WorldWideScience

Sample records for household heating practices

  1. Make the heat hotter. - marketing district heating to households in detached houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sernhed, Kerstin; Pyrko, Jurek

    2008-09-15

    For district heating (DH) companies, to expand in low heat density areas such as detached houses, it is essential to obtain a high rate of connections to the district-heating network in order to enhance the cost effectiveness. Marketing district heating to house owners is, however, a fairly different matter from selling it to customers in industrial, commercial, and multi-family buildings. Suitable market strategies need to be developed and the need for information about potential customers' preferences and attitudes are of great importance since the house-owners often constitute a heterogeneous group where different households have different requirements. This paper investigates a case of one Swedish district heating company's marketing activities and expansion strategies in a single family house area where the customers were offered conversion of their direct resistive electric heating (DEH) into district heating (DH). 88 out of 111 houses were converted in 2002. Four years later, interviews were carried out with 23 of the households in the area, both with those who had accept-ed the district heating offer and those who had not. The study shows that apart from the economic aspects, thermal comfort, aesthetics and practicalities also affected the buying decision. Since the different economic aspects of the offer were complex, it was very difficult for the households to make a strictly rational economical decision. Statistical analysis confirmed that variables such as age, type of household and energy use level could, to some extent, be related to the decision to convert from electric heating to district heating. Timing, low prices and the total solutions presented to the households were crucial factors in the success of the marketing strategy.

  2. Heat comfort and practice theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

      This paper has both a theoretical and a practical idea and content. The theoretical aim is to use and develop practice theory from Schatzki, Reckwitz and Warde to be more applicable in understanding everyday routines. The theoretical development will focus on how routines exist in close...... of ventilating and regulating the heat. Analysis in this paper builds on qualitative interviews with households living in identical houses, where those using the least energy for heating use one third of those using the most do. Focus is on describing similarities and differences in practices as well...

  3. Household electricity and gas consumption for heating homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jaehoon; Seob Kim, Chang; Lee, Jongsu

    2011-01-01

    Energy consumption has been drastically changed because of energy source depletion, price fluctuations, development and penetration of alternative energy sources, and government policies. Household energy sources are interrelated, and energy price and household characteristics, such as income level and dwelling size, affect the usage. To supply energy consistently and achieve a balance between production and consumption, stakeholders must understand consumer energy-consumption behavior. Therefore, this study identifies household heating energy usage patterns and the substitutive and/or complementary relationships between electricity and gas. Based on a multiple discrete-continuous extreme value model, household utility structure is identified from data on gas-heating usage. Results show greater utility and the smallest satiation values for gas boilers than for electric heaters and electric heating beds. The effects of consumer socioeconomic and environmental characteristics on the choice of heating energy sources were analyzed. Also, for further comparison, the respondents were split into high and low categories for income, heating degree days, dwelling size, and gas usage. Gas was found to be the most economical heating choice for households. - Research highlights: → This study investigates household electricity and gas consumption behavior for heating. → It also studied the relationship between two energy sources. → A research framework is suggested by combining the CDA and the MDCEV models. → It provides quantitative data that might be used for designing efficient energy policies.

  4. Diffusion of renewable heating technologies in households. Experiences from the Norwegian Household Subsidy Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjørnstad, Even

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 896 Norwegian households participating in a subsidy programme was surveyed in order to evaluate the success of the programme. The programme subsidised investments in new heating technologies, including heat pumps and pellet stoves. The success of the programme was measured by the degree of overall satisfaction with the investment by the sampled households. Theories on diffusion of innovations and planned behaviour motivate the empirical modelling of the investment satisfaction. The economic return on the investment varied substantially both within and between the two heating technologies, with heat pumps outperforming pellet stoves in this respect. Still, the economic return showed no explanatory power toward the investment satisfaction of the household. Among the economic variables, only the electricity price had any influence on investment satisfaction. Technical quality, indoor climate and heat comfort, and the availability of the supplier of the heating equipment were the most important explanatory variables. - Highlights: ► Investments in heat pumps and pellet stoves were subsidized over a public programme. ► Heat pumps showed a strong economic return, pellet stoves performed much more poorly. ► This difference in economic return does not influence the investment satisfaction. ► Technical quality, indoor climate and heat comfort are important benefits. ► Service availability and electricity price also influence satisfaction.

  5. Competition in the household heat product markets in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, Mikael; Peltola-Ojala, Paeivi

    2005-01-01

    In the article the market of household heat products is defined independently. The market consists mainly of electricity, district heating, light fuel oil, and wood. Geographically household heat product markets are limited to the area which is covered by the local district heating network. We test indirectly whether this market definition is valid, i.e. do different household heat products act as substitutes to each other. However, the substitution may quite often be limited since the local district heat supplier is the only supplier on the area and also electricity companies have high market shares in the area they are located. The amount of competitors even in these enlarged markets is low. Also the local district heating network gives a technological potential to non-competitive product specific pricing. Thus, a relevant case exists where the district heating company can determine the price of its product without constraints from other firms and heat products. We test empirically whether the local prices of district heating are affected by the local heat product market shares of district heating companies. We use panel data which consists of 75 district heating companies in years 1996 - 2002. The data includes market share, joint production, district heating tariffs, production scale, and raw material input cost variables. The results obtained from different estimations indicate clearly that competitive case is not the prevailing one in the Finnish district heating pricing. The market shares of district heating companies had a positive effect on the district heating prices. The result also does not support the hypothesis that different household heat products belong to same heat product markets. (Author)

  6. Norwegian households' perception of wood pellet stove compared to air-to-air heat pump and electric heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopha, Bertha Maya; Kloeckner, Christian A.; Skjevrak, Geir; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2010-01-01

    In 2003, the high dependency on electric heating combined with the high electricity price prompted a significant number of Norwegian households to consider alternative heating systems. The government introduced economic support for wood pellet heating and heat pumps. In contrast to the fast growing heat pump market, this financial support has not resulted in a widespread adoption of wood pellet heating. This paper studies factors that influence the choice of heating system based on Norwegian households' perceptions. Electric heating, heat pump and wood pellet heating were compared, with a special focus on wood pellet heating. This study was conducted as a questionnaire survey on two independent samples. The first sample consisted of 188 randomly chosen Norwegian households, mainly using electric heating; the second sample consisted of 461 households using wood pellet heating. Our results show that socio-demographic factors, communication among households, the perceived importance of heating system attributes, and the applied decision strategy all influence the Norwegian homeowners. The significance of these factors differs between the two samples and the preferred type of anticipated future heating system. Strategies for possible interventions and policy initiatives are discussed.

  7. Household preferences of hybrid home heating systems – A choice experiment application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruokamo, Enni

    2016-01-01

    The residential heating sector presents considerable energy savings potential, as numerous heating solutions for reducing electricity consumption and utilizing renewable energy sources are available in the market. The aim of this paper is to examine determinants of household heating system choices and to use this information for policy planning purposes. This paper investigates residential homeowner attitudes regarding innovative hybrid home heating systems (HHHS) with choice experiment. Heating system scenarios are designed to represent the most relevant primary and supplementary heating alternatives currently available in Finland. The choice sets include six main heating alternatives (district heat, solid wood, wood pellet, electric storage heating, ground heat pump and exhaust air heat pump) that are described by five attributes (supplementary heating systems, investment costs, operating costs, comfort of use and environmental friendliness). The results imply that HHHSs generally appear to be accepted among households; however, several factors affect perceptions of these technologies. The results reveal differing household attitudes toward the main heating alternatives and show that such views are affected by socio-demographic characteristics (age, living environment, education, etc.). The results suggest that households view supplementary heating systems (especially solar-based) favorably. The other attributes studied also play a significant role in decision making. - Highlights: •Study of hybrid heating where supplementary and main heating systems are combined. •Choice experiment is applied to study the determinants of hybrid heating adoption. •Hybrid heating appears to be generally accepted among households. •Households exhibit differing attitudes toward hybrid heating. •Policy makers should not underestimate the potential of hybrid heating.

  8. North–South debate on district heating: Evidence from a household survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Jin; Huang, Ying; Wei, Chu

    2015-01-01

    There has been a long debate on whether South China should supply district heating for the residential sector, a system that is widely used in North China. The major concern is that it may further accelerate China's energy demand. Using a unique urban household level dataset, the China Residential Energy Consumption Survey (CRECS), we investigate residential energy consumption for heating and examine the energy intensity and energy cost of distributed heating in South China and district heating in North China during the 2012 heating season. Our results show that the total energy consumption for distributed heating system users in southern cities is significantly lower than for users of district heating systems in northern cities. However, when accounting for the heating area and heating season, the distributed heating households in the South consumed 32% more energy and paid 189% higher cost per unit area and per hour, but had lower comfort than district heating users in the North. These findings suggest promoting the district heating market in appropriate areas in South China. This not only can improve residential welfare, but also can indirectly reduce energy consumption and financial burdens. - Highlights: • The debate on whether Southern China apply district heating is present. • The household data in 2012 is used to compare the energy efficient and cost. • South resident use more energy and higher cost but less comfort than North. • Government should not prevent the district heating market.

  9. Efficiency analysis of solar facilities for building heating and household water heating under conditions in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Pivko, Michal; Jursová, Simona; Turjak, Juraj

    2012-01-01

    The paper studies the efficiency of solar facilities applied for the heating of buildings and household water heating in the Czech Republic. The Czech Republic is situated in the temperate zone characterized by changeable weather. It is respected in the assessment of a solar facility installation. The efficiency of solar facilities is evaluated according to energy and economic balances. It is analyzed for solar facilities heating both household water and buildings. The main problems relating ...

  10. The social structure of heat consumption in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Rhiger

    2016-01-01

    The role of households in relation to heat and energy consumption has been well-described in both quantitative and qualitative studies. However, where practice theory has developed as the main theoretical framework within qualitative studies on energy consumption, the more recent quantitative...... of the qualitative studies, emphasising how energy consumption is a result of energy-consuming practices. Focusing on heat consumption used for space heating and heating of water in single-family detached houses in Denmark, it is found that sociocultural differences between households such as income, education......, occupation, and immigration status influence the amount of heat consumed by a household; directly as an indicator of household practices and indirectly through type of building and household characteristics. New interpretations based on theories of practice show that factors such as the social structure...

  11. The impact of household cooking and heating with solid fuels on ambient PM2.5 in peri-urban Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jiawen; Zimmermann Jin, Anna; Chafe, Zoë A.; Pillarisetti, Ajay; Yu, Tao; Shan, Ming; Yang, Xudong; Li, Haixi; Liu, Guangqing; Smith, Kirk R.

    2017-09-01

    Household cooking and space heating with biomass and coal have adverse impacts on both indoor and outdoor air quality and are associated with a significant health burden. Though household heating with biomass and coal is common in northern China, the contribution of space heating to ambient air pollution is not well studied. We investigated the impact of space heating on ambient air pollution in a village 40 km southwest of central Beijing during the winter heating season, from January to March 2013. Ambient PM2.5 concentrations and meteorological conditions were measured continuously at rooftop sites in the village during two winter months in 2013. The use of coal- and biomass-burning cookstoves and space heating devices was measured over time with Stove Use Monitors (SUMs) in 33 households and was coupled with fuel consumption data from household surveys to estimate hourly household PM2.5 emissions from cooking and space heating over the same period. We developed a multivariate linear regression model to assess the relationship between household PM2.5 emissions and the hourly average ambient PM2.5 concentration, and a time series autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) regression model to account for autocorrelation. During the heating season, the average hourly ambient PM2.5 concentration was 139 ± 107 μg/m3 (mean ± SD) with strong autocorrelation in hourly concentration. The average primary PM2.5 emission per hour from village household space heating was 0.736 ± 0.138 kg/hour. The linear multivariate regression model indicated that during the heating season - after adjusting for meteorological effects - 39% (95% CI: 26%, 54%) of hourly averaged ambient PM2.5 was associated with household space heating emissions from the previous hour. Our study suggests that a comprehensive pollution control strategy for northern China, including Beijing, should address uncontrolled emissions from household solid fuel combustion in surrounding areas, particularly

  12. Household Food Insecurity, Mother's Feeding Practices, and the Early Childhood's Iron Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salarkia, Nahid; Neyestani, Tirang R; Omidvar, Nasrin; Zayeri, Farid

    2015-01-01

    Health consequences of food insecurity among infants and toddlers have not been fully examined. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between household food insecurity, mother's infant feeding practices and iron status of 6-24 months children. In this cross-sectional study, 423 mother-child pairs were randomly selected by multistage sampling method. Children blood samples were analyzed for hemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations. Household food security was evaluated using a validated Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. The mother's feeding practices were evaluated using Infant and Young Child Feeding practice variables including: The duration of breastfeeding and the time of introducing of complementary feeding. Based on the results, of the studied households only 47.7% were food secure. Mild and moderate-severe household food insecurity was 39.5% and 12.8%, respectively. Anemia, iron deficiency (ID), and iron deficiency anemia were seen in 29.1%, 12.2%, and 4.8% of children, respectively. There was no significant association between household food insecurity; mother's feeding practices and child ID with or without anemia. We found no association between household food insecurity and the occurrence of anemia in the 6-24 months children. However, these findings do not rule out the possibility of other micronutrient deficiencies among the food-insecure household children.

  13. Air-conditioning and antibiotics: Demand management insights from problematic health and household cooling practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, Larissa; Strengers, Yolande

    2014-01-01

    Air-conditioners and antibiotics are two technologies that have both been traditionally framed around individual health and comfort needs, despite aspects of their use contributing to social health problems. The imprudent use of antibiotics is threatening the capacity of the healthcare system internationally. Similarly, in Australia the increasing reliance on air-conditioning to maintain thermal comfort is contributing to rising peak demand and electricity prices, and is placing an inequitable health and financial burden on vulnerable heat-stressed households. This paper analyses policy responses to these problems through the lens of social practice theory. In the health sector, campaigns are attempting to emphasise the social health implications of antibiotic use. In considering this approach in relation to the problem of air-conditioned cooling and how to change the ways in which people keep cool during peak times, our analysis draws on interviews with 80 Australian households. We find that the problem of peak electricity demand may be reduced through attention to the social health implications of air-conditioned cooling on very hot days. We conclude that social practice theory offers a fruitful analytical route for identifying new avenues for research and informing policy responses to emerging health and environmental problems. - Highlights: • Over-use of antibiotics and air-conditioning has social health implications. • Focusing on financial incentives limits the potential of demand management programs. • Explaining peak demand to households shifts the meanings of cooling practices. • Emphasising the social health implications of antibiotics and air-conditioning may resurrect alternative practices. • Analysing policy with social practice theory offers insights into policy approaches

  14. COMPARISON OF CO2-EMISSIONS OF HOUSEHOLDS HEATED BY NATURAL GAS AND FIREWOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÓNIKA PALÁDI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In terms of climate protection, one of the most important questions is the reduction of the GHG emission. In this study, I compared CO2 -emission of households heated by natural gas and firewood, which had similar heated area and volume of air, considering the carbon-dioxide absorbing of forests of the households heated by firewood. Natural gas is a fossil fuel; however, the firewood (solid biomass is a renewable energy resource. One of the main features of renewable energy sources is to get into the atmosphere less CO2 than fossil fuels. The renewable energy resources emit into the air just as much CO2 as they absorb during their life cycle.

  15. Identifying household television practices to reduce children’s television time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piotrowski, J.; Jordan, A.B.; Bleakley, A.; Hennessy, M.

    2013-01-01

    The risks associated with children’s heavy television viewing justify television-reduction efforts. Targeting parents and the household environment provides a promising strategy for limiting television. Research has highlighted household television practices to reduce children’s viewing, but more

  16. Household energy and climate mitigation policies: Investigating energy practices in the housing sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffrin, André; Reibling, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    One central aim of climate change mitigation in the European Union is to reduce energy consumption in the housing sector. In order to ensure effectiveness of policies targeting household energy conservation, it is important to investigate existing energy practices of different social groups. This article describes and explains energy practices in three leading states in environmental politics, technological innovation, and support for renewable energy production: Denmark, Austria, and the United Kingdom. Based on a longitudinal analysis of housing utility costs from the European Community Statistics on Income and Living Conditions we show that income plays a central role in households' energy practices. While high-income households have higher overall energy consumption, low-income groups spend a larger share of their income on utility costs. The variation of energy consumption across income groups is related to household characteristics, characteristics of the dwellings, and cross-national differences in the housing sector. - Highlights: • We explain energy practices in Denmark, Austria, and the United Kingdom. • We show that income plays a central role in households’ energy practices. • High-income households have higher overall energy consumption. • Low-income groups spend a larger share of their income on utility costs. • Consumption depends on the household, dwelling and the housing sector

  17. A Conceptual Framework of the Adoption and Practice of Environmental Actions in Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Scott

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Securing public participation in environmental actions such as recycling, energy conservation measures and green consumerism is a means of progressing towards sustainable consumption. Participation in environmental actions (EAs has typically been studied from the individual perspective, thus largely ignoring the social context of the household which may undermine effective behaviour change and green marketing strategies. This paper advances understanding of the adoption and practice of EAs from the household perspective by drawing together the limited and fragmented work which has examined EA participation from the household perspective, and integrating it with two relevant literatures—the household decision making literature and the literature which has examined EA participation from the individual perspective. The literatures are drawn together into a framework covering household member involvement in EA adoption and practice, the decision making process leading to EA adoption, decision making strategies and communication within the household, the maintenance of repetitive EAs, the factors influencing household member involvement including activity types and situational, household and individual characteristics, and how the individual characteristic of relative interest is shaped. We make a theoretical contribution by presenting a holistic understanding of the adoption and practice of EAs in households, which was previously lacking from the EA participation literature. By highlighting the elements of the conceptual framework that require further investigation, the authors also set out an agenda for research into EA participation from the household perspective.

  18. Encountering energy strategies and plans with the social context of household practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Nyborg, Sophie; Røpke, Inge

    Encountering energy strategies and plans with the social context of household practices Governments and utility companies have developed a great deal of strategies and plans on how to cope with energy saving in households, since this represents a major issue for climate change remediation. Many...... in households, and provides important clues about the potentiality to anchor energy strategies and plans in the social context of local households....

  19. Household food security and infant feeding practices in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owais, Aatekah; Kleinbaum, David G; Suchdev, Parminder S; Faruque, Asg; Das, Sumon K; Schwartz, Benjamin; Stein, Aryeh D

    2016-07-01

    To determine the association between household food security and infant complementary feeding practices in rural Bangladesh. Prospective, cohort study using structured home interviews during pregnancy and 3 and 9 months after delivery. We used two indicators of household food security at 3-months' follow-up: maternal Food Composition Score (FCS), calculated via the World Food Programme method, and an HHFS index created from an eleven-item food security questionnaire. Infant feeding practices were characterized using WHO definitions. Two rural sub-districts of Kishoreganj, Bangladesh. Mother-child dyads (n 2073) who completed the 9-months' follow-up. Complementary feeding was initiated at age ≤4 months for 7 %, at 5-6 months for 49 % and at ≥7 months for 44 % of infants. Based on 24 h dietary recall, 98 % of infants were still breast-feeding at age 9 months, and 16 % received ≥4 food groups and ≥4 meals (minimally acceptable diet) in addition to breast milk. Mothers' diet was more diverse than infants'. The odds of receiving a minimally acceptable diet for infants living in most food-secure households were three times those for infants living in least food-secure households (adjusted OR=3·0; 95 % CI 2·1, 4·3). Socio-economic status, maternal age, literacy, parity and infant sex were not associated with infant diet. HHFS and maternal FCS were significant predictors of subsequent infant feeding practices. Nevertheless, even the more food-secure households had poor infant diet. Interventions aimed at improving infant nutritional status need to focus on both complementary food provision and education.

  20. Association between household food security and infant feeding practices in urban informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macharia, T N; Ochola, S; Mutua, M K; Kimani-Murage, E W

    2018-02-01

    Studies in urban informal settlements show widespread inappropriate infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices and high rates of food insecurity. This study assessed the association between household food security and IYCF practices in two urban informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. The study adopted a longitudinal design that involved a census sample of 1110 children less than 12 months of age and their mothers aged between 12 and 49 years. A questionnaire was used to collect information on: IYCF practices and household food security. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between food insecurity and IYFC practices. The findings showed high household food insecurity; only 19.5% of the households were food secure based on Household Insecurity Access Score. Infant feeding practices were inappropriate: 76% attained minimum meal frequency; 41% of the children attained a minimum dietary diversity; and 27% attained minimum acceptable diet. With the exception of the minimum meal frequency, infants living in food secure households were significantly more likely to achieve appropriate infant feeding practices than those in food insecure households: minimum meal frequency (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.26, P=0.530); minimum dietary diversity (AOR=1.84, P=0.046) and minimum acceptable diet (AOR=2.35, P=0.008). The study adds to the existing body of knowledge by demonstrating an association between household food security and infant feeding practices in low-income settings. The findings imply that interventions aimed at improving infant feeding practices and ultimately nutritional status need to also focus on improving household food security.

  1. Household energy transition in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hills, Peter (Hong Kong Univ. (Hong Kong). Centre of Urban Planning and Environmental Management)

    1994-05-01

    A household energy survey in Hong Kong confirmed that domestic energy consumption is dominated by modern fuels. Household spending on fuels typically amounts to less than 3% of monthly income. Delivered energy use per household per month averages 1.77 GJ and per capita use 0.37 GJ. Electricity accounts for more than half of fuel expenditure and energy use. Patterns of fuel choice and use are quite consistent across income levels, although electricity use rises with higher household incomes. Many households use a combination of kerosene, gas and electricity (rice cookers) for cooking, which appears to reflect culinary practices more than fuel prices, perceived safety or availability. Electrical appliance saturation is high already, and air conditioning use is growing rapidly. Household electricity consumption may increase substantially during the 1990s as higher comfort levels lead to increased heating and cooling demand and space standards in public housing units improve. (Author)

  2. Social vulnerability to heat in Greater Atlanta, USA: spatial pattern of heat, NDVI, socioeconomics and household composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Sunhui

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the article is evaluating spatial patterns of social vulnerability to heat in Greater Atlanta in 2015. The social vulnerability to heat is an index of socioeconomic status, household composition, land surface temperature and normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI). Land surface temperature and NDVI were derived from the red, NIR and thermal infrared (TIR) of a Landsat OLI/TIRS images collected on September 14, 2015. The research focus is on the variation of heat vulnerability in Greater Atlanta. The study found that heat vulnerability is highly clustered spatially, resulting in "hot spots" and "cool spots". The results show significant health disparities. The hotspots of social vulnerability to heat occurred in neighborhoods with lower socioeconomic status as measured by low education, low income and more poverty, greater proportion of elderly people and young children. The findings of this study are important for identifying clusters of heat vulnerability and the relationships with social factors. These significant results provide a basis for heat intervention services.

  3. Identifying Socioeconomic and Cultural Patterns in the Heat Consumption of Copenhagen Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiter, Ida Maria; Hansen, Henning Sten

    2017-01-01

    out which household types need political targeting in order to reach the goal of a 20% decrease in the Copenhagen heat consumption in 2025 compared to 2010. Using a combination of choropleth maps, Pearson’s R, and regression analyses, the total effects as well as direct effects of socioeconomic...

  4. From electricity to heat: A discourse-analytical policy study of the energy system conversion at national, municipal and household levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perman, Karin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to analyse how space heating for single-family houses, and energy system conversion has been constructed and discussed at national, municipal and household levels. Political documents have been studied, and interviews have been carried out with politicians, civil servants and householders in the municipality of Falun. In order to study and analyse similarities and differences between these three political levels, the following main questions were asked: In which sense is the use of electrical heating formulated as problematic? How are the causes of these problems presented, and which solutions are suggested? What are the effects of how problems, causes and solutions are constructed? At the national level, the use of electricity produced by nuclear power was considered a problem. Initially the municipality's policy documents present the same problem, but there is a change of focus to the problem of imported electricity produced by fossil fuel, and the resulting emissions. At household level, the problem was often an old and badly functioning space-heating system. But some households did not formulate a problem before they converted. Instead they were influenced by their neighbours and thereby convinced. At all three political levels, there is consensus on the households' responsibility concerning energy transition. While industry tends to be considered incapable of cutting down its energy consumption, households are expected to take the responsibility seriously. Furthermore, within the household, the heating system tends to be constructed as a predominantly male concern. At all three levels, households are perceived as dependant on economical subsidies when taking the decision to convert from electrical heating. Although it is interesting that the interviewed householders only apply this view to others than themselves. They are convinced that other households need subsidies to act in an environmentally correct way. The discourse concerning

  5. Household Fertilizers Use and Soil Fertility Management Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Household Fertilizers Use and Soil Fertility Management Practices in Vegetable Crops Production: The Case of Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia. ... rate, which could leads to pollution of the environment from over dose application and from runoff in to the water bodies and leaching in to the ground water with economic loss.

  6. The potential reduction of household space heating CO2 emissions in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelmoer, Wiebe

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Space heating is responsible for more than half of the total Dutch household energy demand, a large share is based on natural gas. With increasing concern about global warming and depleting gas reserves, energy saving has become an important topi

  7. The changing character of household waste in the Czech Republic between 1999 and 2009 as a function of home heating methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doležalová, Markéta; Benešová, Libuše; Závodská, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The character of household waste in the three different types of households were assesed. • The quantity, density and composition of household waste were determined. • The physicochemical characteristics were determined. • The changing character of household waste during past 10 years was described. • The potential of energy recovery of household waste in Czech republic was assesed. - Abstract: The authors of this paper report on the changing character of household waste, in the Czech Republic between 1999 and 2009 in households differentiated by their heating methods. The data presented are the result of two projects, financed by the Czech Ministry of Environment, which were undertaken during this time period with the aim of focusing on the waste characterisation and complete analysis of the physicochemical properties of the household waste. In the Czech Republic, the composition of household waste varies significantly between different types of households based on the methods of home heating employed. For the purposes of these studies, the types of homes were divided into three categories – urban, mixed and rural. Some of the biggest differences were found in the quantities of certain subsample categories, especially fine residue (matter smaller than 20 mm), between urban households with central heating and rural households that primarily employ solid fuel such coal or wood. The use of these solid fuels increases the fraction of the finer categories because of the higher presence of ash. Heating values of the residual household waste from the three categories varied very significantly, ranging from 6.8 MJ/kg to 14.2 MJ/kg in 1999 and from 6.8 MJ/kg to 10.5 MJ/kg in 2009 depending on the type of household and season. The same factors affect moisture of residual household waste which varied from 23.2% to 33.3%. The chemical parameters also varied significantly, especially in the quantities of Tl, As, Cr, Zn, Fe and Mn, which were higher in

  8. The changing character of household waste in the Czech Republic between 1999 and 2009 as a function of home heating methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doležalová, Markéta; Benešová, Libuše; Závodská, Anita

    2013-09-01

    The authors of this paper report on the changing character of household waste, in the Czech Republic between 1999 and 2009 in households differentiated by their heating methods. The data presented are the result of two projects, financed by the Czech Ministry of Environment, which were undertaken during this time period with the aim of focusing on the waste characterisation and complete analysis of the physicochemical properties of the household waste. In the Czech Republic, the composition of household waste varies significantly between different types of households based on the methods of home heating employed. For the purposes of these studies, the types of homes were divided into three categories - urban, mixed and rural. Some of the biggest differences were found in the quantities of certain subsample categories, especially fine residue (matter smaller than 20 mm), between urban households with central heating and rural households that primarily employ solid fuel such coal or wood. The use of these solid fuels increases the fraction of the finer categories because of the higher presence of ash. Heating values of the residual household waste from the three categories varied very significantly, ranging from 6.8 MJ/kg to 14.2 MJ/kg in 1999 and from 6.8 MJ/kg to 10.5 MJ/kg in 2009 depending on the type of household and season. The same factors affect moisture of residual household waste which varied from 23.2% to 33.3%. The chemical parameters also varied significantly, especially in the quantities of Tl, As, Cr, Zn, Fe and Mn, which were higher in rural households. Because knowledge about the properties of household waste, as well as its physicochemical characteristics, is very important not only for future waste management, but also for the prediction of the behaviour and influence of the waste on the environment as the country continues to streamline its legislation to the European Union's solid waste mandates, the results of these studies were employed by the

  9. Measuring consumption in households. Interpretations and strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole [Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, Hoersholm (Denmark)

    2008-12-01

    The paper discusses the connection between environmental awareness and metering data on household consumption (electricity, heating, water), and it is based on recent Danish studies. It is discussed, how families' understanding of environmental awareness and environmental practices relates to their overall household consumption. The paper indicates that residents' environmental practices in everyday life are often overshadowed by consumption practices in other areas, and that such practices are often rooted in quite different rationales than environmental awareness. These findings are seen as an example of what Pierre Bourdieu calls the 'economy of symbolic goods', offering an explanation for why some symbolic actions apparently play a larger role than other, more environmentally serious consumption practices. From this, it is argued that the social structures underlying consumption and green behaviour should be recognised in the formulation of environmental policies, and that instead of using sustainable practices such as 'environmental awareness' as a sales argument, more reflexive strategies that take consumers' preferences into account should be considered. (author)

  10. Solid medical waste: a cross sectional study of household disposal practices and reported harm in Southern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udofia, Emilia Asuquo; Gulis, Gabriel; Fobil, Julius

    2017-05-18

    Solid medical waste (SMW) in households is perceived to pose minimal risks to the public compared to SMW generated from healthcare facilities. While waste from healthcare facilities is subject to recommended safety measures to minimize risks to human health and the environment, similar waste in households is often untreated and co-mingled with household waste which ends up in landfills and open dumps in many African countries. In Ghana, the management of this potentially hazardous waste stream at household and community level has not been widely reported. The objective of this study was to investigate household disposal practices and harm resulting from SMW generated in households and the community. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 600 households was undertaken in Ga South Municipal Assembly in Accra, Ghana from mid-April to June, 2014. Factors investigated included socio-demographic characteristics, medication related practices, the belief that one is at risk of diseases associated with SMW, SMW disposal practices and reported harm associated with SMW at home and in the community. Eighty percent and 89% of respondents discarded unwanted medicines and sharps in household refuse bins respectively. A corresponding 23% and 35% of respondents discarded these items without a container. Harm from SMW in the household and in the community was reported by 5% and 3% of respondents respectively. Persons who believed they were at risk of diseases associated with SMW were nearly three times more likely to report harm in the household (OR 2.75, 95%CI 1.15-6.54). The belief that one can be harmed by diseases associated with SMW influenced reporting rates in the study area. Disposal practices suggest the presence of unwanted medicines and sharps in the household waste stream conferring on it hazardous properties. Given the low rates of harm reported, elimination of preventable harm might justify community intervention.

  11. Adopters and non-adopters of wood pellet heating in Norwegian households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopha, Bertha Maya; Hertwich, Edgar G.; Kloeckner, Christian A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to understand the differences between adopters and non-adopters of wood pellet heating in Norwegian households by comparing the two groups with regard to key points of adoption. A mail survey of 669 adopters and 291 non-adopters of wood pellet heating was conducted in 2008. Results indicate that there are significant differences between groups with respect to socio-demographic factors, decision-related factors, heating systems adopted and reasons for shifting heating systems. The results also indicate that the adopter group shows characteristics of early adopters, whereas the non-adopter group has characteristics of late adopters. The results for levels of income and education contradict what would be predicted from theory, however. Both groups show no significant difference with respect to values, but the perception of which heating system is the most environmentally friendly differs significantly. The top three reasons cited by the adopter group for installing wood pellet heating are getting an environmentally friendly heating system, low operation costs and an anticipated increase in electricity prices. According to the non-adopter group, the main barriers to adoption are high installation costs, followed by the difficulties of refitting the house for wood pellet heating. A higher subsidy (i.e., an average of 64% of the total installation cost) rather than the current subsidy of up to 20% was required by the non-adopter group to switch to wood pellet heating. (author)

  12. Ochratoxin A reduction in meat sausages using processing methods practiced in households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleadin, Jelka; Perši, Nina; Kovačević, Dragan; Vulić, Ana; Frece, Jadranka; Markov, Ksenija

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of ochratoxin A (OTA) reduction in home-made meat products. Meat sausages (n = 50) produced from raw materials coming from pigs exposed to OTA-contaminated feed, were subject to common heat processes practiced in households (cooking, frying and baking). Concentrations of OTA in pre- and post-processed products were quantified using a validated immunoassay method, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and confirmed using a high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. In line with the differences in recipes used and the degree of OTA accumulation in raw materials, OTA concentrations established in Mediterranean and roast sausages were lower than those found in liver and blood sausages. Baking of contaminated sausages at the temperatures of 190-220°C (for 60 min) resulted in significant reduction of OTA levels (75.8%), while 30-min cooking (at 100°C) and frying (at 170°C) proved to be significantly less effective (e.g. yielding OTA reductions of 7.4% and 12.6%, respectively). The results pointed out that despite high OTA stability, heat processes are capable of reducing its concentration in home-made meat products, depending on the processing modality used.

  13. Cohabitation with farm animals in urban households with and without occupational farm work: associations between participation in educational activities and good hygiene practices in at-risk households cohabiting with farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somphou, Phoupasong; Takano, Takehito; Nakamura, Keiko

    2008-11-01

    This study was performed to investigate patterns of cohabitation with farm animals in urban households in Vientiane, Lao People's Democratic Republic, with regard to animal-to-human disease transmission. We also investigated the association between participation in hygiene-related educational activities and good hygiene practices in households with or without cohabitation with animals. A survey regarding cohabitation with animals, socioeconomic characteristics and participation in educational activities was conducted among 1,497 households randomly sampled from urban districts of Vientiane in 2001. Rates of satisfactory performance of recommended good hygiene practices according to a program commencing in 1996 were compared among households cohabiting with animals with or without participation in educational activities (reference group). Even among households not engaged in agriculture as a major source of income, 54.4, 34.9, 7.9, 3.1 and 35.7% cohabited with chickens, ducks, cattle, buffaloes and dogs, respectively. The percentage of households fulfilling the recommendations for good hygiene practices was 56.7%. The rates of satisfactory hygiene practices among households participating in health education and cohabitating with chickens, ducks or cattle were greater than those in the reference group (OR = 1.7, 95%CI = 1.2, 2.3; OR = 2.0, 95%CI = 1.3, 3.0; OR = 2.3, 95%CI = 1.0, 4.9) regardless of socioeconomic factors. Households cohabiting with animals showed poorer rates of satisfactory hygiene practices than those without animals. Cohabitation with farm animals is common in urban Vientiane regardless of household involvement in agriculture. Further effort is required to improve hygiene conditions, despite some positive effects of health education even in households cohabiting with animals.

  14. Domestic energy use and householders' energy behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yohanis, Yigzaw Goshu

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses domestic energy use and energy behaviour. It shows some improvement in domestic energy consumption and adoption of good energy practice. The survey conducted indicated that 35% of homes could improve their energy efficiency by improved tank insulation. In the last 5 years condensing boilers have been installed only in 3% of homes, indicating that householders are unaware of their advantages. Although 88% of surveyed homes had purchased a major appliance in the last 2 years, only 16% had any idea of the energy rating of their new appliances. Use of energy saving light bulbs is predominant in kitchens compared to other rooms. 70–80% of householders undertook some kind of day-to-day energy efficiency measures. 20–35% of householders would like to invest in energy-saving measures but found cost to be a key barrier. Approximately 84% of those surveyed were unaware of the energy rating of their household appliances. Price and brand were the most important factors determining the purchase of a new appliance. Significant energy-saving could be achieved by providing appropriate information to the general public regarding temperature control, efficiency of appliances and energy-saving heating systems. - Highlights: ▶ Good practice in household energy use is being adopted but actual use is rising. ▶ Cost is dominant in energy related decisions purchasing of household appliances. ▶ Energy behaviour is improving but level of awareness needs more work.

  15. Solid medical waste: a cross sectional study of household disposal practices and reported harm in Southern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Asuquo Udofia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Solid medical waste (SMW in households is perceived to pose minimal risks to the public compared to SMW generated from healthcare facilities. While waste from healthcare facilities is subject to recommended safety measures to minimize risks to human health and the environment, similar waste in households is often untreated and co-mingled with household waste which ends up in landfills and open dumps in many African countries. In Ghana, the management of this potentially hazardous waste stream at household and community level has not been widely reported. The objective of this study was to investigate household disposal practices and harm resulting from SMW generated in households and the community. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 600 households was undertaken in Ga South Municipal Assembly in Accra, Ghana from mid-April to June, 2014. Factors investigated included socio-demographic characteristics, medication related practices, the belief that one is at risk of diseases associated with SMW, SMW disposal practices and reported harm associated with SMW at home and in the community. Results Eighty percent and 89% of respondents discarded unwanted medicines and sharps in household refuse bins respectively. A corresponding 23% and 35% of respondents discarded these items without a container. Harm from SMW in the household and in the community was reported by 5% and 3% of respondents respectively. Persons who believed they were at risk of diseases associated with SMW were nearly three times more likely to report harm in the household (OR 2.75, 95%CI 1.15–6.54. Conclusion The belief that one can be harmed by diseases associated with SMW influenced reporting rates in the study area. Disposal practices suggest the presence of unwanted medicines and sharps in the household waste stream conferring on it hazardous properties. Given the low rates of harm reported, elimination of preventable harm might justify community

  16. Food skills confidence and household gatekeepers' dietary practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Melissa; Reid, Mike; Worsley, Anthony; Mavondo, Felix

    2017-01-01

    Household food gatekeepers have the potential to influence the food attitudes and behaviours of family members, as they are mainly responsible for food-related tasks in the home. The aim of this study was to determine the role of gatekeepers' confidence in food-related skills and nutrition knowledge on food practices in the home. An online survey was completed by 1059 Australian dietary gatekeepers selected from the Global Market Insite (GMI) research database. Participants responded to questions about food acquisition and preparation behaviours, the home eating environment, perceptions and attitudes towards food, and demographics. Two-step cluster analysis was used to identify groups based on confidence regarding food skills and nutrition knowledge. Chi-square tests and one-way ANOVAs were used to compare the groups on the dependent variables. Three groups were identified: low confidence, moderate confidence and high confidence. Gatekeepers in the highest confidence group were significantly more likely to report lower body mass index (BMI), and indicate higher importance of fresh food products, vegetable prominence in meals, product information use, meal planning, perceived behavioural control and overall diet satisfaction. Gatekeepers in the lowest confidence group were significantly more likely to indicate more perceived barriers to healthy eating, report more time constraints and more impulse purchasing practices, and higher convenience ingredient use. Other smaller associations were also found. Household food gatekeepers with high food skills confidence were more likely to engage in several healthy food practices, while those with low food skills confidence were more likely to engage in unhealthy food practices. Food education strategies aimed at building food-skills and nutrition knowledge will enable current and future gatekeepers to make healthier food decisions for themselves and for their families. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Emergency department visits of young children and long-term exposure to neighbourhood smoke from household heating - The Growing Up in New Zealand child cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hak Kan; Berry, Sarah D; Verbiest, Marjolein E A; Tricker, Peter J; Atatoa Carr, Polly E; Morton, Susan M B; Grant, Cameron C

    2017-12-01

    In developed countries, exposure to wood or coal smoke occurs predominantly from neighbourhood emissions arising from household heating. The effect of this exposure on child health is not well characterized. Within a birth cohort study in New Zealand we assessed healthcare events associated with exposure to neighbourhood smoke from household heating. Our outcome measure was non-accidental presentations to hospital emergency departments (ED) before age three years. We matched small area-level census information with the geocoded home locations to measure the density of household heating with wood or coal in the neighbourhood and applied a time-weighted average exposure method to account for residential mobility. We then used hierarchical multiple logistic regression to assess the independence of associations of this exposure with ED presentations adjusted for gender, ethnicity, birth weight, breastfeeding, immunizations, number of co-habiting smokers, wood or coal heating at home, bedroom mold, household- and area-level deprivation and rurality. The adjusted odds ratio of having a non-accidental ED visit was 1.07 [95%CI: 1.03-1.12] per wood or coal heating household per hectare. We found a linear dose-response relationship (p-value for trend = 0.024) between the quartiles of exposure (1st as reference) and the same outcome (odds ratio in 2nd to 4th quartiles: 1.14 [0.95-1.37], 1.28 [1.06-1.54], 1.32 [1.09-1.60]). Exposure to neighbourhoods with higher density of wood or coal smoke-producing households is associated with an increased odds of ED visits during early childhood. Policies that reduce smoke pollution from domestic heating by as little as one household per hectare using solid fuel burners could improve child health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cluster analysis of residential heat load profiles and the role of technical and household characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    2016-01-01

    of the temporality of the energy demand is needed. This paper contributes to this by focusing on the daily load profiles of energy demand for heating of Danish dwellings with heat pumps. Based on hourly recordings from 139 dwellings and employing cluster and regression analysis, the paper explores patterns...... (typologies) in daily heating load profiles and how these relate to socio-economic and technical characteristics of the included households. The study shows that the load profiles vary according to the external load conditions. Two main clusters were identified for both weekdays and weekends and across load...

  19. Energy vulnerability. Far from urban centres, space heating and fuel costs weigh heavily on the household budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochez, Nicolas; Durieux, Eric; Levy, David; Moreau, Sylvain; Baudu-Baret, Claude

    2015-01-01

    For 15% of resident households in metropolitan France, the proportion of income going on home and water heating is high, in the sense that it is twice the median housing-expense to income ratio. With this same criterion, the cost of the most mandatory car journeys is high for 10% of households, in relation to their budgets. In all, 22% of households (i.e. 5.9 million) are experiencing energy vulnerability for one or other of the items of consumption, and 3% of households (i.e. 700 000) are vulnerable for both items. The risk of vulnerability varies over national territory, with differences depending on the items of expenditure considered: climate is the primary factor where disparity in housing-related vulnerability is concerned, whereas the predominant factor for travel is distance from urban centres

  20. Practical versus theoretical domestic energy consumption for space heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audenaert, A.; Briffaerts, K.; Engels, L.

    2011-01-01

    Methods to calculate the theoretical energy consumption consider several things: the number of degree days per year that need to be compensated by heating, the characteristics of the dwelling, the number of occupants and the characteristics of the installation for space heating and sanitary hot water. However, these methods do not take into account consumer behaviour, which may affect the actual consumption. The theoretical calculation methods are based on assumptions and use a number of standardized parameters. The difference between the actual and the theoretical energy consumption, and the impact of the residents' behaviour on energy consumption, is analysed by means of a literature study and a practical research. An energy advice procedure (EAP) audit is executed in five dwellings, as well as a survey regarding the energy related behaviour of the households. The theoretically calculated consumption is compared with the billed actual energy consumption of the families. The results show some problems with the current procedure and give some options to improve it. Some research needs are identified to gain more insights in the influence of different behavioural factors on the actual energy use for heating. - Highlights: → The energy advice procedure (EAP) calculates the energy use for heating in dwellings. → Calculations are compared with the real energy use for 5 dwellings. → A survey on the occupants' behaviour is used to interpret the observed differences. → Default values used in the EAP can be very different from the observed behaviour.

  1. Practical versus theoretical domestic energy consumption for space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audenaert, A., E-mail: amaryllis.audenaert@artesis.be [Department of Applied Engineering: Construction, Artesis University College of Antwerp, Paardenmarkt 92, B-2000 Antwerp (Belgium); Department of Environment, Technology and Technology Management, University of Antwerp, Prinsstraat 13, B-2000 Antwerp (Belgium); Briffaerts, K. [Unit Transition Energy and Environment, VITO NV, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Engels, L. [Department of Applied Engineering: Construction, Artesis University College of Antwerp, Paardenmarkt 92, B-2000 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2011-09-15

    Methods to calculate the theoretical energy consumption consider several things: the number of degree days per year that need to be compensated by heating, the characteristics of the dwelling, the number of occupants and the characteristics of the installation for space heating and sanitary hot water. However, these methods do not take into account consumer behaviour, which may affect the actual consumption. The theoretical calculation methods are based on assumptions and use a number of standardized parameters. The difference between the actual and the theoretical energy consumption, and the impact of the residents' behaviour on energy consumption, is analysed by means of a literature study and a practical research. An energy advice procedure (EAP) audit is executed in five dwellings, as well as a survey regarding the energy related behaviour of the households. The theoretically calculated consumption is compared with the billed actual energy consumption of the families. The results show some problems with the current procedure and give some options to improve it. Some research needs are identified to gain more insights in the influence of different behavioural factors on the actual energy use for heating. - Highlights: > The energy advice procedure (EAP) calculates the energy use for heating in dwellings. > Calculations are compared with the real energy use for 5 dwellings. > A survey on the occupants' behaviour is used to interpret the observed differences. > Default values used in the EAP can be very different from the observed behaviour.

  2. Air-to-air heat pumps in real-life use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with individual air-to-air heat pumps in Danish dwellings and summerhouses and the question of to what extent they actually deliver savings of energy consumption. Results show that 20% of the expected reduction of electricity consumption is converted into increased comfort...... in the homes, including extended heating areas, keeping a higher temperature and a longer heating season and using the heat pump for air conditioning. Data include electricity consumption in 185 households before and after installation of heat pumps together with survey results of 480 households. Furthermore...... heating practices. These results have to be taken into account when making long-term energy planning for a sustainable energy system....

  3. Environmental performance of household waste management in Europe - an example of 7 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasi Bassi, Susanna; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    compositions, waste management practices, technologies, and energy systems. National data were collected from a range of sources regarding household waste composition, household sorting efficiency, collection, waste treatments, recycling, electricity and heat composition, and technological efficiencies......An attributional life cycle assessment (LCA) of the management of 1 ton of household waste was conducted in accordance with ISO 14044:2006 and the ILCD Handbook for seven European countries, namely Germany, Denmark, France, UK, Italy, Poland and Greece, representing different household waste....... The objective was to quantify the environmental performance in the different countries, in order to analyze the sources of the main environmental impacts and national differences which affect the results. In most of the seven countries, household waste management provides environmental benefits when considering...

  4. Conception of a heat storage system for household applications. Category: New product innovations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Thomas [Leuphana Univ. Lueneburg (Germany); Rammelberg, Holger U.; Roennebeck, Thomas [and others

    2012-07-01

    Almost 90% of the energy consumption of private households in Germany is used for heating. Thus, an efficient, sustainable and reliable heat management is one of the main challenges in the future. Heat storage will become a key technology when considering the daily, weekly, seasonal and unpredictable fluctuations of energy production with renewables. The storage of heat is much more volume- and energy-efficient as well as more economical than electricity storage. However, transport of heat over long distances is coupled with high losses, compared with electricity transport. Therefore, we propose the use of micro CHP in combination with volume-efficient and nearly loss-free heat storage to counteract electricity fluctuations. Focus of this contribution the conception of the large-scale project ''Thermal Battery'', funded by the European Union and the Federal State of Lower Saxony. The underlying principle is the utilization of reversible thermochemical reactions, such as dehydration and rehydration of salt hydrates for heat storage. The main goal is the development of a prototypical storage tank, which is capable of storing 80 kWh of heat with a system volume of less than 1 m{sup 3}. Importantly, the Vattenfall New Energy Services as a collaboration partner will support the development of an application-oriented heat storage device. This project is being carried out by an interdisciplinary team of engineers, chemists, physicists and environmental scientists.

  5. Our Breaths We Take: Outdoor Air Quality, Health, and Climate Change Consequences of Household Heating and Cooking with Solid Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafe, Zoe Anna

    Worldwide, nearly 3 billion people--40% of the global population--burn wood, coal, and other solid fuels every day to cook their food; this number is even larger when including those who heat their homes with solid fuels as well. Exposure to pollution from heating and cooking fires causes about 3 million deaths each year, making it one of the biggest environmental health problems the world faces. The harm from this smoke is not restricted to those who breathe it, however: it contains gases and particles that contribute to global climate change as well. Chapter 2 shows that household cooking with solid fuels caused an estimated 12% of population-weighted ambient PM2.5 worldwide in 2010. Exposure to this air pollution caused the loss of 370,000 lives and 9.9 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) globally in the same year. In Chapter 3 I demonstrate that household heating with solid fuels caused an estimated 21% of population-weighted ambient PM2.5 in 2010 in Central Europe, 13% in Eastern Europe, 12% in Western Europe, and 8% in North America. Exposure to this air pollution results caused approximately 60,000 premature deaths in Europe, and nearly 10,000 deaths in North America, as well as an estimated 1.0 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in Europe and 160,000 DALYs in North America. Chapter 4 addresses drivers of household wood combustion pollution in the San Francisco Bay Area, where the sector is the largest source of PM 2.5 and regulators recently introduced amendments to wood burning rules for the airshed. Fireplaces are the source of the vast majority (84%) of PM 2.5 from residential wood combustion in the San Francisco Bay Area, despite their use primarily as an aesthetic or recreational combustion activity. By evaluating hypothetical fuel and combustion device changeouts, I find that replacing fireplaces with gas would yield significant health and economic benefits. Specifically, retrofitting frequently used fireplaces (300,000 units

  6. Food hygiene practices and its associated factors among model and non model households in Abobo district, southwestern Ethiopia: Comparative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okugn, Akoma; Woldeyohannes, Demelash

    2018-01-01

    In developing country most of human infectious diseases are caused by eating contaminated food. Estimated nine out ten of the diarrheal disease is attributable to the environment and associated with risk factors of poor food hygiene practice. Understanding the risk of eating unsafe food is the major concern to prevent and control food borne diseases. The main goal of this study was to assessing food hygiene practices and its associated factors among model and non model households at Abobo district. This study was conducted from 18 October 2013 to 13 June 2014. A community-based comparative cross-sectional study design was used. Pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. A total of 1247 households (417 model and 830 non model households) were included in the study from Abobo district. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with outcome variable. The study revealed that good food hygiene practice was 51%, of which 79% were model and 36.70% were non model households. Type of household [AOR: 2.07, 95% CI: (1.32-3.39)], sex of household head [AOR: 1.63, 95% CI: (1.06-2.48)], Availability of liquid wastes disposal pit [AOR: 2.23, 95% CI: (1.39,3.63)], Knowledge of liquid waste to cause diseases [AOR: 1.95, 95% (1.23,3.08)], and availability of functional hand washing facility [AOR: 3.61, 95% CI: (1.86-7.02)] were the factors associated with food handling practices. This study revealed that good food handling practice is low among model and non model households. While type of household (model versus non model households), sex, knowledge of solid waste to cause diseases, availability of functional hand washing facility, and availability of liquid wastes disposal pit were the factors associated with outcome variable. Health extension workers should play a great role in educating households regarding food hygiene practices to improve their knowledge and practices of the food hygiene.

  7. Parenting Practices and Child Adjustment in Different Types of Households: A Study of African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Chen, Yi-Fu; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene; Cutrona, Carolyn

    2006-01-01

    This article uses a sample of 867 African American households to investigate differences in parenting practices and child outcomes by type of household. Results indicate that mothers provide similar levels of parenting regardless of family structure. Secondary caregivers, however, show a great deal of variation in quality of parenting. Fathers and…

  8. Wood fuels consumption in households in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glavonjić Branko D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of researching wood fuels consumption in households in Montenegro in the heating season 2011/2012. The research was conducted in the period October-November 2012 on the sample of 5% of the total number of households which stated to use solid fuels for heating purposes in the 2011 census. Results of the conducted researches on the presence and amounts of fuels consumed in households in Montenegro showed that total firewood consumption in the heating season 2011/2012 (both urban and rural households was 703,571 m3. Wood consumption is the lowest in the households in the municipalities in the coastal zone, it is somewhat higher in central zone and the highest in the zone on the north of Montenegro. Average wood consumption in households in the coastal zone municipalities is 3.79 m3, in the central zone it is 5.02 m3 and on the north of Montenegro it is 6.74 m3/household. Observed on the level of Montenegro, average firewood consumption per household was 5.49 m3 and as such it best represents relatively low consumption level in the coastal zone and high consumption level on the north of Montenegro. Compared to the neighboring countries, average firewood consumption per household in Montenegro in the amount of 5.49 m3 is significantly lower than the average consumption in Serbia which is 7.3 m3/household as well as in Slovenia in the amount of 6.5 m3.

  9. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-05

    This presents information about household end-use consumption of energy and expenditures for that energy. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey; more than 7,000 households were surveyed for information on their housing units, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information represents all households nationwide (97 million). Key findings: National residential energy consumption was 10.0 quadrillion Btu in 1993, a 9% increase over 1990. Weather has a significant effect on energy consumption. Consumption of electricity for appliances is increasing. Houses that use electricity for space heating have lower overall energy expenditures than households that heat with other fuels. RECS collected data for the 4 most populous states: CA, FL, NY, TX.

  10. Modern technical solutions of gas-fired heating devices of household and communal use and analysis of their testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodzon, L.; Radwan, W. [Oil Mining and Gas Engineering Institute, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    A review of technical solutions for gas-fired heating devices for household and communal use in Poland is presented. Based upon the analysis it is stated that the power output of Polish and foreign boilers ranges between 9 and 35 kW. The carbon monoxide content in flue gases reaches (on average) 0.005 vol.%, i.e., it is much lower than the maximum permissible level. Temperature of flue gases (excluding condensation boilers and those with air-tight combustion chamber) ranges between 150 and 200{degrees}C and their heating efficiency reaches 87-93%. The best parameters are given for condensation boilers, however they are still not widespread in Poland for the high cost of the equipment and assembling works. Among the heaters, the most safe are convection devices with closed combustion chamber; their efficiency is also the highest. Thus, it is concluded that a wide spectrum of high efficiency heating devices with good combustion parameters are available. The range of output is sufficient to meet household and communal requirement. They are however - predominantly - units manufactured abroad. It is difficult to formulate the program aimed at the improvement of the technique of heating devices made in Poland, and its implementation is uncertain because the production process is broken up into small handicraft workshops.

  11. Consumption Profiles for Future Households

    OpenAIRE

    Blikø, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years there has been a change in energy consumption in Norwegian households. New houses are far better insulated, have high demands for efficient energy carriers and new installations that affect the electricity consumption. Today, most of the electricity in a Norwegian household is used for space heating, but this demand is expected to be reduced in the future, mainly because the need for space heating is reduced as a result of stricter demands for isolation. Electricity co...

  12. The Convenience Benefits of the District Heating System over Individual Heating Systems in Korean Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo-Jin Kim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Koreans usually prefer the district heating system (DHS to the individual heating system (IHS because DHS can give them convenience and safety within their living environment. The Korean government thus plans to expand the DHS and requires information about the value that consumers place on the DHS over the IHS, which has not been dealt with in academic literature. This paper attempts to investigate Korean households’ willingness to pay (WTP for DHS over IHS, for residential heat (RH. To this end, the authors apply the dichotomous choice contingent valuation to assessing additional WTP for DHS using a survey of 1000 randomly selected households living in buildings with IHS. A mixture model is applied to deal with the zero WTP responses. The WTP distribution is specified as a mixture of two distributions, one with a point mass at zero and the other with full support on the positive half of the real line. The results show that the mean additional WTP for DHS-based RH over IHS-based RH is estimated to be KRW 5775 (USD 5.4 per Gcal. This value can be interpreted as the consumer’s convenience benefits of DHS over IHS, and amounts to approximately 6.0% of the average price: KRW 96,510 (USD 90.4 per Gcal in 2013, for IHS-based RH. This information is useful for evaluating changes to the method used for supplying RH from IHS to DHS.

  13. Practices of pharmaceutical waste generation and discarding in households across Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Valente, Susana; Vaz, João

    2016-10-01

    This work is the first nationwide study in Portugal on pharmaceutical waste generated at households, exploring people's attitudes and risk perception. The waste audit was carried out from September to November 2014, targeting pharmaceutical products kept by a sample of families (n = 244). This campaign was an assignment of VALORMED, the non-profit association that manages waste and packaging from expired and unused pharmaceutical products collected by the pharmacies. On average, each household kept at home 1097 g of pharmaceutical products, of which 20% were in use, 72% were not in use, and 8% were mostly expired products ready to discard. Face-to-face interviews with householders showed that 69% of the respondents claimed returning pharmaceutical waste to the local pharmacy. However, this figure is overrated, probably owing to a possible 'good answer' effect. The barriers identified to proper disposal were mainly established routines and lack of close disposal points. This study also provides an insight into the Portuguese awareness and daily practices concerning pharmaceutical waste, which is the cornerstone of any future strategy to reduce the release of active pharmaceutical ingredients into ecosystems. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Household energy demand. Empirical studies concerning Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dargay, J; Lundin, A

    1978-06-01

    This paper investigates the effects of energy policy on households in Sweden and provides the material necessary for evaluation of current and proposed energy-conservation measures. Emphasis is placed on the impact of enery taxation or price changes on household demand for electricity, heating oil, and gasoline and the consequences of such measures for income distribution. The results of the Swedish studies of household demand for heating oil and gasoline indicate that price changes can have a considerable long run impact on fuel utilization. In the short run, price responsiveness is notably reduced, but it is nevertheless of consequence for energy demand.

  15. Household environmental monitoring project, volume I : main report, volume 2 : appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, J.; Goemans, M.; Goemans, P.C.; Wisniowski, A. [Jane Thompson Architect, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Fugler, D. [Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2006-01-15

    Environmentally sustainable behaviour can be motivated by providing homeowners with a clear picture of their environmental impact, tangible reasons for improvement, and tailored solutions. This report presented the results of a study that established a study group of 20 households in an 85-year old community near downtown Ottawa, Ontario to test the above hypothesis. Each household completed surveys about environmental attitudes and household practices. Each household also tracked home heating, electricity and water consumption, and vehicle usage and waste generation over a monitoring period of one week. This report described the study in detail and presented the research plan and methods. It provided a review of related literature, including motivational techniques for encouraging sustainable behaviour; environmental monitoring tools including design tools, global impact assessment tools, federal environmental reduction tools and strategies; analyses of environmentally sustainable projects; and resource conservation techniques and manuals. The report also discussed the selection of the study group; development of monitoring method and forms; household monitoring; household assessment and reporting; community initiatives; and assessment of following year results. It was concluded that the research technique successfully produced reductions in environmental impact among the study group. refs., tabs., figs.

  16. Household knowledge, attitudes and practices related to pet contact and associated zoonoses in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stull Jason W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many human infections are transmitted through contact with animals (zoonoses, including household pets. Although pet ownership is common in most countries and non-pet owners may have frequent contact with pets, there is limited knowledge of the public’s pet contact practices and awareness of zoonotic disease risks from pets. The objective of this study was to characterize the general public’s knowledge, attitudes and risks related to pet ownership and animal contact in southern Ontario, Canada. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to individuals at two multi-physician clinics in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada during 2010. A single adult from each household was invited to participate in the study. Results Seventy five percent (641/853 of individuals approached completed the questionnaire. Pet ownership and contact were common; 64% of participants had a pet in their household and 37% of non-pet owning households had a member with at least weekly animal contact outside the home. Pet ownership was high (55% for households with individuals at higher risk for infections (i.e., Conclusions These results suggest that there is a need for accessible zoonotic disease information for both pet and non-owning households, with additional efforts made by veterinary, human and public health personnel. Immediate educational efforts directed toward households with individuals at higher risk to infections are especially needed.

  17. Towards sustainable household energy use in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, J; Moll, H.C.

    2001-01-01

    Households consume direct energy, using natural gas, heating oil, gasoline and electricity, and consume indirect energy, the energy related to the production of goods and the delivery of services for the households. Past trends and present-day household energy use (direct and indirect) are analysed

  18. Heat Transfer Basics and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Böckh, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The book provides an easy way to understand the fundamentals of heat transfer. The reader will acquire the ability to design and analyze heat exchangers. Without extensive derivation of the fundamentals, the latest correlations for heat transfer coefficients and their application are discussed. The following topics are presented - Steady state and transient heat conduction - Free and forced convection - Finned surfaces - Condensation and boiling - Radiation - Heat exchanger design - Problem-solving After introducing the basic terminology, the reader is made familiar with the different mechanisms of heat transfer. Their practical application is demonstrated in examples, which are available in the Internet as MathCad files for further use. Tables of material properties and formulas for their use in programs are included in the appendix. This book will serve as a valuable resource for both students and engineers in the industry. The author’s experience indicates that students, after 40 lectures and exercises ...

  19. Influence of household biogas digester use on household energy consumption in a semi-arid rural region of northwest China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Wenguang; Niu, Hewen; Chen, Jinsong; Du, Jun; Wu, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Rural household energy mainly derives from available biomass resources. ► Household energy consumption structure experiencing substantial transformation. ► Biogas energy plays an important roles in rural household energy consumption. ► Biogas digester construction has a profound implication for applied energy. -- Abstract: A comprehensive investigation was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of newly installed biogas digesters in saving biomass resources and addressing energy squandering. Compared with traditional coal-based or firewood dominated energy consumption, the biogas digesters economize on energy resources due to higher heat efficiency. Furthermore, since crop residues of straw and other domestic animal and human excreta are effectively recycled and reused as anaerobic fermentation materials of biogas digesters, greenhouse gas emissions are significantly reduced by converting the previous extensive combustion of such into a sustainable and highly efficient practice in the rural region. The results in this study show that total energy consumption is 412 kgce (kgce: 1 kg standard coal. 1 kgce = 29.31 MJ) in Xiyang Township in 2009. The construction of biogas digesters significantly contributes to the transformation of rural household energy consumption structure, though biogas as a renewable energy only accounts for 6.31% of the total household energy consumption. Per capita rural household energy consumption is 393.07 kgce in household with biogas digesters and 437.60 kgce in household without biogas digesters. In addition, application of biogas dregs, slurry, and marsh liquid to the agricultural crops have greatly reduced the expenditure of buying chemical fertilizers. The average commercial fertilizer per mu (0.067 ha) in rural households using biogas digesters is 12.43 kg and the cost per mu is 29.53 yuan (1 yuan = 0.1523 dollar), while rural households without biogas digesters use 25.22 kg of commercial fertilizers and cost 59

  20. Observed Handwashing with Soap Practices among Cholera Patients and Accompanying Household Members in a Hospital Setting (CHoBI7 Trial)

    OpenAIRE

    Zohura, Fatema; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Monira, Shirajum; Begum, Farzana; Biswas, Shwapon K.; Parvin, Tahmina; Sack, David; Sack, R. Bradley; Leontsini, Elli; Saif-Ur-Rahman, K. M.; Rashid, Mahamud-ur; Sharmin, Rumana; Zhang, Xiaotong; Alam, Munirul; George, Christine Marie

    2016-01-01

    Household members of cholera patients are at a 100 times higher risk of cholera than the general population. Despite this risk, there are only a handful of studies that have investigated the handwashing practices among hospitalized diarrhea patients and their accompanying household members. To investigate handwashing practices in a hospital setting among this high-risk population, 444 hours of structured observation was conducted in a hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh, among 148 cholera patients ...

  1. Households' hourly electricity consumption and peak demand in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Andersen, Frits; Baldini, Mattia; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    2017-01-01

    consumption, we analyse the contribution of appliances and new services, such as individual heat pumps and electric vehicles, to peak consumption and the need for demand response incentives to reduce the peak.Initially, the paper presents a new model that represents the hourly electricity consumption profile...... of households in Denmark. The model considers hourly consumption profiles for different household appliances and their contribution to annual household electricity consumption. When applying the model to an official scenario for annual electricity consumption, assuming non-flexible consumption due...... to a considerable introduction of electric vehicles and individual heat pumps, household consumption is expected to increase considerably, especially peak hour consumption is expected to increase.Next the paper presents results from a new experiment where household customers are given economic and/or environmental...

  2. Factors Influencing Household Solid Waste Management in Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this study was to determine factors that influence household solid waste management practices in urban Nyeri Municipality. Descriptive cross- sectional ... Results from the survey showed that 26.2% of households practiced correct methods of household solid waste management. The percentage of ...

  3. USE OF UNSAFE COOKING FUELS AND BOILING PRACTICE AMONG INDONESIAN HOUSEHOLDS: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM THE 2012 DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Irianti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Improved drinking-water sources need not be microbiologically safe. Hence, households usually boil their water prior to drinking. However, this practice can potentially harm health when households rely on unsafe cooking fuels. In Indonesia, little is known about the association of use of unsafe fuels with boiling practice. Hence, an analysis was carried out to elicit information regarding boiling practice using unsafe fuels. Such information would be useful in determining appropriate household water treatments. Data from the 2012 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS were analysed to examine the relationship between the use of unsafe cooking fuel and choosing boiling as household water treatment. Bivariate and multivariate probit regression models (PRM were fitted and compared using average marginal effects (AME and its respective 95 per cent confidence interval (95% CI as measures of association. The results suggest that using kerosene as cooking fuel is positively significantly associated with higher probability of practicing boiling (p = 0.006; AME: 0.019; 95% CI: 0.0056, 0.0333. This is also true for use of solid fuel (p< 0.001; AME: 0.3115; 95% CI: 0.3026, 0.3203. These association holds, albeit attenuated (Kerosene, p< 0.001; AME: 0.02706; 95% CI: 0.0186, 0.0355; Solid fuel, p< 0.001; AME: 0.0373; 95% CI: 0.02839, 0.0463, after the control variables are included. The authors suggest that stakeholders should promote the use of other household water treatment technologies to reduce the boiling practice using unsafe cooking fuels as to minimize the risk of smoke related infections. Moreover, universal access and equity to safe drinking water and sanitation facility in Indonesia should be realised to reduce demand of boiling water using unsafe cooking fuels.

  4. The impact for households of a carbon component in the price of fossil energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Olivier; Thao Khamsing, Willy

    2016-03-01

    A carbon component has been introduced in tax on fossil energies in 2014 in France in order to support energy transition, and resulted in a higher cost of fossil energies for households in their transport and heating expenses. This publication aims at illustrating and commenting these consequences of a carbon component. It shows that expenses increase with the standard of living, that modest households are more affected, notably as far as heating expenses are concerned, that households using domestic fuel for heating and diesel fuel for their vehicles are the most affected, that the additional cost is particularly a burden for single-parent families and singles, and that rural households are more affected. A cross-criterion analysis (household type, location, heating type, fuel type) is proposed to assess the impact of 2016 on the energy bill of typical households. Methodological hypotheses, data origins and calculation method are briefly presented

  5. The Determinants of Agricultural Productivity and Rural Household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rahel

    Key Words: Labor productivity, Land productivity; Rural household income, Rural ... household labor ratio of rural household farmers, given fixed level of inputs ... because households are rarely practicing dominated by a subsistence.

  6. Influence of family size, household food security status, and child care practices on the nutritional status of under-five children in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajao, K O; Ojofeitimi, E O; Adebayo, A A; Fatusi, A O; Afolabi, O T

    2010-12-01

    Fertility pattern and reproductive behaviours affect infant death in Nigeria. Household food insecurity and poor care practices also place children at risk of morbidity and mortality. The objectives of this study were to assess the influence of family size, household food security status, and child care practices on the nutritional status of under-five children in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed a descriptive cross-sectional design. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 423 mothers of under-five children and their children in the households selected through multistage sampling methods. Food-insecure households were five times more likely than secure households to have wasted children (crude OR = 5.707, 95 percent CI = 1.31-24.85). Children with less educated mothers were significantly more likely to be stunted. The prevalence of food insecurity among households in Ile-Ife was high. Households with food insecurity and less educated mothers were more likely to have malnourished children.

  7. Consistency of Use and Effectiveness of Household Water Treatment among Indian Households Claiming to Treat Their Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Ghislaine; Clasen, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Household water treatment (HWT) can improve drinking water quality and prevent disease if used correctly and consistently by populations at risk. Current international monitoring estimates by the Joint Monitoring Programme for water and sanitation suggest that at least 1.1 billion people practice HWT. These estimates, however, are based on surveys that may overstate the level of consistent use and do not address microbial effectiveness. We sought to assess how HWT is practiced among households identified as HWT users according to these monitoring standards. After a baseline survey (urban: 189 households, rural: 210 households) to identify HWT users, 83 urban and 90 rural households were followed up for 6 weeks. Consistency of reported HWT practices was high in both urban (100%) and rural (93.3%) settings, as was availability of treated water (based on self-report) in all three sampling points (urban: 98.8%, rural: 76.0%). Nevertheless, only 13.7% of urban and 25.8% of rural households identified at baseline as users of adequate HWT had water free of thermotolerant coliforms at all three water sampling points. Our findings raise questions about the value of the data gathered through the international monitoring of HWT as predictors of water quality in the home, as well as questioning the ability of HWT, as actually practiced by vulnerable populations, to reduce exposure to waterborne diseases.

  8. A cross-sectional, randomized cluster sample survey of household vulnerability to extreme heat among slum dwellers in ahmedabad, india.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Kathy V; Azhar, Gulrez S; Nair, Rajesh; Knowlton, Kim; Jaiswal, Anjali; Sheffield, Perry; Mavalankar, Dileep; Hess, Jeremy

    2013-06-18

    Extreme heat is a significant public health concern in India; extreme heat hazards are projected to increase in frequency and severity with climate change. Few of the factors driving population heat vulnerability are documented, though poverty is a presumed risk factor. To facilitate public health preparedness, an assessment of factors affecting vulnerability among slum dwellers was conducted in summer 2011 in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Indicators of heat exposure, susceptibility to heat illness, and adaptive capacity, all of which feed into heat vulnerability, was assessed through a cross-sectional household survey using randomized multistage cluster sampling. Associations between heat-related morbidity and vulnerability factors were identified using multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to account for clustering effects. Age, preexisting medical conditions, work location, and access to health information and resources were associated with self-reported heat illness. Several of these variables were unique to this study. As sociodemographics, occupational heat exposure, and access to resources were shown to increase vulnerability, future interventions (e.g., health education) might target specific populations among Ahmedabad urban slum dwellers to reduce vulnerability to extreme heat. Surveillance and evaluations of future interventions may also be worthwhile.

  9. Household knowledge, attitudes and practices related to pet contact and associated zoonoses in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Many human infections are transmitted through contact with animals (zoonoses), including household pets. Although pet ownership is common in most countries and non-pet owners may have frequent contact with pets, there is limited knowledge of the public’s pet contact practices and awareness of zoonotic disease risks from pets. The objective of this study was to characterize the general public’s knowledge, attitudes and risks related to pet ownership and animal contact in southern Ontario, Canada. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to individuals at two multi-physician clinics in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada during 2010. A single adult from each household was invited to participate in the study. Results Seventy five percent (641/853) of individuals approached completed the questionnaire. Pet ownership and contact were common; 64% of participants had a pet in their household and 37% of non-pet owning households had a member with at least weekly animal contact outside the home. Pet ownership was high (55%) for households with individuals at higher risk for infections (i.e., pet-associated disease risks. When given a list of 11 infectious pathogens, respondents were only able to correctly classify just over half on their potential to be transmitted from pets to people (mean 6.4); independently, pet owners and those who recalled receiving information in the past about this topic were able to make significantly more correct identifications. Pet (36%) and non-pet owning households (10%) reported dog or cat bites or scratches during the preceding year. Households with individuals at higher risk for an infection did not differ from the remaining households regarding their perceived disease risk of pets, zoonotic disease knowledge, recall of being asked by their medical provider if they owned any pets, or recall of having received information regarding pet-associated disease risks and preventive measures. Conclusions These results suggest

  10. Treatment practices of households and antibiotic dispensing in medicine outlets in developing countries: The case of Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski

    2018-01-01

    in households and the antibiotic dispensing practices of medicine sales outlets in Eastern region, Ghana. Method: Twice-weekly illness recall visits were made to 12 households in three rural communities over eight consecutive weeks. Detailed fieldnotes were taken and analysed using a thematic approach....... Quantitative counts of health events and treatment were also conducted. Dispensing practices were systematically observed and documented in three rural and three urban medicine outlets for analysis. Result: Fever, abdominal, and respiratory symptoms were the most common causes of ill-health in the 12...... an integral part of healthcare in the study settings and the qualitative data provides a contextual understanding of over-the-counter antibiotic acquisition and use. Inappropriate antibiotic use is apparent in the study settings. Stricter regulation of the pharmaceutical sector, training of dispensers...

  11. Autonomy and Proximity in Household Heating Practices: the Case of Wood-Burning Stoves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Kjerulf

    2008-01-01

    alter infrastructural conditions in order to pursue personal strategies for domestic heating and comfort, personal strategies that may have their root in economic considerations or may regard the construction of homeliness and sensuous pleasure - referring in turn to broader socio-cultural values...

  12. Households And Bio-Resources In Plateau State Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasogot, A.D.

    2002-01-01

    The paper examines household dynamics as variables for bio-resource or biomass resource potentials and utilisation. Information was collected from 250 randomly selected households in five villages of the State, mainly using questionnaire administered on household heads, and a direct measurement/observation about what households have, do or say concerning the study problem. It was shown that insignificant quantity were utilised for various purposes like cooking and heating, but the bio-resources generated met both domestic and income needs of the households. It was concluded that beneficial use (compost, biogas or generation of electricity) should be found for the largely unused bio-resources and household dynamics should be integrated into bio-resource energy planning

  13. Energy end use statistics and estimations in the Polish household sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilecki, R.

    1997-01-01

    The energy statistics in Poland was in the past concentrated on energy production and industrial consumption, but little information was available on the households energy consumption. This data unavailability was an important barrier for the various analyses and forecasting of the energy balance developments. In the recent years some successful attempts were made to acquire a wider and more reliable picture of household energy consumption. The households surveys were made and some existing data were analyzed and verified. The better and more detailed picture of households energy use was in this way constructed. The breakdown of energy consumption by end-use categories (space heating, water heating, cooking, electrical appliances) was quite reliably estimated. Important international cooperation and guidance was used in the course of Polish households energy consumption research. (author). 6 refs

  14. Energy end use statistics and estimations in the Polish household sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilecki, R [Energy Information Centre, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-09-01

    The energy statistics in Poland was in the past concentrated on energy production and industrial consumption, but little information was available on the households energy consumption. This data unavailability was an important barrier for the various analyses and forecasting of the energy balance developments. In the recent years some successful attempts were made to acquire a wider and more reliable picture of household energy consumption. The households surveys were made and some existing data were analyzed and verified. The better and more detailed picture of households energy use was in this way constructed. The breakdown of energy consumption by end-use categories (space heating, water heating, cooking, electrical appliances) was quite reliably estimated. Important international cooperation and guidance was used in the course of Polish households energy consumption research. (author). 6 refs.

  15. Household MIPS. Natural resource consumption of Finnish households and its reduction; KotiMIPS. Kotitalouksien luonnonvarojen kulutus ja sen pienentaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotakorpi, E.; Laehteenoja, S.; Lettenmeier, M.

    2008-10-15

    consumption is the same in terms of air consumption, which is correlated with CO2 emissions, but housing consumes around twice as much air as tourism and mobility. Home heating accounts for the highest proportion of air consumption by housing. After the consumption monitoring the households participated in focus group interviews in which the opportunities available for reducing natural resource consumption were debated. The conclusion to the report is based on the consumption monitoring results and focus group interviews. In it the authors enquire what subsectors of consumption might offer consumers potential for reducing their natural resource consumption and what the barriers are to modifying consumption practices. It is the opinion of the households that in relation to housing the easiest way to reduce natural resource consumption is to change over to eco-electricity and in the case of foodstuffs to cut down on the amount of meat and cheese consumed. Incentives and guidelines are necessary for increasing consumers' willingness and opportunities to change their habits in their daily mobility and particularly in tourism. In addition to changes in consumer choices and practices, and for the support of such changes, novel technical solutions, e.g. low-energy dwellings, are required for conserving natural resources. The business sector and the authorities have a significant role to play in increasing the demand for solutions of this kind and in offering them to the public. (orig.)

  16. Survey of household energy use (SHEU) : summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-12-15

    A survey was conducted to gather information on energy use and the factors affecting energy use in households residing in houses and residential buildings with fewer than 5 storeys. Dwelling characteristics, usage of appliances, and energy efficiency and consumption data were collected. An overview of the main findings were presented in this summary and included details of thermal envelopes; residential heating, air-conditioning and ventilation; household appliances; hot water; lighting; and Energy Star systems and appliances. The survey covered over 11 million households in all 10 Canadian provinces. Data were collected through computer-assisted personal interviews with owners, renters, landlords and property managers. It was observed that the average heated area of a Canadian dwelling was 1321 square feet, and that dwellings constructed after 1979 were larger and more energy efficient than previous dwellings. The majority of households located west of Quebec used natural gas, whereas the majority of Quebec households used electricity. Households in the Atlantic region used both electricity and oil. Penetration rates for high efficiency furnaces using natural gas, propane or oil furnaces was 62 per cent among dwellings built between 1990-2003. It was noted that more basements, attics, crawlspaces and garages are now being insulated. An increasing number of households use both a main and a secondary refrigerator. Nearly 25 per cent of households used 3 or more televisions. The use of central and window/room air-conditioners has increased, with Ontario households accounting for more than 60 per cent of all air-conditioning systems. Nearly 25 per cent of light bulbs were energy-efficient bulbs. It was also observed that Energy Star products have had a high penetration since the inception of the Energy Star initiative. However, a significant number of households were not aware if their products were Energy Star qualified. tabs., figs.

  17. Exertional Heat Illnesses and Environmental Conditions During High School Football Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Brady L; Eberman, Lindsey E; Smith, Michael Seth

    2015-10-01

    Guidelines for preventing exertional heat illnesses (EHIs) during extreme heat stress should be specific to regional environments, age, and sport and should be based on evidence of reducing the risk. Each year in the United States, over 1 million high school football players practice in the August heat; however, no published data describe the incidence of EHIs in these athletes. To describe the environmental conditions and incidence of EHIs during high school football practices over a 3-month period. Descriptive epidemiology study. For a 3-month period (August-October), athletic trainers at 12 high schools in North Central Florida recorded the practice time and length, environmental conditions (wet-bulb globe temperature), and incidences of EHIs in varsity football athletes. Athletes suffered 57 total EHIs during 29,759 athlete-exposures (AEs) for the 3-month data collection period (rate = 1.92/1000 AEs). August accounted for the majority of all EHIs, with 82.5% (47/57) and the highest rate (4.35/1000 AEs). Of total heat illnesses, heat cramps accounted for 70.2% (40/57), heat exhaustion 22.8% (13/57), and heat syncope 7.0% (4/57). The odds ratio indicated that athletes in August practices that lasted longer than the recommended 3 hours were 9.84 times more likely to suffer a heat illness than those in practices lasting ≤3 hours. The highest rate of EHIs was during August. Practices in August that exceeded the recommended 3 hours were associated with a greater risk of heat illnesses. The overall rate of EHIs was lower for the high school football athletes observed in the study compared with that reported for collegiate football athletes in the region. The low rates of EHIs recorded suggest that the prevention guidelines employed by sports medicine teams are appropriate for the region and population. Team physicians and athletic trainers should employ evidence-based, region- and population-specific EHI prevention guidelines. Sports medicine teams, coaches, and

  18. Making Heat Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhew, Julie; Pahl, Sabine; Auburn, Tim; Goodhew, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Householders play a role in energy conservation through the decisions they make about purchases and installations such as insulation, and through their habitual behavior. The present U.K. study investigated the effect of thermal imaging technology on energy conservation, by measuring the behavioral effect after householders viewed images of heat escaping from or cold air entering their homes. In Study 1 (n = 43), householders who received a thermal image reduced their energy use at a 1-year follow-up, whereas householders who received a carbon footprint audit and a non-intervention control demonstrated no change. In Study 2 (n = 87), householders were nearly 5 times more likely to install draught proofing measures after seeing a thermal image. The effect was especially pronounced for actions that addressed an issue visible in the images. Findings indicate that using thermal imaging to make heat loss visible can promote energy conservation. PMID:26635418

  19. Evaluation of the level of domestic hygiene in household kitchens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, A; Carraro, V; Sanna, C; Cabiddu, C; Brandas, V; Coroneo, V

    2014-01-01

    Each year in industrialized countries, 30-40% or more cases of food poisoning occur in the household. The aims of this study are to describe the aspects related to food safety in households by carrying out a microbiological characterization of the kitchens in residential dwellings and to increase consumers' awareness concerning the importance of good hygienic practices, which are required for preventing foodborne diseases at household level. The collection of data involved taking 760 analytical samples of kitchen-counter tops and food from 80 kitchens of private dwellings; the manner in which food was treated was evaluated from the moment of purchase to its transformation and storage by means of a checklist; the questionnaire enabled us to determine the extent of consumers' knowledge concerning the food sector. Overall, the results showed a good level of hygiene concerning both food and kitchen-counter top food surfaces. The respondents of the questionnaire did not appear to be aware of various health risks especially concerning the management of the temperature and compartments of refrigerators as well as food storage times and the cooking or heating of food. The data indicate that final consumers should take more care when cleaning kitchen-counter tops and washing salad; special training programmes should be included in school curricular in order to increase citizens' awareness and knowledge concerning food risks within the household.

  20. Energy consumption practices of rural households in north China: Basic characteristics and potential for low carbon development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu Wenling, Wenling; Spaargaren, G.; Heerink, N.; Mol, A.P.J.; Wang, C.

    2013-01-01

    Reducing the climate impact of rural household energy consumption in China is complicated since it is bound up with deeply routinized daily practices and dependent from existing infrastructural systems of energy supply. To assess the potential for low carbon development we first estimate the overall

  1. Behavior of households equipped with fuel oil heating facing the petroleum price sudden increase in 2000; Le comportement des menages equipes de chauffage au fioul face a la brutale augmentation du prix du petrole en 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This paper analyses the public attitudes facing the sudden increase of the fuel oil increase during the year 2000. This increase has got a great impact on the households equipped with fuel oil heating. The households adapted their strategy to obtain the best prices, to defer the deliveries or to reduce energy consumption by a improve of the heating performances. (A.L.B.)

  2. Air-conditioning Australian households: The impact of dynamic peak pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strengers, Yolande

    2010-01-01

    International mandates for smart metering are enabling variable and real-time pricing regimes such as dynamic peak pricing (DPP), which charges 10-40 times the off-peak rate for electricity during short periods. This regime aims to reduce peak electricity demand (predominantly due to increase in residential air-conditioning usage) and curb greenhouse gas emissions. Although trials indicate that DPP can achieve significant demand reductions, particularly in summer, little is known about how or why households change their cooling practices in response to this strategy. This paper discusses the outcomes of a small qualitative study assessing the impact of a DPP trial on household cooling practices in the Australian state of New South Wales. The study challenges common assumptions about the necessity of air-conditioning and impact of price signals. It finds that DPP engages households as co-managers of their cooling practices through a series of notification signals (SMS, phone, in-home display, email, etc.). Further, by linking the price signal to air-conditioning, some householders consider this practice discretionary for short periods of time. The paper concludes by warning that policy makers and utilities may serve to legitimise air-conditioning usage and/or negate demand reductions by failing to acknowledge the non-rational dynamics of DPP and household cooling practices. - Research highlights: →Most householders consider air-conditioning discretionary during DPP events →DPP engages householders as co-managers of their demand →Notification of an upcoming DPP event is significant to the response →Householders feel obligated to respond to DPP for a range of non-financial reasons

  3. Household sanitation and personal hygiene practices are associated with child stunting in rural India: a cross-sectional analysis of surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rah, Jee Hyun; Cronin, Aidan A; Badgaiyan, Bhupendra; Aguayo, Victor M; Coates, Suzanne; Ahmed, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Increasing evidence suggests that water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) practices affect linear growth in early childhood. We determined the association between household access to water, sanitation and personal hygiene practices with stunting among children aged 0–23 months in rural India. Setting India. Participants A total of 10 364, 34 639 and 1282 under-2s who participated in the 2005–2006 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), the 2011 Hunger and Malnutrition Survey (HUNGaMA) and the 2012 Comprehensive Nutrition Survey in Maharashtra (CNSM), respectively, were included in the analysis. Primary outcome measures The association between WASH indicators and child stunting was assessed using logistic regression models. Results The prevalence of stunting ranged from 25% to 50% across the three studies. Compared with open defecation, household access to toilet facility was associated with a 16–39% reduced odds of stunting among children aged 0–23 months, after adjusting for all potential confounders (NHFS-3 (OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.99); HUNGaMA (OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.91); CNSM (OR=0.61, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.85)). Household access to improved water supply or piped water was not in itself associated with stunting. The caregiver's self-reported practices of washing hands with soap before meals (OR=0.85, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.94) or after defecation (OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.93) were inversely associated with child stunting. However, the inverse association between reported personal hygiene practices and stunting was stronger among households with access to toilet facility or piped water (all interaction terms, phygiene practices are associated with reduced prevalence of stunting in rural India. Policies and programming aiming to address child stunting should encompass WASH interventions, thus shifting the emphasis from nutrition-specific to nutrition-sensitive programming. Future randomised trials are warranted to validate the causal

  4. Household sanitation and personal hygiene practices are associated with child stunting in rural India: a cross-sectional analysis of surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rah, Jee Hyun; Cronin, Aidan A; Badgaiyan, Bhupendra; Aguayo, Victor M; Coates, Suzanne; Ahmed, Sarah

    2015-02-12

    Increasing evidence suggests that water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) practices affect linear growth in early childhood. We determined the association between household access to water, sanitation and personal hygiene practices with stunting among children aged 0-23 months in rural India. India. A total of 10 364, 34 639 and 1282 under-2s who participated in the 2005-2006 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), the 2011 Hunger and Malnutrition Survey (HUNGaMA) and the 2012 Comprehensive Nutrition Survey in Maharashtra (CNSM), respectively, were included in the analysis. The association between WASH indicators and child stunting was assessed using logistic regression models. The prevalence of stunting ranged from 25% to 50% across the three studies. Compared with open defecation, household access to toilet facility was associated with a 16-39% reduced odds of stunting among children aged 0-23 months, after adjusting for all potential confounders (NHFS-3 (OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.99); HUNGaMA (OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.91); CNSM (OR=0.61, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.85)). Household access to improved water supply or piped water was not in itself associated with stunting. The caregiver's self-reported practices of washing hands with soap before meals (OR=0.85, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.94) or after defecation (OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.93) were inversely associated with child stunting. However, the inverse association between reported personal hygiene practices and stunting was stronger among households with access to toilet facility or piped water (all interaction terms, phygiene practices are associated with reduced prevalence of stunting in rural India. Policies and programming aiming to address child stunting should encompass WASH interventions, thus shifting the emphasis from nutrition-specific to nutrition-sensitive programming. Future randomised trials are warranted to validate the causal association. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  5. Psychological factors in the diffusion of sustainable technology: a study of Norwegian households' adoption of wood pellet heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopha, Bertha Maya; Kloeckner, Christian A.

    2010-07-01

    Full text: This paper aims to understand the determinants of the adoption of wood pellet technology for home heating to identify possible strategies towards the slow diffusion of wood pellet in Norway. A mail survey of 737 Norwegian households was conducted in 2008, involving wood pellet adopters and non wood pellet adopters as respondents. An integrated model combining psychological factors (such as intentions, attitudes, perceived behavioral control, habits and norms), perceived wood pellet heating characteristics, and ecological and basic values is applied to predict the installation of a wood pellet stove retrospectively. Results from a path analysis gain empirical support for the proposed integrated model. Wood pellet heating adoption is mainly predicted by a deliberate decision process starting with the evaluation of heating system characteristics, mediated by attitudes and intentions. Perceived behavioural control and habits pose relevant barriers to the adoption process. The influence of norms and values are indirect and only minor in the given market conditions. The most important heating system characteristics in the analysis were perceived functional reliability and perceived installation and maintenance costs. Possible intervention strategies to speed up wood pellet adoption in Norway are discussed in the last part of the paper. (Author)

  6. Characteristics of residential energy consumption in China: Findings from a household survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Xinye; Wei, Chu; Qin, Ping; Guo, Jin; Yu, Yihua; Song, Feng; Chen, Zhanming

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of 1450 households in 26 Chinese provinces was undertaken in 2012 to identify the characteristics and potential driving forces of residential energy consumption in China. The survey covers six areas: household characteristics, dwelling characteristics, kitchen and home appliances, space heating and cooling, residential transportation, and electricity billing, metering, and pricing options. The results show that a typical Chinese household in 2012 consumed 1426 kilograms standard coal equivalent, which is approximately 44 percent of the 2009 level in the United States and 38 percent of the 2008 level in the EU-27. District heating, natural gas, and electricity are three major residential energy sources, while space heating, cooking, and water heating are three major end-use activities. Moreover, the results suggest a large urban–rural gap in terms of energy sources and purpose of usage. Commercial energy is used mainly for space heating in urban areas, while biomass dominates mainly for cooking purpose in rural areas. The survey results can help decision makers and scholars identify energy conservation opportunities, and evaluate the effectiveness of energy policies. - Highlights: • We develop the first comprehensive survey of residential energy consumption in China. • A typical Chinese household in 2012 consumed 1426 kilograms coal equivalent. • Space heating accounts for half of energy demand. • A large rural–urban gap exists in terms of energy sources and end-use activities. • Results reveal challenges and opportunities for China's energy policy

  7. Water use practices, water quality, and households' diarrheal encounters in communities along the Boro-Thamalakane-Boteti river system, Northern Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubatsi, G; Bonyongo, M C; Gondwe, M

    2015-11-18

    Some rural African communities residing along rivers use the untreated river water for domestic purposes, making them vulnerable to waterborne diseases such as diarrhea. We determined water use practices and water quality, relating them to prevalence of diarrhea in communities along the Boro-Thamalakane-Boteti river system, northern Botswana. A total of 452 households were interviewed and 196 water samples collected show during February, May, September, and December 2012 in settlements of Boro, Maun, Xobe, Samedupi, Chanoga, and Motopi. Information was sought on water use practices (collection, storage, and handling) and diarrheal experience using questionnaires. Water quality was assessed for physicochemical and microbiological parameters using portable field meters and laboratory analysis, respectively. All (100%) of the river water samples collected were fecally contaminated and unsuitable for domestic use without prior treatment. Samples had Escherichia coli (E.coli) and fecal streptococci levels reaching up to 186 and 140 CFU/100 ml, respectively. Study revealed high dependence on the fecally contaminated river water with low uptake of water treatment techniques. Up to 48% of households indicated that they experience diarrhea, with most cases occurring during the early flooding season (May). Nonetheless, there was no significant relationship between river water quality and households' diarrheal experience across studied settlements (p > 0.05). Failure to treat river water before use was a significant predictor of diarrhea (p = 0.028). Even though the river water was unsafe for domestic use, results imply further recontamination of water at household level highlighting the need for simple and affordable household water treatment techniques.

  8. Field measurement and estimate of gaseous and particle pollutant emissions from cooking and space heating processes in rural households, northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanchen; Shen, Guofeng; Liu, Weijian; Du, Wei; Su, Shu; Duan, Yonghong; Lin, Nan; Zhuo, Shaojie; Wang, Xilong; Xing, Baoshan; Tao, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Pollutant emissions into outdoor air from cooking and space heating processes with various solid fuels were measured, and daily household emissions were estimated from the kitchen performance tests. The burning of honeycomb briquette had the lowest emission factors, while the use of wood produced the highest pollutants. Daily emissions from space heating were significantly higher than those from cooking, and the use of honeycomb briquette for cooking and raw coal chunk for space heating reduces 28%, 24% and 25% for CO, PM10 and PM2.5, compared to wood for cooking and peat for space heating. Much higher emissions were observed during the initial phase than the stable phase due to insufficient air supply and lower combustion temperature at the beginning of burning processes. However, more mass percent of fine particles formed in the later high temperature stable burning phase may increase potential inhalation exposure risks.

  9. Determinants of residential space heating expenditures in Great Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Helena [Department of Economics, University of Hamburg, Von Melle Park 5, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Rehdanz, Katrin [Department of Economics, University of Kiel, Olshausenstrasse 40, 24118 Kiel (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    In Great Britain, several policy measures have been implemented in order to increase energy efficiency and reduce carbon emissions. In the domestic sector, this could, for example, be achieved by improving space heating efficiency and thus decreasing heating expenditure. However, in order to efficiently design and implement such policy measures, a better understanding of the determinants affecting heating expenditure is needed. In this paper we examine the following determinants: socio-economic factors, building characteristics, heating technologies and weather conditions. In contrast to most other studies we use panel data to investigate household demand for heating in Great Britain. Our data sample is the result of an annual set of interviews with more than 5000 households, starting in 1991 and ending in 2005. The sample represents a total of 64,000 observations over the fifteen-year period. Our aim is to derive price and income elasticities both for Britain as a whole and for different types of household. Our results suggest that differences exist between owner-occupied and renter households. These households react differently to changes in income and prices. Our results also imply that a number of socio-economic criteria have a significant influence on heating expenditure, independently of the fuel used for heating. Understanding the impacts of different factors on heating expenditure and impact differences between types of household is helpful in designing target-oriented policy measures. (author)

  10. Modelling the impact of urban form on household energy demand and related CO2 emissions in the Greater Dublin Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaochen; Sweeney, John

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between household space heating energy use and urban form (land use characteristics) for the Greater Dublin Region. The geographical distributions of household energy use are evaluated at the Enumeration Districts (ED) level based on the building thermal balance model. Moreover, it estimates the impact of possible factors on the household space heating consumption. Results illustrate that the distribution profile of dwellings is a significant factor related to overall heating energy demand and individual dwelling energy consumption for space heating. Residents living in compact dwellings with small floor areas consume less energy for space heating than residents living in dwellings with big floor areas. Moreover, domestic heating energy demand per household was also estimated for two extreme urban development scenarios: the compact city scenario and the dispersed scenario. The results illustrate that the compact city scenario is likely to decrease the domestic heating energy consumption per household by 16.2% compared with the dispersed city scenario. Correspondingly, the energy-related CO 2 emissions could be significantly decreased by compact city scenario compared with the dispersed city scenario. - Highlights: ► A method was developed to investigate urban form impacts on energy demand. ► This study estimates impacts of possible factors on the household energy consumption. ► Household heating energy demand is sensitive to dwelling distribution profile. ► The compact case could reduce domestic energy demand compared with the dispersed case.

  11. Inadequate feeding practices and impaired growth among children from subsistence farming households in Sidama, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Rosalind S; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hambidge, K Michael; Arbide, Isabel; Teshome, Aklilu; Stoecker, Barbara J

    2009-07-01

    Whether current child feeding practices and behaviours among rural households in Sidama, Southern Ethiopia conform to the World Health Organization (WHO) guiding principles for complementary feeding is uncertain. We assessed socio-demographic status, anthropometry, breastfeeding, complementary feeding practices and behaviours, and motor development milestones in a convenience sample of 97 breastfed children aged 6-23 months from three rural Sidama communities. Energy and nutrient intakes from complementary foods were also calculated from 1-day in-home weighed records. Prevalence of stunting ranged from 25% for infants aged 6-8 months to 52% for children aged 12-23 months, whereas for wasting, the corresponding prevalence was 10% and 14%, respectively. Very few children were exclusively breastfed up to 6 months of age (n = 2), or received solids/semi-solids for the recommended minimum number of times containing the recommended number of food groups. Responsive feeding was not practised and no cellular animal products were consumed. Median intakes of energy, and intakes and densities of micronutrients from complementary foods (but not protein) were below WHO recommendations, assuming average breast milk intakes; greatest shortfalls were for retinol, vitamin C and calcium densities. Mothers of stunted children were shorter and lighter, and from households of lower socio-economic status than non-stunted children (P feeding practices and behaviours, as well as prenatal influences on growth, are urgently required in this setting.

  12. Self-medication practice and associated factors among adult household members in Meket district, Northeast Ethiopia, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassie, Aster Desalew; Bifftu, Berhanu Boru; Mekonnen, Habtamu Sewunet

    2018-04-10

    Self-medication practice (SMP) is the use of medication without the prescription of health care professionals. The major problems associated with self-medication practice have been drug resistance, drug side effects, wastage of resources, and serious health hazards including death. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of self-medication practice and its associated factors among adult household members in Meket District, Northeast Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 722 adult household members in Meket District, from April 5 to May 5, 2017. The systematic random sampling method was used to select study participants. A pre-tested, structured questionnaire was used for data collection using an interviewer-administered technique. Epi-info version and SPSS version 22 were utilized for data entry and analysis, respectively. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to identify association factors. The overall prevalence of self-medication was found to be 35.9%. Unmarried status (AOR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.18, 4.01), previous experience of self-medication (AOR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.22, 2.61), accessibility of pharmacies (AOR = 3.71, 95% CI = 1.31, 10.51), peer/family pressure (AOR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.98, 4.18) and presence of medication at home (AOR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.11, 2.92) were factors associated with self-medication practices. More than one-third of the study participants practiced self-medication. Thus, strengthening communities awareness on drug side effects and integrated efforts of individuals, communities, health facilities, and regulatory bodies are highly necessary.

  13. Development of electrical heating in the Czech Republic and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mravinac, L.

    1996-01-01

    After 1990 the necessity to improve ecological conditions in the Czech Republic increased significantly. One of the measures to achieve this aim was the governmental support of households to replace fossil fuel heating by gas or electrical heating. This support, connected with the fact that prices of the electricity for households were and still are below a cost level resulted in a substantial increase of the electricity consumption of these consumers. This increase had a very unfavorable influence on the whole electrical system. While a consumption of industrial consumers had decreased after the year 1990 (as a result of changes in the national economy) and started to increase slowly only last year, the household consumption has recorded a continuous increase (of 17 % in 1994, for example). At present the installed capacity by direct electrical heating is estimated to amount up to 2200 MW while it was practically zero in 1991. The consumption diagram has accordingly changed. The difference between the summer minimum and the winter peak load has substantially increased. With nearly the same average consumption, the peak load in 1995 was about 800 Mw higher than in 1989. In the same period, the needed regulation capacity increased too. The increase in power demand for electrical heating will probably increase in the next years and accordingly new power capacities and new peak sources will be required. (author) 3 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Energy activity guide : simple steps to reduce your household energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byckalo-Khan, F; Wallace, C L [ed.

    2003-07-01

    This guide presents 13 practical activities that can help households reduce energy consumption in order to create a more sustainable lifestyle and to help meet Canada's Kyoto commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Most energy sources create pollution that harms both human health and the Earth. The burning of fossil fuels creates greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change, smog, pollution and adverse health effects. This guide offers suggestions on how households can reduce the impact on the environment while saving money. Some of the initiatives include lowering the thermostat, replacing incandescent light bulbs with compact fluorescent light bulbs, turning off appliances when not in use, weatherising building envelopes, using a clothes line to dry clothes instead of a dryer, laundering clothes with cold water, and proper maintenance of heating equipment. An energy use chart is included with this guide to help track activities and to estimate how much time and money is required by each activity. refs., figs.

  15. Energy activity guide : simple steps to reduce your household energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byckalo-Khan, F.; Wallace, C.L. (ed.)

    2003-07-01

    This guide presents 13 practical activities that can help households reduce energy consumption in order to create a more sustainable lifestyle and to help meet Canada's Kyoto commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Most energy sources create pollution that harms both human health and the Earth. The burning of fossil fuels creates greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change, smog, pollution and adverse health effects. This guide offers suggestions on how households can reduce the impact on the environment while saving money. Some of the initiatives include lowering the thermostat, replacing incandescent light bulbs with compact fluorescent light bulbs, turning off appliances when not in use, weatherising building envelopes, using a clothes line to dry clothes instead of a dryer, laundering clothes with cold water, and proper maintenance of heating equipment. An energy use chart is included with this guide to help track activities and to estimate how much time and money is required by each activity. refs., figs.

  16. Potential of household environmental resources and practices in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Logistic regressions were performed to quantify the contribution of each factor to malaria occurrence. ... Keywords: malaria risk, residual transmission, household environmental .... variate and multivariate logistic regression models were.

  17. Prospects and Constraints of Household Irrigation Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constraints and prospects of hand dug wells related to household irrigation were assessed in Hayelom watershed (~1045 ha), by evaluating groundwater suitability for irrigation, soil quality and impact of intervention. 181 hand dug wells have come into existence in the watershed due to intervention and benefiting about ...

  18. Economic inequality in nutritional knowledge, attitude and practice of Iranian households: The NUTRI-KAP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshmat, Ramin; Salehi, Forouzan; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rostami, Mahsa; Shafiee, Gita; Ahadi, Zeinab; Khosravi, Shayesteh; Rezvani, Vahab; Sadeghi Ghotbabadi, Farzaneh; Ghaderpanahi, Maryam; Abdollahi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Improper nutritional knowledge is one of the most important causes of nutritional problems, which can affect practice and cause more complications. The aim of this study was to assess the association between nutritional knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of Iranian households with socioeconomic status (SES). Methods: The study population was 14,136 households (57 clusters of 8 individuals in each province) who lived in urban and rural regions of 31 provinces of Iran. The sample size of the study was selected using multistage cluster sampling technique. A structured questionnaire and interview with the qualified person in each family was used to collect data. The questionnaire included demographic, SES and nutritional KAP questions. Using principle component analysis, some variables including household assets, occupation and education level of the heads of the families and respondents and the number of family members were used to construct family SES. The SES was categorized as good, moderate and weak. Pearson's Chi-square test was used to analyze categorical variables. Results: The percentage of knowledge about growing up, acquiring energy and being healthy as reasons for eating food was 24.1%, 44.8% and 54.7%, respectively. Only 69.7%, 60.5% and 52.5% of the participants had knowledge of identification of meat and legumes, grain and dairy group, respectively. More than 97% of the participants had a favorable attitude toward importance of nutrition in health. The nutritional knowledge linearly increased with increasing SES. Families with good SES significantly consumed more fruit, vegetable, dairy group, red meat, chicken and poultry, fish and egg while sugar consumption was significantly higher in families with weak SES (pnutritional KAP. Some policies should be considered to increase nutritional KAP especially in lower SES group in the society.

  19. A pseudo-panel data model of household electricity demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Jean-Thomas; Bolduc, Denis [GREEN, Department of Economics, Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada); Yameogo, Nadege-Desiree [Analysis Group Inc., 1080 Beaver Hill, Suite 1810, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2011-01-15

    We study the dynamic behaviour of household electricity consumption on the basis of four large independent surveys conducted in the province of Quebec from 1989 to 2002. The latter region displays some rather unique features such as the very extensive use of electricity for space heating in a cold climate and the wide range of energy sources used to meet space heating requirements. We adopt approach to create 25 cohorts of households that form a pseudo-panel. The cohorts have on average 131 households. The model error terms allow for group heteroskedasticity and serial correlation. Short-run and long-run own and cross-price elasticities are statistically significant. Electricity and natural gas are estimated to be substitutes while electricity and fuel oil are complements, as it may occur in the Quebec context. The estimate of the income elasticity is not significant. Comparisons with related studies are provided. (author)

  20. Household Survey of Pesticide Practice, Deliberate Self-Harm, and Suicide in the Sundarban Region of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohini Banerjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The toxicological impact and intentional ingestion of pesticides are major public health concerns globally. This study aimed to estimate the extent of deliberate self-harm (DSH and suicides (suicidal behaviour and document pesticide practices in Namkhana block of the Sundarban region, India. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1680 households (21 villages following a mixed random and cluster design sampling. The survey questionnaire (Household Information on Pesticide Use and DSH was developed by the research team to elicit qualitative and quantitative information. The Kappa statistic and McNemar’s test were used to assess the level of agreement and association between respondents’ and investigators’ opinions about safe storage of pesticides. Over five years, 1680 households reported 181 incidents of suicidal behaviour. Conflict with family members was the most frequently reported reason for suicidal behaviour (53.6%. The Kappa statistic indicated poor agreement between respondents and investigators about safe storage of pesticides. The pesticide-related annual DSH rate was 158.1 (95% CI 126.2–195.5, and for suicide it was 73.4 (95% CI 52.2–100.3 per 100,000. Unsafe pesticide practice and psychosocial stressors are related to the high rates of suicidal behaviour. An intersectoral approach involving the local governments, agricultural department and the health sector would help to reduce the magnitude of this public health problem.

  1. Household Animal and Human Medicine Use and Animal Husbandry Practices in Rural Bangladesh: Risk Factors for Emerging Zoonotic Disease and Antibiotic Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roess, A A; Winch, P J; Akhter, A; Afroz, D; Ali, N A; Shah, R; Begum, N; Seraji, H R; El Arifeen, S; Darmstadt, G L; Baqui, A H

    2015-11-01

    Animal antimicrobial use and husbandry practices increase risk of emerging zoonotic disease and antibiotic resistance. We surveyed 700 households to elicit information on human and animal medicine use and husbandry practices. Households that owned livestock (n = 265/459, 57.7%) reported using animal treatments 630 times during the previous 6 months; 57.6% obtained medicines, including antibiotics, from drug sellers. Government animal healthcare providers were rarely visited (9.7%), and respondents more often sought animal health care from pharmacies and village doctors (70.6% and 11.9%, respectively), citing the latter two as less costly and more successful based on past performance. Animal husbandry practices that could promote the transmission of microbes from animals to humans included the following: the proximity of chickens to humans (50.1% of households reported that the chickens slept in the bedroom); the shared use of natural bodies of water for human and animal bathing (78.3%); the use of livestock waste as fertilizer (60.9%); and gender roles that dictate that females are the primary caretakers of poultry and children (62.8%). In the absence of an effective animal healthcare system, villagers must depend on informal healthcare providers for treatment of their animals. Suboptimal use of antimicrobials coupled with unhygienic animal husbandry practices is an important risk factor for emerging zoonotic disease and resistant pathogens. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Household Hazardous Waste: Everyone's Problem--Everyone's Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenson, Linda

    1985-01-01

    Examines the household hazardous waste problem, addressing several areas related to regulation, disposal, and control. Also gives a list of safer alternatives for household cleaners/disinfectants, paint products, and pesticides. Indicates that individuals can collectively make a difference in public exposure by changing purchases and practices.…

  3. 家用暖气温度调节装置%Temperature Regulating Device of Household Heating System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付饶

    2017-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of energy waste caused by the commercialization and monetization of heating and neglecting energy saving, the application of PN16 electric dish plate valve and temperature power supply controller and other devices were used to the transformation of ordinary heating lines.The technology could be selected according to user''s needs to set indoor temperature threshold and automatic adjust the heating pipe on the electric valve closed or open state.This will not only meet the needs of heating, but also to avoid the waste of energy.Hundreds of users'' trials show that, in a heating cycle, average household heating cost-savings was up to 300 yuan.The payback period of investment was 1.3 heating cycles, which has a good application prospect.%为解决采暖实行用热商品化、货币化而忽视节能,造成能源浪费的问题,应用PN16电动碟板阀、温控电源控制器等器件对普通采暖管线进行改造.该技术可根据用户需要自选设定室内温度阙值,自动调节暖气管线上电动阀门关闭或开启状态,既满足了采暖的需要,又避免了能源浪费.数百用户试用表明,一个采暖周期每户平均节约采暖费用约300元.投资回收期1.3个采暖周期,具有很好的推广应用前景.

  4. Energy literacy, awareness, and conservation behavior of residential households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brounen, Dirk; Kok, Nils; Quigley, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The residential sector accounts for one-fifth of global energy consumption, resulting from the requirements to heat, cool, and light residential dwellings. It is therefore not surprising that energy efficiency in the residential market has gained importance in recent years. In this paper, we examine awareness, literacy and behavior of households with respect to their residential energy expenditures. Using a detailed survey of 1721 Dutch households, we measure the extent to which consumers are aware of their energy consumption and whether they have taken measures to reduce their energy costs. Our results show that “energy literacy” and awareness among respondents is low: just 56% of the respondents are aware of their monthly charges for energy consumption, and 40% do not appropriately evaluate investment decisions in energy efficient equipment. We document that demographics and consumer attitudes towards energy conservation, but not energy literacy and awareness, have direct effects on behavior regarding heating and cooling of the home. The impact of a moderating factor, measured by thermostat settings, ultimately results in strong variation in the energy consumption of private consumers. - Highlights: • We use a detailed survey of 1,721 Dutch households to measure awareness and conservation behavior in energy consumption. • Energy literacy and awareness among residential households is low. • 40 percent of the sample does not appropriately evaluate investment decisions in energy efficient equipment • Demographics and consumer attitudes affect behavior regarding heating and cooling of a home

  5. Assessing the Consistency and Microbiological Effectiveness of Household Water Treatment Practices by Urban and Rural Populations Claiming to Treat Their Water at Home: A Case Study in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Ghislaine; Huaylinos, Maria L.; Gil, Ana; Lanata, Claudio; Clasen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background Household water treatment (HWT) can improve drinking water quality and prevent disease if used correctly and consistently by vulnerable populations. Over 1.1 billion people report treating their water prior to drinking it. These estimates, however, are based on responses to household surveys that may exaggerate the consistency and microbiological performance of the practice—key factors for reducing pathogen exposure and achieving health benefits. The objective of this study was to examine how HWT practices are actually performed by households identified as HWT users, according to international monitoring standards. Methods and Findings We conducted a 6-month case study in urban (n = 117 households) and rural (n = 115 households) Peru, a country in which 82.8% of households report treating their water at home. We used direct observation, in-depth interviews, surveys, spot-checks, and water sampling to assess water treatment practices among households that claimed to treat their drinking water at home. While consistency of reported practices was high in both urban (94.8%) and rural (85.3%) settings, availability of treated water (based on self-report) at time of collection was low, with 67.1% and 23.0% of urban and rural households having treated water at all three sampling visits. Self-reported consumption of untreated water in the home among adults and children water of self-reported users was significantly better than source water in the urban setting and negligible but significantly better in the rural setting. However, only 46.3% and 31.6% of households had drinking water water quality. The lack of consistency and sub-optimal microbiological effectiveness also raises questions about the potential of HWT to prevent waterborne diseases. PMID:25522371

  6. PRINCIPLES OF HEAT STERILIZATION IN DENTAL PRACTICE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRINCIPLES OF HEAT STERILIZATION. IN DENTAL PRACTICE. W.H. van Palenstein Helderman. Department of Community and Preventive Dentistry,. Faculty of Dentistry, Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences,. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Introduction. Sterilization is defined as the destruction of all forms of life ...

  7. Reducing domestic heating demand: Managing the impact of behavior-changing feedback devices via marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Thorben; Chappin, Émile J L

    2017-07-15

    Feedback devices can be used to inform households about their energy-consumption behavior. This may persuade them to practice energy conservation. The use of feedback devices can also-via word of mouth-spread among households and thereby support the spread of the incentivized behavior, e.g. energy-efficient heating behavior. This study investigates how to manage the impact of these environmental innovations via marketing. Marketing activities can support the diffusion of devices. This study aims to identify the most effective strategies of marketing feedback devices. We did this by adapting an agent-based model to simulate the roll-out of a novel feedback technology and heating behavior within households in a virtual city. The most promising marketing strategies were simulated and their impacts were analyzed. We found it particularly effective to lend out feedback devices to consumers, followed by leveraging the social influence of well-connected individuals, and giving away the first few feedback devices for free. Making households aware of the possibility of purchasing feedback devices was found to be least effective. However, making households aware proved to be most cost-efficient. This study shows that actively managing the roll-out of feedback devices can increase their impacts on energy-conservation both effectively and cost-efficiently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing the impact of a school-based safe water intervention on household adoption of point-of-use water treatment practices in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Matthew C; Clasen, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    We assessed a pilot project by UNICEF and Hindustan Unilever Limited to improve the quality of drinking water for children in schools through adoption of improved drinking water practices among households in southern India. The intervention consisted of providing classrooms of 200 schools a commercial water purifier, and providing basic hygiene and water treatment information to students, parents, and teachers. We found no evidence that the intervention was effective in improving awareness or uptake of effective water treatment practices at home. A similar proportion of household members in the intervention and control groups boiled their water (P = 0.60), used a ceramic filtration system (P = 0.33), and used a cloth filter (P = 0.89). One year after the launch of the campaign, household ownership of the commercial purifier promoted at schools was higher in the intervention group (26%) than the control group (19%), but this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.53).

  9. Agent-based modelling of heating system adoption in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopha, Bertha Maya; Kloeckner, Christian A.; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2010-07-01

    Full text: This paper introduces agent-based modelling as a methodological approach to understand the effect of decision making mechanism on the adoption of heating systems in Norway. The model is used as an experimental/learning tool to design possible interventions, not for prediction. The intended users of the model are therefore policy designers. Primary heating system adoptions of electric heating, heat pump and wood pellet heating were selected. Random topology was chosen to represent social network among households. Agents were households with certain location, number of peers, current adopted heating system, employed decision strategy, and degree of social influence in decision making. The overall framework of decision-making integrated theories from different disciplines; customer behavior theory, behavioral economics, theory of planned behavior, and diffusion of innovation, in order to capture possible decision making processes in households. A mail survey of 270 Norwegian households conducted in 2008 was designed specifically for acquiring data for the simulation. The model represents real geographic area of households and simulates the overall fraction of adopted heating system under study. The model was calibrated with historical data from Statistics Norway (SSB). Interventions with respects to total cost, norms, indoor air quality, reliability, supply security, required work, could be explored using the model. For instance, the model demonstrates that a considerable total cost (investment and operating cost) increase of electric heating and heat pump, rather than a reduction of wood pellet heating's total cost, are required to initiate and speed up wood pellet adoption. (Author)

  10. ‘Domesticating’ low carbon thermal technologies: Diversity, multiplicity and variability in older person, off grid households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrapson, Wendy; Devine-Wright, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The uptake of low carbon heating technologies forms an important part of government strategies to reduce carbon emissions. Yet our understanding of why such technologies are adopted and how they are engaged with post-adoption, particularly by older adults living in off-grid areas, is limited. Drawing on a contextualised, socio-technical approach to domestic heating, we present findings from 51 in-depth interviews with a sample of 17 older person households in the South West of England, with ages ranging from 60 to 89 years. Diverse and multiple configurations of heating devices and fuels were found that varied considerably, with some households using five different fuels. The design of the study ensured that approximately half the sample used some form of low carbon thermal technology, such as heat pumps and biomass boilers. Many factors were reported to influence the adoption of low carbon heating; environmental motives were not primary influences and the avoidance of financial risks associated with ‘peak oil’ was expressed. Low carbon thermal technologies were typically integrated into rather than replaced existing heating systems so that valued services provided by conventional technologies could be retained. Implications of the findings for policies to reduce carbon emissions, particularly in older adult, off-grid households, are discussed. - Highlights: • We interviewed 17 households with conventional/low carbon thermal technologies (LCTTs) in South West England. • Older adult, off grid households commonly use multiple, diverse and variable heating technologies and fuels. • Reducing fuel costs was a key reason for installing LCTTs. • LCTTs more commonly were integrated with, rather than replaced, conventional technologies. • Expected reductions in domestic carbon emissions due to LCTTs may not be realised

  11. Materials flow through the household and reduction in domestic solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-05-01

    Energy conservation programs are usually designed to reduce the waste associated with direct energy use for example, heating and lighting levels, and use of appliances. But householders can also influence energy consumption in other sectors. Their buying and consuming habits will affect the energy involved in extraction, production, transportation, use and disposal of commodities. Their attitudes and behavior will affect their neighbours' efforts at reducing materials throughput. Therefore, the household must be an important target in any effort to alter energy use patterns throughout society. The purpose of this study was to determine whether practical programs could be developed to reduce materials flows through the hosuehold. Since solid waste output is a very reliable measure of these flows, the question was posed from the perspective of reducing the generation of residential solid waste. In this context particular attention was given to the range of possible actions open to the householder himself. It would have been unrealistic, however, to ignore environmental design and other legislative options. The study is divided into three parts. The first attempts to identify those actions by the householder which will have the greatest effect in reducing the total environmental impact (including energy use) of the materials moving through the household. The second deals with the problem of persuading people to engage in these actions. The final part combines promising strategies with significant actions. The result is a series of program options which are assessed with respect to four criteria: potential significance for residential solid waste reduction, chances of success, ease of implementation, and costs. 15 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Climate Change and Variability: Implications for Household Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These are drought, low annual rainfall, high temperature, and water shortage. The econometric model estimation result revealed the important factors determining household food security. These are household perception of climate change, use of soil and water conservation practices, use of livestock feed management ...

  13. Heat Pumps in Subarctic Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlason, Reynir Smari; Oddsson, Gudmundur Valur; Unnthorsson, Runar

    2017-01-01

    Geothermal heat pumps use the temperature difference between inside and outside areas to modify a refrigerant, either for heating or cooling. Doing so can lower the need for external heating energy for a household to some extent. The eventual impact depends on various factors, such as the external...... source for heating or cooling and the temperature difference. The use of geothermal heat pumps, and eventual benefits has not been studied in the context of frigid areas, such as in Iceland. In Iceland, only remote areas do not have access to district heating from geothermal energy where households may...... therefor benefit from using geothermal heat pumps. It is the intent of this study to explore the observed benefits of using geothermal heat pumps in Iceland, both financially and energetically. This study further elaborates on incentives provided by the Icelandic government. Real data was gathered from...

  14. A price mechanism for supply demand matching in local grid of households with micro-CHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, G.K.H.; van Foreest, N.D.; Scherpen, J.M.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic price mechanism to coordinate eletric power generation from micro Combined Heat and Power (micro-CHP) systems in a network of households. It is assumed that the households are prosumers, i.e. both producers and consumers of electricity. The control is done on household

  15. Economic potential of demand response at household level—Are Central-European market conditions sufficient?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prüggler, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show the economic potential of demand response (DR) on household level at Central European market conditions. Thereby, required economic benefits for consumers' participation, the realistic load shifting potential at household level and the estimation of essential intelligent infrastructure costs are discussed. The core of this paper builds a case-study applying spot market-oriented load shifting from the supplier's point of view by using Austrian electricity market data, household load profiles as well as a heat pump and e-car charging load profile. It is demonstrated which cost savings for suppliers can be derived from such load shifting procedure at household level. Furthermore, upper cost limits for intelligent infrastructure in order to break-even are derived. Results suggest to take a critical look at European discussions on DR implementation on household level, showing that at Central European market conditions the potential for DR at household level is restricted to significant loads and hence, the applied load shifting strategy is only beneficial with application to heat pumps. In contrast, the frequently discussed shifting of conventional household devices' loads (such as washing machines) economically does not add up. - Highlights: • Calculation of economic potential of domestic DR at Central European market conditions. • Model and case-study of spot market-oriented load shifting from supplier's perspective. • Derivation of supplier's cost savings and upper cost limits for ICT infrastructure. • Results show economic potential of domestic DR to be restricted to significant loads. • Shifting of washing machines economically does not pay off in contrast to heat pumps

  16. Practical model for economic optimization of a heat recovery plate heat exchanger and its examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepach, T.; Marttila, E.; Hammo, S.

    1997-12-31

    This report presents a practical model for designers whose job it is to dimension a plate heat exchanger used especially in heat recovery systems for ventilation. Special attention was given to the economic optimization of such a unit. The first part of the report presents the most important types of heat exchangers and then goes on to present those that are normally used in ventilation systems for heat recovery. The second part discusses the operating costs, investments required and the savings in costs that can be achieved through heat recovery. The third part takes a look at the theory of heat transfer and the characteristics of heat exchanger. In the finally part, a utilization of this model is presented. The results from this are discussed in the following. The developed equations have been calculated and plotted by the use of the numeric software MATLAB. The code used for calculation with MATLAB is listed in the appendix. (orig.) 16 refs.

  17. Microwave processing heats up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microwaves are a common appliance in many households. In the United States microwave heating is the third most popular domestic heating method food foods. Microwave heating is also a commercial food processing technology that has been applied for cooking, drying, and tempering foods. It's use in ...

  18. 热泵与家用太阳热水器联合供热性能试验%Performance jointly test of heat pump water heater with household solar heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谌学先; 高文峰; 兰青; 唐润生; 夏朝凤

    2011-01-01

    为解决家用太阳能热水器供热的间歇性和不稳定性,应用热泵辅助可达到全天候供热,该文通过对这种联合供热系统的供热性能和运行性能进行了测试,并对热水器的升温、保温和热泵的加热进行了试验和分析,结果表明:空气源热泵辅助型真空管家用太阳热水系统仅在累积太阳辐照量小于14 MJ/m2时,需要空气源热泵辅助加热,总制热性能系数可达6.18.%To solve the problems of heating intermittent and instability for household solar water heater, application of heat pump for evacuated tube solar water heater system can achieved auxiliary heat supply round-the-clock. Heating performance test and operation of the system were conducted and the temperature rise performance, heat preservation of the solar water heater system and the heating performance of heat pump were tested and analyzed in this paper. The result showed that when the solar radiation was less than 14 MJ/m2 , the system needed heating by air source heat pump,on this occasion, the system total coefficient of performance could reach 6.18.

  19. Exploring sustainability transitions in households: insights from real-life experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baedeker, Carolin; Buhl, Johannes; Greiff, Kathrin; Hasselkuß, Marco; Liedtke, Christa; Lukas, Melanie

    2016-04-01

    Societal transformation towards sustainable consumption and production, especially in urban areas, is a key challenge. The design and implementation of sustainable product service systems (PSS) might be the initial point, in which private households play a major role. The Sustainable LivingLab research infrastructure was developed as an experimental setting for investigating consumption and production patterns in private households, especially to explore socio-technical innovations which are helpful to guide sustainability transitions. The suggested presentation describes results of several real-life experiments conducted in German households, e.g. the project SusLabNRW (North-Rhine Westphalia as part of the European SusLabNWE-Project), the EnerTransRuhr project as well as the PATHWAYS project that explore patterns of action, time use, social practices and the related resource use in private households. The presentation gives an overview of the employed methods and analysed data (qualitative interviews, social network analysis, survey on household activities and inventories and a sustainability assessment (resource profiles - MIPS household analysis). Households' resource consumption was calculated in all fields of activity to analyse social practices' impact. The presentation illustrates how aggregated data can inform scenario analysis and concludes with an outlook onto transition pathways at household level and socio-technical innovations in the fields of housing, nutrition and mobility.

  20. Consumer impacts on dividends from solar water heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, F.; Levermore, G. [University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Lynch, H. [Centre for Alternative Technology, Machynlleth, University of East London, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    Common domestic solar water heating system usage patterns were investigated by a survey of 55 installations. These usage patterns were modelled by simulation based on the actual occupants' use of boiler or other auxiliary heating control strategies. These strategies were not optimal, as often assumed. The effectiveness of the technology was found to be highly sensitive to the time settings used for auxiliary water heating, and the 65% of solar householders using their boilers in the mornings were found to be forgoing 75% of their potential savings. Additionally, 92% of consumers were found to be small households, whose potential savings were only 23% of those of larger households, which use more hot water. Overall the majority (at least 60%) of the systems surveyed were found to be achieving no more than 6% of their potential savings. Incorporating consideration of Legionella issues, results indicate that if solar thermal technology is to deliver its potential to CO2 reduction targets: solar householders must avoid any use of their auxiliary water heating systems before the end of the main warmth of the day, grants for solar technology should be focused on households with higher hot water demands, and particularly on those that are dependent on electricity for water heating, health and safety requirements for hot water storage must be reviewed and, if possible, required temperatures should be set at a lower level, so that carbon savings from solar water heating may be optimized.

  1. 9744 the effects of household food practices and diseases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    Thus, interventions to eliminate malnutrition should focus on household food ... health environment; the basic causes are poor national policies, inadequate formal ..... Technology for knowledge provided, Rwanda Agriculture Board for material ...

  2. Simple Methods for Production of Nanoscale Metal Oxide Films from Household Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Dean J.; Baliss, Michelle S.; Hinman, Jordan J.; Ziegenhorn, John W.; Andrews, Mark J.; Stevenson, Keith J.

    2013-01-01

    Production of thin metal oxide films was recently explored as part of an outreach program with a goal of producing nanoscale structures with household items. Household items coated with various metals or titanium compounds can be heated to produce colorful films with nanoscale thicknesses. As part of a materials chemistry laboratory experiment…

  3. Hybrid energy fuel cell based system for household applications in a Mediterranean climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nižetić, S.; Tolj, I.; Papadopoulos, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A hybrid energy system was proposed, combining a HT-PEM fuel cell system and a standard split heat pump system with heat recovery for household applications. • The hybrid energy system is able to produce both high and low temperature heat, electricity and cooling capacity. • The system showed high overall energy efficiency and a favorable environmental aspect. • The calculated cost of overall produced energy proved to be competitive in comparison with the average cost of electricity for households. - Abstract: In this paper, a specific hybrid energy system was proposed for household applications. The hybrid energy system was assembled from a HT-PEM fuel cell stack supplied by hydrogen via a steam reformer, where finally the majority of produced electricity is used to drive a modified split heat pump system with heat recovery (that is enabled via standard modified accumulation boilers). The system is able to produce both high and low temperature heat output (in the form of hot water), cooling thermal output and electricity. Performance analysis was conducted and the specific hybrid energy system showed high value for overall energy efficiency, for the specific case examined it reached 250%. Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) analysis was also carried out and the proposed hybrid energy system’s cost is expected to be between 0.09 €/kW h and 0.16 €/kW h, which is certainly competitive with the current retail electricity price for households on the EU market. Additionally, the system also has environmental benefits in relation to reduced CO 2 emissions, as estimated CO 2 emissions from the proposed hybrid energy system are expected to be at around 9.0 gCO 2 /kW h or 2.6 times less than the emissions released from the utilization of grid electricity.

  4. Deep freezers with heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kistler, J.

    1981-09-02

    Together with space and water heating systems, deep freezers are the biggest energy consumers in households. The article investigates the possibility of using the waste heat for water heating. The design principle of such a system is presented in a wiring diagram.

  5. Maternal care practices among the ultra poor households in rural Bangladesh: a qualitative exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhury Nuzhat

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although many studies have been carried out to learn about maternal care practices in rural areas and urban-slums of Bangladesh, none have focused on ultra poor women. Understanding the context in which women would be willing to accept new practices is essential for developing realistic and relevant behaviour change messages. This study sought to fill in this knowledge gap by exploring maternal care practices among women who participated in a grant-based livelihood programme for the ultra poor. This is expected to assist the designing of the health education messages programme in an effort to improve maternal morbidity and survival towards achieving the UN millennium Development Goal 5. Methods Qualitative method was used to collect data on maternal care practices during pregnancy, delivery, and post-partum period from women in ultra poor households. The sample included both currently pregnant women who have had a previous childbirth, and lactating women, participating in a grant-based livelihood development programme. Rangpur and Kurigram districts in northern Bangladesh were selected for data collection. Results Women usually considered pregnancy as a normal event unless complications arose, and most of them refrained from seeking antenatal care (ANC except for confirmation of pregnancy, and no prior preparation for childbirth was taken. Financial constraints, coupled with traditional beliefs and rituals, delayed care-seeking in cases where complications arose. Delivery usually took place on the floor in the squatting posture and the attendants did not always follow antiseptic measures such as washing hands before conducting delivery. Following the birth of the baby, attention was mainly focused on the expulsion of the placenta and various maneuvres were adapted to hasten the process, which were sometimes harmful. There were multiple food-related taboos and restrictions, which decreased the consumption of protein during

  6. Heat pipes and solid sorption transformations fundamentals and practical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Vasiliev, LL

    2013-01-01

    Developing clean energy and utilizing waste energy has become increasingly vital. Research targeting the advancement of thermally powered adsorption cooling technologies has progressed in the past few decades, and the awareness of fuel cells and thermally activated (heat pipe heat exchangers) adsorption systems using natural refrigerants and/or alternatives to hydrofluorocarbon-based refrigerants is becoming ever more important. Heat Pipes and Solid Sorption Transformations: Fundamentals and Practical Applications concentrates on state-of-the-art adsorption research and technologies for releva

  7. Toys and toilets: cross-sectional study using children's toys to evaluate environmental faecal contamination in rural Bangladeshi households with different sanitation facilities and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujcic, Jelena; Ram, Pavani K; Hussain, Faruqe; Unicomb, Leanne; Gope, Partha Sarathi; Abedin, Jaynal; Mahmud, Zahid Hayat; Islam, M Sirajul; Luby, Stephen P

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate household faecal contamination using children's toys among 100 rural Bangladeshi households categorised as 'cleaner' (toilet that reliably separates faeces from the environment and no human faeces in/around living space) or 'less clean' (no toilet or toilet that does not reliably separate faeces from the environment and human faeces in/around living space). We distributed toy balls to each household and rinsed each study toy and a toy already owned by the household in 200 ml of Ringer's solution. We enumerated faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci from each rinse using membrane filtration methods. Study toys from 39 cleaner households had lower mean faecal coliform contamination than toys from 61 less clean households (2.4 log10 colony-forming units (CFU)/200 ml vs. 3.2 log10 CFU/200 ml, P = 0.03). However, wealth measures explained a portion of this relationship. Repeat measures were moderately variable [coefficient of variation (CV) = 6.5 between two toys in the household at the same time, CV = 37.6 between toys in the household at two different times 3-4 days apart]. Too few households owned a non-porous toy to compare groups without risk of bias. In rural Bangladesh, improved sanitation facilities and practices were associated with less environmental contamination. Whether this association is independent of household wealth and whether the difference in contamination improves child health merit further study. The variation found was typical for measures of environmental contamination, and requires large sample sizes to ascertain differences between groups with statistical significance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Environmental performance of household waste management in Europe - An example of 7 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasi Bassi, Susanna; Christensen, Thomas H; Damgaard, Anders

    2017-11-01

    An attributional life cycle assessment (LCA) of the management of 1ton of household waste was conducted in accordance with ISO 14044:2006 and the ILCD Handbook for seven European countries, namely Germany, Denmark, France, UK, Italy, Poland and Greece, representing different household waste compositions, waste management practices, technologies, and energy systems. National data were collected from a range of sources regarding household waste composition, household sorting efficiency, collection, waste treatments, recycling, electricity and heat composition, and technological efficiencies. The objective was to quantify the environmental performance in the different countries, in order to analyze the sources of the main environmental impacts and national differences which affect the results. In most of the seven countries, household waste management provides environmental benefits when considering the benefits of recycling of materials and recovering and utilization of energy. Environmental benefits come from paper recycling and, to a lesser extent, the recycling of metals and glass. Waste-to-energy plants can lead to an environmental load (as in France) or a saving (Germany and Denmark), depending mainly on the composition of the energy being substituted. Sensitivity analysis and a data quality assessment identified a range of critical parameters, suggesting from where better data should be obtained. The study concluded that household waste management is environmentally the best in European countries with a minimum reliance on landfilling, also induced by the implementation of the Waste Hierarchy, though environmental performance does not correlate clearly with the rate of material recycling. From an environmental point of view, this calls for a change in the waste management paradigm, with less focus on where the waste is routed and more of a focus on the quality and utilization of recovered materials and energy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Integration of Smart Grid Technologies in Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Freja; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the interplay between new smart grid technologies and households everyday practices. The research focuses on how Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Dynamic Pricing influence on Danish households’ everyday life and how these technologies constitutes and change routines and practice...... to a more complex and multiple consideration of the interplay between households’ social practices and new smart grid technologies - and thereby helps to fill out the lack of research on the integration of peak-shaving technologies in the end-user design.......This article considers the interplay between new smart grid technologies and households everyday practices. The research focuses on how Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Dynamic Pricing influence on Danish households’ everyday life and how these technologies constitutes and change routines and practices......, is analysed from the analytical concept offered by the Social Practice Theory. Overall, the case-study demonstrates that the smart grid technologies influence the ‘way of driving’ and changed the temporal patterns of consumption in the families during the test-period. The inquiry attempts to contribute...

  10. Knowledge, attitude and practice about malaria in south-western Saudi Arabia: A household-based cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Khairy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP concerning malaria and malaria prevention among rural populations residing in the southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. This was a household-based cross-sectional survey, using structured questionnaire that was developed and distributed among households selected randomly from 19 villages (clusters located in a southwestern region of Saudi Arabia, north of the border with Yemen. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 20. A majority of respondents (98.4% reported that they had heard about malaria, but only 21.7% reported that they had sufficient information about the disease. Surprisingly, the most popular source of information was the internet and social media (proportion responding positively in parenthesis (25.5%, followed by family (21.7%, while information from health facilities contributed only 12.4%. A majority of respondents were aware that malaria is a communicable (89.1% and deadly (70% disease; however, only 30.2% of the respondents responded that malaria is a treatable disease. Almost all of the aware respondents (97.5% were inclined to seek treatment from health facilities, and 63.2% preferred to seek treatment within 24 h of presenting with symptoms. Regarding personal precautions, the most common practice adopted by respondents was indoor residual spraying IRS (47.3%, followed by anti-mosquito spraying (29.8%, mosquito bed nets (13.2% and combined anti-mosquito sprays and nets on windows (4.7%. This KAP study did not show any statistically significant differences in KAP due to age; however the practices of preventive measures against malaria differed significantly by nationality (Saudi versus non-Saudi. We conclude that most populations living in the villages have an acceptable level of knowledge and awareness about malaria and seek timely treatment. However, the positive attitudes and practices in relation to personal protection and

  11. Individual welfare analysis for collective households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherchye, Laurens; Cosaert, Sam; de Rock, Bram

    We propose novel tools for the analysis of individual welfare on the basis of aggregate household demand behavior. The method assumes a collective model of household consumption with the public and private nature of goods specified by the empirical analyst. A main distinguishing feature of our......-to-pay for public consumption (i.e. Lindahl prices). The method is easy to use in practice and yields informative empirical results, which we demonstrate through a simulation analysis and an empirical application to labor supply data....

  12. Social anthropological and interdisciplinary research on the conversion of electrically heated single family houses to heating by combined pellet-solar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, Annette

    2004-01-01

    The social anthropological research presented here is part of the interdisciplinary research project PESTO, which focuses on the (partial or complete) conversion of single family houses from electric heating to heating by combined pellet-solar heating systems. Basic to this research is the assumption that it is more likely that energy conversions are carried through, and that they are successful on a long-term basis, if the new products are designed to fit as well as possible into the everyday lives of people. The anthropological interest in the project can be divided into two parts; motives for or against a conversion among men and women in Swedish households, and product design and placement in (previously) electrically heated single-family houses. Literature studies and semi-structured qualitative interviews are the main methods used in the anthropological part of the project. During the next 3-year project period, these investigations will be used to support information and marketing, and to formulate recommendations for conversion practice of electrically heated single-family houses to combined pellet-solar heating. (Author)

  13. Household Income Composition and Household Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Voynov, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    The paper focuses on the change in household income composition and the factors that determine it. The results bring additional knowledge about household poverty dynamics. Based on the collective approach to the family and the cooperative game theory it is constructed theoretical model of household income composition change. The change in income composition is a result from bargaining between household members in attempt to defend the most suitable for them income source. Decisive influence i...

  14. Potential of household environmental resources and practices in eliminating residual malaria transmission: a case study of Tanzania, Burundi, Malawi and Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semakula, Henry M; Song, Guobao; Zhang, Shushen; Achuu, Simon P

    2015-09-01

    The increasing protection gaps of insecticide-treated nets and indoor-residual spraying methods against malaria have led to an emergence of residual transmission in sub-Saharan Africa and thus, supplementary strategies to control mosquitoes are urgently required. To assess household environmental resources and practices that increase or reduce malaria risk among children under-five years of age in order to identify those aspects that can be adopted to control residual transmission. Household environmental resources, practices and malaria test results were extracted from Malaria Indicators Survey datasets for Tanzania, Burundi, Malawi and Liberia with 16,747 children from 11,469 households utilised in the analysis. Logistic regressions were performed to quantify the contribution of each factor to malaria occurrence. Cattle rearing reduced malaria risk between 26%-49% while rearing goats increased the risk between 26%-32%. All piped-water systems reduced malaria risk between 30%-87% (Tanzania), 48%-95% (Burundi), 67%-77% (Malawi) and 58%-73 (Liberia). Flush toilets reduced malaria risk between 47%-96%. Protected-wells increased malaria risk between 19%-44%. Interestingly, boreholes increased malaria risk between 19%-75%. Charcoal use reduced malaria risk between 11%-49%. Vector control options for tackling mosquitoes were revealed based on their risk levels. These included cattle rearing, installation of piped-water systems and flush toilets as well as use of smokeless fuels.

  15. Green hypocrisy? Environmental attitudes and residential space heating expenditure

    OpenAIRE

    Traynor, Laura; Lange, Ian A.; Moro, Mirko

    2012-01-01

    In the UK, the largest proportion of household energy use is for space heating. Popular media make claims of a green hypocrisy: groups which have the strongest attitude towards the environment have the highest emissions. This study examines whether environmental attitudes and behaviours are associated with space heating energy use using data from the British Household Panel Survey. Results find that environmentally friendly attitudes generally do not lead to lower heating expenditures though ...

  16. HOUSEHOLD HEATING IN THE LIGHT OF CLIMATE CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÓNIKA PALÁDI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas emissions resulting from anthropogenic activities play a significant role in climate change. The residential heating should be mentioned one of the main polluting source of greenhouse gases.This paper aims to give a comprehensive view about the amount of CO2 emission as well as objectives and strategies for reduction the GHG emission. In addition, we illustrate the example of an average Hungarian family house (100 m2 , that biomass-based energy production what extent can reduce the current very high degree carbon dioxide emissions. We prepared investment analysis, as to what kind of ecological and economic benefits may result in heating modernization projects of a four-member family home. Additionally, a calculation method of CO2 emission from heating is demonstrated on the basis of IPPC report (2006; the role of biomass is explained in heating; furthermore I give an overview analysis about the significance of forests for reduction of CO2 concentration.

  17. Cultural repertoires and food-related household technology within colonia households under conditions of material hardship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Wesley R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mexican-origin women in the U.S. living in colonias (new-destination Mexican-immigrant communities along the Texas-Mexico border suffer from a high incidence of food insecurity and diet-related chronic disease. Understanding environmental factors that influence food-related behaviors among this population will be important to improving the well-being of colonia households. This article focuses on cultural repertoires that enable food choice and the everyday uses of technology in food-related practice by Mexican-immigrant women in colonia households under conditions of material hardship. Findings are presented within a conceptual framework informed by concepts drawn from sociological accounts of technology, food choice, culture, and material hardship. Methods Field notes were provided by teams of promotora-researchers (indigenous community health workers and public-health professionals trained as participant observers. They conducted observations on three separate occasions (two half-days during the week and one weekend day within eight family residences located in colonias near the towns of Alton and San Carlos, Texas. English observations were coded inductively and early observations stressed the importance of technology and material hardship in food-related behavior. These observations were further explored and coded using the qualitative data package Atlas.ti. Results Technology included kitchen implements used in standard and adapted configurations and household infrastructure. Residents employed tools across a range of food-related activities identified as forms of food acquisition, storage, preparation, serving, feeding and eating, cleaning, and waste processing. Material hardships included the quality, quantity, acceptability, and uncertainty dimensions of food insecurity, and insufficient consumption of housing, clothing and medical care. Cultural repertoires for coping with material hardship included reliance on

  18. Cultural repertoires and food-related household technology within colonia households under conditions of material hardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Wesley R; Sharkey, Joseph R; Johnson, Cassandra M; St John, Julie

    2012-05-15

    BSTRACT: Mexican-origin women in the U.S. living in colonias (new-destination Mexican-immigrant communities) along the Texas-Mexico border suffer from a high incidence of food insecurity and diet-related chronic disease. Understanding environmental factors that influence food-related behaviors among this population will be important to improving the well-being of colonia households. This article focuses on cultural repertoires that enable food choice and the everyday uses of technology in food-related practice by Mexican-immigrant women in colonia households under conditions of material hardship. Findings are presented within a conceptual framework informed by concepts drawn from sociological accounts of technology, food choice, culture, and material hardship. Field notes were provided by teams of promotora-researchers (indigenous community health workers) and public-health professionals trained as participant observers. They conducted observations on three separate occasions (two half-days during the week and one weekend day) within eight family residences located in colonias near the towns of Alton and San Carlos, Texas. English observations were coded inductively and early observations stressed the importance of technology and material hardship in food-related behavior. These observations were further explored and coded using the qualitative data package Atlas.ti. Technology included kitchen implements used in standard and adapted configurations and household infrastructure. Residents employed tools across a range of food-related activities identified as forms of food acquisition, storage, preparation, serving, feeding and eating, cleaning, and waste processing. Material hardships included the quality, quantity, acceptability, and uncertainty dimensions of food insecurity, and insufficient consumption of housing, clothing and medical care. Cultural repertoires for coping with material hardship included reliance on inexpensive staple foods and dishes, and

  19. Household air pollution and its effects on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apte, Komalkirti; Salvi, Sundeep

    2016-01-01

    Household air pollution is a leading cause of disability-adjusted life years in Southeast Asia and the third leading cause of disability-adjusted life years globally. There are at least sixty sources of household air pollution, and these vary from country to country. Indoor tobacco smoking, construction material used in building houses, fuel used for cooking, heating and lighting, use of incense and various forms of mosquito repellents, use of pesticides and chemicals used for cleaning at home, and use of artificial fragrances are some of the various sources that contribute to household air pollution. Household air pollution affects all stages of life with multi-systemic health effects, and its effects are evident right from pre-conception to old age. In utero exposure to household air pollutants has been shown to have health effects which resonate over the entire lifetime. Exposures to indoor air pollutants in early childhood also tend to have repercussions throughout life. The respiratory system bears the maximum brunt, but effects on the cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and nervous system are largely underplayed. Household air pollutants have also been implicated in the development of various types of cancers. Identifying household air pollutants and their health implications helps us prepare for various health-related issues. However, the real challenge is adopting changes to reduce the health effects of household air pollution and designing innovative interventions to minimize the risk of further exposure. This review is an attempt to understand the various sources of household air pollution, the effects on health, and strategies to deal with this emergent risk factor of global mortality and morbidity.

  20. User Behavior Assessment of Household Electric Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Budi Mulyono

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Energy resilience is one of the famous issues among researchers and practitioners in energy sector. With enabling new technologies in power engineering for smart grid such as distributed generation, distributed storage, and intelligent information and management, each household community can establish a resilience energy production, distribution, and consumption. A household in smart grid system behaves as a customer and producer at the same time. This condition enabled them to reduce the power shortage in the peak hours, reduce CO2 pollution using renewable electricity, and minimizing electricity usage by changing life style. In developing countries, the amount of electricity supply is less than its demand. Most of the demand comes from the household that has peak load on nighttime. Keywords: User behavior, Game theory, Smart grid, Heating and cooling appliances, Energy resilientdoi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.1 How to cite this article:Mulyono, N. B. (2013. User Behavior Assessment of Household Electric Usage. The Asian Journal of Technology Management 6 (2: 65-71. Print ISSN: 1978-6956; Online ISSN: 2089-791X. doi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.1  

  1. Knowledge, attitude and practice about malaria in south-western Saudi Arabia: A household-based cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairy, Sami; Al-Surimi, Khaled; Ali, Anna; Shubily, Hussam M; Al Walaan, Nisreen; Househ, Mowafa; El-Metwally, Ashraf

    This study aimed to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) concerning malaria and malaria prevention among rural populations residing in the southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. This was a household-based cross-sectional survey, using structured questionnaire that was developed and distributed among households selected randomly from 19 villages (clusters) located in a southwestern region of Saudi Arabia, north of the border with Yemen. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 20. A majority of respondents (98.4%) reported that they had heard about malaria, but only 21.7% reported that they had sufficient information about the disease. Surprisingly, the most popular source of information was the internet and social media (proportion responding positively in parenthesis) (25.5%), followed by family (21.7%), while information from health facilities contributed only 12.4%. A majority of respondents were aware that malaria is a communicable (89.1%) and deadly (70%) disease; however, only 30.2% of the respondents responded that malaria is a treatable disease. Almost all of the aware respondents (97.5%) were inclined to seek treatment from health facilities, and 63.2% preferred to seek treatment within 24h of presenting with symptoms. Regarding personal precautions, the most common practice adopted by respondents was indoor residual spraying IRS (47.3%), followed by anti-mosquito spraying (29.8%), mosquito bed nets (13.2%) and combined anti-mosquito sprays and nets on windows (4.7%). This KAP study did not show any statistically significant differences in KAP due to age; however the practices of preventive measures against malaria differed significantly by nationality (Saudi versus non-Saudi). We conclude that most populations living in the villages have an acceptable level of knowledge and awareness about malaria and seek timely treatment. However, the positive attitudes and practices in relation to personal protection and prevention

  2. Price sensitive electric power consumption in households. Final report; Prisfoelsomt elforbrug i husholdninger. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togeby, M.; Hay, C. (Ea Energianalyse A/S, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2009-08-15

    To gain experience with electric power consumption in households based on demand response a demonstration project was carried out for households with electric heating. More than 500 households with high power consumption (over 15,000 kWh / yr) participated. Participating households were divided into four groups: 1) a group with automation equipment ('Devi') installed, which automatically controls the electric heating in relation to electricity price signals based on pre-defined standards, 2) a group with electronics equipment ('Electronic House Keeper') installed which can show price signals so that the participant himself can control the electric heating in relation thereto, 3) a group who daily received an e-mail or a text message indicating the fluctuations in electricity prices, so that the participant can control the electric heating in relation to the received information, 4) a control group who did not have knowledge of or participated in the experiment. The main results of the project are that consumption must be controlled through automation. A real impact of the experiment can only be seen for the Devi group, which had automation equipment installed, and not for the email / text message group who had to manually respond to price signals. There must be opportunities for higher degree of differentiation. The automatics should be coupled to multiple thermostats, and the control should be detailed, for example, with control based on the individual thermostat in each room. The thermal comfort is essential. The participants want to manage and move their electricity consumption directly via 'Electronic House Keeper'. They would welcome the opportunity to have all household appliances connected to the solution, making it possible to turn on / off these depending on prices. Good information and communication are crucial to participants' motivation. (ln)

  3. Impact of agricultural intensification on poverty alleviation among rural farm households in Imo state Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iheke, O.R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was on the impact of agricultural intensification on poverty alleviation among rural farm households in Imo State Nigeria. Multi-stage random sampling and purposive sampling technique was used in choosing the samples used for the study. Data collections were by the use of structured questionnaire and interview schedules and data analysis involved the computation per capital household food expenditure and mean per capita household expenditure so as to draw the poverty line and hence derive the poverty status of the respondents, regression analysis as well as computation of the Chow’s statistic. The results of data analysis revealed that poverty is more pronounced with the farm households that are not practicing agricultural intensification. The significant factors influencing the poverty level of the farmers practicing agricultural intensification were sex of household head, years of formal education, assets endowment, and income; while for the farmers not practicing intensification, household size, years of formal education, assets endowment, and income were the significant factors influencing their poverty level. For the two households, age, years of formal education, assets endowment, and income were the significant factors influencing their poverty level. Education, income and the dummy variable indicating intensification status were the significant factors influencing their poverty level for the entire household with a dummy introduced. The Chow’s test revealed that agricultual intensification has a positive and significant impact on poverty reduction. Therefore, creation of awareness and persuading rural farming households to practice more of intensified agriculture would lead increase in productivity and income with a multiplier effect on poverty reduction.

  4. Household lifestyle, energy related practices and perceptions of energy efficiency: Evidence from Kitwe, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilias Makashini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa is noted for not only constant power shortages but also poor access to electricity. In Zambia, for example, 75% of the population does not have access to electricity. This is partly because although Zambia has one of the lowest energy tariffs in Southern Africa, when compared with household monthly income, the resource is still reasonably unaffordable. Therefore, there is need to find innovative ways of reducing energy cost. Recent studies have indicated that there are patterns that show that there is a relationship between households' lifestyles and energy consumption. This means that understanding household lifestyles and how that impacts on energy use would be crucial in helping occupants to change their behaviours. This would result in the minimisation of energy consumption and thus a reduction in energy bills. However, there is a dearth of scholarly literature about households' lifestyles and their impacts on energy consumption in most developing countries including Zambia. This study investigates the perceptions of different lifestyles on household energy consumption and knowledge about energy efficiency in the city of Kitwe, the second largest city in Zambia. Motivation and barriers to energy efficiency have also been investigated. To achieve this, a mixed research approach was adopted. Firstly, a quantitative closed structured questionnaire instrument was used to collect data from 59 households in Kitwe. Secondly, mini-focus group discussions (average size of 5 ― brought about by the curiosity of residents and hence the contribution as families per household ― were undertaken in the informal settlement. The major findings are that households are generally motivated to implement energy saving strategies like covering pots when cooking, switching off lights in rooms that are not in use and that more information is needed as lack of knowledge and ‘landlord control' were identified as some of the barriers to energy

  5. Information content of household-stratified epidemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Kinyanjui

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Household structure is a key driver of many infectious diseases, as well as a natural target for interventions such as vaccination programs. Many theoretical and conceptual advances on household-stratified epidemic models are relatively recent, but have successfully managed to increase the applicability of such models to practical problems. To be of maximum realism and hence benefit, they require parameterisation from epidemiological data, and while household-stratified final size data has been the traditional source, increasingly time-series infection data from households are becoming available. This paper is concerned with the design of studies aimed at collecting time-series epidemic data in order to maximize the amount of information available to calibrate household models. A design decision involves a trade-off between the number of households to enrol and the sampling frequency. Two commonly used epidemiological study designs are considered: cross-sectional, where different households are sampled at every time point, and cohort, where the same households are followed over the course of the study period. The search for an optimal design uses Bayesian computationally intensive methods to explore the joint parameter-design space combined with the Shannon entropy of the posteriors to estimate the amount of information in each design. For the cross-sectional design, the amount of information increases with the sampling intensity, i.e., the designs with the highest number of time points have the most information. On the other hand, the cohort design often exhibits a trade-off between the number of households sampled and the intensity of follow-up. Our results broadly support the choices made in existing epidemiological data collection studies. Prospective problem-specific use of our computational methods can bring significant benefits in guiding future study designs.

  6. Information content of household-stratified epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinyanjui, T M; Pellis, L; House, T

    2016-09-01

    Household structure is a key driver of many infectious diseases, as well as a natural target for interventions such as vaccination programs. Many theoretical and conceptual advances on household-stratified epidemic models are relatively recent, but have successfully managed to increase the applicability of such models to practical problems. To be of maximum realism and hence benefit, they require parameterisation from epidemiological data, and while household-stratified final size data has been the traditional source, increasingly time-series infection data from households are becoming available. This paper is concerned with the design of studies aimed at collecting time-series epidemic data in order to maximize the amount of information available to calibrate household models. A design decision involves a trade-off between the number of households to enrol and the sampling frequency. Two commonly used epidemiological study designs are considered: cross-sectional, where different households are sampled at every time point, and cohort, where the same households are followed over the course of the study period. The search for an optimal design uses Bayesian computationally intensive methods to explore the joint parameter-design space combined with the Shannon entropy of the posteriors to estimate the amount of information in each design. For the cross-sectional design, the amount of information increases with the sampling intensity, i.e., the designs with the highest number of time points have the most information. On the other hand, the cohort design often exhibits a trade-off between the number of households sampled and the intensity of follow-up. Our results broadly support the choices made in existing epidemiological data collection studies. Prospective problem-specific use of our computational methods can bring significant benefits in guiding future study designs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Green hypocrisy? Environmental attitudes and residential space heating expenditure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traynor, Laura; Lange, Ian; Moro, Mirko [Stirling Univ. (United Kingdom). Division of Economics

    2012-06-15

    In the UK, the largest proportion of household energy use is for space heating. Popular media make claims of a green hypocrisy: groups which have the strongest attitude towards the environment have the highest emissions. This study examines whether environmental attitudes and behaviours are associated with space heating energy use using data from the British Household Panel Survey. Results find that environmentally friendly attitudes generally do not lead to lower heating expenditures though environmentally friendly behaviours are associated with lower heating expenditure. Also, the effect of these attitudes and behaviours do not change as income increase.

  8. Information campaign on solar heating for houses heated by electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, M.

    1995-09-01

    A number of NESA's (Danish electric power company) customers were offered the use of a solar water heating system for a short period of time. NESA was responsible for the marketing and consultancy service and worked in cooperation with local plumbers in connection with the delivery of the systems. The company contacted 450 households and its representatives visited 25 of these. 4 customers decided to purchase a solar heating system, fourteen decided to think about it, and four declared that they would not buy one. The company had reckoned with 25 purchases. It is concluded that the price of the solar heating systems was too high for prospective customers and the fact that they were not given a special offer had a negative effect. The economic aspect was absolutely the most important for them, especially the length of the payback period on the higher purchase system. Environmental protection aspects came second in their deliberations. NESA has a positive attitude to their customers' use of solar heating plants and recommends that households are offered very high quality consultancy services in connection with marketing. The project is described in detail. (AB)

  9. Alcohol Consumption Practices among Married Women of Reproductive Age in Nepal: A Population Based Household Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narbada Thapa

    Full Text Available Alcohol chemically known as ethanol, causes several health, economic and social consequences across the world. Literatures suggest potential harm of alcohol drinking by pregnant women especially to the fetus and the mother. Despite a number of significant public health problems related to alcohol consumption, this area has been ignored in Nepal and information at the national level is limited. Thus this study aimed at finding the prevalence of alcohol consumption among married women of reproductive age.A nationally representative household survey was carried out from April to August 2013 by taking 16 districts across all 15 eco administrative regions. From the selected districts, 86 village development committees and 14 municipalities were selected as primary sampling units using probability proportionate to size, followed by random selection of 3 wards from each primary sampling unit. Finally, 30 households within each ward were selected using systematic random sampling, and one married women of reproductive age from each household. A total of 9000 married women of reproductive age were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire, on alcohol consumption practices including environmental factors and socio demographic characteristics and were included in the analysis.National prevalence of alcohol consumption ever among married women of reproductive age was 24.7% (95% CI:21.7-28.0, last 12 months 17.9% (95% CI:15.3-20.7 and last 30 days (current drinking 11.8% (95% CI:9.8-14.1. There was substantial variation among the districts ranging from 2% to 60%. Multivariable analysis suggests women with no education or within formal education, dalit and janajatis ethnicity, whose husbands drink alcohol, who brew alcohol at home and women from mountains were significantly at higher risk of consuming alcohol. Among the women who drank alcohol in last 12 months, a substantial proportion of them drank home brewed alcoholic beverages (95.9%, 95% CI:94

  10. Climate Change, Household Vulnerability and Smart Agriculture

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Marina

    The cost benefits analysis was the main technique used to evaluate alternative adaptation strategies. .... Figure 7 Different vulnerability levels of households from Lambani and Alice . ...... practices and the maintenance of surface residues.

  11. Sustainability effects of household-scale biogas in rural China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosens, Jorrit; Lu, Yonglong; He, Guizhen; Bluemling, Bettina; Beckers, Theo A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Households in rural China rely heavily on low quality fuels which results in reduced quality of life and environmental degradation. This study assesses the comparative contribution of household scale biogas installations to the broad set of sustainability objectives in the Chinese biogas policy framework, which targets household budget, fuel collection workload, forest degradation, indoor air quality and health, renewable energy supply, and climate change. A household survey was used to determine how biogas affected consumption levels of crop residues, fuel wood, coal, LPG, and electricity. Biogas users were found to reduce consumption of biomass fuels but not coal. Although LPG is not a highly commonly used fuel in rural China, biogas users nearly cease to use it altogether. A big reduction in fuel wood consumption results in strongly reduced workload and forest degradation. Although household scale biogas has alleviated all sustainability issues targeted by Chinese policies, low quality fuel use remains abundant, even in households using biogas. Continued promotion of the construction of biogas installations is advisable, but additional policies are needed to ensure higher quality heating energy supply and cleaner uses of biomass fuels. - Highlights: ► Household biogas alleviated all sustainability issues targeted by policy. ► Biogas users consume less biomass fuels, much less LPG, but similar amounts of coal. ► Strongest sustainability effects are reduced workload and forest degradation. ► Household budget effects are slight as commercial cooking fuel use is limited. ► Low quality fuel use remains abundant and further policy efforts are needed

  12. Anticipatory child fostering and household economic security in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Bachan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: While there is a rich literature on the practice of child fostering in sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about how fostering impacts receiving households, as few studies consider household conditions both before and after fostering. Despite the fact that circumstancessurrounding fostering vary, the literature's key distinction of fostering is often drawn along the simple line of whether or not a household is fostering a child. This paper argues that anticipation of fostering responsibilities, in particular, is a useful dimension to distinguish fostering experiences for receiving households. Objective: This paper examines the relationship between receiving a foster child and subsequent changes in household wealth. Particular emphasis is placed on how these changes are conditioned by differing levels of anticipation of the fostering event. Methods: This study uses data from Tsogolo la Thanzi (TLT, a longitudinal survey in Balaka, Malawi. Using data from 1754 TLT respondents, fixed effects pooled time-series models are estimated to assess whether and how receiving a foster child changes household wealth. Results: This paper demonstrates the heterogeneity of fostering experiences for receiving households.The results show that households that anticipate fostering responsibilities experience a greater increase in household wealth than both households that do not foster and those that are surprised by fostering. Conclusions: Households that anticipate fostering responsibilities exhibit the greatest increase in householdwealth. While fostering households that do not anticipate fostering responsibilities may not experience these gains, there is no evidence to indicate that such households are negatively impacted relative to households that do not foster. This finding suggests that additional childcare responsibilities may not be as detrimental to African households as some researchers have feared.

  13. Three Essays Examining Household Energy Demand and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Anthony G.

    reduce food expenditures for low-income households, as indicated by negative cross-price elasticity estimates for food and energy commodities. Additionally, low-income households reduce energy expenditures more than other households, further indicating "heat or eat" behavior. Results from all three essays provide policy makers with helpful information to shape future federal energy programs.

  14. Modeling of electricity savings in the Danish household sector using Balmorel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trivella, Alessio; Baldini, Mattia

    In this paper we examine the investments in energy-efficient household appliances from an energy system perspective. We consider a set of ten appliances constituting the majority of the electricity consumption in the private household sector, and investigate whether investing in improved energy...... efficiency can compete with the cost of electricity supply from existing or new power plants. To assess the analysis, Balmorel, a linear optimization model for heat and power sectors, has been extended in order to assess the best possible investments in more efficient household appliances. The model is non......-exclusively tested on the Danish energy system under different scenarios, and computational experiments show that several energy efficiency measures in the household sector should be regarded as valuable investments, while others would require some form of support to become profitable. The analysis also reveals...

  15. Regional energy planning on the base of household consumption analysis in the county

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majstrovic, M.; Goic, R.; Sutlovic, E.

    1999-01-01

    The regional planning concept accepted by the Croatian energy sector demands to establish regional energy centres. The first phase of the project was realized in Dalmatian county as 'Southern Croatian counties energy development strategy' which tasks were to collect data, to make the survey and database and to present the main characteristics of energy consumption in county households. The county was separated into ten zones according to geographic location, living standards and energy consumption. Answers to 79 questions divided into 8 groups (household general data, space heating, water heating and cooking, economic status, household ownership, energy demand, car information and future investments) made the database and the simple model formed 9 tables. The second phase consists of industrial, service and traffic sector analysis. Table data for the total energy consumption per zones, per inhabitant and zones, by energy mode and by energy use. This database and further information development will contribute to better energy planning

  16. Household air pollution and the sustainable development goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amegah, Adeladza Kofi; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2016-03-01

    Globally, 41% of households, over 2.8 billion people, rely on solid fuels (coal and biomass) for cooking and heating. In developing countries in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa where these fuels are predominantly used, women who are customarily responsible for cooking, and their young children, are most exposed to the resulting air pollution. Solid fuels are still in widespread use and it appears that intervention efforts are not keeping pace with population growth in developing countries. Here we pinpoint the challenges and identify opportunities for addressing household air pollution while mitigating global climate change and promoting the sustainable development goals. We recommend the following actions: implementation of the WHO indoor air quality guidelines on household fuel combustion; effective promotion and dissemination of improved cookstoves through formation of country alliances for clean cookstoves; expansion of liquefied petroleum gas production facilities and distribution networks; harnessing renewable energy potential; promotion of biogas production at both household and community level; ensuring improved ventilation of homes through education and enforcement of building standards; and exploiting opportunities in the health and other sectors for changing health-damaging cooking behaviour.

  17. Management of climatic heat stress risk in construction: a review of practices, methodologies, and future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlinson, Steve; Yunyanjia, Andrea; Li, Baizhan; Chuanjingju, Carrie

    2014-05-01

    Climatic heat stress leads to accidents on construction sites brought about by a range of human factors emanating from heat induced illness, and fatigue leading to impaired capability, physical and mental. It is an occupational characteristic of construction work in many climates and the authors take the approach of re-engineering the whole safety management system rather than focusing on incremental improvement, which is current management practice in the construction industry. From a scientific viewpoint, climatic heat stress is determined by six key factors: (1) air temperature, (2) humidity, (3) radiant heat, and (4) wind speed indicating the environment, (5) metabolic heat generated by physical activities, and (6) "clothing effect" that moderates the heat exchange between the body and the environment. By making use of existing heat stress indices and heat stress management processes, heat stress risk on construction sites can be managed in three ways: (1) control of environmental heat stress exposure through use of an action-triggering threshold system, (2) control of continuous work time (CWT, referred by maximum allowable exposure duration) with mandatory work-rest regimens, and (3) enabling self-paced working through empowerment of employees. Existing heat stress practices and methodologies are critically reviewed and the authors propose a three-level methodology for an action-triggering, localized, simplified threshold system to facilitate effective decisions by frontline supervisors. The authors point out the need for "regional based" heat stress management practices that reflect unique climatic conditions, working practices and acclimatization propensity by local workers indifferent geographic regions. The authors set out the case for regional, rather than international, standards that account for this uniqueness and which are derived from site-based rather than laboratory-based research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The impact of consumer behavior on residential energy demand for space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, R.; Auer, H.; Biermayr, P. [Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. of Energy Economics

    1998-04-01

    Besides technical parameters, consumer behavior is the most important issue with respect to energy consumption in households. In this paper, the results of a cross-section analysis of Austrian households are presented. The impact of the following parameters on residential energy demand for space heating have been investigated: (i) thermal quality of buildings; (ii) consumer behavior; (iii) heating degree days; (iv) building type (single- or multi-family dwellings). The result of this investigation provides evidence of a rebound-effect of about 15 to 30% due to building retrofit. This leads to the conclusion that energy savings achieved in practice (and straightforward the reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions) due to energy conservation measures will be lower than those calculated in engineering conservation studies. Straightforward, the most important conclusions for energy policy makers are: (i) Standards, building codes, respectively, are important tools to increase the thermal quality of new buildings; and (ii) Due to prevailing low energy prices, a triggering tool has to be implemented which may be rebates or loans. (orig.)

  19. Monitoring drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene in non-household settings: Priorities for policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronk, Ryan; Slaymaker, Tom; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-11-01

    Inadequate drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) in non-household settings, such as schools, health care facilities, and workplaces impacts the health, education, welfare, and productivity of populations, particularly in low and middle-income countries. There is limited knowledge on the status of WaSH in such settings. To address this gap, we reviewed international standards, international and national actors, and monitoring initiatives; developed the first typology of non-household settings; and assessed the viability of monitoring. Based on setting characteristics, non-household settings include six types: schools, health care facilities, workplaces, temporary use settings, mass gatherings, and dislocated populations. To-date national governments and international actors have focused monitoring of non-household settings on schools and health care facilities with comparatively little attention given to other settings such as workplaces and markets. Nationally representative facility surveys and national management information systems are the primary monitoring mechanisms. Data suggest that WaSH coverage is generally poor and often lower than in corresponding household settings. Definitions, indicators, and data sources are underdeveloped and not always comparable between countries. While not all countries monitor non-household settings, examples are available from countries on most continents suggesting that systematic monitoring is achievable. Monitoring WaSH in schools and health care facilities is most viable. Monitoring WaSH in other non-household settings would be viable with: technical support from local and national actors in addition to international organizations such as WHO and UNICEF; national prioritization through policy and financing; and including WaSH indicators into monitoring initiatives to improve cost-effectiveness. International consultations on targets and indicators for global monitoring of WaSH post-2015 identified non-household

  20. A material flow analysis on current electrical and electronic waste disposal from Hong Kong households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Winifred Ka-Yan; Chung, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Chan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Most household TWARC waste is sold directly to private e-waste collectors in HK. ► The current e-waste recycling network is popular with HK households. ► About 80% of household generated TWARC is exported overseas each year. ► Over 7000 tonnes/yr of household generated TWARC reach landfills. ► It is necessary to upgrade safety and awareness in HK’s e-waste recycling industry. - Abstract: A material flow study on five types of household electrical and electronic equipment, namely television, washing machine, air conditioner, refrigerator and personal computer (TWARC) was conducted to assist the Government of Hong Kong to establish an e-waste take-back system. This study is the first systematic attempt on identifying key TWARC waste disposal outlets and trade practices of key parties involved in Hong Kong. Results from two questionnaire surveys, on local households and private e-waste traders, were used to establish the material flow of household TWARC waste. The study revealed that the majority of obsolete TWARC were sold by households to private e-waste collectors and that the current e-waste collection network is efficient and popular with local households. However, about 65,000 tonnes/yr or 80% of household generated TWARC waste are being exported overseas by private e-waste traders, with some believed to be imported into developing countries where crude recycling methods are practiced. Should Hong Kong establish a formal recycling network with tight regulatory control on imports and exports, the potential risks of current e-waste recycling practices on e-waste recycling workers, local residents and the environment can be greatly reduced

  1. A material flow analysis on current electrical and electronic waste disposal from Hong Kong households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Winifred Ka-Yan [Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Chung, Shan-Shan, E-mail: sschung@hkbu.edu.hk [Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Zhang, Chan [Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Most household TWARC waste is sold directly to private e-waste collectors in HK. ► The current e-waste recycling network is popular with HK households. ► About 80% of household generated TWARC is exported overseas each year. ► Over 7000 tonnes/yr of household generated TWARC reach landfills. ► It is necessary to upgrade safety and awareness in HK’s e-waste recycling industry. - Abstract: A material flow study on five types of household electrical and electronic equipment, namely television, washing machine, air conditioner, refrigerator and personal computer (TWARC) was conducted to assist the Government of Hong Kong to establish an e-waste take-back system. This study is the first systematic attempt on identifying key TWARC waste disposal outlets and trade practices of key parties involved in Hong Kong. Results from two questionnaire surveys, on local households and private e-waste traders, were used to establish the material flow of household TWARC waste. The study revealed that the majority of obsolete TWARC were sold by households to private e-waste collectors and that the current e-waste collection network is efficient and popular with local households. However, about 65,000 tonnes/yr or 80% of household generated TWARC waste are being exported overseas by private e-waste traders, with some believed to be imported into developing countries where crude recycling methods are practiced. Should Hong Kong establish a formal recycling network with tight regulatory control on imports and exports, the potential risks of current e-waste recycling practices on e-waste recycling workers, local residents and the environment can be greatly reduced.

  2. Effects of social participation and the emergence of voluntary social interactions on household power-saving practices in post-disaster Kanagawa, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hidenori

    2013-01-01

    An online social survey was conducted to reveal household electricity-saving behaviour and its relationship with participation in social group activities, as well as face-to-face and online social interactions, i.e., information sources used and information dissemination through personal networks, in a disaster-affected region of Kanagawa, Japan, during the summer of 2011. The study confirms the positive contribution of respondents’ participation in social group activities to the number of power-saving practices conducted. It also reveals the emergence of voluntary social face-to-face and/or online interactions for power-saving. The study suggests it would be useful to provide effective information to proactive individuals who are closely engaged in power-saving in households and who are proactively disseminating power-saving information practices to others. Such individuals include (1) women who have school-children and who are proactively engaging in the social interactions of their children’s schools, other parents, neighbours, as well as their own parents and relatives; and (2) men and women who are using various kinds of online interaction tools and are also engaged in face-to-face social interactions

  3. Waste heat of HTR power stations for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnenberg, H.; Schlenker, H.V.

    1975-01-01

    The market situation, the applied techniques, and the transport, for district heating in combination with HTR plants are considered. Analysis of the heat market indicates a high demand for heat at temperatures between 100 and 150 0 C in household and industry. This market for district heating can be supplied by heat generated in HTR plants using two methods: (1) the combined heat and power generation in steam cycle plants by extracting steam from the turbine, and (2) the use of waste heat of a closed gas turbine cycle. The heat generation costs of (2) are negligible. The cost for transportation of heat over the average distance between existing plant sites and consumer regions (25 km) are between 10 and 20% of the total heat price, considering the high heat output of nuclear power stations. Comparing the price of heat gained by use of waste heat in HTR plants with that of conventional methods, considerable advantages are indicated for the combined heat and power generation in HTR plants. (author)

  4. Heat savings and heat generation technologies: Modelling of residential investment behaviour with local health costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvingilaite, Erika; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    The trade-off between investing in energy savings and investing in individual heating technologies with high investment and low variable costs in single family houses is modelled for a number of building and consumer categories in Denmark. For each group the private economic cost of providing heating comfort is minimised. The private solution may deviate from the socio-economical optimal solution and we suggest changes to policy to incentivise the individuals to make choices more in line with the socio-economic optimal mix of energy savings and technologies. The households can combine their primary heating source with secondary heating e.g. a woodstove. This choice results in increased indoor air pollution with fine particles causing health effects. We integrate health cost due to use of woodstoves into household optimisation of heating expenditures. The results show that due to a combination of low costs of primary fuel and low environmental performance of woodstoves today, included health costs lead to decreased use of secondary heating. Overall the interdependence of heat generation technology- and heat saving-choice is significant. The total optimal level of heat savings for private consumers decrease by 66% when all have the option to shift to the technology with lowest variable costs. - Highlights: • Heat saving investment and heat technology choice are interdependent. • Health damage costs should be included in private heating choice optimisation. • Flexibility in heating technology choice reduce the optimal level of saving investments. • Models of private and socioeconomic optimal heating produce different technology mix. • Rebound effects are moderate but varies greatly among consumer categories

  5. Exploring variance in residential electricity consumption: Household features and building properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartusch, Cajsa; Odlare, Monica; Wallin, Fredrik; Wester, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Statistical analysis of variance are of considerable value in identifying key indicators for policy update. ► Variance in residential electricity use is partly explained by household features. ► Variance in residential electricity use is partly explained by building properties. ► Household behavior has a profound impact on individual electricity use. -- Abstract: Improved means of controlling electricity consumption plays an important part in boosting energy efficiency in the Swedish power market. Developing policy instruments to that end requires more in-depth statistics on electricity use in the residential sector, among other things. The aim of the study has accordingly been to assess the extent of variance in annual electricity consumption in single-family homes as well as to estimate the impact of household features and building properties in this respect using independent samples t-tests and one-way as well as univariate independent samples analyses of variance. Statistically significant variances associated with geographic area, heating system, number of family members, family composition, year of construction, electric water heater and electric underfloor heating have been established. The overall result of the analyses is nevertheless that variance in residential electricity consumption cannot be fully explained by independent variables related to household and building characteristics alone. As for the methodological approach, the results further suggest that methods for statistical analysis of variance are of considerable value in indentifying key indicators for policy update and development.

  6. Household Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, John

    2006-01-01

    The welfare benefits of financial markets depend in large part on how effectively households use these markets. The study of household finance is challenging because household behavior is difficult to measure accurately, and because households face constraints that are not captured by textbook models, including fixed costs, uninsurable income risk, borrowing constraints, and contracts that are non-neutral with respect to inflation. Evidence on participation, diversification, and the exercise ...

  7. What did it cost for the households in Norway and Sweden?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The spot price of electricity has a relatively great impact on the budget of households. This is because more than 80 per cent have a contract for standard variable power price, so that the price is changed relatively often. For a household with an average consumption of 20 000 kWh per year, the kWh-price (including taxes) rose during the winter 2002/2003 by 50 per cent compared with the winter of 2001/2002. The rise in prices and a somewhat higher consumption due to colder weather make the electricity bill (not including network lease) go up by more than 2500 NOK for the period 4th to 1st quarter 2002/2003, compared to the corresponding period the year before. In Sweden it is more common for households that have electric heating to have firm price contracts. Because of changes in contracts and charges and a higher consumption due to cold weather, the expenses for these households increase by 16 per cent on average.

  8. Targeting energy justice: Exploring spatial, racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in urban residential heating energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reames, Tony Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Fuel poverty, the inability of households to afford adequate energy services, such as heating, is a major energy justice concern. Increasing residential energy efficiency is a strategic fuel poverty intervention. However, the absence of easily accessible household energy data impedes effective targeting of energy efficiency programs. This paper uses publicly available data, bottom-up modeling and small-area estimation techniques to predict the mean census block group residential heating energy use intensity (EUI), an energy efficiency proxy, in Kansas City, Missouri. Results mapped using geographic information systems (GIS) and statistical analysis, show disparities in the relationship between heating EUI and spatial, racial/ethnic, and socioeconomic block group characteristics. Block groups with lower median incomes, a greater percentage of households below poverty, a greater percentage of racial/ethnic minority headed-households, and a larger percentage of adults with less than a high school education were, on average, less energy efficient (higher EUIs). Results also imply that racial segregation, which continues to influence urban housing choices, exposes Black and Hispanic households to increased fuel poverty vulnerability. Lastly, the spatial concentration and demographics of vulnerable block groups suggest proactive, area- and community-based targeting of energy efficiency assistance programs may be more effective than existing self-referral approaches. - Highlights: • Develops statistical model to predict block group (BG) residential heating energy use intensity (EUI), an energy efficiency proxy. • Bivariate and multivariate analyses explore racial/ethnic and socioeconomic relationships with heating EUI. • BGs with more racial/ethnic minority households had higher heating EUI. • BGs with lower socioeconomics had higher heating EUI. • Mapping heating EUI can facilitate effective energy efficiency intervention targeting.

  9. Residential Central Air Conditioning and Heat Pump Installation – Workshop Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Zogg, Robert [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Young, Jim [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Bargach, Youssef [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States)

    2016-11-01

    DOE's Building Technologies Office works with researchers and industry partners to develop and deploy technologies that can substantially reduce energy consumption in residential and commercial buildings. This report aims to advance BTO’s energy savings, emissions reduction, and other program goals by identifying research and development (R&D), demonstration and deployment, and other non-regulatory initiatives for improving the design and installation of residential central air conditioners (CAC) and central heat pumps (CHP). Improving the adoption of CAC/CHP design and installation best practices has significant potential to reduce equipment costs, improve indoor air quality and comfort, improve system performance, and most importantly, reduce household energy consumption and costs for heating and cooling by addressing a variety of common installation issues.

  10. Household Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Home Be Informed Household Chemical Emergencies Household Chemical Emergencies Although the risk of a chemical accident ... reduce the risk of injury. Before a Household Chemical Emergency It is critical to store household chemicals ...

  11. Impact of commercial farming on household reproductive strategies in Calakmul, Campeche, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurri, Francisco D; Ortega-Muñoz, Allan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if commercial agriculture can lead to changes in peasant reproductive strategies in migrant agriculturalists from Calakmul, Campeche, Mexico. The reproductive histories of 746 women from Calakmul, Campeche, Mexico were collected. The sample was first divided into women who had reproduced within or outside of Calakmul (RC and RO, respectively) and these were further subdivided into those who lived in households practicing subsistence agriculture and those who turned agriculture into a business (Household Subsistence Agricultural Strategy (HSA) and Household Commercial Agricultural Strategy (HCA), respectively). Age-specific fertility rate (ASFR) differences were compared between strategies and place of reproduction. Comparisons between interbirth interval and age at which desired fertility was reached were done with a Kaplan-Meier life table-based statistic. In both strategies, RC women increased ASFRs by reducing age at first birth, and HSA-RC women also reduced interbirth intervals. HCA women had lower ASFRs than HSA women. The latter had a natural fertility pattern while the former expressed a desire to stop reproducing at a younger age. HCA-RC women showed important fertility reductions after age 25 and HCA-RO women after age 30. Fertility reductions in households that practice commercial versus those that practice subsistence agriculture were significant. Also, a "frontier" effect was observed that increased fertility over all, but HCA households were not as influenced by it. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Household Coverage of Fortified Staple Food Commodities in Rajasthan, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant J Aaron

    Full Text Available A spatially representative statewide survey was conducted in Rajasthan, India to assess household coverage of atta wheat flour, edible oil, and salt. An even distribution of primary sampling units were selected based on their proximity to centroids on a hexagonal grid laid over the survey area. A sample of n = 18 households from each of m = 252 primary sampling units PSUs was taken. Demographic data on all members of these households were collected, and a broader dataset was collected about a single caregiver and a child in the first 2 years of life. Data were collected on demographic and socioeconomic status; education; housing conditions; recent infant and child mortality; water, sanitation, and hygiene practices; food security; child health; infant and young child feeding practices; maternal dietary diversity; coverage of fortified staples; and maternal and child anthropometry. Data were collected from 4,627 households and the same number of caregiver/child pairs. Atta wheat flour was widely consumed across the state (83%; however, only about 7% of the atta wheat flour was classified as fortifiable, and only about 6% was actually fortified (mostly inadequately. For oil, almost 90% of edible oil consumed by households in the survey was classified as fortifiable, but only about 24% was fortified. For salt, coverage was high, with almost 85% of households using fortified salt and 66% of households using adequately fortified salt. Iodized salt coverage was also high; however, rural and poor population groups were less likely to be reached by the intervention. Voluntary fortification of atta wheat flour and edible oil lacked sufficient industry consolidation to cover significant portions of the population. It is crucial that appropriate delivery channels are utilized to effectively deliver essential micronutrients to at-risk population groups. Government distribution systems are likely the best means to accomplish this goal.

  13. Increasing Household Protein Consumption Through Minilivestock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mini-livestock production can be a major contributor of a more balanced diet for both rural and urban settlements. The attributes of mini-livestock gives it the potential of increasing household protein consumption as well as being a source of income. Mini-livestock production can be practiced in rural and urban settlements ...

  14. Households' switching behavior between electricity suppliers in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ek, Kristina; Soederholm, Patrik [Economics Unit, Luleaa University of Technology, 971 87 Luleaa (Sweden)

    2008-12-15

    The overall purpose of this paper is to analyze the factors affecting households' decisions to: (a) switch to a new electricity supplier; and (b) actively renegotiate the electricity contract with the prevailing supplier. The study is based on 536 survey responses from Swedish households and they are analyzed econometrically using probit regression techniques. The analysis is based on a theoretical framework, which embraces both economic and psychological motives behind household decision-making. The results show that households that anticipate significant economic benefits from choosing a more active behavior are also more likely to purse this, while those with smaller potential gains (e.g., households without electric heating) are less likely to change supplier and/or renegotiate their contracts. The impact of overall electricity costs and knowledge about these is particularly important for the latter decision, while respondents that perceive relatively high search and information costs are less likely to switch to an alternative electricity supplier. Moreover, constraints on time, attention, and the ability to process information, may lead to optimizing analyses being replaced by imprecise routines and rules of thumb, and the benefits of the status quo appear to represent one of those simplifying rules. This also opens up for other influences on households' activity such as social interaction and media discourses that raise the attention level. Our results show that these influences are more likely to affect households' choice to switch to new service providers, i.e., the one area of the two investigated here that put the most demand on people's ability to search for and process information. (author)

  15. Comparative Analysis of Household Waste Composition in the Different Districts of Stockholm

    OpenAIRE

    Miafodzyeva, Sviatlana; Brandt, Nils

    2011-01-01

    Separating household waste into fractions at the place where it was generated is one of the most popular methods of collection household waste in most European countries. In 1994 a producer responsibility ordinance for packaging was introduced in Sweden. This ordinance mandates householders to sort out packaging waste, clean the waste and sort different package materials – paper, plastic, glass and metal in assigned recycling bins. Household’s participation is mandatory but in practice it is ...

  16. House owners' views on investing in district heating - a study of applied sales strategies and the customers choice at conversion from electric heating; Smaahusaegarnas syn paa att koepa fjaerrvaerme - en studie av tillaempade foersaeljningsstrategier och kunders val vid konvertering fraan direktverkande el

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sernhed, Kerstin; Pyrko, Jurek [Div. of Efficient Energy Systems, Dept. of Energy Sciences, Lund University, Lund (Sweden)

    2006-07-15

    This report presents results from the project 'Converting direct resistive electric heating into district heating - customer related aspects'. The main objective of this study was to investigate how specific households within one housing area (Sandsbro in Vaexjoe with 110 one-family houses) experienced the conversion process, in order to understand the reasons behind 'yes' or 'no' responses to the utility's offer. A qualitative approach with semi-structured in-depth interviews with a specially selected sample of households from 10 converted and 13 not converted houses was chosen as the main method. The investigation led to the following conclusions and recommendations: Household reactions to the terms of sale and conversion: Many households felt that the decisions were rushed - there is a need for better planning, especially for the older households. The information provided was evaluated as detailed and sufficient. The 'demonstration villa' was a good idea but the installation should be done more professionally - aesthetics are very important here. Home visits were the only personal contact and should be conducted in all houses in order to answer questions and explain problems. Co-ordination of excavation should be better in order to limit the time the ground is open. A few of the households undertook some of the works themselves to reduce costs but the compensation was often considered as too low to motivate customers. Household opinions on the product and/or service: Almost all households felt that the thermal comfort was better than before - more stable indoor temperature, no problems with overheated radiators or smell of burning dust. On the other hand, hot water comfort was worse - longer waiting time for hot water and too low water temperature during summer. Aesthetics were considered very important and could be crucial for the decision to convert the heating system. Many of the interviewed households were uncertain how to adjust and take care of the system

  17. House owners' views on investing in district heating - a study of applied sales strategies and the customers choice at conversion from electric heating; Smaahusaegarnas syn paa att koepa fjaerrvaerme - en studie av tillaempade foersaeljningsstrategier och kunders val vid konvertering fraan direktverkande el

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sernhed, Kerstin; Pyrko, Jurek [Div. of Efficient Energy Systems, Dept. of Energy Sciences, Lund University, Lund (Sweden)

    2006-07-15

    This report presents results from the project 'Converting direct resistive electric heating into district heating - customer related aspects'. The main objective of this study was to investigate how specific households within one housing area (Sandsbro in Vaexjoe with 110 one-family houses) experienced the conversion process, in order to understand the reasons behind 'yes' or 'no' responses to the utility's offer. A qualitative approach with semi-structured in-depth interviews with a specially selected sample of households from 10 converted and 13 not converted houses was chosen as the main method. The investigation led to the following conclusions and recommendations: Household reactions to the terms of sale and conversion: Many households felt that the decisions were rushed - there is a need for better planning, especially for the older households. The information provided was evaluated as detailed and sufficient. The 'demonstration villa' was a good idea but the installation should be done more professionally - aesthetics are very important here. Home visits were the only personal contact and should be conducted in all houses in order to answer questions and explain problems. Co-ordination of excavation should be better in order to limit the time the ground is open. A few of the households undertook some of the works themselves to reduce costs but the compensation was often considered as too low to motivate customers. Household opinions on the product and/or service: Almost all households felt that the thermal comfort was better than before - more stable indoor temperature, no problems with overheated radiators or smell of burning dust. On the other hand, hot water comfort was worse - longer waiting time for hot water and too low water temperature during summer. Aesthetics were considered very important and could be crucial for the decision to convert the heating system. Many of the interviewed households were

  18. The economic effects of supporting tuberculosis-affected households in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Marco A.; Huff, Doug; Boccia, Delia; Montoya, Rosario; Ramos, Eric; Lewis, James J.; Gilman, Robert H.; Evans, Carlton A.

    2016-01-01

    The End TB Strategy mandates that no tuberculosis (TB)-affected households face catastrophic costs due to TB. However, evidence is limited to evaluate socioeconomic support to achieve this change in policy and practice. The objective of the present study was to investigate the economic effects of a TB-specific socioeconomic intervention. The setting was 32 shantytown communities in Peru. The participants were from households of consecutive TB patients throughout TB treatment administered by the national TB programme. The intervention consisted of social support through household visits and community meetings, and economic support through cash transfers conditional upon TB screening in household contacts, adhering to TB treatment/chemoprophylaxis and engaging with social support. Data were collected to assess TB-affected household costs. Patient interviews were conducted at treatment initiation and then monthly for 6 months. From February 2014 to June 2015, 312 households were recruited, of which 135 were randomised to receive the intervention. Cash transfer total value averaged US$173 (3.5% of TB-affected households' average annual income) and mitigated 20% of households' TB-related costs. Households randomised to receive the intervention were less likely to incur catastrophic costs (30% (95% CI 22–38%) versus 42% (95% CI 34–51%)). The mitigation impact was higher among poorer households. The TB-specific socioeconomic intervention reduced catastrophic costs and was accessible to poorer households. Socioeconomic support and mitigating catastrophic costs are integral to the End TB strategy, and our findings inform implementation of these new policies. PMID:27660507

  19. Greenhouse gas abatement cost curves of the residential heating market. A microeconomic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieckhoener, Caroline; Hecking, Harald

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a microeconomic approach to deduce greenhouse gas abatement cost curves of the residential heating sector. By accounting for household behavior, we find that welfare-based abatement costs are generally higher than pure technical equipment costs. Our results are based on a microsimulation of private households' investment decision for heating systems until 2030. The households' investment behavior in the simulation is derived from a discrete choice estimation which allows investigating the welfare costs of different abatement policies in terms of the compensating variation and the excess burden. We simulate greenhouse gas abatements and welfare costs of carbon taxes and subsidies on heating system investments until 2030 to deduce abatement curves. Given utility maximizing households, our results suggest a carbon tax to be the welfare efficient policy. Assuming behavioral misperceptions instead, a subsidy on investments might have lower marginal greenhouse gas abatement costs than a carbon tax.

  20. Warm homes: Drivers of the demand for heating in the residential sector in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Viggers, Helen; Chapman, Ralph; O'Dea, Des; Free, Sarah; O'Sullivan, Kimberley

    2009-01-01

    New Zealand houses are large, often poorly constructed and heated, by OECD standards, and consequently are colder and damper indoors than recommended by the World Health Organisation. This affects both the energy consumption and the health of households. The traditional New Zealand household pattern of only heating one room of the house has been unchanged for decades, although there has been substantial market penetration of unflued gas heaters and more recently heat pumps. This paper describes the residential sector and the results of two community-based trials of housing and heating interventions that have been designed to measure the impact of (1) retrofitting insulation and (2) replacing unflued gas heaters and electric resistance heaters with heat pumps, wood pellet burners and flued gas heaters. The paper describes findings on the rebound effect or 'take-back'-the extent to which households take the gains from insulation and heating improvements as comfort (higher temperatures) rather than energy savings, and compares energy-saving patterns with those suggested by an earlier study. Findings on these aspects of household space heating are discussed in the context of the New Zealand government's policy drive for a more sustainable energy system, and the implications for climate change policy.

  1. Household-level dynamics of food waste production and related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours in Guelph, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parizeau, Kate; Massow, Mike von; Martin, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We combined household waste stream weights with survey data. • We examine relationships between waste and food-related practices and beliefs. • Families and large households produced more total waste, but less waste per capita. • Food awareness and waste awareness were related to reduced food waste. • Convenience lifestyles were differentially associated with food waste. - Abstract: It has been estimated that Canadians waste $27 billion of food annually, and that half of that waste occurs at the household level (Gooch et al., 2010). There are social, environmental, and economic implications for this scale of food waste, and source separation of organic waste is an increasingly common municipal intervention. There is relatively little research that assesses the dynamics of household food waste (particularly in Canada). The purpose of this study is to combine observations of organic, recyclable, and garbage waste production rates to survey results of food waste-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours at the household level in the mid-sized municipality of Guelph, Ontario. Waste weights and surveys were obtained from 68 households in the summer of 2013. The results of this study indicate multiple relationships between food waste production and household shopping practices, food preparation behaviours, household waste management practices, and food-related attitudes, beliefs, and lifestyles. Notably, we observed that food awareness, waste awareness, family lifestyles, and convenience lifestyles were related to food waste production. We conclude that it is important to understand the diversity of factors that can influence food wasting behaviours at the household level in order to design waste management systems and policies to reduce food waste

  2. Household-level dynamics of food waste production and related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours in Guelph, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parizeau, Kate, E-mail: kate.parizeau@uoguelph.ca [Department of Geography, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON (Canada); Massow, Mike von [School of Hospitality, Food, and Tourism Management, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON (Canada); Martin, Ralph [Plant Agriculture Department, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • We combined household waste stream weights with survey data. • We examine relationships between waste and food-related practices and beliefs. • Families and large households produced more total waste, but less waste per capita. • Food awareness and waste awareness were related to reduced food waste. • Convenience lifestyles were differentially associated with food waste. - Abstract: It has been estimated that Canadians waste $27 billion of food annually, and that half of that waste occurs at the household level (Gooch et al., 2010). There are social, environmental, and economic implications for this scale of food waste, and source separation of organic waste is an increasingly common municipal intervention. There is relatively little research that assesses the dynamics of household food waste (particularly in Canada). The purpose of this study is to combine observations of organic, recyclable, and garbage waste production rates to survey results of food waste-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours at the household level in the mid-sized municipality of Guelph, Ontario. Waste weights and surveys were obtained from 68 households in the summer of 2013. The results of this study indicate multiple relationships between food waste production and household shopping practices, food preparation behaviours, household waste management practices, and food-related attitudes, beliefs, and lifestyles. Notably, we observed that food awareness, waste awareness, family lifestyles, and convenience lifestyles were related to food waste production. We conclude that it is important to understand the diversity of factors that can influence food wasting behaviours at the household level in order to design waste management systems and policies to reduce food waste.

  3. Impact of Human Activity on Local Climate Change in Veľké Turovce by Heating and Possibilities for Carbon Dioxide Decrease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudec Matej

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at detecting CO2 emissions from heating process of households in Veľké Turovce. It offers solutions for 100 % and 20 % replacement of conventional fuels by solar collector systems. In the village, 242 households heat by natural gas during average length of 21 weeks a year. Average amount of energy consumed in heating process after conversion is 18,503.06 kWh per household. For 100 % replacement of natural gas, 63 units of vacuum tube solar collector type Watt CP C 9 are required. In average duration of 23 weeks a year, 12 households heat by brown coal with average consumption of 20,339.75 kWh. For complete replacement, 69 pieces of solar collectors are required. The remaining 18 households heat by firewood in average duration of 22 week a year. The consumption of one household represents in average 19,125.07 kWh. In this case, the replacement of 100 % of firewood energy requires 65 pieces of solar panels. The amounts of saved CO2 emissions by collector system replacing 100 % of natural gas represent 926,336.39 kg of CO2 for 242 households. For 12 households heated by brown coal, it represents 152,767.65 kg of saved CO2 emissions. Last but not least, 30,553.53 kg of CO2 represent the amount of saved CO2 emission for 18 households heating by firewood. Prices of collector systems in case of 100 % replacement of conventional fuels would be 37,111.45 € for natural gas, 40,356.79 € for brown coal, and 38,203.23 € in case of replacement of firewood

  4. Household storage of medicines and self-medication practices in south-east Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroutan, B; Foroutan, R

    2014-10-12

    Self-medication and inappropriate storage of medicines at home are potential health risks. This crosssectional study in south-east Islamic Republic of Iran in 2010 aimed to determine where householders kept their medicines and to assess the frequency and determinants of self-medication. Householders from different parts of Birjand city (n = 500) were visited and completed a semi-structured questionnaire. Analgesics were the most common medicines stored at home, followed by adult cold remedies and antibiotics. The refrigerator was the most common place for storing medicines (50.6%). Most householders did not consult the package inserts. Many householders (53.6%) reported that they practised self-medication, and the frequency of reuse of physicianprescribed antibiotics was high. There was a significant association between self-medication and educational level but not with age, sex, martial status, occupation and type of insurance. Better public knowledge and information about storage and risks of reuse of prescription medications is needed.

  5. Modeling and off-design performance of a 1 kWe HT-PEMFC (high temperature-proton exchange membrane fuel cell)-based residential micro-CHP (combined-heat-and-power) system for Danish single-family households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2011-01-01

    A novel proposal for the modeling and operation of a micro-CHP (combined-heat-and-power) residential system based on HT-PEMFC (High Temperature-Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell) technology is described and analyzed to investigate its commercialization prospects. An HT-PEMFC operates at elevated...... temperatures, as compared to Nafion-based PEMFCs and therefore can be a significant candidate for cogeneration residential systems. The proposed system can provide electric power, hot water, and space heating for a typical Danish single-family household. A complete fuel processing subsystem, with all necessary...

  6. Involvement of Farm Households in Banana and Plantain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore extension agents from public and non- governmental organisations should The study thus, recommended that extension agents from public and non- governmental organisations should build knowledge and skills of farm households on critical agronomic practices, pest and disease management necessary to ...

  7. Prosumers and smart grid technologies in Denmark: developing user competences in smart grid households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Meiken; Hauge, Bettina

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores and describes resident’s experiences from a smart grid project that involved 20 households in a rural area in Denmark and ran from 2014 to 2015. The study is based on qualitative data from the participating households, collected 6, 12 and 18 months after the start...... of the intervention. Drawing on theories of social practice and the three intertwined elements of a practice: competences, images and materials, the paper contributes with an in-depth analysis of a complex intervention, focusing on how the participants changed energy practices as a result of the installed smart grid...

  8. Residential bioenergy heating: A study of consumer perceptions of improved woodstoves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyrud, Anders Q.; Roos, Anders; Sande, Jon Bingen

    2008-01-01

    Consumers' choices play a key role for the development of biomass heating in the residential sector. The city of Oslo has granted subsidies to households who change to new, improved low-emission woodstoves. The purpose of this study is to expand the knowledge about users' experiences and attitudes to residential biomass heating. An adapted model of the Theory of Planned Behavior was used to model households' inclination to continue using their woodstoves for heating. More than 800 questionnaires were collected from households that recently had invested in an improved woodstove. The respondents were satisfied with the new woodstoves. The respondents also considered themselves competent to use and maintain the stove and few had problems acquiring fuelwood. Further analyses showed that the intention to continue to use the new woodstove depends on economic benefits, heating performance, perceived time and effort to operate the stove, environmental effects of heating as well as perceived subjective norm. The results imply that when marketing a modern technology for bioenergy heating, both public authorities and producers should consider issues related to the users' perception of subjective norm, such as perceived status of using bioenergy or environmental concerns, when designing campaigns to promote the use of woodstoves

  9. A household survey to assess community knowledge, attitude and practices on malaria in a rural population of Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Kumar Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An extensive search on PubMed reveals very little in terms of evidence regarding the current knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP of the population in general and rural population, in particular, in this part of the country. Therefore, a study was conducted with the aim to assess the communities′ knowledge of malaria transmission, recognition of signs and symptoms, treatment seeking. Materials and Methods: A stratified two-stage design was used to conduct a house-to-house survey using a semi-structured questionnaire in RS Pura block of Jammu District of Jammu and Kashmir State in North India. Results: A total of 300 households were included in the study. However, data on 4 households was found to be incomplete at the time of analysis and, therefore, were excluded. Out of 296 study participants interviewed 65.5% were males, while 34.5% females. All of the study participants (100% had heard of malaria, and the main source of their information was television/newspaper. 92.5% of the study population considered malaria to be a serious health problem, thus reflecting their attitude to the disease. Regarding practices, 71.6% of the study participants preferred going to doctors at government hospitals for malaria treatment, and 56% were willing to seek medical help in <24 h in case of a child has a febrile episode. Conclusions: Results revealed that KAP among respondents were reasonably good and key sociocultural, and related indicators need to be identified as a part of malaria elimination strategy.

  10. Predictors of vaginal practices for sex and hygiene in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: findings of a household survey and qualitative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorgie, Fiona; Smit, Jennifer A; Kunene, Busisiwe; Martin-Hilber, Adriane; Beksinska, Mags; Chersich, Matthew F

    2011-04-01

    Vaginal practices in sub-Saharan Africa may increase HIV transmission and have important implications for development of microbicides and future HIV prevention technologies. It remains unclear which women undertake vaginal practices and what factors predict prevalence, practice type and choice of products. Using cross-sectional data from mixed research methods, we identify factors associated with vaginal practices among women in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Data were gathered through focus group discussions, in-depth and key-informant interviews, followed by a province-wide, multi-stage cluster household survey, using structured questionnaires in face-to-face interviews with 867 women. This paper details six types of vaginal practices, which--despite their individual distinctiveness and diverse motivations--may be clustered into two broad groups: those undertaken for purposes of 'hygiene' (genital washing, douching and application) and those for 'sexual motivations' (application, insertion, ingestion and incisions). Multivariate analysis found significant associations between 'hygiene' practices and media access, religiosity and transactional sex. 'Sexual' practices were associated with partner concurrency, religiosity and use of injectable hormonal contraceptives. Future interventions relating to vaginal practices as well as microbicides need to reflect this characterisation of practices as sexual- and/or hygiene-related.

  11. Role Of Indigenous Knowledge In Enhancing Household Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data were collected using semi-structured questionnaires, personal interviews and group discussions. The finding showed that many people depend on the use of indigenous knowledge practices in sustaining subsistence farming and enhancing household food security. Majority of farmers mulch their crops using local ...

  12. Increasing the flexibility of electricity consumption in private households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørring, Lise; Jensen, Carsten Lynge; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    2018-01-01

    households received incentivized text messages, suggesting that they shift electricity consumption to certain hours of the day. The study shows that when text messages were sent to women, there was a significantly greater response than when they were sent to men. Based on qualitative in-depth interviews, we...... find that an important reason for this is gender difference in household work task responsibility. Our study suggests that incorporating knowledge about gendered practices when designing and targeting policies to change electricity consumption habits and induce flexibility could significantly increase...

  13. Adapting agriculture to climate change in Kenya: household strategies and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Elizabeth; Ringler, Claudia; Okoba, Barrack; Roncoli, Carla; Silvestri, Silvia; Herrero, Mario

    2013-01-15

    Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa are particularly vulnerable to climate change, given dependence on agricultural production and limited adaptive capacity. Based on farm household and Participatory Rural Appraisal data collected from districts in various agroecological zones in Kenya, this paper examines farmers' perceptions of climate change, ongoing adaptation measures, and factors influencing farmers' decisions to adapt. The results show that households face considerable challenges in adapting to climate change. While many households have made small adjustments to their farming practices in response to climate change (in particular, changing planting decisions), few households are able to make more costly investments, for example in agroforestry or irrigation, although there is a desire to invest in such measures. This emphasizes the need for greater investments in rural and agricultural development to support the ability of households to make strategic, long-term decisions that affect their future well-being. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Controlling Household Pests. Home and Garden Bulletin No. 96.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    Reviewed are good housekeeping practices for eliminating and preventing the return of common household pests. Each category of pest is described individually including a description of their habits, the damage they do, and approved methods of control. (SL)

  15. Lighting and social practices - what role does lighting play for low energy house (LEH) households and LED frontrunners?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte Louise

    As lighting in Danish households consume approximately 1.3 TWh every year, reducing electricity consumption from lighting is important. Studies have shown that a mere substitution of inefficient lighting technologies towards more efficient ones may not be possible, as many social and cultural...... dimensions influence how people use and relate to lighting. Assessing how very distinctive contexts of households (that diverge from an exemplary kind of household), such as low energy houses and LED frontrunner households, use and understand lighting, may give some insight into what may trigger or hamper...

  16. Housing Conditions and the Use of Alternative Energy Sources in Households of Senior Citizens in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Zalega

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - The article aims to show the housing situation, satisfaction with housing conditions and place of residence, and the use of renewable energy sources in urban households of Polish seniors. Design/methodology/approach - Direct research in the form of a survey questionnaire was carried out on a sample of 2537 households in 2014-2015 in ten Polish cities of various populations and sizes. In accordance with the research assumptions, the sample included persons over 65 years of age who took independent purchasing decisions in the market. In order to select the sample, the selective quota sampling procedure was used. The survey was conducted among participants of the University of the Third Age at state universities in: Warsaw, Kraków, Łódź, Poznań, Gdańsk, Katowice, Lublin, Białystok, Toruń and Wrocław, as well as among members of parochial clubs in parishes located in the Archdioceses of Warsaw, Kraków, Łódź, Białystok, Gdańsk, Katowice, Lublin, Poznań, Wrocław and the Dioceses of Warsaw-Praga and Toruń. Findings - The survey reveals that more than half of seniors' households are satisfied with both the place of residence and housing conditions. The use of RES in seniors' households looks slightly worse. Only 1.5% of all the surveyed households of persons aged 65+ invest in alternative energy sources to produce electricity and heat. Financial problems are the key barrier to the development of RES-related projects in their households. Research implications/limitations - Given the limited financial capacities, the study of housing conditions and the use of RES among people aged 65+ was confined solely to seniors' households in the largest Polish cities. In those households, a relatively low share of RES often results from inadequate technical conditions for the connection of RES installations. Rural households generate slightly more electricity and heat from RES Originality/value/contribution - This is one of the first

  17. Habit formation and consumption of energy for heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we ask if consumption of energy for space heating by households is habit forming. A model of intertemporal consumption allocation allowing for habit-forming preferences is estimated on a register-based panel data set with high quality information about consumption of natural gas...... for a sample of Danish households. Results indicate that preferences are weakly habit forming...

  18. Modernizing residential heating in Russia: End-use practices, legal developments, and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korppoo, Anna; Korobova, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the significance of modernization policies concerning Russia’s technically obsolete but socially important residential heating sector, focusing on the 2009 energy efficiency framework law and its prospects for implementation. Ownership and control structures are in flux throughout the heating sector chain. Inefficiencies, causing low service quality and rising prices, have already started eroding the market share of district heating, despite its potential benefits. End-use management practices – such as lack of metering, communal billing, and low prices that do not cover production costs – reduce consumer incentives to cut consumption. The diversity of end-users adds to the complexity of focused measures like energy-saving contracts. However, end-use sector reforms such as mandatory meter installation and increasing prices – even if socially acceptable and fully implemented – cannot alone provide the massive investments required. More appropriate is sector-wide reform with the government’s financial participation – especially if consumer efforts can yield better service quality. - Highlights: ► We analyze Russia’s energy efficiency policy on residential heating sector. ► Institutional structures and practices reduce incentives to cut consumption. ► Meter installation and increasing prices cannot deliver investments required. ► Government led sector-wide reform is required, linked to better service quality.

  19. Socio-economic determinants of eating practices of Ukrainians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chagarna, Natalia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Healthy eating practices are among important public health goals worldwide. We aimed to investigate socio-economic determinants of the nutrition habits of Ukrainian families. METHODS: Data from the “UKRAINIAN LONGITUDINAL MONITORING SURVEY 2007” were analysed. Factor analysis produced variables characterising eating practices, which were re-coded in binary variables indicating low/high food consumption. The bivariate and multivariate analysis was conducted to identify associations between socio-economic state and eating modes. RESULTS: Three dimensions of nutrition practices were identified in the factor analysis: “standard diet” variable associated with quantities of most food products consumed, it actually shows how much food in general the household consumes, “fruit-and-vegetable diet” variable was associated with quantities of various fruits and vegetables included in the questionnaire, and “processed-(pre-packed-food diet” variable was created based on its associations with products like sausage. More “processed” food was consumed by members of households which were generally better-off (equipped with dvd-player, computer (laptop, garage, and Russian-speakers. More plant food was consumed by the households with attributes of rural living (equipped with bottled gas, central or individual system of heating, those who possessed a motorcycle or a truck. The owners of a plot adjacent to rural house or land used for gardening were eating more fruits and vegetables. A small group of well-off urban dwellers (like those possessing tumble-dryers, tend to eat more plant food; however, this group is not numerous. CONCLUSION: Plant food eating in Ukraine stays a factor of survival rather than healthy eating for those households which dwell in rural areas and have no means to choose foods they want. Those people who achieve better socio-economic status tend to increase processed food portion of their diets. Only a very

  20. Electrical Energy Harvesting from Cooker’s Wasted Heat with Using Conduction Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amouzard Mahdiraji Wincent Ghafour

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order meet the demand of electricity in current era, the need for new sources of energy even in very minimal amount, could be done with proper research and technology advancement in order to convert as much wasted energy as possible. Collecting and analyses cooker’s wasted heat as a main wasted energy source become the main interest for this research. This application can be installed either in household usage or commercial usage. Based on majority stove in household datasheet it shown that the efficiency of the stove is approximately 50%. With half of the efficiency turn into wasted heat, this application is suitable for thermoelectric generator (TEG to harvest the heat. The objective of this research is to determine whether the thermoelectric generator (TEG would able to power the 3V LED light as a small lighting system in household. Several designs with five TEGs in series circuit are tested to the application to analyses which method generated a better result. Since this research only focus in using a conduction cooling, aluminum heat sink will be utilized either for heat absorption or heat rejection. The maximum temperature differences between hot side and cold side is 209.83 °C with average power approximately 0.1 W.

  1. Household air pollution and the sustainable development goals

    OpenAIRE

    Amegah, Adeladza Kofi; Jaakkola, Jouni JK

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Globally, 41% of households, over 2.8 billion people, rely on solid fuels (coal and biomass) for cooking and heating. In developing countries in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa where these fuels are predominantly used, women who are customarily responsible for cooking, and their young children, are most exposed to the resulting air pollution. Solid fuels are still in widespread use and it appears that intervention efforts are not keeping pace with population growth in developing countrie...

  2. Essays on household time allocation decisions in a collective household model

    OpenAIRE

    Silvennoinen, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    This thesis considers the consequences of traditional division of labour in households in a setting where spouses are allowed to have distinct preferences. This approach leads to different results compared to the traditional unitary approach and is better equipped to take into consideration gender related issues of household decision making. The thesis consists of three theoretical essays where the household production theory is applied in the collective household model. The first essay ...

  3. Household appliances using solar energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, H.

    2000-01-01

    Many solar energy technologies are now sufficiently developed to make it possible to use these to replace some of our conventional energy sources, but still need improvement and reduction in cost. It is, therefore, necessary to focus attention on household uses of solar energy. This paper describes the recent developments and current position in respect of several such devices, which include; solar cooker, with curved concentrator, Panel Cooker, Solar Dryer, solar water heater, Solar Still, Solar Water Pump, Solar Water Disinfection, Solar space Heating and greenhouse solar Reflectors, Development and Extension activities on these should be taken up at various levels. (author)

  4. Solid medical waste: a cross sectional study of household disposal practices and reported harm in Southern Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Udofia, Emilia Asuquo; Gulis, Gabriel; Fobil, Julius

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Solid medical waste (SMW) in households is perceived to pose minimal risks to the public compared to SMW generated from healthcare facilities. While waste from healthcare facilities is subject to recommended safety measures to minimize risks to human health and the environment, similar waste in households is often untreated and co-mingled with household waste which ends up in landfills and open dumps in many African countries. In Ghana, the management of this potentially hazardous...

  5. Living in cold homes after heating improvements: Evidence from Warm-Front, England's Home Energy Efficiency Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critchley, Roger; Gilbertson, Jan; Grimsley, Michael; Green, Geoff

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate explanatory factors for persistent cold temperatures in homes which have received heating improvements. Design: Analysis of data from a national survey of dwellings and households (in England occupied by low-income residents) that had received heating improvements or repairs under the Warm Front Scheme. Methods: Over the winters of 2001-02 and 2002-03, householders recorded living room and main bedroom temperatures in a diary. Entries were examined for 888 households, which had received high level heating interventions. Two hundred and twenty-two households were identified as occupying cold homes, with mean bedroom temperature below 16 deg. C or mean living room temperatures below 18 deg. C. Binary logistic regression was used to model dwelling and household features and then occupants' behaviour and attitudes in the 'cold homes' sub-set compared with the remainder of the high intervention group. Seventy-nine supplementary, structured telephone interviews explored reasons given for lower temperatures. Using graphical and tabular methods, householders preferring cooler homes were distinguished from those who felt constrained in some way. Results: Cold homes predominate in pre-1930 properties where the householder remains dissatisfied with the heating system despite major improvements funded by Warm Front. Residents of cold homes are less likely to have long-standing illness or disability, but more likely to experience anxiety or depression. A small sample of telephone interviews reveals those preferring lower temperatures for health or other reasons, report less anxiety and depression than those with limited control over their home environment. Their 'thermal resistance' to higher temperatures challenges orthodox definitions of comfort and fuel poverty

  6. A situational analysis of child-headed households in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Mogotlane

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aftermath of the HIV and AIDS pandemic has resulted in great suffering in terms of loss of income, poor quality of life, morbidity and mortality, with children being destitute and orphaned at an alarming rapid rate. Families and communities are currently unable to cope with the effects of HIV and AIDS with special emphasis on the care and support of the affected orphans and vulnerable children, who as a result have been compelled to look after themselves giving rise to a new type of family, the child-headed household. The emergence of this type of family requires government’s response in terms of care and support. The purpose of this study was to provide a broad picture of the location, prevalence, composition, functions, needs and challenges of child-headed households in South Africa, and explore available and required services, resources and safety nets for children in child-headed households. An exploratory and descriptive design was used for the purpose. The sample consisted of children heading households and those living in the households that are headed by children; government departments responsible for child welfare, such as, the Departments of Social Development, Health, Education and Agriculture; non-profit organisations and communities where these households are predominant. From the data collected, it was found that the rights of the affected children were compromised. Those heading the households were often not at school and were responsible for domestic chores. The households needed food, clothes, money, shelter, and education. Government in attempting to address these needs required clear policies which will provide a distinction between orphaned and vulnerable children and child-headed households.The study recommended a collaborative approach as it was shown that there was no single model of best practice to appropriately and effectively address the needs of child-headed households.

  7. A situational analysis of child-headed households in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogotlane, S M; Chauke, M E; van Rensburg, G H; Human, S P; Kganakga, C M

    2010-09-01

    The aftermath of the HIV and AIDS pandemic has resulted in great suffering in terms of loss of income, poor quality of life, morbidity and mortality, with children being destitute and orphaned at an alarming rapid rate. Families and communities are currently unable to cope with the effects of HIV and AIDS with special emphasis on the care and support of the affected orphans and vulnerable children, who as a result have been compelled to look after themselves giving rise to a new type of family, the child-headed household. The emergence of this type of family requires government's response in terms of care and support. The purpose of this study was to provide a broad picture of the location, prevalence, composition, functions, needs and challenges of child-headed households in South Africa, and explore available and required services, resources and safety nets for children in child-headed households. An exploratory and descriptive design was used for the purpose. The sample consisted of children heading households and those living in the households that are headed by children; government departments responsible for child welfare, such as, the Departments of Social Development, Health, Education and Agriculture; non-profit organisations and communities where these households are predominant. From the data collected, it was found that the rights of the affected children were compromised. Those heading the households were often not at school and were responsible for domestic chores. The households needed food, clothes, money, shelter, and education. Government in attempting to address these needs required clear policies which will provide a distinction between orphaned and vulnerable children and child-headed households. The study recommended a collaborative approach as it was shown that there was no single model of best practice to appropriately and effectively address the needs of child-headed households.

  8. A situational analysis of child-headed households in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Mogotlane

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aftermath of the HIV and AIDS pandemic has resulted in great suffering in terms of loss of income, poor quality of life, morbidity and mortality, with children being destitute and orphaned at an alarming rapid rate. Families and communities are currently unable to cope with the effects of HIV and AIDS with special emphasis on the care and support of the affected orphans and vulnerable children, who as a result have been compelled to look after themselves giving rise to a new type of family, the child-headed household. The emergence of this type of family requires government’s response in terms of care and support. The purpose of this study was to provide a broad picture of the location, prevalence, composition, functions, needs and challenges of child-headed households in South Africa, and explore available and required services, resources and safety nets for children in child-headed households. An exploratory and descriptive design was used for the purpose. The sample consisted of children heading households and those living in the households that are headed by children; government departments responsible for child welfare, such as, the Departments of Social Development, Health, Education and Agriculture; non-profit organisations and communities where these households are predominant.From the data collected, it was found that the rights of the affected children were compromised. Those heading the households were often not at school and were responsible for domestic chores. The households needed food, clothes, money, shelter, and education. Government in attempting to address these needs required clear policies which will provide a distinction between orphaned and vulnerable children and child-headed households.The study recommended a collaborative approach as it was shown that there was no single model of best practice to appropriately and effectively address the needs of child-headed households.

  9. Examining the Relationship Between Children's ADHD Symptomatology and Inadequate Parenting: The Role of Household Chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Andrea; Reinelt, Tilman; Gawrilow, Caterina; Schwenck, Christina; Freitag, Christine M; Rauch, Wolfgang A

    2017-02-01

    This study examines the interrelations of parenting practices, emotional climate, and household chaos in families with children with and without ADHD. In particular, indirect pathways from children's ADHD symptomatology to inadequate parenting and negative emotional climate via household chaos were investigated. Parenting, emotional climate, and household chaos were assessed using questionnaires and a speech sample of parents of 31 children with and 53 without ADHD, aged 7 to 13 years. Group differences were found for certain parenting dimensions, the parent-child relationship, critical comments, and household chaos. While we found significant indirect effects between children's ADHD and certain parenting dimensions through household chaos, no effects were found for any aspect of emotional climate. Children's ADHD symptoms translate into inadequate parenting through household chaos, which underlines the need for interventions to improve household organization skills in parents of children with ADHD.

  10. Economic Nature of Monetary Funds of Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vladimirovich Glukhov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In a market economy, household is characterized by the situation in which its members become owners of their tangible and intangible assets or are only declared to be them. Many provisions of the macroeconomy could change significantly if the issues of household and family finances were paid as much attention as economic problems of the state and entities. Finance households are an economic basis for the state and for business entities of different ownership forms, because they are managed by people who are part of families representing the interests of certain individuals. The issues of formation and distribution of Russian households’ intra-cash assets, including shadow ones, are now one of the most topical issues, not only in theory but also in practice of economic science. And at the same time these issues remain virtually unexplored. Social risk of intra-family shadow funds consists in the fact that the models of economic behavior acquired by the individual in the household are transferred to an external social field, and implemented according to the occupied power status. Shadow monetary funds created in the household represent part of the money which is derived from the family budget, and they imply the existence of latent side of financial relations among its members. The purpose of this article is studying the mеchanisms of decision-making on the establishment of both collective and individual monetary funds within the family budget, including the shadow funds (so-called “zanachkа” of individuals, not accounted for in the family budget.

  11. [Health services access survey for Colombian households].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrivillaga, Marcela; Aristizabal, Juan Carlos; Pérez, Mauricio; Estrada, Victoria Eugenia

    The aim of this study was to design and validate a health services access survey for households in Colombia to provide a methodological tool that allows the country to accumulate evidence of real-life access conditions experienced by the Colombian population. A validation study with experts and a pilot study were performed. It was conducted in the municipality of Jamundi, located in the department of Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Probabilistic, multistage and stratified cluster sampling was carried out. The final sample was 215 households. The survey was composed of 63 questions divided into five modules: socio-demographic profile of the head of the household or adult informant, household socioeconomic profile, access to preventive services, access to curative and rehabilitative services and household out of pocket expenditure. In descriptive terms, the promotion of preventive services only reached 44%; the use of these services was always highest among children younger than one year old and up to the age of ten. The perceived need for emergency medical care and hospitalisation was between 82% and 85%, but 36% perceived the quality of care to be low or very low. Delays were experienced in medical visits with GPs and specialists. The designed survey is valid, relevant and representative of access to health services in Colombia. Empirically, the pilot showed institutional weaknesses in a municipality of the country, indicating that health coverage does not in practice mean real and effective access to health services. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. National Alcohol Survey of households in Trinidad and Tobago (NASHTT: Alcohol use in households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Maharaj

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the patterns of alcohol use among households in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T and to estimate the association between alcohol use and negative psychological, social, or physical events experienced by the household. Methods A convenience sample of 1837 households across T&T. We identified bivariate correlates of alcohol use, and heavy episodic drinking using chi-square and t-test analyses and used multivariable logistic regression to estimate adjusted associations between household alcohol use and experiences within the past 12 months adjusted for sociodemographic covariates. Results One thousand five hundred two households had complete data for all variables (82% response rate. Nearly two thirds (64% of households included alcohol users; 57% of household that consumed alcohol also reported heavy episodic drinking. Households that reported alcohol consumption were significantly more likely to report illnesses within the households, relationship problems, and behavioral and antisocial problems with children. Among households where a member was employed, those who consumed alcohol were nearly twice as likely (OR = 1.98; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.03, 3.82 to have a household member call in sick to work and 2.9 times as likely (OR = 2.9; CI 1.19, 7.04 to have a household member suffer work related problems compared with households who reported not consuming alcohol. Conclusions Approximately two thirds of households in T&T reported using alcohol. These households were more likely to report psychological, physical, and social problems. These findings would support efforts to enforce current policies, laws, and regulations as well as new strategies to reduce the impact of harmful alcohol consumption on households in T&T.

  13. Design of an SolidWorks-based household substrate cultivation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Guo; Yueying, Wang

    2018-03-01

    Rapid urbanization has caused increasingly severe environmental problems and smaller tillable land area. Even worse, negative reports on vegetable production are repeatedly found. In this case, home gardening has become an inexorable trend. To meet demand for vegetable cultivation in the home environment, an SolidWorks-based household substrate cultivation device has been designed. This device is composed of the cultivation tank, upright post, base, irrigation system, supplemental lighting system and control system. The household substrate cultivation device manufactured based on the design results has shown in practice that this device features an esthetic appearance, low cost, automatic irrigation and lighting supplementation, good vegetable growing conditions, full of ornamental value and practicability and thus is suitable for vegetable growing in the home environment. Hence it has a higher promotion value in the home gardening field.

  14. Measurement of inequality using household energy consumption data in rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shimei; Zheng, Xinye; Wei, Chu

    2017-10-01

    Measuring inequality can be challenging due to the limitations of using household income or expenditure data. Because actual energy consumption can be measured more easily and accurately and is relatively more stable, it may be a better measure of inequality. Here we use data on energy consumption for specific devices from a large nation-wide household survey (n = 3,404 rural households from 12 provinces) to assess inequality in rural China. We find that the overall inequality of energy consumption and expenditure varies greatly in terms of energy type, end-use demand, regions and climatic zones. Biomass, space heating and cooking, intraregional differences, and climatic zones characterized as cold or hot summer/cold winter contribute the most to total inequality for each indicator, respectively. The results suggest that the expansion of infrastructure does not accompany alleviation of energy inequality, and that energy affordability should be improved through income growth and targeted safety-net programmes instead of energy subsidies.

  15. A Qualitative Investigation of Parents' Perspectives About Feeding Practices With Siblings Among Racially/Ethnically and Socioeconomically Diverse Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Trofholz, Amanda; Schulte, Anna; Conger, Katherine; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about parent feeding practices with siblings. Because this is a new area of research, qualitative research is needed to understand parents' perspectives about how they make decisions about feeding siblings and whether they adapt their feeding practices dependent on sibling characteristics such as weight status. The main objective of the current study was to describe parent feeding practices with siblings. Qualitative cross-sectional study with 88 parents with at least 2 siblings. Parents were interviewed in their homes in Minneapolis/St Paul Minnesota. Parents were from racially/ethnically diverse (64% African American) and low-income households (77% earned Parents' perceptions of feeding practices with siblings. Qualitative interviews were coded using a hybrid deductive and inductive content analysis approach. Parents indicated that they used child food preferences, in-the-moment decisions, and planned meals when deciding how to feed siblings. Additionally, the majority of parents indicated that they managed picky eating by making 1 meal or giving some flexibility/leeway to siblings about having other food options. Furthermore, parents endorsed using different feeding practices (eg, food restriction, portion control, pressure-to-eat, opportunities for healthful eating) with siblings dependent on child weight status or age/developmental stage. Findings from the current study may inform future research regarding how to measure parent feeding practices with siblings in the home environment and the development of interventions tailored for families with multiple children in the home. Future quantitative research is needed to confirm these qualitative findings. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Use of the Health Belief Model for the Assessment of Public Knowledge and Household Preventive Practices in Karachi, Pakistan, a Dengue-Endemic City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taranum Ruba Siddiqui

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Prevention is most effective in reducing dengue infection risk, especially in endemic countries like Pakistan. Evaluation of public awareness and health beliefs regarding dengue fever (DF is important for devising disease control strategies. This study assessed dengue knowledge, health beliefs, and preventive practices against DF in different socioeconomic groups of Karachi, Pakistan.In this community-based cross-sectional study, 6 randomly selected towns were visited, 2 persons (man and woman per household were interviewed using a structured questionnaire, and household practices were observed. Information regarding DF was shared through a printed pamphlet. Multivariate logistic regression analysis of variables associated with dengue knowledge and practices was conducted.We interviewed 608 Karachi residents (mean age: 33.2 ± 13.35 years; 7.7%, 71.9%, and 20.4% had a high, middle, and low socioeconomic status, respectively. The mean knowledge score was 6.4 ± 2.10 out of 14. The mean preventive practices score was 9 ± 1.8 out of 17. Predictors of dengue knowledge were perceived threat (odds ratio [OR] = 1.802; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.19-2.71; p = 0.005, self-efficacy (OR = 2.910; 95% CI = 1.77-4.76; p = 0.000, and television as an information source (OR = 3.202; 95% CI = 1.97-5.17; p = 0.000. Predictors of dengue preventive practices were perceived threat (OR = 1.502; 95% CI = 1.02-2.19; p = 0.036, self-efficacy (OR = 1.982; 95% CI = 1.34-2.91; p = 0.000, and dengue knowledge (OR = 1.581; 95% CI = 1.05-2.37; p = 0.028.Public knowledge about DF is low in Karachi. Knowledge, threat perception, and self-efficacy are significant predictors of adequate dengue preventive practices. Prevention and control strategies should focus on raising awareness about dengue contraction risk and severity through television. Health messages should be designed to increase individual self-efficacy.

  17. Nitrogen Dioxide pollution and hazardous household environment: what impacts more congenital malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, D; Novack, L; Yitshak-Sade, M; Sarov, B; Kloog, I; Hershkovitz, R; Grotto, I; Karakis, I

    2015-11-01

    Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) is a product of fuel combustion originating mainly from industry and transportation. Studies suggest an association between NO2 and congenital malformations (CM). We investigated an independent effect of NO2 on CM by adjusting to individual factors and household environment in 1024 Bedouin-Arab pregnant women in southern Israel. This population is characterised by high rates of CMs, frequent consanguineous marriages, paternal smoking, temporary housing and usage of open fire for heat cooking. Information on household risk factors was collected during an interview. Ambient measurements of 24-h average NO2 and meteorological conditions were obtained from 13 local monitors. Median value of daily NO2 measured in the area was 6.78ppb. CM was diagnosed in 8.0% (82) of offspring. Maternal NO2 exposure during the 1st trimester >8.6ppb was significantly associated with minor CM (RR=2.68, p=0.029). Major CM were independently associated with maternal juvenile diabetes (RR=9.97, p-value=0.002) and heating by open fire (RR=2.00, p-value=0.049), but not NO2 exposure. We found that NO2 emissions had an independent impact only on minor malformations, whereas major malformations depended mostly on the household environment. Antepartum deaths were associated by maternal morbidity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The potential of decentralized power-to-heat as a flexibility option for the german electricity system: A microeconomic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, Lars G.; Klamka, Jonas; Wolf, André

    2015-01-01

    One fundamental challenge of the German energy transition for the electricity market is the growing imbalance between inflexible generation and generally inelastic load. Against this background, we investigate the future potential of decentralized Power-to-Heat (P2H) as an additional demand-side flexibility option for the German electricity system. Precisely, we analyze the case of hybrid systems, where conventional gas and oil condensing boiler systems are equipped with an electric heating rod. In contrast to previous approaches, we set our focus on the economic incentives at household level: only if the switch to a P2H-hybrid system can reduce individual heating expenses significantly, a considerable number of these systems will be installed. For this purpose, we implemented an integrated approach combining three distinct simulation modules. First, a stochastic simulation of the electricity spot market prices in 2020 was conducted. Second, average heat load profiles were generated based on a standard bottom-up analysis. Both results were then fed into an optimization model calculating the cost-minimizing paths of heat generation at household level during the year 2020. The simulated annual savings prove modest as long as household electricity prices are not heavily reduced through political influence. - Highlights: • We investigate the future potential of decentralized Power-to-Heat. • Focus lies on hybrid Power-to-Heat systems with condensing gas or oil boiler. • We analyze the economic incentives at household level. • Simulation of heat load profiles and spot prices in 2020. • Savings prove modest as long as household electricity prices are not heavily reduced.

  19. Household carbon dioxide emissions from peasants and herdsmen in northwestern arid-alpine regions, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Jiansheng; Zeng, Jingjing; Li, Yan; Wang, Qin; Maraseni, Tek; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Clarke-Sather, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed household CO 2 emissions (related to the consumption of necessary and luxury goods and services) of peasants and herdsmen households in arid-alpine regions in Gansu, Qinghai and Ningxia provinces, China. We also explored whether agriculture types, family income and family size have played any role in household CO 2 emissions. In order to address these issues, we: (i) developed assessment indicators for household emissions; (ii) conducted semi-structured questionnaire household surveys; and (iii) employed input-output analysis (IOA). The results showed that, the average household CO 2 emission per capita is 1.43 tons (t) CO 2 ; the proportion of subsistence emissions (related to the consumption of necessary goods and services) accounts for 93.24%, whereas luxury emissions (generated due to consumption of specific goods and services that are consumed only when household income improves) only account for 6.76%t. Moreover, household CO 2 emissions increase with family income and family size, but per capita emissions are inversely related to family size. The highest average household emissions were found in the alpine agricultural and pastoral region (6.18 t CO 2 ), followed by the irrigated agricultural region (6.07 t CO 2 ) and the rain-fed agricultural region (5.34 t CO 2 ). In consideration of insignificant amount of household emissions from these poor and vulnerable groups of the society, this study suggests to follow the principle of fairness while making energy conservation, emission reduction and adaptation policies. - Highlights: ► Per capita emissions decrease as the household size increases. ► The subsistence emissions accounts for 93.24% of the total emissions. ► If heating related emissions are excluded, household emissions are negligible. ► The reduction of emissions below current levels is almost impossible. ► Poor and vulnerable groups should be given special consideration

  20. Farm Households Food Production and Households' Food Security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food is an important basic human need for survival, growth, and good health. Most rural households in Tanzania, Kahama district inclusive produce the food they consume. Despite this reality, a number of households in the district suffer from food insecurity. However, there are inequalities across the districtfs ecological ...

  1. HOUSEHOLD PARTICIPATION IN RECYCLING PROGRAMS: A CASE STUDY FROM MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azilah M Akil

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The increase in per capita income and rapid urbanization, have contributed significantly to changes in consumption behaviour leading to increased waste generation.  Waste disposed to landfill sites is fast becoming unfeasible thus requiring a more effective management of waste material involving waste reduction, reuse and recycling. The success of recycling program, however, is largely dependent on household participation activities which are essentially behaviour driven. The recycling performance of Malaysian households is still low as it stands at 5.5% compared to Singapore and Vietnam which are 56% and 22% respectively. This study examines recycling behaviour among households and the influence of socioeconomic, demographic and behavioural characteristics on households’ participation in recycling program in Malaysia.  A sample of 300 randomly selected household were surveyed.  The findings revealed that most of the households (70% claim that they are practicing recycling particularly types of paper and old clothes. The factors of participation in recycling show equal results both for environmental concerns and economic benefits. Those who did not participate in recycling, listed household issues or behaviour, namely lack of time and materials to recycle, inconvenient, lack of space, lack of facilities and information as well as laziness, as barriers. The paper finally highlights the factors which can encourage household to be involved in recycling and give recommendations to the authorities in terms of facilities and infrastructures to facilitate the program.

  2. The role of income in energy consumption behaviour: Evidence from French households data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayla, Jean-Michel; Maizi, Nadia; Marchand, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to characterise quantitatively the impact of income on household energy consumption in the residential and transport sectors. Starting from the data collected in a paper survey, we analyse the extent of the constraint experienced by households in terms of equipment purchasing behaviour and daily energy consumption. This analysis shows that the least well-off households are particularly constrained since the share of their budget represented by these energy services is very large (15–25%), and this corresponds to a level of energy service well below that of the better-off households. The case of space-heating shows a factor of 2 in terms of level of comfort achieved between the extreme 10-percentiles. These households also face a strong capital constraint for equipment purchases. This leads either to a large increase in the required rate of return or to a reduction in the proportion of households that are prepared to replace their equipment earlier. The least well-off households are thus doubly constrained, since it is more difficult for them to invest. In our opinion, it is crucial to take into account this observation in the context of political measures aimed at reducing households’CO 2 emissions. - Highlights: ► Realisation of a survey to quantify the impact of income on energy consumption. ► There is a factor of 2 in the level of comfort achieved by extreme income households. ► Analysis of discount rates demanded by households according to income and end-use. ► Influence of income on intensity of use of energy services and energy management.

  3. Household air pollution and its effects on health [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komalkirti Apte

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Household air pollution is a leading cause of disability-adjusted life years in Southeast Asia and the third leading cause of disability-adjusted life years globally. There are at least sixty sources of household air pollution, and these vary from country to country. Indoor tobacco smoking, construction material used in building houses, fuel used for cooking, heating and lighting, use of incense and various forms of mosquito repellents, use of pesticides and chemicals used for cleaning at home, and use of artificial fragrances are some of the various sources that contribute to household air pollution. Household air pollution affects all stages of life with multi-systemic health effects, and its effects are evident right from pre-conception to old age. In utero exposure to household air pollutants has been shown to have health effects which resonate over the entire lifetime. Exposures to indoor air pollutants in early childhood also tend to have repercussions throughout life. The respiratory system bears the maximum brunt, but effects on the cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and nervous system are largely underplayed. Household air pollutants have also been implicated in the development of various types of cancers. Identifying household air pollutants and their health implications helps us prepare for various health-related issues. However, the real challenge is adopting changes to reduce the health effects of household air pollution and designing innovative interventions to minimize the risk of further exposure. This review is an attempt to understand the various sources of household air pollution, the effects on health, and strategies to deal with this emergent risk factor of global mortality and morbidity.

  4. Household Density and Infant Care in an East African Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munroe, Ruth H.; Munroe, Robert L.

    1971-01-01

    A cross-cultural relationship between household density and infant indulgence was investigated among Logoli infants in East Africa. Findings were taken as supportive of the view that socialization practices are influenced by ecological variables. (Author/JB)

  5. Modelling the Italian household sector at the municipal scale: Micro-CHP, renewables and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comodi, Gabriele; Cioccolanti, Luca; Renzi, Massimiliano

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the potential of energy efficiency, renewables, and micro-cogeneration to reduce household consumption in a medium Italian town and analyses the scope for municipal local policies. The study also investigates the effects of tourist flows on town's energy consumption by modelling energy scenarios for permanent and summer homes. Two long-term energy scenarios (to 2030) were modelled using the MarkAL-TIMES generator model: BAU (business as usual), which is the reference scenario, and EHS (exemplary household sector), which involves targets of penetration for renewables and micro-cogeneration. The analysis demonstrated the critical role of end-use energy efficiency in curbing residential consumption. Cogeneration and renewables (PV (photovoltaic) and solar thermal panels) were proven to be valuable solutions to reduce the energetic and environmental burden of the household sector (−20% in 2030). Because most of household energy demand is ascribable to space-heating or hot water production, this study finds that micro-CHP technologies with lower power-to-heat ratios (mainly, Stirling engines and microturbines) show a higher diffusion, as do solar thermal devices. The spread of micro-cogeneration implies a global reduction of primary energy but involves the internalisation of the primary energy, and consequently CO 2 emissions, previously consumed in a centralised power plant within the municipality boundaries. - Highlights: • Energy consumption in permanent homes can be reduced by 20% in 2030. • High efficiency appliances have different effect according to their market penetration. • Use of electrical heat pumps shift consumption from natural gas to electricity. • Micro-CHP entails a global reduction of energy consumption but greater local emissions. • The main CHP technologies entering the residential market are Stirling and μ-turbines

  6. Looking beyond installation: Why households struggle to make the most of solar hot water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, Nicholas; Osman, Peter; Head, Lesley; Voyer, Michelle; Harada, Theresa; Waitt, Gordon; Gibson, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines household responses to sustainability issues and adoption of energy saving technologies. Our example of solar hot water systems highlights the complexity and variability of responses to low-carbon technologies. While SHW systems have the potential to provide the majority of household hot water and to lower carbon emissions, little research has been done to investigate how SHW systems are integrated into everyday life. We draw on cultural understandings of the household to identify passive and active users of SHW systems and utilize a model that illustrates how technology use is dependent on inter-relations between cultural norms, systems of provision, the material elements of homes, and practice. A key finding is that households can be ill-prepared to make the most of their SHW systems and lack post-installation support to do so. Thus, informed and efficient use of SHW systems is hit and miss. Current policy is largely aimed at subsidizing purchase and installation on the assumption that this is sufficient for emission reduction goals. Our analysis provides evidence to the contrary. Areas we highlight for policy and practice improvement are independent pre-purchase advice, installation quality, and practical guidance on system operation and interaction with patterns of hot water use. - Highlights: • We interview Australian households about their experience with SHW systems. • We identify active and passive users of SHW. Active users tend to be dissatisfied with their system. • Passive users tend to be satisfied but have relatively inefficient systems. • Householders struggle to integrate hot water use and system operation, compromising efficiency. • Policy should encompass pre and post-installation support as much as incentives to install.

  7. Sustainable Urban Development – Compact Cities or Consumer Practices?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    Sustainability in urban planning has a long history and it has been a widespread solution to build high and compact in order to minimise the need for transportation, land use and heating. Recent research, however, points towards the need for a supplementary approach, which includes the consumer...... behaviour of the household. This approach necessarily has to work from below and include the citizens, as it is their daily practices that have to be challenged. This article reviews selected literature and studies on whether compact cities leads to more sustainable cities, and it use lifestyle...... strategies of achieving sustainable urban development....

  8. Lebanese household carbon footprint: Measurements, analysis and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Rawad; Tall, Ibrahim; Nachabe, Nour; Chaaban, Farid

    2016-07-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to estimate the carbon footprint of a typical Lebanese household, and compare the results with international standards and trends. The estimation of this footprint will reflect the impact of the daily Lebanese household activities on the environment in terms of carbon dioxide emissions. The method used in estimating the carbon emissions is based on gathering the primary footprints from various household activities. Another proposed method that provides more accurate results is the estimation of emissions based on secondary footprint, which reflects the total emissions not only from the regular activities but also from a lifecycle perspective. Practical and feasible solutions were proposed to help reduce the amount of C02 emissions per household. This would lead to a better air quality, money savings, greenhouse gases emissions reduction and would ensure the sustainability and prosperity of future generations. A detailed survey was conducted in which the questions were focused mainly on energy, food, and transportation issues. The fourteen questions were addressed to one hundred families in different Lebanese regions coming from different social and economic backgrounds. This diversity would constitute a reflective sample of the actual Lebanese society, allowing us to extrapolate the gathered results on a national level.

  9. Factors Effecting the Total Volatile Organic Compound (TVOC Concentrations in Slovak Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľudmila Mečiarová

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Thirty five Slovak households were selected for an investigation of indoor environmental quality. Measuring of indoor air physical and chemical factors and a questionnaire survey was performed during May 2017. The range of permissible operative temperature was not met in 11% of objects. Relative humidity met the legislative requirements in all monitored homes. Concentrations of total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs were significantly higher in the apartments than in the family houses. The average TVOC levels in the apartments and family houses were 519.7 µg/m3 and 330.2 µg/m3, respectively. Statistical analysis confirmed the effect of indoor air temperature, relative humidity and particulate matter (PM0.5 and PM1 on the levels of TVOCs. Higher TVOC levels were observed also in homes where it is not a common practice to open windows during cleaning activities. Other factors that had a statistically significant effect on concentrations of volatile organic compounds were heating type, attached garage, location of the apartment within residential building (the floor, as well as number of occupants. Higher TVOC concentrations were observed in indoor than outdoor environment, while further analysis showed the significant impact of indoor emission sources on the level of these compounds in buildings. The questionnaire study showed a discrepancy between objective measurement and subjective assessment in the household environment, and pointed to insufficient public awareness about volatile organic compounds (VOCs.

  10. Households' direct CO-2 emissions according to location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavailhes, Jean; Hilal, Mohamed; Moreau, Sylvain; Bottin, Anne; Reperant, Patricia

    2012-08-01

    Limiting direct emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) by households is an important factor for achieving reductions in greenhouse gas emissions in compliance with the Kyoto Protocol and European policy. The two main sources of emissions are, in descending order, housing and commuting between home and the workplace or place of study. Average housing-related emissions are 3, 150 kg of CO 2 per year, reaching 4, 200 kg of CO 2 per year in mountain and semi-continental climates. Individual houses in urban centres, often old and with fuel-oil heating, emit more CO 2 than peri-urban dwellings, which are more recent and often have 100% electric heating. Conversely, emissions from commuting are higher in peri-urban areas, where the needs for transport are greater but less transport services are on offer. (authors)

  11. Standard Practice for Installation and Service of Solar Domestic Water Heating Systems for One- and Two-Family Dwellings

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1985-01-01

    1.1 This practice provides descriptions of solar domestic water heating systems and sets forth installation and service practices in new and existing one- and two-family dwellings to help ensure adequate operation and safety., 1.2 This practice applies regardless of the fraction of heating requirement supplied by solar energy, the type of conventional fuel used in conjunction with solar, or the heat transfer fluid (or fluids) used as the energy transport medium. However, where more stringent requirements are recommended by the manufacturer, these manufacturer requirements shall prevail. 1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific precautionary statements, see Sections 6 and 7.

  12. Household activity-travel behavior : implementation of within-household interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anggraini, R.

    2009-01-01

    Although the importance of households as a decision making unit has been recognized in seminal work in activity-based analysis of transport demand, most comprehensivemodels have relied on individual activity-travel patterns. The transformation of thesemodels to household level models and the

  13. Research on a Household Dual Heat Source Heat Pump Water Heater with Preheater Based on ASPEN PLUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a dual heat source heat pump bathroom unit with preheater which is feasible for a single family. The system effectively integrates the air source heat pump (ASHP and wastewater source heat pump (WSHP technologies, and incorporates a preheater to recover shower wastewater heat and thus improve the total coefficient of performance (COP of the system, and it has no electric auxiliary heating device, which is favorable to improve the security of the system operation. The process simulation software ASPEN PLUS, widely used in the design and optimization of thermodynamic systems, was used to simulate various cases of system use and to analyze the impact of the preheater on the system. The average COP value of a system with preheater is 6.588 and without preheater it is 4.677. Based on the optimization and analysis, under the standard conditions of air at 25 °C, relative humidity of 70%, wastewater at 35 °C, wastewater flow rate of 0.07 kg/s, tap water at 15 °C, and condenser outlet water temperature at 50 °C, the theoretical COP of the system can reach 9.784 at an evaporating temperature of 14.96 °C, condensing temperature of 48.74 °C, and preheated water temperature of 27.19 °C.

  14. Variations in energy consumption and survival status between rural and urban households: A case study of the Western Loess Plateau, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Shuwen; Zhang Xin; Zhao Chunsheng; Niu Yunzhu

    2012-01-01

    As energy consumption is closely related to all aspects of human life, it becomes the standard by which to measure people's quality of life and the national development level. Based on the “energy ladder” hypothesis, we conducted questionnaire surveys in the Western Loess Plateau of China, and accessed a considerable amount of information about the energy usage of rural and urban households. The results show that the per capita effective heat is 323.3, 282.8, 250.0 and 123.6 kgce in the provincial capital, medium-sized cities, county towns and rural areas, respectively. The energy ladder feature is obvious. Using 719 sample data, the multiple regression analysis was conducted between per capita effective heat and two independent variables including per capita income and the attributes of energy used, the parameter estimation of the cross-quadratic model produced more significant effects. The three-dimensional graph clearly shows the differences in living standards and survival status between urban and rural households. High-income residents in urban areas consume more high-quality energy, they enjoy an affluent lifestyle. While low-income households in rural areas obtain less effective heat, and use poor quality fuels, they are still at the level of basic survival. - Highlights: ► The per capita effective heat is 323.3.4, 282.8, 250.0 and 123.6 kgce in four types of region. ► The energy attributes score of a rural resident is 60% of that of an urban resident. ► The energy ladder feature is obvious. ► The effective heat is the result of two independent variables interacting together. ► The differences in living standards and survival status between urban and rural households are great.

  15. 20 CFR 416.1133 - What is a pro rata share of household operating expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a pro rata share of household operating expenses. 416.1133 Section 416.1133 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... total monthly expenditures for food, rent, mortgage, property taxes, heating fuel, gas, electricity...

  16. Health and Household Air Pollution from Solid Fuel Use: The Needfor Improved Exposure Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Nearly half the world’s population relies on solid fuel combustion to meet basic household energy needs (e.g., cooking and heating). Resulting air pollution exposures are estimated to cause 3% of the global burden of disease. Large variability and a lack of resource...

  17. Households and food security: lessons from food secure households in East Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvestri, Silvia; Douxchamps, Sabine; Kristjanson, Patti; Förch, Wiebke; Radeny, Maren; Mutie, Lanetta; Quiros, F.C.; Herrero, M.; Ndungu, Anthony; Claessens, L.F.G.

    2015-01-01

    Background
    What are the key factors that contribute to household-level food security? What lessons can we learn from food secure households? What agricultural options and management strategies are likely to benefit female-headed households in particular? This paper addresses these questions

  18. A Qualitative Investigation of Parents’ Perspectives about Feeding Practices with Siblings among Racially/Ethnically and Socioeconomically Diverse Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; Trofholz, Amanda; Schulte, Anna; Conger, Katherine; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Objective Little is known about parent feeding practices with siblings. Because this is a new area of research, qualitative research is needed to understand parents’ perspectives about how they make decisions about feeding siblings and whether they adapt their feeding practices dependent on sibling characteristics such as weight status. The main objective of the current study was to describe parent feeding practices with siblings. Design Qualitative cross-sectional study with 88 parents with at least two siblings. Setting Parents were interviewed in their homes in Minneapolis/St. Paul Minnesota. Participants Parents were from racially/ethnically diverse (64% African American) and low-income households (77% earned siblings. Analysis Qualitative interviews were coded using a hybrid deductive and inductive content analysis approach. Results Parents indicated that they used child food preferences, in-the-moment decisions, and planned meals when deciding how to feed siblings. Additionally, the majority of parents indicated that they managed picky eating by making one meal or giving some flexibility/leeway to siblings about having other food options. Furthermore, parents endorsed using different feeding practices (e.g., food restriction, portion control, pressure-to-eat, opportunities for healthful eating) with siblings dependent on child weight status or age/developmental stage. Conclusions and Implications Findings from the current study may inform future research regarding how to measure parent feeding practices with siblings in the home environment and the development of interventions tailored for families with multiple children in the home. Future quantitative research is needed to confirm these qualitative findings. PMID:27373864

  19. Determinants of households’ investment in energy efficiency and renewables: evidence from the OECD survey on household environmental behaviour and attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ameli, Nadia; Brandt, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides novel evidence on the main factors behind consumer choices regarding investments in energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies using the OECD Survey on Household Environmental Behaviour and Attitudes. The empirical analysis is based on the estimation of binary logit regression models. Empirical results suggest that households’ propensity to invest in clean energy technologies depends mainly on home ownership, income, social context and household energy conservation practices. Indeed, home owners and high-income households are more likely to invest than renters and low-income households. In addition, environmental attitudes and beliefs, as manifest in energy conservation practices or membership in an environmental non-governmental organisation, also play a relevant role in technology adoption. (letter)

  20. Linear programming control of a group of heat pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, J.; van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2015-01-01

    For a new district in the Dutch city Meppel, a hybrid energy concept is developed based on bio-gas co-generation. The generated electricity is used to power domestic heat pumps which supply thermal energy for domestic hot water and space heating demand of households. In this paper, we investigate

  1. Asbestos-related radiographic findings among household contacts of workers exposed to Libby vermiculite: impact of workers' personal hygiene practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Timothy J; Franzblau, Alfred; Dunning, Kari K; Borton, Eric K; Rohs, Amy M; Lockey, James E

    2013-11-01

    To explore the potential impact of worker hygiene by determining the prevalence of radiographic changes consistent with asbestos exposure among household contacts of workers exposed to Libby vermiculite that contained amphibole fibers. Workers and household contacts had chest radiographs and completed questionnaires regarding hygiene and potential exposure pathways. Participants included 191 household contacts of 118 workers. One household contact (0.5%) had localized pleural thickening, and three (1.6%) had irregular opacities at profusion category 1/0 or greater. Worker radiographs demonstrated pleural changes in 45% and irregular opacities at profusion category 1/0 or greater in 8%. Libby vermiculite-exposed workers demonstrated an elevated prevalence of pleural and interstitial chest radiographic changes. There was, however, no increased prevalence of similar changes among household contacts, likely because of personal hygiene measures taken by the majority of workers.

  2. Analysis of Urban Households' Preference for Informal Access to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-10-02

    Oct 2, 2016 ... Keywords: Urban Households, Informal Access, Residential Land, Insecure Tenure Factors. Introduction. Informal ..... its complex system. In Minna, this central control has led to certain ill-practices by land officials who accords some form of preferential treatment to some applicants. This act on one hand is ...

  3. Adoption of Small-Scale Irrigation Farming as a Climate-Smart Agriculture Practice and Its Influence on Household Income in the Chinyanja Triangle, Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Mango; Clifton Makate; Lulseged Tamene; Powell Mponela; Gift Ndengu

    2018-01-01

    This article is concerned with the adoption of small-scale irrigation farming as a climate-smart agriculture practice and its influence on household income in the Chinyanja Triangle. Chinyanja Triangle is a region that is increasingly experiencing mid-season dry spells and an increase in occurrence of drought, which is attributed largely to climate variability and change. This poses high agricultural production risks, which aggravate poverty and food insecurity. For this region, adoption of s...

  4. The pro-economical behaviour of households and their knowledge about changes in the energy market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ropuszyńska-Surma Edyta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of energy and heat consumers is an important and interesting topic. For a long time the energy market was the classical example of a monopoly. In general, households are weak partners for energy companies, but energy markets are changing all over the world. This trend is noticeable in Poland too, but it is not as strong as in Germany or other countries where renewable energy sources (RES are very popular and widely used. So, here we investigate why the development of RES in Poland is so weak. The main aim of the paper is to highlight the key factors, especially ecological and economic ones, determining households’ decisions about installing RES in Poland. An additional aim is to present the level of energy awareness of households. We conducted a survey of Lower Silesia’s households in November and December 2015. Economic factors are the best motivators for households to install RES. Among the economic aspects, the respondents indicated potential savings and potential profits.

  5. Domestic heat pumps in the UK. User behaviour, satisfaction and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caird, S.; Roy, R.; Potter, S. [Design Innovation Group, Dept. Design, Development, Environment and Materials, Faculty of Mathematics, Computing and Technology, The Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Consumer adoption of microgeneration technologies is part of the UK strategy to reduce carbon emissions from buildings. Domestic heat pumps are viewed as a potentially important carbon saving technology, given the ongoing decarbonisation of the electricity supply system. To address the lack of independent evaluation of heat pump performance, the Energy Saving Trust undertook the UK's first large-scale heat pump field trial, which monitored 83 systems in real installations. As part of the trial, the Open University studied the consumers' experience of using a domestic heat pump. An in-depth user survey investigated the characteristics, behaviour, and satisfactions of private householders and social housing residents using ground source and air source heat pumps for space and/or water heating, and examined the influence of user-related factors on measured heat pump system efficiency. The surveys found that most users were satisfied with the reliability, heating, hot water, warmth and comfort provided by their system. Analysis of user characteristics showed that higher system efficiencies were associated with greater user understanding of their heat pump system, and more continuous heat pump operation, although larger samples are needed for robust statistical confirmation. The analysis also found that the more efficient systems in the sample were more frequently located in the private dwellings than at the social housing sites and this difference was significant. This is explained by the interaction between differences in the systems, dwellings and users at the private and social housing sites. The implications for heat pump research, practice and policy are discussed.

  6. Respiratory risks from household air pollution in low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Stephen B; Bruce, Nigel G; Grigg, Jonathan; Hibberd, Patricia L; Kurmi, Om P; Lam, Kin-bong Hubert; Mortimer, Kevin; Asante, Kwaku Poku; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Balmes, John; Bar-Zeev, Naor; Bates, Michael N; Breysse, Patrick N; Buist, Sonia; Chen, Zhengming; Havens, Deborah; Jack, Darby; Jindal, Surinder; Kan, Haidong; Mehta, Sumi; Moschovis, Peter; Naeher, Luke; Patel, Archana; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Pope, Daniel; Rylance, Jamie; Semple, Sean; Martin, William J

    2014-10-01

    A third of the world's population uses solid fuel derived from plant material (biomass) or coal for cooking, heating, or lighting. These fuels are smoky, often used in an open fire or simple stove with incomplete combustion, and result in a large amount of household air pollution when smoke is poorly vented. Air pollution is the biggest environmental cause of death worldwide, with household air pollution accounting for about 3·5-4 million deaths every year. Women and children living in severe poverty have the greatest exposures to household air pollution. In this Commission, we review evidence for the association between household air pollution and respiratory infections, respiratory tract cancers, and chronic lung diseases. Respiratory infections (comprising both upper and lower respiratory tract infections with viruses, bacteria, and mycobacteria) have all been associated with exposure to household air pollution. Respiratory tract cancers, including both nasopharyngeal cancer and lung cancer, are strongly associated with pollution from coal burning and further data are needed about other solid fuels. Chronic lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis in women, are associated with solid fuel use for cooking, and the damaging effects of exposure to household air pollution in early life on lung development are yet to be fully described. We also review appropriate ways to measure exposure to household air pollution, as well as study design issues and potential effective interventions to prevent these disease burdens. Measurement of household air pollution needs individual, rather than fixed in place, monitoring because exposure varies by age, gender, location, and household role. Women and children are particularly susceptible to the toxic effects of pollution and are exposed to the highest concentrations. Interventions should target these high-risk groups and be of sufficient quality to make the air clean. To make clean energy

  7. Community Trial on Heat Related-Illness Prevention Behaviors and Knowledge for the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Takahashi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore whether broadcasting heat health warnings (HHWs, to every household and whether the additional home delivery of bottled water labeled with messages will be effective in improving the behaviors and knowledge of elderly people to prevent heat-related illness. A community trial on heat-related-illness-prevention behaviors and knowledge for people aged between 65 and 84 years was conducted in Nagasaki, Japan. Five hundred eight subjects were selected randomly from three groups: heat health warning (HHW, HHW and water delivery (HHW+W, and control groups. Baseline and follow-up questionnaires were conducted in June and September 2012, respectively. Of the 1524 selected subjects, the 1072 that completed both questionnaires were analyzed. The HHW+W group showed improvements in nighttime AC use (p = 0.047, water intake (p = 0.003, cooling body (p = 0.002 and reduced activities in heat (p = 0.047 compared with the control, while the HHW group improved hat or parasol use (p = 0.008. An additional effect of household water delivery was observed in water intake (p = 0.067 and cooling body (p = 0.095 behaviors. HHW and household bottled water delivery improved heat-related-illness-prevention behaviors. The results indicate that home water delivery in addition to a HHW may be needed to raise awareness of the elderly.

  8. Earliest Deadline Control of a Group of Heat Pumps with a Single Energy Source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, J.; van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we develop and investigate the optimal control of a group of 104 heat pumps and a central Combined Heat and Power unit (CHP). The heat pumps supply space heating and domestic hot water to households. Each house has a buffer for domestic hot water and a floor heating system for space

  9. Tests of heat techniques in households. Analysis of the results of the field tests; Praktijkprestaties van warmtetechnieken bij huishoudens. Analyse resultaten veldtesten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jong, A.; Friedel, P.; Overman, P. [Energy Matters, Driebergen (Netherlands)

    2012-11-15

    The development within conventional techniques and new techniques for the recovery and generation of heat in the house construction industry led to a need for knowledge of efficiencies of those techniques in practice. Therefore a project has been set up to gain insight into the efficiencies. In the field tests, five heat techniques are investigated: high-efficiency boilers, solar water heaters, balanced ventilation systems with heat recovery (also called heat recovery systems) and heat pump water heaters [Dutch] De ontwikkeling binnen conventionele technieken en nieuwe technieken voor de terugwinning en opwekking van warmte in de woningbouw leidden ertoe dat er bij verschillende partijen in de keten een kennisbehoefte is ontstaan naar de rendementen van deze technieken in de praktijk. Daartoe heeft AgentschapNL een project opgezet om meer inzicht te verkrijgen in deze rendementen. In de veldtesten worden vijf warmtechnieken bekeken: HR-ketels, HRe-ketels, zonneboilers, gebalanceerde ventilatiesystemen met warmteterugwinning (verder WTW-systemen genoemd) en warmtepompboilers. Deze worden op minutenbasis bemeten.

  10. How efficient are heat pumps? Investigations in practical operation; Wie effizient sind Waermepumpen? Messungen im Praxisbetrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miara, Marek [Fraunhofer ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Heat pump systems win ever larger market shares within the range of the heating and hot water preparation in buildings. But, how great is their efficiency in the practical operation? What are the factors which affect the efficiency? In order to evaluate the ecological, energetic and economic criteria better, Fraunhofer ISE (Freiburg, Federal Republic of Germany) has investigated nearly two hundred heat pump systems scientifically. The contribution under consideration summarizes the most current results and the most important realizations.

  11. Estimating household food waste in Denmark:case study of single family households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, C.; Scheutz, Charlotte

    and determine potential improvements. In Denmark, although many sorting campaigns involving household waste has been conducted, little attention has been placed on food waste. Comparison of recent studies made for examples in Austria, and the UK suggests that quantity and material composition of food waste vary...... waste and non-avoidable vegetable food waste. Furthermore, avoidable vegetable and animal food waste were the primary source of household food waste. Statistical analysis found a positive linear relationship between household size and the amount of the household food waste suggesting the amount...

  12. Realization of Intelligent Household Appliance Wireless Monitoring Network Based on LEACH Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilong ZHOU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The intelligent household appliance wireless monitoring network can real-time monitor the apparent power and power factor of various household appliances in different indoor regions, and can realize the real-time monitoring on the household appliance working status and performance. The household appliance wireless monitoring network based on LEACH protocol is designed in the paper. Firstly, the basic idea of LEACH routing algorithm is proposed. Aiming at the node-distribution feature of intelligent home, the selection of cluster head in the routing algorithm and the data transmission method at the stable communication phase is modified. Moreover, the hardware circuit of power acquisition and power factor measurement is designed. The realization of wireless monitoring network based on CC2530 is described, each module and the whole system were conducted the on-line debugging. Finally, the system is proved to meet the practical requirement through the networking test.

  13. Reduction of Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions in Domestic Water Heating by Means of Direct Expansion Solar Assisted Heat Pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baleta, J.; Curko, T.; Cutic, T.; Pasanec, J.; Soldo, V.

    2012-01-01

    Domestic water heating in households sector is usually performed by either fossil fuel fired or electric boilers. Both the combustion process of the former and large electricity consumption of the latter strongly influence overall greenhouse gas emissions. Moreover, very high specific heat of water requires large quantity of energy for water heating making a significant impact on the overall energy consumption in the households sector whose total consumption of 80,81 PJ equals to 19,6% of total primary energy supply in Croatia in 2010. Considering the mentioned impact on energy consumption and CO 2 emissions as well as goals set by European Commission (so called 20-20-20), new technologies based on renewable energy sources are more than welcome in the field of domestic water heating. Direct expansion solar assisted heat pump is presented in this paper. Its working principle is based on single-stage vapour-compression cycle. Representing a gradual step to commercial application with a water tank of 300 l, the developed mobile unit is designed as a test rig enabling all necessary measurements to evaluate potential of solar irradiation for domestic water heating on various locations. Besides the unit description, trial testing results are presented and analyzed as well as a basic comparison of CO 2 emissions between solar assisted heat pump and conventionally used water heating systems. Taking into account both the decentralized water heating and favourable climatic conditions (especially along the Croatian Adriatic coast) as well as rising fossil fuel prices, it is expected that solar assisted heat pumps will be commercialized in the near future.(author)

  14. User perceptions of shared sanitation among rural households in Indonesia and Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kali B; Karver, Jonathan; Kullman, Craig; Graham, Jay P

    2014-01-01

    The practice of sharing sanitation facilities does not meet the current World Health Organization/UNICEF definition for what is considered improved sanitation. Recommendations have been made to categorize shared sanitation as improved sanitation if security, user access, and other conditions can be assured, yet limited data exist on user preferences with respect to shared facilities. This study analyzed user perceptions of shared sanitation facilities in rural households in East Java, Indonesia, and Bangladesh. Cross-sectional studies of 2,087 households in East Java and 3,000 households in Bangladesh were conducted using questionnaires and observational methods. Relative risks were calculated to analyze associations between sanitation access and user perceptions of satisfaction, cleanliness, and safety. In East Java, 82.4% of households with private improved sanitation facilities reported feeling satisfied with their place of defecation compared to 68.3% of households with shared improved facilities [RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.09, 1.31]. In Bangladesh, 87.7% of households with private improved facilities reported feeling satisfied compared to 74.5% of households with shared improved facilities [RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.10, 1.20]. In East Java, 79.5% of households who reported a clean latrine also reported feeling satisfied with their place of defecation; only 38.9% of households who reported a dirty latrine also reported feeling satisfied [RR 1.74, 95% CI 1.45, 2.08]. Simple distinctions between improved and unimproved sanitation facilities tend to misrepresent the variability observed among households sharing sanitation facilities. Our results suggest that private improved sanitation is consistently preferred over any other sanitation option. An increased number of users appeared to negatively affect toilet cleanliness, and lower levels of cleanliness were associated with lower levels of satisfaction. However, when sanitation facilities were clean and shared by a limited number

  15. Efficient Intra-Household Allocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin

    demands must satisfy a symmetry and rank condition on the Slutsky matrix. We also present some further results on the effects on demands of variables that do nor modify preferences but that do affect how decisions are made. We apply our theory to a series of surveys of household expendityres from Canada......The neo-classical theory of demand applies to individuals yet in empirical work it is usually taken as valid for households with many members. This paper explores what the theory of individuals implies for households with many members. This paper explores what the theory of individuals implies...... for households which have more than one member. We make minimal assumptions about how the individual members of the household resolve conflicts. All we assume is that however decisions are made, outcomes are efficient. We refer to this as the collective setting. We show that in the collective setting household...

  16. Household Wealth in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Jin, Yongai

    2015-01-01

    With new nationwide longitudinal survey data now available from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we study the level, distribution, and composition of household wealth in contemporary China. We find that the wealth Gini coefficient of China was 0.73 in 2012. The richest 1 percent owned more than one-third of the total national household wealth, while the poorest 25 percent owned less than 2 percent. Housing assets, which accounted for over 70 percent, were the largest component of household wealth. Finally, the urban-rural divide and regional disparities played important roles in household wealth distribution, and institutional factors significantly affected household wealth holdings, wealth growth rate, and wealth mobility. PMID:26435882

  17. Relation between household food insecurity and breastfeeding in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Sarah K; Dachner, Naomi; Frank, Lesley; Tarasuk, Valerie

    2018-03-19

    Qualitative studies have suggested that food insecurity adversely affects infant feeding practices. We aimed to determine how household food insecurity relates to breastfeeding initiation, duration of exclusive breastfeeding and vitamin D supplementation of breastfed infants in Canada. We studied 10 450 women who had completed the Maternal Experiences - Breastfeeding Module and the Household Food Security Survey Module of the Canadian Community Health Survey (2005-2014) and who had given birth in the year of or year before their interview. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models and logistic regression to examine the relation between food insecurity and infant feeding practices, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, maternal mood disorders and diabetes mellitus. Overall, 17% of the women reported household food insecurity, of whom 8.6% had moderate food insecurity and 2.9% had severe food insecurity (weighted percentages). After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, women with food insecurity were no less likely than others to initiate breastfeeding or provide vitamin D supplementation to their infants. Half of the women with food insecurity ceased exclusive breastfeeding by 2 months, whereas most of those with food security persisted with breastfeeding for 4 months or more. Relative to women with food security, those with marginal, moderate and severe food insecurity had significantly lower odds of exclusive breastfeeding to 4 months, but only women with moderate food insecurity had lower odds of exclusive breastfeeding to 6 months, independent of sociodemographic characteristics (odds ratio 0.60, 95% confidence interval 0.39-0.92). Adjustment for maternal mood disorder or diabetes slightly attenuated these relationships. Mothers caring for infants in food-insecure households attempted to follow infant feeding recommendations, but were less able than women with food security to sustain exclusive breastfeeding. Our findings highlight the

  18. Factors Affecting the Adoption and Usage of ICTs within Polish Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Ziemba

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies (ICTs encompassing computer and network hardware and software, and so on, as well as various services and applications associated with them, are assuming a growing presence within the modern homestead and have an indelible impact on the professional and everyday life of people. This research aims to explore factors influencing the successful adoption and usage of ICTs within Polish households. Based on prior literature and practical experiences, a framework of success factors is provided. The required data was collected from a survey questionnaire administered to a sample of Polish households to examine this framework and identifies which factors are of greatest importance for the adoption and usage of ICTs within households in Poland. Based on 751 questionnaires the paper indicates that the adoption of ICTs within households is mainly influenced by the economic status of households and cost of ICTs, perceived economic benefits from the usage of ICTs, technological availability and security of ICTs, ICT competences and awareness, as well as satisfaction with the adoption of ICTs. Furthermore, gender, education, and place of residence do not reflect significant differences on the factors. Yet, there are significant differences among the factors that could be attributed to age. Both, policy makers and ICT providers can benefit from the findings with regard to bridging the gap of ICT adoption and use in the Polish households.

  19. Reducing diarrhea through the use of household-based ceramic water filters: a randomized, controlled trial in rural Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Thomas F; Brown, Joseph; Collin, Simon; Suntura, Oscar; Cairncross, Sandy

    2004-06-01

    Ceramic water filters have been identified as one of the most promising and accessible technologies for treating water at the household level. In a six-month trial, water filters were distributed randomly to half of the 50 participating households in a rural community in Bolivia; the remaining households continued to use customary water handling practices and served as controls. In four rounds of sampling following distribution of the filters, 100% of the 96 water samples from the filter households were free of thermotolerant coliforms compared with 15.5% of the control household samples. Diarrheal disease risk for individuals in intervention households was 70% lower than for controls (95% confidence interval [CI] = 53-80%; P ceramic water filters enable low-income households to treat and maintain the microbiologic quality of their drinking water.

  20. Smart grids, information flows and emerging domestic energy practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, Joeri; Spaargaren, Gert; Vliet, Bas J.M. van; Horst, Hilje M. van der

    2014-01-01

    Smart energy grids and smart meters are commonly expected to promote more sustainable ways of living. This paper presents a conceptual framework for analysing the different ways in which smart grid developments shape – and are shaped by – the everyday lives of residents. Drawing upon theories of social practices and the concept of informational governance, the framework discerns three categories of ‘information flows’: flows between household-members, flows between households and energy service providers, and flows between local and distant households. Based on interviews with Dutch stakeholders and observations at workshops we examine, for all three information flows, the changes in domestic energy practices and the social relations they help to create. The analysis reveals that new information flows may not produce more sustainable practices in linear and predictable ways. Instead, changes are contextual and emergent. Second, new possibilities for information sharing between households open up a terrain for new practices. Third, information flows affect social relationships in ways as illustrated by the debates on consumer privacy in the Netherlands. An exclusive focus on privacy, however, deviates attention from opportunities for information disclosure by energy providers, and from the significance of transparency issues in redefining relationships both within and between households. - Highlights: • Smart grids generate three key new information flows that affect social relations. • Practice theory can reveal the ways in which households handle/govern information. • Householders show ambivalence about the workings of the different information flows. • Policies should account for the ‘bright’ as well as the ‘dark’ sides of information

  1. Family and household demography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, F.J.C.; Zeng, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Households are groups of people that co-reside and share some resources. Families are households of related individuals. Household and family demography is the study of these primary social groups or social units, and in particular of group membership and the relationships between members of the

  2. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: Quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebersorger, S.; Beigl, P.

    2011-01-01

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation).

  3. Keeping energy visible? Exploring how householders interact with feedback from smart energy monitors in the longer term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargreaves, Tom; Nye, Michael; Burgess, Jacquelin

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on how, over a 12-month period, UK householders interacted with feedback on their domestic electricity consumption in a field trial of real time displays or smart energy monitors. Drawing on the findings of 11 follow-up qualitative interviews with householders involved in a ‘Visible Energy Trial’, the paper suggests that: (i) over time, smart energy monitors gradually become ‘backgrounded’ within normal household routines and practices; (ii) the monitors do increase householders’ knowledge of and confidence about the amount of electricity they consume; (iii) but, beyond a certain level and for a wide variety of reasons, the monitors do not necessarily encourage or motivate householders to reduce their levels of consumption; and (iv) once equipped with new knowledge and expertise about their levels of electricity consumption, household practices may become harder to change as householders realise the limits to their energy saving potential and become frustrated by the absence of wider policy and market support. The paper concludes by reflecting on the policy and research implications of these findings in relation to future transition pathways to a low-carbon economy. - Highlights: ► We interviewed 11 householders who had used a smart energy monitor for 12 months. ► The monitors did help interviewees learn about their energy use. ► Over time, the monitors became ‘backgrounded’ within normal household routines. ► After early behaviour changes, the monitors did not motivate further energy saving. ► The monitors may ‘harden’ energy use patterns in the absence of wider support.

  4. Evaluating energy, health and carbon co-benefits from improved domestic space heating: A randomised community trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preval, Nick; Chapman, Ralph; Pierse, Nevil; Howden-Chapman, Philippa

    2010-01-01

    In order to value the costs and benefits associated with improved space heating we analysed the Housing, Heating and Health Study, a randomised community trial involving installation of energy efficient and healthy heaters (heat pump, wood pellet burner or flued gas heater) in homes with basic insulation and poor heating, occupied by households which included a child with asthma. We compared the initial purchase and installation cost of heaters with changes in the number of visits to health professionals, time off work/school, caregiving, and pharmaceutical use for household members and changes in total household energy use and carbon emissions following the intervention. We used two scenarios to analyse the results over the predicted 12-year life-span of the heaters. The targeted approach (Scenario A - assuming high rates of household asthma throughout the period of analysis) produced enough health-related benefits to offset the cost of the heaters, and when total energy use and carbon emission savings were included in the analysis the ratio of benefits to costs was 1.09:1. The untargeted approach (Scenario B - assuming typical New Zealand asthma rates throughout the period of analysis) had a ratio of total benefits to costs of 0.31:1.

  5. Evaluating energy, health and carbon co-benefits from improved domestic space heating. A randomised community trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preval, Nick; Pierse, Nevil; Howden-Chapman, Philippa [He Kainga Oranga/Housing and Health Research Programme, University of Otago, Wellington, PO Box 7343, Wellington South (New Zealand); Chapman, Ralph [School of Geography, Graduate Programme in Environmental Studies, Environment and Earth Sciences, Victoria University, PO Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand)

    2010-08-15

    In order to value the costs and benefits associated with improved space heating we analysed the Housing, Heating and Health Study, a randomised community trial involving installation of energy efficient and healthy heaters (heat pump, wood pellet burner or flued gas heater) in homes with basic insulation and poor heating, occupied by households which included a child with asthma. We compared the initial purchase and installation cost of heaters with changes in the number of visits to health professionals, time off work/school, caregiving, and pharmaceutical use for household members and changes in total household energy use and carbon emissions following the intervention. We used two scenarios to analyse the results over the predicted 12-year life-span of the heaters. The targeted approach (Scenario A - assuming high rates of household asthma throughout the period of analysis) produced enough health-related benefits to offset the cost of the heaters, and when total energy use and carbon emission savings were included in the analysis the ratio of benefits to costs was 1.09:1. The untargeted approach (Scenario B - assuming typical New Zealand asthma rates throughout the period of analysis) had a ratio of total benefits to costs of 0.31:1. (author)

  6. Evaluating energy, health and carbon co-benefits from improved domestic space heating: A randomised community trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preval, Nick [He Kainga Oranga/Housing and Health Research Programme, University of Otago, Wellington, PO Box 7343, Wellington South (New Zealand); Chapman, Ralph, E-mail: Ralph.chapman@vuw.ac.n [School of Geography, Graduate Programme in Environmental Studies, Environment and Earth Sciences, Victoria University, PO Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Pierse, Nevil; Howden-Chapman, Philippa [He Kainga Oranga/Housing and Health Research Programme, University of Otago, Wellington, PO Box 7343, Wellington South (New Zealand)

    2010-08-15

    In order to value the costs and benefits associated with improved space heating we analysed the Housing, Heating and Health Study, a randomised community trial involving installation of energy efficient and healthy heaters (heat pump, wood pellet burner or flued gas heater) in homes with basic insulation and poor heating, occupied by households which included a child with asthma. We compared the initial purchase and installation cost of heaters with changes in the number of visits to health professionals, time off work/school, caregiving, and pharmaceutical use for household members and changes in total household energy use and carbon emissions following the intervention. We used two scenarios to analyse the results over the predicted 12-year life-span of the heaters. The targeted approach (Scenario A - assuming high rates of household asthma throughout the period of analysis) produced enough health-related benefits to offset the cost of the heaters, and when total energy use and carbon emission savings were included in the analysis the ratio of benefits to costs was 1.09:1. The untargeted approach (Scenario B - assuming typical New Zealand asthma rates throughout the period of analysis) had a ratio of total benefits to costs of 0.31:1.

  7. Market Potential for Residential Biomass Heating Equipment: Stochastic and Econometric Assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Adee Athiyaman

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides estimates of market potential for biomass-residential-heating equipment in the US: that is, the greatest amount of biomass-residential-heating equipment that can be sold by the industry. The author's analysis is limited to biomass equipment used most to heat the housing unit. Assuming that households equipped with 10+ year old primary heating devices will replace rather than repair the devices he predicts that approximately 1.4 million units of residential home heating equ...

  8. Practical and efficient magnetic heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G. V.

    1978-01-01

    Method for pumping heat magnetically at room temperature is more economical than existing refrigeration systems. Method uses natural magneto-thermal effect of gadolinium metal to establish temperature gradient across length of tube. Regenerative cyclic process in which gadolinium sample is magnetized and gives off heat at one end of tube, and then is demagnetized at other end to absorb heat has established temperature gradients of 144 degrees F in experiments near room temperature. Other materials with large magnetothermal effects can be used below room temperature. Possible commercial applications include freeze-drying and food processing, cold storage, and heating and cooling of buildings, plants, and ships.

  9. Measuring Individual Skills in Household Waste Recycling: Implications for Citizens' Education and Communication in Six Urban Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passafaro, Paola; Bacciu, Anna; Caggianelli, Ilaria; Castaldi, Viviana; Fucci, Eleonora; Ritondale, Deborah; Trabalzini, Eleonora

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the analysis of six urban contexts in which a practical tool measuring individual skills concerning household waste recycling was tested. The tool is a structured questionnaire including a simulation task that assesses respondents' abilities to sort household waste adequately in a given context/municipality. Results indicate…

  10. Dynamics of technology shifts in the household sector-implications for clean development mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, B. Sudhakara; Balachandra, P.

    2006-01-01

    The present paper attempts to analyse the dynamics of energy end-use technology shifts in the household sector in India. The technology shifts can be categorized as naturally occurring shifts (with increasing household incomes and availability of energy carriers) and policy-induced shifts (by creating a favourable environment). Initially, the households energy usage patterns, types of energy carriers and the technologies in use are analysed using the data from the National Sample Survey (1999-2000). The energy consumption is disaggregated according to end-use activity and by income groups for rural as well as urban households. It is observed that large variations in energy use exist across different sections of households-urban/rural, low/high-income groups, etc. Further, the paper provides a methodological framework for the diffusion of energy-efficient technologies, and the implications of such diffusions for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). It analyses the reasons for the gap between possible and practical implementation of energy-efficient measures, study the reasons for households not using the cost-effective technologies available to them, the benefits of innovation of energy efficiency, and the required policies and specific proposals for government intervention to achieve the potential for the CDM

  11. Geothermal energy developments in the district heating of Szeged

    OpenAIRE

    Osvald, Máté; Szanyi, János; Medgyes, Tamás; Kóbor, Balázs; Csanádi, Attila

    2017-01-01

    The District Heating Company of Szeged supplies heat and domestic hot water to 27,000 households and 500 public buildings in Szeged. In 2015, the company decided to introduce geothermal sources into 4 of its 23 heating circuits and started the preparation activities of the development. Preliminary investigations revealed that injection into the sandstone reservoir and the hydraulic connection with already existing wells pose the greatest hydrogeological risks, while placement and operation of...

  12. Meeting residential space heating demand with wind-generated electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Larry

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, many electricity suppliers are faced with the challenge of trying to integrate intermittent renewables, notably wind, into their energy mix to meet the needs of those services that require a continuous supply of electricity. Solutions to intermittency include the use of rapid-response backup generation and chemical or mechanical storage of electricity. Meanwhile, in many jurisdictions with lengthy heating seasons, finding secure and preferably environmentally benign supplies of energy for space heating is also becoming a significant challenge because of volatile energy markets. Most, if not all, electricity suppliers treat these twin challenges as separate issues: supply (integrating intermittent renewables) and demand (electric space heating). However, if space heating demand can be met from an intermittent supply of electricity, then both of these issues can be addressed simultaneously. One such approach is to use off-the-shelf electric thermal storage systems. This paper examines the potential of this approach by applying the output from a 5.15 MW wind farm to the residential heating demands of detached households in the Canadian province of Prince Edward Island. The paper shows that for the heating season considered, up to 500 households could have over 95 percent of their space heating demand met from the wind farm in question. The benefits as well as the limitations of the approach are discussed in detail. (author)

  13. Household energy use in urban Venezuela: Implications from surveys in Maracaibo, Valencia, Merida, and Barcelona-Puerto La Cruz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, M.J.; Sathaye, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies the most important results of a comparative analysis of household commercial energy use in Venezuelan urban cities. The use of modern fuels is widespread among all cities. Cooking consumes the largest share of urban household energy use. The survey documents no use of biomass and a negligible use of kerosene for cooking. LPG, natural gas, and kerosene are the main fuels available. LPG is the fuel choice of low-income households in all cities except Maracaibo, where 40% of all households use natural gas. Electricity consumption in Venezuela`s urban households is remarkably high compared with the levels used in households in comparable Latin American countries and in households of industrialized nations which confront harsher climatic conditions and, therefore, use electricity for water and space heating. The penetration of appliances in Venezuela`s urban households is very high. The appliances available on the market are inefficient, and there are inefficient patterns of energy use among the population. Climate conditions and the urban built form all play important roles in determining the high level of energy consumption in Venezuelan urban households. It is important to acknowledge the opportunities for introducing energy efficiency and conservation in Venezuela`s residential sector, particularly given current economic and financial constraints, which may hamper the future provision of energy services.

  14. Housing and mobility demands of individual households and their life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saner, Dominik; Heeren, Niko; Jäggi, Boris; Waraich, Rashid A; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2013-06-04

    Household consumption, apart from governmental consumption, is the main driver of worldwide economy. Attached to each household purchase are economic activities along the preceding supply chain, with the associated resource use and emissions. A method to capture and assess all these resource uses and emissions is life cycle assessment. We developed a model for the life cycle assessment of housing and land-based mobility (excluding air travel) consumption of individual households a small village in Switzerland. Statistical census and dwelling register data are the foundations of the model. In a case study performed on a midsized community, we found a median value of greenhouse gas emissions of 3.12 t CO2 equiv and a mean value of 4.30 t CO2 equiv per capita and year for housing and mobility. Twenty-one percent of the households in the investigated region were responsible for 50% of the total greenhouse gas emissions, meaning that if their emissions could be halved the total emissions of the community would be reduced by 25%. Furthermore, a cluster analysis revealed that driving factors for large environmental footprints are demands of large living area heated by fossil energy carriers, as well as large demands of motorized private transportation.

  15. CO2 Emissions from Direct Energy Use of Urban Households in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sohail; Baiocchi, Giovanni; Creutzig, Felix

    2015-10-06

    India hosts the world's second largest population and offers the world's largest potential for urbanization. India's urbanization trajectory will have crucial implications on its future GHG emission levels. Using household microdata from India's 60 largest cities, this study maps GHG emissions patterns and its determinants. It also ranks the cities with respect to their household actual and "counter-factual" GHG emissions from direct energy use. We find that household GHG emissions from direct energy use correlate strongly with income and household size; population density, basic urban services (municipal water, electricity, and modern cooking-fuels access) and cultural, religious, and social factors explain more detailed emission patterns. We find that the "greenest" cities (on the basis of household GHG emissions) are Bareilly and Allahabad, while the "dirtiest" cities are Chennai and Delhi; however, when we control for socioeconomic variables, the ranking changes drastically. In the control case, we find that smaller lower-income cities emit more than expected, and larger high-income cities emit less than expected in terms of counter-factual emissions. Emissions from India's cities are similar in magnitude to China's cities but typically much lower than those of comparable U.S. cities. Our results indicate that reducing urban heat-island effects and the associated cooling degree days by greening, switching to modern nonsolid cooking fuels, and anticipatory transport infrastructure investments are key policies for the low-carbon and inclusive development of Indian cities.

  16. Energy saving in Swedish households. The (relative) importance of environmental attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinsson, Johan; Lundqvist, Lennart J.; Sundstroem, Aksel

    2011-01-01

    The objectives for energy saving in the housing sector set by recent Swedish energy and climate policies are quite demanding. This article uses nation-wide Swedish survey data from 2004 to 2007 to explore the potential for achieving those targets. Earlier findings that socio-economic characteristics such as age, housing type and income are strongly linked to higher propensities to save on heating and hot water usage are confirmed by ordered logistic regression models. However, general environmental attitudes are also found to play a crucial role. When assessing the relative importance of socio-economic factors and environmental attitudes, the effect on energy saving is generally greater for the former than the latter. In addition, important interaction effects are identified. In relative terms, the effect of environmental attitudes is clearly stronger among households in apartment blocks than among those in detached housing, and stronger among households with higher income than among those with lower income. We end by discussing the implications for the selection and targeting of policy measures to tap the energy savings potential in the population. - Highlights: → We use Swedish survey data to analyse the determinants of household energy saving. → Housing type plays a crucial role for individuals' propensity to save energy. → Environmental attitudes are clearly more important in high-income households. → Environmental attitudes are clearly more important for people in apartment blocks.

  17. Heat exposure on farmers in northeast Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimpong, Kwasi; Van Etten E J, Eddie; Oosthuzien, Jacques; Fannam Nunfam, Victor

    2017-03-01

    Environmental health hazards faced by farmers, such as exposure to extreme heat stress, are a growing concern due to global climate change, particularly in tropical developing countries. In such environments, farmers are considered to be a population at risk of environmental heat exposure. The situation is exacerbated due to their farming methods that involve the use of primitive equipment and hard manual labour conducted in full sunshine under hot and humid conditions. However, there is inadequate information about the extent of heat exposure to such farmers, both at the household and farm levels. This paper presents results from a study assessing environmental heat exposure on rural smallholder farmers in Bawku East, Northern Ghana. From January to December 2013, Lascar USB temperature and humidity sensors and a calibrated Questemp heat stress monitor were deployed to farms and homes of rural farmers at Pusiga in Bawku East to capture farmers' exposure to heat stress in both their living and working environments as they executed regular farming routines. The Lascar sensors have the capability to frequently, accurately and securely measure temperature and humidity over long periods. The Questemp heat stress monitor was placed in the same vicinity and showed strong correlations to Lascar sensors in terms of derived values of wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT). The WBGT in the working environment of farmers peaked at 33.0 to 38.1 °C during the middle of the day in the rainy season from March to October and dropped to 14.0-23.7 °C in the early morning during this season. A maximum hourly WBGT of 28.9-37.5 °C (March-October) was recorded in the living environment of farmers, demonstrating little relief from heat exposure during the day. With these levels of heat stress, exposed farmers conducting physically demanding outdoor work risk suffering serious health consequences. The sustainability of manual farming practices is also under threat by such high levels of

  18. Agent-based modeling and simulation of clean heating system adoption in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopha, Bertha Maya

    2011-03-15

    A sound climate policy encouraging clean energy investment is important to mitigate global warming. Previous research has demonstrated that consumer choice indeed plays an important role in adoption of sustainable technologies. This thesis strives to gain a better understanding of consumers' decision-making on heating systems and to explore the potential application of agent-based modeling (ABM) in exploring mechanism underlying adoption in which heating system adoption by Norwegian households is taken up as a case study. An interdisciplinary approach, applying various established theories including those of psychology, is applied to create a model for consumer behavior and implement this behavior in an Agent-Based Model (ABM) to simulate heating technology diffusion. A mail-survey, carried out in autumn 2008, is a means to collect information for parameterizing the agent-based model, for gaining empirical facts, and for validating the developed model at micro-level. Survey sample consisted of 1500 Norwegian households drawn from population register and 1500 wood pellet users in Norway. The response rates were 10.3% and 34.6% for population sample and wood pellet sample respectively. This study is divided into two parts; empirical analysis and agent-based simulation. The empirical analysis aims at fully understanding the important aspects of adoption decision and their implications, in order to assist simulation. The analysis particularly contributes to the identification of differences/similarities between adopters and non adopters of wood pellet heating with respects to some key points of adoption derived from different theories, psychological factors underlying the adoption-decision of wood pellet heating, and the rationales underlying Norwegian households' decisions regarding their future heating system. The simulation study aims at exploring the mechanism of heterogeneous household decision-making giving rise to the diffusion of heating systems, and

  19. Household air pollution (HAP), microenvironment and child health: Strategies for mitigating HAP exposure in urban Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ipsita; Pedit, Joseph; Handa, Sudhanshu; Jagger, Pamela

    2018-04-01

    Exposure to household air pollution (HAP) from cooking and heating with solid fuels is a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Children under five are particularly at risk for acute lower respiratory infection. We use baseline data from a randomized controlled trial evaluating a household energy intervention in Gisenyi, Rwanda to investigate the role of the microenvironment as a determinant of children’s HAP-related health symptoms. Our sample includes 529 households, with 694 children under five. We examine the association between likelihood of HAP-related health symptom prevalence and characteristics of the microenvironment including: dwelling and cooking area structure; distance to nearest road; and tree cover. We find that children residing in groups of enclosed dwellings, in households that cook indoors, and in households proximate to tree cover, are significantly more likely to experience symptoms of respiratory infection, illness with cough and difficulty breathing. On the other hand, children in households with cemented floors and ventilation holes in the cooking area, are significantly less likely to experience the same symptoms. Our findings suggest that in addition to promoting increased access to clean cooking technologies, there are important infrastructure and microenvironment-related interventions that mitigate HAP exposure.

  20. Electricity use and load management in electricity heated one-family houses from customer and utility perspective; Effekten av effekten - Elanvaendning och laststyrning i elvaermda smaahus ur kund- och foeretagsperspektiv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sernhed, Kerstin

    2004-11-01

    Until recently, the increase in electricity demand and peak power demand has been met by expansion of the electricity production. Today, due to the deregulation of the electricity market, the production capacity is decreasing. Therefore, there is a national interest in finding solutions to peak problems also on the demand side. In the studies described here (Study 1 and 2) ten households in electrically heated houses were examined. In 1999 the utility equipped their customers with a remote metering system (CustCom) that has an in-built load control component. In Study 1, the load pattern of ten households was examined by using energy diaries combined with frequent meter readings (every five minutes) of the load demand for heating, hot water service and domestic electricity use. Household members kept energy diaries over a four-day period in January 2004, noting time, activities and the use of household appliances that run on electricity. The analysis showed that the use of heat-producing household appliances, e.g. sauna, washing machine and dryer, appliances used for cooking, dishwasher and extra electric heaters, contribute to the household's highest peaks. Turning on the sauna and at the same time using the shower equates to a peak load of 7-9 kW. This, in addition to the use of electricity for heating and lighting along alongside electricity use for refrigerators and freezers, results in some households reaching their main fuse level (roughly 13,8 kW for a main fuse of 20 A). This means that the domestic use of electricity makes up a considerable part of the highest peak loads in a household, but the highest peaks occur together with the use of electricity for heating and hot water. In the second study, Study 2, the households participated in a load control experiment, in which the utility was able to turn on and switch off the heating and hot water systems remotely, using the CustCom system. Heating and water heaters were switched off for periods of 1

  1. Spot-checks to measure general hygiene practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonego, Ina L; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    A variety of hygiene behaviors are fundamental to the prevention of diarrhea. We used spot-checks in a survey of 761 households in Burundi to examine whether something we could call general hygiene practice is responsible for more specific hygiene behaviors, ranging from handwashing to sweeping the floor. Using structural equation modeling, we showed that clusters of hygiene behavior, such as primary caregivers' cleanliness and household cleanliness, explained the spot-check findings well. Within our model, general hygiene practice as overall concept explained the more specific clusters of hygiene behavior well. Furthermore, the higher general hygiene practice, the more likely children were to be categorized healthy (r = 0.46). General hygiene practice was correlated with commitment to hygiene (r = 0.52), indicating a strong association to psychosocial determinants. The results show that different hygiene behaviors co-occur regularly. Using spot-checks, the general hygiene practice of a household can be rated quickly and easily.

  2. Households' portfolio choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hochgürtel, S.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis presents four topics on households' portfolio choices. Empirically, households do not hold well-diversified wealth portfolios. In particular, they refrain from putting their savings into risky assets. We explore several ways that might help explaining this observation. Using Dutch

  3. Central model predictive control of a group of domestic heat pumps, case study for a small district

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter; Fink, J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Helfert, Markus; Krempels, Karl-Heinz; Donnellan, Brian; Klein, Cornel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate optimal control of a group of heat pumps. Each heat pump provides space heating and domestic hot water to a single household. Besides a heat pump, each house has a buffer for domestic hot water and a floor heating system for space heating. The paper describes models and

  4. Correlates of Intra-Household ITN Use in Liberia: A Multilevel Analysis of Household Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, Stella; Ricotta, Emily; Awantang, Grace; Lewicky, Nan; Koenker, Hannah; Toso, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Liberia. At the same time, insecticide-treated net (ITN) ownership and use remain low. Access is a key determinant of ITN use but it is not the only one; prior studies have identified factors that affect the use of ITNs in households with at least one ITN. These factors operate at the individual, household, and community levels. However, studies have generally not assessed the psychosocial or ideational determinants of ITN use. Using 2014 household survey data, this manuscript examines the socio-demographic, ideational, household, and community factors associated with household member use of ITNs in Liberia. Multilevel modeling was used to assess fixed effects at the individual, household, and community levels, and random effects at the household and cluster levels. The data showed significant residual clustering at the household level, indicating that there were unmeasured factors operating at this level that are associated with ITN use. The association of age with ITN use was moderated by sex such that men, older children, and teenagers were less likely to sleep under an ITN compared to women and children under five years old. Female caregivers' perceived severity of malaria, perceived self-efficacy to detect a complicated case of malaria, and exposure to the "Take Cover" communication campaign were positively associated with ITN use by members of her household. The association with household size was negative, while the relationship with the number of ITNs was positive. Programs should seek to achieve universal coverage (that is, one ITN for every two household members) and promote the notion that everyone needs to sleep under an ITN every night. Programs should also seek to strengthen perceived severity of malaria and educate intended audience groups on the signs of malaria complications. Given the significance of residual clustering at the household level, interventions that engage men as heads of

  5. Household reporting of childhood respiratory health and air pollution in rural Alaska Native communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desirae N. Ware

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Air pollution is an important contributor to respiratory disease in children. Objective: To examine associations between household reporting of childhood respiratory conditions and household characteristics related to air pollution in Alaska Native communities. Design: In-home surveys were administered in 2 rural regions of Alaska. The 12-month prevalence of respiratory conditions was summarized by region and age. Odds ratios (ORs were calculated to describe associations between respiratory health and household and air quality characteristics. Results: Household-reported respiratory health data were collected for 561 children in 328 households. In 1 region, 33.6% of children aged <5 years had a recent history of pneumonia and/or bronchitis. Children with these conditions were 2 times more likely to live in a wood-heated home, but these findings were imprecise. Resident concern with mould was associated with elevated prevalence of respiratory infections in children (ORs 1.6–2.5, while reported wheezing was associated with 1 or more smokers living in the household. Reported asthma in 1 region (7.6% was lower than national prevalence estimates. Conclusions: Findings suggest that there may be preventable exposures, including wood smoke and mould that affect childhood respiratory disease in these rural areas. Additional research is needed to quantify particulate matter 2.5 microns in aerodynamic diameter or less and mould exposures in these communities, and to objectively evaluate childhood respiratory health.

  6. Financial management skills are associated with food insecurity in a sample of households with children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Craig G; Garasky, Steven B

    2012-10-01

    Food insecurity is one of the leading public health challenges facing children in the United States today. Reducing food insecurity and its attendant consequences requires an understanding of the determinants of food insecurity. Although previous work has greatly advanced our understanding of these determinants, the role of one of the oft-speculated important determinants of food insecurity, household financial management skills, has not been considered. To address this research lacuna, we use a recently conducted survey, the Survey of Household Finances and Childhood Obesity, that has information on specific financial management practices, impressions of financial management skills, and households' food insecurity. The sample included 904 households with children. Within this sample, 19.3% were food insecure and, for our central financial management skill variable, the mean value was 3.55 on a 5-point scale. Probit regression models estimated the probability of a household being food insecure as conditional on financial management skills and other covariates. We found a large and significant inverse relationship between a respondent's use of specific financial management practices and food insecurity and between a respondent's confidence in his or her financial management skills and food insecurity. That is, households with greater financial management abilities are less likely to be food insecure. This finding also holds when the sample is restricted to households with incomes <200% of the poverty line. These results suggest that improving households' financial management skills has the potential to reduce food insecurity in the United States.

  7. Residential energy use in one-family households with natural gas provision in a city of the Patagonian Andean region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.D.; Carlsson-Kanyama, A.; Crivelli, E.S.; Gortari, S.

    2007-01-01

    Residential energy use was studied in one-family houses in the city of Bariloche, in the Patagonian Andean region of Argentina. A survey was conducted of households connected to the natural gas network to correlate use of gas, living area and number of inhabitants per house. The annual average consumption of gas was found to be 169 GJ, and consumption of electricity 8 GJ. This total energy use per household per year is almost double the average value reported for Stockholm, Sweden, although both locations have similar heating requirements. The difference was mainly due to heating energy consumption per unit living space, which in Bariloche was 1530 MJ/m 2 per year, while in Stockholm the average is around 570 MJ/m 2 per year. The high energy consumption in Bariloche is explained primarily by the construction characteristics of the buildings, and secondarily by the efficiency of the heating devices used. We were able to conclude that subsidies on natural gas tariffs given to the residential sector do not promote a rational use of the resource. Furthermore, almost 40% of the population (mostly households in poverty) are not connected to the subsidised gas resource, but pay prices for alternative fuels that are between 10- and 15 times higher. Policies to improve buildings and appliances would reduce emissions and make access to energy more equitable

  8. Household financial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brounen, Dirk; Koedijk, Kees; Pownall, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Greater personal responsibility toward financial decision-making is being advocated on a global basis. Individuals and households are encouraged to take a more active approach to personal finance. In this paper, we examine behavioral factors, which lead households toward savings and financial

  9. Incarceration in the household: academic outcomes of adolescents with an incarcerated household member.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Emily Bever; Loper, Ann Booker

    2012-11-01

    The United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world, yet there is relatively little information on how the removal of these adults from households impacts the youth who are left behind. This study used a child-centered lens to examine the impact of incarceration on the school outcomes of youth who resided with a family member or family associate who was incarcerated prior to the youth's 18th birthday. We used data from 11 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth: Child and Young Adult (n = 3,338, 53 % female). Initial analyses indicated that youth who experienced a household members' incarceration evidenced more socioeconomic challenges, more frequent home adversities, and lower cognitive skills relative to youth who did not experience a household members' incarceration. Results also revealed that youth who had experienced a household member's incarceration were more likely to report extended absence from school and were less likely to graduate from high school relative to those youth who did not experience a household members' incarceration. Counter to our hypotheses, results revealed the incarceration of an extended family member being in the household was the only relation significantly associated with worse school outcomes. Plausibly, families who allow non-immediate criminally involved individuals to reside in the household are experiencing a more pervasive chaotic home environment than those with a parent or sibling incarcerated. Our study suggests that efforts to address the needs of children with incarcerated parents need to be widened to those who experience the loss of any household member due to incarceration.

  10. Household hazardous waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    .) comprised 15-25% and foreign items comprised 10-20%. Water-based paint was the dominant part of the paint waste. The chemical composition of the paint waste and the paint-like waste was characterized by an analysis of 27 substances in seven waste fractions. The content of critical substances was tow......'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc...... and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when...

  11. Are you coming home mom? Men and woman as household providers and caretakers

    OpenAIRE

    Valdivia Santa Cruz, Segundo

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses how labor, family and labor-family relationships have changed recently in Peru and analyses also their effects on the household division of work in families where both parents perceive salaries. Our findings focus on: a) the roles of both parents (male and female) as household providers and their views on parenting, b) the scheduling of family activities and labor flexibility, c) the tensions in labor-family relationships d) the social practices related to domestic activit...

  12. Households and the Welfare State

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Ventura

    2012-01-01

    Consider the following facts. First, with dramatic changes in the household and family structure in every major industrialized country during the last couple of decades, today's households are very far from traditional breadwinner husband and housekeeper wife paradigm. Second, average households face significant uninsurable idiosyncratic risk and countries differ significantly on their social insurance expenditure. Third, since mid 1980s, household income inequality has been rising, generatin...

  13. Reduction of electric power consumption in relation to household appliances. Elbesparelser ved husholdningsapparater; Forprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gydesen, A.

    1989-07-15

    Possibilities were investigated for the reduction of electric power consumption in relation to household appliances, and for cooperation with manufacturers in this respect. It is suggested that in the cases of washing-up machines, and washing and drying machines, hot water from the tap could be utilized. This would mean that the energy consumption would then shift to domestic heating equipment, dual-purpose power plants and district heating plants. Ovens, drying machines, washing machines and washing-up machines could use natural gas, especially in areas where this fuel could be conveyed to each household via pipes. Cooperation with manufacturers seems feasible, especially with regard to electric ovens, saucepans for use in combination with the latter, and water beds. Considering future developments, it is reasonable to expect that ultra sound will be utilized in connection with washing-up and washing machines, moreover it is likely that the use of enzymes in washing powders will mean that washing machines will be able to run on cold water. (AB) 21 refs.

  14. “I think we need to get a better generator”: Household resilience to disruption to power supply during storm events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanem, Dana Abi; Mander, Sarah; Gough, Clair

    2016-01-01

    Electricity is becoming ever more central to the everyday practices of households. As the energy system decarbonises, it is likely that electricity will supply even more services, thereby increasing the dependence of communities on reliable electricity supply. In this situation, the risk of power outages during extreme weather events poses a serious challenge to the safety and wellbeing of communities. However, little is known of the capacity of households to manage normal day-to-day life in such circumstances. This paper focuses on the UK winter storms that occurred in February 2014, the result of which 80,000 homes were left without power and communities not reconnected for several days. We outline the impacts these power outages had on households, describing the challenges faced and the strategies adopted to alleviate impacts. This provides insight into everyday household-level resilience achieved through social and material elements that constitute everyday life. - Highlights: •The resilience of UK householders to power cuts due to storms was explored. •Resilience is achieved through modifying everyday electricity-related practices. •DNO's should explore how to use community networks to communicate with households.

  15. Thermodynamic and carbon analyses of micro-generators for UK households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.R.; Hammond, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    Micro-generators have the potential to reduce carbon emissions and enhance energy security by providing heat or electricity either from renewable sources, or via the more efficient use of fossil fuels. Such potential is often, however, unquantified or unclear, and hence a thermodynamic and related carbon analysis of micro-generators for UK household energy supply has been performed. Where pertinent, the thermodynamic concept of exergy is employed alongside that of energy. Analysis begins with a description of the established methods of energy supply to, and use within, typical UK households. On these foundations a grid-tied micro-wind turbine, a grid-tied solar photovoltaic array, and a solar hot-water system are analysed. Annual outputs are estimated and contextualised against the demands of representative households. The annual energy-resource and carbon savings provided by the micro-generators are determined on the basis that they (partially) displace the established supply systems. Savings are then compared with the energy-resource and carbon-emission 'debts' of the micro-generators, to assess the latter's net performance. Given appropriate installations, all three micro-generators are found to provide significant net energy and carbon benefits, confirming that all three technologies can provide net reductions in both carbon emissions and dependence on conventional energy resources.

  16. An aggregation model for households connected in the low-voltage grid using a VPP interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thavlov, Anders; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2013-01-01

    . This paper presents an aggregation model using an interface defined by an operating virtual power plant. Simulations of the aggregator show that a large share of the power consumption, due to heating of households, can be postponed or accelerated in time to the benefit of the stability of the power system...

  17. Role of courtyard counselling meeting in improving household food safety knowledge and practices in Munshiganj district of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Baizid Khoorshid; Alim, Md Abdul; Islam, Anm Shamsul; Amin, Km Bayzid; Sarker, Mohammad Abul Bashar; Hasan, Khaled; Ashad-Uz-Zaman, Md Noor; Selim, Shahjada; Quaiyum, Salman; Haque, Emdadul; Monir Hossain, Shah; Ryder, John; Khanam, Rokeya

    2016-12-01

    Unsafe food is linked to the deaths of an estimated two million people annually. Food containing harmful agents is responsible for more than 200 diseases ranging from diarrhoea to cancers. A one-sample pilot intervention study was conducted to evaluate the role of courtyard counselling meetings as the means of intervention for improving food safety knowledge and practices among household food handlers in a district of Bangladesh. The study was conducted in three phases: a baseline survey, the intervention and an end-line survey between April and November 2015 where 194 food handlers took part. Data were collected through observations and face-to-face interviews. The mean age of the respondents was 38.8 (±12.4) years, all of whom were females. Hand washing before eating, and washing utensils with soap were significantly improved at the end-line in comparison to the baseline (57% vs. 40% and 83% vs. 69%, respectively). Hand washing with soap was increased by 4%. The mean score of food handling practices was significantly increased after the intervention (20.5 vs. 22.1; Pfood and the necessity of thorough cooking were significantly increased after the intervention (88% from 64% and 34% from 21%, respectively). Mean scores of knowledge and practice on food safety were significantly increased by 1.9 and 1.6, respectively after the one month intervention. Thus this food safety education in rural communities should be scaled up and, indeed, strengthened using the courtyard counselling meetings in Bangladesh.

  18. Stirling based micro co-generation system for single households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribberink, J.S.; Zutt, J.G.M.; Rabou, L.P.L.M.; Beckers, G.J.J. [ECN Clean Fossil Fuels, Petten (Netherlands); Baijens, C.A.W.; Luttikholt, J.J.M. [ATAG Verwarming, Lichtenvoorde (Netherlands)

    2000-04-01

    This paper describes the progress made in the ENATEC development program for a free piston Stirling engine based micro co-generation system that serves the supply of up to 1 kW{sub e} and up to 24 kW heat for domestic heating and/or for hot tap water production for single households at overall system efficiencies of 96%. Experiments show that the free piston Stirling engines from Stirling Technology Company run very reliably and controllably, and that the efficiency targets for the 1 kW{sub e} micro co-generation system are feasible. A ceramic foam burner with good heat transfer characteristics and low NOx emissions was developed. A demonstration micro co-generation unit was built and successfully presented. A 1 kW{sub e} free piston Stirling engine for the European market was developed. High efficiencies at full load and at part load, low emissions, low noise, and minimum maintenance make the Stirling engine based micro co-generation system an attractive candidate for the next generation of domestic boilers in Europe. 5 refs.

  19. Thermal energy and economic analysis of a PCM-enhanced household envelope considering different climate zones in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharbouch, Yassine; Mimet, Abdelaziz; El Ganaoui, Mohammed; Ouhsaine, Lahoucine

    2018-07-01

    This study investigates the thermal energy potentials and economic feasibility of an air-conditioned family household-integrated phase change material (PCM) considering different climate zones in Morocco. A simulation-based optimisation was carried out in order to define the optimal design of a PCM-enhanced household envelope for thermal energy effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of predefined candidate solutions. The optimisation methodology is based on coupling Energyplus® as a dynamic simulation tool and GenOpt® as an optimisation tool. Considering the obtained optimum design strategies, a thermal energy and economic analysis are carried out to investigate PCMs' integration feasibility in the Moroccan constructions. The results show that the PCM-integrated household envelope allows minimising the cooling/heating thermal energy demand vs. a reference household without PCM. While for the cost-effectiveness optimisation, it has been deduced that the economic feasibility is stilling insufficient under the actual PCM market conditions. The optimal design parameters results are also analysed.

  20. Earliest Deadline Control of a Group of Heat Pumps with a Single Energy Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Fink

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop and investigate the optimal control of a group of 104 heat pumps and a central Combined Heat and Power unit (CHP. The heat pumps supply space heating and domestic hot water to households. Each house has a buffer for domestic hot water and a floor heating system for space heating. Electricity for the heat pumps is generated by a central CHP unit, which also provides thermal energy to a district heating system. The paper reviews recent smart grid control approaches for central and distributed levels. An online algorithm is described based on the earliest deadline first theory that can be used on the aggregator level to control the CHP and to give signals to the heat pump controllers if they should start or should wait. The central controller requires only a limited amount of privacy-insensitive information from the heat pump controllers about their deadlines, which the heat pump controllers calculate for themselves by model predictions. In this way, a robust heat pump and CHP control is obtained, which is able to minimize energy demand and results in the desired thermal comfort for the households. The simulations demonstrate fast computation times due to minor computational and communication overheads.

  1. Smart grid development and households in experimental projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Meiken

    to the electricity grids and call for the development of smart grids. The Danish Smart Grid Strategy states that ‘flexible electricity consumption’ is the main purpose of smart grids in Denmark, envisioning that future consumers will have flexible consumption of electricity. Thus, they are expected to respond...... to the supply side and consume energy when it is available. The goal of this thesis is to investigate how household consumers are integrated in smart grid development activities. More specifically, it focuses on household consumers, as they are represented in experimental projects in the smart grid area...... been little research on the area in Danish smart grid experimental projects. Overall, the consumers are expected, to some extent, to provide flexibility by changing their energy-consuming practices because of economic incentives by means of manual or automated control of devices. Moreover, the Danish...

  2. Energy Efficiency and Conservation for Households - an Internet Site; Energispartips och energitester foer hushaall - en Internet hemsida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    This Internet site gives advice for energy conservation in households e.g. on space heating, lighting et cetera. You can also find energy tests of electric appliances, energy impacts of life styles, contact information for your local energy advisor and other information

  3. Household Factors Associated with Self-Harm in Johannesburg, South African Urban-Poor Households.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Naicker

    Full Text Available Low and middle income countries bear the majority burden of self-harm, yet there is a paucity of evidence detailing risk-factors for self-harm in these populations. This study aims to identify environmental, socio-economic and demographic household-level risk factors for self-harm in five impoverished urban communities in Johannesburg, South Africa.Annual serial cross-sectional surveys were undertaken in five impoverished urban communities in Johannesburg for the Health, Environment and Development (HEAD study. Logistic regression analysis using the HEAD study data (2006-2011 was conducted to identify household-level risk factors associated with self-harm (defined as a self-reported case of a fatal or non-fatal suicide attempt within the household during the preceding year. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to identify factors associated with self-harm.A total of 2 795 household interviews were conducted from 2006 to 2011. There was no significant trend in self-harm over time. Results from the final model showed that self-harm was significantly associated with households exposed to a violent crime during the past year (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR 5.72; 95% CI 1.64-19.97; that have a member suffering from a chronic medical condition (AOR 8.95; 95% 2.39-33.56 and households exposed to indoor smoking (AOR 4.39; CI 95% 1.14-16.47.This study provides evidence on household risk factors of self-harm in settings of urban poverty and has highlighted the potential for a more cost-effective approach to identifying those at risk of self-harm based on household level factors.

  4. Determinants of Household Water Conservation Retrofit Activity: A Discrete Choice Model Using Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, T. A.; Wright, M. B.

    1990-02-01

    Economic analyses of residential water demand have typically concentrated on price and income elasticities. In the short run a substantial change in water prices might induce only small changes in consumption levels. As time passes, however, households will have the opportunity to "retrofit" existing water-using equipment to make it less water-intensive. This produces medium- to long-run demand elasticities that are higher than short-run studies suggest. We examine responses to water conservation questions appearing on the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power's 1983 residential energy survey. We find that households' decisions to install shower retrofit devices are influenced by the potential to save money on water heating bills. We attribute toilet retrofit decisions more to noneconomic factors which might be characterized as "general conservation mindedness." The endogeneity of these retrofit decisions casts some doubt on the results of studies of individual households that treat voluntary retrofits as exogenous.

  5. Unwanted heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benka, M.

    2006-01-01

    The number of small heating plants using biomass is growing. According to TREND's information, Hrinovska energeticka, is the only one that controls the whole supplier chain in cooperation with its parent company in Bratislava. Starting with the collection and processing of wood chips by burning, heat production and heat distribution to the end user. This gives the company better control over costs and consequently its own prices. Last year, the engineering company, Hrinovske storjarne, decided to focus only on its core business and sold its heating plant, Hrinovske tepelne hospodarstvo, to Intech Slovakia and changed the company name to Hrinovska energeticka. Local companies and inhabitants were concerned that the new owner would increase prices. But the company publicly declared and kept promises that the heat price for households would remain at 500 Slovak crowns/gigajoule (13.33 EUR/gigajoule ), one of the lowest prices in Slovakia. This year the prices increased slightly to 570 Slovak crowns (15.2 EUR). 'We needed - even at the cost of lower profit - to satisfy our customers so that we would not lose them. We used this time for transition to biomass. This will allow us to freeze our prices in the coming years,' explained the statutory representative of the company, Ivan Dudak. (authors)

  6. Promoting household energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steg, Linda

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil energy use. Strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. Therefore, this paper first discusses the factors influencing household energy use. Three barriers to fossil fuel energy conservation are discussed: insufficient knowledge of effective ways to reduce household energy use, the low priority and high costs of energy savings, and the lack of feasible alternatives. Next, the paper elaborates on the effectiveness and acceptability of strategies aimed to promote household energy savings. Informational strategies aimed at changing individuals' knowledge, perceptions, cognitions, motivations and norms, as well as structural strategies aimed at changing the context in which decisions are made, are discussed. This paper focuses on the psychological literature on household energy conservation, which mostly examined the effects of informational strategies. Finally, this paper lists important topics for future research

  7. A model of household energy services in a low-income rural African village

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.I.; Alfstad, T.; Victor, D.G.; Goldstein, G.; Remme, U.

    2005-01-01

    Energy use is closely linked to quality of life in rural Africa. The gathering of fuel-wood and other traditional fuels is a strenuous and time consuming task mainly performed by women; indoor exposure to particulate matter, mainly from cooking and heating with traditional fuels, causes about 2.5 million deaths each year in developing countries (Bruce et al., Bull World Org. 78 (2000) 1078). Modern fuels and appliances allow households to reduce their exposure to smoke from biomass cookers and heaters. Yet modern fuels are costly for income-poor households and often carry their own external costs. For example, numerous children are poisoned from ingesting paraffin, and whole villages have burned from fires triggered by paraffin stoves and lamps

  8. A time use survey derived integrative human-physical household system energy performance model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiou, Y.S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). School of Architecture

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on a virtual experiment that extrapolated the stochastic yet patterned behaviour of the integrative model of a 4-bedroom house in Chicago with 4 different household compositions. The integrative household system theory considers the household as a combination of 2 sub-systems, notably the physical system and the human system. The physical system is the materials and devices of a dwelling, and the human system is the occupants that live within the dwelling. A third element is the environment that influences the operation of the 2 sub-systems. The human-physical integrative household energy model provided a platform to simulate the effect of sub-house energy conservation measures. The virtual experiment showed that the use of the bootstrap sampling approach on American Time Use Survey (ATUS) data to determine the occupant's stochastic energy consumption behaviour has resulted in a robust complex system model. Bell-shaped distributions were presented for annual appliance, heating and cooling load demands. The virtual experiment also pointed to the development of advanced multi-zone residential HVAC system as a suitable strategy for major residential energy efficiency improvement. The load profiles generated from the integrative model simulation were found to be in good agreement with those from field studies. It was concluded that the behaviour of the integrative model is a good representation of the energy consumption behaviour of real households. 10 refs., 4 tabs., 12 figs.

  9. Heat pumps: heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pielke, R

    1976-01-01

    The author firstly explains in a general manner the functioning of the heat pump. Following a brief look at the future heat demand and the possibilities of covering it, the various methods of obtaining energy (making use of solar energy, ground heat, and others) and the practical applications (office heating, swimming pool heating etc.) are explained. The author still sees considerable difficulties in using the heat pump at present on a large scale. Firstly there is not enough maintenance personnel available, secondly the electricity supply undertakings cannot provide the necessary electricity on a wide basis without considerable investments. Other possibilities to save energy or to use waste energy are at present easier and more economical to realize. Recuperative and regenerative systems are described.

  10. Urban household energy consumption in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pongsapich, Amara; Wongsekiarttirat, Wathana (Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Social Research Inst.)

    1994-05-01

    This study was aimed at developing a better understanding of urban household energy consumption in Thailand through a series of in-depth household energy surveys. Households in urban areas used electricity, LPG, charcoal and fuelwood. Traditional biomass fuels such as husk and dung, as well as kerosene, were essentially not used in urban households. Nearly all households used electricity and most households used LPG. Some households used more than one fuel for cooking, particularly LPG and charcoal. There was a great difference in electricity used between the households in Bangkok and other urban areas. Most households in the study areas used LPG stove or burners for cooking. But charcoal stoves were also used by many households for specific culinary purposes. Electric rice-cookers are widely used for convenience. The study suggests that the number of households using charcoal stoves will decrease gradually and fuelwood use will disappear. Saturation rates for refrigerators and colour television sets were very high and air conditioners were common in Bangkok. Some users may be unaware of the benefits of LPG as a cooking fuel. To improve indoor air quality and cooking safety and reduce pressures on forests from commercial fuelwood use, measures to promote LPG should be undertaken. The government should also provide information about efficient appliances and electricity conservation. (Author)

  11. Surface engineering glass-metal coatings designed for induction heating of ceramic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Amir Azam; Labbe, Jean Claude

    2014-01-01

    The term Surface Engineering is of relatively recent origin and use, however, the use of coatings and treatments to render surfaces of materials more suitable for certain application or environment is not new. With the advent of Vacuum Technology, Surface Engineering has gained a whole new impetus, whereby expensive materials with adequate mechanical, chemical and thermal properties are being coated or treated on their surfaces in order to achieve what is called as Surface Engineered materials. The present paper presents an overview of recent achievements in Surface Engineering and gives a detailed view of a specific application where glass-metal composite coatings were deposited on ceramic components in order to render them sensitive to induction heating. Sintered glaze coatings containing silver particles in appropriate concentration can be used for the induction heating of porcelain. Mixtures of glass ceramic powders with silver are used to prepare self-transfer patterns, which are deposited over porcelain. Several configurations of these coatings, which are aesthetic to start with, are employed and heating patterns are recorded. The microstructure of these coatings is discussed in relation to the heating ability by a classical household induction system. The results show that this technique is practical and commercially viable

  12. Household food waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahlen, S.; Winkel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Food waste is debated not only in the light of sustainable consumption in research and policy, but also in the broader public. This article focuses on food waste in household contexts, what is widely believed the end of the food chain. However, household food waste is far more complex and intricate

  13. METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE SEGMENTATION OF HOUSEHOLD ENERGY CONSUMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Alexandru

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, the World has shown increased concern for climate change and energy security. The emergence of these issues has pushed many nations to pursue the development of clean domestic electricity production via renewable energy (RE technologies. However, RE also comes with a higher production and investment cost, compared to most conventional fossil fuel based technologies. In order to analyse exactly how Romanian electricity consumers feel about the advantages and the disadvantages of RE, we have decided to perform a comprehensive study, which will constitute the core of a doctoral thesis regarding the Romanian energy sector and household consumers’ willingness to pay for the positive attributes of RE. The current paper represents one step toward achieving the objectives of the above mentioned research, specifically dealing with the issue of segmenting household energy consumers given the context of the Romanian energy sector. It is an argumentative literature review, which seeks to critically assess the methodology used for customer segmentation in general and for household energy users in particular. Building on the experience of previous studies, the paper aims to determine the most adequate segmentation procedure given the context and the objectives of the overall doctoral research. After assessing the advantages and disadvantages of various methodologies, a psychographic segmentation of household consumers based on general life practices is chosen, mainly because it provides more insights into consumers compared to traditional socio-demographic segmentation by focusing on lifestyles and not external characteristics, but it is also realistically implementable compared to more complex procedures such as the standard AIO. However, the life practice scale developed by Axsen et al. (2012 will need to be properly adapted to the specific objectives of the study and to the context of the Romanian energy sector. All modifications

  14. Standard Practice for Laboratory Screening of Metallic Containment Materials for Use With Liquids in Solar Heating and Cooling Systems

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1980-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers several laboratory test procedures for evaluating corrosion performance of metallic containment materials under conditions similar to those that may occur in solar heating and cooling systems. All test results relate to the performance of the metallic containment material only as a part of a metal/fluid pair. Performance in these laboratory test procedures, taken by itself, does not necessarily constitute an adequate basis for acceptance or rejection of a particular metal/fluid pair in solar heating and cooling systems, either in general or in a particular design. This practice is not intended to preclude the use of other screening tests, particularly when those tests are designed to more closely simulate field service conditions. 1.2 This practice describes apparatus and procedures for several tests, any one or more of which may be used to evaluate the deterioration of the metallic containment material in a metal/fluid pair. The procedures are designed to permit simulation, heating...

  15. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, Carl [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads.

  16. Households with a stunted child and obese mother: trends and child feeding practices in a middle-income country, 1992-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitsi-Selmi, Amina

    2015-06-01

    Middle-income countries in the intermediate stages of the nutrition transition are facing a complex picture of nutrition-related diseases with child stunting and maternal obesity coexisting within single households (SCOB). A debate exists as to whether SCOB is a true phenomenon or a statistical artefact. In this study, we examine time trends and determinants of SCOB in Egypt and test the hypothesis that increased child sugary snack consumption, and reduced fruit/vegetable consumption (markers of poor dietary diversity) are associated with SCOB. Data on 25,065 mothers and their children from the Egyptian Demographic and Health Surveys from 1992, 1995, 2005 and 2008 are used to examine trends in child stunting, maternal obesity and child-mother household type [normal/non-obese, stunted/non-obese, normal/obese, stunted/obese (SCOB)]. The association of child sugary snack and fruit/vegetable consumption with household type is also examined using multinomial logistic regression adjusting for maternal age, maternal education, child age, breastfeeding, household wealth and urban/rural residence. The prevalence of SCOB increased between the periods 1992/95 and 2005/08 despite reductions in stunting levels. This increase paralleled a rise in maternal obesity. Child sugary snack consumption was associated with higher odds (51 %) of belonging to a SCOB household compared with normal/non-obese households, while fruit/vegetable consumption was associated with lower odds (24 %). The results suggest the existence of a link between the rise in maternal obesity and an increase in SCOB, and an association between child sugary snack consumption and SCOB. Addressing SCOB may require a household-rather than individual-based approach to nutrition.

  17. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebersorger, S; Beigl, P

    2011-01-01

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Practice of gas appliance engineering in households and trade; Praxis der Gasanwendungstechnik in Haushalt und Gewerbe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joos, L.

    2002-07-01

    This practice oriented dictionary describes gas burners and gas engine technology as also required gases for operation of this appliances. Beside the presentation of this used fuel gases an their characteristica many gas appliances for cooking, heating and hot water treatment etc. are shown and described. Cogeneration is also a topic as reduction of pollutant emissions, gas exchangeability and possibilities to save energy. Many pictures and tables support the understanding of this complex technology. From the authors experiences of 34 years developing gas appliances can profit customer consultants of gas supplies, gas installation crews and constructors of heating systems. Last not least for students this practice oriented completion should be interesting in contrast to the mainly theoretical high school education. (GL) [German] Das vorliegende Buch spiegelt den aktuellen Stand der Gasanwendungstechnik auf dem haushaltlichen und gewerblichen Sektor. Als praxisorientiertes Nachschlagewerk beschreibt es sowohl die Gasbrenner- und Gasgeraetetechnik als auch die fuer den Betrieb dieser Gasgeraete erforderlichen Gase. Neben der Vorstellung der eingesetzten Brenngase und ihrer Kenngroessen wird eine Vielzahl unterschiedlicher Gasgeraete zum Heizen, Kochen, zur Warmwasserbereitung etc. beschrieben und erlaeutert. Darueber hinaus ist die Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung ebenso ein Thema wie die Reduzierung von Schadstoffemissionen, die Austauschbarkeit der Gase und die Moeglichkeiten der Energieeinsparung. Dem besseren Verstaendnis der komplexen Thematik dienen zahlreiche Bilder und Tabellen. Von den praktischen Erfahrungen, die der Autor in 35 Jahren auf dem Gebiet der gasanwendungstechnischen Entwicklung sammelte, profitieren in erster Linie Kundenberater der Gasversorgungsgesellschaften, Gasinstallateure und Heizungsbauer. Aber auch fuer Studenten wird diese praxisbezogene Ergaenzung des ueberwiegend theoretischen Hochschulunterrichts interessant sein. (orig.)

  19. Socio-economic, Knowledge Attitude Practices (KAP), household related and demographic based appearance of non-dengue infected individuals in high dengue risk areas of Kandy District, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udayanga, Lahiru; Gunathilaka, Nayana; Iqbal, M C M; Pahalagedara, Kusumawathie; Amarasinghe, Upali S; Abeyewickreme, Wimaladharma

    2018-02-21

    Socio-economic, demographic factors and Knowledge Attitude Practices (KAPs) have been recognized as critical factors that influence the incidence and transmission of dengue epidemics. However, studies that characterize above features of a risk free or low risk population are rare. Therefore, the present study was conducted to characterize the household related, demographic, socio-economic factors and KAPs status of five selected dengue free communities. An analytical cross-sectional survey was conducted on selected demographic, socio-economic, household related and KAPs in five selected dengue free communities living in dengue risk areas within Kandy District, Central Province, Sri Lanka. Household heads of 1000 randomly selected houses were interviewed in this study. Chi-square test for independence, cluster analysis and Principal Coordinates (PCO) analysis were used for data analysis. Knowledge and awareness regarding dengue, (prevention of the vector breeding, bites of mosquitoes, disease symptoms and waste management) and attitudes of the community (towards home gardening, composting, waste management and maintenance of a clean and dengue free environment) are associated with the dengue free status of the study populations. The vector controlling authorities should focus on socio-economic, demographic and KAPs in stimulating the community to cooperate in the integrated vector management strategies to improve vector control and reduce transmission of dengue within Kandy District.

  20. Growing up without parents: socialisation and gender relations in orphaned-child-headed households in rural Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis-Chizororo, Monica

    2010-01-01

    The most distressing consequences of the HIV/AIDS pandemic's impact on children has been the development of child-headed households (CHHs). Child 'only' households challenge notions of the ideal home, family, and 'normal' childhood, as well as undermining international attempts to institute children's rights. The development of these households raises practical questions about how the children will cope without parental guidance during their childhood and how this experience will affect their adulthood. Drawing on ethnographic research with five child heads and their siblings, this article explores how orphaned children living in 'child only' households organise themselves in terms of household domestic and paid work roles, explores the socialisation of children by children and the negotiation of teenage girls' movement. Further, it examines whether the orphaned children are in some way attempting to 'mimic' previously existing family/household gender relations after parental death. The study showed that all members in the CHHs irrespective of age and gender are an integral part of household labour including food production. Although there is masculinisation of domestic chores in boys 'only' households, roles are distributed by age. On the other hand, households with a gender mix tended to follow traditional gender norms. Conflict often arose when boys controlled teenage girls' movement and sexuality. There is a need for further research on CHHs to better understand orphans' experiences, and to inform policy interventions.

  1. How do household characteristics affect appliance usage? Application of conditional demand analysis to Japanese household data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Although both appliance ownership and usage patterns determine residential electricity consumption, it is less known how households actually use their appliances. In this study, we conduct conditional demand analyses to break down total household electricity consumption into a set of demand functions for electricity usage, across 12 appliance categories. We then examine how the socioeconomic characteristics of the households explain their appliance usage. Analysis of micro-level data from the Nation Survey of Family and Expenditure in Japan reveals that the family and income structure of households affect appliance usage. Specifically, we find that the presence of teenagers increases both air conditioner and dishwasher use, labor income and nonlabor income affect microwave usage in different ways, air conditioner usage decreases as the wife's income increases, and microwave usage decreases as the husband's income increases. Furthermore, we find that households use more electricity with new personal computers than old ones; this implies that the replacement of old personal computers increases electricity consumption. - Highlights: •We conduct conditional demand analyses to study household appliance usage. •Micro-level data from the National Survey of Family and Expenditure in Japan are analyzed. •We show how household characteristics determine appliance usage. •High-income households use specific appliances less intensively than low-income households. •The replacement of old TVs and PCs lead to greater electricity consumption.

  2. Climate Variability and Household Adaptation Strategies in Southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassie Berhanu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the determinants and implied economic impacts of climate change adaptation strategies in the context of traditional pastoralism. It is based on econometric analysis of survey data generated from household level interviews in southern Ethiopian rangelands. Pastoralists’ perception of climate change in the region is found to be very consistent with the actually recorded trends of increased temperature and the evident secular declines in precipitation. Not only long-term declines, trends in the region’s rainfall also appear to have taken a shift towards the direction of more unpredictability. Pastoralist adaptation response strategies broadly involve adjustments in pastoral practices and shifts to non-pastoral livelihoods. Results of the estimated models confirm that pastoral mobility is still quite essential in the present context of climate-induced household vulnerabilities. Increased mobility and diversification of pastoral herd portfolios in favor of a drought-tolerant species (camel are found to be positively associated with pastoral household net income. A policy stance that ignores the detrimental impacts of the currently pervasive private rangeland enclosures or intends to hasten pastoralist sedentarization in the area is simply untenable in the present context of climate-induced risks and pastoral livelihood vulnerability.

  3. Information and communication technologies - A new round of household electrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2010-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICTs) increasingly permeate everyday life in industrialized societies. The aim of this paper is to explore ICT-related transformations of everyday practices and discuss the implications, particularly for residential electricity consumption. The present...... socio-technical changes are seen in a historical perspective, and it is argued that the integration of ICT into everyday practices can be seen as a new round of household electrification, comparable to earlier rounds that also led to higher electricity consumption. A case study carried out in Denmark...... in 2007–2008 explores the present changes in everyday life. Based on qualitative interviews, the study focuses on people’s ways of integrating ICTs into their everyday practices, on any significant changes in these practices, and on the influence of the changed practices on electricity consumption...

  4. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  5. Participation in a Household Hazardous Waste Collection Drive and "Before" and "After" Public Knowledge and Disposal Practices: Champaign County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebert, Roland J.

    The extent to which households use, store, and dispose of hazardous materials has become a matter of increasing concern but has been rarely assessed. This report provides an assessment of the first household hazardous materials publicity campaign and collection event held in Illinois. The report describes survey results concerning the state of…

  6. Local village heating. Final rapport; Landsby Naervarme. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojesen, C.

    2012-04-15

    Local Village Heating project relates to smaller villages which are located outside existing or planned district heating areas in Denmark. The analysis phase of Local Village Heating has shown that the concept can be the most feasible common heating system for villages that: 1. has a high building density - the buildings must be placed close together; 2. at least one large heat consumer, school, elder home or company is present in the village; 3. the number of buildings/households in the village is less than approx. 100. The analysis has shown that it is theoretical possible to establish a controlling system for the combined supplier/consumer option and an overall system for prioritizing the primary heat suppliers. A feasible Local Village Heating organisation could be a cooperative similar to other supply systems, such as common water supply and waste water cooperative. (Author)

  7. Rural Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole

    2013-01-01

    dependency on state institutions under the Vietnamese transition to a market society. It discusses present poverty definitions and measures by comparing survey data with the formal economic categorization of rural households. Both the overall characteristics of rural society and qualitative data indicate...... that the reforms have set in motion a process by which a mix of new opportunities and increasing pressures creates new winners and losers. Second, the chapter draws attention to the nature of interactions between households, local communities and the Vietnamese state. This shows both potentials and limitations...

  8. Animal and human tungiasis-related knowledge and treatment practices among animal keeping households in Bugiri District, South-Eastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutebi, Francis; Krücken, Jürgen; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Waiswa, Charles; Mencke, Norbert; Eneku, Wilfred; Andrew, Tamale; Feldmeier, Hermann

    2018-01-01

    Zoonotic tungiasis caused by Tunga penetrans remains a serious public and animal health problem among endemic villages in Uganda and many sub Saharan African countries. Studies on human and animal tungiasis-related knowledge and treatment practices in endemic communities have never been undertaken, a limitation to development of sustainable control measures. A cross sectional study using semi-structured questionnaires (Supplementary file S1) was conducted among 236 animal rearing households in 10 endemic villages in Bugiri District, South-Eastern Uganda. Focus group discussions and observation checklists were used to validate and clarify the findings. Most respondents knew the aetiology (89.4%), clinical signs (98%) and the ecology of T. penetrans as well as the major risk factors of human tungiasis (65.2%). In contrast, very few respondents were aware of animal tungiasis. Only 4.8% of those with infected animals on the compound knew that some of their animals were infected and 13.6% of the respondents had ever seen tungiasis-affected animals. Pigs (13.1%, n=31) and dogs (0.85%, n=2) were the only T. penetrans animal hosts known to animal owners. Affected humans were treated by extraction of embedded sand fleas using non-sterile sharp instruments in all households that reported occurrence of human tungiasis at least once (n=227). Also, affected animals were mainly treated by mechanical removal of embedded sand fleas in households that have ever experienced animal tungiasis (four out of 12; 33.3%). In a few instances, plant and animal pesticides (n=3) and other chemicals such as grease, paraffin and wood preservative (n=3) were also used to treat animal tungiasis. The study revealed a high level of knowledge on human tungiasis but inadequate knowledge on the zoonotic nature of tungiasis. Commonly applied methods for treatment of human and animal tungiasis are a health hazard by themselves. Concerted i.e. One Health-based efforts aiming at promoting appropriate

  9. Willingness-to-pay for renewable energy. Primary and discretionary choice of British households' for micro-generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpa, Riccardo; Willis, Ken

    2010-01-01

    This paper documents the policy context of renewable energy production in the European Union. The research adopts a choice experiment approach to investigate households' WTP for these renewable energy technologies in the UK. The micro-generation technologies comprise solar photovoltaic, micro-wind, solar thermal, heat pumps, and biomass boilers and pellet stoves. The study compares the results from conditional and mixed logit models, which estimate the distribution of utility coefficients and then derives WTP values as a ratio of the attribute coefficient to the price coefficient, with a model in which the WTP distribution is estimated directly from utility in the money space. The results suggest that whilst renewable energy adoption is significantly valued by households, this value is not sufficiently large, for the vast majority of households, to cover the higher capital costs of micro-generation energy technologies. (author)

  10. Stirling engine based micro co-generation system for single households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribberink, H.; Zutt, S.; Rabou, L.; Beckers, G. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Baijens, K.; Luttikholt, J. [Atag Verwarming BV (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the progress made in the ENATEC development program for a free piston Stirling engine based micro co-generation system that serves the supply of up to 1 kW{sub e} and up to 24 kW heat for domestic heating and/or for hot tap water production for single households at overall system efficiencies of 96%: Experiments show that the free piston Stirling engines from Stirling Technology Company run very reliably and controllably, and that the efficiency targets for the 1 kW{sub e} micro co-generation system are feasible. A ceramic foam burner with good heat transfer characteristics and low NOx emissions was developed. A demonstration micro co-generation unit was built and successfully presented. A 1 kW{sub e} free piston Stirling engine for the European market was developed. High efficiencies at full load and at part load, low emissions, low noise, and minimum maintenance make the Stirling engine based micro co-generation system an attractive candidate for the next generation of domestic boilers in Europe. (orig.)

  11. Household responses to malaria and their costs: a study from rural Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, F; Hoek, Wim van der; Amerasinghe, P H

    1997-01-01

    A study of the cost of malaria at the household level, community perceptions, preventive measures and illness behaviour linked to the disease was undertaken in 5 villages in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. The surveyed community had a high knowledge of malaria, although side effects of antimalarial dr...... was on special diets for the sick person, to neutralize the perceived heating effect of the disease and its treatment....

  12. Household Consumption, Investment and Life Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Kenneth; Steffensen, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a continuous-time Markov model for utility optimization of households. The household optimizes expected future utility from consumption by controlling consumption, investments and purchase of lifeinsurance for each person in the household. The optimal controls are investigated...... in the special case of a two-person household, and we present graphics illustrating how differences between the two persons affect the controls....

  13. What gets measured gets managed: A new method of measuring household food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elimelech, Efrat; Ayalon, Ofira; Ert, Eyal

    2018-03-22

    The quantification of household food waste is an essential part of setting policies and waste reduction goals, but it is very difficult to estimate. Current methods include either direct measurements (physical waste surveys) or measurements based on self-reports (diaries, interviews, and questionnaires). The main limitation of the first method is that it cannot always trace the waste source, i.e., an individual household, whereas the second method lacks objectivity. This article presents a new measurement method that offers a solution to these challenges by measuring daily produced food waste at the household level. This method is based on four main principles: (1) capturing waste as it enters the stream, (2) collecting waste samples at the doorstep, (3) using the individual household as the sampling unit, and (4) collecting and sorting waste daily. We tested the feasibility of the new method with an empirical study of 192 households, measuring the actual amounts of food waste from households as well as its composition. Household food waste accounted for 45% of total waste (573 g/day per capita), of which 54% was identified as avoidable. Approximately two thirds of avoidable waste consisted of vegetables and fruit. These results are similar to previous findings from waste surveys, yet the new method showed a higher level of accuracy. The feasibility test suggests that the proposed method provides a practical tool for policy makers for setting policy based on reliable empirical data and monitoring the effectiveness of different policies over time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Under-reported income of Russian households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav Murashov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the proposed paper, an attempt is made to estimate the proportion of unstated income for Russian households based on micro data. An overview of microeconomic approaches to estimating the scale of under-reported income is provided. These approaches are weakly represented in the national literature, so their strengths and weaknesses are also analyzed. A theoretical model of household consumer behavior is described that allows the size of under-reported income to be estimated. The structure of household incomes and expenditures is studied based on an RLMS sample for 2012. The model is estimated using household subsamples based on the type of household and household income. The estimation technique utilizes regression variables and random effects. The resulting subsample estimates were applied to the general population and compared with those obtained by other researchers using alternative methods and other data. A comparison is made to estimates of under-reported income developed for British households.

  15. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Macmichael, DBA

    1988-01-01

    A fully revised and extended account of the design, manufacture and use of heat pumps in both industrial and domestic applications. Topics covered include a detailed description of the various heat pump cycles, the components of a heat pump system - drive, compressor, heat exchangers etc., and the more practical considerations to be taken into account in their selection.

  16. Essays in Household Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanspal, Tobin

    This Ph.D. thesis, entitled Essays in Household Finance, analyzes the determinants and implications of investment biases, personal experiences in financial markets, and financing disruptions on households, individual investors, and entrepreneurs and small business owners. The first essay...... on risk taking is the potential bias resulting from inertia and inattention, which has been shown to be endemic in household finance. If individuals are inert or inattentive, it is difficult to establish whether changes in risk taking are caused by personal experiences or whether the change in risk taking...

  17. Recent trend in family households in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Z; Guo, L

    1997-01-01

    This study examined trends in household size and age structure in Beijing, China, in 1995. Data were reliably obtained from the 1% sample survey of China. Findings indicate that the average size of a family household was 3.15 persons, that is, 0.050 persons fewer than the 3.20 from the 1990 Census. Children aged 0-14 years in each household averaged 0.04 fewer children during 1990-95. 80% of the decline in household size was due to decreases in the number of children. The percentage of single-family and single-person households declined. Three-person households were the only size group that increased (23.2-40.7%). The household headship (HH) rate for males increased dramatically between the ages of 20 and 30 years and stabilized after 35 years. The HH rate for women grew slowly and continuously until age 50 years and then stabilized. The gender gap in HH appeared at an early age and remained thereafter. The HH rate declined at older ages. The HH rate in Beijing, compared to the national rate, suggests relative gender equity in Beijing. As a child ages, the percentage of three-generation households declines and the percentage of two-generation households rises. As a child becomes an adult, the percentages of single-person households and single-couple households increase. Single-couple households decreased among the middle-aged. 67.4% of the elderly lived in two- or three-generation households. 31.4% of elderly lived in single-person/couple households. The percentage of elderly living with their children declined by 2 points during 1990-95.

  18. Measuring household food insecurity: why it's so important and yet so difficult to do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Patrick; Coates, Jennifer; Frongillo, Edward A; Rogers, Beatrice Lorge; Swindale, Anne; Bilinsky, Paula

    2006-05-01

    Food insecurity is a daily reality for hundreds of millions of people around the world. Although its most extreme manifestations are often obvious, many other households facing constraints in their access to food are less identifiable. Operational agencies lack a method for differentiating households at varying degrees of food insecurity in order to target and evaluate their interventions. This chapter provides an overview of a set of papers associated with a research initiative that seeks to identify more precise, yet simple, measures of household food insecurity. The overview highlights three main conceptual developments associated with practical approaches to measuring constraints in access to food: 1) a shift from using measures of food availability and utilization to measuring "inadequate access"; 2) a shift from a focus on objective to subjective measures; and 3) a growing emphasis on fundamental measurement as opposed to reliance on distal, proxy measures. Further research is needed regarding 1) how well measures of household food insecurity designed for chronically food-insecure contexts capture the processes leading to, and experience of, acute food insecurity, 2) the impact of short-term shocks, such as major floods or earthquake, on household behaviors that determine responses to food security questions, 3) better measurement of the interaction between severity and frequency of household food insecurity behaviors, and 4) the determination of whether an individual's response to survey questions can be representative of the food insecurity experiences of all members of the household.

  19. Factors associated with post-treatment E. coli contamination in households practising water treatment: a study of rural Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benwic, Aaron; Kim, Erin; Khema, Cinn; Phanna, Chet; Sophary, Phan; Cantwell, Raymond E

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess factors associated with Escherichia coli (E. coli) contamination in rural households in Cambodia that have adopted household water treatment. The following factors were significantly associated (α E. coli contamination: cleaning the drinking vessel with untreated water, not drying the cup (with a cloth), accessing treated water by the use of a scoop (ref: using a tap), having more than one untreated water storage container, having an untreated water storage container that appeared dirty on the outside, and cows living within 10 m of the household. This study provides further evidence confirming previous studies reporting an association between inadequate cleanliness of water storage containers and household drinking water contamination, and identifies practical recommendations statistically associated with reduced post-treatment E. coli contamination in the household setting in rural Cambodia.

  20. District heating versus local heating - Social supportability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matei, Magdalena; Enescu, Diana; Varjoghie, Elena; Radu, Florin; Matei, Lucian

    2004-01-01

    District heating, DH, is an energy source which can provide a cost-effective, environmentally friendly source of heat and power for cities, but only in the case of well running systems, with reasonable technological losses. The benefits of DH system are well known: environmental friendly, energy security, economic and social advantages. DH already covers 60% of heating and hot water needs in transition economies. Today, 70 % of Russian, Latvian and Belarus homes use DH, and heating accounts for one-third of total Russian energy consumption. Yet a large number of DH systems in the region face serious financial, marketing or technical problems because of the policy framework. How can DH issues be best addressed in national and local policy? What can governments do to create the right conditions for the sustainable development of DH while improving service quality? What policies can help capture the economic, environmental and energy security benefits of co-generation and DH? To address these questions, the International Energy Agency (IEA) hosted in 2002 and 2004 conference focusing on the crucial importance of well-designed DH policies, for exchanging information on policy approaches. The conclusions of the conference have shown that 'DH systems can do much to save energy and boost energy security, but stronger policy measures are needed to encourage wise management and investment. With a stronger policy framework, DH systems in formerly socialist countries could save the equivalent of 80 billion cubic meters of natural gas a year through supply side efficiency improvements. This is greater than total annual natural gas consumption in Italy'. More efficient systems will also decrease costs, reducing household bills and making DH competitive on long-term. This paper presents the issues: -Theoretical benefits of the district heating and cooling systems; - Municipal heating in Romania; - Technical and economic problems of DH systems and social supportability; - How

  1. Household chaos moderates the link between maternal attribution bias and parenting: Parenting: Science and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Deater-Deckard, K; Bell, M A

    2013-10-01

    Parents who attribute child misbehavior to children's intentions and dismiss situational factors tend to show more hostility and less warmth in their parenting behavior, and are at greater risk for maltreatment. We extended this literature by investigating the role of household chaos as a moderator of the link between maternal attribution biases and parenting behaviors. The current sample included 160 mothers of 3- to7-year-old children. Mothers provided reports on their attribution biases and household chaos levels. Maternal negativity and positivity were measured using self-reports and observers' ratings. The links between attribution bias and parenting behavior were stronger in more chaotic environments, with the moderating effect of chaos being particularly strong for internal attribution bias. The findings point to the importance of social cognitive biases in the etiology of maternal behavior in family contexts that lack order and predictability.

  2. Heat pump for comfort, with added energy savings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauberg, H.; Van de Dobbelsteen, A.; Van der Spoel, W.; Van de Graaf, A.

    2005-01-01

    The high-efficiency central heating boiler is about to reach the limits of its potential, so innovative insulation and other energy efficiency solutions are required, even though energy consumption in the Netherlands per household has dropped by 70% since 1986. Now that houses and offices are being

  3. Information and communication technologies - A new round of household electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ropke, Inge; Haunstrup Christensen, Toke; Ole Jensen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICTs) increasingly permeate everyday life in industrialized societies. The aim of this paper is to explore ICT-related transformations of everyday practices and discuss the implications, particularly for residential electricity consumption. The present socio-technical changes are seen in a historical perspective, and it is argued that the integration of ICT into everyday practices can be seen as a new round of household electrification, comparable to earlier rounds that also led to higher electricity consumption. A case study carried out in Denmark in 2007-2008 explores the present changes in everyday life. Based on qualitative interviews, the study focuses on people's ways of integrating ICTs into their everyday practices, on any significant changes in these practices, and on the influence of the changed practices on electricity consumption. The paper concludes with a discussion on the implications for energy policy.

  4. Gas in the heat market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, L

    1981-02-01

    An explanation of the various ideas about market delimitations (heat market - gas market) and of the competitive and legal situation is followed by a description of the market situation for gas in the sectors industry and household, commerce and trade. Opportunities available for gase are pointed out by listing the most important substitute energy sources for piped gas in the different fields of application. On the issue of conversion costs being an obstacle to substitution or competition, a few examples are given of the ration of conversion costs to fuel costs arising in industrial firms. A number of economic evaluations are made concerning the utilization of gas in space heating systems.

  5. Comparative Analysis of Households' Socioeconomic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analysed the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of ... In order to improve households' food security status in both rural and urban areas, ... as reduction in household size through birth control, and increase in household ...

  6. Dengue Knowledge and Preventive Practices in Iquitos, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Soldán, Valerie A; Morrison, Amy C; Cordova Lopez, Jhonny J; Lenhart, Audrey; Scott, Thomas W; Elder, John P; Sihuincha, Moises; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Halsey, Eric S; Astete, Helvio; McCall, Philip J

    2015-12-01

    As part of a cluster-randomized trial to evaluate insecticide-treated curtains for dengue prevention in Iquitos, Peru, we surveyed 1,333 study participants to examine knowledge and reported practices associated with dengue and its prevention. Entomological data from 1,133 of these households were linked to the survey. Most participants knew that dengue was transmitted by mosquito bite (85.6%), but only few (18.6%) knew that dengue vectors bite during daytime. Most commonly recognized dengue symptoms were fever (86.6%), headache (76.4%), and muscle/joint pain (67.9%). Most commonly reported correct practices for mosquito control were cleaning homes (61.6%), using insecticide sprays (23%), and avoiding having standing water at home (12.3%). Higher education was associated with higher knowledge about dengue, including transmission and vector control. Higher socioeconomic status was associated with increased reported use of preventive practices requiring money expenditure. We were less likely to find Aedes aegypti eggs, larvae, or pupae in households that had dengue has been transmitted in Iquitos since the 1990s and the Regional Health Authority routinely fumigates households, treats domestic water containers with larvicide, and issues health education messages through mass media, knowledge of dengue transmission and household practices for prevention could be improved. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  7. Declarativity and efficiency in providing services of general economic interest. Empirical study regarding the relation between heating costs and budget constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Miron

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Defined by each country separately, according to real options, circumstances and traditions, the services of general economic interest have an objective purpose in ensuring protection and security for population. The services of general economic interest involve both public and economic services and show characteristics of both fields, reflecting the capabilities of communities to organize, regulate and provide them. Considering the accessibility to the essential service of general economic interest of providing household heating, as an undeniable condition of consumer protection, an analysis has been made in this field, with reference to the concrete manner of providing these services. The goal of this endeavor was to emphasize the actual conditionalities induced by the budget constraints of households while ensuring the universality of the access to the essential heating service. The empirical study is based on a survey of 55 households in sector 2 of Bucharest that have access to gas heating systems, while they have different revenues and equipments. The processing of the gathered data allowed the procurement of certain indicators that explain how household revenues determine the access to the heating services and how the deficiencies of the insurance system of these services deepen the social polarization and increase the weightings of those living at the limit of subsistence.

  8. Study on the Development of an Optimal Heat Supply Control Algorithm for Group Energy Apartment Buildings According to the Variation of Outdoor Air Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Kurl Kwak

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we have developed an optimal heat supply algorithm which minimizes the heat loss through the distribution pipe line in a group energy apartment. Heating load variation of a group energy apartment building according to the outdoor air temperature was predicted by a correlation obtained from calorimetry measurements of all households in the apartment building. Supply water temperature and mass flow rate were simultaneously controlled to minimize the heat loss rate through the distribution pipe line. A group heating apartment building located in Hwaseong city, Korea, which has 1473 households, was selected as the object building to test the present heat supply algorithm. Compared to the original heat supply system, the present system adopting the proposed control algorithm reduced the heat loss rate by 10.4%.

  9. Patterns and correlates of solid waste disposal practices in Dar es ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the patterns and correlations of solid waste disposal practices among households in urbanized and populated Dar es Salaam city in Tanzania. The Tanzanian Household Budget Survey (HBS) data covering many households' characteristics was used. Multinomial Logit (MNL) model was applied to ...

  10. Rural-urban household energy use and inter-relation in the Central Region of the Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgizouli, I.A.R.

    1990-01-01

    Urban and rural household energy consumption accounts for the major part of total energy consumption in most African countries. It ranges between 50 and 70 percent in African countries with medium per capita incomes and between 58 and 93 percent in those with low per capita incomes. Satisfying household energy needs takes up a substantial portion of the income of the urban household, while in the rural areas much time and effort are spent collecting wood instead of in more productive activities. Woodfuel meets over 85 percent of household energy demand in most African countries. This high level of consumption will remain, irrespective of the country's per capita income: woodfuel will continue to play a major role in the economics of developing countries and especially in the living standards of both rural and urban poor. The two major issues which must be considered are whether the forest resources are going to meet the future demand for woodfuel and whether prices will remain affordable to the low income groups. This paper deals with household energy issues with special reference to the Central Region in the Sudan. It assesses local resources in the region, analyzes consumption patterns of both rural and urban households, and discusses possible solutions to the impact of current energy practices

  11. The Heat Is on: An Inquiry-Based Investigation for Specific Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, Deborah G.

    2011-01-01

    A substantial number of upper-level science students and practicing physical science teachers demonstrate confusion about thermal equilibrium, heat transfer, heat capacity, and specific heat capacity. The traditional method of instruction, which involves learning the related definitions and equations, using equations to solve heat transfer…

  12. Concerned consumption. Global warming changing household domestication of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, Margrethe; Godbolt, Åsne Lund; Sørensen, Knut H.; Ryghaug, Marianne; Karlstrøm, Henrik; Næss, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses possible effects of the growing focus on global warming on households’ domestication of energy and the dynamics of energy consumption by comparing data pertaining to the domestication of energy within Norwegian households from two time periods: first, 1991–1995, when climate change was given little public attention, and, second, 2006–2009, after climate change became a major public concern. In the first period, we observed that the domestication of energy resulted in an energy culture emphasizing comfort and convenience with respect to everyday life and the abundant supply of clean hydropower. In the second period, this culture seemed to have changed, making households more concerned about their energy consumption. Consumption of energy was linked to climate change, and many interviewees claimed to save energy. However, the dominant expectation was still to be able to manage everyday life in a convenient and comfortable way. Thus, climate change concerns produced some but not very radical changes in the practical domestication of energy, including energy saving. A main effect was feelings of guilt, tempered by arguments regarding why change is difficult and complaints about political inaction. Thus, public engagement with climate change issues may facilitate energy efficiency policy but to succeed, wider climate policy measures seem to be needed. - Highlights: • Increased climate change focus has affected household domestication of energy. • The changes produced concerns about energy consumption. • Some energy saving activities were reported. • Household energy cultures are less stable than anticipated. • Suggests wider climate policy measures to motivate for energy efficiency.

  13. Household food security and adequacy of child diet in the food insecure region north in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Agbadi

    call for research into factors besides household food security in the search for determinants of child diet adequacy. In this study at least, household food security was a very weak marker of child diet adequacy. This finding is of significance to public health practice, since it calls into question any assumption that having enough food in a household necessarily results in adequately fed children.

  14. Evaluating household food insecurity: applications and insights from rural Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Elizabeth Elliott

    2013-01-01

    Hunger is complex, encompassing experiences ranging from a family's forced acceptance of a monotonous diet to individual physiological pain. I evaluate the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) as a means of capturing the universal elements of hunger without doing violence to its culturally-specific expressions within two Malay communities. The HFIAS is assessed conceptually by comparing its assumptions and concept-to-measurement gap with competing indicators and practically with respect to village conditions and practices. This case study recommends the HFIAS for this site and for communities that similarly lack maternal buffering, while highlighting the unique features of the local hunger experience.

  15. A Cross-Sectional Study of Heat Wave-Related Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice among the Public in the Licheng District of Jinan City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Xu, Xin; Ding, Guoyong; Zhao, Yun; Zhao, Ruixia; Xue, Fuzhong; Li, Jing; Gao, Jinghong; Yang, Jun; Jiang, Baofa; Liu, Qiyong

    2016-06-29

    Knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) are three key components for reducing the adverse health impacts of heat waves. However, research in eastern China regarding this is scarce. The present study aimed to evaluate the heat wave-related KAP of a population in Licheng in northeast China. This cross-sectional study included 2241 participants. Data regarding demographic characteristics, KAP, and heat illnesses were collected using a structured questionnaire. Univariate analysis and unconditional logistic regression models were used to analyze the data. Most residents had high KAP scores, with a mean score of 12.23 (standard deviation = 2.23) on a 17-point scale. Urban women and participants aged 35-44 years had relatively high total scores, and those with high education levels had the highest total score. There was an increased risk of heat-related illness among those with knowledge scores of 3-5 on an 8-point scale with mean score of 5.40 (standard deviation = 1.45). Having a positive attitude toward sunstroke prevention and engaging in more preventive practices to avoid heat exposure had a protective interaction effect on reducing the prevalence of heat-related illnesses. Although the KAP scores were relatively high, knowledge and practice were lacking to some extent. Therefore, governments should further develop risk-awareness strategies that increase awareness and knowledge regarding the adverse health impact of heat and help in planning response strategies to improve the ability of individuals to cope with heat waves.

  16. A Cross-Sectional Study of Heat Wave-Related Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice among the Public in the Licheng District of Jinan City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP are three key components for reducing the adverse health impacts of heat waves. However, research in eastern China regarding this is scarce. The present study aimed to evaluate the heat wave-related KAP of a population in Licheng in northeast China. This cross-sectional study included 2241 participants. Data regarding demographic characteristics, KAP, and heat illnesses were collected using a structured questionnaire. Univariate analysis and unconditional logistic regression models were used to analyze the data. Most residents had high KAP scores, with a mean score of 12.23 (standard deviation = 2.23 on a 17-point scale. Urban women and participants aged 35–44 years had relatively high total scores, and those with high education levels had the highest total score. There was an increased risk of heat-related illness among those with knowledge scores of 3–5 on an 8-point scale with mean score of 5.40 (standard deviation = 1.45. Having a positive attitude toward sunstroke prevention and engaging in more preventive practices to avoid heat exposure had a protective interaction effect on reducing the prevalence of heat-related illnesses. Although the KAP scores were relatively high, knowledge and practice were lacking to some extent. Therefore, governments should further develop risk-awareness strategies that increase awareness and knowledge regarding the adverse health impact of heat and help in planning response strategies to improve the ability of individuals to cope with heat waves.

  17. Potentials for energy savings and long term energy demand of Croatian households sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pukšec, Tomislav; Vad Mathiesen, Brian; Duić, Neven

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Long term energy demand of Croatian households sector has been modelled. ► Developed model can describe the whole households sector. ► Main modes include heating, cooling, electrical appliances, cooking and hot water. ► Different scenarios regarding future energy demand are presented and discussed. -- Abstract: Households represent one of the most interesting sectors, when analyzing Croatia’s energy balance. It makes up one of the largest energy consumers with around 75 PJ per year, which is almost 29% of Croatia’s final energy demand. Considering this consumption, implementing various mechanisms, which would lead to improvements in energy efficiency of this sector, seems relevant. In order to plan future energy systems, important would be to know future possibilities and needs regarding energy demand of different sectors. Through this paper, long term energy demand projections of Croatian households sector will be shown. Focus of the paper will be on various mechanisms influencing future energy demand scenarios. Important would be to quantify this influence, whether positive or negative, and see which mechanisms would be the most significant. Energy demand projections in this paper are based upon bottom-up approach model which combines and processes a large number of input data. The model will be compared to Croatian National Energy Strategy and certain differences and conclusions will be presented. One of the major conclusions shown in this paper is significant possibilities for energy efficiency improvements and lower energy demand in the future, based on careful and rational energy planning. Different financial, legal and technological mechanisms can lead to significant savings in the households sector which leads to lower GHG emissions and lower Croatian dependence on foreign fossil fuels.

  18. Essays in household finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djordjevic, Ljubica

    2015-01-01

    Household finance is a young and vibrant research field that continuously attracts public attention. There may be very few matters that people care so much about as their personal finance. Recent rise of academic interest in household finance is to a great extent due to households’ more active role

  19. Household consumption and environment. 2011 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report presents and comments numerous data and indicators concerning the constraints and impacts on the environment related to household consumption and behaviour. After a presentation of context indicators (household number and size, household consumption expenses) and of some global indicators (water and carbon footprint of household consumption), several specific aspects are addressed: housing (electric and electronic equipment, water, space and energy consumption, renewable energies, CO 2 emissions), transport (general statistics on travels, CO 2 and pollutant emissions related to motor cars), food (water print and carbon print related to household food, consumption of bio-agriculture products and of conditioned beverages), and wastes (production and composition, electronic and electric equipment wastes, waste treatment)

  20. Low-cost measurement techniques to characterize the influence of home heating fuel on carbon monoxide in Navajo homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Joanna Gordon; Ortega, John; Coffey, Evan; Hannigan, Michael

    2018-06-01

    A large fraction of the global population relies on the inefficient combustion of solid fuels for cooking and home heating, resulting in household exposure to combustion byproducts. In the southwestern United States, unhealthy air quality has been observed in some homes that use solid fuels as a primary source of heat on the Navajo Nation. In order to better understand how home heating fuel choice can influence indoor air quality in this region, we used recently developed low-cost electrochemical sensors to measure carbon monoxide (CO) air mole fractions continuously inside and outside 41 homes in two communities on the Navajo Nation. Using low-cost sensors in this study, which don't require extensive training to operate, enabled collaboration with local Diné College students and faculty in the planning and implementation of home deployments. Households used natural gas, propane, pellets, wood, and/or coal for heating. We developed quantification methods that included uncertainty estimation for Alphasense CO-B4 sensors, for measurements both inside and outside homes. CO concentrations elevated above background were observed in homes in each heating fuel group, but the highest hourly concentrations were observed in wood and coal burning homes, some of which exceeded World Health Organization Guidelines on both an hourly and eight-hourly basis. In order to probe the many factors that can influence indoor pollutant concentrations, we developed and implemented methods that employ CO emission and decay time periods observed in homes during everyday activities to estimate air exchange rates as well as CO emission rates on the basis of a given well-mixed volume of air. The air quality measurement tools and methods demonstrated in this study can be readily extended to indoor air quality studies in other communities around the world to inform how home heating and cooking practices are influencing indoor air quality during normal daily activities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier

  1. Influence of household demographic and socio-economic factors on household expenditure on tobacco in six New Independent States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotsadze George

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify demographic and socio-economic factors that are associated with household expenditure on tobacco in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, and Tajikistan. Methods Secondary analysis of the data available through the World Bank Living Standards Monitoring Survey conducted in aforementioned countries in 1995–2000. The role of different variables (e.g. mean age of household members, household area of residence, household size, share of adult males, share of members with high education in determining household expenditure on tobacco (defined as tobacco expenditure share out of total monthly HH consumption was assessed by using multiple regression analysis. Results Significant differences were found between mean expenditure on tobacco between rich and poor – in absolute terms the rich spend significantly more compared with the poor. Poor households devote significantly higher shares of their monthly HH consumption for tobacco products. Shares of adult males were significantly associated with the share of household consumption devoted for tobacco. There was a significant negative association between shares of persons with tertiary education within the HH and shares of monthly household consumption devoted for tobacco products. The correlation between household expenditures on tobacco and alcohol was found to be positive, rather weak, but statistically significant. Conclusion Given the high levels of poverty and high rates of smoking in the New Independent States, these findings have important policy implications. They indicate that the impact and opportunity costs of smoking on household finances are more significant for the poor than for the rich. Any reductions in smoking prevalence within poor households could have a positive economic impact.

  2. Designing easy DNA extraction: Teaching creativity through laboratory practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susantini, Endang; Lisdiana, Lisa; Isnawati; Tanzih Al Haq, Aushia; Trimulyono, Guntur

    2017-05-01

    Subject material concerning Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid (DNA) structure in the format of creativity-driven laboratory practice offers meaningful learning experience to the students. Therefore, a laboratory practice in which utilizes simple procedures and easy-safe-affordable household materials should be promoted to students to develop their creativity. This study aimed to examine whether designing and conducting DNA extraction with household materials could foster students' creative thinking. We also described how this laboratory practice affected students' knowledge and views. A total of 47 students participated in this study. These students were grouped and asked to utilize available household materials and modify procedures using hands-on worksheet. Result showed that this approach encouraged creative thinking as well as improved subject-related knowledge. Students also demonstrated positive views about content knowledge, social skills, and creative thinking skills. This study implies that extracting DNA with household materials is able to develop content knowledge, social skills, and creative thinking of the students. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(3):216-225, 2017. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  3. Study of the suitability of Israeli household salt for retrospective dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datz, Hanan; Druzhyna, Sofia; Orion, Itzhak; Oster, Leonid; Horowitz, Yigal

    2016-01-01

    The first results of an in-depth evaluation of the practical potential of common household Israeli salt as a retrospective dosemeter in the event of a nuclear accident or terror attack are presented. Ten brands of salt were investigated with emphasis on four of the best-selling brands that constitute 76 % of the total consumer market. Eight of the ten brands show similar glow curves with two main glow peaks at maximum temperatures of ∼176 deg. C and ∼225 deg. C measured at a heating rate of 1 deg. C s -1 . Chemical analysis of three major brands indicates substantial impurity levels of 200-500 ppm of Ca, K, Mg and S and significant differences of additional ppm trace impurities, which lead to an ∼50 % difference in the TL response of the three major brands. Fading in the dark is in significant but under room light is of the order of 35 % per day. The dose response is linear/supralinear with the threshold of supralinearity at ∼0.01 Gy reaching maximum value of ∼4 at 0.5-1 Gy for two of the major brands. The precision of repeated measurements is ∼10 % (1 SD), but the accuracy of dose assessment under field conditions requires further study. (authors)

  4. Evaluation of the subsidy scheme for heat pumps, pellet-fuelled fireplaces and control systems; Evaluering av tilskuddsordningen til varmepumper, pelletskaminer og styringssystemer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoernstad, Even; Grande, Jorunn; Sand, Roar; Wendelborg, Christian

    2005-07-01

    Enova's subsidy scheme for energy economising in households was carried out in 2003. Subsidies were given to investments in heat pumps, pellet-fuelled fireplaces and electric energy management systems. The primary objective for this evaluation is to build knowledge about the effect of such subsidy schemes, and determine if they contribute to the reduction of electricity consumption in households. Questions that are addressed include Enova's administration of the subsidy scheme, the effects on households, the effects on the energy market, prices and technology. It is concluded that the scheme had a varied effect for the three technologies entitled to subsidies, and heat pump applications got 92,5 percent of the total sum. The households that received subsidies are in general positive, and the households that did not are in general not so satisfied with the service. It is concluded Enova has administered the subsidy scheme well, especially considering the time-frame and the changed economical conditions given (ml)

  5. 20:60:20--differences in energy behaviour and conservation between and within households with electricity monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtagh, Niamh; Gatersleben, Birgitta; Uzzell, David

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of electricity monitors (in-home displays; IHDs), which show accurate and up-to-the-minute energy usage, is expected to lead to reduction in consumption. Studies of feedback on domestic electricity use have generally supported this view. However, such studies also demonstrate wide variation between households. Examining the heterogeneity of responses is essential for understanding the actual and potential effectiveness of IHDs and in order to target interventions effectively. To explore differences between households' responses to IHDs, we conducted a qualitative study with 21 households who had an IHD for more than six months. Of the 21, only four households continued to refer to the IHD and the findings suggest that attempts to reduce energy consumption were situated in wider social and physical contexts. Further, the participants demonstrated energy saving behaviour before and outside of IHD usage. The patterns of energy behaviours and attempts at electricity conservation could best be understood by categorising the households into three types: the Monitor Enthusiasts (20%), the Aspiring Energy Savers (60%) and the Energy Non-Engaged (20%). The factors of importance in energy behaviour differed between the categories. Financial savings contributed to efforts to reduce energy use but only up to boundaries which varied considerably between households. Social practices and social relationships appeared to constrain what actions households were prepared to undertake, illuminating aspects of inter-household variation. Within the household, all energy users were not equal and we found that women were particularly influential on energy use through their primary responsibility for domestic labour on behalf of the household. The implications of the findings for environmental campaigning are discussed.

  6. 7 CFR 273.1 - Household concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Household concept. 273.1 Section 273.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM CERTIFICATION OF ELIGIBLE HOUSEHOLDS § 273.1 Household concept...

  7. The energy consumption of households - technical and social explanations of variations; Boligers energiforbrug - sociale og tekniske forklaringer pae forskelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gram-Hansen, K

    2003-07-01

    It is well known that the amount of energy consumed in different households varies greatly with respect to both heat and electricity. Previous research has focused on either technical or social explanations for this and the social explanations have focused on the big variations between social groups. In contrast to this, the aim of this project has been to explain differences in energy consumption between quite similar households and to seek social and technical explanations. Seven high-dense, low-rise neighbourhoods in the municipality of Albertslund have been investigated. The eco-account of the municipality shows large variations in the level of energy consumption both between households in the same neighbourhood and between the neighbourhoods. Noticeably larger heat consumption was found in neighbourhoods with rented apartments rather than with owner-occupied apartments. On this background the aim of this project has been: To explore technical and social explanations for large variations in energy consumption in similar neighbourhoods; To investigate connections between technical and social explanations; To point to relevant strategies concerning behaviour and lifestyle to reduce energy consumption. To answer these questions several investigations were carried out in the seven neighbourhoods including computer calculations of the buildings' heat loss, a survey among 500 residents, qualitative interviews with ten families and detailed measures of the indoor climate in thirty households. Based on the results the following strategies to reduce energy consumption are formulated: Emphasising positive aspect of a modest life to promote families with a saving attitude to stick to this in spite of societal pressure for increased consumption; Continuing information strategies towards a more environmentally sound behaviour, bur with greater emphasis on reducing consumption than on the attitude towards environment; Concerning new information technologies, technology

  8. The energy consumption of households - technical and social explanations of variations; Boligers energiforbrug - sociale og tekniske forklaringer pae forskelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gram-Hansen, K.

    2003-07-01

    It is well known that the amount of energy consumed in different households varies greatly with respect to both heat and electricity. Previous research has focused on either technical or social explanations for this and the social explanations have focused on the big variations between social groups. In contrast to this, the aim of this project has been to explain differences in energy consumption between quite similar households and to seek social and technical explanations. Seven high-dense, low-rise neighbourhoods in the municipality of Albertslund have been investigated. The eco-account of the municipality shows large variations in the level of energy consumption both between households in the same neighbourhood and between the neighbourhoods. Noticeably larger heat consumption was found in neighbourhoods with rented apartments rather than with owner-occupied apartments. On this background the aim of this project has been: To explore technical and social explanations for large variations in energy consumption in similar neighbourhoods; To investigate connections between technical and social explanations; To point to relevant strategies concerning behaviour and lifestyle to reduce energy consumption. To answer these questions several investigations were carried out in the seven neighbourhoods including computer calculations of the buildings' heat loss, a survey among 500 residents, qualitative interviews with ten families and detailed measures of the indoor climate in thirty households. Based on the results the following strategies to reduce energy consumption are formulated: Emphasising positive aspect of a modest life to promote families with a saving attitude to stick to this in spite of societal pressure for increased consumption; Continuing information strategies towards a more environmentally sound behaviour, bur with greater emphasis on reducing consumption than on the attitude towards environment; Concerning new information technologies, technology

  9. The impact of household energy efficiency measures on health: A meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maidment, Christopher D.; Jones, Christopher R.; Webb, Thomas L.; Hathway, E. Abigail; Gilbertson, Jan M.

    2014-01-01

    It is widely accepted that interventions designed to promote household energy efficiency, like insulation, central heating and double glazing, can help to reduce cold-related illnesses and associated stress by making it easier for residents to keep their homes warm. However, these interventions may also have a detrimental effect on health. For example, the materials used or lower ventilation rates could result in poorer indoor air quality. The present research sought to systematically quantify the impact of household energy efficiency measures on health and wellbeing. Thirty-six studies, involving more than 33,000 participants were meta-analysed. Effect sizes (d) ranged from −0.43 (a negative impact on health) to 1.41 (a substantial positive impact on health), with an overall sample-weighted average effect size (d + ) of 0.08. On average, therefore, household energy efficiency interventions led to a small but significant improvement in the health of residents. The findings are discussed in the context of the health improvements experienced by different groups of participants and the study design factors that influence health outcomes. The need for future studies to investigate the long term health benefits of interventions designed to promote household energy efficiency is identified. - Highlights: • Thirty-six studies, with over 33,000 participants, were meta-analysed. • The sample-weighted average effect was d + =0.08. • Energy efficiency interventions, therefore, had a small, positive effect on health. • Participants with low incomes saw greater benefits. • Larger effects were found in more recent studies and where medical tests were used

  10. Household demographic determinants of Ebola epidemic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ben

    2016-03-07

    A salient characteristic of Ebola, and some other infectious diseases such as Tuberculosis, is intense transmission among small groups of cohabitants and relatively limited indiscriminate transmission in the wider population. Here we consider a mathematical model for an Ebola epidemic in a population structured into households of equal size. We show that household size, a fundamental demographic unit, is a critical factor that determines the vulnerability of a community to epidemics, and the effort required to control them. Our analysis is based on the household reproduction number, but we also consider the basic reproduction number, intrinsic growth rate and final epidemic size. We show that, when other epidemiological parameters are kept the same, all of these quantifications of epidemic growth and size are increased by larger households and more intense within-household transmission. We go on to model epidemic control by case detection and isolation followed by household quarantine. We show that, if household quarantine is ineffective, the critical probability with which cases must be detected to halt an epidemic increases significantly with each increment in household size and may be a very challenging target for communities composed of large households. Effective quarantine may, however, mitigate the detrimental impact of large household sizes. We conclude that communities composed of large households are fundamentally more vulnerable to epidemics of infectious diseases primarily transmitted by close contact, and any assessment of control strategies for these epidemics should take into account the demographic structure of the population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Agrobiodiversity, Rural Transformations and Household Experiences of Globalised Change: A Case Study from Southern Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Turner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines reconfigurations of household economies and agrobiodiversity through the experiences and responses of rural households to local manifestations of globalisation and environmental change in the Central Valley of Tarija, Bolivia, from the 1950s to the present. Research participant narratives from seven study communities document a widely experienced regional shift from rain-fed agriculture and pastured livestock production for household consumption to market-oriented production of regionally-specialised commodities. Particularly important to this reconfiguration are changing land access and use regimes, household responses to changing opportunities, discourses and social requirements related with ‘modernising lifestyles’, market integration and dependence, changing environmental and ecological conditions, and greater availability of consumer goods and technologies. We analyse how these processes have combined to reconfigure the range of livelihood possibilities available to rural households, or their ‘landscapes of possibility’, in ways that favour transition to specialised commodity production. Patterns of change in household agrobiodiversity use, however, are entwined with threads of persistence, underscoring the contingent nature of rural transitions and the role of local agency and creativity in responding to and sometimes shaping how globalisation unfolds. Examining rural transition through the experiences of households in particular contexts over time offers insights for development policy and practice to support producers’ ability to respond to globalisation and environmental change in ways they see as desirable and beneficial to their livelihoods and wellbeing.

  12. Optimum systems design with random input and output applied to solar water heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Malek, L. L.

    1980-03-01

    Solar water heating systems are evaluated. Models were developed to estimate the percentage of energy supplied from the Sun to a household. Since solar water heating systems have random input and output queueing theory, birth and death processes were the major tools in developing the models of evaluation. Microeconomics methods help in determining the optimum size of the solar water heating system design parameters, i.e., the water tank volume and the collector area.

  13. Phase transformation based pyroelectric waste heat energy harvesting with improved practicality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Hwan Ryul; Lynch, Christopher S

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, almost 60% of thermal energy produced in the United States was lost to the environment as waste heat. Ferroelectric based pyroelectric devices can be used to convert some of this waste heat into usable electrical energy using the Olsen cycle, an ideal thermodynamic cycle, but there are a number of barriers to its realization in a practical device. This study uses the Olsen cycle to benchmark a less efficient thermodynamic cycle that is more easily implemented in devices. The ferroelectric pyroelectric material used was (Pb 0.97 La 0.02 )(Zr 0.55 Sn 0.32 Ti 0.13 )O 3 ceramic, a ferroelectric material that undergoes a temperature driven phase transformation. A net energy density of 0.27 J cm −3 per cycle was obtained from the ferroelectric material using the modified cycle with a temperature change between 25°C and 180°C. This is 15.5% of the Olsen cycle result with the same temperature range and 1–8 MV m −1 applied electric field range. The power density was estimated to 13.5 mW cm −3 with given experimental conditions. A model is presented that quantitatively describes the effect of several parameters on output energy density and can be used to design ferroelectric based pyroelectric energy converters. The model indicates that optimization of material geometry and heating conditions can increase the output power by an order or magnitude. (paper)

  14. Evaluating the effect of the space surrounding the condenser of a household refrigerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassiouny, Ramadan [Dept. of Mech. Power Eng. and Energy, Faculty of Engineering, Minia University, Minia 61111 (Egypt)

    2009-11-15

    The paper presents an analytical and computational modeling of the effect of the space surrounding the condenser of a household refrigerator on the rejected heat. The driving force for rejecting the heat carried by the refrigerant from the interior of a refrigerator is the temperature difference between the condenser outer surface and surrounding air. The variation of this difference, because of having an insufficient space, increasing the room air temperature, or blocking this space, is of interest to quantify its effect The results showed that having an enough surrounding space width (s > 200 mm) leads to a decrease in the temperature of the air flowing vertically around the condenser coil. Accordingly, this would significantly increase the amount of heat rejected. Moreover, blocking this space retards the buoyant flow up the condenser surface, and hence increases the air temperature around the condenser. This would also decrease the heat rejected from the condenser. Predicted temperature contours are displayed to visualize the air plumes' variation surrounding the condenser in all cases. (author)

  15. Transition overtime in household latrine use in rural Bangladesh: a longitudinal cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In a low-income country like Bangladesh, where the poverty rate is higher in rural compared to urban areas, the consistent use of sanitary latrines over time is a challenge. To address this issue, the Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) program of the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) was devised to improve health of the rural poor through enhanced sanitation services, such as by providing loans or education. Sanitary latrine use in households and changes over time were assessed in this study. Methods This was a longitudinal cohort study of the baseline, midline, and end line status of the WASH project. Households assessed in all three rounds of surveys (26,404 in each survey) were included in the analysis. Thirty thousand households from 50 upazilas (sub-districts) were selected in two stages: i) thirty villages were selected from each of the 50 upazilas by cluster sampling, and ii) twenty households were chosen systematically from each selected village. A female member capable of providing household-level information was interviewed from each house using the pre-tested questionnaire. Spot observations of some components were made to assess the quality of sanitary latrine use. The adjusted log-binomial regression was performed and risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated for sanitary latrine use. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) and Stata software. Results The use of sanitary latrines by households increased significantly from the baseline (31.7%) to midline (41.5%) and end line (57.4%) assessment points. The proportion of physically verified clean latrines increased significantly from 33.4% at baseline to 50.8% at the midline and 53.3% at the end line. Analysis of changes in latrine-use showed that 73.3% of the baseline latrine-using households continued to do so at the end line, while the rest switched to unsanitary practices. Households with better socioeconomic status were more

  16. THE IMPACT OF CREDIT AND CAPITAL SUPPORTS ON ECONOMIC BEHAVIOR OF FARM HOUSEHOLDS: A HOUSEHOLD ECONOMIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardus Bala de Rosari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at analysing the demand and allocation of credit and capital supports by farm household and impact on production, consumption, and investment. The research was conducted in East Nusa Tenggara Timur (ENT Province, one of targeted region of credit and capital supports policy of the government. Data collection was conducted from April to June 2013 by sampling for 178 households of farmers in Kupang District and Timor Tengah Selatan (TTS District. The result of this research showed that the allocation of credit and capital supports caused increaseof cattle production, consumption expenditure, and investment. The usage of credit and capital supports was depend on economical situation of the household itself. The decision of farm household on using credit and capital supports had impact on overall economical behavior of household, i.e. production, consumption and investment behavior. The transmission use was reciprocally interacted. Finally, the policy of credit and capital supports scheme for farmers should be adjusted with the context of farm household economics.

  17. Characterization of household waste in Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisted, Rasmus; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    The composition of household waste in Greenland was investigated for the first time. About 2 tonnes of household waste was sampled as every 7th bag collected during 1 week along the scheduled collection routes in Sisimiut, the second largest town in Greenland with about 5400 inhabitants. The collection bags were sorted manually into 10 material fractions. The household waste composition consisted primarily of biowaste (43%) and the combustible fraction (30%), including anything combustible that did not belong to other clean fractions as paper, cardboard and plastic. Paper (8%) (dominated by magazine type paper) and glass (7%) were other important material fractions of the household waste. The remaining approximately 10% constituted of steel (1.5%), aluminum (0.5%), plastic (2.4%), wood (1.0%), non-combustible waste (1.8%) and household hazardous waste (1.2%). The high content of biowaste and the low content of paper make Greenlandic waste much different from Danish household waste. The moisture content, calorific value and chemical composition (55 elements, of which 22 were below detection limits) were determined for each material fraction. These characteristics were similar to what has been found for material fractions in Danish household waste. The chemical composition and the calorific value of the plastic fraction revealed that this fraction was not clean but contained a lot of biowaste. The established waste composition is useful in assessing alternative waste management schemes for household waste in Greenland.

  18. Factors influencing energy-saving behavior of urban households in Jiangsu Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Ting; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong

    2013-01-01

    In this research, the willingness of households to adopt different energy-saving behavior has been analyzed, and factors influencing energy-saving behavior in Jiangsu Province, China, have been examined. The study builds on a broad and practical conceptual framework that embraces three types of energy-saving behavior and four dimensions of influencing factors, including socio-demographics, energy-saving awareness, behavioral ability, and situational factors. The empirical results are based on an Internet survey that was sent out to 638 households. The results indicate that socio-demographic characteristics, including age, gender, income level, household structure, and educational background, are all important factors influencing energy-saving behavior. At present, respondents adopt the usage-reduction type of behavior more often than the other two types, which require a greater capacity to pay for energy-efficient products and a higher level of energy-saving awareness. Situational factors have significant positive moderating effects when the variables of behavioral ability and energy-saving awareness act on energy-saving behavior. In addition, the results also show that spatial differences exist among the three regions of Jiangsu Province. Finally, some implications of these results for the design of future incentive policies and measures to encourage energy-saving behavior are presented. -- Highlights: •A broad and practical conceptual framework of energy-saving behaviors is built. •Socio-demographic characteristics are determinants of energy-saving behavior. •Respondents adopt the usage-reduction type more often than the other two types. •Situational factors have positive moderating effects on the other two variables. •Spatial differences exist among the three regions of Jiangsu Province

  19. The management of household hazardous waste in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, R J; Gronow, J R; Voulvoulis, N

    2009-01-01

    Waste legislation in the United Kingdom (UK) implements European Union (EU) Directives and Regulations. However, the term used to refer to hazardous waste generated in household or municipal situations, household hazardous waste (HHW), does not occur in UK, or EU, legislation. The EU's Hazardous Waste Directive and European Waste Catalogue are the principal legislation influencing HHW, although the waste categories described are difficult to interpret. Other legislation also have impacts on HHW definition and disposal, some of which will alter current HHW disposal practices, leading to a variety of potential consequences. This paper discusses the issues affecting the management of HHW in the UK, including the apparent absence of a HHW-specific regulatory structure. Policy and regulatory measures that influence HHW management before disposal and after disposal are considered, with particular emphasis placed on disposal to landfill.

  20. Wildlife Hunting in Eastern Mongolia: Economic and Demographic Factors Influencing Hunting Behavior of Herding Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk A. Olson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Much of Mongolia’s rangelands are under state control and managed via traditional land use practices and are habitat for numerous wildlife species harvested for their meat and fur. Political and economic transformations that have been occurring since the early 1990’s continues to affect all aspects of Mongolian society. To cope during periods of economic hardship, many turned to harvesting wildlife resources for income and subsistence and this resulted in precipitous declines of some populations, marmots for example. Interviews with herding households in Mongolia’s eastern steppe region were conducted to better determine how wildlife resources (Mongolian gazelle, Siberian marmot, red foxes, corsac foxes, and gray wolf are utilized and valued by herding families. Hunting, carried out by 65% of interviewees, returned an average of $103±172 dollars per household. The number of individuals hunted of any particular species during the previous year ranged widely - 46% of households hunted an average of 8±9 Mongolian gazelles (the equivalent of a small cow, 31% hunted 5±5 corsac foxes, 29% hunted 42±47 marmots, 22% hunted 3±3 red foxes, and 17% hunted 3±2 gray wolves. Differences in mean annual income between hunting and non-hunting households were similar ($1,292±1,132 vs. $1,080±1,196 however the median difference was greater ($1,009 vs $749. However, non-hunting households owned significantly more livestock than hunting households (168±183 vs. 93±92 Livestock Units, and the proportion of hunting households living below the poverty line was higher. Households that were larger or had few numbers of livestock were more likely to engage in hunting than smaller households with more livestock. Household and livestock variables were also significant predictors of a households likelihood of hunting Mongolian gazelle, Siberian marmot, and corsac fox, but not for red fox or gray wolf. Wildlife management policies will likely receive greater

  1. Household energy consumption and expenditures, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990, is based upon data from the 1990 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). Focusing on energy end-use consumption and expenditures of households, the 1990 RECS is the eighth in a series conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Over 5,000 households were surveyed, providing information on their housing units, housing characteristics, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information provided represents the characteristics and energy consumption of 94 million households nationwide

  2. Determinants of Household Food Security in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Ayu Mutiah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Food security at household level is a very important precondition to foster the national and regional food security. Many people migrate to urban areas in the hope of improving their welfare. Generally people think that in the city there are more opportunities, but the opposite is true. The problem is more complex in the city especially for people who do not have adequate skills and education. This study aims to address whether  age of household head, household size, education level of household head, income, and distribution of subsidized rice policy affect the food security of urban poor households in Purbalingga district. A hundred respondents were selected from four top villages in urban areas of Purbalingga with the highest level of poverty. Using binary logistic regression, this study finds significant positive effect of education of household head and household income and significant negative effect of household size and raskin on household food security, while age of household head has no significant effect on household food security. The results imply the need for increased awareness of family planning, education, improved skills, and increased control of the implementation of subsidized rice for the poor.

  3. Special charges related to household energy use. Documentations 1970-2012; Saeravgifter relatert til husholdningenes energiforbruk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessmann, Sandra; Halvorsen, Bente; Larsen, Bodil M.

    2012-11-15

    This paper provides an overview of special charges related to household energy use in Norway from 1970 to 2012. Excise duties are presented by the object they apply (rather than to describe the fee arrangements separately). Moreover, they are categorized into three groups: tax on stationary energy, taxes on mobile purposes relating to the ownership and usage-dependent charges on mobile applications. Chapter 2 collects taxes in the first category. The author describes the special taxes imposed on households' stationary energy, such as heating the home. Chapter 3 discusses the various fees imposed on the owner of the vehicle, and how these fees are independent of the amount of transport used. Chapter 4 describes the history of usage-dependent charges on mobile purposes, which include taxes on fuel. This paper is intended to be an encyclopedia for use in future analyzes of the Special Tax behavioral effects in Norwegian households. It is first and foremost in the project households respond to energy and environmental policy measures, funded by the Research Council of the project is not only to look at the excise taxes separately but also how various energy and environmental policy instruments work together. This is one of the reasons for the division of special taxes that have been made in the note. Household energy use contributes to a significant proportion of greenhouse gas emissions and a reduction in household energy consumption is an important goal of climate policy. A number of policy instruments have been eager cat to move household energy consumption away from fossil fuels to renewable energy and increase energy efficiency in Norwegian homes. To ensure the effectiveness of current and future policies, and minimize adverse behavioral effects, information from analyzes of several means changing household adaptation would be of great importance. Project Support: The work of this paper is funded within the Research Council Renergie program (project {sup H}ousehold

  4. 9708 INTRAHOUSEHOLD ALLOCATION, HOUSEHOLD HEADSHIP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    agricultural production, education, healthcare and other household needs [17]. ... to various assets within the household depends on age, gender and power ..... Omilola B Patterns and Trends of Child and Maternal Nutrition Inequalities in.

  5. UK Household Portfolios

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, James; Smith, Sarah

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of the composition of household portfolios, using both aggregate and micro-data. Among the key findings are that: Most household wealth is held in the form of housing and pensions. Over time, there has been a shift away from housing towards financial assets, driven largely by the growth in life and pension funds. Liquid financial wealth (excluding life and pension funds) is not predominantly held in risky form. By far the most commonly held asset is an ...

  6. Reducing residential solid fuel combustion through electrified space heating leads to substantial air quality, health and climate benefits in China's Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Mauzerall, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    During periods of high pollution in winter, household space heating can contribute more than half of PM2.5 concentrations in China's Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region. The majority of rural households and some urban households in the region still heat with small stoves and solid fuels such as raw coal, coal briquettes and biomass. Thus, reducing emissions from residential space heating has become a top priority of the Chinese government's air pollution mitigation plan. Electrified space heating is a promising alternative to solid fuel. However, there is little analysis of the air quality and climate implications of choosing various electrified heating devices and utilizing different electricity sources. Here we conduct an integrated assessment of the air quality, human health and climate implications of various electrified heating scenarios in the BTH region using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry. We use the Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China for the year 2012 as our base case and design two electrification scenarios in which either direct resistance heaters or air source heat pumps are installed to replace all household heating stoves. We initially assume all electrified heating devices use electricity from supercritical coal-fired power plants. We find that installing air source heat pumps reduces CO2 emissions and premature deaths due to PM2.5 pollution more than resistance heaters, relative to the base case. The increased health and climate benefits of heat pumps occur because they have a higher heat conversion efficiency and thus require less electricity for space heating than resistance heaters. We also find that with the same heat pump installation, a hybrid electricity source (40% of the electricity generated from renewable sources and the rest from coal) further reduces both CO2 emissions and premature deaths than using electricity only from coal. Our study demonstrates the air pollution and CO2 mitigation potential and

  7. The household energy transition in India and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachauri, Shonali; Jiang, Leiwen

    2008-01-01

    Both India and China are countries in energy transition. This paper compares the household energy transitions in these nations through the analysis of both aggregate statistics and nationally representative household surveys. The two countries differ sharply in several respects. Residential energy consumption in China is twice that in India, in aggregate terms. In addition, Chinese households have almost universal access to electricity, while in India almost half of rural households and 10% of urban households still lack access. On aggregate, urban households in China also derive a larger share of their total energy from liquid fuels and grids (77%) as compared to urban Indian households (65%). Yet, at every income level, Indians derive a slightly larger fraction of their total household energy needs from liquid and grid sources of energy than Chinese with comparable incomes. Despite these differences, trends in energy use and the factors influencing a transition to modern energy in both nations are similar. Compared with rural households, urban households in both nations consume a disproportionately large share of commercial energy and are much further along in the transition to modern energy. However, total energy consumption in rural households exceeds that in urban households, because of a continued dependence on inefficient solid fuels, which contribute to over 85% of rural household energy needs in both countries. In addition to urbanisation, key drivers of the transition in both nations include income, energy prices, energy access and local fuel availability. (author)

  8. Potentials of district heating grids for climate protection up to the year 2020; Potenziale von Nah- und Fernwaermenetzen fuer den Klimaschutz bis zum Jahr 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischedick, Manfred; Schuewer, Dietmar; Venjakob, Johannes; Merten, Frank; Mitze, Dirk [Wuppertal Inst. fuer Klima, Umwelt, Energie GmbH (Germany); Nast, Michael; Schillings, Christoph; Krewitt, Wolfram [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Thermodynamik; Bohnenschaefer, Werner; Lindner, Klaus [Institut fuer Energetik und Umwelt, Leipzig (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    District heat is one of Germany's traditional end use energy sources, with a connected capacity of about 57,000 MWth. The heat is distributed via 1,400 grids with a total length of about 19,000 km. The number of households supplied with district heat increased from 9.7 percent in 1993 to 13.7 percent in 2003. About 550 out of about 1,000 German utilities provide district heat to households. During the past few years, the connected capacity of district heating has been stagnating. This is the result of thermal insulation measures, dismantling and abandonment of supply grids, but also of changes on the demand side that can still be compensated by concentration and expansion potentials.

  9. Food waste from Danish households: Generation and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable solutions for reducing food waste require a good understanding of food waste generation and composition, including avoidable and unavoidable food waste. We analysed 12 tonnes of residual household waste collected from 1474 households, without source segregation of organic waste. Food...... waste was divided into six fractions according to avoidability, suitability for home-composting and whether or not it was cooked, prepared or had been served within the household. The results showed that the residual household waste generation rate was 434 ± 18 kg per household per year, of which 183...... ± 10 kg per year was food waste. Unavoidable food waste amounted to 80 ± 6 kg per household per year, and avoidable food waste was 103 ± 9 kg per household per year. Food waste mass was influenced significantly by the number of occupants per household (household size) and the housing type. The results...

  10. Shared Sanitation Versus Individual Household Latrines in Urban Slums: A Cross-Sectional Study in Orissa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijnen, Marieke; Routray, Parimita; Torondel, Belen; Clasen, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    A large and growing proportion of the global population rely on shared sanitation facilities despite evidence of a potential increased risk of adverse health outcomes compared with individual household latrines (IHLs). We sought to explore differences between households relying on shared sanitation versus IHLs in terms of demographics, sanitation facilities, and fecal exposure. We surveyed 570 households from 30 slums in Orissa, India, to obtain data on demographics, water, sanitation, and hygiene. Latrine spot-checks were conducted to collect data on indicators of use, privacy, and cleanliness. We collected samples of drinking water and hand rinses to assess fecal contamination. Households relying on shared sanitation were poorer and less educated than those accessing IHLs. Individuals in sharing households were more likely to practice open defecation. Shared facilities were less likely to be functional, less clean, and more likely to have feces and flies. No differences in fecal contamination of drinking water or hand-rinse samples were found. Important differences exist among households accessing shared facilities versus IHLs that may partly explain the apparent adverse health outcomes associated with shared sanitation. As these factors may capture differences in risk and promote sanitary improvements, they should be considered in future policy. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  11. The impact of winter heating on air pollution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qingyang; Ma, Zongwei; Li, Shenshen; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Fossil-fuel combustion related winter heating has become a major air quality and public health concern in northern China recently. We analyzed the impact of winter heating on aerosol loadings over China using the MODIS-Aqua Collection 6 aerosol product from 2004-2012. Absolute humidity (AH) and planetary boundary layer height (PBL) -adjusted aerosol optical depth (AOD*) was constructed to reflect ground-level PM2.5 concentrations. GIS analysis, standard statistical tests, and statistical modeling indicate that winter heating is an important factor causing increased PM2.5 levels in more than three-quarters of central and eastern China. The heating season AOD* was more than five times higher as the non-heating season AOD*, and the increase in AOD* in the heating areas was greater than in the non-heating areas. Finally, central heating tend to contribute less to air pollution relative to other means of household heating.

  12. Household composition and psychological health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Lene Eide; Willaing, Ingrid; Holt, Richard I G

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: 1) To explore the effect of household composition on the psychological health of adults with diabetes by comparing those living with other adult(s) including a partner with those living with neither partner nor other adult(s); 2) to examine potential mediation of social support...... in the association between household composition and psychological health. METHODS: The study is part of the DAWN2 study conducted in 17 countries. The population comprised 8596 people with diabetes (PWD). Multiple regression models (linear and binary) were applied. RESULTS: People living with 'other adult...... to the other household composition groups. The association between household composition and psychological health was not mediated by diabetes-specific social support. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates the psychological vulnerability of respondents living without a partner but with other adult(s). Appropriate...

  13. Household environment and behavioral determinants of respiratory tract infection in infants and young children in northern Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasanen-Gilmore, S Pieta K; Saha, Subir; Rasul, Izaz; Rousham, Emily K

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections (RTI) are one of the leading causes of under-five mortality in Bangladesh. Solid biomass fuels are the main source of domestic fuel used for cooking across Bangladesh, leading to smoke and pollution exposure in the home. This article aims to identify risk factors for RTI among children aged under five years in Bangladesh with a particular focus on the household environment, fuel use, and cooking practices. A cross-sectional household-health survey was carried out in 321 households in northern Bangladesh. The survey included care-giver interviews on cooking practices, child health, and household behaviors during cooking. Health status of the youngest child (under five years) from each household was recorded through maternal interviews, medical diagnosis, and assessment of biomarkers (C-reactive protein (CRP), hemoglobin) from finger-prick blood samples. Anthropometric status (weight, height) was recorded. Children who spent ≥30 minutes/day within 5 feet of the stove during cooking had a significantly increased risk of moderate/severe RTI compared with children spending economic status (SES), biomass fuel type (wood, dung, plant-derived, compressed rice husks), child age, anthropometric status, CRP and hemoglobin. In environments with a heavy reliance on solid biomass fuels, the amount of time a child spends near the stove during cooking may be an important risk for RTI. These novel findings from Bangladesh warrant further investigation of mother-infant behaviors during cooking in relation to child health, to ascertain whether the association is likely to be causal. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Size of households and income disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznets, S

    1981-01-01

    The author examines "the relation between differentials in size of households, (preponderantly family households including one-person units) and disparities in income per household, per person, or per some version of consuming unit." The analysis is based on data for the United States, the Federal Republic of Germany, Israel, Taiwan, the Philippines, and Thailand. excerpt

  15. Municipal water quantities and health in Nunavut households: an exploratory case study in Coral Harbour, Nunavut, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiley Daley

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Access to adequate quantities of water has a protective effect on human health and well-being. Despite this, public health research and interventions are frequently focused solely on water quality, and international standards for domestic water supply minimums are often overlooked or unspecified. This trend is evident in Inuit and other Arctic communities even though numerous transmissible diseases and bacterium infections associated with inadequate domestic water quantities are prevalent. Objectives: Our objective was to explore the pathways by which the trucked water distribution systems being used in remote northern communities are impacting health at the household level, with consideration given to the underlying social and environmental determinants shaping health in the region. Methods: Using a qualitative case study design, we conducted 37 interviews (28 residents, 9 key informants and a review of government water documents to investigate water usage practices and perspectives. These data were thematically analysed to understand potential health risks in Arctic communities and households. Results: Each resident receives an average of 110 litres of municipal water per day. Fifteen of 28 households reported experiencing water shortages at least once per month. Of those 15, most were larger households (5 people or more with standard sized water storage tanks. Water shortages and service interruptions limit the ability of some households to adhere to public health advice. The households most resilient, or able to cope with domestic water supply shortages, were those capable of retrieving their own drinking water directly from lake and river sources. Residents with extended family and neighbours, whom they can rely on during shortages, were also less vulnerable to municipal water delays. Conclusions: The relatively low in-home water quantities observed in Coral Harbour, Nunavut, appear adequate for some families. Those living in

  16. Assessment of drinking water quality and rural household water treatment in Balaka District, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkwate, Raphael C.; Chidya, Russel C. G.; Wanda, Elijah M. M.

    2017-08-01

    Access to drinking water from unsafe sources is widespread amongst communities in rural areas such as Balaka District in Malawi. This situation puts many individuals and communities at risk of waterborne diseases despite some households adopting household water treatment to improve the quality of the water. However, there still remains data gaps regarding the quality of drinking water from such sources and the household water treatment methods used to improve public health. This study was, therefore, conducted to help bridge the knowledge gap by evaluating drinking water quality and adoption rate of household water treatment and storage (HWTS) practices in Nkaya, Balaka District. Water samples were collected from eleven systematically selected sites and analyzed for physico-chemical and microbiological parameters: pH, TDS, electrical conductivity (EC), turbidity, F-, Cl-, NO3-, Na, K, Fe, Faecal Coliform (FC) and Faecal Streptococcus (FS) bacteria using standard methods. The mean results were compared to the World Health Organization (WHO) and Malawi Bureau of Standards (MBS) (MS 733:2005) to ascertain the water quality for drinking purposes. A total of 204 randomly selected households were interviewed to determine their access to drinking water, water quality perception and HWTS among others. The majority of households (72%, n = 83) in Njerenje accessed water from shallow wells and rivers whilst in Phimbi boreholes were commonly used. Several households (>95%, n = 204) were observed to be practicing HWST techniques by boiling or chlorination and water storage in closed containers. The levels of pH (7.10-7.64), F- (0.89-1.46 mg/L), Cl- (5.45-89.84 mg/L), NO3- (0-0.16 mg/L), Na (20-490 mg/L), K (2.40-14 mg/L) and Fe (0.10-0.40 mg/L) for most sites were within the standard limits. The EC (358-2220 μS/cm), turbidity (0.54-14.60 NTU), FC (0-56 cfu/100 mL) and FS (0-120 cfu/100 mL) - mainly in shallow wells, were found to be above the WHO and MBS water quality

  17. Modeling and optimization of a heat-pump-assisted high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell micro-combined-heat-and-power system for residential applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros; Kær, Søren Knudsen; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2015-01-01

    In this study a micro-combined-heat-and-power (micro-CHP) system is coupled to a vapor-compression heat pump to fulfill the residential needs for heating (space heating and water heating) and electricity in detached single-family households in Denmark. Such a combination is assumed to be attractive...... for application, since both fuel cell technology and electric heat pumps are found to be two of the most efficient technologies for generation/conversion of useful energy. The micro-CHP system is fueled with natural gas and includes a fuel cell stack, a fuel processor and other auxiliary components. The micro......-CHP system assumes heat-led operation, to avoid dumping of heat and the use of complicated thermal energy storage. The overall system is grid-interconnected to allow importing and exporting of electricity as necessary. In this study emphasis is given on the operational characterization of the system...

  18. Exploring policy options for a transition to sustainable heating system diffusion using an agent-based simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maya Sopha, Bertha; Kloeckner, Christian A.; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2011-01-01

    Change in home heating to more efficient and renewable systems is important for a sound climate policy. The present paper aims to identify potential interventions for the uptake of wood-pellet heating in Norway using an agent-based model (ABM). The theoretically based, empirically founded, agent-based simulation demonstrates that financial support, i.e., a stable wood-pellet price, and technical development, i.e., functional reliability improvement, have to be established all at the same time for a successful wood-pellet market to start. Furthermore, a soft intervention through persuading households to use environmentally beneficial heating system is not a promising driver for wood-pellet diffusion. Limitations and suggestions for future work are also discussed. - Research highlights: → The theoretically based, empirically founded, agent-based simulation is applied to investigate potential policy options toward diffusion of wood-pellet heating in Norway. → Relative advantages are necessary for wood-pellet heating to be adopted, consistent with Diffusion of Innovation theory (). → Simultaneous development is also required for further uptake of wood-pellet heating, supporting the existing empirical hypothesis by . → Persuading households to use environmentally friendly heating system is not a promising driver, in line with empirical finding of , who investigated psychological factors underlying the adoption of wood-pellet heating.

  19. Exploring policy options for a transition to sustainable heating system diffusion using an agent-based simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maya Sopha, Bertha, E-mail: bertha.sopha@ntnu.n [Industrial Ecology Programme and Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Kloeckner, Christian A. [Department of Psychology, Section for Risk Psychology, Environment and Safety (RIPENSA), Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Hertwich, Edgar G. [Industrial Ecology Programme and Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2011-05-15

    Change in home heating to more efficient and renewable systems is important for a sound climate policy. The present paper aims to identify potential interventions for the uptake of wood-pellet heating in Norway using an agent-based model (ABM). The theoretically based, empirically founded, agent-based simulation demonstrates that financial support, i.e., a stable wood-pellet price, and technical development, i.e., functional reliability improvement, have to be established all at the same time for a successful wood-pellet market to start. Furthermore, a soft intervention through persuading households to use environmentally beneficial heating system is not a promising driver for wood-pellet diffusion. Limitations and suggestions for future work are also discussed. - Research highlights: {yields} The theoretically based, empirically founded, agent-based simulation is applied to investigate potential policy options toward diffusion of wood-pellet heating in Norway. {yields} Relative advantages are necessary for wood-pellet heating to be adopted, consistent with Diffusion of Innovation theory (). {yields} Simultaneous development is also required for further uptake of wood-pellet heating, supporting the existing empirical hypothesis by . {yields} Persuading households to use environmentally friendly heating system is not a promising driver, in line with empirical finding of , who investigated psychological factors underlying the adoption of wood-pellet heating.

  20. The use of cold storage in household refrigerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, Y.C.; Yang, K.T.

    1991-01-01

    A simulated household refrigerator was built that utilizes latent Thermal Energy Storage (TES) to reduce the on-off frequency of the compressor. It was found that the on-off frequency was reduced by a factor of six and that the energy consumption was less for a certain range of refrigerated space temperatures. A new evaporator design was used to accommodate the Phase Change Material (PCM). The evaporator consisted of four thin plates filled with PCM which were connected in parallel. The temperature distribution inside the PCM was also measured and the results are discussed. The PCM used was an aqueous solution of propylene glycol. In this paper freezing characteristics as well as some estimate of its latent heat are also discussed

  1. Sharing housework can be healthy: cultural and psychological factors influencing men’s involvement in household maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasza Kosakowska-Berezecka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Following gender prescriptions can affect individuals’ quality of life. Research has shown that the unequal distribution of household labor is correlated with low psychological well-being and family conflict. Therefore, negotiations concerning household and family duties within relationships appear to be an important health-related issue. Additionally, research has shown that couples who have more gender-egalitarian arrangements within their households have better health outcomes if the wider society is more gender egalitarian. In this literature review, we aim to shed light on the relationship of the equal division of housework between women and men with their health and well-being. We also present selected results from the series of studies conducted during our PAR Migration Navigator project, which explores the practices of gender equality within households and their relationship to individual well-being among Polish couples living in Poland, Polish migrant couples living in Norway, and Norwegian couples living in Norway.

  2. Hybrid renewable energy system application for electricity and heat supply of a residential building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakomčić-Smaragdakis Branka B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable and distributed energy systems could provide a solution to the burning issue of reliable and clean supply of energy, having in mind current state and future predictions for population growth and fossil fuel scarcity. Hybrid renewable energy systems are novelty in Serbia and warrant further detailed research. The aim of this paper is to analyze the application of renewable energy sources(RES for electricity and heat supply of a typical household in Serbia, as well as the cost-effectiveness of the proposed system. The influence of feed-in tariff change on the value of the investment is analyzed. Small, grid-connected hybrid system (for energy supply of a standard household, consisting of geothermal heat pump for heating/cooling, solar photovoltaic panels and small wind turbine for power supply is analyzed as a case study. System analysis was conducted with the help of RETScreen software. Results of techno-economics analysis have shown that investing in geothermal heat pump and photovoltaic panels is cost-effective, while that is not the case with small wind turbine.

  3. An investigation of a household size trigeneration running with hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yaodong; Huang, Ye; Chiremba, Elijah; Roskilly, Anthony P.; Hewitt, Neil; Ding, Yulong; Wu, Dawei; Yu, Hongdong; Chen, Xiangping; Li, Yapeng; Huang, Jincheng; Wang, Ruzhu; Wu, Jingyi; Xia, Zaizhong; Tan, Chunqing

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the performance and emission characteristics of a household size trigeneration based on a diesel engine generator fuelled with hydrogen comparing to that of single generation, cogeneration using ECLIPSE simulation software. In single generation simulation, the engine genset is used to produce electricity only and the heat from the engine is rejected to the atmosphere. In cogeneration and trigeneration, in addition to the electricity generated from the genset, the waste heat rejected from the hot exhaust gases and engine cooling system, is captured for domestic hot water supply using heat exchangers and hot water tank; and a part of the waste heat is used to drive absorption cooling in trigeneration. Comparisons have been made for the simulated results of these three modes of operation for hydrogen and diesel. The results prove that hydrogen is a potential energy vector in the future which is a key to meeting upcoming stringent greenhouse gases emissions. The study show that hydrogen has very good prospects to achieve a better or equal performance to conventional diesel fuel in terms of energetic performance, and a near zero carbon emission, depending on the life cycle analysis of the way the hydrogen is produced. The results also show enormous potential fuel savings and massive reductions in greenhouse gas emissions per unit of useful energy outputs with cogeneration and trigeneration compared with that of single generation.

  4. Co-combustion of household waste in small-scale energy supply and waste disposal plants; Co-Verbrennung von Siedlungsabfaellen in Kleinanlagen zur dezentralen Energieversorgung und Abfallentsorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeer, Ramona

    2012-07-01

    The studies described in this book demonstrate that the co-combustion of household waste in small-scale combustion plants constitutes an alternative disposal concept which facilitates the operation of decentralised waste disposal and heat supply systems. The basic idea of the concept is the co-combustion of different waste fractions in common household logwood heating systems. The experiments performed have shown that this is technically feasible using currently available technology without further modification and that these plants are capable of combusting various waste fractions at low emission levels. Several co-combustion systems were compared with basic oil, pellet and logwood heating systems in both economic and ecological respects. For this purpose cost-effectiveness calculations and a life cycle assessment were performed and brought together in an eco-efficiency analysis. The results show that the most cost-effective and eco-efficient solution is achieved when the co-combustion system is operated for high energy yield and simultaneous reduction of incombustible fractions.

  5. Development in fiscal 1998 of technology to put solar systems for industrial use into practical use. Investigative research on solar system (Development, investigation and research of solar heat utilizing system); 1998 nendo sangyoyonado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Solar system no chosa kenkyu (taiyonetsu riyo system no gijutsu kaihatsu chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    With an objective to prepare a strategic technological development program for solar heat utilization, evaluations and discussions were given on solar heat utilization from the viewpoints of 'utilizing applications', 'demand' and 'possibility of the proliferation thereof'. In the solar heat utilization, the cost rising in approximate proportion with scale of the heat utilization must be considered as one of the predestined conditions. What can be conceived as a means to enhance the economic performance by using engineering approaches would include heat storage, elementary technologies for transportation and the standardization thereof, and the scale economy on the production side in mass production. As a required step in which the series of favorable circulation of standardization to mass production, cost reduction and large quantity proliferation can be induced, it is appropriate to assume household use with high calorie unit price as the target. The household area covers room heating and hot water supply, in which the temperature level is much lower than in industrial use. In this area, a system may be established with a conception to use solar heat as the main heat source, and calorific power by fossil fuel as the supplementary heat source. Solar heat utilization may be considered utilizable in foodstuff factories and school lunch supply centers. (NEDO)

  6. Characterization of household waste in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eisted, Rasmus; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    The composition of household waste in Greenland was investigated for the first time. About 2tonnes of household waste was sampled as every 7th bag collected during 1week along the scheduled collection routes in Sisimiut, the second largest town in Greenland with about 5400 inhabitants....... The collection bags were sorted manually into 10 material fractions. The household waste composition consisted primarily of biowaste (43%) and the combustible fraction (30%), including anything combustible that did not belong to other clean fractions as paper, cardboard and plastic. Paper (8%) (dominated...... by magazine type paper) and glass (7%) were other important material fractions of the household waste. The remaining approximately 10% constituted of steel (1.5%), aluminum (0.5%), plastic (2.4%), wood (1.0%), non-combustible waste (1.8%) and household hazardous waste (1.2%). The high content of biowaste...

  7. Household pesticide usage in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, E P; Keefe, T J; Wheeler, H W; Mounce, L; Helwic, L; Applehans, F; Goes, E; Goes, T; Mihlan, G; Rench, J; Taylor, D K

    1981-01-01

    A total of 10,000 U.S. households in 25 standard metropolitan statistical areas and 25 counties were included in the United States. More than 8,200 households granted an interview. Nine of every ten households in the United States used some types of pesticide in their house, garden, or yard. Households in the southeastern United States used the most pesticides. Although more than 500 different pesticide formulations were used by the sampled households, 15 pesticides accounted for 65.5% of all pesticides reported in this study. Thirteen of these 15 pesticides were insecticides, one was a herbicide, and one was a rodenticide.

  8. Dynamic Stock Market Participation of Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorunzhina, Natalia

    This paper develops and estimates a dynamic model of stock market participation, where consumers’ decisions regarding stock market participation are influenced by participation costs. The practical significance of the participation costs is considered as being a channel through which financial...... education programs can affect consumers’ investment decisions. Using household data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, I estimate the magnitude of the participation cost, allowing for individual heterogeneity in it. The results show the average stock market articipation cost is about 5% of labor...... income; however, it varies substantially over consumers’ life. The model successfully predicts the level of the observed articipation rate and the increasing pattern of stock market participation over the consumers’ life cycle....

  9. Farm Households Food Production and Households' Food Security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    insecurity existed among households in the study areas based on the recommended average DEC/AE, of 2200 kcal and ... An International Journal of Basic and Applied Research. 41 ... population, for example, eating of less preferred foods.

  10. Household food insecurity and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeer, Kammi K; Piperata, Barbara A

    2017-04-01

    Food insecurity, the lack of consistent access to sufficient quality and quantity of food, affects an estimated 800 million people around the world. Although household food insecurity is generally associated with poor child nutrition and health in the USA, we know less about household food insecurity and child health in developing countries. Particularly lacking is research assessing how associations between household food insecurity and children's health outcomes may differ by child age and among children beyond age 5 years in low-income settings. We use data from a population-based sample of households with children ages 3-11 years (N = 431) in León, Nicaragua to consider how household food insecurity is associated with three measures of child health: illness, anaemia and low height-for-age. Our results provide new evidence that even mild household food insecurity is detrimental to children's health; and that child age conditions the associations between household food insecurity and child health. We find that food insecurity is especially harmful to health during early childhood, but continues to have significant associations with health into middle childhood (up to ages 7-8 years). We discuss the potential implications of these results for future child health research and policies in low-income countries. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Car use within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects...... of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  12. Stop stunting: improving child feeding, women's nutrition and household sanitation in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Víctor M; Menon, Purnima

    2016-05-01

    The latest available data indicate that 38% of South Asia's children aged 0-59 months are stunted. Such high prevalence combined with the region's large child population explain why South Asia bears about 40% of the global burden of stunting. Recent analyses indicate that the poor diets of children in the first years of life, the poor nutrition of women before and during pregnancy and the prevailing poor sanitation practices in households and communities are important drivers of stunting, most likely because of underlying conditions of women's status, food insecurity, poverty, and social inequalities. With this evidence in mind, UNICEF Regional Office for South Asia convened the Regional Conference: Stop Stunting: Improving Child Feeding, Women's Nutrition, and Household Sanitation in South Asia (New Delhi, November 10-12, 2014). The Conference provided a knowledge-for-action platform with three objectives: (1) share state-of-the-art research findings on the causes of child stunting and its consequences for child growth and development and the sustainable growth and development of nations; (2) discuss better practices and the cost and benefits of scaling up programmes to improve child feeding, women's nutrition, and household sanitation in South Asia; and (3) identify implications for sectoral and cross-sectoral policy, programme, advocacy and research to accelerate progress in reducing child stunting in South Asia. This overview paper summarizes the rationale for the focus on improving child feeding, women's nutrition, and household sanitation as priority areas for investment to prevent child stunting in South Asia. It builds on the invited papers presented at or developed as a follow on to the Stop Stunting Conference. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Heat pump technology

    CERN Document Server

    Von Cube, Hans Ludwig; Goodall, E G A

    2013-01-01

    Heat Pump Technology discusses the history, underlying concepts, usage, and advancements in the use of heat pumps. The book covers topics such as the applications and types of heat pumps; thermodynamic principles involved in heat pumps such as internal energy, enthalpy, and exergy; and natural heat sources and energy storage. Also discussed are topics such as the importance of the heat pump in the energy industry; heat pump designs and systems; the development of heat pumps over time; and examples of practical everyday uses of heat pumps. The text is recommended for those who would like to kno

  14. Exploring the gap between hand washing knowledge and practices in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbi, Sifat E; Dey, Nepal C

    2013-01-30

    Hand washing is considered as one of the most effective hygiene promotion activities for public health in developing countries. This study compared hand washing knowledge and practices in BRAC's water; sanitation and hygiene (WASH) programme areas over time. This study is a cross-sectional comparative study between baseline (2006), midline (2009) and end-line (2011) surveys in 50 sub-districts from the first phase of the programme. Thirty thousand households from 50 sub-districts were selected in two steps: i) 30 villages were selected from each sub-district by cluster sampling, and ii) 20 households were chosen systematically from each village. The matched households were considered (26,404 in each survey) for analysis. Data were collected from households through face-to-face interview using a pre-tested questionnaire. Respondents were the adult female members of the same households, who had knowledge of day-to-day household activities related to water, sanitation and hygiene. A gap between perception and practice of proper hand washing practices with soap was identified in the study areas. Hand washing practice with soap before eating was much lower than after defecation. In baseline data, 8% reported to wash their hands with soap which significantly increased to 22% in end line. Hand washing knowledge and practices before cooking food, before serving food and while handling babies is considerably limited than other critical times. A multivariate analysis shows that socio-economic factors including education of household head and respondent, water availability and access to media have strong positive association with hand washing with soap. Gap between knowledge and practice still persists in hand washing practices. Long term and extensive initiatives can aware people about the effectiveness of hand washing.

  15. Exploring the gap between hand washing knowledge and practices in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabbi Sifat E

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hand washing is considered as one of the most effective hygiene promotion activities for public health in developing countries. This study compared hand washing knowledge and practices in BRAC’s water; sanitation and hygiene (WASH programme areas over time. Methods This study is a cross-sectional comparative study between baseline (2006, midline (2009 and end-line (2011 surveys in 50 sub-districts from the first phase of the programme. Thirty thousand households from 50 sub-districts were selected in two steps: i 30 villages were selected from each sub-district by cluster sampling, and ii 20 households were chosen systematically from each village. The matched households were considered (26,404 in each survey for analysis. Data were collected from households through face-to-face interview using a pre-tested questionnaire. Respondents were the adult female members of the same households, who had knowledge of day-to-day household activities related to water, sanitation and hygiene. Results A gap between perception and practice of proper hand washing practices with soap was identified in the study areas. Hand washing practice with soap before eating was much lower than after defecation. In baseline data, 8% reported to wash their hands with soap which significantly increased to 22% in end line. Hand washing knowledge and practices before cooking food, before serving food and while handling babies is considerably limited than other critical times. A multivariate analysis shows that socio-economic factors including education of household head and respondent, water availability and access to media have strong positive association with hand washing with soap. Conclusion Gap between knowledge and practice still persists in hand washing practices. Long term and extensive initiatives can aware people about the effectiveness of hand washing.

  16. Household energy requirement and value patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vringer, Kees; Aalbers, Theo; Blok, Kornelis

    2007-01-01

    For an effective consumer energy policy, it is important to know why some households require more energy than others. The aim of the study described here was to examine whether there is a relationship between the total household energy requirement, on one hand, and value patterns, the motivation to save energy or the problem perception of climate change, on the other. To examine these relationships, we held a consumer survey among 2304 respondent households. We did not find significant differences in the energy requirement of groups of households with different value patterns, taking into account the differences in the socio-economic situation of households. Only for the 'motivation to save energy' we did find that the least motivated group requires 10 GJ more energy than the average and most motivated groups; this is about 4% of the total household energy requirement. This means that a self-regulating energy policy, solely based on the fact that a strategy of internalising environmental responsibility will not be effective in saving energy. There are indications that a social dilemma is one of the reasons why people's consumption patterns do not conform to their value patterns, problem perception or motivation to save energy

  17. ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Klaas Jan; Homan, Greg; Brown, Rich; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2009-04-15

    The term ?household carbon footprint? refers to the total annual carbon emissions associated with household consumption of energy, goods, and services. In this project, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed a carbon footprint modeling framework that characterizes the key underlying technologies and processes that contribute to household carbon footprints in California and the United States. The approach breaks down the carbon footprint by 35 different household fuel end uses and 32 different supply chain fuel end uses. This level of end use detail allows energy and policy analysts to better understand the underlying technologies and processes contributing to the carbon footprint of California households. The modeling framework was applied to estimate the annual home energy and supply chain carbon footprints of a prototypical California household. A preliminary assessment of parameter uncertainty associated with key model input data was also conducted. To illustrate the policy-relevance of this modeling framework, a case study was conducted that analyzed the achievable carbon footprint reductions associated with the adoption of energy efficient household and supply chain technologies.

  18. Household factors influencing participation in bird feeding activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Zoe G.; Fuller, Richard A.; Dallimer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    whether and how the socioeconomic background of a household influences participation in food provision for wild birds, the most popular and widespread form of human-wildlife interaction. A majority of households feed birds (64% across rural and urban areas in England, and 53% within five British study...... cities). House type, household size and the age of the head of the household were all important predictors of bird feeding, whereas gross annual household income, the occupation of the head of the household, and whether the house is owned or rented were not. In both surveys, the prevalence of bird...... a week. The proportion of households regularly feeding birds was positively related to the age of the head of the household, but declined with gross annual income. As concerns grow about the lack of engagement between people and the natural environment, such findings are important if conservation...

  19. Household electricity demand profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Larsen, Olena Kalyanova

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •A 1-min resolution household electricity load model is presented. •Model adapts a bottom-up approach with single appliance as the main building block. •Load profiles are used to analyse the flexibility potential of household appliances. •Load profiles can be applied in other domains, .......g. building energy simulations. •The demand level of houses with different number of occupants is well captured....

  20. Potentials of district heating grids for climate protection up to the year 2020; Potenziale von Nah- und Fernwaermenetzen fuer den Klimaschutz bis zum Jahr 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischedick, Manfred; Schuewer, Dietmar; Venjakob, Johannes; Merten, Frank; Mitze, Dirk [Wuppertal Inst. fuer Klima, Umwelt, Energie GmbH (Germany); Nast, Michael; Schillings, Christoph; Krewitt, Wolfram [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Thermodynamik; Bohnenschaefer, Werner; Lindner, Klaus [Institut fuer Energetik und Umwelt, Leipzig (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    District heat is one of Germany's traditional end use energy sources, with a connected capacity of about 57,000 MWth. The heat is distributed via 1,400 grids with a total length of about 19,000 km. The number of households supplied with district heat increased from 9.7 percent in 1993 to 13.7 percent in 2003. About 550 out of about 1,000 German utilities provide district heat to households. During the past few years, the connected capacity of district heating has been stagnating. This is the result of thermal insulation measures, dismantling and abandonment of supply grids, but also of changes on the demand side that can still be compensated by concentration and expansion potentials.

  1. The use of income information of census enumeration area as a proxy for the household income in a household survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Fabio S; Vasconcellos, Mauricio Tl; Anjos, Luiz A

    2009-09-22

    Some of the Census Enumeration Areas' (CEA) information may help planning the sample of population studies but it can also be used for some analyses that require information that is more difficult to obtain at the individual or household level, such as income. This paper verifies if the income information of CEA can be used as a proxy for household income in a household survey. A population-based survey conducted from January to December 2003 obtained data from a probabilistic sample of 1,734 households of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Uniform semi-association models were adjusted in order to obtain information about the agreement/disagreement structure of data. The distribution of nutritional status categories of the population of Niterói according to income quintiles was performed using both CEA- and household-level income measures and then compared using Wald statistics for homogeneity. Body mass index was calculated using body mass and stature data measured in the households and then used to define nutritional status categories according to the World Health Organization. All estimates and statistics were calculated accounting for the structural information of the sample design and a significance level lower than 5% was adopted. The classification of households in the quintiles of household income was associated with the classification of these households in the quintiles of CEA income. The distribution of the nutritional status categories in all income quintiles did not differ significantly according to the source of income information (household or CEA) used in the definition of quintiles. The structure of agreement/disagreement between quintiles of the household's monthly per capita income and quintiles of the head-of-household's mean nominal monthly income of the CEA, as well as the results produced by these measures when they were associated with the nutritional status of the population, showed that the CEA's income information can be used when income

  2. The use of income information of census enumeration area as a proxy for the household income in a household survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasconcellos Mauricio TL

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some of the Census Enumeration Areas' (CEA information may help planning the sample of population studies but it can also be used for some analyses that require information that is more difficult to obtain at the individual or household level, such as income. This paper verifies if the income information of CEA can be used as a proxy for household income in a household survey. Methods A population-based survey conducted from January to December 2003 obtained data from a probabilistic sample of 1,734 households of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Uniform semi-association models were adjusted in order to obtain information about the agreement/disagreement structure of data. The distribution of nutritional status categories of the population of Niterói according to income quintiles was performed using both CEA- and household-level income measures and then compared using Wald statistics for homogeneity. Body mass index was calculated using body mass and stature data measured in the households and then used to define nutritional status categories according to the World Health Organization. All estimates and statistics were calculated accounting for the structural information of the sample design and a significance level lower than 5% was adopted. Results The classification of households in the quintiles of household income was associated with the classification of these households in the quintiles of CEA income. The distribution of the nutritional status categories in all income quintiles did not differ significantly according to the source of income information (household or CEA used in the definition of quintiles. Conclusion The structure of agreement/disagreement between quintiles of the household's monthly per capita income and quintiles of the head-of-household's mean nominal monthly income of the CEA, as well as the results produced by these measures when they were associated with the nutritional status of the population

  3. FOOD ACQUISITION AND INTRA-HOUSEHOLD CONSUMPTION PATTERNS: A STUDY OF LOW AND MIDDLE INCOME URBAN HOUSEHOLDS IN DELHI, INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Mr; Taylor, Fc; Agrawal, S; Prabhakaran, D; Ebrahim, S

    2013-12-01

    Food habits and choices in India are shifting due to many factors: changing food markets, fast urbanization, food price inflation, uncertain food production and unequal distribution during the past decade. This study aims to explore food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns in urban low and middle income (LMI) households in Delhi. Twenty households were randomly selected from the Center for Cardio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS) surveillance study. Data were derived from 20 questionnaires administered to women responsible for food preparation, four key-informant-interviews, and 20 in-depth interviews with household heads during September-November 2011. STATA and ATLAS.ti software were used for data analysis. Half of the households spent at least two-thirds of their income on food. The major expenditures were on vegetables (22% of total food expenditure), milk and milk products (16%), and cereal and related products (15%). Income, food prices, food preferences, and seasonal variation influenced food expenditure. Adults usually ate two to three times a day while children ate more frequently. Eating sequence was based on the work pattern within the household and cultural beliefs. Contrary to previous evidence, there was no gender bias in intra-household food distribution. Women considered food acquisition, preparation and distribution part of their self-worth and played a major role in food related issues in the household. Women's key roles in food acquisition, preparation and intra household food consumption should be considered in formulating food policies and programs.

  4. Seasonal fuel consumption, stoves, and end-uses in rural households of the far-western development region of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Nicholas L.; Upadhyay, Basudev; Maharjan, Shovana; Jagoe, Kirstie; Weyant, Cheryl L.; Thompson, Ryan; Uprety, Sital; Johnson, Michael A.; Bond, Tami C.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding how fuels and stoves are used to meet a diversity of household needs is an important step in addressing the factors leading to continued reliance on polluting devices, and thereby improving household energy programs. In Nepal and many other countries dependent on solid fuel, efforts to mitigate the impacts of residential solid fuel use have emphasized cooking while focusing less on other solid fuel dependent end-uses. We employed a four-season fuel assessment in a cohort of 110 households residing in two elevation regions of the Far-Western Development Region (Province 7) of Nepal. Household interviews and direct fuel weights were used to assess seasonality in fuel consumption and its association with stoves that met cooking and non-cooking needs. Per-capita fuel consumption in winter was twice that of other measured seasons, on average. This winter increase was attributed to greater prevalence of use and fuel consumption by supplemental stoves, not the main cooking stove. End-use profiles showed that fuel was used in supplemental stoves to meet the majority of non-meal needs in the home, notably water heating and preparation of animal food. This emphasis on fuels, stoves, and the satisfaction of energy needs—rather than just stoves or fuels—leads to a better understanding of the factors leading to device and fuel choice within households.

  5. The log mean heat transfer rate method of heat exchanger considering the influence of heat radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.-L.; Ke, M.-T.; Ku, S.-S.

    2009-01-01

    The log mean temperature difference (LMTD) method is conventionally used to calculate the total heat transfer rate of heat exchangers. Because the heat radiation equation contains the 4th order exponential of temperature which is very complicate in calculations, thus LMTD method neglects the influence of heat radiation. From the recent investigation of a circular duct in some practical situations, it is found that even in the situation of the temperature difference between outer duct surface and surrounding is low to 1 deg. C, the heat radiation effect can not be ignored in the situations of lower ambient convective heat coefficient and greater surface emissivities. In this investigation, the log mean heat transfer rate (LMHTR) method which considering the influence of heat radiation, is developed to calculate the total heat transfer rate of heat exchangers.

  6. Division of household tasks and financial management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonides, G.

    2011-01-01

    Both the standard economic model and bargaining theory make predictions about financial management and the division of household labor between household partners. Using a large Internet survey, we have tested several predictions about task divisions reported by Dutch household partners. The division

  7. Design, Fabrication, and Efficiency Study of a Novel Solar Thermal Water Heating System: Towards Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    M. Z. H. Khan; M. R. Al-Mamun; S. Sikdar; P. K. Halder; M. R. Hasan

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigated a novel loop-heat-pipe based solar thermal heat-pump system for small scale hot water production for household purposes. The effective use of solar energy is hindered by the intermittent nature of its availability, limiting its use and effectiveness in domestic and industrial applications especially in water heating. The easiest and the most used method is the conversion of solar energy into thermal energy. We developed a prototype solar water heating system for experi...

  8. Household energy and consumption and expenditures, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this supplement to the Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990 report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential housing units, specifically at the four Census regions and nine Census division levels. This report includes household energy consumption, expenditures, and prices for natural gas, electricity, fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and kerosene as well as household wood consumption. For national-level data, see the main report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990

  9. Characterization of household food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, C.; Scheutz, Charlotte

    This paper presents a methodology and the results of compositional analysis of food waste from Danish families living in single-family houses. Residual household waste was sampled and manually sorted from 211 single-family houses in the suburb of Copenhagen. The main fractions contributing...... to the household food waste were avoidable vegetable food waste and non-avoidable vegetable food waste. Statistical analysis found a positive linear relationship between household size and the amount of the household food waste....

  10. Feedback on household electricity consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present results from a project aiming to develop a new feedback technology to support sustainable living in private households. Against the backdrop of a review of the relevant literature and based on qualitative family interviews and registration of the households' electricity ...

  11. Household medical waste disposal policy in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett-Itzhaki, Zohar; Berman, Tamar; Grotto, Itamar; Schwartzberg, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Large amounts of expired and unused medications accumulate in households. This potentially exposes the public to hazards due to uncontrolled use of medications. Most of the expired or unused medications that accumulate in households (household medical waste) is thrown to the garbage or flushed down to the sewage, potentially contaminating waste-water, water resources and even drinking water. There is evidence that pharmaceutical active ingredients reach the environment, including food, however the risk to public health from low level exposure to pharmaceuticals in the environment is currently unknown. In Israel, there is no legislation regarding household medical waste collection and disposal. Furthermore, only less than 14 % of Israelis return unused medications to Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) pharmacies. In this study, we investigated world-wide approaches and programs for household medical waste collection and disposal. In many countries around the world there are programs for household medical waste collection. In many countries there is legislation to address the issue of household medical waste, and this waste is collected in hospitals, clinics, law enforcement agencies and pharmacies. Furthermore, in many countries, medication producers and pharmacies pay for the collection and destruction of household medical waste, following the "polluter pays" principle. Several approaches and methods should be considered in Israel: (a) legislation and regulation to enable a variety of institutes to collect household medical waste (b) implementing the "polluter pays" principle and enforcing medical products manufactures to pay for the collection and destruction of household medical waste. (c) Raising awareness of patients, pharmacists, and other medical health providers regarding the health and environmental risks in accumulation of drugs and throwing them to the garbage, sink or toilet. (d) Adding specific instructions regarding disposal of the drug, in the

  12. Gas fired heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, M.

    2006-01-01

    The condensing gas boiler is now state of the art and there is no more room for improvement in performance, technically speaking. The next logical step to improve the overall efficiency is to exploit ambient heat in combination with the primary source of energy, natural gas. That means using natural-gas driven heat pumps and gas-fired heat pumps. Based on this, the Swiss Gas Industry decided to set up a practical test programme enjoying a high priority. The aim of the project 'Gas-fired heat pump practical test' is to assess by field tests the characteristics and performance of the foreign serial heat pumps currently on the market and to prepare and promote the introduction on the market place of this sustainable natural-gas technology. (author)

  13. Electricity saving in households-A social cognitive approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thogersen, John; Gronhoj, Alice

    2010-01-01

    We propose a conceptual framework for understanding the (lack of) energy saving efforts of private households based on Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory. Results from applying this framework on a sample of Danish private electricity consumers are presented and it is concluded (a) that households' electricity consumption depends on both structural and motivational factors, (b) that their electricity saving effort depends on the strength of their internalized norms or self-expectations and on self-efficacy related factors, and (c) that there are predictable patterns of interaction among household members that influence their electricity consumption. The results suggest two approaches to promote electricity saving in households: (1) to change the socio-structural environment to be more facilitating for energy saving and empower householders to be more effective in their striving towards this goal through improved feedback about their household's electricity consumption and (2) social norms marketing, communicating social expectations and others' successful electricity saving achievements. - Research highlights: →A combination of survey and meter reading data is used to analyze energy saving in households. →Up to two adults from each household answered the questionnaire. →Dyadic data analysis is used to investigate interactions between household members. →Both structural and motivational factors account for households' electricity consumption. →Electricity saving efforts depends on internalized norms, self-efficacy and social interaction.

  14. [The family. The poorest households with female heads].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta Diaz, F

    1992-01-01

    Data from the household questionnaire of the 1987 Mexican Fertility and Health Survey were the basis for an analysis of the characteristics of households headed by women. 14.1% of households were headed by women in 1987, of which 14% were in rural and 86% in urban areas. 41.9% of the households headed by women contained only a woman and her children. Child care responsibilities are the main determinant of discrimination in the labor market for these women and oblige them to accept jobs that are not adequately paid. The social disadvantage of households headed by women is also related to their age and marital and educational status. Among male and female household heads respectively, 16.3% and 36.5% were over age 60, 16.4% and 27.5% were illiterate, and 92.7% and 8.4% were married or in union. 15.5% of the female heads were single, 24.7% were divorced or separated, and 51.4% were widows. Among employed female household heads, 49.2% were salaried, 36.5% were self-employed, and 10.1% were domestic workers. 63.8% of female and 46.3% of male household heads earned one minimum salary or less per month. The average size of households headed by women was 3.9 members, compared to 5.4 for households headed by men.

  15. Electricity saving in households-A social cognitive approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thogersen, John, E-mail: jbt@asb.d [Aarhus University, School of Business and Social Sciences, Department of Marketing, Haslegaardsvej 10, DK-8210 Aarhus (Denmark); Gronhoj, Alice, E-mail: alg@asb.d [Aarhus University, School of Business and Social Sciences, Department of Marketing, Haslegaardsvej 10, DK-8210 Aarhus (Denmark)

    2010-12-15

    We propose a conceptual framework for understanding the (lack of) energy saving efforts of private households based on Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory. Results from applying this framework on a sample of Danish private electricity consumers are presented and it is concluded (a) that households' electricity consumption depends on both structural and motivational factors, (b) that their electricity saving effort depends on the strength of their internalized norms or self-expectations and on self-efficacy related factors, and (c) that there are predictable patterns of interaction among household members that influence their electricity consumption. The results suggest two approaches to promote electricity saving in households: (1) to change the socio-structural environment to be more facilitating for energy saving and empower householders to be more effective in their striving towards this goal through improved feedback about their household's electricity consumption and (2) social norms marketing, communicating social expectations and others' successful electricity saving achievements. - Research highlights: {yields}A combination of survey and meter reading data is used to analyze energy saving in households. {yields}Up to two adults from each household answered the questionnaire. {yields}Dyadic data analysis is used to investigate interactions between household members. {yields}Both structural and motivational factors account for households' electricity consumption. {yields}Electricity saving efforts depends on internalized norms, self-efficacy and social interaction.

  16. Proposal for a district heat supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alefeld, G.

    1976-01-01

    A district heating scheme is proposed which makes it possible to use the waste heat from power stations for the supply of households and industry. The heat is stored by evaporation of ammonia salts or liquids with dissolved salts. Both substances are transported on existing rail- or waterways to heating stations near the consumers, and the heat recovered by reaction of the two components. Then the product of reaction is transported back to the power stations, and reactivated by heat again. Based on a cost estimation, it can be shown that the proposed heat transport with heat trains or ships, at distances up to 100 km, results in heat costs which are to-day already below that of heat from fuel oil. The investment required for the heat transport system is unusually low due to the use of transport ways which already exist. The district heating system is not only favourable in respect of the environment, but actually reduces its present strain, both at the consumer and at the power stations. The technical advantages of the suggested concept, especially the possibility of introducing it in stages, are discussed. The consequences for the national economy regarding the safety of supply and the trade balance, as well as for the public transport undertakings, are obvious, and therefore not included in the paper. (orig.) [de

  17. Food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns: a study of low and middle income urban households in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Pradhan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food habits and choices in India are shifting due to many factors: changing food markets, fast urbanization, food price inflation, uncertain food production and unequal distribution during the past decade. This study aims to explore food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns in urban low and middle income (LMI households in Delhi. Methods: Twenty households were randomly selected from the Center for Cardio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS surveillance study. Data were derived from 20 questionnaires administered to women responsible for food preparation, four key-informant-interviews, and 20 in-depth interviews with household heads during September-November 2011. STATA and ATLAS.ti software were used for data analysis. Results: Half of the households spent at least two-thirds of their income on food. The major expenditures were on vegetables (22% of total food expenditure, milk and milk products (16%, and cereal and related products (15%. Income, food prices, food preferences, and seasonal variation influenced food expenditure. Adults usually ate two to three times a day while children ate more frequently. Eating sequence was based on the work pattern within the household and cultural beliefs. Contrary to previous evidence, there was no gender bias in intra-household food distribution. Women considered food acquisition, preparation and distribution part of their self-worth and played a major role in food related issues in the household. Conclusion: Women’s key roles in food acquisition, preparation and intra household food consumption should be considered in formulating food policies and programs. 

  18. Food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns: a study of low and middle income urban households in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Pradhan .

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food habits and choices in India are shifting due to many factors: changing food markets, fast urbanization, food price inflation, uncertain food production and unequal distribution during the past decade. This study aims to explore food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns in urban low and middle income (LMI households in Delhi. Methods: Twenty households were randomly selected from the Center for Cardio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS surveillance study. Data were derived from 20 questionnaires administered to women responsible for food preparation, four key-informant-interviews, and 20 in-depth interviews with household heads during September-November 2011. STATA and ATLAS.ti software were used for data analysis. Results: Half of the households spent at least two-thirds of their income on food. The major expenditures were on vegetables (22% of total food expenditure, milk and milk products (16%, and cereal and related products (15%. Income, food prices, food preferences, and seasonal variation influenced food expenditure. Adults usually ate two to three times a day while children ate more frequently. Eating sequence was based on the work pattern within the household and cultural beliefs. Contrary to previous evidence, there was no gender bias in intra-household food distribution. Women considered food acquisition, preparation and distribution part of their self-worth and played a major role in food related issues in the household. Conclusion: Women’s key roles in food acquisition, preparation and intra household food consumption should be considered in formulating food policies and programs.  

  19. A Study on the Impact of Household Occupants’ Behavior on Energy Consumption Using an Integrated Computer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaolin eLin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, several models are integrated into a thermal model to study the impact of occupants’ behaviors on the building energy consumption. An air flow model is developed to simulate ventilation related to the occupant’s patterns of window opening and closing. An electric consumption model is developed to simulate the usage pattern and the electricity input to household electric appliances. The thermostat setpoint temperature and window shading schemes are varied with different occupants’ behavior norms and are included in the model. The simulation was applied to a typical household located in the city of Oshawa in Ontario, Canada. The results show that the window opening has the greatest impact on the energy consumption during the heating season, and the shading scheme has the greatest impact on the A/C energy consumption during the cooling season. The electricity consumption of the A/C can be significantly reduced by appropriately applying the shading and opening schemes and resetting the thermostat setpoint temperature to a slightly higher degree. Keeping the windows closed and allowing the solar radiation to be transmitted through the window in winter help reduce the energy usage to heat the house.

  20. Income differentiation of households in the CR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Stávková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Czech Republic has recently experienced phases of economic growth and periods of economic crisis, this fact affects the standard of living and household behaviour and affects the formation of life-style. This paper deals with the income situation of households. The main source of data is EU SILC survey from the years 2005 to 2008.The result of the enquiry and processing of primary data is information about the average income per household member, the poverty level and the number of households at risk of poverty. For the formulation of income differentiation is used Gini coefficient. Attention is paid to factors that affect income inequality (the number of household members, social group, age. Information, about the income situation of households, is amended by following indicators of material deprivation. The paper also analyses the impact of social transfers on income inequality. The analysis and subsequent solving of the problem of income inequality may be contributed with further analysis of empirical data of this type.

  1. 20∶60∶20 - Differences in Energy Behaviour and Conservation between and within Households with Electricity Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtagh, Niamh; Gatersleben, Birgitta; Uzzell, David

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of electricity monitors (in-home displays; IHDs), which show accurate and up-to-the-minute energy usage, is expected to lead to reduction in consumption. Studies of feedback on domestic electricity use have generally supported this view. However, such studies also demonstrate wide variation between households. Examining the heterogeneity of responses is essential for understanding the actual and potential effectiveness of IHDs and in order to target interventions effectively. To explore differences between households' responses to IHDs, we conducted a qualitative study with 21 households who had an IHD for more than six months. Of the 21, only four households continued to refer to the IHD and the findings suggest that attempts to reduce energy consumption were situated in wider social and physical contexts. Further, the participants demonstrated energy saving behaviour before and outside of IHD usage. The patterns of energy behaviours and attempts at electricity conservation could best be understood by categorising the households into three types: the Monitor Enthusiasts (20%), the Aspiring Energy Savers (60%) and the Energy Non-Engaged (20%). The factors of importance in energy behaviour differed between the categories. Financial savings contributed to efforts to reduce energy use but only up to boundaries which varied considerably between households. Social practices and social relationships appeared to constrain what actions households were prepared to undertake, illuminating aspects of inter-household variation. Within the household, all energy users were not equal and we found that women were particularly influential on energy use through their primary responsibility for domestic labour on behalf of the household. The implications of the findings for environmental campaigning are discussed. PMID:24642946

  2. Changing Age and Household Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2014-01-01

    finances by almost 1% of GDP on the yearly budget. While the net fiscal effect of changing household structures is minor, the gross effects are substantial. In a future characterized by population ageing, public finances may be adversely affected by changes in both age and household structures, thus...

  3. Performance of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for single household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Zhao, Yingru; Yang, Wenyuan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system for cogeneration of heat and power integrated with a stratified heat storage tank is studied. Thermal stratification in the tank increases the heat recovery performance as it allows existence of a temperature gradient with the benefit of deliver......In this paper a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system for cogeneration of heat and power integrated with a stratified heat storage tank is studied. Thermal stratification in the tank increases the heat recovery performance as it allows existence of a temperature gradient with the benefit...... of delivering hot water for the household and returning the coldest fluid back to SOFC heat recovery heat-exchanger. A model of the SOFC system is developed to determine the energy required to meet the hourly average electric load of the residence. The model evaluates the amount of heat generated and the amount...... of heat used for thermal loads of the residence. Two fuels are considered, namely syngas and natural gas. The tank model considers the temperature gradients over the tank height. The results of the numerical simulation is used to size the SOFC system and storage heat tank to provide energy for a small...

  4. Sharing family and household:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ida Wentzel

    Keynote: Family relationships are normatively assumed to be characterized by ‘sharing’, such as living together in the same home, occupying the same place, sharing stuff, blood and biology, spending special and ordinary time together, and consequently creating shared biographical experiences....... In that way, families are thrown into togetherness. At the same time, we see families in varying forms where 'sharing' is lived and contested differently. In Denmark, many children live in nuclear families, and many live in different variations of more than one household. For those who share household...... and family, 'sharing' will be a basic condition. No matter what, they should share life circumstances, more stories, more places and spaces, more households families with both kin and non-kin. This keynote addresses the particular of children’s experiences of living apart and/or living together in sharing...

  5. Using heat demand prediction to optimise Virtual Power Plant production capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Vincent; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2008-01-01

    In the coming decade a strong trend towards distributed electricity generation (microgeneration) is expected. Micro-generators are small appliances that generate electricity (and heat) at the kilowatt level, which allows them to be installed in households. By combining a group of micro-generators, a

  6. Spending time and money within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Gørtz, Mette

    We consider theoretically and empirically the allocation of time and money within the household. The novelty of our empirical work is that we have a survey which provides information on both time use and the allocation of some goods within the household, for the same households. We can consider...

  7. Household disposables as breeding habitats of dengue vectors: Linking wastes and public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Soumyajit, E-mail: soumyajitb@gmail.com [Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700 019 (India); Aditya, Gautam, E-mail: gautamaditya2001@gmail.com [Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700 019 (India); Department of Zoology, The University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan 713 104 (India); Saha, Goutam K, E-mail: gkszoo@rediffmail.com [Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700 019 (India)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An assessment of different household wastes as larval habitats of dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus was made using Kolkata, India as a model geographical area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Household wastes of four major categories namely earthen, porcelain, plastic and coconut shells varied significantly for Aedes immature depending on species, month and location. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Based on the relative density of Aedes immature, cluster analyses allowed segregation and classification of the waste containers and relative importance as mosquito larval habitats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conversion of disposed wastes into larval habitats cautions for continuance of Aedes population in Kolkata and similar cities of tropics lacking suitable waste management practices. - Abstract: An assessment of the household wastes as larval habitats of the dengue vectors was made considering Kolkata, India, as geographical area. Wastes of four major categories, namely, earthen, porcelain, plastic and coconut shells were monitored for positive with immature of either Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus. Twenty six types of wastes with varying size and shape, resembling containers, were identified that hosted mosquito immature. The number of waste containers positive for Aedes immature varied significantly (P < 0.05) with respect to location, type and month. The relative density of Aedes immature in the waste containers varied significantly (P < 0.05) with the types and months. The significant interaction between the month, waste container types and density of Aedes immature suggest that the household wastes are important contributors to the maintenance of the population of Aedes mosquito in the city. Based on the relative density of mosquito immature in the wastes, cluster analysis allowed segregation and classification of the wastes and their importance as mosquito larval habitats. Apparently, the containers that

  8. Household disposables as breeding habitats of dengue vectors: Linking wastes and public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Soumyajit; Aditya, Gautam; Saha, Goutam K

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► An assessment of different household wastes as larval habitats of dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus was made using Kolkata, India as a model geographical area. ► Household wastes of four major categories namely earthen, porcelain, plastic and coconut shells varied significantly for Aedes immature depending on species, month and location. ► Based on the relative density of Aedes immature, cluster analyses allowed segregation and classification of the waste containers and relative importance as mosquito larval habitats. ► Conversion of disposed wastes into larval habitats cautions for continuance of Aedes population in Kolkata and similar cities of tropics lacking suitable waste management practices. - Abstract: An assessment of the household wastes as larval habitats of the dengue vectors was made considering Kolkata, India, as geographical area. Wastes of four major categories, namely, earthen, porcelain, plastic and coconut shells were monitored for positive with immature of either Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus. Twenty six types of wastes with varying size and shape, resembling containers, were identified that hosted mosquito immature. The number of waste containers positive for Aedes immature varied significantly (P < 0.05) with respect to location, type and month. The relative density of Aedes immature in the waste containers varied significantly (P < 0.05) with the types and months. The significant interaction between the month, waste container types and density of Aedes immature suggest that the household wastes are important contributors to the maintenance of the population of Aedes mosquito in the city. Based on the relative density of mosquito immature in the wastes, cluster analysis allowed segregation and classification of the wastes and their importance as mosquito larval habitats. Apparently, the containers that are most frequently disposed off contributed largely to the sustenance of Aedes mosquito population

  9. Effects of household dynamics on resource consumption and biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianguo; Daily, Gretchen C; Ehrlich, Paul R; Luck, Gary W

    2003-01-30

    Human population size and growth rate are often considered important drivers of biodiversity loss, whereas household dynamics are usually neglected. Aggregate demographic statistics may mask substantial changes in the size and number of households, and their effects on biodiversity. Household dynamics influence per capita consumption and thus biodiversity through, for example, consumption of wood for fuel, habitat alteration for home building and associated activities, and greenhouse gas emissions. Here we report that growth in household numbers globally, and particularly in countries with biodiversity hotspots (areas rich in endemic species and threatened by human activities), was more rapid than aggregate population growth between 1985 and 2000. Even when population size declined, the number of households increased substantially. Had the average household size (that is, the number of occupants) remained static, there would have been 155 million fewer households in hotspot countries in 2000. Reduction in average household size alone will add a projected 233 million additional households to hotspot countries during the period 2000-15. Rapid increase in household numbers, often manifested as urban sprawl, and resultant higher per capita resource consumption in smaller households pose serious challenges to biodiversity conservation.

  10. Household location choices: implications for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M Nils; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Jianguo

    2008-08-01

    Successful conservation efforts require understanding human behaviors that directly affect biodiversity. Choice of household location represents an observable behavior that has direct effects on biodiversity conservation, but no one has examined the sociocultural predictors of this choice relative to its environmental impacts. We conducted a case study of the Teton Valley of Idaho and Wyoming (U.S.A.) that (1) explored relationships between sociodemographic variables, environmental attitudes, and the environmental impact of household location choices, (2) assessed the potential for small household sizes in natural areas to multiply the environmental impacts of household location decisions, and (3) evaluated how length of residency predicted the environmental attitudes of people living in natural areas. We collected sociodemographic data, spatial coordinates, and land-cover information in a survey of 416 households drawn from a random sample of Teton Valley residents (95% compliance rate). Immigrants (respondents not born in the study area) with the lowest education levels and least environmentally oriented attitudes lived in previously established residential areas in disproportionately high numbers, and older and more educated immigrants with the most environmentally oriented attitudes lived in natural areas in disproportionately high numbers. Income was not a significant predictor of household location decisions. Those living in natural areas had more environmental impact per person because of the location and because small households (educated, and potentially growing more environmentally oriented, these patterns are troubling for biodiversity conservation. Our results demonstrate a need for environmentalists to make household location decisions that reflect their environmental attitudes and future research to address how interactions between education level, environmental attitudes, population aging, and household location choices influence biodiversity

  11. Development in fiscal 1998 of technology to put solar systems for industrial use into practical use. Investigative research on solar system (Development, investigation and research of solar heat utilizing system); 1998 nendo sangyoyonado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Solar system no chosa kenkyu (taiyonetsu riyo system no gijutsu kaihatsu chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    With an objective to prepare a strategic technological development program for solar heat utilization, evaluations and discussions were given on solar heat utilization from the viewpoints of 'utilizing applications', 'demand' and 'possibility of the proliferation thereof'. In the solar heat utilization, the cost rising in approximate proportion with scale of the heat utilization must be considered as one of the predestined conditions. What can be conceived as a means to enhance the economic performance by using engineering approaches would include heat storage, elementary technologies for transportation and the standardization thereof, and the scale economy on the production side in mass production. As a required step in which the series of favorable circulation of standardization to mass production, cost reduction and large quantity proliferation can be induced, it is appropriate to assume household use with high calorie unit price as the target. The household area covers room heating and hot water supply, in which the temperature level is much lower than in industrial use. In this area, a system may be established with a conception to use solar heat as the main heat source, and calorific power by fossil fuel as the supplementary heat source. Solar heat utilization may be considered utilizable in foodstuff factories and school lunch supply centers. (NEDO)

  12. Heat demand profiles of energy conservation measures in buildings and their impact on a district heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundström, Lukas; Wallin, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy savings impact on an low CO 2 emitting district heating system. • Heat profiles of eight building energy conservation measures. • Exhaust air heat pump, heat recovery ventilation, electricity savings etc. • Heat load weather normalisation with segmented multivariable linear regression. - Abstract: This study highlights the forthcoming problem with diminishing environmental benefits from heat demand reducing energy conservation measures (ECM) of buildings within district heating systems (DHS), as the supply side is becoming “greener” and more primary energy efficient. In this study heat demand profiles and annual electricity-to-heat factors of ECMs in buildings are computed and their impact on system efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of a Swedish biomass fuelled and combined heat and power utilising DHS are assessed. A weather normalising method for the DHS heat load is developed, combining segmented multivariable linear regressions with typical meteorological year weather data to enable the DHS model and the buildings model to work under the same weather conditions. Improving the buildings’ envelope insulation level and thereby levelling out the DHS heat load curve reduces greenhouse gas emissions and improves primary energy efficiency. Reducing household electricity use proves to be highly beneficial, partly because it increases heat demand, allowing for more cogeneration of electricity. However the other ECMs considered may cause increased greenhouse gas emissions, mainly because of their adverse impact on the cogeneration of electricity. If biomass fuels are considered as residuals, and thus assigned low primary energy factors, primary energy efficiency decreases when implementing ECMs that lower heat demand.

  13. Individual and Household Willingness to Pay for Public Goods

    OpenAIRE

    John Quiggin

    1998-01-01

    The issue of whether willingness to pay (WTP) for the benefits generated by a public good should be elicited on an individual or on a household basis is addressed. Differences between individual and household WTP may arise when members of the household are mutually altruistic. It is shown that, for general specifications of altruism, household WTP is less than the sum of household members' individual WTP. Implications for the choice between household and individual measures of WTP are conside...

  14. An overall assessment of the responsiveness of households to time-of-use electricity rates: The Ontario experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountain, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    From 1982 to 1988, Ontario Hydro conducted an experiment in residential time-of-use pricing. A selection of households was offered one of 14 time-of-use treatments and each was monitored for electricity consumption on a 15-minute basis. The different rate structures were designed to reflect time variations in future system and distribution costs, both at the bulk and at the municipal level. Results were analyzed in terms of econometric models which to date have yielded information on the experimental changes in residential load shapes resulting from the time-of-use rates. The results are presented in the form of economic elasticities, percentage impacts, load changes at the household level, and simulated province-wide load changes. Also included are comparisons of results with other jurisdictions, comparisons of impacts on households with and without electric heating and with and without air conditioning, and comparisons across rate treatments with varying lengths of peak periods and relative prices. A fundamental conclusion is that time-of-use electricity rates do make a difference in residential load shapes. 17 refs., 8 tabs

  15. Determinants of Vulnerability to Livelihood Insecurity at Household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Household Economic Approach of measuring vulnerability. The Household ... external and internal sides as proposed by Conway and Chambers (1989): ... education and occupation of the household head, dependency ratio, exposure.

  16. Sources of household salt in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooste, Pieter L

    2005-01-01

    Marketing of non-iodized salt through unconventional distribution channels is one of the factors weakening the national salt iodization program in South Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to quantify the various sources of household salt, and to relate this information to socio-economic status. Questionnaire information was collected by personal interview during home visits from a multistage, cluster, probability sample of 2164 adults representative of the adult population. Nationally 77.7% of households obtained their table salt from the typical food shops distributing iodized salt. However, in the nine different provinces between 8 and 37.3% of households used unconventional sources, distributing mainly non-iodized salt, to obtain their household salt. These alternative sources include distributors of agricultural salt, small general dealer shops called spaza shops, in peri-urban and rural townships, street vendors and salt saches placed in the packaging of maize meal bags. Country-wide around 30% of low socio-economic households obtained their salt from unconventional sources compared to less than 5% in high socio-economic households, emphasizing the vulnerability of low socio-economic groups to the use of non-iodized salt. Intervention strategies should mobilize all role players involved in unconventional marketing channels of household salt to provide only iodized salt to consumers, as required by law.

  17. Intrahousehold allocation, household headship and nutrition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims to establish whether there is a significant difference in nutritional status of children in male-headed households, de jure female-headed households and de facto female-headed households. The study uses a sample of 199 children aged 6 to 60 months, of mothers in reproductive age, derived from 499 ...

  18. Cultural and Technical Evaluation of Heating Alternatives to Improve Indoor Air Quality on the Navajo Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Navajo Nation it is estimated that 62% of households use wood as their primary means of heating1. A 2010 study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Diné College found that in Shiprock, NM, the largest town in the Navajo Nation (pop. = 8,300)2, heating is often w...

  19. A Picture of Subsidized Households 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Picture of Subsidized Households describes the nearly 5 million households living in HUD-subsidized housing in the United States for the year 2009. Picture 2009...

  20. House prices and household mobility in the Netherlands : Empirical analyses of financial characteristics of the household

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steegmans, J.W.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    The dissertation studies the role of financial household characteristics in the determination of house prices and household mobility in the Dutch owner-occupied housing market. We investigate how various financial characteristics -- in particular income, wealth, housing equity, and prospective

  1. The natural gas - alternative decision for households consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoilova, T.; Tzaleva, E.; Boshnakova, V.

    2002-01-01

    Some expectations for households future fuel and energy consumption changes have been presented. The main reasons, motivating the households gasification implementation and its influence over the sectors energy consumption have been analysed. Some improvements of household consumption structure expectation are developed with the view to environment harmful emissions decrease. An example of household natural gas consumption structure by processes is developed. (authors)

  2. Capitalization of Local Products through Agro- Household

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Ciolac

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In every household there are many family activities that provide the necessary income or living foods. Some activities are related to cultivation of land, others for breeding other means services provided by the vilagers. The products of the own household must cover 40% of meals offered to tourists. These products are produced by the householder work in their household, the tourist having the opportunity to observe how the products are produced and participate effectively in this production. Specific rural household products can be recovered through tourism by both indirect and direct ways. Both variants can generate increased profitability and interest of the tourist business activity and impose a sense of satisfaction for quality benefit, issues that may be, in turn, assumptions favorable to the extension of this work.

  3. [Characterization of Mexican households with food insecurity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Méndez-Gómez Humarán, Ignacio; Shamah-Levy, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    To describe the sociodemographic and health characteristics associated with food insecurity (FI) in Mexican households. The study included information about 40 809 households from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012. The Latin American and Caribbean Scale Food Safety (ELCSA) was used to categorize households in terms of food insecurity. Classification and regression trees were used to identify the most significant characteristics in households with high prevalence of FI. The characteristics associated with higher prevalence of FI in homes were: lowest quintiles of welfare status, lack of education or walking or moving disability of household head, and not receiving money from social programmes, pension or remittances. Monitoring of the factors that favor the presence of FI is required to detect social groups being excluded from the right to food.

  4. Practical considerations for maximizing heat production in a novel thermobrachytherapy seed prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, Bhoj; Warrell, Gregory; Shvydka, Diana; Ishmael Parsai, E., E-mail: e.parsai@utoledo.edu [University of Toledo Medical Center, 3000 Arlington Avenue, MS1151, Toledo, Ohio 43614 (United States); Subramanian, Manny [BEST Medical International, Inc., 7643 Fullerton Road, Springfield, Virginia 22153 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    images, and a preliminary experiment demonstrates thermal self-regulation and adequate heating of a tissue-mimicking phantom by seed prototypes. The effect of self-shielding of the seed against the external magnetic field is small, and only minor thermal stress is induced in heating of the seeds from room temperature to well above the seed operating temperature. With proper selection of magnetic field parameters, the thermal dose distribution of an arrangement of TB and hyperthermia-only seeds may be made to match with its radiation dose distribution. Conclusions: The presented analyses address several practical considerations for manufacturing of the proposed TB seeds and identify critical issues for the prototype implementation. The authors’ preliminary experiments demonstrate close agreement with the modeling results, confirming the feasibility of combining sources of heat and radiation into a single thermobrachytherapy seed.

  5. Practical considerations for maximizing heat production in a novel thermobrachytherapy seed prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, Bhoj; Warrell, Gregory; Shvydka, Diana; Ishmael Parsai, E.; Subramanian, Manny

    2014-01-01

    , and a preliminary experiment demonstrates thermal self-regulation and adequate heating of a tissue-mimicking phantom by seed prototypes. The effect of self-shielding of the seed against the external magnetic field is small, and only minor thermal stress is induced in heating of the seeds from room temperature to well above the seed operating temperature. With proper selection of magnetic field parameters, the thermal dose distribution of an arrangement of TB and hyperthermia-only seeds may be made to match with its radiation dose distribution. Conclusions: The presented analyses address several practical considerations for manufacturing of the proposed TB seeds and identify critical issues for the prototype implementation. The authors’ preliminary experiments demonstrate close agreement with the modeling results, confirming the feasibility of combining sources of heat and radiation into a single thermobrachytherapy seed

  6. Ecological solid fuels, effective heating devices for communal management and their testing methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubica, K.

    1995-12-31

    The national balance of primary energy consumption is almost 90% based upon coal. Coal is used not only in electricity production, but also in the communal sector - in heating facilities comprising chiefly local boiler houses and private households.

  7. Firearm Ownership, Storage Practices, and Suicide Risk Factors in Washington State, 2013-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Erin Renee; Gomez, Anthony; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali

    2018-05-17

    To characterize firearm ownership and storage practices in Washington State and assess their relationship with suicide risk factors. Using Washington State Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data for 2013 to 2016, we conducted survey-weighted multivariable Poisson regression models to obtain prevalence ratios (PRs) and confidence intervals (CIs). Of 34 884 adult respondents, 34.3% (95% CI = 33.7%, 35.0%) reported a firearm in their household, among whom 36.6% (95% CI = 35.4%, 37.7%) stored their firearm locked and unloaded. There were no differences in mental health indicators by firearm ownership or storage practice status. Binge and chronic alcohol use were somewhat more prevalent among adults from firearm-owning households (PR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.1, 1.3; PR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.1, 1.4, respectively) and among those living in households not practicing safe storage (PR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.2, 1.7; PR = 1.9; 1.5, 2.3, respectively). Variability in mental health does not explain the substantial increased suicide risk among individuals in firearm-owning households. Greater prevalence of alcohol misuse among adults in firearm-owning households not practicing safe storage highlights the need for suicide prevention interventions. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print May 17, 2018: e1-e7. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2018.304403).

  8. Intergenerational Similarity in Callous-Unemotional Traits: Contributions of Hostile Parenting and Household Chaos during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Rachel E.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; King-Casas, Brooks; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen

    2016-01-01

    Extant research has examined both genetic and environmental risk involved in the transmission of callous-unemotional traits in youth populations, yet no study has examined the intergenerational similarity of these traits between parents and their offspring. The current study examined whether the association between parent callous-unemotional traits and child callous-unemotional traits was mediated by parenting behavior and whether this association was moderated by household environment. Participants included 115 dyads of adolescents (48% female; Mean age = 13.97) and their primary caregivers (87% female; Mean age = 42.54). Measures of callous-unemotional traits, hostile parenting, and household chaos were collected from both adolescents and parents. A two group structural equation modeling revealed that hostile parenting serves as a mediating process in the association between parent and adolescent callous-unemotional traits, but only in the context of high household chaos. Our findings suggest that hostile parenting practices are a mediating process that may explain intergenerational similarity in callous-unemotional traits. Additionally, household chaos may exacerbate the effects of hostile parenting on callous-unemotional traits within adolescents, resulting in heightened vulnerability to intergenerational transmission of callous-unemotional traits. PMID:28029442

  9. Incomes and expenses of the households

    OpenAIRE

    Mirosław Gorczyca

    2007-01-01

    An analysis of the statistical spectrum of the incomes and expenses of the Polish households leads to the conclusion that the disposable incomes only slightly surpass the expenses of the households and, for a significant part of the households, are lower. There is a growing economic polarization of the society whose considerable part lives on incomes below the social minimum and even below the minimum of existence. The society, as a whole, only to a small extent enjoys the fruits of the econo...

  10. Assessment of individual and household malaria risk factors among women in a South African village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutegeki, Ezra; Chimbari, Moses John; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2017-11-01

    There is need to understand how various malaria risk factors interact at the individual, household and community levels, as well as wider contexts, in order to guide the design and implementation of effective and more comprehensive control strategies. Using a cross-sectional approach, this study investigated various malaria risk factors among residents of Mgedula Village, a malaria-endemic community located in Jozini Local Municipality, UMkhanyakude District, South Africa from May to August 2014. Data from 121 randomly sampled women were collected using close-ended questionnaires. The women were aged between 18 and 40 years; and had been residents in the study area for five years or more. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to measure the association between a history of malaria infection in the previous 12 months and various potential risk factors. The results showed that practicing animal husbandry (OR 20), residing in household structures that had not been sprayed (OR 16.7) and cross-border movement (OR 14.3) were greatly associated with malaria infection. Other factors that were significantly associated with this infection included illiteracy (OR 9.1), having a largely populated household (OR 6.1) and low income (OR 1.65). Individuals with a history of malaria infection were less likely to lack basic malaria-related knowledge (OR 0.58), to have negative attitude towards malaria (OR 0.29) and also to have poor malaria practices (OR 0.3). There was no association between a malaria episode and residing at a long distance from the health facility. Indoor residual spraying indicated a notable reduction of malaria risk at the community level. However, other socio-economic, geographical and socio-demographic factors interacted at different levels to increase this risk among different individuals and households. To achieve malaria elimination by the year 2018, these aspects should be considered when developing and implementing elimination strategies at

  11. Migrant remittances and household wellbeing in urban Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracking, Sarah; Sachikonye, Lloyd

    2010-01-01

    Evidence from household surveying in December 2005 in Harare and Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, indicates that a wide network of international migrant remitters are ameliorating the economic crisis in Zimbabwe by sending monetary and in-kind transfers to over 50 per cent of urban households. The research combines quantitative measurement of scale and scope, with demographic and qualitative narrative to build a holistic picture of the typography of receiving and non-receiving households. A complex set of interrelated variables helps to explain why some households do and others do not receive income and goods from people who are away, and the economic and social extent of their subsequent benefit from them. Moreover, the mixed methods approach is designed to capture inter-household and likely macroeconomic effects of how households receive their goods and money; and of how they subsequently exchange (if applicable), store and spend it. Evidence emerges of a largely informal, international social welfare system, but one which is not without adverse inter-household effects for some. These include suffering exclusion from markets suffering from inflationary pressures, not least as a result of other people’s remittances. This paper explores the role of remittances, within this internationalised informal welfare system which we can map from our household survey, in reframing vulnerability and marginalization differentially among and between our subject households.

  12. Multidimensional poverty, household environment and short-term morbidity in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehury, Bidyadhar; Mohanty, Sanjay K

    2017-01-01

    Using the unit data from the second round of the Indian Human Development Survey (IHDS-II), 2011-2012, which covered 42,152 households, this paper examines the association between multidimensional poverty, household environmental deprivation and short-term morbidities (fever, cough and diarrhoea) in India. Poverty is measured in a multidimensional framework that includes the dimensions of education, health and income, while household environmental deprivation is defined as lack of access to improved sanitation, drinking water and cooking fuel. A composite index combining multidimensional poverty and household environmental deprivation has been computed, and households are classified as follows: multidimensional poor and living in a poor household environment, multidimensional non-poor and living in a poor household environment, multidimensional poor and living in a good household environment and multidimensional non-poor and living in a good household environment. Results suggest that about 23% of the population belonging to multidimensional poor households and living in a poor household environment had experienced short-term morbidities in a reference period of 30 days compared to 20% of the population belonging to multidimensional non-poor households and living in a poor household environment, 19% of the population belonging to multidimensional poor households and living in a good household environment and 15% of the population belonging to multidimensional non-poor households and living in a good household environment. Controlling for socioeconomic covariates, the odds of short-term morbidity was 1.47 [CI 1.40-1.53] among the multidimensional poor and living in a poor household environment, 1.28 [CI 1.21-1.37] among the multidimensional non-poor and living in a poor household environment and 1.21 [CI 1.64-1.28] among the multidimensional poor and living in a good household environment compared to the multidimensional non-poor and living in a good household

  13. Substitutes for mineral oil in the household sector. Substitutionsmoeglichkeiten fuer Mineraloel im Haushaltsbereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, D; Schiffer, H W

    1979-01-01

    Substitution possibilities as discussed in the study are only those which could have been realized at the time of investigation within one year after the onset of a supply crisis by the use of other energy sources. Substitution energies in this sense are: Solid fuels, gas, electrical energy, thermal energy (district heating). The study deals only with energy supply in households. Investment costs and technical problems related to the adaptation of supply systems are discussed as well as problems of energy transport, and energy storage in different regions.

  14. Modelling of Split Condenser Heat Pump with Limited Set of Plate Heat Exchanger Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Stefan Wuust; Elmegaard, Brian; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2017-01-01

    in parallel to different temperature levels, whereas only one stream is heated in a THP. The length/width ratio of the plate heat exchangers on the high pressure side of a SCHP was investigated to find the optimal plate dimensions with respect to minimum area of the heat exchangers. The total heat exchanger...... area was found to decrease with an increasing length/width ratio of the plates. The marginal change in heat exchanger area was shown to be less significant for heat exchangers with high length/width ratios. In practice only a limited number of plate dimensions are available and feasible...... in the production. This was investigated to find the practical potential of a SCHP compared to a THP. Using plates optimized for a SCHP in a THP, the total required heat exchanger area increased by approximately 100% for the conditions investigated in this study, indicating that available plate dimensions influence...

  15. Is the contribution of community forest users financially efficient? A household level benefit-cost analysis of community forest management in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar Rai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Community forestry in Nepal is considered an exemplary forest management regime. However, the economics behind managing a community forest is not fully studied. This study examines whether the benefits generated from community forest management justify the contributions of forest users. The study is based on a survey of community forest users in Chitwan, Nepal. A household level benefit-cost analysis was performed to quantify and compare the costs and benefits from community forest management. Only direct benefits were included in the analysis. The study shows that older forest user groups derive more benefits to households compared to more recently established ones. The extent of timber harvesting also substantially influences the size of the household benefits. In addition, redistribution of benefits at the household level, in terms of income generating activities and payment for involvement in forest management activities, also enhances household benefits. Sensitivity analysis suggests that the current practice of community forest management enhances the welfare of rural households in this subsistence community. However, this finding is sensitive to assumptions regarding the opportunity cost of time. The study also found that the household costs of community forest management depend upon two factors – the area of community forest and the size of the forest area relative to the number of households.

  16. Household Arthropod Allergens in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong

    2009-01-01

    Arthropods are important in human health, which can transmit pathogens to humans, parasitize, or produce important allergens. Allergy prevalence becomes higher in Korea recently as well as other developed countries in contrast to a decrease of infectious diseases. Allergic diseases caused by household arthropods have increased dramatically during the last few decades since human beings spend more their time for indoor activities in modernized life style. Household arthropods are one of the most common causes of allergic diseases. Biological characterization of household arthropods and researches on their allergens will provide better understanding of the pathogenesis of allergic diseases and suggest new therapeutic ways. Therefore, studies on arthropods of allergenic importance can be considered one of the major research areas in medical arthropodology and parasitology. Here, the biology of several household arthropods, including house dust mites and cockroaches, the 2 most well known arthropods living indoor together with humans worldwide, and characteristics of their allergens, especially the research activities on these allergens performed in Korea, are summarized. PMID:19885330

  17. Household dietary diversity and Animal Source Food consumption in Ethiopia: evidence from the 2011 Welfare Monitoring Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workicho, Abdulhalik; Belachew, Tefera; Feyissa, Garumma Tolu; Wondafrash, Beyene; Lachat, Carl; Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2016-11-25

    It is imperative to track dietary quality and progress in nutritional outcomes in a population to develop timely interventions. Dietary diversity is a commonly used proxy to assess dietary quality in low-income countries. This study identified predictors of household dietary diversity in Ethiopia and pattern of consumption of animal source food (ASF) among households. Secondary data were analyzed from the 2011 Ethiopian Welfare Monitoring Survey (WMS). This survey used a structured questionnaire to collect socio-demographic and economic data. Dietary data were collected using a dietary diversity questionnaire measuring dietary diversity over the past 1 week. A Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS) was constructed according to the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) guidelines. Consumption of ASFs is described by its distribution among the regions and by HDDS. Multiple logistic regression analysis was fitted to identify independent predictors for HDDS. A total of 27,995 households were included in the analyses. A little over half of the study households (52.2%) had more than four household members, and 75% of households were male headed. The mean HHDS was five food groups. Cereals were the most commonly (96%) consumed food groups. Fish, egg and fruits, on the other hand, were the least consumed food groups. ASFs were consumed in greater proportion among households with higher HDDS. Being part of the higher and middle socio economic strata (P < 0.001), literacy (P < 0.01), urban residence (P < 0.01), male headed household (P < 0.01), larger family size (P <0.01) and owning livestock (P < 0.01) were positively associated with higher HDDS. Considering these findings, nutrition sensitive interventions which address the problem through economic and educational empowerment and modern technologies supporting agricultural practices need to be designed to increase both local production and increased consumption.

  18. Household-level risk factors for influenza among young children in Dhaka, Bangladesh: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Saumil; Silk, Benjamin J; Dutt, Dhiman; Ahmed, Moshtaq; Cohen, Adam L; Taylor, Thomas H; Brooks, W Abdullah; Goswami, Doli; Luby, Stephen P; Fry, Alicia M; Ram, Pavani K

    2015-06-01

    To identify household-level factors associated with influenza among young children in a crowded community in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We conducted a case-control study using existing active surveillance for respiratory illness. Cases were children aged 12-59 months with laboratory-confirmed influenza. Controls were children frequency-matched by age group with no respiratory illness in the prior 6 months. We interviewed caregivers and observed household handwashing behaviour. Soap consumption was estimated by summing weight differences of three bars of soap sequentially left in each household. We measured concentrations of airborne particulate matter <2.5 μg in diameter (PM2.5) in a subset of households. We used logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We enrolled 145 cases and 341 controls between March 2009 and April 2010. Case and control household members were observed to wash hands with similar frequency during a 5-h period (mean, 0.64 events vs. 0.63, P = 0.87), and similar daily soap consumption per capita (mean 2.92 grams vs. 2.93, P = 0.92). Case households were more likely than controls to have crowded (≥4 persons) sleeping areas (aOR = 1.67, CI: 1.06-2.63) and cross-ventilated cooking spaces (aOR = 1.75, CI: 1.16-2.63). Case and control households had similar median 24-h geometric mean PM2.5 concentrations in the cooking (69.2 vs. 69.6 μg/m(3), P = 0.45) and sleeping (65.4 vs. 67.4 μg/m(3), P = 0.19) spaces. Handwashing with soap was practiced infrequently and was not associated with paediatric influenza in this community. Interventions aimed at crowded households may reduce influenza incidence in young children. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. GHG reduction potential of changes in consumption patterns and higher quality levels: Evidence from Swiss household consumption survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girod, Bastien, E-mail: bastien.girod@env.ethz.c [ETH Zurich, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Natural and Social Science Interface, Universitaetstrasse 22, CHN J72.1, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Haan, Peter de [ETH Zurich, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Natural and Social Science Interface, Universitaetstrasse 22, CHN J72.1, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2009-12-15

    An effective consumer-oriented climate policy requires knowing the GHG reduction potential of sustainable consumption. The aim of this study is to draw lessons from differences in consumption between households with high a