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Sample records for household population aged

  1. Changing Age and Household Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2014-01-01

    finances by almost 1% of GDP on the yearly budget. While the net fiscal effect of changing household structures is minor, the gross effects are substantial. In a future characterized by population ageing, public finances may be adversely affected by changes in both age and household structures, thus...

  2. Alcohol Consumption Practices among Married Women of Reproductive Age in Nepal: A Population Based Household Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narbada Thapa

    Full Text Available Alcohol chemically known as ethanol, causes several health, economic and social consequences across the world. Literatures suggest potential harm of alcohol drinking by pregnant women especially to the fetus and the mother. Despite a number of significant public health problems related to alcohol consumption, this area has been ignored in Nepal and information at the national level is limited. Thus this study aimed at finding the prevalence of alcohol consumption among married women of reproductive age.A nationally representative household survey was carried out from April to August 2013 by taking 16 districts across all 15 eco administrative regions. From the selected districts, 86 village development committees and 14 municipalities were selected as primary sampling units using probability proportionate to size, followed by random selection of 3 wards from each primary sampling unit. Finally, 30 households within each ward were selected using systematic random sampling, and one married women of reproductive age from each household. A total of 9000 married women of reproductive age were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire, on alcohol consumption practices including environmental factors and socio demographic characteristics and were included in the analysis.National prevalence of alcohol consumption ever among married women of reproductive age was 24.7% (95% CI:21.7-28.0, last 12 months 17.9% (95% CI:15.3-20.7 and last 30 days (current drinking 11.8% (95% CI:9.8-14.1. There was substantial variation among the districts ranging from 2% to 60%. Multivariable analysis suggests women with no education or within formal education, dalit and janajatis ethnicity, whose husbands drink alcohol, who brew alcohol at home and women from mountains were significantly at higher risk of consuming alcohol. Among the women who drank alcohol in last 12 months, a substantial proportion of them drank home brewed alcoholic beverages (95.9%, 95% CI:94

  3. The age distribution of self-reported personality disorder traits in a household population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Simone; Coid, Jeremy

    2009-04-01

    Stability over time is an essential criterion for the diagnosis of a personality disorder (PD) according to DSM-IV and ICD-10. However, both longitudinal and cross-sectional studies have demonstrated considerable changes of personality disorder traits during life-span, an observation which challenges this assumption. We measured self-reported DSM-IV personality disorder traits in a nationally representative community sample using a cross-sectional design. We investigated the association of dimensional PD scores with age. Our analyses confirmed a decreasing prevalence of personality disorder mean scores across age groups in the population, particularly Cluster B, with an increase in self-reported schizoid and obsessive-compulsive scores. Furthermore, specific interactions of demographic characteristics and age were identified. Analyses of transition points in the distribution of personality disorders across different age groups did not demonstrate increasing stability after age 30 as previously observed for normal personality traits. Significant changes occurred primarily after the third decade.

  4. Future Changes in Age and Household Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2014-01-01

    Using stochastic forecasting techniques, this paper assesses the consequences for public finances of changes in age and household structures in Denmark over the period 2008–2037. Focusing on components of welfare provisions and tax payments with noticeable differences across age and household...... status, we show that, based on a point forecast, the fiscal impact of changes in household structures amounts to an annual negative effect of 0.5% of GDP, and the effect of changes in age structures is forecast to worsen the public budget by 3.7% of GDP per year. While being subject to a considerable...

  5. Determinants of HIV infection among adolescent girls and young women aged 15-24 years in South Africa: a 2012 population-based national household survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabaso, Musawenkosi; Sokhela, Zinhle; Mohlabane, Neo; Chibi, Buyisile; Zuma, Khangelani; Simbayi, Leickness

    2018-01-26

    South Africa is making tremendous progress in the fight against HIV, however, adolescent girls and young women aged 15-24 years (AGYW) remain at higher risk of new HIV infections. This paper investigates socio-demographic and behavioural determinants of HIV infection among AGYW in South Africa. A secondary data analysis was undertaken based on the 2012 population-based nationally representative multi-stage stratified cluster random household sample. Multivariate stepwise backward and forward regression modelling was used to determine factors independently associated with HIV prevalence. Out of 3092 interviewed and tested AGYW 11.4% were HIV positive. Overall HIV prevalence was significantly higher among young women (17.4%) compared to adolescent girls (5.6%). In the AGYW model increased risk of HIV infection was associated with being young women aged 20-24 years (OR = 2.30, p = 0.006), and condom use at last sex (OR = 1.91, p = 0.010), and decreased likelihood was associated with other race groups (OR = 0.06, p girls model decreased risk of HIV infection was associated with other race groups (OR = 0.01, p < 0.001), being married (OR = 0.07), p = 0.016], and living in less poor household (OR = 0.08, p = 0.002). In the young women's models increased risk of HIV infection was associated with condom use at last sex (OR = 2.09, p = 0.013), and decreased likelihood was associated with other race groups (OR = 0.17, p < 0.001), one sexual partner (OR = 0.6, p = 0.014), low risk alcohol use (OR = 0.17, p < 0.001), having a sexual partner within 5 years of age (OR = 0.29, p = 0.022), and having tertiary education (OR = 0.29, p = 0.022). These findings support the need to design combination prevention interventions which simultaneously address socio-economic drivers of the HIV epidemic, promote education, equity and access to schooling, and target age-disparate partnerships

  6. The effects of demographic change on disease transmission and vaccine impact in a household structured population.

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    Geard, Nicholas; Glass, Kathryn; McCaw, James M; McBryde, Emma S; Korb, Kevin B; Keeling, Matt J; McVernon, Jodie

    2015-12-01

    The demographic structure of populations in both more developed and less developed countries is changing: increases in life expectancy and declining fertility have led to older populations and smaller households. The implications of these demographic changes for the spread and control of infectious diseases are not fully understood. Here we use an individual based model with realistic and dynamic age and household structure to demonstrate the marked effect that demographic change has on disease transmission at the population and household level. The decline in fertility is associated with a decrease in disease incidence and an increase in the age of first infection, even in the absence of vaccination or other control measures. Although large households become rarer as fertility decreases, we show that there is a proportionate increase in incidence of disease in these households as the accumulation of susceptible clusters increases the potential for explosive outbreaks. By modelling vaccination, we provide a direct comparison of the relative importance of demographic change and vaccination on incidence of disease. We highlight the increased risks associated with unvaccinated households in a low fertility setting if vaccine behaviour is correlated with household membership. We suggest that models that do not account for future demographic change, and especially its effect on household structure, may potentially overestimate the impact of vaccination. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. HIV Testing in the Past Year among the U.S. Household Population Aged 15-44: 2011-2013. NCHS Data Brief. Number 202

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copen, Casey E.; Chandra, Anjani; Febo-Vazquez, Isaedmarie

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, more than 1 million Americans aged 13 and over were living with HIV infection, and one in seven did not know their infection status. Routine, voluntary HIV testing is a recognized way to reduce HIV transmission. Using data from the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), this report updates nationally representative estimates…

  8. Probabilistic population aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We merge two methodologies, prospective measures of population aging and probabilistic population forecasts. We compare the speed of change and variability in forecasts of the old age dependency ratio and the prospective old age dependency ratio as well as the same comparison for the median age and the prospective median age. While conventional measures of population aging are computed on the basis of the number of years people have already lived, prospective measures are computed also taking account of the expected number of years they have left to live. Those remaining life expectancies change over time and differ from place to place. We compare the probabilistic distributions of the conventional and prospective measures using examples from China, Germany, Iran, and the United States. The changes over time and the variability of the prospective indicators are smaller than those that are observed in the conventional ones. A wide variety of new results emerge from the combination of methodologies. For example, for Germany, Iran, and the United States the likelihood that the prospective median age of the population in 2098 will be lower than it is today is close to 100 percent. PMID:28636675

  9. Household triggers of bronchospasm in children aged less than two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Identified household trigger factors of bronchospasm in children less than two years of age include: insecticide spray, fumes, smoke from stove and firewood, and exposure to cold air. The elimination of these factors from the environment of the affected child would go a long way in preventing the attacks.

  10. Household computer and Internet access: The digital divide in a pediatric clinic population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Aaron E.; Rivara, Frederick P.; Ebel, Beth; Zimmerman, Frederick J.; Christakis, Dimitri A.

    2005-01-01

    Past studies have noted a digital divide, or inequality in computer and Internet access related to socioeconomic class. This study sought to measure how many households in a pediatric primary care outpatient clinic had household access to computers and the Internet, and whether this access differed by socio-economic status or other demographic information. We conducted a phone survey of a population-based sample of parents with children ages 0 to 11 years old. Analyses assessed predictors of having home access to a computer, the Internet, and high-speed Internet service. Overall, 88.9% of all households owned a personal computer, and 81.4% of all households had Internet access. Among households with Internet access, 48.3% had high speed Internet at home. There were statistically significant associations between parental income or education and home computer ownership and Internet access. However, the impact of this difference was lessened by the fact that over 60% of families with annual household income of $10,000–$25,000, and nearly 70% of families with only a high-school education had Internet access at home. While income and education remain significant predictors of household computer and internet access, many patients and families at all economic levels have access, and might benefit from health promotion interventions using these modalities. PMID:16779012

  11. Impact of the HIV epidemic on population and household structure: the dynamics and evidence to date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuveline, Patrick

    2004-06-01

    HIV is contracted most frequently at birth and during early adulthood. The epidemic may thus impact the demographic structure and the household structure of affected populations. This paper reviews earlier evidence of such an impact, uses demographic theory to anticipate its changes over time, and reviews the most recent evidence for indications of these changes. Modest increases in the male : female ratio are beginning to show within certain age groups only (approximately 15% among 25-34 year olds). Similarly sized increases in the proportion of 15-29 year olds relative to 30-54 year olds are observed in some age pyramids. These 'youth bulges' are expected to fade out, whereas an aging effect phases in with the fertility impact of the epidemic. In the longer run, the size of all age groups will be reduced, but relatively less so for middle-aged adults. Proportions of orphans and widows have increased in the most affected countries. Fewer remarriage probabilities for widows were observed. Resulting increases in the proportion of female-headed households should only be temporary, as female mortality is catching up with male mortality. The number of double orphans is beginning to increase, but overall, orphans continue to live predominantly with a family member, most often the grandparents if not with the surviving parent. To date, the epidemic's impact on the population and household structure has been limited by demographic (aging) and social (adaptive movements of kin across households) processes that contribute to diffuse the epidemic throughout the entire population and all households.

  12. Lithuanian Population Aging Factors Analysis

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    Agnė Garlauskaitė

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to identify the factors that determine aging of Lithuania’s population and to assess the influence of these factors. The article shows Lithuanian population aging factors analysis, which consists of two main parts: the first describes the aging of the population and its characteristics in theoretical terms. Second part is dedicated to the assessment of trends that influence the aging population and demographic factors and also to analyse the determinants of the aging of the population of Lithuania. After analysis it is concluded in the article that the decline in the birth rate and increase in the number of emigrants compared to immigrants have the greatest impact on aging of the population, so in order to show the aging of the population, a lot of attention should be paid to management of these demographic processes.

  13. Food for the ageing population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raats, M.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2008-01-01

    The world’s ageing population is increasing and food professionals will have to address the needs of older generations more closely in the future. This unique volume reviews the characteristics of the ageing population as food consumers, the role of nutrition in healthy ageing and the design of food

  14. Toxoplasma seroprevalence in a rural population in France: detection of a household effect

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    Riche Benjamin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii, the agent of toxoplasmosis, has a complex life cycle. In humans, the parasite may be acquired either through ingestion of contaminated meat or through oocysts present in the environment. The importance of each source of contamination varies locally according to the environment characteristics and to differences concerning human eating habits and the presence of cats; thus, the risk factors may be determined through fine-scale studies. Here, we searched for factors associated with seropositivity in the population of two adjacent villages in Lorraine region, France. Methods All voluntary inhabitants filled out a questionnaire and gave a blood sample. The seroprevalence was estimated globally and according to the inhabitants' ages using a cubic spline regression. A mixed logistic regression model was used to quantify the effect of individual and household factors on the probability of seropositivity. Results Based on serological results from 273 persons, we estimated seroprevalence to be 47% (95% confidence interval: 41 to 53%. That seroprevalence increased with age: the slope was the steepest up to the age of 40 years (OR = 2.48 per 10-year increment, 95% credibility interval: [1.29 to 5.09], but that increase was not significant afterwards. The probability of seropositivity tended to be higher in men than in women (OR = 2.01, 95% credibility interval: [0.92 to 4.72] and in subjects eating raw vegetables at least once a week than in the others (OR = 8.4, 95% credibility interval: [0.93 to 72.1]. These effects were close to statistical significance. The multivariable analysis highlighted a significant seroprevalence heterogeneity among households. That seroprevalence varied between 6 and 91% (5th and 95th percentile of the household seropositivity distribution. Conclusion The major finding is the household effect, with a strong heterogeneity of seroprevalence among households. This effect may be explained by

  15. Household composition and suicidal behaviour in the adult population of Belgium.

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    Gisle, Lydia; Van Oyen, Herman

    2013-07-01

    We aimed to estimate the prevalence of suicidal behaviours, i.e. ideation and attempt, in the adult population of Belgium, and to explore their association with household composition. Data of 4,459 adults (25-64 years) from the 2004 Belgian Health Interview Survey were used for analyses. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to calculate the odds of engaging in suicidal behaviours according to household type, further controlling for age, sex, income, employment status and social support. Lifetime prevalence of ideation and attempts was 14 and 4.7 %, respectively. Current prevalence of ideation was 4.0 % and past year prevalence of attempts was 0.5 %. Compared to other household compositions, living alone (A) and as lone parent (P) increased the odds of lifetime and current suicidal thoughts (ORA 2.3, 95 % CI 1.7-2.9 and ORP 3.8, 95 % CI 1.9-7.7) and lifetime attempts (ORA 2.3, 95 % CI 1.4-3.6 and ORP 4.5, 95 % CI 2.4-8.5). When controlling for confounders, single person and single parent households still presented increased adjusted-odds of lifetime and current suicidal thoughts (a-ORA 1.8, 95 % CI 1.1-2.9 and a-ORP 2.3, 95 % CI 1.0-5.5). The likelihood of ever attempted suicide was also higher among single parent households (a-ORP 4.5, 95 % CI 2.4-8.5) after adjustment, but not among those living alone (a-ORA 1.4, 95 % CI 0.8-2.8). Living alone or as lone parent place adults at higher risk for suicide behaviour, and this is only partly explained by lower socio-economic status or poor perceived support.

  16. Prevalence of sexual dysfunction and its associated factors in women aged 40-65 years with 11 years or more of formal education: a population-based household survey

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    Ana L. R. Valadares

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and its associated factors in middle-aged women with 11 years or more of formal education. METHODS: A cross-sectional, population-based study was carried out using an anonymous, self-response questionnaire. A total of 315 Brazilian-born women, 40-65 years of age with 11 years or more of schooling, participated in the study. The instrument used in the evaluation was based on the Short Personal Experiences Questionnaire. Sexual dysfunction was calculated from the mean score of sexual responsiveness (pleasure in sexual activities, excitation and orgasm, frequency of sexual activities and libido. Sociodemographic and clinical factors were evaluated. Poisson multiple regression analysis was carried out and the prevalence ratios with respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI were calculated. RESULTS: The prevalence of sexual dysfunction was 35.9% among our study population. Multiple regression analysis showed that sexual dysfunction was positively associated with older age (prevalence ratios=1.04; 95%CI:1.01-1.07 and with the presence of hot flashes (prevalence ratios=1.37; 95%CI:1.04-1.80. Having a sexual partner (PR=0.47; 95%CI:0.34-0.65 and feeling well or excellent (prevalence ratios= 0.68; 95%CI: 0.52-0.88 were factors associated with lower sexual dysfunction scores. CONCLUSIONS: Sexual dysfunction was present in more than one-third of women that were 40-65 years of age with 11 years or more of formal education. Within that age group, older age and hot flashes were associated with higher sexual dysfunction scores, whereas feeling well and having a sexual partner were associated with better sexuality.

  17. Quality of life of middle-aged adults in single households in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun Jin; Park, Susan; Kwon, Jin-Won

    2018-04-18

    The number of single households has increased worldwide with middle-aged people in such households indicating the highest increase. However, there is a lack of studies on the topic. This study estimated the quality of life (QOL) by household type for middle-aged Korean adults. We used the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2007 to 2015. QOL was analyzed using EQ-5D 3-level, and demographic and health-related variables were included as confounders. The households were divided into single household, married couple without child, other one-generation, married couple with child, single parent with child, other two-generation, and three-generation. Logistic regression using level, strata, and sample weight of data was performed based on average QOL. This study included 18,147 responders aged 45-64 years, with single households constituting 5.7%. Single households having average or less QOL were 48.4%, with men and women constituting 40.1 and 53.3%, respectively. After adjusting socioeconomic factors and health-related factors, the odds ratio (OR) of single households was 1.375 (95% CI 1.122-1.684) compared to the three-generation group. According to the sex, the OR of single households with men was higher (OR 1.552, 95% CI 1.121-2.149). However, no significance was found in women. The study results revealed that middle-aged people in single households had low QOL than those in multi-person households. The trend was significantly observable in men than in women. Because middle-aged adults might transform into elderly with low QOL, program development and social support for middle-aged adults in single households should be provided.

  18. Population aging and the extended family in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Population aging produces changes in the availability of kin with uncertain implications for extended living arrangements. We propose a highly stylized model that can be used to analyze and project age-specific proportions of adults living in extended and nuclear households. The model is applied to Taiwan using annual data from 1978-1998. We estimate cohort and age effects showing that more recently born cohorts of seniors are less likely to live in extended households, but that as seniors age the proportion living in extended households increases. The effect of individual aging has diminished over time, however. The proportion of non-senior adults living in extended households has increased steadily because changes in the age structure have increased the availability of older kin. The model is used to project living arrangements and we conclude that the proportion living in extended households will begin to decline gradually for both seniors and non-seniors. The extended family is becoming less important in Taiwan, but it is not on the way out.

  19. Accidental intoxication of the infant-juvenile population in households: profiles of emergency care

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    Jackeline Gonçalves Brito

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Analyzing profiles of intoxication and accidental poisoning of infant-juvenile population (0-24 years in the household, treated at a reference facility for Emergency and Primary Care, during the year 2013. METHOD A descriptive, cross-sectional study. Data were analyzed using Epi-Info, by way of simple and bivariate analyzes. The project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee (protocol 405.578. RESULTS There were 45 intoxications, with a prevalence of males (60.0%, aged 1-4 years (71.1%. Among children under one, there was a higher frequency of pesticide poisoning (66.6%, between the ages of 1-4 by cleaning products (34.4%, and between 5-9 years of age by pharmacological substances (66.6%. The primary assistance was provided only at health institutions, with hospital admissions in 24.4% of the cases. CONCLUSION The importance of prevention through legislation is evident, in order to ensure greater safety in packaging of various products, and community awareness to eliminate risks in the household environment.

  20. Intake of household salt in a Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lisa Lystbæk; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt

    2009-01-01

    from the mean urinary excretion of sodium in four 24-h collections. Household salt, added to the food by the volunteers, was assessed using a lithium-marker technique. Results: Total salt intake was 10.6 +/- 3.3 g day(-1) (mean +/- s.d.) in men and 7.1 +/- 2.3 g day(-1) in women. Median intake...

  1. Housing wealth and household portfolios in an aging society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouwendal, J.

    2009-01-01

    Housing is one of the most important consumption goods, also for the elderly. For owner-occupiers, housing equity is moreover usually the most important asset in their investment portfolio, and hence, household wealth of the elderly is extremely sensitive to developments on the housing market. This

  2. Secondary household transmission of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1 virus among an urban and rural population in Kenya, 2009-2010.

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    Clara Y Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Kenya, >1,200 laboratory-confirmed 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1 (pH1N1 cases occurred since June 2009. We used population-based infectious disease surveillance (PBIDS data to assess household transmission of pH1N1 in urban Nairobi (Kibera and rural Lwak. METHODS: We defined a pH1N1 patient as laboratory-confirmed pH1N1 infection among PBIDS participants during August 1, 2009-February 5, 2010, in Kibera, or August 1, 2009-January 20, 2010, in Lwak, and a case household as a household with a laboratory-confirmed pH1N1 patient. Community interviewers visited PBIDS-participating households to inquire about illnesses among household members. We randomly selected 4 comparison households per case household matched by number of children aged <5. Comparison households had a household visit 10 days before or after the matched patient symptom onset date. We defined influenza-like illnesses (ILI as self-reported cough or sore throat, and a self-reported fever ≤8 days after the pH1N1 patient's symptom onset in case households and ≤8 days before selected household visit in comparison households. We used the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test to compare proportions of ILIs among case and comparison households, and log binomial-model to compare that of Kibera and Lwak. RESULTS: Among household contacts of patients with confirmed pH1N1 in Kibera, 4.6% had ILI compared with 8.2% in Lwak (risk ratio [RR], 0.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3-0.9. Household contacts of patients were more likely to have ILIs than comparison-household members in both Kibera (RR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1-2.8 and Lwak (RR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.6-4.3. Overall, ILI was not associated with patient age. However, ILI rates among household contacts were higher among children aged <5 years than persons aged ≥5 years in Lwak, but not Kibera. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial pH1N1 household transmission occurred in urban and rural Kenya. Household transmission rates were higher in the rural area.

  3. Ageing populations: the challenges ahead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; Doblhammer, Gabriele; Rau, Roland

    2009-01-01

    birthdays. Although trends differ between countries, populations of nearly all such countries are ageing as a result of low fertility, low immigration, and long lives. A key question is: are increases in life expectancy accompanied by a concurrent postponement of functional limitations and disability......? The answer is still open, but research suggests that ageing processes are modifiable and that people are living longer without severe disability. This finding, together with technological and medical development and redistribution of work, will be important for our chances to meet the challenges of ageing...

  4. Household Portfolios and Risk Bearing over Age and Time

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Bucciol; Raffaele Miniaci

    2011-01-01

    We exploit the US Survey of Consumer Finances from 1998 to 2007 to study households’ portfolio risk bearing. We compare four alternative measures of risk, two based on a financial portfolio and two based on a broader portfolio also including – as illiquid assets – human capital, real estate, business wealth and related debt. The measures provide a different ranking of household risk bearing, but they consistently show that risk bearing fell after 2001, and it positively correlates with wealth...

  5. Household food (in)security and nutritional status of urban poor children aged 6 to 23 months in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutisya, Maurice; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Ngware, Moses Waithanji; Kabiru, Caroline W

    2015-10-13

    Millions of people in low and low middle income countries suffer from extreme hunger and malnutrition. Research on the effect of food insecurity on child nutrition is concentrated in high income settings and has produced mixed results. Moreover, the existing evidence on food security and nutrition in children in low and middle income countries is either cross-sectional and/or is based primarily on rural populations. In this paper, we examine the effect of household food security status and its interaction with household wealth status on stunting among children aged between 6 and 23 months in resource-poor urban setting in Kenya. We use longitudinal data collected between 2006 and 2012 from two informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. Mothers and their new-borns were recruited into the study at birth and followed prospectively. The analytical sample comprised 6858 children from 6552 households. Household food security was measured as a latent variable derived from a set of questions capturing the main domains of access, availability and affordability. A composite measure of wealth was calculated using asset ownership and amenities. Nutritional status was measured using Height-for-Age (HFA) z-scores. Children whose HFA z-scores were below -2 standard deviation were categorized as stunted. We used Cox regression to analyse the data. The prevalence of stunting was 49 %. The risk of stunting increased by 12 % among children from food insecure households. When the joint effect of food security and wealth status was assessed, the risk of stunting increased significantly by 19 and 22 % among children from moderately food insecure and severely food insecure households and ranked in the middle poor wealth status. Among the poorest and least poor households, food security was not statistically associated with stunting. Our results shed light on the joint effect of food security and wealth status on stunting. Study findings underscore the need for social protection policies to

  6. Washington DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study Household and Non-Household Populations (DC-MADSH-1991)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study (DCMADS) was conducted in 1991, and included special analyses of homeless and transient populations and of women delivering live...

  7. Demand for and utilization of dental services according to household income in the adult population in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grytten, Jostein; Holst, Dorthe; Skau, Irene

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the effect of income on demand and utilization of dental services according to household income in the adult population. The data were collected using a questionnaire, which was sent to a random sample of Norwegians aged 20 years or older living at home, 1861 persons in total. Demand was measured according to whether the person had been to the dentist during the last year. Utilization was measured as expenditure for dental treatment for those who had been to the dentist during the last year. The independent variables were the respondents' household income, age, gender, education, dental status and the mean fee for a dental consultation in the municipality. In the first stage, we carried out a logistic regression analysis of the log odds of having demanded dental services during the last year. In the second stage, we carried out a multiple regression analysis of expenditure for dental treatment for those who had been to the dentist during the last year. Altogether, 80% of the respondents had been to the dentist during the last year. Demand during the last year varied most according to dental status. There was little difference between men and women. The results of the logistic regression showed that the probability of having been to the dentist was 0.82 for those with a household income of €25 000 and 0.85 for those with a household income of €100 000. Mean expenditure for dental treatment was €355. There was no statistically significant relationship between household income and expenditure for dental treatment. Differences in demand for dental services according to household income are small, and there are no differences in utilization according to income. The findings are interesting, because in a population in which people have to pay almost all the costs for dental treatment themselves, one would expect the income differences in demand and utilization to be greater. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Social Problems Of Aged In A Rural Population

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    Singh Charan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What are the social problems of aged persons in a rural population? Objectives: i To study social problems of aged. ii To identify measures to eliminate them. Study design: Cross- sectional. Setting: Rural areas of Machhra Rural Health & Training Centre attached with Deptt. of SPM, Medical College, Meerut. Participants: Population above 60 years of age. Sample Size: 1000 households from 5 villages, which had 464 participants. Study Variables: Chi- square test. Results: In all, 259 (55.8% aged persons were engaged in productive work while 205 (44.2% were not doing any productive work. Of 376 aged persons living in joint families, 207 (55% were being respected, 71(18.9% were indifferently treated and 98 (26.1% were being neglected by family members. Recommendations: It is a strong case for proper planning to improve the lot of old age population especially for their social problems at the earliest.

  9. Population age structure and asset returns: an empirical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poterba, J M

    1998-10-01

    "This paper investigates the association between population age structure, particularly the share of the population in the 'prime saving years' 45-60, and the returns on stocks and bonds. The paper is motivated by the claim that the aging of the 'Baby Boom' cohort in the United States is a key factor in explaining the recent rise in asset values. It also addresses the associated claim that asset prices will decline when this large cohort reaches retirement age and begins to reduce its asset holdings. This paper begins by considering household age-asset accumulation profiles. Data from the Survey of Consumer Finances suggest that while cross-sectional age-wealth profiles peak for households in their early 60s, cohort data on the asset ownership of the same households show a much less pronounced peak.... The paper then considers the historical relationship between demographic structure and real returns on Treasury bills, long-term government bonds, and corporate stock. The results do not suggest any robust relationship between demographic structure and asset returns.... The paper concludes by discussing factors such as international capital flows and forward-looking behavior on the part of market participants that could weaken the relationship between age structure and asset returns in a single nation." excerpt

  10. Population aging and future carbon emissions in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, Michael; O'Neill, Brian; Prskawetz, Alexia; Jiang Leiwen; Pitkin, John

    2008-01-01

    Changes in the age composition of U.S. households over the next several decades could affect energy use and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, the most important greenhouse gas. This article incorporates population age structure into an energy-economic growth model with multiple dynasties of heterogeneous households. The model is used to estimate and compare effects of population aging and technical change on baseline paths of U.S. energy use, and CO 2 emissions. Results show that population aging reduces long-term emissions, by almost 40% in a low population scenario, and effects of aging on emissions can be as large, or larger than, effects of technical change in some cases. These results are derived under standard assumptions and functional forms that are used in economic growth models. The model also assumes a closed economy, substitution elasticities that are fixed, and identical across age groups, and patterns of labor supply that vary by age group, but are fixed over time

  11. Prevalence of migraine in the Canadian household population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramage-Morin, Pamela L; Gilmour, Heather

    2014-06-01

    Based on data from the 2010 and 2011 Canadian Community Health Surveys and the 2011 Survey of Living with Neurological Conditions in Canada, this article provides information about migraine among people living in private households. In 2010/2011, an estimated 8.3% of Canadians (2.7 million) reported that they had been diagnosed with migraine by a health professional. Females were more likely than males to report migraine: 11.8% versus 4.7%. Migraine prevalence was highest among people in their 30s and 40s: 17.0% for women and 6.5% for men. Compared with the national figure, the prevalence of migraine was lower in Quebec (6.8%) and higher in Manitoba (9.5%), Nova Scotia (9.1%) and Ontario (8.8%). Among people who reported a migraine diagnosis, 42% took prescription medication for their condition, and 56% incurred medication-related out-of-pocket expenses. Migraine was highly comorbid with depression and affected many aspects of daily life including education, work, sleep, and driving.

  12. Standard Populations (Millions) for Age-Adjustment - SEER Population Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Download files containing standard population data for use in statististical software. The files contain the same data distributed with SEER*Stat software. You can also view the standard populations, either 19 age groups or single ages.

  13. Household related predictors of burn injuries in an Iranian population: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi-Bazargani Homayoun

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To prevent burn injuries it is vital to have sound information on predictors of its occurrence in different settings. Ardabil Province is the coldest province of Iran with high burden of burn injuries. The aim of this study was to determine the household related predictors of unintentional burns in Ardabil Province located at North-West of Iran. Methods The study was conducted through a hospital based case–control design. 239 burn victims as well as 246 hospital-based controls were enrolled. Both bivariate and multivariate analysis methods were used. Results Males comprised 55.2% of all the study subjects. Mean age of the participants was 21.8 years (95% CI: 19.17-24.4. The economic ability of the households was associated with risk of burn injuries. Multivariate conditional logistic regression results showed the following variables to be independent factors associated with burn injuries. Using non-conventional pipe-less air heaters instead of conventional piped kerosene- or gas-burning heaters (Odds ratio: 1.98, 95% CI: 1.1-3.6. Common use of picnic gas-stove for cooking at home (odds ratio = 1.6, 95%CI: 1–2.4. Using electric samovars instead of other types of samovars (Odds ratio = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-1. Using samovars lacking the national standard authorization mark (Odds ratio = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.4-3.6. Conclusion Using some types of specific heating or cooking appliances, and unsafe use of conventional appliances were major risk predictors of burn injuries in this population.

  14. The aging population in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Nasri

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is currently in an advanced stage of both the mortality andfertility transitions, which allows one to confi dently forecast the agedistribution and population size over the next four decades. Whereasthe elderly population with more than 65 years will increase at highrates (2 to 4% per year the young population will decline. Accordingto United Nations projections, the elderly population will increasefrom 3.1% of the population in 1970 to 19% in 2050. The changingage distribution of the Brazilian population brings opportunities andchallenges that could lead to serious social and economic issues ifnot dealt with properly in coming decades.

  15. Charasteristics of Ageing Population in Semarang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puji Hardati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Increase of amount of ageing population represent the indication that a region have experienced of the ageing population. In some developing countries, of including Indonesia, growth of ageing population are estimate will mount quickly in period to come, although its percentage do not same. Whereas characteristic do not know surely. This matter is caused by there is view that ageing population of still not yet of this problem, but within long term will be are problem of if are not paid attention since now. Studying of ageing population of pursuant to its characteristic will assist in handling good problems now and also to come. With the existence of data of usable ageing population resident characteristic for the materials of population development planning in area.

  16. Age- and sex-specific relationships between household income, education, and diabetes mellitus in Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Ra; Han, Kyungdo; Choi, Jin-Young; Ersek, Jennifer; Liu, Junxiu; Jo, Sun-Jin; Lee, Kang-Sook; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Won-Chul; Park, Yong Gyu; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Park, Yong-Moon

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of age and sex on the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and the prevalence and control status of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Korean adults. Data came from 16,175 adults (6,951 men and 9,227 women) over the age of 30 who participated in the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. SES was measured by household income or education level. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the prevalence or control status of diabetes were calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses across household income quartiles and education levels. The household income-DM and education level-DM relationships were significant in younger age groups for both men and women. The adjusted ORs and 95% CI for diabetes were 1.51 (0.97, 2.34) and 2.28 (1.29, 4.02) for the lowest vs. highest quartiles of household income and education level, respectively, in women younger than 65 years of age (both P for linear trend diabetes was 2.28 (1.53, 3.39) for the lowest vs. highest quartile of household income in men younger than 65 (P for linear trend education with the prevalence of DM in Korea. DM preventive care is needed for groups with a low SES, particularly in young or middle-aged populations.

  17. Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian C. O' Neill

    2006-08-09

    This report describes results of the research project on "Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics". The overall objective of this project was to improve projections of energy demand and associated greenhouse gas emissions by taking into account demographic factors currently not incorporated in Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) of global climate change. We proposed to examine the potential magnitude of effects on energy demand of changes in the composition of populations by household characteristics for three countries: the U.S., China, and Indonesia. For each country, we planned to analyze household energy use survey data to estimate relationships between household characteristics and energy use; develop a new set of detailed household projections for each country; and combine these analyses to produce new projections of energy demand illustrating the potential importance of consideration of households.

  18. The ageing of Croatian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgić, Jure; Jukić, Tomislav; Tomek-Roksandić, Spomenka; Ljubicić, Mate; Kusić, Zvonko

    2009-06-01

    With a share of people older than 65 years of 16.64 per cent in total population, Croatia is considered a very old country regarding it's population. This percentage is one of the highest in already old Europe. Demographic projections reveal a further increase of share of people older than 65 years in future. There are many causes of this condition. This fact carries negative economic and health care implications which burden Croatia. Many administrative reforms are necessary to resolve this issue and to avoid economy problems and intergenerational conflicts.

  19. Age bias, but no gender bias, in the intra-household resource allocation for health care in rural Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerborn, R; Berman, P; Nougtara, A

    1996-10-01

    Household survey data, time allocation data, and qualitative interviews were used to examine whether households allocate their resources for health care differently between age and gender groups. Households allocated significantly fewer resources to the health care of sick children compared to that of sick adults. In contrast there were no such differences with regard to gender. The underlying household rationale is to concentrate its resources spent for health care on productive members rather than to spread them equitably among all its sick members. While children are not productive, women were shown to contribute as much to household production as men, hence their health is valued equally with that of men. Unless we understand intra-household biases in resource allocation, policies will be undermined. Further research is needed to test the hypothesis for the households' preference of production maintenance over health maximization.

  20. Oral medicine and the ageing population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, T; McCullough, M

    2015-03-01

    The oral cavity is subject to age related processes such as cellular ageing and immunosenescence. The ageing population bears an increased burden of intraoral pathology. In oral medicine, the majority of presenting patients are in their fifth to seventh decade of life. In this review, we discuss the ageing population's susceptibility to mucosal disorders and the increased prevalence of potentially malignant disorders and oral squamous cell carcinoma, as well as dermatoses including oral lichen planus and immunobullous conditions. We also address the ageing population's susceptibility to oral discomfort and explore salivary secretion, ulceration and the symptoms of oral burning. Finally, we will describe orofacial pain conditions which are more likely encountered in an older population. This update highlights clinical presentations which are more likely to be encountered in the ageing population in a general practice setting and the importance of screening both new and long-term patients. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  1. A support network typology for application in older populations with a preponderance of multigenerational households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burholt, Vanessa; Dobbs, Christine

    2014-08-01

    This paper considers the support networks of older people in populations with a preponderance of multigenerational households and examines the most vulnerable network types in terms of loneliness and isolation. Current common typologies of support networks may not be sensitive to differences within and between different cultures. This paper uses cross-sectional data drawn from 590 elders (Gujaratis, Punjabis and Sylhetis) living in the United Kingdom and South Asia. Six variables were used in K-means cluster analysis to establish a new network typology. Two logistic regression models using loneliness and isolation as dependent variables assessed the contribution of the new network type to wellbeing. Four support networks were identified: 'Multigenerational Households: Older Integrated Networks', 'Multigenerational Households: Younger Family Networks', 'Family and Friends Integrated Networks' and 'Non-kin Restricted Networks'. Older South Asians with 'Non-kin Restricted Networks' were more likely to be lonely and isolated compared to others. Using network typologies developed with individualistically oriented cultures, distributions are skewed towards more robust network types and could underestimate the support needs of older people from familistic cultures, who may be isolated and lonely and with limited informal sources of help. The new typology identifies different network types within multigenerational households, identifies a greater proportion of older people with vulnerable networks and could positively contribute to service planning.

  2. How fast is population ageing in China?

    OpenAIRE

    Yinhua mai; Xiujian Peng; Wei Chen

    2009-01-01

    Using adjusted 2000 population census data, this paper conducts China's population projections to 2050. Three fertility and four mortality scenarios yield 12 sets of results. Despite the below-replacement fertility, China's population will continue growing for many years. However, there are substantial differences among the twelve scenarios. The maximum population could range from less than 1.4 billion to more than 1.6 billion. One of the notable trends is the rapid population ageing. By the ...

  3. Maternal employment and Mexican school-age children overweight in 2012: the importance of households features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Alejandro Martínez

    2018-01-01

    International evidence regarding the relationship between maternal employment and school-age children overweight and obesity shows divergent results. In Mexico, this relationship has not been confirmed by national data sets analysis. Consequently, the objective of this article was to evaluate the role of the mothers' participation in labor force related to excess body weight in Mexican school-age children (aged 5-11 years). A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 17,418 individuals from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012, applying binomial logistic regression models. After controlling for individual, maternal and contextual features, the mothers' participation in labor force was associated with children body composition. However, when the household features (living arrangements, household ethnicity, size, food security and socioeconomic status) were incorporated, maternal employment was no longer statically significant. Household features are crucial factors for understanding the overweight and obesity prevalence levels in Mexican school-age children, despite the mother having a paid job. Copyright: © 2018 Permanyer.

  4. The economics of protecting tiger populations: Linking household behavior to poaching and prey depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damania, R.; Stringer, R.; Karanth, K.U.; Stith, B.

    2003-01-01

    The tiger (Panthera tigris) is classified as endangered and populations continue to decline. This paper presents a formal economic analysis of the two most imminent threats to the survival of wild tigers: poaching tigers and hunting their prey. A model is developed to examine interactions between tigers and farm households living in and around tiger habitats. The analysis extends the existing literature on tiger demography, incorporating predator-prey interactions and exploring the sensitivity of tiger populations to key economic parameters. The analysis aims to contribute to policy debates on how best to protect one of the world's most endangered wild cats.

  5. Aging-From molecules to populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Miriam; Avlund, Kirsten; Lauritzen, Martin

    2008-01-01

    of human aging. To foster interactions and collaboration between diverse scientists interested in the biochemical, physiological, epidemiological and psychosocial aspects of aging, The University of Copenhagen Faculty of Health Sciences recently organized and co-sponsored a workshop entitled Aging......-From Molecules to Populations. The following questions about human aging were discussed at the workshop: What is the limit of human life expectancy? What are the key indicators of human aging? What are the key drivers of human aging? Which genes have the greatest impact on human aging? How similar is aging...

  6. Household food group expenditure patterns are associated with child anthropometry at ages 5, 8 and 12 years in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Debbie L; Dearden, Kirk A; Crookston, Benjamin T; Woldehanna, Tassew; Penny, Mary E; Behrman, Jere R

    2017-08-01

    Population-level analysis of dietary influences on nutritional status is challenging in part due to limitations in dietary intake data. Household expenditure surveys, covering recent household expenditures and including key food groups, are routinely conducted in low- and middle-income countries. These data may help identify patterns of food expenditure that relate to child growth. We investigated the relationship between household food expenditures and child growth using factor analysis. We used data on 6993 children from Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam at ages 5, 8 and 12y from the Young Lives cohort. We compared associations between household food expenditures and child growth (height-for-age z scores, HAZ; body mass index-for-age z scores, BMI-Z) using total household food expenditures and the "household food group expenditure index" (HFGEI) extracted from household expenditures with factor analysis on the seven food groups in the child dietary diversity scale, controlling for total food expenditures, child dietary diversity, data collection round, rural/urban residence and child sex. We used the HFGEI to capture households' allocations of their finances across food groups in the context of local food pricing, availability and pReferences RESULTS: The HFGEI was associated with significant increases in child HAZ in Ethiopia (0.07), India (0.14), and Vietnam (0.07) after adjusting for all control variables. Total food expenditures remained significantly associated with increases in BMI-Z for India (0.15), Peru (0.11) and Vietnam (0.06) after adjusting for study round, HFGEI, dietary diversity, rural residence, and whether the child was female. Dietary diversity was inversely associated with BMI-Z in India and Peru. Mean dietary diversity increased from age 5y to 8y and decreased from age 8y to 12y in all countries. Household food expenditure data provide insights into household food purchasing patterns that significantly predict HAZ and BMI-Z. Including food

  7. Substance Abuse in Aging Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Jazayeri

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available substance abuse' specially opiates and prescribed drugs are spreading among the older adults. Most of the time it begins as an attempt to medicate chronic pains, medical conditions and loneliness. In other instances, it simply is the continuation of a problem that begun in young adulthood. But scholars and specialists in both fields of Addiction and Gerontology, rather neglected this fast growing problem, to the extent that we almost have no data on the epidemiology, prevention and treatment modalities among the substance abusing old adults in Iran. This paper reflects the necessity of designing age specific programs to identify and treat this group. Besides, some of the most effictive methods of treatment in other countries are reviewed.

  8. Age- and sex-specific relationships between household income, education, and diabetes mellitus in Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Ra Kim

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of age and sex on the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES and the prevalence and control status of diabetes mellitus (DM in Korean adults.Data came from 16,175 adults (6,951 men and 9,227 women over the age of 30 who participated in the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. SES was measured by household income or education level. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI for the prevalence or control status of diabetes were calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses across household income quartiles and education levels.The household income-DM and education level-DM relationships were significant in younger age groups for both men and women. The adjusted ORs and 95% CI for diabetes were 1.51 (0.97, 2.34 and 2.28 (1.29, 4.02 for the lowest vs. highest quartiles of household income and education level, respectively, in women younger than 65 years of age (both P for linear trend < 0.05 with Bonferroni adjustment. The adjusted OR and 95% CI for diabetes was 2.28 (1.53, 3.39 for the lowest vs. highest quartile of household income in men younger than 65 (P for linear trend < 0.05 with Bonferroni adjustment. However, in men and women older than 65, no associations were found between SES and the prevalence of DM. No significant association between SES and the status of glycemic control was detected.We found age- and sex-specific differences in the relationship of household income and education with the prevalence of DM in Korea. DM preventive care is needed for groups with a low SES, particularly in young or middle-aged populations.

  9. Estimating population age structure using otolith morphometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doering-Arjes, P.; Cardinale, M.; Mosegaard, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    known-age fish individuals. Here we used known-age Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) from the Faroe Bank and Faroe Plateau stocks. Cod populations usually show quite large variation in growth rates and otolith shape. We showed that including otolith morphometrics into ageing processes has the potential...... populations. The intercalibration method was successful but generalization from one stock to another remains problematic. The development of an otolith growth model is needed for generalization if an operational method for different populations is required in the future....... to make ageing objective, accurate, and fast. Calibration analysis indicated that a known-age sample from the same population and environment is needed to obtain robust calibration; using a sample from a different stock more than doubles the error rate, even in the case of genetically highly related...

  10. Renewable energy adoption in an ageing population: Heterogeneity in preferences for micro-generation technology adoption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willis, Ken, E-mail: Ken.Willis@ncl.ac.uk [School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Scarpa, Riccardo [Department of Economics, Waikato School of Management, University of Waikato, Hamilton (New Zealand); Gilroy, Rose; Hamza, Neveen [School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    Many countries are endeavouring to supply more of their energy from renewable resources. Such countries are also experiencing an aging population with a greater proportion of people aged {>=}65 years. This demographic shift may reduce the uptake of renewable energy, if older person households are less inclined to accept change and adopt new technologies. This paper assesses whether such households have different behavioural responses to energy efficiency compared to the rest of society and investigates whether micro-generation renewable energy technologies are less likely to be adopted by these households. It uses conditional logit and mixed logit models to investigate the impact of age of household on primary heating adoption, and also to assess the impact of older households on the installation of discretionary micro-generation technologies (solar thermal, solar voltaic, and wind power) to supplement existing heating and lighting systems. Results indicate that primary heating choice is not affected but that older person households are less inclined to adopt micro-generation technologies. - Highlights: > Heterogeneity exists in decisions on micro-generation technology installation. > Older person households are less inclined to adopt micro-generation technologies. > Micro-generation technologies fail a social cost-benefit analysis test.

  11. Renewable energy adoption in an ageing population: Heterogeneity in preferences for micro-generation technology adoption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, Ken; Scarpa, Riccardo; Gilroy, Rose; Hamza, Neveen

    2011-01-01

    Many countries are endeavouring to supply more of their energy from renewable resources. Such countries are also experiencing an aging population with a greater proportion of people aged ≥65 years. This demographic shift may reduce the uptake of renewable energy, if older person households are less inclined to accept change and adopt new technologies. This paper assesses whether such households have different behavioural responses to energy efficiency compared to the rest of society and investigates whether micro-generation renewable energy technologies are less likely to be adopted by these households. It uses conditional logit and mixed logit models to investigate the impact of age of household on primary heating adoption, and also to assess the impact of older households on the installation of discretionary micro-generation technologies (solar thermal, solar voltaic, and wind power) to supplement existing heating and lighting systems. Results indicate that primary heating choice is not affected but that older person households are less inclined to adopt micro-generation technologies. - Highlights: → Heterogeneity exists in decisions on micro-generation technology installation. → Older person households are less inclined to adopt micro-generation technologies. → Micro-generation technologies fail a social cost-benefit analysis test.

  12. Sources of household air pollution: The association with lung function and respiratory symptoms in middle-aged adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devien, Laurent; Giovannelli, Jonathan; Cuny, Damien; Matran, Régis; Amouyel, Philippe; Hulo, Sébastien; Edmé, Jean Louis; Dauchet, Luc

    2018-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between sources of household air pollution, respiratory symptoms and lung function. 3039 adults aged from 40 to 65 participated in the 2011-2013 ELISABET cross-sectional survey in northern France. Lung function was measured using spirometry. During a structured interview, respiratory symptoms, household fuels, exposure to moulds, and use of ventilation were recorded on a questionnaire. The self-reported presence of mould in at least two rooms (not including the bathroom and the kitchen) was associated with a 2.5% lower predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (95% confidence interval, -4.7 to -0.29; p-trend respiratory disease. Our results suggest that the presence of mould (known to be associated with more severe asthma symptoms) could also have an impact on respiratory symptoms and lung function in the general population and in populations without known respiratory disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The challenges of human population ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Miriam; Oxlund, Bjarke; Jespersen, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    The 20th century saw an unprecedented increase in average human lifespan as well as a rapid decline in human fertility in many countries of the world. The accompanying worldwide change in demographics of human populations is linked to unanticipated and unprecedented economic, cultural, medical...... of Copenhagen (UCPH) and the Center for Healthy Ageing at UCPH, which took place on 20-21 June 2014 in Copenhagen, Denmark. Questions discussed here include the following: what is driving age-structural change in human populations? how can we create 'age-friendly' societies and promote 'ageing...

  14. Age- and Gender-Based Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... population increases the risks of cognitive decline and suicide. About 25% of older adults have some type of mental health problem, such as a mood disorder not associated with normal aging. Older adults with ...

  15. Exposure to household endotoxin and total and allergen-specific IgE in the US population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Kyoung-Bok; Min, Jin-Young

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although endotoxin has strong pro-inflammatory properties, endotoxin-allergy relationship in adults and children have been inconsistent. Objectives: We investigated the association between household endotoxin levels and total immunoglobulin E (IgE) or specific IgE in the US general population, classified into three age ranges: children/adolescent, adults, and older adults. Methods: We analyzed the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. A total of 5220 participants for whom serum IgE and household endotoxin data were available was included in the analyses. Results: Exposure to endotoxin reduced the risk for allergic sensitization, especially in specific IgE to plants (OR in Quartile 3 = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.44–0.76) and pets (OR in Quartile 3 = 0.62; 95% CI = 0.41–0.92), for children/adolescents. In contrast, the risk among adults and older adults increased with increasing endotoxin levels. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the effect of endotoxin on allergic reaction is likely to depend on age. - Highlights: • Findings regarding the endotoxin-allergy relationship in adults and children are inconsistent. • We investigated the association of endotoxin with total and specific IgE in US population. • The association between endotoxin levels and allergic markers is likely to depend on age. • Exposure to endotoxin reduced the risk for allergic sensitization for children/adolescents. • The risk among adults and older adults increased with increasing endotoxin levels. - Exposure to endotoxin reduced the risk for allergic sensitization for children/adolescents, but decreased the risk among adults and older

  16. Planning for an ageing population: strategic considerations

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, Dr Eamon

    2005-01-01

    This report presents both the proceedings of the Council’s conference, Planning for an Ageing Population: Strategic Considerations, and the Council’s discussion paper, ‘The Older Population: Information Issues and Deficits’, which was introduced at that conference.\\r\

  17. Periodicity in Age-Resolved Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esipov, Sergei

    We discuss the interplay between the non-linear diffusion and age-resolved population dynamics. Depending on the age properties of collective migration the system may exhibit continuous joint expansion of all ages or continuous expansion with age segregation. Between these two obvious limiting regimes there is an interesting window of periodic expansion, which has been previously used by us in modeling bacterial colonies of Proteus mirabilis. In order to test whether the age-dependent collective migration leads to periodicity in other systems we performed a Fourier analysis of historical data on ethnic expansions and found multiple co-existing periods of activity.

  18. Ageing populations and changing worlds of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Brian

    2014-08-01

    Population ageing has reshaped the notion of retirement. The changes carry important implications for aspirations to extend working life. Cultural expectations regarding work and retirement must adapt to the reality posed by longer lives. The modern world is characterised by perpetual - and sometime rapid - change. Transformation throughout the second half of the 20th century brought about substantial shifts in the health and longevity of people in societies across the world. Since the beginning of the 21st century, the impacts of population ageing have gathered greater awareness in public consciousness and within the policy arena. Notions of old age, retirement, and later life have been fundamentally transformed, presenting stark challenges alongside novel opportunities for individuals, communities, and governments. Many of the topics of interest with respect to ageing populations are themselves the result of shifts that were unforeseen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Population and sustainable development in China: Population and household scenarios for two regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, L.

    1999-01-01

    China's notoriously bulging population has challenged the government's and the land's ability to provide sufficient food, employment, housing, education, and the like. The Chinese environment and resources have been further fatigued by rapid economic development and modernisation. This precarious

  20. Internal migration and urbanization in China: impacts on population exposure to household air pollution (2000-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunan, Kristin; Wang, Shuxiao

    2014-05-15

    Exposure to fine particles ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) from incomplete combustion of solid fuels in household stoves, denoted household air pollution (HAP), is a major contributor to ill health in China and globally. Chinese households are, however, undergoing a massive transition to cleaner household fuels. The objective of the present study is to establish the importance of internal migration when it comes to the changing household fuel use pattern and the associated exposure to PM2.5 for the period 2000 to 2010. We also estimate health benefits of the fuel transition in terms of avoided premature deaths. Using China Census data on population, migration, and household fuel use for 2000 and 2010 we identify the size, place of residence, and main cooking fuel of sub-populations in 2000 and 2010, respectively. We combine these data with estimated exposure levels for the sub-populations and estimate changes in population exposure over the decade. We find that the population weighted exposure (PWE) for the Chinese population as a whole was reduced by 52 (36-70) μg/m(3) PM2.5 over the decade, and that about 60% of the reduction can be linked to internal migration. During the same period the migrant population, in total 261 million people, was subject to a reduced population weighted exposure (ΔPWE) of 123 (87-165) μg/m(3) PM2.5. The corresponding figure for non-migrants is 34 (23-47) μg/m(3). The largest ΔPWE was estimated for rural-to-urban migrants (138 million people), 214 (154-283) μg/m(3). The estimated annual health benefit associated with the reduced exposure in the total population is 31 (26-37) billion USD, corresponding to 0.4% of the Chinese GDP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [Acromegaly features in the aging population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoun, Nadia; El Ouahabi, Hanan

    2017-01-01

    Somatotroph adenomas are rare in the aging population. Diagnosis of somatotroph adenomas is often long delayed and they are characterized by atypical clinical picture. Their diagnostic criteria are similar to those used for younger patients. Surgery, if possible, is the treatment of choice for acromegaly in the elderly. Somatostatin analogues have shown to be effective in these patients. Prognosis is inversely correlated with patient's age, duration of disease and last GH level under treatment. Beside evolution of disease, age is a major determinant of mortality. We report three cases of elderly patients with acromegaly aged 75, 70 and 66 years respectively with a literature review.

  2. The Growth of Older Inmate Populations: How Population Aging Explains Rising Age at Admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luallen, Jeremy; Cutler, Christopher

    2017-09-01

    Older inmates are the fastest growing segment of the prison population; however, the reasons for this are not well understood. One explanation is that the general population is aging, driving prison age distributions to change. For this article, we study the role of population aging in prison growth by investigating how the baby boom phenomenon of post-World War II has contributed to the growth of older inmate populations. We identify the impact of population aging using simulation methods that explain prison growth as the combination of criminal justice processes. Overall, we find evidence that population aging has played a significant role in explaining the growth of older inmate populations, in particular among inmates aged between 50 and 64 years, contributing to as much as half of the observed increase in these groups since 2000. This finding stands in contrast to the notion that population aging has little explanatory power in describing the growth of prison populations and implies that older inmate groups are more sensitive to compositional changes in the general population. We argue that prediction-based modeling of prison growth should more seriously consider the impacts and consequences of demographic shifts among older prisoner populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Some macroeconomic aspects of global population aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ronald; Mason, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Across the demographic transition, declining mortality followed by declining fertility produces decades of rising support ratios as child dependency falls. These improving support ratios raise per capita consumption, other things equal, but eventually deteriorate as the population ages. Population aging and the forces leading to it can produce not only frightening declines in support ratios but also very substantial increases in productivity and per capita income by raising investment in physical and human capital. Longer life, lower fertility, and population aging all raise the demand for wealth needed to provide for old-age consumption. This leads to increased capital per worker even as aggregate saving rates fall. However, capital per worker may not rise if the increased demand for wealth is satisfied by increased familial or public pension transfers to the elderly. Thus, institutions and policies matter for the consequences of population aging. The accumulation of human capital also varies across the transition. Lower fertility and mortality are associated with higher human capital investment per child, also raising labor productivity. Together, the positive changes due to human and physical capital accumulation will likely outweigh the problems of declining support ratios. We draw on estimates and analyses from the National Transfer Accounts project to illustrate and quantify these points.

  4. General considerations on the population ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Nuta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents one of the most important issues of the current context, the ageing of the population, with major consequences on the financial stability of the nation. This restructure of the population (that change the shape of the population pyramid , as a result, on the one hand, of the reducing in the fertility rate, on the other hand, increasing in life expectancy and last but not least, due to migration, unbalance national budgets, generating negative effects in economic, financial and social terms.

  5. Quantifying policy tradeoffs to support aging populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Scherbov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coping with aging populations is a challenge for most developed countries. Supporting non-working adults can create an unsustainable burden on those working. One way of dealing with this is to raise the normal pension age, but this has proven unpopular. A complementary approach is to raise the average labor force participation rate. These policies are generally more politically palatable because they often remove barriers, allowing people who would like to work to do so. Objective: To conceptualize and estimate the trade-off between pension age and labor force participation rate policies. Methods: We project the populations of European countries and apply different levels of labor force participation rates to the projected populations. We introduce the notion of a relative burden, which is the ratio of the fraction of the income of people in the labor market in 2050 that they transfer to adults out of the labor market to the same fraction in 2009. We use this indicator to investigate the trade-offs between changes in normal pension ages and the general level of labor force participation rates. Results: We show that, in most European countries, a difference in policies that results in an increase in average labor force participation rates by an additional one to two percentage points by 2050 can substitute for a one-year increase in the normal pension age. This is important because, in many European countries, without additional increases in labor force participation rates, normal pension ages would have to be raised well above 68 by 2050 to keep the burden on those working manageable. Conclusions: Because of anticipated increases in life expectancy and health at older ages as well as because of financial necessity, some mix of increases in pension ages and in labor force participation rates will be needed. Pension age changes by themselves will not be sufficient.

  6. Challenges in Estimating Vaccine Coverage in Refugee and Displaced Populations: Results From Household Surveys in Jordan and Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberton, Timothy; Weiss, William; Doocy, Shannon

    2017-01-01

    Ensuring the sustained immunization of displaced persons is a key objective in humanitarian emergencies. Typically, humanitarian actors measure coverage of single vaccines following an immunization campaign; few measure routine coverage of all vaccines. We undertook household surveys of Syrian refugees in Jordan and Lebanon, outside of camps, using a mix of random and respondent-driven sampling, to measure coverage of all vaccinations included in the host country’s vaccine schedule. We analyzed the results with a critical eye to data limitations and implications for similar studies. Among households with a child aged 12–23 months, 55.1% of respondents in Jordan and 46.6% in Lebanon were able to produce the child’s EPI card. Only 24.5% of Syrian refugee children in Jordan and 12.5% in Lebanon were fully immunized through routine vaccination services (having received from non-campaign sources: measles, polio 1–3, and DPT 1–3 in Jordan and Lebanon, and BCG in Jordan). Respondents in Jordan (33.5%) and Lebanon (40.1%) reported difficulties obtaining child vaccinations. Our estimated immunization rates were lower than expected and raise serious concerns about gaps in vaccine coverage among Syrian refugees. Although our estimates likely under-represent true coverage, given the additional benefit of campaigns (not captured in our surveys), there is a clear need to increase awareness, accessibility, and uptake of immunization services. Current methods to measure vaccine coverage in refugee and displaced populations have limitations. To better understand health needs in such groups, we need research on: validity of recall methods, links between campaigns and routine immunization programs, and improved sampling of hard-to-reach populations. PMID:28805672

  7. Designing New Meals for an Ageing Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, A.I.A.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2010-01-01

    Today's ageing population is an ever-increasing, highly diverse group of people wanting to live a healthy and enjoyable life. Seniors increasingly see the importance of eating healthy and delicious food in a pleasant environment in achieving happiness and well-being. Up until now, the food industry

  8. A Population-Based Comparison of Female and Male Same-Sex Parent and Different-Sex Parent Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Henny M W; Kuyper, Lisette; Gartrell, Nanette K

    2018-03-01

    This investigation compared Dutch same-sex parent and different-sex parent households on children's psychological well-being, parenting stress, and support in child rearing. It was also assessed whether associations among children's well-being, parenting stress, and support in child rearing were different in the two household types. Data were based on a nationally representative survey (N = 25,250). Matching was used to enhance similarity in background characteristics between both types of families. Parental and child characteristics were matched for 43 female same-sex parent, 52 male same-sex parent, and 95 different-sex parent households with offspring between 5 and 18 years old. No significant differences were found on children's well-being, problems in the parent-child relationship, being worried about the child, or the use of formal and informal support between mothers in same-sex and different-sex parent households or for fathers in same-sex and different-sex parent households. Regarding perceived confidence in child rearing, fathers in same-sex parent households and mothers in different-sex parent households felt less competent than their counterparts. Neither the associations between children's well-being and the predictors (parenting stress variables) nor those between support and the predictors (parenting stress and children's well-being) differed along household type. In this population-based study, the similarity in child outcomes regardless of household type confirms the results of prior investigations based on convenience samples. These findings are pertinent to family therapists, practitioners, court officials, and policymakers who seek information on parenting experiences and child outcomes in female and male same-sex parent families. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  9. Energy implications of an aging population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    This study provides various demographic, medical, and economic information relative to energy usage on a segment of the population, the elderly, which is growing in absolute numbers and relative population percentage. This growth is expected to continue well into the twenty-first century. The US aging population numbered 3.1 million in 1900, and by 1977 it had climbed to 23.5 million. It can be stated with reasonable certainty that this figure will rise to 31 million in the year 2000 and 43 million in the year 2020. These figures, corresponding to more than 10% of our population, are by no means insignificant. As our fossil-fuel reserves are being depleted and the cost of energy mounts, it becomes apparent that the elderly will become increasingly vulnerable to the energy crisis, primarily beause of their physical tendency to infirmity, their economic and social situation, and their susceptibility to psychological depression. This white paper concentrates on those aspects of aging and the nation's energy problem which are not usually related in our everyday consideration of these as separable problems. It seeks to identify the peculiar energy problems of the aged and to consider alternatives in the solution of these problems in light of modern technology.

  10. Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allentoft, Morten E.; Sikora, Martin; Sjögren, Karl-Göran

    2015-01-01

    The Bronze Age of Eurasia (around 3000-1000 BC) was a period of major cultural changes. However, there is debate about whether these changes resulted from the circulation of ideas or from human migrations, potentially also facilitating the spread of languages and certain phenotypic traits. We...... investigated this by using new, improved methods to sequence low-coverage genomes from 101 ancient humans from across Eurasia. We show that the Bronze Age was a highly dynamic period involving large-scale population migrations and replacements, responsible for shaping major parts of present-day demographic...... structure in both Europe and Asia. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesized spread of Indo-European languages during the Early Bronze Age. We also demonstrate that light skin pigmentation in Europeans was already present at high frequency in the Bronze Age, but not lactose tolerance, indicating...

  11. Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allentoft, Morten E; Sikora, Martin; Sjögren, Karl-Göran; Rasmussen, Simon; Rasmussen, Morten; Stenderup, Jesper; Damgaard, Peter B; Schroeder, Hannes; Ahlström, Torbjörn; Vinner, Lasse; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Margaryan, Ashot; Higham, Tom; Chivall, David; Lynnerup, Niels; Harvig, Lise; Baron, Justyna; Della Casa, Philippe; Dąbrowski, Paweł; Duffy, Paul R; Ebel, Alexander V; Epimakhov, Andrey; Frei, Karin; Furmanek, Mirosław; Gralak, Tomasz; Gromov, Andrey; Gronkiewicz, Stanisław; Grupe, Gisela; Hajdu, Tamás; Jarysz, Radosław; Khartanovich, Valeri; Khokhlov, Alexandr; Kiss, Viktória; Kolář, Jan; Kriiska, Aivar; Lasak, Irena; Longhi, Cristina; McGlynn, George; Merkevicius, Algimantas; Merkyte, Inga; Metspalu, Mait; Mkrtchyan, Ruzan; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Paja, László; Pálfi, György; Pokutta, Dalia; Pospieszny, Łukasz; Price, T Douglas; Saag, Lehti; Sablin, Mikhail; Shishlina, Natalia; Smrčka, Václav; Soenov, Vasilii I; Szeverényi, Vajk; Tóth, Gusztáv; Trifanova, Synaru V; Varul, Liivi; Vicze, Magdolna; Yepiskoposyan, Levon; Zhitenev, Vladislav; Orlando, Ludovic; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Brunak, Søren; Nielsen, Rasmus; Kristiansen, Kristian; Willerslev, Eske

    2015-06-11

    The Bronze Age of Eurasia (around 3000-1000 BC) was a period of major cultural changes. However, there is debate about whether these changes resulted from the circulation of ideas or from human migrations, potentially also facilitating the spread of languages and certain phenotypic traits. We investigated this by using new, improved methods to sequence low-coverage genomes from 101 ancient humans from across Eurasia. We show that the Bronze Age was a highly dynamic period involving large-scale population migrations and replacements, responsible for shaping major parts of present-day demographic structure in both Europe and Asia. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesized spread of Indo-European languages during the Early Bronze Age. We also demonstrate that light skin pigmentation in Europeans was already present at high frequency in the Bronze Age, but not lactose tolerance, indicating a more recent onset of positive selection on lactose tolerance than previously thought.

  12. The challenges of human population ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Miriam; Oxlund, Bjarke; Jespersen, Astrid; Krasnik, Allan; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Westendorp, Rudi Gerardus Johannes; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2015-01-01

    The 20th century saw an unprecedented increase in average human lifespan as well as a rapid decline in human fertility in many countries of the world. The accompanying worldwide change in demographics of human populations is linked to unanticipated and unprecedented economic, cultural, medical, social, public health and public policy challenges, whose full implications on a societal level are only just beginning to be fully appreciated. Some of these implications are discussed in this commentary, an outcome of Cultures of Health and Ageing, a conference co-sponsored by the University of Copenhagen (UCPH) and the Center for Healthy Ageing at UCPH, which took place on 20–21 June 2014 in Copenhagen, Denmark. Questions discussed here include the following: what is driving age-structural change in human populations? how can we create ‘age-friendly’ societies and promote ‘ageing-in-community’? what tools will effectively promote social engagement and prevent social detachment among older individuals? is there a risk that further extension of human lifespan would be a greater burden to the individual and to society than is warranted by the potential benefit of longer life? PMID:25452294

  13. Applying the effort-reward imbalance model to household and family work: a population-based study of German mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sperlich Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper reports on results of a newly developed questionnaire for the assessment of effort-reward imbalance (ERI in unpaid household and family work. Methods: Using a cross-sectional population-based survey of German mothers (n = 3129 the dimensional structure of the theoretical ERI model was validated by means of Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA. Analyses of Variance were computed to examine relationships between ERI and social factors and health outcomes. Results CFA revealed good psychometric properties indicating that the subscale 'effort' is based on one latent factor and the subscale 'reward' is composed of four dimensions: 'intrinsic value of family and household work', 'societal esteem', 'recognition from the partner', and 'affection from the child(ren'. About 19.3% of mothers perceived lack of reciprocity and 23.8% showed high rates of overcommitment in terms of inability to withdraw from household and family obligations. Socially disadvantaged mothers were at higher risk of ERI, in particular with respect to the perception of low societal esteem. Gender inequality in the division of household and family work and work-family conflict accounted most for ERI in household and family work. Analogous to ERI in paid work we could demonstrate that ERI affects self-rated health, somatic complaints, mental health and, to some extent, hypertension. Conclusions The newly developed questionnaire demonstrates satisfied validity and promising results for extending the ERI model to household and family work.

  14. Applying the effort-reward imbalance model to household and family work: a population-based study of German mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperlich, Stefanie; Peter, Richard; Geyer, Siegfried

    2012-01-06

    This paper reports on results of a newly developed questionnaire for the assessment of effort-reward imbalance (ERI) in unpaid household and family work. Using a cross-sectional population-based survey of German mothers (n = 3129) the dimensional structure of the theoretical ERI model was validated by means of Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Analyses of Variance were computed to examine relationships between ERI and social factors and health outcomes. CFA revealed good psychometric properties indicating that the subscale 'effort' is based on one latent factor and the subscale 'reward' is composed of four dimensions: 'intrinsic value of family and household work', 'societal esteem', 'recognition from the partner', and 'affection from the child(ren)'. About 19.3% of mothers perceived lack of reciprocity and 23.8% showed high rates of overcommitment in terms of inability to withdraw from household and family obligations. Socially disadvantaged mothers were at higher risk of ERI, in particular with respect to the perception of low societal esteem. Gender inequality in the division of household and family work and work-family conflict accounted most for ERI in household and family work. Analogous to ERI in paid work we could demonstrate that ERI affects self-rated health, somatic complaints, mental health and, to some extent, hypertension. The newly developed questionnaire demonstrates satisfied validity and promising results for extending the ERI model to household and family work.

  15. Christianity Facing the Ageing of Global Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sanecka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ageing population is a great challenge for the whole world including churches, Christian communities, Christian families and the so-called “Christian countries”. The respect and support for elderly people is almost a common rule of social life in developed countries regardless of religious views. But in the Christian world this obligation has very strong religious justification – obligation enshrined in the Commandments of Old (the fourth/fifth Commandment and New (the second one of The Greatest Commandments of Love Testaments. Therefore between the Christianity – understood as a set of different communities sharing their beliefs in Jesus Christ – and aging population there are many very different connections including among others: honour and respect, privilege, obligations, giving – receiving relations, duty, charity, solidarity, dependency. They are present both in the teaching and the practice of different Christian communities starting with Churches, through NGOs and Christian societies, ending with Christian families. The paper shows some of these connections. It also tries – based on a case of Poland – to answer the question whether the Christianity is ready to face the aging of global population

  16. Health and Human Rights in Chin State, Western Burma: A Population-Based Assessment Using Multistaged Household Cluster Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollom, Richard; Richards, Adam K.; Parmar, Parveen; Mullany, Luke C.; Lian, Salai Bawi; Iacopino, Vincent; Beyrer, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Background The Chin State of Burma (also known as Myanmar) is an isolated ethnic minority area with poor health outcomes and reports of food insecurity and human rights violations. We report on a population-based assessment of health and human rights in Chin State. We sought to quantify reported human rights violations in Chin State and associations between these reported violations and health status at the household level. Methods and Findings Multistaged household cluster sampling was done. Heads of household were interviewed on demographics, access to health care, health status, food insecurity, forced displacement, forced labor, and other human rights violations during the preceding 12 months. Ratios of the prevalence of household hunger comparing exposed and unexposed to each reported violation were estimated using binomial regression, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were constructed. Multivariate models were done to adjust for possible confounders. Overall, 91.9% of households (95% CI 89.7%–94.1%) reported forced labor in the past 12 months. Forty-three percent of households met FANTA-2 (Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance II project) definitions for moderate to severe household hunger. Common violations reported were food theft, livestock theft or killing, forced displacement, beatings and torture, detentions, disappearances, and religious and ethnic persecution. Self reporting of multiple rights abuses was independently associated with household hunger. Conclusions Our findings indicate widespread self-reports of human rights violations. The nature and extent of these violations may warrant investigation by the United Nations or International Criminal Court. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:21346799

  17. Household food insecurity is associated with less physical activity among children and adults in the U.S. population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Quyen G; Frongillo, Edward A; Gallegos, Danielle; Moore, Justin B

    2014-11-01

    Household food insecurity and physical activity are each important public-health concerns in the United States, but the relation between them has not been investigated thoroughly. This study aimed to examine the association between food insecurity and physical activity in the U.S. population. Physical activity measured by accelerometry (PAM) and physical activity measured by questionnaire (PAQ) data from the NHANES 2003-2006 were used. Individuals aged 65 y, pregnant women, individuals with physical limitations, and individuals with family income >350% of the poverty line were excluded. Food insecurity was measured by the USDA Household Food Security Survey Module. Adjusted ORs were calculated from logistic regression to identify the association between food insecurity and adherence to the physical-activity guidelines. Adjusted coefficients were obtained from linear regression to identify the association between food insecurity with sedentary/physical-activity minutes. In children, food insecurity was not associated with adherence to physical-activity guidelines measured via PAM or PAQ and with sedentary minutes (P > 0.05). Food-insecure children did less moderate to vigorous physical activity than food-secure children (adjusted coefficient = -5.24, P = 0.02). In adults, food insecurity was significantly associated with adherence to physical-activity guidelines (adjusted OR = 0.72, P = 0.03 for PAM; and OR = 0.84, P PAQ) but was not associated with sedentary minutes (P > 0.05). Food-insecure children did less moderate to vigorous physical activity, and food-insecure adults were less likely to adhere to the physical-activity guidelines than those without food insecurity. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Population ageing alongside health care spending growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Mihajlo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Silver Tsunami or population ageing has become a globally widespread phenomenon. The purpose of this review is to observe its dynamics and consequences from a local Balkan perspective. The main drivers of this unique demographic evolution are extended longevity, improved early childhood survival, absorption of women into the labor markets, and consequences of sexual revolution leading to falling female fertility. This process lasting well over a century is taking its toll on contemporary societies. Major side effects are shrinking young labor force and growing pool of elderly and retired citizens in many countries. This equation tends to worsen further in the future threatening long-term financial sustainability of public social and health insurance funds. Notable health expenditure growth, accelerating worldwide since the 1960s, is to a large degree attributable to ageing itself. Growing share of senior citizens increases demand for medical services and costs of health care provision. Home-based care provided by the family caregivers presents another important reality putting a huge burden on modern communities. Serbs are no exception in this landscape. Historical demographic evolution of this nation gives a clear evidence of advanced and accelerated ageing, which is well documented in post-World War II era. This synthesis of rich published evidence shows clear upward parallel trend between the pace of population aging and the growth of health expenditure. National authorities shall be forced to consider reform of the current health care financing pattern inherited from the demographic growth era. This might be the only way to smooth out the impact of population ageing on the financial sustainability of the health system and long-term medical care in Serbia. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. OI 175014

  19. Change in household income and risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during childhood: A nationwide population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Choi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is reported to be more prevalent among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups in various countries. The effect of poverty on child development appears to depend on how long poverty lasts. The timing of poverty also seems to be important for childhood outcomes. Lifetime socioeconomic status may shape current health. Thus, we investigated the effects of household income changes from birth to 4 years on the occurrence of ADHD. Methods: Data were obtained from 18,029 participants in the Korean National Health Insurance cohort who were born in 2002 and 2003. All individuals were followed until December 2013 or the occurrence of ADHD, whichever came first. Household income trajectories were estimated using the national health insurance premium and the group-based model. Cox proportional hazard models were used to compare incidence rates between different income trajectory groups after adjustment for possible confounding risk factors. Results: Of 18,029 participants, 554 subjects (3.1% were identified as having ADHD by age 10 or 11. Seven household income trajectories within three categories were found. Children living in decreasing, consistently low, and consistently mid-low income households had an increased risk of ADHD compared to children who consistently lived in the mid-high household income group. Conclusions: Children who live in decreasing-income or consistently low-income households have a higher risk for ADHD. Promotion of targeted policies and priority support may help reduce ADHD in this vulnerable group.

  20. A system for household enumeration and re-identification in densely populated slums to facilitate community research, education, and advocacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana R Thomson

    Full Text Available We devised and implemented an innovative Location-Based Household Coding System (LBHCS appropriate to a densely populated informal settlement in Mumbai, India.LBHCS codes were designed to double as unique household identifiers and as walking directions; when an entire community is enumerated, LBHCS codes can be used to identify the number of households located per road (or lane segment. LBHCS was used in community-wide biometric, mental health, diarrheal disease, and water poverty studies. It also facilitated targeted health interventions by a research team of youth from Mumbai, including intensive door-to-door education of residents, targeted follow-up meetings, and a full census. In addition, LBHCS permitted rapid and low-cost preparation of GIS mapping of all households in the slum, and spatial summation and spatial analysis of survey data.LBHCS was an effective, easy-to-use, affordable approach to household enumeration and re-identification in a densely populated informal settlement where alternative satellite imagery and GPS technologies could not be used.

  1. Slowed ageing, welfare, and population problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareham, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    Biological studies have demonstrated that it is possible to slow the ageing process and extend lifespan in a wide variety of organisms, perhaps including humans. Making use of the findings of these studies, this article examines two problems concerning the effect of life extension on population size and welfare. The first--the problem of overpopulation--is that as a result of life extension too many people will co-exist at the same time, resulting in decreases in average welfare. The second--the problem of underpopulation--is that life extension will result in too few people existing across time, resulting in decreases in total welfare. I argue that overpopulation is highly unlikely to result from technologies that slow ageing. Moreover, I claim that the problem of underpopulation relies on claims about life extension that are false in the case of life extension by slowed ageing. The upshot of these arguments is that the population problems discussed provide scant reason to oppose life extension by slowed ageing.

  2. Job Satisfaction, Retirement Attitude and Intended Retirement Age: A Conditional Process Analysis across Workers’ Level of Household Income

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Eleanor M. M.; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.; Flynn, Matt

    2017-01-01

    In the contemporary workplace, insight into retirement behaviors is of crucial importance. Previous empirical evidence has found mixed results regarding the relationship between work attitudes, such as job satisfaction, and retirement behaviors, suggesting that further scholarly examination incorporating moderating and mediating variables into retirement models is needed. Drawing on comparative models of attitude to retirement, we hypothesized a direct relationship between job satisfaction and intended retirement age for workers with a high household income and an indirect relationship between job satisfaction and intended retirement age, via retirement attitude, for workers with a low or mean household income. We collected data from a sample of 590 United Kingdom workers aged 50+. Using conditional process analysis, we found that the underlying mechanisms in our research model differ according to socio-economic status. We found no direct effect between job satisfaction and intended retirement age. However, an indirect effect was observed between job satisfaction and intended retirement age, via retirement attitude, for both low- and mean-household income individuals. Specifically, the relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude differed according to socio-economic group: for high-household income older workers, there was no relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude. However, for low- and mean-household income older workers, we observed a negative relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude. Otherwise stated, increases in job satisfaction for mean and low household income workers are likely to make the prospect of retirement less attractive. Therefore, we argue that utmost care must be taken around the conditions under which lower income employees will continue their work when getting older in order to protect their sustainable employability. PMID:28620329

  3. Job Satisfaction, Retirement Attitude and Intended Retirement Age: A Conditional Process Analysis across Workers’ Level of Household Income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor M. M. Davies

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary workplace, insight into retirement behaviors is of crucial importance. Previous empirical evidence has found mixed results regarding the relationship between work attitudes, such as job satisfaction, and retirement behaviors, suggesting that further scholarly examination incorporating moderating and mediating variables into retirement models is needed. Drawing on comparative models of attitude to retirement, we hypothesized a direct relationship between job satisfaction and intended retirement age for workers with a high household income and an indirect relationship between job satisfaction and intended retirement age, via retirement attitude, for workers with a low or mean household income. We collected data from a sample of 590 United Kingdom workers aged 50+. Using conditional process analysis, we found that the underlying mechanisms in our research model differ according to socio-economic status. We found no direct effect between job satisfaction and intended retirement age. However, an indirect effect was observed between job satisfaction and intended retirement age, via retirement attitude, for both low- and mean-household income individuals. Specifically, the relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude differed according to socio-economic group: for high-household income older workers, there was no relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude. However, for low- and mean-household income older workers, we observed a negative relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude. Otherwise stated, increases in job satisfaction for mean and low household income workers are likely to make the prospect of retirement less attractive. Therefore, we argue that utmost care must be taken around the conditions under which lower income employees will continue their work when getting older in order to protect their sustainable employability.

  4. Job Satisfaction, Retirement Attitude and Intended Retirement Age: A Conditional Process Analysis across Workers' Level of Household Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Eleanor M M; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I J M; Flynn, Matt

    2017-01-01

    In the contemporary workplace, insight into retirement behaviors is of crucial importance. Previous empirical evidence has found mixed results regarding the relationship between work attitudes, such as job satisfaction, and retirement behaviors, suggesting that further scholarly examination incorporating moderating and mediating variables into retirement models is needed. Drawing on comparative models of attitude to retirement, we hypothesized a direct relationship between job satisfaction and intended retirement age for workers with a high household income and an indirect relationship between job satisfaction and intended retirement age, via retirement attitude, for workers with a low or mean household income. We collected data from a sample of 590 United Kingdom workers aged 50+. Using conditional process analysis, we found that the underlying mechanisms in our research model differ according to socio-economic status. We found no direct effect between job satisfaction and intended retirement age. However, an indirect effect was observed between job satisfaction and intended retirement age, via retirement attitude, for both low- and mean-household income individuals. Specifically, the relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude differed according to socio-economic group: for high-household income older workers, there was no relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude. However, for low- and mean-household income older workers, we observed a negative relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude. Otherwise stated, increases in job satisfaction for mean and low household income workers are likely to make the prospect of retirement less attractive. Therefore, we argue that utmost care must be taken around the conditions under which lower income employees will continue their work when getting older in order to protect their sustainable employability.

  5. Young adult and middle age mortality in Butajira demographic surveillance site, Ethiopia: lifestyle, gender and household economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Högberg Ulf

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health research characterising the course of life through the middle age in developing societies is scarce. The aim of this study is to explore patterns of adult (15–64 years mortality in an Ethiopian population over time, by gender, urban or rural lifestyle, causes of death and in relation to household economic status and decision-making. Methods The study was conducted in Butajira Demographic Surveillance Site (DSS in south-central Ethiopia among adults 15–64 years old. Cohort analysis of surveillance data was conducted for the years 1987–2004 complemented by a prospective case-referent (case control study over two years. Rate ratios were computed to assess the relationships between mortality and background variables using a Poisson regression model. In the case-referent component, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals were used to assess the effect of certain risk factors that were not included in the surveillance system. Results A total of 367 940 person years were observed in a period of 18 years, in which 2 860 deaths occurred. One hundred sixty two cases and 486 matched for age, sex and place of residence controls were included in the case referent (case control study. Only a modest downward trend in adult mortality was seen over the 18 year period. Rural lifestyle carried a significant survival disadvantage [mortality rate ratio 1.62 (95% CI 1.44 to 1.82, adjusted for gender, period and age group], while the overall effects of gender were negligible. Communicable disease mortality was appreciably higher in rural areas [rate ratio 2.05 (95% CI 1.73 to 2.44, adjusted for gender, age group and period]. Higher mortality was associated with a lack of literacy in a household, poor economic status and lack of women's decision making. Conclusion A complex pattern of adult mortality prevails, still influenced by war, famine and communicable diseases. Individual factors such as a lack of education, low economic

  6. Users’ dissatisfaction with dental care: a population-based household study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; dos Santos, Pedro Eleutério; Carreiro, Danilo Lima; Souza, João Gabriel Silva; Ferreira e Ferreira, Efigênia

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine whether demographic, socioeconomic conditions, oral health subjectivity and characterization of dental care are associated with users’ dissatisfaction with such are. METHODS Cross-sectional study of 781 people who required dental care in Montes Claros, MG, Southeastern Brazil, in 2012, a city with of medium-sized population situated in the North of Minas Gerais. Household interviews were conducted to assess the users’ dissatisfaction with dental care (dependent variable), demographic, socioeconomic conditions, oral health subjectivity and characterization of dental care (independent variables). Sample calculation was used for the finite population, with estimates made for proportions of dissatisfaction in 50.0% of the population, a 5.0% error margin, a non-response rate of 5.0% and a 2.0% design effect. Logistic regression was used, and the odds ratio was calculated with a 5% significance level and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS Of the interviewed individuals, 9.0% (7.9%, with correction for design effect) were dissatisfied with the care provided. These were associated with lower educational level; negative self-assessment of oral health; perception that the care provider was unable to give dental care; negative evaluation of the way the patient was treated, the cleanliness of the rooms, based on the examination rooms and the toilets, and the size of the waiting and examination rooms. CONCLUSIONS The rate of dissatisfaction with dental care was low. This dissatisfaction was associated with socioeconomic conditions, subjectivity of oral health, skill of the health professionals relating to the professional-patient relationship and facility infrastructure. Educational interventions are suggested that aim at improving the quality of care among professionals by responsible agencies as is improving the infrastructure of the care units. PMID:26270017

  7. Users’ dissatisfaction with dental care: a population-based household study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima Martins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To examine whether demographic, socioeconomic conditions, oral health subjectivity and characterization of dental care are associated with users’ dissatisfaction with such are.METHODS Cross-sectional study of 781 people who required dental care in Montes Claros, MG, Southeastern Brazil, in 2012, a city with of medium-sized population situated in the North of Minas Gerais. Household interviews were conducted to assess the users’ dissatisfaction with dental care (dependent variable, demographic, socioeconomic conditions, oral health subjectivity and characterization of dental care (independent variables. Sample calculation was used for the finite population, with estimates made for proportions of dissatisfaction in 50.0% of the population, a 5.0% error margin, a non-response rate of 5.0% and a 2.0% design effect. Logistic regression was used, and the odds ratio was calculated with a 5% significance level and 95% confidence intervals.RESULTS Of the interviewed individuals, 9.0% (7.9%, with correction for design effect were dissatisfied with the care provided. These were associated with lower educational level; negative self-assessment of oral health; perception that the care provider was unable to give dental care; negative evaluation of the way the patient was treated, the cleanliness of the rooms, based on the examination rooms and the toilets, and the size of the waiting and examination rooms.CONCLUSIONS The rate of dissatisfaction with dental care was low. This dissatisfaction was associated with socioeconomic conditions, subjectivity of oral health, skill of the health professionals relating to the professional-patient relationship and facility infrastructure. Educational interventions are suggested that aim at improving the quality of care among professionals by responsible agencies as is improving the infrastructure of the care units.

  8. Household food insecurity in Mexico is associated with the co-occurrence of overweight and anemia among women of reproductive age, but not female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew D; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Cantoral, Alejandra; Levy, Teresa Shamah

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to determine the association between household food insecurity (HFI) and the co-occurrence of overweight and anemia among women of reproductive age in the Mexican population. We analyzed data on 4,039 nonpregnant female adolescents (15-19 years) and 10,760 nonpregnant adult women of reproductive age (20-49 years) from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey of Mexico. The survey uses a two-stage sampling design, stratified by rural and urban regions. The Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale was used to assess HFI. We assessed overweight and obesity in women based on World Health Organization classifications for body mass index, and BMI-for-age Z-scores for female adolescents, and defined anemia as an altitude-adjusted hemoglobin (Hb) concentration insecure households, respectively, experiencing concurrent anemia and overweight were 48% (OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.15, 1.91) and 49% (OR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.06) higher than among women from food-secure households. Severe HFI was not associated with concurrent overweight and anemia among female adolescents or women. HFI may be a shared mechanism for dual forms of malnutrition within the same individual, simultaneously contributing to overconsumption and dietary inadequacy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Population Ageing in Rural Settlements in the Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Nejašmić

    2016-08-01

    old age. Rural population in other administrative-territorial units mostly fall into type 4 – very old age (37.9% and type 3 – old age (16.5%. The fact that the rural population of any administrative-territorial units is not classified into the 1st type - on the threshold of old age, and only in one municipality it falls under the 2nd type - ageing shows to which extent demographic ageing has been an advanced and extensive process. If we separate out the municipalities/administrative cities with the rural population on a very high degree of population ageing (types 5, 6 and 7 from the presented basic map, an unbroken belt from central Dalmatian coast to Žumberak and Banovina can be clearly seen. It is an area of “socio-demographic depression” that has long been affected by the rural exodus and depopulation, and largely exposed to direct war casualties during the 1990s. As expected, the population of rural settlements of almost all island municipalities/cities also falls into the set with a very high level of ageing. We can affirm that the issue here is the homogenisation of the Croatian rural area in the direction of the increasingly higher degree of ageing. The permanent erosion of generations, the long-term reductions in fertility and the ageing open a series of hard-to-solve existential and other problems. Croatian rural areas are becoming a community of elderly households without the young and heirs. This is undoubtedly a limiting factor in the development of rural settlements which leads to a further deepening of inequality between rural areas and cities. In most cases the aged farmers are the last residents in many villages and with their extinction many of the villages will remain only geographical terms. What should be done to at least mitigate harmful consequences of demographic ageing and depopulation of rural settlements? For this purpose general economic progress and more equal regional development are of crucial importance. Therefore it is

  10. Dietary patterns and household food insecurity in rural populations of Kilosa district, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Edward Ntwenya

    Full Text Available Few studies have investigated the relationship between dietary pattern and household food insecurity. The objective of the present analysis was to describe the food consumption patterns and to relate these with the prevalence of food insecurity in the context of a rural community.Three hundred and seven (307 randomly selected households in Kilosa district participated in the study. Data were collected during the rainy season (February-May and post harvest season (September-October in the year 2011. Food consumption pattern was determined using a 24-h dietary recall method. Food insecurity data were based on the 30 day recall experience to food insecurity in the household. Factor analysis method using Principal Components extraction function was used to derive the dietary patterns and correlation analysis was used to establish the existing relationship between household food insecurity and dietary patterns factor score.Four food consumption patterns namely (I Meat and milk; (II Pulses, legumes, nuts and cooking oils; (III fish (and other sea foods, roots and tubers; (IV Cereals, vegetables and fruits consumption patterns were identified during harvest season. Dietary patterns identified during the rainy season were as follows: (I Fruits, cooking oils, fats, roots and tubers (II Eggs, meat, milk and milk products (III Fish, other sea foods, vegetables, roots and tubers and (IV Pulses, legumes, nuts, cereals and vegetables. Household food insecurity was 80% and 69% during rainy and harvest-seasons, respectively (P = 0.01. Household food insecurity access scale score was negatively correlated with the factor scores on household dietary diversity.Food consumption patterns and food insecurity varied by seasons with worst scenarios most prevalent during the rainy season. The risk for inadequate dietary diversity was higher among food insecure households compared to food secure households. Effort geared at alleviating household food insecurity could

  11. Health and human rights in eastern Myanmar prior to political transition: a population-based assessment using multistaged household cluster sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Parveen K; Benjamin-Chung, Jade; Smith, Linda S; Htoo, Saw Nay; Laeng, Sai; Lwin, Aye; Mahn, Mahn; Maung, Cynthia; Reh, Daniel; Shwe Oo, Eh Kalu; Lee, Thomas; Richards, Adam K

    2014-05-05

    Myanmar/Burma has received increased development and humanitarian assistance since the election in November 2010. Monitoring the impact of foreign assistance and economic development on health and human rights requires knowledge of pre-election conditions. From October 2008-January 2009, community-based organizations conducted household surveys using three-stage cluster sampling in Shan, Kayin, Bago, Kayah, Mon and Tanintharyi areas of Myanmar. Data was collected from 5,592 heads of household on household demographics, reproductive health, diarrhea, births, deaths, malaria, and acute malnutrition of children 6-59 months and women aged 15-49 years. A human rights focused survey module evaluated human rights violations (HRVs) experienced by household members during the previous year. Estimated infant and under-five rates were 77 (95% CI 56 to 98) and 139 (95% CI 107 to 171) deaths per 1,000 live births; and the crude mortality rate was 13 (95% CI 11 to 15) deaths per thousand persons. The leading respondent-reported cause of death was malaria, followed by acute respiratory infection and diarrhea, causing 21.2% (95% CI 16.5 to 25.8), 16.6% (95% CI 11.8 to 21.4), and 12.3% (95% CI 8.7 to 15.8), respectively. Over a third of households suffered at least one human rights violation in the preceding year (36.2%; 30.7 to 41.7). Household exposure to forced labor increased risk of death among infants (rate ratio (RR) = 2.2; 95% CI 1.1 to 4.4) and children under five (RR = 2.1; 95% CI 1.3 to 3.6). The proportion of children suffering from moderate to severe acute malnutrition was higher among households that were displaced (prevalence ratio (PR) = 3.3; 95% CI 1.9 to 5.6). Prior to the 2010 election, populations of eastern Myanmar experienced high rates of disease and death and high rates of HRVs. These population-based data provide a baseline that can be used to monitor national and international efforts to improve the health and human rights situation in the

  12. Smart Cities and the Ageing Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouby, Knud Erik; Kivimäki, Anri; Haukiputo, Lotta

    Due to a growing number of elderly people, it is a necessity to create the cities that are aware of the special needs of all their citizens including the needs of aging populations. This paper shows that by combining smart homes with smart cities, we are able to provide an ICT infrastructure...... population to support independent elderly living. Using ICT in a smart city/home context can provide personalized health care, social services and intelligent community services. Homecare systems for elderly people are becoming important due to economic reasons as well as patients’ preferences. The expected...... and 3D virtual world design. In this paper we will discuss how the recent development in ICT, and its particular components, Internet of Things (IoT), Clouds of Things, the Advanced Artificial Intelligence, can become building blocks between elderly people, smart homes and smart cities. Also, we...

  13. The Health of America's Aging Prison Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarupski, Kimberly A; Gross, Alden; Schrack, Jennifer A; Deal, Jennifer A; Eber, Gabriel B

    2018-03-23

    Older incarcerated individuals comprise the fastest growing demographic in the US prison system. Unhealthy lifestyles among incarcerated individuals and inadequate health care lead to earlier onset and more rapid progression of many chronic conditions that are prevalent among community-living older adults. There are limited peer-reviewed epidemiologic data in this area; however, there is growing interest in identifying strategies for housing aging incarcerated individuals, delivering appropriate health care in prisons, and coordinating after-release health care. In this systematic review, we summarize the epidemiologic evidence of the health challenges facing the aging US prison population. Our comprehensive literature search focused on health outcomes, including diseases, comorbid conditions, mental health, cognition, and mobility. From 12,486 articles identified from the literature search, we reviewed 21 studies published between 2007 and 2017. All the studies were observational and cross-sectional, and most (n = 17) were based on regional samples. Sample sizes varied widely, ranging from 25 to 14,499 incarcerated people (median, 258). In general, compared with their younger counterparts, older incarcerated individuals reported high rates of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular conditions, and liver disease. Mental health problems were common, especially anxiety, fear of desire for death or suicide, and depression. Activities of daily living were challenging for up to one-fifth of the population. We found no empirical data on cognition among older incarcerated individuals. The findings of this review reveal few empirical data in this area and highlight the need for new data to drive policy and practice patterns that address critical health issues related to the aging prison population.

  14. Population Ageing and the Theory of Demographic Transition: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population Ageing and the Theory of Demographic Transition: The Case of Mauritius. ... the life expectancy of the population and consequently, the society is ageing. ... Originality/Value – Although some studies have been done on ageing yet ...

  15. [Iodized salt intake in households and iodine nutritional status in women of childbearing age in Peru, 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, Ana María; Miranda, Marianella; Campos, Miguel; Sánchez, José R

    2010-06-01

    To estimate the iodine nutritional status in women of childbearing age and to evaluate the intake of salt adequately iodized in their households in Peru. Cross-sectional study performed with a multistage, probabilistic, cluster sampling that included 1573 households and 2048 women in childbearing age, distributed in five domains (Lima, rest of the coast, rural highlands and jungle area). The use of iodized salt was evaluated in the households and the urinary iodine was evaluated in the childbearing age women. 97.5% (95%CI. 96.7-98.5%) of peruvian households have iodized salt consumption, being it lower in the rural highland (95%) and higher in Lima (100%). The national mean of urinary iodine was 266 μg/L, being it lower in the jungle areas (206 μg/L) and higher in the rest of the coast (302 μg/L), these values are above the level recommended by the World Health Organization in all domains (average higher than 200 μg/L), value that ensures control over the iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). Control of IDD associated with iodized salt consumption is good, and monitoring of the presence of iodine in salt, particularly in the areas with lowest access, should continue.

  16. Family socioeconomic status, household tobacco smoke, and asthma attack among children below 12 years of age: gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Carol; Chang, Ly-Yun

    2014-12-01

    Studies have demonstrated the negative impact of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) or parental cigarette smoking on pediatric asthma. Little is known, however, regarding whether there is a gender difference in the effect of household ETS on pediatric asthma. Using a nationwide survey in Taiwan, we examined the relationship between asthma prevalence in the past year and household ETS among children below 12 years of age (N = 3761). We used multivariate regression models to assess odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of household ETS and asthma attacks by gender. In about 3% of the sample, parents reported that their children had an asthma attack in the past year, confirmed by physicians. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that household ETS predicted asthma attacks for girls (OR = 3.11, 95%CI = 1.24-7.76) but not for boys. Father's education was significantly associated with asthma attack for both girls (OR = 1.24, 95%CI = 1.04-1.47) and boys (OR = 1.15, 95%CI = 1.05-1.26). Girls with lower family income were more likely to have had an asthma attack in the last year (OR = .48, 95%CI = .27-.87). The impact of household ETS and family socioeconomic status on asthma attacks differs by gender among children below 12 years. © The Author(s) 2013.

  17. Food management for the aging population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militello, J; Coleman, L J; Haran, E

    1996-01-01

    The older population is becoming more important to our society everyday. These individuals are being studied for their past, present, and potential impact on markets and marketing. Evaluated as a user of products or services in the marketplace or an employee or volunteer within the marketing system, this segment is gaining a visibility and importance. An interview was conducted with five Nutrition Project Directors to obtain an overview of Federally Funded Nutrition Programs for the Elderly. The areas which were highlighted were service delivery, site activities, management styles, barriers to service, clientele composition, food planning and preparation, staffing, USDA funding, coordination, marketing, transportation, and volunteerism. The Second Quarter Service Provider Output Reports for 1991, which are compiled by the Nutrition Projects and submitted to the Area Agency on Aging, were utilized to obtain client profile information (Reports, 1991). The analysis sought to compare the programs offered in the five counties on a number of factors which could be quantified. It was hoped that by looking at the numerical ratios, and depicting them graphically, any trends or unique characteristics of the programs could be identified. In that the percentage of Florida's present elder population (17%) far exceeds the national average (12%) these findings could be utilized by nutrition programs outside of Florida to plan for future funds. Analysis of quantitative information on the five programs yielded information on cost comparisons and on services.

  18. BANK MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES REGARDING THE ATTRACTION OF POPULATION SAVINGS BASED ON THE "FINANCIAL SITUATION OF THE ROMANIAN HOUSEHOLDS" POLL

    OpenAIRE

    NICULESCU-ARON Ileana Gabriela; MIHAESCU Constanta; CAPLESCU Raluca

    2012-01-01

    Financing economic recovery is mainly based on the household sector savings, thus anti-crisis governmental programmes should be based on rigorous knowledge regarding saving and consumption behaviours. Selective studies allow for obtaining quick and pertinent results regarding these behaviours. The present study is based on a poll designed for assessing the level of financial education and financial situation of the population, and their impact on savings and preference for various saving inst...

  19. Mortality and kidnapping estimates for the Yazidi population in the area of Mount Sinjar, Iraq, in August 2014: A retrospective household survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetorelli, Valeria; Sasson, Isaac; Shabila, Nazar; Burnham, Gilbert

    2017-05-01

    conversion, torture, and sex slavery. Over one-third of those reported kidnapped were still missing at the time of the survey. All Yazidis were targeted regardless of age and sex, but children were disproportionately affected. They were as likely as adults to be executed but constituted 93.0% (95% CI 71.9-98.6) of those who died on Mount Sinjar. Moreover, children only accounted for 18.8% (95% CI 8.4-36.9) of those who managed to escape captivity. A sensitivity analysis suggests that the actual toll of killings and kidnappings may be underestimated in our data because of survival bias. The uncertainty associated with inference from a small sample of in-camp households and the reliance on a rough figure of 400,000 for extrapolation to the total Yazidi population of Sinjar at the time of the ISIS attack are the main limitations of this study. Consistent with other existing evidence, our data provide a clear indication of the severity of the ISIS attack against the Yazidis in terms of both the number and demographic profile of those targeted.

  20. Mortality and kidnapping estimates for the Yazidi population in the area of Mount Sinjar, Iraq, in August 2014: A retrospective household survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Cetorelli

    2017-05-01

    religious conversion, torture, and sex slavery. Over one-third of those reported kidnapped were still missing at the time of the survey. All Yazidis were targeted regardless of age and sex, but children were disproportionately affected. They were as likely as adults to be executed but constituted 93.0% (95% CI 71.9-98.6 of those who died on Mount Sinjar. Moreover, children only accounted for 18.8% (95% CI 8.4-36.9 of those who managed to escape captivity. A sensitivity analysis suggests that the actual toll of killings and kidnappings may be underestimated in our data because of survival bias. The uncertainty associated with inference from a small sample of in-camp households and the reliance on a rough figure of 400,000 for extrapolation to the total Yazidi population of Sinjar at the time of the ISIS attack are the main limitations of this study.Consistent with other existing evidence, our data provide a clear indication of the severity of the ISIS attack against the Yazidis in terms of both the number and demographic profile of those targeted.

  1. Prevalence and risk factors of chlamydia infection in Hong Kong: A population-based geospatial household survey and testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Chi Wai Wong

    Full Text Available Chlamydia causes infertility and increases risk of HIV infection, and population-based studies provide essential information for effective infection control and prevention. This study examined Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence and risk factors among a representative sample of 18-49-year-old residents in Hong Kong.Census boundary map of 412 constituency areas was used as primary sampling units to construct the sampling frame and, residential buildings and units were randomly selected using geospatial modelling. A questionnaire on sexual practice and health was conducted, and polymerase chain reaction was used to test the urine for genital chlamydial infection. Invitation letters were sent to the selected households and a team of interviewers were sent to recruit one subject per household. Prevalence data was weighted according to the 2011 census and risk factors identified through logistic regression.Among 881 participants (response rate of 24.5%, the overall Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence was low at 1.4% (95%CI 0.8-2.5% but sexually active young (18-26 years women had relatively high prevalence (5.8%, 95%CI 1.7-18.2% in Hong Kong. A unique U-shape disease burden was observed with peaks in younger and older (40-49 years women. Amongst the sexually active women, the risk factors of Chlamydia trachomatis infection were: younger age (aOR = 25.4, 95% CI 2.81-230; living alone (aOR = 8.99, 95% CI 1.46-55.40; and, among all the sexually active participants, males (including the male partners of the female participants who had travelled out of Hong Kong in the previous 12 months had higher risks of infection (aOR = 5.35; 95% CI 1.25-22.8. A core-peripheral geographical distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence was also observed.Young and older sexually active women in Hong Kong have high prevalence of chlamydia. Routine screening for sexually active women and young men should be considered. Further research on testing feasibility and linkage

  2. The Impact of Aging Agricultural Labor Population on Farmland Output: From the Perspective of Farmer Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guancheng Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese agriculture is facing an aging workforce which could negatively impact the industry. In this context, research is needed on how work preferences and age of farmers affect agricultural output. This paper attempts to investigate these factors to more fully understand the impact of an aging agricultural labor population on agricultural production. The results show that, in this context of aging, changes in the working-age households have a significant impact on agricultural output. Despite the fact that the impacts of intention to abandon land management were not significant, we can ignore this preference in the workforce. The combination of changes in the composition of the working-age households indicates that 58.53 percent of the agricultural producers will likely quit. This is a potential threat for the future of agricultural development. We also found that elderly farmers who do not intend to abandon farming had higher agricultural output compared to other farmers. This indicates that the adverse effects of changes in the agricultural population age result more from the agricultural output of older farmers who intend to give up farming. This intention adversely affected other elements and reduced investment. Therefore, various forms of training should increase efforts to cultivate modern professional farmers and policies should be simultaneously developed to increase agricultural production levels.

  3. Health and human rights in eastern Myanmar after the political transition: a population-based assessment using multistaged household cluster sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Kaur Parmar

    Full Text Available Myanmar transitioned to a nominally civilian parliamentary government in March 2011. Qualitative reports suggest that exposure to violence and displacement has declined while international assistance for health services has increased. An assessment of the impact of these changes on the health and human rights situation has not been published.Five community-based organizations conducted household surveys using two-stage cluster sampling in five states in eastern Myanmar from July 2013-September 2013. Data was collected from 6, 178 households on demographics, mortality, health outcomes, water and sanitation, food security and nutrition, malaria, and human rights violations (HRV. Among children aged 6-59 months screened, the prevalence of global acute malnutrition (representing moderate or severe malnutrition was 11.3% (8.0-14.7. A total of 250 deaths occurred during the year prior to the survey. Infant deaths accounted for 64 of these (IMR 94.2; 95% CI 66.5-133.5 and there were 94 child deaths (U5MR 141.9; 95% CI 94.8-189.0. 10.7% of households (95% CI 7.0-14.5 experienced at least one HRV in the past year, while four percent reported 2 or more HRVs. Household exposure to one or more HRVs was associated with moderate-severe malnutrition among children (14.9 vs. 6.8%; prevalence ratio 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.2. Household exposure to HRVs was associated with self-reported fair or poor health status among respondents (PR 1.3; 95% CI 1.1-1.5.This large survey of health and human rights demonstrates that two years after political transition, vulnerable populations of eastern Myanmar are less likely to experience human rights violations compared to previous surveys. However, access to health services remains constrained, and risk of disease and death remains higher than the country as a whole. Efforts to address these poor health indicators should prioritize support for populations that remain outside the scope of most formal government and donor programs.

  4. Health and human rights in eastern Myanmar after the political transition: a population-based assessment using multistaged household cluster sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Parveen Kaur; Barina, Charlene C; Low, Sharon; Tun, Kyaw Thura; Otterness, Conrad; Mhote, Pue P; Htoo, Saw Nay; Kyaw, Saw Win; Lwin, Nai Aye; Maung, Cynthia; Moo, Naw Merry; Oo, Eh Kalu Shwe; Reh, Daniel; Mon, Nai Chay; Singh, Nakul; Goyal, Ravi; Richards, Adam K

    2015-01-01

    Myanmar transitioned to a nominally civilian parliamentary government in March 2011. Qualitative reports suggest that exposure to violence and displacement has declined while international assistance for health services has increased. An assessment of the impact of these changes on the health and human rights situation has not been published. Five community-based organizations conducted household surveys using two-stage cluster sampling in five states in eastern Myanmar from July 2013-September 2013. Data was collected from 6, 178 households on demographics, mortality, health outcomes, water and sanitation, food security and nutrition, malaria, and human rights violations (HRV). Among children aged 6-59 months screened, the prevalence of global acute malnutrition (representing moderate or severe malnutrition) was 11.3% (8.0-14.7). A total of 250 deaths occurred during the year prior to the survey. Infant deaths accounted for 64 of these (IMR 94.2; 95% CI 66.5-133.5) and there were 94 child deaths (U5MR 141.9; 95% CI 94.8-189.0). 10.7% of households (95% CI 7.0-14.5) experienced at least one HRV in the past year, while four percent reported 2 or more HRVs. Household exposure to one or more HRVs was associated with moderate-severe malnutrition among children (14.9 vs. 6.8%; prevalence ratio 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.2). Household exposure to HRVs was associated with self-reported fair or poor health status among respondents (PR 1.3; 95% CI 1.1-1.5). This large survey of health and human rights demonstrates that two years after political transition, vulnerable populations of eastern Myanmar are less likely to experience human rights violations compared to previous surveys. However, access to health services remains constrained, and risk of disease and death remains higher than the country as a whole. Efforts to address these poor health indicators should prioritize support for populations that remain outside the scope of most formal government and donor programs.

  5. Fine resolution mapping of population age-structures for health and development applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegana, V A; Atkinson, P M; Pezzulo, C; Sorichetta, A; Weiss, D; Bird, T; Erbach-Schoenberg, E; Tatem, A J

    2015-04-06

    The age-group composition of populations varies considerably across the world, and obtaining accurate, spatially detailed estimates of numbers of children under 5 years is important in designing vaccination strategies, educational planning or maternal healthcare delivery. Traditionally, such estimates are derived from population censuses, but these can often be unreliable, outdated and of coarse resolution for resource-poor settings. Focusing on Nigeria, we use nationally representative household surveys and their cluster locations to predict the proportion of the under-five population in 1 × 1 km using a Bayesian hierarchical spatio-temporal model. Results showed that land cover, travel time to major settlements, night-time lights and vegetation index were good predictors and that accounting for fine-scale variation, rather than assuming a uniform proportion of under 5 year olds can result in significant differences in health metrics. The largest gaps in estimated bednet and vaccination coverage were in Kano, Katsina and Jigawa. Geolocated household surveys are a valuable resource for providing detailed, contemporary and regularly updated population age-structure data in the absence of recent census data. By combining these with covariate layers, age-structure maps of unprecedented detail can be produced to guide the targeting of interventions in resource-poor settings.

  6. The Effects of Employment Status and Daily Stressors on Time Spent on Daily Household Chores in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jen D.; Almeida, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the study: This study examines how employment status (worker vs. retiree) and life course influences (age, gender, and marital status) are associated with time spent on daily household chores. Second, this study assesses whether the associations between daily stressors and time spent on daily household chores differ as a function of…

  7. Water Level Flux in Household Containers in Vietnam - A Key Determinant of Aedes aegypti Population Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Jason A. L.; Clements, Archie C. A.; Nguyen, Yen Thi; Nguyen, Le Hoang; Tran, Son Hai; Le, Nghia Trung; Vu, Nam Sinh; Ryan, Peter A.; Kay, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    We examined changes in the abundance of immature Aedes aegypti at the household and water storage container level during the dry-season (June-July, 2008) in Tri Nguyen village, central Vietnam. We conducted quantitative immature mosquito surveys of 171 containers in the same 41 households, with replacement of samples, every two days during a 29-day period. We developed multi-level mixed effects regression models to investigate container and household variability in pupal abundance. The percentage of houses that were positive for I/II instars, III/IV instars and pupae during any one survey ranged from 19.5–43.9%, 48.8–75.6% and 17.1–53.7%, respectively. The mean numbers of Ae. aegypti pupae per house ranged between 1.9–12.6 over the study period. Estimates of absolute pupal abundance were highly variable over the 29-day period despite relatively stable weather conditions. Most variability in pupal abundance occurred at the container rather than the household level. A key determinant of Ae. aegypti production was the frequent filling of the containers with water, which caused asynchronous hatching of Ae. aegypti eggs and development of cohorts of immatures. We calculated the probability of the water volume of a large container (>500L) increasing or decreasing by ≥20% to be 0.05 and 0.07 per day, respectively, and for small containers (<500L) to be 0.11 and 0.13 per day, respectively. These human water-management behaviors are important determinants of Ae. aegypti production during the dry season. This has implications for choosing a suitable Wolbachia strain for release as it appears that prolonged egg desiccation does not occur in this village. PMID:22911683

  8. Household food security in Isfahan based on current population survey adapted questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Rafiei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food security is a state in which all people at every time have physical and economic access to adequate food to obviate nutritional needs and live a healthy and active life. Therefore, this study was performed to quantitatively evaluate the household food security in Esfahan using the localized version of US Household Food Security Survey Module (US HFSSM. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed in year 2006 on 3000 households of Esfahan. The study instrument used in this work is 18-item US food security module, which is developed into a localized 15-item questionnaire. This study is performed in two stages of families with no children (under 18 years old and families with children over 18 years old. Results: The results showed that item severity coefficient, ratio of responses given by households and item infit and outfit coefficient in adult′s and children′s questionnaire respectively. According to obtained data, scale score of +3 in adults group is described as determination limit of slight food insecurity and +6 is stated as the limit for severe food insecurity. For children′s group, scale score of +2 is defined to be the limit of slight food insecurity and +5 is the determination limit of severe food insecurity. Conclusions: The main hypothesis of this survey analysis is based on the raw scale score of USFSSM The item of "lack of enough money for buying food" (item 2 and the item of "lack of balanced meal" (3 rd item have the lowest severity coefficient. Then, the ascending rate of item severity continues in first item, 4 th item and keeps increasing into 10 th item.

  9. Visualising the demographic factors which shape population age structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Wilson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The population pyramid is one of the most popular tools for visualising population age structure. However, it is difficult to discern from the diagram the relative effects of different demographic components on the size of age-specific populations, making it hard to understand exactly how a population's age structure is formed. Objective: The aim of this paper is to introduce a type of population pyramid which shows how births, deaths, and migration have shaped a population's age structure. Methods: Births, deaths, and population data were obtained from the Human Mortality Database and the Australian Bureau of Statistics. A variation on the conventional population pyramid, termed here a components-of-change pyramid, was created. Based on cohort population accounts, it illustrates how births, deaths, and net migration have created the population of each age group. A simple measure which summarises the impact of net migration on age structure is also suggested. Results: Example components-of-change pyramids for several countries and subnational regions are presented, which illustrate how births, deaths, and net migration have fashioned current population age structures. The influence of migration is shown to vary greatly between populations. Conclusions: The new type of pyramid aids interpretation of a population's age structure and helps to understand its demographic history over the last century.

  10. Population, Rural Development, and Land Use Among Settler Households in an Agricultural Frontier in Guatemala’s Maya Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Carr

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Guatemala was among the world’s leaders in deforestation during the 1990s at a rate of 2% per annum. Much of Guatemala’s recent forest loss has occurred in the emerging agricultural frontiers of the Maya Biosphere Reserve (MBR, the heart of the largest contiguous tropical forest in Central America—La Selva Maya. This paper presents data from 241 heads of households and 219 partners of household heads from a geographically stratified sample of eight (of 28 communities in the Sierra de Lacandón National Park (SLNP, the most ecologically biodiverse region in La Selva Maya and a core conservation zone of the MBR. Settler households are examined relative to a host of factors relating land use and land cover change. Specifically, demographic trends, political and socio-economic development, and ecological factors are described in this first detailed statistically-representative sample probing human population and environment interactions in an emerging agricultural frontier in Central America.

  11. Population Aging: An Emerging Research Agenda for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogo Kudo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, population aging has been recognized as an emerging challenge in many parts of the world. Earlier studies discussed its impacts on the sustainability of social security systems and national economic growth; however, they tended to focus on the issues at the national level and were limited to developed countries. With the knowledge that population aging will be a predominant trend in both developed and developing countries, this paper aims to: (i describe the global population aging trend and its regional demography; (ii provide a structural review of population aging challenges at the national, communal and individual levels; and (iii elaborate future research topics on population aging with a particular emphasis on developing countries. Several indicators suggest rapid population aging in the coming decades, especially in Asia, Latin America and Africa. The structural review presents the diverse challenges that affect both young and older population groups. Finally, the need for linking population aging with the sustainable development concept and the possible rural decline caused by rapid urbanization are suggested as future research topics. Further studies to establish a body of knowledge on population aging in developing countries are required to place population aging on the agenda of future sustainable development discussions.

  12. Population Aging and the Generational Economy: A Global ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-10-31

    Oct 31, 2011 ... ... of Global Health and Population, Harvard School of Public Health, USA. ... Over coming decades, changes in population age structure will have ... at international agencies such as the World Bank, the IMF, and the UN.

  13. Population Matters Policy Brief: Preparing foran Aging World

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    The world's population is aging at an accelerated rate. Declining fertility rates combined with steady improvements in life expectancy over the latter half of the 20th century have produced dramatic growth in the world's elderly population...

  14. Population Matters Policy Brief. Preparing for an Aging World

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    The world's population is aging at an accelerated rate. Declining fertility rates combined with steady improvements in life expectancy over the latter half of the 20th century have produced dramatic growth in the world's elderly population...

  15. An Applied General Equilibrium (AGE) analysis of a policy designed to reduce the household consumption of wood in the Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufournaud, C.M.; Quinn, J.T.; Harrington, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Sudan, along with all Sahelian countries, faces urgent environmental problems caused, in part, by the clear-cutting of scrub for firewood. Analyzes the economic consequences of a policy often proposed to reduce the consumption of firewood. Specifically, the authors simulate the policy of introducing more efficient wood burning stoves into households by using an Applied General Equilibrium (AGE) model. The results indicate that the anticipated reduction in the economy-wide demand for wood, based on the increase in the technical efficiency of the stoves, is not fully realized. 23 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  16. Green sea turtle age, growth, population characteristics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Morphology, sex ratio, body condition, disease status, age structure, and growth patterns were characterized for 448 green sea turtles cold stunned in St. Joseph...

  17. Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Allentoft, M. E.; Sikora, M.; Sjogren, K.-G.; Rasmussen, S.; Rasmussen, M.; Stenderup, J.; Damgaard, P. B.; Schroeder, H.; Ahlström, T.; Vinner, L.; Malaspinas, A.-S.; Margaryan, A.; Higham, T.; Chivall, D.; Lynnerup, N.; Harvig, L.; Baron, J.; Della Casa, P.; Dabrowski, P.; Duffy, P. R.; Ebel, A. V.; Epimakhov, A.; Frei, K.; Furmanek, M.; Gralak, T.; Gromov, A.; Gronkiewicz, S.; Grupe, G.; Hajdu, T.; Jarysz, R.; Khartanovich, V.; Khokhlov, A.; Kiss, V.; Kolář, Jan; Kriiska, A.; Lasak, I.; Lonhgi, C.; McGlynn, G.; Merkevicius, A.; Merkyte, I.; Metspalu, M.; Mkrtchyan, R.; Moiseyev, V.; Paja, L.; Pilli, G.; Pokutta, D.; Pospieszny, L.; Price, D.; Saag, L.; Sablin, M.; Shishlina, N.; Smrčka, V.; Soenov, V. I.; Szeverenyi, V.; Tóth, G.; Trifanova, S. V.; Varul, L.; Vicze, M.; Yepiskoposyan, L.; Zhitenev, L.; Orlando, L.; Sicheritz-Ponten, T.; Brunak, S.; Nielsen, R.; Kristiansen, K.; Willerslev, E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 522, č. 7555 (2015), s. 167-172 ISSN 0028-0836 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : genetics * migration * Bronze Age Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 38.138, year: 2015

  18. Household Food Insecurity, Underweight Status, and Associated Characteristics among Women of Reproductive Age Group in Assayita District, Afar Regional State, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdu, Jemal; Kahssay, Molla; Gebremedhin, Merhawi

    2018-01-01

    Poor nutritional status of women has been a serious problem in Ethiopia. Rural women are more likely to be undernourished than urban women. Afar region is the most likely to be undernourished (43.5%). Despite the humanitarian and food aid, food insecurity and maternal underweight are very high in the region. Household food insecurity is not adequately studied in Afar region. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of household food insecurity and underweight status and its association among reproductive age women. The study was conducted in Assayita district in June 2015. Community-based cross-sectional study design was used among nonpregnant women. Household data was collected using structured questionnaire. Multistage cluster sampling procedure was applied. Two pastoral and two agropastoral Kebeles have been selected by simple random sampling. Systematic random sampling was used to select respondents. The total sample size was 549 households. Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) and anthropometric data were used to determine food insecurity and underweight, respectively. Multivariate regression models were used to measure associations. Prevalence of HFIAS was 70.4 with a mean of 7.0 (3.6 ± SD); 26.1%, 30.20%, and 14.1% were mild, moderate, and severe food insecurity, respectively. Underweight prevalence (BMI 2 children below five years of age were statistically associated with household food insecurity and maternal underweight. Household food insecurity and maternal underweight were very high. Age, parity, and having ≥2 children below five years of age were associated with household food insecurity. Maternal underweight was associated with maternal age, marital status, parity, number of children below 5 years, household food insecurity, and vocation of the respondents.

  19. Survival Outlook for Middle-Aged Populations in South Mrica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-10-12

    Oct 12, 1974 ... death at middle-age and beyond, reduces rather than in- creases ... mate longevity of populations may be genetically pro- ...... concluded that 'the characteristic life span of man and .... Ageing: The Biology of Senescence.

  20. Residential energy consumption across different population groups: Comparative analysis for Latino and non-Latino households in U.S.A.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyer, D.A.; Teotia, A.P.S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Henderson, L. [Univ. of Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Residential energy cost, an important part of the household budget, varies significantly across different population groups. In the United States, researchers have conducted many studies of household fuel consumption by fuel type -- electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) -- and by geographic areas. The results of past research have also demonstrated significant variation in residential energy use across various population groups, including white, black, and Latino. However, research shows that residential energy demand by fuel type for Latinos, the fastest-growing population group in the United States, has not been explained by economic and noneconomic factors in any available statistical model. This paper presents a discussion of energy demand and expenditure patterns for Latino and non-Latino households in the United States. The statistical model developed to explain fuel consumption and expenditures for Latino households is based on Stone and Geary`s linear expenditure system model. For comparison, the authors also developed models for energy consumption in non-Latino, black, and nonblack households. These models estimate consumption of and expenditures for electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, and LPG by various households at the national level. The study revealed significant variations in the patterns of fuel consumption for Latinos and non-Latinos. The model methodology and results of this research should be useful to energy policymakers in government and industry, researchers, and academicians who are concerned with economic and energy issues related to various population groups.

  1. Market Participation in the Age of Big Dams: The Belo Monte Hydroelectric Dam and Its Impact on Rural Agrarian Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniseh S. Bro

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available With rapid population growth comes the ever-important task of meeting the energy demand that this growth requires, and many of the world’s tropical regions have turned to hydropower to address the challenges associated with increasing energy consumption. Hydropower is an important energy policy issue in Brazil, and it is promoted as the preferred electricity option, because it is the least expensive in terms of long-term returns on investment; the Belo Monte dam in Northern Brazil provides an opportunity to study the effects of large investments in hydroelectric infrastructure on the surrounding local population. Using a matched panel data spanning 10 years (2005 to 2015, we study the impacts of Brazil’s Belo Monte dam on cocoa and other food crop producers in the region. We find that households have seen a decline in rural employment opportunities, and despite improvements in cocoa productivity households have experienced declining food production. With the construction of the dam largely completed, farmers must now face the challenges of decreased food access and shifts in employment opportunities, and while there are many advantages and opportunities associated with this new development, special policy considerations are necessary to ensure that there are safety nets in place to assist those who will see a decline in access to economic opportunities.

  2. Spatial and temporal changes in household structure locations using high-resolution satellite imagery for population assessment: an analysis in southern Zambia, 2006-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Shields

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Satellite imagery is increasingly available at high spatial resolution and can be used for various purposes in public health research and programme implementation. Comparing a census generated from two satellite images of the same region in rural southern Zambia obtained four and a half years apart identified patterns of household locations and change over time. The length of time that a satellite image-based census is accurate determines its utility. Households were enumerated manually from satellite images obtained in 2006 and 2011 of the same area. Spatial statistics were used to describe clustering, cluster detection, and spatial variation in the location of households. A total of 3821 household locations were enumerated in 2006 and 4256 in 2011, a net change of 435 houses (11.4% increase. Comparison of the images indicated that 971 (25.4% structures were added and 536 (14.0% removed. Further analysis suggested similar household clustering in the two images and no substantial difference in concentration of households across the study area. Cluster detection analysis identified a small area where significantly more household structures were removed than expected; however, the amount of change was of limited practical significance. These findings suggest that random sampling of households for study participation would not induce geographic bias if based on a 4.5-year-old image in this region. Application of spatial statistical methods provides insights into the population distribution changes between two time periods and can be helpful in assessing the accuracy of satellite imagery.

  3. Trends in HIV testing and associated factors among men in South Africa: evidence from 2005, 2008 and 2012 national population-based household surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makusha, T; Mabaso, M; Richter, L; Desmond, C; Jooste, S; Simbayi, L

    2017-02-01

    In Sub-Saharan African countries, including South Africa, uptake of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing among men remains a major challenge. Few studies have explored HIV testing uptake among men and factors that influence their testing behaviours. This article explores trends in HIV testing uptake and associated factors among men aged 15 years and older in South Africa using national HIV population-based household surveys conducted in 2005, 2008 and 2012. A multistage cross-sectional design was used in the three nationally representative household-based surveys. P-trend Chi-squared statistic was used to analyze changes in HIV testing in relation to demographic factors, and HIV-related risk behaviours across the three surveys. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between ever testing for HIV, demographic factors and HIV-related risk behaviours. HIV testing uptake among men was 28% in 2005, 43% in 2008 and 59% in 2012. A trend was also observed in HIV testing by sociodemographic factors, but differences existed within variables. HIV testing uptake was mainly influenced by the effects of selected population characteristics. Reduced likelihood of HIV testing was significantly associated with males aged 15-24 years, Black African race group, being single and unemployed, those residing in urban informal and rural informal areas, and those men who ever had sex. The observed sociodemographic differentials suggest that an effective expansion strategy for HIV testing needs to prioritize those most unlikely to test as identified by the current findings. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Healthy Habits, Happy Homes: randomized trial to improve household routines for obesity prevention among preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Jess; McDonald, Julia; O'Brien, Ashley; Sherry, Bettylou; Bottino, Clement J; Schmidt, Marie Evans; Taveras, Elsie M

    2013-11-01

    Racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities exist across risk factors for childhood obesity. To examine the effectiveness of a home-based intervention to improve household routines known to be associated with childhood obesity among a sample of low-income, racial/ethnic minority families with young children. Randomized trial. The intervention was delivered in the families' homes. The study involved 121 families with children aged 2 to 5 years who had a television (TV) in the room where he or she slept; 111 (92%) had 6-month outcome data (55 intervention and 56 control). The mean (SD) age of the children was 4.0 (1.1) years; 45% were overweight/obese. Fifty-two percent of the children were Hispanic, 34% were black, and 14% were white/other. Nearly 60% of the families had household incomes of $20,000 or less. The 6-month intervention promoted 4 household routines, family meals, adequate sleep, limiting TV time, and removing the TV from the child's bedroom, using (1) motivational coaching at home and by phone, (2) mailed educational materials, and (3) text messages. Control subjects were mailed materials focused on child development. Change in parent report of frequency of family meals (times/wk), child sleep duration (hours/d), child weekday and weekend day TV viewing (hours/d), and the presence of a TV in the room where the child slept from baseline to 6 months. A secondary outcome was change in age- and sex-adjusted body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared). Compared with control subjects, intervention participants had increased sleep duration (0.75 hours/d; 95% CI, 0.06 to 1.44; P = .03), greater decreases in TV viewing on weekend days (-1.06 hours/d; 95% CI, -1.97 to -0.15; P = .02), and decreased body mass index (-0.40; 95% CI, -0.79 to 0.00; P = .05). No significant intervention effect was found for the presence of a TV in the room where the child slept or family meal frequency. Our results suggest that promoting

  5. Why Does Population Aging Matter So Much for Asia? Population Aging, Economic Growth, and Economic Security in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sang-Hyop; Mason, Andrew; Park, Donghyun

    2011-01-01

    Asia as a whole is experiencing a rapid demographic transition toward older populations, though different countries are at different stages of this region- wide trend. We document Asia's aging population, describe the region's old-age support systems, and highlight the regional socioeconomic implications of the transition for those support systems. Aging populations present two fundamental challenges to Asian policymakers: (1) developing socioeconomic systems that can provide economic securit...

  6. Population Aging and the Generational Economy

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Finance, School of Business, Monash University Sunway Campus, Malaysia. ..... Governments tax prime-age adults to provide schooling to children, pensions to .... We describe the principles and methods of constructing estimates of public ...... distributions challenge the continuity of transfer practices by stressing some ...

  7. Household food insecurity and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeer, Kammi K; Piperata, Barbara A

    2017-04-01

    Food insecurity, the lack of consistent access to sufficient quality and quantity of food, affects an estimated 800 million people around the world. Although household food insecurity is generally associated with poor child nutrition and health in the USA, we know less about household food insecurity and child health in developing countries. Particularly lacking is research assessing how associations between household food insecurity and children's health outcomes may differ by child age and among children beyond age 5 years in low-income settings. We use data from a population-based sample of households with children ages 3-11 years (N = 431) in León, Nicaragua to consider how household food insecurity is associated with three measures of child health: illness, anaemia and low height-for-age. Our results provide new evidence that even mild household food insecurity is detrimental to children's health; and that child age conditions the associations between household food insecurity and child health. We find that food insecurity is especially harmful to health during early childhood, but continues to have significant associations with health into middle childhood (up to ages 7-8 years). We discuss the potential implications of these results for future child health research and policies in low-income countries. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. China: Awakening Giant Developing Solutions to Population Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning Jackie; Guo, Man; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2012-01-01

    As the world's most populous country with the largest aging population and a rapidly growing economy, China is receiving increased attention from both the Chinese government and the governments of other countries that face low fertility and aging problems. This unprecedented shift of demographic structure has repercussions for many aspects of…

  9. 11 CFR 110.18 - Voting age population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voting age population. 110.18 Section 110.18 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL CONTRIBUTION AND EXPENDITURE LIMITATIONS AND... population of the United States, of each State, and of each Congressional district. The term voting age...

  10. A household survey to assess community knowledge, attitude and practices on malaria in a rural population of Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Kumar Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An extensive search on PubMed reveals very little in terms of evidence regarding the current knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP of the population in general and rural population, in particular, in this part of the country. Therefore, a study was conducted with the aim to assess the communities′ knowledge of malaria transmission, recognition of signs and symptoms, treatment seeking. Materials and Methods: A stratified two-stage design was used to conduct a house-to-house survey using a semi-structured questionnaire in RS Pura block of Jammu District of Jammu and Kashmir State in North India. Results: A total of 300 households were included in the study. However, data on 4 households was found to be incomplete at the time of analysis and, therefore, were excluded. Out of 296 study participants interviewed 65.5% were males, while 34.5% females. All of the study participants (100% had heard of malaria, and the main source of their information was television/newspaper. 92.5% of the study population considered malaria to be a serious health problem, thus reflecting their attitude to the disease. Regarding practices, 71.6% of the study participants preferred going to doctors at government hospitals for malaria treatment, and 56% were willing to seek medical help in <24 h in case of a child has a febrile episode. Conclusions: Results revealed that KAP among respondents were reasonably good and key sociocultural, and related indicators need to be identified as a part of malaria elimination strategy.

  11. Relative household wealth and non-fatal road crashes: analysis of population-representative data of Kenyan adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, John D

    2018-05-18

    This study aims to examine potential road crash disparities across relative wealth and location of residence in Kenya by analyzing population-representative Demographic and Health Survey data. Relative wealth was measured by household assets, converted into an index by polychoric principal components analysis. Location and sex-stratified associations between wealth quantiles and crashes were flexibly estimated using fractional polynomial models. Structural equation models were fit to examine whether observed differences may operate through previously identified determinants. In rural areas, crashes were least common for both the poorest men (-5.2 percentage points, 95% CI: -7.3 to -3.2) and women (-1.6 percentage points, 95% CI: -2.9 to -0.4). In urban areas, male crashes were lowest (-3.0 percentage points, 95% CI: -5.2 to -0.8) among the wealthiest, while they peaked in the middle of the female wealth distribution (2.0 percentage points, 95% CI: 0.3-3.8). Male differences operate partially though occupational driving and vehicle ownership. Urban female differences operate partially through household vehicle ownership, but differences for rural women were not explained by modeled determinants. Relative wealth and road crash have opposite associations in rural and urban areas. Especially in rural areas, it is important to mitigate potential unintended effects of economic development.

  12. Econometric model for age- and population-dependent radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandquist, G.M.; Slaughter, D.M.; Rogers, V.C.

    1991-01-01

    The economic impact associated with ionizing radiation exposures in a given human population depends on numerous factors including the individual's mean economic status as a function age, the age distribution of the population, the future life expectancy at each age, and the latency period for the occurrence of radiation-induced health effects. A simple mathematical model has been developed that provides an analytical methodology for estimating the societal econometrics associated with radiation effects are to be assessed and compared for economic evaluation

  13. On Constructing Ageing Rural Populations: "Capturing" the Grey Nomad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    The world's population is ageing, with forecasts predicting this ageing is likely to be particularly severe in the rural areas of more developed countries. These forecasts are developed from nationally aggregated census and survey data and assume spatial homogeneity in ageing. They also draw on narrow understandings of older people and construct…

  14. The development of old age human resource under the background of population ageing in china

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Xin; Xu, Jian-pei

    2007-01-01

    China is the country that has the most population in quantity of the world. Rapidly growing population has brought about enormous pressure on the social and economic development. Thus population control is always one of the population policies focuses in our country. However, China has not succeed in escaping out from the pressure of population control, another challenge-population ageing is coming. This challenge also can bring the great impact on the whole social and economic development. M...

  15. Devastating epidemics in recent ages Greek populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsiou, Antonia; Michalaki, Vasiliki; Anagnostopoulou, Helen N

    2017-12-01

    In the recent Greek ages the most devastating epidemics were plague, smallpox, leprosy and cholera. In 1816 plague struck the Ionian and Aegean Islands, mainland Greece, Constantinople and Smyrna. The Venetians ruling the Ionian Islands effectively combated plague in contrast to the Ottomans ruling all other regions. In 1922, plague appeared in Patras refugees who were expelled by the Turks from Smyrna and Asia Minor. Inoculation against smallpox was first performed in Thessaly by the Greek women, and the Greek doctors Emmanouel Timonis (1713, Oxford) and Jakovos Pylarinos (1715, Venice) made relevant scientific publications. The first leper colony opened in Chios Island. In Crete, Spinalonga was transformed into a leper island, which following the Independence War against Turkish occupation and the unification of Crete with Greece in 1913, was classified as an International Leper Hospital. Cholera struck Greece in 1853-1854 brought by the French troops during the Crimean War, and again during the Balkan Wars (1912-13) when the Bulgarian troops brought cholera to northern Greece. Due to successive wars, medical assistance was not always available, so desperate people turned many times to religion through processions in honor of local saints, for their salvation in epidemics.

  16. AGEING POPULATION: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS AMONG EUROPEAN UNION STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura DIACONU (MAXIM

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aging population is a global phenomenon, which has affected almost all the EU states. The consequences are very important since it affects the socio-economic environment usually on the long run. Some of them could consist in increasing the public expenditure on pensions, social security and health services, which will raise the overall burden on the working population. Sometimes, a significant reduction of the labour force will even diminish the growth rate of an economy. Considering these aspects, the present paper intends to analyse the demographic situation from the EU states, the factors that have generated it and to identify the possible future trends. To determine the evolution of the ageing population phenomenon, we have analysed some demographic indicators included in various statistical reports and databases, such as the fertility rate, the median age, the percentage of population over a certain age and the age dependency ratio.

  17. Are low-to-middle-income households experiencing food insecurity in Victoria, Australia? An examination of the Victorian Population Health Survey, 2006-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleve, Sue; Davidson, Zoe E; Gearon, Emma; Booth, Sue; Palermo, Claire

    2017-07-01

    Food insecurity affects health and wellbeing. Little is known about the relationship between food insecurity across income levels. This study aims to investigate the prevalence and frequency of food insecurity in low-to-middle-income Victorian households over time and identify factors associated with food insecurity in these households. Prevalence and frequency of food insecurity was analysed across household income levels using data from the cross-sectional 2006-09 Victorian Population Health Surveys (VPHS). Respondents were categorised as food insecure, if in the last 12 months they had run out of food and were unable to afford to buy more. Multivariable logistic regression was used to describe factors associated with food insecurity in low-to-middle-income households (A$40000-$80000 in 2008). Between 4.9 and 5.5% for total survey populations and 3.9-4.8% in low-to-middle-income respondents were food insecure. Food insecurity was associated with limited help from friends, home ownership status, inability to raise money in an emergency and cost of some foods. Food insecurity exists in households beyond those on a very low income. Understanding the extent and implications of household food insecurity across all income groups in Australia will inform effective and appropriate public health responses.

  18. Age structure of the population in Belgium and social security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooghe, G

    1991-01-01

    The effects of demographic aging and of various socioeconomic factors on the social security system in Belgium are explored. "Special attention is given to the impact of the ageing of the population on the pension problem. Based on a simple formula a series of percentages of taxation have been calculated as a function of shifts in the proportion of retired vs. active population and in the proportion of the average income vs. the average amount of pension. One of the conclusions is that the progressive ageing of the population will become the most significant factor in the growth of social expenditures." excerpt

  19. On random age and remaining lifetime for populations of items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finkelstein, M.; Vaupel, J.

    2015-01-01

    We consider items that are incepted into operation having already a random (initial) age and define the corresponding remaining lifetime. We show that these lifetimes are identically distributed when the age distribution is equal to the equilibrium distribution of the renewal theory. Then we...... develop the population studies approach to the problem and generalize the setting in terms of stationary and stable populations of items. We obtain new stochastic comparisons for the corresponding population ages and remaining lifetimes that can be useful in applications. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley...

  20. Assessing the Consistency and Microbiological Effectiveness of Household Water Treatment Practices by Urban and Rural Populations Claiming to Treat Their Water at Home: A Case Study in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Ghislaine; Huaylinos, Maria L.; Gil, Ana; Lanata, Claudio; Clasen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background Household water treatment (HWT) can improve drinking water quality and prevent disease if used correctly and consistently by vulnerable populations. Over 1.1 billion people report treating their water prior to drinking it. These estimates, however, are based on responses to household surveys that may exaggerate the consistency and microbiological performance of the practice—key factors for reducing pathogen exposure and achieving health benefits. The objective of this study was to examine how HWT practices are actually performed by households identified as HWT users, according to international monitoring standards. Methods and Findings We conducted a 6-month case study in urban (n = 117 households) and rural (n = 115 households) Peru, a country in which 82.8% of households report treating their water at home. We used direct observation, in-depth interviews, surveys, spot-checks, and water sampling to assess water treatment practices among households that claimed to treat their drinking water at home. While consistency of reported practices was high in both urban (94.8%) and rural (85.3%) settings, availability of treated water (based on self-report) at time of collection was low, with 67.1% and 23.0% of urban and rural households having treated water at all three sampling visits. Self-reported consumption of untreated water in the home among adults and children water of self-reported users was significantly better than source water in the urban setting and negligible but significantly better in the rural setting. However, only 46.3% and 31.6% of households had drinking water water quality. The lack of consistency and sub-optimal microbiological effectiveness also raises questions about the potential of HWT to prevent waterborne diseases. PMID:25522371

  1. An age structured model for obesity prevalence dynamics in populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto González Parra

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Modeling the correlation of the development of obesity in a population with age and time and predict the dynamics of the correlation of the development of obesity in a population with age and time under different scenarios in Valencia (Spain. Materials and methods. An age structured mathematical model is used to describe the future dynamics of obesity prevalence for different ages in human population with excess weight. Simulation of the model with parameters estimated using the Health Survey of the Region of Valencia 2000 (4.319 interviews and Health Survey of the Region of Valencia 2005 (4.012 interviews. The model considers only overweight and obese populations since these subpopulations are the most relevant on obesity health concern. Results. The model allows predicting and studying the prevalence of obesity for each age. Results showed an increasing trend of obesity in the following years in well accordance with the trend observed in several countries. Conclusions. Based on the numerical simulations it is possible to conclude that the age structured mathematical model is suitable to forecast the obesity epidemic in each age group in different countries. Additionally, this type of models may be applied to study other characteristics of other populations such animal populations.

  2. Determinants of stunting and severe stunting among Burundian children aged 6-23 months: evidence from a national cross-sectional household survey, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkurunziza, Sandra; Meessen, Bruno; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Korachais, Catherine

    2017-07-25

    Burundi is one of the poorest countries and is among the four countries with the highest prevalence of stunting (58%) among children aged less than 5 years. This situation undermines the economic growth of the country as undernutrition is strongly associated with less schooling and reduced economic productivity. Identifying the determinants of stunting and severe stunting may help policy-makers to direct the limited Burundian resources to the most vulnerable segments of the population, and thus make it more cost effective. This study aimed to identify predictors of stunting and severe stunting among children aged less than two years in Burundi. The sample is made up of 6199 children aged 6 to 23 months with complete anthropometric measurements from the baseline survey of an impact evaluation study of the Performance-Based financing (PBF) scheme applied to nutrition services in Burundi from 2015 to 2017. Binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine stunting and severe stunting against a set of child, parental and household variables such as child's age or breastfeeding pattern, mother's age or knowledge of malnutrition, household size or socio-economic status. The prevalence of stunting and severe stunting were 53% [95%CI: 51.8-54.3] and 20.9% [95%CI: 19.9-22.0] respectively. Compared to children from 6-11 months, children of 12-17 months and 18-23 months had a higher risk of stunting (AdjOR:2.1; 95% CI: 1.8-2.4 and 3.2; 95% CI: 2.8-3.7). Other predictors for stunting were small babies (AdjOR=1.5; 95% CI: 1.3-1.7 for medium-size babies at birth and AdjOR=2.9; 95% CI: 2.4-3.6 for small-size babies at birth) and male children (AdjOR=1.5, 95% CI: 1.4-1.8). In addition, having no education for mothers (AdjOR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.2-2.1), incorrect mothers' child nutrition status assessment (AdjOR=3.3; 95% CI: 2.8-4), delivering at home (AdjOR=1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.6) were found to be predictors for stunting. More than to 2 under five children in the

  3. Age structure changes and extraordinary lifespan in wild medfly populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, James R; Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Müller, Hans-Georg; Katsoyannos, Byron I; Kouloussis, Nikos A; Wang, Jane-Ling; Wachter, Kenneth; Yu, Wei; Liedo, Pablo

    2008-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that major changes in age structure occur in wild populations of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) and that a substantial fraction of individuals survive to middle age and beyond (> 3-4 weeks). We thus brought reference life tables and deconvolution models to bear on medfly mortality data gathered from a 3-year study of field-captured individuals that were monitored in the laboratory. The average time-to-death of captured females differed between sampling dates by 23.9, 22.7, and 37.0 days in the 2003, 2004, and 2005 field seasons, respectively. These shifts in average times-to-death provided evidence of changes in population age structure. Estimates indicated that middle-aged medflies (> 30 days) were common in the population. A surprise in the study was the extraordinary longevity observed in field-captured medflies. For example, 19 captured females but no reference females survived in the laboratory for 140 days or more, and 6 captured but no reference males survived in the laboratory for 170 days or more. This paper advances the study of aging in the wild by introducing a new method for estimating age structure in insect populations, demonstrating that major changes in age structure occur in field populations of insects, showing that middle-aged individuals are common in the wild, and revealing the extraordinary lifespans of wild-caught individuals due to their early life experience in the field.

  4. Modeling the brain morphology distribution in the general aging population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, W.; Poot, D. H. J.; Roshchupkin, G.; Bron, E. E.; Ikram, M. A.; Vernooij, M. W.; Rueckert, D.; Niessen, W. J.; Klein, S.

    2016-03-01

    Both normal aging and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease cause morphological changes of the brain. To better distinguish between normal and abnormal cases, it is necessary to model changes in brain morphology owing to normal aging. To this end, we developed a method for analyzing and visualizing these changes for the entire brain morphology distribution in the general aging population. The method is applied to 1000 subjects from a large population imaging study in the elderly, from which 900 were used to train the model and 100 were used for testing. The results of the 100 test subjects show that the model generalizes to subjects outside the model population. Smooth percentile curves showing the brain morphology changes as a function of age and spatiotemporal atlases derived from the model population are publicly available via an interactive web application at agingbrain.bigr.nl.

  5. School Age Populations Research Needs - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawing conclusions about the validity of available dietary assessment instruments in school age children is hampered by the differences in instruments, research design, reference methods, and populations in the validation literature.

  6. Automated Determination of Bone Age in a Modern Chinese Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shao-Yan; Liu, Gang; Ma, Chen-Guo; Han, Yi-San; Shen, Xun-Zhang; Xu, Rui-Long; Thodberg, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Rationale and Objective. Large studies have previously been performed to set up a Chinese bone age reference, but it has been difficult to compare the maturation of Chinese children with populations elsewhere due to the potential variability between raters in different parts of the world. We re-analysed the radiographs from a large study of normal Chinese children using an automated bone age rating method to establish a Chinese bone age reference, and to compare the tempo of maturation in the Chinese with other populations. Materials and Methods. X-rays from 2883 boys and 3143 girls aged 2–20 years from five Chinese cities, taken in 2005, were evaluated using the BoneXpert automated method. Results. Chinese children reached full maturity at the same age as previously studied Asian children from Los Angeles, but 0.6 years earlier than Caucasian children in Los Angeles. The Greulich-Pyle bone age method was adapted to the Chinese population creating a new bone age scale BX-China05. The standard deviation between BX-China05 and chronologic age was 1.01 years in boys aged 8–14, and 1.08 years in girls aged 7–12. Conclusion. By eliminating rater variability, the automated method provides a reliable and efficient standard for bone age determination in China

  7. Regional Impact of Population Aging on Changes in Individual Self-perceptions of Aging: Findings From the German Ageing Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Julia K; Beyer, Ann-Kristin; Wurm, Susanne; Nowossadeck, Sonja; Wiest, Maja

    2018-01-18

    The importance of self-perceptions of aging (SPA) for health and longevity is well documented. Comparably little is known about factors that contribute to SPA. Besides individual factors, the context a person lives in may shape SPA. Research has so far focused on country-level differences in age stereotypes, indicating that rapid population aging accompanies more negative age stereotypes. The present study expands previous research by investigating the impact of district-specific population aging within one country on different facets of SPA. Based on a large representative survey in Germany, the study investigates changes in SPA as ongoing development as well as the SPA of physical loss over a 12-year period in adults aged 40+. The study uses several indicators of population aging (e.g., population development, average age, greying index), to identify four clusters differing in their pace of population aging. Based on three-level latent change models, these clusters were compared in their impact on changes in SPA. Compared to districts with an average rate of population aging, the study shows that persons living in regions with a fast population aging rate (C1) hold more negative SPA in both facets (ps = .01). Districts with slow population aging (C2) have significantly higher SPA ongoing development (p = .03). The study underlines the importance for regional differences in population aging on the development of SPA. In particular, societies should be aware that fast population aging may result in more negative SPA. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae in households with children of preschool age: prevalence, risk factors and co-carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bunt, G; Liakopoulos, A; Mevius, D J; Geurts, Y; Fluit, A C; Bonten, M J M; Mughini-Gras, L; van Pelt, W

    2017-02-01

    ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae are an emerging public health concern. As households with preschool children may substantially contribute to the community burden of antimicrobial resistance, we determined the prevalence, risk factors and co-carriage of ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria in preschool children and their parents. From April 2013 to January 2015, each month 2000 preschool children were randomly selected from Dutch population registries. The parents were invited to complete an epidemiological questionnaire and to obtain and send a faecal sample from the selected child and from one parent. Samples were tested for ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for ESBL/AmpC carriage in children and parents, and findings were internally validated by bootstrapping. In total, 1016 families were included and ESBL/AmpC prevalence was 4.0% (95% CI 3.2%-5.0%); 3.5% (95% CI 2.5%-4.8%) in children and 4.5% (95% CI 3.4%-6.0%) in parents. Attending a daycare centre (DCC) was the only significant risk factor for children (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.0-4.3). For parents, the only significant risk factor was having one or more children attending DCCs (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.8). For parents of ESBL/AmpC-positive children the OR for ESBL/AmpC carriage was 19.7 (95% CI 9.2-42.4). Co-carriage of specific ESBL/AmpC genotypes in child and parent occurred more often than expected by chance (14.6% versus 1.1%, P < 0.001). In this study, intestinal carriage with ESBL/AmpCs was detected in ∼4% of households with preschool children. DCC attendance was a risk factor in both children and parents and co-carriage of specific genotypes frequently occurred in child-parent pairs. These findings suggest household transmission or/and family-specific exposure to common sources of ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For

  9. The impact of comorbidity of mental and physical conditions on role disability in the US adult household population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merikangas, Kathleen R; Ames, Minnie; Cui, Lihong; Stang, Paul E; Ustun, T Bedirhan; Von Korff, Michael; Kessler, Ronald C

    2007-10-01

    There is limited information that accounts for comorbidity on the impact of role disability associated with a wide range of mental and physical disorders in population-based samples. To estimate the comparative effects of common mental and physical conditions on role disability in the general population using a novel method that accounts for comorbidity. Direct interviews about physical and mental conditions during the past year. The National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative series of face-to-face interviews. A nationally representative sample of adults living in households (N = 5962 respondents, 18 years and older). Disability in major life roles was assessed with the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule. Simulations that allow for complex interactions among conditions were used to estimate the conditions' effects on disability days, when respondents were completely unable to carry out their usual daily activities because of problems with mental or physical health, in the past 12 months. An estimated 53.4% of US adults have 1 or more of the mental or physical conditions assessed in the survey. These respondents report an average 32.1 more role-disability days in the past year than demographically matched controls, equivalent to nearly 3.6 billion days of role disability in the population. Musculoskeletal disorders and major depression had the greatest effects on disability days. Mental conditions accounted for more than half as many disability days as all physical conditions at the population level. Associations of specific conditions with disability decreased substantially after controlling for comorbidity, suggesting that prior studies, which generally did not control for comorbidity, overestimated disease-specific effects. The staggering amount of health-related disability associated with mental and physical conditions should be considered in establishing priorities for the allocation of health care and research

  10. Household air pollution from wood burning in two reconstructed houses from the Danish Viking Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J M; Ryhl-Svendsen, M

    2015-06-01

    During 13 winter weeks, an experimental archeology project was undertaken in two Danish reconstructed Viking Age houses with indoor open fireplaces. Volunteers inhabited the houses under living conditions similar to those of the Viking Age, including cooking and heating by wood fire. Carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM2.5 ) were measured at varying distances to the fireplace. Near the fireplaces CO (mean) was 16 ppm. PM2.5 (mean) was 3.40 mg/m(3) , however, measured in one house only. The CO:PM mass ratio was found to increase from 6.4 to 22 when increasing the distance to the fire. Two persons carried CO sensors. Average personal exposure was 6.9 ppm, and from this, a personal PM2.5 exposure of 0.41 mg/m(3) was estimated. The levels found here were higher than reported from modern studies conducted in dwellings using biomass for cooking and heating. While this may be due to the Viking house design, the volunteer's lack of training in attending a fire maybe also played a role. Even so, when comparing to today's issues arising from the use of open fires, it must be assumed that also during the Viking Age, the exposure to woodsmoke was a contributing factor to health problems. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Measuring the Speed of Aging across Population Subgroups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    People in different subgroups age at different rates. Surveys containing biomarkers can be used to assess these subgroup differences. We illustrate this using hand-grip strength to produce an easily interpretable, physical-based measure that allows us to compare characteristic-based ages across educational subgroups in the United States. Hand-grip strength has been shown to be a good predictor of future mortality and morbidity, and therefore a useful indicator of population aging. Data from the Health and Retirement Survey (HRS) were used. Two education subgroups were distinguished, those with less than a high school diploma and those with more education. Regressions on hand-grip strength were run for each sex and race using age and education, their interactions and other covariates as independent variables. Ages of identical mean hand-grip strength across education groups were compared for people in the age range 60 to 80. The hand-grip strength of 65 year old white males with less education was the equivalent to that of 69.6 (68.2, 70.9) year old white men with more education, indicating that the more educated men had aged more slowly. This is a constant characteristic age, as defined in the Sanderson and Scherbov article “The characteristics approach to the measurement of population aging” published 2013 in Population and Development Review. Sixty-five year old white females with less education had the same average hand-grip strength as 69.4 (68.2, 70.7) year old white women with more education. African-American women at ages 60 and 65 with more education also aged more slowly than their less educated counterparts. African American men with more education aged at about the same rate as those with less education. This paper expands the toolkit of those interested in population aging by showing how survey data can be used to measure the differential extent of aging across subpopulations. PMID:24806337

  12. Spirometry reference equations for central European populations from school age to old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Mascha K; Laubender, Ruediger P; Kuster, Daniela; Braendli, Otto; Moeller, Alexander; Mansmann, Ulrich; von Mutius, Erika; Wildhaber, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Spirometry reference values are important for the interpretation of spirometry results. Reference values should be updated regularly, derived from a population as similar to the population for which they are to be used and span across all ages. Such spirometry reference equations are currently lacking for central European populations. To develop spirometry reference equations for central European populations between 8 and 90 years of age. We used data collected between January 1993 and December 2010 from a central European population. The data was modelled using "Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape" (GAMLSS). The spirometry reference equations were derived from 118'891 individuals consisting of 60'624 (51%) females and 58'267 (49%) males. Altogether, there were 18'211 (15.3%) children under the age of 18 years. We developed spirometry reference equations for a central European population between 8 and 90 years of age that can be implemented in a wide range of clinical settings.

  13. Population ageing and intergenerational conflict: a post-Keynesian view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, W A

    1992-01-01

    The author reexamines the relationships among demographic aging, the dependency burden, and intergenerational conflict from a post-Keynesian perspective, in which unemployment and excess capacity are normal to the functioning of capitalist economies, and resources are not generally fully utilized. He "argues that the Keynesian process of national income determination precludes any immediate relationship between population ageing and the 'burden' imposed on income recipients. Below full employment, a rising dependency ratio is not guaranteed to reduce the expenditure share of income recipients or raise their tax rates. An exclusive emphasis on intergenerational conflict can give a misleading impression of the consequences of population ageing." The focus is on developed countries. excerpt

  14. An age-structured population balance model for microbial dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte M.V.E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an age-structured population balance model (ASPBM for a bioprocess in a continuous stirred-tank fermentor. It relates the macroscopic properties and dynamic behavior of biomass to the operational parameters and microscopic properties of cells. Population dynamics is governed by two time- and age-dependent density functions for living and dead cells, accounting for the influence of substrate and dissolved oxygen concentrations on cell division, aging and death processes. The ASPBM described biomass and substrate oscillations in aerobic continuous cultures as experimentally observed. It is noteworthy that a small data set consisting of nonsegregated measurements was sufficient to adjust a complex segregated mathematical model.

  15. How well do antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees represent the general population? A comparison of HIV prevalence from ANC sentinel surveillance sites with a population-based survey of women aged 15-49 in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saphonn, Vonthanak; Hor, Leng Bun; Ly, Sun Penh; Chhuon, Samrith; Saidel, Tobi; Detels, Roger

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether HIV-1 prevalence among antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees in Cambodia provided a reasonable estimate of HIV-1 prevalence among all women 15-49 years. METHODS Antenatal clinic attendees in five HIV sentinel surveillance sites (five provinces) were selected by consecutive sampling (n = 1695). The population survey of females by household was carried out in the same five areas. Household females aged 15-49 years were selected using a three-stage cluster sampling design (n = 3066). Serum-based HIV ELISA testing was done for both ANC attendees and household females. The HIV prevalence for ANC attendees and household females were compared by age group and urban versus rural location. The overall prevalence of HIV-1 infection among ANC attendees (1.62%, 95% CI : 1.26-1.98) was similar to the overall prevalence obtained from the general population of household females (1.24%, 95% CI : 0.92-1.55) in the same catchment areas in Cambodia. In the rural areas, the overall HIV prevalence among ANC attendees (2.18%, 95% CI : 1.59-2.77) was significantly higher than among the household females (0.86%, 95% CI : 0.49-1.23) after adjustment for age distribution and education level. In the 15-24 age group in rural areas, the HIV prevalence of ANC women was 2.71% (95% CI : 0.96-4.46) compared with 0.77% (95% CI : 0.02-1.53) in household females. Although ANC data can be used to estimate trends over time, it should be realized that ANC data may overestimate the actual prevalence in the younger age group in rural areas in Cambodia.

  16. Macroeconomic implications of population ageing and selected policy responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, David E; Chatterji, Somnath; Kowal, Paul; Lloyd-Sherlock, Peter; McKee, Martin; Rechel, Bernd; Rosenberg, Larry; Smith, James P

    2015-02-14

    Between now and 2030, every country will experience population ageing-a trend that is both pronounced and historically unprecedented. Over the past six decades, countries of the world had experienced only a slight increase in the share of people aged 60 years and older, from 8% to 10%. But in the next four decades, this group is expected to rise to 22% of the total population-a jump from 800 million to 2 billion people. Evidence suggests that cohorts entering older age now are healthier than previous ones. However, progress has been very uneven, as indicated by the wide gaps in population health (measured by life expectancy) between the worst (Sierra Leone) and best (Japan) performing countries, now standing at a difference of 36 years for life expectancy at birth and 15 years for life expectancy at age 60 years. Population ageing poses challenges for countries' economies, and the health of older populations is of concern. Older people have greater health and long-term care needs than younger people, leading to increased expenditure. They are also less likely to work if they are unhealthy, and could impose an economic burden on families and society. Like everyone else, older people need both physical and economic security, but the burden of providing these securities will be falling on a smaller portion of the population. Pension systems will be stressed and will need reassessment along with retirement policies. Health systems, which have not in the past been oriented toward the myriad health problems and long-term care needs of older people and have not sufficiently emphasised disease prevention, can respond in different ways to the new demographic reality and the associated changes in population health. Along with behavioural adaptations by individuals and businesses, the nature of such policy responses will establish whether population ageing will lead to major macroeconomic difficulties. Copyright © 2015 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  17. Impact of Population Aging on Military and Security Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Šimková

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Population ageing is among the most important problems of developed European countries and the most frequently discussed social issues. The Czech Republic also faces population ageing and we cannot expect a different trend in the future. Life expectancy has increased due to better health care while current lifestyle often leads to lower natality, resulting in a negative rate of natural increase and a decreasing proportion of young people in population in the future. This problem affects all spheres of life and social and economic development. Population ageing may pose a threat to the security of the population in different ways. The functioning of the security system may be threatened due to decreasing workforce. Population ageing may undercut resources for military budgets. Young recruits represent an important part of military forces and the latter are competing in the labour market with more attractive occupations. Especially ensuring the stability of the personnel needed for securing crisis situations would be a significant problem of near future. This paper presents a demographic perspective on staffing and correct operation of military forces in the context of population ageing. It describes the current situation of human resources in the military policy of the Czech Republic and determines the negative impact of population ageing on recruitment potential. It deals with the sustainability of human resources for security forces.

  18. Aging in Mexico: Population Trends and Emerging Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, William; López-Ortega, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Although all nations in the America’s face a common demographic reality of longevity, declining fertility rates and changes in family roles a growing body of research points to a dramatic demographic transformation in Mexico. Although Mexico’s population is relatively young, with a median age of 27.9 in 2015, it will age rapidly in coming years, increasing to 42 years by 2050. The rapid median age in the nation also reflects the growing proportion of people 65 or older, and is expected to triple to 20.2% by 2050. This article examines how the age and gender structure of Mexico offers important insights about current and future political and social stability, as well as economic development. Mexico is the world’s eleventh largest country in terms of population size and the “demographic dividend” of a large youthful population is giving way to a growing older population that will inevitably place demands on health care and social security. The shift in age structure will result in increased dependency of retirees on the working-age population in the next 20 years. Mexico does not provide universal coverage of social security benefits and less than half of the labor force is covered by any pension or retirement plan. As a result, elderly Mexicans often continue working into old age. The high total poverty rate in the country, especially among the older population magnifies the problem of the potential dependency burden. The article ends with a discussion of key public policy issues related to aging in Mexico. PMID:27927730

  19. The associations of household wealth and income with self-rated health--a study on economic advantage in middle-aged Finnish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aittomäki, Akseli; Martikainen, Pekka; Laaksonen, Mikko; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2010-09-01

    The economic resources available to an individual or a household have been hypothesised to affect health through the direct material effects of living conditions as well as through social comparison and experiences of deprivation. The focus so far has been mainly on current individual or household income, and there is a lack of studies on wealth, a potentially relevant part of household resources. We studied the associations of household wealth and household income with self-rated health, and addressed some theoretical issues related to economic advantage and health. The data were from questionnaire survey of Finnish men and women aged from 45 to 67 years, who were employed by the City of Helsinki from five to seven years before the collection of the data in 2007. We found household wealth to have a strong and consistent association with self-rated health, poor health decreasing with increasing wealth. The relationship was only partly attributable to the association of wealth with employment status, household income, work conditions and health-related behaviour. In contrast, the association of household income with self-rated health was greatly attenuated by taking into account employment status and wealth, and even further attenuated by work conditions. The results suggested a significant contribution of wealth differentials to differences in health status. The insufficiency of current income as the only measure of material welfare was demonstrated. Conditions associated with long-term accumulation of material welfare may be a significant aspect of the causal processes that lead to socioeconomic inequalities in ill health. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The impact of population ageing on future Danish drug expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach

    expenditure among the elderly partly is due the high "costs of dying". Aims The aim of this study was to estimate the impact of the ageing Danish population on future total expenditures on out-of-hospital prescription drugs and to describe the association between age and drug expenditure among survivors......Background Population ageing is likely to place an increasing burden on future health care budgets. Several studies have demonstrated that the impact of ageing on future hospital expenditures will be overestimated when not accounting for proximity to death. This is because greater health care...... compared to that of decedents. Methods Taking expenditure during the last year of life and the changes in mortality rates into account, future drug expenditure was projected by multiplying estimated mean annual drug expenditure according to age, gender and survival status by the predicted future number...

  1. Effect of Physical Activity and Obesity on Type 2 Diabetes in a Middle-Aged Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    Background. The physical activity has been associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of physical activities such as occupational, household and daily lifestyle activities and obesity on the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged population. Methods. All people (n = 2053), aged 45-64 years were selected for this study from the large sample of population-based cross-sectional data collected in the 1990-1994 by National Health Survey of Pakistan. The participants completed in-person interviews at baseline; the overall response rate was 92.6%. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the risk of developing the type 2 diabetes. Results. Stair climbing was found to be inversely associated with the risk of diabetes and cycling was also associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes (RR=0.82; 95% CI 0.68 1.00, P=.048). The relationship between physical activity and reduced risk of diabetes adjusted for age and body mass index was statistically significant only in women (P<.01). Conclusions. This study provides an incentive that physical activity in leisure-time exercise or daily activity reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes in a high-risk population.

  2. Implications of an ageing population in the Asian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyono, H

    1999-12-01

    Population aging is the increasing number and proportion of old persons aged 60 years and above in the developing countries and 65 years and above in the developed countries that exceeds 10% of the total population. In Asia, the last decade of the 20th century is marked by significant changes in the age structure due to the process of population aging. The implications of this aging population on the life of Asian countries has to be addressed since demographically the current situation is changing rapidly and there lie the future challenges that have to be answered. Due to the growing size of the elderly population, Asia will need better plans to prevent these elderly groups from turning into the socioeconomically vulnerable group of society. However, many governments are not prepared with effective policies, programs, and services that are particularly designed to care for the elderly. The provision of infrastructure and services, including education, employment, health and housing are necessary steps that need to be taken. Some of the suggested measures include: the Social Safety Net Programs; the implementation of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Plan of Action on Rural Development and Poverty Eradication; and strengthen volunteerism and the role of private sector in human development. The role of the media in transmitting information concerning policies and programs intended to increase the welfare of the older persons is also very important.

  3. Does Population Aging Drive Up Pro-Elderly Social Spending?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhuysse, Pieter

    -elderly biased. It then points out that population ageing actually cannot explain very much of this pro-elderly bias variance. For instance, countries such as Denmark, Finland and Sweden are demographically old societies, yet they boast among the lowest pro-elderly spending biases in the OECD world, due...... to their greater commitment to family-friendly policies, active labour market policies and similar pro-young policies. The essay reviews a series of similarly counter-intuitive findings about generational politics and policies as published in Ageing Populations in Post-Industrial Democracies (Vanhuysse and Goerres......, 2012) and makes a plea for institutionally and historically richly informed explanations of the political consequences and the policy feedback effects arising from population ageing....

  4. Energy intake underreporting of adults in a household survey: the impact of using a population specific basal metabolic rate equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Ribeiro de Souza

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to identify energy intake (EI underreporting and to estimate the impact of using a population specific equation for the basal metabolic rate (BMR in a probability sample of adults from Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. A sample of 1,726 subjects participated in the study. EI was assessed by a 24-hour dietary recall and EI/BMR was computed with BMR estimated using internationally recommended equations as well as specific equations developed for the adult population of Niterói. Mean EI was 1,570.9 and 2,188.8kcal.day-1 for women and men, respectively. EI decreased with increasing age in both men and women. BMR estimated by the Brazilian equation was significantly lower than the values estimated by the international equation for all age, sex and nutritional status groups. In general, EI underreporting was found in at least 50% of the population, higher in women, and increased with increasing age and body mass index (BMI. The results of the present study confirm that EI is underreported, even when BMR is estimated using population-specific equations.

  5. Simulation for competition of languages with an ageing sexual population

    OpenAIRE

    Schwämmle, Veit

    2005-01-01

    Recently, individual-based models originally used for biological purposes revealed interesting insights into processes of the competition of languages. Within this new field of population dynamics a model considering sexual populations with ageing is presented. The agents are situated on a lattice and each one speaks one of two languages or both. The stability and quantitative structure of an interface between two regions, initially speaking different languages, is studied. We find that indiv...

  6. Household ventilation may reduce effects of indoor air pollutants for prevention of lung cancer: a case-control study in a Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Yi Jin

    Full Text Available Although the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC has classified various indoor air pollutants as carcinogenic to humans, few studies evaluated the role of household ventilation in reducing the impact of indoor air pollutants on lung cancer risk.To explore the association between household ventilation and lung cancer.A population-based case-control study was conducted in a Chinese population from 2003 to 2010. Epidemiologic and household ventilation data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was employed to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORadj and their 95% confidence intervals (CI.Among 1,424 lung cancer cases and 4,543 healthy controls, inverse associations were observed for good ventilation in the kitchen (ORadj = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.98, bedroom (ORadj = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.79, 1.03, and both kitchen and bedroom (ORadj = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.75, 1.00. Stratified analyses showed lung cancer inversely associated with good ventilation among active smokers (ORadj = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.72, 1.00, secondhand smokers at home (ORadj = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.63, 0.94, and those exposed to high-temperature cooking oil fumes (ORadj = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.99. Additive interactions were found between household ventilation and secondhand smoke at home as well as number of household pollutant sources.A protective association was observed between good ventilation of households and lung cancer, most likely through the reduction of exposure to indoor air pollutants, indicating ventilation may serve as one of the preventive measures for lung cancer, in addition to tobacco cessation.

  7. Household Ventilation May Reduce Effects of Indoor Air Pollutants for Prevention of Lung Cancer: A Case-Control Study in a Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ren-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Xu-Shan; Liu, Ai-Ming; Zhou, Jin-Yi; Lu, Qing-Yi; Kim, Claire H.; Mu, Lina; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Zhao, Jin-Kou

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified various indoor air pollutants as carcinogenic to humans, few studies evaluated the role of household ventilation in reducing the impact of indoor air pollutants on lung cancer risk. Objectives To explore the association between household ventilation and lung cancer. Methods A population-based case-control study was conducted in a Chinese population from 2003 to 2010. Epidemiologic and household ventilation data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was employed to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORadj) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Among 1,424 lung cancer cases and 4,543 healthy controls, inverse associations were observed for good ventilation in the kitchen (ORadj = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.98), bedroom (ORadj = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.79, 1.03), and both kitchen and bedroom (ORadj = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.75, 1.00). Stratified analyses showed lung cancer inversely associated with good ventilation among active smokers (ORadj = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.72, 1.00), secondhand smokers at home (ORadj = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.63, 0.94), and those exposed to high-temperature cooking oil fumes (ORadj = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.99). Additive interactions were found between household ventilation and secondhand smoke at home as well as number of household pollutant sources. Conclusions A protective association was observed between good ventilation of households and lung cancer, most likely through the reduction of exposure to indoor air pollutants, indicating ventilation may serve as one of the preventive measures for lung cancer, in addition to tobacco cessation. PMID:25019554

  8. Household ventilation may reduce effects of indoor air pollutants for prevention of lung cancer: a case-control study in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zi-Yi; Wu, Ming; Han, Ren-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Xu-Shan; Liu, Ai-Ming; Zhou, Jin-Yi; Lu, Qing-Yi; Kim, Claire H; Mu, Lina; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Zhao, Jin-Kou

    2014-01-01

    Although the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified various indoor air pollutants as carcinogenic to humans, few studies evaluated the role of household ventilation in reducing the impact of indoor air pollutants on lung cancer risk. To explore the association between household ventilation and lung cancer. A population-based case-control study was conducted in a Chinese population from 2003 to 2010. Epidemiologic and household ventilation data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was employed to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORadj) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Among 1,424 lung cancer cases and 4,543 healthy controls, inverse associations were observed for good ventilation in the kitchen (ORadj = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.98), bedroom (ORadj = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.79, 1.03), and both kitchen and bedroom (ORadj = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.75, 1.00). Stratified analyses showed lung cancer inversely associated with good ventilation among active smokers (ORadj = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.72, 1.00), secondhand smokers at home (ORadj = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.63, 0.94), and those exposed to high-temperature cooking oil fumes (ORadj = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.99). Additive interactions were found between household ventilation and secondhand smoke at home as well as number of household pollutant sources. A protective association was observed between good ventilation of households and lung cancer, most likely through the reduction of exposure to indoor air pollutants, indicating ventilation may serve as one of the preventive measures for lung cancer, in addition to tobacco cessation.

  9. Population dietary habits and physical activity modification with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, H; Marrugat, J; Covas, M; Elosua, R; Pena, A; Weinbrenner, T; Fito, M; Vidal, M A; Masia, R

    2004-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the relation between age and both dietary habits and leisure-time physical activity, and to determine nutrient inadequacy of aged groups in our population. Cross-sectional study. A random sample of the 25-74-y-old population of Gerona, Spain. A total of 838 men and 910 women were selected from among the general population according to the 1991 census. Analysis of dietary habits, including amount and type of alcohol consumption, and detailed evaluation of leisure-time physical activity. Nutrient densities of carbohydrates, vitamin B(1), vitamin B(12), vitamin C, vitamin E, folate, potassium, iron, magnesium, copper, and dietary fiber increased significantly (Phabits, characterized through a composite dietary score, with age after adjusting for several confounders both in men and women (P<0.001). This score was composed of folate, vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, dietary fibre, cholesterol, saturated fatty acids, and sodium. In all, 29 and 10% of male and female subjects aged 65-74 y, respectively, reported inadequate intakes of six or more of 16 nutrients. Total leisure-time physical activity increased with age in men (P<0.002), and was not different among female age groups. Dietary behaviours and levels of physical activity spent during leisure time indicate a healthy lifestyle of the aged men and women in the present population. Nutrient inadequacy observed in some aged men and women, however, deserves particular intervention of health-care programmes for this growing part of our society.

  10. The aging US population and residential energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonn, Bruce; Eisenberg, Joel

    2007-01-01

    This piece explores the relationships between a rapidly aging U.S. population and the demand for residential energy. Data indicate that elderly persons use more residential energy than younger persons. In this time of steeply rising energy costs, energy is an especially important financial issue for the elderly with low and/or fixed incomes. As the absolute number of elderly as well as their proportion of the total US population both continue to increase, energy and the elderly population looms as another energy policy challenge

  11. Social Profile Of The Aged In An Urban Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J A Khan

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: What is the socio-demographic profile of urban aged population in Aligarh city.Objectives: i To describe the socio-demographic profile of the aged population in an urban area, ii To describe the attitude of these people.Design:Cross-sectional study.Setting : Urban areas of Aligarh city.Participants : 3951 persons aged 60 years and aboveStudy Variables: Socio-demographic characteristics, attitudes.Statistical Analysis : By proportions.Result: 15% of the total estimated elderly population covering all 10 sectors of Aligarh city was studied. The majority ofthe elderly (72.4% belonged to 60-70 years age group. Most of them (77.2% were illiterate, 61.6% belonged to lower socio-economic classes (IV & V, 78.1 % lived in joint families. 39.6% of the aged felt that they were not being given due respect by family members. Nearly half of them had an indifferent or unhappy attitude towards life.Conclusion: The socio-demographic characteristics of the aged are important and must be kept in mind for developing programs to assist them in living as respectful senior citizens.

  12. 9708 INTRAHOUSEHOLD ALLOCATION, HOUSEHOLD HEADSHIP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    agricultural production, education, healthcare and other household needs [17]. ... to various assets within the household depends on age, gender and power ..... Omilola B Patterns and Trends of Child and Maternal Nutrition Inequalities in.

  13. The Influence of Migration on Population Ageing in the Cres-Lošinj Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Podgorelec

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Demographic research in regard to the islands of Cres and Lošinj belongs in the domain of small population studies. Throughout history, and especially after World War II, the islands experienced very strong emigration and later immigration processes. After fifty or more years of continual emigration, immigration began on the island of Lošinj in the 1960s, and on Cres in the 1970s. This reversal from strong depopulation to a significant increase in the size of the population, if the islands are examined as a whole, reveals certain demographic particularities in comparison with other Croatian islands. The long-term reduction of the birth rate and prolonged emigration from settlements in the interior of Cres and from all the islands of the Lošinj archipelago has been the cause of many elderly, single-person and abandoned households. All the analytical indicators pertaining to the age structure are above the threshold which marks the beginning of population ageing. The average age on all the islands has for over thirty years been well above 30, whereas in the Lošinj archipelago it has been above the reproductive age – i.e. about 50. The age coefficient varies between 14.02 for Lošinj and 49.22 for Ilovik. The island of Lošinj itself has the youngest population, and hence the lowest indicators of ageing. The burden on the working-age contingent on each island has changed at a different rate and in a different direction during the last three inter-census periods. The co-efficient of dependency of the young is increasing on all the islands, while the co-efficient of dependency of the elderly age groups is falling on Lošinj, Ilovik, Unije and Cres. The reduction of the birth rate and the negative migration balance caused by high emigration of mainly young, unmarried males has caused a seks ratio imbalance in favour of females. The general co-efficient of females, according to the 1991 census was between 105.7 on Lošinj and 145.5 on Unije. The

  14. Household Food Insecurity and Its Association with Nutritional Status of Children 6-59 Months of Age in East Badawacho District, South Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betebo, Bealu; Ejajo, Tekle; Alemseged, Fissahaye; Massa, Desalegn

    2017-01-01

    Background . Ethiopia has one of the highest child malnutrition rates in the world. Food insecurity is one of the determinant factors of malnutrition in developing countries; however its role remains unclear. Objective . To assess household food insecurity and its association with the nutritional status of children 6-59 months of age in East Badawacho District, South Ethiopia. Methods . A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 20 to 30, 2014 on a sample of 508 mother/child pairs of 6-59-month-old children. Sample households with eligible children were selected using systematic random sampling technique. Both bivariate and multivariate analysis were used to identify factors associated with nutritional status of children. P value of insecurity was 75.8%. The prevalence rates of stunting, underweight, and wasting among children were 45.6%, 26.3%, and 14.6%, respectively. Household food insecurity was significantly associated with underweight (AOR = 3.82; CI = 1.78-8.19) and stunting (AOR = 6.7; CI = 3.71-12.1) but not with wasting. Conclusion and Recommendation . Household food insecurity and the prevalence rates of stunting, underweight, and wasting, among children 6 to 59 months, were high. Intervention programs should focus on improving household food insecurity and nutritional status of children.

  15. Population Aging in Iran and Rising Health Care Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mirzaie

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion Based on the results of this research, it can be said that people throughout their life cycle always allocate a percentage of their total spending to health care costs, but the percentage of this allocation is different at different ages. In a way the demand for healthcare costs increases with aging, it rises significantly in the old age. At the macro level, due to an increase in the percentage of elderly in the population over the next decade, there will also be an increase in the share of health care costs.

  16. Peritoneal dialysis in an ageing population: a 10-year experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smyth, Andrew

    2012-02-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is becoming increasingly prevalent and there are increasing numbers of older patients with advanced CKD. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a potential treatment. This study aims to compare PD outcomes in age-defined populations in the largest PD centre in the Republic of Ireland over 10 years.

  17. Age and growth of two populations of West Coast steenbras ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... density-dependent competition for food, or biochemical genetic variations between the two populations, are possible reasons for the geographic differences found in the growth rates and length-at-age. Slow growth and longevity are characteristics of West Coast steenbras that make it extremely susceptible to overfishing; ...

  18. Polypharmacy and falls in the middle age and elderly population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Ziere; J.P. Dieleman (Jeanne); A. Hofman (Albert); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); T.J.M. van der Cammen (Tischa); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAim: Falls in the elderly are common and often serious. We studied the association between multiple drug use (polypharmacy) and falls in the elderly. Methods: This was a population-based cross-sectional study, part of the Rotterdam Study. The participants were 6928 individuals aged ≥55

  19. Periods of child growth up to age 8 years in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam: Key distal household and community factors

    OpenAIRE

    Schott, Whitney B.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; Lundeen, Elizabeth A.; Stein, Aryeh D.; Behrman, Jere R.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated some growth recovery among children stunted in infancy. Less is known about key age ranges for such growth recovery, and what factors are correlates with this growth. This study characterized child growth up to age 1 year, and from ages 1 to 5 and 5 to 8 years controlling for initial height-for-age z-score (HAZ), and identified key distal household and community factors associated with these growth measures using longitudinal data on 7,266 children in the Youn...

  20. Household Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, John

    2006-01-01

    The welfare benefits of financial markets depend in large part on how effectively households use these markets. The study of household finance is challenging because household behavior is difficult to measure accurately, and because households face constraints that are not captured by textbook models, including fixed costs, uninsurable income risk, borrowing constraints, and contracts that are non-neutral with respect to inflation. Evidence on participation, diversification, and the exercise ...

  1. Influenza vaccination uptake among the working age population of Japan: results from a national cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Wada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza vaccination rates among Japanese people of working age (20-69 years is currently suboptimal, and the reasons for this have not been clearly elucidated. This study examined factors associated with vaccination intention among the working age population in Japan during September 2011, one-month prior to influenza vaccination becoming available. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A web-based survey of intention to be vaccinated against influenza in the coming season was undertaken among 3,129 Japanese aged 20 to 69 years. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to explore the associations between vaccination intent and other variables. Influenza vaccination intent was associated with having been vaccinated in the previous year (Odds Ratio (OR: 3.81; 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 3.75-3.86, the number of children per household (one compared with zero; OR: 1.37; 95%CI: 1.11-1.65, and household income ($50,000 to <$100,000 compared with $0 to <$50,000; OR: 1.30; 95%CI: 1.07-1.54. Smoking was inversely associated with influenza vaccine uptake (current smokers compared with non-smokers; OR: 0.79; 95%CI: 0.61-0.98. A history of either the survey respondent or a household member having being medically diagnosed with influenza in the previous year was not statistically associated with future influenza vaccination intent. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, this suggests that intention to be vaccinated among working age Japanese is associated with a past history of influenza vaccination, having children, and the household's income. As such, consideration of these factors should now form the cornerstone of strategies to encourage increased uptake of vaccination against influenza in future years.

  2. Associations of occupational, transportation, household and leisure-time physical activity patterns with metabolic risk factors among middle-aged adults in a middle-income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Anne H Y; Moy, Foong Ming

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates physical activity in different domains and its association with metabolic risk factors among middle-aged adults. The study was performed in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from August 2010-August 2011. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose/lipid profile were measured in 686 Malay participants (mean age 45.9 ± 6.5 years). Self-reported physical activity was obtained with the validated IPAQ (Malay version) and categorized into low-, moderate- and high-activity levels across occupational, transportation, household and leisure-time domains. Participants spent most of their time on household (567.5, 95% CI: 510-630 MET-minutes/week) and occupational activities (297, 95% CI: 245-330 MET-minutes/week). After adjusted for gender and smoking, participants with low-activity levels in occupational, transport and household domains were associated with significantly higher odds for metabolic syndrome (2.02, 95% CI: 1.33-3.05; 1.49, 95% CI: 1.01-2.21; 1.96, 95% CI: 1.33-2.91). Significantly higher odds for obesity and abdominal obesity were consistently reported among those with low-activity levels across all four domains. High-activity levels in occupational, transportation and household domains were each negatively associated with metabolic syndrome among our cohort. Increase participation of physical activity across all four domains (including leisure-time activity) should be encouraged. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Are the Chinese Saving for Old Age?: The Relationship between Future Pension Benefits of 45-60 Years Old Chinese and Current Household Expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dullemen, C E; Nagel, I; de Bruijn, J M G

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, older people's support used to be the adult children's responsibility. In China, two generations after introducing the one-child policy in the late 70-ies, this becomes an increasingly demanding obligation. The Chinese government took the responsibility to mitigating old- age poverty risks and realized unprecedented progress in pension coverage. At the same time, the household savings increased to about 30 % of disposable income. Built on previous research on the politics of ageing, this study analyses households responses to the established governmental and firm pension programs as well as to the New Rural Pension Scheme (NRPS), introduced in 2009. The central question is: will participation in the established and new pension programs lead to higher current Chinese household expenditures and therefore to lower savings? The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) dataset of 2011 offered the opportunity to study the influence of the recently introduced NRPS. We find that Chinese households with members between 45 and 60 years who expect future benefits of NRPS do not have higher expenditures than those not covered by NRPS. For the participants in the established, mostly urban pension programs a correlation was found with higher current expenditures (28 % more spending on basic needs, 80 % more on luxury) However, further analysis shows that this correlation cannot be interpreted as a causal relationship. This implies that coverage by pensions, be it in urban or rural programs, does not determine higher current expenditures and lower savings.

  4. The epidemiology of dysphonia in the aging population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Jeffrey P; Johns, Michael M

    2014-12-01

    The expanding elderly population continues to exert profound effects on the United States healthcare delivery system. This review summarizes the epidemiology of dysphonia in the aging population as well as its impact on quality of life and the emerging challenges of managing elderly patients with voice disorders. Although often underreported, dysphonia is present in as many as one in three elderly patients. The differential diagnosis for dysphonia in an aging patient is broad, and multifactorial causes are common. In the elderly, dysphonia exerts significant adverse effects on quality of life and often occurs against a background of multiple chronic medical conditions, polypharmacy, hearing loss, dysphagia, and neurologic disease. Recent data have demonstrated that elderly patients respond well to both surgical and nonsurgical treatments for voice disorders. Elderly patients and medical providers, as well as families and caregivers, must be educated about the prevalence of dysphonia in the aging population, its psychosocial impact, and available treatment options. Optimizing the care of voice disorders is essential to maximizing quality of life in aging patients.

  5. Tabagismo domiciliar em famílias com crianças menores de 5 anos no Brasil Smoking in households in Brazil with children younger than 5 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina M. V. Gonçalves-Silva

    2005-03-01

    ílias de menor nível socioeconômico.OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of exposure to smoking in households with children younger than 5 years of age in the city of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil, and to identify the main determinants of that exposure. METHODS: This cross-sectional, population-based study included 2 037 families from the city of Cuiabá. The parents of the children or other caregivers answered a questionnaire concerning the smoking habits of people living in the household, sociodemographic characteristics of the household, and the household's living conditions. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of smoking in the households was 37.7%. In terms of income, in the households with a monthly per capita income of 2 minimum wages or more, the prevalence of smoking was 24.1%; it was 31.3% in the households with a monthly per capita income between 1 and 1.9 minimum wages; and it was 46.0% in households with a monthly per capita income below 1 minimum wage. With respect to socioeconomic level (the family's material goods and purchasing power and the educational level of the head of the household, divided into five classes, from A (highest to E (lowest, the higher the socioeconomic level, the lower was the prevalence of smoking in the household: 26.9% for class A, 26.4% for class B, 34.9% for class C, 45.1% for class D, and 47.2% for class E. There was a higher prevalence of smoking when the father did not live in the home (47.5% versus 35.5%, when the head of the family was someone other than the father or the mother (53.8% versus 33.9% and 38.8%, respectively, when the father was younger than 20 years (52.3% versus 31.2% for fathers 40 or older, and when the mother was younger than 20 years (46.1% versus 22.5% for mothers 40 or older. In terms of occupation, the lowest prevalence of household smoking was found with health professionals and teachers, for both women (18.3% and men (14.7%. After multivariate logistic regression analysis, the following variables

  6. Spirometry reference equations for central European populations from school age to old age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mascha K Rochat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spirometry reference values are important for the interpretation of spirometry results. Reference values should be updated regularly, derived from a population as similar to the population for which they are to be used and span across all ages. Such spirometry reference equations are currently lacking for central European populations. OBJECTIVE: To develop spirometry reference equations for central European populations between 8 and 90 years of age. MATERIALS: We used data collected between January 1993 and December 2010 from a central European population. The data was modelled using "Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape" (GAMLSS. RESULTS: The spirometry reference equations were derived from 118'891 individuals consisting of 60'624 (51% females and 58'267 (49% males. Altogether, there were 18'211 (15.3% children under the age of 18 years. CONCLUSION: We developed spirometry reference equations for a central European population between 8 and 90 years of age that can be implemented in a wide range of clinical settings.

  7. AN AGING POPULATION: A COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE FOR COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Barešová

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on one of the most currently discussed topics, the ageing population. Population aging can be discussed from different perspectives, exploring various challenges associated with it. The authors examined marketing communications from the point of view of a target group, over age 55. The main objective of this study was to find out which marketing communication tools those over age 55 prefer, including selected aspects of printed advertising. At the same time, it was examined whether there is a different gender perspective on this issue. To find out answers to the main question of this study, we conducted quantitative research by using a questionnaire survey among the population over age 55 living in the Czech Republic (Zlín Region. The results of this study were compared with the results of a previous study conducted in 2014, focusing on the marketing communication tools targeted at the 55+ group from the point of view of companies. The research results have shown that the target groups’ most effective (preferred marketing communication tools are printed materials (leaflets and catalogues, sales promotions, competitions, club memberships, gifts, fairs, markets and fairs, and last but not least, newspapers and magazines. Based on the results, it can be said that these tools, in comparison with others, contain sufficient information that the customer can read and think about, save, and eventually return to them. At the same time, they are tools that bring a certain benefit or advantage to the customer, which can then be verified in person. If the results are compared from a gender perspective, different preferences were revealed in the selection of marketing communication tools. There were also different views on some selected aspects of printed materials. These findings can be implemented by companies and organizations in their marketing campaigns, allowing them to better reach the target group of people over age 55

  8. Anisometropia prevalence in a highly astigmatic school-aged population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Velma; Harvey, Erin M; Miller, Joseph M; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E

    2008-07-01

    To describe prevalence of anisometropia, defined in terms of both sphere and cylinder, examined cross-sectionally, in school-aged members of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of astigmatism. Cycloplegic autorefraction measurements, confirmed by retinoscopy and, when possible, by subjective refraction were obtained from 1041 Tohono O'odham children, 4 to 13 years of age. Astigmatism > or =1.00 diopter (D) was present in one or both eyes of 462 children (44.4%). Anisometropia > or =1.00 D spherical equivalent (SE) was found in 70 children (6.7%), and anisometropia > or =1.00 D cylinder was found in 156 children (15.0%). Prevalence of anisometropia did not vary significantly with age or gender. Overall prevalence of significant anisometropia was 18.1% for a difference between eyes > or =1.00 D SE or cylinder. Vector analysis of between-eye differences showed a prevalence of significant anisometropia of 25.3% for one type of vector notation (difference between eyes > or =1.00 D for M and/or > or =0.50 D for J0 or J45), and 16.2% for a second type of vector notation (between-eye vector dioptric difference > or =1.41). Prevalence of SE anisometropia is similar to that reported for other school-aged populations. However, prevalence of astigmatic anisometropia is higher than that reported for other school-aged populations.

  9. Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in an Aging HIV Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Iguacel, R; Llibre, J M; Friis-Moller, N

    2015-01-01

    With more effective and widespread antiretroviral treatment, the overall incidence of AIDS- or HIV-related death has decreased dramatically. Consequently, as patients are aging, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the HIV population....... The incidence of CVD overall in HIV is relatively low, but it is approximately 1.5-2-fold higher than that seen in age-matched HIV-uninfected individuals. Multiple factors are believed to explain this excess in risk such as overrepresentation of traditional cardiovascular risk factors (particularly smoking...

  10. Impact of Population Aging on Asia's Future Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Donghyun; Shin, Kwanho

    2011-01-01

    First, the expert contributors argue, Asia must find ways to sustain rapid economic growth in the face of less favorable demographics, which implies slower growth of the workforce. Second, they contend, Asia must find ways to deliver affordable, adequate, and sustainable old-age economic security for its growing elderly population. Underpinned by rigorous analysis, a wide range of concrete policy options for sustaining economic growth while delivering economic security for the elderly are the...

  11. Live long and prosper: challenges ahead for an aging population

    OpenAIRE

    Erica L. Groshen; Thomas Klitgaard

    2002-01-01

    Over the next thirty years, the percentage of people who are 65 and over will grow rapidly while the percentage of people in their working years will decline. This shift in the age distribution of the population will put enormous pressure on social security systems in the United States, Germany, and Japan as the number of workers whose payroll taxes fund each retiree drops sharply.

  12. Population, Rural Development, and Land Use Among Settler Households in an Agricultural Frontier in Guatemala’s Maya Biosphere Reserve

    OpenAIRE

    David Carr

    2009-01-01

    Guatemala was among the world’s leaders in deforestation during the 1990s at a rate of 2% per annum. Much of Guatemala’s recent forest loss has occurred in the emerging agricultural frontiers of the Maya Biosphere Reserve (MBR), the heart of the largest contiguous tropical forest in Central America—La Selva Maya. This paper presents data from 241 heads of households and 219 partners of household heads from a geographically stratified sample of eight (of 28) communities in the Sierra de Lacan...

  13. The old age security hypothesis and optimal population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bental, B

    1989-03-01

    The application of the Samuelson-Diamond overlapping generations framework to the old age security hypothesis indicates that government intervention schemes can influence the relationship between population growth and capital accumulation. The most direct means of optimizing population growth is through taxes or subsidies that relate to the intergenerational transfer of wealth. A pay-as-you-go social security scheme, in which payment is predicated on the number of children the receiver has and is financed by taxes levied on the working population, emerges as the most likely intervention to produce the optimal steady state equilibrium. This system is able to correct any distortions the private sector may build into it. In contrast, a child support system, in which the government subsidizes or taxes workers according to their family size, can guarantee the optimal capital:labor ratio but not the optimal population growth rate. Thus, if the government seeks to decrease the population growth rate, the appropriate intervention is to levy a lump-sum social-security tax on workers and transfer the revenues to the old; the direction should be reversed if the goal is to increase population growth. Another alternative, a lump sum social security system, can guarantee optimal population growth but not a desirable capital:labor ratio. Finally, the introduction of money as a valued commodity into an economy with a high capital:labor ratio will also serve to decrease the population growth rate and solve the intergenerational transfer problem through the private sector without any need for government intervention.

  14. Marijuana Use, Recent Marijuana Initiation, and Progression to Marijuana Use Disorder Among Young Male and Female Adolescents Aged 12-14 Living in US Households

    OpenAIRE

    Valerie L Forman-Hoffman; Cristie Glasheen; Kathryn R Batts

    2017-01-01

    Marijuana initiation during adolescence, and early adolescence in particular, is associated with adverse health consequences. Our study used 2005?2014 data from the annual, cross-sectional National Survey on Drug Use and Health to study the prevalence and correlates of marijuana initiation, use, and marijuana use disorder (MUD; abuse or dependence) among 12- to 14-year olds living in civilian US households (n = 84 954). Examined correlates included age, sex, race/ethnicity, poverty status, me...

  15. The Impact of an Aging Population in the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mercedia Stevenson; Burns, Candace; Conlon, Helen Acree

    2018-03-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the number of people 65 years of age or older living in the United States is projected to double by 2030 to 72 million adults, representing 20% of the total U.S. Evidence suggests that older Americans are working longer and spending more time on the job than their peers did in previous years. The increased number of older adults working longer is observed not only in the Unites States but also worldwide. There are numerous ramifications associated with the changing demographics and the expanding prevalence of an aging population in the workforce. Dynamics that arise include stereotyping and discrimination, longevity and on-site expert knowledge, variances in workplace behavior, a multigenerational employee pool, chronic disease management, occupational safety, and the application of adaptive strategies to reduce injury occurrences. Occupational health nurses play a pivotal role in implementing best practices for an aging-friendly workplace.

  16. Cold hardiness increases with age in juvenile Rhododendron populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev eArora

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Winter survival in woody plants is controlled by environmental and genetic factors that affect the plant's ability to cold acclimate. Because woody perennials are long-lived and often have a prolonged juvenile (pre-flowering phase, it is conceivable that both chronological and physiological age factors influence adaptive traits such as stress tolerance. This study investigated annual cold hardiness (CH changes in several hybrid Rhododendron populations based on Tmax, an estimate of the maximum rate of freezing injury (ion leakage in cold-acclimated leaves from juvenile progeny. Data from F2 and backcross populations derived from R. catawbiense and R. fortunei parents indicated significant annual increases in Tmax ranging from 3.7 to to 6.4 C as the seedlings aged from 3 to 5 years old. A similar yearly increase (6.7° C was observed in comparisons of 1- and 2-year-old F1 progenies from a R. catawbiense x R. dichroanthum cross. In contrast, CH of the mature parent plants (> 10 years old did not change significantly over the same evaluation period. In leaf samples from a natural population of R. maximum, CH evaluations over two years resulted in an average Tmax value for juvenile 2- to 3- year- old plants that was 9.2 C lower than the average for mature (~30 years old plants. . A reduction in CH was also observed in three hybrid rhododendron cultivars clonally propagated by rooted cuttings (ramets - Tmax of 4-year-old ramets was significantly lower than the Tmax estimates for the 30- to 40-year-old source plants (ortets. In both the wild R. maximum population and the hybrid cultivar group, higher accumulation of a cold-acclimation responsive 25kDa leaf dehydrin was associated with older plants and higher CH. The feasibility of identifying hardy phenotypes at juvenile period and research implications of age-dependent changes in CH are discussed.

  17. Unregulated health care workers in the care of aging populations: Similarities and differences between Brazil and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Veras

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The world’s population is rapidly aging. Unregulated health care workers (UHCWs are emerging as a potentially important workforce in the care of older adults. Objective: A review was conducted to identify the activities of UHCWs with respect to contributions and limitations. Methods: A systematic integrative literature review was conducted using online databases (LILACS, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and grey literature. The inclusion criteria were as follows: (i description of UHCW activities related to older adults; and (ii description of UHCW activities performed in Brazil or Canada. Results: Eleven papers were included in this review. In both countries, UHCW activities included health promotion, mental health care, and rehabilitation. In Brazil, UHCWs performed integrated care, while in Canada UHCWs performed personal care and housekeeping. Conclusion: These results highlight the potential and limits of UHCWs who provide care for the aging population. Such information is important to health and social policy making and household decision making.

  18. Household location choices: implications for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M Nils; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Jianguo

    2008-08-01

    Successful conservation efforts require understanding human behaviors that directly affect biodiversity. Choice of household location represents an observable behavior that has direct effects on biodiversity conservation, but no one has examined the sociocultural predictors of this choice relative to its environmental impacts. We conducted a case study of the Teton Valley of Idaho and Wyoming (U.S.A.) that (1) explored relationships between sociodemographic variables, environmental attitudes, and the environmental impact of household location choices, (2) assessed the potential for small household sizes in natural areas to multiply the environmental impacts of household location decisions, and (3) evaluated how length of residency predicted the environmental attitudes of people living in natural areas. We collected sociodemographic data, spatial coordinates, and land-cover information in a survey of 416 households drawn from a random sample of Teton Valley residents (95% compliance rate). Immigrants (respondents not born in the study area) with the lowest education levels and least environmentally oriented attitudes lived in previously established residential areas in disproportionately high numbers, and older and more educated immigrants with the most environmentally oriented attitudes lived in natural areas in disproportionately high numbers. Income was not a significant predictor of household location decisions. Those living in natural areas had more environmental impact per person because of the location and because small households (educated, and potentially growing more environmentally oriented, these patterns are troubling for biodiversity conservation. Our results demonstrate a need for environmentalists to make household location decisions that reflect their environmental attitudes and future research to address how interactions between education level, environmental attitudes, population aging, and household location choices influence biodiversity

  19. [Aging of the working population in the European Union].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilmarinen, J; Costa, G

    2000-01-01

    The working population over 50 years of age will grow considerably during the next 15 years. After 2010, the number of retired people over 65 years of age will be almost double that of 1995, with a strong impact also on working conditions and the labour market. Work ability is a dynamic process that changes, through its components, throughout life and is the result of the interaction between individual resources (including health, functional capacity, education and skills), working conditions, and the surrounding society. Work ability creates the basis for the employability of an individual, which can be supported by a number of actions (e.g. legislation on work and retirement) and social attitudes (e.g. age discrimination). Consequently, the prevalence of limitations in work ability varies significantly according to how it is evaluated and the frequency of work disability can vary considerably in different times, locations and populations. The Work Ability Index, created and used in a Finnish 11-year longitudinal study, has been proved a useful practical tool for the assessment of workers' fitness and a good predictor of work disability. Measures able to restore, maintain or promote work ability depend on the current work status and the needs of the target groups, and must concentrate on work content, physical work environment and the work community. The actions targeted towards the individual, on the other hand, concentrate on strengthening the health status and functional resources of the workers and developing professional expertise and skills. Correctly targeted and integrated measures improve work ability of ageing workers and therefore lead to improved work quality, increased productivity and also improved quality of life and well-being. They also have positive long-term effects on the "third age", when the worker retires.

  20. Locations that Support Social Activity Participation of the Aging Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline van den Berg

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Social activities are an important aspect of health and quality of life of the aging population. They are key elements in the prevention of loneliness. In order to create living environments that stimulate older adults to engage in social activities, more insight is needed in the social activity patterns of the aging population. This study therefore analyzes the heterogeneity in older adults’ preferences for different social activity location types and the relationship between these preferences and personal and mobility characteristics. This is done using a latent class multinomial logit model based on two-day diary data collected in 2014 in Noord-Limburg in the Netherlands among 213 respondents aged 65 or over. The results show that three latent classes can be identified among the respondents who recorded social activities in the diary: a group that mainly socializes at home, a group that mainly socializes at a community center and a group that is more likely to socialize at public ‘third’ places. The respondents who did not record any interactions during the two days, are considered as a separate segment. Relationships between segment membership and personal and mobility characteristics were tested using cross-tabulations with chi-square tests and analyses of variance. The results suggest that both personal and mobility characteristics play an important role in social activity patterns of older adults.

  1. Influence of facial skin ageing characteristics on the perceived age in a Russian female population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merinville, E; Grennan, G Z; Gillbro, J M; Mathieu, J; Mavon, A

    2015-10-01

    The desire for a youthful look remains a powerful motivator in the purchase of cosmetics by women globally. To develop an anti-ageing solution that targets the need of end consumers, it is critical to understand which signs of ageing really matter to them and which influence their age perception. To date, such research has not been performed in a Russian population. The aim of this work was to identify the signs of ageing that contribute the most to an 'older' or 'younger' look for Russian women aged 40 years old and above. The age of 203 Russian female volunteers was estimated from their standard photographs by a total of 629 female naïve assessors aged 20-65 years old. Perceived age data were related to 23 facial skin features previously measured using linear correlation coefficients. Differences in average severity of the correlating skin ageing features were evaluated between women perceived older and women perceived younger than their chronological age. Volunteers' responses to a ranking question on their key ageing skin concerns previously collected were analysed to provide an additional view on facial ageing from the consumer perspective. Nine facial skin ageing features were found to correlate the most with perceived age out of the 23 measured. Such results showed the importance of wrinkles in the upper part of the face (crow's feet, glabellar, under eye and forehead wrinkles), but also wrinkles in the lower half of the face associated with facial sagging (upper lip, nasolabial fold). Sagging was confirmed of key importance to female volunteers aged 41-65 years old who were mostly concerned by the sagging of their jawline, ahead of under eye and crow's feet wrinkle. The severity of hyperpigmented spots, red and brown, was also found to contribute to perceived age although to a weaker extent. By providing a clear view on the signs of ageing really matter to Russian women who are aged 40 years old and above, this research offers key information for the

  2. Facility-Based Delivery during the Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic in Rural Liberia: Analysis from a Cross-Sectional, Population-Based Household Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ly

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ebola virus disease (EVD epidemic has threatened access to basic health services through facility closures, resource diversion, and decreased demand due to community fear and distrust. While modeling studies have attempted to estimate the impact of these disruptions, no studies have yet utilized population-based survey data.We conducted a two-stage, cluster-sample household survey in Rivercess County, Liberia, in March-April 2015, which included a maternal and reproductive health module. We constructed a retrospective cohort of births beginning 4 y before the first day of survey administration (beginning March 24, 2011. We then fit logistic regression models to estimate associations between our primary outcome, facility-based delivery (FBD, and time period, defined as the pre-EVD period (March 24, 2011-June 14, 2014 or EVD period (June 15, 2014-April 13, 2015. We fit both univariable and multivariable models, adjusted for known predictors of facility delivery, accounting for clustering using linearized standard errors. To strengthen causal inference, we also conducted stratified analyses to assess changes in FBD by whether respondents believed that health facility attendance was an EVD risk factor. A total of 1,298 women from 941 households completed the survey. Median age at the time of survey was 29 y, and over 80% had a primary education or less. There were 686 births reported in the pre-EVD period and 212 in the EVD period. The unadjusted odds ratio of facility-based delivery in the EVD period was 0.66 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.48-0.90, p-value = 0.010. Adjustment for potential confounders did not change the observed association, either in the principal model (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.70, 95%CI 0.50-0.98, p = 0.037 or a fully adjusted model (AOR = 0.69, 95%CI 0.50-0.97, p = 0.033. The association was robust in sensitivity analyses. The reduction in FBD during the EVD period was observed among those reporting a belief that

  3. Indigenous Australian household structure: a simple data collection tool and implications for close contact transmission of communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vino, Thiripura; Singh, Gurmeet R; Davison, Belinda; Campbell, Patricia T; Lydeamore, Michael J; Robinson, Andrew; McVernon, Jodie; Tong, Steven Y C; Geard, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Households are an important location for the transmission of communicable diseases. Social contact between household members is typically more frequent, of greater intensity, and is more likely to involve people of different age groups than contact occurring in the general community. Understanding household structure in different populations is therefore fundamental to explaining patterns of disease transmission in these populations. Indigenous populations in Australia tend to live in larger households than non-Indigenous populations, but limited data are available on the structure of these households, and how they differ between remote and urban communities. We have developed a novel approach to the collection of household structure data, suitable for use in a variety of contexts, which provides a detailed view of age, gender, and room occupancy patterns in remote and urban Australian Indigenous households. Here we report analysis of data collected using this tool, which quantifies the extent of crowding in Indigenous households, particularly in remote areas. We use these data to generate matrices of age-specific contact rates, as used by mathematical models of infectious disease transmission. To demonstrate the impact of household structure, we use a mathematical model to simulate an influenza-like illness in different populations. Our simulations suggest that outbreaks in remote populations are likely to spread more rapidly and to a greater extent than outbreaks in non-Indigenous populations.

  4. Indigenous Australian household structure: a simple data collection tool and implications for close contact transmission of communicable diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiripura Vino

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Households are an important location for the transmission of communicable diseases. Social contact between household members is typically more frequent, of greater intensity, and is more likely to involve people of different age groups than contact occurring in the general community. Understanding household structure in different populations is therefore fundamental to explaining patterns of disease transmission in these populations. Indigenous populations in Australia tend to live in larger households than non-Indigenous populations, but limited data are available on the structure of these households, and how they differ between remote and urban communities. We have developed a novel approach to the collection of household structure data, suitable for use in a variety of contexts, which provides a detailed view of age, gender, and room occupancy patterns in remote and urban Australian Indigenous households. Here we report analysis of data collected using this tool, which quantifies the extent of crowding in Indigenous households, particularly in remote areas. We use these data to generate matrices of age-specific contact rates, as used by mathematical models of infectious disease transmission. To demonstrate the impact of household structure, we use a mathematical model to simulate an influenza-like illness in different populations. Our simulations suggest that outbreaks in remote populations are likely to spread more rapidly and to a greater extent than outbreaks in non-Indigenous populations.

  5. The household food insecurity gradient and potential reductions in adverse population mental health outcomes in Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessiman-Perreault, Geneviève; McIntyre, Lynn

    2017-12-01

    Household food insecurity is related to poor mental health. This study examines whether the level of household food insecurity is associated with a gradient in the risk of reporting six adverse mental health outcomes. This study further quantifies the mental health impact if severe food insecurity, the extreme of the risk continuum, were eliminated in Canada. Using a pooled sample of the Canadian Community Health Survey (N = 302,683), we examined the relationship between level of food insecurity, in adults 18-64 years, and reporting six adverse mental health outcomes. We conducted a probit analysis adjusted for multi-variable models, to calculate the reduction in the odds of reporting mental health outcomes that might accrue from the elimination of severe food insecurity. Controlling for various demographic and socioeconomic covariates, a food insecurity gradient was found in six mental health outcomes. We calculated that a decrease between 8.1% and 16.0% in the reporting of these mental health outcomes would accrue if those who are currently severely food insecure became food secure, after controlling for covariates. Household food insecurity has a pervasive graded negative effect on a variety of mental health outcomes, in which significantly higher levels of food insecurity are associated with a higher risk of adverse mental health outcomes. Reduction of food insecurity, particularly at the severe level, is a public health concern and a modifiable structural determinant of health worthy of macro-level policy intervention.

  6. Population aging in the state of Parana and impact of pensions and retirements in income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Diane Nakatani-Macedo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the aging process of the population of Paraná municipalities and its consequences in participation of pensions in total income. Were used the Census database obtained from IPARDES 1980, 1991, 2000 and 2010, in 399 municipalities of Paraná. PNAD (National Research of Household Samples, from years 1988 to 2012, database were used to measure the evolution of rent share due by pensions and annuities, through the decomposition of the Gini index methodology. We concluded that within 30 years the share of elderly in the population increased over three times, on average, for the localities of the state, going from 3.81% in 1980 to 12.83% in 2010 and there is a higher concentration of elderly in the municipalities located further north of the state. Income from pensions and retirements expanded their shares over total income by 125%; in 1988 presented a share of 7.5% over total income, increasing to 15.9% in 2012.

  7. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations between Household Food Security and Child Anthropometry at Ages 5 and 8 Years in Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Debbie L; Dearden, Kirk A; Crookston, Benjamin T; Fernald, Lia C; Stein, Aryeh D; Woldehanna, Tassew; Penny, Mary E; Behrman, Jere R

    2015-08-01

    Poor childhood nutritional status has lifetime effects and food insecurity is associated with dietary practices that can impair nutritional status. We assessed concurrent and subsequent associations between food insecurity and height-for-age z scores (HAZs) and body mass index-for-age z scores (BMI-Zs); evaluated associations with transitory and chronic food insecurity; and tested whether dietary diversity mediates associations between food insecurity and nutritional status. We used data from the Young Lives younger cohort composed of children in Ethiopia (n = 1757), India (n = 1825), Peru (n = 1844), and Vietnam (n = 1828) recruited in 2002 (round 1) at ∼1 y old, with subsequent data collection at 5 y in 2006 (round 2) and 8 y in 2009 (round 3). Children from food-insecure households had significantly lower HAZs in all countries at 5 y (Ethiopia, -0.33; India, -0.53; Peru, -0.31; and Vietnam, -0.68 HAZ; all P Peru, -0.14; and Vietnam, -0.27 HAZ; P Peru. Age 5 y food insecurity predicted the age 8 y BMI-Z even after controlling for the 5 y BMI-Z, although associations were not significant after the inclusion of additional confounding variables (Ethiopia, P = 0.12; India, P = 0.29; Peru, P = 0.16; and Vietnam, P = 0.51). Chronically food-insecure households had significantly lower HAZs than households that were consistently food-secure, although BMI-Zs did not differ by chronic food-insecurity status. Dietary diversity mediated 18.8-30.5% of the association between food security and anthropometry in Vietnam, but mediated to a lesser degree (8.4-19.3%) in other countries. In 4 countries, food insecurity at 5 y of age was associated with both HAZ and BMI-Z at age 8 y, although the association was attenuated after adjusting for other household factors and anthropometry at age 5 y, and remained significant only for the HAZ in Vietnam. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Accounting for household heterogeneity in general equilibrium economic growth models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnikov, N.B.; O'Neill, B.C.; Dalton, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    We describe and evaluate a new method of aggregating heterogeneous households that allows for the representation of changing demographic composition in a multi-sector economic growth model. The method is based on a utility and labor supply calibration that takes into account time variations in demographic characteristics of the population. We test the method using the Population-Environment-Technology (PET) model by comparing energy and emissions projections employing the aggregate representation of households to projections representing different household types explicitly. Results show that the difference between the two approaches in terms of total demand for energy and consumption goods is negligible for a wide range of model parameters. Our approach allows the effects of population aging, urbanization, and other forms of compositional change on energy demand and CO 2 emissions to be estimated and compared in a computationally manageable manner using a representative household under assumptions and functional forms that are standard in economic growth models.

  9. Understanding Family Migration in Rural South Africa: Exploring Children's Inclusion in the Destination Households of Migrant Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Rachel; Hosegood, Victoria; Newell, Marie-Louise; McGrath, Nuala

    2015-05-01

    Despite the removal of restrictions on movement and increasing female participation in migration, only a minority of migrant parents in South Africa include their children in their destination household. Quantitative analyses of the circumstances in which children accompany a migrant parent have been limited by the lack of available data that document family arrangements from the perspective of more than one household. This paper uses data about members of rural households in a demographic surveillance population in KwaZulu-Natal and a linked sample survey of adult migrants to examine factors associated with children's inclusion in the destination household of migrant parents, analyse the timing and sequence of children's moves to parental destination households, and describe the composition of parental origin and destination households. The findings confirm that in contemporary South Africa, only a small percentage (14%) of migrants' children who are members of the parental origin household are also members of the parental destination household. Membership of the parental destination household is associated with parental characteristics and the child's age, but not measures of socio-economic status, and children most commonly migrate several years after their migrant parent. Children included in the destination household of migrant fathers frequently live in small households, which also include their mother, whereas children included in the destination household of migrant mothers live in larger households. This study contributes to understanding the contexts of children's inclusion in parental destination households in South Africa and demonstrates the potential of data collected in migrants' origin and destination households.

  10. Household Everyday Functioning in the Internet Age: Online Shopping and Banking Skills Are Affected in HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Steven Paul; Iudicello, Jennifer E; Morgan, Erin E; Verduzco, Marizela; Smith, Tyler V; Cushman, Clint

    2017-08-01

    The Internet is a fundamental tool for completing many different instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), including shopping and banking. Persons with HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) are at heightened risk for IADL problems, but the extent to which HAND interferes with the performance of Internet-based household IADLs is not known. Ninety-three individuals with HIV disease, 43 of whom were diagnosed with HAND, and 42 HIV- comparison participants completed Internet-based tests of shopping and banking. Participants used mock credentials to log in to an experimenter-controlled Web site and independently performed a series of typical online shopping (e.g., purchasing household goods) and banking (e.g., transferring funds between accounts) tasks. Individuals with HAND were significantly more likely to fail the online shopping task than neurocognitively normal HIV+ and HIV- participants. HAND was also associated with poorer overall performance versus HIV+ normals on the online banking task. In the HAND group, Internet-based task scores were correlated with episodic memory, executive functions, motor skills, and numeracy. In the HIV+ sample as a whole, lower Internet-based task scores were uniquely associated with poorer performance-based functional capacity and self-reported declines in shopping and financial management in daily life, but not with global manifest functional status. Findings indicate that HAND is associated with difficulties in using the Internet to complete important household everyday functioning tasks. The development and validation of effective Internet training and compensatory strategies may help to improve the household management of persons with HAND. (JINS, 2017, 23, 605-615).

  11. The challenge to UK energy policy: An ageing population perspective on energy saving measures and consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, Neveen; Gilroy, Rose

    2011-01-01

    With a focus on the residential sector, this paper explores the likelihood of the UK government meeting its energy targets. The paper contends that energy policy needs to take into account the interplay of four major factors: an ageing population of increasing diversity; a cultural inclination for older housing much of which is thermally inefficient; levels of fuel poverty; and the inexorable rise of consumer spending on leisure related services and goods. Decisions made by older households (both the poorer and the better off) may be critical to the success of energy policy. Among the better off the changing expectations of the baby boomers, with their predilection for consumption and travel, may have particular impact. The paper concludes that much of the reduction in carbon footprint made by older people's choices in heating and insulation may be offset, not only by increasing domestic thermal comfort, but also potentially by increasing consumables in the home and other consumer lifestyle choices. What could be achieved at best, may be a shift in energy mix. - Research highlights: → An aging society in the UK will not lead to reduction in energy consumption. → Physical ability, housing condition, cultural habits and energy poverty undermine policy. → Rise of home entertainment and consumerism 'Afluenza' increase energy consumption.

  12. The challenge to UK energy policy: An ageing population perspective on energy saving measures and consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamza, Neveen, E-mail: n.hamza@ncl.ac.u [School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Newcastle University, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Gilroy, Rose [School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Newcastle University, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    With a focus on the residential sector, this paper explores the likelihood of the UK government meeting its energy targets. The paper contends that energy policy needs to take into account the interplay of four major factors: an ageing population of increasing diversity; a cultural inclination for older housing much of which is thermally inefficient; levels of fuel poverty; and the inexorable rise of consumer spending on leisure related services and goods. Decisions made by older households (both the poorer and the better off) may be critical to the success of energy policy. Among the better off the changing expectations of the baby boomers, with their predilection for consumption and travel, may have particular impact. The paper concludes that much of the reduction in carbon footprint made by older people's choices in heating and insulation may be offset, not only by increasing domestic thermal comfort, but also potentially by increasing consumables in the home and other consumer lifestyle choices. What could be achieved at best, may be a shift in energy mix. - Research highlights: {yields} An aging society in the UK will not lead to reduction in energy consumption. {yields} Physical ability, housing condition, cultural habits and energy poverty undermine policy. {yields} Rise of home entertainment and consumerism 'Afluenza' increase energy consumption.

  13. The effects of temperature and diet on age grading and population age structure determination in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aw, Wen C; Ballard, J William O

    2013-10-01

    The age structure of natural population is of interest in physiological, life history and ecological studies but it is often difficult to determine. One methodological problem is that samples may need to be invasively sampled preventing subsequent taxonomic curation. A second problem is that it can be very expensive to accurately determine the age structure of given population because large sample sizes are often necessary. In this study, we test the effects of temperature (17 °C, 23 °C and 26 °C) and diet (standard cornmeal and low calorie diet) on the accuracy of the non-invasive, inexpensive and high throughput near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique to determine the age of Drosophila flies. Composite and simplified calibration models were developed for each sex. Independent sets for each temperature and diet treatments with flies not involved in calibration model were then used to validate the accuracy of the calibration models. The composite NIRS calibration model was generated by including flies reared under all temperatures and diets. This approach permits rapid age measurement and age structure determination in large population of flies as less than or equal to 9 days, or more than 9 days old with 85-97% and 64-99% accuracy, respectively. The simplified calibration models were generated by including flies reared at 23 °C on standard diet. Low accuracy rates were observed when simplified calibration models were used to identify (a) Drosophila reared at 17 °C and 26 °C and (b) 23 °C with low calorie diet. These results strongly suggest that appropriate calibration models need to be developed in the laboratory before this technique can be reliably used in field. These calibration models should include the major environmental variables that change across space and time in the particular natural population to be studied. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Universal health coverage in the context of population ageing: What determines health insurance enrolment in rural Ghana?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Wielen, Nele; Channon, Andrew Amos; Falkingham, Jane

    2018-05-24

    Population ageing presents considerable challenges for the attainment of universal health coverage (UHC), especially in countries where such coverage is still in its infancy. Ghana presents an important case study on the effectiveness of policies aimed at achieving UHC in the context of population ageing in low and middle-income countries. It has witnessed a profound recent demographic transition, including a large increase in the number of older adults, which coincided with the development and implementation of a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), designed to help achieve UHC. The objective of this paper is to examine the community, household and individual level determinants of NHIS enrolment among older adults aged 50-69 and 70 plus. The latter are exempt from NHIS premium payments. Using the Ghanaian Living Standards Survey from 2012 to 2013, determinants of NHIS enrolment for individuals aged 50-69 and 70 plus living in rural Ghana are examined through the application of multilevel regression analysis. Previous studies have mainly focused on the enrolment of young and middle aged adults and considered mainly demographic and socio-economic factors. The novel inclusion of spatial barriers within this analysis demonstrates that levels of NHIS enrolment are determined in part by the community provision of healthcare facilities. In addition, the findings imply that insurance enrolment increases with household expenditure even for those aged 70 plus who are exempt from the NHIS premium payment. Adequate and appropriate infrastructure as well as health insurance is vital to ensure movement to UHC in low and middle income countries. Overall, the results confirm that there remain significant inequalities in enrolment by expenditure quintile that future policy reform will need to address.

  15. The dog and cat population on Maio Island, Cape Verde: characterisation and prediction based on household survey and remotely sensed imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Antunes, Ana Carolina; Ducheyne, Els; Bryssinckx, Ward; Vieira, Sara; Malta, Manuel; Vaz, Yolanda; Nunes, Telmo; Mintiens, Koen

    2015-11-04

    The objective was to estimate and characterise the dog and cat population on Maio Island, Cape Verde. Remotely sensed imagery was used to document the number of houses across the island and a household survey was carried out in six administrative areas recording the location of each animal using a global positioning system instrument. Linear statistical models were applied to predict the dog and cat populations based on the number of houses found and according to various levels of data aggregation. In the surveyed localities, a total of 457 dogs and 306 cats were found. The majority of animals had owners and only a few had free access to outdoor activities. The estimated population size was 531 dogs [95% confidence interval (CI): 453-609] and 354 cats (95% CI: 275-431). Stray animals were not a concern on the island in contrast to the rest of the country.

  16. Risk and Aging Vascular in a city population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Ruiz Mori

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: Cardiovascular diseases that every year have more prevalence in the country, are the product of risky factors, many of them modifiable and preventable. The objective of the present study has been to know and analyze the factors of cardiovascular risk and determine the vascular age in the population of Lima. Material and methods: A descriptive cross sectional study, carried out in March 2016, in the southern, northern and eastern cones of Metropolitan Lima, in people older than 30 and younger than 75 years old. The survey structured for the study collected the following variables: gender, age, arterial hypertension, smoking, diabetes, physical activity and type of diet. Blood presure, weight and tall were recorded. Results: In total, 485 participants were included, 197 men and 288 women. The age was 49,5± 9,9 years old. The more frequent risky factor was the unhealthy diet (47,6%, followed by sedentary lifestyle (42,5%. Arterial hypertension was observed in 20,8%, being more frequent in men. 85.2% did not smoke and overweight was found in 47.2%, being its frequency higher in women. The low risk was determined in 60,4% and it was predominant in women, while higher risk was 18.6% in men. The average cardiovascular age was higher in 1,4 years compared to the chronological age beign more marked in men, in whom the difference was 5,8 years between 50 and 59 years old. Conclusions: The more frecuente cardiovascular risk has been unhealthy diet followed by sedentary lifestyle. The high risk was 18,6% predominating in

  17. Internal validity of a household food security scale is consistent among diverse populations participating in a food supplement program in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melgar-Quinonez Hugo

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective We assessed the validity of a locally adapted Colombian Household Food Security Scale (CHFSS used as a part of the 2006 evaluation of the food supplement component of the Plan for Improving Food and Nutrition in Antioquia, Colombia (MANA – Plan Departamental de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional de Antioquia. Methods Subjects included low-income families with pre-school age children in MANA that responded affirmatively to at least one CHFSS item (n = 1,319. Rasch Modeling was used to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the items through measure and INFIT values. Differences in CHFSS performance were assessed by area of residency, socioeconomic status and number of children enrolled in MANA. Unidimensionality of a scale by group was further assessed using Differential Item Functioning (DIF. Results Most CHFSS items presented good fitness with most INFIT values within the adequate range of 0.8 to 1.2. Consistency in item measure values between groups was found for all but two items in the comparison by area of residency. Only two adult items exhibited DIF between urban and rural households. Conclusion The results indicate that the adapted CHFSS is a valid tool to assess the household food security of participants in food assistance programs like MANA.

  18. Internal validity of a household food security scale is consistent among diverse populations participating in a food supplement program in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Michelle; Melgar-Quinonez, Hugo; Uribe, Martha C Alvarez

    2008-05-23

    We assessed the validity of a locally adapted Colombian Household Food Security Scale (CHFSS) used as a part of the 2006 evaluation of the food supplement component of the Plan for Improving Food and Nutrition in Antioquia, Colombia (MANA - Plan Departamental de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional de Antioquia). Subjects included low-income families with pre-school age children in MANA that responded affirmatively to at least one CHFSS item (n = 1,319). Rasch Modeling was used to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the items through measure and INFIT values. Differences in CHFSS performance were assessed by area of residency, socioeconomic status and number of children enrolled in MANA. Unidimensionality of a scale by group was further assessed using Differential Item Functioning (DIF). Most CHFSS items presented good fitness with most INFIT values within the adequate range of 0.8 to 1.2. Consistency in item measure values between groups was found for all but two items in the comparison by area of residency. Only two adult items exhibited DIF between urban and rural households. The results indicate that the adapted CHFSS is a valid tool to assess the household food security of participants in food assistance programs like MANA.

  19. Association between Chinese cooking oil fumes and sleep quality among a middle-aged Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fu; Nie, Guanghui; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Liang; Ma, Yifei; Peng, Suwan; Ou, Songfeng; Qin, Jian; Zhang, Li'e; Li, Shu; Zou, Ruosi; Zeng, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zou, Yunfeng

    2017-08-01

    Poor sleep quality is an important symptom of many medical or psychiatric disorders. However, the impact of cooking oil fumes (COFs) on sleep quality has not been studied. This population-based cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the association between COFs of Chinese household cooking and sleep quality. Individual sleep quality assessment was completed in 2197 participants with an average age of 37.52 years, through Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Information about their cooking practice were also collected by self-reported questionnaire. As an internal biomarker of COFs, urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HOP) (n = 562) was further measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Binary logistic regression models were performed to evaluate the association between exposure to COFs and individual sleep quality. We found that, subjective poor kitchen ventilation, preheating oil to smoking, and cooking for over 30 minutes were positively associated with overall poor sleep quality (global PSQI score >5) [odds ratio (OR) = 1.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.43-2.16; 1.25, (1.03-1.52); 1.42, (1.15-1.76), respectively]. After adjusting for potential confounders, subjective poor kitchen ventilation still tend to increase the risk of long sleep latency, sleep disturbances, and daytime dysfunction [OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.09-1.73; 1.91, (1.39-2.61); 1.54, (1.23-1.93), respectively]. Similar results were observed in participants who preheated oil to smoking [OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.08-1.72; 1.55, (1.14-2.14); 1.25, (1.02-1.55), respectively] and cooked for over 30 minutes [OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.05-1.72; 1.46, (1.03-2.06); 1.36, (1.08-1.72), respectively]. Furthermore, high urinary 1-HOP level was also positively associated with overall poor sleep quality (OR = 2.30, 95% CI = 1.31-4.05). The results indicated that exposure to COFs from Chinese household cooking may be a risk factor for poor sleep quality among middle-aged Chinese

  20. Prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking among population aged 15 years or older, Vietnam, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Van Minh, Hoang; Giang, Kim Bao; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh; Hai, Phan Thi; Minh, Nguyen Thac; Hsia, Jason

    2013-04-18

    The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing globally and is associated with adverse outcomes requiring tobacco control interventions. We estimated the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco use among adult populations in Vietnam in 2010 and examined its association with sociodemographic factors. We used data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in Vietnam in 2010. GATS surveyed a national representative sample of adults aged 15 years or older from 11,142 households by using a 2-phase sampling design analogous to a 3-stage stratified cluster sampling. Descriptive statistical analyses and multivariate logistic regression modeling were conducted. A total of 6.4% of Vietnamese aged 15 years or older (representing about 4.1 million adult waterpipe smokers) reported current waterpipe tobacco smoking. The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking was significantly higher among men than women (13% vs 0.1%). Area of residence (rural or urban), age group, asset-based wealth quintile, and geographic region of residence were significantly associated with waterpipe tobacco smoking among men. The significant correlates of current waterpipe tobacco smoking among men were lower education levels, being middle-aged (45-54 years), lower asset-based wealth levels, living in rural areas, not living in the South East and the Mekong River Delta geographic regions, and the belief that smoking does not causes diseases. Rural dwellers who are poor should be targeted in tobacco control programs. Further studies are needed that examine perceptions of the adverse health effects and the cultural factors of waterpipe tobacco smoking.

  1. Associations between social inequality and tooth loss in a household sample of elderly Thai people aged ≥60 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisilapanan, Patcharawan; Korwanich, Narumanas; Lalloo, Ratilal

    2016-06-01

    To assess the relationship between social inequality and the number of remaining teeth in an elderly Thai population. Having twenty or more remaining teeth is an important indicator of optimal oral health in the elderly. The data for this study were derived from the Survey of Older Persons in Thailand, conducted by the National Statistical Office, based on face-to-face interviews with people aged ≥60. The total sample was 30 427. The oral health measure was self-reported remaining number of teeth. Income, education and possession of durable goods were utilised as measures of social inequality. More than half of the sample (57.0%) was women. The majority (73.2%) was in the age range 60-74 years old. Less than a fifth (15.5%) had 7 or more years of education. A third earned elderly people, who were older than 75, who were not under a married status, had a lower level of education, had a lower income, and who did not own luxury goods, were 2.84 (CI 95% 2.66-3.03), 1.31 (CI 95% 1.21-1.41), 1.44 (CI 95% 1.34-1.56), 1.12 (CI 95% 1.13-1.29) and 1.21 (CI 95% 1.13-1.29) times more likely to have 19 or fewer teeth remaining, respectively. Social inequality is related to the number of remaining teeth in elderly Thai people. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A practical review of energy saving technology for ageing populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Guy; Taylor, Andrea; Whittet, Craig; Lynn, Craig; Docherty, Catherine; Stephen, Bruce; Owens, Edward; Galloway, Stuart

    2017-07-01

    Fuel poverty is a critical issue for a globally ageing population. Longer heating/cooling requirements combine with declining incomes to create a problem in need of urgent attention. One solution is to deploy technology to help elderly users feel informed about their energy use, and empowered to take steps to make it more cost effective and efficient. This study subjects a broad cross section of energy monitoring and home automation products to a formal ergonomic analysis. A high level task analysis was used to guide a product walk through, and a toolkit approach was used thereafter to drive out further insights. The findings reveal a number of serious usability issues which prevent these products from successfully accessing an important target demographic and associated energy saving and fuel poverty outcomes. Design principles and examples are distilled from the research to enable practitioners to translate the underlying research into high quality design-engineering solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mitochondrial DNA variation in the Viking age population of Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzewińska, Maja; Bjørnstad, Gro; Skoglund, Pontus; Olason, Pall Isolfur; Bill, Jan; Götherström, Anders; Hagelberg, Erika

    2015-01-19

    The medieval Norsemen or Vikings had an important biological and cultural impact on many parts of Europe through raids, colonization and trade, from about AD 793 to 1066. To help understand the genetic affinities of the ancient Norsemen, and their genetic contribution to the gene pool of other Europeans, we analysed DNA markers in Late Iron Age skeletal remains from Norway. DNA was extracted from 80 individuals, and mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms were detected by next-generation sequencing. The sequences of 45 ancient Norwegians were verified as genuine through the identification of damage patterns characteristic of ancient DNA. The ancient Norwegians were genetically similar to previously analysed ancient Icelanders, and to present-day Shetland and Orkney Islanders, Norwegians, Swedes, Scots, English, German and French. The Viking Age population had higher frequencies of K*, U*, V* and I* haplogroups than their modern counterparts, but a lower proportion of T* and H* haplogroups. Three individuals carried haplotypes that are rare in Norway today (U5b1b1, Hg A* and an uncommon variant of H*). Our combined analyses indicate that Norse women were important agents in the overseas expansion and settlement of the Vikings, and that women from the Orkneys and Western Isles contributed to the colonization of Iceland. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Can cochlear implantation improve neurocognition in the aging population?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Völter C

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Christiane Völter,1 Lisa Götze,1 Stefan Dazert,1 Michael Falkenstein,2,3 Jan Peter Thomas1 1Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Ruhr University Bochum, St. Elisabeth-Hospital, Bochum, Germany; 2Institute for Work, Learning and Ageing (ALA, Bochum, Germany; 3Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors, Dortmund, Germany Introduction: The relationship between cognition and the ability to hear is well known. Due to changes in demographics, the number of people with sensorineural hearing loss and cognitive impairment is increasing. The aim of this study was to identify the impact of hearing rehabilitation via cochlear implantation on cognitive decline among the aging population. Patients and methods: This prospective study included 60 subjects aged between 50 and 84 years (mean 65.8 years, SD=8.9 with a severe to profound bilateral hearing impairment. A computer-based evaluation of short- and long-term memory, processing speed, attention, working memory and inhibition was performed prior to surgery as well as 6 and 12 months after cochlear implantation. Additionally, speech perception at 65 and 80 dB (Freiburger monosyllabic speech test as well as disease-related (Nijmegen Cochlear Implant Questionnaire and general (WHOQOL-OLD quality of life were assessed. Results: Six months postimplantation, speech perception, quality of life and also neurocognitive abilities significantly increased. The most remarkable improvement after 6 months was detected in executive functions such as attention (p<0.001, inhibition (p=0.025 and working memory (n-back: p=0.002; operation span task: p=0.008, followed by delayed recall (p=0.03. In contrast, long-term memory showed a significant change of performance only after 12 months (p=0.021. After 6 months, most cognitive domains remained stable, except working memory assessed by the operation span task, which significantly improved between 6 and 12 months (p<0.001. No

  5. Population specific biomarkers of human aging: a big data study using South Korean, Canadian and Eastern European patient populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamoshina, Polina; Kochetov, Kirill; Putin, Evgeny; Cortese, Franco; Aliper, Alexander; Lee, Won-Suk; Ahn, Sung-Min; Uhn, Lee; Skjodt, Neil; Kovalchuk, Olga; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2018-01-11

    Accurate and physiologically meaningful biomarkers for human aging are key to assessing anti-aging therapies. Given ethnic differences in health, diet, lifestyle, behaviour, environmental exposures and even average rate of biological aging, it stands to reason that aging clocks trained on datasets obtained from specific ethnic populations are more likely to account for these potential confounding factors, resulting in an enhanced capacity to predict chronological age and quantify biological age. Here we present a deep learning-based hematological aging clock modeled using the large combined dataset of Canadian, South Korean and Eastern European population blood samples that show increased predictive accuracy in individual populations compared to population-specific hematologic aging clocks. The performance of models was also evaluated on publicly-available samples of the American population from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In addition, we explored the association between age predicted by both population-specific and combined hematological clocks and all-cause mortality. Overall, this study suggests a) the population-specificity of aging patterns and b) hematologic clocks predicts all-cause mortality. Proposed models added to the freely available Aging.AI system allowing improved ability to assess human aging. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  6. Personalized nutrigenomics: tailoring the diet to the aging diabesity population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M Ruden

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Douglas M Ruden1, Xiangyi Lu21Wayne State University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, C. S. Mott Center for Human Growth and Development, Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Detroit, MI, USA; 2Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Eugene Applebaum College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Detroit, MI, USAAbstract: According to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF, 190 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes, and this number is estimated to double by the year 2025. Diabetes is especially prominent in the elderly population because the IDF indicates age above 45 years as a major risk factor for diabetes. The most common trials for controlling diabetes focus on tighter glucose control as a means to reduce the long-term complications. However, whether tight blood sugar control or other dietary or pharmaceutical interventions in the elderly are more appropriate is not known. Major changes have taken place in our diet over the past 10,000 years since the beginning of the Agricultural Revolution, but our genes have not changed. Furthermore, the large numbers of diabetic elderly in the population are a recent phenomenon, because those with diabetes have historically died young. Genetically speaking, humans today live in a nutritional environment that differs from that for which our genetic constitution was selected. For example a high omega-6/omega-3 ratio, found in today’s Western diets, promotes the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Knowing who is at risk would be useful if it meant that one could avoid the environmental triggers that convert susceptibility to disease. The prospect of targeting specific dietary treatments at the elderly, who are predicted to gain the most therapeutic benefits, clearly has important clinical and economic consequences. In this review, we will discuss modern molecular genetic and epidemiological techniques which are now, or soon will

  7. The burden of common infectious disease syndromes at the clinic and household level from population-based surveillance in rural and urban Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Feikin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Characterizing infectious disease burden in Africa is important for prioritizing and targeting limited resources for curative and preventive services and monitoring the impact of interventions. METHODS: From June 1, 2006 to May 31, 2008, we estimated rates of acute lower respiratory tract illness (ALRI, diarrhea and acute febrile illness (AFI among >50,000 persons participating in population-based surveillance in impoverished, rural western Kenya (Asembo and an informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya (Kibera. Field workers visited households every two weeks, collecting recent illness information and performing limited exams. Participants could access free high-quality care in a designated referral clinic in each site. Incidence and longitudinal prevalence were calculated and compared using Poisson regression. RESULTS: INCIDENCE RATES RESULTING IN CLINIC VISITATION WERE THE FOLLOWING: ALRI--0.36 and 0.51 episodes per year for children <5 years and 0.067 and 0.026 for persons ≥ 5 years in Asembo and Kibera, respectively; diarrhea--0.40 and 0.71 episodes per year for children <5 years and 0.09 and 0.062 for persons ≥ 5 years in Asembo and Kibera, respectively; AFI--0.17 and 0.09 episodes per year for children <5 years and 0.03 and 0.015 for persons ≥ 5 years in Asembo and Kibera, respectively. Annually, based on household visits, children <5 years in Asembo and Kibera had 60 and 27 cough days, 10 and 8 diarrhea days, and 37 and 11 fever days, respectively. Household-based rates were higher than clinic rates for diarrhea and AFI, this difference being several-fold greater in the rural than urban site. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals in poor Kenyan communities still suffer from a high burden of infectious diseases, which likely hampers their development. Urban slum and rural disease incidence and clinic utilization are sufficiently disparate in Africa to warrant data from both settings for estimating burden and focusing interventions.

  8. Perceived health in the Portuguese population aged ? 35

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    João Paulo de Figueiredo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To evaluate the exploratory relationship between determinants of health, life satisfaction, locus of control, attitudes and behaviors and health related quality of life in an adult population. METHODS : Observational study (analytical and cross-sectional with a quantitative methodological basis. The sample was composed oy 1,214 inhabitants aged ≥ 35 in 31 civil parishes in the County of Coimbra, Portugal, 2011-2012. An anonymous and voluntary health survey was conducted, which collected the following information: demographic, clinical record, health and lifestyle behaviors; health related quality of life (Medical Outcomes Study, Short Form-36; health locus of control; survey of health attitudes and behavior, and quality of life index. Pearson’s Linear Correlation, t-Student, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney; One-way ANOVA; Brown-Forsythe’s F; Kruskal-Wallis; Multiple Comparisons: Tukey (HSD, Games-Howell and Conover were used in the statistical analysis. RESULTS : Health related quality of life was shown to be lower in females, in older age groups, in obese/overweight individuals, widows, unassisted, those living alone, living in rural/suburban areas, those who did not work and with a medium-low socioeconomic level. Respondents with poor/very poor self-perceived health (p < 0.0001, with chronic disease (p < 0.0001, who consumed < 3 meals per day (p ≤ 0.01, who were sedentary, who slept ≤ 6 h/day and had smoked for several years revealed the worst health results. Health related quality of life was positively related with a bigger internal locus, with better health attitudes and behaviors (physical exercise, health and nutritional care, length of dependence and with different areas of life satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS : Better health related quality of life was associated with certain social, psychological, family and health characteristics, a satisfactory lifestyle, better socioeconomic conditions and a good internal locus of control over

  9. Age and gender differences in correlations of leisure-time, household, and work-related physical activity with physical performance in older Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Kenji; Soma, Yuki; Kitano, Naruki; Tsuji, Taishi; Mitsuishi, Yasuhiro; Yoon, Ji-Yeong; Okura, Tomohiro

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to compare relationships of leisure-time, household, and work-related physical activity (PA) with physical performance by age and gender in older Japanese adults. This cross-sectional study included 525 community-dwelling older adults (73.3 ± 5.2 years) recruited in 2009-2011 in Kasama City, rural Japan. We used the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly to assess PA variables. Physical performance was evaluated by 11 performance tests: grip strength, single-leg balance, functional reach, sit-and-reach, standing time from long sitting position, sit-to-stand, timed up and go, habitual walk, hand working, and simple and choice reaction times. After adjusting for potential confounders, leisure-time PA in young-old (≤ 74 years) men correlated significantly with eight performance tests (absolute value of Spearman's partial rank correlation coefficient: r = 0.18-0.39), whereas in old-old (≥ 75 years) men it correlated with three performance tests (r = 0.20-0.23). Although leisure-time PA correlated with six performance tests (r = 0.19-0.22) in young-old women, there were no significant correlations between leisure-time PA and performance tests in old-old women. Household PA of young-old men (r = 0.20-0.23) and old-old women (r = 0.26-0.34) correlated with four performance tests. In old-old men and young-old women, no significant correlation was found between household PA and performance tests. Work-related PA did not relate significantly to any performance tests in any groups. This study showed that leisure-time PA is related to physical performance, especially in young-old men and women, and household PA is especially related in young-old men and old-old women. Our findings suggest that supporting strategies for maintaining physical functions would differ by gender and age. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  10. Rural Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole

    2013-01-01

    dependency on state institutions under the Vietnamese transition to a market society. It discusses present poverty definitions and measures by comparing survey data with the formal economic categorization of rural households. Both the overall characteristics of rural society and qualitative data indicate...... that the reforms have set in motion a process by which a mix of new opportunities and increasing pressures creates new winners and losers. Second, the chapter draws attention to the nature of interactions between households, local communities and the Vietnamese state. This shows both potentials and limitations...

  11. Intrahousehold allocation, household headship and nutrition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims to establish whether there is a significant difference in nutritional status of children in male-headed households, de jure female-headed households and de facto female-headed households. The study uses a sample of 199 children aged 6 to 60 months, of mothers in reproductive age, derived from 499 ...

  12. Preschool Age Populations Research Needs - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawing conclusions from the validation studies on preschool populations discussed in this chapter is difficult because of the varied study designs, the relatively small study populations, and limited number of studies on each dietary assessment method.

  13. Childbearing in adolescents aged 12-15 years in low resource countries: a neglected issue. New estimates from demographic and household surveys in 42 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Sarah; Matthews, Zoë; Frost, Melanie; Fogstad, Helga; Camacho, Alma V; Laski, Laura

    2012-09-01

    There is strong evidence that the health risks associated with adolescent pregnancy are concentrated among the youngest girls (e.g. those under 16 years). Fertility rates in this age group have not previously been comprehensively estimated and published. By drawing data from 42 large, nationally representative household surveys in low resource countries carried out since 2003 this article presents estimates of age-specific birth rates for girls aged 12-15, and the percentage of girls who give birth at age 15 or younger. From these we estimate that approximately 2.5 million births occur to girls aged under 16 in low resource countries each year. The highest rates are found in Sub-Saharan Africa, where in Chad, Guinea, Mali, Mozambique, Niger and Sierra Leone more than 10% of girls become mothers before they are 16. Strategies to reduce these high levels are vital if we are to alleviate poor reproductive health. © 2012 The Authors  Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Phenotype of normal spirometry in an aging population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz Fragoso, Carlos A; McAvay, Gail; Van Ness, Peter H; Casaburi, Richard; Jensen, Robert L; MacIntyre, Neil; Gill, Thomas M; Yaggi, H Klar; Concato, John

    2015-10-01

    In aging populations, the commonly used Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) may misclassify normal spirometry as respiratory impairment (airflow obstruction and restrictive pattern), including the presumption of respiratory disease (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD]). To evaluate the phenotype of normal spirometry as defined by a new approach from the Global Lung Initiative (GLI), overall and across GOLD spirometric categories. Using data from COPDGene (n = 10,131; ages 45-81; smoking history, ≥10 pack-years), we evaluated spirometry and multiple phenotypes, including dyspnea severity (Modified Medical Research Council grade 0-4), health-related quality of life (St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score), 6-minute-walk distance, bronchodilator reversibility (FEV1 % change), computed tomography-measured percentage of lung with emphysema (% emphysema) and gas trapping (% gas trapping), and small airway dimensions (square root of the wall area for a standardized airway with an internal perimeter of 10 mm). Among 5,100 participants with GLI-defined normal spirometry, GOLD identified respiratory impairment in 1,146 (22.5%), including a restrictive pattern in 464 (9.1%), mild COPD in 380 (7.5%), moderate COPD in 302 (5.9%), and severe COPD in none. Overall, the phenotype of GLI-defined normal spirometry included normal adjusted mean values for dyspnea grade (0.8), St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (15.9), 6-minute-walk distance (1,424 ft [434 m]), bronchodilator reversibility (2.7%), % emphysema (0.9%), % gas trapping (10.7%), and square root of the wall area for a standardized airway with an internal perimeter of 10 mm (3.65 mm); corresponding 95% confidence intervals were similarly normal. These phenotypes remained normal for GLI-defined normal spirometry across GOLD spirometric categories. GLI-defined normal spirometry, even when classified as respiratory impairment by GOLD, included adjusted mean values in the

  15. Factors associated with household food security of participants of the MANA food supplement program in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Michelle; Melgar-Quiñonez, Hugo; Taylor, Christopher A; Alvarez Uribe, Martha Cecilia

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to explore demographic and economic characteristics associated with household food security of 2,784 low-income households with pre-school aged children receiving food supplements from the Colombian Plan for Improving Food and Nutrition in Antioquia - MANA (Mejoramiento Alimentario y Nutricional de Antioquia) in the Department of Antioquia, Colombia. Included in the study was a 12-item household food security survey was collected from a cross-sectional, stratified random sample of MANA participants in which households were characterized as food secure, mildly food insecure, moderately food insecure, and severely food insecure. It was hypothesized that household food security status would be strongly associated with demographic characteristics, food expenditure variables, and food supplement consumption by children in MANA. Food insecure households were characterized by more members, older parents, and lower income (p < 0.0001). Rural residence and female head of households had higher rates of food insecurity (p < 0.01). Food insecure households had the lowest monthly expenditures food (p < 0.0001). Severely food insecure households saved the highest percentage of per capita food expenditure from consuming MANA supplements (p < 0.0001), similarly, MANA food supplement intakes were greatest in households reporting the most food insecurity (p < 0.001). The results of this study are important to describe characteristics of the population benefiting from the MANA nutrition intervention by their unique level of household food security status.

  16. Farm Households Food Production and Households' Food Security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    insecurity existed among households in the study areas based on the recommended average DEC/AE, of 2200 kcal and ... An International Journal of Basic and Applied Research. 41 ... population, for example, eating of less preferred foods.

  17. households' choices of healthcare services in the north west region

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    model. Households' characteristics such as sex and age of household heads, marital status of household heads and .... Based Financing (PBF) of healthcare in the North .... return from this capital in both market and non- ... Healthy Life Style.

  18. Sense of mastery differences between working-age Swedish- and Finnish-speaking Finns: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reini, Kaarina; Nyqvist, Fredrica

    2017-06-01

    To examine the probability of a high sense of mastery in a population-representative sample of working-age people and to study the differences in mastery between Finnish-speaking and Swedish-speaking Finns in particular. The data originates from the Western Finland Mental Health Surveys (2008-2014). Associations between sense of mastery and language groups were analyzed with logistic regressions. Swedish-speaking Finns have a higher sense of mastery and the association is mediated by social support. Moreover, a difference in a high sense of mastery is found between Swedish- and Finnish-speaking married women that are outside the labor market. Our findings imply that Finnish-speaking women that are outside the labor market, e.g. on maternity leave or taking care of the household, should be recognized in health and social care services as a group that can benefit from additional support.

  19. Faster Increases in Human Life Expectancy Could Lead to Slower Population Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Counterintuitively, faster increases in human life expectancy could lead to slower population aging. The conventional view that faster increases in human life expectancy would lead to faster population aging is based on the assumption that people become old at a fixed chronological age. A preferable alternative is to base measures of aging on people’s time left to death, because this is more closely related to the characteristics that are associated with old age. Using this alternative interpretation, we show that faster increases in life expectancy would lead to slower population aging. Among other things, this finding affects the assessment of the speed at which countries will age. PMID:25876033

  20. Aging in France: Population Trends, Policy Issues, and Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beland, Daniel; Durandal, Jean-Philippe Viriot

    2013-01-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology…

  1. Socioeconomic status and lifetime risk for workplace eye injury reported by a us population aged 50 years and over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Huabin; Beckles, Gloria L A; Fang, Xiangming; Crews, John E; Saaddine, Jinan B; Zhang, Xinzhi

    2012-04-01

    To examine whether socioeconomic status, as measured by educational attainment and annual household income, is associated with lifetime risk for workplace eye injury in a large US population. In analyses of data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2005-2007, N = 43,510), we used logistic regression analysis and propensity score matching to assess associations between socioeconomic measures and lifetime risk for workplace eye injury among those aged ≥50 years. The lifetime prevalence of self-reported workplace eye injury was significantly higher among men (13.5%) than women (2.6%) (P workplace eye injury than those with more than a high school education. Men with an annual household income workplace eye injury than those whose income was >$50,000 (adjusted OR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.07-1.95). After adjusting for other factors, no statistically significant associations between education, income, and lifetime workplace eye injury were found among women. Socioeconomic status was associated with lifetime risk for workplace eye injury among men but not women. Greater public awareness of individual and societal impacts of workplace eye injuries, especially among socioeconomically disadvantaged men, could help support efforts to develop a coordinated prevention strategy to minimize avoidable workplace eye injuries.

  2. Trans-generational effects on ageing in a wild bird population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, S.; Charmantier, A.; Verhulst, S.; Sheldon, B. C.

    Ageing, long thought to be too infrequent to study effectively in natural populations, has recently been shown to be ubiquitous, even in the wild. A major challenge now is to explain variation in the rates of ageing within populations. Here, using 49 years of data from a population of great tits

  3. Association between Chinese cooking oil fumes and sleep quality among a middle-aged Chinese population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Fu; Nie, Guanghui; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Liang; Ma, Yifei; Peng, Suwan; Ou, Songfeng; Qin, Jian; Zhang, Li'e; Li, Shu; Zou, Ruosi; Zeng, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zou, Yunfeng

    2017-01-01

    Poor sleep quality is an important symptom of many medical or psychiatric disorders. However, the impact of cooking oil fumes (COFs) on sleep quality has not been studied. This population-based cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the association between COFs of Chinese household cooking and sleep quality. Individual sleep quality assessment was completed in 2197 participants with an average age of 37.52 years, through Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Information about their cooking practice were also collected by self-reported questionnaire. As an internal biomarker of COFs, urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HOP) (n = 562) was further measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Binary logistic regression models were performed to evaluate the association between exposure to COFs and individual sleep quality. We found that, subjective poor kitchen ventilation, preheating oil to smoking, and cooking for over 30 minutes were positively associated with overall poor sleep quality (global PSQI score >5) [odds ratio (OR) = 1.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.43–2.16; 1.25, (1.03–1.52); 1.42, (1.15–1.76), respectively]. After adjusting for potential confounders, subjective poor kitchen ventilation still tend to increase the risk of long sleep latency, sleep disturbances, and daytime dysfunction [OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.09–1.73; 1.91, (1.39–2.61); 1.54, (1.23–1.93), respectively]. Similar results were observed in participants who preheated oil to smoking [OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.08–1.72; 1.55, (1.14–2.14); 1.25, (1.02–1.55), respectively] and cooked for over 30 minutes [OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.05–1.72; 1.46, (1.03–2.06); 1.36, (1.08–1.72), respectively]. Furthermore, high urinary 1-HOP level was also positively associated with overall poor sleep quality (OR = 2.30, 95% CI = 1.31–4.05). The results indicated that exposure to COFs from Chinese household cooking may be a risk factor for poor sleep quality among

  4. Homestead food production model contributes to improved household food security and nutrition status of young children and women in poor populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Talukder

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrient malnutrition is a serious public health problem among women and children in Bangladesh, Cambodia, Nepal and the Philippines. Helen Keller International has been implementing homestead food production (HFP programs (coupled with nutrition education in these countries to increase and ensure year-round availability and intake of micronutrient-rich foods in poor households, particularly among women and children.  Between 2003 and 2007, the HFP program was implemented among ~30,000 households in these four countries. Data collected from representative samples taken for evaluations of HFP programs in these countries illustrated the benefit of the program for households. Data were collected through interviews with households in villages that had the HFP program and from control households in non-HFP program villages. Blood samples collected from ~1000 children aged 6-59 months and ~1200 non-pregnant women before and after program implementation were analyzed for hemoglobin. The review showed that the HFP program significantly improved dietary diversification. The combined data from all four countries showed improved animal food consumption among program households, with liver consumption increasing from 24% at baseline to 46% at endline and the median number of eggs consumed by families per week increasing from 2 to 5.  The sale of HFP products also improved household income. Anemia prevalence among children in program households decreased in all the countries; however, the decrease was only significant in Bangladesh and the Philippines.  Although anemia prevalence also decreased among control households in three countries, the magnitude of change was higher in program households compared with control households.Les carences en micronutriments représentent un grave problème de santé publique chez les femmes et les enfants au Bangladesh, au Cambodge, au Népal et aux Philippines. Helen Keller International met en œuvre dans ces pays

  5. Age and Time Population Differences: Young Adults, Gen Xers, and Millennials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Lauren A.

    2013-01-01

    Age and Time disparities in young adult research populations are common because young adults are defined by varying age spans; members of Generation X and Millennial generations may both be considered young adults; study years vary, affecting populations; and qualitative methods with limited age/year samples are frequently utilized. The current…

  6. Age, chronic non-communicable disease and choice of traditional Chinese and western medicine outpatient services in a Chinese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeoh Eng

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1997 Hong Kong reunified with China and the development of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM started with this change in national identity. However, the two latest discussion papers on Hong Kong's healthcare reform have failed to mention the role of TCM in primary healthcare, despite TCM's public popularity and its potential in tackling the chronic non-communicable disease (NCD challenge in the ageing population. This study aims to describe the interrelationship between age, non-communicable disease (NCD status, and the choice of TCM and western medicine (WM services in the Hong Kong population. Methods This study is a secondary analysis of the Thematic Household Survey (THS 2005 dataset. The THS is a Hong Kong population representative face to face survey was conducted by the Hong Kong Administrative Region Government of China. A random sample of respondents aged >15 years were invited to report their use of TCM and WM in the past year, together with other health and demographic information. A total of 33,263 persons were interviewed (response rate 79.2%. Results Amongst those who received outpatient services in the past year (n = 18,087, 80.23% only visited WM doctors, 3.17% consulted TCM practitioners solely, and 16.60% used both type of services (double consulters. Compared to those who only consulted WM doctor, multinomial logistic regression showed that double consulters were more likely to be older, female, NCD patients, and have higher socioeconomic backgrounds. Further analysis showed that the association between age and double consulting was curvilinear (inverted U shaped regardless of NCD status. Middle aged (45-60 years NCD patients, and the NCD free "young old" group (60-75 years were most likely to double consult. On the other hand, the relationship between age and use of TCM as an alternative to WM was linear regardless of NCD status. The NCD free segment of the population was more inclined to use TCM alone

  7. Household Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Home Be Informed Household Chemical Emergencies Household Chemical Emergencies Although the risk of a chemical accident ... reduce the risk of injury. Before a Household Chemical Emergency It is critical to store household chemicals ...

  8. Renal microvascular disease in an aging population: a reversible process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futrakul, Narisa; Futrakul, Prasit

    2008-01-01

    Renal microvascular disease and tubulointerstitial fibrosis are usually demonstrated in aging in humans and animals. It has recently been proposed that renal microvascular disease is the crucial determinant of tubulointerstitial disease or fibrosis. Enhanced circulating endothelial cell loss is a biomarker that reflects glomerular endothelial injury or renal microvascular disease, and fractional excretion of magnesium (FE Mg) is a sensitive biomarker that reflects an early stage of tubulointerstitial fibrosis. In aging in humans, both of these biomarkers are abnormally elevated. In addition, a glomerular endothelial dysfunction determined by altered hemodynamics associated with peritubular capillary flow reduction is substantiated. A correction of such hemodynamic alteration with vasodilators can effectively improve renal perfusion and restore renal function. Thus, anti-aging therapy can reverse the renal microvascular disease and dysfunction associated with the aging process.

  9. Enhanced mobility for aging populations using automated vehicles : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that aging adults have travel needs that can be inadequately addressed by todays : transportation system. Automated vehicles (AVs), ranging from assistive technologies to full : automation, may offer a safe and efficient transportatio...

  10. An agent-based computational model for tuberculosis spreading on age-structured populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graciani Rodrigues, C. C.; Espíndola, Aquino L.; Penna, T. J. P.

    2015-06-01

    In this work we present an agent-based computational model to study the spreading of the tuberculosis (TB) disease on age-structured populations. The model proposed is a merge of two previous models: an agent-based computational model for the spreading of tuberculosis and a bit-string model for biological aging. The combination of TB with the population aging, reproduces the coexistence of health states, as seen in real populations. In addition, the universal exponential behavior of mortalities curves is still preserved. Finally, the population distribution as function of age shows the prevalence of TB mostly in elders, for high efficacy treatments.

  11. Outsourcing Memory in Response to an Aging Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael; Schryer, Emily

    2015-11-01

    With baby boomers entering old age and longevity increasing, policymakers have focused on the physical, social, and health needs of older persons. We urge policymakers to consider cognitive aging as well, particularly normal, age-related memory decline. Psychological scientists attribute memory decline mainly to cognitive overload stemming from age-related reductions in sensory capacities, speed of cognitive processing, and the ability to filter out irrelevant information. Even in the absence of decline, however, memory is imperfect and forgetting can be especially consequential for older adults. For example, forgetting to take prescription medicines is an age-related problem largely because older adults tend to ingest many more prescription drugs. We propose that policymakers focus on increasing environmental support for memory that can reduce the burden on cognitive resources and thus improve recall. In providing environmental support, policymakers need to pay careful attention to potential age-related changes in physical and cognitive capacity, as well as behavior. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Bilingualism provides a neural reserve for aging populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abutalebi, Jubin; Guidi, Lucia; Borsa, Virginia; Canini, Matteo; Della Rosa, Pasquale A; Parris, Ben A; Weekes, Brendan S

    2015-03-01

    It has been postulated that bilingualism may act as a cognitive reserve and recent behavioral evidence shows that bilinguals are diagnosed with dementia about 4-5 years later compared to monolinguals. In the present study, we investigated the neural basis of these putative protective effects in a group of aging bilinguals as compared to a matched monolingual control group. For this purpose, participants completed the Erikson Flanker task and their performance was correlated to gray matter (GM) volume in order to investigate if cognitive performance predicts GM volume specifically in areas affected by aging. We performed an ex-Gaussian analysis on the resulting RTs and report that aging bilinguals performed better than aging monolinguals on the Flanker task. Bilingualism was overall associated with increased GM in the ACC. Likewise, aging induced effects upon performance correlated only for monolinguals to decreased gray matter in the DLPFC. Taken together, these neural regions might underlie the benefits of bilingualism and act as a neural reserve that protects against the cognitive decline that occurs during aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Household projections by the headship rates method: The case of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Petar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The headship rates method (HRM of household projections based on the share of household heads in the total population of the same demographic characteristics (age, sex, nationality, marital status, etc. is the most commonly used method, especially by statistical institutes and planning institutions. The specific rates of household heads by age are calculated by dividing the number of household holders of a certain age with the total number of residents of the appropriate age. The future number of households is then simply projected on the basis of population projections by age and assumptions about the future changes of HR. The HRM is based on the projection of the future age structure of the population. In that sense, the choice of methods of population projection, as well as the method of projecting HR-s have determining impact on the outcome of household projections. Given the methodological inconsistency typical for official population projections in Serbia and significant differences in addressing uncertainty of the future population change between deterministic and probabilistic approach in making population projections, the decision to use a probabilistic projection of the population of Serbia as the basis for calculating the future number of house-holds and their structure according to the age of the household head proved to be a logical choice. However, as the basic aim of this article is to show the simple method of household projections, the above-mentioned stochastic projection is used in utterly deterministic manner. The median of the prediction interval of the population distributed across age is interpreted as the most probable future, or as a prognosis. The HR-s based on the age structure estimates and estimated number of households by age of the household head from Household budget survey (HBS are used for the purpose of HR projecting so that the number of observations would be large enough for calculating inclination parameters

  14. Household Composition and Longitudinal Health Outcomes for Older Mexican Return Migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrazija, Stipica; López-Ortega, Mariana; Vega, William A.; Robledo, Luis Miguel Gutiérrez; Sribney, William

    2016-01-01

    Mexican return migrant population is increasing, yet our knowledge about their lives after resettlement in Mexico remains fragmentary. Using 2001–2012 longitudinal data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study, we investigate difference in household composition for older migrants who returned from the United States compared to nonmigrants. Furthermore, we fit a Cox proportional hazards model to assess the relationship between household composition and health and functional trajectories of return migrants and nonmigrants. The results indicate that return migrants with long duration of U.S. stay have different household composition than nonmigrants or short-term migrants: On average, they have smaller household size, including fewer females who may be available to offer assistance to older adults. Presence of middle-age females in the household has positive effects on health and functional trajectories. We highlight implications of this research for policy makers in Mexico and the United States. PMID:26966255

  15. Household Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Lusardi, Annamaria

    suggested in the informal saving literature can be captured in the standard optimizing model. Particular attention is given to recent work on the precautionary motive and its implications for saving and consumption behavior. We also discuss the "behavioral" or "psychological" approach that eschews the use......In this survey, we review the recent theoretical and empirical literature on household saving and consumption. The discussion is structured around a list of motives for saving and how well the standard theory captures these motives. We show that almost all of the motives for saving that have been...

  16. Population Aging and the Generational Economy: A Global ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    31 oct. 2011 ... The book is a bona fide crystal ball. It will be a must read for the next decade. David Bloom, Clarence James Gamble Professor of Economics and ... of Global Health and Population, Harvard School of Public Health, USA.

  17. Recent trend in family households in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Z; Guo, L

    1997-01-01

    This study examined trends in household size and age structure in Beijing, China, in 1995. Data were reliably obtained from the 1% sample survey of China. Findings indicate that the average size of a family household was 3.15 persons, that is, 0.050 persons fewer than the 3.20 from the 1990 Census. Children aged 0-14 years in each household averaged 0.04 fewer children during 1990-95. 80% of the decline in household size was due to decreases in the number of children. The percentage of single-family and single-person households declined. Three-person households were the only size group that increased (23.2-40.7%). The household headship (HH) rate for males increased dramatically between the ages of 20 and 30 years and stabilized after 35 years. The HH rate for women grew slowly and continuously until age 50 years and then stabilized. The gender gap in HH appeared at an early age and remained thereafter. The HH rate declined at older ages. The HH rate in Beijing, compared to the national rate, suggests relative gender equity in Beijing. As a child ages, the percentage of three-generation households declines and the percentage of two-generation households rises. As a child becomes an adult, the percentages of single-person households and single-couple households increase. Single-couple households decreased among the middle-aged. 67.4% of the elderly lived in two- or three-generation households. 31.4% of elderly lived in single-person/couple households. The percentage of elderly living with their children declined by 2 points during 1990-95.

  18. Disaster resilience and population ageing: the 1995 Kobe and 2004 Chuetsu earthquakes in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haili; Maki, Norio; Hayashi, Haruo

    2014-04-01

    This paper provides a framework for evaluating the effects of population ageing on disaster resilience. In so doing, it focuses on the 1995 Kobe and 2004 Chuetsu earthquakes, two major disasters that affected Japan before the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake. It analyses regional population recovery on the basis of pre-disaster and post-recovery demographic characteristics using defined transition patterns of population ageing. The evaluation framework demonstrates that various recovery measures make different contributions to disaster resilience for each transition pattern of population ageing. With reference to regional population ageing, the framework allows for a prediction of disaster resilience, facilitating place vulnerability assessments and potentially informing policy-making strategies for Japan and other countries with ageing populations. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  19. Age- and gender-specific prevalence and risk factors for depressive symptoms in the elderly: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaesmer, H; Riedel-Heller, S; Braehler, E; Spangenberg, L; Luppa, M

    2011-10-01

    Information on the prevalence and risk factors for depressive disorders in old age is of considerable interest for the assessment of future needs of the health care system. The aim of the study is to determine age- and gender-specific prevalence of major depression (MD), minor depression (MiD), and depressive symptoms, and to analyze risk factors associated with depressive symptoms. A representative sample of the German population of 1,659 individuals aged 60 to 85 years were visited at home and answered self-rating questionnaires. Depressive symptoms and syndromes (MD, MiD) were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Factors associated with depressive symptoms were determined with linear regression models for the total sample and for men and women separately. Depressive symptoms were found in 28.7% of the participants, while 6.6% were affected by MD or MiD. The highest prevalence of MD and depressive symptoms was found in the oldest age groups. MiD showed an unsteady course across age groups in both sexes. In the total sample as well as in the male subsample, depressive symptoms were significantly associated with increasing age, lower household income, an increasing number of medical conditions, and lower social support. In women only, the number of medical conditions and lacking social support were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms are common in old age and occur on a spectrum ranging from very mild forms to MD. The potential modifiability of a number of risk factors for depressive symptoms opens possibilities of secondary prevention such as treatment of chronic diseases as well as support in requirements of daily living.

  20. Fertility, Mortality and Age Composition Effects of Population Transition in China and India: 1950-2015

    OpenAIRE

    Chaurasia, Aalok Ranjan

    2017-01-01

    "This paper compares the population transition in China and India during 1950-2015 by decomposing population growth into the growth attributed to the changes in fertility and mortality (intrinsic growth), and the growth attributed to the change in population age composition (momentum growth). The analysis reveals similarities and differences in the population transition path followed by the two countries and suggests that India lags behind China by about 30 years in terms of population transi...

  1. Very Low Food Security in US Households Is Predicted by Complex Patterns of Health, Economics, and Service Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seul Ki; Fram, Maryah S; Frongillo, Edward A

    2017-10-01

    Background: Very low food security (VLFS) happens at the intersection of nuanced and complex patterns of risk characteristics across multiple domains. Little is known about the idiosyncratic situations that lead households to experience VLFS. Objective: We used classification and regression tree (CART) analysis, which can handle complex combinations of predictors, to identify patterns of characteristics that distinguish VLFS households in the United States from other households. Methods: Data came from 3 surveys, the 2011-2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), the 2005-2012 NHANES, and the 2002-2012 Current Population Survey (CPS), with sample participants aged ≥18 y and households with income Survey participants were stratified into households with children, adult-only households, and older-adult households (NHIS, CPS) or individuals aged 18-64 y and individuals aged ≥65 y (NHANES). Household food security was measured with the use of the 10-item US Adult Food Security Scale. Variables from multiple domains, including sociodemographic characteristics, health, health care, and participation in social welfare and food assistance programs, were considered as predictors. The 3 data sources were analyzed separately with the use of CART analysis. Results: Household experiences of VLFS were associated with different predictors for different types of households and often occurred at the intersection of multiple characteristics spanning unmet medical needs, poor health, disability, limitation, depressive symptoms, low income, and food assistance program participation. These predictors built complex trees with various combinations in different types of households. Conclusions: This study showed that multiple characteristics across multiple domains distinguished VLFS households. Flexible and nonlinear methods focusing on a wide range of risk characteristics should be used to identify VLFS households and to inform policies and programs that can address VLFS

  2. Exceptional Brain Aging in a Rural Population-Based Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Jeffrey; Michael, Yvonne; Calvert, James; Leahy, Marjorie; Crawford, Debbie; Kramer, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Context: The 2000 US Census identified 50,454 Americans over the age of 100. Increased longevity is only of benefit if accompanied by maintenance of independence and quality of life. Little is known about the prevalence of dementia and other disabling conditions among rural centenarians although this information is important to clinicians caring…

  3. Population ageing and healthcare demand: The case of Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrhovec, Jure; Tajnikar, Maks

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the consequences of demographic ageing on healthcare demand in Slovenia for primary care, secondary care, hospital day-care treatments, and hospitalisations. In the paper, we develop a model for making projections of the total number of treatments using the age-group projection method with the scenario approach. The model allows the number of treatments to be observed with respect to medical services, age groups and main disease groups. The results are presented for the cross-section years 2015, 2025 and 2035. The smallest increase in the number of treatments occurs in primary care, a larger one for secondary care, and the largest for hospital day-care services and hospitalisations (up to 29.9%). The structure of demand will also change. Demand for healthcare services for children and infants will decrease while demand for diseases associated with older age groups will increase, particularly for diseases of the circulatory system, eye and adnexa, and diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs. The results presented in this paper can help improve understanding of similar processes in other countries for total healthcare demand and for changes in the structure of demand. The results show that the healthcare system in Slovenia will face a major additional burden in the next 20 years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Population migration and its contribution to household income in the region of origin. A case study of the village of Mengwi, Badung regency, Bali].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudibia, I K

    1986-06-01

    This study examines labor migration from the Balinese village of Mengwi, Indonesia, and its contribution to household income in the village of origin. The data concern some 150 households, including 108 commuters, 33 circular migrants, and 108 permanent migrants, and were collected in 1984. The results indicate a significant contribution from migrants, particularly among low-income families. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  5. Understanding Smart Home Sensor Data for Ageing in Place Through Everyday Household Routines: A Mixed Method Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kasteren, Yasmin; Bradford, Dana; Zhang, Qing; Karunanithi, Mohan; Ding, Hang

    2017-06-13

    An ongoing challenge for smart homes research for aging-in-place is how to make sense of the large amounts of data from in-home sensors to facilitate real-time monitoring and develop reliable alerts. The objective of our study was to explore the usefulness of a routine-based approach for making sense of smart home data for the elderly. Maximum variation sampling was used to select three cases for an in-depth mixed methods exploration of the daily routines of three elderly participants in a smart home trial using 180 days of power use and motion sensor data and longitudinal interview data. Sensor data accurately matched self-reported routines. By comparing daily movement data with personal routines, it was possible to identify changes in routine that signaled illness, recovery from bereavement, and gradual deterioration of sleep quality and daily movement. Interview and sensor data also identified changes in routine with variations in temperature and daylight hours. The findings demonstrated that a routine-based approach makes interpreting sensor data easy, intuitive, and transparent. They highlighted the importance of understanding and accounting for individual differences in preferences for routinization and the influence of the cyclical nature of daily routines, social or cultural rhythms, and seasonal changes in temperature and daylight hours when interpreting information based on sensor data. This research has demonstrated the usefulness of a routine-based approach for making sense of smart home data, which has furthered the understanding of the challenges that need to be addressed in order to make real-time monitoring and effective alerts a reality. ©Yasmin van Kasteren, Dana Bradford, Qing Zhang, Mohan Karunanithi, Hang Ding. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 13.06.2017.

  6. Examining the Cervical Screening Behaviour of Women Aged 50 or above and Its Predicting Factors: A Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Carmen W H; Choi, Kai Chow; Wong, Rosa S; Chow, Ka Ming; So, Winnie K W; Leung, Doris Y P; Lam, Wendy W T; Goggins, William

    2016-12-02

    Under-screening may increase the risk of cervical cancer in middle-aged women. This study aimed to investigate cervical cancer screening behaviour and its predictors among women aged 50 years or above. A population-based sample of 959 women was recruited by telephone from domestic households in Hong Kong, using random methods, and a structured questionnaire developed to survey participants. Multivariable logistic regressions were performed to examine the factors independently associated with cervical screening behaviour. Nearly half the sample (48%) had never had a cervical smear test. Multivariable analyses showed that age, educational level, marital status, family history of cancer, smoking status, use of complementary therapy, recommendation from health professionals, and believing that regular visits to a doctor or a Chinese herbalist were good for their health were predictors of cervical screening behaviour. Misconceptions concerned with menopause may reduce women's perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer, especially if they are 50 or above, and exert a negative effect on their screening behaviour. Healthcare professionals should actively approach these high-risk groups-older unmarried women, smokers, those less educated and who are generally not much concerned with their health.

  7. Examining the Cervical Screening Behaviour of Women Aged 50 or above and Its Predicting Factors: A Population-Based Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen W. H. Chan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Under-screening may increase the risk of cervical cancer in middle-aged women. This study aimed to investigate cervical cancer screening behaviour and its predictors among women aged 50 years or above. A population-based sample of 959 women was recruited by telephone from domestic households in Hong Kong, using random methods, and a structured questionnaire developed to survey participants. Multivariable logistic regressions were performed to examine the factors independently associated with cervical screening behaviour. Nearly half the sample (48% had never had a cervical smear test. Multivariable analyses showed that age, educational level, marital status, family history of cancer, smoking status, use of complementary therapy, recommendation from health professionals, and believing that regular visits to a doctor or a Chinese herbalist were good for their health were predictors of cervical screening behaviour. Misconceptions concerned with menopause may reduce women’s perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer, especially if they are 50 or above, and exert a negative effect on their screening behaviour. Healthcare professionals should actively approach these high-risk groups–older unmarried women, smokers, those less educated and who are generally not much concerned with their health.

  8. The burden of common infectious disease syndromes at the clinic and household level from population-based surveillance in rural and urban Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feikin, Daniel R; Olack, Beatrice; Bigogo, Godfrey M; Audi, Allan; Cosmas, Leonard; Aura, Barrack; Burke, Heather; Njenga, M Kariuki; Williamson, John; Breiman, Robert F

    2011-01-18

    Characterizing infectious disease burden in Africa is important for prioritizing and targeting limited resources for curative and preventive services and monitoring the impact of interventions. From June 1, 2006 to May 31, 2008, we estimated rates of acute lower respiratory tract illness (ALRI), diarrhea and acute febrile illness (AFI) among >50,000 persons participating in population-based surveillance in impoverished, rural western Kenya (Asembo) and an informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya (Kibera). Field workers visited households every two weeks, collecting recent illness information and performing limited exams. Participants could access free high-quality care in a designated referral clinic in each site. Incidence and longitudinal prevalence were calculated and compared using Poisson regression. INCIDENCE RATES RESULTING IN CLINIC VISITATION WERE THE FOLLOWING: ALRI--0.36 and 0.51 episodes per year for children poor Kenyan communities still suffer from a high burden of infectious diseases, which likely hampers their development. Urban slum and rural disease incidence and clinic utilization are sufficiently disparate in Africa to warrant data from both settings for estimating burden and focusing interventions.

  9. Population ageing and pension reform in a small open economy with non-traded goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bettendorf, Leon J. H.; Heijdra, Ben J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we study the implications of population ageing in an economy with a sizeable non-traded goods sector. To this effect a highly stylized micro-founded macro model is constructed in which the age structure of the population plays a non-trivial role. The model distinguishes separate birth

  10. Population Ageing and Pension Reform in a Small Open Economy with Non-Traded Goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.H. Bettendorf (Leon); B.J. Heijdra (Ben)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we study the implications of population ageing in an economy with a sizeable non-traded goods sector. To this effect a highly stylized micro-founded macro model is constructed in which the age structure of the population plays a non-trivial role. The model distinguishes

  11. Age-dependent dose coefficients for tritium in Asian populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.

    1999-10-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publications 56 (1989) and 67 (1993) have prescribed the biokinetic models and age-dependent dose coefficients for tritiated water and organically bound tritium. The dose coefficients are computed from values selected to specify the anatomical, morphological and physiological characteristics of a three-month-old, one-year-old, five-year-old, 10-year-old, 15-year-old and adult (Reference Man) Caucasian living in North America and Western Europe. However, values for Reference Man and other age groups are not directly applicable to Asians, because of differences in race, custom, dietary habits and climatic conditions. An Asian Man model, including five age groups, has been proposed by Tanaka and Kawamura (1996, 1998) for use in internal dosimetry. The basic concept of the ICRP Reference Man and the system describing body composition in ICRP Publication 23 (1975) were used. Reference values for Asians were given for the body weight and height, the mass of soft tissue, the mass of body water and the daily fluid balance, and are used to compute the dose coefficients for tritium. The age-dependent dose coefficients for Asians for tritiated water intakes are smaller by 20 to 30% of the currently prescribed values (Trivedi, 1998). The reduction in the dose coefficient values is caused by the increased daily fluid balance among Asians. The dose coefficient for tritiated water is 1.4 x 10 -11 Sv Bq -1 for Asian Man compared to 2.0 x 10 -11 Sv Bq -1 for Reference Man. The dose coefficients for organically bound tritium are only marginally different from those of the ICRP values. The dose coefficient for organically bound tritium for Asian Man is 4.0 x 10 -11 Sv Bq -11 compared to 4.6 x 10 -11 Sv Bq -1 for Reference Man. (author)

  12. Age-dependent dose coefficients for tritium in Asian populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, A

    1999-10-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publications 56 (1989) and 67 (1993) have prescribed the biokinetic models and age-dependent dose coefficients for tritiated water and organically bound tritium. The dose coefficients are computed from values selected to specify the anatomical, morphological and physiological characteristics of a three-month-old, one-year-old, five-year-old, 10-year-old, 15-year-old and adult (Reference Man) Caucasian living in North America and Western Europe. However, values for Reference Man and other age groups are not directly applicable to Asians, because of differences in race, custom, dietary habits and climatic conditions. An Asian Man model, including five age groups, has been proposed by Tanaka and Kawamura (1996, 1998) for use in internal dosimetry. The basic concept of the ICRP Reference Man and the system describing body composition in ICRP Publication 23 (1975) were used. Reference values for Asians were given for the body weight and height, the mass of soft tissue, the mass of body water and the daily fluid balance, and are used to compute the dose coefficients for tritium. The age-dependent dose coefficients for Asians for tritiated water intakes are smaller by 20 to 30% of the currently prescribed values (Trivedi, 1998). The reduction in the dose coefficient values is caused by the increased daily fluid balance among Asians. The dose coefficient for tritiated water is 1.4 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -1} for Asian Man compared to 2.0 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -1} for Reference Man. The dose coefficients for organically bound tritium are only marginally different from those of the ICRP values. The dose coefficient for organically bound tritium for Asian Man is 4.0 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -11} compared to 4.6 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -1} for Reference Man. (author)

  13. Mitochondrial DNA variation in the Viking age population of Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Krzewińska, Maja; Bjørnstad, Gro; Skoglund, Pontus; Olason, Pall Isolfur; Bill, Jan; Götherström, Anders; Hagelberg, Erika

    2015-01-01

    The medieval Norsemen or Vikings had an important biological and cultural impact on many parts of Europe through raids, colonization and trade, from about AD 793 to 1066. To help understand the genetic affinities of the ancient Norsemen, and their genetic contribution to the gene pool of other Europeans, we analysed DNA markers in Late Iron Age skeletal remains from Norway. DNA was extracted from 80 individuals, and mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms were detected by next-generation sequencing. ...

  14. A Predictive Model for Acute Admission in Aged Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansourvar, Marjan; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen; Nøhr, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Acute hospital admission among the elderly population is very common and have a high impact on the health services and the community, as well as on the individuals. Several studies have focused on the possible risk factors, however, predicting who is at risk for acute hospitalization associated...... with disease and symptoms is still an open research question. In this study, we investigate the use of machine learning algorithms for predicting acute admission in older people based on admission data from individual citizens 70 years and older who were hospitalized in the acute medical unit of Svendborg...

  15. Ageing of a giant: a stochastic population forecast for China, 2006-2060

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Q.; Reuser, M.; Kraus, C.; Alho, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a stochastic population forecast for China with a special emphasis on population ageing. The so-called scaled model for error was used to quantify the uncertainty attached to the population predictions. Data scarcity was a major problem in the specification of the expected error

  16. Vaslui county in the national context: evolution and effects of mobility of the working age population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Florina MUNTEANU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The following paper shows the transition from internal to external migration and places Vaslui County into a spatial and time frame from the perspective of population mobility. Moreover, the consequences of the downgrading of internal migration by international migration are subject to the evolution of demographical and social indicators on which there are reflected: birth rate, general fertility, the rate of population growth, the index of demographical aging, because the involvement of the young population and young adult population in international migration led to a numerical decrease of the population with ages between 0-14, from 23,7% in 1990 to 15,0% in 2012, the increase of the majority of the old age population, of 65 years old and more, from 10,3% in 1990 to 15,0% in 2012 and of adult the population, 15-64 years old, from 66% in 1990 to 70% in 2012, according to National Institute of Statistics.

  17. Household characteristics for older adults and study background from SAGE Ghana Wave 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B. Biritwum

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, the population aged 60 years and older is projected to reach 22% by 2050. In sub-Saharan Africa, this figure is projected to exceed 8%, while in Ghana, the older adult population will reach 12% by 2050. The living arrangements and household characteristics are fundamental determinants of the health and well-being of this population, data sources about which are increasingly available. Methods: The World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE Wave 1 was conducted in China, Ghana, India, Russian Federation, Mexico, and South Africa between 2007 and 2010. SAGE Ghana Wave 1 was implemented in 2007/08 using face-to-face interviews in a nationally representative sample of persons aged 50-plus, along with a smaller cohort aged 18–49 years for comparison purposes. Household information included a household roster including questions about health insurance coverage for all household members, household and sociodemographic characteristics, status of the dwelling, and economic situation. Re-interviews were done in a random 10% of the sample and proxy interviews done where necessary. Verbal autopsies were conducted for deaths occurring in older adult household members in the 24 months prior to interview. Results: The total household population was 27,270 from 5,178 households. The overall household response rate was 86% and household cooperation rate was 98%. Thirty-four percent of household members were under 15 years of age while 8.3% were aged 65-plus years. Households with more than 11 members were more common in rural areas (57.2% and in the highest income quintile (30.6%. Household members with no formal education formed 24.7% of the sample, with Northern and Upper East regions reaching more than 50%. Only 26.8% of the household members had insurance coverage. Households with hard floors ranged from 25.7% in Upper West to 97.7% in Ashanti region. Overall, 84.9% of the households had access to

  18. Household characteristics for older adults and study background from SAGE Ghana Wave 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biritwum, Richard B; Mensah, George; Minicuci, Nadia; Yawson, Alfred E; Naidoo, Nirmala; Chatterji, Somnath; Kowal, Paul

    2013-06-11

    Globally, the population aged 60 years and older is projected to reach 22% by 2050. In sub-Saharan Africa, this figure is projected to exceed 8%, while in Ghana, the older adult population will reach 12% by 2050. The living arrangements and household characteristics are fundamental determinants of the health and well-being of this population, data sources about which are increasingly available. The World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 1 was conducted in China, Ghana, India, Russian Federation, Mexico, and South Africa between 2007 and 2010. SAGE Ghana Wave 1 was implemented in 2007/08 using face-to-face interviews in a nationally representative sample of persons aged 50-plus, along with a smaller cohort aged 18-49 years for comparison purposes. Household information included a household roster including questions about health insurance coverage for all household members, household and sociodemographic characteristics, status of the dwelling, and economic situation. Re-interviews were done in a random 10% of the sample and proxy interviews done where necessary. Verbal autopsies were conducted for deaths occurring in older adult household members in the 24 months prior to interview. The total household population was 27,270 from 5,178 households. The overall household response rate was 86% and household cooperation rate was 98%. Thirty-four percent of household members were under 15 years of age while 8.3% were aged 65-plus years. Households with more than 11 members were more common in rural areas (57.2%) and in the highest income quintile (30.6%). Household members with no formal education formed 24.7% of the sample, with Northern and Upper East regions reaching more than 50%. Only 26.8% of the household members had insurance coverage. Households with hard floors ranged from 25.7% in Upper West to 97.7% in Ashanti region. Overall, 84.9% of the households had access to improved sources of drinking water, with the lowest at

  19. Household demographic determinants of Ebola epidemic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ben

    2016-03-07

    A salient characteristic of Ebola, and some other infectious diseases such as Tuberculosis, is intense transmission among small groups of cohabitants and relatively limited indiscriminate transmission in the wider population. Here we consider a mathematical model for an Ebola epidemic in a population structured into households of equal size. We show that household size, a fundamental demographic unit, is a critical factor that determines the vulnerability of a community to epidemics, and the effort required to control them. Our analysis is based on the household reproduction number, but we also consider the basic reproduction number, intrinsic growth rate and final epidemic size. We show that, when other epidemiological parameters are kept the same, all of these quantifications of epidemic growth and size are increased by larger households and more intense within-household transmission. We go on to model epidemic control by case detection and isolation followed by household quarantine. We show that, if household quarantine is ineffective, the critical probability with which cases must be detected to halt an epidemic increases significantly with each increment in household size and may be a very challenging target for communities composed of large households. Effective quarantine may, however, mitigate the detrimental impact of large household sizes. We conclude that communities composed of large households are fundamentally more vulnerable to epidemics of infectious diseases primarily transmitted by close contact, and any assessment of control strategies for these epidemics should take into account the demographic structure of the population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Determinants of health and disability in ageing population: the COURAGE in Europe Project (collaborative research on ageing in Europe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Matilde; Chatterji, Somnath; Koskinen, Seppo; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Haro, Josep Maria; Frisoni, Giovanni; Frattura, Lucilla; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Gmurek, Michal; Serrano, Ramon; Finocchiaro, Carla

    2014-01-01

    COURAGE in Europe was a 3-year project involving 12 partners from four European countries and the World Health Organization. It was inspired by the pressing need to integrate international studies on disability and ageing in light of an innovative perspective based on a validated data-collection protocol. COURAGE in Europe Project collected data on the determinants of health and disability in an ageing population, with specific tools for the evaluation of the role of the built environment and social networks on health, disability, quality of life and well-being. The main survey was conducted by partners in Finland, Poland and Spain where the survey has been administered to a sample of 10,800 persons, which was completed in March 2012. The newly developed and validated COURAGE Protocol for Ageing Studies has proven to be a valid tool for collecting comparable data in ageing population, and the COURAGE in Europe Project has created valid and reliable scientific evidence, demonstrating cross-country comparability, for disability and ageing research and policy development. It is therefore recommended that future studies exploring determinants of health and disability in ageing use the COURAGE-derived methodology. COURAGE in Europe Project collected data on the determinants of health and disability in an ageing population, with specific tools for the evaluation of the role of built environment and social networks on health, disability quality of life and well-being. The COURAGE Protocol for Ageing Studies has proven to be a valid tool for collecting comparable data in the ageing population. The COURAGE in Europe Consortium recommends that future studies exploring determinants of health and disability in ageing use COURAGE-derived methodology. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Gut bifidobacteria populations in human health and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Arboleya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota has increasingly been shown to have a vital role in various aspects of human health. Indeed, several studies have linked alterations in the gut microbiota with the development of different diseases. Among the vast gut bacterial community, Bifidobacterium is a genus which dominates the intestine of healthy breast-fed infants whereas in adulthood the levels are lower but relatively stable. The presence of different species of bifidobacteria changes with age, from the childhood to old age. Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium breve and Bifidobacterium bifidum are generally dominant in infants whereas Bifidobacterium catenulatum, Bifidobacterium adolescentis and, as well as B. longum are more dominant in adults. Increasingly, evidence is accumulating which shows beneficial effect of supplementation with bifidobacteria for the improvement of human health conditions ranging from protection against infection to different extra- and intra-intestinal positive effects. Moreover, bifidobacteria can be associated with the production of a number of potentially health promoting metabolites including short chain fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid and bacteriocins. The aim of this mini-review is to describe the bifidobacteria composition changes associated with different stages in life, highlighting their beneficial role, as well as their presence in commonly known disease states.

  2. Household ecology and out-migration among ethnic Karen along the Thai-Myanmar border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. Parker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Local migration in developing-world settings, particularly among rural populations, is an important yet understudied demographic process. Research on migration in such populations can help us test and inform anthropological and demographic theory. Furthermore, it can lead to a better understanding of modern population distributions and epidemiologic landscapes. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential relationships between household- and individual-level factors on out-migration among Karen villagers along the Thai-Myanmar border. Methods: We used a random effects hazard model to investigate the relationship of household consumer-producer (C/P ratios, the number of household members, and an individual's sex on the odds of outmigration. We then used simulations in order to test the sensitivity of our model to our C/P ratio weighting scheme. Results: We found that the number of household members is predictive of increased out-migration. Household C/P ratios were positively associated with out-migration in children but negatively associated with out-migration in working age adults. Finally, adult males were much more likely to move out of the household than were adult females. Conclusions: While household-level factors are important with regard to out-migration, the relationships between such household-level factors and out-migration are complex and vary by the individual's age and sex. Our study offers two novel concepts to household demography and migration studies. First, this study offers a new approach to evaluating weighting schemes for C/P ratios. Second, we show that household level factors are important at units of time (two-week intervals that are not normally studied by demographers.

  3. Estimating demographic contributions to effective population size in an age-structured wild population experiencing environmental and demographic stochasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trask, Amanda E; Bignal, Eric M; McCracken, Davy I; Piertney, Stuart B; Reid, Jane M

    2017-09-01

    A population's effective size (N e ) is a key parameter that shapes rates of inbreeding and loss of genetic diversity, thereby influencing evolutionary processes and population viability. However, estimating N e , and identifying key demographic mechanisms that underlie the N e to census population size (N) ratio, remains challenging, especially for small populations with overlapping generations and substantial environmental and demographic stochasticity and hence dynamic age-structure. A sophisticated demographic method of estimating N e /N, which uses Fisher's reproductive value to account for dynamic age-structure, has been formulated. However, this method requires detailed individual- and population-level data on sex- and age-specific reproduction and survival, and has rarely been implemented. Here, we use the reproductive value method and detailed demographic data to estimate N e /N for a small and apparently isolated red-billed chough (Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax) population of high conservation concern. We additionally calculated two single-sample molecular genetic estimates of N e to corroborate the demographic estimate and examine evidence for unobserved immigration and gene flow. The demographic estimate of N e /N was 0.21, reflecting a high total demographic variance (σ2dg) of 0.71. Females and males made similar overall contributions to σ2dg. However, contributions varied among sex-age classes, with greater contributions from 3 year-old females than males, but greater contributions from ≥5 year-old males than females. The demographic estimate of N e was ~30, suggesting that rates of increase of inbreeding and loss of genetic variation per generation will be relatively high. Molecular genetic estimates of N e computed from linkage disequilibrium and approximate Bayesian computation were approximately 50 and 30, respectively, providing no evidence of substantial unobserved immigration which could bias demographic estimates of N e . Our analyses identify

  4. Population structure age of Paraná state between 1970 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Pintor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The theory of demographic transition began with an effort of Frank Notestein (1945 to understand the demographic changes that were occurring in Western Europe since the late nineteenth century. The demographic transition is the transition between two scenarios of population growth, which changes the age structure of the population. The aim of the article is to discuss the evolution of population structure age of Paraná state between 1970 and 2010. The changes in the age structure of the Paraná indicate a reduction in the share of young population and increasing aging population, an increase in the relative weight of the elderly population. Public policies on education, health, social security and labor market should consider the current change in the age structure. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the change in the age structure of the population of the state of Paraná. For this we used data Censuses of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE on the age distribution of urban and rural Paraná and its Mesoregions. It was concluded that the change in structure occurs group widespread in all Mesoregions state. However, it occurs unevenly between urban and rural population.

  5. Demographic ageing of the population in the County of Šibenik-Knin: grandparent boom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Mrđen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses demographic ageing of the population in the County of Šibenik-Knin by using basic demographic indicators based on data collected from population censuses from 1971 to 2011. It analyses spatial differentiation of the ageing process at the level of the County, micro-regions, towns/municipalities and settlements. The research also provides a comparison of population ageing in different counties of the Republic of Croatia, from which it is evident that the County of Šibenik-Knin, as well as the Country of Lika-Senj, has the oldest population in Croatia. Ageing in the County of Šibenik-Knin, which was triggered by extreme rural exodus that was most intensive from the end of 1960s to the early 1970s, as well as by continuous declining fertility rates and by inherited age composition, was recorded at all territorial levels of the County. Although the ageing process started in littoral area (Primorje, hinterland (Zagora experienced a faster and more intensive ageing. Based on numerous indicators of demographic ageing and its intensity, and compared with the point value indicators of ageing, it is evident that the population of the County of Šibenik-Knin is characterized by advanced old age. However, more than half of the observed settlements are characterized by very advanced or extremely advanced old age.

  6. Marijuana Use, Recent Marijuana Initiation, and Progression to Marijuana Use Disorder Among Young Male and Female Adolescents Aged 12-14 Living in US Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie L Forman-Hoffman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Marijuana initiation during adolescence, and early adolescence in particular, is associated with adverse health consequences. Our study used 2005-2014 data from the annual, cross-sectional National Survey on Drug Use and Health to study the prevalence and correlates of marijuana initiation, use, and marijuana use disorder (MUD; abuse or dependence among 12- to 14-year olds living in civilian US households (n = 84 954. Examined correlates included age, sex, race/ethnicity, poverty status, metropolitan status, year of survey, depression, tobacco use, alcohol use, and fighting at school. Sex differences in the correlates of lifetime use and past year marijuana initiation were tested via interaction. Lifetime prevalence of marijuana use was 5.5%; 3.2% reported past year initiation. About 1 in 6 (16.8% past year initiates progressed to MUD within 12 months of first use. Although men had higher prevalence of lifetime use than women, past year initiation did not differ by sex. On examining the sex*race/ethnicity interaction effects, findings determined that non-Hispanic black and Hispanic men had higher prevalence estimates of ever using marijuana and incidence of past year initiation as compared with non-Hispanic white men; these race/ethnicity differences were not found among women. Identifying correlates of initiation and progression to MUD among young adolescents is critical to improve prevention and treatment program targets.

  7. Habitual physical activity and vascular aging in a young to middle-age population at low cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozakova, Michaela; Palombo, Carlo; Mhamdi, Leila

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Regular endurance exercise has been shown to reduce the age-related increase in arterial stiffness that is thought to contribute to cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of age and habitual physical activity on carotid artery wall thickness...... physical activity was negatively related to indices of carotid stiffness (r from -0.20 to -0.25, Page...... and physical activity were independently related to carotid stiffness. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides cross-sectional evidence that habitual physical activity is inversely related to the age-dependent increase in carotid wall stiffness in a young to middle-age population at low risk...

  8. Estimation of age structure of fish populations from length-frequency data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, K.D.; Adams, S.M.

    1977-01-01

    A probability model is presented to determine the age structure of a fish population from length-frequency data. It is shown that when the age-length key is available, maximum-likelihood estimates of the age structure can be obtained. When the key is not available, approximate estimates of the age structure can be obtained. The model is used for determination of the age structure of populations of channel catfish and white crappie. Practical applications of the model to impact assessment are discussed

  9. Intake of ruminant trans fatty acids in the Danish population aged 1-80 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Bysted, Anette; Andersen, N. L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the intake of ruminant trans fatty acids (TFA) in the Danish population aged 1 - 80 years. Design: Descriptive study. Subjects: A sex- and age-stratified random sample drawn from the Danish Civil Registration System. A total of 3098 participants (51% female) aged 1 - 80 yea...

  10. Population biology of intestinal Enterococcus Isolates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized individuals in different age groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tedim, Ana P.; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Corander, Jukka; Rodríguez, Concepción M.; Cantón, Rafael; Willems, Rob J.; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M.

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of enterococcal populations from fecal samples from hospitalized (n=133) and nonhospitalized individuals (n= 173) of different age groups (group I, ages 0 to 19 years; group II, ages 20 to 59 years; group III, ages≥60 years) was analyzed. Enterococci were recovered at similar rates

  11. Frequency of Dental Caries in Four Historical Populations from the Chalcolithic to the Middle Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-M. Grimoud

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of dental carie studies over the course of historical period underline mainly the prevalence evolution, the role of carbohydrates consumption and the impact of access to dietary resources. The purpose of the present investigation was to compare population samples from two archaeological periods the Chacolithic and Middle Age taking into account the geographical and socio economical situation. The study concerned four archaelogical sites in south west France and population samples an inlander for the Chalcolithic Age, an inlander, an costal and urban for the Middle Age. The materials studied included a total of 127 maxillaries, 103 mandibles and 3316 teeth. Data recorded allowed us to display that the Chalcolithic population sample had the lowest carie percentage and the rural inlander population samples of Middle Age the highest; in all cases molars were teeth most often affected. These ones differences could be explained according to time period, carious lesions were usually less recorded in the Chalcolithic Age than the Middle because of a lesser cultivation of cereals like in les Treilles Chacolithic population sample. In the Middle Age population samples, the rural inland sample Marsan showed the highest frequency of caries and ate more cereal than the coastal Vilarnau and the poor urban St Michel population samples, the first one ate fish and Mediterranean vegetal and fruits and the second one met difficulties to food access, in both cases the consumption of carbohydrates was lesser than Marsan population sample who lived in a geographical land convice to cereals cultivation.

  12. Validation of the Malaysian Coping Strategy Instrument to measure household food insecurity in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Norhasmah; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Jalil, Rohana Abdul; Taib, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu

    2011-12-01

    Food insecurity occurs whenever people are not able to access enough food at all times for an active and healthy life or when adequate and safe food acquired by socially acceptable ways is not available. To validate the Malaysian Coping Strategy Instrument (MCSI) to measure household food insecurity in Kelantan, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 301 nonpregnant, nonlactating Malay women, aged between 19 and 49 years, living in rural and urban areas. The respondents were interviewed with the use of a structured questionnaire to obtain information on their demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, household food security, and dietary intake. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics (household size, number of children, number of children attending school, household income, and per capita income) were significantly associated with household food-security status in rural and urban areas. Energy intake, fat intake, percentage of energy from fat, and number of servings of meat,fish, or poultry and legumes were significantly associated with household food-security status in rural areas. The dietary diversity score was significantly associated with household food-security status in rural and urban areas. Validating the MCSI in other areas of Malaysia as well as in similar settings elsewhere in the world before it is used to measure household food insecurity in the population is strongly recommended. In this study, the MCSI was found to be a reliable and valid measure of household food insecurity based on criterion-related validity, particularly in terms of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and dietary diversity.

  13. Household food security is associated with growth of infants and young children in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Kuntal K; Frongillo, Edward A; Alam, Dewan S; Arifeen, Shams E; Persson, Lars A; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2009-09-01

    Despite a strong relationship between household food security and the health and nutritional status of adults and older children, the association of household food security with the growth of infants and young children has not been adequately studied, particularly in developing countries. We examined the association between household food security and subsequent growth of infants and young children in rural Bangladesh. We followed 1343 children from birth to 24 months of age who were born in the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Intervention in Matlab (MINIMat) study in rural Bangladesh. A food security scale was created from data collected on household food security from the mothers during pregnancy. Data on weight and length were collected monthly in the first year and quarterly in the second year of life. Anthropometric indices were calculated relative to the 2006 WHO child growth standards. Growth trajectories were modelled using multilevel models for change controlling for possible confounders. Household food security was associated (P secure households. Proportions of underweight and stunting were significantly (P secure households. These results suggest that household food security is a determinant of child growth in rural Bangladesh, and that it may be necessary to ensure food security of these poor rural households to prevent highly prevalent undernutrition in this population and in similar settings elsewhere in the world.

  14. [Health services access survey for Colombian households].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrivillaga, Marcela; Aristizabal, Juan Carlos; Pérez, Mauricio; Estrada, Victoria Eugenia

    The aim of this study was to design and validate a health services access survey for households in Colombia to provide a methodological tool that allows the country to accumulate evidence of real-life access conditions experienced by the Colombian population. A validation study with experts and a pilot study were performed. It was conducted in the municipality of Jamundi, located in the department of Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Probabilistic, multistage and stratified cluster sampling was carried out. The final sample was 215 households. The survey was composed of 63 questions divided into five modules: socio-demographic profile of the head of the household or adult informant, household socioeconomic profile, access to preventive services, access to curative and rehabilitative services and household out of pocket expenditure. In descriptive terms, the promotion of preventive services only reached 44%; the use of these services was always highest among children younger than one year old and up to the age of ten. The perceived need for emergency medical care and hospitalisation was between 82% and 85%, but 36% perceived the quality of care to be low or very low. Delays were experienced in medical visits with GPs and specialists. The designed survey is valid, relevant and representative of access to health services in Colombia. Empirically, the pilot showed institutional weaknesses in a municipality of the country, indicating that health coverage does not in practice mean real and effective access to health services. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Precision and accuracy of commonly used dental age estimation charts for the New Zealand population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, Stephanie; Bassed, Richard

    2017-08-01

    Little research has been undertaken for the New Zealand population in the field of dental age estimation. This research to date indicates there are differences in dental developmental rates between the New Zealand population and other global population groups, and within the New Zealand population itself. Dental age estimation methods range from dental development charts to complex biometric analysis. Dental development charts are not the most accurate method of dental age estimation, but are time saving in their use. They are an excellent screening tool, particularly for post-mortem identification purposes, and for assessing variation from population norms in living individuals. The aim of this study was to test the precision and accuracy of three dental development charts (Schour and Massler, Blenkin and Taylor, and the London Atlas), used to estimate dental age of a sample of New Zealand juveniles between the ages of 5 and 18 years old (n=875). Percentage 'best fit' to correct age category and to expected chart stage were calculated to determine which chart was the most precise for the sample. Chronological ages were compared to estimated dental ages using a two-tailed paired t-test (Pcharts tested against the New Zealand population sample, the Blenkin and Taylor Australian charts performed best overall. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Urban Household Carbon Emission and Contributing Factors in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xibao; Tan, Yan; Chen, Shuang; Yang, Guishan; Su, Weizhong

    2015-01-01

    Carbon reduction at the household level is an integral part of carbon mitigation. This study analyses the characteristics, effects, contributing factors and policies for urban household carbon emissions in the Yangtze River Delta of China. Primary data was collected through structured questionnaire surveys in three cities in the region – Nanjing, Ningbo, and Changzhou in 2011. The survey data was first used to estimate the magnitude of household carbon emissions in different urban contexts. It then examined how, and to what extent, each set of demographic, economic, behavioral/cognitive and spatial factors influence carbon emissions at the household level. The average of urban household carbon emissions in the region was estimated to be 5.96 tonnes CO2 in 2010. Energy consumption, daily commuting, garbage disposal and long-distance travel accounted for 51.2%, 21.3%, 16.0% and 11.5% of the total emission, respectively. Regulating rapidly growing car-holdings of urban households, stabilizing population growth, and transiting residents’ low-carbon awareness to household behavior in energy saving and other spheres of consumption in the context of rapid population aging and the growing middle income class are suggested as critical measures for carbon mitigation among urban households in the Yangtze River Delta. PMID:25884853

  17. Internal migration and regional differences of population aging: An empirical study of 287 cities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Xu, Ping; Li, Fen; Song, Peipei

    2018-04-02

    In addition to birth and death, migration is also an important factor that determines the level of population aging in different regions, especially under the current context of low fertility and low mortality in China. Drawing upon data from the fifth and sixth national population census of 287 prefecture-level cities in China, this study explored the spatial patterns of population aging and its trends from 2000 to 2010 in China. We further examined how the large-scale internal migration was related to the spatial differences and the changes of aging by using multivariate quantitative models. Findings showed that the percentage of elder cities (i.e. proportion of individuals aged 65 and above to total population is higher than 7%) increased from 50% to 90% in the total 287 cities within the decade. We also found that regional imbalances of population aging have changed since 2000 in China. The gap of aging level between East zone and the other three zones (i.e. West, Central, and North-east) has considerably narrowed down. In 2000, Eastern region had the greatest number (65) of and the largest proportion (74.7%) of elder cities among all four regions. By 2010, the proportion (87.4%) of elder cities in the eastern region was slightly lower than Central (91.4%), Western (88.2%) and North-east sectors (91.2%). Results from multivariate quantitative models showed that the regional differences of population aging appear to be affected much more by the large-scale internal migration with clear age selectivity and orientation preference than by the impact of fertility and mortality. Population aging is expected to continue in China, which will in turn exacerbate regional imbalances. Policies and implications are discussed to face the challenges that the divergent aging population may present in China.

  18. Generation time, net reproductive rate, and growth in stage-age-structured populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2014-01-01

    examples to show how reproductive timing Tc and level R0 are shaped by stage dynamics (individual trait changes), selection on the trait, and parent-offspring phenotypic correlation. We also show how population structure can affect dispersion in reproduction among ages and stages. These macroscopic...... to age-structured populations. Here we generalize this result to populations structured by stage and age by providing a new, unique measure of reproductive timing (Tc) that, along with net reproductive rate (R0), has a direct mathematical relationship to and approximates growth rate (r). We use simple...

  19. Relationship between household wealth inequality and chronic childhood under-nutrition in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Rathavuth; Banta, James E; Betancourt, Jose A

    2006-12-05

    Household food insecurity and under-nutrition remain critically important in developing countries struggling to emerge from the scourge of poverty, where historically, improvements in economic conditions have benefited only certain privileged groups, causing growing inequality in health and healthcare among the population. Utilizing information from 5,977 children aged 0-59 months included in the 2004 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey , this study examined the relationship between household wealth inequality and chronic childhood under-nutrition. A child is defined as being chronically undernourished or whose growth rate is adversely stunted, if his or her z-score of height-for-age is more than two standard deviations below the median of international reference. Household wealth status is measured by an established index based on household ownership of durable assets. This study utilized multivariate logistic regressions to estimate the effect of household wealth status on adverse childhood growth rate. The results indicate that children in the poorest 20% of households are more than three time as likely to suffer from adverse growth rate stunting as children from the wealthiest 20% of households (OR=3.6; 95% CI: 3.0, 4.3). The effect of household wealth status remain significantly large when the analysis was adjusted for a child's multiple birth status, age, gender, antenatal care, delivery assistance, birth order, and duration that the child was breastfed; mother's age at childbirth, nutritional status, education; household access to safe drinking water, arsenic in drinking water, access to a hygienic toilet facility, cooking fuel cleanliness, residence, and geographic location (OR=2.4; 95% CI: 1.8, 3.2). This study concludes that household wealth inequality is strongly associated with childhood adverse growth rate stunting. Reducing poverty and making services more available and accessible to the poor are essential to improving overall childhood health

  20. Relationship between household wealth inequality and chronic childhood under-nutrition in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betancourt Jose A

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Household food insecurity and under-nutrition remain critically important in developing countries struggling to emerge from the scourge of poverty, where historically, improvements in economic conditions have benefited only certain privileged groups, causing growing inequality in health and healthcare among the population. Methods Utilizing information from 5,977 children aged 0-59 months included in the 2004 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey , this study examined the relationship between household wealth inequality and chronic childhood under-nutrition. A child is defined as being chronically undernourished or whose growth rate is adversely stunted, if his or her z-score of height-for-age is more than two standard deviations below the median of international reference. Household wealth status is measured by an established index based on household ownership of durable assets. This study utilized multivariate logistic regressions to estimate the effect of household wealth status on adverse childhood growth rate. Results The results indicate that children in the poorest 20% of households are more than three time as likely to suffer from adverse growth rate stunting as children from the wealthiest 20% of households (OR=3.6; 95% CI: 3.0, 4.3. The effect of household wealth status remain significantly large when the analysis was adjusted for a child's multiple birth status, age, gender, antenatal care, delivery assistance, birth order, and duration that the child was breastfed; mother's age at childbirth, nutritional status, education; household access to safe drinking water, arsenic in drinking water, access to a hygienic toilet facility, cooking fuel cleanliness, residence, and geographic location (OR=2.4; 95% CI: 1.8, 3.2. Conclusion This study concludes that household wealth inequality is strongly associated with childhood adverse growth rate stunting. Reducing poverty and making services more available and accessible

  1. Development of a Healthy Aging Score in the Population-Based Rotterdam Study: Evaluating Age and Sex Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Loes; Schoufour, Josje D; Erler, Nicole S; Darweesh, Sirwan K L; Portegies, Marileen L P; Sedaghat, Sanaz; Lahousse, Lies; Brusselle, Guy G; Stricker, Bruno H; Tiemeier, Henning; Ikram, M Arfan; Laven, Joop S E; Franco, Oscar H; Kavousi, Maryam

    2017-03-01

    To develop a healthy aging score (HAS), to assess age and sex differences in HAS, and to evaluate the association of the HAS with survival. Prospective population-based cohort. Inhabitants of Ommoord, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. A total of 1405 men and 2122 women, mean (standard deviation) age 75.9 (6.4) years. We included 7 domains in the total score of HAS: chronic diseases, mental health, cognitive function, physical function, pain, social support, and quality of life; each scored 0, 1, or 2 in each domain. A total score (range 0-14) was constructed and was assessed continuously and in tertiles (13-14: healthy aging, 11-12: intermediate aging, 0-10: poor aging). Sex-specific change in the mean HAS was computed for the age categories of 65-69, 70-74, 75-79, 80-84, and ≥85 years. The association between HAS and mortality was assessed with Cox proportional hazards models. Mean follow-up was 8.6 (3.4) years. Men had poorer scores in the chronic disease domain than women. However, women had poorer mental health, worse physical function, more pain, and lower quality of life compared with men. The prevalence of healthy aging was higher in men (n = 396, 28.2%), than in women (n = 526, 24.8%). The mean (standard deviation) HAS was 11.1 (2.2) in men and 10.7 (2.3) in women. Mean HAS was higher in men than in women for all age categories. The β for change in mean HAS across the 5 increasing age categories was -0.55 (-0.65 to -0.45) in men and -0.65 (-0.73 to -0.57) in women. The age-adjusted hazard ratio per unit increase in HAS with mortality was 0.86 (0.83-0.89) in men, and 0.89 (0.87-0.91) in women. Levels of HAS were lower in women compared with men, in all age categories. The HAS declined with increasing age for both sexes, albeit slightly steeper in women. The HAS was strongly associated with mortality in both sexes. A better understanding of population healthy aging and sex differences in this regard could aid to implement strategies for sustainable

  2. Household Income Composition and Household Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Voynov, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    The paper focuses on the change in household income composition and the factors that determine it. The results bring additional knowledge about household poverty dynamics. Based on the collective approach to the family and the cooperative game theory it is constructed theoretical model of household income composition change. The change in income composition is a result from bargaining between household members in attempt to defend the most suitable for them income source. Decisive influence i...

  3. Household composition and psychological health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Lene Eide; Willaing, Ingrid; Holt, Richard I G

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: 1) To explore the effect of household composition on the psychological health of adults with diabetes by comparing those living with other adult(s) including a partner with those living with neither partner nor other adult(s); 2) to examine potential mediation of social support...... in the association between household composition and psychological health. METHODS: The study is part of the DAWN2 study conducted in 17 countries. The population comprised 8596 people with diabetes (PWD). Multiple regression models (linear and binary) were applied. RESULTS: People living with 'other adult...... to the other household composition groups. The association between household composition and psychological health was not mediated by diabetes-specific social support. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates the psychological vulnerability of respondents living without a partner but with other adult(s). Appropriate...

  4. Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in Nakuru, Kenya: a cross-sectional population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanjiku Mathenge

    Full Text Available Diseases of the posterior segment of the eye, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD, have recently been recognised as the leading or second leading cause of blindness in several African countries. However, prevalence of AMD alone has not been assessed. We hypothesized that AMD is an important cause of visual impairment among elderly people in Nakuru, Kenya, and therefore sought to assess the prevalence and predictors of AMD in a diverse adult Kenyan population.In a population-based cross-sectional survey in the Nakuru District of Kenya, 100 clusters of 50 people 50 y of age or older were selected by probability-proportional-to-size sampling between 26 January 2007 and 11 November 2008. Households within clusters were selected through compact segment sampling. All participants underwent a standardised interview and comprehensive eye examination, including dilated slit lamp examination by an ophthalmologist and digital retinal photography. Images were graded for the presence and severity of AMD lesions following a modified version of the International Classification and Grading System for Age-Related Maculopathy. Comparison was made between slit lamp biomicroscopy (SLB and photographic grading. Of 4,381 participants, fundus photographs were gradable for 3,304 persons (75.4%, and SLB was completed for 4,312 (98%. Early and late AMD prevalence were 11.2% and 1.2%, respectively, among participants graded on images. Prevalence of AMD by SLB was 6.7% and 0.7% for early and late AMD, respectively. SLB underdiagnosed AMD relative to photographic grading by a factor of 1.7. After controlling for age, women had a higher prevalence of early AMD than men (odds ratio 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-1.9. Overall prevalence rose significantly with each decade of age. We estimate that, in Kenya, 283,900 to 362,800 people 50 y and older have early AMD and 25,200 to 50,500 have late AMD, based on population estimates in 2007.AMD is an important cause of visual

  5. Iodine Intake Estimation from the Consumption of Instant Noodles, Drinking Water and Household Salt in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutrisna, Aang; Knowles, Jacky; Basuni, Abas; Menon, Ravi; Sugihantono, Anung

    2018-03-08

    The objective of this study was to assess the contribution of iodine intake from iodised household salt, iodised salt in instant noodles, and iodine in ground water in five regions of Indonesia. Secondary data analysis was performed using the 2013 Primary Health Research Survey, the 2014 Total Diet Study, and data from food industry research. Iodine intake was estimated among 2719 children, 10-12 years of age (SAC), 13,233 women of reproductive age (WRA), and 578 pregnant women (PW). Combined estimated iodine intake from the three stated sources met 78%, 70%, and 41% of iodine requirements for SAC, WRA and PW, respectively. Household salt iodine contributed about half of the iodine requirements for SAC (49%) and WRA (48%) and a quarter for PW (28%). The following variations were found: for population group, the percentage of estimated dietary iodine requirements met by instant noodle consumption was significantly higher among SAC; for region, estimated iodine intake was significantly higher from ground water for WRA in Java, and from household salt for SAC and WRA in Kalimantan and Java; and for household socio-economic status (SES), iodine intake from household salt was significantly higher in the highest SES households. Enforcement of clear implementing regulations for iodisation of household and food industry salt will promote optimal iodine intake among all population groups with different diets.

  6. Iodine Intake Estimation from the Consumption of Instant Noodles, Drinking Water and Household Salt in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aang Sutrisna

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the contribution of iodine intake from iodised household salt, iodised salt in instant noodles, and iodine in ground water in five regions of Indonesia. Secondary data analysis was performed using the 2013 Primary Health Research Survey, the 2014 Total Diet Study, and data from food industry research. Iodine intake was estimated among 2719 children, 10–12 years of age (SAC, 13,233 women of reproductive age (WRA, and 578 pregnant women (PW. Combined estimated iodine intake from the three stated sources met 78%, 70%, and 41% of iodine requirements for SAC, WRA and PW, respectively. Household salt iodine contributed about half of the iodine requirements for SAC (49% and WRA (48% and a quarter for PW (28%. The following variations were found: for population group, the percentage of estimated dietary iodine requirements met by instant noodle consumption was significantly higher among SAC; for region, estimated iodine intake was significantly higher from ground water for WRA in Java, and from household salt for SAC and WRA in Kalimantan and Java; and for household socio-economic status (SES, iodine intake from household salt was significantly higher in the highest SES households. Enforcement of clear implementing regulations for iodisation of household and food industry salt will promote optimal iodine intake among all population groups with different diets.

  7. Economic inequality and undernutrition in women: multilevel analysis of individual, household, and community levels in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Rathavuth; Hong, Rathmony

    2007-03-01

    Many people in developing countries are still struggling to emerge from the realm of extreme poverty, where economic improvements tend to benefit a small, affluent group of the population and cause growing inequality in health and nutrition that affects the most vulnerable groups of the population, including women and children. To examine how household and community economic inequality affects nutritional status in women using information on 6,922 nonpregnant women aged 15 to 49 years included in the 2000 Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey. Nutritional status is defined with the use of the body-mass index (BMI). BMI less than 18.5 kg/m2 is defined as undernourishment. The household wealth index was calculated from household ownership of durable assets and household characteristics. Community wealth is an average household wealth index at the community level. Household and community economic inequalities were measured by dividing the wealth index into quintiles. The effects of household and community economic inequality were estimated by multilevel analysis. Independently of community economic status and other risk factors, women in the poorest 20% of households are more likely to be undernourished than women in the richest 20% of households (RR = 1.63; p = .008). The results also show variation among communities in the nutritional status of women. Age, occupation, and access to safe sources of drinking water are significantly associated with women's nutritional status. Improving household income and creating employment opportunities for women, in particular poor women, may be a key to improving the nutritional status of women in Cambodia.

  8. The association between BMI and health-related quality of life in the US population: sex, age and ethnicity matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxy, M; Teuner, C; Holle, R; Kurz, C

    2018-03-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem. Detailed knowledge about the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and health-related quality of life (HRQL) is important for deriving effective and cost-effective prevention and weight management strategies. This study aims to describe the sex-, age- and ethnicity-specific association between BMI and HRQL in the US adult population. Analyses are based on pooled cross-sectional data from 41 459 participants of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) Household Component (HC) for the years 2000-2003. BMI was calculated using self-reported height and weight, and HRQL was assessed with the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire. Generalized additive models were fitted with a smooth function for BMI and a smooth-factor interaction for BMI with sex adjusted for age, ethnicity, poverty, smoking and physical activity. Models were further stratified by age and ethnicity. The association between BMI and HRQL is inverse U-shaped with a HRQL high point at a BMI of 22 kg m -2 in women and a HRQL high plateau at BMI values of 22-30 kg m -2 in men. Men aged 50 years and older with a BMI of 29 kg m -2 reported on average five-point higher visual analog scale (VAS) scores than peers with a BMI of 20 kg m -2 . The inverse U-shaped association is more pronounced in older people, and the BMI-HRQL relationship differs between ethnicities. In Hispanics, the BMI associated with the highest HRQL is higher than in white people and, in black women, the BMI-HRQL association has an almost linear negative slope. The results show that a more differentiated use of BMI cutoffs in scientific discussions and daily practice is indicated. The findings should be considered in the design of future weight loss and weight management programs.

  9. Under-reported income of Russian households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav Murashov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the proposed paper, an attempt is made to estimate the proportion of unstated income for Russian households based on micro data. An overview of microeconomic approaches to estimating the scale of under-reported income is provided. These approaches are weakly represented in the national literature, so their strengths and weaknesses are also analyzed. A theoretical model of household consumer behavior is described that allows the size of under-reported income to be estimated. The structure of household incomes and expenditures is studied based on an RLMS sample for 2012. The model is estimated using household subsamples based on the type of household and household income. The estimation technique utilizes regression variables and random effects. The resulting subsample estimates were applied to the general population and compared with those obtained by other researchers using alternative methods and other data. A comparison is made to estimates of under-reported income developed for British households.

  10. OA18 Population based end of life care - meeting the challenge of the ageing population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Keri

    2015-04-01

    The key challenge for most developed countries is meeting the needs of our ageing population, in particular, those nearing the end of their lives - population-based end-of-life care. Building on a public health approach to meet needs of an area-wide population, and a practical approach of enabling generalist frontline staff care for all people in a variety of settings using the GSF Quality Improvement Programmes, we describe progress in a few GSF Cross-Boundary Care Foundation Sites taking a population-based view to meet the challenges of the ageing population. Taking a whole-system view, we explore ways to ensure all people receive quality care towards the final stages of life in line with their needs and wishes in a way that is cost-effective, responsive and compassionate. Expanding concepts of palliative/end-of-life care to include care for people with long-term conditions, dementia, and frailty. We describe practical progress in a number of GSF XBC Sites, enabling generalist frontline staff including: Identifying and prioritising people earlier Reducing 'diagnostic apartheid' Enabling more to live well and die well in the place and manner of their choosing Encouraging integrated person-centred care, reducing inappropriate over-Hospitalisation and prevention of over - medicalising. Use of GSF in various settings to enable generalist frontline staff is described, with key outcome measures and evaluations in the UK, and internationally. As the population ages, population-based end of life care will be one of the most significant developments to meet the challenges for a fit-for-purpose health service of the future. © 2015, Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Age and sex dependencies of anxiety and depression in cardiologic patients compared with the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Hinz, A; Kittel, J; Karoff, M; Schwarz, R

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test age and sex effects on anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale HADS. Method: Sample 1 consisted of 2037 subjects of the German general population, and sample 2 comprised 2696 cardiologic patients. Results: In the group of the general population we observed a linear increase of depression and (to a lower extent) of anxiety with age. In contrast to that, the patients reached their anxiety and depression maxima in the ra...

  12. Resolving the age bimodality of galaxy stellar populations on kpc scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zibetti, Stefano; Gallazzi, Anna R.; Ascasibar, Y.; Charlot, S.; Galbany, L.; García Benito, R.; Kehrig, C.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Lyubenova, M.; Marino, R. A.; Márquez, I.; Sánchez, S. F.; van de Ven, G.; Walcher, C. J.; Wisotzki, L.

    2017-01-01

    Galaxies in the local Universe are known to follow bimodal distributions in the global stellar population properties. We analyse the distribution of the local average stellar population ages of 654 053 sub-galactic regions resolved on ˜1 kpc scales in a volume-corrected sample of 394 galaxies, drawn

  13. The effects of ageing and urbanisation on China's future rural and urban populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Quanrun; Dietzenbacher, Erik; Los, Bart

    2017-01-01

    This paper estimates China's future population and labour force by developing a novel forecasting model for population. It combines information about age-specific parameters on fertility and mortality for both rural and urban areas using information about rural-urban migration and the transformation

  14. Population ageing in Lebanon: current status, future prospects and implications for policy.

    OpenAIRE

    Sibai, Abla Mehio; Sen, Kasturi; Baydoun, May; Saxena, Prem

    2004-01-01

    During the past three decades, fast declines in fertility and mortality in Lebanon have created a compressed demographic transition, a growing trend towards survival into later life, and a larger proportion of elderly people in the population. Projections show that people aged 65 years and over are expected to constitute 10.2% of the population by 2025. Nevertheless, changes to the structure and composition of the population remain unmatched by any corresponding increase in support measures e...

  15. Reappraising 'the good death' for populations in the age of ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Kristian; Seymour, Jane

    2018-05-01

    This is the second in an occasional series of paired commentaries in Age and Ageing, the Journal of the British Geriatrics Society and the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society (JAGS). The aim is to address issues of current significance and to foster dialogue and increased understanding between academics and clinicians working in comparative international settings. Both commentaries address the urgent need to improve palliative care for older people, with a critique of some stereotypes surrounding palliative care and the 'good death'. The companion commentary, published in JAGS, was written by Alexander Smith and Vyjeyanthi Periyakoil, and is grounded in their experience as academic clinicians (Smith AK, Periyakoil V. Should we bury 'The Good Death'? Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2018; in press). In the present paper, we offer a perspective on the outcome and wider consequences of misalignment between current UK policy and aspirations for end of life care in relation to epidemiological trends and patient experience of death and dying.

  16. Breakup of New Orleans Households after Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendall, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Theory and evidence on disaster-induced population displacement have focused on individual and population-subgroup characteristics. Less is known about impacts on households. I estimate excess incidence of household breakup resulting from Hurricane Katrina by comparing a probability sample of pre-Katrina New Orleans resident adult household heads…

  17. Effects of age and gender in quantitative sacroiliac scintigraphy in a control adult population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladron de Guevara, David; Lobo, Gabriel; Perez, Andres; Jim ez, Cesar

    2002-01-01

    Several factors influence MDP-Tc99m uptake by sacroiliac joint, and therefore the quantitative sacroiliac scintigraphy index. Age and gender have been reported how not influencing SI/S ratio, although previous reports show discordant results. The aim of our study was evaluate the influence of age and gender in sacroiliac joint uptake in an adult control population (Au)

  18. Influencing degree of ecosystems transformation on the age structure of populations apodemys sylvaticus Apodemys sylvaticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Zemlianyj

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Comparative description of percentage ratio of age groups in populyations of background kind is conducted - Apodemus silvaticus from the habitats different on the degree of transformations. It is set, that the age composition of populations of shallow mammals can serve by the criterion of their functioning.

  19. Alcohol consumption and risk of aging macula disorder in a general population: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhoorn, Sharmila S.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the possible relationship between overall or specific alcohol consumption and risk of aging macula disorder (AMD), a synonym for age-related macular degeneration, in a general population. Alcohol consumption and risk of early or late incident AMD (iAMD) were examined among all

  20. Economic implications of Japan's aging population: a macro-economic demographic modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, N

    1982-01-01

    This paper utilizes a macroeconomic demographic model to analyze the probable impact of population aging on various public programs in Japan. Rapid fertility decline aided by mortality decline has caused the proportion of the Japanese population aged 65 and over to increase from 4.9% in 1950 to 9.0% in 1980. A population projection based on the 1975 population census assumes a recovery of fertility from a total fertility rate (TFR) of 1.9 in 1976 to 2.16 in 1980 and a gradual decline to 2.1 by 1987, while an alternative projection assumes a continuing fertility decline to a TFR of 1.65 in 2025. According to these assumptions, in 2025 18.12% to 21.29% of the total population would be aged 65 or over and 38.66% to 43.80% of the working age population would be aged 45-64. A macroeconomic neoclassical growth model with some Keynesian features was formulated to evaluate the future impact of population aging on social security programs. Population changes are transmitted to economic variables in the model through the supply of labor, level of savings, public health care plans, and old-age pension schemes. The simulation experiments included the 2 population projections and 2 alternative production functions, 1 with the quality of labor incorporated and 1 without. The results indicated that, regardless of the population projection and production function used, the growth of the economy is likely to slow to 1 or 0% in the beginning of the next century due to decreased growth of the labor force and a change in its quality due to age-compositional variations. Public health insurance schemes and pension plans will require increasing financial resources as a result of accelerated population aging; depending on the choice of benefit levels, the proportion of national income allocated to them is expected to range from 14%-40% in the year 2010. Per capita gross national product will continue to grow despite decreased economic growth, but savings might be adversely affected if the

  1. Adjustment to Aging, Subjective Age and Age Representation: Assessing a Nationally-Diverse Population of Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia von Humboldt

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This research sought to analyse older adults’ conceptualization of adjustment to aging (AtA, subjective age (SA and age representation (AR, adding a cross-national comparative perspective to aging well. Method: Questionnaires were completed, assessing participants’ background information. Semi-structured interviews were performed, addressing three core areas: SA, AtA and AR. Complete information on 231 older adults aged between 74-102 years (M = 83.1; SD = 6.692 from four different nationalities, was available. Data was subjected to content analysis. Results: Seven categories were identified to contribute to AtA: ‘accomplishment, personal fulfilment and future projects’, ‘occupation, profession, autonomy and leisure’, ‘health status, physical and intellectual functioning’, ‘valorisation of time and age’, ‘family, social and interpersonal attachment’, ‘stability, quality and financial situation’, and ‘sense of limit and existential issues’. Five categories were identified for SA: ‘with congruence’, ‘without concern’, ‘with apprehension’, ‘young-at-heart’ and ‘good enough’. For AR, eight emergent categories were found: ‘future investment’, ‘reconciliation with life’, ‘present challenge’, ‘regret about the past’, ‘dynamic life’, ‘with contentment’, ‘as an opportunity’ and ‘with dissatisfaction’. Conclusion: This research contributes for a better understanding of what defines AtA, SA and AR in older adults. Moreover, interventions and communication approaches in clinical practice and program development in health care context should focus on shared perceptions of aging well.

  2. The Effects of Housing on Health and Health Risks in an Aging Population: A Qualitative Study in Rural Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratana Somrongthong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Over the last decade, Thailand has experienced an aging population, especially in rural areas. Research finds a strong, positive relationship between good quality housing and health, and this paper assesses the impact and living experience of housing of older people in rural Thailand. Methods. This was a mixed-method study, using data from observations of the physical adequacy of housing, semistructured interviews with key informants, and archival information from health records for 13 households in rural Thailand. Results. There were four main themes, each of which led to health risks for the older people: “lighting and unsafe wires,” “house design and composition,” “maintenance of the house,” and “health care equipment.” The housing was not appropriately designed to accommodate health care equipment or to fully support individual daily activities of older people. Numerous accidents occurred as a direct result of inadequate housing and the majority of houses had insufficient and unsafe lighting, floor surfaces and furniture that created health risks, and toilets or beds that were at an unsuitable height for older people. Conclusion. This paper provides an improved and an important understanding of the housing situation among older people living in rural areas in Thailand.

  3. Influence of Algae Age and Population on the Response to TiO2 Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    David M. Metzler; Ayca Erdem; Chin Pao Huang

    2018-01-01

    This work shows the influence of algae age (at the time of the exposure) and the initial algae population on the response of green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs). The different algae age was obtained by changes in flow rate of continually stirred tank reactors prior to NP exposure. Increased algae age led to a decreased growth, variations in chlorophyll content, and an increased lipid peroxidation. Increased initial algae population (0.3−4.2 × 106 ...

  4. Imbalanced geodemographical structures in Târnave regional system. Case study: population ageing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-V. CONȚIU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The demographic prospects of a regional system, the natural dynamics of the population, the potential of manpower resources, planning and forecast of its use, show a high degree of dependence on the demographical structure by age, the identified imbalances involving an increase in the vulnerability of the regional system and therefore an enhancement of geodemographical risks (acceleration of population ageing, decreasing population trend, disappearance of some rural settlements, socio-economic failures etc.. In this study, a special attention is paid to the analysis of ageing index and demographical dependency ratio, and the share of young and old people to the Târnave regional system, taking into account as milestones, the population censuses from 1910, 1992 2002 and 2011.

  5. Dental age estimation from the developmental stage of the third molars in western Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo; Ren, Jiayin; Zhao, Shuping; Liu, Yuanyuan; Li, Na; Wu, Wanhong; Yuan, Shanshan; Wang, Hu

    2012-06-10

    The purpose of this study is to provide reference data about estimating dental age from third molars of the western Chinese population for comparing with other populations and being applied to the age estimation of western Chinese juveniles and adolescents. A total of 2078 digital panoramic radiographs of 989 male and 1089 female Chinese subjects aged between 5 and 23 years were examined. The mineralization status of the third molars was assessed using the formation stages described by Demirjian et al. with two modifications. The results showed that the development of third molars in the western Chinese population was likely to begin at age 5 in both males and females. The third molars 28 and 48 showed significantly higher frequency in females than in males. The third molars 18 in the stage 1, 38 in the stages 1, A and G, and 48 in the stage H showed significantly older average age in females than in males. The Demirjian's stages C and D could be used as a reference stage to determine dichotomously whether a western Chinese is more likely to be under or above age 14 or 16, respectively. This study provided reference data for the age estimation of western Chinese juveniles and adolescents by the mineralization stages of the third molar. Apart from forensic age determination in living subjects, the presented reference data can also be used for age estimations of unidentified corpses and skeletons. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Linking smallholder agriculture and water to household food security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Linking smallholder agriculture and water to household food security and nutrition. ... Promoting household food security and reducing malnutrition rates of a growing population with the same amount of water is ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  7. Do levels of perceived stress increase with increasing age after age 65? A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanovic-Thunström, Almira; Mossello, Enrico; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Fratiglioni, Laura; Wang, Hui-Xin

    2015-09-01

    psychological and health-related stressors often occur in advanced ages, but little is known about perceived stress in adults aged 65 and over. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that levels of perceived stress increase with increasing age and to detect factors that may account for the association. a dementia-free cohort of 1,656 adults aged 66-97 years living at home or in institutions, participating in the Swedish National Aging and Care study, Kungsholmen (SNAC-K) was assessed for levels of perceived stress using the 10-item perceived stress scale (PSS). prevalence of high stress according to the top tertile of the population (PSS score 20+) was 7.8% in adults aged 81+ years, 7.5% in adults aged 72-78 and 6.2% in adults aged 66 years (P = 0.020). More women than men reported high stress, 8.3 versus 5.4% (P = 0.001). Levels of stress increased with increasing age (P = 0.001) in the linear regression model. This association remained after adjustment for demographic and psychosocial factors, but no longer was present after adjusting for health-related factors. health-related stress is highly prevalent in older adults and seems to play an important role in the association between levels of perceived stress and age in older adults. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. The Human Right to Leisure in Old Age: Reinforcement of the Rights of an Aging Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karev, Iris; Doron, Israel Issi

    2017-01-01

    The right to leisure is recognized as a human right under the 1948 United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The actual meaning and material content of this human right is subject to debate. The aim of this study is to examine the extent and the context to which this human right is specifically recognized with regard to older persons. Methodologically, this study textually analyzed 17 different international older persons' human rights documents. The findings reveal that in the majority of these documents there is no reference to the right to leisure. In the remaining documents, the right to leisure is mostly referred to indirectly or in a narrow legal construction. These findings support the notion that despite the growing body of knowledge regarding the importance of meaningful leisure in old age-and its empowering and anti-ageist nature-this knowledge has not transformed into a legal human rights discourse.

  9. Choice of measure matters: A study of the relationship between socioeconomic status and psychosocial resources in a middle-aged normal population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Festin

    Full Text Available Psychosocial resources may serve as an important link to explain socioeconomic differences in health. Earlier studies have demonstrated that education, income and occupational status cannot be used interchangeably as indicators of a hypothetical latent social dimension. In the same manner, it is important to disentangle the effect of measuring different constructs of psychosocial resources. The aim of this study was therefore to analyse if associations between socioeconomic status (SES and psychosocial resources differ depending on the measures used. A cross-sectional population-based study of a random sample (n = 1007 of middle-aged individuals (45-69 years old, 50% women in Sweden was performed using questionnaire and register data. SES was measured as education, occupation, household income and self-rated economy. Psychosocial resources were measured as social integration, social support, mastery, self-esteem, sense of coherence (SOC and trust. Logistic regression models were applied to analyse the relationships controlling for the effects of possible confounders. The measures of SES were low or moderately correlated to each other as were the measures of psychosocial resources. After controlling for age, sex, country of birth and employment status, household income and self-rated economy were associated with all six psychosocial resources; occupation was associated with three (social integration, self-esteem and trust and education with two (social integration and self-esteem. Social integration and self-esteem showed a significant and graded relationship with all SES measures; trust was associated with all SES measures except education, whereas SOC and mastery were only associated with household income and self-rated economy. After controlling for other SES measures, no associations with psychosocial resources remained for education or occupation. In conclusion, associations between SES and psychosocial resources did differ depending on the

  10. Anthropometric indices for non-pregnant women of childbearing age differ widely among four low-middle income populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Michael Hambidge

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal stature and body mass indices (BMI of non-pregnant women (NPW of child bearing age are relevant to maternal and offspring health. The objective was to compare anthropometric indices of NPW in four rural communities in low- to low-middle income countries (LMIC. Methods Anthropometry and maternal characteristics/household wealth questionnaires were obtained for NPW enrolled in the Women First Preconception Maternal Nutrition Trial. Body mass index (BMI, kg/m2 was calculated. Z-scores were determined using WHO reference data. Results A total of 7268 NPW participated in Equateur, DRC (n = 1741; Chimaltenango, Guatemala (n = 1695; North Karnataka, India (n = 1823; and Thatta, Sindh, Pakistan (n = 2009. Mean age was 23 y and mean parity 1.5. Median (P25-P75 height (cm ranged from 145.5 (142.2–148.9 in Guatemala to 156.0 (152.0–160.0 in DRC. Median weight (kg ranged from 44.7 (39.9–50.3 in India to 52.7 (46.9–59.8 in Guatemala. Median BMI ranged from 19.4 (17.6–21.9 in India to 24.9 (22.3–28.0 in Guatemala. Percent stunted (<−2SD height for age z-score ranged from 13.9% in DRC to 80.5% in Guatemala; % underweight (BMI <18.5 ranged from 1.2% in Guatemala to 37.1% in India; % overweight/obese (OW, BMI ≥25.0 ranged from 5.7% in DRC to 49.3% in Guatemala. For all sites, indicators for higher SES and higher age were associated with BMI. Lower SES women were underweight more frequently and higher SES women were OW more frequently at all sites. Younger women tended to be underweight, while older women tended to be OW. Conclusions Anthropometric data for NPW varied widely among low-income rural populations in four countries located on three different continents. Global comparisons of anthropometric measurements across sites using standard reference data serve to highlight major differences among populations of low-income rural NPW and assist in evaluating the rationale for and the design of optimal

  11. Can Functional Cardiac Age be Predicted from ECG in a Normal Healthy Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Todd; Starc, Vito; Leban, Manja; Sinigoj, Petra; Vrhovec, Milos

    2011-01-01

    In a normal healthy population, we desired to determine the most age-dependent conventional and advanced ECG parameters. We hypothesized that changes in several ECG parameters might correlate with age and together reliably characterize the functional age of the heart. Methods: An initial study population of 313 apparently healthy subjects was ultimately reduced to 148 subjects (74 men, 84 women, in the range from 10 to 75 years of age) after exclusion criteria. In all subjects, ECG recordings (resting 5-minute 12-lead high frequency ECG) were evaluated via custom software programs to calculate up to 85 different conventional and advanced ECG parameters including beat-to-beat QT and RR variability, waveform complexity, and signal-averaged, high-frequency and spatial/spatiotemporal ECG parameters. The prediction of functional age was evaluated by multiple linear regression analysis using the best 5 univariate predictors. Results: Ignoring what were ultimately small differences between males and females, the functional age was found to be predicted (R2= 0.69, P ECGs, functional cardiac age can be estimated by multiple linear regression analysis of mostly advanced ECG results. Because some parameters in the regression formula, such as QTcorr, high frequency QRS amplitude and P-wave width also change with disease in the same direction as with increased age, increased functional age of the heart may reflect subtle age-related pathologies in cardiac electrical function that are usually hidden on conventional ECG.

  12. [Disease burden attributable to household air pollution in 1990 and 2013 in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, P; Cai, Y; Liu, J M; Liu, Y N; Qi, J L; Wang, L J; You, J L; Zhou, M G

    2017-01-06

    Objective: To assess the disease burden attributable to household air pollution in 1990 and 2013 in China. Methods: Based on data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 in China (GBD 2013), we used population attributable fractions (PAF) to analyze the burden of different diseases attributable to solid-fuel household pollution in 2013 in China(not inclnding HongKang, Macao, Taiwan). We compared PAF, mortality, and disability-adjusted life years (DALY) for diseases attributable to solid-fuel household pollution in 31 provinces in mainland China in 1990 and 2013, and stratified the burden by age group. The estimated world average population during 2000- 2025 was used to calculate age-standardized mortality and DALY rates. Results: In 2013, 14.9% of lower respiratory infections in children disease (COPD), 12.0% of ischemic stroke, 14.2% of hemorrhagic stroke, 10.9% of ischemic heart disease, and 13.7% of lung cancer were attributable to solid-fuel household pollution. In addition, 807 000 deaths were attributable to solid-fuel household pollution, including 296 000 from COPD, 169 000 from hemorrhagic stroke, 152 000 from ischemic heart disease, 88 000 from ischemic stroke, 75 000 from lung cancer, and 28 000 from lower respiratory infections in children mortality rate from solid-fuel household pollution decreased by 59.3% from 158.8/100 000 in 1990 to 64.6/100 000 in 2013. The age-standardized mortality rate from solid-fuel household pollution decreased in all 31 provinces, with the highest decline observed in Shanghai (96.3%), and lowest in Xinjiang (39.9%). In 2013, the age-standardized DALY rate from solid-fuel household pollution was highest in Guizhou (2 233.0/100 000) and lowest in Shanghai (27.0/100 000). The DALY rate was the highest for the >70 age group (7 006.0/100 000). Compared with 1990, the 2013 mortality rate and DALY rate from solid-fuel household pollution decreased in all age groups, with the highest decline observed in the disease burden

  13. Effects of aging on sleep structure throughout adulthood: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Walter; Piovezan, Ronaldo; Poyares, Dalva; Bittencourt, Lia Rita; Santos-Silva, Rogerio; Tufik, Sergio

    2014-04-01

    Although many studies have shown the evolution of sleep parameters across the lifespan, not many have included a representative sample of the general population. The objective of this study was to describe age-related changes in sleep structure, sleep respiratory parameters and periodic limb movements of the adult population of São Paulo. We selected a representative sample of the city of São Paulo, Brazil that included both genders and an age range of 20-80 years. Pregnant and lactating women, people with physical or mental impairments that prevent self-care and people who work every night were not included. This sample included 1024 individuals who were submitted to polysomnography and structured interviews. We subdivided our sample into five-year age groups. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare age groups. Pearson product-moment was used to evaluate correlation between age and sleep parameters. Total sleep time, sleep efficiency, percentage of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and slow wave sleep showed a significant age-related decrease (Pincrease (Pincreased and oxygen saturation decreased with age. The reduction in the percentage of REM sleep significantly correlated with age in women, whereas the reduction in the percentage of slow wave sleep correlated with age in men. The periodic limb movement (PLM) index increased with age in men and women. Sleep structure and duration underwent significant alterations throughout the aging process in the general population. There was an important correlation between age, sleep respiratory parameters and PLM index. In addition, men and women showed similar trends but with different effect sizes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of the sterile release rate for stopping growing age-structured populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barclay, Hugh John

    2016-01-01

    A freely-growing age-structured population was modelled for growth and control by sterile male releases. Equilibrium populations yield critical sterile male release rates that would hold the population at equilibrium. It is shown here that these rates may be different from the release rates required to stop a growing population and bring it to an equilibrium. A computer simulation was constructed of this population and a parameter sensitivity analysis graphed the effects on the required sterile male release rate of fertility, mating delay in adult females, net juvenile survivorship, three adult survivorship curves, the time spent in the juvenile stages, and total life span. The adult survivorship curves had the greatest effect on the required sterile release rate for population elimination. The required release rate was also determined for Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) using survivorship and fertility data from a laboratory strain. The concepts of over-flooding ratio and release ratio were discussed and quantified for the cases above. (author)

  15. The changes of cerebral morphology related to aging in Taiwanese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Lan Sharon Wang

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study with the 3-dimensional (3D MRI reconstruction technique was conducted to investigate cerebral complexity changes related to age differences in native Taiwanese population. In our sample of 85 participants aged between 25 and 81, age was associated with gradual ventricular expansion. A nonlinear quadratic relationship between white matter volume and age was found overall in the brain. Widespread age-related reduction in white matter was detected from late adulthood onwards. However, no significant age-related changes in the cortex and whole brain volume were determined throughout adulthood. These findings provided information in describing brain structural complexity, which might in the future serve as an objective diagnostic index or as a predictive parameter for neurological diseases. Our method then may be used for cross-cultural longitudinal studies to evaluate the effect of disease, environment and aging on the brain.

  16. Retirement adequacy goals for South African households | Butler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Actuarial Journal ... Household wealth–earnings ratio goals were estimated to be between 10,5 and 18,2 times annual salary depending on retirement age, household composition, income, location, age, education, household income distribution, home ownership and salary support. Considering current ...

  17. Maternal age and offspring developmental vulnerability at age five: A population-based cohort study of Australian children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Falster

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, there has been a shift to later childbearing in high-income countries. There is limited large-scale evidence of the relationship between maternal age and child outcomes beyond the perinatal period. The objective of this study is to quantify a child's risk of developmental vulnerability at age five, according to their mother's age at childbirth.Linkage of population-level perinatal, hospital, and birth registration datasets to data from the Australian Early Development Census (AEDC and school enrolments in Australia's most populous state, New South Wales (NSW, enabled us to follow a cohort of 99,530 children from birth to their first year of school in 2009 or 2012. The study outcome was teacher-reported child development on five domains measured by the AEDC, including physical health and well-being, emotional maturity, social competence, language and cognitive skills, and communication skills and general knowledge. Developmental vulnerability was defined as domain scores below the 2009 AEDC 10th percentile cut point. The mean maternal age at childbirth was 29.6 years (standard deviation [SD], 5.7, with 4,382 children (4.4% born to mothers aged <20 years and 20,026 children (20.1% born to mothers aged ≥35 years. The proportion vulnerable on ≥1 domains was 21% overall and followed a reverse J-shaped distribution according to maternal age: it was highest in children born to mothers aged ≤15 years, at 40% (95% CI, 32-49, and was lowest in children born to mothers aged between 30 years and ≤35 years, at 17%-18%. For maternal ages 36 years to ≥45 years, the proportion vulnerable on ≥1 domains increased to 17%-24%. Adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics significantly attenuated vulnerability risk in children born to younger mothers, while adjustment for potentially modifiable factors, such as antenatal visits, had little additional impact across all ages. Although the multi-agency linkage yielded a broad range of

  18. Age and gender might influence big five factors of personality: a preliminary report in Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magan, Dipti; Mehta, Manju; Sarvottam, Kumar; Yadav, Raj Kumar; Pandey, R M

    2014-01-01

    Age and gender are two important physiological variables which might influence the personality of an individual. The influence of age and gender on big five personality domains in Indian population was assessed in this cross-sectional study that included 155 subjects (female = 76, male = 79) aged from 16-75 years. Big five personality factors were evaluated using 60-item NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) at a single point in time. Among the big five factors of personality, Conscientiousness was positively correlated (r = 0.195; P personality traits might change with age, and is gender-dependent.

  19. Kron 3: a fourth intermediate age cluster in the SMC with evidence of multiple populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollyhead, K.; Lardo, C.; Kacharov, N.; Bastian, N.; Hilker, M.; Rejkuba, M.; Koch, A.; Grebel, E. K.; Georgiev, I.

    2018-05-01

    We present the results of a spectroscopic study of the intermediate age (≈6.5 Gyr) massive cluster Kron 3 in the Small Magellanic Cloud. We measure CN and CH band strengths (at ≃3839 and 4300 Å, respectively) using VLT FORS2 spectra of 16 cluster members and find a sub-population of five stars enriched in nitrogen. We conclude that this is evidence for multiple populations in Kron 3, the fourth intermediate age cluster, after Lindsay 1, NGC 416 and NGC 339 (ages 6-8 Gyr), to display this phenomenon originally thought to be a unique characteristic of old globular clusters. At ≈6.5 Gyr this is one of the youngest clusters with multiple populations, indicating that the mechanism responsible for their onset must operate until a redshift of at least 0.75, much later than the peak of globular cluster formation at redshift ˜3.

  20. The basic approach to age-structured population dynamics models, methods and numerics

    CERN Document Server

    Iannelli, Mimmo

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to age-structured population modeling which emphasises the connection between mathematical theory and underlying biological assumptions. Through the rigorous development of the linear theory and the nonlinear theory alongside numerics, the authors explore classical equations that describe the dynamics of certain ecological systems. Modeling aspects are discussed to show how relevant problems in the fields of demography, ecology, and epidemiology can be formulated and treated within the theory. In particular, the book presents extensions of age-structured modelling to the spread of diseases and epidemics while also addressing the issue of regularity of solutions, the asymptotic behaviour of solutions, and numerical approximation. With sections on transmission models, non-autonomous models and global dynamics, this book fills a gap in the literature on theoretical population dynamics. The Basic Approach to Age-Structured Population Dynamics will appeal to graduate students an...

  1. Impact of Weather Index Insurance on Household Demand for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJBE

    confidence about the compensation for expected loss from future weather condition .... found in western zone of Tigray, where the dominant crops are barley and teff. ... (such as age and sex of the household head, schooling level of household.

  2. Correlation of chronological, skeletal, and dental age in North Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhurima Nanda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objectives: The aim of the study was to find out the correlation between chronological, dental, and skeletal age. Materials and Methods: Lateral cephalograms and orthopantomograms of 100 subjects of age ranging 9–14 years were obtained for the estimation of skeletal and dental age. Dental age was assessed using Demirjian's method; skeletal age was assessed using the new improved version of the cervical vertebral maturation method given by Baccetti, Franchi, and McNamara. Statistical analysis was carried out. Student's t-test and Spearman's coefficient correlation were used to assess the relation between chronological, skeletal, and dental age. Results: The Spearman's correlation coefficient was 0.777 (P < 0.001 between chronological and dental age, 0.516 (P < 0.001 between chronological and skeletal age, and 0.563 (P < 0.001 between dental and skeletal age. Conclusion: There is a good correlation between chronological and dental age in North Indian population which was higher for males as compared to females. A moderate correlation was found between chronological and skeletal age as well as between dental and skeletal age.

  3. Age, growth and population structure of invasive lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles in northeast Florida using a length-based, age-structured population model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric G. Johnson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effective management of invasive species requires detailed understanding of the invader’s life history. This information is essential for modeling population growth and predicting rates of expansion, quantifying ecological impacts and assessing the efficacy of removal and control strategies. Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles have rapidly invaded the western Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea with documented negative impacts on native ecosystems. To better understand the life history of this species, we developed and validated a length-based, age-structured model to investigate age, growth and population structure in northeast Florida. The main findings of this study were: (1 lionfish exhibited rapid growth with seasonal variation in growth rates; (2 distinct cohorts were clearly identifiable in the length-frequency data, suggesting that lionfish are recruiting during a relatively short period in summer; and (3 the majority of lionfish were less than two years old with no lionfish older than three years of age, which may be the result of culling efforts as well as ontogenetic habitat shifts to deeper water.

  4. Age, growth and population structure of invasive lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles) in northeast Florida using a length-based, age-structured population model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric G; Swenarton, Mary Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The effective management of invasive species requires detailed understanding of the invader's life history. This information is essential for modeling population growth and predicting rates of expansion, quantifying ecological impacts and assessing the efficacy of removal and control strategies. Indo-Pacific lionfish ( Pterois volitans/miles ) have rapidly invaded the western Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea with documented negative impacts on native ecosystems. To better understand the life history of this species, we developed and validated a length-based, age-structured model to investigate age, growth and population structure in northeast Florida. The main findings of this study were: (1) lionfish exhibited rapid growth with seasonal variation in growth rates; (2) distinct cohorts were clearly identifiable in the length-frequency data, suggesting that lionfish are recruiting during a relatively short period in summer; and (3) the majority of lionfish were less than two years old with no lionfish older than three years of age, which may be the result of culling efforts as well as ontogenetic habitat shifts to deeper water.

  5. Analyzing the mobile "digital divide": changing determinants of household phone ownership over time in rural bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Michael Clifton; Labrique, Alain Bernard; Mehra, Sucheta; Ali, Hasmot; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Mitra, Maithilee; Christian, Parul; West, Keith

    2015-02-25

    We had a unique opportunity to examine demographic determinants of household mobile phone ownership in rural Bangladesh using socioeconomic data collected as part of a multiyear longitudinal cohort study of married women of reproductive age. This paper explores how the demographics of household mobile phone owners have changed over time in a representative population of rural Bangladesh. We present data collected between 2008 and 2011 on household mobile phone ownership and related characteristics including age, literacy, education, employment, electricity access, and household wealth among 35,306 individuals. Respondents were enrolled when found to be newly pregnant and contributed socioeconomic information once over the course of the time period serving as a "sample" of families within the population at that time. Univariate and multiple logistic regressions analyses were performed to identify the socioeconomic determinants of household phone ownership. Across 3 fiscal years, we found that reported household ownership of at least 1 working mobile phone grew from 29.85% in the first fiscal year to 56.07% in the third fiscal year. Illiteracy, unavailability of electricity, and low quartiles of wealth were identified as overall demographic constraints to mobile phone ownership. However, over time, these barriers became less evident and equity gaps among demographic status began to dissipate as access to mobile technology became more democratized. We saw a high growth rate in ownership among households in lower economic standing (illiterate, without electricity, low and lowest wealth index), likely a result of competitive pricing and innovative service packages that improve access to mobile phones as the mobile phone market matures. In contrast, as market saturation is rapidly attained in the most privileged demographics (literate, secondary schooling, electricity, high wealth index), members of the lower wealth quartiles seem to be following suit, with more of an

  6. Accuracy of an equation for estimating age from mandibular third molar development in a Thai population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verochana, Karune; Prapayasatok, Sangsom; Janhom, Apirum; Mahasantipiya, Phattaranant May; Korwanich, Narumanas

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the accuracy of age estimates produced by a regression equation derived from lower third molar development in a Thai population. The first part of this study relied on measurements taken from panoramic radiographs of 614 Thai patients aged from 9 to 20. The stage of lower left and right third molar development was observed in each radiograph and a modified Gat score was assigned. Linear regression on this data produced the following equation: Y=9.309+1.673 mG+0.303S (Y=age; mG=modified Gat score; S=sex). In the second part of this study, the predictive accuracy of this equation was evaluated using data from a second set of panoramic radiographs (539 Thai subjects, 9 to 24 years old). Each subject's age was estimated using the above equation and compared against age calculated from a provided date of birth. Estimated and known age data were analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient and descriptive statistics. Ages estimated from lower left and lower right third molar development stage were significantly correlated with the known ages (r=0.818, 0.808, respectively, P≤0.01). 50% of age estimates in the second part of the study fell within a range of error of ±1 year, while 75% fell within a range of error of ±2 years. The study found that the equation tends to estimate age accurately when individuals are 9 to 20 years of age. The equation can be used for age estimation for Thai populations when the individuals are 9 to 20 years of age

  7. Accuracy of an equation for estimating age from mandibular third molar development in a Thai population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verochana, Karune; Prapayasatok, Sangsom; Janhom, Apirum; Mahasantipiya, Phattaranant May; Korwanich, Narumanas

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed the accuracy of age estimates produced by a regression equation derived from lower third molar development in a Thai population. The first part of this study relied on measurements taken from panoramic radiographs of 614 Thai patients aged from 9 to 20. The stage of lower left and right third molar development was observed in each radiograph and a modified Gat score was assigned. Linear regression on this data produced the following equation: Y=9.309+1.673 mG+0.303S (Y=age; mG=modified Gat score; S=sex). In the second part of this study, the predictive accuracy of this equation was evaluated using data from a second set of panoramic radiographs (539 Thai subjects, 9 to 24 years old). Each subject's age was estimated using the above equation and compared against age calculated from a provided date of birth. Estimated and known age data were analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient and descriptive statistics. Ages estimated from lower left and lower right third molar development stage were significantly correlated with the known ages (r=0.818, 0.808, respectively, P≤0.01). 50% of age estimates in the second part of the study fell within a range of error of ±1 year, while 75% fell within a range of error of ±2 years. The study found that the equation tends to estimate age accurately when individuals are 9 to 20 years of age. The equation can be used for age estimation for Thai populations when the individuals are 9 to 20 years of age.

  8. Accuracy of an equation for estimating age from mandibular third molar development in a Thai population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verochana, Karune; Prapayasatok, Sangsom; Janhom, Apirum; Mahasantipiya, Phattaranant May; Korwanich, Narumanas [Faculty of Dentistry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand)

    2016-03-15

    This study assessed the accuracy of age estimates produced by a regression equation derived from lower third molar development in a Thai population. The first part of this study relied on measurements taken from panoramic radiographs of 614 Thai patients aged from 9 to 20. The stage of lower left and right third molar development was observed in each radiograph and a modified Gat score was assigned. Linear regression on this data produced the following equation: Y=9.309+1.673 mG+0.303S (Y=age; mG=modified Gat score; S=sex). In the second part of this study, the predictive accuracy of this equation was evaluated using data from a second set of panoramic radiographs (539 Thai subjects, 9 to 24 years old). Each subject's age was estimated using the above equation and compared against age calculated from a provided date of birth. Estimated and known age data were analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient and descriptive statistics. Ages estimated from lower left and lower right third molar development stage were significantly correlated with the known ages (r=0.818, 0.808, respectively, P≤0.01). 50% of age estimates in the second part of the study fell within a range of error of ±1 year, while 75% fell within a range of error of ±2 years. The study found that the equation tends to estimate age accurately when individuals are 9 to 20 years of age. The equation can be used for age estimation for Thai populations when the individuals are 9 to 20 years of age.

  9. Family Issues in Multigenerational Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinauer, Leslie L; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Studied issues faced by multigenerational families and their implications for family therapy. Major factors in multigenerational households included dependency, sibling relationships, depression, and demanding and egocentric behavior. Factors to consider during family therapy include respite care, age, interdependence, dignity, provision of care,…

  10. Aging population in change – a crucial challenge for structurally weak rural areas in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Tatjana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides population decline, structurally weak rural areas in Austria face a new challenge related to demographic change: the increasing heterogeneity of their aging population. From the example of the so-called ‘best agers’ - comprising people aged 55 to 65 years - this contribution makes visible patterns and consequences of growing individualized spatial behaviour and spatial perception. Furthermore, contradictions between claims, wishes and expectations and actual engagement and commitment to their residential rural municipalities are being pointed out. These empirically-based facts are rounded off by considerations on the best agers’ future migration-behaviour and the challenges for spatial planning at the municipal level.

  11. Health and quality of life in an aging population – food and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacalone, Davide; Wendin, Karin Maria Elisabet; Kremer, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    In Europe the percentage of citizens aged 65 and over is increasing at an unprecedented rate, and is expected to account for over 30% of the population by 2050. Coupled with an increase in life expectancy, this massive demographic change calls for a major effort to ensure quality of life in our...... older population. A thorough understanding of the elderly as food consumers, their nutritional needs, their food perception and preferences are increasingly needed. The role of food in healthy aging was a prominent theme at the 6th European Conference on Sensory and Consumer Research, which had quality...

  12. Dynamic of age structure and the number of population in Ozyorsk and affecting factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panchenko, O.; Rtischeva, M.

    2001-01-01

    In connection with serious social-economic and ecological problems in our country an analysis of demographic processes in cities of atomic industry causes a big of interest. The aim of this work was an evaluation of dynamic of age structure of population of city Ozyorsk, based in connection with creation of nuclear plant 'Mayak' of 'first-born' of atomic industry in Russia. Data received in city's administration, included the information about number of population, its age composition taking into account of natural increase and of migration processes for a period from 1959 to 1997. (authors)

  13. [Drinking behaviors and patterns among floating population aged 18-59 years old in China, 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yichong; Zhang, Mei; Jiang, Yong; Deng, Qian; Zhao, Yinjun; Huang, Zhengjing; Zeng, Xinying; Wang, Limin

    2014-11-01

    To understand the drinking behaviors and patterns among floating population in China. Floating population were selected through multistage clustering sampling method, stratified by 6 major industries in 170 counties and districts from 31 provinces/autonomous regions, and Xinjiang Construction Corps, in mainland China. Design-based methods were adopted to analyze the drinking behavior in subpopulations. A total of 48 697 floating population aged 18-59 years were included in the study. The overall prevalence rate of drinking was 51.7% with 71.9% in men and 24.7% in women, in the last 12 months. Among those who ever drank, the weekly drinking prevalence and daily alcohol intake were 53.9% and 18.7 g in males while 16.7% and 4.1 g in females, respectively, among those floating population. Weekly drinking prevalence rates, for both genders, increased along with the increase of age (P population from the construction industry had the highest prevalence rates on items as weekly drinking, daily alcohol intake and prevalence of unhealthy drinking behaviors, except for hazardous drinking behaviors. Drinking behavior was prevalent among floating population in China. Significant difference was seen between genders. Unhealthy drinking behaviors varied greatly among male drinkers at different age groups or education levels as well as among those working in the different industries.

  14. Modeling tracers of young stellar population age in star-forming galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesque, Emily M. [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Leitherer, Claus, E-mail: Emily.Levesque@colorado.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2013-12-20

    The young stellar population of a star-forming galaxy is the primary engine driving its radiative properties. As a result, the age of a galaxy's youngest generation of stars is critical for a detailed understanding of its star formation history, stellar content, and evolutionary state. Here we present predicted equivalent widths for the Hβ, Hα, and Brγ recombination lines as a function of stellar population age. The equivalent widths are produced by the latest generations of stellar evolutionary tracks and the Starburst99 stellar population synthesis code, and are the first to fully account for the combined effects of both nebular emission and continuum absorption produced by the synthetic stellar population. Our grid of model stellar populations spans six metallicities (0.001 < Z < 0.04), two treatments of star formation history (a 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉} instantaneous burst and a continuous star formation rate of 1 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}), and two different treatments of initial rotation rate (v {sub rot} = 0.0v {sub crit} and 0.4v {sub crit}). We also investigate the effects of varying the initial mass function. Given constraints on galaxy metallicity, our predicted equivalent widths can be applied to observations of star-forming galaxies to approximate the age of their young stellar populations.

  15. A stochastic step model of replicative senescence explains ROS production rate in ageing cell populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor Lawless

    Full Text Available Increases in cellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS concentration with age have been observed repeatedly in mammalian tissues. Concomitant increases in the proportion of replicatively senescent cells in ageing mammalian tissues have also been observed. Populations of mitotic human fibroblasts cultured in vitro, undergoing transition from proliferation competence to replicative senescence are useful models of ageing human tissues. Similar exponential increases in ROS with age have been observed in this model system. Tracking individual cells in dividing populations is difficult, and so the vast majority of observations have been cross-sectional, at the population level, rather than longitudinal observations of individual cells.One possible explanation for these observations is an exponential increase in ROS in individual fibroblasts with time (e.g. resulting from a vicious cycle between cellular ROS and damage. However, we demonstrate an alternative, simple hypothesis, equally consistent with these observations which does not depend on any gradual increase in ROS concentration: the Stochastic Step Model of Replicative Senescence (SSMRS. We also demonstrate that, consistent with the SSMRS, neither proliferation-competent human fibroblasts of any age, nor populations of hTERT overexpressing human fibroblasts passaged beyond the Hayflick limit, display high ROS concentrations. We conclude that longitudinal studies of single cells and their lineages are now required for testing hypotheses about roles and mechanisms of ROS increase during replicative senescence.

  16. A stochastic step model of replicative senescence explains ROS production rate in ageing cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, Conor; Jurk, Diana; Gillespie, Colin S; Shanley, Daryl; Saretzki, Gabriele; von Zglinicki, Thomas; Passos, João F

    2012-01-01

    Increases in cellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) concentration with age have been observed repeatedly in mammalian tissues. Concomitant increases in the proportion of replicatively senescent cells in ageing mammalian tissues have also been observed. Populations of mitotic human fibroblasts cultured in vitro, undergoing transition from proliferation competence to replicative senescence are useful models of ageing human tissues. Similar exponential increases in ROS with age have been observed in this model system. Tracking individual cells in dividing populations is difficult, and so the vast majority of observations have been cross-sectional, at the population level, rather than longitudinal observations of individual cells.One possible explanation for these observations is an exponential increase in ROS in individual fibroblasts with time (e.g. resulting from a vicious cycle between cellular ROS and damage). However, we demonstrate an alternative, simple hypothesis, equally consistent with these observations which does not depend on any gradual increase in ROS concentration: the Stochastic Step Model of Replicative Senescence (SSMRS). We also demonstrate that, consistent with the SSMRS, neither proliferation-competent human fibroblasts of any age, nor populations of hTERT overexpressing human fibroblasts passaged beyond the Hayflick limit, display high ROS concentrations. We conclude that longitudinal studies of single cells and their lineages are now required for testing hypotheses about roles and mechanisms of ROS increase during replicative senescence.

  17. Influence of neighbourhood purchasing power on breastfeeding at four months of age: a Swedish population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almquist-Tangen, Gerd; Strömberg, Ulf; Holmén, Anders; Alm, Bernt; Roswall, Josefine; Bergman, Stefan; Dahlgren, Jovanna

    2013-11-15

    Parental socioeconomic status (SES) is an important determinant in child health, influencing beneficial factors such as breastfeeding. A better understanding of the influence of neighbourhood-level SES measures, relating to spatial determinants, might lead to targeted actions to promote breastfeeding during infancy. A cross-sectional study analysis the association between breastfeeding at four months of age and neighbourhood purchasing power, taking account of individual-level variables including maternal age, smoking and parental level of education. Data were obtained from a prospective population- based cohort study recruited from birth in 2007-2008 in the Halland region, southwestern Sweden. Questionnaire data on the individual-level variables and the outcome variable of breastfeeding at four months (yes/no) were used (n=2,407). Each mother was geo-coded with respect to her residential parish (there are 61 parishes in the region) and then stratified by parish-level household purchasing power. It emerged that four neighbourhood characteristics were reasonable to use, viz. purchasing power. The proportion of mothers not breastfeeding at four months of age showed a highly significant trend across the neighbourhood strata (p=0.00004): from 16.3% (purchasing power) to 29.4% (≥ 30% with low purchasing power), yielding an OR of 2.24 (95% confidence interval: 1.45-3.16). After adjusting for the individual-level variables, the corresponding OR=1.63 (1.07-2.56) was significant and the trend across the strata was still evident (p=0.05). A multi-level analysis estimated that, in the neighbourhoods with ≥ 30% of the families with low purchasing power, 20% more mothers than expected, taking account of the individual-level factors, reported no breastfeeding at four months of age (≥ 95% posterior probability of an elevated observed-to-expected ratio). The neighbourhood purchasing power provided a spatial determinant of low numbers of mothers breastfeeding at four months

  18. Changes of population by age and gender structure of Regions in the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resul Hamiti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the changes of population by age and the gender structure in the regions of the Republic of Macedonia. Age and gender is very important not only for the development of demographic process but also for the development of regions. They play an important role in planning the health care needs and other services with the socio-economic and cultural character. In this sense they affect the performance of demographic processes (births, deaths, marriages, etc. and are a result of bilateral relations fertility, mortality, migration movements and other social processes. The main objective of this paper is to identify the aging phenomenon of population in state level and regions. This paper also dedicates special importance to the changes of age and sex structure, during the period between1981-2014 in the regions of the republic of Macedonia.

  19. Population aging, macroeconomic changes, and global diabetes prevalence, 1990-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudharsanan, Nikkil; Ali, Mohammed K; Mehta, Neil K; Narayan, K M Venkat

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is an important contributor to global morbidity and mortality. The contributions of population aging and macroeconomic changes to the growth in diabetes prevalence over the past 20 years are unclear. We used cross-sectional data on age- and sex-specific counts of people with diabetes by country, national population estimates, and country-specific macroeconomic variables for the years 1990, 2000, and 2008. Decomposition analysis was performed to quantify the contribution of population aging to the change in global diabetes prevalence between 1990 and 2008. Next, age-standardization was used to estimate the contribution of age composition to differences in diabetes prevalence between high-income (HIC) and low-to-middle-income countries (LMICs). Finally, we used non-parametric correlation and multivariate first-difference regression estimates to examine the relationship between macroeconomic changes and the change in diabetes prevalence between 1990 and 2008. Globally, diabetes prevalence grew by two percentage points between 1990 (7.4 %) and 2008 (9.4 %). Population aging was responsible for 19 % of the growth, with 81 % attributable to increases in the age-specific prevalences. In both LMICs and HICs, about half the growth in age-specific prevalences was from increasing levels of diabetes between ages 45-65 (51 % in HICs and 46 % in LMICs). After age-standardization, the difference in the prevalence of diabetes between LMICs and HICs was larger (1.9 % point difference in 1990; 1.5 % point difference in 2008). We found no evidence that macroeconomic changes were associated with the growth in diabetes prevalence. Population aging explains a minority of the recent growth in global diabetes prevalence. The increase in global diabetes between 1990 and 2008 was primarily due to an increase in the prevalence of diabetes at ages 45-65. We do not find evidence that basic indicators of economic growth, development, globalization, or urbanization were related

  20. Micro Econometric Modelling of Household Energy Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2002-01-01

    Presents a micro econometric analysis of household electricity and natural gas demand for Danish households observed in 1996. Dependence between demand for gas and demand for electricity; Separability of demand for gas from demand for electricity; Relation between energy consumption and the age...

  1. Active infection with Helicobacter pylori in an asymptomatic population of middle aged to elderly people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothenbacher, D; Bode, G; Peschke, F

    1998-01-01

    The study objective was to investigate prevalence and determinants of current Helicobacter pylori infection in an asymptomatic population of middle-aged to elderly people. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 337 participants of a general education programme of the University of Ulm aged 50......-85 years. Prevalence of infection as determined by means of the [13C]urea breath test was 34.8% (95% CI 29.6-40.3%); overall, 33.8% (95% CI 23.0-46.0) in the age group 50-59 years, 32.4% (95% CI 25.4-39.9) in the age group 60-69 years and 41.0% (95% CI 30.0-52.7) in the age group 70-85 years. Duration...... subjects may not be as high as seroprevalence studies have suggested. Socioeconomic characteristics of childhood living conditions appear to be important determinants of infection status even at older age....

  2. Substance Use Disorders and Related Health Problems in an Aging Offender Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Madison L; Staples-Horne, Michelle; Walker, Veronica; Turney, Asher

    2017-01-01

    Substance use disorders (SUD), including alcohol and tobacco, have been associated with chronic, infectious diseases, and mental health disorders. Few studies have examined associations between SUD and health issues for aging offenders (≥ 45 years old), who may have been long-term users. This study investigated associations between SUD and health problems in a prison population (men and women). We included 10,988 offenders, of whom 26.8% were aging. Aging offenders were more likely than younger peers to have health problems, such as cardiovascular diseases and hypertension, (80.8% compared with 63.6%). We found that aging African Americans with SUD had greater odds for being diagnosed with chronic conditions than White peers (p <.0001). Controlling for SUD, cardiovascular disease emerged as the most significant and frequently associated health problem for aging offenders. Results suggest a need to focus on the health of aging offenders with a history of SUD, particularly African Americans.

  3. Demographic aging in the United States: implications for population and income redistribution to the year 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serow, W J; Spar, M A

    1982-01-01

    "The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects of a prolonged period of sustained low fertility upon shifts in the population distribution of the United States among Department of Energy (DOE) regions." The authors also examine the impact of demographic aging on income distribution up to the year 2000 using the assumptions made in the Series III population projections prepared by the U.S. Bureau of the Census in 1977. It is noted that migration will emerge as the primary agent for internal population redistribution. excerpt

  4. THE AGEING OF THE POPULATION OF ROMANIA IN THE EUROPEAN CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghear Diana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Demographic ageing appeared in the modern society and designates an important increase in the elderly population segment in the total of the senior population and has implications for all sections of the society. The main cause of this phenomenon is transition from the traditional system of population’s reproduction, with high birth rates, to modern regime, with both low birth rates and mortality. On long term, these new demographic tendencies will affect both the educational system, in the sense of reducing the number of pupils and students, as well as the expansion of the demand for health services and social protection.

  5. Correlation between chronological age and third molar developmental stages in an Iranian population (Demirjian method).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosronejad, Aria; Navabi, Manijeh; Sakhdari, Shirin; Rakhshan, Vahid

    2017-01-01

    Third molar development is the only available tool for estimating the age of individuals after puberty. Since this tooth has very high interethnic variability, formulas calculated to estimate the age from its development stages cannot be generalized to other populations and should be adjusted for each region. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate this method in a sample of Tehran individuals for the first time, and also to compare the development of third molars across sexes and arches, and to estimate cutoff developmental stages for legal minor/major identification. A total of 150 dental patients aged between 15 and 25 years old were prospectively enrolled, and their Demirjian stages were recorded. The associations between chronological age and Demirjian stages were evaluated. Dental formation was compared between sexes and jaws. Cutoff stages were determined to identify legal minor/major cases (above or below 18 years old). Age estimation formula was found for this population. Of the 150 included patients, 56 were males. The difference between the ages of males and females at each given developmental stage was nonsignificant ( P > 0.05), except for the H stage. Age difference between same stage teeth of the maxilla and mandible was nonsignificant. Each of the G and H stages was significantly above 18 years old ( P age were above 90% (all P Third molar development was positively affected by the chronological age ( P = 0.000) and being maxillary ( P = 0.000) but not sex ( P = 0.113). Regression formula for age estimation was: age = 6.52+ (0.64 × sex) + (0.32 × arch) + (1.86 × Demirjian stage). Development of third molar might complete after the age 22. Iranian individuals with third molars at the G and H stages are likely above 18 while those at E and F are likely below 18. Pace of molar development differs for jaws, but intergender differences are open to further investigations.

  6. Dynamic of age structure and the number of population in Ozersk and affecting factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panchenko, O.; Rtischeva, M.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work was an evaluation of the dynamics of age structure and population for the city of Ozyorsk, based in connection with creation of the nuclear plant Mayak, the 'first-born' of the Russian atomic industry. The obtained results indicate that since 1950 demographic processes in Ozyorsk were more favorable, in spite of fact that it was in this period workers of Mayak nuclear plant and population as a whole, got comparatively greater radiation doses than in the following years. However, dynamics the number of population has an unfavorable trend to reduce, connected with sharp worsening of social-economic situation in the town as a whole, as a result of the economic reforms in the country. Reduction of the number of population in the town is expressed by the negative natural growth and by reducing migration processes, which resulted in sharp decrease of the general growth of population, and in its stopping in 1998. (authors)

  7. The third molar maturity index in indicating the legal adult age in Kosovar population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmendi, Jeta; Cameriere, Roberto; Koçani, Ferit; Galić, Ivan; Mehmeti, Blerim; Vodanović, Marin

    2017-12-16

    The third molar tooth, known as the "wisdom tooth," is the only tooth that can be used to determine legal adult age. This study aimed to test the accuracy of Cameriere's third molar maturity index (I 3M ) in assessing the legal adult age of 18 years in the Kosovar population. Orthopantomographs (OPTs) of 1221 healthy living Kosovar individuals, aged between 12 and 23 years and with no congenital or developmental anomalies, were analyzed. Intra-class correlation coefficients were 0.858 (95% CI, 0.786 to 0.906) and 0.852 (95% CI, 0.779 to 0.903) for intra-rater and for inter-rater agreement, respectively. The sample was divided into training dataset (800 OPTs) and test dataset (421 OPTs). The training dataset was used to generate the logistic regression model, while the test dataset was used to study the performance of the model. I 3M and gender as independent variables and adult age (≥ 18 years) or minor age (age. The results showed that only I 3M statistically significantly contributed to discriminating adults and minors. ROC analysis showed that the cut-off value of I 3M  age gradually increased. The performance of the cut-off value of I 3M  age in a Kosovar population.

  8. Reliability of third molar development for age estimation in Gujarati population: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Neha; Jain, Sandeep; Kumar, Manish; Rupakar, Pratik; Choyal, Kanaram; Prajapati, Seema

    2015-01-01

    Age assessment may be a crucial step in postmortem profiling leading to confirmative identification. In children, Demirjian's method based on eight developmental stages was developed to determine maturity scores as a function of age and polynomial functions to determine age as a function of score. Of this study was to evaluate the reliability of age estimation using Demirjian's eight teeth method following the French maturity scores and Indian-specific formula from developmental stages of third molar with the help of orthopantomograms using the Demirjian method. Dental panoramic tomograms from 30 subjects each of known chronological age and sex were collected and were evaluated according to Demirjian's criteria. Age calculations were performed using Demirjian's formula and Indian formula. Statistical analysis used was Chi-square test and ANOVA test and the P values obtained were statistically significant. There was an average underestimation of age with both Indian and Demirjian's formulas. The mean absolute error was lower using Indian formula hence it can be applied for age estimation in present Gujarati population. Also, females were ahead of achieving dental maturity than males thus completion of dental development is attained earlier in females. Greater accuracy can be obtained if population-specific formulas considering the ethnic and environmental variation are derived performing the regression analysis.

  9. [Poverty profile regarding households participating in a food assistance program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Uribe, Martha C; Aguirre-Acevedo, Daniel C

    2012-06-01

    This study was aimed at establishing subgroups having specific socioeconomic characteristics by using latent class analysis as a method for segmenting target population members of the MANA-ICBF supplementary food program in the Antioquia department of Colombia and determine their differences regarding poverty and health conditions in efficiently addressing pertinent resources, programs and policies. The target population consisted of 200,000 children and their households involved in the MANA food assistance program; a representative sample by region was used. Latent class analysis was used, as were the expectation-maximization and Newton Raphson algorithms for identifying the appropriate number of classes. The final model classified the households into four clusters or classes, differing according to well-defined socio-demographic conditions affecting children's health. Some homes had a greater depth of poverty, therefore lowering the families' quality of life and affecting the health of the children in this age group.

  10. Migration and Ageing of the Island Population – Five Stories from Iž

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Klempić

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses population development on the island of Iž during the period from 1857 to 2001, with special focus on the role that migration has on the ageing of the population. The processes that effected the demographic picture of the island during the twentieth century were high war loses in two world wars and continuous migration. Depopulation on Iž began in 1921 and has persisted until today. According to the last census, 557 persons live on the island, which is half the number that was registered in the first census. The dominant demo-reproduction processes are depopulation and ageing. All indicators in regard to the age structure show a very old population. At the same time, there is a strong return migration flow of persons that have received pensions after having worked elsewhere, which further increases the percentage of elderly in the overall population. Apart from analysis of the demographic data, the aim of the paper was also to determine the existing models of return migration, based on the example of several typical migration experiences. The authors attempted to illustrate the effect of migration on the life cycle of the Iž’s older population through five typical island stories, collected in October 2001 while interviewing persons 60 or more years of age. If a major change does not occur in regard to the present trend of emigration of the younger population (creation of jobs, revival of economic activities that have a future on the island etc. and in the behaviour of younger islanders (both those living at present on the island and those living elsewhere who would accept such new programmes, Iž will remain in the group of islands that is threatened by further ageing and depopulation.

  11. Relationship between the population age structure and recreational landscape: an example of Dubrava, Zagreb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Crljenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The starting point of this article follows a premise that demographic characteristics of a population, which constructs and consumes space on a daily basis, and cultural landscapes are interconnected, i.e. that certain demographics can be read from urban cultural landscapes in a greater or lesser extent. Of all the demographic structures incorporated in Croatian urban landscapes it is easiest to recognize the age, educational, religious, economic and ethnic/national composition, while the racial and gender structures are almost unnoticed. This paper presents the results of the analysis of the relationship between the population age structure and recreational landscapes of the eastern outskirts of Zagreb – Dubrava. By using the statistical analysis in the first part of the article, the author discusses the past and current age composition, as well as the trend of population aging. After that, the author provides descriptive and/or statistical analysis of some elements of recreational landscape in Dubrava, such as green areas, children’s and sports playgrounds, public gardens, sports centers, Grad mladih, and second homes, in order to determine the contemporary situation in the landscape. Considering the dominant process of rapid aging of the Dubrava population, a mismatch between the needs for recreation of the aged population and the real situation in the space was noticed. The lack of recreational facilities is evident not only for those intended for elderly residents, but also for the younger ones; the reasons are usually associated with the lack of financial resources, and in some cases with decision-making processes on a higher level than those of the city districts. Two subtypes of recreational landscapes were differentiated: sports and recreational landscape and second home landscape.

  12. Exercise, Arterial Crosstalk-Modulation, and Inflammation in an Aging Population: The ExAMIN AGE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streese, Lukas; Deiseroth, Arne; Schäfer, Juliane; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Hanssen, Henner

    2018-01-01

    will identify cardiovascular biomarkers that best resemble underlying cardiovascular risk in age and disease. The integrated approach will help define new recommendations for treatment guidance of exercise therapy in an aging population. ClinicalTrials. gov: NCT02796976; registered 02 June 2016 (retrospectively registered).

  13. Smart Aging Platform for Evaluating Cognitive Functions in Aging: A Comparison with the MoCA in a Normal Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Bottiroli

    2017-11-01

    aging. Future studies will validate this platform also in the clinical aging populations.

  14. Exercise, Arterial Crosstalk-Modulation, and Inflammation in an Aging Population: The ExAMIN AGE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Streese

    2018-02-01

    research will identify cardiovascular biomarkers that best resemble underlying cardiovascular risk in age and disease. The integrated approach will help define new recommendations for treatment guidance of exercise therapy in an aging population.ClinicalTrials. gov: NCT02796976; registered 02 June 2016 (retrospectively registered.

  15. Age-related differences in internalizing psychopathology amongst the Australian general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Matthew; Slade, Tim; Carragher, Natacha; Batterham, Philip; Buchan, Heather

    2013-11-01

    Two methodological criticisms have limited the reliability and validity of findings from previous studies that seek to examine change across the life span in levels of internalizing psychopathology using general population surveys. The first criticism involves the potential influence of cohort effects that confound true age-related changes whereas the second criticism involves the use of a single form of assessment to measure and compare levels of internalizing psychopathology. This study seeks to address these criticisms by modeling age-related change using multiple measures and multiple surveys. Data from 2 epidemiological surveys conducted 10 years apart in the Australian general population were combined and used for the current study. The latent construct of internalizing psychopathology was modeled using a combination of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) depression and anxiety diagnoses as well as items from the Kessler Psychological Distress scale (K10; Kessler et al., 2002). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated that a single internalizing dimension provided good model fit to the data. Multigroup CFA indicated that strict measurement invariance of the model can be assumed across survey administrations and age bands, justifying comparisons of mean differences in latent trait levels. Significant changes in mean levels of latent internalizing psychopathology were evident between respondents aged 30-39 years old in 1997 and respondents aged 40-49 years old in 2007, suggesting a minor but significant increase in psychopathology across middle age. By contrast, a minor but significant decrease in psychopathology was noted when transitioning from late middle age (50-59 years old) to old age (60-69 years old). The majority of individuals in the general population will experience constant levels of internalizing psychopathology as they age, suggesting that the construct is relatively

  16. Population profiling in China by gender and age: implication for HIV incidences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuanyi; Wu, Jianhong

    2009-11-18

    With the world's largest population, HIV spread in China has been closely watched and widely studied by its government and the international community. One important factor that might contribute to the epidemic is China's numerous surplus of men, due to its imbalanced sex ratio in newborns. However, the sex ratio in the human population is often assumed to be 1:1 in most studies of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Here, a mathematical model is proposed to estimate the population size in each gender and within different stages of reproduction and sexual activities. This population profiling by age and gender will assist in more precise prediction of HIV incidences. The total population is divided into 6 subgroups by gender and age. A deterministic compartmental model is developed to describe birth, death, age and the interactions among different subgroups, with a focus on the preference for newborn boys and its impact for the sex ratios. Data from 2003 to 2007 is used to estimate model parameters, and simulations predict short-term and long-term population profiles. The population of China will go to a descending track around 2030. Despite the possible underestimated number of newborns in the last couple of years, model-based simulations show that there will be about 28 million male individuals in 2055 without female partners during their sexually active stages. The birth rate in China must be increased to keep the population viable. But increasing the birth rate without balancing the sex ratio in newborns is problematic, as this will generate a large number of surplus males. Besides other social, economic and psychological issues, the impact of this surplus of males on STD incidences, including HIV infections, must be dealt with as early as possible.

  17. Population profiling in China by gender and age: implication for HIV incidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background With the world's largest population, HIV spread in China has been closely watched and widely studied by its government and the international community. One important factor that might contribute to the epidemic is China's numerous surplus of men, due to its imbalanced sex ratio in newborns. However, the sex ratio in the human population is often assumed to be 1:1 in most studies of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Here, a mathematical model is proposed to estimate the population size in each gender and within different stages of reproduction and sexual activities. This population profiling by age and gender will assist in more precise prediction of HIV incidences. Method The total population is divided into 6 subgroups by gender and age. A deterministic compartmental model is developed to describe birth, death, age and the interactions among different subgroups, with a focus on the preference for newborn boys and its impact for the sex ratios. Data from 2003 to 2007 is used to estimate model parameters, and simulations predict short-term and long-term population profiles. Results The population of China will go to a descending track around 2030. Despite the possible underestimated number of newborns in the last couple of years, model-based simulations show that there will be about 28 million male individuals in 2055 without female partners during their sexually active stages. Conclusion The birth rate in China must be increased to keep the population viable. But increasing the birth rate without balancing the sex ratio in newborns is problematic, as this will generate a large number of surplus males. Besides other social, economic and psychological issues, the impact of this surplus of males on STD incidences, including HIV infections, must be dealt with as early as possible. PMID:19922693

  18. Assessment of living conditions of the Ukranian working-age population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazhak, Iryna

    2017-01-01

    as many women performing the majority of the duties as men. About one-third of the respondents considered their profession to be prestigious, about half - average, a quarter – low prestige. Respondents: the working-age population of Ukraine – males aged 18-65, females aged 18-60. The sample is split up......, a quarter (24%) – performed the majority of the duties themselves, 20% – reported that the majority of the duties were performed by the other family member, 14% - all the duties were performed by the respondent, and only 5% – all the duties were performed by the other family member. There were four times...

  19. [Health problems of working-age population in the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmerov, N F; Tikhonova, G I

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with health problems of working-age population in the Russian Federation. According to foreign and domestic experts reduction of the able-bodied population and its fraction in the general population will be accompanied by ageing of labour force in the nearest two decades. Despite the growth of life expectancy in 2006-2007 demonstrated by disability, mortality and life expectancy indices for the age group of interest, its health status is considered to be critical. Mathematical simulation of mortality rates allowed for the assessment of potential years of life lost (PYLL) from leading causes of death among active working population. The data obtained provide a basis for the elaboration of medical and social programs aimed at increasing life expectancy. The most essential role in current negative tendencies in the health of active working population belongs to the deterioration of work conditions and safety at industrial enterprises coupled to low efficiency of occupational health prevention system accounting for the significantly reduced accessibility of health services. Restoration of occupational health system in Russia is of crucial importance. Experts of the Institute of Occupational Health have elaborated a draft National Action Plan designed to improve health protection of labour force in this country; its implementation would help to solve demographic problems and increase the amount and quality of labour force.

  20. Influence of Algae Age and Population on the Response to TiO₂ Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, David M; Erdem, Ayca; Huang, Chin Pao

    2018-03-25

    This work shows the influence of algae age (at the time of the exposure) and the initial algae population on the response of green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO₂ NPs). The different algae age was obtained by changes in flow rate of continually stirred tank reactors prior to NP exposure. Increased algae age led to a decreased growth, variations in chlorophyll content, and an increased lipid peroxidation. Increased initial algae population (0.3-4.2 × 10⁶ cells/mL) at a constant NP concentration (100 mg/L) caused a decline in the growth of algae. With increased initial algae population, the lipid peroxidation and chlorophyll both initially decreased and then increased. Lipid peroxidation had 4× the amount of the control at high and low initial population but, at mid-ranged initial population, had approximately half the control value. Chlorophyll a results also showed a similar trend. These results indicate that the physiological state of the algae is important for the toxicological effect of TiO₂ NPs. The condition of algae and exposure regime must be considered in detail when assessing the toxicological response of NPs to algae.

  1. Demographic transition and population ageing in India: Implications on the elderly of the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shradha Mathur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ageing population of India will transform into the elderly in future. The issue of health of the elderly population in India has arrested the attention of health policy makers and the researchers, in the recent past. Demographic structure, quality of life, healthcare services and government planning have serious implications on the ageing population. The objective of the research article is to systematically and critically evaluate the impact of demographic transition, projected demographic indicators and changing population characteristics on the health status of the elderly persons living in India in the coming decades. Analysis and discussions are based on secondary data published by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of the Government of India. The results indicate that India will be an ageing nation in the coming years and improvements in health, education and government planning are likely to enhance the life expectancy of the elderly, while the share of children will reduce, suggesting an increase in dependency of the older persons on the adult population. The article provides insights into workable solutions and suggests key recommendations to attain faster demographic dividend. India would be competing with the pressure of a dramatic demographic bulge in future.

  2. Estimating age composition in Alpine native populations of Austropotamobius pallipes complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ghia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the population structure and understanding growth patterns is crucial to manage freshwater resources and to solve fundamental questions concerning endangered species conservation. Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet, 1858 species complex has been declining on a widespread basis in Europe, including Italy, but detailed data on population structure and growth are lacking. In four mountain streams populated by the species, water temperature data were collected by data-loggers. In July 2012, a total of 746 crayfish were collected at night and their length was measured. Females and males size distributions were analysed separately for each stream using Bhattacharya’s Method. Age was assigned to each length class. The mean values of the age classes were used to evaluate the growth rate of Von Bertalanffy, by the seasonalized equation. Up to six age classes were identified in two populations. Results show that three out of four populations are well-structured, and they confirm that A. pallipes complex is a K-selected species. We stress the need for long-term monitoring and the importance of obtained results in development of conservation plans of endangered crayfish.

  3. Influence of Algae Age and Population on the Response to TiO2 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Metzler

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the influence of algae age (at the time of the exposure and the initial algae population on the response of green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs. The different algae age was obtained by changes in flow rate of continually stirred tank reactors prior to NP exposure. Increased algae age led to a decreased growth, variations in chlorophyll content, and an increased lipid peroxidation. Increased initial algae population (0.3−4.2 × 106 cells/mL at a constant NP concentration (100 mg/L caused a decline in the growth of algae. With increased initial algae population, the lipid peroxidation and chlorophyll both initially decreased and then increased. Lipid peroxidation had 4× the amount of the control at high and low initial population but, at mid-ranged initial population, had approximately half the control value. Chlorophyll a results also showed a similar trend. These results indicate that the physiological state of the algae is important for the toxicological effect of TiO2 NPs. The condition of algae and exposure regime must be considered in detail when assessing the toxicological response of NPs to algae.

  4. Influence of Algae Age and Population on the Response to TiO2 Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, David M.; Erdem, Ayca; Huang, Chin Pao

    2018-01-01

    This work shows the influence of algae age (at the time of the exposure) and the initial algae population on the response of green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs). The different algae age was obtained by changes in flow rate of continually stirred tank reactors prior to NP exposure. Increased algae age led to a decreased growth, variations in chlorophyll content, and an increased lipid peroxidation. Increased initial algae population (0.3−4.2 × 106 cells/mL) at a constant NP concentration (100 mg/L) caused a decline in the growth of algae. With increased initial algae population, the lipid peroxidation and chlorophyll both initially decreased and then increased. Lipid peroxidation had 4× the amount of the control at high and low initial population but, at mid-ranged initial population, had approximately half the control value. Chlorophyll a results also showed a similar trend. These results indicate that the physiological state of the algae is important for the toxicological effect of TiO2 NPs. The condition of algae and exposure regime must be considered in detail when assessing the toxicological response of NPs to algae. PMID:29587381

  5. Aging-related trajectories of lung function in the general population-The Doetinchem Cohort Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, Sandra H; Engelfriet, Peter M; Verschuren, W M Monique; Schipper, Maarten; Wouters, Inge M; Boezen, Marike; Smit, Henriëtte A; Kerstjens, Huib A M; Picavet, H Susan J

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore trajectories of lung function decline with age in the general population, and to study the effect of sociodemographic and life style related risk factors, in particular smoking and BMI. For this purpose, we used data from the Doetinchem Cohort Study (DCS)

  6. An aging population: relationships between socio-demographics, motivations and participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen Robinson; Robert C. Burns; Chad D. Pierskalla; Alan Graefe

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the outdoor recreation behavior of Oregon's aging population, including developing a socio-demographic profile and examining the importance of their current motivations with the importance of their expected motivations 10 years from now. A stratified random sample was drawn of Oregon residents, and a mailback questionnaire...

  7. Determination of the nutritional status of a population of school-age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nutrition assessment in the community is essential for accurate planning and implementation of intervention programmes to reduce the morbidity and mortality that are associated with malnutrition. Objective: This study is aimed at determining the nutritional status of a population of school-age children in ...

  8. Social Security Reform and Population Ageing in a Two-Sector Growth Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Groezen, B.J.A.M.; Meijdam, A.C.; Verbon, H.A.A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses the effects of reducing unfunded social security and population ageing on economic growth and welfare, both for a small open economy and for a closed economy.The economy consists of a service sector and a commodity sector.Productivity growth only occurs in the latter sector and

  9. Social security reform and population ageing in a two-sector growth model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groezen, Bas van; Meijdam, L.; Verbon, H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses the e¤ects of reducing unfunded social security and population ageing on economic growth and welfare, both for a small open economy and for a closed economy. The economy consists of a service sector and a commodity sector. Productivity growth only occurs in the latter sector

  10. The aging population in the twenty-first century: statistics for health policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilford, Dorothy M

    1988-01-01

    ... on Statistics for an Aging Population Sam Shapiro, Chair Committee on National Statistics Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1988 Copyrightoriginal retained, the be not from cannot book, paper original however, for version formatting, authoritative...

  11. META-ANALYSIS OF THE LIFE STYLE FACTORS RELEVANT TO ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS FOR THE AGING POPULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) study is to characterize activity patterns, physiological changes, and environmental exposures for the aging population. Meta analysis was performed on more than 2000 reviewed articles to evaluate the lifestyle factors ...

  12. Future challenges for clinical care of an ageing population infected with HIV: a modelling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Mikaela; Brinkman, Kees; Geerlings, Suzanne; Smit, Colette; Thyagarajan, Kalyani; Sighem, Ard van; de Wolf, Frank; Hallett, Timothy B.

    2015-01-01

    The population infected with HIV is getting older and these people will increasingly develop age-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs). We aimed to quantify the scale of the change and the implications for HIV care in the Netherlands in the future. We constructed an individual-based model of the

  13. Health and quality of life in an aging population - Food and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giacalone, Davide; Wendin, Karin; Kremer, Stefanie; Frøst, Michael Bom; Bredie, Wender L.P.; Olsson, Viktoria; Otto, Marie H.; Skjoldborg, Signe; Lindberg, Ulla; Risvik, Einar

    2016-01-01

    In Europe the percentage of citizens aged 65 and over is increasing at an unprecedented rate, and is expected to account for over 30% of the population by 2050. Coupled with an increase in life expectancy, this massive demographic change calls for a major effort to ensure quality of life in our

  14. Association of maternal risk factors with large for gestational age fetuses in Indian population

    OpenAIRE

    Shamim Khandaker; Shabana Munshi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the risk of delivering large-for gestational age (LGA) fetuses associated with maternal obesity, excessive maternal weight gain, and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)- in Indian mothers. Design: Retrospective study. Settings: Fernandez Hospital Private Limited, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India; a tertiary perinatal centre. Populations: Pregnant singleton mothers with correct pregnancy dating. Methods: Estimated fetal weight (EFW) is determined using ultrasound variabl...

  15. Future requirements for and supply of ophthalmologists for an aging population in Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. Ansah (John); D.F. de Korne (Dirk); S. Bayer (Steffen); C. Pan (Chong); T. Jayabaskar (Thiyagarajan); D.B. Matchar (David); N. Lew (Nicola); A. Phua (Andrew); V. Koh (Victoria); E.L. Lamoureux (Ecosse); D. Quek (Desmond)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract#### Background Singapore’s population, as that of many other countries, is aging; this is likely to lead to an increase in eye diseases and the demand for eye care. Since ophthalmologist training is long and expensive, early planning is essential. This paper forecasts workforce

  16. The Changes of Muscle Strength and Functional Activities During Aging in Male and Female Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Jung Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: We noted that the muscle strength and functional activities were decreased earlier in female than male individuals. The decrease of functional activities during the aging process seems to be earlier than the decrease of muscle strength. It is important to implement functional activities training in addition to strengthening exercise to maintain functional levels of the geriatric population.

  17. HIV/AIDS Interventions in an Aging U.S. Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Stephanie A.

    2011-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 25 percent of people living with HIV in the United States in 2006 were age 50 and older. HIV prevention for people over 50 is an important health concern, especially as the U.S. population grows older. Scholarly research has identified the need for HIV/AIDS interventions in the…

  18. From Demographic Dividend to Demographic Burden? : Regional Trends of Population Aging in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Matytsin, Mikhail; Moorty, Lalita; Richter, Kaspar

    2015-01-01

    Do regions with higher working age populations grow faster? This paper examines this question using data from Russian regions and finds evidence that demographic trends influence regional growth convergence. In other words, keeping other factors constant, poorer regions grow faster than richer regions, and some of the growth convergence is explained by demographic changes: faster growth in...

  19. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder Symptoms by Age in Autism, ADHD, and General Population Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Kokotovich, Cari; Mathiowetz, Christine; Baweja, Raman; Calhoun, Susan L.; Waxmonsky, James

    2017-01-01

    Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) is a controversial "DSM-5" diagnosis. It is not known how DMDD symptoms vary by age and if differences are similar for autism, ADHD, and general population samples. Our study analyzed the two DMDD symptoms (irritable-angry mood and temper outbursts) in 1,827 children with autism or ADHD (with…

  20. Household size is critical to varicella-zoster virus transmission in the tropics despite lower viral infectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nichols, Richard A; Averbeck, Karin T; Poulsen, Anja G

    2011-01-01

    with viral genetic information on routes of infection, to obtain precise estimates of disease transmission within and between houses. This community contains many large households in which different families live under a single roof, in living quarters divided by partitions. Our data show that household...... of infection as is commonly seen in other tropical countries. The young age of infection, which had drawn our attention to the Guinea Bissau population, can however be explained by the exceptionally large household sizes (mean 14.5 people). We have combined genetic and demographic data to show...

  1. Family and household demography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, F.J.C.; Zeng, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Households are groups of people that co-reside and share some resources. Families are households of related individuals. Household and family demography is the study of these primary social groups or social units, and in particular of group membership and the relationships between members of the

  2. Ages and stages questionnaires: adaptation to an Arabic speaking population and cultural sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charafeddine, Lama; Sinno, Durriyah; Ammous, Farah; Yassin, Walid; Al-Shaar, Laila; Mikati, Mohamad A

    2013-09-01

    Early detection of developmental delay is essential to initiate early intervention. The Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) correlate well with physician's assessment and have high predictive value. No such tool exists in Arabic. Translate and test the applicability and reliability of Arabic translated Ages and Stages Questionnaires (A-ASQ) in an Arabic speaking population. 733 healthy children were assessed. ASQ-II for 10 age groups (4-60 months) were translated to Arabic, back translations and cultural adaptation were performed. Test-retest reliability and internal consistency were evaluated using Pearson Correlation Coefficient (CC) and Cronbach's alpha (Cα). Mean scores per domain were compared to US normative scores using t-test. A-ASQ, after culturally relevant adaptations, was easily administered for 4-36 months age groups but not for 4-5 year old due to numerous cultural differences in the later. For the 4-36 month age groups Pearson CC ranged from 0.345 to 0.833. The internal consistency coefficients Cα scores ranged from 0.111 to 0.816. Significant differences were found in the mean domain scores of all age groups between Lebanese and US normative sample (p-value internal consistency and reliability in the younger age groups. It proved to be culturally sensitive, which should be taken into consideration when adapting such tool to non-western populations. Copyright © 2013 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Some economic consequences of an ageing and declining population in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeson, G W

    1983-01-01

    Figures for 1981 indicate that Denmark has a fertility level of 1.45 which has been below replacement level since 1968. In that same time period, natural increase has decreased from over 27,000 in 1968 to only 1354 in 1980 and a negative natural increase in 1981 with deaths outnumbering births by 3001. Even during the depression in the 1930's, net population increase was between 6-9/1000 with a fertility level which hovered around replacement level. At that time, the number of females in the childbearing ages was enough to provide population growth, whereas the number is much less today. Population increase is only 0.3/1000. The national population projections for Denmark for 1981-2010 assume an increase in the fertility level from 1.45-1.70 by 1991 after which it remains constant. The number of 20-39 year olds increased steadily until 1945 after which there was a decline as the cohorts from periods with low fertility levels entered this age group, but this was again followed by a steady increase to the present day. The number of females aged 0-39 years is expected to decrease in all age groups to the year 2000. Those aged 40-59 increased in numbers from 1920 to the mid 1960s, since then they have decreased in number, but an increase is forcast for the remainder of the century. The number of elderly females also increased steadily from 1930-80, from about 200,000 to over 550,000; this is expected to continue until 1990 when a short-term decline will set in. Regarding the economic and social consequences of these trends, it is shown that the present decline in fertility has its origins in a period of low unemployment and its negative growth while there was still relatively low unemployment and economic growth. In 1973 the unemployed rate was 0.9% of the work force and this rose to 9.2% in 1981. The Danish population has aged from one with 1/4 million people aged 60 and over at the turn of the century to about 1 million of that age today. Also, the aged themselves

  4. Household food security and breast-feeding duration among Canadian Inuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIsaac, Kathryn E; Stock, David C; Lou, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    There have been few studies investigating the association between food security and breast-feeding duration and none have been conducted among Canadian Inuit, a population disproportionately burdened with food insecurity. We evaluated the association between household food security and breast-feeding duration in Canadian Inuit children. Data were obtained from the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey, a population-based cross-sectional survey. The Canadian Territory of Nunavut in 2007 and 2008. Caregivers of Inuit children aged 3-5 years. Participating children were randomly sampled from community medical centre lists. Out of 215 children, 147 lived in food-insecure households (68·4 %). Using restricted mean survival time models, we estimated that children in food-secure households were breast-fed for 16·8 (95 % CI 12·5, 21·2) months and children in food-insecure households were breast-fed for 21·4 (95 % CI 17·9, 24·8) months. In models adjusting for social class, traditional knowledge and child health, household food security was not associated with breast-feeding duration (hazard ratio=0·82, 95 % CI 0·58, 1·14). Our research does not support the hypothesis that children living in food-insecure households were breast-fed for a longer duration than children living in food-secure households. However, we found that more than 50 % of mothers in food-insecure households continued breast-feeding well beyond 1 year. Many mothers in food-secure households also continued to breast-feed beyond 1 year. Given the high prevalence of food insecurity in Inuit communities, we need to ensure infants and their caregivers are being adequately nourished to support growth and breast-feeding, respectively.

  5. Rates of stillbirth by gestational age and cause in Inuit and First Nations populations in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Park, Alison L; Zoungrana, Hamado; McHugh, Nancy Gros-Louis; Luo, Zhong-Cheng

    2013-04-02

    Inuit and First Nations populations have higher rates of stillbirth than non-Aboriginal populations in Canada do, but little is known about the timing and cause of stillbirth in Aboriginal populations. We compared gestational age- and cause-specific stillbirth rates in Inuit and First Nations populations with the rates in the non-Aboriginal population in Quebec. Data included singleton stillbirths and live births at 24 or more gestational weeks among Quebec residents from 1981 to 2009. We calculated odds ratios (ORs), rate differences and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the retrospective cohort of Inuit and First Nations births relative to non-Aboriginal births using fetuses at risk (i.e., ongoing pregnancies) as denominators and adjusting for maternal characteristics. The main outcomes were stillbirth by gestational age (24-27, 28-36, ≥ 37 wk) and cause of death. Rates of stillbirth per 1000 births were greater among Inuit (6.8) and First Nations (5.7) than among non-Aboriginal (3.6) residents. Relative to the non-Aboriginal population, the risk of stillbirth was greater at term (≥ 37 wk) than before term for both Inuit (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.9 to 4.8) and First Nations (OR 2.6, 95% CI 2.1 to 3.3) populations. Causes most strongly associated with stillbirth were poor fetal growth, placental disorders and congenital anomalies among the Inuit, and hypertension and diabetes among the First Nations residents. Stillbirth rates in Aboriginal populations were particularly high at term gestation. Poor fetal growth, placental disorders and congenital anomalies were important causes of stillbirth among the Inuit, and diabetic and hypertensive complications were important causes in the First Nations population. Prevention may require improvements in pregnancy and obstetric care.

  6. Ecological dynamics of age selective harvesting of fish population: Maximum sustainable yield and its control strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jana, Debaldev; Agrawal, Rashmi; Upadhyay, Ranjit Kumar; Samanta, G.P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Age-selective harvesting of prey and predator are considered by multi-delayed prey-predator system. • System experiences stable coexistence to oscillatory mode and vice versa via Hopf-bifurcation depending upon the parametric restrictions. • MSY, bionomic equilibrium and optimal harvesting policy are also depending upon the age-selection of prey and predator. • All the analytic results are delay dependent. • Numerical examples support the analytical findings. - Abstract: Life history of ecological resource management and empirical studies are increasingly documenting the impact of selective harvesting process on the evolutionary stable strategy of both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In the present study, the interaction between population and their independent and combined selective harvesting are framed by a multi-delayed prey-predator system. Depending upon the age selection strategy, system experiences stable coexistence to oscillatory mode and vice versa via Hopf-bifurcation. Economic evolution of the system which is mainly featured by maximum sustainable yield (MSY), bionomic equilibrium and optimal harvesting vary largely with the commensurate age selections of both population because equilibrium population abundance becomes age-selection dependent. Our study indicates that balance between harvesting delays and harvesting intensities should be maintained for better ecosystem management. Numerical examples support the analytical findings.

  7. Cardiovascular risk factors: Is the metabolic syndrome related to aging? Epidemiology in a Portuguese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Armindo Sousa; Seixas, Rui; Gálvez, Juan Manuel; Climent, Vicente

    2018-05-16

    The primary objective of our study is to determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the population. The secondary objective is to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, anthropometric alterations and the prevalence of target organ damage and their relationship with aging. The sample for the study was obtained by means of a consecutive population-based demonstration in 803 adults over 18 years of age belonging to the labor force of the company Grupo Delta SA. The study was carried out according to the guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki. The individuals included in the study voluntarily participated, once informed of the purpose of the study, giving their prior verbal consent, to the company's human resources department, in the case of Delta Group workers. 23.8% of the population has metabolic syndrome more prevalent in males, no smoking, no significant alcohol consumption, sedentary, with a high Body mass index (BMI). Its prevalence increases with age. We found that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome increases with age and is present in people of working age, increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, work-related absences, and socio-economic costs. Copyright © 2018 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mixing times towards demographic equilibrium in insect populations with temperature variable age structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damos, Petros

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we use entropy related mixing rate modules to measure the effects of temperature on insect population stability and demographic breakdown. The uncertainty in the age of the mother of a randomly chosen newborn, and how it is moved after a finite act of time steps, is modeled using a stochastic transformation of the Leslie matrix. Age classes are represented as a cycle graph and its transitions towards the stable age distribution are brought forth as an exact Markov chain. The dynamics of divergence, from a non equilibrium state towards equilibrium, are evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy. Moreover, Kullback-Leibler distance is applied as information-theoretic measure to estimate exact mixing times of age transitions probabilities towards equilibrium. Using empirically data, we show that on the initial conditions and simulated projection's trough time, that population entropy can effectively be applied to detect demographic variability towards equilibrium under different temperature conditions. Changes in entropy are correlated with the fluctuations of the insect population decay rates (i.e. demographic stability towards equilibrium). Moreover, shorter mixing times are directly linked to lower entropy rates and vice versa. This may be linked to the properties of the insect model system, which in contrast to warm blooded animals has the ability to greatly change its metabolic and demographic rates. Moreover, population entropy and the related distance measures that are applied, provide a means to measure these rates. The current results and model projections provide clear biological evidence why dynamic population entropy may be useful to measure population stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hand Grip Strength: age and gender stratified normative data in a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Anne W

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The North West Adelaide Health Study is a representative longitudinal cohort study of people originally aged 18 years and over. The aim of this study was to describe normative data for hand grip strength in a community-based Australian population. Secondary aims were to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI and hand grip strength, and to compare Australian data with international hand grip strength norms. Methods The sample was randomly selected and recruited by telephone interview. Overall, 3 206 (81% of those recruited participants returned to the clinic during the second stage (2004-2006 which specifically focused on the collection of information relating to musculoskeletal conditions. Results Following the exclusion of 435 participants who had hand pain and/or arthritis, 1366 men and 1312 women participants provided hand grip strength measurement. The study population was relatively young, with 41.5% under 40 years; and their mean BMI was 28.1 kg/m2 (SD 5.5. Higher hand grip strength was weakly related to higher BMI in adults under the age of 30 and over the age of 70, but inversely related to higher BMI between these ages. Australian norms from this sample had amongst the lowest of the hand grip strength of the internationally published norms, except those from underweight populations. Conclusions This population demonstrated higher BMI and lower grip strength in younger participants than much of the international published, population data. A complete exploration of the relationship between BMI and hand grip strength was not fully explored as there were very few participants with BMI in the underweight range. The age and gender grip strength values are lower in younger adults than those reported in international literature.

  10. Cardiometabolic risk indicators that distinguish adults with psychosis from the general population, by age and gender.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra L Foley

    Full Text Available Individuals with psychosis are more likely than the general community to develop obesity and to die prematurely from heart disease. Interventions to improve cardiovascular outcomes are best targeted at the earliest indicators of risk, at the age they first emerge. We investigated which cardiometabolic risk indicators distinguished those with psychosis from the general population, by age by gender, and whether obesity explained the pattern of observed differences. Data was analyzed from an epidemiologically representative sample of 1,642 Australians with psychosis aged 18-64 years and a national comparator sample of 8,866 controls aged 25-64 years from the general population. Cubic b-splines were used to compare cross sectional age trends by gender for mean waist circumference, body mass index [BMI], blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, and total cholesterol in our psychosis and control samples. At age 25 individuals with psychosis had a significantly higher mean BMI, waist circumference, triglycerides, glucose [women only], and diastolic blood pressure and significantly lower HDL-cholesterol than controls. With the exception of triglycerides at age 60+ in men, and glucose in women at various ages, these differences were present at every age. Differences in BMI and waist circumference between samples, although dramatic, could not explain all differences in diastolic blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol or triglycerides but did explain differences in glucose. Psychosis has the hallmarks of insulin resistance by at least age 25. The entire syndrome, not just weight, should be a focus of intervention to reduce mortality from cardiovascular disease.

  11. Household income and earnings losses among 6,396 persons with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Frederick; Michaud, Kaleb; Choi, Hyon K; Williams, Rhys

    2005-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) causes disability and reduced productivity. There are no large quantitative studies of earnings and productivity losses in patients with clinical RA, and no studies of household income losses. We describe methods for obtaining earnings and household income losses that are applicable to working as well as nonworking RA patients, and we perform such studies using these methods. We estimated cross-sectional expected annual earnings and household income losses in 6,649 persons with RA from Current Populations Survey (CPS) and O*NET (Occupational Information Network) data, and we estimated expected household income and earnings losses based on demographic characteristics after adjustment to Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 (SF-36) population norms (internal method). Workplace productivity was measured by the Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ). 27.9% of patients aged Productivity losses were 6% based on work limitations identified by the WLQ. Household income loss (percentage loss) including transfer payments was USD 6,287 (11.8%) for all patients, USD 4,247 (6.9%) for employed patients, and USD 7,374 (14.8%) for nonworking patients. Among nonworking nondisabled patients aged status, education, age, ethnicity, and marital status. Income loss is predicted by the HAQ, HAQ-II, Modified HAQ, and SF-36.

  12. Trail Making Test: normative data for Turkish elderly population by age, sex and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangoz, Banu; Karakoc, Ebru; Selekler, Kaynak

    2009-08-15

    Trail Making Test (TMT) is a neuropsychological test, which has parts A and B that can precisely measure executive functions, like complex visual-motor conceptual screening, planning, organization, abstract thinking and response inhibition. The main purpose of this study is to standardize TMT for Turkish adults and/or elderly population. This study primarily consists of two main parts; norm determination study and reliability/validity studies, respectively. The standardization study was carried on 484 participants (238 female and 246 male). Participants at the age of 50 years and older were selected from a pool of people employed in or retired from governmental and/or private institutions. The research design of this study involves the following variables mainly; age (7 subgroups), sex (2 subgroups) and education (3 subgroups). Age, sex and education variables have significant influence on eight different kinds of TMT scores. Statistical analysis by ANOVA revealed a major effect of age (pKruskal-Wallis Test was performed and chi-square (chi(2)) values revealed that, correction scores for Part A and B were found to be influenced by age groups (pTest-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability coefficients for time scores of Parts A and B were estimated as 0.78, 0.99 and 0.73, 0.93, respectively. This study provides normative data for a psychometric tool that reliably measures the executive functions in Turkish elderly population at the age of 50 and over.

  13. Characteristic of intraocular pressure distribution in population of 1115 Tibetan aged 40 years old or more

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    Gui-Qin Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze of characteristic of intraocular pressure(IOPdistribution in population of 1115 Tibetan aged 40 years old or more and its correlative factors such as ages, gender and anterior chamber depth in Tibetan plateau area. METHODS: A total of 1115 Tibetan permanent residents aged 40 years or older from the towns and villages of Qushui County were divided into four age groups: ≥40~RESULTS: The mean IOP of 1115(2145 eyesTibetan permanent residents aged 40 years or older was 12.9±2.7mmHg, 13.2±2.8mmHg in men and 12.7±2.5mmHg in women. The results showed that the participants with anterior chamber depth of 1/2 corneal thickness had 68.8% in 1115(2128 eyesTibetan permanent residents and anterior chamber depth decreases significantly with age(PPCONCLUSION: The mean IOP of plateau subjects was significantly lower from that of plain subjects by approximately 3 mmHg. There are lower pressure, deeper anterior chamber depth in this population of 1115 Tibetan permanent residents. The more attention should be paid to screening for glaucoma in high plateau.

  14. Level of emotional awareness in the general French population: effects of gender, age, and education level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandrino, Jean-Louis; Baracca, Margaret; Antoine, Pascal; Paget, Virginie; Bydlowski, Sarah; Carton, Solange

    2013-01-01

    The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) developed by Lane et al. (1990) measures the ability of a subject to discriminate his or her own emotional state and that of others. The scale is based on a cognitive-developmental model in which emotional awareness increases in a similar fashion to intellectual functions. Because studies performed using North American and German populations have demonstrated an effect of age, gender, and level of education on the ability to differentiate emotional states, our study attempts to evaluate whether these factors have the same effects in a general French population. 750 volunteers (506 female, 244 male), who were recruited from three regions of France (Lille, Montpellier, Paris), completed the LEAS. The sample was divided into five age groups and three education levels. The results of the LEAS scores for self and others and the total score showed a difference in the level of emotional awareness for different age groups, by gender and education level. A higher emotional level was observed for younger age groups, suggesting that emotional awareness depends on the cultural context and generational societal teachings. Additionally, the level of emotional awareness was higher in women than in men and lower in individuals with less education. This result might be explained by an educational bias linked to gender and higher education whereby expressive ability is reinforced. In addition, given the high degree of variability in previously observed scores in the French population, we propose a standard based on our French sample.

  15. Demographic Trends of Adults in New York City Opioid Treatment Programs--An Aging Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Benjamin; Polydorou, Soteri; Ferris, Rosie; Blaum, Caroline S; Ross, Stephen; McNeely, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The population of adults accessing opioid treatment is growing older, but exact estimates vary widely, and little is known about the characteristics of the aging treatment population. Further, there has been little research regarding the epidemiology, healt h status, and functional impairments in this population. To determine the utilization of opioid treatment services by older adults in New York City. This study used administrative data from New York State licensed drug treatment programs to examine overall age trends and characteristics of older adults in opioid treatment programs in New York City from 1996 to 2012. We found significant increases in utilization of opioid treatment programs by older adults in New York City. By 2012, those aged 50-59 made up the largest age group in opioid treatment programs. Among older adults there were notable shifts in demographic background including gender and ethnicity, and an increase in self-reported impairments. More research is needed to fully understand the specific characteristics and needs of older adults with opioid dependence.

  16. Cross-population validation of statistical distance as a measure of physiological dysregulation during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alan A; Milot, Emmanuel; Li, Qing; Legault, Véronique; Fried, Linda P; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2014-09-01

    Measuring physiological dysregulation during aging could be a key tool both to understand underlying aging mechanisms and to predict clinical outcomes in patients. However, most existing indices are either circular or hard to interpret biologically. Recently, we showed that statistical distance of 14 common blood biomarkers (a measure of how strange an individual's biomarker profile is) was associated with age and mortality in the WHAS II data set, validating its use as a measure of physiological dysregulation. Here, we extend the analyses to other data sets (WHAS I and InCHIANTI) to assess the stability of the measure across populations. We found that the statistical criteria used to determine the original 14 biomarkers produced diverging results across populations; in other words, had we started with a different data set, we would have chosen a different set of markers. Nonetheless, the same 14 markers (or the subset of 12 available for InCHIANTI) produced highly similar predictions of age and mortality. We include analyses of all combinatorial subsets of the markers and show that results do not depend much on biomarker choice or data set, but that more markers produce a stronger signal. We conclude that statistical distance as a measure of physiological dysregulation is stable across populations in Europe and North America. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Diversity and convergence of population aging: evidence from China and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Légaré, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishTaking the diversity and the convergence of demographic transitions intoconsideration, it is hypothesized that population aging that occurs in developed countries anddeveloping countries will reflect diversity, but will also show some convergence. In order to testthis hypothesis, the present study compares the population aging experiences of China (1971-2050 andCanada (1911-2050 and places them within the context of the demographic transition. In this paper welearn how, as population ages, these two countries will, through two distinct pathways, arrive atsimilar age structures by the middle of the 21st century. Both the diversity and the convergence ofpopulation aging are shown in this comparative study.FrenchEn constatant la diversité et la convergence des transitions démographiques,nous faisons l'hypothèse que le processus du vieillissement démographiquecomporte également une certaine diversité et montrera une convergence, enparticulier, entre les pays développés et les pays en développement. Afin devérifier cette hypothèse, la présente étude compare les vieillissementsdémographiques en Chine (1971-2050 et au Canada (1911-2050, en lesmettant dans le contexte de la transition démographique. Cet article montre qu’àmesure que vieillit la population, comment ces deux pays arriveront par deuxvoies distinctes à une structure par âge similaire au milieu du XXIème siècle. Ladiversité et la convergence du vieillissement sont toutes deux illustrées danscette étude comparative.

  18. Future scenarios for energy consumption and carbon emissions due to demographic transitions in Chinese households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Biying; Wei, Yi-Ming; Kei, Gomi; Matsuoka, Yuzuru

    2018-02-01

    Population dynamics has been acknowledged as a key concern for projecting future emissions, partly because of the huge uncertainties related to human behaviour. However, the heterogeneous shifts of human behaviour in the process of demographic transition are not well explored when scrutinizing the impacts of population dynamics on carbon emissions. Here, we expand the existing population-economy-environment analytical structure to address the above limitations by representing the trend of demographic transitions to small-family and ageing society. We specifically accommodate for inter- and intra-life-stage variations in time allocation and consumption in the population rather than assuming a representative household, and take a less developed province, Sichuan, in China as the empirical context. Our results show that the demographic shift to small and ageing households will boost energy consumption and carbon emissions, driven by the joint variations in time-use and consumption patterns. Furthermore, biased pictures of changing emissions will emerge if the time effect is disregarded.

  19. Decrease of old age population mortality in Yugoslavia: Chance to increase anticipated life expectancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Biljana M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the level and structure of old age population mortality in Yugoslavia with an aim to determine the intensity of realized changes and to provide an answer to how much they are significant and to approach the positive trends noted in developed countries in the latest period. Although it was insufficiently represented in the demographic analysis, the analysis of mortality in old people is gaining importance in the world. Apart from the reasons which result from the increase in the number of old people and thus their greater participation in the total number of deceased, enviable results have been achieved in decreasing old age mortality, which are more and more in focus of interest. While earlier research reported on the dominant influence of the decrease of younger age mortality to the increase of the expectation of life at birth, recent analysis precisely confirm the importance of decreasing mortality in old people. In mortality conditions from 1997/98, an additional 13.4 years of life in average is expected for men in Yugoslavia, and 15.2 for women. During more than five decades, the anticipated life expectancy for people over the age of 65 increased for only 1.2 years for men and 1.9 years for women. Out of that, the greatest increase was realized in the period 1950/51 - 1960/61 in both sexes. A small decrease in the average life expectancy was marked with men in the period 1960/61 - 1970/71, and with women in the latest period. Otherwise, all up to the eighties, the annual rate of increase was considerably lower than the rate of increase for zero year. It was only in the period 1980/81-1990/91 that faster growth had an anticipated life expectancy for the 65 years old. However, during the nineties unfavorable changes continued with the older, especially, female population. When comparing the values of the average life expectancy for people over 65 in Yugoslavia with corresponding values in developed countries, the lagging in

  20. Work-related productivity losses in an era of ageing populations: the case of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanly, Paul; Walsh, Paul M; O Céilleachair, Alan; Skally, Mairead; Staines, Anthony; Kapur, Kanika; Fitzpatrick, Patricia; Sharp, Linda

    2013-02-01

    We investigated patterns and costs of lost productivity due to colorectal cancer in Ireland and examined how rising pension ages affect these costs. Data from a postal survey of colorectal cancer survivors (6 to 30 months after diagnosis; n = 159), taken from March 2010 to January 2011, were combined with population-level survival estimates and national wage data to calculate temporary and permanent disability, and premature mortality, costs using the human capital approach. Almost 40% of respondents left the workforce permanently after diagnosis and 90% took temporary time off work. Total costs of lost productivity per person were 205,847 in 2008 assuming retirement at the age of 65. When the retirement age was raised to 70, productivity costs increased by almost a half. Our study demonstrated the considerable productivity costs associated with colorectal cancer and highlighted the effect of rising retirement ages on costs.

  1. Household air pollution from cooking and risk of adverse health and birth outcomes in Bangladesh: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Nuruzzaman; B Nurs, Cherri Zhang; Mofizul Islam, M; Islam, Md Rafiqul; Rahman, Md Mizanur

    2017-06-13

    Household air pollution (HAP) from cooking with solid fuels has become a leading cause of death and disability in many developing countries including Bangladesh. We assess the association between HAP and risk of selected adverse birth and maternal health outcomes. Data for this study were extracted from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey conducted during 2007-2014. Selected adverse birth outcomes were acute respiratory infection (ARI) among children, stillbirth, low birth weight (LBW), under-five mortality, neonatal mortality and infant mortality. Maternal pregnancy complications and cesarean delivery were considered as the adverse maternal health outcomes. Place of cooking, use of solid fuel within the house boundary and in living room were the exposure variables. To examine the association between exposure and outcome variables, we used a series of multiple logistic regression models accounted for complex survey design. Around 90% of the respondents used solid fuel within the house boundary, 11% of them used solid fuel within the living room. Results of multiple regression indicated that cooking inside the house increased the risk of neonatal mortality (aOR,1.25; 95% CI, 1.02-1.52), infant mortality (aOR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.00-1.40), ARI (aOR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.08-1.33), LBW (aOR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.10-1.43), and cesarean delivery (aOR,1.18; 95% CI, 1.01-1.29). Use of solid fuel, irrespective of cooking places, increased the risk of pregnancy complications (aOR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.19-1.55). Compared to participants who reported cooking outside the house, the risk of ARI, LBW were significantly high among those who performed cooking within the house, irrespective of type of cooking fuel. Indoor cooking and use of solid fuel in household increase the risk of ARI, LBW, cesarean delivery, and pregnancy complication. These relationships need further investigation using more direct measures of smoke exposure and clinical measures of health outcomes. The use of clean fuels

  2. Neuropsychologic status at the age 4 years and atopy in a population-based birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julvez, J; Torrent, M; Guxens, M; Antó, J M; Guerra, S; Sunyer, J

    2009-09-01

    Mental health has been reported to be associated with allergy, but only a few cohort studies have assessed if neurodevelopment predicts atopy. To investigate if neurobehavioral status of healthy 4-year-old children was associated with specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) at the same age and skin prick test results 2 years later. A population-based birth cohort enrolled 482 children, 422 of them (87%) provided neurobehavioral data, 341 (71%) had specific IgE measured at the age of 4 years; and 395 (82%) had skin prick tests completed at the age of 6 years. Atopy was defined as IgE levels higher than 0.35 kU/l to any of the three tested allergens at the age of 4 or as a positive skin prick test to any of the six tested allergens at the age of 6. McCarthy Scales of Child Abilities and California Preschool Social Competence Scale were the psychometric instruments used. Twelve percent of children at the age of 4 and 17% at the age of 6 were atopic. Neurobehavioral scores were negatively associated with 6-year-old atopy after adjustment for socio-demographic and allergic factors, A relative risk of 3.06 (95% CI: 1.30-7.24) was associated with the lowest tertile (scorings eczema at the age of 6, but not at the age of 4, were associated with neurodevelopment at the age of 4. Neuropsychologic functioning and later atopy are negatively associated in preschool age children.

  3. Household factors influencing participation in bird feeding activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Zoe G.; Fuller, Richard A.; Dallimer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    whether and how the socioeconomic background of a household influences participation in food provision for wild birds, the most popular and widespread form of human-wildlife interaction. A majority of households feed birds (64% across rural and urban areas in England, and 53% within five British study...... cities). House type, household size and the age of the head of the household were all important predictors of bird feeding, whereas gross annual household income, the occupation of the head of the household, and whether the house is owned or rented were not. In both surveys, the prevalence of bird...... a week. The proportion of households regularly feeding birds was positively related to the age of the head of the household, but declined with gross annual income. As concerns grow about the lack of engagement between people and the natural environment, such findings are important if conservation...

  4. Dyslipidemia and its risk factors among urban middle-aged Iranians: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Hossein; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Hashemi, Hassan; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is a leading cause of mortality in developed and developing countries. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of dyslipidemia and its risk factors in an urban group of Iranian adult population. In this study, based on the criteria set by the National Cholesterol Education Program, the prevalence of dyslipidemia was evaluated in a population of 4737 people aged 45-69 years who participated in the second phase of an ophthalmology cohort study in Shahroud. Dyslipidemia prevalence was determined by age, sex, and risk factors of the disease; the findings were tested by using simple and multiple logistic regression. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 66.5% (CI 95%: 64.4-68.6) in males, 61.3% (CI 95%: 59.5-63.2) in females, and 63.4% (CI 95%: 62.0-64.9%) in both sexes. The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, low HDL-C, and high LDL-C, respectively, was 28.8%, 13.4%, 42.3%, and 13.4%, respectively. In multivariate logistic regression model, increase of age (for females), abdominal obesity, overweight and obesity, hypertension, and diabetes were associated with an increased odd of dyslipidemia. The prevalence of dyslipidemia in middle-aged urban population in Iran is high, and with increasing age there is an increased risk of dyslipidemia. Hence, considering the growing trend of aging in Iran, there is need for taking special measures to deal with dyslipidemia as a health priority. Furthermore, the need for planning in order to reduce the risk of dyslipidemia and prevent its complications is greater than ever. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The relationship between population ageing and the economic growth in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendan, Lo Rick; Sek, Siok Kun

    2017-08-01

    Asia has witnessed robust economic growth since the 1960s. Today, emerging markets in Asia have managed to maintain rapid growth even when the world's main economies suffer from debt and banking crises. However, declining total fertility rate, increasing life expectancy, continuous change of birth and death patterns, and increasing share of old age population in the age distribution in Asia exert significant pressure on its economies. This paper analyses the relationship between population ageing and economic growth using 2 different panels of countries; one Asian and another the from the oldest countries worldwide between 1970 and 2014. The analysis is based on the Auto Regression Distributed Lag models. The MG (Mean Group) and PMG (Pooled Mean Group) estimations are applied in this analysis. The Hausman Test is conducted to decide between the MG and PMG estimators. We find that ageing will negatively affect the economy in the long run. The growing number of youths will initially have a negative effect on the economy but would eventually lead to a positive growth in the future. The old age dependency ratio has yet to have affect the Asian economy but is expected eventually to impose a negative effect as seen in the oldest nations of the world.

  6. The impact of population ageing on the social security expenditure and economic growth in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruo, N

    1987-05-01

    The author considers the impact of demographic aging in Japan on the social security system and on economic growth. It is argued that "First of all, as the cost of social security (including social services) increases remarkably at the earlier stage of ageing, the disposable (after tax) income and private consumption of the present labour force generation tend to increase at a lower growth rate than that of the GNP....Secondly if pension systems are based on terminal funding schemes, the ageing of the population increases savings (net increase of the amount of the pension funds) at the earlier stage of the ageing of the population. Thirdly, there is a time lag between the increase of social security benefits and the decrease in the personal savings ratio. The high ratio of savings and the shortage of aggregate demand as well as the high pressure for export in...recent Japan can partly be attributed to the above factors." Possible future economic scenarios as demographic ageing in Japan proceeds are described, and policies to avert anticipated problems are outlined. (SUMMARY IN JPN) excerpt

  7. Modelling Anopheles gambiae s.s. Population Dynamics with Temperature- and Age-Dependent Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Christiansen-Jucht

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and global warming are emerging as important threats to human health, particularly through the potential increase in vector- and water-borne diseases. Environmental variables are known to affect substantially the population dynamics and abundance of the poikilothermic vectors of disease, but the exact extent of this sensitivity is not well established. Focusing on malaria and its main vector in Africa, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, we present a set of novel mathematical models of climate-driven mosquito population dynamics motivated by experimental data suggesting that in An. gambiae, mortality is temperature and age dependent. We compared the performance of these models to that of a “standard” model ignoring age dependence. We used a longitudinal dataset of vector abundance over 36 months in sub-Saharan Africa for comparison between models that incorporate age dependence and one that does not, and observe that age-dependent models consistently fitted the data better than the reference model. This highlights that including age dependence in the vector component of mosquito-borne disease models may be important to predict more reliably disease transmission dynamics. Further data and studies are needed to enable improved fitting, leading to more accurate and informative model predictions for the An. gambiae malaria vector as well as for other disease vectors.

  8. The implications of increased survivorship for mortality variation in aging populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelman, Michal; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Agree, Emily M

    2010-01-01

    The remarkable growth in life expectancy during the twentieth century inspired predictions of a future in which all people, not just a fortunate few, will live long lives ending at or near the maximum human life span. We show that increased longevity has been accompanied by less variation in ages...... at death, but survivors to the oldest ages have grown increasingly heterogeneous in their mortality risks. These trends are consistent across countries, and apply even to populations with record-low variability in the length of life. We argue that as a result of continuing improvements in survival, delayed...

  9. Dental care for aging populations in Denmark, Sweden, Norway, United kingdom, and Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Vigild, Merete; Nitschke, Ina

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews access to and financing of dental care for aging populations in selected nations in Europe. Old age per se does not seem to be a major factor in determining the use of dental services. Dentition status, on the other hand, is a major determinant of dental attendance. In additi...... in Europe as well as in the United States....... dentistry discourage dentists from seeking opportunities to treat geriatric patients? Overall, the availability of dental services, the organization of the dental health care delivery system, and price subsidy for dental treatment are important factors influencing access to dental care among older people...

  10. Will generalist physician supply meet demands of an increasing and aging population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwill, Jack M; Cultice, James M; Kruse, Robin L

    2008-01-01

    We predict that population growth and aging will increase family physicians' and general internists' workloads by 29 percent between 2005 and 2025. We expect a 13 percent increased workload for care of children by pediatricians and family physicians. However, the supply of generalists for adult care, adjusted for age and sex, will increase 7 percent, or only 2 percent if the number of graduates continues to decline through 2008. We expect deficits of 35,000-44,000 adult care generalists, although the supply for care of children should be adequate. These forces threaten the nation's foundation of primary care for adults.

  11. Increased active von Willebrand factor during disease development in the aging diabetic patient population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang Feng; Xia, Zuo Li; Han, Ji Ju; Wang, Yi Ting; Wang, Ji Yue; Pan, Shao Dong; Wu, Ya Ping; Zhang, Bin; Li, Guang Yao; Du, Jing Wei; Gao, Hen Qiang; de Groot, Philip G; de Laat, Bas; Hollestelle, Martine J

    2013-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes is known to cause endothelial activation resulting in the secretion of von Willebrand factor (VWF). We have shown that levels of VWF in a glycoprotein Ib-binding conformation are increased in specific clinical settings. The aim of the current study is to investigate whether active VWF levels increase during aging and the development of diabetes within the population of patients suffering from type 2 diabetes. Patients and controls were divided into two groups based on age: older and younger than 60 years of age. VWF antigen, VWF propeptide, VWF activation factor and total active VWF were measured. Patients older than 60 years of age had increased levels of total active VWF, VWF activation factor and VWF propeptide compared to younger patients and controls. All measured VWF parameters were associated with age in diabetic patients. Total active VWF and VWF propeptide correlated with the period of being diagnosed with diabetes. Regression analyses showed that especially the VWF activation factor was strongly associated with diabetes in patients older than 60 years of age. In conclusion, we found that the conformation of VWF could be involved in the disease process of diabetes and that the VWF in a glycoprotein Ib-binding conformation could play a role as risk marker during the development of diabetes in combination with an increase in age. Our study shows that the active quality of VWF was more important than the quantity.

  12. Cell population data in neonates: differences by age group and associations with perinatal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J; Kim, S Y; Lee, W; Han, K; Sung, I K

    2015-10-01

    Cell population data (CPD) describe physical parameters of white blood cell subpopulations and are reported to be of some value in the diagnosis of sepsis in neonates. Before using the CPD for diagnosing sepsis, the baseline features of the CPD distribution in healthy neonates should be clarified. The aim of this study was to compare the CPD distributions of healthy neonates and other age groups and to identify perinatal factors that are associated with changes in the CPD distribution of healthy neonates. The CPD distribution of 69 samples from term neonates was compared with adolescents and adults. The CPD distribution of 163 samples from healthy neonates was analyzed in association with perinatal factors, including gestational age, chronologic age, birthweight, delivery mode, premature rupture of membranes, diabetes, and pregnancy-induced hypertension. The CPD distribution for term neonates was significantly different from those in adolescents and adults. The mean lymphocyte volume showed a negative correlation with gestational age at birth (r = -0.305; P group than in the normal delivery group. The small for gestational age (SGA) group had smaller mean neutrophil volume and mean monocyte volume than the appropriate for gestational age group. The CPD distribution of healthy neonates differed from those of adolescents or adults, and the differences were associated with gestational age, delivery mode, and being SGA. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Novel Intervention in the Aging Population : A Primary Meningococcal Vaccine Inducing Protective IgM Responses in Middle-Aged Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heiden, Marieke; Boots, Annemieke M. H.; Marinovic, Axe A. Bonacic; de Rond, Lia G. H.; van Maurik, Marian; Tcherniaeva, Irina; Berbers, Guy A. M.; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Vaccine responses are often reduced in the elderly, leaving part of the elderly population vulnerable to infectious diseases. Timely vaccination may offer a solution for strengthening memory immunity before reaching old age, which classifies middle-aged persons as a target age group

  14. Novel Intervention in the Aging Population: A Primary Meningococcal Vaccine Inducing Protective IgM Responses in Middle-Aged Adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heiden, Marieke; Boots, Annemieke M H; Bonacic Marinovic, Axel A; de Rond, Lia G H; van Maurik, Marjan; Tcherniaeva, Irina; Berbers, Guy A M; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Vaccine responses are often reduced in the elderly, leaving part of the elderly population vulnerable to infectious diseases. Timely vaccination may offer a solution for strengthening memory immunity before reaching old age, which classifies middle-aged persons as a target age group for vaccine

  15. SOME COMMENTS ABOUT THE IMPACT OF POPULATION AGEING ON FISCAL INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Cristina NUTA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to determine the impact that demographic changes have had during the 1995-2013 fiscal indicators such as the level of public expenditure, the total/social budget deficit or public debt in Romania. Population aging affects a number of categories of expenditures (social protection expenditure, the health care expenditure or long-term care, and government revenue, through many mechanisms.

  16. Optimal Vitamin D Status in a Middle-Aged and Elderly Population Residing in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleteng, Qiqige; Zhao, Lin; Lin, Huandong; Xia, Mingfeng; Ma, Hui; Gao, Jian; Pan, Baishen; Gao, Xin

    2017-12-19

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal vitamin D status in the middle-aged and elderly population residing in Shanghai, China. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 1,829 males and postmenopausal females older than 45 years of age in the Changfeng community of Shanghai were included in this study. The optimal vitamin D level was determined according to the suppression of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and the highest bone mineral density (BMD). Locally weighted scatter plot smoothing (LOWESS) was performed to study the correlations of 25(OH)D with PTH and BMD in the lumbar spine and total hip, adjusting for gender, age, weight, use of calcium and vitamin D supplements, eGFR, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. RESULTS The mean serum 25(OH)D concentration was 48.0±19.2 nmol/L for the whole study population. The circulating PTH was maximally suppressed by the serum 25(OH)D of 55 nmol/L in the total population (60 nmol/L for males and 50 nmol/L for females). The 25(OH)D concentrations corresponding to the highest BMD at lumbar spine (L1-L4) and total hip were 53 nmol/L and 75 nmol/L, respectively, for the whole population. These values were also higher in males than females. CONCLUSIONS The optimal 25(OH)D concentration of 55 nmol/L is sufficient to maintain the bone health and metabolic status in middle-aged and elderly individuals living in Shanghai. Males probably need higher vitamin D concentration than females. There are differences between vitamin D status based on lumbar spine BMD and total hip BMD.

  17. Depression in older people : meeting the challenges of an ageing population

    OpenAIRE

    Raeburn, Alison Somers

    2014-01-01

    This thesis has been conducted in part fulfilment of the Doctorate in Clinical Psychology. It comprises two parts: a systematic review and an empirical research study. These are two distinct articles both aiming to provide insight into the challenges of late life depression. Firstly, the ageing population will mean that mental health services are likely to see an increase in older people with depression, many of whom will have neurological conditions common in late life, inc...

  18. Healthy Eating Habits among the Population of Serbia: Gender and Age Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Jovi?i?, Ana ?.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of the study is to examine healthy eating habits of the population of Serbia through three dimensions: knowledge, problems, and feelings as well as to determine whether there are any differences between genders and among different age-groups. The research instrument was an Eating Habits Questionnaire (EHQ) which consisted of 35 items. There were 382 respondents involved in the study. The reliability and factor structure of the questionnaire were verified by using factor a...

  19. Designing Fit for Purpose Health and Social Services for Ageing Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Woo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Population ageing is occurring in all countries, regardless of the level of economic development. While the rising burden of chronic diseases and disabilities as a consequence of this demographic transition is well recognized, the increasing prevalence of geriatric syndromes as a public health issue is not as well recognized. Recently the World Health Organization’s World Health and Ageing Report emphasized functional ability as an important outcome for aging populations, highlighting the concept of raising intrinsic capacity throughout the life course. The complementary perspective is the prevention of frailty, which has physical, cognitive, social and psychological dimensions. Therefore, services for older people should encompass medical as well as social components. The need and evolution for a transition in health and social services in Hong Kong, a special administrative region of China which has a population with the world’s highest life expectancy, is presented as an example of how one developed economy attempts to meet the challenges of population ageing. There is a need to shift to integrated care in the community instead of specialty dominated hospital care, and to establish regular activities in the community to adopt and maintain a lifestyle that reduces frailty and disability (or promotes intrinsic capacity. A top down approach with financial incentives, together with public education to help drive policy changes, are key drivers of change. It is expected that there will be much heterogeneity between different countries in terms of barriers and facilitators, such that each country needs to document their needs and design appropriate services.

  20. Age-Specific Mortality and Fertility Rates for Probabilistic Population Projections

    OpenAIRE

    Ševčíková, Hana; Li, Nan; Kantorová, Vladimíra; Gerland, Patrick; Raftery, Adrian E.

    2015-01-01

    The United Nations released official probabilistic population projections (PPP) for all countries for the first time in July 2014. These were obtained by projecting the period total fertility rate (TFR) and life expectancy at birth ($e_0$) using Bayesian hierarchical models, yielding a large set of future trajectories of TFR and $e_0$ for all countries and future time periods to 2100, sampled from their joint predictive distribution. Each trajectory was then converted to age-specific mortalit...

  1. Effects of education of the head of the household on the prevalence of malnutrition in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mouzan, Mohammad I; Al-Salloum, Abdullah A; Al-Herbish, Abdullah S; Qurachi, Mansour M; Al-Omar, Ahmad A

    2010-03-01

    To explore the effect of the educational level of the head of household on the prevalence of malnutrition in Saudi children. The study was conducted over 2 years in 2004 and 2005 in all regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The design consisted of a stratified multistage probability random sampling of the population of the KSA. The educational level of the heads of the household, and measurements of weight and height of the children were obtained during house visits. Nutritional indicators in the form of weight for age, height for age, and weight for height for children below 5 years of age were determined, and the prevalence of each indicator below -2 standard deviations (SD) was calculated for each level of education. The sample size was 7390 in the weight for age, 7275 height for age, and 7335 for weight for height. The prevalence of underweight (weight for age below -2 SD) increased from 7.4% for the university level to 15.2% in the children of illiterate heads of household. Similar patterns were found for the prevalence of stunting (height for age below -2 SD) and wasting (weight for height below -2 SD). This study demonstrates that the higher the education level of the heads of the household, the lower the prevalence of malnutrition in their children, suggesting that completing at least 9-12 years of education (intermediate and secondary school) is needed for better improvement in the nutritional status of the children.

  2. Low prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm in the Seychelles population aged 50 to 65 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerly, Patrick; Madeleine, George; Riesen, Walter; Bovet, Pascal

    2013-03-01

    The prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and its risk factors are well known in Western countries but few data are available from low- and middle- income countries. We are not aware of systematically collected population- based data on AAA in the African region. We evaluated the prevalence of AAA in a population- based cardiovascular survey conducted in the Republic of Seychelles in 2004 (Indian Ocean, African region). Among the 353 participants aged 50 to 64 years and screened with ultrasound, the prevalence of AAA was 0.3% (95% CI: 0- 0.9) and the prevalence of ectatic dilatations of the abdominal aorta was 1.5% (95% CI: 0.2- 2.8). The prevalence of AAA in the general population seemed lower in Seychelles than in Western countries, despite a high prevalence in Seychelles of risk factors of AAA, such as smoking (in men), high blood pressure and hypercholesterolaemia.

  3. Rapid climate change did not cause population collapse at the end of the European Bronze Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armit, Ian; Swindles, Graeme T; Becker, Katharina; Plunkett, Gill; Blaauw, Maarten

    2014-12-02

    The impact of rapid climate change on contemporary human populations is of global concern. To contextualize our understanding of human responses to rapid climate change it is necessary to examine the archeological record during past climate transitions. One episode of abrupt climate change has been correlated with societal collapse at the end of the northwestern European Bronze Age. We apply new methods to interrogate archeological and paleoclimate data for this transition in Ireland at a higher level of precision than has previously been possible. We analyze archeological (14)C dates to demonstrate dramatic population collapse and present high-precision proxy climate data, analyzed through Bayesian methods, to provide evidence for a rapid climatic transition at ca. 750 calibrated years B.C. Our results demonstrate that this climatic downturn did not initiate population collapse and highlight the nondeterministic nature of human responses to past climate change.

  4. Masculine sex ratios, population age structure and the potential spread of HIV in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Giovanna Merli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There is much speculation regarding the contribution of China's changing demography to the spread of HIV/AIDS. We employ a bio-behavioral macrosimulation model of the heterosexual spread of HIV/AIDS to evaluate the roles that China's unique demographic conditions -- (1 masculine sex ratios at birth and (2 a population age structure that reflects rapid fertility decline since the 1970's -- play in altering the market for sexual partners, thereby potentially fueling an increase in behaviors associated with greater risk of HIV infection. We first simulate the relative contributions of the sex ratio at birth and the population age structure to the oversupply of males in the market for sexual partners and show that the sex ratio at birth only aggravates the severe oversupply of males which is primarily a consequence of the population age structure. We then examine the potential consequences of this demographic distortion for the spread of HIV infection and show that, to the extent that males adapt to the dearth of suitable female partners by seeking unprotected sexual contacts with female sex workers, the impact of the oversupply of males in the sexual partnership market on the spread of HIV will be severe.

  5. Concurrent alcohol and tobacco use among a middle-aged and elderly population in Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prakash C; Maulik, Pallab K; Pednekar, Mangesh S; Saxena, Shekhar

    2005-01-01

    The concurrent use of alcohol and tobacco and its deleterious effects have been reported in the western literature. However, studies on the relationship between concurrent alcohol and tobacco use in India are limited. This study outlines the association between concurrent alcohol and tobacco use among a middle-aged and elderly population in a western Indian cohort after controlling for various sociodemographic factors. A total of 35 102 men, 45 years of age and above were interviewed for concurrent alcohol and tobacco use. The sample was part of an earlier cohort drawn from the general population. The data were analysed after controlling for age, education, religion and mother-tongue. Among alcohol users, 51.1% smoked tobacco and 35.6% used smokeless tobacco. The relative risk of alcohol use was highest among those smoking cigarettes or beedis and among those using mishri with betel quid and tobacco. The risk of alcohol use increased with the frequency of tobacco use. The risk also increased with higher amounts of alcohol consumption, but peaked at around 100-150 ml of absolute alcohol use. The study highlights the association between concurrent alcohol and tobacco use among the Indian population. This has important public health implications since concurrent use of these is synergistic for increased risk of oropharyngeal cancers.

  6. Eruption age of permanent mandibular first molars and central incisors in the south Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Rakhi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The existing eruption schedules for permanent and deciduous dentition are based on studies in the Western population. Since Indians differ from Westerners racially, genetically, and environmentally, these studies fail to provide relevant guidance on the eruption schedule in the Indian population. This study aims at determining the eruption pattern of permanent mandibular molars and central incisors in the south Indian population. Materials and Methods: 10,156 apparently healthy Indian children in the age-group of 6-9 years were examined with mouth mirror and probe under adequate illumination for the status of the eruption of the permanent mandibular first molar and permanent mandibular central incisor. Pearson′s Chi-square test with Yates′ continuity correction was used to calculate the P -value for comparison of proportion between girls and boys. The values obtained in our study were compared with the standard values. The Z-test with continuity correction was used to calculate the P -value. Results: As per our study, the permanent mandibular first molars and central incisors erupted one to two years later compared to the values reported in Westerners. The earlier eruption of the permanent mandibular first molars compared to the permanent mandibular central incisors, as well as the earlier eruption of both the teeth in girls compared to boys, were in accordance with the existing literature. Conclusion: The eruption age reported by us may form a standard reference for eruption age in Indians.

  7. The development of universal health insurance coverage in Thailand: Challenges of population aging and informal economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Minchung; Huang, Xianguo; Yupho, Somrasri

    2015-11-01

    This paper quantitatively investigates the sustainability of the universal health insurance coverage (UHI) system in Thailand while taking into account the country's rapidly aging population and large informal labor sector. We examine the effects of population aging and informal employment across three tax options for financing the UHI. A modern dynamic general equilibrium framework is utilized to conduct policy experiments and welfare analysis. In the case of labor income tax being used to finance the cost of UHI, an additional 11-15% of labor tax will be required with the 2050 population age structure, compared with the 2005 benchmark economy. We also find that an expansion of income tax base to the informal sector can substantially alleviate the tax burden. Based on welfare comparisons across the alternative tax options, the labor income tax is the most preferred because the inequality between formal/informal sectors is large. If the informal sector cannot avoid labor income tax, capital tax will be preferred over labor and consumption taxes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Geochemical record of high emperor penguin populations during the Little Ice Age at Amanda Bay, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Tao; Yang, Lianjiao; Chu, Zhuding; Sun, Liguang; Yin, Xijie

    2016-01-01

    Emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) are sensitive to the Antarctic climate change because they breed on the fast sea ice. Studies of paleohistory for the emperor penguin are rare, due to the lack of archives on land. In this study, we obtained an emperor penguin ornithogenic sediment profile (PI) and performed geochronological, geochemical and stable isotope analyses on the sediments and feather remains. Two radiocarbon dates of penguin feathers in PI indicate that emperor penguins colonized Amanda Bay as early as CE 1540. By using the bio-elements (P, Se, Hg, Zn and Cd) in sediments and stable isotope values (δ"1"5N and δ"1"3C) in feathers, we inferred relative population size and dietary change of emperor penguins during the period of CE 1540–2008, respectively. An increase in population size with depleted N isotope ratios for emperor penguins on N island at Amanda Bay during the Little Ice Age (CE 1540–1866) was observed, suggesting that cold climate affected the penguin's breeding habitat, prey availability and thus their population and dietary composition. - Highlights: • Emperor penguin colonized at Amanda Bay, East Antarctic as early as AD 1540. • Populations of emperor penguin at Amanda Bay increase during the little ice age. • Depleted N isotope ratios of Emperor penguins during the LIA were observed.

  9. Geochemical record of high emperor penguin populations during the Little Ice Age at Amanda Bay, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Tao, E-mail: huangt@ahu.edu.cn [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Yang, Lianjiao; Chu, Zhuding [School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Sun, Liguang, E-mail: slg@ustc.edu.cn [School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Yin, Xijie [Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2016-09-15

    Emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) are sensitive to the Antarctic climate change because they breed on the fast sea ice. Studies of paleohistory for the emperor penguin are rare, due to the lack of archives on land. In this study, we obtained an emperor penguin ornithogenic sediment profile (PI) and performed geochronological, geochemical and stable isotope analyses on the sediments and feather remains. Two radiocarbon dates of penguin feathers in PI indicate that emperor penguins colonized Amanda Bay as early as CE 1540. By using the bio-elements (P, Se, Hg, Zn and Cd) in sediments and stable isotope values (δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 13}C) in feathers, we inferred relative population size and dietary change of emperor penguins during the period of CE 1540–2008, respectively. An increase in population size with depleted N isotope ratios for emperor penguins on N island at Amanda Bay during the Little Ice Age (CE 1540–1866) was observed, suggesting that cold climate affected the penguin's breeding habitat, prey availability and thus their population and dietary composition. - Highlights: • Emperor penguin colonized at Amanda Bay, East Antarctic as early as AD 1540. • Populations of emperor penguin at Amanda Bay increase during the little ice age. • Depleted N isotope ratios of Emperor penguins during the LIA were observed.

  10. Stroke trends in an aging population. The Technology Assessment Methods Project Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessen, L W; Barendregt, J J; Bonneux, L; Koudstaal, P J

    1993-07-01

    Trends in stroke incidence and survival determine changes in stroke morbidity and mortality. This study examines the extent of the incidence decline and survival improvement in the Netherlands from 1979 to 1989. In addition, it projects future changes in stroke morbidity during the period 1985 to 2005, when the country's population will be aging. A state-event transition model is used, which combines Dutch population projections and existing data on stroke epidemiology. Based on the clinical course of stroke, the model describes historical national age- and sex-specific hospital admission and mortality rates for stroke. It extrapolates observed trends and projects future changes in stroke morbidity rates. There is evidence of a continuing incidence decline. The most plausible rate of change is an annual decline of -1.9% (range, -1.7% to -2.1%) for men and -2.4% (range, -2.3% to -2.8%) for women. Projecting a constant mortality decline, the model shows a 35% decrease of the stroke incidence rate for a period of 20 years. Prevalence rates for major stroke will decline among the younger age groups but increase among the oldest because of increased survival in the latter. In absolute numbers this results in an 18% decrease of acute stroke episodes and an 11% increase of major stroke cases. The increase in survival cannot fully explain the observed mortality decline and, therefore, a concomitant incidence decline has to be assumed. Aging of the population partially outweighs the effect of an incidence decline on the total burden of stroke. Increase in cardiovascular survival leads to a further increase in major stroke prevalence among the oldest age groups.

  11. Measuring coverage in MNCH: population HIV-free survival among children under two years of age in four African countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S A Stringer

    Full Text Available Population-based evaluations of programs for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT are scarce. We measured PMTCT service coverage, regimen use, and HIV-free survival among children ≤24 mo of age in Cameroon, Côte D'Ivoire, South Africa, and Zambia.We randomly sampled households in 26 communities and offered participation if a child had been born to a woman living there during the prior 24 mo. We tested consenting mothers with rapid HIV antibody tests and tested the children of seropositive mothers with HIV DNA PCR or rapid antibody tests. Our primary outcome was 24-mo HIV-free survival, estimated with survival analysis. In an individual-level analysis, we evaluated the effectiveness of various PMTCT regimens. In a community-level analysis, we evaluated the relationship between HIV-free survival and community PMTCT coverage (the proportion of HIV-exposed infants in each community that received any PMTCT intervention during gestation or breastfeeding. We also compared our community coverage results to those of a contemporaneous study conducted in the facilities serving each sampled community. Of 7,985 surveyed children under 2 y of age, 1,014 (12.7% were HIV-exposed. Of these, 110 (10.9% were HIV-infected, 851 (83.9% were HIV-uninfected, and 53 (5.2% were dead. HIV-free survival at 24 mo of age among all HIV-exposed children was 79.7% (95% CI: 76.4, 82.6 overall, with the following country-level estimates: Cameroon (72.6%; 95% CI: 62.3, 80.5, South Africa (77.7%; 95% CI: 72.5, 82.1, Zambia (83.1%; 95% CI: 78.4, 86.8, and Côte D'Ivoire (84.4%; 95% CI: 70.0, 92.2. In adjusted analyses, the risk of death or HIV infection was non-significantly lower in children whose mothers received a more complex regimen of either two or three antiretroviral drugs compared to those receiving no prophylaxis (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.34, 1.06. Risk of death was not different for children whose mothers received a more complex regimen

  12. Age prediction formulae from radiographic assessment of skeletal maturation at the knee in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Jean E

    2014-01-01

    Age estimation in living subjects is primarily achieved through assessment of a hand-wrist radiograph and comparison with a standard reference atlas. Recently, maturation of other regions of the skeleton has also been assessed in an attempt to refine the age estimates. The current study presents a method to predict bone age directly from the knee in a modern Irish sample. Ten maturity indicators (A-J) at the knee were examined from radiographs of 221 subjects (137 males; 84 females). Each indicator was assigned a maturity score. Scores for indicators A-G, H-J and A-J, respectively, were totalled to provide a cumulative maturity score for change in morphology of the epiphyses (AG), epiphyseal union (HJ) and the combination of both (AJ). Linear regression equations to predict age from the maturity scores (AG, HJ, AJ) were constructed for males and females. For males, equation-AJ demonstrated the greatest predictive capability (R(2)=0.775) while for females equation-HJ had the strongest capacity for prediction (R(2)=0.815). When equation-AJ for males and equation-HJ for females were applied to the current sample, the predicted age of 90% of subjects was within ±1.5 years of actual age for male subjects and within +2.0 to -1.9 years of actual age for female subjects. The regression formulae and associated charts represent the most contemporary method of age prediction currently available for an Irish population, and provide a further technique which can contribute to a multifactorial approach to age estimation in non-adults.

  13. Correlation of natural tooth colour with aging in the Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Polo, Cristina; Gómez Polo, Miguel; Montero, Javier; Martínez Vazquez De Parga, Juan Antonio; Celemin Viñuela, Alicia

    2015-10-01

    To analyse natural tooth colour in the Spanish population according to the colour coordinates lightness (L*), chroma (C*), hue (h*), red-green axis (a*) and yellow-blue axis (b*) in order to quantify the correlation and changes of tooth colour with age and sex. Natural tooth colour was measured in a sample of 1,361 Spanish participants of both sexes distributed within an age range of 16 to 89 years. The Easyshade Compact spectrophotometer was used and the CIELAB and CIELCh systems were followed. Pearson's bivariate correlations between age and colour coordinates were highly significant for L* (r=-0.674, P≤0.001), h* (r=-0.468, P≤0.001) and C* (r=0.417, P≤0.001). The correlation between age and colour coordinates was stronger for men than for women, for all colour coordinates. The results showed that C*, b* and a* increased by 0.60, 0.56 and 0.26 units/year on average, respectively, whereas L* and h* decreased progressively with age (by 0.60 units/year, on average), and colour differences increased in a systematic way as the gap between the ages being compared grew wider. The strongest correlation was found between age and L*, then between age and h* (both inverse relationships) and then between age and a*, C* and b* (direct relationships). In addition, a similar degree of change in the colour coordinates L*, C* and h* (of 0.60 units/year on average) was observed for natural tooth colour. Knowledge of the chromatic range of natural teeth may help to choose colour for the replacement of missing elements. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.

  14. Age-specific association of migraine with cryptogenic TIA and stroke: Population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linxin; Schulz, Ursula G; Kuker, Wilhelm; Rothwell, Peter M

    2015-10-27

    To determine whether there is an association between previous migraine and cryptogenic TIA or ischemic stroke at older ages. We determined the age-specific associations of history of migraine and Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) subtype of TIA and ischemic stroke in a population-based cohort study (Oxford Vascular Study; 2002-2012). Among 1,810 eligible patients with TIA or ischemic stroke, 668 (36.9%) had cryptogenic events, of whom 187 (28.0%) had previous migraine. Migraine was more commonly associated with cryptogenic events than with those of known etiology (odds ratio [OR] 1.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.38-2.16, p TIA or stratified by sex or vascular territory of event. In this population-based study of stroke etiology stratified by age, migraine was most strongly associated with cryptogenic TIA and ischemic stroke, particularly at older ages, suggesting a causal role or a shared etiology. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  15. Spain: promoting the welfare of older adults in the context of population aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Juan P; Latorre, José M; Gatz, Margaret

    2014-10-01

    Spain is one of the European countries with the most significant societal changes in the 21st century contributing to an aging population, in particular, high life expectancy coupled with low fertility, which will result in a doubling of the old-age dependency ratio. Demographic aging implies important challenges that affect the lives of people, families, the economy, public finances, and the reorganization of the health and social systems. Currently, the older population has become particularly vulnerable due to the economic crisis taking place in Spain, which has brought about the need for new policies and systems to protect older persons. The pension system is under the greatest threat in conjunction with possible changes in the national health care system. This report presents a general view of the main factors that surround and affect older adults in Spain, as well as policies developed by the government in response to the current and future situation. We highlight demographic predictions for the coming decades, quality-of-life indicators, situations of dependency, active aging policies, and the main research programs related to gerontology in Spain. © Crown copyright 2014.

  16. Age and gender effects on the prevalence of poor sleep quality in the adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid-Valero, Juan J; Martínez-Selva, José M; Ribeiro do Couto, Bruno; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Ordoñana, Juan R

    Sleep quality has a significant impact on health and quality of life and is affected, among other factors, by age and sex. However, the prevalence of problems in this area in the general population is not well known. Therefore, our objective was to study the prevalence and main characteristics of sleep quality in an adult population sample. 2,144 subjects aged between 43 and 71 years belonging to the Murcia (Spain) Twin Registry. Sleep quality was measured by self-report through the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Logistic regression models were used to analyse the results. The prevalence of poor sleep quality stands at 38.2%. Univariate logistic regression analyses showed that women were almost twice as likely as men (OR: 1.88; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.54 to 2.28) to have poor quality of sleep. Age was directly and significantly associated with a low quality of sleep (OR: 1.05; 95%CI: 1.03 to 1.06). The prevalence of poor sleep quality is high among adults, especially women. There is a direct relationship between age and deterioration in the quality of sleep. This relationship also appears to be more consistent in women. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Are Koreans Prepared for the Rapid Increase of the Single-Household Elderly? Life Satisfaction and Depression of the Single-Household Elderly in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Ra Won

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In Korea, it has been estimated that the number of the single-household elderly increased 45% from 2005 to 2010. This research was conducted to provide empirical resources for development of a community mental health program by an explorative investigation on depression, coping mechanism, and life satisfaction of a single-household elderly population. Design and Methods. This research applied a descriptive survey research design. Participants were 225 single-household elderlies residing in Seoul, Korea. The geriatric depression scale and the satisfaction with life scale were used to check the level of depression and life satisfaction of the participants. Results. Results showed that 46.3 percent of the participants were categorized as having light-to-severe level of depression, and 80.5 percent of the participants responded that they were dissatisfied with their lives. This research demonstrated that the level of depression and life satisfaction of the Korean single-household elderly is statistically significantly related to age and gender as well as coping resources and human resources. Implications. Current public health services in Korea for the single-household elderly are still lacking and require active support, intervention, and research to provide effective programs and services. Case management, counseling, and various programs based on Korean culture including support from family members and community-based assistance are recommended to help the vulnerable population.

  18. [Age dynamics of population gene pool of the Crimean pine (Pinus pallasiana D. Don) in Crimea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Mudrik, E A; Krasnoshtan, O V; Velikorid'ko, T I; Kalafat, L A; Podgornyĭ, D Iu

    2011-01-01

    Polymorphism of young (14-16 years), middle-aged (70-80 years) and old (120-150 years) plants and their seed embryos has been studied using 20 and 10 allozyme loci correspondingly in the population of Pinus pallasiana D. Don from Mountain Crimea. It was revealed that the old-aged trees had significantly lower level of expected heterozygosity than the young plants. The level of observed heterozygosity of embryos of the uneven-aged plants was slightly different among the embryo samples and significantly lower than in the samples of maternal trees. Supernumerary homozygotation of the embryos is caused by low level of cross-pollination in three studied samples of plants (t(m) = 0,537-0,637).

  19. Changes in the etiology of valvular heart disease in the rapidly aging Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Shin Yi; Ju, Eun-Young; Seo, Su Ra; Choi, Ji Yeon; Park, Sung-Ji; Kim, Duk-Kyung; Park, Seung Woo

    2014-06-15

    The aim of this study is to assess the changes in the causes of valvular heart disease between 2006 and 2011 in Korea. Data were collected from the Korean National Health Insurance Service from 2006 through 2011. These data consisted of primary diagnoses related to valvular heart disease regardless of other conditions. Valvular heart disease included non-rheumatic mitral valve disorders, non-rheumatic aortic valve disorders, rheumatic mitral valve disorders, and rheumatic aortic valve disorders. Overall, the age-standardized cumulative prevalence of non-rheumatic valvular heart disease was 70.6 per 100,000 persons in 2006 and 110.3 in 2011. This represented an increase from 42.2 to 65.2 in women and from 28.4 to 45.1 in men. In particular, there was a greater increase in prevalence in patients aged 65 years or older compared with groups aged 20-44 years or 45-64 years for both genders. The age-standardized cumulative prevalence of rheumatic valve disease did not change dramatically between 2006 and 2011. The overall age-standardized cumulative prevalence of non-rheumatic valvular heart diseases increased between 2006 and 2011, especially in individuals older than 65 years. These changes should be considered in future designs of cardiovascular healthcare services in countries with a rapidly aging population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Ageing and chronic diseases in Senegal. A comparison between rural (Ferlo) and urban (Dakar) populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duboz, P; Touré, M; Hane, F; Macia, E; Coumé, M; Bâ, A; Boëtsch, G; Guèye, L; Chapuis-Lucciani, N

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of this study were: to compare the prevalence of hypertension, overweight and obesity in rural (Ferlo) and urban (Dakar) Senegalese populations aged 50 and over. The survey was conducted on individuals aged 50 and older living in the rural area (N=478) and in the urban area (N=220). We have collected data about age, gender, marital status, education level, and knowledge, treatment of hypertension, height, weight and blood pressure. We have observed that overweight and obesity were more prevalent in the urban area (Dakar) than in the rural one (Ferlo). The risk of overweight or obesity decreased when age increased, and women had weight problems more often than men. The prevalence of arterial hypertension was lower in rural area (55.86%) than in Dakar (66.36%), but increased at an older age. However, the logistic regression showed that these increased proportion of hypertension in Dakar is linked to the more important proportion of overweight and obese people in this area. Moreover, rates of knowledge, treatment and control of hypertension are particularly low in the rural area of Senegal. In conclusion, age-associated diseases should be better managed in Senegal, particularly in rural areas.

  1. Age-Related Change in Vestibular Ganglion Cell Populations in Individuals With Presbycusis and Normal Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluth, Michael B; Nelson, Erik G

    2017-04-01

    We sought to establish that the decline of vestibular ganglion cell counts uniquely correlates with spiral ganglion cell counts, cochlear hair cell counts, and hearing phenotype in individuals with presbycusis. The relationship between aging in the vestibular system and aging in the cochlea is a topic of ongoing investigation. Histopathologic age-related changes the vestibular system may mirror what is seen in the cochlea, but correlations with hearing phenotype and the impact of presbycusis are not well understood. Vestibular ganglion cells, spiral ganglion cells, and cochlear hair cells were counted in specimens from individuals with presbycusis and normal hearing. These were taken from within a large collection of processed human temporal bones. Correlations between histopathology and hearing phenotype were investigated. Vestibular ganglion cell counts were positively correlated with spiral ganglion cell counts and cochlear hair cell counts and were negatively correlated with hearing phenotype. There was no statistical evidence on linear regression to suggest that the relationship between age and cell populations differed significantly according to whether presbycusis was present or not. Superior vestibular ganglion cells were more negatively correlated with age than inferior ganglion cells. No difference in vestibular ganglion cells was noted based on sex. Vestibular ganglion cell counts progressively deteriorate with age, and this loss correlates closely with changes in the cochlea, as well as hearing phenotype. However, these correlations do not appear to be unique in individuals with presbycusis as compared with those with normal hearing.

  2. Age-Group and Gender Differences in Stroke Knowledge in an Israeli Jewish Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Semyon; Itzhaki, Michal; Koton, Silvia

    Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability and the fifth leading cause of death in Israel. Knowledge of stroke warning signs has been linked to early seeking of medical help. Little is known about knowledge of stroke warning signs in Israeli Jewish adults. Stroke knowledge was examined among Jewish Israeli adults. Using a structured questionnaire, registered nurses interviewed a convenience sample of the respondents, 18 years or older, with no stroke history. Stroke knowledge and demographics were examined by 3 age groups (64 years) in men and women. In total, 1137 Jewish Israelis were interviewed, 457 (40.2%) men and 680 women (59.8%); 493 (43.4%) were younger than 45 years, 541 (47.6%) were aged 45 to 64 years, and 102 (9%) were older than 64 years; 1 (0.1%) did not report age. On average, each interview lasted for 25 to 30 minutes. Participants younger than 45 years showed the lowest knowledge of stroke cause. Women younger than 45 years were less likely to identify at least 2 stroke warning signs. Participants younger than 45 years were less likely to identify at least 2 risk factors, compared with participants aged 45 to 64 years and older than 64 years. Women younger than 45 years were less likely to identify at least 2 stroke prevention strategies. Participants younger than 45 years showed the lowest levels of stroke knowledge. The highest stroke knowledge was found in the 45 to 64 years age group. Stroke knowledge among different age groups was similar in both genders. Educational campaigns aimed at increasing knowledge of stroke among the general population and targeting the younger population are recommended.

  3. Household crowding associated with childhood otitis media hospitalisations in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Christopher; Pearson, Amber L; Campbell, Malcolm; Barnett, Ross

    2014-06-01

    To examine the association between hospitalisations for otitis media and area-level measures of household crowding among children in New Zealand. Counts of hospital admissions for otitis media by census area unit were offset against population data from the 2006 national census. Area-level household crowding, exposure to tobacco smoke in the home, equivalised income and individual-level characteristics age and sex were adjusted for. To examine effect modification by ethnicity, three separate poisson models were examined for the total, Māori and non-Māori populations. Household crowding was significantly associated with hospital admissions for otitis media after adjustment in all three models. Neighbourhoods with the highest compared to the lowest proportion of crowded homes exhibited incidence rate ratios of 1.25 (95%CI 1.12-1.37) in the total population, 1.59 (95%CI 1.21-2.04) in the Māori restricted model and 1.17 (95%CI 1.06-1.32) in the non-Māori restricted model. Otitis media hospitalisations are associated with area-level measures of household crowding and other risk factors in this ecological study. The largest increase in otitis media incidence relative to neighbourhood rates of household crowding was exhibited among Māori cases of otitis media. This study adds weight to the growing body of literature linking infectious disease risk to overcrowding in the home. © 2014 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  4. Injuries caused by pets in Asian urban households: a cross-sectional telephone survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Emily Y Y; Gao, Yang; Li, Liping; Lee, Po Yi

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Little is known about pet-related injuries in Asian populations. This study primarily aimed to investigate the incidence rate of pet-related household injuries in Hong Kong, an urban Chinese setting. Setting Cantonese-speaking non-institutionalised population of all ages in Hong Kong accessible by telephone land-line. Participants A total of 43 542 telephone numbers were dialled and 6570 residents successfully completed the interviews. Primary and secondary outcome measures Data of pet-related household injuries in the previous 12 months, pet ownership and socio-demographic characteristics were collected with a questionnaire. Direct standardisation of the incidence rates of pet-related household injuries by gender and age to the 2009 Hong Kong Population Census was estimated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to estimate risks of socio-demographic factors and pet ownership for the injury. Results A total of 84 participants experienced pet-related household injuries in the past 12 months, with an overall person-based incidence rate of 1.28%. The majority of the victims were injured once (69.6%). Cats (51.6%) were the most common pets involved. Pet owners were at an extremely higher risk after controlling for other factors (adjusted OR: 52.0, 95% CI 22.1 to 98.7). Females, the unmarried, those with higher monthly household income and those living in lower-density housing were more likely to be injured by pets. Conclusions We project a pet-related household injury incidence rate of 1.24% in the general Hong Kong population, with 86 334 residents sustaining pet-related injuries every year. Pet ownership puts people at extremely high risk, especially the unmarried. Further studies should focus on educating pet owners to reduce pet-related injuries in urban Greater China. PMID:28110284

  5. Spatio-temporal variation in age structure and abundance of the endangered snail kite: Pooling across regions masks a declining and aging population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Brian E.; Kendall, William L.; Fletcher, Robert J.; Kitchens, Wiley M.

    2016-01-01

    While variation in age structure over time and space has long been considered important for population dynamics and conservation, reliable estimates of such spatio-temporal variation in age structure have been elusive for wild vertebrate populations. This limitation has arisen because of problems of imperfect detection, the potential for temporary emigration impacting assessments of age structure, and limited information on age. However, identifying patterns in age structure is important for making reliable predictions of both short- and long-term dynamics of populations of conservation concern. Using a multistate superpopulation estimator, we estimated region-specific abundance and age structure (the proportion of individuals within each age class) of a highly endangered population of snail kites for two separate regions in Florida over 17 years (1997–2013). We find that in the southern region of the snail kite—a region known to be critical for the long-term persistence of the species—the population has declined significantly since 1997, and during this time, it has increasingly become dominated by older snail kites (> 12 years old). In contrast, in the northern region—a region historically thought to serve primarily as drought refugia—the population has increased significantly since 2007 and age structure is more evenly distributed among age classes. Given that snail kites show senescence at approximately 13 years of age, where individuals suffer higher mortality rates and lower breeding rates, these results reveal an alarming trend for the southern region. Our work illustrates the importance of accounting for spatial structure when assessing changes in abundance and age distribution and the need for monitoring of age structure in imperiled species.

  6. Nutritional Outcomes Related to Household Food Insecurity among Mothers in Rural Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihab, A.N.; Manan, W.M. Wan; Suriati, W.N. Wan; Zalilah, M.S.; Rusli, A. Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    During the past two decades, the rates of food insecurity and obesity have risen. Although a relationship between these two seemingly-paradoxical states has not been repeatedly seen in men, research suggests that a correlation between them exists in women. This study examines nutritional outcomes of household food insecurity among mothers in rural Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey of low-income households was conducted, and 223 households with mothers aged 18–55 years, who were non-lactating, non-pregnant, and had at least one child aged 2–12 years, were purposively selected. A questionnaire was administered that included the Radimer/Cornell Scale, items about sociodemographic characteristics, and anthropometric measurements. Of the households, 16.1% were food-secure whereas 83.9% experienced some kind of food insecurity: 29.6% of households were food-insecure, 19.3% contained individuals who were food-insecure, and 35.0% fell into the ‘child hunger’ category. The result reported that household-size, total monthly income, income per capita, and food expenditure were significant risk factors of household food insecurity. Although there was a high prevalence of overweight and obese mothers (52%) and 47.1% had at-risk waist-circumference (≥80 cm), no significant association was found between food insecurity, body mass index, and waist-circumference. In conclusion, the rates of household food insecurity and overweight and obesity were high in the study population, although they are looking paradoxical. Longitudinal studies with larger sample-sizes are recommended to further examine the relationship between food insecurity and obesity. PMID:24592589

  7. Correlates of Intra-Household ITN Use in Liberia: A Multilevel Analysis of Household Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, Stella; Ricotta, Emily; Awantang, Grace; Lewicky, Nan; Koenker, Hannah; Toso, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Liberia. At the same time, insecticide-treated net (ITN) ownership and use remain low. Access is a key determinant of ITN use but it is not the only one; prior studies have identified factors that affect the use of ITNs in households with at least one ITN. These factors operate at the individual, household, and community levels. However, studies have generally not assessed the psychosocial or ideational determinants of ITN use. Using 2014 household survey data, this manuscript examines the socio-demographic, ideational, household, and community factors associated with household member use of ITNs in Liberia. Multilevel modeling was used to assess fixed effects at the individual, household, and community levels, and random effects at the household and cluster levels. The data showed significant residual clustering at the household level, indicating that there were unmeasured factors operating at this level that are associated with ITN use. The association of age with ITN use was moderated by sex such that men, older children, and teenagers were less likely to sleep under an ITN compared to women and children under five years old. Female caregivers' perceived severity of malaria, perceived self-efficacy to detect a complicated case of malaria, and exposure to the "Take Cover" communication campaign were positively associated with ITN use by members of her household. The association with household size was negative, while the relationship with the number of ITNs was positive. Programs should seek to achieve universal coverage (that is, one ITN for every two household members) and promote the notion that everyone needs to sleep under an ITN every night. Programs should also seek to strengthen perceived severity of malaria and educate intended audience groups on the signs of malaria complications. Given the significance of residual clustering at the household level, interventions that engage men as heads of

  8. Housing Conditions and the Use of Alternative Energy Sources in Households of Senior Citizens in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Zalega

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - The article aims to show the housing situation, satisfaction with housing conditions and place of residence, and the use of renewable energy sources in urban households of Polish seniors. Design/methodology/approach - Direct research in the form of a survey questionnaire was carried out on a sample of 2537 households in 2014-2015 in ten Polish cities of various populations and sizes. In accordance with the research assumptions, the sample included persons over 65 years of age who took independent purchasing decisions in the market. In order to select the sample, the selective quota sampling procedure was used. The survey was conducted among participants of the University of the Third Age at state universities in: Warsaw, Kraków, Łódź, Poznań, Gdańsk, Katowice, Lublin, Białystok, Toruń and Wrocław, as well as among members of parochial clubs in parishes located in the Archdioceses of Warsaw, Kraków, Łódź, Białystok, Gdańsk, Katowice, Lublin, Poznań, Wrocław and the Dioceses of Warsaw-Praga and Toruń. Findings - The survey reveals that more than half of seniors' households are satisfied with both the place of residence and housing conditions. The use of RES in seniors' households looks slightly worse. Only 1.5% of all the surveyed households of persons aged 65+ invest in alternative energy sources to produce electricity and heat. Financial problems are the key barrier to the development of RES-related projects in their households. Research implications/limitations - Given the limited financial capacities, the study of housing conditions and the use of RES among people aged 65+ was confined solely to seniors' households in the largest Polish cities. In those households, a relatively low share of RES often results from inadequate technical conditions for the connection of RES installations. Rural households generate slightly more electricity and heat from RES Originality/value/contribution - This is one of the first

  9. Similar patterns of age-specific reproduction in an island and mainland population of great tits Parus major

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, S.; Van Noordwijk, A.J.; Sheldon, B.C.; Verhulst, S.; Visser, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The process of ageing was long thought to be too infrequent to affect life-histories in natural populations. Long-term studies have, however, recently demonstrated ageing to be ubiquitous even in the wild, although confounding factors, such as emigration instead of mortality, or inter-population

  10. ASQ-3 scores are sensitive to small differences in age in a Peruvian infant population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, K C; Zhou, V L; Tarazona, D; Tuesta, H; Velásquez-Hurtado, J E; Sadeghi, R; Llanos, F

    2017-07-01

    The Ages and Stages Questionnaires Edition 3 (ASQ-3) are a well-validated international screen for developmental delays in young children. However, previous studies demonstrate variable scores between children eligible to take the same ASQ-3 interval. This study aimed to determine a relationship between age and ASQ-3 score for each screening interval. This was a baseline exploratory cross-sectional study of infants under 2 years old evaluated for the Peruvian social programme Cuna Más. Participants were included in Cuna Más if they lived in districts with fewer than 2000 inhabitants or 400 homes, indicating a predominantly rural population. The appropriate ASQ-3 screening interval was administered to each subject. Subjects were divided into four 2-week chronological subgroups based on age within each 2-month screening window and aggregated across all 12 screening intervals. Fisher's exact test, analysis of variance and Bonferonni post hoc test were used to compare differences between age subgroups. Linear regression was performed to assess the relationship between ASQ-3 score and both aggregated and disaggregated age subgroup. A total of 5850 Peruvian infants were evaluated in 2013. Mean age was 13 ± 6.6 months, 50.7% were male and mean maternal education was 6.6 ± 4.0 years; 34.8% infants were stunted, 7.8% were underweight, 0.9% were wasted and 2% had age adjusted greater than 35 days for prematurity for ASQ-3 interval assignment. Mean total ASQ-3 was 42.2 ± 8.2. The ASQ-3 allocated 49.6% with suspected delay in one or more developmental areas. Before and after adjusting for wealth quintile, maternal education level, infant nutritional status and prematurity adjustment, age subgroup remained significantly associated with total ASQ-3 score (β = 1.8, CI: 1.7-2.0, P < 0.001), sectional ASQ-3 score (all P < 0.001) and inversely associated with one or more scores indicating suspected developmental delay (P < 0.001). The ASQ-3 may underestimate

  11. Effects of household dynamics on resource consumption and biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianguo; Daily, Gretchen C; Ehrlich, Paul R; Luck, Gary W

    2003-01-30

    Human population size and growth rate are often considered important drivers of biodiversity loss, whereas household dynamics are usually neglected. Aggregate demographic statistics may mask substantial changes in the size and number of households, and their effects on biodiversity. Household dynamics influence per capita consumption and thus biodiversity through, for example, consumption of wood for fuel, habitat alteration for home building and associated activities, and greenhouse gas emissions. Here we report that growth in household numbers globally, and particularly in countries with biodiversity hotspots (areas rich in endemic species and threatened by human activities), was more rapid than aggregate population growth between 1985 and 2000. Even when population size declined, the number of households increased substantially. Had the average household size (that is, the number of occupants) remained static, there would have been 155 million fewer households in hotspot countries in 2000. Reduction in average household size alone will add a projected 233 million additional households to hotspot countries during the period 2000-15. Rapid increase in household numbers, often manifested as urban sprawl, and resultant higher per capita resource consumption in smaller households pose serious challenges to biodiversity conservation.

  12. Household income and risk-of-poverty of parents of long-term childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Luzius; Roser, Katharina; Baenziger, Julia; Tinner, Eva Maria; Scheinemann, Katrin; Kuehni, Claudia Elisabeth; Michel, Gisela

    2017-08-01

    Taking care of children diagnosed with cancer affects parents' professional life and may place the family at risk-of-poverty. We aimed to (i) compare the household income and risk-of-poverty of parents of childhood cancer survivors (CCS) to parents of the general population, and (ii) identify sociodemographic and cancer-related factors associated with risk-of-poverty. As part of the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, we sent a questionnaire to parents of CCS aged 5-15 years, who survived ≥5 years after diagnosis. Information on parents of the general population came from the Swiss Household Panel (parents with ≥1 child aged 5-15 years). Risk-of-poverty was defined as having a monthly household income of poverty. We included parents of 383 CCS and 769 control parent households. Parent-couples of CCS had a lower household income (P trend poverty (30.4% vs. 19.3%, P = 0.001) compared to control parent-couples. Household income and risk-of-poverty of single parents of CCS was similar to control single parents. Parents of CCS were at higher risk-of-poverty if they had only standard education (OR mother = 3.77 [where OR is odds ratio], confidence interval [CI]: 1.61-8.82; OR father = 8.59, CI: 4.16-17.72) and were from the German language region (OR = 1.99, CI: 1.13-3.50). We found no cancer-related risk factors. Parents of long-term CCS reported lower household income and higher risk-of-poverty than control parents. Support strategies may be developed to mitigate parents' risk-of-poverty in the long term, particularly among parents with lower education. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Influence of population versus convenience sampling on sample characteristics in studies of cognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodaty, Henry; Mothakunnel, Annu; de Vel-Palumbo, Melissa; Ames, David; Ellis, Kathryn A; Reppermund, Simone; Kochan, Nicole A; Savage, Greg; Trollor, Julian N; Crawford, John; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether differences in findings of studies examining mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were associated with recruitment methods by comparing sample characteristics in two contemporaneous Australian studies, using population-based and convenience sampling. The Sydney Memory and Aging Study invited participants randomly from the electoral roll in defined geographic areas in Sydney. The Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Study of Ageing recruited cognitively normal (CN) individuals via media appeals and MCI participants via referrals from clinicians in Melbourne and Perth. Demographic and cognitive variables were harmonized, and similar diagnostic criteria were applied to both samples retrospectively. CN participants recruited via convenience sampling were younger, better educated, more likely to be married and have a family history of dementia, and performed better cognitively than those recruited via population-based sampling. MCI participants recruited via population-based sampling had better memory performance and were less likely to carry the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele than clinically referred participants but did not differ on other demographic variables. A convenience sample of normal controls is likely to be younger and better functioning and that of an MCI group likely to perform worse than a purportedly random sample. Sampling bias should be considered when interpreting findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The aging population: imperative to uncouple sex and gender to establish "gender equal" health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Gloria A; Mussman, Brianna

    2015-04-01

    The transgender community has long been marginalized in society. As the world's population ages, gender-unbiased health services for this growing population, with age-related chronic illnesses, will be essential. To optimally eliminate hurdles that trans individuals often confront when requesting services, it appears judicious to eliminate the strict and antiquated definition of what constitutes "normal" female and "normal" male. A review of literature on transgender medicine on PubMed over the last five years was conducted. Existing statistics indicate that unacceptable bias and discrimination are occurring, making trans patients less likely to seek care. There are emerging initiatives that address the transgender and gender non-conforming population. Ongoing needs include defining what constitutes "gender equal," understanding the continuum of gender identity, and establishing and implementing guidelines for gender equal counseling and care. With the routine practice of defining sex at birth and equating sex with gender in the health care setting, the transgender patient encounters multiple barriers to accessing and acquiring health care services. These strict gender labels appear to preclude the institution of gender equal care. Care templates on gender equal patient encounters should be implemented to better address transgender health needs in a non-biased manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of an age structured model for tick populations subject to seasonal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaihui; Lou, Yijun; Wu, Jianhong

    2017-08-01

    We investigate an age-structured hyperbolic equation model by allowing the birth and death functions to be density dependent and periodic in time with the consideration of seasonal effects. By studying the integral form solution of this general hyperbolic equation obtained through the method of integration along characteristics, we give a detailed proof of the uniqueness and existence of the solution in light of the contraction mapping theorem. With additional biologically natural assumptions, using the tick population growth as a motivating example, we derive an age-structured model with time-dependent periodic maturation delays, which is quite different from the existing population models with time-independent maturation delays. For this periodic differential system with seasonal delays, the basic reproduction number R0 is defined as the spectral radius of the next generation operator. Then, we show the tick population tends to die out when R0 1. When there is no intra-specific competition among immature individuals due to the sufficient availability of immature tick hosts, the global stability of the positive periodic state for the whole model system of four delay differential equations can be obtained with the observation that a scalar subsystem for the adult stage size can be decoupled. The challenge for the proof of such a global stability result can be overcome by introducing a new phase space, based on which, a periodic solution semiflow can be defined which is eventually strongly monotone and strictly subhomogeneous.

  16. Gestational Age at Birth and 'Body-Mind' Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances M Cronin

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate's physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000-2002 in the United Kingdom was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children's general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent's general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764 rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems, suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32-36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%-6.2%, compared to 1% (0.2-2.3 for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies.

  17. Gestational Age at Birth and 'Body-Mind' Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Frances M; Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Kelleher, Cecily C; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate's physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000-2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children's general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent's general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32-36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%-6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2-2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies.

  18. Gestational Age at Birth and 'Body-Mind' Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, Frances M

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate\\'s physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000-2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children\\'s general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent\\'s general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor\\/fair health and\\/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32-36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%-6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2-2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies.

  19. Is the age at menopause a cause of sexual dysfunction? A Brazilian population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lett, Caio; Valadares, Ana L R; Baccaro, Luiz F; Pedro, Adriana O; Filho, Jeffrey L; Lima, Marcelo; Costa-Paiva, Lucia

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between age at menopause and sexual dysfunction and the components of sexual function in postmenopausal women. In this cross-sectional population-based study, data of 540 women aged 45 to 60 years regarding the age they were when they achieved menopause and its association with sexual dysfunction (evaluated using the Short Personal Experiences Questionnaire) were obtained through interviews. We assessed the data for associations between age at menopause and sexual dysfunction and demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics. Age at menopause was not associated with sexual dysfunction. Arousal (dysfunction) was the only component of sexual function that was associated with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) and early menopause (P = 0.01). It was reported by 64.2% of women with POI (women 45 years, respectively (P = 0.04). In women with POI or early menopause, Poisson regression analysis showed that having a partner with sexual problems (prevalence ratio [PR] = 6.6; 95% CI: 3.3-13,2; P POI. The major factors affecting this association were having a partner with sexual problems, dyspareunia, and no satisfaction with the partner as a lover. These findings highlight the importance of evaluating partner problems and improving lubrication in these groups of women.

  20. [An assessment of the nutritional status of a school-aged population from Argelia, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Bonilla, Rubén A; Chito-Trujillo, Diana M

    2014-01-01

    Malnutrition affects most rural areas in Colombian, mainly involving the school-aged population. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status of students (n=1,528) attending an Agricultural College in the town of Argelia in south-western Colombia in the Cauca department. The school-aged children’s weight and height were measured and their nutritional status was determined from their body mass index (BMI), according to criteria defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). Anthropometric measurements were analyzed by means of measures of central tendency, stratified by gender and age. The standard error of the difference was estimated to specify the statistical significance of some of the most important differences observed between study indicators; such significance was verified at 0.05 level. Prevalence regarding malnutrition and thinness in 5-10 years-old children, a trend towards obesity in adolescents and growth retardation in children and adolescents was established from analysis of the children’'s weight (P/E), height for age (H/A) and BMI. The results suggested that sports should be encouraged at an early age, as well as training school children and their families regarding healthy eating habits and thus provide scientific support for planning government healthcare agencies’ prevention and control strategies.