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Sample records for household income explain

  1. Household Income Composition and Household Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Voynov, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    The paper focuses on the change in household income composition and the factors that determine it. The results bring additional knowledge about household poverty dynamics. Based on the collective approach to the family and the cooperative game theory it is constructed theoretical model of household income composition change. The change in income composition is a result from bargaining between household members in attempt to defend the most suitable for them income source. Decisive influence i...

  2. Determinants of Soviet Household Income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    by Kenneth Smith

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available World Values Survey data are used to examine household income in the Soviet Union. The data, gathered Summer/Fall 1990, provide a rare opportunity to empirically examine microeconomic factors influencing a Soviet household’s position in the regional/national income distribution. The survey contains data - collected regionally - from the three Baltic republics, Belarus, and the Moscow region. The data indicate certain patterns that existed and determined Soviet household income though there are often considerable regional variations. Further, there are marked differences between income distribution determinants in the Soviet Union and the U.S. and West Germany though similarities exist as well

  3. Toward Measuring Household Vulnerability to Income Poverty in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Albert, Jose Ramon G.; Elloso, Lilia V.

    2007-01-01

    Concomitant to the analysis of poverty is the measurement of vulnerability. Estimates of household vulnerability to income poverty are developed using a modified probit model that considers volatilities in income as being explained by some household characteristics. Resulting vulnerability estimates are found to be higher than poverty rates, suggesting that policy interventions will have to be developed to minimize the risk households face in becoming income poor, or at least help them in mit...

  4. Household Income Volatility in U.S. Farm Households

    OpenAIRE

    Key, Nigel; Prager, Daniel; Burns, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Farm households are subject to several sources of income instability, including yield and production fluctuations, disasters such as droughts or disease, input and output price changes, and varying levels of off-farm income. This paper assesses the income variability of households operating family farms in the continental United States. We find that income volatility varies between farm household subgroups, such as farm size, commodity specialization, and geographic location and that volatili...

  5. Income differentiation of households in the CR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Stávková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Czech Republic has recently experienced phases of economic growth and periods of economic crisis, this fact affects the standard of living and household behaviour and affects the formation of life-style. This paper deals with the income situation of households. The main source of data is EU SILC survey from the years 2005 to 2008.The result of the enquiry and processing of primary data is information about the average income per household member, the poverty level and the number of households at risk of poverty. For the formulation of income differentiation is used Gini coefficient. Attention is paid to factors that affect income inequality (the number of household members, social group, age. Information, about the income situation of households, is amended by following indicators of material deprivation. The paper also analyses the impact of social transfers on income inequality. The analysis and subsequent solving of the problem of income inequality may be contributed with further analysis of empirical data of this type.

  6. Environmental income improves household-level poverty assessments and dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena; Charlery, Lindy Callen; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Household-level poverty assessments and analyses of poverty dynamics in developing countries typically do not include environmental income. Using household (n = 427 in 2006, 2009 and 2012) total income panel data sets, with and without environmental income, from Nepal, we analysed the importance...... of environmental income in household-level poverty assessments (Foster-Greer-Thorbecke indices) and dynamics (movements in the Poverty Transition Matrix). Random effects logit and ordered logit models were applied to estimate variables covarying with poverty categories and compared for annual household incomes...... with and without environmental income. Using the without environmental income data set significantly changed the number of households classified as poor, as well as rates of movements in and out of poverty. Excluding household-level environmental income also distorted estimation of covariates of poverty incidence...

  7. Exploring the link between household debt and income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fasianos, Apostolos; Raza, Hamid; Kinsella, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between household debt and income inequality in the USA, allowing for asymmetry, using data over the period 1913–2008. We find evidence of an asymmetric cointegration between household debt and inequality for different regimes. Our results indicate household debt...... only responds to positive changes in income inequality, while there is no evidence of falling inequality significantly affecting household debt. The presence of this asymmetry provides further empirical insights into the emerging literature on household debt and inequality....

  8. SOCIOECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF FOOD EXPENDITURE PATTERNS AMONG RACIALLY DIFFERENT LOW-INCOME HOUSEHOLDS: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Carlton George; Moussie, M.; Dinning, J.S.; Christakis, G.J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of selected socioeconomic characteristics on aggregate and group food expenditure patterns of racially different low-income households. A double logarithmic functional form was used to explain responses in household food expenditures to socioeconomic factors. Household income, family size, and Food Stamp Program participation were found to exert a strong positive impact on food expenditures. The general educational level of the homemaker registered no significan...

  9. Income inequalities in China : Evidence from household survey data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hussain, Athar; Lanjouw, Peter; Stern, Nicholas

    1994-01-01

    On the basis of a household data set, this paper: compares household income inequality in urban and rural China; decomposes inequality into intra-and interprovincial components; and analyzes the contribution of various income sources to total income equality. The main findings of the paper are,

  10. Income situation of households as a social status indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Stávková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The net financial income of households plays a crucial role in assessing their living standard. It determines of which social class they are members and, thus, their social status as well. In order to monitor their income situation, this paper uses survey data of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU SILC. An abundance of identification data, such as economic activity, industrial classification or sector of economic activity, level of education, age, number of household members, place of residence, household type and others, makes it possible to identify factors that demonstrably influence the household income level. On this basis, it is possible not only to determine the commonly available social class definitions using income intervals, but also to identify specific causes affecting household income and, thus, link a particular household to a given social class. The goal of this article is to establish which factors influence the income level of households. The authors of this paper focused on four factors: social group membership, occupation classified according to the national economy sectors, the highest level of education attained by the household leader and their age. To analyse the influence of selected factors including their interaction and impact on the income situation of households, the authors applied the method of analysing variance between groups (ANOVA using STATA statistical software. The Scheffe’s method of contrasts was used to determine specific differences between factor levels.

  11. Rural household incomes and land grabbing in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Xi; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Theilade, Ida

    2015-01-01

    , determinants of major income sources, and the impacts of land grabbing on incomes. Results documented high reliance on environmental income (32–35% of total household income) and farm income (51–53%) across income quartiles; demonstrated the variation in product composition across quartiles......This paper empirically quantifies environmentally augmented rural household incomes in Cambodia and analyzes how economic land concessions (ELCs) affect such incomes. Data is derived from a structured survey of 600 randomly selected households in 15 villages in three study sites in Cambodia, where...... local livelihoods are highly reliant on access to land and natural resources, supported by qualitative data from focus group discussions. Gini coefficient decomposition, multiple regression models, and propensity score matching (PSM) models were employed to analyze the composition of income portfolios...

  12. Impact of Public Programmes and Household Income On Child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper uses household data from Sudan to examine the factors which affect child mortality. Thus, the impact on child mortality of the education of the mother and the father, public health program provisions and household income per adult are examined. In examining the interaction between income and child mortality ...

  13. Money Marries Money - Intergenerational Top Household Income Mobility in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Hussain, M. Azhar; Munk, Martin David

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes intergenerational earnings and income mobility among top-income households in Denmark. Access to administrative registers allowed us to look at very small fractions of the populations, and to distinguish between sons and daughters and to observe their spouses’ incomes. At the....... At the top of the income distribution we find a correlation of 0.763 between father and mother’s pooled income and that of their son and daughter-in-law’s pooled income, which indicates that money marries money.......This paper describes intergenerational earnings and income mobility among top-income households in Denmark. Access to administrative registers allowed us to look at very small fractions of the populations, and to distinguish between sons and daughters and to observe their spouses’ incomes...

  14. After-tax money income estimates of households: 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, C T

    1985-06-01

    This report provides an improved measure of year to year changes in household purchasing power and of differences in purchasing power between subgroups of the US population. 4 types of taxes are simulated and subsequently deducted from the total money income received by households in order to estimate after tax income: 1) federal individual income taxes; 2) state individual income taxes; 3) FICA and Federal retirement payroll taxes; and 4) property taxes on owner occupied housing. Results show that: 1) mean household income after taxes was $20,000 in 1983, up by 2.4% over the 1982 figure after accounting for the 3.2% rise in consumer prices; 2) this mean household income before taxes ($25,400) increased between 1982 and 1983 by 1.2%; 3) taxes absorbed about 21% of the total money income received by households, down slightly from 22% in 1982; 4) households paid an average of $5890 in taxes in 1983, about $170 lower than paid in 1982; 5) the mean after tax income of households increased in 1983 in the Northeast, South, and West regions, but in the Midwest region no significant increase was observed; 6) married couples with children recorded a real increase of 2.6% in mean after tax income, yet married couples without children had after tax incomes that were 3.3% higher in 1983; and 7) the mean income after taxes for households with a householder age 65 years and over showed no significant increase in 1983. The payment of the 4 types of taxes simulated in this study reduced the income available to households by about $463 billion in 1983. 92% of US households paid 1 or more of the taxes covered in this study in 1983. The combination of Internal Revenue Service (IRS) tax return statistics with the March Current Population Survey (CPS) income data may affect these estimates to a small degree because the IRS returns include these units which are not contained in the CPS universe: 1) prior year delinquent returns; 2) returns of Armed Forces members living overseas or on

  15. Household Income Risk, Nominal Frictions, and Incomplete Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Lütticke, Ralph; Bayer, Christian; Pham, Lien; Tjaden, Volker

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of changes in uncertainty of household income on the macroeconomy. Households face substantial idiosyncratic income risk that is up to two orders of magnitude larger than total factor productivity uncertainty, very persistent and varies substantially over the business cycle. We build a New Keynesian model with heterogeneous agents, where changes in precautionary savings due to time-varying uncertainty depress aggregate activity. With countercyclical markups thr...

  16. Food Expenditures by China's High-Income Households

    OpenAIRE

    Gale, H. Frederick, Jr.

    2006-01-01

    "High-income" households in China had per-capita disposable incomes of just $2,637 during 2003, but their ownership of consumer durable goods suggests a standard of living putting them in the "middle class." Their expenditures on food away from home were sharply higher than those of other urban households. Quantities of beverages, dairy products, and poultry products purchased for at-home consumption were also significantly higher, but purchases of most other food products were only marginall...

  17. Contribution of Wetlands to Household Income and Food Security in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Specifically the study assessed the contribution of wetland system to household income and food security and problems associated with the utilization of the wetland. Both primary and secondary data were used. Primary data were collected by use of structured questionnaire administered to different households whose ...

  18. Sustainable income-generating projects for HIV-affected households ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case study of 200 households benefiting from one of these projects was done in two high-density suburbs in the town of Bindura, northern Zimbabwe. Information was collected from each household four times per year, over four years (2001–2004). Information on the income generated from the micro enterprises was ...

  19. Trade Policy and the Household Distribution of Income

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. François (Joseph); H. Rojas-Romagosa

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe explore the relationship between import protection and the household distribution of income. We first develop a general-equilibrium mapping from tariffs to household inequality measures. This also yields predictions for linkages between tariffs, development level, and observed

  20. Income differentiation of agricultural households in regions of Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Procházková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Czech Republic has recently experienced phases of economic growth and periods of economic crisis. This fact affects the standard of living and household behaviour and affects the formation of life-style. This paper deals with the income situation of households. The main source of data is EU SILC survey from the years 2005 to 2008. The result of the enquiry and processing of primary data is information about the average income per household member, the poverty level and the number of households at risk of poverty. For the formulation of income differentiation is used Gini coefficient. Attention is paid to factors that affect income inequality (the number of household members, social group, and age. The analysis and subsequent problem solving of income inequality may be contributed with further analysis of empirical data of this type. Household income is one of the decisive factors determining the style of family life, their priorities, meeting their needs, and ensure-time activities. Differences between regions determine preferences and identify opportunities.

  1. Income Distribution among Households in Owerri Agricultural Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The broad objective of this study was to examine income distribution and estimate the Gini (G) coefficient of income distribution among households in the Owerri Agricultural Zone of Imo State, Nigeria. The multi-stage stratified random sampling technique was used in selecting the sample. The sample size comprised ninety ...

  2. 84 income and crop diversification among farming households in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE AKINNAGBE

    households. The analysis was done using the Simpson Index of Diversity (SID) and Ordinary least ... sources allowing them to spread risk and ... countries. In this study, it was used to measure income and crop diversity, interpreting pi as the proportion of income from source “i” or crop “i”. If there is just one crop or source of.

  3. International Migration, Remittance Income, and Income Diversification Strategies among Rural Farm Households in Transitional Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Seidu, Ayuba; Onel, Gulcan

    2015-01-01

    The overarching consensus in the applied migration literature is that international migration is typically used to transition out of agricultural sector by rural households in transition economies. In this paper, using data on rural Albanian households, we examine whether international migration of some household members affects the household’s nonfarm activity choices and earnings generated from these activities. In addition, we test whether remittance income received from migrant household ...

  4. Energy-microfinance intervention for low income households in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P. Sharath Chandra

    In India, limited energy access and energy inequity hamper the lives of low income households. Traditional fuels such as firewood and dung cake account for 84 percent and 32 percent of the rural and urban household cooking energy (NSSO, 2007). With 412 million people without access to electricity in 2005, India hosts the world's largest such population (IEA, 2007). But, low income households still spend 9 - 11.7 percent1 of their incomes on inefficient forms of energy while wealthy households spend less than 5 percent on better energy products (Saghir, 2005). Renewable energy technologies coupled with innovative financial products can address the energy access problem facing the low income households in India (MacLean & Siegel, 2007; REEEP, 2009). Nevertheless, the low income households continue to face low access to mainstream finance for purchasing renewable energy technology at terms that meet their monthly energy related expenditure (ESMAP, 2004a; SEEP, 2008a) and low or no access to energy services (Ailawadi & Bhattacharyya, 2006; Modi et. al., 2006). The lack of energy-finance options has left the marginalized population with little means to break the dependence on traditional fuels. This dissertation proposes an energy microfinance intervention to address the present situation. It designed a loan product dedicated to the purchase of renewable energy technologies while taking into account the low and irregular cash flows of the low income households. The arguments presented in this dissertation are based on a six-month pilot project using this product designed and developed by the author in conjunction with a microfinance institution and its low income clients and Energy Service Companies in the state of Karnataka. Finding the right stakeholders and establishing a joint agreement, obtaining grant money for conducting the technology dissemination workshops and forming a clear procedure for commissioning the project, are the key lessons learnt from this study

  5. Adoption Of Irrigation And Its Consequences On Household Income ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An expansion of irrigation is among the priority areas in Ethiopia although farmers' participation is below the expectations. This paper aims to identify factors that affect farmers' decisions to use irrigation and also estimate its role in household income. The data is collected using standardised questionnaire and analysed it ...

  6. Male Income, Female Income, and Household Income Inequality in Israel: A Decomposition Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kimhi, Ayal

    2008-01-01

    Differentiating between the sensitivity of income inequality to male income and female income and decomposing inequality by income determinants, we find that total income inequality is less sensitive to female income variability or the level of female income, than to male income variability or the level of male income. Uniform increases in education reduce income inequality, with increases in female education having a larger effect than increases in male education. An increase in the populati...

  7. State income inequality, household income, and maternal mental and physical health: cross sectional national survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Robert S; Wise, Paul H; Kennedy, Bruce P; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2000-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of state income inequality and individual household income with the mental and physical health of women with young children. Design Cross sectional study. Individual level data (outcomes, income, and other sociodemographic covariates) from a 1991 follow up survey of a birth cohort established in 1988. State level income inequality calculated from the income distribution of each state from 1990 US census. Setting United States, 1991. Participants Nationally representative stratified random sample of 8060 women who gave birth in 1988 and were successfully contacted (89%) in 1991. Main outcome measures Depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies depression score >15) and self rated health Results 19% of women reported depressive symptoms, and 7.5% reported fair or poor health. Compared with women in the highest fifth of distribution of household income, women in the lowest fifth were more likely to report depressive symptoms (33% v 9%, P<0.001) and fair or poor health (15% v 2%, P<0.001). Compared with low income women in states with low income inequality, low income women in states with high income inequality had a higher risk of depressive symptoms (odds ratio 1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.0 to 2.6) and fair or poor health (1.8, 0.9 to 3.5). Conclusions High income inequality confers an increased risk of poor mental and physical health, particularly among the poorest women. Both income inequality and household income are important for health in this population. PMID:11090512

  8. Household Income and Relationships with Different Power Entities as Determinants of Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Reza Anik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article adds to the corruption literature by identifying factors influencing Bangladeshi farm households’ probability of experiencing corruption in different service sectors. The econometric results show that households’ probability of being exposed to corruption can largely be explained through their income and their relationship with different power entities. The direction of the relationship between income and corruption vary across services. Relatively rich households have a higher probability of experiencing corruption in sectors such as education, health and electricity. These households are less likely to experience corruption in local government and agricultural extension services. The results here are contrary to the common trend in corruption research that addresses households’ aggregate corruption experiences. Households with relationships with different power entities have a lower probability of experiencing corruption than their counterparts without these types of relationships.

  9. Role of forest income in rural household livelihoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misbahuzzaman, Khaled; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    managed extensive forest commons to support their livelihood needs, population explosion triggered fragmentation of common land leading to a gradual decline in livelihood opportunities. However, ethnic communities still manage the remnants of those once extensive common resources that are locally known...... the household livelihood system of the respondents selected at random from 7 villages. Data were collected through participatory rural appraisal and structured quarterly surveys. The contribution of all forest-related income was found to be much smaller (11.59 %) than that of agricultural income (77...

  10. Poverty targeting and income impact of subsidised credit on accessed households in the Northern Mountainous Region of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Xuan Luan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the data of 1338 rural households in the Northern Mountainous Region of Vietnam to examine the extent to which subsidised credit targets the poor and its impacts. Principal Component Analysis and Propensity Score Matching were used to evaluate the depth of outreach and the income impact of credit. To address the problem of model uncertainty, the approach of Bayesian Model Average applied to the probit model was used. Results showed that subsidised credit successfully targeted the poor households with 24.10% and 69.20% of clients falling into the poorest group and the three bottom groups respectively. Moreover, those who received subsidised credit make up 83% of ethnic minority households. These results indicate that governmental subsidies are necessary to reach the poor and low income households, who need capital but are normally bypassed by commercial banks. Analyses also showed that ethnicity and age of household heads, number of helpers, savings, as well as how affected households are by shocks were all factors that further explained the probability at which subsidised credit has been assessed. Furthermore, recipients obtained a 2.61% higher total income and a 5.93% higher farm income compared to non-recipients. However, these small magnitudes of effects are statistically insignificant at a 5% level. Although the subsidised credit is insufficient to significantly improve the income of the poor households, it possibly prevents these households of becoming even poorer.

  11. New Haven, Connecticut: Targeting Low-Income Household Energy Savings (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team, Office of Strategic Programs

    2017-11-01

    This fact sheet "New Haven, Connecticut: Targeting Low-Income Household Energy Savings" explains how the City of New Haven used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  12. Who brings home the bacon? The influence of context on partners' contributions to the household income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnese Vitali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Female-breadwinner families represent a relatively new phenomenon in Europe. Little is known about the determinants of this couple type, which sensibly diverts from the traditional economic superiority of men within the household. Objective: This paper studies the contextual correlates of partners' contribution to the household income, distinguishing between female-breadwinner, male-breadwinner, and equal-income couples. In particular, it focuses on the role of male unemployment rate and the prevalence of gender-egalitarian attitudes as possible explanations for the emergence of female-breadwinner and equal-income couples across European regions and countries. Methods: Using data from the fifth round (2010/2011 of the European Social Survey, integrated with data from the Eurostat database, we model the categorical variable identifying the couple type (male-breadwinner, female-breadwinner, or equal-income couple by using a multilevel multinomial logistic regression model where individuals are nested within regions and countries. Results: The prevalence of female-breadwinner, male-breadwinner, and equal-income couples varies considerably across European countries as well as within countries. The prevalence of female-breadwinner couples is positively associated with male unemployment, while it is not influenced by the diffusion of gender-egalitarian attitudes. However, the diffusion of gender-egalitarian attitudes matters for explaining the variation in the prevalence of equal-income couples across Europe. Contribution: We add to the literature on partners' contributions to household income by analysing the spatial distribution and the contextual correlates of female-breadwinner, male-breadwinner, and equal-income couples across European countries and regions.

  13. Seasonal household income dependency on forest and environmental resources in rural Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena; Nielsen, Øystein Juul

    2013-01-01

    to total household income. The results indicate that forest and environmental income was the second largest contributor to households’ total income next to crop income, the relative share being 23.7 percent of total income. With regard to seasonal income contributions, wage income and other income sources...... (gold in particular) are important in filling the gap when income from crop production is low, although they do not completely offset the fall. All income sources, including forest and environmental income, were fluctuating significantly between seasons, except for livestock and business income....... The volatility did vary across income sources; crop income seems the most volatile income component. Volatility in crop income is likely to have severe negative implications for rural households as poverty is widespread and other income opportunities are few. Therefore, the government and other developments...

  14. Avertable deaths associated with household income in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Steven H; Jones, Resa M; Johnson, Robert E; Phillips, Robert L; Oliver, M Norman; Bazemore, Andrew; Vichare, Anushree

    2010-04-01

    We estimated how many deaths would be averted if the entire population of Virginia experienced the mortality rates of the 5 most affluent counties or cities. Using census data and vital statistics for the years 1990 through 2006, we applied the mortality rates of the 5 counties/cities with the highest median household income to the populations of all counties and cities in the state. If the mortality rates of the reference population had applied to the entire state, 24.3% of deaths in Virginia from 1990 through 2006 (range = 21.8%-28.1%) would not have occurred. An annual mean of 12 954 deaths would have been averted (range = 10 548-14 569), totaling 220 211 deaths from 1990 through 2006. In some of the most disadvantaged areas of the state, nearly half of deaths would have been averted. Favorable conditions that exist in areas with high household incomes exert a major influence on mortality rates. The corollary-that health suffers when society is exposed to economic stresses-is especially timely amid the current recession. Further research must clarify the extent to which individual-level factors (e.g., earnings, education, race, health insurance) and community characteristics can improve health outcomes.

  15. Who's cooking? Time spent preparing food by gender, income and household composition

    OpenAIRE

    Mancino, Lisa; Newman, Constance

    2006-01-01

    We use the American Time Use Survey data and multivariate analysis to explore how time allocated to food preparation differs across income groups, household composition (number of adults and presence of children), and employment status of adults in the household.

  16. Why don't households see the light. Explaining the diffusion of compact fluorescent lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Bradford F.; Schleich, Joachim

    2008-07-01

    Many countries are currently considering bans on incandescent light bulbs and other policies to enhance the residential diffusion of energy-saving compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs). However the reasons for currently limited diffusion of CFLs are largely unknown. This paper employs a Double Hurdle model to identify distinct barriers to household consideration of CFLs and the subsequent intensity of adoption using a large survey of German households. The results reveal that barriers to CFL consideration are low for all, except households with very low incomes. Further, barriers to CFL consideration are strongly linked to the characteristics of the residences of low-income households. Thus, the greatest potential for increasing the diffusion of CFLs lies not in addressing barriers to consideration, but in augmenting the intensity of household adoption particularly within high income groups. (orig.)

  17. Estimation of household income diversification in South Africa: A case study of three provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabulani Mathebula

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We estimated household income diversification in settlement types of the poorest provinces in South Africa the Eastern Cape, Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal. We obtained data from the 2010/2011 Income and Expenditure Survey from Statistics South Africa and Wave 3 data from the National Income Dynamics Study. We used the number of income sources, the number of income earners and the Shannon Diversity Index to estimate income diversification in the study provinces. The results show that households in the traditional and urban formal areas diversified income sources to a greater extent than households in urban informal and rural formal settlements. The varied degrees of income diversification in the three provinces suggest that targeted policy initiatives aimed at enhancing household income are important in these provinces.

  18. Multiple regression analysis of the net income and consumption expenditure of Chinese rural households during 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Da, Wa; Xiao, Hong; Zhuo, Ma

    2009-01-01

    We use the regression analysis method of multivariate statistical analysis to establish a multiple linear regression model about the net income and consumption expenditure of Chinese rural households during the year 2007. This paper analyzes the internal relation between the net income and consumption expenditure of Chinese rural households according to the regression result. Some reasonable suggestions are put forward for raising the income of rural households and stimulating consumption.

  19. Social determinants of household food expenditure in Australia: the role of education, income, geography and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venn, Danielle; Dixon, Jane; Banwell, Cathy; Strazdins, Lyndall

    2017-12-18

    To examine socio-economic status (SES) and time-related factors associated with less healthy food purchases in Australia. Data were from the 2009/10 Household Expenditure Survey (HES) conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. Regression analysis was used to examine the associations between the proportion of the household food budget spent on various food types (processed and unprocessed foods, foods purchased from takeaways and restaurants) and SES and time constraint variables. Australia, 2009-2010. Nationally representative sample of Australian households. Household income seems to be the most important correlate with food expenditure patterns once other SES indicators are controlled for. Time constraints appear to explain some, but not all, of the adjusted SES gradients in food expenditure. Comparing home food consumption categories (processed and unprocessed foods) with foods purchased away from home (takeaway and restaurant foods) shows that wealthier, more highly educated and least disadvantaged households spend relatively less of their total food budget on processed and unprocessed foods prepared at home and more on foods purchased away from home at restaurants. Simple SES gradients in dietary behaviour are influenced by correlations between different SES indicators and between SES and time constraints. Examining these factors separately obscures some of the possible causal effects of disadvantage on healthy eating. When formulating policy responses to unhealthy diets, policy makers should consider alternative sources of disadvantage, including time pressure.

  20. FOOD ACQUISITION AND INTRA-HOUSEHOLD CONSUMPTION PATTERNS: A STUDY OF LOW AND MIDDLE INCOME URBAN HOUSEHOLDS IN DELHI, INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Mr; Taylor, Fc; Agrawal, S; Prabhakaran, D; Ebrahim, S

    2013-12-01

    Food habits and choices in India are shifting due to many factors: changing food markets, fast urbanization, food price inflation, uncertain food production and unequal distribution during the past decade. This study aims to explore food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns in urban low and middle income (LMI) households in Delhi. Twenty households were randomly selected from the Center for Cardio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS) surveillance study. Data were derived from 20 questionnaires administered to women responsible for food preparation, four key-informant-interviews, and 20 in-depth interviews with household heads during September-November 2011. STATA and ATLAS.ti software were used for data analysis. Half of the households spent at least two-thirds of their income on food. The major expenditures were on vegetables (22% of total food expenditure), milk and milk products (16%), and cereal and related products (15%). Income, food prices, food preferences, and seasonal variation influenced food expenditure. Adults usually ate two to three times a day while children ate more frequently. Eating sequence was based on the work pattern within the household and cultural beliefs. Contrary to previous evidence, there was no gender bias in intra-household food distribution. Women considered food acquisition, preparation and distribution part of their self-worth and played a major role in food related issues in the household. Women's key roles in food acquisition, preparation and intra household food consumption should be considered in formulating food policies and programs.

  1. Why don't households see the light? Explaining the diffusion of compact fluorescent lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Bradford F. [Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Virginia Tech, 314 Hutcheson Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0401 (United States); Schleich, Joachim [Department of Energy Policy and Energy Systems, Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research, Breslauer Strasse 48, D-76139 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    Starting in 2009 the EU ban on the sale of incandescent bulbs will force households to purchase energy-saving compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs). The impact of the ban on consumers will depend on the nature of current barriers to the use of CFLs. This paper employs a Double-Hurdle model to identify distinct barriers to household consideration of CFLs and to the subsequent intensity of adoption using a large survey of German households. Barriers to CFL consideration are found to be low for all households, except those with very low incomes. Barriers to CFL consideration are, however, strongly linked to the residential characteristics of low-income households like small size and to the lack of household knowledge of energy consumption. CFLs use will increase after the ban mainly through a rise in the intensity of adoption. But the ban will be costly to consumers because the range of applications where households chose to employ CFLs is limited, particularly for high income households. (author)

  2. Current Situation of Household Income as a Factor, Having Impact on Mortgage Lending in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuselchimeg Batbileg

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Amount of household income is the most important factor for housing loan. The article studies mortgage lending in Ulaanbaatar in 2007–2009, the factor, having great impact on the current economy of Mongolia, carries out the comparative analysis of capital’s medium and low income households and presents methods, which will help to solve these problems.

  3. The effects of taxes and benefits on household income, 2008/09

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Barnard

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARYThis article looks at how taxes and benefits affect the income of households in the UK. It provides estimates of household incomes, including the average amount of taxes that households paid, and also the value of benefits that they received in 2008/09, a period when the UK economy was in recession. The analysis highlights that the level of inequality, as measured by the Gini coefficient, fell slightly between 2007/08 and 2008/09 for retired households, but for non-retired households i...

  4. How certain are Dutch households about future income? An emprical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, J.W.M.; Donkers, A.C.D.

    1996-01-01

    The precautionary saving literature shows that income uncertainty increases savings and wealth. To estimate the magnitude of this effect, we need a measure of income uncertainty. This paper empirically analyzes subjective income uncertainty in the Netherlands. Data come from a large Dutch household

  5. The home environment and childhood obesity in low-income households: indirect effects via sleep duration and screen time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L; Li, Hong; Cail, Vernon; Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Whited, Matthew C; Busch, Andrew M; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2014-11-09

    Childhood obesity disproportionally affects children from low-income households. With the aim of informing interventions, this study examined pathways through which the physical and social home environment may promote childhood overweight/obesity in low-income households. Data on health behaviors and the home environment were collected at home visits in low-income, urban households with either only normal weight (n = 48) or predominantly overweight/obese (n = 55) children aged 6-13 years. Research staff conducted comprehensive, in-person audits of the foods, media, and sports equipment in each household. Anthropometric measurements were collected, and children's physical activity was assessed through accelerometry. Caregivers and children jointly reported on child sleep duration, screen time, and dietary intake of foods previously implicated in childhood obesity risk. Path analysis was used to test direct and indirect associations between the home environment and child weight status via the health behaviors assessed. Sleep duration was the only health behavior associated with child weight status (OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.27, 0.77), with normal weight children sleeping 33.3 minutes/day longer on average than overweight/obese children. The best-fitting path model explained 26% of variance in child weight status, and included paths linking chaos in the home environment, lower caregiver screen time monitoring, inconsistent implementation of bedtime routines, and the presence of a television in children's bedrooms to childhood overweight/obesity through effects on screen time and sleep duration. This study adds to the existing literature by identifying aspects of the home environment that influence childhood weight status via indirect effects on screen time and sleep duration in children from low-income households. Pediatric weight management interventions for low-income households may be improved by targeting aspects of the physical and social home environment

  6. Getting outside help : How trust problems explain household differences in household outsourcing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, E.H.M. de; Lippe, T. van der

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the influence of trust problems on the use of domestic outsourcing by couples from a gender perspective. The authors argue that trust problems matter in outsourcing decisions, because an outsider enters the privacy of the household and takes over tasks of special value.

  7. Understanding childhood obesity in America: linkages between household income, community resources, and children's behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Taylor F; Sheetz, Anne; Gurm, Roopa; Woodward, Alan C; Kline-Rogers, Eva; Leibowitz, Robert; Durussel-Weston, Jean; Palma-Davis, LaVaughn; Aaronson, Susan; Fitzgerald, Catherine M; Mitchell, Lindsey R; Rogers, Bruce; Bruenger, Patricia; Skala, Katherine A; Goldberg, Caren; Jackson, Elizabeth A; Erickson, Steven R; Eagle, Kim A

    2012-05-01

    Understanding childhood obesity's root causes is critical to the creation of strategies to improve our children's health. We sought to define the association between childhood obesity and household income and how household income and childhood behaviors promote childhood obesity. We assessed body mass index in 109,634 Massachusetts children, identifying the percentage of children who were overweight/obese versus the percentage of children in each community residing in low-income homes. We compared activity patterns and diet in 999 sixth graders residing in 4 Michigan communities with varying annual household income. In Massachusetts, percentage of overweight/obese by community varied from 9.6% to 42.8%. As household income dropped, percentage of overweight/obese children rose. In Michigan sixth graders, as household income goes down, frequency of fried food consumption per day doubles from 0.23 to 0.54 (P obese children rises in communities with lower household income. Children residing in lower income communities exhibit poorer dietary and physical activity behaviors, which affect obesity. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Combining household income and asset data to identify livelihood strategies and their dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena; Pouliot, Mariéve; Larsen, Helle Overgaard

    2017-01-01

    choice variables, characterise livelihood strategy clusters, and analyse movements between strategies, and (ii) apply the approach using an environmentally-augmented three-wave household (n = 427) level panel dataset from Nepal. Combining income and asset data provides a better understanding...... of livelihood strategies and household movements between strategies over time than using only income or asset data. Most households changed livelihood strategy at least once over the two three-year periods. A common pathway out of poverty included an intermediate step during which households accumulate assets...

  9. Food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns: a study of low and middle income urban households in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Pradhan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food habits and choices in India are shifting due to many factors: changing food markets, fast urbanization, food price inflation, uncertain food production and unequal distribution during the past decade. This study aims to explore food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns in urban low and middle income (LMI households in Delhi. Methods: Twenty households were randomly selected from the Center for Cardio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS surveillance study. Data were derived from 20 questionnaires administered to women responsible for food preparation, four key-informant-interviews, and 20 in-depth interviews with household heads during September-November 2011. STATA and ATLAS.ti software were used for data analysis. Results: Half of the households spent at least two-thirds of their income on food. The major expenditures were on vegetables (22% of total food expenditure, milk and milk products (16%, and cereal and related products (15%. Income, food prices, food preferences, and seasonal variation influenced food expenditure. Adults usually ate two to three times a day while children ate more frequently. Eating sequence was based on the work pattern within the household and cultural beliefs. Contrary to previous evidence, there was no gender bias in intra-household food distribution. Women considered food acquisition, preparation and distribution part of their self-worth and played a major role in food related issues in the household. Conclusion: Women’s key roles in food acquisition, preparation and intra household food consumption should be considered in formulating food policies and programs. 

  10. Carrboro, North Carolina: Achieving Building Efficiencies for Low-Income Households (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    2017-09-29

    This fact sheet "Carrboro, North Carolina: Achieving Building Efficiencies for Low-Income Households" explains how the Town of Carrboro used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  11. Regular charity giving behaviour among low-income households in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laily Dwi Arsyianti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available How can a person in financial difficulty solve his problems? Islam gives the paradoxical solution of giving charity: the more you give, the more you get. Low-income earners should be encouraged to give charity as a means to free themselves from financial difficulties. This paper investigates the charity giving behaviour of low-income groups using an empirical study of factors affecting their regular charity giving. A total of 101 low-income households with monthly incomes of around USD80 in Jakarta were interviewed using the administered questionnaire approach. The data were analysed using logistic regression. The results highlight specific factors that significantly influence regular charity giving behaviour among the low-income households in Indonesia. This study hopes to provide important inputs to the relevant authorities and society on how to educate low-income households to manage their financial resources.

  12. Explaining food insecurity among indigenous households of the Sierra Tarahumara in the Mexican state of Chihuahua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero-Ahiman, O.V.; Santellano-Estrada, E.; Garrido, A.

    2017-09-01

    Numerous studies have analyzed the factors that determine food security and explored the problem from regional or national points of view. However, there has been less research targeting an understanding of the food security problem at the household level in specific rural locations like indigenous communities. Indigenous groups are recognized as priority groups in Mexico, because they live in a situation of poverty. For this reason, the objective of this research was to investigate the determinants of food insecurity among the indigenous communities of the Sierra Tarahumara in Mexico. We used the Latin American and Caribbean Household Food Security Measurement Scale (ELCSA). This scale is useful for measuring food insecurity levels in households. A questionnaire was administered to 123 households. We employed the method based on Cronbach's alpha to measure internal consistency, which was 0.96. In addition, we estimated the main determinants of household food insecurity using both ordered logit model and binomial logit model. We found that approximately 59.35% of households were living in a situation of severe food insecurity. The two predictive models applied suggest that: i) income is the most important determinant of access to food; ii) increased maize production improves food security; iii) farmers consume their seed stocks in times of food scarcity, and iv) households are food insecure when the householders are in casual employment. Akaike's information criterion and the Bayesian information criterion suggest that the goodness of fit to the data was better for the ordered logit model.

  13. Explaining food insecurity among indigenous households of the Sierra Tarahumara in the Mexican state of Chihuahua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia-Vanessa Cordero-Ahiman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have analyzed the factors that determine food security and explored the problem from regional or national points of view. However, there has been less research targeting an understanding of the food security problem at the household level in specific rural locations like indigenous communities. Indigenous groups are recognized as priority groups in Mexico, because they live in a situation of poverty. For this reason, the objective of this research was to investigate the determinants of food insecurity among the indigenous communities of the Sierra Tarahumara in Mexico. We used the Latin American and Caribbean Household Food Security Measurement Scale (ELCSA. This scale is useful for measuring food insecurity levels in households. A questionnaire was administered to 123 households. We employed the method based on Cronbach's alpha to measure internal consistency, which was 0.96. In addition, we estimated the main determinants of household food insecurity using both ordered logit model and binomial logit model. We found that approximately 59.35% of households were living in a situation of severe food insecurity. The two predictive models applied suggest that: i income is the most important determinant of access to food; ii increased maize production improves food security; iii farmers consume their seed stocks in times of food scarcity, and iv households are food insecure when the householders are in casual employment. Akaike's information criterion and the Bayesian information criterion suggest that the goodness of fit to the data was better for the ordered logit model.

  14. Household Expenditure for Dental Care in Low and Middle Income Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Mohd; Sheiham, Aubrey; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the extent of household catastrophic expenditure in dental health care and its possible determinants in 41 low and middle income countries. Data from 182,007 respondents aged 18 years and over (69,315 in 18 low income countries, 59,645 in 15 lower middle income countries and 53,047 in 8 upper middle income countries) who participated in the WHO World Health Survey (WHS) were analyzed. Expenditure in dental health care was defined as catastrophic if it was equal to or higher than 40% of the household capacity to pay. A number of individual and country-level factors were assessed as potential determinants of catastrophic dental health expenditure (CDHE) in multilevel logistic regression with individuals nested within countries. Up to 7% of households in low and middle income countries faced CDHE in the last 4 weeks. This proportion rose up to 35% among households that incurred some dental health expenditure within the same period. The multilevel model showed that wealthier, urban and larger households and more economically developed countries had higher odds of facing CDHE. The results of this study show that payments for dental health care can be a considerable burden on households, to the extent of preventing expenditure on basic necessities. They also help characterize households more likely to incur catastrophic expenditure on dental health care. Alternative health care financing strategies and policies targeted to improve fairness in financial contribution are urgently required in low and middle income countries. PMID:25923691

  15. Early-life mental disorders and adult household income in the World Mental Health Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Norito; Abdulghani, Emad Abdulrazaq; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Almeida, Jose Miguel Caldas; Chiu, Wai Tat; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Fayyad, John; Ferry, Finola; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Lakoma, Matthew D.; LeBlanc, William; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Malhotra, Savita; Matschinger, Herbert; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Browne, Mark A. Oakley; Okoliyski, Michail; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sampson, Nancy A.; Viana, Maria Carmen; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Better information on the human capital costs of early-onset mental disorders could increase sensitivity of policy-makers to the value of expanding initiatives for early detection-treatment. Data are presented on one important aspect of these costs: the associations of early-onset mental disorders with adult household income. Methods Data come from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys in eleven high income, five upper-middle income, and six low/lower-middle income countries. Information about 15 lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders as of age of completing education, retrospectively assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview, was used to predict current household income among respondents ages 18-64 (n = 37,741) controlling for level of education. Gross associations were decomposed to evaluate mediating effects through major components of household income. Results Early-onset mental disorders are associated with significantly reduced household income in high and upper-middle income countries but not low/lower-middle income countries, with associations consistently stronger among women than men. Total associations are largely due to low personal earnings (increased unemployment, decreased earnings among the employed) and spouse earnings (decreased probabilities of marriage and, if married, spouse employment and low earnings of employed spouses). Individual-level effect sizes are equivalent to 16-33% of median within-country household income, while population-level effect sizes are in the range 1.0-1.4% of Gross Household Income. Conclusions Early mental disorders are associated with substantial decrements in income net of education at both individual and societal levels. Policy-makers should take these associations into consideration in making healthcare research and treatment resource allocation decisions. PMID:22521149

  16. Early-life mental disorders and adult household income in the World Mental Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Norito; Abdulghani, Emad Abdulrazaq; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn J; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, José Miguel; Chiu, Wai Tat; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Fayyad, John; Ferry, Finola; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Lakoma, Matthew D; Leblanc, William; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Malhotra, Savita; Matschinger, Herbert; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Oakley Browne, Mark A; Okoliyski, Michail; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sampson, Nancy A; Viana, Maria Carmen; Kessler, Ronald C

    2012-08-01

    Better information on the human capital costs of early-onset mental disorders could increase sensitivity of policy makers to the value of expanding initiatives for early detection and treatment. Data are presented on one important aspect of these costs: the associations of early-onset mental disorders with adult household income. Data come from the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health Surveys in 11 high-income, five upper-middle income, and six low/lower-middle income countries. Information about 15 lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders as of age of completing education, retrospectively assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview, was used to predict current household income among respondents aged 18 to 64 (n = 37,741) controlling for level of education. Gross associations were decomposed to evaluate mediating effects through major components of household income. Early-onset mental disorders are associated with significantly reduced household income in high and upper-middle income countries but not low/lower-middle income countries, with associations consistently stronger among women than men. Total associations are largely due to low personal earnings (increased unemployment, decreased earnings among the employed) and spouse earnings (decreased probabilities of marriage and, if married, spouse employment and low earnings of employed spouses). Individual-level effect sizes are equivalent to 16% to 33% of median within-country household income, and population-level effect sizes are in the range 1.0% to 1.4% of gross household income. Early mental disorders are associated with substantial decrements in income net of education at both individual and societal levels. Policy makers should take these associations into consideration in making health care research and treatment resource allocation decisions. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Household Income, Food Insecurity and Nutrition in Canadian Youth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sean Mark; Marie Lambert; Jennifer O'Loughlin; Katherine Gray-Donald

    2012-01-01

    .... The objective of this study was to examine the influence of income and the conjoint influence of low income and food insecurity on several dietary indicators in a representative sample of Canadian youth. Methods...

  18. Relationship between household income and mental disorders: findings from a population-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareen, Jitender; Afifi, Tracie O; McMillan, Katherine A; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2011-04-01

    There has been increasing concern about the impact of the global economic recession on mental health. To date, findings on the relationship between income and mental illness have been mixed. Some studies have found that lower income is associated with mental illness, while other studies have not found this relationship. To examine the relationship between income, mental disorders, and suicide attempts. Prospective, longitudinal, nationally representative survey. United States general population. A total of 34,653 noninstitutionalized adults (aged ≥20 years) interviewed at 2 time points 3 years apart. Lifetime DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II mental disorders and lifetime suicide attempts, as well as incident mental disorders and change in income during the follow-up period. After adjusting for potential confounders, the presence of most of the lifetime Axis I and Axis II mental disorders was associated with lower levels of income. Participants with household income of less than $20,000 per year were at increased risk of incident mood disorders during the 3-year follow-up period in comparison with those with income of $70,000 or more per year. A decrease in household income during the 2 time points was also associated with an increased risk of incident mood, anxiety, or substance use disorders (adjusted odds ratio, 1.30; 99% confidence interval, 1.06-1.60) in comparison with respondents with no change in income. Baseline presence of mental disorders did not increase the risk of change in personal or household income in the follow-up period. Low levels of household income are associated with several lifetime mental disorders and suicide attempts, and a reduction in household income is associated with increased risk for incident mental disorders. Policymakers need to consider optimal methods of intervention for mental disorders and suicidal behavior among low-income individuals.

  19. Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Purchases in an Urban Supermarket by Low-Income Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Etienne J.; Stites, Shana D.; Wallace, Samantha L.; Braitman, Leonard E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the predictors of fresh fruit and vegetable purchases in a low-income population and identify subgroups in which interventions to increase such purchases might prove useful. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 209 shopping transactions from 30 households. Individual and household characteristics obtained from primary…

  20. Does household income matter for children's schooling? Evidence for rural Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Grimm (Michael)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractHousehold income has been shown to matter for children's school enrolment, in particular in settings where households face tight liquidity constraints caused by the lack of insurance and limited possibilities to smooth consumption through credit and savings. However, so far only few

  1. Increasing Rate of Psychological Distress in Urban Households: How Does Income Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus, Ghuncha

    2017-11-13

    Numerous studies suggest 'social gradient' in health, but it is less clear whether every step up the socio-economic ladder improves health by the same degree. Based on 4326 households, the present study examines the relationship between household income and psychological distress while identifying specific risk factor in different income groups. Overall, 26.5% of sampled households were reported for being distressed. Work pressure (OR 2.0, p water (OR 2.27, p care (OR 2.58, p < 0.001), and indoor noise pollution (OR 1.6, p < 0.001) in medium income group were significant predictors of psychological distress. People in lower income group are at greater risk of becoming distressed, but the higher income is not always the guarantor of psychological well-being.

  2. Household and area income levels are associated with smoking status in the Korean adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Woo-Jun; Rhee, Jung-Ae; Kim, Sun A; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Lee, Young-Hoon; Ryu, So-Yeon; Park, Soon-Woo; Kim, Dong Hyun; Shin, Min-Ho

    2015-01-31

    Some previous studies have suggested that area-level characteristics have effects on smoking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between household income and area income on smoking in Korean adults. This study was based on the Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS) performed in South Korea, between September and November 2009. In total, 222,242 subjects (103,124 men and 119,118 women) were included in the analysis. Information on smoking status was collected using a standardized questionnaire. Income status was determined by monthly household income. Household income was categorized as: smoking than the highest household income group in both urban and rural areas for both men and women after adjusting for individual characteristics (urban men: odds ration [OR], 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36-1.53; rural men: OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.25-1.42; urban women: OR, 2.38; 95% CI, 2.06-2.76; rural women: OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.25-1.83). In men, the lowest area-level income group had a higher risk for smoking than the highest area-level income group in urban areas after adjusting for individual characteristics and household income (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.02-1.33). In women, the lowest area-level income group had a lower risk for smoking than the highest area-level income group in rural areas after adjusting for individual characteristics and household income (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.39-0.70). However, no association was observed between area-level income and smoking in rural areas for men or in urban areas for women. The results showed that smoking is strongly associated with household income status in both men and women, and area-level income is partly associated with smoking. Effects of area-level income on smoking differed by sex and region. These findings suggest that area characteristics have contextual effects on health related behavior independent of individual characteristics.

  3. Poverty Levels and Debt Indicators among Low-Income Households before and after the Great Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Tae; Wilmarth, Melissa J.; Henager, Robin

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed the debt profile of low-income households before and after the Great Recession using the 2007, 2010, and 2013 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF). We used Heckman selection models to investigate three debt characteristics: (a) the amount of debt, (b) debt-to-income ratio, and (c) debt delinquency. Before and after the Great…

  4. The School Breakfast Program strengthens household food security among low-income households with elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartfeld, Judith S; Ahn, Hong-Min

    2011-03-01

    The School Breakfast Program is an important component of the nutritional safety net and has been linked to positive changes in meal patterns and nutritional outcomes. By offering a breakfast, which for low-income children is available either at no cost or reduced price, the program also has the potential to increase household food security. This study examined the relationship between availability of the School Breakfast Program and household food security among low-income third-grade students by using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort. The primary sample included 3010 students. Availability of school breakfast was assessed by surveys of school administrators. Food security was assessed by parents' reports by using the standard 18-item food security scale and considering 2 different food security thresholds. A probit model was estimated to measure the relationship between school breakfast availability and household food security while controlling for a range of other characteristics. Access to school breakfast reduced the risk of marginal food insecurity but not the risk of food insecurity at the standard threshold. That is, the program appeared beneficial in offsetting food-related concerns among at-risk families, although not necessarily in alleviating food insecurity once hardships had crossed the food insecurity threshold. Increasing the availability of school breakfast may be an effective strategy to maintain food security among low-income households with elementary school children.

  5. Household Saving in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Finlay; Fiona Price

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates household saving behaviour in Australia, as well as the drivers behind the recent rise in the aggregate household saving ratio. Our results explaining differences in saving behaviour across households are consistent with theory and previous findings. As might be expected, households' saving ratios tend to increase with income, but decrease with wealth and gearing. Financially constrained and migrant households tend to save more than other households, all else equal. Wh...

  6. Non-stationary individual and household income of poor, rich and middle classes in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Hernández, P.; del Castillo-Mussot, M.; Córdoba-Rodríguez, O.; Mansilla-Corona, R.

    2017-01-01

    Despite Mexican peso crisis in 1994 followed by a severe economic recession, individual and household income distributions in the period 1992-2008 always exhibit a two-class structure; a highly fluctuating high-income class adjusted to a Pareto power-law distribution, and a low-income class (including poor and middle classes) adjusted to either Log-normal or Gamma distributions, where poor agents are defined as those with income below the maximum of the uni-modal distribution. Then the effects of crisis on the income distributions of the three classes are briefly analysed.

  7. What explains the Rural-Urban Gap in Infant Mortality — Household or Community Characteristics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Van de Poel (Ellen); O.A. O'Donnell (Owen); E.K.A. van Doorslaer (Eddy)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe rural-urban gap in infant mortality rates is explained using a new decomposition method that permits identification of the ontribution of unobserved heterogeneity at the household and the community level. Using Demographic and Health Survey data for six Francophone countries in

  8. Progress in timely vaccination coverage among children living in low-income households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip J; Jain, Nidhi; Stevenson, John; Männikkö, Nancy; Molinari, Noelle-Angelique

    2009-05-01

    To evaluate progress in timely vaccination coverage associated with low-income households. The US National Immunization Survey. Children aged 19 to 35 months living in low-income households who were sampled between 1995 and 2007 (N = 232 318). Low-income households had an annual income that was 133% or less of the federal poverty level, and high-income households had an annual income of 400% or more of the federal poverty level. Administration of 4 or more doses of diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (DTaP-DTP) vaccine; 3 or more doses of polio; 1 or more doses of measles, mumps, rubella (MMR); 3 or more doses of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib); 3 or more doses of hepatitis B; and 1 or more doses of varicella vaccines by age 19 months as reported by the children's vaccination providers. Progress in timely coverage was evaluated by tracking changes between consecutive annual birth cohorts born between 1994 and 2004. Among low-income children, timely vaccination coverage increased significantly between consecutive birth cohorts by an estimated 0.5% for DTaP-DTP, 0.3% for polio, 0.6% for MMR, 1.2% for hepatitis B, and 5.3% for varicella vaccines but did not change significantly for the Hib vaccine. Disparities in timely coverage for low- vs high-income children declined significantly between consecutive birth cohorts by an estimated -0.3% for MMR, -0.3% for hepatitis B, and -0.5% for varicella vaccines, did not change significantly for the polio vaccine, and increased significantly by 0.4% for the DTaP-DTP vaccine. Disparities in vaccination coverage associated with low household income persist. Further progress in timely vaccination may be achieved by improving health care providers' reminder/recall systems, implementing educational interventions that address barriers to vaccination, and increasing parents' awareness of the Vaccines for Children Program.

  9. Income Situation of the Households in the Slovak and the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUBICOVÁ

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the income situation of households in the Slovak Republic and the Czech Republic in the years 2005 - 2OO8.The Slovak Republic and the Czech Republic have recently experienced phases of economic growth and periods of economic crisis; this fact affects the standard of living and household behaviour and affects the formation of the life-style. Accession of the Slovak Republic and the Czech Republic to the EU opened up the new opportunities not only in the formation of incomes but also in changes of consumer habits of the population in both states. The basis for these changes was given before 1989, since when it has been possible to monitor realization of reforms. In this process, a new structure of income and expenditures was gradually formed. Assessment of the standard of living of the population and its development is affected by several indicators. The key indicators that allow assessment of the standard of living and its development are the money income, consumption and expenditure for food, housing, culture, education and health care. Data on the household incomes and the household expenditures for the stated needs point at the standard of living of the population as well as various social groups. The reciprocal comparison of the differences in expenditures for basic living needs of the household is important, too.

  10. Association between Household Income and Asthma Symptoms among Elementary School Children in Seoul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Jun; Um, In-Yong; Hong, Soyoung; Yum, Hye Yung; Kim, Hyunjung

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the association between socioeconomic factors and asthma symptoms. Methods A total of 6,919 elementary school children in Seoul were enrolled in the study. Data were obtained from a web-based questionnaire survey. The questionnaire was based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood core module. The prevalence of wheeze in the past 12 months and severe asthma symptoms were obtained. The potential risk factors for asthma symptoms included household income and the number of siblings. A multiple logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the risk factors of asthma symptoms. Results The prevalence of current wheeze (wheeze in the past 12 months) was 5.2%. Household income and asthma symptoms were inversely associated after adjusting for other potential risk factors (p for trend=0.03). This association was modified by the number of siblings. With two or more siblings, the effect of household income on asthma symptoms was not significant. However, low household income was still a significant variable for patients with fewer than two siblings (OR 1.41; 95% CI, 1.09-1.81). Conclusions It appears that childhood asthma disparity is dependent on household income. Therefore, policies to improve childhood health inequities should be emphasized. PMID:23256089

  11. Socio-Economic Determinants of Household Income among Ethnic Minorities in the North-West Mountains, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Quang Tuyen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates both commune and household determinants of household income among ethnic minorities in the North-West Mountains – the poorest region of Vietnam. The findings show that the vast majority of the sample households heavily depend on agricultural activities. Factors affecting household income per capita are examined using multiple regression models and the findings confirm the important role of education, non-farm employment and fixed assets in improving household income. In addition, some commune variables such as the presence of the means of transportation, post offices and non-farm job opportunities are found to have an increasing impact on household income. The findings suggest that policies for poverty reduction should aim at both commune and household levels. Policies that focus on improving the access of ethnic minorities to education and non-farm employment are expected to be effective ways of enhancing their income.

  12. ANALYSIS OF INCOME INEQUALITY AND POVERTY DYNAMICS AMONG RURAL FARM HOUSEHOLDS IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Anayochukwu Mbanasor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed income inequality and poverty dynamics among rural farm households in Abia State, Nigeria. Beyond the broad objective, the study sought specifically to estimate the income distribution and determine the poverty line, gap and incidence of the rural farm households. A total of 240 households were selected across the agricultural zones using multistage sampling technique from which data and information were elicited. Data collection was between 2010 and 2011. Analytically, the study employed Gini coefficient in the estimation of income distribution while poverty indicators (Mean household income, headcount ratio and poverty gap index were used to measure poverty line, poverty incidence and gap. Income distribution showed high level of inequality (Gini index = 0.987 with per capita income falling below the operational national minimum wage. The poverty gap and incidence gave a scary picture of worsening poverty situation, judging from the poverty indicators (head count index = 0.567; poverty gap = 0.568. To reverse the trend, it is important that concerted efforts are made by way of policy direction to ensure that the rural economy which is largely agrarian is improved. This can be achieved by adopting input subsidy, private sector driven market access policy, labour intensive techniques in execution of public projects among others.

  13. Household income and risk-of-poverty of parents of long-term childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Luzius; Roser, Katharina; Baenziger, Julia; Tinner, Eva Maria; Scheinemann, Katrin; Kuehni, Claudia Elisabeth; Michel, Gisela

    2017-08-01

    Taking care of children diagnosed with cancer affects parents' professional life and may place the family at risk-of-poverty. We aimed to (i) compare the household income and risk-of-poverty of parents of childhood cancer survivors (CCS) to parents of the general population, and (ii) identify sociodemographic and cancer-related factors associated with risk-of-poverty. As part of the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, we sent a questionnaire to parents of CCS aged 5-15 years, who survived ≥5 years after diagnosis. Information on parents of the general population came from the Swiss Household Panel (parents with ≥1 child aged 5-15 years). Risk-of-poverty was defined as having a monthly household income of poverty. We included parents of 383 CCS and 769 control parent households. Parent-couples of CCS had a lower household income (P trend poverty (30.4% vs. 19.3%, P = 0.001) compared to control parent-couples. Household income and risk-of-poverty of single parents of CCS was similar to control single parents. Parents of CCS were at higher risk-of-poverty if they had only standard education (OR mother = 3.77 [where OR is odds ratio], confidence interval [CI]: 1.61-8.82; OR father = 8.59, CI: 4.16-17.72) and were from the German language region (OR = 1.99, CI: 1.13-3.50). We found no cancer-related risk factors. Parents of long-term CCS reported lower household income and higher risk-of-poverty than control parents. Support strategies may be developed to mitigate parents' risk-of-poverty in the long term, particularly among parents with lower education. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Precautionary Savings, Illiquid Assets, and the Aggregate Consequences of Shocks to Household Income Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Christian; Lütticke, Ralph; Pham-Do, Lien; Tjaden, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Households face large income uncertainty that varies substantially over the business cycle. We examine the macroeconomic consequences of these variations in a model with incomplete markets, liquid and illiquid assets, and a nominal rigidity. Heightened uncertainty depresses aggregate demand as households respond by hoarding liquid ``paper'' assets for precautionary motives, thereby reducing both illiquid physical investment and consumption demand. This translates into output losses, which a c...

  15. Co-integration Analysis of Rural Labor Non-agricultural Activities and Household Income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of non-agricultural activities of rural labors in their household income is a noteworthy topic. This paper focuses on the long-term and stable equilibrium relationship between the two. Based on 1985 - 2012 Statistical Yearbook data, this study conducted corresponding calculation reasoning and co-integration test of the non-agricultural activities of rural labors and their household income, with the results showing: Long-term equilibrium relationship exists between the two, witnessing short-term fluctuations and a trend of short-term fluctuations to long-run equilibrium.

  16. Exploring Household-level Risk Factors for Self-reported Prevalence of Allergic Diseases Among Low-income Households in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, SungChul; Kim, Dohyeong; Paul, Christopher; Yoo, Young; Choung, Ji Tae

    2014-09-01

    Indoor risk factors for allergic diseases in low-income households in Korea have been characterized only partially. We evaluated the prevalences of atopic dermatitis, asthma, and allergic rhinitis in Seoul, Korea, to identify key housing and behavioral risk factors of low-income households. Statistical analysis of the prevalence of these diseases and various risk factors was conducted using data from a 2010 Ministry of Environment household survey. Logistic regression models were generated using data from 511 low-income household apartments in districts of Seoul. In general, housing factors such as renovation history (Pallergic rhinitis, whereas behavioral factors such as frequency of indoor ventilation (Prisk factors for all three diseases (Prisk factors play a role in triggering allergic diseases among low-income households in Seoul, and health or environmental programs mitigating allergic diseases should be tailored to address appropriate housing or behavioral factors in target populations.

  17. Determinants of electricity demand for newly electrified low-income African households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louw, Kate [Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Conradie, Beatrice [School of Economics, University of Cape Town (South Africa); Howells, Mark [Planning and Economic Studies Section (PESS), International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Dekenah, Marcus [Marcus Dekenah Consulting, Centurion (South Africa)

    2008-08-15

    Access to clean, affordable and appropriate energy is an important enabler of development. Energy allows households to meet their most basic subsistence needs; it is a central feature of all the millennium development goals (MDGs) and, while a lack of access to energy may not be a cause of poverty, addressing the energy needs of the impoverished lets them access services which in turn address the causes of poverty. While much is known about the factors affecting the decisions made when choosing between fuel types within a household, few quantitative studies have been carried out in South Africa to determine the extent to which these factors affect energy choice decisions. It is assumed that the factors traditionally included in economic demand such as price and income of the household affect choice; tastes and preferences as well as external factors such as distance to fuel suppliers are expected to influence preferences. This study follows two typical low-income rural sites in South Africa, Antioch and Garagapola, where the Electricity Basic Services Support Tariff (EBSST) was piloted in 2002. The EBSST is set at 50 kWh/month per household for low domestic consumers; this is worth approximately R20 ({+-}US$3). This subsidy is a lifeline tariff, where households receive the set amount of units per month, free of charge irrespective of whether more units are purchased. These data (collected in 2001 and 2002), recently collated with detailed electricity consumption data, allow us to determine the drivers of electricity consumption within these households. The sample analysed is taken from the initial phase of the study, when no FBE had been introduced to the households. This enabled the study presented here to make use of the well-populated datasets to assess what affects the electricity use decision in these households. This paper attempts to assess which factors affected the decision-making process for electricity consumption within these households. A brief

  18. Income-carbon footprint relationships for urban and rural households of Iskandar Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, M. R.; Moeinzadeh, S. N.; Tifwa, H. Y.

    2014-02-01

    Iskandar Malaysia has a vision to achieve sustainable development and a low carbon society status by decreasing the amount of CO2 emission as much as 60% by 2025. As the case is in other parts of the world, households are suspected to be a major source of carbon emission in Iskandar Malaysia. At the global level, 72% of greenhouse gas emission is a consequence of household activities, which is influenced by lifestyle. Income is the most important indicator of lifestyle and consequently may influence the amount of households' carbon footprint. The main objective of this paper is to illustrate the carbon-income relationships in Iskandar Malaysia's urban and rural areas. Data were gathered through a questionnaire survey of 420 households. The households were classified into six categories based on their residential area status. Both direct and indirect carbon footprints of respondents were calculated using a carbon footprint model. Direct carbon footprint includes domestic energy use, personal travel, flight and public transportation while indirect carbon footprint is the total secondary carbon emission measurement such as housing operations, transportation operations, food, clothes, education, cultural and recreational services. Analysis of the results shows a wide range of carbon footprint values and a significance correlation between income and carbon footprint. The carbon footprints vary in urban and rural areas, and also across different urban areas. These identified carbon footprint values can help the authority target its carbon reduction programs.

  19. Contribution of Forest Restoration to Rural Livelihoods and Household Income in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayu Nuringdati Widianingsih

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Forest resources remain vital to the survival of many rural communities, though the level of forest reliance varies across a range of sites and socio-economic settings. This article investigates variation in forest utilization across households in three ethnic groups living near a forest restoration area in Sumatra, Indonesia. Survey data were collected on 268 households, with a four-month recall period and three repeat visits to each selected household within a year. Random sampling was applied to select households in five villages and five Batin Sembilan (indigenous semi-nomadic groups. Sampled households belonged to three ethnic groups: 15% were Batin Sembilan, 40% Local Malayan, and 45% Immigrant households. Indigenous households displayed the highest reliance on forests: 36% of their annual total income came from this source, as compared with 10% and 8% for Local and Immigrant households, respectively. Our findings showed that the livelihoods of indigenous groups were still intricately linked with forest resources, despite a rapid landscape-wide transition from natural forest to oil palm and timber plantations.

  20. Impact of infrastructure on rural household income and inequality in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlery, Lindy Callen; Qaim, Matin; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Weak public infrastructure may contribute to poverty and inequality. Studies have found that roads are a key factor affecting rural incomes in developing countries. Yet, there is relatively scant evidence of the economic impacts of rural roads at the individual household level. This study...

  1. Influence of minor children and contribution to household income on work hours of female dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuthy, Raymond A; Jennings, Adrienne D; McQuistan, Michelle R; Marshall, Teresa A; Qian, Fang

    2013-01-01

    To study the association of having minor children and contribution to household income on weekly work hours of Iowa female dentists. A 28-question survey was mailed to all active Iowa dentists. This study represents female dentists who responded to the survey (n = 192; response rate = 63 percent). The dependent variable was whether dentists currently worked full- or part-time (≥ 32 versus 60 percent to household income (57.8 percent) were 3.0 times as likely to work full-time (P = 0.0129). The final regression model indicated that those who contributed >60 percent to household income (P = 0.0096) and had no leave of absence longer than 45 consecutive days within the prior 2 years (P = 0.0483) were more likely to work full-time compared with their counterparts. Iowa female dentists who provided more than 60 percent to household income and had not taken a leave of absence during the past 2 years were more likely to work full-time. The inclusion of leave of absence as a predictor variable negates any additional influence of the presence or absence of minor children in the regression model, indicating that these variables are highly correlated for this population. © 2013 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  2. A Panel Data Model for Subjective Information on Household Income Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, J.W.M.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    1996-01-01

    Subjective expectations about future income changes are analyzed, using household panel data.The models used are extensions of existing binary choice panel data models to the case of ordered response.We consider both random and fixed individual effects.The random effects model is estimated by

  3. A panel data model for subjective information on household income growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, J.W.M.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    1996-01-01

    Subjective expectations about future income changes are analyzed, using household panel data. The models used are extensions of existing binary choice panel data models to the case of ordered response. We consider static models with random and fixed individual effects. We also look at a dynamic

  4. The Impact of Financial Risk on Household Income in Nigeria | Obim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of the human society the world over, particularly the rural poor in developing countries, has remained a key challenge because of exposure to varying forms of risks, including income risk and widespread corruption. The attendant shocks have had a devastating effect on the poor and rural households in ...

  5. Household Income during Childhood and Young Adult Weight Status: Evidence from a Nutrition Transition Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeer, Kammi K.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores whether household income at different stages of childhood is associated with weight status in early adulthood in a nutrition transition setting (a developing country with both underweight and overweight populations). I use multinomial logistic regression to analyze prospective, longitudinal data from Cebu, Philippines.…

  6. Household Food Security and Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Low-Income Fourth-Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grutzmacher, Stephanie; Gross, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between household food security and children's and parents' fruit, vegetable, and breakfast consumption and fruit and vegetable availability. Design: Cross-sectional study using matched parent-child surveys. Setting: Title I elementary schools in Maryland. Participants: Ninety-two low-income parent-child…

  7. Why Does Disaster Recovery Work Influence Mental Health?: Pathways through Physical Health and Household Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R; Kwok, Richard K; Payne, Julianne; Engel, Lawrence S; Galea, Sandro; Sandler, Dale P

    2016-12-01

    Disaster recovery work increases risk for mental health problems, yet the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. We explored links from recovery work to post-traumatic stress (PTS), major depression (MD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms through physical health symptoms and household income in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. As part of the NIEHS GuLF STUDY, participants (N = 10,141) reported on cleanup work activities, spill-related physical health symptoms, and household income at baseline, and mental health symptoms an average of 14.69 weeks (SD = 16.79) thereafter. Cleanup work participation was associated with higher physical health symptoms, which in turn were associated with higher PTS, MD, and GAD symptoms. Similar pattern of results were found in models including workers only and investigating the influence of longer work duration and higher work-related oil exposure on mental health symptoms. In addition, longer worker duration and higher work-related oil exposure were associated with higher household income, which in turn was associated with lower MD and GAD symptoms. These findings suggest that physical health symptoms contribute to workers' risk for mental health symptoms, while higher household income, potentially from more extensive work, might mitigate risk. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  8. Rural income transfer programs and rural household food security in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uraguchi, Zenebe B

    2012-01-01

    Based on household food security surveys conducted in Ethiopia, this study seeks to understand the roles and limitations of income transfer projects as determinants of households’ food security. By covering the Food-For-Work Programs (FFWPs) and the Productive Safety Net Programs (PSNPs), the study shows that these programs served as temporary safety nets for food availability, but they were limited in boosting the dietary diversity of households and their coping strategies. Households which participated in the programs increased their supply of food as a temporary buffer to seasonal asset depletion. However, participation in the programs was marred by inclusion error (food-secure households were included) and exclusion error (food-insecure households were excluded). Income transfer projects alone were not robust determinants of household food security. Rather, socio-demographic variables of education and family size as well as agricultural input of land size were found to be significant in accounting for changes in households’ food security. The programs in the research sites were funded through foreign aid, and the findings of the study imply the need to reexamine the approaches adopted by bilateral donors in allocating aid to Ethiopia. At the same time the study underscores the need to improve domestic policy framework in terms of engendering rural local institutional participation in project management.

  9. The Effects of Household Medical Expenditures on Income Inequality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Andrea S; Himmelstein, David U; Woolhandler, Steffie; McCormick, Danny

    2018-01-18

    To assess the effect of households' outlays for medical expenditures on income inequality and changes since the implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). We analyzed data from the US Current Population Surveys for calendar years 2010 through 2014. We calculated the Gini index of income inequality before and after subtracting households' medical outlays (including insurance premiums and out-of-pocket costs) from income, the financial burden of medical outlays for each income decile, and the number of individuals pushed below poverty by medical outlays. In 2014, the Gini index was 47.84, which rose to 49.21 after medical outlays were subtracted, indicating that medical outlays effectively redistributed about 1.37% of total income from poorer to richer individuals, a slightly smaller redistribution compared with the years before the ACA. Medical outlays reduced the median income of the poorest decile by 47.6% versus 2.7% for the wealthiest decile and pushed 7.013 million individuals into poverty. The way we finance medical care exacerbates income inequality and impoverishes millions of Americans. This regressive financing pattern improved minimally in the wake of the ACA. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print January 18, 2018: e1-e4. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2017.304213).

  10. Reading and reading instruction for children from low-income and non-English-speaking households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesaux, Nonie K

    2012-01-01

    Although most young children seem to master reading skills in the early grades of elementary school, many struggle with texts as they move through middle school and high school. Why do children who seem to be proficient readers in third grade have trouble comprehending texts in later grades? To answer this question, Nonie Lesaux describes what is known about reading development and instruction, homing in on research conducted with children from low-income and non-English-speaking homes. Using key insights from this research base, she offers two explanations. The first is that reading is a dynamic and multifaceted process that requires continued development if students are to keep pace with the increasing demands of school texts and tasks. The second lies in the role of reading assessment and instruction in U.S. schools. Lesaux draws a distinction between the "skills-based competencies" that readers need to sound out and recognize words and the "knowledge-based competencies" that include the conceptual and vocabulary knowledge necessary to comprehend a text's meaning. Although U.S. schools have made considerable progress in teaching skills-based reading competencies that are the focus of the early grades, most have made much less progress in teaching the knowledge-based competencies students need to support reading comprehension in middle and high school. These knowledge-based competencies are key sources of lasting individual differences in reading outcomes, particularly among children growing up in low-income and non-English-speaking households. Augmenting literacy rates, Lesaux explains, will require considerable shifts in the way reading is assessed and taught in elementary and secondary schools. First, schools must conduct comprehensive reading assessments that discern learners' (potential) sources of reading difficulties--in both skills-based and knowledge-based competencies. Second, educators must implement instructional approaches that offer promise for

  11. Family income, food prices, and household purchases of fruits and vegetables in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, Rafael Moreira; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2010-12-01

    To analyze the influence of family income and food prices on the participation of fruits and vegetables in the food purchases of Brazilian households. Data analyzed refers to the Household Budget Survey conducted by the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística on a probabilistic sample of 48,470 Brazilian households between 2002 and 2003. Fruit and vegetable participation in total food purchases was expressed as a percentage of total calories purchased and as calories from fruit and vegetables adjusted for total calories purchased. A multiple regression analysis was employed to estimate elasticity coefficients, controlling for sociodemographic variables and price of other foods. Fruit and vegetable participation in total food purchases increased as the price of these foods decreased, or as income increased. A 1% decrease in the price of fruit and vegetables would increase their participation by 0.79%, whereas a 1% increase in family income would increase participation by 0.27%. The effect of income tended to be smaller among higher income strata. Reducing the price of fruit and vegetables, either by supporting their production or through fiscal measures, is a promising public policy instrument, capable of increasing the participation of these foods in the diet of the Brazilian population.

  12. The global economic crisis, household income and pre-adolescent overweight and underweight: a nationwide birth cohort study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, P; Kondo, N; Fujiwara, T

    2015-09-01

    We hypothesized that children from lower income households and in households experiencing a negative income change in connection to the global economic crisis in 2008 would be at increased risk of adverse weight status during the subsequent years of economic downturn. Data were obtained from a nationwide longitudinal survey comprising all children born during 2 weeks of 2001. For 16,403 boys and 15,206 girls, information about anthropometric measurements and household characteristics was collected from 2001 to 2011 on multiple occasions. Interactions between the crisis onset (September 2008) and household income group, as well as the crisis onset and a >30% negative income change in connection to the crisis, were assessed with respect to risk of childhood over- and underweight. Adjusted for household and parental characteristics, boys and girls in the lower household income quartiles had a larger increase in risk of overweight after the crisis onset relative to their peers in the highest income group. (Odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for interaction term in boys=1.23 (1.02-1.24); girls=1.35 (1.23-1.49) comparing the lowest with the highest income group.) Among girls, an interaction between the crisis onset and a >30% negative change in household income with respect to risk of overweight was observed (odds ratio for interaction term=1.23 (1.09-1.38)). Girls from the highest income group had an increased risk of underweight after the crisis onset compared with girls from the lowest income group. Boys and girls from lower household income groups and girls from households experiencing a negative income change in connection to the global economic crisis in 2008, may be at increased risk of overweight. Vulnerability to economic uncertainty could increase risk of overweight in preadolescence.

  13. [Vocationally motivated migration behavior in double-income households. An empirical analysis using GSOEP data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurges, H

    1998-10-01

    "Rational-choice or microeconomic approaches to migration behavior are often restricted to analysing the rational action of the (often male) head of household. These explanations do not allow for the fact that migration decisions are frequently made by whole families. In this context, the increasing labor force participation of married women is assumed to be one important reason for declining migration rates in Germany. In this paper, the relative effect of different job characteristics of men and women on the labor migration of double income households is examined using German household panel data (GSOEP). We find a sex related bias in family decision-making, which cannot be accounted for by classical microeconomic models of family migration. Sociological approaches to household decision-making emphasizing the importance of sex role ideologies held by family members can therefore be considered useful complements to purely economic models." (EXCERPT)

  14. Quantification of factors influencing the difference in household income in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolana Kvíčalová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Income inequalities, resulting from different income of economic entities and the level of redistribution (especially the amount and structure of taxes on one hand and transfer payments on the other and peculiarities of the market economy, have been increasing.Within the context of the economic crisis, the pressure (proved by election results in many countries to alleviate such differences, or at least to stop their deepening has been strengthening. The analysis of the increased income differentiation gets into attention of the theory of public finance.The paper theoretically deals with the ways of measuring such inequalities and then it focuses on the factors that may be regarded as significant for increasing income differences in particular conditions of the Czech Republic within the years 2006–2011 for the selected types of households. Based on the preliminary description, deduction and induction, the research objective was to determine, using the mathematic and statistical methods, the relevancy and -where appropriate- the level of dependence of the analyzed effects on particular elements of household income.

  15. Change in household income and risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during childhood: A nationwide population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young; Cho, Kyoung Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is reported to be more prevalent among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups in various countries. The effect of poverty on child development appears to depend on how long poverty lasts. The timing of poverty also seems to be important for childhood outcomes. Lifetime socioeconomic status may shape current health. Thus, we investigated the effects of household income changes from birth to 4 years on the occurrence of ADHD. Methods Data were obtained from 18,029 participants in the Korean National Health Insurance cohort who were born in 2002 and 2003. All individuals were followed until December 2013 or the occurrence of ADHD, whichever came first. Household income trajectories were estimated using the national health insurance premium and the group-based model. Cox proportional hazard models were used to compare incidence rates between different income trajectory groups after adjustment for possible confounding risk factors. Results Of 18,029 participants, 554 subjects (3.1%) were identified as having ADHD by age 10 or 11. Seven household income trajectories within three categories were found. Children living in decreasing, consistently low, and consistently mid-low income households had an increased risk of ADHD compared to children who consistently lived in the mid-high household income group. Conclusions Children who live in decreasing-income or consistently low-income households have a higher risk for ADHD. Promotion of targeted policies and priority support may help reduce ADHD in this vulnerable group. PMID:28142012

  16. Change in household income and risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during childhood: A nationwide population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Choi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is reported to be more prevalent among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups in various countries. The effect of poverty on child development appears to depend on how long poverty lasts. The timing of poverty also seems to be important for childhood outcomes. Lifetime socioeconomic status may shape current health. Thus, we investigated the effects of household income changes from birth to 4 years on the occurrence of ADHD. Methods: Data were obtained from 18,029 participants in the Korean National Health Insurance cohort who were born in 2002 and 2003. All individuals were followed until December 2013 or the occurrence of ADHD, whichever came first. Household income trajectories were estimated using the national health insurance premium and the group-based model. Cox proportional hazard models were used to compare incidence rates between different income trajectory groups after adjustment for possible confounding risk factors. Results: Of 18,029 participants, 554 subjects (3.1% were identified as having ADHD by age 10 or 11. Seven household income trajectories within three categories were found. Children living in decreasing, consistently low, and consistently mid-low income households had an increased risk of ADHD compared to children who consistently lived in the mid-high household income group. Conclusions: Children who live in decreasing-income or consistently low-income households have a higher risk for ADHD. Promotion of targeted policies and priority support may help reduce ADHD in this vulnerable group.

  17. Income Inequality and Economic Welfare. A Decomposition Analysis for the Household Sector in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Rashida Haq

    1999-01-01

    This study analyses inequality and welfare in Pakistan. The data used is based on "Household Income and Expenditure Surveys" conducted for the years 1979 to 1992-93. To access inequality and welfare across different time periods the data was adjusted for 1992-93 prices (Rs), for the homogeneity of the population adult equivalence scale was used because it is better for examining disparity in economic welfare in a society. For the measurement of welfare Sen's welfare index was applied which, t...

  18. High prevalence of hyperglycaemia and the impact of high household income in transforming Rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Chaowei

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of hyperglycaemia and its association with socioeconomic factors have been well studied in developed countries, however, little is known about them in transforming rural China. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in 4 rural communities of Deqing County located in East China in 2006-07, including 4,506 subjects aged 18 to 64 years. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG was measured. Subjects were considered to have impaired fasting glucose (IFG if FPG was in the range from 5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L and to have diabetes mellitus (DM if FG was 7.0 mmol/L or above. Results The crude prevalences of IFG and DM were 5.4% and 2.2%, respectively. The average ratio of IFG/DM was 2.5, and tended to be higher for those under the age of 35 years than older subjects. After adjustment for covariates including age (continuous, sex, BMI (continuous, smoking, alcohol drinking, and regular leisure physical activity, subjects in the high household income group had a significantly higher risk of IFG compared with the medium household income group (OR: 1.74, 95% CI: 1.11-2.72 and no significant difference in IFG was observed between the low and medium household income groups. Education and farmer occupation were not significantly associated with IFG. Conclusions High household income was significantly associated with an increased risk of IFG. A high ratio of IFG/DM suggests a high risk of diabetes in foreseeable future in the Chinese transforming rural communities.

  19. [Influence of employment changes on incomes and expenditures of Czechoslovak households].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsl, M

    1988-01-01

    The author notes that employment of both spouses is almost universal in Czechoslovakia and that one income alone is insufficient to provide for the basic needs of a household. However, current economic reforms and changes in production will reduce the demand for labor and lead to a decline in the rate of employment. The consequences for economic and social policy are considered. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)

  20. Higher food prices may threaten food security status among American low-income households with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Jones, Sonya; Ruhm, Christopher J; Andrews, Margaret

    2013-10-01

    Children in food-insecure households are more likely to experience poorer health function and worse academic achievement. To investigate the relation between economic environmental factors and food insecurity among children, we examined the relation between general and specific food prices (fast food, fruits and vegetables, beverages) and risk of low (LFS) and very low food security (VLFS) status among low-income American households with children. Using information for 27,900 child-year observations from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 linked with food prices obtained from the Cost of Living Data of the Council for Community and Economic Research, formerly known as the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers' Association, fixed effects models were estimated within stratified income groups. Higher overall food prices were associated with increased risk of LFS and VLFS (coefficient = 0.617; P fast food and fruit and vegetable prices also contributed to higher risk of food insecurity (coefficient = 0.632, P fast food; coefficient = 0.879, P prices, including the prices of soft drinks, orange juice, and coffee, had a protective effect on food security status, even when controlling for general food prices. Thus, although food price changes were strongly related to food security status among low-income American households with children, the effects were not uniform across types of food. These relations should be accounted for when implementing policies that change specific food prices.

  1. Columbia, Missouri: Using Energy Data to Reduce Emissions and Achieve Low-Income Household Energy Savings (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    2017-09-29

    This fact sheet "Columbia, Missouri: Using Energy Data to Reduce Emissions and Achieve Low-Income Household Energy Savings" explains how the City of Columbia used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  2. Resource use of low-income households--approach for defining a decent lifestyle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettenmeier, Michael; Lähteenoja, Satu; Hirvilammi, Tuuli; Laakso, Senja

    2014-05-15

    A decent, or sufficient, lifestyle is largely considered an important objective in terms of a sustainable future. However, there can be strongly varying definitions of what a decent lifestyle means. From a social sustainability point of view, a decent lifestyle can be defined as the minimum level of consumption ensuring an acceptable quality of life. From an ecological sustainability point of view, a decent lifestyle can be defined as a lifestyle that does not exceed the carrying capacity of nature in terms of natural resource use. The paper presents results of a study on the natural resource use of 18 single households belonging to the lowest income decile in Finland. The yearly "material footprint" of each household was calculated on the basis of the data gathered in a questionnaire and two interviews. The results show that the natural resource use of the participating households was lower than the one of the average consumer. Furthermore, 12 of 18 households had a smaller material footprint than the "decent minimum" reference budget defined by a consumer panel. However, the resource use of all the households and lifestyles studied is still higher than long-term ecological sustainability would require. The paper concludes that the material footprint is a suitable approach for defining and measuring a decent lifestyle and provides valuable information on how to dematerialize societies towards sustainability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Income situation of the private households and its impact on the food consumption in the Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica Kubicová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Accession of the Slovak Republic to the EU in 2004 opened up the new opportunities not only in the formation of incomes but also in changes of consumer habits of the population in Slovakia. The basis for these changes were given before 1989, since when it has been possible to monitor realization of reforms. After 1989 have been observed the changes in the evolution of the household income and expenditure structure. The analysis confirms the significant differences and unbalanced right-inclined distribution of income. Households in the fourth income quartile had 2.8 times higher incomes than families in the first income quartile ( Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic. Analyzed were the food groups that in terms of expenditure on food and food consumption took more than 6% share. The results confirm that income differentiation of households is also reflected in their different behavior on the food market. Most sensitive to changes in demand reacts income households with the lowest incomes. In terms of living standard, when satisfying the living needs of population, the disposable monthly income is highly crucial. In meeting the basic needs of households play an important role expenditures on food, housing and energy. The Slovak households have high expenditures on food in comparison with other EU countries. In the structure of consumption expenditures the expenditure on food has decreased in recent years but still represents the highest share (in 2009 it was 21.95% in comparison with expenditure on housing and energy (19.54% share in 2009.Assessment of the standard of living of the population and its development is effected by several indicators. The key indicators that allow assessment of the standard of living and its development are the money income, consumption and expenditure for food, housing, culture, education and healthcare.Data on the household incomes and the household expenditures for the stated needs point at the standard of

  4. Can Increases in Real Consumer Incomes Explain the Aging of Motor Vehicles in the US?

    OpenAIRE

    Yurko, Anna

    2008-01-01

    The average age of vehicles in the US has increased by more than 40 percent since the early 1960s. Over the same time period, consumer incomes on average have been growing faster than prices of new vehicles. This paper asks whether greater affordability of vehicles and the resulting increase in vehicle ownership among lower-income consumers can explain some of the aging of vehicles in the US. Consumers with lower incomes are more likely to purchase used vehicles and hold on to them longer,...

  5. The Effectiveness of Micro-credit Programmes Focusing on Household Income, Expenditure and Savings: Evidence From Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhury Haque Ariful

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the effectiveness of microfinance on household income, expenditure and savings. The survey examined those borrowers who had successfully completed at least three cycles of a loan. A household level survey (N=3000 was carried out to collect information about individuals receiving microcredit from one of the largest NGOs, ASA. The authors employed a multiple regression and discovered that the microcredit programme of ASA has a significant positive impact on household income, expenditures and savings. Moreover, the paper reveals that the level of education plays an important and statistically significant role in increasing the household income, expenditure and savings. Hence, the ASA microcredit programme has a positive impact on reducing poverty in Bangladesh and enhancing the competitiveness of deprived rural and urban households in improving their standard of living.

  6. Prevalence of Obesity Among Adults, by Household Income and Education - United States, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Cynthia L; Fakhouri, Tala H; Carroll, Margaret D; Hales, Craig M; Fryar, Cheryl D; Li, Xianfen; Freedman, David S

    2017-12-22

    Studies have suggested that obesity prevalence varies by income and educational level, although patterns might differ between high-income and low-income countries (1-3). Previous analyses of U.S. data have shown that the prevalence of obesity varied by income and education, but results were not consistent by sex and race/Hispanic origin (4). Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), CDC analyzed obesity prevalence among adults (aged ≥20 years) by three levels of household income, based on percentage (≤130%, >130% to ≤350%, and >350%) of the federal poverty level (FPL) and individual education level (high school graduate or less, some college, and college graduate). During 2011-2014, the age-adjusted prevalence of obesity among adults was lower in the highest income group (31.2%) than the other groups (40.8% [>130% to ≤350%] and 39.0% [≤130%]). The age-adjusted prevalence of obesity among college graduates was lower (27.8%) than among those with some college (40.6%) and those who were high school graduates or less (40.0%). The patterns were not consistent across all sex and racial/Hispanic origin subgroups. Continued progress is needed to achieve the Healthy People 2020 targets of reducing age-adjusted obesity prevalence to <30.5% and reducing disparities (5).

  7. Association of Household Food Insecurity with the Mental and Physical Health of Low-Income Urban Ecuadorian Women with Children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weigel, M. Margaret; Armijos, Rodrigo X; Racines, Marcia; Cevallos, William; Castro, Nancy P

    2016-01-01

    .... Household food insecurity (HFI) has been linked to chronic disease in US and Canadian women but it is uncertain if the same is true for low- and middle-income Latin American countries in epidemiologic transition...

  8. Influence of income difference on carbon and material footprints for critical metals: the case of Japanese households

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shigetomi, Yosuke; Nansai, Keisuke; Kagawa, Shigemi; Tohno, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    ... (neodymium, cobalt, and platinum) in Japanese households with different income levels. These metals are critical for new energy technologies, such as electric vehicles and rechargeable batteries, and are thus central to carbon footprint reductions...

  9. Income Inequality Explains Why Economic Growth Does Not Always Translate to an Increase in Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Kesebir, Selin

    2015-10-01

    One of the most puzzling social science findings in the past half century is the Easterlin paradox: Economic growth within a country does not always translate into an increase in happiness. We provide evidence that this paradox can be partly explained by income inequality. In two different data sets covering 34 countries, economic growth was not associated with increases in happiness when it was accompanied by growing income inequality. Earlier instances of the Easterlin paradox (i.e., economic growth not being associated with increasing happiness) can thus be explained by the frequent concurrence of economic growth and growing income inequality. These findings suggest that a more even distribution of growth in national wealth may be a precondition for raising nationwide happiness. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Households across all income quintiles, especially the poorest, increased animal source food expenditures substantially during recent Peruvian economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Debbie L; Behrman, Jere R; Crookston, Benjamin T; Dearden, Kirk A; Schott, Whitney; Penny, Mary E

    2014-01-01

    Relative to plant-based foods, animal source foods (ASFs) are richer in accessible protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin B-12 and other nutrients. Because of their nutritional value, particularly for childhood growth and nutrition, it is important to identify factors influencing ASF consumption, especially for poorer households that generally consume less ASFs. To estimate differential responsiveness of ASF consumption to changes in total household expenditures for households with different expenditures in a middle-income country with substantial recent income increases. The Peruvian Young Lives household panel (n = 1750) from 2002, 2006 and 2009 was used to characterize patterns of ASF expenditures. Multivariate models with controls for unobserved household fixed effects and common secular trends were used to examine nonlinear relationships between changes in household expenditures and in ASF expenditures. Households with lower total expenditures dedicated greater percentages of expenditures to food (58.4% vs.17.9% in 2002 and 24.2% vs. 21.5% in 2009 for lowest and highest quintiles respectively) and lower percentages of food expenditures to ASF (22.8% vs. 33.9% in 2002 and 30.3% vs. 37.6% in 2009 for lowest and highest quintiles respectively). Average percentages of overall expenditures spent on food dropped from 47% to 23.2% between 2002 and 2009. Households in the lowest quintiles of expenditures showed greater increases in ASF expenditures relative to total consumption than households in the highest quintiles. Among ASF components, meat and poultry expenditures increased more than proportionately for households in the lowest quintiles, and eggs and fish expenditures increased less than proportionately for all households. Increases in household expenditures were associated with substantial increases in consumption of ASFs for households, particularly households with lower total expenditures. Increases in ASF expenditures for all but the top quintile of

  11. Households across all income quintiles, especially the poorest, increased animal source food expenditures substantially during recent Peruvian economic growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie L Humphries

    Full Text Available Relative to plant-based foods, animal source foods (ASFs are richer in accessible protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin B-12 and other nutrients. Because of their nutritional value, particularly for childhood growth and nutrition, it is important to identify factors influencing ASF consumption, especially for poorer households that generally consume less ASFs.To estimate differential responsiveness of ASF consumption to changes in total household expenditures for households with different expenditures in a middle-income country with substantial recent income increases.The Peruvian Young Lives household panel (n = 1750 from 2002, 2006 and 2009 was used to characterize patterns of ASF expenditures. Multivariate models with controls for unobserved household fixed effects and common secular trends were used to examine nonlinear relationships between changes in household expenditures and in ASF expenditures.Households with lower total expenditures dedicated greater percentages of expenditures to food (58.4% vs.17.9% in 2002 and 24.2% vs. 21.5% in 2009 for lowest and highest quintiles respectively and lower percentages of food expenditures to ASF (22.8% vs. 33.9% in 2002 and 30.3% vs. 37.6% in 2009 for lowest and highest quintiles respectively. Average percentages of overall expenditures spent on food dropped from 47% to 23.2% between 2002 and 2009. Households in the lowest quintiles of expenditures showed greater increases in ASF expenditures relative to total consumption than households in the highest quintiles. Among ASF components, meat and poultry expenditures increased more than proportionately for households in the lowest quintiles, and eggs and fish expenditures increased less than proportionately for all households.Increases in household expenditures were associated with substantial increases in consumption of ASFs for households, particularly households with lower total expenditures. Increases in ASF expenditures for all but the top quintile

  12. Nutrient Intake according to Weight Gain during Pregnancy, Job Status, and Household Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, You-Mi; Choi, Mi-Ja

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association of nutrient intake and pregnancy outcome mediated by weight gain during pregnancy, job status, and household income. Maternal age, educational level, self-reported pre-pregnancy weights, educational level, and household income were collected from the women at 2 months postpartum. For each offspring, weight at birth, length at birth, and gestational age were collected. Participants were asked to report the frequency of consumption of foods between 28-42 weeks into the pregnancy. Diet was assessed by using a validated 106-item semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (SQFFQ) and women were asked portions and quantities based on pictures, food models, and measuring tools such as cups or teaspoons. Results showed that women who gained below the recommended weight gain during pregnancy, within, and over were 25.3%, 38.7%, 36.0%, respectively. In comparison to weight gain and the offspring's length and weight at birth, the offspring of mothers with a lower weight gain had a higher length. Energy, protein, vitamin B2, vitamin C, calcium, and potassium were significantly lower at employed group. We did not observe a significant difference between birth characteristics and maternal nutrient intake by income. Infants with a higher ponderal index at birth were born to women with a higher pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI).

  13. Household income, health and education in a rural area of Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnmar; Than-Tun-Sein; Ko-Ko-Zaw; Saw-Saw; Soe-Win

    2005-03-01

    This study was to determine the relationship between a commonly used social stratification indicator, net equivalent income, and self-rated health, long-term disability, visual acuity status, death rate, birth rate, unsafe delivery and school enrollment in a rural area of Myanmar. Data were collected from 3,558 respondents in 805 households of all ages. Data analysis for various items was based on different age groups. The results from two income groups (highest and lowest) are as follows: the percent of those who self-rated their health as very good were 17.8% and 10.4% in the highest and lowest income groups, respectively (adjusted coefficient = 0.30, 95% Cl 0.11-0.50); those with an acute medical condition were found in 16.3% and 20.8% in the highest and lowest income groups, respectively (adjusted OR = 1.35, 95% Cl 1.08-1.68); those with long-term disability were found in 15.3% and 21.2% in the highest and lowest income groups, respectively (adjusted OR = 1.39, 95% Cl 1.05-1.84); and those with poor visual acuity at a distance of 13 feet were found in 8.1% and 13.5% in the highest and lowest income groups, respectively (adjusted OR = 1.64, 95% Cl 1.18-2.30). The birth rate ratio was 1.3, the death rate ratio was 1.2, and school enrollment was found in 92.8% and 83.2% in the highest and lowest income groups, respectively (adjusted OR = 0.34, 95% Cl 0.1-0.8). These results indicate that there is an urgent need to strengthen the health care infrastructure and educational system, targeting the poor in rural areas.

  14. Estimates of Year-to-Year Volatility in Earnings and in Household Incomes from Administrative,Survey, and Matched Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Molly; DeLeire, Thomas; Schwabish, Jonathan A.

    2011-01-01

    We document trends in the volatility in earnings and household incomes between 1985 and 2005 in three different data sources: administrative earnings records, the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) matched to administrative earnings records, and SIPP survey data. In all data sources, we find a substantial amount of year-to-year…

  15. Agricultural Trade Liberalisation and Growth in Income of Rural Household in Bangladesh: A Quintile-Growth Approach to the Analysis of Distributional Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayal Talukder

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study has investigated the growth in income of rural households in Bangladesh with a view to analysing distributional consequences in the post-liberalisation era. Using data from secondary sources, it has applied a quintile-growth approach by dividing each group of households into five income clusters (quintiles to analyse the incidence of growth in real income. It has found that although all groups of rural households experienced a moderate to high increase in real income, non-farm households experienced a larger increase than farm households due to a large reduction in consumer price. Farm households gained from the increase in productivity but experienced losses from producer price reduction. The two opposite forces – increase in productivity and reduction in producer price – offset the effects of each other, thereby affecting the income growth of farm households. Amongst the farm households, large and medium farmers gained the most and small farmers gained the least from the growth in real income, indicating that rich households experienced a much higher increase in real income than poor households – thereby adversely affecting the distribution of income and widening the income gap between rich and poor households. These findings demonstrated that while agricultural trade liberalisation benefited rural households generally, the benefits were not distributed equally and in fact, inequality increased amongst rural households. This study argues that the growth in real income of rural household was not pro-poor during 1985- 86 to 2005. This study suggests that agricultural trade liberalisation contributed to higher growth in the rural economy but it contributed to greater inequality in income distribution amongst the rich and poor income groups (quintiles. Government should reduce inequality through policy interventions with income transfer from the rich to the poor.

  16. The effects of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder on employment and household income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Joseph; Faraone, Stephen V

    2006-07-18

    Many children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) continue to exhibit symptoms of the disorder into adolescence and adulthood. Although ADHD may have a profound impact on activities of daily living, including educational achievement and work performance, limited research exists on ADHD's impact on individual income loss and overall economic effect. Evaluate ADHD's impact on individual employment and income, and quantify costs of ADHD on workforce productivity for the US population. Two telephone surveys were conducted between April 18, 2003, and May 11, 2003, to collect demographic, educational, employment, and income information. Two groups of adults aged 18-64 years were interviewed: those diagnosed with ADHD (n = 500) derived from a national list of mail-paneled members who identified themselves or a household member as having been diagnosed with ADHD, and an age- and gender-matched control group (n = 501) derived from a random digital-dialing sample of a national cross-section not diagnosed with ADHD. Statistically fewer subjects in the ADHD group achieved academic milestones beyond some high school (P academic achievement or personal characteristics. On the basis of these findings, loss of workforce productivity associated with ADHD was estimated between $67 billion and $116 billion. Decreased individual income among adults with ADHD contributes to substantial loss in US workforce productivity.

  17. Community household income and resource utilization for common inpatient pediatric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieldston, Evan S; Zaniletti, Isabella; Hall, Matthew; Colvin, Jeffrey D; Gottlieb, Laura; Macy, Michelle L; Alpern, Elizabeth R; Morse, Rustin B; Hain, Paul D; Sills, Marion R; Frank, Gary; Shah, Samir S

    2013-12-01

    Child health is influenced by biomedical and socioeconomic factors. Few studies have explored the relationship between community-level income and inpatient resource utilization for children. Our objective was to analyze inpatient costs for children hospitalized with common conditions in relation to zip code-based median annual household income (HHI). Retrospective national cohort from 32 freestanding children's hospitals for asthma, diabetes, bronchiolitis and respiratory syncytial virus, pneumonia, and kidney and urinary tract infections. Standardized cost of care for individual hospitalizations and across hospitalizations for the same patient and condition were modeled by using mixed-effects methods, adjusting for severity of illness, age, gender, and race. Main exposure was median annual HHI. Posthoc tests compared adjusted standardized costs for patients from the lowest and highest income groups. From 116,636 hospitalizations, 4 of 5 conditions had differences at the hospitalization and at the patient level, with lowest-income groups having higher costs. The individual hospitalization level cost differences ranged from $187 (4.1%) to $404 (6.4%). Patient-level cost differences ranged from $310 to $1087 or 6.5% to 15% higher for the lowest-income patients. Higher costs were typically not for laboratory, imaging, or pharmacy costs. In total, patients from lowest income zip codes had $8.4 million more in hospitalization-level costs and $13.6 million more in patient-level costs. Lower community-level HHI is associated with higher inpatient costs of care for 4 of 5 common pediatric conditions. These findings highlight the need to consider socioeconomic status in health care system design, delivery, and reimbursement calculations.

  18. Explaining diversity of livestock-farming management strategies of multiple-job holders: importance of level of production objectives and role of farming in the household.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorelli, C; Dedieu, B; Pailleux, J-Y

    2007-09-01

    We characterised the livestock-farming management strategies of multiple-job holders and identified which variables contributed most to the differentiation of these strategies. We hypothesised that they would mainly be differentiated by the contribution of the farming income to the total household income and the availability of the household members for farming. The multiple-job holding livestock-farmer's motivations, decisions and actions about both multiple-job holding and livestock farming were obtained in semi-directed interviews of 35 sheep farmers who held multiple jobs, on farm and off farm. They were synthesised into six variables characterising the diversity of the livestock-farming objectives and management guidelines. Thanks to a multiple factorial analysis, we showed that the diversity of the sheep-farming management strategies of multiple-job holders was better explained by two factors 'level of motivation of the farmer to get high technical results' and 'more personal fulfilling v. the family business conception of farming', than the factors we hypothesised. Within our sample, the performances ranged from 0.7 to 1.4 weaned lambs per ewe per year. Six sheep-farming management strategies were identified. They illustrated the importance of the level of production objectives and of farming income expectation, which were found to be independent, in explaining diversity. No direct relationship between farm work organisation and sheep-farming management strategy was identified. Explaining the diversity of the livestock-farming management strategies of multiple-job holders appears to require that all the benefits expected from farming and their hierarchy be identified before analysing how they are translated into production objectives and management guidelines.

  19. Change in household income and risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during childhood: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young; Shin, Jaeyong; Cho, Kyoung Hee; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2017-02-01

    Childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is reported to be more prevalent among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups in various countries. The effect of poverty on child development appears to depend on how long poverty lasts. The timing of poverty also seems to be important for childhood outcomes. Lifetime socioeconomic status may shape current health. Thus, we investigated the effects of household income changes from birth to 4 years on the occurrence of ADHD. Data were obtained from 18,029 participants in the Korean National Health Insurance cohort who were born in 2002 and 2003. All individuals were followed until December 2013 or the occurrence of ADHD, whichever came first. Household income trajectories were estimated using the national health insurance premium and the group-based model. Cox proportional hazard models were used to compare incidence rates between different income trajectory groups after adjustment for possible confounding risk factors. Of 18,029 participants, 554 subjects (3.1%) were identified as having ADHD by age 10 or 11. Seven household income trajectories within three categories were found. Children living in decreasing, consistently low, and consistently mid-low income households had an increased risk of ADHD compared to children who consistently lived in the mid-high household income group. Children who live in decreasing-income or consistently low-income households have a higher risk for ADHD. Promotion of targeted policies and priority support may help reduce ADHD in this vulnerable group. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Job Satisfaction, Retirement Attitude and Intended Retirement Age: A Conditional Process Analysis across Workers’ Level of Household Income

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Eleanor M. M.; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.; Flynn, Matt

    2017-01-01

    In the contemporary workplace, insight into retirement behaviors is of crucial importance. Previous empirical evidence has found mixed results regarding the relationship between work attitudes, such as job satisfaction, and retirement behaviors, suggesting that further scholarly examination incorporating moderating and mediating variables into retirement models is needed. Drawing on comparative models of attitude to retirement, we hypothesized a direct relationship between job satisfaction and intended retirement age for workers with a high household income and an indirect relationship between job satisfaction and intended retirement age, via retirement attitude, for workers with a low or mean household income. We collected data from a sample of 590 United Kingdom workers aged 50+. Using conditional process analysis, we found that the underlying mechanisms in our research model differ according to socio-economic status. We found no direct effect between job satisfaction and intended retirement age. However, an indirect effect was observed between job satisfaction and intended retirement age, via retirement attitude, for both low- and mean-household income individuals. Specifically, the relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude differed according to socio-economic group: for high-household income older workers, there was no relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude. However, for low- and mean-household income older workers, we observed a negative relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude. Otherwise stated, increases in job satisfaction for mean and low household income workers are likely to make the prospect of retirement less attractive. Therefore, we argue that utmost care must be taken around the conditions under which lower income employees will continue their work when getting older in order to protect their sustainable employability. PMID:28620329

  1. Job Satisfaction, Retirement Attitude and Intended Retirement Age: A Conditional Process Analysis across Workers' Level of Household Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Eleanor M M; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I J M; Flynn, Matt

    2017-01-01

    In the contemporary workplace, insight into retirement behaviors is of crucial importance. Previous empirical evidence has found mixed results regarding the relationship between work attitudes, such as job satisfaction, and retirement behaviors, suggesting that further scholarly examination incorporating moderating and mediating variables into retirement models is needed. Drawing on comparative models of attitude to retirement, we hypothesized a direct relationship between job satisfaction and intended retirement age for workers with a high household income and an indirect relationship between job satisfaction and intended retirement age, via retirement attitude, for workers with a low or mean household income. We collected data from a sample of 590 United Kingdom workers aged 50+. Using conditional process analysis, we found that the underlying mechanisms in our research model differ according to socio-economic status. We found no direct effect between job satisfaction and intended retirement age. However, an indirect effect was observed between job satisfaction and intended retirement age, via retirement attitude, for both low- and mean-household income individuals. Specifically, the relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude differed according to socio-economic group: for high-household income older workers, there was no relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude. However, for low- and mean-household income older workers, we observed a negative relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude. Otherwise stated, increases in job satisfaction for mean and low household income workers are likely to make the prospect of retirement less attractive. Therefore, we argue that utmost care must be taken around the conditions under which lower income employees will continue their work when getting older in order to protect their sustainable employability.

  2. Sickness absence: could gender divide be explained by occupation, income, mental distress and health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeby, Lisbeth; Bruusgaard, Dag; Claussen, Bjørgulf

    2009-09-01

    Women have more spells of sickness absence than men but the reasons for this are unknown. We wanted to see if occupation, working conditions, income, health and mental distress may explain this gender difference. In a health survey in 2000-01 of all Oslo inhabitants aged 40, 45, and 59/60 years, 11,072 (48.7%) participated. Survey data were linked to the National Insurance Administration and Statistics Norway for the 8,174 eligible for sickness pay in the next four years. Occupation, working conditions, general health and mental distress were self-reported, and income was from official statistics. Long-term sickness absence (>16 days) was calculated for 2001-04 as cumulative incidence and number of days reimbursed. Cumulative incidence was 50.1% for women and 34.7% for men in the four years after the survey. An age-adjusted female overweight of 48% was only reduced to 41% by adjusting for occupation, working conditions, income, self-reported health and mental distress. Duration of long-term sickness absence was 17 days more for women than for men, and was not influenced by adjustments. We have not explained why women have more sickness absence than men, either by work-related factors or by general health or mental distress. Factors explaining the gender divide should be sought elsewhere.

  3. Household and community income, economic shocks and risky sexual behavior of young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkelman, Taryn; Lam, David; Leibbrandt, Murray

    2008-01-01

    Objective We describe recent trends in adolescent sexual behavior in Cape Town, South Africa. We ask whether household and community poverty and negative economic shocks predict risky sexual behavior. Data Matched survey data on 2,993 African and Coloured youth from the Cape Area Panel Study 2002 and 2005. Main outcome measures Sexual debut, multiple sexual partners in past year, condom use at last sex, measured in 2002 and 2005. Methods We test for changes over time in reported sexual behavior and estimate multivariate probit models to measure the association between 2002 individual, household and community characteristics and 2005 sexual behavior. Results There is a statistically significant increase in condom use and decrease in the incidence of multiple sexual partners between 2002 and 2005 for females aged 17-22. Females in households with 10% higher income are 0.53 percentage points less likely to sexually debut by 2005; males in communities with a 10% higher poverty rate are 5 percentage points less likely to report condom use at last sex. Negative economic shocks are associated with a 0.04 percentage point increase in the probability of multiple partnerships for females. Education is positively correlated with sexual debut for females and with multiple partnerships for both sexes. Conclusions Trends in sexual behavior between 2002 and 2005 indicate significant shifts towards safer practices. There is little evidence of a relationship between negative economic shocks, household and community poverty, and risky behavior. We hypothesize that the unexpected positive relationship between education and sexual debut may be driven by peer effects in schools with substantial age mixing. PMID:18040164

  4. Social inequality in infant mortality: what explains variation across low and middle income countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Nandi, Arijit; Heymann, Jody

    2014-01-01

    Growing work demonstrates social gradients in infant mortality within countries. However, few studies have compared the magnitude of these inequalities cross-nationally. Even fewer have assessed the determinants of social inequalities in infant mortality across countries. This study provides a comprehensive and comparative analysis of social inequalities in infant mortality in 53 low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs). We used the most recent nationally representative household samples (n = 874,207) collected through the Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) to calculate rates of infant mortality. The relative and absolute concentration indices were used to quantify social inequalities in infant mortality. Additionally, we used meta-regression analyses to examine whether levels of inequality in proximate determinants of infant mortality were associated with social inequalities in infant mortality across countries. Estimates of both the relative and the absolute concentration indices showed a substantial variation in social inequalities in infant mortality among LMICs. Meta-regression analyses showed that, across countries, the relative concentration of teenage pregnancy among poorer households was positively associated with the relative concentration of infant mortality among these groups (beta = 0.333, 95% CI = 0.115 0.551). Our results demonstrate that the concentration of infant deaths among socioeconomically disadvantaged households in the majority of LMICs remains an important health and social policy concern. The findings suggest that policies designed to reduce the concentration of teenage pregnancy among mothers in lower socioeconomic groups may mitigate social inequalities in infant mortality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of gender participation in non-farming activities on household income and poverty levels in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Akhter; Erenstein, Olaf; Rahut, Dil Bahadur

    2015-01-01

    In the rural areas of Pakistan, the majority of farm households have small landholdings of less than 2 hectares. Both male and females are engaged in farming and non-farming activities. However, in Pakistan the gender-wise participation in farming activities is not much documented. The main objective of the current study is to estimate the impact of male and female participation in non-farming activities on a household's income level and poverty status in Pakistan. The current study is based on a cross-sectional data set collected from 325 households through a purposive random sampling technique. A detailed comprehensive questionnaire was prepared for data collection. The data were analyzed by employing the propensity score matching approach. The empirical results indicate that both male and female participation in non-farming activities has a positive impact on household welfare in Pakistan by raising income levels and thus contributing to poverty reduction. However, the impact is greater when the males of a household take part in these activities rather than the females. In the past only a few studies have focused on gender-based participation in non-farming activities. The non-farming sector is an important one in rural areas, especially in developing countries like Pakistan. More opportunities need to be created for both men and women in rural areas of Pakistan to find off-farm work, in order to increase household income and reduce poverty levels.

  6. Association of household income and education with eating behaviors in Japanese adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Saki; Inayama, Takayo; Hata, Kikuko; Matsushita, Munehiro; Takahashi, Masaki; Harada, Kazuhiro; Arao, Takashi

    2016-01-22

    Socioeconomic inequalities as social determinants of health are important issues in public health and health promotion. However, the association between socioeconomic status and eating behaviors has been investigated poorly in Japanese adults. To fill this gap, the present study examines the association of eating behaviors with household income and education. The sample comprised 3,137 Japanese adults (1,580 men and 1,557 women) aged 30 to 59 years who responded to an Internet-based cross-sectional survey in 2014. Data on the following eating behaviors were collected via self-report: "taking care of one's diet for health," "eating vegetables," "frequency of eating breakfast," "frequency of family breakfasts," "frequency of family dinners," "using the information on nutrition labels," and "conversations with family or friends during meals." Self-reported data on socioeconomic status (household income and education) and demographic variables (gender, age, district of residence, marital status, residence status, and employment status) were also collected. The associations between eating behaviors and household income or education were tested using binomial logistic regression analysis with eating behaviors as dependent variables and household income and education as independent variables. A trend P -value was calculated for three categories of household income (less than 3,000,000 JPY, 3,000,000-7,000,000 JPY, and over 7,000,000 JPY) and education (junior high/high school, 2-year college, and 4-year college/graduate school). Higher household income and education were significantly associated with higher rates of eating vegetables, using the information on nutrition labels, and conversation with family or friends during meals in Japanese men and women. Higher household incomes were significantly associated with lower rates of frequency of family breakfasts in Japanese men and lower rates of frequency of family dinners in Japanese men and women. Higher socioeconomic

  7. How Do Cooks Actually Cook Vegetables? A Field Experiment With Low-Income Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Peter; Evans, Susan H

    2016-01-01

    Vegetables in the diet contribute to disease prevention. However, low-income households underconsume fresh vegetables, perhaps because of cost and of unavailability at nearby stores. A third reason may lurk behind those barriers: cooks' unfamiliarity with various and appealing ways to prepare vegetables. To illuminate that possibility and to suggest interventions that could be designed more effectively to boost vegetable consumption, this study took the novel step of providing ample, if temporary, supplies of a fresh vegetable to random sets of clients of food pantries. A week later, telephone interviews obtained details about preparations of meals and snacks that household cooks had made with their unexpected bounty. Among the experiment's 10 vegetables, some were used twice as often as others. Even more striking, cooks practiced a narrow repertoire of preparation methods, dominated by boiling and steaming, across most of the vegetables. Fats and salt were often added to boiled and steamed preparations. Implications are drawn to suggest kinds of recipes-pairings of vegetables and of vegetables with underused means of preparation-that could expand cooks' repertoires and add variety in flavors, appearances of dishes, meal textures, and aromas. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  8. The direct impact of landslides on household income in tropical regions: A case study from the Rwenzori Mountains in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, K; Jacobs, L; Maes, J; Kabaseke, C; Maertens, M; Poesen, J; Kervyn, M; Vranken, L

    2016-04-15

    Landslides affect millions of people worldwide, but theoretical and empirical studies on the impact of landslides remain scarce, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study proposes and applies a method to estimate the direct impact of landslides on household income and to investigate the presence of specific risk sharing and mitigation strategies towards landslides in a tropical and rural environment. An original cross-sectional household survey is used in combination with geographical data to acquire detailed information on livelihoods and on hazards in the Rwenzori mountains, Uganda. Ordinary least square regressions and probit estimations with village fixed effects are used to estimate the impact of landslides and the presence of mitigation strategies. Geographical information at household level allows to disentangle the direct impact from the indirect effects of landslides. We show that the income of affected households is substantially reduced during the first years after a landslide has occurred. We find that members of recently affected households participate more in wage-employment or in self-employed activities, presumably to address income losses following a landslide. Yet, we see that these jobs do not provide sufficient revenue to compensate for the loss of income from agriculture. Given that landslides cause localized shocks, finding a significant direct impact in our study indicates that no adequate risk sharing mechanisms are in place in the Rwenzori sub-region. These insights are used to derive policy recommendations for alleviating the impact of landslides in the region. By quantifying the direct impact of landslides on household income in an agricultural context in Africa this study draws the attention towards a problem that has been broadly underestimated so far and provides a sound scientific base for disaster risk reduction in the region. Both the methodology and the findings of this research are applicable to other tropical regions with high

  9. Income disparities and their impact on the level and development of food expenditures of households in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľudmila Nagyová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper evaluates development and changes in the level of households food expenditures in Slovakia, which occurred after the accession of Slovakia to the European Union in 2004 and began to apply the rules of the Common Agricultural Policy and using of means of support. Free movement of goods, labor and capital has contributed to the increase of goods and services supply and living standards as well as to the increase in households income differentiation. Until 2012, households in the lowest income quartile possess on average with only 34.1 % per year of the revenue compared with income in the highest fourth quartile of income category. The results of the analysis show a different behavior in the food market. Most sensitive to the change in income and price levels of food expenditures for food responded in families with the lowest incomes (EI = 0.28. With the increase in prices of cereals (bread by one percentage unit-demand declined by an average by 0.49 % (Epi = −0.49, the demand for cheese by 0.65 % (Epi = −0.654 and the demand for meat by 0.275 % (Epi = −0.275.

  10. Maternal Depressive Symptomatology, Social Support, and Language Development of Bilingual Preschoolers From Low-Income Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cycyk, Lauren M; Bitetti, Dana; Hammer, Carol Scheffner

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the impact of maternal depressive symptomatology and social support on the English and Spanish language growth of young bilingual children from low-income backgrounds. It was hypothesized that maternal depression would slow children's development in both languages but that social support would buffer the negative effect. Longitudinal data were collected from 83 mothers of Puerto Rican descent and their children who were attending Head Start preschool for 2 years. The effects of maternal depressive symptomatology and social support from family and friends on receptive vocabulary and oral comprehension development in both languages were examined. Growth curve modeling revealed that maternal depressive symptomatology negatively affected Spanish receptive vocabulary development only. Maternal depression did not affect children's English receptive vocabulary or their oral comprehension in either language. Social support was not related to maternal depressive symptomatology or child language. These findings suggest that maternal depression is 1 risk factor that contributes to less robust primary language development of bilingual children from low-income households. Speech-language pathologists must (a) increase their awareness of maternal depression in order to provide families with appropriate mental health referrals and (b) consider their roles as supportive adults for children whose mothers may be depressed.

  11. Maternal Depressive Symptomatology, Social Support, and Language Development of Bilingual Preschoolers From Low-Income Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitetti, Dana; Hammer, Carol Scheffner

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the impact of maternal depressive symptomatology and social support on the English and Spanish language growth of young bilingual children from low-income backgrounds. It was hypothesized that maternal depression would slow children's development in both languages but that social support would buffer the negative effect. Method Longitudinal data were collected from 83 mothers of Puerto Rican descent and their children who were attending Head Start preschool for 2 years. The effects of maternal depressive symptomatology and social support from family and friends on receptive vocabulary and oral comprehension development in both languages were examined. Results Growth curve modeling revealed that maternal depressive symptomatology negatively affected Spanish receptive vocabulary development only. Maternal depression did not affect children's English receptive vocabulary or their oral comprehension in either language. Social support was not related to maternal depressive symptomatology or child language. Conclusions These findings suggest that maternal depression is 1 risk factor that contributes to less robust primary language development of bilingual children from low-income households. Speech-language pathologists must (a) increase their awareness of maternal depression in order to provide families with appropriate mental health referrals and (b) consider their roles as supportive adults for children whose mothers may be depressed. PMID:25863774

  12. Household food wastage – a case study of middle to high income urban households in the City of Tshwane

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Municipal waste composition studies globally have indicated that significant amounts of food is wasted and disposed while there is potentially significant opportunity to prevent food wastage at household level (Lebersorger and Schneider, 2011...

  13. The complex relationship between household income of family caregivers, access to palliative care services and place of death: A national household population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Miriam J; Allgar, Victoria; Chen, Hong; Dunn, Laurie; Macleod, Una; Currow, David C

    2018-02-01

    Previous work shows that more affluent patients with cancer are more likely to die at home, whereas those dying from non-cancer conditions are more likely to die in hospital. Family caregivers are an important factor in determining place of death. To investigate associations between family caregivers' household income, patients' access to specialist palliative care and place of patients' death, by level of personal end-of-life care. A cross-sectional community household population survey. Respondents to the Household Survey for England. One-third of 1265 bereaved respondents had provided personal end-of-life care (caregivers) (30%). Just over half (55%) of decedents accessed palliative care services and 15% died in a hospice. Place of death and access to palliative care were strongly related ( p place of death when adjusted for palliative care access. When only caregivers were considered, decedents with caregivers from higher income quartiles were the least likely to die at home. Family caregivers from higher income brackets are likely to be powerful patient advocates. Caregiver information needs must be addressed especially with regard to stage of disease, aim of care and appropriate interventions at the end of life.

  14. An Analysis of Characteristics Which Most Enable Low Income Heads of Household Women to Complete Technical Training Programs. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Susan L.

    A study analyzed the characteristics that are most responsible for enabling low-income female heads of household to complete technical training programs. The research project was undertaken for the purpose of developing a comprehensive assessment and support system (CASS) to aid women enrolling at one of three target technical programs at San…

  15. Overweight Nova Scotia children and youth: the roles of household income and adherence to Canada's Food Guide to Healthy Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Meredith; Durant, Matthew; Campagna, Phil D; Rehman, Laurene A; Thompson, Angela M; Wadsworth, Laurie A; Murphy, René J L

    2008-01-01

    Poor diet quality has been observed in Nova Scotia children and youth, characterized by low intake from the traditional four food groups and a high intake from the Other Foods category. In this study, we addressed how household income and adherence to Canada's Food Guide to Healthy Eating influenced weight status category in Nova Scotia children and youth. During the 2005-06 school year, data were collected from 2,296 students and their parents, across Nova Scotia. Questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were obtained from grades 3, 7 and 11 students. The grade 3 students were excluded from the dietary intake assessment. The information collected from the online 24-hour food recalls and food frequency questionnaires were analyzed for adherence to Canada's Food Guide to Healthy Eating recommendations. A general linear model was employed to examine the relationships between household income, food group and weight status category. Overall adherence to Canada's Food Guide to Healthy Eating was low among grades 7 and 11 students. Fewer servings from Grain Products, Milk Products and Vegetables and Fruit were observed in at risk of overweight and overweight students. At risk of overweight and overweight were significantly related to lower household income in grades 3 and 11. Our results show that the rates of overweight in Nova Scotia students are double those reported by the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey. Household income and dietary intake play significant roles in weight status among Nova Scotia children and youth.

  16. Roles of income, price and household size on residential electricity consumption: Comparison of Hawaii with similar climate zone states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melek Yalcintas

    2017-11-01

    Linear regression analysis indicates that household size is an important variable in determining the residential electricity consumption in Oahu, however is not a determining factor in other islands. It was also observed that unlike Oahu, income and price alone are not good indicators of residential electricity consumption for the islands of Hawaii, Maui and Kauai.

  17. Using direct observations on multiple occasions to measure household food availability among low-income Mexicano residents in Texas colonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R; St John, Julie A; Huber, J Charles

    2010-07-29

    It has been recognized that the availability of foods in the home are important to nutritional health, and may influence the dietary behavior of children, adolescents, and adults. It is therefore important to understand food choices in the context of the household setting. Considering their importance, the measurement of household food resources becomes critical.Because most studies use a single point of data collection to determine the types of foods that are present in the home, which can miss the change in availability within a month and when resources are not available, the primary objective of this pilot study was to examine the feasibility and value of conducting weekly in-home assessments of household food resources over the course of one month among low-income Mexicano families in Texas colonias. We conducted five in-home household food inventories over a thirty-day period in a small convenience sample; determined the frequency that food items were present in the participating households; and compared a one-time measurement with multiple measurements.After the development and pre-testing of the 252-item culturally and linguistically- appropriate household food inventory instrument that used direct observation to determine the presence and amount of food and beverage items in the home (refrigerator, freezer, pantry, elsewhere), two trained promotoras recruited a convenience sample of 6 households; administered a baseline questionnaire (personal info, shopping habits, and food security); conducted 5 in-home assessments (7-day interval) over a 30-day period; and documented grocery shopping and other food-related activities within the previous week of each in-home assessment. All data were collected in Spanish. Descriptive statistics were calculated for mean and frequency of sample characteristics, food-related activities, food security, and the presence of individual food items. Due to the small sample size of the pilot data, the Friedman Test and Kendall's W

  18. Using direct observations on multiple occasions to measure household food availability among low-income Mexicano residents in Texas colonias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharkey Joseph R

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been recognized that the availability of foods in the home are important to nutritional health, and may influence the dietary behavior of children, adolescents, and adults. It is therefore important to understand food choices in the context of the household setting. Considering their importance, the measurement of household food resources becomes critical. Because most studies use a single point of data collection to determine the types of foods that are present in the home, which can miss the change in availability within a month and when resources are not available, the primary objective of this pilot study was to examine the feasibility and value of conducting weekly in-home assessments of household food resources over the course of one month among low-income Mexicano families in Texas colonias. Methods We conducted five in-home household food inventories over a thirty-day period in a small convenience sample; determined the frequency that food items were present in the participating households; and compared a one-time measurement with multiple measurements. After the development and pre-testing of the 252-item culturally and linguistically- appropriate household food inventory instrument that used direct observation to determine the presence and amount of food and beverage items in the home (refrigerator, freezer, pantry, elsewhere, two trained promotoras recruited a convenience sample of 6 households; administered a baseline questionnaire (personal info, shopping habits, and food security; conducted 5 in-home assessments (7-day interval over a 30-day period; and documented grocery shopping and other food-related activities within the previous week of each in-home assessment. All data were collected in Spanish. Descriptive statistics were calculated for mean and frequency of sample characteristics, food-related activities, food security, and the presence of individual food items. Due to the small sample size of the

  19. 41 CFR 302-3.417 - Will I have to pay any income tax if my agency pays for extended storage of my household goods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Will I have to pay any income tax if my agency pays for extended storage of my household goods? 302-3.417 Section 302-3.417... storage of my household goods? You will be subject to income taxes on the amount of extended storage...

  20. Getting Outside Help: How Trust Problems Explain Household Differences in Domestic Outsourcing in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruijter, Esther; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the influence of trust problems on the use of domestic outsourcing by couples from a gender perspective. The authors argue that trust problems matter in outsourcing decisions, because an outsider enters the privacy of the household and takes over tasks of special value. Analyses of data from a survey among 740 Dutch couples…

  1. The role of income differences in explaining social inequalities in self rated health in Sweden and Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yngwe, M A; Diderichsen, F; Whitehead, M

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To analyse to what extent differences in income, using two distinct measures-as distribution across quintiles and poverty-explain social inequalities in self rated health, for men and women, in Sweden and Britain. DESIGN: Series of cross sectional surveys, the Swedish Survey....... In Britain the distribution across income quintiles explained 47% of the social inequalities in self rated health among women and 31% among men, while in Sweden it explained, for women 13% and for men 20%. Poverty explained 22% for British women and 8% for British men of the social inequalities in self rated...... health, while in Sweden poverty explained much less (men 2.5% and women 0%). CONCLUSIONS: The magnitude of social inequalities in self rated health was similar in Sweden and in Britain. However, the distribution of income across occupational social classes explains a larger part of these inequalities...

  2. Helpfulness, Trust, and Safety of Neighborhoods: Social Capital, Household Income, and Self-Reported Health of Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Cindy L; Wallace, Steven P; Ponce, Ninez A

    2018-01-18

    Growing literature documents that where you live has an impact on your health, due in part to social capital. Building on social capital literature, we assess how subjective appraisals of neighborhood quality are associated with self-reported health (SRH) for older adults. Cross-sectional analysis of the 2014 California Health Interview Survey, a representative survey of diverse, noninstitutionalized California residents. We use three measures of neighborhood quality: trustworthy neighbors, helpful neighbors, and feeling safe. Using weighted ordinary least squares regression, we assess the associations of trust, helpfulness, and safety to SRH, controlling for neighborhood, demographic, and health care variables. We then examine how these associations vary by household income. We find that characterizing neighbors as helpful and feeling safe are associated with better SRH, even controlling for community, demographic, and health care variables. However, the importance of these dimensions varies across household income: helpfulness is positively associated, whereas trust is negatively associated with SRH for lower income residents; safety is positively associated with SRH in all but the lowest income residents. These findings show that social capital dimensions work differently from one another, and differentially affect the health of older adults. Scholarly analyses of neighborhood effects should include a range of social capital measures and stratify by household income. Our findings may also inform priority setting for social capital programs, especially for older adults with limited economic resources. Policies and programs should consider actions that raise perceptions of helpfulness and safety.

  3. Household Composition, Employment Patterns, and Income Inequality: Puerto Ricans in New York and Other Areas of the U.S. Mainland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Havidan

    1992-01-01

    Focuses on the impact of household composition, educational attainment, and employment characteristics on household income for Puerto Rican householders in New York and other areas of the United States, from 1970 to 1980. Suggests that deteriorating economic conditions of Puerto Ricans are a result of joblessness and low-skilled, low-wage jobs…

  4. Estimating and explaining the effect of education and income on head and neck cancer risk: INHANCE consortium pooled analysis of 31 case-control studies from 27 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, David I; Brenner, Darren R; McMahon, Alex D; Macpherson, Lorna M D; Agudo, Antonio; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Bosetti, Cristina; Brenner, Hermann; Castellsague, Xavier; Chen, Chu; Curado, Maria Paula; Curioni, Otávio A; Dal Maso, Luigino; Daudt, Alexander W; de Gois Filho, José F; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Edefonti, Valeria; Fabianova, Eleonora; Fernandez, Leticia; Franceschi, Silvia; Gillison, Maura; Hayes, Richard B; Healy, Claire M; Herrero, Rolando; Holcatova, Ivana; Jayaprakash, Vijayvel; Kelsey, Karl; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Koifman, Sergio; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lagiou, Pagona; Lazarus, Philip; Levi, Fabio; Lissowska, Jolanta; Luce, Daniele; Macfarlane, Tatiana V; Mates, Dana; Matos, Elena; McClean, Michael; Menezes, Ana M; Menvielle, Gwenn; Merletti, Franco; Morgenstern, Hal; Moysich, Kirsten; Müller, Heiko; Muscat, Joshua; Olshan, Andrew F; Purdue, Mark P; Ramroth, Heribert; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Rudnai, Peter; Schantz, Stimson; Schwartz, Stephen M; Shangina, Oxana; Simonato, Lorenzo; Smith, Elaine; Stucker, Isabelle; Sturgis, Erich M; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Talamini, Renato; Thomson, Peter; Vaughan, Thomas L; Wei, Qingyi; Winn, Deborah M; Wunsch-Filho, Victor; Yu, Guo-Pei; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Zheng, Tongzhang; Znaor, Ariana; Boffetta, Paolo; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Ghodrat, Marianoosh; Amy Lee, Yuan-Chin; Hashibe, Mia; Brennan, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Low socioeconomic status has been reported to be associated with head and neck cancer risk. However, previous studies have been too small to examine the associations by cancer subsite, age, sex, global region and calendar time and to explain the association in terms of behavioral risk factors. Individual participant data of 23,964 cases with head and neck cancer and 31,954 controls from 31 studies in 27 countries pooled with random effects models. Overall, low education was associated with an increased risk of head and neck cancer (OR = 2.50; 95% CI = 2.02 - 3.09). Overall one-third of the increased risk was not explained by differences in the distribution of cigarette smoking and alcohol behaviors; and it remained elevated among never users of tobacco and nondrinkers (OR = 1.61; 95% CI = 1.13 - 2.31). More of the estimated education effect was not explained by cigarette smoking and alcohol behaviors: in women than in men, in older than younger groups, in the oropharynx than in other sites, in South/Central America than in Europe/North America and was strongest in countries with greater income inequality. Similar findings were observed for the estimated effect of low versus high household income. The lowest levels of income and educational attainment were associated with more than 2-fold increased risk of head and neck cancer, which is not entirely explained by differences in the distributions of behavioral risk factors for these cancers and which varies across cancer sites, sexes, countries and country income inequality levels. © 2014 UICC.

  5. Estimating and explaining the effect of education and income on head and neck cancer risk: INHANCE consortium pooled analysis of 31 case-control studies from 27 countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, David I.; Brenner, Darren R.; McMahon, Alex D.; Macpherson, Lorna M.D.; Agudo, Antonio; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Bosetti, Cristina; Brenner, Hermann; Castellsague, Xavier; Chen, Chu; Curado, Maria Paula; Curioni, Otávio A.; Maso, Luigino Dal; Daudt, Alexander W.; de Gois Filho, José F.; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Edefonti, Valeria; Fabianova, Eleonora; Fernandez, Leticia; Franceschi, Silvia; Gillison, Maura; Hayes, Richard B.; Healy, Claire M.; Herrero, Rolando; Holcatova, Ivana; Jayaprakash, Vijayvel; Kelsey, Karl; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Koifman, Sergio; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lagiou, Pagona; Lazarus, Philip; Levi, Fabio; Lissowska, Jolanta; Luce, Daniele; Macfarlane, Tatiana V.; Mates, Dana; Matos, Elena; McClean, Michael; Menezes, Ana M; Menvielle, Gwenn; Merletti, Franco; Morgenstern, Hal; Moysich, Kirsten; Müller, Heiko; Muscat, Joshua; Olshan, Andrew F.; Purdue, Mark P.; Ramroth, Heribert; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Rudnai, Peter; Schantz, Stimson; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Shangina, Oxana; Simonato, Lorenzo; Smith, Elaine; Stucker, Isabelle; Sturgis, Erich M.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Talamini, Renato; Thomson, Peter; Vaughan, Thomas L.; Wei, Qingyi; Winn, Deborah M.; Wunsch-Filho, Victor; Yu, Guo-Pei; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Zheng, Tongzhang; Znaor, Ariana; Boffetta, Paolo; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Ghodrat, Marianoosh; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Hashibe, Mia; Brennan, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Low socioeconomic status has been reported to be associated with head and neck cancer risk. However, previous studies have been too small to examine the associations by cancer subsite, age, sex, global region and calendar time and to explain the association in terms of behavioral risk factors. Individual participant data of 23,964 cases with head and neck cancer and 31,954 controls from 31 studies in 27 countries pooled with random effects models. Overall, low education was associated with an increased risk of head and neck cancer (OR = 2.50; 95% CI = 2.02 – 3.09). Overall one-third of the increased risk was not explained by differences in the distribution of cigarette smoking and alcohol behaviors; and it remained elevated among never users of tobacco and nondrinkers (OR = 1.61; 95% CI = 1.13 – 2.31). More of the estimated education effect was not explained by cigarette smoking and alcohol behaviors: in women than in men, in older than younger groups, in the oropharynx than in other sites, in South/Central America than in Europe/North America and was strongest in countries with greater income inequality. Similar findings were observed for the estimated effect of low versus high household income. The lowest levels of income and educational attainment were associated with more than 2-fold increased risk of head and neck cancer, which is not entirely explained by differences in the distributions of behavioral risk factors for these cancers and which varies across cancer sites, sexes, countries and country income inequality levels. PMID:24996155

  6. The relative importance of community forests, government forests, and private forests for household-level incomes in the Middle Hills of Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oli, Bishwa Nath; Treue, Thorsten; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the household-level economic importance of income from forests under different tenure arrangements, data were collected from 304 stratified randomly sampled households within 10 villages with community forest user groups in Tanahun District, Western Nepal. We observed that forest i...... realisation of community forestry's poverty reduction and income equalizing potential requires modifications of rules that govern forest extraction and pricing at community forest user group level....... income contributed 5.8% to total household income, ranging from 3.8% in the top income quartile to 17.4% in the lowest quartile. Analyses of poverty indices and Gini decomposition showed that incorporating forest incomes in total household income reduces measured rural poverty and income inequality....... Community forestry income constituted 49.7% of forest income, followed by 27.5% from government-managed forest, and 22.8% from private forests/trees. Community forestry income, however, contributed more than other sources of forest income to income inequality, indicating elite capture. We argue that a full...

  7. The impact of out-of-pocket payments for dental care on household finances in low and middle income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Bernabé

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental care is extremely costly and beyond most people means in developing countries. The primary aim of this study was to determine the impact of out-of-pocket payments for dental care on household finances in 40 low and middle income countries. A second aim was to compare the burden of payments for dental care with that for other health services. Methods We used data from 174,257 adults, aged 18 years and above, who reported their total and itemized household expenditure in the past four weeks as part of the World Health Surveys. The financial burden on households was measured using the catastrophic health expenditure (CHE and impoverishment approaches. A household was classified as facing CHE if it spent 40% or more of its capacity to pay, and as facing impoverishment if it fell below the country-specific poverty line after spending on health care was subtracted from household expenditure. The odds of experiencing CHE and impoverishment due to expenditure on dental care were estimated from two-level logistic regression models, controlling for various individual- and country-level covariates. Results Households that paid for dental care had 1.88 (95% Confidence Interval: 1.78-1.99 greater odds of incurring CHE and 1.65 (95% CI: 1.52–1.80 greater odds of facing impoverishment, after adjustment for covariates. Furthermore, the impact of paying for dental care was lower than that for medications or drugs, inpatient care, outpatient care and laboratory tests but similar to that of health care products, traditional medicine and other health services. Conclusion Households with recent dental care spending were more likely to use a large portion of their disposable income and fall below the poverty line. Policy makers ought to consider including dental care as part of universal health care and advocate for the inclusion of dental care coverage in health insurance packages.

  8. Contribution of forest restoration to rural livelihoods and household income in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widianingsih, Nayu Nuringdati; Theilade, Ida; Pouliot, Mariéve

    2016-01-01

    restoration area in Sumatra, Indonesia. Survey data were collected on 268 households, with a four-month recall period and three repeat visits to each selected household within a year. Random sampling was applied to select households in five villages and five Batin Sembilan (indigenous) semi-nomadic groups...

  9. Energy Efficiency Financing for Low- and Moderate-Income Households: Current State of the Market, Issues, and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leventis, G; Kramer, C; Schwartz, LC

    2017-08-09

    Ensuring that low- and moderate-income (LMI) households have access to energy efficiency is equitable, provides energy savings as a resource to meet energy needs, and can support multiple policy goals, such as affordable energy, job creation, and improved public health. Although the need is great, many LMI households may not be able to afford efficiency improvements or may be inhibited from adopting efficiency for other reasons. Decision-makers across the country are currently exploring the challenges and potential solutions to ramping up adoption of efficiency in LMI households, including the use of financing. The report’s objective is to offer state and local policymakers, state utility regulators, program administrators, financial institutions, consumer advocates and other LMI stakeholders with an understanding of: -The relationship between LMI communities and financing for energy efficiency, including important considerations for its use such as consumer protections -The larger programmatic context of grant-based assistance and other related resources supporting LMI household energy efficiency -Lessons learned from existing energy efficiency financing programs serving LMI households -Financing products used by these programs and their relative advantages and disadvantages in addressing barriers to financing or to energy efficiency uptake for LMI households

  10. Household Food Security Status Is Associated with Anemia Risk at Age 18 Months among Low-Income Infants in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metallinos-Katsaras, Elizabeth; Colchamiro, Rachel; Edelstein, Sari; Siu, Elizabeth

    2016-11-01

    Food insecurity and anemia are prevalent among low-income families and infants. Anemia may reflect iron deficiency anemia (IDA) risk. IDA in infancy and early childhood may have long-lasting developmental effects. Few studies have examined food security status (FSS) as a risk factor for anemia. To examine the association between household FSS, sociodemographic and health-related variables, and anemia incidence at age 18 months among low-income infants in the Massachusetts Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (MA/WIC). This was a longitudinal study using data from MA/WIC (August 2001 to November 2009) to assess the relationship between household FSS during the 12 months preceding the 1-year visit (age 9 to 15 months) and anemia at age 18 months. Infants included were not anemic at age 12 months and had complete data on household FSS and the following covariates (N=17,831): race/Hispanic ethnicity, maternal education, breastfeeding duration, household size, and child age. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the association between household FSS during the prior 12 months and anemia at 18 months, controlling for infant age, sex, and race/Hispanic ethnicity, breastfeeding, maternal education, and household size. A majority of infants (56%) were nonwhite, and 19.9% lived in food-insecure households (4.8% in very-low food security). Of the infants who were not anemic at age 12 months, 11.7% became anemic by age 18 months. Infants living in low-food-secure households were 42% more likely (adjusted odds ratio 1.42, 95% CI, 1.27-1.60) to develop anemia at age 18 months than were their food-secure counterparts. Nonwhite race, higher household size, and lower maternal education were also associated with an elevated risk of anemia at age 18 months. Low food security appears to be associated with a significant increased risk of anemia, as do nonwhite ethnicity, lower maternal education, and larger household size. Knowledge of

  11. Disparities in children’s vocabulary and height in relation to household wealth and parental schooling: A longitudinal study in four low- and middle-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Reynolds

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Children from low socio-economic status (SES households often demonstrate worse growth and developmental outcomes than wealthier children, in part because poor children face a broader range of risk factors. It is difficult to characterize the trajectories of SES disparities in low- and middle-income countries because longitudinal data are infrequently available. We analyze measures of children’s linear growth (height at ages 1, 5, 8 and 12y and receptive language (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test at ages 5, 8 and 12y in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam in relation to household SES, measured by parental schooling or household assets. We calculate children’s percentile ranks within the distributions of height-for-age z-scores and of age- and language-standardized receptive vocabulary scores. We find that children in the top quartile of household SES are taller and have better language performance than children in the bottom quartile; differences in vocabulary scores between children with high and low SES are larger than differences in the height measure. For height, disparities in SES are present by age 1y and persist as children age. For vocabulary, SES disparities also emerge early in life, but patterns are not consistent across age; for example, SES disparities are constant over time in India, widen between 5 and 12y in Ethiopia, and narrow in this age range in Vietnam and Peru. Household characteristics (such as mother’s height, age, and ethnicity, and community fixed effects explain most of the disparities in height and around half of the disparities in vocabulary. We also find evidence that SES disparities in height and language development may not be fixed over time, suggesting opportunities for policy and programs to address these gaps early in life.

  12. [Differences in factors associated with health checkup participation between persons with differing income levels. A cross-sectional analysis using residential taxation as a measure of household income].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukishima, Eri; Takahashi, Kyoko; Yano, Koichi; Mori, Mitsuru

    2012-11-01

    Health insurers in Japan are required to provide health checkups specifically designed to detect signs of metabolic syndrome. Since National Health Insurance organizations have been increasing their numbers of low-income beneficiaries, this observational study was carried out to investigate the differences between persons with differing household income levels based on the factors associated with their participation in health checkups. The data source for this study was a database of scored answers in collected, unsigned questionnaires provided by the National Health Insurance of Sapporo City. The survey was conducted in 2009, approaching 3000 beneficiaries aged 40-74 years and sampling 4 groups divided by household income and participation in the 2008 health checkup. The survey included questions about demographics, awareness of the details of the health checkup, and knowledge of lifestyle-related diseases. Valid answers from 1656 respondents were analyzed using multiple logistic regression analysis. After analyzing the level of awareness of health checkup details among subjects and its association with checkup participation, knowledge of the locations where the checkups were held showed the highest adjusted odds ratios. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the following factors were associated with participation in checkups in both lower- and higher-income groups: previous and regular participation in health checkups, willingness to attend the next checkup, and status of family or friends regarding checkup participation. In addition, that a substantial out-of-pocket cost for the checkup was not levied had a significant relationship with checkup attendance in lower-income beneficiaries, while personal obligation to undergo regular health checkups regardless of the busyness of their schedules was found to have a significant relationship in higher-income beneficiaries. In addition, logistic models that excluded factors of previous and future health

  13. Study and Comparison of Rural and Urban Household Income Distribution in Khorasan Province and Country during 2007-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Jamshidi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined distrbution of household income in Khorasan Razavi province and the country for urban and rural areas, seprately. Using household income and expenditure statistics compiled by the Statistical Center of Iran during 2007-2012 the Gini index, Tile index, Atkinson index and the tenth docile to the first docile were applied.The study findings indicate that during the studied period income inequality in the country has been decreased. The levels of disparity in the urban areas have been usually higher than its levels in the country. , while the levels of disparity in the rural areas have been always lower than its levels in the country.. Morever, income distributions in the urban areas and the entire province have been always more uneven than what has been seen for the rural areas. Analysing the Tile and Atkinson indicies (ε=1 shows that both ascending and descending trends of the two indicies were consistent with the Gini index and thus, the three indicies are compatible and validate each other. On the other hand, analysing the Gross expenditures per capita for households and the Gini index shows that the levels of welfare in urban and rural areas of Khorasan were almost constant, however the index for the urban areas of the country has been decreased and for the rural areas has been increased. The social welfare often have been lower for the the rural areas than the social welfare for the urban areas. The results indicate significant differences in income distributions among the province, the country's rural areas and the urban areas.The sudy therefore proposes regional plannings to be considered.

  14. Pathways among Caregiver Education, Household Resources, and Infant Growth in 39 Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Bradley, Robert H; Lansford, Jennifer E; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2015-01-01

    Caregiver education is known to relate to the growth of children, but possible mediation mechanisms of this association are poorly characterized and generally lack empirical support. We test whether instructional capital (caregiver education) leads to improved infant growth through availability of physical capital (household resources) across a wide swath of low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Using the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS3), we explore relations among caregiver education, household resources, and infant (M age = .99 years) growth in 117,881 families living in 39 LMIC. Overall, household resources mediated 76% of the small association between caregiver education and infant growth. When disaggregated by countries characterized by low, medium, and high levels of human development (as indexed by average life expectancy, education, and gross domestic product), household resources mediated 48% to 78% of the association between caregiver education and infant growth. Caregiver education had effects on infant growth through household resources in countries characterized by low, medium, and high levels of human development; for girls and boys; and controlling for indexes of infant feeding and health.

  15. The impact of successful cataract surgery on quality of life, household income and social status in South India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P Finger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To explore the hypothesis that sight restoring cataract surgery provided to impoverished rural communities will improve not only visual acuity and vision-related quality of life (VRQoL but also poverty and social status. METHODS: Participants were recruited at outreach camps in Tamil Nadu, South India, and underwent free routine manual small incision cataract surgery (SICS with intra-ocular lens (IOL implantation, and were followed up one year later. Poverty was measured as monthly household income, being engaged in income generating activities and number of working household members. Social status was measured as rates of re-marriage amongst widowed participants. VRQoL was measured using the IND-VFQ-33. Associations were explored using logistic regression (SPSS 19. RESULTS: Of the 294 participants, mean age ± standard deviation (SD 60 ± 8 years, 54% men, only 11% remained vision impaired at follow up (67% at baseline; p<0.001. At one year, more participants were engaged in income generating activities (44.7% to 77.7%; p<0.001 and the proportion of households with a monthly income <1000 Rps. decreased from 50.5% to 20.5% (p<0.05. Overall VRQoL improved (p<0.001. Participants who had successful cataract surgery were less likely to remain in the lower categories of monthly household income (OR 0.05-0.22; p<0.02 and more likely to be engaged in income earning activities one year after surgery (OR 3.28; p = 0.006. Participants widowed at baseline who had successful cataract surgery were less likely to remain widowed at one year (OR 0.02; p = 0.008. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate the broad positive impact of sight restoring cataract surgery on the recipients' as well as their families' lives. Providing free high quality cataract surgery to marginalized rural communities will not only alleviate avoidable blindness but also - to some extent - poverty in the long run.

  16. EnviroAtlas - Household income metrics related to emotional well-being by Census Block Group for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset portrays the percentage of population within different household income ranges for each Census Block Group (CBG), a threshold estimated to...

  17. How Certain are Dutch Households about Future Income? An Empirical Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, J.W.M.; Donkers, A.C.D.

    1997-01-01

    The growing literature on precautionary saving clearly indicates the need for measurement of income uncertainty. In this paper we empirically analyze subjective income uncertainty in the Netherlands. Data come from the Dutch VSB panel. We measure income uncertainty directly by asking questions on

  18. The philantropic poor: In search of explanations for the relative generosity of lower income households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiepking, P.

    2007-01-01

    In this study we investigate the relationship between income and charitable giving. Previous research shows inconsistent findings regarding both the effect of income on the probability of giving and the proportion of income spent on charitable giving. We test hypotheses with the Giving in The

  19. Food preparation supplies predict children's family meal and home-prepared dinner consumption in low-income households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2014-05-01

    Frequent family meals and home food preparation are considered important for children's nutritional health and weight maintenance. This cross-sectional study tested whether these parent-driven behaviors are related to the availability of food preparation supplies in low-income urban households. Caregivers of children ages 6-13 provided information on family meal frequency, child consumption of home-prepared dinners, household food insecurity, and attitudes towards cooking. Researchers used a newly developed Food Preparation Checklist (FPC) to assess the availability of 41 food preparation supplies during a physical audit of the home environment. Caregivers and children provided anthropometric measurements and jointly reported on child dietary intake. In ordinal logistic regression models, greater home availability of food preparation supplies was associated with more frequent family meals and child consumption of home-prepared dinners. Associations were independent of household financial strain, food insecurity, caregiver attitudes toward cooking, and sociodemographic characteristics. Fewer food preparation supplies were available in households characterized by greater food insecurity, lower income, and negative caregiver attitudes towards cooking, but did not differ by child or caregiver weight status. As in prior studies, more frequent family meals and consumption of home-prepared dinners were associated with healthier child dietary intake in several areas. We conclude that food preparation supplies are often limited in the most socioeconomically disadvantaged households, and their availability is related to the frequency with which children consume family meals and home-prepared dinners. The potential role of food preparation supplies as contributors to socioeconomic disparities in child nutritional health and obesity deserves further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tobacco use and household expenditures on food, education, and healthcare in low- and middle-income countries: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Young Kyung; Bautista, Mary Ann

    2015-10-31

    The majority of one billion smokers worldwide live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and the highest proportion of smokers in most of these countries belong to the lower socioeconomic groups. This study aimed to investigate the associations between tobacco use within households and expenditures on food, education, and healthcare in LMICs. Using data from the World Health Survey, this cross-sectional study included a sample of 53,625 adult males aged food, education, and healthcare; controlling for age, level of education, household wealth quintile, marital status, urban-rural setting, country-level income group, and region. In the preferred random-slope models that controlled for covariates, daily tobacco use was associated with lower household expenditures on education and healthcare by 8.0% (95% confidence interval: -12.8 to -3.2%) and 5.5% (-10.7 to -0.3%), respectively. The association between tobacco use and food expenditure was inconsistent across models. Tobacco use in LMICs may have a negative influence on investment in human capital development. Addressing the tobacco use problem in LMICs could benefit not only the health and economic well-being of smokers and their immediate families but also long-run economic development at a societal level.

  1. The Resilience of Dependency Effects in Explaining Income Inequality in the Global Economy: A Cross National Analysis, 1975-1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Beer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary era is one of both accelerated economic globalization and rising inequality. There is an increasing awareness among both academic scholars and development professionals that globalization puts certain populations at risk. However, there has been inadequate theoretical analysis and a lack of up to date empirical studies that explain just how contemporary globalization a?ects inequality and the well being of individuals. This study explores the conditions under which TNC penetration and other globalization processes in?uence change in domestic income distribution. Its aim is to investigate whether theoretical models that have proven successful in explaining di?erences in income inequality cross-sectionally also allow for an understanding of the dynamics of income distribution during the 1980s and early 1990s, an era characterized by a dramatic acceleration of globalization. We present an analysis of change in national income distribution using linear regression models with a panel design. This study suggests that dependence on foreign investment as a development strategy, especially compared to domestic and human capital investment, may be misguided for nations concerned with equality. Net of other factors, foreign investment dependence bene?ts the elite segments of the income-earning population over the poorer eighty percent. Our analysis provides evidence of a shift in capital/labor relations brought about by globalization that has signi? cantly contributed to the rise in income inequality seen throughout the world.

  2. Association of Household Food Insecurity with the Mental and Physical Health of Low-Income Urban Ecuadorian Women with Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Margaret Weigel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic physical and mental health conditions account for a rising proportion of morbidity, mortality, and disability in the Americas region. Household food insecurity (HFI has been linked to chronic disease in US and Canadian women but it is uncertain if the same is true for low- and middle-income Latin American countries in epidemiologic transition. We conducted a survey to investigate the association of HFI with the physical and mental health of 794 women with children living in low-income Quito, Ecuador, neighborhoods. Data were collected on HFI and health indicators including self-reported health (SF-1, mental health (MHI-5, blood pressure, and self-reported mental and physical health complaints. Fasting blood glucose and lipids were measured in a subsample. The multivariate analyses revealed that HFI was associated with poorer self-rated health, low MHI-5 scores, and mental health complaints including stress, depression, and ethnospecific illnesses. It was also associated with chest tightness/discomfort/pain, dental disease, and gastrointestinal illness but not other conditions. The findings suggest that improving food security in low-income households may help reduce the burden of mental distress in women with children. The hypothesized link with diabetes and hypertension may become more apparent as Ecuador moves further along in the epidemiologic transition.

  3. Work-family conflict and self-rated health among Japanese workers: How household income modifies associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tomoko; Honjo, Kaori; Eshak, Ehab Salah; Iso, Hiroyasu; Sawada, Norie; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-01-01

    To examine associations between work-family conflict and self-rated health among Japanese workers and to determine whether the associations differed by household income. Data was derived from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation in Saku area in 2011-2012 (7,663 men and 7,070 women). Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for poor self-rated health by work-family conflict consisting of two dimensions (work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts) were calculated by gender and household income. Multivariate ORs of high work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts for poor self-rated health were 2.46 (95% CI; 2.04-2.97) for men and 3.54 (95% CI; 2.92-4.30) for women, with reference to the low work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts (p-value for gender interaction = 0.02). Subgroup analysis indicated that health effects of work-family conflict were likely to be more evident in the low income group only among women. Work-family conflict was associated with poor self-rated health among middle-aged Japanese men and women; its health impact was relatively stronger among women, and particularly economically disadvantaged women.

  4. Association of Household Food Insecurity with the Mental and Physical Health of Low-Income Urban Ecuadorian Women with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijos, Rodrigo X.; Racines, Marcia; Cevallos, William; Castro, Nancy P.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic physical and mental health conditions account for a rising proportion of morbidity, mortality, and disability in the Americas region. Household food insecurity (HFI) has been linked to chronic disease in US and Canadian women but it is uncertain if the same is true for low- and middle-income Latin American countries in epidemiologic transition. We conducted a survey to investigate the association of HFI with the physical and mental health of 794 women with children living in low-income Quito, Ecuador, neighborhoods. Data were collected on HFI and health indicators including self-reported health (SF-1), mental health (MHI-5), blood pressure, and self-reported mental and physical health complaints. Fasting blood glucose and lipids were measured in a subsample. The multivariate analyses revealed that HFI was associated with poorer self-rated health, low MHI-5 scores, and mental health complaints including stress, depression, and ethnospecific illnesses. It was also associated with chest tightness/discomfort/pain, dental disease, and gastrointestinal illness but not other conditions. The findings suggest that improving food security in low-income households may help reduce the burden of mental distress in women with children. The hypothesized link with diabetes and hypertension may become more apparent as Ecuador moves further along in the epidemiologic transition. PMID:27752266

  5. Association of Household Food Insecurity with the Mental and Physical Health of Low-Income Urban Ecuadorian Women with Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, M Margaret; Armijos, Rodrigo X; Racines, Marcia; Cevallos, William; Castro, Nancy P

    2016-01-01

    Chronic physical and mental health conditions account for a rising proportion of morbidity, mortality, and disability in the Americas region. Household food insecurity (HFI) has been linked to chronic disease in US and Canadian women but it is uncertain if the same is true for low- and middle-income Latin American countries in epidemiologic transition. We conducted a survey to investigate the association of HFI with the physical and mental health of 794 women with children living in low-income Quito, Ecuador, neighborhoods. Data were collected on HFI and health indicators including self-reported health (SF-1), mental health (MHI-5), blood pressure, and self-reported mental and physical health complaints. Fasting blood glucose and lipids were measured in a subsample. The multivariate analyses revealed that HFI was associated with poorer self-rated health, low MHI-5 scores, and mental health complaints including stress, depression, and ethnospecific illnesses. It was also associated with chest tightness/discomfort/pain, dental disease, and gastrointestinal illness but not other conditions. The findings suggest that improving food security in low-income households may help reduce the burden of mental distress in women with children. The hypothesized link with diabetes and hypertension may become more apparent as Ecuador moves further along in the epidemiologic transition.

  6. School Inspections in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Explaining Impact and Mechanisms of Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehren, Melanie C. M.; Eddy-Spicer, David; Bangpan, Mukdarut; Reid, Andy

    2017-01-01

    Many efforts to implement and improve school inspections have been modelled on examples from high-income countries, and many studies on the effectiveness of such systems have also only been carried out in these countries. However, local contexts in low- and middle-income countries are very different from those in developed countries, and findings…

  7. Clinical and medication profiles stratified by household income in patients referred for diabetes care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenson Lawrence W

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low income individuals with diabetes are at particularly high risk for poor health outcomes. While specialized diabetes care may help reduce this risk, it is not currently known whether there are significant clinical differences across income groups at the time of referral. The objective of this study is to determine if the clinical profiles and medication use of patients referred for diabetes care differ across income quintiles. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted using a Canadian, urban, Diabetes Education Centre (DEC database. Clinical information on the 4687 patients referred to the DEC from May 2000 – January 2002 was examined. These data were merged with 2001 Canadian census data on income. Potential differences in continuous clinical parameters across income quintiles were examined using regression models. Differences in medication use were examined using Chi square analyses. Results Multivariate regression analysis indicated that income was negatively associated with BMI (p Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that low income patients present to diabetes clinic older, heavier and with a more atherogenic lipid profile than do high income patients. Overall medication use was higher among the lower income group suggesting that differences in clinical profiles are not the result of under-treatment, thus invoking lifestyle factors as potential contributors to these findings.

  8. The distribution of well-being and income within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Browning, Martin

    directly using a survey measure of self-perceived economic well-being. First, we do not find any impact of the incomes of other non-related (‘peer-group’) persons on the financial satisfaction of singles. This is in contrast to other recent findings that suggest that agents consider relative incomes when...

  9. Dutch social housing sector reforms : Exploring the effects on low income households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groen, A.; Pruyt, E.; Boumeester, H.J.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Social rental housing ought to function as safety net for the lower income groups in the housing system. However, the Dutch housing system has a relatively large social housing stock in relation to other housing systems in Europe – larger than would be required for a safety net for lower income

  10. Sustaining Small Scale Farming: Evidence of Poverty and income Disparity among Rural Farming Households in South-South Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday B. Akpan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of poverty is evidenced among rural farm households in developing societies. As a result of persistence poverty among rural farm households, there is a sudden upsurge in agricultural livelihood diversification and rural-urban migration resulting in high rate of urban unemployment. To help generate suitable policy variables to help tackle this rampaging issue in the South- south region of Nigeria, this study specifically analyses poverty and income inequality as well as identified determinants of poverty among rural farm households in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 390 rural farm household heads spread across the rural areas of the State. Combination of sampling methods was employed to sample cross-sectional data from respondents. The study used descriptive tools and regression analysis (Tobit regressions to analyse information collected. The socio-economic analysis reveals that most farming household heads were male; an average of 12.3 years of formal was discovered; social capital formation was poor, while average age stood at 42.5 years. About 33.08 % of male headed households and 22.05 % of female-headed households live below poverty line in the study area. Income inequality index revealed 0.4210 for male headed households and 0.4531 for the female counterpart. The Tobit model estimates revealed that, household head farming experience, years in the social organisation, a level of formal education, farm and non-farm income were negative drivers of rural poverty in the region. Household’s age, household size, structure of land ownership and gender were positive drivers of poverty among rural farming households. It is recommended that sound family welfare packages should be implemented in the rural communities. Also, the social capital formation should be promoted among rural farming households, while adult education policies should be re-visited. The government of the region should also improve educational

  11. Assessment of the Degree of the Divergence and Inequality of Household Income Distribution in Poland in the Years 2005–2013

    OpenAIRE

    Gęstwicki Filip Edmund; Wędrowska Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The increase in income and wealth inequality observed in the last decade of the twentieth century and the first decade of the twenty-first century is the subject of many analyses and discussions. Research shows that major changes in household incomes in Poland took place in the early years of transition (1990–1992), known as a ‘revolution in income’. The article focuses on the assessment of the degree of household income inequality after the Poland’s accession to the European Union. The most ...

  12. Respiratory risks from household air pollution in low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Stephen B; Bruce, Nigel G; Grigg, Jonathan; Hibberd, Patricia L; Kurmi, Om P; Lam, Kin-bong Hubert; Mortimer, Kevin; Asante, Kwaku Poku; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Balmes, John; Bar-Zeev, Naor; Bates, Michael N; Breysse, Patrick N; Buist, Sonia; Chen, Zhengming; Havens, Deborah; Jack, Darby; Jindal, Surinder; Kan, Haidong; Mehta, Sumi; Moschovis, Peter; Naeher, Luke; Patel, Archana; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Pope, Daniel; Rylance, Jamie; Semple, Sean; Martin, William J

    2014-10-01

    A third of the world's population uses solid fuel derived from plant material (biomass) or coal for cooking, heating, or lighting. These fuels are smoky, often used in an open fire or simple stove with incomplete combustion, and result in a large amount of household air pollution when smoke is poorly vented. Air pollution is the biggest environmental cause of death worldwide, with household air pollution accounting for about 3·5-4 million deaths every year. Women and children living in severe poverty have the greatest exposures to household air pollution. In this Commission, we review evidence for the association between household air pollution and respiratory infections, respiratory tract cancers, and chronic lung diseases. Respiratory infections (comprising both upper and lower respiratory tract infections with viruses, bacteria, and mycobacteria) have all been associated with exposure to household air pollution. Respiratory tract cancers, including both nasopharyngeal cancer and lung cancer, are strongly associated with pollution from coal burning and further data are needed about other solid fuels. Chronic lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis in women, are associated with solid fuel use for cooking, and the damaging effects of exposure to household air pollution in early life on lung development are yet to be fully described. We also review appropriate ways to measure exposure to household air pollution, as well as study design issues and potential effective interventions to prevent these disease burdens. Measurement of household air pollution needs individual, rather than fixed in place, monitoring because exposure varies by age, gender, location, and household role. Women and children are particularly susceptible to the toxic effects of pollution and are exposed to the highest concentrations. Interventions should target these high-risk groups and be of sufficient quality to make the air clean. To make clean energy

  13. Age- and Sex-Specific Relationships between Household Income, Education, and Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Ra; Han, Kyungdo; Choi, Jin-Young; Ersek, Jennifer; Liu, Junxiu; Jo, Sun-Jin; Lee, Kang-Sook; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Won-Chul; Park, Yong Gyu; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Park, Yong-Moon

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate the effects of age and sex on the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and the prevalence and control status of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Korean adults. Methods Data came from 16,175 adults (6,951 men and 9,227 women) over the age of 30 who participated in the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. SES was measured by household income or education level. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the prevalence or control status of diabetes were calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses across household income quartiles and education levels. Results The household income-DM and education level-DM relationships were significant in younger age groups for both men and women. The adjusted ORs and 95% CI for diabetes were 1.51 (0.97, 2.34) and 2.28 (1.29, 4.02) for the lowest vs. highest quartiles of household income and education level, respectively, in women younger than 65 years of age (both P for linear trend income in men younger than 65 (P for linear trend status of glycemic control was detected. Conclusions We found age- and sex-specific differences in the relationship of household income and education with the prevalence of DM in Korea. DM preventive care is needed for groups with a low SES, particularly in young or middle-aged populations. PMID:25622031

  14. Does material disadvantage explain the increased risk of adverse health, educational, and behavioural outcomes among children in lone parent households in Britain? A cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Spencer, N.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that material disadvantage explains the increased risk among children and young people of adverse health, educational, and behavioural problems associated with living in lone parent households in Britain\\ud \\ud Study design: Secondary analysis of a cross sectional survey of a representative sample of British households with children and youth\\ud \\ud Main outcomes: Parent reported fair/poor health, longstanding illness and disability, statement of special educ...

  15. Explaining electricity demand and the role of energy and investment literacy on end-use efficiency of Swiss households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasch, J.E.; Filippini, Massimo; Boogen, Nina; Kumar, Nilkanth

    2017-01-01

    This paper estimates the level of transient and persistent efficiency in the use of electricity in Swiss households using the newly developed generalized true random effects model (GTREM). An unbalanced panel dataset of 1994 Swiss households from 2010 to 2014 collected via a household survey is used

  16. 654 doption of irrig tion nd its consequences on household income

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2017-07-03

    . The ... irrigation and distribution of improved .... Education and farmland size had positive impacts on income. Rural associations and rural services could enhance awareness and motivate farmers to use irrigation. Based.

  17. Education, zip code-based annualized household income, and health outcomes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Meenakshi; Mikolaitis, Rachel A; Shakoor, Najia; Fogg, Louis F; Block, Joel A

    2010-06-01

    To determine the association of socioeconomic status [SES; education and zip code-based annual household income (Z-AHI)] and ethnicity with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Data on 211 subjects from a cross-sectional study (LupusPRO) using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 questionnaire to evaluate physical health scores (PCS) and mental health scores were used to obtain education and zip code. The 2000 US Census was used to obtain each zip code's median annual household income. Education and Z-AHI correlated with PCS (education standardized beta = 0.17, 95% CI 0.47, 3.65, p = 0.01, r(2) = 0.03; Z-AHI standardized beta = 0.15, 95% CI 0.57, 8.30, p = 0.02, r(2) = 0.02) on regression analysis. Z-AHI was linked to PCS, independent of education. Ethnicity was associated with PCS through disease activity and SES. SES is associated with HRQOL in SLE. Z-AHI and education are equally predictive surrogates of SES; however, Z-AHI, independent of education, was predictive of HRQOL. Z-AHI has less subject bias and is easily obtainable, therefore its use for future HRQOL studies is suggested.

  18. The impact of successful cataract surgery on quality of life, household income and social status in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Robert P; Kupitz, David G; Fenwick, Eva; Balasubramaniam, Bharath; Ramani, Ramanathan V; Holz, Frank G; Gilbert, Clare E

    2012-01-01

    To explore the hypothesis that sight restoring cataract surgery provided to impoverished rural communities will improve not only visual acuity and vision-related quality of life (VRQoL) but also poverty and social status. Participants were recruited at outreach camps in Tamil Nadu, South India, and underwent free routine manual small incision cataract surgery (SICS) with intra-ocular lens (IOL) implantation, and were followed up one year later. Poverty was measured as monthly household income, being engaged in income generating activities and number of working household members. Social status was measured as rates of re-marriage amongst widowed participants. VRQoL was measured using the IND-VFQ-33. Associations were explored using logistic regression (SPSS 19). Of the 294 participants, mean age ± standard deviation (SD) 60 ± 8 years, 54% men, only 11% remained vision impaired at follow up (67% at baseline; plives. Providing free high quality cataract surgery to marginalized rural communities will not only alleviate avoidable blindness but also - to some extent - poverty in the long run.

  19. INCOME AND ENERGY SOURCES AMONG AGRARIAN HOUSEHOLDS IN NIGERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR LOW CARBON ENERGY DEVELOPMENT IN LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mkpado

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Low-carbon power comes from sources that produce fewer greenhouse gases than do traditional means of power generation. It includes zero carbon power generation sources, such as wind power, solar power, geothermal power and (except for fuel preparation nuclear power, as well as sources with lower-level emissions such as natural and petroleum gas, and also technologies that prevent carbon dioxide from being emitted into the atmosphere, such as carbon capture and storage. This article correlated value of income from different sources to energy sources used by agrarian households in Nigeria and drew implications for low carbon development in Africa. It analysis included use of wind power for irrigation purposes, harnessing solar energy for lightening and possible cost implications. Secondary data were collected from Community Based Monitoring System Nigeria Project. Descriptive statistics, correlation and qualitative analysis were employed. The average annual income of agrarian households from different sources such as crop farming, livestock farming, petty trading, forest exploitation, remittance and labour per day was below the poverty line of $1 per day. The source of energy that had the highest number of significant correlation was electrical energy (low carbon electrical energy. It showed the possibility of pooling resources as farmers group to attract grants or equity financing to build wind mills for irrigation. The study recommended use of energy efficient bulbs to reduce CO2 emissions. This requires creating awareness among rural dwellers of the need to make such change.

  20. Shopping for fruits and vegetables. Food and retail qualities of importance to low-income households at the grocery store.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Caroline B; Sobal, Jeffery; Dollahite, Jamie S

    2010-04-01

    Purchasing fruits and vegetables is an integral part of managing food consumption and dietary quality. This study examined how low-income adults who had primary responsibility for household food purchases considered retail produce decisions. We used a qualitative research approach based on grounded theory and an ecological conceptual framework. Twenty-eight low-income rural, village, and inner city heads of households in upstate New York, USA, were selected by purposive and theoretical sampling and interviewed about fruit and vegetable shopping habits, attitudes toward local food stores, and where and how they would prefer to buy produce. Analyses revealed their concerns were organized around five themes: store venue; internal store environment; product quality; product price; relationships with the stores. An unanticipated finding was the differing social relations that appear to exist between participant consumers, store employees and management, and the store itself as a representation of the larger retail food system. Attitudes toward retail food stores in this study are described as passive or fatalistic indifference, supportive, opportunistic, and confrontational (change agents). These attitudes are related to how shoppers considered retail fruit and vegetable choice, access, and availability. These findings suggest ways to individualize nutrition education and consumer education messages. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The role of HIV/AIDS within a low income urban household setting in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Observations were made about the indoor and outdoor living conditions of the household respondents. Results show that care giving is gendered. First, the traditional gendered utilization of space is constantly being negotiated, in response to the requirements of HIV patients and those of HIV/AIDS orphan children.

  2. Market-oriented reforms and changes in urban household income: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    handed rule by a Marxist junta, recovered considerably following the introduction of market-oriented reforms during the early 1990s. Nonetheless, as the results of a household survey conducted in four small towns of the country show, it seems that ...

  3. Household Income Strategies and Natural Disasters: Dynamic Livelihoods in Rural Nicaragua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den M.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of hurricane Mitch on livelihood strategies of rural households in Nicaragua. Through destruction or distress sales of productive assets, a hurricane or another natural hazard could induce people with relatively remunerative livelihoods to choose more defensive

  4. Fairness of Financial Contribution in Iranian Health System: Trend Analysis of National Household Income and Expenditure, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazaeli, Amir Abbas; Seyedin, Hesam; Vosoogh Moghaddam, Abbas; Delavari, Alireza; Salimzadeh, H; Varmazyar, Hasan; Fazaeli, Ali Akbar

    2015-03-18

    Social systems are dealing with the challenge of achieving fairness in the distribution of financial burden and protecting the risk of financial loss. The purpose of this paper is to present a trend analysis for the indicators related to fairness in healthcare's financial burden in rural and urban population of Iran during the eight years period of 2003 to 2010. We used the information gathered by statistical center of Iran through sampling processes for the household income and expenditures. The indicators of fairness in financial contribution of healthcare were calculated based on the WHO recommended methodology. The indices trend analysis of eight-year period for the rural, urban areas and the country level were computed. This study shows that in Iran the fairness of financial contribution index during the eight-year period has been decreased from 0.841 in 2003 to above 0.827 in 2010 and The percentage of people with catastrophic health expenditures has been increased from 2.3% to above 3.1%. The ratio of total treatment costs to the household overall capacity to pay has been increased from 0.055 to 0.068 and from 0.072 to 0.0818 in urban and rural areas respectively. There is a decline in fairness of financial contribution index during the study period. While, a trend stability of the proportion of households who suffered catastrophic health expenditures was found.

  5. Assessment of the Degree of the Divergence and Inequality of Household Income Distribution in Poland in the Years 2005–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gęstwicki Filip Edmund

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The increase in income and wealth inequality observed in the last decade of the twentieth century and the first decade of the twenty-first century is the subject of many analyses and discussions. Research shows that major changes in household incomes in Poland took place in the early years of transition (1990–1992, known as a ‘revolution in income’. The article focuses on the assessment of the degree of household income inequality after the Poland’s accession to the European Union. The most commonly used measures in income inequality studies are the measures of inequality based on the Lorenz function – a popular Gini coefficient and the Schutz ratio, measures using the concept of entropy, measures based on welfare function, or measures based on income distribution quantiles. The article proposes the possibility of broadening the measuring spectrum of income inequality analysis of the Csiszár’s divergence measures. The main research objective of the article is to assess the divergence in the distribution of household equivalent disposable income in Poland in the years 2005–2013. The data used in the analysis come from the European Survey on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC.

  6. Disability pensioning: the gender divide can be explained by occupation, income, mental distress and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claussen, Bjørgulf; Dalgard, Odd Steffen

    2009-08-01

    We aimed to test the hypothesis that gender divide in disability pensioning is attributable to differences in health, mental distress, occupation, and income. In a health survey between 2000 and 2001, a total of 11,072 (48.7%) of all Oslo inhabitants aged 40, 45, 59, and 60 years participated. Survey data were linked to data from the National Insurance Administration and Statistics Norway for 10,421 of the participants, and 9,195 of those were eligible to receive disability pension at the end of 2000. Occupation, general health, and mental distress were self-reported, while income was obtained from official statistics. Approximately 5% of the eligible sample received a disability pension during the four years following the health survey. The age-adjusted odds of receiving disability pension for women was greater (odds ratio = 1.41) than for men. Self-reported health significantly contributed to the risk of receiving a pension, and seemed to reduce the imbalance in disability rates between the genders, as did adjusting for level of mental distress. Further adjustment for occupation and working conditions reduced the gender divide to an insignificant level, and the inclusion of income level (income three years prior to pensioning) completely eliminated any gender difference in risk of receiving a pension. Gender differences in disability pensioning in Oslo are attributable to women's poorer self-reported health, greater levels of mental distress, lower wages, and more unfavourable working conditions such as job strain and less control over work.

  7. The Effectiveness Of Rental Housing Finance For Low-Income Households In Sombo Rental Flats Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annisa Nur Ramadhani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fullfilment for the needs of housing is a priority that cannot be suspended especially in urban areas of developing country whose population continues to increase because of the rapid urbanization. Indonesia as the developing country still has a fairly high backlog approximately at 7.6 millions unit house in 2014 most of them are low income people. The Government has several plan in striving for the scarcity of housing. One of them is the development of rental flats which have goals for the social housing fulfillment for low income people and increase their housing affordability by lowering the rental rates. The intention is to assist the low income people save their money to buy their own homes. But in facts there are several constraints related to this rental flats finance such as late payment by the residents uncontroled right transfer and the tariff adjusted to the ability of the inhabitants can not cover the cost of the physical building management and maintanance. This study aims to evaluate Sombo rental flat finance for for low income people in which the data are collected through in depth interview observation and documentation. The results of several qualitatively descriptive analysis show that the effectiveness of rental flat financing in the aspect of the purpose and goal to facilitating low income community needs of housing is quiet accomplished. Beside that the organization is also well structured and have the efficient human resources. But Sombo rental flats effectivenes is relatively low in the aspect of profit ability rental financing program and in the enforcement of rules and regulation. The main problem is in the arrears of residents rental payment and the deficiency for maintanance cost so it has to depend on the city government subsidies. The rental finance constraint are caused by several factors which are historic factors residents factors and the vision and commitment of the city government to facilitate housing for low

  8. Geographical Mobility, Income, Life Satisfaction and Family Size Preferences: An Empirical Study on Rural Households in Shaanxi and Henan Provinces in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiangsheng; Yang, Hong

    Employing data from the China rural-urban mobility survey conducted in 2010, this study investigates the influence of family demographic characteristics on the income, life satisfaction, and potential for rural-urban mobility at the rural household level of two provinces of China: Shaanxi and Henan. A larger labor force in a rural household was found to reduce a family's ability or inclination to move to a city. The findings reveal that family size negatively affects the average income per family member and reduces the marginal income of the labor force and that minor children can improve the life satisfaction of family members. We conclude that a larger family size does not translate to more benefits for a rural household. Family size preference is found to be a reflection of parents' concerns about elderly care and is deemed to be unfavorable for urbanization in P. R. China.

  9. Energy Conservation for Low-Income Households: The Evaporative Cooler Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, Richard S.

    1988-01-01

    An econometric analysis, using a research design based on the nonequivalent control group (NECG), assessed the effectiveness of a program offering free evaporative coolers to low-income families owning air conditioners. The NECG controls for serious threats to internal validity, except for self-selection. The program successfully reduced energy…

  10. Acceptability of the integral solar water heater by householders in the low income urban community

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Basson, FA

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available A research and demonstration project on the use and performance of low cost integral solar water heaters in urban low-income dwellings was carried out in 1982/83. The project involved technical and socio-economic components. This report summarises...

  11. The nest egg: tax-time savings innovations for lower-income households

    OpenAIRE

    Jeff Zinsmeyer

    2009-01-01

    Recognizing how hard it is for low-income workers to save, D2D Fund develops, tests, and rolls out asset-building innovations nationwide. One promising approach makes it easier for people to save part of their tax refund.

  12. Food crop production, nutrient availability, and nutrient intakes in Bangladesh: exploring the agriculture-nutrition nexus with the 2010 Household Income and Expenditure Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, John L

    2014-12-01

    Systematic collection of national agricultural data has been neglected in many low- and middle-income countries for the past 20 years. Commonly conducted nationally representative household surveys collect substantial quantities of highly underutilized food crop production data. To demonstrate the potential usefulness of commonly available household survey databases for analyzing the agriculture-nutrition nexus. Using household data from the 2010 Bangladesh Household Income and Expenditure Survey, the role and significance of crop selection, area planted, yield, nutrient production, and the disposition of 34 food crops in affecting the adequacy of farming households' nutrient availability and nutrient intake status are explored. The adequacy of each farming household's available energy, vitamin A, calcium, iron, and zinc and households' apparent intakes and intake adequacies are estimated. Each household's total apparent nutrient intake adequacies are estimated, taking into account the amount of each crop that households consume from their own production, together with food purchased or obtained from other sources. Even though rice contains relatively small amounts of micronutrients, has relatively low nutrient density, and is a relatively poor source of nutrients compared with what other crops can produce on a given tract of land, because so much rice is produced in Bangladesh, it is the source of 90% of the total available energy, 85% of the zinc, 67% of the calcium, and 55% of the iron produced by the agricultural sector. The domination of agriculture and diet by rice is a major constraint to improving nutrition in Bangladesh. Simple examples of how minor changes in the five most common cropping patterns could improve farming households' nutritional status are provided. Household surveys' agricultural modules can provide a useful tool for better understanding national nutrient production realities and possibilities.

  13. Can income redistribution help changing rising inequality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, W.

    2014-01-01

    In this article compares the rise in inequality concerning net household incomes in a number of European countries and Canada, the USA and Australia. Two important factors are used to explain this worrying trend: a growing of unequal market incomes and/or a declining redistribution of income through

  14. Division of Household and Childcare Labor and Relationship Conflict Among Low-Income New Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newkirk, Katie; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen; Sayer, Aline G

    2017-03-01

    We examine the relationships among the division of housework and childcare labor, perceptions of its fairness for two types of family labor (housework and childcare), and parents' relationship conflict across the transition to parenthood. Perceived fairness is examined as a mediator of the relationships between change in the division of housework and childcare and relationship conflict. Working-class, dual-earner couples (n = 108) in the U.S Northeast were interviewed at five time points from the third trimester of pregnancy and across the first year of parenthood. Research questions addressed whether change in the division of housework and childcare across the transition to parenthood predicted mothers' and fathers' relationship conflict, with attention to the mediating role of perceived fairness of these chores. Findings for housework indicated that perceived fairness was related to relationship conflict for mothers and fathers, such that when spouses perceived the change in the division of household tasks to be unfair to either partner, they reported more conflict, However, fairness did not significantly mediate relations between changes in division of household tasks and later relationship conflict. For childcare, fairness mediated relations between mothers' violated expectations concerning the division of childcare and later conflict such that mothers reported less conflict when they perceived the division of childcare as less unfair to themselves; there was no relationship for fathers. Findings highlight the importance of considering both childcare and household tasks independently in our models and suggest that the division of housework and childcare holds different implications for mothers' and fathers' assessments of relationship conflict.

  15. Indoor air quality of low and middle income urban households in Durban, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafta, Nkosana; Barregard, Lars; Jeena, Prakash M; Naidoo, Rajen N

    2017-07-01

    Elevated levels of indoor air pollutants may cause cardiopulmonary disease such as lower respiratory infection, chronic obstructive lung disease and lung cancer, but the association with tuberculosis (TB) is unclear. So far the risk estimates of TB infection or/and disease due to indoor air pollution (IAP) exposure are based on self-reported exposures rather than direct measurements of IAP, and these exposures have not been validated. The aim of this paper was to characterize and develop predictive models for concentrations of three air pollutants (PM 10 , NO 2 and SO 2 ) in homes of children participating in a childhood TB study. Children younger than 15 years living within the eThekwini Municipality in South Africa were recruited for a childhood TB case control study. The homes of these children (n=246) were assessed using a walkthrough checklist, and in 114 of them monitoring of three indoor pollutants was also performed (sampling period: 24h for PM 10 , and 2-3 weeks for NO 2 and SO 2 ). Linear regression models were used to predict PM 10 and NO 2 concentrations from household characteristics, and these models were validated using leave out one cross validation (LOOCV). SO 2 concentrations were not modeled as concentrations were very low. Mean indoor concentrations of PM 10 (n=105) , NO 2 (n=82) and SO 2 (n=82) were 64μg/m 3 (range 6.6-241); 19μg/m 3 (range 4.5-55) and 0.6μg/m 3 (range 0.005-3.4) respectively with the distributions for all three pollutants being skewed to the right. Spearman correlations showed weak positive correlations between the three pollutants. The largest contributors to the PM 10 predictive model were type of housing structure (formal or informal), number of smokers in the household, and type of primary fuel used in the household. The NO 2 predictive model was influenced mostly by the primary fuel type and by distance from the major roadway. The coefficients of determination (R 2 ) for the models were 0.41 for PM 10 and 0.31 for NO 2

  16. Trends in racial/ethnic and income disparities in foods and beverages consumed and purchased from stores among US households with children, 2000-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shu Wen; Poti, Jennifer M; Popkin, Barry M

    2016-09-01

    It is unclear whether racial/ethnic and income differences in foods and beverages obtained from stores contribute to disparities in caloric intake over time. We sought to determine whether there are disparities in calories obtained from store-bought consumer packaged goods (CPGs), whether brands (name brands compared with private labels) matter, and if disparities have changed over time. We used NHANES individual dietary intake data among households with children along with the Nielsen Homescan data on CPG purchases among households with children. With NHANES, we compared survey-weighted energy intakes for 2003-2006 and 2009-2012 from store and nonstore sources by race/ethnicity [non-Hispanic whites (NHWs), non-Hispanic blacks (NHBs), and Hispanic Mexican-Americans) and income [≤185% federal poverty line (FPL), 186-400% FPL, and >400% FPL]. With the Nielsen data, we compared 2000-2013 trends in calories purchased from CPGs (obtained from stores) across brands by race/ethnicity (NHW, NHB, and Hispanic) and income. We conducted random-effect models to derive adjusted trends and differences in calories purchased (708,175 observations from 64,709 unique households) and tested whether trends were heterogeneous by race/ethnicity or income. Store-bought foods and beverages represented the largest component of dietary intake, with greater decreases in energy intakes in nonstore sources for foods and in store sources for beverages. Beverages from stores consistently decreased in all subpopulations. However, in adjusted models, reductions in CPG calories purchased in 2009-2012 were slower for NHB and low-income households than for NHW and high-income households, respectively. The decline in calories from name-brand food purchases was slower among NHB, Hispanic, and lowest-income households. NHW and high-income households had the highest absolute calories purchased in 2000. Across 2 large data sources, we found decreases in intake and purchases of beverages from stores

  17. Trends in racial/ethnic and income disparities in foods and beverages consumed and purchased from stores among US households with children, 2000–201312

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poti, Jennifer M; Popkin, Barry M

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is unclear whether racial/ethnic and income differences in foods and beverages obtained from stores contribute to disparities in caloric intake over time. Objective: We sought to determine whether there are disparities in calories obtained from store-bought consumer packaged goods (CPGs), whether brands (name brands compared with private labels) matter, and if disparities have changed over time. Design: We used NHANES individual dietary intake data among households with children along with the Nielsen Homescan data on CPG purchases among households with children. With NHANES, we compared survey-weighted energy intakes for 2003–2006 and 2009–2012 from store and nonstore sources by race/ethnicity [non-Hispanic whites (NHWs), non-Hispanic blacks (NHBs), and Hispanic Mexican-Americans) and income [≤185% federal poverty line (FPL), 186–400% FPL, and >400% FPL]. With the Nielsen data, we compared 2000–2013 trends in calories purchased from CPGs (obtained from stores) across brands by race/ethnicity (NHW, NHB, and Hispanic) and income. We conducted random-effect models to derive adjusted trends and differences in calories purchased (708,175 observations from 64,709 unique households) and tested whether trends were heterogeneous by race/ethnicity or income. Results: Store-bought foods and beverages represented the largest component of dietary intake, with greater decreases in energy intakes in nonstore sources for foods and in store sources for beverages. Beverages from stores consistently decreased in all subpopulations. However, in adjusted models, reductions in CPG calories purchased in 2009–2012 were slower for NHB and low-income households than for NHW and high-income households, respectively. The decline in calories from name-brand food purchases was slower among NHB, Hispanic, and lowest-income households. NHW and high-income households had the highest absolute calories purchased in 2000. Conclusions: Across 2 large data sources, we found

  18. Voluntary Management of Residential Water Demand in Low and Middle-Low Income Households: Case Study of Soacha (colombia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, R.; Rodriguez, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    Water resources availability is a global concern due to increasing demands, decreasing quality and uncertain spatio-temporal variability (United Nations, 2009). In urban contexts research on efficient water use is a priority to cope with the future vulnerability of water supplies as a result of the impacts of climate change (Bates et al, 2008). Following the proposed methodologies of He and Kua (2013) for implementing programs to promote sustainable energy consumption, we focused on the use of educational strategies to promote a voluntary rationalization of residential water demand. We collaborated with three schools in Soacha (Colombia) where students ranging from 12 to 15 years participated in the project as promoters of educational campaigns inside their families, covering 120 low and middle-low income households. Three intervention or treatment strategies (i.e. e-learning, in-person active learning activities and graphical learning tools) were carried out over a period of 5 months. We analyzed the effects of the treatments strategies in reducing water consumption rates and the dependence of this variable on socio-demographic, economic, environmental, and life quality factors by using personal interviews and self reported water saving technics. The results showed that educational campaigns have a positive effect on reducing consumption in the households. Graphical learning tools accounted for the highest reduction in water consumption. Moreover, the results of the study suggests that socio-economic factors such as type of house, social level, income, and life quality variables significantly affect the variability in water consumption, which is an important fact to consider in similar cases where communities face difficult socio-economic conditions, displacement or high rates of urban growth.

  19. Does material disadvantage explain the increased risk of adverse health, educational, and behavioural outcomes among children in lone parent households in Britain? A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Nick

    2005-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that material disadvantage explains the increased risk among children and young people of adverse health, educational, and behavioural problems associated with living in lone parent households in Britain Secondary analysis of a cross sectional survey of a representative sample of British households with children and youthMain outcomes: Parent reported fair/poor health, longstanding illness and disability, statement of special educational needs, suspension and/or expulsion from school, and in trouble with the police. Data were available on 15 636 (8049 boys and 7587 girls) aged 0-18 years in 8541 households in the third sweep (2001) of the British government's families and children study Lone parenthood was associated with increased risk of health and educational problems, and antisocial behaviour among boys and girls in a logistic regression model adjusting for child's age alone. Adding age of main carer, number of dependent children, and child's rank in the household made little difference to the associations. Addition of housing tenure, household hardship index, and an interaction term for lone parenthood and hardship eliminated the relation with lone parenthood for all outcomes except parent reported health among girls. Similar results were obtained for households headed by lone parents for at least a year. An interaction effect of lone parenthood with hardship for parent reported health and statement of special educational needs was noted. Adverse effects of lone parenthood on health, education, and antisocial behaviour were apparently explained by material disadvantage in this cross sectional sample of British households with children and youth.

  20. Forecasting of Households Consumption Expenditure with Nonparametric Regression: The Case of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydin Noyan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between household income and expenditure is important for understanding how the shape of the economic dynamics of the households. In this study, the relationship between household consumption expenditure and household disposable income were analyzed by Locally Weighted Scatterplot Smoothing Regression which is a nonparametric method using R programming. This study aimed to determine relationship between variables directly, unlike making any assumptions are commonly used as in the conventional parametric regression. According to the findings, effect on expenditure with increasing of income and household size together increased rapidly at first, and then speed of increase decreased. This increase can be explained by having greater compulsory consumption expenditure relatively in small households. Besides, expenditure is relatively higher in middle and high income levels according to low income level. However, the change in expenditure is limited in middle and is the most limited in high income levels when household size changes.

  1. Benefits of genetically modified crops for the poor: household income, nutrition, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaim, Matin

    2010-11-30

    The potential impacts of genetically modified (GM) crops on income, poverty and nutrition in developing countries continue to be the subject of public controversy. Here, a review of the evidence is given. As an example of a first-generation GM technology, the effects of insect-resistant Bt cotton are analysed. Bt cotton has already been adopted by millions of small-scale farmers, in India, China, and South Africa among others. On average, farmers benefit from insecticide savings, higher effective yields and sizeable income gains. Insights from India suggest that Bt cotton is employment generating and poverty reducing. As an example of a second-generation technology, the likely impacts of beta-carotene-rich Golden Rice are analysed from an ex ante perspective. Vitamin A deficiency is a serious nutritional problem, causing multiple adverse health outcomes. Simulations for India show that Golden Rice could reduce related health problems significantly, preventing up to 40,000 child deaths every year. These examples clearly demonstrate that GM crops can contribute to poverty reduction and food security in developing countries. To realise such social benefits on a larger scale requires more public support for research targeted to the poor, as well as more efficient regulatory and technology delivery systems. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Obesity-related behaviors of US- and non-US-born parents and children in low-income households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cespedes, Elizabeth M; McDonald, Julia; Haines, Jess; Bottino, Clement J; Schmidt, Marie Evans; Taveras, Elsie M

    2013-10-01

    To examine differences in obesity-related behaviors by parental US-born status among low-income, minority families participating in Healthy Habits, Happy Homes, an intervention trial to improve household routines for childhood obesity prevention. Evidence suggests lower obesity risk among adult immigrants, but research is inconclusive regarding the influence of having a non-US-born parent on childhood obesity. We sampled 57 US-born and 64 non-US-born families of children aged 2 to 5.9 years living in the Boston area. At baseline, parents reported their own screen time, physical activity, diet, and sleep as well as their children's behaviors. We used linear and logistic regression to examine the association of parental US-born status with obesity-related behaviors. Mean (SD) body mass index z score was 0.94 (1.16), and it did not differ between the groups. After adjusting for parental education and child race/ethnicity, children of non-US-born (vs US-born) parents had later bedtimes (0.81 hours later; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-1.25) and wake-up times (0.56 hours later; 95% CI, 0.16-0.95) and engaged in less active play (0.15 fewer hr/d; 95% CI, -0.28 to -0.01). Non-US-born (vs US-born) parents had less screen exposure. In this cross-section of low-income, urban families, having a parent born outside the United States was associated with a profile of risk and protective behavior; adjustment for education and race/ethnicity removed the protective associations of parental nativity with child behavior. Obesity-related differences in behaviors and home environments should be considered when designing interventions targeting low-income communities with a high proportion of non-US-born participants.

  3. Household food wastage by income level: A case study of five areas in the city of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramukhwatho, FR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality (CTMM). The main goal of the study was to assess food waste by income level and the reasons for wasting food. Household food wastage was assessed using questionnaires during face-to-face interviews. A total of 210...

  4. Age- and sex-specific relationships between household income, education, and diabetes mellitus in Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Ra; Han, Kyungdo; Choi, Jin-Young; Ersek, Jennifer; Liu, Junxiu; Jo, Sun-Jin; Lee, Kang-Sook; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Won-Chul; Park, Yong Gyu; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Park, Yong-Moon

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of age and sex on the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and the prevalence and control status of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Korean adults. Data came from 16,175 adults (6,951 men and 9,227 women) over the age of 30 who participated in the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. SES was measured by household income or education level. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the prevalence or control status of diabetes were calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses across household income quartiles and education levels. The household income-DM and education level-DM relationships were significant in younger age groups for both men and women. The adjusted ORs and 95% CI for diabetes were 1.51 (0.97, 2.34) and 2.28 (1.29, 4.02) for the lowest vs. highest quartiles of household income and education level, respectively, in women younger than 65 years of age (both P for linear trend education with the prevalence of DM in Korea. DM preventive care is needed for groups with a low SES, particularly in young or middle-aged populations.

  5. Dual Role of Women and Its Influence on Farmers' Household Income and Consumption Pattern: Study of Informal Women Workers in the District Mandalle, Pangkep, South Sulawesi Province

    OpenAIRE

    Ida Rosada; Nurliani

    2016-01-01

    Today, the number of women who seek additional income to help her husband is increasing. They do that in order to be able to express themselves in the midst of the family and society. Nonetheless, housewives are in charge of managing family’s income and prepare food for the family. The objective of this research is 1) to analyze the effect of the dual role of women to household income and 2) to analyze the effect of the dual role to consumption patterns. The study used a qualitative approach,...

  6. Household food insecurity is a risk factor for iron-deficiency anaemia in a multi-ethnic, low-income sample of infants and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyong; Kersey, Margaret; Geppert, Joni; Story, Mary; Cutts, Diana; Himes, John H

    2009-11-01

    The present study examines the relationships of household food security status with Fe deficiency (ID) and Fe-deficiency anaemia (IDA) among children less than 3 years of age, and associated factors that contribute to ID and IDA. Cross-sectional study and chart review. The US Food Security Survey Module was administered to adult caregivers as part of the Children's Sentinel Nutrition Assessment Project (C-SNAP). Haematological data were obtained from medical records. A large metropolitan medical centre in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. A multi-ethnic sample of 2853 low-income children aged <36 months who received care at the medical centre. Among the caregivers, 23.3 % reported low household food security and 11.6 % reported very low household food security (VLFS). After controlling for background factors, children from households with VLFS were almost twice as likely to have IDA than were children from households with high or marginal food security (OR = 1.98, 95 % CI 1.11, 3.53); the corresponding associations for ID were not statistically significant. The prevalence of IDA in early childhood is significantly larger in low-income infants and toddlers living in VLFS households. Asian, Hispanic and African-American children have elevated prevalences of ID and IDA. Breast-feeding may be associated with elevated ID and IDA, while participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) may be protective for ID.

  7. What are the economic consequences for households of illness and of paying for health care in low- and middle-income country contexts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Diane; Thiede, Michael; Dahlgren, Göran; Whitehead, Margaret

    2006-02-01

    This paper presents the findings of a critical review of studies carried out in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) focusing on the economic consequences for households of illness and health care use. These include household level impacts of direct costs (medical treatment and related financial costs), indirect costs (productive time losses resulting from illness) and subsequent household responses. It highlights that health care financing strategies that place considerable emphasis on out-of-pocket payments can impoverish households. There is growing evidence of households being pushed into poverty or forced into deeper poverty when faced with substantial medical expenses, particularly when combined with a loss of household income due to ill-health. Health sector reforms in LMICs since the late 1980s have particularly focused on promoting user fees for public sector health services and increasing the role of the private for-profit sector in health care provision. This has increasingly placed the burden of paying for health care on individuals experiencing poor health. This trend seems to continue even though some countries and international organisations are considering a shift away from their previous pro-user fee agenda. Research into alternative health care financing strategies and related mechanisms for coping with the direct and indirect costs of illness is urgently required to inform the development of appropriate social policies to improve access to essential health services and break the vicious cycle between illness and poverty.

  8. Impact of average household income and damage exposure on post-earthquake distress and functioning: A community study following the February 2011 Christchurch earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorahy, Martin J; Rowlands, Amy; Renouf, Charlotte; Hanna, Donncha; Britt, Eileen; Carter, Janet D

    2015-08-01

    Post-traumatic stress, depression and anxiety symptoms are common outcomes following earthquakes, and may persist for months and years. This study systematically examined the impact of neighbourhood damage exposure and average household income on psychological distress and functioning in 600 residents of Christchurch, New Zealand, 4-6 months after the fatal February, 2011 earthquake. Participants were from highly affected and relatively unaffected suburbs in low, medium and high average household income areas. The assessment battery included the Acute Stress Disorder Scale, the depression module of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), along with single item measures of substance use, earthquake damage and impact, and disruptions in daily life and relationship functioning. Controlling for age, gender and social isolation, participants from low income areas were more likely to meet diagnostic cut-offs for depression and anxiety, and have more severe anxiety symptoms. Higher probabilities of acute stress, depression and anxiety diagnoses were evident in affected versus unaffected areas, and those in affected areas had more severe acute stress, depression and anxiety symptoms. An interaction between income and earthquake effect was found for depression, with those from the low and medium income affected suburbs more depressed. Those from low income areas were more likely, post-earthquake, to start psychiatric medication and increase smoking. There was a uniform increase in alcohol use across participants. Those from the low income affected suburb had greater general and relationship disruption post-quake. Average household income and damage exposure made unique contributions to earthquake-related distress and dysfunction. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Improved stove interventions to reduce household air pollution in low and middle income countries: a descriptive systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Emma; Wickramasinghe, Kremlin; Mendis, Shanthi; Roberts, Nia; Foster, Charlie

    2015-07-14

    Household air pollution (HAP) resulting from the use of solid fuels presents a major public health hazard. Improved stoves have been offered as a potential tool to reduce exposure to HAP and improve health outcomes. Systematic information on stove interventions is limited. We conducted a systematic review of the current evidence of improved stove interventions aimed at reducing HAP in real life settings. An extensive search of ten databases commenced in April 2014. In addition, we searched clinical trial registers and websites for unpublished studies and grey literature. Studies were included if they reported on an improved stove intervention aimed at reducing HAP resulting from solid fuel use in a low or middle-income country. The review identified 5,243 records. Of these, 258 abstracts and 57 full texts were reviewed and 36 studies identified which met the inclusion criteria. When well-designed, implemented and monitored, stove interventions can have positive effects. However, the impacts are unlikely to reduce pollutant levels to World Health Organization recommended levels. Additionally, many participants in the included studies continued to use traditional stoves either instead of, or in additional to, new improved options. Current evidence suggests improved stove interventions can reduce exposure to HAP resulting from solid fuel smoke. Studies with longer follow-up periods are required to assess if pollutant reductions reported in the current literature are sustained over time. Adoption of new technologies is challenging and interventions must be tailored to the needs and preferences of the households of interest. Future studies require greater process evaluation to improve knowledge of implementation barriers and facilitators. The review was registered on Prospero (registration number CRD42014009796).

  10. Higher nutritional quality at no additional cost among low-income households: insights from food purchases of "positive deviants".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Lucile; Dubois, Christophe; Gaubard, Malu S; Maidon, Audrey; Lesturgeon, Audrey; Gaigi, Hind; Darmon, Nicole

    2015-07-01

    It is unknown whether diet quality is correlated with actual food expenditure. According to the positive deviance theory, the study of actual food expenditure by people with limited economic resources could help identify beneficial food-purchasing behavior. The aims were to investigate the relation between actual expenditure on food and nutritional quality and to identify "positive deviants" among low-income households. Individuals in deprived social situations (n = 91) were recruited as part of the "Opticourses" nutrition intervention conducted in 2012-2014 in poor districts of Marseille, France. Opticourses participants collected food-purchase receipts for their household over a 1-mo period. "Actual diet costs" and "estimated diet costs" were calculated per 2000 kcal of food purchases by using actual expenditures and a standard food price database of food consumed by a representative sample of French adults, respectively. Mean adequacy ratio (MAR), mean excess ratio (MER), and energy density (ED) were used as nutritional quality indicators. "Positive deviants" were defined as having a higher MAR and a lower MER than the respective median values. Opticourses participants selected less-expensive food options than the average French population, both within a food group and for a given food item. Higher diet costs were associated with higher nutritional quality (higher MAR, lower ED), regardless of whether costs were calculated from actual expenditure or on the basis of standard food prices. Twenty-one positive deviants were identified. They made significantly healthier purchases than did other participants (MAR: +13%; MER: -90%. ED: -22%) at higher estimated diet costs. Yet, they did not spend more on food (having the same actual diet costs), which showed that they purchased food with a higher nutritional quality for their price. In this low-income population, actual diet cost was positively correlated with nutritional quality, yet the results showed that higher

  11. Determinants of fuels stacking behaviour among households in Bauchi Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ado Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption is an important determinant of the socio economic status of citizens across the globe especially the consumption of modern energy. According to the energy ladder hypothesis households move along the energy ladder as their income increases. At the lower rung of the ladder are the low income and usually uneducated households who mainly consume traditional fuels while the middle class and those at upper echelon of the society largely consume transitional and modern fuels. However the prevalence of energy stacking behaviour where households adopt more than one fuel type has been observed even among the middle and upper income families. The question is why is the observed energy consumption pattern in violation of the energy ladder hypothesis? The paper assesses the combined influence of four variables which include income level of households, education level/exposure of households, households’ size and modern fuels supply security on fuels stacking behaviour of households. Multivariate analysis was conducted to assess the combined influence of the IVs on the DV. The model has an R2 value of .252 meaning that the model explains about 25% variation in the DV. Individually the variables that make significant and unique contribution to the model are educational level of households, income level of households and family size of households. We therefore recommend improved macroeconomic management to improve households’ income, improved educational system and increased supply and diffusion of modern fuel as a way of reducing the prevalence of energy stacking behaviour of households.

  12. Explaining Differences in Subjective Well-Being Across 33 Nations Using Multilevel Models: Universal Personality, Cultural Relativity, and National Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cecilia; Cheung, Mike W-L; Montasem, Alex

    2016-02-01

    This multinational study simultaneously tested three prominent hypotheses--universal disposition, cultural relativity, and livability--that explained differences in subjective well-being across nations. We performed multilevel structural equation modeling to examine the hypothesized relationships at both individual and cultural levels in 33 nations. Participants were 6,753 university students (2,215 men; 4,403 women; 135 did not specify), and the average age of the entire sample was 20.97 years (SD = 2.39). Both individual- and cultural-level analyses supported the universal disposition and cultural relativity hypotheses by revealing significant associations of subjective well-being with Extraversion, Neuroticism, and independent self-construal. In addition, interdependent self-construal was positively related to life satisfaction at the individual level only, whereas aggregated negative affect was positively linked with aggregate levels of Extraversion and interdependent self-construal at the cultural level only. Consistent with the livability hypothesis, gross national income (GNI) was related to aggregate levels of negative affect and life satisfaction. There was also a quadratic relationship between GNI and aggregated positive affect. Our findings reveal that universal disposition, cultural self-construal, and national income can elucidate differences in subjective well-being, but the multilevel analyses advance the literature by yielding new findings that cannot be identified in studies using individual-level analyses alone. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Explaining the Growth in US Health Care Spending Using State-Level Variation in Income, Insurance, and Provider Market Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Bradley; Trish, Erin

    2015-01-01

    The slowed growth in national health care spending over the past decade has led analysts to question the extent to which this recent slowdown can be explained by predictable factors such as the Great Recession or must be driven by some unpredictable structural change in the health care sector. To help address this question, we first estimate a regression model for state personal health care spending for 1991-2009, with an emphasis on the explanatory power of income, insurance, and provider market characteristics. We then use the results from this simple predictive model to produce state-level projections of health care spending for 2010-2013 to subsequently compare those average projected state values with actual national spending for 2010-2013, finding that at least 70% of the recent slowdown in health care spending can likely be explained by long-standing patterns. We also use the results from this predictive model to both examine the Great Recession's likely reduction in health care spending and project the Affordable Care Act's insurance expansion's likely increase in health care spending. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Household Disposable Income and Long-Term Survival After Cardiac Surgery: A Swedish Nationwide Cohort Study in 100,534 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalén, Magnus; Ivert, Torbjörn; Holzmann, Martin J; Sartipy, Ulrik

    2015-10-27

    Lower socioeconomic groups face higher mortality risk, possibly due to a higher burden of cardiovascular risk factors. The independent association between income and survival following cardiac surgery is not known. This study sought to investigate the association between household disposable income and long-term mortality after cardiac surgery. In a Swedish nationwide population-based analysis, we included all patients who underwent cardiac surgery between 1999 and 2012 using a large national registry. Information regarding income, education, marital status, medical history, and cardiovascular risk factors was obtained from data managed by the National Board of Health and Welfare and Statistics Sweden. The adjusted risk for all-cause mortality was estimated using Cox regression by quintiles of household disposable income. We included 100,534 patients and, during a mean follow-up of 7.3 years, 29,176 (29%) patients died. There was a stepwise inverse association between household disposable income and all-cause mortality: the adjusted hazard ratio was 0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.89 to 0.96), 0.87 (95% CI: 0.84 to 0.91), 0.78 (95% CI: 0.75 to 0.82), and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.67 to 0.75), for the second, third, fourth, and fifth income quintiles, respectively, compared to the first (and lowest) income quintile. The inverse association between income and mortality was consistent through the study period and in selected subgroups, although it was slightly attenuated in older patients. We found a strong inverse association between income and mortality following cardiac surgery in Sweden that was independent of other socioeconomic status variables, comorbidities, and cardiovascular risk profile. Ways to better implement secondary prevention measures should be explored in low-income patient groups. (HeAlth-data Register sTudies of Risk and Outcomes in Cardiac Surgery [HARTROCS]; NCT02276950). Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by

  15. Household preferences for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in four European high-income countries: Does health information matter? A mixed-methods study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Alina; Fischer, Helen; Amelung, Dorothee; Litvine, Dorian; Aall, Carlo; Andersson, Camilla; Baltruszewicz, Marta; Barbier, Carine; Bruyère, Sébastien; Bénévise, Françoise; Dubois, Ghislain; Louis, Valérie R; Nilsson, Maria; Richardsen Moberg, Karen; Sköld, Bore; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2017-08-01

    It is now universally acknowledged that climate change constitutes a major threat to human health. At the same time, some of the measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, so-called climate change mitigation measures, have significant health co-benefits (e.g., walking or cycling more; eating less meat). The goal of limiting global warming to 1,5° Celsius set by the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Paris in 2015 can only be reached if all stakeholders, including households, take actions to mitigate climate change. Results on whether framing mitigation measures in terms of their health co-benefits increases the likelihood of their implementation are inconsistent. The present study protocol describes the transdisciplinary project HOPE (HOuseholds' Preferences for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in four European high-income countries) that investigates the role of health co-benefits in households' decision making on climate change mitigation measures in urban households in France, Germany, Norway and Sweden. HOPE employs a mixed-methods approach combining status-quo carbon footprint assessments, simulations of the reduction of households' carbon footprints, and qualitative in-depth interviews with a subgroup of households. Furthermore, a policy analysis of current household oriented climate policies is conducted. In the simulation of the reduction of households' carbon footprints, half of the households are provided with information on health co-benefits of climate change mitigation measures, the other half is not. Households' willingness to implement the measures is assessed and compared in between-group analyses of variance. This is one of the first comprehensive mixed-methods approaches to investigate which mitigation measures households are most willing to implement in order to reach the 1,5° target set by the Paris Agreement, and whether health co-benefits can serve as a motivator for households to

  16. 78 FR 28597 - State Median Income Estimates for a Four-Person Household: Notice of the Federal Fiscal Year (FFY...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... median income estimates, including the definition of income and the derivation of medians see http://www.census.gov/acs/www/Downloads/data_documentation/SubjectDefinitions/2011_ACSSubjectDefinitions.pdf under... that choose to base their income eligibility criteria on these state median income (SMI) estimates may...

  17. A comparative effectiveness study of two culturally competent models of diabetes self-management programming for Latinos from low-income households

    OpenAIRE

    Page-Reeves, Janet; Regino, Lidia; Murray-Krezan, Cristina; Bleecker, Molly; Erhardt, Erik; Burge, Mark; Bearer, Elaine; Mishra, Shiraz

    2017-01-01

    Background Diabetes risk is extremely high for Latinos from low-income households. Health guidelines recommend that individuals learn strategies to self-manage their diabetes, but getting people to adopt required lifestyle changes is challenging and many people are not able to prevent their pre-diabetes from escalating or effectively control their diabetes. Systematic reviews show that culturally competent self-management programs can significantly improve diabetes outcomes and different mode...

  18. Burden of chronic illness and associated disabilities in Bangladesh: Evidence from the Household Income and Expenditure Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marufa Sultana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution of chronic illness and associated disability, out-of-pocket payment (OOPP, and other related factors using survey data from Bangladesh. Methods: This study analyzed Bangladesh Household Income and Expenditure Survey data that include socio-economic and demographic data, such as consumption, expenditures, and assets, along with information regarding chronic illness and disability. Multiple linear regression models were used to identify factors significantly associated with OOPP. Furthermore, a binary Logistic regression model was employed to assess the association of the explanatory variables with disability status. Results: A higher prevalence of chronic illness was found for those with chronic gastritis (18.70%, and 41.92% of the population had at least one side disability. The average OOPP healthcare expenditure for chronic illness was estimated to be US$7.59. Higher OOPP was found among the upper 2 wealth quintiles. Overall OOPP health expenditure was significantly higher among individuals with an associated disability (P < 0.001. The likelihood of having an associated disability was higher among those individuals with a lower education level (OR = 2.36, 95% CI: 1.95–4.06, those who not earning an income (OR = 2.85, 95% CI: 2.53–3.21, those who did not seek care (OR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.57–1.90, those who sought care from a pharmacy (OR = 8.91, 95% CI: 7.38–10.74, and those in the lowest wealth quintile (OR = 7.21, 95% CI: 6.41–8.12. Conclusions: The high OOPP illustrates the necessity of financial risk protection for the population at low socio-economic status. Therefore, we recommend that the government strengthen the healthcare system with appropriate support directed to the rural and elderly populations. Keywords: Chronic illness, Disability, Out-of-pocket payments, Burden, Bangladesh

  19. The effects of household income distribution on stroke prevalence and its risk factors of high blood pressure and smoking: a cross-sectional study in Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Yelena; Lemstra, Mark; Rogers, Marla

    2017-03-01

    Stroke is a major chronic disease and a common cause of adult disability and mortality. Although there are many known risk factors for stroke, lower income is not one that is often discussed. To determine the unadjusted and adjusted association of income distribution on the prevalence of stroke in Saskatchewan, Canada. Information was collected from the Canadian Community Health Survey conducted by Statistics Canada for 2000-2008. In total, 178 variables were analysed for their association with stroke. Prior to statistical adjustment, stroke was seven times more common for lower income residents than higher income residents. After statistical adjustment, only four covariates were independently associated with stroke prevalence, including having high blood pressure (odds ratio (OR) = 2.62; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.12-3.24), having a household income below CAD$30,000 per year (OR = 2.49; 95% CI = 1.88-3.29), being a daily smoker (OR = 1.36; 95% CI = 1.16-1.58) and being physically inactive (OR = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.13-1.43). After statistical adjustment, there were five covariates independently associated with high blood pressure prevalence, including having a household income below CAD$30,000 per year (OR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.41-1.63). After statistical adjustment, there were five covariates independently associated with daily smoking prevalence, including having a household income below CAD$30,000 per year (OR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.25-1.33). Knowledge of disparities in the prevalence, severity, disability and mortality of stroke is critically important to medical and public health professionals. Our study found that income distribution was strongly associated with stroke, its main disease intermediary - high blood pressure - and its main risk factor - smoking. As such, income is an important variable worthy of public debate as a modifiable risk factor for stroke.

  20. Association between forgone care and household income among the elderly in five Western European countries – analyses based on survey data from the SHARE-study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielck, Andreas; Kiess, Raphael; Knesebeck, Olaf von dem; Stirbu, Irina; Kunst, Anton E

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies on the association between access to health care and household income have rarely included an assessment of 'forgone care', but this indicator could add to our understanding of the inverse care law. We hypothesize that reporting forgone care is more prevalent in low income groups. Methods The study is based on the 'Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE)', focusing on the non-institutionalized population aged 50 years or older. Data are included from France, Germany, Greece, Italy and Sweden. The dependent variable is assessed by the following question: During the last twelve months, did you forgo any types of care because of the costs you would have to pay, or because this care was not available or not easily accessible? The main independent variable is household income, adjusted for household size and split into quintiles, calculating the quintile limits for each country separately. Information on age, sex, self assessed health and chronic disease is included as well. Logistic regression models were used for the multivariate analyses. Results The overall level of forgone care differs considerably between the five countries (e.g. about 10 percent in Greece and 6 percent in Sweden). Low income groups report forgone care more often than high income groups. This association can also be found in analyses restricted to the subsample of persons with chronic disease. Associations between forgone care and income are particularly strong in Germany and Greece. Taking the example of Germany, forgone care in the lowest income quintile is 1.98 times (95% CI: 1.08–3.63) as high as in the highest income quintile. Conclusion Forgone care should be reduced even if it is not justified by an 'objective' need for health care, as it could be an independent stressor in its own right, and as patient satisfaction is a strong predictor of compliance. These efforts should focus on population groups with particularly high prevalence of forgone care

  1. A longitudinal assessment of work situation, sick leave, and household income of mothers and fathers of children with cancer in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovén, Emma; von Essen, Louise; Norberg, Annika Lindahl

    2013-08-01

    The diagnosis of childhood cancer often results in an altered life situation for the parents, characterized by difficulties regarding work, family and household demands. Previous research shows that parents' work situation and income are impacted, yet, few studies have explored the issue from a longitudinal perspective. This study sought to increase the knowledge about the socio-economic conditions of parents of children with cancer in Sweden by means of a longitudinal assessment of work situation, sick leave, and household income. The sample consisted of mothers (n = 139) and fathers (n = 138) of children with cancer recruited from 2002 to 2004. Data was collected by telephone interviews at six time points, ranging from the time of diagnosis to one year after the end of treatment. Findings showed that parents' work situation was most evidently impacted during the child's treatment, when the greatest proportions of non-working and sick-listed parents were found. Compared with the time of diagnosis, fewer mothers worked up to three months after the end of treatment, and more mothers were on sick leave one year after the end of treatment. Although the extent of sick leave among fathers did not differ compared with the time of diagnosis, fewer fathers worked one year after the end of treatment. Household income was significantly reduced during the child's treatment and months thereafter, while income was at an equal level as before the diagnosis for most families one year after the end of treatment. The results offer a unique understanding of how mothers' and fathers' work situation and income are impacted in the short- and long-term, and give guidance on how to improve the comprehensive support given to parents of children with cancer. Socio-economical issues should be emphasized as these may provide targets for policy interventions aiming to reduce parental strain related to work and finances.

  2. Explaining household socio-economic related child health inequalities using multiple methods in three diverse settings in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doherty Tanya M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite free healthcare to pregnant women and children under the age of six, access to healthcare has failed to secure better child health outcomes amongst all children of the country. There is growing evidence of socioeconomic gradient on child health outcomes Methods The objectives of this study were to measure inequalities in child mortality, HIV transmission and vaccination coverage within a cohort of infants in South Africa. We also used the decomposition technique to identify the factors that contribute to the inequalities in these three child health outcomes. We used data from a prospective cohort study of mother-child pairs in three sites in South African. A relative index of household socio-economic status was developed using principal component analysis. This paper uses the concentration index to summarise inequalities in child mortality, HIV transmission and vaccination coverage. Results We observed disparities in the availability of infrastructure between least poor and most poor families, and inequalities in all measured child health outcomes. Overall, 75 (8.5% infants died between birth and 36 weeks. Infant mortality and HIV transmission was higher among the poorest families within the sample. Immunisation coverage was higher among the least poor. The inequalities were mainly due to the area of residence and socio-economic position. Conclusion This study provides evidence that socio-economic inequalities are highly prevalent within the relatively poor black population. Poor socio-economic position exposes infants to ill health. In addition, the use of immunisation services was lower in the poor households. These inequalities need to be explicitly addressed in future programme planning to improve child health for all South Africans.

  3. Comparison of two cash transfer strategies to prevent catastrophic costs for poor tuberculosis-affected households in low- and middle-income countries: An economic modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudgard, William E; Evans, Carlton A; Sweeney, Sedona; Wingfield, Tom; Lönnroth, Knut; Barreira, Draurio; Boccia, Delia

    2017-11-01

    Illness-related costs for patients with tuberculosis (TB) ≥20% of pre-illness annual household income predict adverse treatment outcomes and have been termed "catastrophic." Social protection initiatives, including cash transfers, are endorsed to help prevent catastrophic costs. With this aim, cash transfers may either be provided to defray TB-related costs of households with a confirmed TB diagnosis (termed a "TB-specific" approach); or to increase income of households with high TB risk to strengthen their economic resilience (termed a "TB-sensitive" approach). The impact of cash transfers provided with each of these approaches might vary. We undertook an economic modelling study from the patient perspective to compare the potential of these 2 cash transfer approaches to prevent catastrophic costs. Model inputs for 7 low- and middle-income countries (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Ghana, Mexico, Tanzania, and Yemen) were retrieved by literature review and included countries' mean patient TB-related costs, mean household income, mean cash transfers, and estimated TB-specific and TB-sensitive target populations. Analyses were completed for drug-susceptible (DS) TB-related costs in all 7 out of 7 countries, and additionally for drug-resistant (DR) TB-related costs in 1 of the 7 countries with available data. All cost data were reported in 2013 international dollars ($). The target population for TB-specific cash transfers was poor households with a confirmed TB diagnosis, and for TB-sensitive cash transfers was poor households already targeted by countries' established poverty-reduction cash transfer programme. Cash transfers offered in countries, unrelated to TB, ranged from $217 to $1,091/year/household. Before cash transfers, DS TB-related costs were catastrophic in 6 out of 7 countries. If cash transfers were provided with a TB-specific approach, alone they would be insufficient to prevent DS TB catastrophic costs in 4 out of 6 countries, and when increased enough

  4. Energy Efficiency Financing for Low- and Moderate-Income Households: Current State of the Market, Issues, and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-08-01

    Although the need is great, many LMI households may not be able to afford efficiency improvements or may be inhibited from adopting efficiency for other reasons. Decision-makers across the country are currently exploring the challenges and potential solutions to ramping up adoption of efficiency in LMI households, including the use of financing.

  5. Explaining the differences in household food waste collection and treatment provisions between local authorities in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bees, A D; Williams, I D

    2017-12-01

    Separate household food waste collection for anaerobic digestion is one method used in the sustainable management of biodegradable municipal solid waste (MSW). Recycling of food waste contributes to the UK's reuse, recycling and composting targets and can help local authorities boost plateauing rates whilst encouraging landfill diversion. This study explored the reasons for differences in the provision of food waste collections, using two comparable local authorities, one with a collection in Wales (Cardiff), and the other absent of such service in England (Southampton). A PESTLE analysis investigated the political, economic, social, technological, legal and environmental impacts of separate food waste collections. The greenhouse gas impacts of the collection and treatment systems of MSW in both cities were estimated for 2012/13. Results showed significant policy and legislative differences between devolved governments, that separate food waste collections can save local authorities significant sums of money and substantially reduce greenhouse gas impacts. A survey of one hundred respondents in each city aimed to understand attitudes and behaviours towards recycling, food waste segregation, cooking and purchasing habits. The number of frequent recyclers and levels of satisfaction were higher in the authority which provided a separate food waste collection. In the area which lacked a separate collection service, over three-quarters of respondents would participate in such a scheme if it were available. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of two cash transfer strategies to prevent catastrophic costs for poor tuberculosis-affected households in low- and middle-income countries: An economic modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnroth, Knut; Boccia, Delia

    2017-01-01

    Background Illness-related costs for patients with tuberculosis (TB) ≥20% of pre-illness annual household income predict adverse treatment outcomes and have been termed “catastrophic.” Social protection initiatives, including cash transfers, are endorsed to help prevent catastrophic costs. With this aim, cash transfers may either be provided to defray TB-related costs of households with a confirmed TB diagnosis (termed a “TB-specific” approach); or to increase income of households with high TB risk to strengthen their economic resilience (termed a “TB-sensitive” approach). The impact of cash transfers provided with each of these approaches might vary. We undertook an economic modelling study from the patient perspective to compare the potential of these 2 cash transfer approaches to prevent catastrophic costs. Methods and findings Model inputs for 7 low- and middle-income countries (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Ghana, Mexico, Tanzania, and Yemen) were retrieved by literature review and included countries' mean patient TB-related costs, mean household income, mean cash transfers, and estimated TB-specific and TB-sensitive target populations. Analyses were completed for drug-susceptible (DS) TB-related costs in all 7 out of 7 countries, and additionally for drug-resistant (DR) TB-related costs in 1 of the 7 countries with available data. All cost data were reported in 2013 international dollars ($). The target population for TB-specific cash transfers was poor households with a confirmed TB diagnosis, and for TB-sensitive cash transfers was poor households already targeted by countries’ established poverty-reduction cash transfer programme. Cash transfers offered in countries, unrelated to TB, ranged from $217 to $1,091/year/household. Before cash transfers, DS TB-related costs were catastrophic in 6 out of 7 countries. If cash transfers were provided with a TB-specific approach, alone they would be insufficient to prevent DS TB catastrophic costs in 4

  7. Type and extent of trans-disciplinary co-operation to improve food security, health and household environment in low and middle income countries: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Gaihre

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although linkages have been found between agricultural interventions and nutritional health, and the development of clean fuels and improved solid fuel stoves in reducing household air pollution and adverse health effects, the extent of the potential of combined household interventions to improve health, nutrition and the environment has not been investigated. A systematic review was conducted to identify the extent and type of community-based agricultural and household interventions aimed at improving food security, health and the household environment in low and middle income countries. Methods A systematic search of Ovid MEDLINE, PUBMED, EMBASE and SCOPUS databases was performed. Key search words were generated reflecting the “participants, interventions, comparators, outcomes and study design” approach and a comprehensive search strategy was developed following “Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses” recommendations. Any community-based agricultural and/or household interventions were eligible for inclusion if the focus was to improve at least one of the outcome measures of interest. All relevant study designs employing any of these interventions (alone/in combination were included if conducted in Low and middle income countries. Review articles, and clinical and occupational studies were excluded. Results A total of 123 studies were included and grouped into four intervention domains; agricultural (n = 27, air quality (n = 34, water quality (n = 32, and nutritional (n = 30. Most studies were conducted in Asia (39.2 % or Africa (34.6 % with the remaining 26.1 % in Latin America. Very few studies (n = 11 combined interventions across more than one domain. The majority of agricultural and nutritional studies were conducted in Africa and Asia, whereas the majority of interventions to improve household air quality were conducted in Latin America. Conclusions It is

  8. Type and extent of trans-disciplinary co-operation to improve food security, health and household environment in low and middle income countries: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaihre, Santosh; Kyle, Janet; Semple, Sean; Smith, Jo; Subedi, Madhu; Marais, Debbi

    2016-10-18

    Although linkages have been found between agricultural interventions and nutritional health, and the development of clean fuels and improved solid fuel stoves in reducing household air pollution and adverse health effects, the extent of the potential of combined household interventions to improve health, nutrition and the environment has not been investigated. A systematic review was conducted to identify the extent and type of community-based agricultural and household interventions aimed at improving food security, health and the household environment in low and middle income countries. A systematic search of Ovid MEDLINE, PUBMED, EMBASE and SCOPUS databases was performed. Key search words were generated reflecting the "participants, interventions, comparators, outcomes and study design" approach and a comprehensive search strategy was developed following "Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses" recommendations. Any community-based agricultural and/or household interventions were eligible for inclusion if the focus was to improve at least one of the outcome measures of interest. All relevant study designs employing any of these interventions (alone/in combination) were included if conducted in Low and middle income countries. Review articles, and clinical and occupational studies were excluded. A total of 123 studies were included and grouped into four intervention domains; agricultural (n = 27), air quality (n = 34), water quality (n = 32), and nutritional (n = 30). Most studies were conducted in Asia (39.2 %) or Africa (34.6 %) with the remaining 26.1 % in Latin America. Very few studies (n = 11) combined interventions across more than one domain. The majority of agricultural and nutritional studies were conducted in Africa and Asia, whereas the majority of interventions to improve household air quality were conducted in Latin America. It is clear that very little trans-disciplinary research has been done with

  9. A Comparative Analysis of Energy Usage and Energy Efficiency Behavior in Low- and High-Income Households: The Case of Kitwe, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Malama

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency has been an important topic since the latter part of the last century. This is because adoption of energy efficiency measures has been acknowledged as one of the key methods of addressing the negative impact of climate change. In Zambia, however, the need to adopt energy efficiency measures has not just been driven by the imperative to mitigate the negative effects of climate change but also by a critical shortage of energy. This research looks at households’ energy consumption behavior in low- and high-income areas of Kitwe. Recent studies on the relationship between household energy consumption and behavioral lifestyle have been descriptive, with limited emphasis on the relationships between various variables. In this study, descriptive and inferential statistics have been used to investigate relationships between the two income groups and various energy consumption-related variables such as knowledge about energy reduction measures, energy saving strategies, barriers to the use of energy saving strategies, and the motives for using energy reduction strategies. Methodologically, the study was largely quantitative in nature, with questionnaires administered to a combined total of 56 households. However, key interviews were also conducted that helped us to get a clearer understanding of some of the issues covered in the research. Key findings are that whereas the descriptive statistics show that there are behavioral differences between the two income groups, the inferential statistics show that there is no relationship between income level and the energy efficiency variables. This has been found to be consistent with results from studies done elsewhere. The key lesson is that there is low usage of energy efficiency measures in both low- and high-income areas and that the authorities need to change the way information is disseminated to consumers from the current method of advertising to social diffusion.

  10. Higher Household Income and the Availability of Electronic Devices and Transport at Home Are Associated with Higher Waist Circumference in Colombian Children: The ACFIES Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Gómez-Arbeláez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current “epidemic” of childhood obesity is described as being driven by modern lifestyles with associated socioeconomic and environmental changes that modify dietary habits, discourage physical activity and encourage sedentary behaviors. Objective: To evaluate the association between household income and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home, and the values of waist circumference (WC, as an indicator of abdominal obesity, in children and adolescents from Bucaramanga, Colombia. Methods: Cross-sectional study of public elementary and high school population, of low-middle socioeconomic status. Results: A total of 668 schoolchildren were recruited. After adjusting for potential confounders, significant positive associations between waist circumference and higher household income (p = 0.011, and waist circumference and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home (p = 0.026 were found. Conclusions: In low-middle socioeconomic status schoolchildren in a developing country, those from relatively more affluent families had greater waist circumference, an association that is opposite to that observed in developed countries. This finding could be related to higher income family’s ability to purchase electronic devices and motorized transport which discourage physical activity and for their children to buy desirable and more costly western fast food.

  11. Use of Electronic Loggers to Measure Changes in the Rates of Hand Washing with Soap in Low-Income Urban Households in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Richard L; Zillmer, Ruediger; Biran, Adam; Hall, Peter; Sidibe, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the utility of electronic loggers to measure the effects of a simple intervention designed to influence the rates of hand washing with soap within enclosed toilets and bathrooms in low-income urban households in Kerala, India. 58 households were given three items with embedded electronic loggers for a period of 2-5 days. Two logged soaps tracked hand and body washing in the bathroom. The third logged item was a water vessel used for flushing the toilet and for post-defecation anal cleansing; this served as a marker of toilet use. In addition, 28 households in a Soap by toilet arm were given an additional logged soap, to be kept by the toilet, and used for hand washing. Compared with the Soap in bathroom arm, the loggers in the Soap by toilet households recorded 73% greater daily use of soaps designated for hand washing (t(36)=2.92, psoap and changes in hand washing with soap after use of the toilet. Further adoption of logger technologies would enable more insightful studies of hand washing within urban environments.

  12. Health Behaviors of Cancer Survivors in Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey in Korea: Higher Alcohol Drinking, Lower Smoking, and Physical Inactivity Pattern in Survivors with Higher Household Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boyoung; Kong, Sun-Young; Kim, Jeongseon; Kim, Yeol; Park, In Hae; Jung, So-Youn; Lee, Eun Sook

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity in cancer survivors and examined the sociodemographic factors affecting these health-related behaviors.We used data from the 4th and 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted between 2007 and 2012, which identified 1153 cancer cases and 36,451 people without a history of cancer ≥20 years of age. We used a structured questionnaire to obtain information concerning cancer diagnosis, health-related behaviors, and sociodemographic characteristics.The proportion of cancer survivors who were current drinkers, heavy drinkers, current smokers, or engaged in physical activity were 49.1, 9.0, 9.2, or 50.7%, respectively. Compared with people with no history of cancer, cancer survivors were less likely to be current drinkers (odds ratio [OR] = 0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.36-0.56), heavy drinkers (OR = 0.53; 95% CI 0.36-0.78), current smokers (OR = 0.37; 95% CI 0.24-0.55), or physically inactive (OR = 0.77; 95% CI 0.63-0.95). Cancer survivors with higher household incomes had higher odds of current drinking and heavy drinking (P trend = 0.039 and 0.033, respectively) and were less likely to be current smokers or physically inactive (P trend = 0.016 and 0.046, respectively). Age, sex, sites of cancer, and the time since diagnosis affected the health behaviors in cancer survivors. Furthermore, we confirmed that these unhealthy behaviors are interrelated.We found that household income had a bidirectional effect on health behaviors and confirmed an aggregation of unhealthy lifestyles. Identification of survivors vulnerable to unhealthy lifestyles, focusing on household income level would allow intervention programs to be more effective.

  13. 7 CFR 253.6 - Eligibility of households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Program income eligibility limits and standard deductions. (2) Definition of income. Household income... Supplemental Security Income (SSI) or Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), General Assistance (GA...

  14. INCOME INCONGRUITY, RACE AND PRETERM BIRTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research with vital records finds income incongruity associated with adverse birth outcomes. We examined the effects of negative income incongruity (reporting lower household income than the census tract median household income) on preterm birth (PTB <37 weeks completed ...

  15. Low income dynamics in 1990s Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Jarvis; Stephen P. Jenkins

    1997-01-01

    This paper analyses low income dynamics in Britain using the first four waves of the British Household Panel Survey. There is much low income turnover: although there is a small group of people who are persistently poor, more striking is the relatively large number of low income escapers and entrants from one year to the next. Simulations using estimated low income exit and re-entry rates demonstrate the importance of repeated low income spells for explaining a person’s experience of low inco...

  16. Household preferences for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in four European high-income countries: Does health information matter? A mixed-methods study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Herrmann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is now universally acknowledged that climate change constitutes a major threat to human health. At the same time, some of the measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, so-called climate change mitigation measures, have significant health co-benefits (e.g., walking or cycling more; eating less meat. The goal of limiting global warming to 1,5° Celsius set by the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Paris in 2015 can only be reached if all stakeholders, including households, take actions to mitigate climate change. Results on whether framing mitigation measures in terms of their health co-benefits increases the likelihood of their implementation are inconsistent. The present study protocol describes the transdisciplinary project HOPE (HOuseholds’ Preferences for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in four European high-income countries that investigates the role of health co-benefits in households’ decision making on climate change mitigation measures in urban households in France, Germany, Norway and Sweden. Methods HOPE employs a mixed-methods approach combining status-quo carbon footprint assessments, simulations of the reduction of households’ carbon footprints, and qualitative in-depth interviews with a subgroup of households. Furthermore, a policy analysis of current household oriented climate policies is conducted. In the simulation of the reduction of households’ carbon footprints, half of the households are provided with information on health co-benefits of climate change mitigation measures, the other half is not. Households’ willingness to implement the measures is assessed and compared in between-group analyses of variance. Discussion This is one of the first comprehensive mixed-methods approaches to investigate which mitigation measures households are most willing to implement in order to reach the 1,5° target set by the Paris Agreement, and

  17. Adults and Children in Low-Income Households That Participate in Cost-Offset Community Supported Agriculture Have High Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Karla L.; Kolodinsky, Jane; Wang, Weiwei; Morgan, Emily H.; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B.; Ammerman, Alice S.; Sitaker, Marilyn; Seguin, Rebecca A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) in low-income households that participated in a cost-offset (CO), or 50% subsidized, community-supported agriculture (CSA) program. CSA customers paid farms upfront for a share of the harvest, and received produce weekly throughout the growing season. A cohort of adults and children 2–12 y in a summer CO-CSA were surveyed online twice: August 2015 (n = 41) and February 2016 (n = 23). FVI was measured by the National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) Fruit and Vegetable Screener (FVS) and an inventory of locally grown fruits and vegetables. FVI relative to United States (US) recommendations and averages, and across seasons, were tested with non-parametric tests and paired t-tests (p < 0.05). Both adults and children in the CO-CSA had higher FVI than the US averages, and more often met recommendations for vegetables. Some summer fruits and vegetables were more often eaten when locally in-season. The CO-CSA model warrants further examination as an avenue for improving vegetable consumption among adults and children in low-income households. However, causality between CO-CSA participation and FVI cannot be inferred, as CO-CSA participants may be positive deviants with respect to FVI. A multi-state randomized controlled trial is currently underway to evaluate impacts of CO-CSAs on FVI and related outcomes. PMID:28698460

  18. Self Help Groups and Household Asset Acquisition and Income among Women Group Members in Kisumu East Sub County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atieno, Paul Okello

    2017-01-01

    Many studies covering Self-Help Groups (SHGs) have delved extensively on their impacts on food security, livelihoods, socio-economic empowerment, and enterprise enhancement. However, little attention has been paid to the impact of SHGs on household assets acquisition. Traditionally, SHGs are formed by people (mainly women) who are not in formal…

  19. Household, psychosocial, and individual-level factors associated with fruit, vegetable, and fiber intake among low-income urban African American youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cristina Bizzotto Trude

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity, one of the greatest challenges to public health, disproportionately affects low-income urban minority populations. Fruits and vegetables (FV are nutrient dense foods that may be inversely associated with excessive weight gain. We aimed to identify the individual characteristic, psychosocial, and household factors influencing FV and fiber consumption in low-income African-American (AA youth in Baltimore, MD. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of data collected from 285 low-income AA caregiver-youth (age range: 10–14 y dyads participating in the baseline evaluation of the B’More Healthy Communities for Kids obesity prevention trial. The Kid's Block FFQ was used to estimate daily intakes of FV (including 100 % fruit juice and dietary fiber. Questionnaires were used to assess household socio-demographics, caregiver and youth food purchasing and preparation behavior, and youth psychosocial information. Ordered logit regression analyses were conducted to examine psychosocial and food-related behavior associated with FV and dietary fiber intake (quartile of intake controlling for youth age, sex, BMI percentile, total calorie intake and household income. Results On average, youth consumed 1.5 ± 1.1 (M ± SD servings of fruit, 1.8 ± 1.7 serving of vegetables, and 15.3 ± 10.9 g of fiber/day. There were no differences by gender, age or household income. Greater youth’s healthy eating intentions and self-efficacy scores were associated with greater odds ratio for higher intake of FV and fiber (Intention: ORfruit 1.22; 95 % CI: 1.06–1.41, ORvegetable 1.31; 1.15–1.51 and ORfiber 1.46; 1.23–1.74, Self-efficacy: ORfruit 1.07; 1.03–1.12, ORvegetable 1.04; 1.01–1.09, ORfiber 1.10; 1.04–1.16. Youth receiving free/low-cost breakfast were more than twice as likely to have higher fiber intake than those who did not receive free breakfast (OR 2.7; 1.10; 6.9. In addition, youth shopping more

  20. Household, psychosocial, and individual-level factors associated with fruit, vegetable, and fiber intake among low-income urban African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trude, Angela Cristina Bizzotto; Kharmats, Anna Yevgenyevna; Hurley, Kristen Marie; Anderson Steeves, Elizabeth; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-08-24

    Childhood obesity, one of the greatest challenges to public health, disproportionately affects low-income urban minority populations. Fruits and vegetables (FV) are nutrient dense foods that may be inversely associated with excessive weight gain. We aimed to identify the individual characteristic, psychosocial, and household factors influencing FV and fiber consumption in low-income African-American (AA) youth in Baltimore, MD. Cross-sectional analysis of data collected from 285 low-income AA caregiver-youth (age range: 10-14 y) dyads participating in the baseline evaluation of the B'More Healthy Communities for Kids obesity prevention trial. The Kid's Block FFQ was used to estimate daily intakes of FV (including 100 % fruit juice) and dietary fiber. Questionnaires were used to assess household socio-demographics, caregiver and youth food purchasing and preparation behavior, and youth psychosocial information. Ordered logit regression analyses were conducted to examine psychosocial and food-related behavior associated with FV and dietary fiber intake (quartile of intake) controlling for youth age, sex, BMI percentile, total calorie intake and household income. On average, youth consumed 1.5 ± 1.1 (M ± SD) servings of fruit, 1.8 ± 1.7 serving of vegetables, and 15.3 ± 10.9 g of fiber/day. There were no differences by gender, age or household income. Greater youth's healthy eating intentions and self-efficacy scores were associated with greater odds ratio for higher intake of FV and fiber (Intention: ORfruit 1.22; 95 % CI: 1.06-1.41, ORvegetable 1.31; 1.15-1.51 and ORfiber 1.46; 1.23-1.74, Self-efficacy: ORfruit 1.07; 1.03-1.12, ORvegetable 1.04; 1.01-1.09, ORfiber 1.10; 1.04-1.16). Youth receiving free/low-cost breakfast were more than twice as likely to have higher fiber intake than those who did not receive free breakfast (OR 2.7; 1.10; 6.9). In addition, youth shopping more frequently at supermarkets were more likely to have greater vegetable

  1. Beyond income, access, and knowledge: factors explaining the education gradient in prevention among older adults with diabetes and hypertension in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Antonio J; Fleisher, Lisa K

    2013-12-01

    While the education gradient in prevention of chronic conditions is well documented, contributing factors remain underexplored. The contribution of income, knowledge and management of illness, market prices, cognitive ability, ability to act, perception about the future, and psychosocial constraints to the education gradient in prevention is examined. To solve problems of unobservable factors that influence prevention and illness severity, we estimate the role of each component of the education gradient on prevention using data on diabetes and hypertension from five Latin American countries. Overall, these components explain 50% to 70% of the education gradient in prevention, with income being the most important. Cognitive ability and ability to act capture an important part of the education gradient in prevention whereas knowledge about illness explains little. Medicine individualized to patients' cognitive ability and ability to act could improve adherence to prevention protocols among patients with chronic conditions.

  2. Household and community income, economic shocks and risky sexual behavior of young adults: evidence from the Cape Area Panel Study 2002 and 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkelman, Taryn; Lam, David; Leibbrandt, Murray

    2007-11-01

    To describe recent trends in adolescent sexual behavior in Cape Town, South Africa, and to determine whether household and community poverty and negative economic shocks predict risky sexual behavior. Matched survey data on 2993 African and coloured youth from the Cape Area Panel Study 2002 and 2005. Sexual debut, multiple sexual partners in past year, condom use at last sex, measured in 2002 and 2005. We tested for changes over time in reported sexual behavior and estimate multivariate probit models to measure the association between 2002 individual, household and community characteristics and 2005 sexual behavior. There was a statistically significant increase in condom use and a decrease in the incidence of multiple sexual partners between 2002 and 2005 for young women aged 17-22 years. Young women in households with 10% higher income were 0.53% less likely to debut sexually by 2005; young men in communities with a 10% higher poverty rate were 5% less likely to report condom use at last sex. Negative economic shocks are associated with a 0.04% increase in the probability of multiple partnerships for young women. Education is positively correlated with sexual debut for young women and with multiple partnerships for both sexes. Trends in sexual behavior between 2002 and 2005 indicate significant shifts towards safer practices. There is little evidence of a relationship between negative economic shocks, household and community poverty, and risky behavior. We hypothesize that the unexpected positive relationship between education and sexual debut may be driven by peer effects in schools with substantial age mixing.

  3. The Food Environment Through the Camera Lenses of 9- to 13-Year-Olds Living in Urban, Low-Income, Midwestern Households: A Photovoice Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidelberger, Lindsay; Smith, Chery

    2015-01-01

    To pilot Photovoice methodology with low-income, urban 9- to 13-year-olds to gain insight about their food environment and to determine whether this methodology was engaging and acceptable to them. Photovoice methodology was used to allow children to represent their food environment. Twenty male and 9 female, low-income, 9- to 13-year-old children participated. Quantitative photograph analysis included quantity taken and usable internal/external and social environment and healthfulness categorizations. Qualitative analysis was conducted through open coding of interview transcripts. A total of 345 usable photos were taken by the children (n = 29), depicting both healthy and unhealthy foods. Four themes were identified (1) food characteristics; (2) social environment; (3) kitchen, cooking, and dining environments; and (4) food insecurity. Unhealthy food was most readily available to children. Children reported a lack of functioning kitchen equipment and multiple physical and environmental challenges to consuming a healthy diet. Food insecurity was prevalent. Food stamps and food pantries were used to fill gaps in the home food supply. Photovoice can be effective in engaging children in conversation about their food environment and increases understanding of their experiences with food. Photovoice can provide insight into the household food environments. This information can be used to tailor interventions to better reflect the living environment and eating behaviors in low-income populations. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of red brick production on land use, household income, and greenhouse gas emissions in Khartoum, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Buerkert

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In Khartoum (Sudan a particular factor shaping urban land use is the rapid expansion of red brick making (BM for the construction of houses which occurs on the most fertile agricultural Gerif soils along the Nile banks. The objectives of this study were to assess the profitability of BM, to explore the income distribution among farmers and kiln owners, to measure the dry matter (DM, nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, potassium (K and organic carbon (C_org in cow dung used for BM, and to estimate the greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from burned biomass fuel (cow dung and fuel wood. About 49 kiln owners were interviewed in 2009 using a semi-structured questionnaire that allowed to record socio-economic and variable cost data for budget calculations, and determination of Gini coefficients. Samples of cow dung were collected directly from the kilns and analyzed for their nutrients concentrations. To estimate GHG emissions a modified approach of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC was used. The land rental value from red brick kilns was estimated at 5-fold the rental value from agriculture and the land rent to total cost ratio was 29% for urban farms compared to 6% for BM. The Gini coefficients indicated that income distribution among kiln owners was more equal than among urban farmers. Using IPCC default values the 475, 381, and 36 t DM of loose dung, compacted dung, and fuel wood used for BM emit annually 688, 548, and 60 t of GHGs, respectively.

  5. Household Adjustments to Hurricane Katrina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meri Davlasheridze; Qin Fan

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines household adjustments to Hurricane Katrina by estimating the effects of Katrina-induced damages on changes in household demographics and income distributions in the Orleans Parish...

  6. The Digital Divide and Patient Portals: Internet Access Explained Differences in Patient Portal Use for Secure Messaging by Age, Race, and Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graetz, Ilana; Gordon, Nancy; Fung, Vick; Hamity, Courtnee; Reed, Mary E

    2016-08-01

    Online access to health records and the ability to exchange secure messages with physicians can improve patient engagement and outcomes; however, the digital divide could limit access to web-based portals among disadvantaged groups. To understand whether sociodemographic differences in patient portal use for secure messaging can be explained by differences in internet access and care preferences. Cross-sectional survey to examine the association between patient sociodemographic characteristics and internet access and care preferences; then, the association between sociodemographic characteristics and secure message use with and without adjusting for internet access and care preference. One thousand forty-one patients with chronic conditions in a large integrated health care delivery system (76% response rate). Internet access, portal use for secure messaging, preference for in-person or online care, and sociodemographic and health characteristics. Internet access and preference mediated some of the differences in secure message use by age, race, and income. For example, using own computer to access the internet explained 52% of the association between race and secure message use and 60% of the association between income and use (Sobel-Goodman mediation test, Pinternet access and preference. As the availability and use of patient portals increase, it is important to understand which patients have limited access and the barriers they may face. Improving internet access and making portals available across multiple platforms, including mobile, may reduce some disparities in secure message use.

  7. Local Authority Residential Mortgage Credit: A Source of Non-Market Sub-Prime Homeloans for Low-Income households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dermot Coates

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As the volume of mortgage credit has risen in tandem with house price inflation, the sub-prime homeloan sector of this market has begun to expand in order to meet demand from those not serviced by the mainstream financial service providers. This article examines the role of local authorities in providing residential mortgages and assesses whether those who have traditionally borrowed from non-market (or public sector lenders would be considered to be sub-prime borrowers by the private sector. It concludes that, in view of the relatively low average incomes of this cohort of borrowers, they represent a higher probability of homeloan default and as a consequence, would be subject to a higher cost of credit in the private sector. However, this paper highlights the favourable terms offered by local authorities and argues that their failure to price according to the risk profile of borrowers exposes the Exchequer to higher – and often unquantified – costs in pursuit of promoting home-ownership.

  8. Household food insecurity as a determinant of overweight and obesity among low-income Hispanic subgroups: Data from the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Teresa M; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Pinard, Courtney A; Yaroch, Amy L

    2016-02-01

    An estimated 78% of Hispanics in the United States (US) are overweight or obese. Household food insecurity, a condition of limited or uncertain access to adequate food, has been associated with obesity rates among Hispanic adults in the US. However, the Hispanic group is multi-ethnic and therefore associations between obesity and food insecurity may not be constant across Hispanic country of origin subgroups. This study sought to determine if the association between obesity and food insecurity among Hispanics is modified by Hispanic ancestry across low-income (≤200% of poverty level) adults living in California. Data are from the cross-sectional 2011-12 California Health Interview Survey (n = 5498). Rates of overweight or obesity (BMI ≥ 25), Calfresh receipt (California's Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program), and acculturation were examined for differences across subgroups. Weighted multiple logistic regressions examined if household food insecurity was significantly associated with overweight or obesity and modified by country of origin after controlling for age, education, marital status, country of birth (US vs. outside of US), language spoken at home, and Calfresh receipt (P obesity, food security, Calfresh receipt, country of birth, and language spoken at home. Results from the adjusted logistic regression models found that food insecurity was significantly associated with overweight or obesity among Mexican-American women (β (SE) = 0.22 (0.09), p = .014), but not Mexican-American men or Non-Mexican groups, suggesting Hispanic subgroups behave differently in their association between food insecurity and obesity. By highlighting these factors, we can promote targeted obesity prevention interventions, which may contribute to more effective behavior change and reduced chronic disease risk in this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Household sanitation is associated with lower risk of bacterial and protozoal enteric infections, but not viral infections and diarrhoea, in a cohort study in a low-income urban neighbourhood in Vellore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendes, David; Leon, Juan; Kirby, Amy; Clennon, Julie; Raj, Suraja; Yakubu, Habib; Robb, Katharine; Kartikeyan, Arun; Hemavathy, Priya; Gunasekaran, Annai; Roy, Sheela; Ghale, Ben Chirag; Kumar, J Senthil; Mohan, Venkata Raghava; Kang, Gagandeep; Moe, Christine

    2017-09-01

    This study examined associations between household sanitation and enteric infection - including diarrhoeal-specific outcomes - in children 0-2 years of age in a low-income, dense urban neighbourhood. As part of the MAL-ED study, 230 children in a low-income, urban, Indian neighbourhood provided stool specimens at 14-17 scheduled time points and during diarrhoeal episodes in the first 2 years of life that were analysed for bacterial, parasitic (protozoa and helminths) and viral pathogens. From interviews with caregivers in 100 households, the relationship between the presence (and discharge) of household sanitation facilities and any, pathogen-specific, and diarrhoea-specific enteric infection was tested through mixed-effects Poisson regression models. Few study households (33%) reported having toilets, most of which (82%) discharged into open drains. Controlling for season and household socio-economic status, the presence of a household toilet was associated with lower risks of enteric infection (RR: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.79-1.06), bacterial infection (RR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.75-1.02) and protozoal infection (RR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.39-1.04), although not statistically significant, but had no association with diarrhoea (RR: 1.00, 95% CI: 0.68-1.45) or viral infections (RR: 1.12, 95% CI: 0.79-1.60). Models also suggested that the relationship between household toilets discharging to drains and enteric infection risk may vary by season. The presence of a household toilet was associated with lower risk of bacterial and protozoal enteric infections, but not diarrhoea or viral infections, suggesting the health effects of sanitation may be more accurately estimated using outcome measures that account for aetiologic agents. © 2017 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Sandwiching it in: spillover of work onto food choices and family roles in low- and moderate-income urban households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carol M; Connors, Margaret M; Sobal, Jeffery; Bisogni, Carole A

    2003-02-01

    Lower status jobs, high workloads and lack of control at work have been associated with less healthful diets, but the ways through which work is connected to food choices are not well understood. This analysis was an examination of workers' experience of the relationship of their jobs to their food choices. Fifty-one multi-ethnic, urban, low- and moderate-income adults living in Upstate New York in 1995 participated in a qualitative interview study of fruit and vegetable choices and discussed employment and food choices. The workers who participated in this study described a dynamic relationship between work and food choices that they experienced in the context of their other roles and values. These workers presented a relationship that was characterized by positive and negative spillover between their jobs and their ability to fulfill family roles and promote personal health, linked by a spectrum of food choice strategies. Participants' narratives fit into three different domains: characterizations of work and their resources for food choice, strategies used to manage food choices within the constraints of work, and affect related to the negative and positive spillover of these strategies on family roles and on personal food choices. Characterizations of work as demanding and limiting or demanding and manageable differentiated participants who experienced their food choice strategies as a source of guilt and dissatisfaction (negative spillover) from those who experienced food choices as a source of pride and satisfaction (positive spillover). Ideals and values related to food choice and health were balanced against other values for family closeness and nurturing and personal achievement. Some participants found work unproblematic. These findings direct attention to a broad conceptualization of the relationship of work to food choices in which the demands and resources of the work role are viewed as they spill over into the social and temporal context of other

  11. INCOME Household Income in 1999 CTs 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  12. INCOME Household Income in 1999 COS 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  13. INCOME Household Income in 1999 BGs 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  14. INCOME Household Income in 1999 NMHD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. Validity of a Job-Exposure Matrix for Psychosocial Job Stressors: Results from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, A.; Niedhammer, I.; Chastang, J.-F.; Spittal, M. J.; LaMontagne, A. D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A Job Exposure Matrix (JEM) for psychosocial job stressors allows assessment of these exposures at a population level. JEMs are particularly useful in situations when information on psychosocial job stressors were not collected individually and can help eliminate the biases that may be present in individual self-report accounts. This research paper describes the development of a JEM in the Australian context. Methods The Household Income Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey was used to construct a JEM for job control, job demands and complexity, job insecurity, and fairness of pay. Population median values of these variables for all employed people (n = 20,428) were used to define individual exposures across the period 2001 to 2012. The JEM was calculated for the Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations (ANZSCO) at the four-digit level, which represents 358 occupations. Both continuous and binary exposures to job stressors were calculated at the 4-digit level. We assessed concordance between the JEM-assigned and individually-reported exposures using the Kappa statistic, sensitivity and specificity assessments. We conducted regression analysis using mental health as an outcome measure. Results Kappa statistics indicate good agreement between individually-reported and JEM-assigned dichotomous measures for job demands and control, and moderate agreement for job insecurity and fairness of pay. Job control, job demands and security had the highest sensitivity, while specificity was relatively high for the four exposures. Regression analysis shows that most individually reported and JEM measures were significantly associated with mental health, and individually-reported exposures produced much stronger effects on mental health than the JEM-assigned exposures. Discussion These JEM-based estimates of stressors exposure provide a conservative proxy for individual-level data, and can be applied to a range of health and

  16. The impact of health insurance on outpatient utilization and expenditure: evidence from one middle-income country using national household survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekman Björn

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Achieving universal health insurance coverage by means of different types of insurance programs may be a pragmatic and feasible approach. However, the fragmentation of the health financing system may imply costs in terms of varying ability of the insurance programs to improve access to and reduce spending on care across different population groups. This study looks at the effect of different types of health insurance programs on the probability of utilizing care, the intensity of utilization, and individual spending on care in Jordan. Methods Using national household survey data collected in 2000 with a sub-sample of around 8,300 individuals, the study applies econometric techniques to a set of specified models along the two-part model approach to the demand for health care. By means of particular tests and other procedures, the robustness of the results is controlled. Results Around 60 percent of the population is covered by some type of insurance. However, the distribution varies across income groups, and importantly, the effect of insurance on the outcome indicators differ substantially across the various programs. Generally, insurance is found to increase the intensity of utilization and reduce out-of-pocket spending, while no general insurance effect on the probability of use is found. More specifically, however, these effects are only found for some programs and not for all. The best performing programs are those to which the somewhat better off groups have access. Conclusion Notwithstanding the empirical nature of the issues, the results point at the need to assess the effect of insurance coverage more profoundly than what is commonly done. Applying rigorous analysis to survey data in other settings will contribute to bringing out better evidence on what types of programs perform most effectively and equitably in different contexts.

  17. Validity of a Job-Exposure Matrix for Psychosocial Job Stressors: Results from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, A; Niedhammer, I; Chastang, J-F; Spittal, M J; LaMontagne, A D

    2016-01-01

    A Job Exposure Matrix (JEM) for psychosocial job stressors allows assessment of these exposures at a population level. JEMs are particularly useful in situations when information on psychosocial job stressors were not collected individually and can help eliminate the biases that may be present in individual self-report accounts. This research paper describes the development of a JEM in the Australian context. The Household Income Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey was used to construct a JEM for job control, job demands and complexity, job insecurity, and fairness of pay. Population median values of these variables for all employed people (n = 20,428) were used to define individual exposures across the period 2001 to 2012. The JEM was calculated for the Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations (ANZSCO) at the four-digit level, which represents 358 occupations. Both continuous and binary exposures to job stressors were calculated at the 4-digit level. We assessed concordance between the JEM-assigned and individually-reported exposures using the Kappa statistic, sensitivity and specificity assessments. We conducted regression analysis using mental health as an outcome measure. Kappa statistics indicate good agreement between individually-reported and JEM-assigned dichotomous measures for job demands and control, and moderate agreement for job insecurity and fairness of pay. Job control, job demands and security had the highest sensitivity, while specificity was relatively high for the four exposures. Regression analysis shows that most individually reported and JEM measures were significantly associated with mental health, and individually-reported exposures produced much stronger effects on mental health than the JEM-assigned exposures. These JEM-based estimates of stressors exposure provide a conservative proxy for individual-level data, and can be applied to a range of health and organisational outcomes.

  18. Income pooling within families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Uldall-Poulsen, Hans

    This paper analyses the phenomenon of income-pooling by applying the Danish household expenditure survey, merged with authoritative register information. Responses to additional questions on income sharing among 1696 couples also allows us to analyses whether the intra-household distribution...... of resources reflects individual preferences, the distribution of power, and pre-marital experiences. The analyses show that most Danish households use some type of income pooling and that the likelihood of income pooling varies considerably according to individual characteristics (age, education, occupation......, past partners, upbringing) and household characteristics (household income, duration of marriage, location of residence and the existence of public goods, including children). However, when all variables are evaluated in a common model, only the duration of marriage and the existence of children...

  19. Does Material Disadvantage Explain the Increased Risk of Adverse Health, Educational, and Behavioural Outcomes among Children in Lone Parent Households in Britain? A Cross Sectional Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nick Spencer

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that material disadvantage explains the increased risk among children and young people of adverse health, educational, and behavioural problems associated with living in lone...

  20. Food stress in Adelaide: the relationship between low income and the affordability of healthy food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Paul R; Verity, Fiona; Carter, Patricia; Tsourtos, George; Coveney, John; Wong, Kwan Chui

    2013-01-01

    Healthy food is becoming increasingly expensive, and families on low incomes face a difficult financial struggle to afford healthy food. When food costs are considered, families on low incomes often face circumstances of poverty. Housing, utilities, health care, and transport are somewhat fixed in cost; however food is more flexible in cost and therefore is often compromised with less healthy, cheaper food, presenting an opportunity for families on low incomes to cut costs. Using a "Healthy Food Basket" methodology, this study costed a week's supply of healthy food for a range of family types. It found that low-income families would have to spend approximately 30% of household income on eating healthily, whereas high-income households needed to spend about 10%. The differential is explained by the cost of the food basket relative to household income (i.e., affordability). It is argued that families that spend more than 30% of household income on food could be experiencing "food stress." Moreover the high cost of healthy foods leaves low-income households vulnerable to diet-related health problems because they often have to rely on cheaper foods which are high in fat, sugar, and salt.

  1. Food Stress in Adelaide: The Relationship between Low Income and the Affordability of Healthy Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R. Ward

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthy food is becoming increasingly expensive, and families on low incomes face a difficult financial struggle to afford healthy food. When food costs are considered, families on low incomes often face circumstances of poverty. Housing, utilities, health care, and transport are somewhat fixed in cost; however food is more flexible in cost and therefore is often compromised with less healthy, cheaper food, presenting an opportunity for families on low incomes to cut costs. Using a “Healthy Food Basket” methodology, this study costed a week’s supply of healthy food for a range of family types. It found that low-income families would have to spend approximately 30% of household income on eating healthily, whereas high-income households needed to spend about 10%. The differential is explained by the cost of the food basket relative to household income (i.e., affordability. It is argued that families that spend more than 30% of household income on food could be experiencing “food stress.” Moreover the high cost of healthy foods leaves low-income households vulnerable to diet-related health problems because they often have to rely on cheaper foods which are high in fat, sugar, and salt.

  2. Migrant remittances and household wellbeing in urban Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracking, Sarah; Sachikonye, Lloyd

    2010-01-01

    Evidence from household surveying in December 2005 in Harare and Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, indicates that a wide network of international migrant remitters are ameliorating the economic crisis in Zimbabwe by sending monetary and in-kind transfers to over 50 per cent of urban households. The research combines quantitative measurement of scale and scope, with demographic and qualitative narrative to build a holistic picture of the typography of receiving and non-receiving households. A complex set of interrelated variables helps to explain why some households do and others do not receive income and goods from people who are away, and the economic and social extent of their subsequent benefit from them. Moreover, the mixed methods approach is designed to capture inter-household and likely macroeconomic effects of how households receive their goods and money; and of how they subsequently exchange (if applicable), store and spend it. Evidence emerges of a largely informal, international social welfare system, but one which is not without adverse inter-household effects for some. These include suffering exclusion from markets suffering from inflationary pressures, not least as a result of other people’s remittances. This paper explores the role of remittances, within this internationalised informal welfare system which we can map from our household survey, in reframing vulnerability and marginalization differentially among and between our subject households.

  3. Association Between Household Air Pollution Exposure and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Outcomes in 13 Low- and Middle-income Country Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddharthan, Trishul; Grigsby, Matthew R; Goodman, Dina; Chowdhury, Muhammad; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Irazola, Vilma; Gutierrez, Laura; Miranda, J Jaime; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Alam, Dewan; Kirenga, Bruce; Jones, Rupert; van Gemert, Frederick; Wise, Robert A; Checkley, William

    2018-01-11

    Forty percent of households worldwide burn biomass fuels for energy, which may be most the important contributor to household air pollution. To examine the association between household air pollution exposure and COPD outcomes in 13 resource-poor settings. We analyzed data from 12,396 adult participants living in 13 resource-poor, population-based settings. Household air pollution exposure was defined as using biomass materials as the primary fuel source in the home. We used multivariable regressions to assess the relationship between household air pollution exposure and COPD outcomes, evaluated for interactions, and conducted sensitivity analyses to test the robustness of our findings. Average age was 54.9 years (44.2-59.6 years across settings), 48.5% were women (38.3%-54.5%), prevalence of household air pollution exposure was 38% (0.5%-99.6%), and 8.8% (1.7%-15.5%) had COPD. Participants with household air pollution exposure were 41% more likely to have COPD (adjusted OR=1.41, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.68) than those without the exposure, and 13.5% (6.4% to 20.6%) of COPD prevalence may due to household air pollution exposure, compared with 12.4% due to cigarette smoking. The association between household air pollution exposure and COPD was stronger in women (1.70, 1.24 to 2.32) than in men (1.21, 0.92 to 1.58). Household air pollution exposure was associated with a higher prevalence of COPD, particularly among women, and it is likely a leading population attributable risk factor for COPD in resource-poor settings.

  4. Household indebtedness in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Abid, Lobna; Zouari Dorra; Zouari Ghorbel Sonia

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze the development of household indebtedness in Tunisia and its microeconomic determinants. The probit method was used to identify the determinants of household indebtedness with reference to gender. The results show that the Tunisian household indebtedness is in continuous increase and each type of credit is associated with specific determinants. The findings show that only some variables are significant in explaining the differences between the number of credit.

  5. Household Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Lusardi, Annamaria

    In this survey, we review the recent theoretical and empirical literature on household saving and consumption. The discussion is structured around a list of motives for saving and how well the standard theory captures these motives. We show that almost all of the motives for saving that have been...... of standard optimization techniques and focuses instead on direct consideration on saving. We provide a section on facts: who save and how much. We then discuss informally the recent decline in the U.S. saving rate and whether the theory is of much use in understanding this and other changes in aggregate...... be rationalized within a simple life cycle model. We also review a great number of studies of the consumption Euler equations. Based on our analysis of the studies cited we conclude that there is still mixed evidence that consumption is excessively sensitive to income. We also examine in depth the recent...

  6. Income inequality since 1820

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moatsos, Michail|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413292673; Baten, Joerg; Foldvari, Peter|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323382045; van Leeuwen, Bas|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330811924; van Zanden, Jan Luiten|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071115374

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on income inequality as measured by gross (i.e. pre-tax) household income across individuals within a country. It builds upon a number of large-scale initiatives to chart income inequality trends over time, supplementing them with data on wages and heights for the earlier

  7. Tenure and forest income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagger, Pamela; Luckert, Martin K.; Duchelle, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    We explore the relationship between tenure and forest income in 271 villages throughout the tropics. We find that state-owned forests generate more forest income than private and community-owned forests both per household and per hectare. We explore whether forest income varies according to the e...

  8. Using direct observations on multiple occasions to measure household food availability among low-income Mexicano residents in Texas colonias

    OpenAIRE

    Sharkey Joseph R; Dean Wesley R; St John Julie A; Huber J Charles

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background It has been recognized that the availability of foods in the home are important to nutritional health, and may influence the dietary behavior of children, adolescents, and adults. It is therefore important to understand food choices in the context of the household setting. Considering their importance, the measurement of household food resources becomes critical. Because most studies use a single point of data collection to determine the types of foods that are present in ...

  9. Short-term and long-term associations between household wealth and physical growth: a cross-comparative analysis of children from four low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Aditi; Oh, Juhwan; Lee, Jong-koo; Lee, Hwa-Young; Perkins, Jessica M; Heo, Jongho; Ro, Young Sun; Subramanian, S V

    2015-01-01

    Stunting, a form of anthropometric failure, disproportionately affects children in developing countries with a higher burden on children living in poverty. How early life deprivation affects physical growth over various life stages is less well-known. We investigate the short- and long-run associations between household wealth in early life with physical growth in childhood in four low- and middle-income countries to understand the persistent implications of early life conditions of poverty and resource constraints on physical growth. Longitudinal study of eight cohorts of children in four countries - Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam (n=10,016) - ages 6 months to 15 years, using data from the Young Lives project, 2002-2009. Physical growth outcomes are standardized height-for-age z-scores (HAZ) and stunting. The key exposure is household wealth measured at baseline using a wealth index, an asset-based indicator. Covariates include child's age and sex, caregiver's educational status, household size, and place of residence. Baseline wealth index is significantly associated with higher physical growth rates as suggested by higher HAZ and lower odds of stunting. We found these associations in all four countries, for younger and older cohorts and for children who experienced changes in living standards. For the older cohort, despite the timing of the first survey at age 7-8 years, which is beyond the critical period of 1,000 days, there are lasting influences of early poverty, even for those who experienced changes in wealth. Household wealth in early life matters for physical growth with conditions of poverty and deprivation influencing growth faltering even beyond the 1,000 days window. The influences of early childhood poverty, so prevalent among children in low- and middle-income countries, must be addressed by policies and programs targeting early life but also focusing on older children experiencing growth faltering.

  10. Income inequality, gene expression, and brain maturation during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Nadine; Wong, Angelita Pui-Yee; Leonard, Gabriel; Perron, Michel; Pike, Bruce; Richer, Louis; Veillette, Suzanne; Pausova, Zdenka; Paus, Tomas

    2017-08-07

    Income inequality is associated with poor health and social outcomes. Negative social comparisons and competition may involve the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes in underlying some of these complex inter-relationships. Here we investigate brain maturation, indexed by age-related decreases in cortical thickness, in adolescents living in neighborhoods with differing levels of income inequality and household income. We examine whether inter-regional variations relate to those in glucocorticoid receptor (HPA) and androgen receptor (HPG) gene expression. For each sex, we used a median split of income inequality and household income (income-to-needs ratio) to create four subgroups. In female adolescents, the high-inequality low-income group displayed the greatest age-related decreases in cortical thickness. In this group, expression of glucocorticoid and androgen receptor genes explained the most variance in these age-related decreases in thickness across the cortex. We speculate that female adolescents living in high-inequality neighborhoods and low-income households may experience greater HPA and HPG activity, leading to steeper decreases in cortical thickness with age.

  11. Coverage of Adequately Iodized Salt Is Suboptimal and Rice Fortification Using Public Distribution Channels Could Reach Low-Income Households: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey of Anganwadi Center Catchment Areas in Telangana, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Wirth

    Full Text Available Food fortification is a cost-effective approach to prevent and control of micronutrient deficiencies in India. A cross-sectional survey of children 0-35 months of age residing in the catchment areas of anganwadi centers in the state of Telangana was conducted to assess the coverage of adequately iodized salt and the potential for rice fortification. Salt samples were collected and tested for iodine concentration using iodometric titration. Information on demographics, household rice consumption, and Telangana's rice sector was collected and interpreted. In households of selected children, 79% of salt samples were found to be adequately iodized. Salt brand and district were significant predictors of inadequately iodized salt. Daily rice consumption among children and women averaged 122 grams and 321 grams per day, respectively. Approximately 28% of households reported consuming rice produced themselves or purchased from a local farmer, 65% purchased rice from a market or shop, 6% got rice from a public distribution system site, and 2% obtained it from a rice mill. In the catchment areas of Telangana's anganwadi centers, there is significant variation in the coverage of adequately iodized salt by district. Future surveys in Telangana should measure the coverage of salt iodization in the general population using quantitative methods. Nonetheless, increasing the adequacy of iodization of smaller salt manufacturers would help achieve universal salt iodization in Telangana. Despite high consumption of rice, our findings suggest that large-scale market-based rice fortification is not feasible in Telangana due to a large proportion of households producing their own rice and highly fragmented rice distribution. Distributing fortified rice via Telangana's public distribution system may be a viable approach to target low-income households, but would only reach a small proportion of the population in Telangana.

  12. Coverage of Adequately Iodized Salt Is Suboptimal and Rice Fortification Using Public Distribution Channels Could Reach Low-Income Households: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey of Anganwadi Center Catchment Areas in Telangana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, James P; Leyvraz, Magali; Sodani, Prahlad R; Aaron, Grant J; Sharma, Narottam D; Woodruff, Bradley A

    2016-01-01

    Food fortification is a cost-effective approach to prevent and control of micronutrient deficiencies in India. A cross-sectional survey of children 0-35 months of age residing in the catchment areas of anganwadi centers in the state of Telangana was conducted to assess the coverage of adequately iodized salt and the potential for rice fortification. Salt samples were collected and tested for iodine concentration using iodometric titration. Information on demographics, household rice consumption, and Telangana's rice sector was collected and interpreted. In households of selected children, 79% of salt samples were found to be adequately iodized. Salt brand and district were significant predictors of inadequately iodized salt. Daily rice consumption among children and women averaged 122 grams and 321 grams per day, respectively. Approximately 28% of households reported consuming rice produced themselves or purchased from a local farmer, 65% purchased rice from a market or shop, 6% got rice from a public distribution system site, and 2% obtained it from a rice mill. In the catchment areas of Telangana's anganwadi centers, there is significant variation in the coverage of adequately iodized salt by district. Future surveys in Telangana should measure the coverage of salt iodization in the general population using quantitative methods. Nonetheless, increasing the adequacy of iodization of smaller salt manufacturers would help achieve universal salt iodization in Telangana. Despite high consumption of rice, our findings suggest that large-scale market-based rice fortification is not feasible in Telangana due to a large proportion of households producing their own rice and highly fragmented rice distribution. Distributing fortified rice via Telangana's public distribution system may be a viable approach to target low-income households, but would only reach a small proportion of the population in Telangana.

  13. The Determinants of Rural Household Food Security for Landless Households of the Punjab, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Bashir, Muhammad Khalid; Schilizzi, Steven; Pandit, Ram

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the situation of food security for the landless rural households of the Punjab province in Pakistan. Primary data from 576 landless households were collected from 12 districts of the province. About 27% of the sample households were measured to be food insecure. Household’s monthly income and household head’s education levels of middle and intermediate were positively impacting household food security. On the other hand, household heads’ age and family size were negatively...

  14. Efficient Intra-Household Allocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin

    . The tests of the usual symmetry conditions are rejected for two person households but not for one person households. We also show that income pooling is rejected for two person households. We then test for our collective setting conditions on the couples data. None of the collective setting restrictions......The neo-classical theory of demand applies to individuals yet in empirical work it is usually taken as valid for households with many members. This paper explores what the theory of individuals implies for households with many members. This paper explores what the theory of individuals implies...

  15. Low Income Preschoolers' Non-Parental Care Experiences and Household Food Insecurity. University of Kentucky Center for Poverty Research Discussion Paper Series, DP2012-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heflin, Colleen; Arteaga, Irma; Gable, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Rates of food insecurity in households with children have significantly increased over the past decade. The majority of children, including those at risk for food insecurity, participate in some form of non-parental child care during the preschool years. To evaluate the relationship between the two phenomenon, this study investigates the effects…

  16. Associations of occupational, transportation, household and leisure-time physical activity patterns with metabolic risk factors among middle-aged adults in a middle-income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Anne H Y; Moy, Foong Ming

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates physical activity in different domains and its association with metabolic risk factors among middle-aged adults. The study was performed in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from August 2010-August 2011. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose/lipid profile were measured in 686 Malay participants (mean age 45.9 ± 6.5 years). Self-reported physical activity was obtained with the validated IPAQ (Malay version) and categorized into low-, moderate- and high-activity levels across occupational, transportation, household and leisure-time domains. Participants spent most of their time on household (567.5, 95% CI: 510-630 MET-minutes/week) and occupational activities (297, 95% CI: 245-330 MET-minutes/week). After adjusted for gender and smoking, participants with low-activity levels in occupational, transport and household domains were associated with significantly higher odds for metabolic syndrome (2.02, 95% CI: 1.33-3.05; 1.49, 95% CI: 1.01-2.21; 1.96, 95% CI: 1.33-2.91). Significantly higher odds for obesity and abdominal obesity were consistently reported among those with low-activity levels across all four domains. High-activity levels in occupational, transportation and household domains were each negatively associated with metabolic syndrome among our cohort. Increase participation of physical activity across all four domains (including leisure-time activity) should be encouraged. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Household water treatment systems: A solution to the production of safe drinking water by the low-income communities of Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwabi, J. K.; Adeyemo, F. E.; Mahlangu, T. O.; Mamba, B. B.; Brouckaert, B. M.; Swartz, C. D.; Offringa, G.; Mpenyana-Monyatsi, L.; Momba, M. N. B.

    One of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals is to reduce to half by 2015 the number of people, worldwide, who lack access to safe water. Due to the numerous deaths and illnesses caused by waterborne pathogens, various household water treatment devices and safe storage technologies have been developed to treat and manage water at the household level. The new approaches that are continually being examined need to be durable, lower in overall cost and more effective in the removal of the contaminants. In this study, an extensive literature survey was conducted to regroup various household treatment devices that are suitable for the inexpensive treatment of water on a household basis. The survey has resulted in the selection of four household treatment devices: the biosand filter (BSF), bucket filter (BF), ceramic candle filter (CCF) and the silver-impregnated porous pot filter (SIPP). The first three filters were manufactured in a Tshwane University of Technology workshop, using modified designs reported in literature. The SIPP filter is a product of the Tshwane University of Technology. The performance of the four filters was evaluated in terms of flow rate, physicochemical contaminant (turbidity, fluorides, phosphates, chlorophyll a, magnesium, calcium and nitrates) and microbial contaminant ( Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella dysenteriae) removals. The flow rates obtained during the study period were within the recommended limits (171 l/h, 167 l/h, 6.4 l/h and 3.5 l/h for the BSF, BF, CCF and SIPP, respectively). Using standard methods, the results of the preliminary laboratory and field studies with spiked and environmental water samples indicated that all filters decreased the concentrations of contaminants in test water sources. The most efficiently removed chemical contaminant in spiked water was fluoride (99.9%) and the poorest removal efficiency was noted for magnesium (26-56%). A higher performance in chemical

  18. A historical analysis of the evolution of the program efficiency 'Low income households consumers of electrical energy' in the interior of Sao Paulo state; Uma analise historica da evolucao da eficiencia do programa 'Consumidor de baixa renda de energia eletrica' no interior do estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Jose Antonio Siqueira [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computacao. Dept. de Eletronica e Microeletronica], e-mail: siqueira@demic.fee.unicamp.br; Tavares, Mauricio Lopes [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Economia, Administracao e Sociologia], e-mail: mautavar@uol.com.br

    2004-07-01

    An analysis of the criteria used to select the beneficiaries of the federally-funded social program 'Consumidor de baixa renda de energia eletrica (Low Income Households Consumers of Electrical Energy)' in the State of Sao Paulo is presented. The study is based on statistical data obtained from the database of Companhia Paulista de Forca e Luz - CPFL, one of the most important electrical energy distributor in the mentioned region. The concept of 'low income household' is also discussed, based on studies presented by IBGE - Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica and by FIPE - Fundacao Instituto de Pesquisas Economicas, comparing the expected number of low income households with the actual number of consumers who receive the subsidy. (author)

  19. Reducing rural households' annual income fluctuations due to rainfall variation through diversification of wildlife use: portfolio theory in a case study of south eastern Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poshiwa, X.; Groeneveld, R.A.; Heitkonig, I.M.A.; Prins, H.H.T.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2013-01-01

    Annual rural incomes in Southern Africa show large rainfall-induced fluctuations. Variable rainfall has serious implications for agro-pastoral activities (crop cultivation and livestock keeping), whereas wildlife and tourism are less affected. The aim of this paper is to investigate the role of

  20. What explains the differences in income and labour utilisation and drives labour and economic growth in Europe? A GDP accounting perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Gilles Mourre

    2009-01-01

    The paper decomposes GDP both in terms of level per capita and growth rate, so as to identify the sources of income differences and of economic growth for all EU27 member states. This accounting approach has multiple advantages, although a number of substantial caveats should be borne in mind when interpreting the results. In particular, the detailed accounting approach helps distinguish exogenous from policy-influenced growth drivers. The combination of lower per-hour productivity and lower ...

  1. Environmental income and rural livelihoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsen, Arild; Jagger, Pamela; Babigumira, Ronnie

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents results from a comparative analysis of environmental income from approximately 8000 households in 24 developing countries collected by research partners in CIFOR’s Poverty Environment Network (PEN). Environmental income accounts for 28% of total household income, 77% of which...... comes from natural forests. Environmental income shares are higher for low-income households, but differences across income quintiles are less pronounced than previously thought. The poor rely more heavily on subsistence products such as wood fuels and wild foods, and on products harvested from natural...... areas other than forests. In absolute terms environmental income is approximately five times higher in the highest income quintile, compared to the two lowest quintiles....

  2. Income and Wealth Distribution in a Neoclassical Two-Sector Heterogeneous-Households Growth Model with Elastic Labor Supply and Consumer Durable Goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Bin ZHANG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a two-sector two-group growth model with elastic labor supply and consumer durable goods. We study dynamics of wealth and income distribution in a competitive economy with capital accumulation as the main engine of economic growth. The model is built on the Uzawa two-sector model. It is also influenced by the neoclassical growth theory and the post-Keynesian theory of growth and distribution. We plot the motion of the economic system and determine the economic equilibrium. We carry out comparative dynamic analysis with regard to the propensity to save and improvements in human capital and technology.

  3. Food consumption pattern in urban households: The case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show inverse relationship between per caput food consumption expenditure and family size. Consumption expenditure per household however increases with the level of education, household size and income level. Regression analysis results confirm household disposable income to be major determinant of ...

  4. Retirement adequacy goals for South African households | Butler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Household wealth–earnings ratio goals were estimated to be between 10,5 and 18,2 times annual salary depending on retirement age, household composition, income, location, age, education, household income distribution, home ownership and salary support. Considering current retirement savings rates, retirement ...

  5. Effectiveness of interventions to reduce household air pollution and/or improve health in homes using solid fuel in low-and-middle income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quansah, Reginald; Semple, Sean; Ochieng, Caroline A; Juvekar, Sanjar; Armah, Frederick Ato; Luginaah, Isaac; Emina, Jacques

    2017-06-01

    Cookstove intervention programs have been increasing over the past two (2) decades in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) across the globe. However, there remains uncertainty regarding the effects of these interventions on household air pollution concentrations, personal exposure concentrations and health outcomes. The primary objective was to determine if household air pollution (HAP) interventions were associated with improved indoor air quality (IAQ) in households in LMICs. Given the potential impact of HAP interventions on health, a secondary objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of HAP interventions to improve health in populations receiving these interventions. OVID Medline, Ovid Embase, SCOPUS and PubMED were searched from their inception until December 2015 with no restrictions on study design. The WHO Global database of household air pollution measurements and Members' archives were also reviewed together with the reference lists of identified reviews and relevant articles. We considered randomized controlled trials, or non-randomized control trials, or before-and-after studies; original studies; studies conducted in a LMIC (based on the United Nations Human Development Report released in March 2013 (World Bank, 2013); interventions that were explicitly aimed at improving IAQ and/or health from solid fuel use; studies published in a peer-reviewed journal or student theses or reports; studies that reported on outcomes which was indicative of IAQ or/and health. There was no restriction on the type of comparator (e.g. household receiving plancha vs. household using traditional cookstove) used in the intervention study. Five review authors independently used pre-designed data collection forms to extract information from the original studies and assessed risk of bias using the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP). We computed standardized weighted mean difference (SMD) using random-effects models. Heterogeneity was computed using the Q and

  6. Using formative research to develop a nutrition education resource aimed at assisting low-income households in South Africa adopt a healthier diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett-Murphy, K; De Villiers, A; Ketterer, E; Steyn, K

    2015-12-01

    As part of a comprehensive programme to prevent non-communicable disease in South Africa, there is a need to develop public education campaigns on healthy eating. Urban populations of lower socioeconomic status are a priority target population. This study involved formative research to guide the development of a nutrition resource appropriate to the budgetary constraints and information needs of poor households in the major urban centres of South Africa. Twenty-two focus groups were convened to explore the target audience's knowledge, beliefs, attitudes and practices as they related to healthy eating and their views about the proposed nutrition resource (N = 167). A brief questionnaire assessed eating and cooking practices among focus group participants. Key informant interviews with eight dieticians/nutritionists working with this population added to the focus group findings. The research identified important issues to take into account in the development of the resource. These included the need to: directly address prevalent misconceptions about healthy eating and unhealthy eating practices; increase self-efficacy regarding the purchasing and preparation of healthy food; represent diverse cultural traditions and consider the issues of affordability and availability of food ingredients. This study demonstrates the value of using formative research in the design of nutrition-related communication in a multicultural, poor, urban South African setting. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Do rich households live farther away from their workplaces?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutiérrez-i-Puigarnau, Eva; Mulalic, Ismir; Van Ommeren, Jos

    2016-01-01

    One of the classic predictions of urban economic theory is that high-income and low-income households choose different residential locations and therefore, conditional on workplace location, have different commuting patterns. The effect of household income on commuting distance may be positive...

  8. Determinants and Dimensions of Household Food Insecurity in Dire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on primary data collected from 200 household in 2005, this study scrutinizes determinants and the extent of food insecurity in Dire Dawa town. A binary logit model has identified household size, daily income and proportion of expenditure on food, education of household head, sex of household head, access to credit ...

  9. JASR Vol. 3, N0. 1, 2003 55 CASSAVA HOUSEHOLD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cassava, yam and millet food expenditure households in all the anthropometric indices except in maize expenditure households, but the deviations were. significantly less for total food expenditure households. High cassava food expenditure households had higher cash incomes through processed cassava products and.

  10. House ownership, frequency of illness, fathers' education: the most significant socio-demographic determinants of poor nutritional status in adolescent girls from low income households of Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Fatima; Asim, Muhammad; Salim, Shafya; Humayun, Ayesha

    2017-07-11

    Socio demographic factors besides dietary factors play important role in determining the health status of an individual. Health and nutritional Intervention programs stand a greater chance of success if planned, keeping the socio demographic characteristics of a certain population in focus. The present study was conducted to identify those socio demographic determinants which have a significant association with poor nutritional status in adolescent girls belonging to economically deprived households of Lahore. A cross-sectional analytical study of 140 adolescent girls living in the peri urban communities of Lahore was conducted. Socioeconomic and demographic data of the participants was recorded through a pretested questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI), a commonly used anthropometric measurement was taken as an indicator of nutritional status. Below normal (nutritional status with socio-demographic predictors. Stepwise backward logistic regression analysis was then run to identify the most significant determinants associated with poor nutritional status in the adolescents. P nutritional status. Interestingly, the participants who lived in joint families (AOR = 0.411; 95% CI = 0.145 to 1.168) and were more frequently food insecure (AOR = 0.431; 95% CI = 0.164 to 1.133) had lesser odds of having poor nutritional status than those who lived in nuclear families and were food secure. Frequency of illness, house ownership and fathers' education are the determinants positively associated with poor nutritional status of adolescent girls. Food insecurity and joint family structure were negatively associated with poor nutritional status. The study will help in planning interventions for improving nutritional status of adolescent girls by targeting the significant socio demographic determinants of poor nutritional status among this group.

  11. Wildlife Conservation in Zambia: Impacts on Rural Household Welfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richardson, Robert B; Fernandez, Ana; Tschirley, David; Tembo, Gelson

    2012-01-01

    ...), which are buffer zones around national parks. Analysis of data from a nationwide survey of rural households shows that GMAs are positively associated with household income and crop damage from wildlife conflicts...

  12. Household behavior and individual autonomy

    OpenAIRE

    d'Aspremont-Lynden, Claude; Dos Santos Ferreira, Rodolphe

    2009-01-01

    The paper proposes a model of household behavior with both private and public consumption where the spouses independently maximize their utilities, but taking into account, together with their own individual budget constraints, the collective household budget constraint (with public goods evaluated at Lindahl prices). The Lagrange multipliers associated with these constraints are used to parameterize the set of equilibria, in addition to the usual parameterization by income shares. The pr...

  13. Forests beyond income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena

    2013-01-01

    Since the last few decades, there is an increasing recognition of the contribution of forest and environmental resources to rural poverty. Using data from two rural villages in Mozambique, this study aimed to assess the contribution of forest and environmental resources to rural poverty incidence......, depth and severity on the one hand, and the dependency of rural poor and non-poor households on forest and environmental resources on the other. The three variants of the FGT poverty index, with and without forest and environmental income, and the relative shares of each livelihood activities......-poor sample households respectively. With regard to the contribution of forest and environmental resources to rural poverty, dramatic increase in the incidence, depth and severity of poverty were observed when forest and environmental income was excluded from sample households' total income accounting...

  14. Income Inequality and Mental Health

    OpenAIRE

    Grace Lordan; Prasada Rao; Lucy Bechtel

    2012-01-01

    The causal association between absolute income and health is well established, however the relationship between income inequality and health is not. The conclusions from the received studies vary across the region or country studied and/or the methodology employed. Using the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia panel survey, this paper investigates the relationship between mental health and inequality in Australia. A variety of income inequality indices are calculated to test bo...

  15. National and International Income Dispersion and Aggregate Expenditures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Fillat; J.F. François (Joseph)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe examine linkages between aggregate household income, distribution of that income, and aggregate cross-country expenditure patterns. We are able to decompose income effects into international income dispersion effects (from variations in average income) and national income dispersion

  16. Comparison and modeling of households food expenditures in Slovakia with regard to the economic status and job position of the head of household

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kubicová, Ľubica; Nagyová, Ľudmila; Kádeková, Zdenka

    2013-01-01

    .... From the view of the head of household and his job position, paper compares the level and development of real money incomes and food expenditures, in terms of real money incomes quantifies the income...

  17. Household debt and consumption during the financial crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Duus, Charlotte; Jensen, Thais Lærkholm

    2014-01-01

    -housing consumption during the crisis, conditional on a range of other household characteristics. The larger drop in spending among the highly leveraged families reflects that these families consumed a larger fraction of their income than their less-leveraged peers prior to the crisis. But as the crisis unfolded......, this difference in consumption levels between high- and low leverage families vanished. Moreover, we find suggestive evidence that the drop in consumption for the highly leveraged families cannot be fully explained by a contraction in credit supply....

  18. Fuel choices in urban Indian households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farsi, Mehdi; Filippini, Massimo [Centre for Energy Policy and Economics, Department of Management, Technology and Economics, ETH Zurich, Switzerland and Department of Economics, University of Lugano, (Switzerland); Pachauri, Shonali [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, A-2361, Laxenburg, (Austria)

    2007-12-15

    This paper applies an ordered discrete choice framework to model fuel choices and patterns of cooking fuel use in urban Indian households. The choices considered are for three main cooking fuels: firewood, kerosene, and LPG (liquid petroleum gas). The models, estimated using a large microeconomic dataset, show a reasonably good performance in the prediction of households' primary and secondary fuel choices. This suggests that ordered models can be used to analyze multiple fuel use patterns in the Indian context. The results show that lack of sufficient income is one of the main factors that retard households from using cleaner fuels, which usually also require the purchase of relatively expensive equipment. The results also indicate that households are sensitive to LPG prices. In addition to income and price, several socio-demographic factors such as education and sex of the head of the household are also found to be important in determining household fuel choice. (Author).

  19. Power in Households: Disentangling Bargaining Power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Mabsout (Ramzi); I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction Within the household bargaining literature, bargaining power is generally understood in terms of economic resources, such as income or assets. Empirical analyses of women’s bargaining power in households in developed and developing countries find that, in general, higher

  20. Illness, medical expenditure and household consumption: observations from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Kuangnan; Ma, Chi; Jiang, Yefei; Ye, Linglong; Shia, Benchang; Ma, Shuangge

    2013-08-12

    Illness conditions lead to medical expenditure. Even with various types of medical insurance, there can still be considerable out-of-pocket costs. Medical expenditure can affect other categories of household consumptions. The goal of this study is to provide an updated empirical description of the distributions of illness conditions and medical expenditure and their associations with other categories of household consumptions. A phone-call survey was conducted in June and July of 2012. The study was approved by ethics review committees at Xiamen University and FuJen Catholic University. Data was collected using a Computer-Assisted Telephone Survey System (CATSS). "Household" was the unit for data collection and analysis. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted, examining the distributions of illness conditions and the associations of illness and medical expenditure with other household consumptions. The presence of chronic disease and inpatient treatment was not significantly associated with household characteristics. The level of per capita medical expenditure was significantly associated with household size, income, and household head occupation. The presence of chronic disease was significantly associated with levels of education, insurance and durable goods consumption. After adjusting for confounders, the associations with education and durable goods consumption remained significant. The presence of inpatient treatment was not associated with consumption levels. In the univariate analysis, medical expenditure was significantly associated with all other consumption categories. After adjusting for confounding effects, the associations between medical expenditure and the actual amount of entertainment expenses and percentages of basic consumption, savings, and insurance (as of total consumption) remained significant. This study provided an updated description of the distributions of illness conditions and medical expenditure in Taiwan. The findings

  1. Household energy consumption in the United States, 1987 to 2009: Socioeconomic status, demographic composition, and energy services profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Robert J.

    This dissertation examines household energy consumption in the United States over the period of 1987 to 2009, specifically focusing on the role of socioeconomic status, demographic composition, and energy services profiles. The dissertation makes use of four cross-sections from the Residential Energy Consumption Survey data series to examine how household characteristics influence annual energy consumption overall, and by fuel type. Chapter 4 shows that household income is positively related to energy consumption, but more so for combustible fuel consumption than for electricity consumption. Additionally, results for educational attainment suggest a less cross-sectional association and more longitudinal importance as related to income. Demographic composition matters, as predicted by the literature; household size and householder age show predicted effects, but when considered together, income explains any interaction between age and household size. Combustible fuels showed a far greater relationship to housing unit size and income, whereas electricity consumption was more strongly related to educational attainment, showing important differences in the associations by fuel type. Taken together, these results suggest a life course-based model for understanding energy consumption that may be strongly linked to lifestyles. Chapter 5 extends the findings in Chapter 4 by examining the patterning of physical characteristics and behaviors within households. The chapter uses Latent Class Analysis to examine a broad set of energy significant behaviors and characteristics to discover five unique energy services profiles. These profiles are uniquely patterned across demographic and socioeconomic compositions of households and have important effects on energy consumption. These profiles are likely byproducts of the lifestyles in which the household takes part, due to factors such as their socioeconomic status and household demographic composition. Overall, the dissertation

  2. Analysis of the determinants of income and income gap between urban and rural China

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Biwei; Heshmati, Almas

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the determinants of income and urban–rural income gap to shed light on the problem of urban–rural income inequality in China. Ordinary least square (OLS), conditional quantile regression and Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition methods are used to analyze four waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) household data. Results show that education and occupation are essential determinants of households' income level. These two factors exert heterogeneous effects at differe...

  3. Rural Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive survey and subsequent fieldwork, this chapter introduces the socio-economic characteristics and common livelihood strategies of rural households in Quang Nam, Central Vietnam. It demonstrates the basic premise of self-reliance in rural society and the decreasing economic...

  4. Dual Income Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    This paper discusses the principles and practices of dual income taxation in the Nordic countries. The first part of the paper explains the rationale and the historical background for the introduction of the dual income tax and describes the current Nordic tax practices. The second part...... of the paper focuses on the problems of taxing income from small businesses and the issue of corporate-personal tax integration under the dual income tax, considering alternative ways of dealing with these challenges. In the third and final part of the paper, I briefly discuss whether introducing a dual income...

  5. Econometric Analysis Suggests Possible Crowding Out of Public Libraries by Book Superstores among Middle Income Families in the 1990s. A review of: Hemmeter, Jeffrey A. “Household Use of Public Libraries and Large Bookstores.” Library & Information Science Research 28.4 (Sept. 2006: 595–616.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Hall

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine the effect of large bookstores (defined as those having 20 or more employees on household library use. Design – Econometric analysis using crosssectional data sets. Setting – The United States of America. Subjects – People in over 55,000 households across the U.S.A. Methods – Data from three 1996 studies were examined using logit and multinomial logit estimation procedures: the NationalCenter for Education Statistics’ National Household Education Survey (NHES and Public Library Survey (PLS, and the U.S. Census Bureau’s County Business Patterns (CBP. The county level results of the NHEStelephone survey were merged with the county level data from the PLS and the CBP. Additionally, data on Internet use at the state level from the Statistical Abstract of the United States were incorporated into the data set. A logit regression model was used to estimate probability of library use based on several independent variables, evaluated at the mean. Main results – In general, Hemmeter found that "with regard to the impact of large bookstores on household library use, largebookstores do not appear to have an effect on overall library use among the general population” (613. While no significant changes in general library use were found among high and low income households where more large bookstores were present, nor in the population taken as a whole, middle income households (between $25,000 and $50,000 in annual income showed notable declines in library use in these situations. These effects were strongest in the areas of borrowing (200% less likely and recreational purposes (161%, but were also present in workrelated use and job searching. Hemmeter also writes that “poorer households use the library more often for job search purposes. The probability of library use for recreation,work, and consumer information increases as income increases. This effect diminishes as households get richer” (611. Finally, home

  6. Proportion of Households with Low Money Income

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Variable was created as part of a set of indicators that demonstrate links between the condition of natural areas and human concerns and that quantify dependencies...

  7. The dual burden household and the nutrition transition paradox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doak, C.M.; Adair, L.S.; Bentley, M.; Monteiro, C.; Popkin, B.M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to document the prevalence of households with underweight and overweight persons (henceforth referred to as dual burden households) and their association with income and urban residence. The explorations by urban residence and income will test whether dual

  8. INCOME Percent Households by Income in 1999 SDs 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The New Mexico 2000 Unified School Districts layer was derived from the TIGER Line files from the US Census Bureau. The districts are clipped to the state...

  9. INCOME Percent Households by Income in 1999 CTs 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  10. INCOME Households by Income in 1999 NMSD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. INCOME Percent Households by Income in 1999 COS 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  12. INCOME Percent Households by Income in 1999 NMSD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. INCOME Percent Households by Income in 1999 BGs 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  14. The Impact of International Remittance on Poverty, Household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similarly the study found that all remittance receiving households spend part of their remittance income mainly on food and non durable goods. Yet, a good number of households are also used part of it for investment such as health, education and housing. Nevertheless; relatively insignificant number of households save ...

  15. The effect of house prices on household savings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calcagno, R.; Fornero, E.; Rossi, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of a change in real estate wealth on the consumption behaviour of Italian households, using the Bank of Italy's Survey of Household Income and Wealth dataset. We relate annual household consumption to capital gains in housing, controlling for characteristics such as

  16. Demand for non-alcoholic beverages among urban households in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the roles of income, prices and household demography in household demand for non-alcoholic beverages (NABs) in two cities – Abeokuta and Ibadan in Southwest Nigeria. The study was based on primary data obtained from a cross-section of 407 households (211 from Abeokuta and 198 from ...

  17. Microfinance Programs in Uganda: An Analysis of Household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper identifies a model of low-income household participation in microfinance credit programs and the effects on investment behavior from repeated access to these institutions using evidence from household survey data. The primary focus is on changes in household investment behavior, not the assessment of ...

  18. Understanding the role of forests in rural household economies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data analysis was mainly based on a binary probit regression model checked for multicollinearity, heteroscedasticity and specification bias. Forest products accounted for 31% of annual household income. Household location, number of cattle owned, and household size had a positive and significant effect on dependence ...

  19. Sociodemographic patterns of household water-use costs in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xue; Ghasemizadeh, Reza; Padilla, Ingrid; Meeker, John D; Cordero, Jose F; Alshawabkeh, Akram

    2015-08-15

    Variability of household water-use costs across different sociodemographic groups in Puerto Rico is evaluated using census microdata from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS). Multivariate analyses such as multiple linear regression (MLR) and factor analysis (FA) are used to classify, extract and interpret the household water-use costs. The FA results suggest two principal varifactors in explaining the variability of household water-use costs (64% in 2000 and 50% in 2010), which are grouped into a soft coefficient (social, economic and demographic characteristics of household residents, i.e., age, size, income, education) and a hard coefficient (dwelling conditions, i.e., number of rooms, units in the building, building age). The demographic profile of a high water-use household in Puerto Rico tends to be that of renters, people who live in larger or older buildings, people living in metro areas, or those with higher education level and higher income. The findings and discussions from this study will help decision makers to plan holistic and integrated water management to achieve water sustainability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Household and Small Business Across the Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Stame

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Households, which are seen as income pooling units (Wallerstein, Martin, Dickinson 1982, play a crucial role in the world-system analysis. Individuals enjoy income that accrues to their households, a unit embedded in a network of different social relationships among people, kin or not kin, living under the same roof or sharing some important living function. Thus, social relations are seen as ways of obtaining different types of income (wages, rent, pro?t, social exchange, gifts and ways of ensuring different welfare services.

  1. Did household consumption become more volatile?

    OpenAIRE

    Gorbachev, O.

    2011-01-01

    I show that after accounting for predictable variation arising from movements in real interest rates, preferences and income shocks, liquidity constraints and measurement errors, volatility of household consumption in the US increased by 25 percent between 1970 and 2004. The increase was lower than that of volatility of family income. Nonwhite and those with less than 13 years of education, for whom there was no differential increase in income volatility, experienced a significantly larger in...

  2. Family investments in low-income children's achievement and socioemotional functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Francesca; McPherran Lombardi, Caitlin; Dearing, Eric

    2017-12-01

    Family processes and parenting practices help explain developmental differences between children in low- versus higher-income households. There are, however, few studies addressing the question of: what are the key family processes and parenting practices for promoting low-income children's growth? We address this question in the present study, following conceptual work framing family processes and parenting practices as investments in children. Using secondary analyses of longitudinal data on low-income children from birth to age 15 (n = 528), we estimate several potential family investments in achievement and socioemotional outcomes during early childhood, middle childhood, and adolescence. For achievement outcomes, family investments in learning stimulation were consistently the strongest predictors. For socioemotional outcomes, investments in an orderly household and close parental supervision were the most consistent and strongest predictors, even more so than sensitive parenting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. ATTITUDES AND HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS INFLUENCING SOLID WASTE GENERATION: A HOUSEHOLD GARBAGE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Epp, Donald J.; Mauger, Paul C.

    1989-01-01

    A survey of household decision-makers and an analysis of their garbage was used to suggest factors affecting the weight of household contributions to municipal solid waste. Iterative regression was used to build a model from the data that is hypothesized to explain garbage weight. Food expenditure, environmental attitude, consumption of soft drinks in plastic bottles, and cats in the household were significant for all households. Self-sufficiency and energy-conscious behavioral scales also af...

  4. Complexity explained

    CERN Document Server

    Erdi, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This book explains why complex systems research is important in understanding the structure, function and dynamics of complex natural and social phenomena. Readers will learn the basic concepts and methods of complex system research.

  5. How infrastructure and financial institutions affect rural income and poverty: evidence from Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandker, Shahidur R; Koolwal, Gayatri B

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms by which the poor benefit from economic growth remain a topic of debate in development literature. We address this issue in the context of rural Bangladesh, using a pooled dataset of three household panels between 1991-2001. Expansion of irrigation, paved roads, electricity, and access to formal and informal credit have (through different veins) led to higher rural farm and non-farm incomes, accounting for exogenous local agroclimatic endowments that explain a large part of the variation in the growth of infrastructure and credit programmes. However, this has not translated into substantial reductions in poverty for the poorest households.

  6. Measuring the income process in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucciol, A.

    2012-01-01

    We use a panel dataset from the SHIW survey to study the features of household income in Italy. Income is described as a combination of deterministic and random components. In aggregate deterministic income grows at an average annual rate of 1.8% net of inflation, shocks feature stationarity, and

  7. Household factors influencing participation in bird feeding activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Zoe G.; Fuller, Richard A.; Dallimer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    whether and how the socioeconomic background of a household influences participation in food provision for wild birds, the most popular and widespread form of human-wildlife interaction. A majority of households feed birds (64% across rural and urban areas in England, and 53% within five British study...... cities). House type, household size and the age of the head of the household were all important predictors of bird feeding, whereas gross annual household income, the occupation of the head of the household, and whether the house is owned or rented were not. In both surveys, the prevalence of bird...... a week. The proportion of households regularly feeding birds was positively related to the age of the head of the household, but declined with gross annual income. As concerns grow about the lack of engagement between people and the natural environment, such findings are important if conservation...

  8. Making health insurance pro-poor: evidence from a household panel in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipski, Mateusz J; Zhang, Yumei; Chen, Kevin Z

    2015-05-29

    In 2002, China launched the largest public health insurance scheme in the world, the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS). It is intended to enable rural populations to access health care services, and to curb medical impoverishment. Whether the scheme can reach its equity goals depends on how it is used, and by whom. Our goal is to shed light on whether and how income levels affect the ability of members to reap insurance benefits. We exploit primary panel data consisting of a complete census (over 3500 individuals) in three villages in Puding County, Guizhou province, collected in 2004, 2006, 2009 and 2011. Data was collected during in-person interviews with household member(s). The data include yearly gross and net medical expenses for all individuals, and socio-economic information. We apply probit, ordinary least squares, and tobit multivariate regression analyses to the three waves in which NCMS was active (2006, 2009 and 2011). Explained variables include obtainment, levels and rates of NCMS reimbursement. Household income is the main explanatory variable, with household- and individual-level controls. We restrict samples to rule out self-selection, and exploit the 2009 NCMS reform to highlight equity-enhancing features of insurance. Prior to 2009 reforms, higher income in our sample was statistically significantly related to higher probability of obtaining reimbursement, as well as higher levels and rates of reimbursement. These relations all disappear after the reform, suggesting lower-income households were better able to reap insurance benefits after the scheme was reformed. Regression results suggest this is partly explained by reimbursement for chronic diseases. The post-reform NCMS distributed benefits more equitably in our study area. Making health insurance pro-poor may require a focus on outpatient costs, credit constraints and chronic diseases, rather than catastrophic illnesses.

  9. Expectation Returns and Households' Decision in the Schooling of Their Children in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahzad; Lurhathaiopath, Puangkaew; Matsushita, Shusuke

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to study households' expectations for their children's academic performance in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Education has a significant role in increasing the productivity and income level of an individual in a society. Household education, income, distance from school, gender discrimination within household and cost of education…

  10. Microeconomic theory of the household and nutrition programs

    OpenAIRE

    Chernichovsky, Dov*Zangwill, Linda

    1988-01-01

    Lack of food is no longer the major cause of malnutrition. Many households and individuals remain malnourished when income and supplies of food are adequate. Nutrition policy and programs must be based on a sound knowledge of household behaviour patterns. The microeconomic theory of the household focuses on the household's decisionmaking about scarce food resources based upon such considerations as: (i) the size of the family; (ii) the purchasing power of the family; (iii) the availability of...

  11. The effects of improved maize technology on household welfare in Buruku, Benue State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria I. Audu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the welfare effects of improved maize technology in Buruku Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria. The study also examined the determinants of the adoption of improved maize technology. Structured questionnaires were used in collecting the primary data for the study. A multi-stage random technique was used in selecting 125 farm households for the study. The Logit and ordinary least square (OLS models were used in analyzing the data. The OLS results show that adoption of improved maize varieties is positively and significantly related to household welfare and thus has contributed to moving farm households out of poverty. Other variables found to be statistically significant in explaining household welfare are education, household size, and landholding. The Logit results show that age, household size, off-farm income, and education were found to be significant in influencing farmers’ adoption decisions. Some robustness checks were performed with different specifications of the Logit and OLS models as well as re-estimation with propensity matching score approach. Overall, the results are robust to different specifications.

  12. Trends in income inequality, pro-poor income growth and income mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Stephen P.; Van Kerm, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    We provide an analytical framework within which changes in income inequality over time are related to the pattern of income growth across the income range, and the reshuffling of individuals in the income pecking order. We use it to explain how it was possible both for ‘the poor’ to have fared badly relatively to ‘the rich’ in the USA during the 1980s (when income inequality grew substantially), and also for income growth to have been pro-poor. Income growth was also pro-poor in Western Germa...

  13. Explaining the sense of family coherence among husbands and wives: the Israeli case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Liat

    2009-12-01

    This study examined variables belonging to the family environment that explain the sense of family coherence among husbands (n = 133) and wives (n = 133) in Israel. Specifically, the explanatory variables tested were spousal power relations (as expressed in equality in the division of household labor and decision making), and perceived family conflict. In general, the sense of family coherence among spouses was found to be high. Perceived family conflict contributed to explaining the sense of family coherence for both husbands and wives. Equality in the division of household labor and in decision making had a greater impact on husbands than wives. Family coherence correlated negatively with age for husbands and positively with income for wives. The explanatory variables had a greater impact on the sense of family coherence among husbands than among wives.

  14. Why Income Comparison is Rational

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2010-01-01

    A major factor affecting a person s happiness is the gap between their income and their neighbors , independent of their own income. This effect is strongest when the neighbor has moderately higher income. In addition a person s lifetime happiness often follows a "U" shape. Previous models have explained subsets of these phenomena, typically assuming the person has limited ability to assess their own (hedonic) utility. Here I present a model that explains all the phenomena, without such assumptions. In this model greater income of your neighbor is statistical data that, if carefully analyzed, would recommend that you explore for a new income-generating strategy. This explains unhappiness that your neighbor has greater income, as an emotional "prod" that induces you to explore, in accord with careful statistical analysis. It explains the "U" shape of happiness similarly. Another benefit of this model is that it makes many falsifiable predictions.

  15. Environmental resources reduce income inequality and the prevalence, depth and severity of poverty in rural Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chhetri, Bir Bahadur Khanal; Larsen, Helle Overgaard; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the economic importance of environmental income to rural households in Nepal and how environmental income influences poverty and inequality measures. Qualitative contextual information was collected from two village development committees in middle Gorkha District followed...... shortfall as a proportion of poverty lines and the variation in income distribution among households below the poverty lines.......This paper investigates the economic importance of environmental income to rural households in Nepal and how environmental income influences poverty and inequality measures. Qualitative contextual information was collected from two village development committees in middle Gorkha District followed...... by a structured survey of 303 randomly selected households; income data were collected quarterly throughout 2008. Average environmental income was 15.7 % of total household income, ranging from 11.0 to 29.5 %. Environmental reliance decreased with rising income while absolute environmental income increased...

  16. Life time income of men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens

    1992-01-01

    Life-time income is estimated here including the money value of household work. A modified opportunity principle is used, which means that non-employed women's price of time is found by calculating reservation wage rates. The overall results demonstrate that Danish women's ‘loss' of labour income...... during the child caring period is difficult for them to regain, and just to reach the same level of income as childless Danish women seems impossible; furthermore Danish men get a higher life-time income than Danish women even when we add the money value of household work...

  17. SPSS explained

    CERN Document Server

    Hinton, Perry R; Brownlow, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    SPSS Explained provides the student with all that they need to undertake statistical analysis using SPSS. It combines a step-by-step approach to each procedure with easy to follow screenshots at each stage of the process. A number of other helpful features are provided: regular advice boxes with tips specific to each test explanations divided into 'essential' and 'advanced' sections to suit readers at different levels frequently asked questions at the end of each chapter. The first edition of this popular book has been fully updated for IBM SPSS version 21 and also includes: chapters that expl

  18. Human Capital Formation, Income Inequality and Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie); I. Zilcha (Itzhak)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe paper studies the determinants of income distribution and growth in an overlapping generations economy with heterogenous households. Our framework has the following main features: heterogeneity of consumers with respect to wealth and parental human capital; intergenerational

  19. Farm household allocative efficiency : a multi-dimensional perspective on labour use in Western Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Kamau, M.

    2007-01-01

    The economy in western Kenya, like most of the other regions in Kenya is agriculture based with smallholder farm households forming the bulk of the population. While all smallholder households engage in agricultural production to meet their food and cash needs, income earned outside the farm forms a significant component of household income. For these households, labour is the main input in both farm and off-farm activities. This study was motivated by three reasons: Firstly, there are contra...

  20. Household food insecurity and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeer, Kammi K; Piperata, Barbara A

    2017-04-01

    Food insecurity, the lack of consistent access to sufficient quality and quantity of food, affects an estimated 800 million people around the world. Although household food insecurity is generally associated with poor child nutrition and health in the USA, we know less about household food insecurity and child health in developing countries. Particularly lacking is research assessing how associations between household food insecurity and children's health outcomes may differ by child age and among children beyond age 5 years in low-income settings. We use data from a population-based sample of households with children ages 3-11 years (N = 431) in León, Nicaragua to consider how household food insecurity is associated with three measures of child health: illness, anaemia and low height-for-age. Our results provide new evidence that even mild household food insecurity is detrimental to children's health; and that child age conditions the associations between household food insecurity and child health. We find that food insecurity is especially harmful to health during early childhood, but continues to have significant associations with health into middle childhood (up to ages 7-8 years). We discuss the potential implications of these results for future child health research and policies in low-income countries. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Rural Income and Forest Reliance in Highland Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado Córdova, José Pablo; Wunder, Sven; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Börner, Jan

    2013-05-01

    This paper estimates rural household-level forest reliance in the western highlands of Guatemala using quantitative methods. Data were generated by the way of an in-depth household income survey, repeated quarterly between November 2005 and November 2006, in 11 villages ( n = 149 randomly selected households). The main sources of income proved to be small-scale agriculture (53 % of total household income), wages (19 %) and environmental resources (14 %). The latter came primarily from forests (11 % on average). In the poorest quintile the forest income share was as high as 28 %. All households harvest and consume environmental products. In absolute terms, environmental income in the top quintile was 24 times higher than in the lowest. Timber and poles, seeds, firewood and leaf litter were the most important forest products. Households can be described as `regular subsistence users': the share of subsistence income is high, with correspondingly weak integration into regional markets. Agricultural systems furthermore use important inputs from surrounding forests, although forests and agricultural uses compete in household specialization strategies. We find the main household determinants of forest income to be household size, education and asset values, as well as closeness to markets and agricultural productivity. Understanding these common but spatially differentiated patterns of environmental reliance may inform policies aimed at improving livelihoods and conserving forests.

  2. The effect of smallholder livestock production on income of farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the effect of smallholder livestock production on income among farm households in northern Ghana. Questionnaires were administered to 300 household heads and ordinary least squares estimation technique was applied to the dataset. The dependent variable was income and measured by total ...

  3. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    In this paper we estimate the degree, composition and development of geographical income polarization based on data at the individual and municipal level in Denmark from 1984 to 2002. Rising income polarization is reconfirmed when applying new polarization measures, the driving force being greater...... inter municipal income inequality. Counter factual simulations show that rising property prices to a large part explain the rise in polarization. One side-effect of polarization is tendencies towards a parallel polarization of residence location patterns, where low skilled individuals tend to live...

  4. Intra-Household Impacts of Small Farm Commercialization of Maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It led to a gain of financial capital (such as income, purchasing power, improved ... and a loss of human capital (such as less time available for social activities, child ... and accessible, household size, expected profits and primary education.

  5. Islamic microfinance and household welfare nexus: empirical investigation from Pakistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ZahidMahmood, Hafiz; Abbas, Kausar; Fatima, Mehreen

    2017-01-01

    .... This study was conducted to gauge the impact of Islamic microfinance on the household welfare of the target clients by observing its impact on health, education, income, expenditures and assets...

  6. The economic status of older people's households in urban and rural settings in Peru, Mexico and China: a 10/66 INDEP study cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Martin J; Lloyd-Sherlock, Peter; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Uwakwe, Richard; Acosta, Isaac; Liu, Zhaorui; Gallardo, Sara; Guerchet, Maelenn; Mayston, Rosie; de Oca, Veronica Montes; Wang, Hong; Ezeah, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Few data are available from middle income countries regarding economic circumstances of households in which older people live. Many such settings have experienced rapid demographic, social and economic change, alongside increasing pension coverage. Population-based household surveys in rural and urban catchment areas in Peru, Mexico and China. Participating households were selected from all households with older residents. Descriptive analyses were weighted back for sampling fractions and non-response. Household income and consumption were estimated from a household key informant interview. 877 Household interviews (3177 residents). Response rate 68 %. Household income and consumption correlated plausibly with other economic wellbeing indicators. Household Incomes varied considerably within and between sites. While multigenerational households were the norm, older resident's incomes accounted for a high proportion of household income, and older people were particularly likely to pool income. Differences in the coverage and value of pensions were a major source of variation in household income among sites. There was a small, consistent inverse association between household pension income and labour force participation of younger adult co-residents. The effect of pension income on older adults' labour force participation was less clear-cut. Historical linkage of social protection to formal employment may have contributed to profound late-life socioeconomic inequalities. Strategies to formalise the informal economy, alongside increases in the coverage and value of non-contributory pensions and transfers would help to address this problem.

  7. Subjective wellbeing and income: Empirical patterns in the rural developing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-García, Victoria; Babigumira, Ronnie; Pyhälä, Aili; Wunder, Sven; Zorondo-Rodríguez, Francisco; Angelsen, Arild

    2016-01-01

    A commonality in the economics of happiness literature is that absolute income matters more for the subjective wellbeing of people at low income levels. In this article, we use a large sample of people in rural areas of developing countries with relatively low income levels to test whether subjective wellbeing an increasing function of absolute income in our sample, and to analyze the existence of adaptation and social comparison effects on subjective wellbeing. Our sample includes 6973 rural households in 23 countries throughout Asia, Africa, and Latin America. The average total income per adult equivalent in our sample was US$1555, whereas levels of subjective wellbeing resembled levels found in previous research using cross-country data. We find that, despite low levels of absolute income, levels of subjective wellbeing of our respondents resemble levels found in previous research using cross-country data. We also find remarkable similarities in many of the determinants of subjective wellbeing previously tested. Our data show that absolute income covariates with subjective wellbeing, but -as for richer samples- the magnitude of the association is lower once we control for adaptation and social comparison. Finally, our results suggest that social comparison has a stronger effect than adaptation in explaining the subjective wellbeing of our sample. Our findings highlight the importance of adaptation and social comparison even at low levels of absolute income. PMID:27642259

  8. How Does Mortgage Debt Affect Household Consumption? Micro Evidence from China

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Ying; Yavas, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    The high growth rate of mortgage debt in various emerging and developed economies has captured headlines following the financial crisis. In this paper, we investigate how mortgage debt impacts household consumption behavior and various components of household consumption. Utilizing a comprehensive household survey data from China, we show that households with a mortgage consume a higher portion of their income than households without a mortgage. This is in line with the argument that having a...

  9. Economic Growth, Rural Educational Investment and the Level and Distribution of Rural Incomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiani, Reena Chandu

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines two related questions. First, it estimates the effect of growth in the demand for skilled and unskilled labor on rural household incomes and the rural wage structure. Second, it examines the effect of growth in household incomes and in labor market returns to education on household educational investment. The…

  10. Expected Versus Realized Income Changes : A Test of the Rational Expectation Hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, J.W.M.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2000-01-01

    We analyze answers to household survey questions on whether the respondents' household income has changed in the past twelve months, and on whether the respondents expect their household income to change in the next twelve months. Both questions are answered on a discrete five points scale.The data

  11. The role of urban agriculture for food security in low income areas in Nairobi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwangi, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper, which is based on research carried out among 210 households in Nairobi (Kenya) in 1994, examines the role of urban agriculture in household food security among low-income urban households. It determines the different strategies the low-income population of Nairobi deploys in order to

  12. Determinants of Thailand household healthcare expenditure: the relevance of permanent resources and other correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunade, Albert A; Suraratdecha, Chutima; Benson, David A

    2010-03-01

    Several papers in the leading health economics journals modeled the determinants of healthcare expenditure using household survey or family budgets data of developed countries. Past work largely used self-reported current income as the core determinant, whereas the theoretically correct concept of household resource constraint is permanent or long-run income (á lá Milton Friedman). This paper strives to rectify the theoretical oversight of using current income by augmenting the model with household asset. Using longitudinal data, we constructed 'wealth index' as a distinct covariate to capture the households' tendency to liquidate assets when defraying necessary healthcare liabilities after exhausting cash incomes. (Current income and assets together capture the household expanded resource base). Using 98 632 household observations from Thailand Socio-Economic Surveys (1994-2000 biennial data cycles) we found, using a double-hurdle model with dependent errors, that out-of-pocket healthcare spending behaves as a technical necessity across income quintiles and household sizes. Pre-1997 economic shock income elasticities are smaller than the post-shock estimates across income quintiles for large and small households. Proximity to death, median age, and assets are also among other significant determinants. Our novel findings extend the theoretical consistency of a multi-level decision model in household healthcare expenditure in the developing Asian country context. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Determinants of Household Food Security in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Ayu Mutiah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Food security at household level is a very important precondition to foster the national and regional food security. Many people migrate to urban areas in the hope of improving their welfare. Generally people think that in the city there are more opportunities, but the opposite is true. The problem is more complex in the city especially for people who do not have adequate skills and education. This study aims to address whether  age of household head, household size, education level of household head, income, and distribution of subsidized rice policy affect the food security of urban poor households in Purbalingga district. A hundred respondents were selected from four top villages in urban areas of Purbalingga with the highest level of poverty. Using binary logistic regression, this study finds significant positive effect of education of household head and household income and significant negative effect of household size and raskin on household food security, while age of household head has no significant effect on household food security. The results imply the need for increased awareness of family planning, education, improved skills, and increased control of the implementation of subsidized rice for the poor.

  14. Household Food Security Study Summaries. 2001 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seavey, Dorie; Sullivan, Ashley F.

    This report provides the most recent data on the food security of United States households. Based on studies using the Food Security Core Module (FSCM), a tool facilitating direct documentation of the extent of food insecurity and hunger caused by income limitations, this report summarizes 35 studies representing 20 states and Canada. The report…

  15. Rising food prices and household food security

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For many South Africans a healthy, balanced diet is elusive. Food security in both urban and rural South Africa is heavily dependent on cash incomes for household purchase of food for consumption,1 which, in a context of high unemployment, is largely reliant on social grants.2 This safety net does not reach all those ...

  16. The Impact of Microfinance on Household Welfare in Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that access to credit enables the rural poor households to enhance their productive capacity with potential implications ... in BRAC microfinance programme had more income and owned more assets than the non- participants. ... increased household expenditures, more assets and better coping mechanisms in lean periods.

  17. A study of institutional environment and household food security at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cntaganda

    local level food security more sustainable which includes, among others, the orientation of the households well into the new modes of agricultural production and planning of household income. The need for much more local level institutional support in many areas is highlighted. On the whole, the study addressed the ...

  18. an assessment of household energy types, sources, uses and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    xtz

    household expenditure on the various energy types/sources for the study area was evaluated at about. 10496640 FRS CFA (US$ 20993). ... the household income expenditure patterns and domestic energy demands (Kantai 2002). .... Molyko II, which is a student residential area, was observed to depend solely on electrical ...

  19. Savings behaviour when households have an access to occupational pensions

    OpenAIRE

    Kalvarskaia, Maria

    2003-01-01

    The problem discussed in the paper is savings behaviour of households. Savings are introduced as a function of several variables, which are supposed to influence the process of decision-making. The main factors in the model are income of household, age of husband as a characteristic of household s age structure and occupational pensions eligible to the spouses. Since this paper is a part of the pension project special emphasis is placed on the interconnection between savings and two types of ...

  20. Determinants of US Household Debt: New Evidence from the SCF

    OpenAIRE

    Wildauer, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the factors driving US household borrowing up to 2007. Two popular explanations are tested: First, the expenditure cascades hypothesis based on the assumption of debt-financed expenditures driven by an increasingly polarised distribution of income (‘keeping up with the Joneses’) and second, the hypothesis of Minskyian households which identifies climbing real estate prices as the decisive factor in household debt accumulation (re-mortgaging in order to cash in on capit...

  1. The development of income and income differentiation in the Czech Republic according to the EU SILC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Přikrylová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The report deals with a brief description of the EU SILC (European Union – Statistics on Income and Living Conditions statistical enquiry, which is pursued by the Czech Statistical Office accordingly to the European Union methodical instructions. The survey sampling proceeds in order to coordinate the methodical procedures in all EU countries according to the Regulation (EC 1177/2003; and in the long term, it is meant to acquire the data on the income and social situation of inhabitants. The survey enables to obtain the representative data on the particular types of households income distributions, the way, quality and financial claims of living, the household equipment of things for long-time usage. Every year the survey is extended by the households living conditions modulus.The object of the paper concerns the delimitation of Czech households income levels in the years of 2005–2008 with the basic income characteristics quantification. The primary data of EU SILC survey conducted in the years of 2005–2008 were used for the income and income differentiation analysis. The Czech economics development after the period of transformation refers to a low income differentiation, therefore the basic methodical tools of income differentiation (Gini coefficient, income deciles analysis, Theil index, Robin Hood index will be used to prove such a matter of fact. The attention will be paid to the delimitation of the main factors influencing the income differentiation. The poverty and households endangered by poverty present a frequent topic of proffesional and laic discussions. The basic tools for the poverty level determination will be applicated in the paper, as well as the low income group analysis in particular years with the principal characteristics delimitation. The typical sign of a low income group presents social security benefits, whose structure will be introduced in the paper. At the close, we will approach to the EU SILC survey results

  2. Levels and Trends in United States Income and Its Distribution A Crosswalk from Market Income Towards a Comprehensive Haig-Simons Income Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Armour; Richard V. Burkhauser; Jeff Larrimore

    2013-01-01

    Recent research on United States levels and trends in income inequality vary substantially in how they measure income. Piketty and Saez (2003) examine market income of tax units based on IRS tax return data, DeNavas-Walt, Proctor, and Smith (2012) and most CPS-based research uses pre-tax, post-transfer cash income of households, while the CBO (2012) uses both data sets and focuses on household size-adjusted comprehensive income of persons, including taxable realized capital gains. This paper ...

  3. The effect of family income during childhood on later-life attainment: evidence from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Stephen P.; Schluter, Christian

    2002-01-01

    We examine the impact of family income during childhood on the type of secondary school that German children attend, a good indicator of their lifetime socioeconomic attainment. By contrast with several US child outcome studies, we find that late-childhood income is a more important determinant of outcomes than early-childhood income, and income effects are not greater for poor households compared to rich households, other things equal. The income effects are small for native-born German chil...

  4. Income Inequality, Status Seeking, and Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Ye; Wu, Binzhen; Li, Hongbin

    2010-01-01

    Using the Chinese urban household survey data between 1997 and 2006, we find that income inequality has a negative (positive) impact on households’ consumption (savings), even after we control for family income. We argue that people save to improve their social status when social status is associated with pecuniary and non-pecuniary benefits. Rising income inequality can strengthen the incentives of status-seeking savings by increasing the benefit of improving status and enlarging the wealth ...

  5. Household expenditures as a measure of socioeconomic status among Iraqis displaced in Jordan and Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, James R; Doocy, Shannon; Frattaroli, Shannon; McGready, John

    2012-01-01

    Various measures are used to represent socioeconomic status (SES) in health research, including income. However, reliability of income data can be low. Household expenditures are an accepted proxy for income as a more reliable measure but have been studied little in refugee populations. Health and SES measures from cross-sectional surveys of Iraqi refugees in Jordan and Syria were analyzed using logistic regression to assess the interchangeability of household income and expenditures. In Jordan, odds ratios in the regression models including income quartiles were frequently similar to odds ratios found in the models including expenditure quartiles, indicating interchangeability. In Syria, fewer similarities were observed. This study provides some evidence that household expenditures may be used interchangeably with household income for some populations, allowing for the potential collection and use of data related to expenditures as a measure of SES, similar in importance to that of income.

  6. A household perspective on access to health care in the context of HIV and disability: a qualitative case study from Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braathen, Stine Hellum; Sanudi, Lifah; Swartz, Leslie; Jürgens, Thomas; Banda, Hastings T; Eide, Arne Henning

    2016-04-01

    Equitable access to health care is a challenge in many low-income countries. The most vulnerable segments of any population face increased challenges, as their vulnerability amplifies problems of the general population. This implies a heavy burden on informal care-givers in their immediate and extended households. However, research falls short of explaining the particular challenges experienced by these individuals and households. To build an evidence base from the ground, we present a single case study to explore and understand the individual experience, to honour what is distinctive about the story, but also to use the individual story to raise questions about the larger context. We use a single qualitative case study approach to provide an in-depth, contextual and household perspective on barriers, facilitators, and consequences of care provided to persons with disability and HIV. The results from this study emphasise the burden that caring for an HIV positive and disabled family member places on an already impoverished household, and the need for support, not just for the HIV positive and disabled person, but for the entire household. Disability and HIV do not only affect the individual, but the whole household, immediate and extended. It is crucial to consider the interconnectedness of the challenges faced by an individual and a household. Issues of health (physical and mental), disability, employment, education, infrastructure (transport/terrain) and poverty are all related and interconnected, and should be addressed as a whole in order to secure equity in health.

  7. The mediating role of social capital in the association between neighbourhood income inequality and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenbach, Joreintje D; Lakerveld, Jeroen; van Oostveen, Yavanna; Compernolle, Sofie; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Bárdos, Helga; Rutter, Harry; Glonti, Ketevan; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charreire, Helene; Brug, Johannes; Nijpels, Giel

    2017-04-01

    Neighbourhood income inequality may contribute to differences in body weight. We explored whether neighbourhood social capital mediated the association of neighbourhood income inequality with individual body mass index (BMI). A total of 4126 adult participants from 48 neighbourhoods in France, Hungary, the Netherlands and the UK provided information on their levels of income, perceptions of neighbourhood social capital and BMI. Factor analysis of the 13-item social capital scale revealed two social capital constructs: social networks and social cohesion. Neighbourhood income inequality was defined as the ratio of the amount of income earned by the top 20% and the bottom 20% in a given neighbourhood. Two single mediation analyses-using multilevel linear regression analyses-with neighbourhood social networks and neighbourhood social cohesion as possible mediators-were conducted using MacKinnon's product-of-coefficients method, adjusted for age, gender, education and absolute household income. Higher neighbourhood income inequality was associated with elevated levels of BMI and lower levels of neighbourhood social networks and neighbourhood social cohesion. High levels of neighbourhood social networks were associated with lower BMI. Results stratified by country demonstrate that social networks fully explained the association between income inequality and BMI in France and the Netherlands. Social cohesion was only a significant mediating variable for Dutch participants. The results suggest that in some European urban regions, neighbourhood social capital plays a large role in the association between neighbourhood income inequality and individual BMI.

  8. Education modifies the association of wealth with obesity in women in middle-income but not low-income countries: an interaction study using seven national datasets, 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitsi-Selmi, Amina; Bell, Ruth; Shipley, Martin J; Marmot, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    Education and wealth may have different associations with female obesity but this has not been investigated in detail outside high-income countries. This study examines the separate and inter-related associations of education and household wealth in relation to obesity in women in a representative sample of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The seven largest national surveys were selected from a list of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) ordered by decreasing sample size and resulted in a range of country income levels. These were nationally representative data of women aged 15-49 years collected in the period 2005-2010. The separate and joint effects, unadjusted and adjusted for age group, parity, and urban/rural residence using a multivariate logistic regression model are presented. In the four middle-income countries (Colombia, Peru, Jordan, and Egypt), an interaction was found between education and wealth on obesity (P-value for interaction education the wealth effect was positive whereas in the group with higher education it was either absent or inverted (negative). In the poorer countries (India, Nigeria, Benin), there was no evidence of an interaction. Instead, the associations between each of education and wealth with obesity were independent and positive. There was a statistically significant difference between the average interaction estimates for the low-income and middle-income countries (Peducation may protect against the obesogenic effects of increased household wealth as countries develop. Further research could examine the factors explaining the country differences in education effects.

  9. Income and Well-Being: Relative Income and Absolute Income Weaken Negative Emotion, but Only Relative Income Improves Positive Emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Zonghuo; Chen, Li

    2016-01-01

    Whether relative income or absolute income could affect subjective well-being has been a bone of contention for years. Life satisfaction and the relative frequency of positive and negative emotions are parts of subjective well-being. According to the prospect theory, hedonic adaptation helps to explain why positive emotion is often so hard to be maintained, and negative emotion wouldn’t be easy to be eliminated. So we expect the relationship between income and positive emotion is different fr...

  10. Risk, opportunities and reasons of the household debt changes: The case of an emerging economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisimogang Tracy Seane

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, household debt in both developed and developing countries have been increasing. With an increase in the standard of living, household debt is also bound to increase. This paper examines the cointergation and causal link among household disposable income, household savings, debt service ratio, lending interest rate, consumer price index and household debt in South Africa. An Autoregressive Distributed Lag and Granger causality techniques was used to analyse data collected from the South African Reserve Bank and Quantec from 1984 to 2014. The results of Autoregressive Distributed Lag test revealed cointegrating relationships between household debt and debt service ratio as well as household debt and lending interest rate. However, there is no long run cointegrating relationship between household disposable income, household savings and consumer price index with household debt. The Granger causality results revealed that household disposable income, household savings, debt service ratio, lending interest rate, consumer price index do Granger cause household debt in South Africa. Policy makers should thus target these variables in order to reduce household debt in South Africa

  11. SELLING CANANG SARI (As an Alternative of Effort in Informal Sector to overcome household economics problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desak Putu Eka Nilakusmawati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Decrease in family income represent an impact of economic pressures, as an effect of economic crisis. Other side, the existing problems that extension of the job opportunity in the urban area with existence of development in the various sector do not absorb entire labour force which is progressively growing larger its amount.Economic problem force woman of lower economic class to involved take part in earning for increase family income by working beyond domestic sectors. Involvement of woman in labor market trigered by family’s economic problems, besides existence of the job opportunity factor. Alternative effort being carried out is by selling canang.Increasing of urban community activities in Denpasar City makes them have no time to make banten or canang. To find an easier way to overcome this situation, many people tend to buy canang/banten which is ready to use, also more practical and spent less time than the time spent when they make by themselves . This phenomenon gives a chance to canang sellers to get income additional. In the difficult condition of the economics problem, many woman have to take part to overcome economic problems which they face. One of the alternative is involved into labour market, and involve in trade is one of the choice. Because of the existence of opportunity as explained above, many women overcome their economic problems and try to give contribution to their family income by selling the canang.Phenomenon more and more canang sellers which are spread alongside the road side in Denpasar City shown that the informal sector have a great role to maintaining and also improving household economics. The effort as the canang seller can represent an alternative of effort in informal sector to overcome economics problem in the household level. Roles of woman as a subject of this informal sector, have a big contribution in maintaining household economics.

  12. The determinants of agricultural productivity and rural household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims at investigating the determinants of agricultural productivity and rural household income in Ethiopia. Three econometric models namely: Pooled ordinary least square (POLS), fixed effects (FE) and random effects (RE) model were used to examine the relationship between productivity and income; using ...

  13. Household size in Ethiopia: variations and some recent correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, M; Hailemariam, A

    1986-10-01

    This analysis of household size in Ethiopia during 1965-84 indicates that conditions did not have the same effect on rural and urban areas at the regional level. Household size fluctuated during the study period. Analysis of variance of household size in 1964 and 1984 among urban and rural areas indicates that overall variation in household size was explained by type of residence, the Awraja, and the region. There were significant differences between rural and urban areas, between the 75 Awrajas, and between the 12 regions. Over the study period, rural areas had decreases in household size, whereas in urban areas and the regions of Gojam, Gonder, and Keffa, which were least affected by famines, household size increased. It is suggested that rural-to-urban migration during periods of famine accounted for the increased household size and temporal changes. Mortality increase and migration due to famine in rural areas reduced household size. During 1970-80, in rural areas, the relative number of small households decreased from 37.3% to 31.5%. The proportion of large households increased from 15.5% to 20.5%. A comparison of household size in Addis Ababa and rural areas around 1980 indicates that the proportion of large households in the city vs. rural areas was similar. The largest differences were in the proportion of small and medium households. The city had more small households, and rural areas had more medium households. Only in 1965 were the differences in average household size between rural and urban areas statistically significant. It appears that household size over time varied with the size of urban centers. Larger urban centers had a greater proportion of large family sizes. Urban household size was larger in all regions in 1984 compared to 1965. Gains were largest in Shoa and Gojam regions and smallest in Arssi and Illubabor. In 1984 average household size was 5.2 in Addis Ababa and 4.3 for the nation.

  14. Tax Filing and Other Financial Behaviors of EITC-Eligible Households: Differences of Banked and Unbanked

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Younghee; Livermore, Michelle; Davis, Belinda Creel

    2011-01-01

    Holding a bank account is crucial to the income-maximizing and asset-building of households. This study uses 2008 survey data of EITC-eligible households assisted at Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA) sites to document their tax filing behavior and use of Alternate Financial Services (AFS). Specifically, the differences in tax filing and AFS…

  15. Household level determinants of food insecurity in rural areas of dire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, estimated coefficients of number of oxen owned and dependency ratio showed theoretically inconsistent and statistically insignificant effect on the probability of household to be food insecure.. Estimated coefficients of sex of household head, total off-farm income, education of household head and amount of food ...

  16. 77 FR 26245 - Household Water Well System Grant Program Announcement of Application Deadlines and Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... with low to moderate incomes finance the costs of household water wells that they own or will own. The... Rural Utilities Service Household Water Well System Grant Program Announcement of Application Deadlines... in grant funds to be competitively awarded for the Household Water Well System (HWWS) Grant Program...

  17. Health shocks, coping strategies and foregone healthcare among agricultural households in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.E.J. Bonfrer (Igna); E. Gustafsson-Wright (Emily)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractRisks are a central part of life for households in low-income countries and health shocks in particular are associated with poverty. Formal mechanisms protecting households against the financial consequences of shocks are largely absent, especially among poor rural households. Our aim is

  18. Income sources and their relation to wildlife poaching in Ugalla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing the livelihood contributions of different sources of income in light of wildlife poaching is vital to conservation effort. The heads of households in villages bordering Ugalla Game Reserve (an integral component of Ugalla ecosystem) were interviewed to obtain data on poaching and income sources. Income from ...

  19. Impact of Education on the Income of Different Social Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Changjun; Liu, Yanping

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates, statistically and econometrically, the income level, income inequality, education inequality, and the relationship between education and income of different social groups, on the basis of the Chinese Urban Household Survey conducted in 2005, the Gini coefficient and the quartile regression method. Research findings…

  20. Income Distribution and Inequality in Lesotho: The Case of Lorenz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper analyses the income inequality in Lesotho districts using Household Budget Surveys of 1994/95 and 2002/03. Lorenz curves are used to measure the degree of income inequality in each district. The results show that the income inequality declined in most districts between the two survey periods except in ...

  1. The Impact of Crisis on Household Savings Behavior in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio do Amaral Gurgel Carneiro de Oliv

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study used data from the Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF for 2007 and 2013 in order to examine the propensity to savings of American households in the pre- and post-economic crisis, based on the two-period consumption/savings model by Bowman, Minehart and Rabin (1999. This model assumes there is an asymmetry in agents' savings behavior in response to positive and negative shocks in the income. The results obtained by logistic regression suggest that economic crisis has increased the relevance of factors such as number of children, age, education level, income and economic uncertainty, while equity, financial risk tolerance, investment horizon, health and home ownership were factors that lost relevance. The evidence suggests that events with the magnitude of the 2008 crisis may lead to changes in the financial behavior of agents who are not entirely explained by the financial impacts suffered.

  2. American Exceptionalism in Market Income Inequality: An Analysis Based on Microdata from the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS) Database

    OpenAIRE

    Gornick, Janet; Milanovic, Branko; Johnson, Nathaniel

    2017-01-01

    The US has exceptionally high inequality of disposable household income. Among working-age households (those with no persons over age 60), that high level of inequality is caused by a high level of market income inequality (i.e., income before taxes and transfers), paired with a moderate level of redistribution. In this paper, we look more deeply at market income inequality, focusing on its main component – labor income – across a group of 24 OECD countries. We disaggregate the working-age po...

  3. DIFFERENTIATION OF WELFARE OF RURAL HOUSEHOLDS IN POLAND IN 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Hanusik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research in focus was the material welfare of households. In particular, there were analysed the level and differentiation of the welfare of rural households in 2012, after more than twenty years of developing of market economy in Poland. In addition, there was examined the relationship between income, consumer spending and household equipment and the level and differentiation of measures of the welfare distinguished by the criterion of the main sources of income of households groups. In the study both econometrical and statistical analysis was used. The study was based on primarily source of information coming from the panel study of household budgets conducted by the Central Statistical Office, as well as the data contained in the statistical yearbooks of the Republic of Poland.

  4. Evolution of Consumption Volatility for the Liquidity Constrained Households over 1983 to 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Gorbachev, Olga; Dogra, Keshav

    2009-01-01

    We study whether the increased income uncertainty in the US over the last quarter-century had a negative impact on household welfare by looking at variability of household consumption growth. We are particularly interested in understanding the effect of greater uncertainty on the liquidity constrained households. We study the evolution of liquidity constraints in the US in thePanel Study of Income Dynamics, greatly extending Jappelli et al. [1998] methodology on how to construct such measures...

  5. Socio-economic status and body mass index in low-income Mexican adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Lia C H

    2007-05-01

    The study reported here explored the associations of body mass index (BMI), socio-economic status (SES), and beverage consumption in a very low-income population. A house-to-house survey was conducted in 2003 of 12,873 Mexican adults. The sample was designed to be representative of the poorest communities in seven of Mexico's 31 states. Greater educational attainment was significantly associated with higher BMI and a greater prevalence of overweight (25 < or = BMI<30) and obesity (30 < or = BMI) in men and women. The combined prevalence of overweight and obesity was over 70% in women greater than the median age of 35.4 years with at least some primary education compared with a prevalence of 45% in women below the median age with no education. In both sexes, BMI was positively correlated with education, occupation, quality of housing conditions, household assets, and subjective social status. BMI and household income were significantly correlated in women but not in men. In the models including all SES variables, education, occupation, housing conditions and household assets all contributed independently and significantly to BMI, and household income and subjective social status did not. Increased consumption of alcoholic and carbonated sugar beverages was associated with higher SES and higher BMI. Thus, in spite of the narrow range of socio-economic variability in this population, the increased consumption of high calorie beverages may explain the positive relationship between SES and BMI. The positive associations between SES and BMI in this low-income, rural population are likely to be related to the changing patterns of food availability, food composition, consumption patterns and cultural factors. Contextually sensitive population-level interventions are critically needed to address obesity and overweight in poor populations, particularly in older women.

  6. Household costs of leprosy reactions (ENL in rural India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Chandler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL is a common immune-mediated complication of lepromatous (LL and borderline lepromatous (BL leprosy. Most patients experience chronic or multiple acute ENL over many years during an economically active period of their lives. Understanding the economic burden of ENL is essential to provide effective patient support, yet this area has not been investigated.Ninety-one patients with LL or BL leprosy attending a leprosy hospital in Purulia district of West Bengal, India, were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Cases (n = 53 were identified as those who had one or more episodes of ENL within the last 3 years. Controls (n = 38 had LL or BL leprosy but no history of ENL. Data were collected on household income, direct and indirect costs, and coping strategies.The total household cost was Rs 1543 per month or 27.9% (IQR 13.2-52.6 of monthly household income for cases, and Rs 237 per month or 4.9% (IQR 1.7-13.4 of monthly household income for controls. Indirect costs accounted for 65% of total household costs for cases. Direct costs accounted for the remaining 35% of household costs, and resulted almost entirely from treatment-seeking in the private sector. Total household costs exceeded 40% of household income for 37.7% of cases (n = 20 and 2.6% of controls (n = 1 [1 USD = 59 INR].Households affected by ENL face significant economic burden and are at risk of being pushed further into poverty. Health policy should acknowledge the importance of private sector provision and the significant contribution to total household costs of lost productivity (indirect cost. Further work is needed to explore this area and identify solutions.

  7. Income Diversification: A Strategy for Rural Region Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhong Wan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent literature shows that income diversification is an important strategy for rural households to manage drought risk in arid and semiarid regions. This article examines whether income diversification can help rural households to overcome the adverse impact of drought in Northern China. Based on field interview data from 291 rural households in 13 townships of Northern China, we found that rural households tend to have a more diversified portfolio of income; the spatial location of rural households determines the type and number of income sources, the degree of income diversification, and the income combinations, especially under the context of frequent drought strikes. These results indicate that income diversification could help rural households to reduce the adverse impact of drought, enhance their resistance and resilience to drought, and make their livelihood system more stable. Income diversification not only is a useful strategy in terms of managing disaster risk and improving social welfare, but also may offer a new perspective for the research of vulnerability, resilience, and adaptive ability of rural social-ecosystem.

  8. Impact of ill-health on household consumption in Sri Lanka: Evidence from household survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumara, Ajantha Sisira; Samaratunge, Ramanie

    2017-12-01

    With significant increases in chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in recent years, Sri Lanka has witnessed a growing trend of increased out-of-pocket payments for healthcare, imposing a severe burden on household budgets. This is exacerbated by limited government health funding and inadequate financial security from formal social security. We examine the association of NCD-prevalence and healthcare utilization with household consumption, using the most recent Sri Lanka Household Income and Expenditure Survey 2012/2013. The unit of analysis is the household. We use data for 20,535 households to apply two-part models. Findings suggest that financial constraints induced by NCD-prevalence and hospitalization compel households primarily to sacrifice food consumption. Analysis further shows that poorer households are more vulnerable to food insecurity arising from these. Households sacrifice the basic needs of housing and clothing, and the burden on poorer households is higher, whereas richer households have the option of sacrificing more from non-basic needs to cope with NCDs and hospitalization and thereby to secure basic needs to a certain extent. Moreover, the burden of out-of-pocket healthcare expenses is found to be positively associated with NCDs and hospitalization. In addition to the direct association, public hospitalization favorably moderates the associations between NCDs and the allocations for food and healthcare. Private hospitalization is adversely associated with a wider range of consumption, creating negative welfare consequences. These findings provide valuable information on what needs to be done to reform Sri Lanka's health sector. The study contributes to international discussions on frameworks and national-level policies for effectively allocating public and private funds to the health sector to mitigate hardships faced by the poorest households. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Trends in the Gender Wealth Gap Among Single Households in Australia, 2002-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Siobhan Austen; Rachel Ong; Sherry Bawa; Therese Jefferson

    2013-01-01

    This study uses three wealth modules from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey to explore the gender wealth gap for single Australian households between 2002 and 2010. The findings indicate significant gender wealth gaps, which have increased over the last decade. The wealth gap increased for younger and mid-life cohorts of Australian single households and for households in the mid-range of the wealth distribution. Most of the increase in the wealth gap was associated...

  10. Influence of education on living conditions of households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Stávková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of the effect of education on the income situation of households and inhabitants’ living standards. The increasing number of inhabitants with higher levels of education provides conditions for the creation and development of the knowledge or information society. Knowledge society is a society where an individual is able to seek information in information sources, to process and use the found information creatively and to consider knowledge one of the essential factors of life quality. In this society, the significance of education increases and the utilization of scientific findings becomes the key source of the society’s competitiveness. Its characteristic feature is the structure of GDP reflecting a growing proportion of knowledge assets in contrast to physical capital. Education and work of educated people are essential factors of economic development. It is desirable that the society has an implemented system of valuation for educated people by means of financial rewards. This paper aims to provide information about the income situation of households in dependence on particular levels of education: the primary education, two types of secondary education and tertiary education.The source for the analysis of the effect of the achieved level of education on the income situation of households is the results of the survey conducted by EU-SILC (European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions in 2005–2009. The level of education of a household was determined based on the level of education of the household member with the highest income – the head of household.The analysis focused on the number of households in the Czech Republic (CR with the specified achieved level of education and their income situation. The income situation is determined by middle values (mean and median, differentiation and development between 2005 and 2009, which was the period of economic development but also an economic

  11. Childhood income volatility and adult outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Bradley L

    2014-10-01

    Using data linked across generations in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, I estimate the relationship between exposure to volatile income during childhood and a set of socioeconomic outcomes in adulthood. The empirical framework is an augmented intergenerational income mobility model that includes controls for income volatility. I measure income volatility at the family level in two ways: (1) instability as measured by squared deviations around a family-specific mean; and (2) instability as percentage changes of 25 % or more. Volatility enters the model both separately and interacted with income level. I find that family income volatility during childhood has a modest negative association with educational attainment. Volatility has a smaller descriptive role in explaining intergenerational outcomes relative to permanent income. Across the income distribution, the negative association between volatility exposure and educational attainment is largest for young adults from moderate-income families.

  12. Household Financial Distress and Initial Endowments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsson, Arna

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies in utero exposure to the 2008 financial crisis. Exploiting the sudden and unexpected collapse of the Icelandic economy, I find that first-trimester exposure to the crisis led to a sizable and significant reduction in birth weight, increased the probability of a low birth weight...... – because children with worse health at birth can expect substantially lower lifetime earnings – and suggest that economic hardships may in general exacerbate income inequalities in the long run as low-income households are typically more exposed to financial distress....

  13. Income, Family Context, and Self-Regulation in 5-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengying; Riis, Jenna L; Ghazarian, Sharon R; Johnson, Sara B

    Self-regulation (SR) is a core aspect of child development with enduring effects on health and wellbeing across the lifespan. Early childhood poverty may shape SR development. This study examined the cross-sectional relationship among family income, family context, and SR in 5-year-old children. A total of 140 five-year-old children and their mothers participated in the study. Children completed a battery of SR tasks; mothers completed questionnaires. Cognitive and emotional SR composite scores were generated based on a principal component analysis of the SR tasks. The SR scores were first regressed on family income (in 10 levels ranging from income was associated with 0.04 SD increase in emotional SR (p = .32) and 0.08 SD increase in cognitive SR (p = .01). In fully adjusted models, exposure to household instability and experiencing 10 or more negative life events was associated with worse emotional SR; exposure to mother's depressive symptoms was associated with worse cognitive SR. Higher income buffered children's SR from some contextual risk factors. Family contextual variables explained 62% of the correlation between higher income and better cognitive SR scores. Income-based cognitive SR disparities were associated with family contextual factors. Screening for family adversity in pediatric care and linking families to needed resources may protect children's developing SR capacities, with benefits to health and well-being.

  14. Using multi-country household surveys to understand who provides reproductive and maternal health services in low- and middle-income countries: a critical appraisal of the Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Footman, K; Benova, L; Goodman, C; Macleod, D; Lynch, C A; Penn-Kekana, L; Campbell, O M R

    2015-05-01

    The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) are a vital data resource for cross-country comparative analyses. This study is part of a set of analyses assessing the types of providers being used for reproductive and maternal health care across 57 countries. Here, we examine some of the challenges encountered using DHS data for this purpose, present the provider classification we used, and provide recommendations to enable more detailed and accurate cross-country comparisons of healthcare provision. We used the most recent DHS surveys between 2000 and 2012; 57 countries had data on family planning and delivery care providers and 47 countries had data on antenatal care. Every possible response option across the 57 countries was listed and categorised. We then developed a classification to group provider response options according to two key dimensions: clinical nature and profit motive. We classified the different types of maternal and reproductive healthcare providers, and the individuals providing care. Documented challenges encountered during this process were limitations inherent in household survey data based on respondents' self-report; conflation of response options in the questionnaire or at the data processing stage; category errors of the place vs. professional for delivery; inability to determine whether care received at home is from the public or private sector; a large number of negligible response options; inconsistencies in coding and analysis of data sets; and the use of inconsistent headings. To improve clarity, we recommend addressing issues such as conflation of response options, data on public vs. private provider, inconsistent coding and obtaining metadata. More systematic and standardised collection of data would aid international comparisons of progress towards improved financial protection, and allow us to better characterise the incentives and commercial nature of different providers. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health

  15. Risk, Implicit Contracts and the Family in Rural Areas of Low-Income Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenzweig, Mark R.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper the role of family structure in mitigating income volatility in the absence of income insurance in low-income agricultural environments is discussed. Hypotheses concerning the relationship between the membership, size and composition of households and insurance-based income transfers are tested using longitudinal data from India. A test is also performed of whether a household's ability to reduce risk ex post via family arrangements affects its willingness tobear risk ex ante th...

  16. Expected Taxes and Household Consumption Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Kueng, Lorenz

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation I ask two basic questions: First, how predictable are personal income tax changes in the U.S. and second, does household consumption respond to news about future tax changes, or does it mostly respond at the time when the tax rates actually change? These are interesting questions because they have broad implications for macroeconomics and public economics. The rational-expectations life-cycle theory of consumption is the workhorse in modern macroeconomics. While there ar...

  17. The role of household chaos in understanding relations between early poverty and children's academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett-Peters, Patricia T; Mokrova, Irina; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Willoughby, Michael; Pan, Yi

    The following prospective longitudinal study used an epidemiological sample (N = 1,236) to consider the potential mediating role of early cumulative household chaos (6-58 months) on associations between early family income poverty (6 months) and children's academic achievement in kindergarten. Two dimensions of household chaos, disorganization and instability, were examined as mediators. Results revealed that, in the presence of household disorganization (but not instability) and relevant covariates, income poverty was no longer directly related to academic achievement. Income poverty was, however, positively related to household disorganization, which was, in turn, associated with lower academic achievement. Study results are consistent with previous research indicating that household chaos conveys some of the adverse longitudinal effects of income poverty on children's outcomes and extend previous findings specifically to academic achievement in early childhood.

  18. Landowner total income from oak woodland working landscapes in Spain and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose L. Oviedo; Lynn Huntsinger; Pablo Campos

    2015-01-01

    Conventional accounting of agricultural income focuses on the commercial operating income from oak woodland ranches, omitting the value of amenities to the landowner and real capital gains, which includes land revaluation (appreciation). These accounting exercises also mix income earned through self-employed (landowner and household) labor with ranch operating income,...

  19. The Income Volatility See-Saw: Implications for School Lunch. Economic Research Report Number 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Constance

    2006-01-01

    Income volatility challenges the effectiveness of the safety net that USDA food assistance programs provide low-income families. This study examines income volatility among households with children and the implications of volatility for eligibility in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). The results show that income volatility was higher for…

  20. Risks of developing breast and colorectal cancer in association with incomes and geographic locations in Texas: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheyu; Zhang, Kai; Du, Xianglin L

    2016-04-26

    No study has been conducted to investigate the spatial pattern and association of socioeconomic status (such as income) with breast and colorectal cancer incidence in Texas, United States. This study aimed to determine whether median household income was associated with the risk of developing breast and colorectal cancer in Texas and to identify higher cancer risks by race/ethnicity and geographic areas. This was a retrospective cohort study with an ecological component in using aggregated measures at the county level. We identified 243,677 women with breast cancer and 155,534 men and women with colorectal cancer residing in 254 counties in Texas in 1995-2011 from the public-use dataset of Texas Cancer Registry. The denominator population and median household income at the county level was obtained from the U.S. Bureau of the Census. Cancer incidence rates were calculated as number of cases per 100,000 persons and age-adjusted using the 2000 US population data. We used the ArcGIS v10.1 (geographic information system software) to identify multiple clustered counties with high and low cancer incidences in Texas. Age-adjusted breast cancer incidence rate in the highest median income quintile group was 151.51 cases per 100,000 in 2008-2011 as compared to 98.95 cases per 100,000 in the lowest median income quintile group. The risk of colorectal cancer appeared to decrease with increasing median income in racial/ethnic population. Spatial analysis revealed the significant low breast cancer incidence cluster regions located in southwest US-Mexico border counties in Texas. This study demonstrated that higher income was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer and a decreased risk of colorectal cancer in Texas. There were geographic variations with cancer incidence clustered in high risk areas in Texas. Future studies may need to explore more factors that might explain income and cancer risk associations and their geographic variations.

  1. Use of Technology in the Household: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Barcus C.

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1980s, personal computer ownership has become ubiquitous, and people are increasingly using household technologies for a wide variety of purposes. Extensive research has resulted in useful models to explain workplace technology acceptance and household technology adoption. Studies have also found that the determinants underlying…

  2. The Saving Behaviour of a Two Person Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin

    and portfolio choice taking into account differences in preferences for saving. The model is a non-cooperative game in which each person can use their own current income to contribute to current (household) consumption or to a range of assets. The results derived are in marked contrast to 'unitary' models......Wives are typically younger than their husbands and women typically live longer than men. These two facts mean that for a typical married couple, wives have more incentive to save for old age than do husbands. This paper presents a theoretical model of the determination of household saving...... of intertemporal allocation that assume a single household utility function and conclude that saving is unaffected by the distribution of income within the household. The most important result is that the level and the composition (portfolio) of savings and the time path of consumption is highly dependent...

  3. How Income Changes During Unemployment: Evidence from Tax Return Data

    OpenAIRE

    Sara LaLumia; Laura Kawano

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses tax return data from 1999 to 2009 to provide new estimates of wage losses during unemployment, and to examine how other types of income change dur- ing an unemployment spell. Periods of unemployment are associated with significant reductions in wage income, equivalent to approximately 16% of pre-unemployment household-level earnings and 30% of individual-level earnings. Households partially compensate for these wage losses in ways that vary across groups: Spousal earnings incr...

  4. Household food waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahlen, S.; Winkel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Food waste is debated not only in the light of sustainable consumption in research and policy, but also in the broader public. This article focuses on food waste in household contexts, what is widely believed the end of the food chain. However, household food waste is far more complex and intricate

  5. Household financial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brounen, Dirk; Koedijk, Kees; Pownall, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Greater personal responsibility toward financial decision-making is being advocated on a global basis. Individuals and households are encouraged to take a more active approach to personal finance. In this paper, we examine behavioral factors, which lead households toward savings and financial

  6. Essays in household finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djordjevic, Ljubica

    2015-01-01

    Household finance is a young and vibrant research field that continuously attracts public attention. There may be very few matters that people care so much about as their personal finance. Recent rise of academic interest in household finance is to a great extent due to households’ more active role

  7. The Effects of HIV/AIDS on Livelihoods and Adopting Tissue-cultured Technology among Banana-farming Households in Central Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguthi, F.N.; Niehof, A.

    2008-01-01

    Increasing agricultural productivity is one of the important adaptations for farming households to enable them to attain sustainable livelihoods in times of crisis. Adoption of appropriate agricultural technologies is key to increasing productivity and rural household income. Yet several factors

  8. Household Wealth in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Jin, Yongai

    With new nationwide longitudinal survey data now available from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we study the level, distribution, and composition of household wealth in contemporary China. We find that the wealth Gini coefficient of China was 0.73 in 2012. The richest 1 percent owned more than one-third of the total national household wealth, while the poorest 25 percent owned less than 2 percent. Housing assets, which accounted for over 70 percent, were the largest component of household wealth. Finally, the urban-rural divide and regional disparities played important roles in household wealth distribution, and institutional factors significantly affected household wealth holdings, wealth growth rate, and wealth mobility.

  9. Regional energy consumption and income differences in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Internationally a debate on the distributional impact of energy taxation has focused on the tax burden relative to income. The general conclusion is that taxes are regressive, but at a varying degree for different countries. This study examines the relationship between location, income, heating...... documents that rural populations have higher energy bills also compared to income, but there is no income inequality between rural and urban areas in Denmark. In countries with higher inequality in income distribution and a higher proportion of low-income households in rural areas, the impact of energy...... technology characteristics and the energy tax that households pay. The article aims at identifying general implications of energy taxes with respect to different impacts on population groups depending on location and income. Tax payments associated with energy use are considered relative to total disposable...

  10. Common mental disorders, neighbourhood income inequality and income deprivation: small-area multilevel analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fone, David; Greene, Giles; Farewell, Daniel; White, James; Kelly, Mark; Dunstan, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Background Common mental disorders are more prevalent in areas of high neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation but whether the prevalence varies with neighbourhood income inequality is not known. Aims To investigate the hypothesis that the interaction between small-area income deprivation and income inequality was associated with individual mental health. Method Multilevel analysis of population data from the Welsh Health Survey, 2003/04–2010. A total of 88 623 respondents aged 18–74 years were nested within 50 587 households within 1887 lower super output areas (neighbourhoods) and 22 unitary authorities (regions), linked to the Gini coefficient (income inequality) and the per cent of households living in poverty (income deprivation). Mental health was measured using the Mental Health Inventory MHI-5 as a discrete variable and as a ‘case’ of common mental disorder. Results High neighbourhood income inequality was associated with better mental health in low-deprivation neighbourhoods after adjusting for individual and household risk factors (parameter estimate +0.70 (s.e. = 0.33), P = 0.036; odds ratio (OR) for common mental disorder case 0.92, 95% CI 0.88–0.97). Income inequality at regional level was significantly associated with poorer mental health (parameter estimate -1.35 (s.e. = 0.54), P = 0.012; OR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.04–1.22). Conclusions The associations between common mental disorders, income inequality and income deprivation are complex. Income inequality at neighbourhood level is less important than income deprivation as a risk factor for common mental disorders. The adverse effect of income inequality starts to operate at the larger regional level. PMID:23470284

  11. Common mental disorders, neighbourhood income inequality and income deprivation: small-area multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fone, David; Greene, Giles; Farewell, Daniel; White, James; Kelly, Mark; Dunstan, Frank

    2013-04-01

    Common mental disorders are more prevalent in areas of high neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation but whether the prevalence varies with neighbourhood income inequality is not known. To investigate the hypothesis that the interaction between small-area income deprivation and income inequality was associated with individual mental health. Multilevel analysis of population data from the Welsh Health Survey, 2003/04-2010. A total of 88,623 respondents aged 18-74 years were nested within 50,587 households within 1887 lower super output areas (neighbourhoods) and 22 unitary authorities (regions), linked to the Gini coefficient (income inequality) and the per cent of households living in poverty (income deprivation). Mental health was measured using the Mental Health Inventory MHI-5 as a discrete variable and as a 'case' of common mental disorder. High neighbourhood income inequality was associated with better mental health in low-deprivation neighbourhoods after adjusting for individual and household risk factors (parameter estimate +0.70 (s.e. = 0.33), P = 0.036; odds ratio (OR) for common mental disorder case 0.92, 95% CI 0.88-0.97). Income inequality at regional level was significantly associated with poorer mental health (parameter estimate -1.35 (s.e. = 0.54), P = 0.012; OR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.04-1.22). The associations between common mental disorders, income inequality and income deprivation are complex. Income inequality at neighbourhood level is less important than income deprivation as a risk factor for common mental disorders. The adverse effect of income inequality starts to operate at the larger regional level.

  12. Women in the Marketing Arena of Income Generating Crops in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper argues that although women were the major producers of income generating crops in Uganda's dominant peasant households, they were marginalised from major decisions and control of the resources. Household and meso-level marketing structures and institutions were within patriarchal power relations, and ...

  13. ECONOMIES OF THE LOW-INCOME FAMILIES IN KUMASI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enterprises (HBEs) in the household economies of low- income families in Kumasi. Specifically, the research examines: (a) the nature and degree of involvement of household members in the organization, operation and management of the HBEs;. (b) the various types and the quantum of economic contributions these HBEs ...

  14. Precursors to overnutrition: the effects of household market food expenditures on measures of body composition among Tsimane' adults in lowland Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinger, Asher; Tanner, Susan; Leonard, William R

    2013-09-01

    Nutrition transitions are characterized by shifts in diet and activity levels that lead to changes in weight and body fatness over a relatively short time. Research has linked these nutritional shifts to socio-economic factors, including wealth and income. However, few studies have examined household spending patterns on market foods among subsistence populations, which may reveal food access, choice, and indicate household nutritional environment. This paper examines the relation between household monetary expenditures on "market" foods and measures of body composition among Tsimane', a forager-horticulturalist indigenous group in the Bolivian Amazon. Economic and anthropometric surveys were conducted for adults (n = 1199) 16 years or older in 563 households in 40 Tsimane' villages in 2008. Results indicate that overweight status (19% of men and 24% of women) is more common than obesity (1% of men and 4% of women). Sixty-one percent (61%) of households reported purchasing market foods during the previous week. Multiple linear and logistic regressions suggest that men living in households in the top third of monetary expenditures on market foods had significantly higher BMI (0.69 kg/m(2); p = 0.027), weight (1.80 kg; p = 0.048), percent body fat (1.06%; p = 0.025), and probability of being overweight/obese (Odds ratio = 1.83; p = 0.042) than men in households that reported not spending money on market foods in the previous week. We discuss the possibility that the division of labor may help explain the differences between men and women in this sample. This research suggests household expenditures on market foods may mediate the relation between wealth and body composition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Household Hazardous Waste and Demolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Household wastes that are toxic, corrosive, ignitable, or reactive are known as Household Hazardous Waste (HHW). Household Hazardous Waste may be found during residential demolitions, and thus require special handling for disposal.

  16. Passing by the girls? Remittance allocation for educational expenditures and social inequality in Nepal's households 2003–2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Ann; Korinek, Kim

    2012-01-01

    We examine the utilization of remittances for expenditures associated with development, specifically children's education. We use household-level data from the Nepal Living Standards Survey (NLSS II, 2003–04) to separate remittance effects from general household income effects to demonstrate the migration–development relationship reflected in child schooling investment. We find that family-household remittances are spent on education of children, but the expenditures are disproportionately for boys' schooling. Only when girls are members of higher-income households do greater schooling expenditures go to them. This gender-discriminating pattern at the household level contrasts with the call for universal and gender-equal education.

  17. Income and heart disease: Neglected risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemstra, Mark; Rogers, Marla; Moraros, John

    2015-08-01

    To determine the unadjusted and adjusted effects of income on heart disease; its main disease intermediary, high blood pressure; and its main behavioural risk factors, smoking and physical inactivity. Random-digit dialing telephone survey collected through the Canadian Community Health Survey by Statistics Canada. Saskatchewan. A total of 27 090 residents aged 20 years and older; each health region in Saskatchewan was represented. Overall, 178 variables related to demographic characteristics, socioeconomic factors, behaviour, life stress, disease intermediaries, health outcomes, and access to health care were analyzed to determine their unadjusted and adjusted effects on heart disease. The mean age of the sample was 52.6 years. Women represented 55.9% of the sample. Most respondents were married (52.3%) and had some postsecondary or graduate education (52.5%). The mean personal income was $23 931 and the mean household income was $37 533. All models statistically controlled for age. Five covariates independently associated with heart disease included high blood pressure, household income of $29 999 or less per year, being a daily smoker, male sex, and being physically inactive. Five covariates independently associated with high blood pressure included being overweight or obese, being a daily smoker, household income of $29 999 or less per year, male sex, and being physically inactive. Five covariates independently associated with daily smoking included being a visible minority, household income of $29 999 or less per year, not being overweight or obese, education level of less than secondary school, and male sex. Six covariates independently associated with physical inactivity included being a visible minority, being overweight or obese, education level of less than secondary school, male sex, household income of $29 999 or less per year, and being a daily smoker. Household income was strongly and independently associated with heart disease; its main disease

  18. Argentine Beef Demand and Household Choices of Retail Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rossini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Household choices of outlet retail channels in beef purchases depend on several characteristics related to the quality of the product, convenience and ease of purchase, and economic factors such as price, income and payment methods. The aim of this paper is to study the influence of demographic and socio-economic attributes in the choice made by argentine consumers using a Multinominal Logit Model. The results show that the total number of purchases, the type of household, payment methods, and gender and schooling years of household head are the most relevant variables in the sample.

  19. Three Essays Examining Household Energy Demand and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Anthony G.

    This dissertation consists of three essays examining household energy decisions and behavior. The first essay examines the adoption of energy efficient Energy Star home appliances by U.S. households. Program effectiveness requires that consumers be aware of the labeling scheme and also change their purchase decisions based on label information. The first essay examines the factors associated with consumer awareness of the Energy Star label of recently purchased major appliances and the factors associated with the choice of Energy Star labeled appliances. The findings suggest that eliminating identified gaps in Energy Star appliance adoption would result in house electricity cost savings of $164 million per year and associated carbon emission reductions of about 1.1 million metric tons per year. The second essay evaluates household energy security and the effectiveness of the Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP), the single largest energy assistance program available to poor households within the United States. Energy security is conceptually akin to the well-known concept of food security. Rasch models and household responses to energy security questions in the 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey are used to generate an energy insecurity index that is consistent with those found in the food insecurity literature. Participating in LIHEAP is found to significantly reduce household energy insecurity score in the index. Further, simulations show that the elimination of the energy assistance safety net currently available to households increases the number of energy insecure house- holds by over 16 percent. The third essay develops a five equation demand system to estimate household own-price, cross-price and income elasticities between electricity, natural gas, food at home, food away from home, and non-durable commodity groups. Household cross-price elasticities between energy and food commodities are of particular importance. Energy price shocks

  20. Maternal resources and household food security: evidence from Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeer, Kammi K; Piperata, Barbara A; Herrera Rodríguez, Andrés; Salazar Torres, Virgilio Mariano; Centeno Cárdenas, Francisco José

    2015-11-01

    Women (especially mothers) are theorized as critical to reducing household food insecurity through their work and caregiver roles. The present study tests these assumptions, assessing how maternal economic and social resources are associated with food insecurity in households with young children. Data from a population-based sample of households was collected in León, Nicaragua (n 443). Data include a newly validated measure of household food insecurity (ELCSA), maternal resource measures, and household economic status and demographics. Regression analysis tests the statistical associations (Pyoung children were food secure, with 50% mildly food insecure and 25% moderately/severely food insecure. When mothers contributed substantially to household income, the odds of moderate/severe household food insecurity were 34% lower than when their spouse/partner was the main provider. The odds of food insecurity were 60% lower when mothers managed household money, 48% lower when mothers had a secondary (v. primary) education, 65% higher among single mothers and 16% lower with each indicator of social support. Results were similar for adult- and child-specific food insecurity. This research provides new evidence that maternal economic and social resources are important for reducing household food insecurity and adult- and child-specific food insecurity. Women's social status, social support and access to economic resources need to be enhanced as a part of policies aimed to reduce food insecurity in high-poverty settings.

  1. Effect of health expenses on household capabilities and resource allocation in a rural commune in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Thuy Nguyen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Significant health expenses can force households to reduce consumption of items required for daily living and long-term well-being, depriving them of the capability to lead economically stable and healthy lives. Previous studies of out-of-pocket (OOP and other health expenses have typically characterized them as "catastrophic" in terms of a threshold level or percentage of household income. We aim to re-conceptualize the impact of health expenses on household "flourishing" in terms of "basic capabilities." METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a 2008 survey covering 697 households, on consumption patterns and health treatments for the previous 12 months. We compare consumption patterns between households with and without inpatient treatment, and between households with different levels of outpatient treatment, for the entire study sample as well as among different income quartiles. We find that compared to households without inpatient treatment and with lower levels of outpatient treatment, households with inpatient treatment and higher levels of outpatient treatment reduced investments in basic capabilities, as evidenced by decreased consumption of food, education and production means. The lowest income quartile showed the most significant decrease. No quartile with inpatient or high-level outpatient treatment was immune to reductions. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of health expenses on consumption patterns might well create or exacerbate poverty and poor health, particularly for low income households. We define health expenditures as catastrophic by their reductions of basic capabilities. Health policy should reform the OOP system that causes this economic and social burden.

  2. Can rising tourism income compensate fading agricultural income? A general equilibrium analysis of income distribution and welfare in a rural village in Northern Thailand.

    OpenAIRE

    Pakpicha Pathompituknukoon; Purich Khingthong; Komsan Suriya

    2012-01-01

    This study applies CGE model to investigate the effects of rising tourism income and fading agricultural income in Mae Kam Pong village in Chiang Mai, Thailand, on 4 issues: the expansion and recession of major economic sectors, income distribution, social welfare of the village, and welfare of the poorest households. Simulations show that services and construction sectors will expand while tea, commerce and tourism sectors will face the recession. Tourism sector will fade out from the villag...

  3. Using multi-country household surveys to understand who provides reproductive and maternal health services in low- and middle-income countries: a critical appraisal of the Demographic and Health Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Footman, K; Benova, L; Goodman, C; Macleod, D; Lynch, C A; Penn-Kekana, L; Campbell, O M R

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) are a vital data resource for cross-country comparative analyses. This study is part of a set of analyses assessing the types of providers being used for reproductive and maternal health care across 57 countries. Here, we examine some of the challenges encountered using DHS data for this purpose, present the provider classification we used, and provide recommendations to enable more detailed and accurate cross-country comparisons of healthcare provision. Methods We used the most recent DHS surveys between 2000 and 2012; 57 countries had data on family planning and delivery care providers and 47 countries had data on antenatal care. Every possible response option across the 57 countries was listed and categorised. We then developed a classification to group provider response options according to two key dimensions: clinical nature and profit motive. Results We classified the different types of maternal and reproductive healthcare providers, and the individuals providing care. Documented challenges encountered during this process were limitations inherent in household survey data based on respondents’ self-report; conflation of response options in the questionnaire or at the data processing stage; category errors of the place vs. professional for delivery; inability to determine whether care received at home is from the public or private sector; a large number of negligible response options; inconsistencies in coding and analysis of data sets; and the use of inconsistent headings. Conclusions To improve clarity, we recommend addressing issues such as conflation of response options, data on public vs. private provider, inconsistent coding and obtaining metadata. More systematic and standardised collection of data would aid international comparisons of progress towards improved financial protection, and allow us to better characterise the incentives and commercial nature of different providers. Objectif Les enqu

  4. Income, education, and inflammation: differential associations in a national probability sample (The MIDUS study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Elliot M; Herd, Pamela

    2010-04-01

    To examine the associations between income and education and three markers of inflammation: interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and fibrinogen. Socioeconomic status is inversely linked with health outcomes, but the biological processes by which social position "gets under the skin" to affect health are poorly understood. Cross-sectional analyses involved participants (n = 704) from the second wave of the national population-based Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS). Data on pretax household-adjusted income and educational attainment were collected by questionnaire and telephone interview, respectively. Detailed medical history interviews, inventories of medication, and fasting blood samples for assessment of inflammatory proteins were obtained during an overnight clinic stay. All three inflammatory proteins were inversely associated with both income and education in bivariate analyses. However, multivariate regression models, adjusting for potential confounds, showed that only low income predicted higher levels of inflammatory proteins. Moreover, inclusion of IL-6 in the regression models for CRP and fibrinogen eliminated the associations with income. These results suggest that income explains the association between education and peripheral inflammation. In short, the reason that higher education is linked to reduced peripheral inflammation is because it reduces the risk for low income status, which is what is directly associated with reduced peripheral inflammation. The findings also suggest that the links between income and both CRP and fibrinogen are mediated by IL-6. These observations help to sharpen our understanding of the relationship between social position and biological markers of illness in the United States.

  5. The Varying Income Effects of Weather Variation

    OpenAIRE

    Narloch, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the impact of weather on rural income changes over time, this study combines data from the panel subsample of the latest Vietnam Household Living Standard Surveys 2010, 2012, and 2014 and gridded weather data from the Climate Research Unit. The analyses show: (i) crop cultivation, livestock management, forestry and fishing activities, and agricultural wages remain important inc...

  6. ENHANCING INCOME GENERATION AND NUTRITION SECURITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This will enable them to produce snail both for income and improvement of household nutrition. Also, it will enhance the nutritional status of the pregnant and nursing mothers. Therefore government and non-governmental organization working on improvement of agricultural production should consider not only the financial ...

  7. The compensating income variation of cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, W.; Maassen van den Brink, H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses longitudinal data from the British Household Panel Survey to calculate the compensating income variation (CIV) of cardiovascular disease. It is found that the CIV decreases with age and is higher for men than for women. For women the estimated CIV is similar to those calculated by

  8. Job and income satisfaction among older Europeans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonsang, E.; van Soest, A.H.O.; Michalos, A.

    2014-01-01

    This entry summarizes a study by Bonsang and van Soest (2012) using data on individuals of ages 50 and older from 11 European countries to analyze satisfaction with household income and job satisfaction, both contributing substantially to overall well-being (Van Praag & Ferrer-i-Carbonell, 2008).

  9. Collective market participation for improved income among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Collective market participation can reduce transaction costs and information asymmetries, which can build up market power. The objective of this study was to evaluate decisions to participate in collective marketing and its effect on household income among smallholder farmers in an Innovation Platform (IP). This study ...

  10. Household food availability in Pelotas, Brazil: An approach to assess the obesogenic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Gonçalves Soares

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify household food availability according to socioeconomic and demographic factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional, population-based study was carried out in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil to determine household food availability in the 30 days that preceded the interview. Availability was considered high when food was "always" or "usually" available at home. The independent variables were: age and education level of the household head, number of household members, presence of children or adolescents, National Wealth Score, and family income. RESULTS: Data were collected from 1,555 households. A high availability of fruits and vegetables (80% was more prevalent than that of soft drinks, processed meats, and sweets (40%. Whole grains and frozen foods were never available in half of the households. High-sugar and high-fat foods were positively related and fruits and whole grains were negatively related to the presence of children or adolescents in the household. National Wealth Score, family income, and age and education level of the household head were associated with household food availability. CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic factors and demographic characteristics were associated with household food availability. High household availability of fruits and vegetables, together with sweets, processed meats, and soft drinks suggests the complex eating practices of a household, impairing classifying the environment as obesogenic.

  11. Economic Contribution to Local Livelihoods and Households Dependency on Dry Land Forest Products in Hammer District, Southeastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagm Fikir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in Hammer district, Southern Ethiopia, to provide empirical evidence on economic contribution to local livelihoods and households dependency on dry forest products. One agropastoral and two pastoral kebeles were purposively selected, and data was collected through household survey, group discussions, market assessments, and field observation. A total of 164 households, selected based on a random sampling procedure, were interviewed using structured questionnaire. The study found that income from forest products contributes 21.4% of the total annual household income. The major dry forest products include honey, fuel wood, gum and resin, and crafts and construction materials, contributing 49%, 39%, 6%, and 6% of the forest income, respectively. Households of the pastoral site earned more forest income and were relatively more dependent on forest products income than those in the agropastoral study site. Significant variation was also found among income groups: households with higher total annual income obtain more forest income than those with lower income, but they are relatively less dependent on forest products than the lower counterpart. Besides, various socioeconomic and contextual factors were found to influence forest income and dependency. The findings of the study provide valuable information up on which important implications for dry land forest development and management strategies can be drawn.

  12. Why income inequality is so high in Serbia: Empirical evidence and a measurement of the key factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Gorana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the extent and evolution of income inequality in Serbia and examine factors that may have contributed to the high and rising inequality. Specifically, using data from the 2013 Survey of Income and Living Conditions, we focus on two issues: the effect of the quantity and quality of household members’ employment on the earnings of low-wage workers, and the role of taxes and social transfers in redistributing income from the betteroff to the poor. The results suggest that income inequality, measured by the Gini coefficient, has significantly increased in Serbia over the period of economic crisis, reaching 38.7 in 2013. The examined causes of such a high inequality are the high rate of low work intensity of household members and the high proportion of people working in non-standard forms of employment (i.e., part-time, temporary, and self-employment arrangements, mostly in the informal sector. In addition, the low coverage of social transfers, particularly monetary social assistance and child benefits, and the very low level of progressivity of the Serbian personal tax system explain the relatively modest - by international standards - redistributive role of direct taxes and social transfers.

  13. Household hazardous waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    .) comprised 15-25% and foreign items comprised 10-20%. Water-based paint was the dominant part of the paint waste. The chemical composition of the paint waste and the paint-like waste was characterized by an analysis of 27 substances in seven waste fractions. The content of critical substances was tow......'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc...... and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when...

  14. Household Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and clearly labeled. Never store hazardous products in food containers. Never mix household hazardous chemicals or waste with ... a newspaper and placing them in a sealed plastic bag in your trash can. Dispose of hazardous ...

  15. Income Convergence and the Flow out of Poverty in India, 1994-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quiroga, Paola Andrea Barrientos; Blunch, Niels-Hugo; Datta Gupta, Nabanita

    This paper explores the dynamics of income and poverty of rural Indian households, 1994-2005. The estimation strategy consists of convergence analysis to test whether poor households are catching-up in terms of income, followed by transition analysis to test whether poor households are more likely...... to exit poverty than to remain poor. The identification strategy explicitly addresses issues pertaining to the potential endogeneity and measurement error of initial income and poverty. We find evidence of income convergence and a higher probability of exiting poverty than of remaining poor. The key...

  16. Household Wealth in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Yu; Jin, Yongai

    2015-01-01

    With new nationwide longitudinal survey data now available from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we study the level, distribution, and composition of household wealth in contemporary China. We find that the wealth Gini coefficient of China was 0.73 in 2012. The richest 1 percent owned more than one-third of the total national household wealth, while the poorest 25 percent owned less than 2 percent. Housing assets, which accounted for over 70 percent, were the largest component of househ...

  17. Household electricity demand profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Larsen, Olena Kalyanova

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •A 1-min resolution household electricity load model is presented. •Model adapts a bottom-up approach with single appliance as the main building block. •Load profiles are used to analyse the flexibility potential of household appliances. •Load profiles can be applied in other domains, e.......g. building energy simulations. •The demand level of houses with different number of occupants is well captured....

  18. Revenue impact on the demand of Slovak households for meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica Kubicová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Global economical crisis was felt in the differences in the incomes of the households and their food consumption. In the paper are analyzed the changing patterns in the structure of demand for meat and the impact on total expenditure on meat and meat products in the households of employees, households of self-employed persons and households of pensioners. When examining the sensitivity of demand to changes in consumer meat prices in different social groups of households was estimated own-price elasticity of demand, as well as cross-price elasticity.

  19. Human Health and Economic Impacts of Ozone Reductions by Income Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, Rebecca K; Thompson, Tammy M; Selin, Noelle E

    2017-02-21

    Low-income households may be disproportionately affected by ozone pollution and ozone policy. We quantify how three factors affect the relative benefits of ozone policies with household income: (1) unequal ozone reductions; (2) policy delay; and (3) economic valuation methods. We model ozone concentrations under baseline and policy conditions across the full continental United States to estimate the distribution of ozone-related health impacts across nine income groups. We enhance an economic model to include these impacts across household income categories, and present its first application to evaluate the benefits of ozone reductions for low-income households. We find that mortality incidence rates decrease with increasing income. Modeled ozone levels yield a median of 11 deaths per 100 000 people in 2005. Proposed policy reduces these rates by 13%. Ozone reductions are highest among low-income households, which increases their relative welfare gains by up to 4% and decreases them for the rich by up to 8%. The median value of reductions in 2015 is either $30 billion (in 2006 U.S. dollars) or $1 billion if reduced mortality risks are valued with willingness-to-pay or as income from increased life expectancy. Ozone reductions were relatively twice as beneficial for the lowest- compared to the highest-income households. The valuation approach affected benefits more than a policy delay or differential ozone reductions with income.

  20. Education and Intergenerational Income Mobility in Urban China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congbin, Guo; Weifang, Min

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between education and intergenerational income mobility in urban China based on the data of "Chinese Urban Household Education and Employment Survey" (CHUHEES)--2004 by Institute of Economics of Education of Peking University. It analyzes the characteristics of the intergenerational income mobility of…

  1. Environmental income as a pathway out of poverty?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena; Nielsen, Martin Reinhardt; Larsen, Helle Overgaard

    2017-01-01

    environmental resources on average contribute 16 per cent of the total household income, the contribution to asset accumulation is limited. Hence, environmental income does not constitute a pathway out of poverty in Nepal under the current set of regulations and tenure regimes. Asset accumulation was instead...... generation. Securing access of the poor to environmental resources may increase its role in poverty alleviation....

  2. Household Factors Associated with Self-Harm in Johannesburg, South African Urban-Poor Households.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Naicker

    Full Text Available Low and middle income countries bear the majority burden of self-harm, yet there is a paucity of evidence detailing risk-factors for self-harm in these populations. This study aims to identify environmental, socio-economic and demographic household-level risk factors for self-harm in five impoverished urban communities in Johannesburg, South Africa.Annual serial cross-sectional surveys were undertaken in five impoverished urban communities in Johannesburg for the Health, Environment and Development (HEAD study. Logistic regression analysis using the HEAD study data (2006-2011 was conducted to identify household-level risk factors associated with self-harm (defined as a self-reported case of a fatal or non-fatal suicide attempt within the household during the preceding year. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to identify factors associated with self-harm.A total of 2 795 household interviews were conducted from 2006 to 2011. There was no significant trend in self-harm over time. Results from the final model showed that self-harm was significantly associated with households exposed to a violent crime during the past year (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR 5.72; 95% CI 1.64-19.97; that have a member suffering from a chronic medical condition (AOR 8.95; 95% 2.39-33.56 and households exposed to indoor smoking (AOR 4.39; CI 95% 1.14-16.47.This study provides evidence on household risk factors of self-harm in settings of urban poverty and has highlighted the potential for a more cost-effective approach to identifying those at risk of self-harm based on household level factors.

  3. Income distribution trends and future food demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirera, Xavier; Masset, Edoardo

    2010-01-01

    This paper surveys the theoretical literature on the relationship between income distribution and food demand, and identifies main gaps of current food modelling techniques that affect the accuracy of food demand projections. At the heart of the relationship between income distribution and food demand is Engel's law. Engel's law establishes that as income increases, households' demand for food increases less than proportionally. A consequence of this law is that the particular shape of the distribution of income across individuals and countries affects the rate of growth of food demand. Our review of the literature suggests that existing models of food demand fail to incorporate the required Engel flexibility when (i) aggregating different food budget shares among households; and (ii) changing budget shares as income grows. We perform simple simulations to predict growth in food demand under alternative income distribution scenarios taking into account nonlinearity of food demand. Results suggest that (i) distributional effects are to be expected from changes in between-countries inequality, rather than within-country inequality; and (ii) simulations of an optimistic and a pessimistic scenario of income inequality suggest that world food demand in 2050 would be 2.7 per cent higher and 5.4 per cent lower than distributional-neutral growth, respectively. PMID:20713387

  4. Off-farm employment and income poverty in favourable agro-climatic areas of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Msinde, John Victor; Urassa, Justin K.; Nathan, Iben

    2016-01-01

    Income poverty in Tanzania as elsewhere in developing countries is predominantly a rural phenomenon and affects largely households relying on subsistence farming. This is despite the fact that poverty reduction strategies have devoted increasing attention on the role farm employment in enhancing...... household income. This paper argues that, off-farm employment may have potential to contribute to reduction of rural households’ income poverty. Hence the main objective of the paper is set to examine effects of off-farm employment on income poverty. Data was collected from a random sample of 309 households...... in the first quarter of 2014 in five villages of Kilombero Valley, Tanzania using a structured questionnaire. Income poverty was analysed using the Foster-Greer-Thorbecke (FGT) poverty index and two stage least square (2SLS) regression. Households with off-farm employment income were found to be less poor...

  5. Household food insecurity and coping strategies in a poor rural community in Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zalilah Mohd. Shariff; Geok Lin Khor

    2008-01-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed household food insecurity among low-income rural communities and examined its association with demographic and socioeconomic factors as well as coping strategies...

  6. 6Explaining weak financial development in Africa Abstract 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (2003) found evidence of similar practices across Latin America. .... v. All explanatory variables are lagged to prevent any bias in the estimated coefficients due to simultaneous common shocks to financial development and the right-hand side ... Household Income Inequality (EHII 2008), which are estimates computed from.

  7. ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING FOOD SECURITY IN RURAL AND URBAN FARMING HOUSEHOLDS OF BENUE STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwin Anjeinu Abu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined factors affecting household food security status among rural and urban farming households of Benue State, Nigeria. Purposive and simple random sampling techniques were employed to obtain a sample of 180 respondents, 90 households head each from rural and urban areas. Data were collected through structured questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics, Food Security Index, Surplus/Food Insecurity Gap, Factor analysis and Probit model. Using calorie intake method, the result revealed that 53.3% and 62.2% of rural and urban households respectively were food secured. The rural and urban food secure households exceeded the recommended calorie intake by 39% and 42% respectively, while the rural and urban food insecure households fell short of recommended calorie by 24% and 26% respectively. It was also found that income of households head (p<0.10, rural households size (p<0.01, and farm size (p<0.10 had a positive impact on household food security. On the other hand, age of household head (p<0.05 and urban household size (p<0.10 had a negative relationship with household food security. Constraints such as lack of access to credits, inadequate land availability, and poverty, infertility of the soil, lack of non-farm income generating activities, storage and processing problems were identified as some of the factors militating against the achievement of food security in the study area. It was recommended that credit be provided to farming households by government to reduce the constraint of not being able to access credit facilities, the agricultural policies which aimed at promoting farmers access to land and improving farm household productivity be encouraged and that farmers be provided with informal education through extension services on nutritional awareness and non-farm income generating activities.

  8. The impacts of the food, fuel and financial crises on households in Nigeria: A retrospective approach for research enquiry

    OpenAIRE

    Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Chiripanhura, Blessing

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the impacts of the financial, food and fuel crises on the livelihoods of low-income households Nigeria. It uses primary household level data from Nigeria to analyse the impacts of induced price variability on household welfare. Our results indicate that aggregate shocks have significant adverse effects on household consumption, human capital, and labour decisions with a degree of impact variability between northern and southern regions of the country. We find that the copi...

  9. Heterogeneity in Consumer Demands and the Income Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses unique Spanish panel data on household expenditures to test whether unobservable heterogeneity in household demands (taste, etc.) is correlated with total expenditures (income). The main finding is that tastes are indeed correlated with income for about half of the goods considered......, implying that cross-sectional estimates of income elasticities for these goods are biased. The goods are the following: food eaten outside home, alcohol and tobacco, transportation, and energy. The elasticity of alcohol and tobacco is more than halved when taking unobserved heterogeneity into account....... For transportation, the bias is sufficiently large to misclassify the good as a luxury....

  10. Assessing environmental dependence using asset and income measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlery, Lindy Callen; Walelign, Solomon Zena

    2015-01-01

    on income and asset measures. Using a composite asset index, we were able to distinguish the asset poor from the asset non-poor. We then combined income data with the asset index, enabling us to disentangle the stochastic and structural nature of poverty. The distribution of poor and non-poor households...... based on income measures was significantly different from that based on asset measures. The income poor are substantially more dependent on environmental resources than the income non-poor (about 15% difference) while strikingly minimal difference was observed in environmental dependence between...

  11. Retirement Behaviour of Dutch Elderly Households: Diversity in Retirement Patterns across Different Household Types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastrogiacomo, Mauro; Alessie, R.J.M.; Lindeboom, Maarten

    2002-01-01

    This paper aims to assess the relative importance of differences in behaviouralresponses to financial incentives in explaining the observed variation in retirement behaviour across different types of households. We specify and estimate models for singles and married couples and estimate these on

  12. A Fresh Look at the Rotten Kid Theorem--And Other Household Mysteries

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstrom, Ted

    1989-01-01

    Gary Becker's ``Rotten Kid Theorem'' asserts that if all family members receive gifts of money income from a benevolent household member, then even if the household head does not precommit to an incentive plan for family members, it will be in the interest of selfish family members to maximize total family income. We show by examples that the Rotten Kid theorem is not true without assuming transferable utility. We find a simple condition on utility functions that is necessary and sufficient f...

  13. Are the poor less well-insured? Evidence on vulnerability to income risk in rural China

    OpenAIRE

    Jalan, Jyotsna; Ravallion, Martin

    1997-01-01

    The authors test how well consumption is insured against income risk in a panel of sampled households in rural China. They estimate the risk insurance models by Generalized Method of Moments, treating income and household size as endogenous. Insurance exists for all wealth groups, although the hypothesis of perfect insurance is universally rejected. Those in the poorest wealth decile are the least well-insured, with 40 percent of an income shock being passed on to current consumption. By cont...

  14. Income inequality, gene expression, and brain maturation during adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Nadine; Wong, Angelita Pui-Yee; Leonard, Gabriel; Perron, Michel; Pike, G Bruce; Richer, Louis; Veillette, Suzanne; Pausova, Zdenka; Paus, Tomas

    2017-01-01

    Income inequality is associated with poor health and social outcomes. Negative social comparisons and competition may involve the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes in underlying some of these complex inter-relationships. Here we investigate brain maturation, indexed by age-related decreases in cortical thickness, in adolescents living in neighborhoods with differing levels of income inequality and household income. We examine whether inter-regi...

  15. TAXATION OF PERSONAL INCOMES IN ROMANIA: PRESENT AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela PIRVU

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The personal income tax is not only as an important revenue instrument but also as an instrument of national policy. Taxation of personal income in European Union countries is regulated usually by a progressive rate structure. This article aims to highlight the differences between Romania and other EU member states in the field of personal income tax and to raise the issue of reforming the tax system by introducing the tax household.

  16. The role of education in enhancing intergenerational income mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Joann Wilkie

    2007-01-01

    How income is transmitted from generation to generation is important to understanding the distributional impacts of policy. Compared with other OECD countries, labour income in Australia is relatively mobile across generations and Australia also has a moderate level of inequality, based on current household disposable income. OECD countries, with the exception of Canada, have either high inequality and low mobility or low inequality and high mobility. Education is an important factor influenc...

  17. Intergenerational income mobility – top incomes and assortative mating in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, M. Azhar; Bonke, Jens; Munk, Martin D.

    2011-01-01

    , in particular, when including capital income in the total income. Also we find the marriage match has a stronger impact on the family-to-family income transfer in the top of the income distribution where the daughter marries a man more like her father than herself. The highest persistence, however, is between...... first- and second-generation households, especially between father and mother’s aggregated incomes and that of their son and daughter-in-law’s with a correlation close to a half....... from rich parents to their children. Using administrative registers allow us to look at small fractions of the populations, i.e. dynasties, and to distinguish between sons and daughters and to observe their eventual spouses’ incomes. We find that intergenerational mobility is lower in the top...

  18. Rural Household Demographics, Livelihoods and the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sherbinin, Alex; Vanwey, Leah; McSweeney, Kendra; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Barbieri, Alisson; Henry, Sabina; Hunter, Lori M; Twine, Wayne

    2008-02-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes findings from scholarly work on linkages among rural household demographics, livelihoods and the environment. Using the livelihood approach as an organizing framework, we examine evidence on the multiple pathways linking environmental variables and the following demographic variables: fertility, migration, morbidity and mortality, and lifecycles. Although the review draws on studies from the entire developing world, we find the majority of micro-level studies have been conducted in either marginal (mountainous or arid) or frontier environments, especially Amazonia. Though the linkages are mediated by many complex and often context-specific factors, there is strong evidence that dependence on natural resources intensifies when households lose human and social capital through adult morbidity and mortality, and qualified evidence for the influence of environmental factors on household decision-making regarding fertility and migration. Two decades of research on lifecycles and land-cover change at the farm level have yielded a number of insights about how households make use of different land-use and natural resource management strategies at different stages. A thread running throughout the review is the importance of managing risk through livelihood diversification, ensuring future income security, and culture-specific norms regarding appropriate and desirable activities and demographic responses. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  19. Rural Household Demographics, Livelihoods and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sherbinin, Alex; VanWey, Leah; McSweeney, Kendra; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Barbieri, Alisson; Henry, Sabina; Hunter, Lori M.; Twine, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes findings from scholarly work on linkages among rural household demographics, livelihoods and the environment. Using the livelihood approach as an organizing framework, we examine evidence on the multiple pathways linking environmental variables and the following demographic variables: fertility, migration, morbidity and mortality, and lifecycles. Although the review draws on studies from the entire developing world, we find the majority of micro-level studies have been conducted in either marginal (mountainous or arid) or frontier environments, especially Amazonia. Though the linkages are mediated by many complex and often context-specific factors, there is strong evidence that dependence on natural resources intensifies when households lose human and social capital through adult morbidity and mortality, and qualified evidence for the influence of environmental factors on household decision-making regarding fertility and migration. Two decades of research on lifecycles and land-cover change at the farm level have yielded a number of insights about how households make use of different land-use and natural resource management strategies at different stages. A thread running throughout the review is the importance of managing risk through livelihood diversification, ensuring future income security, and culture-specific norms regarding appropriate and desirable activities and demographic responses. Recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:19190718

  20. Prevalence of household food poverty in South Africa: results from a large, nationally representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Karen E; Rose, Donald

    2002-06-01

    Household food insecurity is a major determinant of undernutrition, yet there is little information on its prevalence in the South African population. This paper assesses household food insecurity in South Africa using a quantitative and objective measure, known as food poverty, and provides prevalence estimates by geographic area and socio-economic condition. Secondary data analysis combining two sources: Statistics South Africa's household-based 1995 Income and Expenditure Survey; and the University of Port Elizabeth's Household Subsistence Level series, a nationally-conducted, market-based survey. South Africa. A nationally representative sample of the entire country - stratified by race, province, and urban and non-urban areas - consisting of 28 704 households. A household is defined to be in food poverty when monthly food spending is less than the cost of a nutritionally adequate very low-cost diet. The prevalence of food poverty in South Africa in 1995 was 43%. Food poverty rates were highest among households headed by Africans, followed by coloureds, Indians and whites. Higher food poverty rates were found with decreasing income, increasing household size, and among households in rural areas or those headed by females. The widespread nature of household food insecurity in South Africa is documented here. Prevalence rates by geographic and socio-economic breakdown provide the means for targeting of nutritional interventions and for monitoring progress in this field. The corroboration of these findings with both internal validation measures and external sources suggests that food poverty is a useful, objective measure of household food insecurity.

  1. Differences in subjective well-being within households: An analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigate differences in subjective well-being (life satisfaction) within the household using matched data on co-resident couples drawn from the 2008 National Income Dynamics Study for South Africa. The majority of men and women in co-resident partnerships report different levels of subjective wellbeing. We use ...

  2. 7 CFR 273.12 - Requirements for change reporting households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... adjustments to Retirement, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (RSDI), Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and...) Mass changes in Federal benefits. The State agency shall establish procedures for making mass changes... liability the household will incur for any overissued benefits if the fair hearing decision is adverse. (ii...

  3. Profitability of value addition to cashew farming households in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale L.) is an economic crop in Nigeria grown in small plantations in almost every State because of the ease of cultivation and need for minimum attention. Cashew apple wastes on plantations and this reduces cashew farming household incomes. This study examined value addition to ...

  4. Contributions of non-timber forest products to household food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated the contributions of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) to household income and food security in the adjoining villages of Gambari forest reserve Nigeria. Stratified random sampling was used to select respondents among the community members. 141 copies of questionnaires were administered among ...

  5. The Determinants of Agricultural Productivity and Rural Household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rahel

    statistically significant and has negative effect on both labor and land productivity by the same magnitude. ... socio-economic factor for the variation of income among the rural households. The study also concludes ... contributes 42.7 % to Gross Domestic Product and 70 percent of foreign exchange earnings (NBE, 2013; ...

  6. The role of Bahi swamp wetlands in enhancing household food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to assess the role of Bahi swamp resources in enhancing household food security and income of adjacent communities. Specifically, the study assessed the socioeconomic activities in the swamp with a potential contribution to local livelihoods, the contribution of the swamp in enhancing ...

  7. determining food security indicators at household level in drought

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-08-21

    Aug 21, 2012 ... Keywords: Income, expenditure, dietary diversity, coping strategy, dietary energy, Ethiopia ... coping strategy index and dietary energy .... In relation to this, Alwang et al. (2001) reported that high proportion of total household budget devoted to food is a sign of poverty. In the study area, about 70% of the.

  8. households' choices of healthcare services in the north west region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficient healthcare systems in developing economies are significant indicators of development. Health can either be optimised ... Region of Cameroon, a purposive sample of 300 households were collected and analysed using a multinomial logistic model. .... equitable income distribution in a bid to address the healthcare ...

  9. Examining Household Asthma Management Behavior through a Microeconomic Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magzamen, Sheryl; Brandt, Sylvia J.; Tager, Ira B.

    2014-01-01

    National guidelines on the effective management of pediatric asthma have been promoted for over 20 years, yet asthma-related morbidity among low-income children remains disproportionately high. To date, household and clinical interventions designed to remediate these differences have been informed largely by a health behavior framework. However,…

  10. Regional diversification of household indebtedness level in the European Union countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Anioła

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the diversification of households indebtedness level in the European Union countries. The outstanding credit to household disposable income ratio and the relation between a level of indebtedness and the problem of arrears in payment were analysed. The cluster analysis and correlation analysis methods were applied.

  11. Farm household allocative efficiency : a multi-dimensional perspective on labour use in Western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamau, M.

    2007-01-01

    The economy in western Kenya, like most of the other regions in Kenya is agriculture based with smallholder farm households forming the bulk of the population. While all smallholder households engage in agricultural production to meet their food and cash needs, income earned outside the farm forms a

  12. Do Welfare Asset Limits Affect Household Saving? Evidence from Welfare Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Erik; Ziliak, James P.

    2006-01-01

    We use data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to estimate the effect of new saving incentives implemented as part of the 1996 welfare reform on household saving. Economic theory predicts that loosening asset limits will increase total savings for households with a large ex-ante probability of welfare receipt such as female-headed households…

  13. Determinants of variation in household CO2 emissions between and within countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, Annemarie C.; Benders, René M.J.; Moll, Henri C.

    Variation in household CO2 emissions between and within countries may have important consequences for the equity dimension of climate policies. In this Study we aim to identify some determinants of national household CO2 emissions and their distribution across income groups. For that purpose, we

  14. Food Insecurity in U.S. Households That Include Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonik, Rajan; Parish, Susan L.; Ghosh, Subharati; Igdalsky, Leah

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined food insecurity in households including children with disabilities, analyzing data from the 2004 and 2008 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation, which included 24,729 households with children, 3,948 of which had children with disabilities. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the likelihood of…

  15. The interactive role of income (material position) and income rank (psychosocial position) in psychological distress: a 9-year longitudinal study of 30,000 UK parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, Elisabeth A; Chandola, Tarani; Purdam, Kingsley; Wood, Alex M

    2016-10-01

    Parents face an increased risk of psychological distress compared with adults without children, and families with children also have lower average household incomes. Past research suggests that absolute income (material position) and income status (psychosocial position) influence psychological distress, but their combined effects on changes in psychological distress have not been examined. Whether absolute income interacts with income status to influence psychological distress are also key questions. We used fixed-effects panel models to examine longitudinal associations between psychological distress (measured on the Kessler scale) and absolute income, distance from the regional mean income, and regional income rank (a proxy for status) using data from 29,107 parents included in the UK Millennium Cohort Study (2003-2012). Psychological distress was determined by an interaction between absolute income and income rank: higher absolute income was associated with lower psychological distress across the income spectrum, while the benefits of higher income rank were evident only in the highest income parents. Parents' psychological distress was, therefore, determined by a combination of income-related material and psychosocial factors. Both material and psychosocial factors contribute to well-being. Higher absolute incomes were associated with lower psychological distress across the income spectrum, demonstrating the importance of material factors. Conversely, income status was associated with psychological distress only at higher absolute incomes, suggesting that psychosocial factors are more relevant to distress in more advantaged, higher income parents. Clinical interventions could, therefore, consider both the material and psychosocial impacts of income on psychological distress.

  16. Health and economic impact of HIV/AIDS on South African households: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Booysen Frederick LR

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South African households are severely affected by human immunodeficiency virus / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS but health and economic impacts have not been quantified in controlled cohort studies. Methods We compared households with an HIV-infected member, and unaffected neighbouring households, in one rural and one urban area in Free State province, South Africa. Interviews were conducted with one key informant in each household, at baseline and six months later. We studied 1913 members of 404 households, with 94% and 96% follow up, respectively. Household and individual level analyses were done. Results Members of affected households, compared to members of unaffected households, were independently more likely to be continuously ill (adjusted odds ratio (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3–3.4 at follow up, and to die (adjusted OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.0–11, mainly due to infectious diseases. Government clinics and hospitals were the main sources of health care. Affected households were poorer than unaffected households at baseline (relative income per person 0.61, 95% CI 0.49–0.76. Over six months expenditure and income decreased more rapidly in affected than in unaffected households (baseline-adjusted relative expenditure 0.86, 95% CI 0.75–0.99 and income 0.89, 95% CI 0.75–1.05. Baseline morbidity was independently associated with lower income and expenditure at baseline but not with changes over six months. Conclusions HIV/AIDS affects the health and wealth of households as well as infected individuals, aggravating pre-existing poverty.

  17. Consumption Smoothing and Borrowing Constraints: Evidence from Household Surveys of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Einian, Majid; Nili, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    We use Iranian Household Expenditure and Income Survey," to analyze the dynamics of consumption of the households. We observe evidence of excess sensitivity in a cohort pseudo panel of Iranian households. Excess sensitivity, however, is absent for government employees who have better access to finance due to the structure of labor market and banking system in Iran. Our results support the idea that borrowing constraints is the main cause for evidence of excess sensitivity. This indicates that...

  18. The Effect of Household Characteristics on Poverty and Living Standards in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Pushkar Maitra

    2002-01-01

    This paper uses panel data from South Africa to examine the effect of household characteristics on poverty and living standards and how they have changed over the five years following the dismantling of apartheid. I estimate the standard of living using two alternative methodologies. First, I use probit analysis to examine the poverty status of the household. Second I use quantile regressions to examine the standard of living of the household at different points on the income distribution. Th...

  19. The Effects of a "Fat Tax" on the Nutrient Intake of French Households

    OpenAIRE

    Allais, Olivier; Bertail, Patrice; Nichèle, Veronique

    2008-01-01

    This article assesses the effects of a "fat tax" on the nutrient intake of French households across different income groups using a method that estimates the nutrient elasticities of French households. We estimate a complete demand system by aggregating an individual demand system over cohorts. The use of a cohort model is justified by the incompleteness of our data. We find that a "fat tax" would have ambiguous and extremely small effects on the nutrient intake of French households, and its ...

  20. Remittances and social resilience: a study of migrant households in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Sikder, Mohammad Jalal Uddin

    2017-01-01

    Migration within and beyond the territory that now constitutes Bangladesh has historically been an important livelihood strategy for many of its people. Existing studies on migration and remittances in Bangladesh provide little insight on remittances from the perspective of migrant households and how migrant households use of this source of income. This study adopts a micro-social analysis of thirty six migrant households in three selected villages in Bangladesh to examine the contribution of...

  1. Effect of national wealth on BMI: An analysis of 206,266 individuals in 70 low-, middle- and high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Mohd; Reidpath, Daniel D

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between BMI and national-wealth and the cross-level interaction effect of national-wealth and individual household-wealth using multilevel analysis. Data from the World Health Survey conducted in 2002-2004, across 70 low-, middle- and high-income countries was used. Participants aged 18 years and over were selected using multistage, stratified cluster sampling. BMI was used as outcome variable. The potential determinants of individual-level BMI were participants' sex, age, marital-status, education, occupation, household-wealth and location(rural/urban) at the individual-level. The country-level factors used were average national income (GNI-PPP) and income inequality (Gini-index). A two-level random-intercepts and fixed-slopes model structure with individuals nested within countries was fitted, treating BMI as a continuous outcome. The weighted mean BMI and standard-error of the 206,266 people from 70-countries was 23.90 (4.84). All the low-income countries were below the 25.0 mean BMI level and most of the high-income countries were above. All wealthier quintiles of household-wealth had higher scores in BMI than lowest quintile. Each USD10000 increase in GNI-PPP was associated with a 0.4 unit increase in BMI. The Gini-index was not associated with BMI. All these variables explained 28.1% of country-level, 4.9% of individual-level and 7.7% of total variance in BMI. The cross-level interaction effect between GNI-PPP and household-wealth was significant. BMI increased as the GNI-PPP increased in first four quintiles of household-wealth. However, the BMI of the wealthiest people decreased as the GNI-PPP increased. Both individual-level and country-level factors made an independent contribution to the BMI of the people. Household-wealth and national-income had significant interaction effects.

  2. AN ECONOMETRICAL ANALYSIS OF THE HOUSEHOLDS SAVING BEHAVIOUR IN ROMANIA CASE STUDY: THE MONTHLY BANK DEPOSITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BABUCEA ANA-GABRIELA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim is also to identify a statistical regression models appropriate and as relevant to explain the evolution of the monthly household deposits although, in this respect, of all sorts of factors identified in the literature: demographic factors and the demographic change , of income, monetary factors, factors related to the fiscal-budgetary policies, behavioral factors that seem to become determinants, and the age structure of the population of Romania, were selected only those which have been identified monthly data series from January 2012. To verify the existence of causal relationships identified and determining the nature and intensity of their methodology was used the parametric statistical analysis of the correlation resorting to specialized software package SPSS v.23 for Windows. The paper is structured as follows: first is dedicate to the introduction and a short literature review, second part is about data overview and summary statistics, third section captures methodology and results and last section reflects conclusions.

  3. Financing electronic waste recycling Californian households' willingness to pay advanced recycling fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Hilary; Saphores, Jean-Daniel M

    2007-09-01

    The growth of electronic waste (e-waste) is of increasing concern because of its toxic content and low recycling rates. The e-waste recycling infrastructure needs to be developed, yet little is known about people's willingness to fund its expansion. This paper examines this issue based on a 2004 mail survey of California households. Using an ordered logit model, we find that age, income, beliefs about government and business roles, proximity to existing recycling facilities, community density, education, and environmental attitudes are significant factors for explaining people's willingness to pay an advanced recycling fee (ARF) for electronics. Most respondents are willing to support a 1% ARF. Our results suggest that policymakers should target middle-aged and older adults, improve programs in communities with existing recycling centers or in rural communities, and consider public-private partnerships for e-waste recycling programs.

  4. HOUSEHOLD FOOD DEMAND IN INDONESIA: A TWO-STAGE BUDGETING APPROACH

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    Agus Widarjono

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A two-stage budgeting approach was applied to analyze the food demand in urban areas separated by geographical areas and classified by income groups. The demographically augmented Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System (QUAIDS was employed to estimate the demand elasticity. Data from the National Social and Economic Survey of Households (SUSENAS in 2011 were used. The demand system is a censored model because the data contains zero expenditures and is estimated by employing the consistent two-step estimation procedure to solve biased estimation. The results show that price and income elasticities become less elastic from poor households to rich households. Demand by urban households in Java is more responsive to price but less responsive to income than urban households outside of Java. Simulation policies indicate that an increase in food prices would have more adverse impacts than a decrease in income levels. Poor families would suffer more than rich families from rising food prices and/or decreasing incomes. More importantly, urban households on Java are more vulnerable to an economic crisis, and would respond by reducing their food consumption. Economic policies to stabilize food prices are better than income policies, such as the cash transfer, to maintain the well-being of the population in Indonesia

  5. household egg consumption expenditure pattern and income distri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concern for food stems from the critical role it can play in the sustenance of human life and the release ... the body system. This animal protein sources include, meat, egg, fish and milk. ... The Central Bank of Nigeria (1990) observed that ...

  6. Household income and vehicle fuel economy in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This white paper presents the findings from an analysis of the fiscal implications for vehicle owners of changing from the current : statewide fuel tax to a road user charge (RUC) based on vehicle-miles traveled (VMT). Since 1923, California...

  7. Income and its distribution in preindustrial Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Malinowski, Mikołaj; Luiten van Zanden, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This article presents per capita GDP and income distribution estimates for preindustrial Poland. It is based on a social table for the Voivodeship of Cracow in 1578. Our evidence indicates that income in Poland was distributed more equally than in contemporary Holland. However, the extraction rate was much higher than in the North Sea area. Furthermore, income inequality in the countryside of the Voivodeship was higher than inequality in Cracow. This can be explained by the demesne economy ba...

  8. Wives' work and income distribution in European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pasqua

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Women's participation in the labour market varies substantially across Europe. While female participation rates are usually high in Northern countries, they decline as one moves South, where more traditional household models still predominate and women devote more time to domestic rather than to labour-market activities. At the same time, income is more equally distributed in Northern than in Southern European countries. This paper takes a cross-country approach to analyse the impact of wives' work on income distribution, using the last wave of the ECHP (European Community Household Panel data set. Decompositions of inequality measures and counterfactual distributions are used to assess the impact of higher female employment rates on inequality in household income distribution. The decomposition of inequality by household type shows that income in all the countries studied is distributed more equally among dual-earner than among male-breadwinner households. Since the percentage of dual-earner families is higher in Northern European countries, inequality is lower. Sub-group analysis also shows that within-group inequality is the main source of inequality in all countries concerned, while between-groups inequality has a lower impact. Decomposition by sources of income reveals that, in European countries, women's earnings account for a lower proportion of overall inequality than men's earnings and that the impact of women's work on income distribution is mainly due to the "employment effect": wherever women work less, inequality in women's earnings distribution is higher, due to the higher number of zero values in the distribution. Moreover, analysis of inequality among working wives shows that female labour income is often distributed more equally where women's employment rate is higher. Finally, counterfactual distributions are used to show that an increase in women's participation in the labour market can cause a decrease in household income

  9. Essays in Household Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanspal, Tobin

    This Ph.D. thesis, entitled Essays in Household Finance, analyzes the determinants and implications of investment biases, personal experiences in financial markets, and financing disruptions on households, individual investors, and entrepreneurs and small business owners. The first essay...... on risk taking is the potential bias resulting from inertia and inattention, which has been shown to be endemic in household finance. If individuals are inert or inattentive, it is difficult to establish whether changes in risk taking are caused by personal experiences or whether the change in risk taking...... advantage of this identification strategy is that inheritances from estates that hold risky assets alter the active decision from one of choosing to take risk to one of choosing not to take risk. Our measure of experience derives from investments in banks that defaulted following the financial crisis. We...

  10. Education modifies the association of wealth with obesity in women in middle-income but not low-income countries: an interaction study using seven national datasets, 2005-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Aitsi-Selmi

    Full Text Available Education and wealth may have different associations with female obesity but this has not been investigated in detail outside high-income countries. This study examines the separate and inter-related associations of education and household wealth in relation to obesity in women in a representative sample of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs.The seven largest national surveys were selected from a list of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS ordered by decreasing sample size and resulted in a range of country income levels. These were nationally representative data of women aged 15-49 years collected in the period 2005-2010. The separate and joint effects, unadjusted and adjusted for age group, parity, and urban/rural residence using a multivariate logistic regression model are presented.In the four middle-income countries (Colombia, Peru, Jordan, and Egypt, an interaction was found between education and wealth on obesity (P-value for interaction <0.001. Among women with no/primary education the wealth effect was positive whereas in the group with higher education it was either absent or inverted (negative. In the poorer countries (India, Nigeria, Benin, there was no evidence of an interaction. Instead, the associations between each of education and wealth with obesity were independent and positive. There was a statistically significant difference between the average interaction estimates for the low-income and middle-income countries (P<0.001.The findings suggest that education may protect against the obesogenic effects of increased household wealth as countries develop. Further research could examine the factors explaining the country differences in education effects.

  11. Main determinants of catastrophic health expenditures: a Bayesian logit approach on Iranian household survey data (2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazaeli, Ali Akbar; Ghaderi, Hossein; Abbas Fazaeli, Amir; Lotfi, Farhad; Salehi, Masoud; Mehrara, Mohsen

    2015-01-26

    During recent decades, increase in both health care expenditures and improvement of the awareness as well as health expectations have created some problems with regard to finance healthcare expenditures so that the issue of health financing by households has been determined as a major challenge in health sector. According to the definition by the World Health Organization, catastrophic health expenditure is considered if financial contribution for health service is more than 40% of income remaining after subsistence needs have been met. The purpose of our study was determination of Main factors on catastrophic health expenditures in Iranian households. In this study, using an econometrics Bayesian logit model, determinants of the appearance of catastrophic health expenditure based on household budget data collected in 2010 were evaluated. Among Iranian households, the following groups were more likely to encounter with unsustainable health expenditures: rural households, households with the numbers of the elderly more than 65 years, illiterate householders, unemployed householders, households with some unemployed persons, households in upper rank and households with larger equivalent household size were higher than the average of community could significantly predict catastrophic health expenditures. About 2.1% of households were faced with catastrophic health expenditures in 2010. Thus, the implemented policies could not make considerable and significant change in improving justice in financing in health systems.

  12. Assessment of Food Security Situation among Farming Households in Rural Areas of Kano State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irohibe Ifeoma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Achieving food security is still a major problem for households in most rural areas of Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to assess the food security status among farming households in rural areas of Kano state, Nigeria. The study utilized a multistage random sampling technique to +select a sample of 120 rural farm households for interview. Data collected were analysed using percentages, mean score, logistic regression and food security index. Using the food security index approach, the study revealed that 74% of the respondents were food secure while 26% were food insecure. The results of the logistic regression revealed that educational level (p0.05; z = 1.95, sex (p0.05; z = 1.99, household size (p0.05; -4.29 and access to credit (p0.05; z = 2.4 were significant determinants of food security. Also, the major effect of food insecurity on the households include reduction in household income/ savings due to increased expenditure on food (M= 3.58, among others. The perceived coping strategies in cushioning the effects of food insecurity include engaging in off-farm and non-farm jobs to increase household income, (M= 2.77, among others. The study therefore recommends the fast tracking of already established policy measures aimed at reducing food insecurity in the country. Also, efforts aimed at reducing food insecurity among rural farming households should focus on increasing household income and food supply.

  13. Buffering income loss due to unemployment: Family and welfare state influences on income after job loss in the United States and western Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlert, Martin

    2012-07-01

    This article analyzes how the family and the welfare state influence household income trajectories after job loss in the United States and in western Germany. Drawing on panel data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP), I study the income buffering effects of the family and the welfare state in the short an in the long run after job loss. I demonstrate that household income trajectories after job loss in the two countries are similar for couple households. However, men in the United States rely relatively more on family resources to overcome income loss, whereas German men's incomes are secured mostly by the welfare state. Women's unemployment in both countries is mainly buffered by their partners' higher earnings. Because single households have no access to family support, they face much higher losses in the United States than in Germany. I also show that the more generous German welfare state triggers less private self-help in the form of increased labor force participation on the part of women when their partners lose their jobs. Over time, the family has become more important in buffering incomes after job loss in the United States which smoothed men's and roughened women's income trajectories in couple households. In Germany, worsening re-employment chances increased income losses in the long run after job loss. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Interaction between education and income on the risk of all-cause mortality: prospective results from the MOLI-SANI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccio, Marialaura; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; Costanzo, Simona; Persichillo, Mariarosaria; Donati, Maria Benedetta; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Iacoviello, Licia

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the separate and inter-related associations of education and household income in relation to all-cause mortality. Prospective study on 16,247 men and women (≥35 years), a sub-sample of the MOLI-SANI cohort that had been randomly recruited within an Italian general population. Both education and income were used as categorical variables. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated by Cox-proportional hazard models. Over a median follow-up of 7.7 years (125,016 person-years), 694 deaths were ascertained. Either education (HR = 0.68; 95 % CI 0.51-0.91) or income (HR = 0.57; 0.42-0.77) was inversely associated with mortality. After simultaneous adjustment, the association of education appeared to be largely explained by income. A significant interaction between both variables was found (p = 0.0078). The inverse association with mortality was stronger when a higher income was combined with a higher educational level (HR = 0.59; 0.38-0.92 for the highest combination of the two indicators). Either education or income was the predictor of mortality in a large sample of the Italian population. The two variables significantly interacted and the inverse association of income with mortality tended to be stronger within higher education groups.

  15. Education and risk for acute myocardial infarction in 52 high, middle and low-income countries: INTERHEART case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, A; Subramanian, S V; Islam, S; Chow, C K; Avezum, A; Kazmi, K; Sliwa, K; Zubaid, M; Rangarajan, S; Yusuf, S

    2009-12-01

    To determine the effect of education and other measures of socioeconomic status (SES) on risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients and controls from countries with diverse economic circumstances (high, middle, and low income countries). Case-control study. 52 countries from all inhabited regions of the world. 12242 cases and 14622 controls. First non-fatal AMI. SES was measured using education, family income, possessions in the household and occupation. Low levels of education (education adjusted for age, sex and region was 1.56 (95% confidence interval 1.47 to 1.66). After further adjustment for psychosocial, lifestyle, other factors and mutually for other socioeconomic factors, the OR associated with education alcohol and abdominal obesity) explained about half of the socioeconomic gradient. Family income, numbers of possessions and non-professional occupation were only weakly or not at all independently related to AMI. In high-income countries (World Bank Classification), the risk factor adjusted OR associated with low education was 1.61 (1.33 to 1.94), whereas it was substantially lower in low-income and middle-income countries: 1.25 (1.14 to 1.37) (p for interaction 0.045). Of the SES measures we studied, low education was the marker most consistently associated with increased risk for AMI globally, most markedly in high-income countries.

  16. Psychological determinants of household saving behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Nyhus, Ellen Katrine

    2002-01-01

    This dissertation reports the results of a study that examined the impact of psychological variables on household saving and borrowing behaviour. Understanding saving behaviour is important for policy makers and financial institutions, but a comprehensive explanatory model that can explain individual differences in saving does not yet exist. The aim of this research has been to contribute towards the construction of such a model. The study was designed to answer four research q...

  17. Household water saving: Evidence from Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisa, Rosa; Larramona, Gemma

    2012-12-01

    This article focuses on household water use in Spain by analyzing the influence of a detailed set of factors. We find that, although the presence of both water-saving equipment and water-conservation habits leads to water savings, the factors that influence each are not the same. In particular, our results show that those individuals most committed to the adoption of water-saving equipment and, at the same time, less committed to water-conservation habits tend to have higher incomes.

  18. Catastrophic health expenditures and its inequality in elderly households with chronic disease patients in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhonghua; Li, Xiangjun; Chen, Mingsheng

    2015-01-20

    Although numerous studies examine catastrophic health expenditures (CHE) worldwide, most focus on whole populations rather than specific vulnerable groups. This study analyzes the extent, associated factors and inequality of CHE in elderly household with chronic disease patients in China. Data were obtained from a nationally representative elderly household survey-the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study-that was conducted by the National School of Development of Peking University in 2011. An elderly household with chronic disease patients is defined by ≥ 1 chronic disease patient who is ≥ 45 years of age. CHE was measured according to the proportion of out-of-pocket health payments to non-food household expenditures. The associated factors of CHE were estimated using ordinary least square and logistic regression modeling. CHE inequality was measured according to the concentration index (CI) and its decomposition. CHE incidence and intensity were relatively high among elderly households with chronic disease patients. The main associated factors of CHE include household size, having members > 65 years, having members with ≥ 2 chronic diseases, per capita income, and elderly household members demonstrating healthcare-seeking behaviors. Healthcare insurance did not significantly affect CHE risk. Disproportionate concentration of CHE was noted among elderly households, and poor elderly households demonstrated a higher probability of experiencing CHE. Factors such as household size, per capita income, having members > 65 years, and having members with ≥ 2 chronic diseases are major and positive contributors to CHE inequality. Some inpatient and outpatient services are negatively contributed to CHE inequality,suggesting that the unequal usage of such services reduces CHE inequality among elderly households with chronic disease patients. Policy efforts should focus on improving financial protection and relieving the economic

  19. Health Care Expenditure of Rural Households in Pondicherry, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poornima Varadarajan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shortcomings in healthcare delivery has led people to spend a substantial proportion of their incomes on medical treatment. World Health Organization (2005 estimates reveal that every year 25 million households are forced into poverty by illness and the struggle to pay for healthcare. Thus we planned to calculate the health care expenditure of rural households and to assess the households incurring catastrophic health expenditure. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the service area of Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College and Hospital from May to August 2011. A total of 100 households from the 4 adjoining villages of our Institute were selected for operational and logistic feasibility. The household’s capacity to pay, out of pocket expenditure and catastrophic health expenditure were calculated. Data collection was done using a pretested questionnaire by the principal investigator and the analysis was done using SPSS (version 16. Results: The average income in the highest income quintile was Rs 51,885 but the quintile ratio was 14.98. The median subsistence expenditure was Rs 4,520. About 18% of households got impoverished paying for health care. About 81% of households were incurring out of pocket expenditure and 66% were facing catastrophic health expenses of 40%.Conclusion There was very high out of pocket spending and a high prevalence of catastrophic expenditure noted. Providing quality care at affordable cost and appropriate risk pooling mechanism are warranted to protect households from such economic threats.

  20. An equity analysis of utilization of health services in Afghanistan using a national household survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Afghanistan has made great strides in the coverage of health services across the country but coverage of key indicators remains low nationally and whether the poorest households are accessing these services is not well understood. Methods We analyzed the Afghanistan Mortality Survey 2010 on utilization of inpatient and outpatient care, institutional delivery and antenatal care by wealth quintiles. Concentration indexes (CIs were generated to measure the inequality of using the four services. Additional analyses were conducted to examine factors that explain the health inequalities (e.g. age, gender, education and residence. Results Among households reporting utilization of health services, public health facilities were used more often for inpatient care, while they were used less for outpatient care. Overall, the utilization of inpatient and outpatient care, and antenatal care was equally distributed among income groups, with CIs of 0.04, 0.03 and 0.08, respectively. However, the poor used more public facilities while the wealthy used more private facilities. There was a substantial inequality in the use of institutional delivery services, with a CI of 0.31. Poorer women had a lower rate of institutional deliveries overall, in both public and private facilities, compared to the wealthy. Location was an important factor in explaining the inequality in the use of health services. Conclusions The large gap between the rich and poor in access to and utilization of key maternal services, such as institutional delivery, may be a central factor to the high rates of maternal mortality and morbidity and impedes efforts to make progress toward universal health coverage. While poorer households use public health services more often, the use of public facilities for outpatient visits remains half that of private facilities. Pro-poor targeting as well as a better understanding of the private sector’s role in increasing equitable