    2016-07-01

    Household conditions and culturally/socially variable childcare practices influence priming of the inflammatory response during infancy. Maternal mental health may partially mediate that effect. Among mother-infant dyads in Mwanza, Tanzania, we hypothesized that poorer maternal mental health would be associated with adverse household ecology, lower social capital, and greater inflammation among infants under the age of one; and that mental health would mediate any effects of household ecology/social capital on inflammation. We collected dried blood spots from mother-infant dyads (N = 88) at health centers near Mwanza, Tanzania. To assess household ecology and social capital, we conducted interviews with mothers using the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, the MacArthur Subjective Social Status Scale, and a household wealth inventory. We employed the Hopkins Symptom Checklist to assess maternal mental health. A high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) assay was used to quantify inflammation. Severe food insecurity (OR: 5.16), lower subjective social status (r = -0.32), and lower household wealth (r = -0.26) were associated with high symptoms of maternal depression. Lower household wealth (r = -0.21) and severe food insecurity (OR: 2.52) were associated with high anxiety. High depression symptoms (OR: 2.56) and severe food insecurity (OR: 2.77) each were associated with greater-than-median infant CRP. However, mediation was not supported. Maternal mental health should be considered alongside nutritional status, pathogen exposure, and education as a potential driver of very early innate immune system development. Proximal mechanisms warrant further investigation. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:461-470, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Growing up in a permissive household: what deters at-risk adolescents from heavy drinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joan S; Ellickson, Phyllis L; Klein, David J

    2008-07-01

    This study identified psychosocial factors that may deter adolescents living in permissive households from heavy drinking in Grades 9 and 11. Longitudinal data were obtained from 710 youth who completed surveys from Grades 7 to 11. Permissive household was defined based on adolescent reports of whether the parents (1) would be upset if the adolescent drank or used marijuana, (2) knew their child's whereabouts when the adolescent was away from home, and (3) set curfews. Frequency of heavy drinking in the last 30 days was the number of days the adolescent had at least three alcoholic drinks. Three quarters of adolescents from permissive households reported heavy drinking at Grade 9, with less frequent heavy drinking among those who concurrently reported less exposure to peer and adult drinking, less peer approval of drinking, weaker positive beliefs about drinking, a stronger academic orientation, higher resistance self-efficacy, and less delinquency. Further, social influences and alcohol beliefs predicted the frequency of heavy drinking 2 years later among adolescents from permissive households. Although most of these factors were also relevant for adolescents from nonpermissive households, social influences, alcohol beliefs and resistance self-efficacy were stronger predictors of heavy drinking at Grade 9 among youth from permissive households. Growing up in a permissive household was associated with heavy drinking. Nonetheless, several psychosocial factors were associated with less frequent heavy drinking even within this at-risk population. Alcohol prevention programs that target pro-drinking peer and adult influences, positive attitudes toward drinking, and resistance self-efficacy may be particularly important in deterring heavy drinking among adolescents living in permissive households.

  6. HOUSEHOLD AS A SUBJECT OF FINANCIAL RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Hneusheva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Households are considered as a separate sphere of the financial system of Ukraine, which carry out active influence on the development of domestic economy. The basic functions of housekeeping in a market economy are shown.

  7. Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey (BIHS) 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This dataset is the second round of Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey (BIHS). The BIHS is the only nationally representative survey in Bangladesh that collects...

  8. Ubiquitous monitoring of electrical household appliances

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lloret, Jaime; Macías, Elsa; Suárez, Alvaro; Lacuesta, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    ... to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home...

  9. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2016-01-01

    .98 and 1.41 for the primary and secondary cars, respectively. Accounting for substitution effects, these figures reduce to, respectively, 0.32 and 0.45. Consistent with substitution behaviour, we find that the fuel price elasticity of fuel demand exceeds the elasticity of kilometre demands with respect......In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars of different fuel efficiency in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate – for each car owned by the household...... – own and cross-price effects of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, the basic model yielded fuel price elasticities of 0...

  10. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-05

    This presents information about household end-use consumption of energy and expenditures for that energy. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey; more than 7,000 households were surveyed for information on their housing units, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information represents all households nationwide (97 million). Key findings: National residential energy consumption was 10.0 quadrillion Btu in 1993, a 9% increase over 1990. Weather has a significant effect on energy consumption. Consumption of electricity for appliances is increasing. Houses that use electricity for space heating have lower overall energy expenditures than households that heat with other fuels. RECS collected data for the 4 most populous states: CA, FL, NY, TX.

  11. Crossbreeding effects on rabbit reproduction from four maternal lines of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragab, M; Sánchez, J P; Mínguez, C; Baselga, M

    2016-07-01

    Litter size is essential for an efficient production of rabbit meat. A diallel cross between four maternal lines was carried out and the analysis of the components of litter size has been already done. This paper presents the analysis of litter size traits themselves (total born (TB), number born alive (NBA), number weaned (NW)) and kindling interval (KI), that complete the analysis of the reproductive performance. The 16 genetic groups were distributed in four Spanish farms. The V line was present in all farms in order to be used as reference group. A total of 34 546 parities from 7111 does, were analysed. The crossbreeding parameters were estimated according to Dickerson model. The differences between lines performance were of low magnitude and not significant for litter size traits. The LP line showed the shortest KI followed by H respect to lines A and V. These differences reflected the differences between direct and maternal genetic effects. The differences between the average of all crosses and line V were found to be significant and seemed to be important, being 0.46 for TB, 0.56 for NBA, 0.75 for NW and -2.21 days for KI. The differences between reciprocal crosses for litter size were of low magnitude and non-significant, which indicate that the maternal effects are not important between these lines. In general, the lines did not show significant differences in direct and maternal genetic effects for TB, NBA and NW but there were some significant differences for KI, which ranged from 1.54 to 6.85 days in direct effects and from 0.63 to 3.38 days for maternal effects. A positive and, in some cases, relevant heterosis was found. The largest heterosis was for TB in the HV cross (1.05 rabbits), followed by the AH (0.74 rabbits), AV (0.57 rabbits) and LH (0.55 rabbits) crosses. For NBA, significant heterosis was found in HV (1.11 rabbits) and AV (0.49 rabbits) and for NW in AV (0.90 rabbits), LH (0.70 rabbits) and LV (0.58 rabbits). Favourable and significant

  12. Policy Analytics, Household Informedness and the Collection of Household Hazardous Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim-Wavde Kustini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper collection of Household Hazardous Waste (HHW is an important action to support environmental sustainability. We investigate the role of household informedness, the degree to which households have the necessary information to make utility-maximizing decisions, as they relate to participation in HHW collection programs. We find two factors that influence household informedness: the provision of public education about HHW and environmental quality information. We conducted an empirical study on HHW collection in California to obtain statistical evidence on the effect of these factors on the amount of HHW collected. The findings of this policy analytics study improve our understanding of how household informedness influences household decision-making in participating in HHW collection programs. This study is useful in the guidance it offers to devise new information policies to maximize households’ participation in HHW collection program.

  13. Ocular Distribution and Pharmacokinetics of Lifitegrast in Pigmented Rabbits and Mass Balance in Beagle Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jou-Ku; Spencer, Elizabeth; Hunt, Matthew; McCauley, Thomas; Welty, Devin

    Lifitegrast is approved in the United States for the treatment of dry eye disease (DED). We assessed lifitegrast's ocular distribution/pharmacokinetic profile in rabbits, and 14 C-lifitegrast mass balance/excretion in dogs. Female pigmented rabbits received a single topical ocular dose of lifitegrast (Formulation No. 1, n = 25; No. 2, n = 25) per eye twice daily (target, 1.75 mg/eye/dose). Blood/ocular tissues were collected on day 5. Beagle dogs received single intravenous (n = 10; target, 3 mg, 262 μCi/animal) and ocular (n = 8, target, 3 mg, 30 μCi/eye) doses of 14 C-lifitegrast (∼8 weeks between doses). Blood, excreta, and cage rinse/wipes were collected. Concentrations were measured by mass spectrometry/liquid scintillation counting. Pharmacokinetic analyses (noncompartmental) included maximum concentration (C max ), time to C max (t max ), and area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 8 h (AUC 0-8 ). In rabbits, lifitegrast C max and AUC 0-8 were similar between formulations. C max was highest in ocular anterior segment tissues: 5,190-14,200 ng/g [conjunctiva (palpebral/bulbar), cornea, anterior sclera]. Posterior segment tissues had lower concentrations (0-826 ng/g). AUC 0-8 followed a similar trend. Plasma concentrations were low (C max lifitegrast was eliminated primarily through feces. Excreted radioactivity was mainly unchanged lifitegrast. High exposure of lifitegrast in rabbit ocular anterior segment tissues and low exposure in posterior segment tissues/plasma suggests that lifitegrast reaches target tissues for DED treatment, with low potential for off-target systemic/ocular effects. Excretion of unchanged 14 C-lifitegrast suggests minimal drug metabolism in vivo. This is consistent with lifitegrast clinical trial efficacy/safety data.

  14. Household savings behaviour in crisis times

    OpenAIRE

    Carin van der Cruijsen; Jakob de Haan; David-Jan Jansen; Robert Mosch

    2011-01-01

    We analyze whether households' savings behaviour was affected by adverse experiences during the crisis and knowledge about banking supervision. Using a survey among Dutch households, we find that both factors have affected the allocation of savings. Individuals whose bank went bankrupt or received government support during the crisis gather more information about banks and saving instruments and are more likely to have savings at several banks. Respondents with better knowledge about banking ...

  15. Title MPC heterogeneity and household balance sheets

    OpenAIRE

    Fagereng, Andreas; Holm, Martin B.; Natvik, Gisle J.

    2016-01-01

    Using Norwegian administrative data, we study how sizable lottery prizes affect household expenditure and savings. Expenditure responses (MPCs) spike in the year of winning, with a mean estimate of 0.35, and thereafter fall markedly. Controlling for all items on the household balance sheet and characteristics such as education and age, MPCs vary with the amount won and liquid assets only. Shock size matters: The MPC among the 25 percent winning least is twice as high as among the 25 perce...

  16. Poverty, household chaos, and interparental aggression predict children's ability to recognize and modulate negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raver, C Cybele; Blair, Clancy; Garrett-Peters, Patricia

    2015-08-01

    The following prospective longitudinal study considers the ways that protracted exposure to verbal and physical aggression between parents may take a substantial toll on emotional adjustment for 1,025 children followed from 6 to 58 months of age. Exposure to chronic poverty from infancy to early childhood as well as multiple measures of household chaos were also included as predictors of children's ability to recognize and modulate negative emotions in order to disentangle the role of interparental conflict from the socioeconomic forces that sometimes accompany it. Analyses revealed that exposure to greater levels of interparental conflict, more chaos in the household, and a higher number of years in poverty can be empirically distinguished as key contributors to 58-month-olds' ability to recognize and modulate negative emotion. Implications for models of experiential canalization of emotional processes within the context of adversity are discussed.

  17. Income differentiation of households in the CR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Stávková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Czech Republic has recently experienced phases of economic growth and periods of economic crisis, this fact affects the standard of living and household behaviour and affects the formation of life-style. This paper deals with the income situation of households. The main source of data is EU SILC survey from the years 2005 to 2008.The result of the enquiry and processing of primary data is information about the average income per household member, the poverty level and the number of households at risk of poverty. For the formulation of income differentiation is used Gini coefficient. Attention is paid to factors that affect income inequality (the number of household members, social group, age. Information, about the income situation of households, is amended by following indicators of material deprivation. The paper also analyses the impact of social transfers on income inequality. The analysis and subsequent solving of the problem of income inequality may be contributed with further analysis of empirical data of this type.

  18. Reproductive toxicity of BioThrax in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Cynthia; Lewis, Elise; Morseth, Sandra; Simon, Louise; Waytes, A Thomas

    2009-10-01

    An increasing number of women are being vaccinated during child-bearing years, including vaccination with BioThrax (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed, or AVA). As only a limited number of studies exist in humans that have examined the effects of AVA on reproductive health, this study was conducted in order to evaluate the impact AVA vaccination may have on pregnant female rabbits and their offspring. Two hundred female rabbits were vaccinated with saline, adjuvant, or AVA twice prior to mating and on one of two occasions during gestation, in order to have exposure to the antigen during organogenesis. Blood samples were collected from does and fetuses/kits to assess the development and in utero transfer of antibodies to Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (anti-PA IgG). Half of the does underwent Caesarean-sectioning on gestation day 29 and a gross necropsy was performed on both the does and their fetuses. The other half were allowed to naturally deliver and gross necropsy of the does and their kits was performed on lactation day 29. ELISA results showed that anti-PA IgG was generated by the does and passed to the fetuses/kits at detectable levels. AVA directly, or indirectly through the production of anti-PA IgG, did not appear to have an adverse effect on the pregnant females or their offspring, as measured by mating and fertility indices, natural delivery observations, clinical signs, gross lesions, in utero growth and survival, morphological development, or kit viability. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Photobiological safety of the recently introduced energy efficient household lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necz, Péter Pál; Bakos, József

    2014-12-01

    Nowadays more and more newly introduced light sources (tungsten-halogen, compact fluorescent (CFL) and light-emitting diode (LED) lamps) are used in households. It is important to know whether their radiation poses any possible risk for human health or not. These light sources emit optical radiation not solely in the visible spectrum. Other bands emitted by these sources, i.e., ultraviolet and infrared, are potentially hazardous for human health. The visible light, especially the blue light, could also damage human retina. The purpose of this study was to determine the ultraviolet (UV) and blue light (BL) emissions from halogen bulbs, CFLs and LED lamps, and to evaluate them from the point of view of possible health risks for general public. The exposure of UV and BL emissions from 19 types of CFLs, 11 types of halogen lamps and 4 types of LED lamps produced by different manufacturers were measured at 200 mm distance from the source. The exposures to UV and BL were below the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) exposure limits in spite of the very conservative assumption of the assessment. Results of this study indicate that the UV and BL radiation from the newly introduced lamps does not exceed the current exposure limit values and thus, in comparison with the former incandescent bulbs, does not result in a higher risk for general public.

  20. Photobiological safety of the recently introduced energy efficient household lamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Pál Necz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Nowadays more and more newly introduced light sources (tungsten-halogen, compact fluorescent (CFL and light-emitting diode (LED lamps are used in households. It is important to know whether their radiation poses any possible risk for human health or not. These light sources emit optical radiation not solely in the visible spectrum. Other bands emitted by these sources, i.e., ultraviolet and infrared, are potentially hazardous for human health. The visible light, especially the blue light, could also damage human retina. The purpose of this study was to determine the ultraviolet (UV and blue light (BL emissions from halogen bulbs, CFLs and LED lamps, and to evaluate them from the point of view of possible health risks for general public. Material and Methods: The exposure of UV and BL emissions from 19 types of CFLs, 11 types of halogen lamps and 4 types of LED lamps produced by different manufacturers were measured at 200 mm distance from the source. Results: The exposures to UV and BL were below the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP exposure limits in spite of the very conservative assumption of the assessment. Conclusions: Results of this study indicate that the UV and BL radiation from the newly introduced lamps does not exceed the current exposure limit values and thus, in comparison with the former incandescent bulbs, does not result in a higher risk for general public.

  1. Head lice prevalence among households in Norway: importance of spatial variables and individual and household characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukke, Bjørn Arne; Birkemoe, Tone; Soleng, Arnulf; Lindstedt, Heidi Heggen; Ottesen, Preben

    2011-09-01

    Head lice prevalence varies greatly between and within countries, and more knowledge is needed to approach causes of this variation. In the present study, we investigated head lice prevalence among elementary school students and their households in relation to individual and household characteristics as well as spatial variables. The investigation included households from 5 geographically separated municipalities. Present infestations among household members as well as previous infestations in the household were reported in a questionnaire. In elementary school students prevalence was low (1·63%), but more than one-third of the households (36·43%) had previously experienced pediculosis. Prevalence was higher in elementary school students than in other household members, and highest in third-grade children. Prevalence was also influenced by the school attended, which suggested that interactions between children in the same school are important for head lice transmission. Previous occurrence of head lice in homes also increased the risk of present infestation. Prevalence of previous infestations was higher in households with more children and in more densely populated municipalities, indicating that the density of hosts or groups of hosts influences transmission rates. These results demonstrate that information of hosts' spatial distribution as well as household and individual characteristics is needed to better understand head lice population dynamics.

  2. Immunoproteomic identification of antigenic salivary biomarkers detected by Ixodes ricinus-exposed rabbit sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu Hai, Vinh; Pages, Frédéric; Boulanger, Nathalie; Audebert, Stéphane; Parola, Philippe; Almeras, Lionel

    2013-09-01

    Ixodes ricinus, the primary vector of tick-borne disease in Europe, is currently expanding its distribution area and its activity in many countries. Antibody responses to tick salivary antigens have been proposed as an alternative marker of exposure to tick bites. However, the identification of the I. ricinus corresponding antigens remains elusive. Using rabbits artificially exposed to I. ricinus and 2 other European tick species (Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor reticulatus) as controls, a cross-comparison of IgG profiles was performed against protein salivary gland extracts (pSGE) from these 3 tick species using immunoblots. Immunoblot analysis highlighted a singularity in the immune patterns according to tick species exposure and pSGE antigen source. Two protein bands were detected against I. ricinus pSGE only in rabbits exposed to I. ricinus bites. An immunoproteomic approach based on a fluorescence detection method was developed to unambiguously identify corresponding antigenic spots on 2-D gels. Among the unique I. ricinus salivary antigenic proteins detected by sera from rabbits exposed to this tick species, I. ricinus calreticulin was identified. Although tick calreticulin was previously proposed as a potential antigenic marker following exposure to ticks (particularly in North American tick species), the present study suggested that Ixodes calreticulin does not appear to be cross-recognized by the 2 other tick genera tested. Additional experiments are needed to confirm the use of I. ricinus calreticulin salivary protein as a potential discriminant antigenic biomarker to Ixodes tick exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Racial Discrimination and Low Household Education Predict Higher Body Mass Index in African American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Devin S; Gerras, Julia M; McGlumphy, Kellye C; Shaver, Erika R; Gill, Amaanat K; Kanneganti, Kamala; Ajibewa, Tiwaloluwa A; Hasson, Rebecca E

    2017-12-06

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between environmental factors, including household education, community violence exposure, racial discrimination, and cultural identity, and BMI in African American adolescents. A community-based sample of 198 African American youth (120 girls, 78 boys; ages 11-19 years) from Washtenaw County, Michigan, were included in this analysis. Violence exposure was assessed by using the Survey of Children's Exposure to Community Violence; racial discrimination by using the Adolescent Discrimination Distress Index; cultural identity by using the Acculturation, Habits, and Interests Multicultural Scale for Adolescents; and household education by using a seven-category variable. Measured height and body weight were used to calculate BMI. Racial discrimination was positively associated with BMI, whereas household education was inversely associated with BMI in African American adolescents (discrimination: β = 0.11 ± 0.04, p = 0.01; education: β = -1.13 ± 0.47, p = 0.02). These relationships were significant when accounting for the confounding effects of stress, activity, diet, and pubertal development. Significant gender interactions were observed with racial discrimination and low household education associated with BMI in girls only (discrimination: β = 0.16 ± 0.05, p = 0.003; education: β = -1.12 ± 0.55, p = 0.045). There were no significant relationships between culture, community violence exposure, and BMI (all p's > 0.05). Environmental factors, including racial discrimination and low household education, predicted higher BMI in African American adolescents, particularly among girls. Longitudinal studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms by which these environmental factors increase obesity risk in African American youth.

  4. Appropriate handling of pet rabbits: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, A G; Dickens, G J E

    2016-10-01

    Many rabbits show fear behaviours when lifted off the ground. Estimates from owner surveys suggest that around 60% of pet rabbits struggle when lifted and fear-related aggression is common. This article integrates information from both laboratory and pet rabbit studies to formulate a list of recommendations for appropriate handling of rabbits. Reduction of the frequency of the stressor can be achieved by educating owners on alternative management practices to reduce the need to carry their rabbits. However, in some situations, it is unavoidable that a rabbit is lifted. Amelioration of the stress in these instances can be achieved by a 2 pronged strategy. First, the population of rabbits can be made more resilient to infrequent stressors by selectively breeding for confident rabbits and by better socialisation of unweaned kits, and, where possible, training of individual animals to permit handling. Secondly, any unavoidable lifting can be made less stressful by educating veterinary staff in appropriate methods of holding rabbits during both consultations and inpatient care. Better understanding of appropriate interactions with rabbits will improve welfare. © 2016 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  5. Poikilocytosis in Rabbits: Prevalence, Type, and Association with Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Mary M.; Hawkins, Michelle G.; Burton, Andrew G.

    2014-01-01

    Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are a popular companion animal, food animal, and animal model of human disease. Abnormal red cell shapes (poikilocytes) have been observed in rabbits, but their significance is unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and type of poikilocytosis in pet rabbits and its association with physiologic factors, clinical disease, and laboratory abnormalities. We retrospectively analyzed blood smears from 482 rabbits presented to the University of California-Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital from 1990 to 2010. Number and type of poikilocytes per 2000 red blood cells (RBCs) were counted and expressed as a percentage. Acanthocytes (>3% of RBCs) were found in 150/482 (31%) rabbits and echinocytes (>3% of RBCs) were found in 127/482 (27%) of rabbits, both healthy and diseased. Thirty-three of 482 (7%) rabbits had >30% acanthocytes and echinocytes combined. Mild to moderate (>0.5% of RBCs) fragmented red cells (schistocytes, microcytes, keratocytes, spherocytes) were found in 25/403 (6%) diseased and 0/79 (0%) healthy rabbits (P = 0.0240). Fragmentation and acanthocytosis were more severe in rabbits with inflammatory disease and malignant neoplasia compared with healthy rabbits (Prabbits. Our findings support the need to carefully document poikilocytes in research investigations and in clinical diagnosis and to determine their diagnostic and prognostic value. PMID:25402479

  6. Innate resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in England*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J.; Sanders, M. F.

    1977-01-01

    Wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from one study area in England have been used over a period of 11 years to investigate the possible appearance of innate resistance to myxomatosis. Rabbits of 4-6 weeks old were captured alive, retained in the laboratory until at least 4 months old, and then infected with a type of myxoma virus which kills 90-95% of laboratory rabbits. Observations were made of symptoms, mortality rate and survival times. In the first 4 years of the study (1966-9), mortality rates were not significantly different from those of laboratory rabbits, although survival times of wild rabbits were appreciably longer. In 1970, the mortality rate amongst wild rabbits was 59%, in 1974 it was 17%, and in 1976 it was 20%, thus showing that a considerable degree of inherited resistance to myxomatosis has developed. The types of myxoma virus most commonly isolated from wild rabbits in Great Britain in recent years have been those which cause 70-95% mortality in laboratory rabbits. Therefore, if the degree of innate resistance demonstrated is widespread in Great Britain, there are serious implications regarding the size of the rabbit population, because myxomatosis has been an important factor in holding rabbit numbers at a relatively low level. PMID:270526

  7. Innate resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J; Sanders, M F

    1977-12-01

    Wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from one study area in England have been used over a period of 11 years to investigate the possible appearance of innate resistance to myxomatosis. Rabbits of 4-6 weeks old were captured alive, retained in the laboratory until at least 4 months old, and then infected with a type of myxoma virus which kills 90-95% of laboratory rabbits. Observations were made of symptoms, mortality rate and survival times.In the first 4 years of the study (1966-9), mortality rates were not significantly different from those of laboratory rabbits, although survival times of wild rabbits were appreciably longer. In 1970, the mortality rate amongst wild rabbits was 59%, in 1974 it was 17%, and in 1976 it was 20%, thus showing that a considerable degree of inherited resistance to myxomatosis has developed.The types of myxoma virus most commonly isolated from wild rabbits in Great Britain in recent years have been those which cause 70-95% mortality in laboratory rabbits. Therefore, if the degree of innate resistance demonstrated is widespread in Great Britain, there are serious implications regarding the size of the rabbit population, because myxomatosis has been an important factor in holding rabbit numbers at a relatively low level.

  8. The rabbit meat quality after different feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pavelková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this present work was to evaluation the effect of feeding on selected chemical and physical parameters rabbit meat. For testing was used rabbits incurred by the crossing of two breeds: the mother - Nitriansky králik and father - Nemecký obrovitý strakoš. Rabbits came from domestic breeding and were 8 weeks old separated from the mother. We created two groups: group A was fed by feed wheat and group B was fed by granulated fodder Králik gold forte. During all the time of fattening, rabbits were fed with hay, respectively green fodder. Rabbits were slaughtered at the age of 19 weeks. After slaughtering was dissection obtained fresh rabbit meat for analysis. From chemical parameters were determined: dry matter, fat, protein, ash, energy value and biogenic amines as putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine. From physical parameter was measured pH of meat. The initial value of pH in group A was 6.12 and after 48 hours was 6.38 and in group B was 7.32 and 6.40, respectively.Dry matter in group A was 24.86 g.100 g-1 and in group B was 24.70 g.100 g-1, content of fat was 1.44 g.100g-1 and 1.33 g.100 g-1, protein was 20.94 g.100 g-1 and 21.12 g.100 g-1, ash was 1.18 g.100 g-1 and 1.25 g.100 g-1, energy value was 461.89 kJ.100 g-1 and 440.27 kJ.100 g-1, respectively. Statistical evaluation of all results we found statistically significant differences (p <0.05 only between the groups A and B only in biogenic amine - spermidine. Experiment was shown a high correlation between biogenic amines putrescine and tyramine, putrescine and spermine, cadaverine and tyramine. Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE

  9. Farmers' awareness on landslide susceptibility on their plots: a first step towards household resilience in the Rwenzori region, Western Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Kewan; Jacobs, Lies; Maes, Jan; Kervyn, Matthieu; Vranken, Liesbet

    2016-04-01

    In the mountainous area of the Rwenzori region, western Uganda, landslides frequently destroy houses and plots of farmers living and cultivating on unstable slopes. The impact of these landslides on the local livelihoods depends on the exposure and the resilience of the households. Both the exposure and the resilience can be modified to a certain extent with specific measures, e.g. planting slope stabilizing trees of paying for (informal) insurance. The adoption of such measures and the willingness to accept measures imposed by local governments crucially depends on the local awareness of landslide risk. The aim of this research is to estimate awareness on landslide susceptibility, as a proxy for landslide risk, among household heads in a landslide prone area in the Rwenzori region, Western Uganda. The objective is to compare household and plot characteristics between aware and unaware households. This will allow us to identify those households which are less aware of landslide susceptibility and therefore most likely to be less resilient when exposed to landslide risk. We use data from a susceptibility map constructed in 2016 and a structured household survey conducted in the Rwenzori region in 2015. The susceptibility map is based on a SRTM 30m DEM and validated with field observations, while the household survey includes the answers of more than 450 households that have been asked to evaluate the landslide susceptibility on their plots. Simple probit models at plot level are used to compare the estimated landslide susceptibility with the modelled susceptibility. We use this comparison to identify the household characteristics of those households that do not correctly estimate the landslide susceptibility on their plots. We will exploit the fact that landslide susceptibility is very space specific and that households can therefore have plots in both susceptible and unsusceptible areas. The research is currently ongoing, but we hypothesize that younger farmers

  10. The Oct4 promoter-EGFP transgenic rabbit: a new model for monitoring the pluripotency of rabbit stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Mingru; Fang, Zhenfu; Jiang, Weihua; Xing, Fengying; Jiang, Manxi; Kong, Pengcheng; Li, Yao; Zhou, Xiaomei; Tang, Lan; Li, Shangang; Chen, Xuejin

    2013-01-01

    The rabbit has long been used as a laboratory animal model for developing reproductive and stem cell-related technologies, as well as for studying human disease. The Oct4 transcription factor plays a crucial role in the maintenance and regulation of pluripotency in embryos and stem cells. We constructed a reporter plasmid containing the gene encoding the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the rabbit Oct4 promoter (prOG) and transfected it into E14 mouse stem cells and rabbit ESCs. In addition, prOG transgenic fibroblasts were derived and prOG transgenic rabbits were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The pattern of expression of ectopic EGFP was similar in E14 mouse stem cells whether under the control of the rabbit (prOG) or mouse Oct4 promoter (pmOG). EGFP expression was observed in rabbit ESCs following prOG transfection. Both prOG transgenic SCNT embryos and F1 prOG transgenic embryos derived from adult transgenic rabbits expressed green fluorescence at the morula and blastocyst stages. EGFP was clearly detected in gonads isolated from fetuses at 27 dpc. The prOG transgenic rabbit represents a new model for studying the derivation and maintenance of rabbit pluripotent cells, and for investigating rabbit embryo development.

  11. Determinants and Dimensions of Household Food Insecurity in Dire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on primary data collected from 200 household in 2005, this study scrutinizes determinants and the extent of food insecurity in Dire Dawa town. A binary logit model has identified household size, daily income and proportion of expenditure on food, education of household head, sex of household head, access to credit ...

  12. JASR Vol. 3, N0. 1, 2003 55 CASSAVA HOUSEHOLD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cassava, yam and millet food expenditure households in all the anthropometric indices except in maize expenditure households, but the deviations were. significantly less for total food expenditure households. High cassava food expenditure households had higher cash incomes through processed cassava products and.

  13. Assessment of expenditure on food among urban households and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed expenditure on food among urban households in Benue State of Nigeria. This was done with the view to assess household food expenditure and its implications for food security status of the households; identify and assess determinants that influence household food demand; and analyze the ...

  14. Child nutritional status and household patterns in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic malnutrition and underweight were significantly pronounced in children from households with de jure household heads (P<0.05). However, chronic malnutrition was markedly prevalent among children from maleheaded households. Thus, the presence of the de facto household head and the gender of the head of ...

  15. Impact of ill-health on household consumption in Sri Lanka: Evidence from household survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumara, Ajantha Sisira; Samaratunge, Ramanie

    2017-12-01

    With significant increases in chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in recent years, Sri Lanka has witnessed a growing trend of increased out-of-pocket payments for healthcare, imposing a severe burden on household budgets. This is exacerbated by limited government health funding and inadequate financial security from formal social security. We examine the association of NCD-prevalence and healthcare utilization with household consumption, using the most recent Sri Lanka Household Income and Expenditure Survey 2012/2013. The unit of analysis is the household. We use data for 20,535 households to apply two-part models. Findings suggest that financial constraints induced by NCD-prevalence and hospitalization compel households primarily to sacrifice food consumption. Analysis further shows that poorer households are more vulnerable to food insecurity arising from these. Households sacrifice the basic needs of housing and clothing, and the burden on poorer households is higher, whereas richer households have the option of sacrificing more from non-basic needs to cope with NCDs and hospitalization and thereby to secure basic needs to a certain extent. Moreover, the burden of out-of-pocket healthcare expenses is found to be positively associated with NCDs and hospitalization. In addition to the direct association, public hospitalization favorably moderates the associations between NCDs and the allocations for food and healthcare. Private hospitalization is adversely associated with a wider range of consumption, creating negative welfare consequences. These findings provide valuable information on what needs to be done to reform Sri Lanka's health sector. The study contributes to international discussions on frameworks and national-level policies for effectively allocating public and private funds to the health sector to mitigate hardships faced by the poorest households. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Kinetics of Anti-Phlebotomus perniciosus Saliva Antibodies in Experimentally Bitten Mice and Rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Martín-Martín

    Full Text Available Sand flies are hematophagous arthropods that act as vectors of Leishmania parasites. When hosts are bitten they develop cellular and humoral responses against sand fly saliva. A positive correlation has been observed between the number of bites and antibody levels indicating that anti-saliva antibody response can be used as marker of exposure to sand flies. Little is known about kinetics of antibodies against Phlebotomus perniciosus salivary gland homogenate (SGH or recombinant salivary proteins (rSP. This work focused on the study of anti-P. perniciosus saliva antibodies in sera of mice and rabbits that were experimentally exposed to the bites of uninfected sand flies.Anti-saliva antibodies were evaluated by ELISA and Western blot. In addition, antibody levels against two P. perniciosus rSP, apyrase rSP01B and D7 related protein rSP04 were determined in mice sera. Anti-saliva antibody levels increased along the immunizations and correlated with the number of sand fly bites. Anti-SGH antibody levels were detected in sera of mice five weeks after exposure, and persisted for at least three months. Anti-apyrase rSP01B antibodies followed similar kinetic responses than anti-SGH antibodies while rSP04 showed a delayed response and exhibited a greater variability among sera of immunized mice. In rabbits, anti-saliva antibodies appeared after the second week of exposure and IgG antibodies persisted at high levels, even 7 months post-exposure.Our results contributed to increase the knowledge on the type of immune response P. perniciosus saliva and individual proteins elicited highlighting the use of rSP01B as an epidemiological marker of exposure. Anti-saliva kinetics in sera of experimentally bitten rabbits were studied for the first time. Results with rabbit model provided useful information for a better understanding of the anti-saliva antibody levels found in wild leporids in the human leishmaniasis focus in the Madrid region, Spain.

  17. Household environmental tobacco smoke and risks of asthma, wheeze and bronchitic symptoms among children in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Bing-Fang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although studies show that maternal smoking during pregnancy increases the risks of respiratory outcomes in childhood, evidence concerning the effects of household environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure remains inconsistent. Methods We conducted a population-based study comprised of 5,019 seventh and eighth-grade children in 14 Taiwanese communities. Questionnaire responses by parents were used to ascertain children's exposure and disease status. Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the effects of ETS exposures on the prevalence of asthma, wheeze, and bronchitic symptoms. Results The lifetime prevalence of wheeze was 11.6% and physician-diagnosed asthma was 7.5% in our population. After adjustment for potential confounders, in utero exposure showed the strongest effect on all respiratory outcomes. Current household ETS exposure was significantly associated with increased prevalence of active asthma, ever wheeze, wheeze with nighttime awakening, and bronchitis. Maternal smoking was associated with the increased prevalence of a wide range of wheeze subcategories, serious asthma, and chronic cough, but paternal smoking had no significant effects. Although maternal smoking alone and paternal smoking alone were not independently associated with respiratory outcomes, joint exposure appeared to increase the effects. Furthermore, joint exposure to parental smoking showed a significant effect on early-onset asthma (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.00-4.02, but did not show a significant effect on late-onset asthma (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.36-3.87. Conclusion We concluded that prenatal and household ETS exposure had significant adverse effects on respiratory health in Taiwanese children.

  18. Dietary supplementation of butyrate in growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Radaelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The UE restrictions imposed on the antibiotic utilization in animal husbandry have increased the interest on alternative additives capable of improving animal digestive health. Among the numerous tested products, short chain fatty acids stimulated intestinal mucus production at different level and intestinal cells proliferation in rats (Meslin et al., 2001; Moreau et al., 2003. Short and medium chain fatty acids could also modulate intestinal microflora: in rabbits, the antimicrobial activity of caprilic and capric acids was proved on various strains of Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli (Marounek et al., 2002. The present trial aimed to evaluate the effect of butyrate inclusion and level on growth performance, health status, digestive physiology and slaughter traits in growing rabbits.

  19. Fusiform aneurysm model in rabbit carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinald, Nicoleta; Fournier, Benjamin; Naveau, Adrien; Couty, Ludovic; Lemitre, Mathilde; Seguier, Sylvie; Coulomb, Bernard; Gogly, Bruno; Lafont, Antoine; Durand, Eric

    2010-01-01

    To develop a reproducible and accessible model of elastase-induced fusiform aneurysm in carotid rabbit arteries. Elastase, at a concentration of 1-30 U, was incubated into the lumen of carotid rabbit arteries. Four weeks later, angiography, histomorphometry, immunohistochemistry and zymography were performed. The optimal concentration of elastase in this model was 3 U according to the balance between mortality and thrombosis rates. Indeed, at 3 U, external carotid diameter increased from 1.9 +/- 0.1 to 3.1 +/- 0.4 mm (p < 0.0001) associated with degradation of elastic fibers, matrix metalloproteinase-9 secretion, apoptosis and macrophage infiltration. Our study underlines that abdominal aortic aneurysm can be reliably duplicated in an elastase-induced aneurysm in carotid artery, a much more accessible vessel. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Leprosy reactions: the effect of gender and household contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mastrangelo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Various host-related factors have been reported as relevant risk factors for leprosy reactions. To support a new hypothesis that an antigenic load in local tissues that is sufficient to trigger the immune response may come from an external supply of Mycobacterium leprae organisms, the prevalence of reactional leprosy was assessed against the number of household contacts. The number of contacts was ascertained at diagnosis in leprosy patients coming from an endemic area of Brazil. The prevalence of reactions (patients with reactions/total patients was fitted by binomial regression and the risk difference (RD was estimated with a semi-robust estimation of variance as a measure of effect. Five regression models were fitted. Model 1 included only the main exposure variable "number of household contacts"; model 2 included all four explanatory variables ("contacts", "fertile age", "number of skin lesions" and "bacillary index" that were found to be associated with the outcome upon univariate analysis; models 3-5 contained various combinations of three predictors. Male and female patients were analyzed separately. In females, household contacts were a significant predictor for leprosy reactions in model 1 [crude RD = 0.06; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.01; 0.12] and model 5 (RD = 0.05; CI = 0.02; 0.09, which included contacts, bacillary index and skin lesions as predictors. Other models were unsatisfactory because the joint presence of fertile age and bacillary index was a likely source of multicollinearity. No significant results were obtained for males. The likely interpretation of our findings might suggest that in female patients, leprosy reactions may be triggered by an external spreading of M. leprae by healthy carrier family members. The small number of observations is an obvious limitation of our study which requires larger confirmatory studies.

  1. Penetration of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin into breast milk, and pharmacokinetics of the drugs in lactating rabbits and neonatal offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramayona, J J; Mora, J; Fraile, L J; García, M A; Abadía, A R; Bregante, M A

    1996-04-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics and milk penetration of enrofloxacin (ENR) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) in lactating rabbits and their disposition in suckling rabbits. Prospective cross-over study. 6 lactating New Zeland White rabbits and their offspring (16 days after parturition). Serial plasma and milk samples were assayed by use of a high-performance liquid chromatography technique. In vitro protein binding in plasma and skim milk was measured by ultrafiltration. Skim-to-whole milk ratio also was determined. The time course of ENR and CIP was fitted by nonlinear least squares regression analysis, and the pharmacokinetic variables were compared. The time courses of ENR and CIP in plasma were similar in lactating adult rabbits (mean body clearances, 23.9 and 27.2 ml/min/kg of body weight, for ENR and CIP, respectively). Observed milk-to-plasma ratios (M/P) were determined, using the area under the milk and plasma concentration versus time profiles (ENR, 2.59; CIP, 3.61). Predicted M/P (ENR, 6.35; CIP, 3.04) were calculated from in vitro measurements. Body clearance calculated for ENR and CIP in suckling rabbit pups involved a decrease of 80 and 74%, respectively, over that found in lactating animals. Observed CIP M/P were correlated to predicted values, which strengthens the argument that CIP passes into the milk by nonionic diffusion. The lack of correlation between observed and predicted ENR M/P pointed out that ENR undergoes faster elimination from milk than that predicted by the diffusional model. Diminished elimination capacity observed in suckling rabbits would result in greater exposure than that predicted from concentrations alone.

  2. ASSESSING THE POSSIBLE INTERACTION BETWEEN CARDUUS MARIANUS AND DIETARY DEOXYNIVALENOL ON CAECAL MICROBIOTA AND FERMENTATION OF GROWING RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Kachlek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of feed with mycotoxins is a common problem encountered in animal farming. Mycotoxin exposure can affect adversely the health of animals. In rabbits caecal fermentation is an essential digestive process being indication of physiological alterations. Deoxynivalenol (DON is one of the most frequent contaminants of grains which affect the growth of monogastric animals. Data about dietary DON and its effect in rabbits are scarce. Medicinal plants are often used as feed additives to enhance the performance of the animals. Carduus marianus (milk thistle is known for its hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects (among others but no data are available about the effect on rabbit caecum. Considering the aforementioned, the aim of this study was to assess the possible interactive effect of Carduus marianus and DON on the caecum of growing rabbits. 75 Pannon White rabbits were reared for six weeks from 35 (after weaning till 77 days of age. Rabbits received the following diets: control (C, control with DON (CT, control supplemented with C. marianus in 0,5% (H1, control supplemented with C. marianus in 0,5% and DON (H1T, control supplemented with C. marianus in 1% (H2 and control supplemented with C. marianus in 1% and DON (H2T. On slaughter, caecum was collected for the analysis of total volatile fatty acids (VFA and the microbiota of the caecum, pH of the caecum was also recorded. There was no significant difference in total VFA concentration or individual VFA. Number of aerobic bacteria significantly differed among toxin and non-toxin groups. DON affected adversely the number of aerobic bacteria. An interactive effect of DON and Carduus marianus on E.coli number was observed. There was no effect on total or individual VFA amounts.

  3. Lactate metabolism in the fetal rabbit lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engle, M.J.; Brown, D.J.; Dooley, M.

    1986-05-01

    Lactate is frequently overlooked as a potential substrate for the fetal lung, even though it is present in the fetal circulation in concentrations as high as 8 mM. These high concentrations, coupled with the relatively low levels of glucose in the fetal blood, may indicate that lactate can substitute for glucose in pulmonary energy generation and phospholipid synthesis. A series of experiments was therefore undertaken in order to investigate the role of lactate in perinatal pulmonary development. Explants from 30 day gestation fetal rabbit lungs were incubated in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer supplemented with 3 mM (U-/sup 14/C)-glucose and varying levels of lactate. In the absence of medium lactate, fetal rabbit lung explants were capable of producing lactate at a rate of approximately 200 etamoles/mg protein/hour. The addition of lactate to the bathing medium immediately reduced net lactate production and above 4 mM, fetal rabbit lung explants became net utilizers of lactate. Media lactate concentrations of 2.5 mM, 5 mM and 10 mM also decreased glucose incorporation into total tissue disaturated phosphatidylcholine by approximately 20%, 35%, and 45%, respectively. Glucose incorporation into surfactant phosphatidylcholine was also reduced by approximately 50%, when lactate was present in the incubation medium at a concentration of 5 mM. Additional experiments also revealed that fetal lung lactate dehydrogenase activity was almost twice that found in the adult rabbit lung. These data indicate that lactate may be an important carbon source for the developing lung and could be a significant component in the manufacture of surfactant phosphatidylcholine during late gestation.

  4. The influence of 1800 MHz GSM-like signals on hepatic oxidative DNA and lipid damage in nonpregnant, pregnant, and newly born rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomruk, Arin; Guler, Goknur; Dincel, Aylin Sepici

    2010-01-01

    The aim of our study is to evaluate the possible biological effects of whole-body 1800 MHz GSM-like radiofrequency (RF) radiation exposure on liver oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation levels in nonpregnant, pregnant New Zealand White rabbits, and in their newly borns. Eighteen nonpregnant and pregnant rabbits were used and randomly divided into four groups which were composed of nine rabbits: (i) Group I (nonpregnant control), (ii) Group II (nonpregnant-RF exposed), (iii) Group III (pregnant control), (iv) Group IV (pregnant-RF exposed). Newborns of the pregnant rabbits were also divided into two groups: (v) Group V (newborns of Group III) and (vi) Group VI (newborns of Group III). 1800 MHz GSM-like RF radiation whole-body exposure (15 min/day for a week) was applied to Group II and Group IV. No significant differences were found in liver 8 OHdG/10(6) dG levels of exposure groups (Group II and Group IV) compared to controls (Group I and Group III). However, in Group II and Group IV malondialdehyde (MDA) and ferrous oxidation in xylenol orange (FOX) levels were increased compared to Group I (P 0.05, Mann-Whitney) while liver FOX levels were found significantly increased in Group VI with respect to Group V (P GSM-like RF radiation exposure may lead to oxidative destruction as being indicators of subsequent reactions that occur to form oxygen toxicity in tissues.

  5. Usefulness of high-resolution sonography in early diagnosis of rabbit clonorchiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Choi, Don Gil; Chung, Il Gyu; Phyun, Lae Hyun; Pyeun, Yong Seon [Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Tae; Lee, Me Jeong [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-15

    To determine the role of high-resolution sonography in the early diagnosis of experimentally induced clonorchiasis in rabbits. We performed sonographic examination weekly in 22 lightly-infected rabbits (10 rabbits infected with 10 metacercariae, 6 rabbits infected with 20 metacercariae, and 6 rabbits infected with 40 metacercariae), and 10 heavily-infected rabbits (500 metacercariae). The sonographic criterion of diagnosis with dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts. We sacrificed lightly-infected rabbits and counted numbers of adult worms of clonorchis sinensis 9 weeks after infection. Sonographic abnormalities were found 3 weeks after infection in 2 lightly-infected rabbits and 5 heavily-infected rabbits. On sonography at 9 weeks after infection, we observed dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts in 11 (65%) of 17 lightly-infected rabbits and all of 10 heavily-infected rabbits. High-resolution sonography is very useful in early diagnosis of rabbits clonorchiasis.

  6. Effect of Monocular Deprivation on Rabbit Neural Retinal Cell Densities

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Maseghe Mwachaka; Hassan Saidi; Paul Ochieng Odula; Pamela Idenya Mandela

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the effect of monocular deprivation on densities of neural retinal cells in rabbits. Methods: Thirty rabbits, comprised of 18 subject and 12 control animals, were included and monocular deprivation was achieved through unilateral lid suturing in all subject animals. The rabbits were observed for three weeks. At the end of each week, 6 experimental and 3 control animals were euthanized, their retinas was harvested and processed for light microscopy. Photomicrographs of ...

  7. Toxicity of staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 in rabbits.

    OpenAIRE

    de Azavedo, J C; Arbuthnott, J P

    1984-01-01

    Strains of Staphylococcus aureus associated with toxic shock syndrome produce toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST 1), which is lethal to conventional rabbits and acts synergistically with gram-negative lipopolysaccharide. The lethal effect of TSST 1 was examined in specific-pathogen-free rabbits on the basis that these rabbits, being less colonized by gram-negative bacteria, would be less susceptible than conventional animals. Although there was no significant difference in mortality between s...

  8. Myxomatosis in farmland rabbit populations in England and Wales.

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, J; Tittensor, A. M.; Fox, A P; Sanders, M. F.

    1989-01-01

    The overall pattern and consequences of myxomatosis in wild rabbit populations were studied at three farmland sites in lowland southern England and upland central Wales between 1971 and 1978. When results from all years were combined, the disease showed a clear two-peaked annual cycle, with a main autumn peak between August and January, and a subsidiary spring peak during February to April. Rabbit fleas, the main vectors of myxomatosis in Britain, were present on full-grown rabbits in suffici...

  9. Welfare Impacts of Pindone Poisoning in Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Penny; Brown, Samantha; Arrow, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary The nature and duration of the effects of pindone poisoning in rabbits were evaluated through observational monitoring of affected animals and necropsy. Using the resulting data in a formal assessment framework, the welfare impacts of pindone poisoning were ranked as relatively higher than other vertebrate toxic agents currently used for rabbit control. Abstract Control methods used to manage unwanted impacts of the European rabbit in Australia and New Zealand include the use o...

  10. Field Trial of a Pasteurella multocida Extract Vaccine in Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Suckow, Mark A; Haab, Rudolph W; Miloscio, Lawrence J; Guilloud, Norman B

    2008-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a bacterial pathogen that can cause significant disease and subsequent effects on research activities involving rabbits. Although several vaccines have been tested under laboratory conditions, field trials of vaccines for the control of P. multocida in rabbits are few. We used a potassium thiocyanate extract (PTE) produced from P. multocida serotype D:3,12,15 to vaccinate Pasteurella-free rabbits at their introduction into a colony having endemic infection with P. mul...

  11. Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility and Excitability Score in Rabbit fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    of excitability score shows that rabbit on diet 1 and 2 had a lower value which was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than rabbits on ... heat stress in poultry (Minka et al. .... An excitability score of 4 was recorded in 70.00 ± 5.50 % in rabbit. Table 1: Composition of Experimental Diets. Ingredients. Dietary Treatment. T1. T2. T3. T4.

  12. BIORESORBABLE POLYMERIC MENISCAL PROSTHESIS: STUDY IN RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Tulio Pereira; de Rezende Duek, Eliana Aparecida; Amatuzzi, Marco Martins; Caetano, Edie Benedito

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To induce growth of a neomeniscus into the pores of a prosthesis in order to protect the knee joint cartilage. Methods: 70 knees of 35 New Zealand rabbits were operated. The rabbits were five to seven months old, weighed 2 to 3.8 kilograms, and 22 were male and 13 were female. Each animal underwent medial meniscectomy in both knees during a single operation. A bioabsorbable polymeric meniscal prosthesis composed of 70% polydioxanone and 30% L-lactic acid polymer was implanted in one side. The animals were sacrificed after different postoperative time intervals. The femoral condyles and neomeniscus were subjected to histological analysis. Histograms were used to measure the degradation and absorption of the prosthesis, the growth of meniscal tissue in the prosthesis and the degree of degradation of the femoral condyle joint cartilage. Results: The data obtained showed that tissue growth histologically resembling a normal meniscus occurred, with gradual absorption of the prosthesis, and the percentages of chondrocytes on the control side and prosthesis side. Conclusion: Tissue growth into the prosthesis pores that histologically resembled the normal rabbit meniscus was observed. The joint cartilage of the femoral condyles on the prosthesis side presented greater numbers of chondrocytes in all its layers. PMID:27022549

  13. Sodium nitroprusside induces apoptosis of rabbit chondrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qian; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Tong-Sheng

    2013-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by a slowly progressing degradation of the matrix and destruction of articular cartilage. Apoptosis of chondrocyte is accounted for the mechanism of OA. Nitric oxide (NO), as a stimulus, has been shown to induce chondrocyte apoptosis by activating the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), increasing the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and the level of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), inhibiting the proteoglycan synthesis and type II collagen expression. In this study, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was administered to be the NO donor to explore the mechanism of NO-induced apoptosis of rabbit chondrocytes obtained from six weeks old New Zealand rabbits. CCK-8 assay revealed the inhibitory effect of SNP on cell viability. We used flow cytometry (FCM) to assess the form of cell death by Annexin-V/propidium iodide (PI) double staining, and evaluate the change of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). We found that the SNP induced chondrocyte apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner and an observable reduction of ΔΨm. In conclusion, our findings indicate that SNP induces apoptosis of rabbit chondrocytes via a mitochondria-mediated pathway.

  14. Reproductive activity and welfare of rabbit does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Castellini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the relationships between reproductive performance and welfare of the rabbit does. In the last 10 years the profitability of rabbit farms has increased mainly due to improvements in management and genetic selection but several problems mainly related to animal welfare have also occurred. The mortality and rates of female replacement per year are very high and the replaced females often show poor body condition and low performance. The effect of kindling order, litter size, genetic strain, weaning age and reproduction rhythm on the reproductive performance and welfare of females and some mechanisms implicated in these effects are discussed. Modern rabbit does produce a lot of milk which have a high energetic value which leads to a mobilization of body fat which results in an energy deficit. In the current reproductive rhythms, there is an extensive overlap between lactation and gestation. The resulting energetic and hormonal antagonism reduces the fertility rate and lifespan of the doe. Strategies to improve the fertility, lifespan and welfare of does are discussed. An approach which combines various strategies seems to be required to meet these objectives. Since the factors involved in this productive system are fixed (genetic strain, environment the most powerful way to improve doe welfare is to choose a reproductive rhythm that is adapted to the physiology of the does.

  15. Sildenafil Stimulates Aqueous Humor Turnover in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Lawrence J.; Zamudio, Aldo C.; Candia, Oscar A.

    2013-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate increases ocular blood flow and accelerates the rate of anterior chamber refilling after paracentesis. The latter effect could have resulted from a reduction in outflow facility or from an increase in aqueous humor (AH) production. In this study, we used scanning ocular fluorophotometry to examine the effects of sildenafil on AH turnover, and thus, AH production in eyes of live normal rabbits. For this, the rate of aqueous humor flow (AHF) was quantified with a commercially available fluorophotometer that measured the rate of fluorescein clearance from the anterior segment, which predominantly occurs via the trabecular meshwork. After ≈ 2 hrs of control scans to determine the baseline rate of AHF, the rabbits were fed 33 mg of sildenafil and allowed ≈ 45 min for the drug to enter the systemic circulation. Thereafter, fluorescence scans were retaken for an additional 90–120 min. Sildenafil ingestion increased AHF by about 36%, from 2.31 μL/min to 3.14 μL/min (PViagra, Revatio), stimulates AHF in rabbits. Our results seem consistent with reports indicating that the drug dilates intraocular arteries and augments intraocular vascular flow. These physiological responses to the agent apparently led to increased fluid entry into the anterior chamber. As such, the drug might have utility in patients with ocular hypotony resulting from insufficient AH formation. PMID:23562660

  16. Exploring the link between household debt and income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fasianos, Apostolos; Raza, Hamid; Kinsella, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between household debt and income inequality in the USA, allowing for asymmetry, using data over the period 1913–2008. We find evidence of an asymmetric cointegration between household debt and inequality for different regimes. Our results indicate household debt...... only responds to positive changes in income inequality, while there is no evidence of falling inequality significantly affecting household debt. The presence of this asymmetry provides further empirical insights into the emerging literature on household debt and inequality....

  17. Unequal household carbon footprints in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedenhofer, Dominik; Guan, Dabo; Liu, Zhu; Meng, Jing; Zhang, Ning; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Households' carbon footprints are unequally distributed among the rich and poor due to differences in the scale and patterns of consumption. We present distributional focused carbon footprints for Chinese households and use a carbon-footprint-Gini coefficient to quantify inequalities. We find that in 2012 the urban very rich, comprising 5% of population, induced 19% of the total carbon footprint from household consumption in China, with 6.4 tCO2/cap. The average Chinese household footprint remains comparatively low (1.7 tCO2/cap), while those of the rural population and urban poor, comprising 58% of population, are 0.5-1.6 tCO2/cap. Between 2007 and 2012 the total footprint from households increased by 19%, with 75% of the increase due to growing consumption of the urban middle class and the rich. This suggests that a transformation of Chinese lifestyles away from the current trajectory of carbon-intensive consumption patterns requires policy interventions to improve living standards and encourage sustainable consumption.

  18. HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURE IN RESPONSE TO NATURAL DISASTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eny Sulistyaningrum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural disasters have increased in their frequency, and the intensity of their destruction over the last ten years in Indonesia. Households usually respond to these difficulties by cutting their consump-tion, especially for non-essential goods. Arguably natural disasters are exogenous events, so this paper uses the exogenous variation from natural disasters as a natural experiment design to estimate the effect of disasters on household expenditure. When a certain group is exposed to the causal variable of interest, such as a disaster, and other groups are not, the Difference In Difference model (DID can be used for estimation. Using a micro level survey data set from the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS which covers approximately 83 percent of the Indonesian population within the survey area, this paper examines the effects of natural disasters on household expenditure. This paper also examines whether there are any different impacts from different types of disasters. The finding is there are no significant effects of disasters on total household expenditure for households living in disaster regions, whether they are affected directly or not by the disaster.

  19. Household sampling in slums in surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Maria Cecilia Goi Porto; Morais, Maria de Lima Salum E; Escuder, Maria Mercedes Loureiro; Goldbaum, Moisés; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão; Carandina, Luana

    2011-12-01

    To identify the advantages and disadvantages of using segments compared to a complete address list, for the selection of households in a multistage cluster sampling in slums. A qualitative study was performed in four slums selected by the São Paulo Municipal Health Survey of 2008, and the two selection techniques were applied. Focal groups were performed with field researchers, including the persons making the list of addresses and the interviewers. The content of the conversations were analyzed, grouped in categories and organized in themes. Use of household segments was associated with several advantages and few disadvantages. The advantages included: speed and facility in developing the sampling frame and in locating and identifying households when performing interviews, increased safety for interviewers and the population, greater access to interviewees, greater stability and coverage of the frame, and fewer errors in the identification of selected households. The construction of a household registry by creation of segments is advantageous compared to the complete listing of addresses, when undertaken in slums. Due to its economy and ease, the technique is an option for simplifying the sampling process in areas characterized by high density and disorganized housing.

  20. Identification and determination of disinfection byproducts in chlorine-containing household cleansing products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ho-Sang; Lim, Hyun-Hee

    2017-05-01

    Seven halogenated volatile organic compounds (HVOCs) and two haloacetic acids were detected and quantified in 15 household products, including sodium hypochlorite, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Chloroform was detected in a range of 0.2-30.2 mg kg -1 in all products, and carbon tetrachloride was observed in 13 samples in a range of 0.05-352 mg kg -1 . Dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid were also detected up to 94 and 146 mg kg -1 in household products. The estimated human exposures of chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid were calculated to 0.041, 0.240, 0.913 and 2.39 mg/kg/day by the exposure algorithm from the Japan National Institute of Technology and Evaluation, respectively. According to the calculated result, the total estimated human exposure of chloroform were determined to exceed the tolerable concentration of inhalation exposure presented by the World Health Organization. The DBPs should be controlled to the lowest concentrations in the chlorine-containing household cleansing products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.