WorldWideScience

Sample records for household energy consumption

  1. Household energy consumption attitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, P

    1976-05-01

    This report contains a summary of the results of a study of household attitudes to energy use and conservation while the author was a member of staff at Massey University. During 1975 seven batches of a mail questionnaire were sent out to a random sample of people drawn from the 1974 Local Body Electoral Rolls. Valid replies were obtained from just under 60% of the 17,500 households to which the forms were sent. The study was undertaken for the simple reason that all energy demand depends on people and yet very little information seemed to be available which showed what people thought about the energy situation and how they felt about the need for conservation. The way people evaluate their energy needs represents a focal element in the energy system as it is this appraisal which results in their demand for energy. The impact of household attitudes goes far beyond the relative share of the energy market taken by the domestic sector, however, as the same people are involved in the demand from all other sectors.

  2. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  3. Household energy and consumption and expenditures, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this supplement to the Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990 report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential housing units, specifically at the four Census regions and nine Census division levels. This report includes household energy consumption, expenditures, and prices for natural gas, electricity, fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and kerosene as well as household wood consumption. For national-level data, see the main report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990

  4. Household energy consumption and expenditures, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990, is based upon data from the 1990 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). Focusing on energy end-use consumption and expenditures of households, the 1990 RECS is the eighth in a series conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Over 5,000 households were surveyed, providing information on their housing units, housing characteristics, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information provided represents the characteristics and energy consumption of 94 million households nationwide

  5. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-05

    This presents information about household end-use consumption of energy and expenditures for that energy. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey; more than 7,000 households were surveyed for information on their housing units, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information represents all households nationwide (97 million). Key findings: National residential energy consumption was 10.0 quadrillion Btu in 1993, a 9% increase over 1990. Weather has a significant effect on energy consumption. Consumption of electricity for appliances is increasing. Houses that use electricity for space heating have lower overall energy expenditures than households that heat with other fuels. RECS collected data for the 4 most populous states: CA, FL, NY, TX.

  6. Energy consumption characteristics of Guatemalan households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansilla, C.; Moscoso, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    The sectoral consumption pattern in Guatemala has shown that the residential sector is the major energy consumer. It accounts for 68.9 per cent of total consumption, followed by the transportation sector with 16.6 per cent, and the industrial sector with 9.3 per cent. Because of the importance of the household sector in the national energy balance, the Energy Planning Project carried out a nationwide household survey in 1985 to estimate energy-use patterns. This paper focusses on the findings from the analysis of the 2,500 forms completed during that survey. 4 figs, 1 tab

  7. Urban household energy consumption in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pongsapich, Amara; Wongsekiarttirat, Wathana (Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Social Research Inst.)

    1994-05-01

    This study was aimed at developing a better understanding of urban household energy consumption in Thailand through a series of in-depth household energy surveys. Households in urban areas used electricity, LPG, charcoal and fuelwood. Traditional biomass fuels such as husk and dung, as well as kerosene, were essentially not used in urban households. Nearly all households used electricity and most households used LPG. Some households used more than one fuel for cooking, particularly LPG and charcoal. There was a great difference in electricity used between the households in Bangkok and other urban areas. Most households in the study areas used LPG stove or burners for cooking. But charcoal stoves were also used by many households for specific culinary purposes. Electric rice-cookers are widely used for convenience. The study suggests that the number of households using charcoal stoves will decrease gradually and fuelwood use will disappear. Saturation rates for refrigerators and colour television sets were very high and air conditioners were common in Bangkok. Some users may be unaware of the benefits of LPG as a cooking fuel. To improve indoor air quality and cooking safety and reduce pressures on forests from commercial fuelwood use, measures to promote LPG should be undertaken. The government should also provide information about efficient appliances and electricity conservation. (Author)

  8. Energy consumptions of households in 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denjean, Mathias

    2015-06-01

    Based on results of a survey, this publication comments data presented under the form of tables and graphs and related to the energy consumption by French households during 2012. It addresses expenses and consumptions for individual housing and for a flat in collective building, analyses the energy consumption with respect to surface in the case of individual housing, discusses the influence of dwelling age on consumption, the influence of geographical location in France, the influence o the residence status (owner or renter), and the influence of dwelling occupation (hours per day), and the distribution of the type of consumed energy (electricity, gas, oil, LPG, wood, other) and the money spent on these different energies. The type of energy is also related to the residence status, to the housing type (house or flat), to the flat surface, to the housing type and age, to the geographical location

  9. A cultural model of household energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutzenhiser, Loren

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the development of demand-side research, from an early interest in conservation behavior to a later focus on physical, economic, psychological and social models of energy consumption. Unfortunately, none of these models account satisfactorily for measured energy consumption in the residential sector. Growing interest in the end-uses of energy (e.g. in support of load forecasting, demand-side management and least-cost utility planning), increasing international studies of energy use, and continuing work in the energy and lifestyles research tradition now support an emerging cultural perspective on household energy use. The ecological foundations of the cultural model and its applications in energy research are discussed, along with some of the analytic consequences of this approach. (author)

  10. Determinants of household energy consumption in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekholm, Tommi; Krey, Volker; Pachauri, Shonali; Riahi, Keywan

    2010-01-01

    Improving access to affordable modern energy is critical to improving living standards in the developing world. Rural households in India, in particular, are almost entirely reliant on traditional biomass for their basic cooking energy needs. This has adverse effects on their health and productivity, and also causes environmental degradation. This study presents a new generic modelling approach, with a focus on cooking fuel choices, and explores response strategies for energy poverty eradication in India. The modelling approach analyzes the determinants of fuel consumption choices for heterogeneous household groups, incorporating the effect of income distributions and traditionally more intangible factors such as preferences and private discount rates. The methodology is used to develop alternate future scenarios that explore how different policy mechanisms such as fuel subsidies and micro-financing can enhance the diffusion of modern, more efficient, energy sources in India.

  11. Determinants of household energy consumption in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekholm, Tommi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FIN-02044 VTT (Finland); TKK Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Krey, Volker; Pachauri, Shonali; Riahi, Keywan [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria)

    2010-10-15

    Improving access to affordable modern energy is critical to improving living standards in the developing world. Rural households in India, in particular, are almost entirely reliant on traditional biomass for their basic cooking energy needs. This has adverse effects on their health and productivity, and also causes environmental degradation. This study presents a new generic modelling approach, with a focus on cooking fuel choices, and explores response strategies for energy poverty eradication in India. The modelling approach analyzes the determinants of fuel consumption choices for heterogeneous household groups, incorporating the effect of income distributions and traditionally more intangible factors such as preferences and private discount rates. The methodology is used to develop alternate future scenarios that explore how different policy mechanisms such as fuel subsidies and micro-financing can enhance the diffusion of modern, more efficient, energy sources in India. (author)

  12. Factors affecting wood energy consumption by U.S. households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nianfu Song; Francisco X. Aguilar; Stephen R. Shifley; Michael E. Goerndt

    2012-01-01

    About 23% of energy derived from woody sources in the U.S. was consumed by households, of which 70% was used by households in rural areas in 2005. We investigated factors affecting household-level wood energy consumption in the four continental U.S. regions using data from the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey. To account for a large number of zero...

  13. Household energy consumption and consumer electronics: The case of television

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosbie, Tracey

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a dramatic rise in the number of consumer electronics in households. These new technologies and the services that support them enable new highly energy intensive behaviours. Using in-depth interview data collected from 20 households in 2006, this paper explores these energy intensive behaviours, using the example of the use of televisions. In doing so, it illustrates how the design and marketing of consumer electronics, and the services which support them, actively encourage energy intensive behaviours and how householders are reconfiguring their homes and lifestyles to fit these behaviours. This latter point is significant because, as householders change their homes and daily lives to fit energy intensive consuming behaviours, it will become increasingly difficult to encourage people to reduce their household energy consumption. This paper concludes with the implications of the research findings for policies designed to reduce household energy consumption

  14. Energy Threshold Hypothesis for Household Consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, Samira; Castro-Sitiriche, Marcel; Amador, Isamar

    2017-01-01

    A strong positive relationship among quality of life and electricity consumption at impoverished countries is found in many studies. However, previous work has presented that the positive relationship does not hold beyond certain electricity consumption threshold. Consequently, there is a need of exploring the possibility for communities to live with sustainable level of energy consumption without sacrificing their quality of life. The Gallup-Healthways Report measures global citizen’s wellbeing. This paper provides a new outlook using these elements to explore the relationships among actual percentage of population thriving in most countries and their energy consumption. A measurement of efficiency is computed to determine an adjusted relative social value of energy considering the variability in the happy life years as a function of electric power consumption. Adjustment is performed so single components don’t dominate in the measurement. It is interesting to note that the countries with the highest relative social value of energy are in the top 10 countries of the Gallup report.

  15. A social capital approach to household energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMichael, Megan [School of Construction Management and Engineering, The Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    This paper examines the concept of social capital in relation to household energy consumption in an effort to further understand social influences on energy use in the United Kingdom. The considerable focus on building science and technology notwithstanding, it is widely recognised that social factors influence energy use at the household level. Much of the research on changing behaviour has focused on influencing individual actions. Whilst promoting changes in individual behaviour is important, social level analysis provides a broader framework for understanding householder energy use. Social capital broadly refers to the social resources available through networks, social norms and associated levels of trust and reciprocity. The literature of energy, in the form of environmental protection and consumption, is investigated here with regards to social capital to determine the utility of any theoretical and empirical relationship. It is argued that insights from the associations of social and energy consumption can assist energy efficiency practitioners and researchers in understanding the broader social framework that underpins household energy use, but that more robust empirical research is necessary.

  16. Concerned consumption. Global warming changing household domestication of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, Margrethe; Godbolt, Åsne Lund; Sørensen, Knut H.; Ryghaug, Marianne; Karlstrøm, Henrik; Næss, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses possible effects of the growing focus on global warming on households’ domestication of energy and the dynamics of energy consumption by comparing data pertaining to the domestication of energy within Norwegian households from two time periods: first, 1991–1995, when climate change was given little public attention, and, second, 2006–2009, after climate change became a major public concern. In the first period, we observed that the domestication of energy resulted in an energy culture emphasizing comfort and convenience with respect to everyday life and the abundant supply of clean hydropower. In the second period, this culture seemed to have changed, making households more concerned about their energy consumption. Consumption of energy was linked to climate change, and many interviewees claimed to save energy. However, the dominant expectation was still to be able to manage everyday life in a convenient and comfortable way. Thus, climate change concerns produced some but not very radical changes in the practical domestication of energy, including energy saving. A main effect was feelings of guilt, tempered by arguments regarding why change is difficult and complaints about political inaction. Thus, public engagement with climate change issues may facilitate energy efficiency policy but to succeed, wider climate policy measures seem to be needed. - Highlights: • Increased climate change focus has affected household domestication of energy. • The changes produced concerns about energy consumption. • Some energy saving activities were reported. • Household energy cultures are less stable than anticipated. • Suggests wider climate policy measures to motivate for energy efficiency.

  17. Energy consumption of the households 1960-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, J.; Engsted, T.

    1999-01-01

    During the 1960s energy consumption of Danish households increased relatively fast, but the oil price shocks of the 1970s and subsequent energy policy changes reversed this development towards stagnation in energy consumption in the recent decades. Using time series data covering the period 1960-1996 the final energy consumption of the residential sector is analysed in the framework of co-integration and error-correction modelling. The long run income and price elasticities are found to be 1.17 and -0.85, respectively, but in the short run energy prices seem to influence consumption less as only income and the weather conditions appear significantly in the short run dynamics of the estimated error-correction model. (au)

  18. Household direct energy consumption and CO2 emissions in European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meirmans, Koen

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Household direct energy consumption is often regarded as a given and determined using a top-down approach. Furthermore, research regarding household energy consumption tends to focus on western countries. This research uses a bottom-up approach t

  19. Household pathway selection of energy consumption during urbanization process in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Chuanwang; Ouyang, Xiaoling; Cai, Hongbo; Luo, Zhichao; Li, Aijun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy consumption patterns have long-term impacts on energy demand. • We explore determinants and structure of household energy consumption. • Tobit and OLS models are adopted to explore factors influencing energy expenditure. • Residential energy consumption in 2030 is evaluated using scenario analysis. - Abstract: China’s growing energy demand is driven by urbanization. Facing the problem of energy scarcity, residential energy consumption is a crucial area of energy conservation and emissions reduction. Household energy consumption patterns, which are characterized by effects of “path lock-in”, have long-term impacts on China’s energy demand. Based on the survey data, this paper explores factors that influence household energy consumption and analyzes the structure of residential energy consumption in China. Based on the results of analysis of variance (ANOVA), this paper applies the Tobit and Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) models to investigate impacts of variables of “the tiered pricing for household electricity (TPHE)”, “solar energy usage”, “automobile ownership”, “rural or urban areas”, “household income” and “city scale” on the residential energy expenditure. In addition, household energy consumption is estimated under different scenarios including improving the utilization of solar energy, rise in energy prices and the increase in automobile ownership. Residential energy consumption in 2030 is evaluated by simulating different models for urban development. Policy recommendations are suggested for China’s urban development strategy, new energy development and household pathway selection of energy consumption

  20. Switching off or switching source : energy consumption and household

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gassmann, F.; Tsukada, R.

    2013-01-01

    "Access to energy is fundamental to improving quality of life and is a key imper- ative for economic development" (Energy Poverty Action). This is particularly true in Central Asia where winters are harsh and long. Changes in energy prices affect the purchasing power of households, hitting the poor

  1. Analysis of the energy requirement for household consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vringer, Kees

    2005-01-01

    Humans in households use energy for their activities. This use is both direct, for example electricity and natural gas, but also indirect, for the production, transport and trade of other goods and services. The main objective of this thesis is to gain insight into the energy requirement associated

  2. Household energy consumption versus income and relative standard of living: A panel approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyeux, Roselyne; Ripple, Ronald D.

    2007-01-01

    Our fundamental premise is that energy consumption at the household level is a key indicator of standard of living. We employ state-of-the-art panel cointegration techniques to evaluate the nature of the relationship between income measures and energy consumption measures for seven East Indian Ocean countries. The general finding is that income and household electricity consumption are not cointegrated. Given this finding, we conclude that standard of living measures that rely on income measures and do not include household-level energy consumption information will necessarily miss important indications of both levels and changes of standard of living

  3. Building and household X-factors and energy consumption at the residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estiri, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Energy use in residential buildings is one of the major sources of greenhouse gas emission production from cities. Using microdata from the 2009 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), this study applies structural equation modeling to analyze the direct, indirect, and total impacts of household and building characteristics on residential energy consumption. Results demonstrate that the direct impact of household characteristics on residential energy consumption is significantly smaller than the corresponding impact from the buildings. However, accounting for the indirect impact of household characteristics on energy consumption, through choice of the housing unit characteristics, the total impact of households on energy consumption is just slightly smaller than that of buildings. Outcomes of this paper call for smart policies to incorporate housing choice processes in managing residential energy consumption. - Highlights: • Households indirectly influence residential energy use through housing choice. • Households' total impact on energy use is comparable to that of buildings. • Understanding households' indirect impact will enhance residential energy policy. • Smart energy policies are needed to target both direct and indirect effects

  4. Rural household energy consumption pattern in the disregarded villages of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, Md. Danesh; Kabir, Rashel Rana Mohammad Sirajul; Koike, Masao; Akther, Shalina; Shin, Man Yong

    2010-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important ingredients required to alleviate poverty and realize socio-economic and human development, which is directly interconnected to the prominence of life in rural areas. An extensive survey on household energy consumption pattern interrelating socio-economic and demographic factors was carried out in the disregarded villages of Bangladesh using stratified random sampling technique of 120 households. This paper focuses on household energy consumption, various combinations of fuels and their expenditure in the study area. Biomass, kerosene, electricity, LPG and candle were found as the energy carrier used in the rural households in this study. The study shows that 92% households use biomass, 28% LPG, 89% kerosene, 78% electricity and 27% candle as fuel types. It was found that 56% households collected biomass from their own homesteads and/or agricultural lands. Bamboo, branches, cow dung, firewood, rice husk, leaves and twigs and straw were found as the biomass for household energy use. Average monthly household expenditure for total energy was US$ 9.67 (SE, 0.31) per month while the total monthly income of the household was US$ 123 (SE, 2.53). The ratio of the total monthly energy expenditure to the total monthly income was 7.86%. The study will be helpful to understand the energy consumption system and its expenditure in the rural areas of Bangladesh and to the policy formulation for energy production, consumption and utilization.

  5. Rural household energy consumption pattern in the disregarded villages of Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, Md. Danesh [Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh); Forest Policy Laboratory, Shinshu University, 8304 Minamimminowa, Nagano-ken 399-4598 (Japan); Kabir, Rashel Rana Mohammad Sirajul [Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh); Koike, Masao; Akther, Shalina [Forest Policy Laboratory, Shinshu University, 8304 Minamimminowa, Nagano-ken 399-4598 (Japan); Yong Shin, Man [Department of Forest Science, Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea)

    2010-02-15

    Energy is one of the most important ingredients required to alleviate poverty and realize socio-economic and human development, which is directly interconnected to the prominence of life in rural areas. An extensive survey on household energy consumption pattern interrelating socio-economic and demographic factors was carried out in the disregarded villages of Bangladesh using stratified random sampling technique of 120 households. This paper focuses on household energy consumption, various combinations of fuels and their expenditure in the study area. Biomass, kerosene, electricity, LPG and candle were found as the energy carrier used in the rural households in this study. The study shows that 92% households use biomass, 28% LPG, 89% kerosene, 78% electricity and 27% candle as fuel types. It was found that 56% households collected biomass from their own homesteads and/or agricultural lands. Bamboo, branches, cow dung, firewood, rice husk, leaves and twigs and straw were found as the biomass for household energy use. Average monthly household expenditure for total energy was US$ 9.67 (SE, 0.31) per month while the total monthly income of the household was US$ 123 (SE, 2.53). The ratio of the total monthly energy expenditure to the total monthly income was 7.86%. The study will be helpful to understand the energy consumption system and its expenditure in the rural areas of Bangladesh and to the policy formulation for energy production, consumption and utilization. (author)

  6. Influence of household biogas digester use on household energy consumption in a semi-arid rural region of northwest China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Wenguang; Niu, Hewen; Chen, Jinsong; Du, Jun; Wu, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Rural household energy mainly derives from available biomass resources. ► Household energy consumption structure experiencing substantial transformation. ► Biogas energy plays an important roles in rural household energy consumption. ► Biogas digester construction has a profound implication for applied energy. -- Abstract: A comprehensive investigation was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of newly installed biogas digesters in saving biomass resources and addressing energy squandering. Compared with traditional coal-based or firewood dominated energy consumption, the biogas digesters economize on energy resources due to higher heat efficiency. Furthermore, since crop residues of straw and other domestic animal and human excreta are effectively recycled and reused as anaerobic fermentation materials of biogas digesters, greenhouse gas emissions are significantly reduced by converting the previous extensive combustion of such into a sustainable and highly efficient practice in the rural region. The results in this study show that total energy consumption is 412 kgce (kgce: 1 kg standard coal. 1 kgce = 29.31 MJ) in Xiyang Township in 2009. The construction of biogas digesters significantly contributes to the transformation of rural household energy consumption structure, though biogas as a renewable energy only accounts for 6.31% of the total household energy consumption. Per capita rural household energy consumption is 393.07 kgce in household with biogas digesters and 437.60 kgce in household without biogas digesters. In addition, application of biogas dregs, slurry, and marsh liquid to the agricultural crops have greatly reduced the expenditure of buying chemical fertilizers. The average commercial fertilizer per mu (0.067 ha) in rural households using biogas digesters is 12.43 kg and the cost per mu is 29.53 yuan (1 yuan = 0.1523 dollar), while rural households without biogas digesters use 25.22 kg of commercial fertilizers and cost 59

  7. Regional energy planning on the base of household consumption analysis in the county

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majstrovic, M.; Goic, R.; Sutlovic, E.

    1999-01-01

    The regional planning concept accepted by the Croatian energy sector demands to establish regional energy centres. The first phase of the project was realized in Dalmatian county as 'Southern Croatian counties energy development strategy' which tasks were to collect data, to make the survey and database and to present the main characteristics of energy consumption in county households. The county was separated into ten zones according to geographic location, living standards and energy consumption. Answers to 79 questions divided into 8 groups (household general data, space heating, water heating and cooking, economic status, household ownership, energy demand, car information and future investments) made the database and the simple model formed 9 tables. The second phase consists of industrial, service and traffic sector analysis. Table data for the total energy consumption per zones, per inhabitant and zones, by energy mode and by energy use. This database and further information development will contribute to better energy planning

  8. An analysis of monthly household energy consumption among single-family residences in Texas, 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenzuela, Carlos; Valencia, Alelhie; White, Steve; Jordan, Jeffrey A.; Cano, Stephanie; Keating, Jerome; Nagorski, John; Potter, Lloyd B.

    2014-01-01

    Demographic, socioeconomic, and housing characteristics influence variation in household energy consumption. By combining household-level utility, public, and proprietary data, we examine predictors of household energy consumption in a Texas urban area. Using quantile regression, this analysis assesses the relationship between energy consumption and predictors at the middle and both ends of the distribution (10th and 90th percentiles). Results indicate potential opportunities to lower consumption among the highest energy-consuming households including those with pools, with non-central cooling, with people working from home, those built on pier/post foundation, and those that are renter-occupied. These findings suggest significant opportunities to reduce consumption and demand as in the study area, almost 10% of housing units are renter-occupied, 18% percent are without central cooling, and 7% have pools. Capturing a significant portion of these homes for retrofit conservation efforts through marketing has potential to produce substantial results. Producing a better understanding of determinants of household energy consumption using the methods presented has potential to assist development and implementation of strategies to reduce consumption and increase efficiency. - Highlights: • Data on energy use is combined with housing and demographic characteristics. • Quantile regression is used to examine relationships among key variables. • Less efficient homes have pools, no central HVAC, and pier/post foundations. • Houses with persons working at home and renter occupied homes were less efficient. • Energy conservation strategies are discussed and suggested for each element

  9. Energy requirements of household consumption : a case study of The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesiot, W; Noorman, K.J.

    This article describes the results of several research programmes that together aim at the development and application of methodologies that enable the study of long-term environmental effects (mainly related to the total household energy demand) of household consumption in relation to other

  10. Measurement of inequality using household energy consumption data in rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shimei; Zheng, Xinye; Wei, Chu

    2017-10-01

    Measuring inequality can be challenging due to the limitations of using household income or expenditure data. Because actual energy consumption can be measured more easily and accurately and is relatively more stable, it may be a better measure of inequality. Here we use data on energy consumption for specific devices from a large nation-wide household survey (n = 3,404 rural households from 12 provinces) to assess inequality in rural China. We find that the overall inequality of energy consumption and expenditure varies greatly in terms of energy type, end-use demand, regions and climatic zones. Biomass, space heating and cooking, intraregional differences, and climatic zones characterized as cold or hot summer/cold winter contribute the most to total inequality for each indicator, respectively. The results suggest that the expansion of infrastructure does not accompany alleviation of energy inequality, and that energy affordability should be improved through income growth and targeted safety-net programmes instead of energy subsidies.

  11. Household Energy Consumption Behaviour for Different Demographic Regions in Thailand from 2000 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharinya Supasa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 1995, the residential sector has been a fast-growing energy consumption sector in Thailand. This sector contributes dramatically to the growth of Thailand’s electricity and oil demand. Our study analysed Thailand’s residential energy consumption characteristics and the seven underlying factors affecting the growth in energy use of five demographic regions using an energy input–output method. Embodied energy decomposition revealed that direct energy consumption accounted for approximately 30% of total residential energy use, whereas indirect energy consumption was at 70%. During the studied period, the growth in indirect energy use for all household groups was primarily the result of higher consumption of ‘commerce’, ‘air transport’, ‘manufacturing’, ‘food and beverages’ and ‘agriculture’ products. Moreover, each influencing driver contributes differently to each household’s growth in energy demand. The number of households was the leading factor that dominated the increases in residential energy use in the Greater Bangkok and Central regions. Growth in residential energy consumption in the Northern, Northeastern and Southern regions was strongly dominated by changes in income per capita. Consumption structure and using energy-efficient products had a moderate impact on all regions’ energy consumption. Thus, our findings provide additional energy-saving strategies to restrain further growth in residential energy demand.

  12. The role of income in energy consumption behaviour: Evidence from French households data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayla, Jean-Michel; Maizi, Nadia; Marchand, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to characterise quantitatively the impact of income on household energy consumption in the residential and transport sectors. Starting from the data collected in a paper survey, we analyse the extent of the constraint experienced by households in terms of equipment purchasing behaviour and daily energy consumption. This analysis shows that the least well-off households are particularly constrained since the share of their budget represented by these energy services is very large (15–25%), and this corresponds to a level of energy service well below that of the better-off households. The case of space-heating shows a factor of 2 in terms of level of comfort achieved between the extreme 10-percentiles. These households also face a strong capital constraint for equipment purchases. This leads either to a large increase in the required rate of return or to a reduction in the proportion of households that are prepared to replace their equipment earlier. The least well-off households are thus doubly constrained, since it is more difficult for them to invest. In our opinion, it is crucial to take into account this observation in the context of political measures aimed at reducing households’CO 2 emissions. - Highlights: ► Realisation of a survey to quantify the impact of income on energy consumption. ► There is a factor of 2 in the level of comfort achieved by extreme income households. ► Analysis of discount rates demanded by households according to income and end-use. ► Influence of income on intensity of use of energy services and energy management.

  13. Household energy consumption in the UK: A highly geographically and socio-economically disaggregated model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druckman, A.; Jackson, T.

    2008-01-01

    Devising policies for a low carbon society requires a careful understanding of energy consumption in different types of households. In this paper, we explore patterns of UK household energy use and associated carbon emissions at national level and also at high levels of socio-economic and geographical disaggregation. In particular, we examine specific neighbourhoods with contrasting levels of deprivation, and typical 'types' (segments) of UK households based on socio-economic characteristics. Results support the hypothesis that different segments have widely differing patterns of consumption. We show that household energy use and associated carbon emissions are both strongly, but not solely, related to income levels. Other factors, such as the type of dwelling, tenure, household composition and rural/urban location are also extremely important. The methodology described in this paper can be used in various ways to inform policy-making. For example, results can help in targeting energy efficiency measures; trends from time series results will form a useful basis for scenario building; and the methodology may be used to model expected outcomes of possible policy options, such as personal carbon trading or a progressive tax regime on household energy consumption

  14. Household energy consumption in the United States, 1987 to 2009: Socioeconomic status, demographic composition, and energy services profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Robert J.

    This dissertation examines household energy consumption in the United States over the period of 1987 to 2009, specifically focusing on the role of socioeconomic status, demographic composition, and energy services profiles. The dissertation makes use of four cross-sections from the Residential Energy Consumption Survey data series to examine how household characteristics influence annual energy consumption overall, and by fuel type. Chapter 4 shows that household income is positively related to energy consumption, but more so for combustible fuel consumption than for electricity consumption. Additionally, results for educational attainment suggest a less cross-sectional association and more longitudinal importance as related to income. Demographic composition matters, as predicted by the literature; household size and householder age show predicted effects, but when considered together, income explains any interaction between age and household size. Combustible fuels showed a far greater relationship to housing unit size and income, whereas electricity consumption was more strongly related to educational attainment, showing important differences in the associations by fuel type. Taken together, these results suggest a life course-based model for understanding energy consumption that may be strongly linked to lifestyles. Chapter 5 extends the findings in Chapter 4 by examining the patterning of physical characteristics and behaviors within households. The chapter uses Latent Class Analysis to examine a broad set of energy significant behaviors and characteristics to discover five unique energy services profiles. These profiles are uniquely patterned across demographic and socioeconomic compositions of households and have important effects on energy consumption. These profiles are likely byproducts of the lifestyles in which the household takes part, due to factors such as their socioeconomic status and household demographic composition. Overall, the dissertation

  15. Survey of socio-economic and contextual factors of households׳ energy consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Jridi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a set of data relating to the investigation of the Tunisian Company of Electricity and Gas (STEG. The census is done on a sample of 3000 electrified households. The questionnaire is divided into three main sections: household socioeconomic status, contextual characteristics related to their housing and technical characteristics of equipments used. The objective of this survey is to achieve a reliable and detailed knowledge on the behavior of household energy consumption, particularly for energy saving behavior. This objective has recently been the subject of a research article Jridi et al. (2015 [2].

  16. The effects of the energy price reform on households consumption in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshiri, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    The substantial subsidizing of energy prices over the years has led to high energy consumption, inefficiencies, fiscal pressures, and environmental problems in Iran. To address the increasing socio-economic problems associated with the energy subsidies, the government embarked on an aggressive energy price reform through which energy subsidies were removed and cash handouts were given to all households in 2010. In this paper, I analyze the effectiveness of the energy price reform in Iran by estimating energy demand elasticities for households in different income groups. I apply a two-stage consumer optimization model and estimate the system of energy expenditures shares using the household budget survey data for the period 2001–2008. The results show that the overall price elasticities of demand are small, but income elasticities are close to one. The results also indicate heterogeneous responses to energy price and income changes in different income groups. Specifically, the urban households show stronger response to price changes, but rural households, particularly mid-income households, to income changes. These findings suggest that the current policy of price increases would not solely be able to reduce energy consumption and, therefore, it should be geared towards increasing energy efficiency through a series of price and non-price measures. - Highlights: • The effectiveness of the recent energy price reform in Iran is analyzed. • Energy demand elasticities for households in different income groups are estimated. • A two-stage optimization model was applied to estimate the system of equations using micro-data for 2001–2008. • The price elasticities are small and income elasticities rather large, but responses are heterogeneous. • A price and non-price reform policy package is needed for different income groups and regions

  17. Estimating Household Travel Energy Consumption in Conjunction with a Travel Demand Forecasting Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garikapati, Venu M. [Systems Analysis and Integration Section, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, CO 80401; You, Daehyun [Maricopa Association of Governments, 302 North First Avenue, Suite 300, Phoenix, AZ 85003; Zhang, Wenwen [School of City and Regional Planning, Center for Geographic Information Systems, Georgia Institute of Technology, 760 Spring Street, Suite 230, Atlanta, GA 30308; Pendyala, Ram M. [School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, Arizona State University, 660 South College Avenue, Tempe, AZ 85281; Guhathakurta, Subhrajit [School of City and Regional Planning, Center for Geographic Information Systems, Georgia Institute of Technology, 760 Spring Street, Suite 230, Atlanta, GA 30308; Brown, Marilyn A. [School of Public Policy, 685 Cherry Street, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332; Dilkina, Bistra [School of Computational Science and Engineering, 266 Ferst Drive, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the calculation of the consumption of household travel energy at the level of the traffic analysis zone (TAZ) in conjunction with information that is readily available from a standard four-step travel demand model system. This methodology embeds two algorithms. The first provides a means of allocating non-home-based trips to residential zones that are the source of such trips, whereas the second provides a mechanism for incorporating the effects of household vehicle fleet composition on fuel consumption. The methodology is applied to the greater Atlanta, Georgia, metropolitan region in the United States and is found to offer a robust mechanism for calculating the footprint of household travel energy at the level of the individual TAZ; this mechanism makes possible the study of variations in the energy footprint across space. The travel energy footprint is strongly correlated with the density of the built environment, although socioeconomic differences across TAZs also likely contribute to differences in travel energy footprints. The TAZ-level calculator of the footprint of household travel energy can be used to analyze alternative futures and relate differences in the energy footprint to differences in a number of contributing factors and thus enables the design of urban form, formulation of policy interventions, and implementation of awareness campaigns that may produce more-sustainable patterns of energy consumption.

  18. Consumption Profiles for Future Households

    OpenAIRE

    Blikø, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years there has been a change in energy consumption in Norwegian households. New houses are far better insulated, have high demands for efficient energy carriers and new installations that affect the electricity consumption. Today, most of the electricity in a Norwegian household is used for space heating, but this demand is expected to be reduced in the future, mainly because the need for space heating is reduced as a result of stricter demands for isolation. Electricity co...

  19. Characteristics of residential energy consumption in China: Findings from a household survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Xinye; Wei, Chu; Qin, Ping; Guo, Jin; Yu, Yihua; Song, Feng; Chen, Zhanming

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of 1450 households in 26 Chinese provinces was undertaken in 2012 to identify the characteristics and potential driving forces of residential energy consumption in China. The survey covers six areas: household characteristics, dwelling characteristics, kitchen and home appliances, space heating and cooling, residential transportation, and electricity billing, metering, and pricing options. The results show that a typical Chinese household in 2012 consumed 1426 kilograms standard coal equivalent, which is approximately 44 percent of the 2009 level in the United States and 38 percent of the 2008 level in the EU-27. District heating, natural gas, and electricity are three major residential energy sources, while space heating, cooking, and water heating are three major end-use activities. Moreover, the results suggest a large urban–rural gap in terms of energy sources and purpose of usage. Commercial energy is used mainly for space heating in urban areas, while biomass dominates mainly for cooking purpose in rural areas. The survey results can help decision makers and scholars identify energy conservation opportunities, and evaluate the effectiveness of energy policies. - Highlights: • We develop the first comprehensive survey of residential energy consumption in China. • A typical Chinese household in 2012 consumed 1426 kilograms coal equivalent. • Space heating accounts for half of energy demand. • A large rural–urban gap exists in terms of energy sources and end-use activities. • Results reveal challenges and opportunities for China's energy policy

  20. Performance gaps in energy consumption : household groups and building characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brom, P.I.; Meijer, A.; Visscher, H.J.

    2017-01-01

    The difference between actual and calculated energy is called the ‘energy-performance gap’. Possible explanations for this gap are construction mistakes, improper adjusting of equipment, excessive simplification in simulation models and occupant behaviour. Many researchers and governmental

  1. Regional Disparities in Emissions of Rural Household Energy Consumption: A Case Study of Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenheng Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the emissions status of multiple rural areas from the perspective of a field survey and make up for the defects of the traditional emission cognition of single type of area. The basic data in the lower reaches of the Weihe River of Northwest China were collected through household questionnaire surveys, and emissions from rural household energy consumption were calculated in the paper. In addition, the grey relational analysis method was used to identify influential factors of emission disparities. The results show that the total emissions of the plain, loess tableland, and Qinling piedmont areas are 1863.20, 1850.43, and 2556.68 kg, respectively. Regional disparities in emissions of rural household energy consumption vary greatly. CO2 emissions are highest in the Qinling piedmont area, followed by the loess tableland area. For other emissions, there is no fixed order of the three areas, which suggests that disparities in emissions are connected with the dominant type of energy consumption. Diversification of energy use might not necessarily produce higher emissions, but the traditional biomass energy pattern does generate more emissions. The regional supply capacity of household energy is the original influence factor of disparities in emissions, and factors that influence these disparities are directly related to differences among farmers, followed by the age structure, educational background, income level, occupation, and so on.

  2. Effect of Firewood Energy Consumption of Households on Status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increasing population of Ethiopia has resulted in excessive forest clearing for agricultural purpose, overgrazing and exploitation of the existing forests for fuel. The Environmental impact of over dependence on forest resources for energy source was not studied in sufficient detail in Debis watershed. Thus study was ...

  3. Understanding household energy consumption patterns: When 'West Is Best' in Metro Manila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahakian, Marlyne D., E-mail: marlyne.sahakian@graduateinstitute.c [Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Development Studies, 20 rue Rothschild, 1207 Geneva (Switzerland)

    2011-02-15

    This paper addresses the topic of energy and development through a multi-disciplinary and systemic approach that combines environmental considerations with a social understanding of consumption. The focus is on electricity usage in the home and specifically lighting and cooling. Set in the urban mega-polis of Metro Manila, the Philippines, energy consumption is first placed in its biophysical perspective: the energy sources and electricity grid are presented, in relation to the Philippines as well as the region. The research findings then explore the social and cultural drivers behind household electricity consumption, revealing in several examples the strong influence of globalization-understood here as the flow of people, remittances, images and ideas. Policy recommendations are provided, based on the research results, with concluding remarks relevant to other similar contexts. - Research highlights: {yields}Metro Manila household electricity consumption is environmentally significant. {yields}The meaning given to electricity services varies by socio-economic group. {yields}Structural conditions, such as building type, can lock-in energy consumption. {yields}Global flows-people, ideas, remittances-influence local consumption patterns. {yields}Social networks, rather than the individual consumer, can influence change.

  4. Understanding household energy consumption patterns: When 'West Is Best' in Metro Manila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahakian, Marlyne D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the topic of energy and development through a multi-disciplinary and systemic approach that combines environmental considerations with a social understanding of consumption. The focus is on electricity usage in the home and specifically lighting and cooling. Set in the urban mega-polis of Metro Manila, the Philippines, energy consumption is first placed in its biophysical perspective: the energy sources and electricity grid are presented, in relation to the Philippines as well as the region. The research findings then explore the social and cultural drivers behind household electricity consumption, revealing in several examples the strong influence of globalization-understood here as the flow of people, remittances, images and ideas. Policy recommendations are provided, based on the research results, with concluding remarks relevant to other similar contexts. - Research highlights: →Metro Manila household electricity consumption is environmentally significant. →The meaning given to electricity services varies by socio-economic group. →Structural conditions, such as building type, can lock-in energy consumption. →Global flows-people, ideas, remittances-influence local consumption patterns. →Social networks, rather than the individual consumer, can influence change.

  5. Householder engagement with energy consumption feedback: the role of community action and communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchell, Kevin; Rettie, Ruth; Roberts, Tom C.

    2016-01-01

    The provision of energy consumption feedback on in-home displays (IHDs) has a prominent role in government strategies for domestic energy demand reduction. Research suggests that IHDs can support energy consumption reduction, but also that engagement with IHDs can be limited to men and is often short-term. In this paper, we draw on research carried out in Smart Communities, a two-year project in which electricity and gas consumption feedback played a key role. This study was distinctive because it was accompanied by a weekly email communications programme and was provided within the context of community action. Project findings suggest that, although by no means panaceas, approaches such as these can support long-term engagement with energy consumption feedback, including by women, and can support behaviour change. - Highlights: • We examine the challenge of householder engagement with energy consumption feedback. • The potential of ‘community action’ and ‘communications’ is explored. • These approaches are shown to support long-term engagement by householders. • These approaches are also shown to support greater engagement by women. • Recommendations for future IHD platforms and smart meter roll-outs are presented.

  6. Future scenarios for energy consumption and carbon emissions due to demographic transitions in Chinese households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Biying; Wei, Yi-Ming; Kei, Gomi; Matsuoka, Yuzuru

    2018-02-01

    Population dynamics has been acknowledged as a key concern for projecting future emissions, partly because of the huge uncertainties related to human behaviour. However, the heterogeneous shifts of human behaviour in the process of demographic transition are not well explored when scrutinizing the impacts of population dynamics on carbon emissions. Here, we expand the existing population-economy-environment analytical structure to address the above limitations by representing the trend of demographic transitions to small-family and ageing society. We specifically accommodate for inter- and intra-life-stage variations in time allocation and consumption in the population rather than assuming a representative household, and take a less developed province, Sichuan, in China as the empirical context. Our results show that the demographic shift to small and ageing households will boost energy consumption and carbon emissions, driven by the joint variations in time-use and consumption patterns. Furthermore, biased pictures of changing emissions will emerge if the time effect is disregarded.

  7. Review of the indoor environmental quality and energy consumption studies for low income households in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolokotsa, D; Santamouris, M

    2015-12-01

    The term energy poverty is used to describe a situation of a household not able to satisfy socially and materially the required levels of its energy services. Energy and fuel poverty is an increasing problem in the European Union. Although the specific conditions vary from country to country the drivers defining fuel and energy poverty are similar in all Europe. This paper aims to present the state of the art regarding the energy demand and indoor environmental quality of low income households in Europe. The characteristics of this specific population group are presented including details on the specific energy consumption, the indoor comfort and finally the impact of the specific living conditions on the occupants' health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Decoupling economic growth from CO2 emissions: A decomposition analysis of China's household energy consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wei Ma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes Chinese household CO2 emissions in 1994–2012 based on the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI structure decomposition model, and discusses the relationship between household CO2 emissions and economic growth based on a decoupling indicator. The results show that in 1994–2012, household CO2 emissions grew in general and displayed an accelerated growth trend during the early 21st century. Economic growth leading to an increase in energy consumption is the main driving factor of CO2 emission growth (an increase of 1.078 Gt CO2 with cumulative contribution rate of 55.92%, while the decline in energy intensity is the main cause of CO2 emission growth inhibition (0.723 Gt CO2 emission reduction with cumulative contribution rate of 38.27%. Meanwhile, household CO2 emissions are in a weak state of decoupling in general. The change in CO2 emissions caused by population and economic growth shows a weak decoupling and expansive decoupling state, respectively. The CO2 emission change caused by energy intensity is in a state of strong decoupling, and the change caused by energy consumption structure fluctuates between a weak and a strong decoupling state.

  9. Efficient technologies or user behaviour, which is the more important when reducing households' energy consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Much policy effort focuses on energy efficiency of technology, though not only efficiency but also user behaviour is an important factor influencing the amount of consumed energy. This paper explores to what extent energy efficiency of appliances and houses or user behaviour is the more important...... and Danish national statistics. These Danish data are discussed together with international studies. Through the presentation of these different projects and examples, it is shown how user behaviour is at least as important as the efficiency of technology when explaining households' energy consumption...

  10. Informatics Solution for Energy Efficiency Improvement and Consumption Management of Householders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Vasilica Oprea

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although in 2012 the European Union (EU has promoted energy efficiency in order to ensure a gradual 20% reduction of energy consumption by 2020, its targets related to energy efficiency have increased and extended to new time horizons. Therefore, in 2016, a new proposal for 2030 of energy efficiency target of 30% has been agreed. However, during the last years, even if the electricity consumption by households decreased in the EU-28, the largest expansion was recorded in Romania. Taking into account that the projected consumption peak is increasing and energy consumption management for residential activities is an important measure for energy efficiency improvement since its ratio from total consumption can be around 25–30%, in this paper, we propose an informatics solution that assists both electricity suppliers/grid operators and consumers. It includes three models for electricity consumption optimization, profiles, clustering and forecast. By this solution, the daily operation of appliances can be optimized and scheduled to minimize the consumption peak and reduce the stress on the grid. For optimization purpose, we propose three algorithms for shifting the operation of the programmable appliances from peak to off-peak hours. This approach enables the supplier to apply attractive time-of-use tariffs due to the fact that by flattening the consumption peak, it becomes more predictable, and thus improves the strategies on the electricity markets. According to the results of the optimization process, we compare the proposed algorithms emphasizing the benefits. For building consumption profiles, we develop a clustering algorithm based on self-organizing maps. By running the algorithm for three scenarios, well-delimited profiles are obtained. As for the consumption forecast, highly accurate feedforward artificial neural networks algorithm with backpropagation is implemented. Finally, we test these algorithms using several datasets showing their

  11. Understanding household energy consumption patterns. When 'West Is Best' in Metro Manila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahakian, Marlyne D. [The Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Development Studies, 20 rue Rothschild, 1207 Geneva (Switzerland)

    2011-02-15

    This paper addresses the topic of energy and development through a multi-disciplinary and systemic approach that combines environmental considerations with a social understanding of consumption. The focus is on electricity usage in the home and specifically lighting and cooling. Set in the urban mega-polis of Metro Manila, the Philippines, energy consumption is first placed in its biophysical perspective: the energy sources and electricity grid are presented, in relation to the Philippines as well as the region. The research findings then explore the social and cultural drivers behind household electricity consumption, revealing in several examples the strong influence of globalization - understood here as the flow of people, remittances, images and ideas. Policy recommendations are provided, based on the research results, with concluding remarks relevant to other similar contexts. (author)

  12. Household energy consumption patterns and its environmental implications: Assessment of energy access and poverty in Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malla, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 87% of Nepal's total final energy is consumed by households. This paper analyzes the patterns of household energy use and associated air pollutant emissions in Nepal based on LEAP framework for thirteen analytical regions and three end-uses. Four scenarios involving different growth paths for socio economic and energy system development through the year 2040 are considered. The study finds that household energy use is heterogeneous across the regions and biomass for cooking dominates the country's energy-mix. Households' CO 2 emissions are less significant but their local indoor pollutant emissions will continue to rise in the future. To help strengthen government's commitment to the UN's sustainable energy for all initiative, this study devises an energy development index (EDI) to assess country's energy access and poverty across the regions. The results reveal that the current level of both energy access and energy poverty in the country is below the basic human needs and this situation will improve by little in next 30 years. The paper argues that to improve these situations require more coordinated and innovative plans and policies from the government. The paper suggests that greater emphasis will be needed in reducing dependence of biomass for cooking, promoting domestic alternative energy sources, scaling up biomass improved cookstoves programs and developing periodic regional level energy database. - Highlights: • Household energy use and air pollutant emissions in Nepal are analyzed based on LEAP framework. • Household energy use is heterogeneous across the regions and biomass for cooking dominates country's energy-mix. • Energy Development Index is devised to assess country's energy access and poverty across the regions. • Scaling up RETs and biomass ICS programs are suggested. • Coordination with inter-agencies and ODAs is vital in alleviating energy poverty in Nepal

  13. Reduction of firewood consumption by households in south-central Chile associated with energy efficiency programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueftan, Alejandra; González, Alejandro D.

    2013-01-01

    Cities in the central-southern area of Chile face serious environmental pollution due to extensive use of firewood for heating. Low energy efficiency of constructions and cold climate increase the problem, which also affects native forests. The aims of this study are to characterize energy consumption in dwellings of this region, investigate the reduction potential, and study social and environmental consequences of high consumption of firewood. Actual energy consumption is studied with information from surveys, potential for reduction is modeled with software and other consequences are analyzed from previous studies. Results for the city of Valdivia show high firewood consumption per household, with a media bulk volume near 12 m 3 /year. Thermal regulations are softer compared with other countries. Moreover, around 85% of buildings were built before enforcing codes in 2007, and has almost no thermal protection. The reduction potential due to thermal improvements is found to be very high (62%) if buildings are refurbished to comply with the present Chilean Norm of 2007, but it reaches a 77% reduction if refurbished according to stricter foreign regulations. Therefore, an energy efficiency program strongly addressing existing buildings has the largest potential for reducing firewood use, and therefore mitigate environmental and health impacts. - Highlights: • High firewood consumption and environmental pollution in cities of south-central Chile. • High use of firewood due to inefficient constructions and soft thermal regulations. • Potential reduction of energy consumption up to 77% with more demanding regulations. • Policies should address building stock before thermal regulation, corresponding to 85%

  14. Estimation of main greenhouse gases emission from household energy consumption in the West Bank, Palestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Madi, Maher; Rayyan, Ma'moun Abu

    2013-01-01

    The main GHGs (CO 2 , NO x , and SO 2 ) have been quantified based on national energy and population statistics. The results show that the contribution of households' energy consumption in the West Bank to global CO 2 emission is about 0.016%, while contribution of total energy consumption by all sectors is about 0.041%. The results show that wood is the most polluting energy source in terms of CO 2 and NO x emission, while electricity is the most polluting source in terms of SO 2 . Other sources like diesel, kerosene, and LPG that contribute to the GHGs emission are also quantified. The total amounts of CO 2 , NO x , and SO 2 by households in the West Bank are 4.7 million tonne per year, 3.02 thousand tonne per year, and 2.23 thousand tonne per year respectively. This study presents a set of measures that might help in reducing the level of GHGs emission and protect the environment. -- Highlights: •We quantified the CO 2 , NO x , and SO 2 based on national statistics. •Wood is the most polluting in terms of CO 2 and NO x emission. •Electricity is the most polluting in terms of SO 2 emission. •Households' energy consumption contributes with 0.016% to global CO 2 emission. •We present key measures to reduce GHGs emission and protect the environment. -- The most polluting energy sources that produce most of the CO 2 and SO 2 emissions in the West Bank are wood and electricity

  15. The energy consumption of private households 1990 - 2035 - Results of scenarios I - IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, P.

    2007-01-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents four scenarios concerning the development of energy consumption in Swiss private households for the period 1990 - 2035. The four scenarios - status quo, increased co-operation between the state and the economy with various levies, global reduction of energy consumption and, finally, scenario IV 'on the way to a 2000-Watt Society' - are briefly described. In particular, the scenarios are examined for various sensitivities: high gross domestic product GDP, high prices and warmer climate. The results of the sensitivity analyses are compared and discussed and the necessary instruments are examined. This comprehensive report contains a large number of data-tables and graphical representations

  16. A Study of Household Energy Consumption and Road Trafin Bra_ov, Using West-European Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Meer, Erwin

    2006-01-01

    The aims of the project were reflected in the research question which was formulated as: "What type of methodologies applicable to end-use household energy-consumption, environmental awareness, and road-traffic analysis are suitable to apply in Eastern-European cities and households, under which

  17. Efficient technologies or user behaviour, which is the more important when reducing households' energy consumption?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gram-Hanssen, K. [Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, A.C. Meyers Vaenge 15, 2450 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-08-15

    Much policy effort focuses on energy efficiency of technology, though not only efficiency but also user behaviour is an important factor influencing the amount of consumed energy. This paper explores to what extent energy efficiency of appliances and houses or user behaviour is the more important, both for understanding why some households consume much more energy than others, and when looking for relevant approaches to a future low-carbon society. The paper uses several sources to explore this question, most of them from a Danish context, including results from the researcher's own projects and Danish national statistics. These Danish data are discussed together with international studies. Through the presentation of these different projects and examples, it is shown how user behaviour is at least as important as the efficiency of technology when explaining households' energy consumption in Denmark. In the conclusion, these results are discussed in a broader international perspective and it is concluded that more research in this field is necessary. In relation to energy policy, it is argued that it is not a question of technology efficiency or behaviour, as both have to be included in future policy if energy demand is actually to be reduced. Furthermore, it is also argued that not only individual behaviour is relevant, but also a broader perspective on collectively shared low-carbon practices has to be promoted.

  18. Factors Influencing the Spatial Difference in Household Energy Consumption in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxia Ding

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available What factors determine the spatial heterogeneity of household energy consumption (HEC in China? Can the impacts of these factors be quantified? What are the trends and characteristics of the spatial differences? To date, these issues are still unclear. Based on the STIRPAT model and panel dataset for 30 provinces in China over the period 1997–2013, this paper investigated influences of the income per capita, urbanization level and annual average temperature on HEC, and revealed the spatial effects of these influencing factors. The results show that the income level is the main influencing factor, followed by the annual average temperature. There exists a diminishing marginal contribution with increasing income. The influence of urbanization level varies according to income level. In addition, from the eastern region to western region of China, variances largely depend upon economic level at the provincial level. From the northern region to southern region, change is mainly caused by temperature. The urbanization level has more significant impact on the structure and efficiency of household energy consumption than on its quantity. These results could provide reference for policy making and energy planning.

  19. Characterization of the household electricity consumption in the EU, potential energy savings and specific policy recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Paula; Almeida, Anibal de (ISR-Univ. of Coimbra, Dep. Electrical Engineering (Portugal)). e-mail: pfonseca@isr.uc.pt; Feilberg, Nicolai (SINTEF Energiforskning AS (Norway)); Markogiannakis, George (Centre for Renewable Energy Sources - CRES (Greece)); Kofod, Casper (Energy piano (Denmark))

    2009-07-01

    Although significant improvements in energy efficiency have been achieved in home appliances and lighting, the electricity consumption in the average EU-27 household has been increasing by about 2% per year during the past 10 years. Some reasons for such increase are associated with an increased degree of basic comfort and level of amenities (particularly in the new EU member countries) and also with the widespread utilization of relatively new types of loads whose penetration and use has experienced a very significant growth in recent years. With the objective of contributing to an increased understanding of the energy consumption in the EU-27 households for the different types of equipment including the consumers' behaviour and comfort levels, and to identify demand trends, a large energy monitoring campaign, co-funded by the IEE programme, was carried out in 12 countries, accompanied by a lifestyle consumer survey. From the measurements carried out it can be concluded that IT and entertainment loads, including standby, are a key contributor to the power demand. In basically all types of loads there is wide range of performance levels, including new emerging technologies, in the models available in the market. Available technology, associated with responsible consumer behaviour, can reduce wasteful consumption. The potential electricity savings that exist in the residential sector in Europe, and that can already be implemented by existing means, like the use of BAT (best available technology) efficient appliances or the elimination/mitigation of standby consumption, can reach up to 48% savings. Specific policy recommendations to promote market transformation and behavioural changes in the equipment selection and operation have been identified.

  20. Efficiency snakes and energy ladders: A (meta-)frontier demand analysis of electricity consumption efficiency in Chinese households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadstock, David C.; Li, Jiajia; Zhang, Dayong

    2016-01-01

    Policy makers presently lack access to quantified estimates – and hence an explicit understanding – of energy consumption efficiency within households, creating a potential gap between true efficiency levels and the necessarily assumed efficiency levels that policy makers adopt in designing and implementing energy policy. This paper attempts to fill this information gap by empirically quantifying electricity consumption efficiency for a sample of more than 7,000 households. Adopting the recently introduced ‘frontier demand function’ due to Filippini and Hunt (2011) but extending it into the metafrontier context – to control for structural heterogeneity arising from location type – it is shown that consumption efficiency is little more than 60% on average. This implies huge potential for energy reduction via the expansion of schemes to promote energy efficiency. City households, which are the wealthiest in the sample, are shown to define the metafrontier demand function (and hence have the potential to be the most efficient households), but at the same time exhibit the largest inefficiencies. These facts together allow for a potential refinement on the household energy ladder concept, suggesting that wealth affords access to the best technologies thereby increasing potential energy efficiency (the ‘traditional view of the household energy ladder), but complementary to this these same households are most inefficient. This has implications for numerous areas of policy, including for example the design of energy assistance schemes, identification of energy education needs/priorities as well more refined setting of subsidies/tax-credit policies. - Highlights: •Frontier demand functions are estimated for a sample of 7102 Chinese households. •Metafrontier methods capture heterogeneity arising from urban form (e.g. cities, towns and villages). •Wealthier houses have higher efficiency potential, but are in fact less efficient in their consumption of

  1. The natural gas - alternative decision for households consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoilova, T.; Tzaleva, E.; Boshnakova, V.

    2002-01-01

    Some expectations for households future fuel and energy consumption changes have been presented. The main reasons, motivating the households gasification implementation and its influence over the sectors energy consumption have been analysed. Some improvements of household consumption structure expectation are developed with the view to environment harmful emissions decrease. An example of household natural gas consumption structure by processes is developed. (authors)

  2. Analysis of the residential location choice and household energy consumption behavior by incorporating multiple self-selection effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Biying; Junyi Zhang; Fujiwara, Akimasa

    2012-01-01

    It is expected that the residential location choice and household energy consumption behavior might correlate with each other. Besides, due to the existence of self-selection effects, the observed inter-relationship between them might be the spurious result of the fact that some unobserved variables are causing both. These concerns motivate us to (1) consider residential location choice and household energy consumption behavior (for both in-home appliances and out-of-home cars) simultaneously and, (2) explicitly control self-selection effects so as to capture a relatively true effect of land-use policy on household energy consumption behavior. An integrated model termed as joint mixed Multinomial Logit-Multiple Discrete-Continuous Extreme Value model is presented here to identify the sensitivity of household energy consumption to land use policy by considering multiple self-selection effects. The model results indicate that land-use policy do play a great role in changing Beijing residents’ energy consumption pattern, while the self-selection effects cannot be ignored when evaluating the effect of land-use policy. Based on the policy scenario design, it is found that increasing recreational facilities and bus lines in the neighborhood can greatly promote household's energy-saving behavior. Additionally, the importance of “soft policy” and package policy is also emphasized in the context of Beijing. - Highlights: ► Representing residential choice and household energy consumption behavior jointly. ► Land use policy is found effective to control the household energy use in Beijing. ► Multiple self-selection effects are posed to get the true effect of land use policy. ► Significant self-selection effects call an attention to the soft policy in Beijing. ► The necessity of package policy on saving Beijing residents’ energy use is confirmed.

  3. Cash and in-kind transfers in poor rural communities in Mexico increase household fruit, vegetable, and micronutrient consumption but also lead to excess energy consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Jef L; Gadsden, Paola; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; de Cossío, Teresa González

    2010-03-01

    Conditional transfer programs are increasingly popular, but the impact on household nutrient consumption has not been studied. We evaluated the impact of the Programa de Apoyo Alimentario (PAL), a cash and in-kind transfer program, on the energy and nutrient consumption of poor rural households in Mexico. The program has been shown to reduce poverty. Beneficiary households received either a food basket (including micronutrient-fortified milk) or cash. A random sample of 206 rural communities in Southern Mexico was randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: a monthly food basket with or without health and nutrition education, a cash transfer with a cost to the government equivalent to the food basket (14 USD/mo) with education, or control. The impact after 14 mo of exposure was estimated in a panel of 5823 households using a double difference regression model with household fixed effects. PAL was associated with increases (P consumption of total energy (5-9%), energy from fruits and vegetables (24-28%), and energy from animal source foods (24-39%). It also affected iron, zinc, and vitamin A and C consumption (P consumption of energy and all nutrients was greater in the food basket group (P energy-deficient should be carefully redesigned to ensure that pulling poor families out of poverty leads to improved micronutrient intake but not to increased energy consumption.

  4. Optimal Intra-Urban Hierarchy of Activity Centers—A Minimized Household Travel Energy Consumption Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An intra-urban hierarchy of activity centers interconnected by non-motorized and public transportation is broadly believed to be the ideal urban spatial structure for sustainable cities. However, the proper hinterland area for centers at each level lacks empirical study. Based on the concentric structure of everyday travel distances, working centers, shopping centers, and neighborhood centers are extracted from corresponding types of POIs in 286 Chinese cities at the prefectural level and above. A U-shaped curve between Household Transportation Energy Consumption (HTEC per capita and center density at each of the three levels has been found through regression analysis. An optimal intra-urban hierarchy of activity centers is suggested to construct energy-efficient cities.

  5. Designing the Desirable Smart Home: A Study of Household Experiences and Energy Consumption Impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Hagensby; Kjeldskov, Jesper; Skov, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    Research has shown that desirable designs shape the use and experiences people have when interacting with technology. Nevertheless, how desirability influences energy consumption is often overlooked, particularly in HCI studies evaluating the sustainability benefits of smart home technology....... In this paper, we present a qualitative study with 23 Australian households who reflect on their experiences of living with smart home devices. Drawing on Nelson and Stolterman’s concept of desiderata we develop a typology of householders’ desires for the smart home and their energy implications. We structure...... these desires as three smart home personas: the helper, optimiser and hedonist, which align with desiderata’s three approaches to desire (reason, ethics and aesthetics). We use these insights to discuss how desirability can be used within HCI for steering design of the smart home towards sustainability....

  6. Energy consumption and conservation patterns in Canadian households. Summary report. Habitudes de consommation et de conservation de l'energie dans les foyers Canadiens. Resume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, G.H.G.; Ritchie, J.R.B.; Claxton, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    To examine the consumer behavior sector of energy demand patterns in Canada, this report undertook to identify major groupings of households based on energy consumption profiles and energy values, to relate these groupings to situational and demographic factors, and to initiate a comparative analysis of the receptivity of the major groupings to alternative energy conservation policy proposals. Data were collected from household surveys and energy suppliers. Householders were asked about their attitudes to energy conservation and energy policy, and profiles of energy consumption patterns of typical households were identified. To aid in evaluating the research, households were classified according to their levels of in-home energy consumption and automobile gasoline consumption. The findings indicated a range of lifestyles highly interrelated in terms of levels of energy consumption, ownership of energy-consuming products, knowledge and concern for energy issues, willingness to cut back energy consumption, and preferences for alternative conservation policies. The study has shown that most consumers are not very aware of the energy problem, do not see conservation as a serious need, and are unlikely to accept major policy interventions that result in major changes in energy supplies and current lifestyles. A number of recommendations are made as to policies, and their possible impact, to conserve household energy. 8 refs. 11 tabs.

  7. Energy consumption and conservation patterns in Canadian households. Summary report. Habitudes de consommation et de conservation de l'energie dans les foyers Canadiens. Resume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, G H.G.; Ritchie, J R.B.; Claxton, J D

    1978-01-01

    To examine the consumer behavior sector of energy demand patterns in Canada, this report undertook to identify major groupings of households based on energy consumption profiles and energy values, to relate these groupings to situational and demographic factors, and to initiate a comparative analysis of the receptivity of the major groupings to alternative energy conservation policy proposals. Data were collected from household surveys and energy suppliers. Householders were asked about their attitudes to energy conservation and energy policy, and profiles of energy consumption patterns of typical households were identified. To aid in evaluating the research, households were classified according to their levels of in-home energy consumption and automobile gasoline consumption. The findings indicated a range of lifestyles highly interrelated in terms of levels of energy consumption, ownership of energy-consuming products, knowledge and concern for energy issues, willingness to cut back energy consumption, and preferences for alternative conservation policies. The study has shown that most consumers are not very aware of the energy problem, do not see conservation as a serious need, and are unlikely to accept major policy interventions that result in major changes in energy supplies and current lifestyles. A number of recommendations are made as to policies, and their possible impact, to conserve household energy. 8 refs. 11 tabs.

  8. ``Sober or enjoying`` - Energy consumption and everyday life in Norwegian households; Noektern eller nytende. Energiforbruk og hverdagsliv i norske husholdninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aune, Margrethe

    1998-12-31

    This Dr.polit. thesis studies the energy consumption in houses and transport in Norway and contributes to a new sociological understanding of the role of energy in everyday life. It discusses energy consumption and everyday life both individually and their interplay. Private cars provide 86% of all passenger transport. The efforts taken to influence the behaviour of the energy consumers have not been very successful as far as the measures aimed at the households are concerned. If the aim is to decrease the energy consumption in Norwegian households, for environmental protection, then clearly increased knowledge is needed about the extent and complexity of the implications of behaviour for the technological conditions. Thus the thesis examines the interrelationship between everyday life and energy consumption. 165 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs.

  9. ``Sober or enjoying`` - Energy consumption and everyday life in Norwegian households; Noektern eller nytende. Energiforbruk og hverdagsliv i norske husholdninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aune, Margrethe

    1997-12-31

    This Dr.polit. thesis studies the energy consumption in houses and transport in Norway and contributes to a new sociological understanding of the role of energy in everyday life. It discusses energy consumption and everyday life both individually and their interplay. Private cars provide 86% of all passenger transport. The efforts taken to influence the behaviour of the energy consumers have not been very successful as far as the measures aimed at the households are concerned. If the aim is to decrease the energy consumption in Norwegian households, for environmental protection, then clearly increased knowledge is needed about the extent and complexity of the implications of behaviour for the technological conditions. Thus the thesis examines the interrelationship between everyday life and energy consumption. 165 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs.

  10. Energy consumption practices of rural households in north China: Basic characteristics and potential for low carbon development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu Wenling, Wenling; Spaargaren, G.; Heerink, N.; Mol, A.P.J.; Wang, C.

    2013-01-01

    Reducing the climate impact of rural household energy consumption in China is complicated since it is bound up with deeply routinized daily practices and dependent from existing infrastructural systems of energy supply. To assess the potential for low carbon development we first estimate the overall

  11. Biomass availability, energy consumption and biochar production in rural households of Western Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Rojas, Dorisel; Lehmann, Johannes; Hobbs, Peter; Joseph, Stephen; Neufeldt, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolytic cook stoves in smallholder farms may require different biomass supply than traditional bioenergy approaches. Therefore, we carried out an on-farm assessment of the energy consumption for food preparation, the biomass availability relevant to conventional and pyrolytic cook stoves, and the potential biochar generation in rural households of western Kenya. Biomass availability for pyrolysis varied widely from 0.7 to 12.4 Mg ha -1 y -1 with an average of 4.3 Mg ha -1 y -1 , across all 50 studied farms. Farms with high soil fertility that were recently converted to agriculture from forest had the highest variability (CV = 83%), which was a result of the wide range of farm sizes and feedstock types in the farms. Biomass variability was two times lower for farms with low than high soil fertility (CV = 37%). The reduction in variability is a direct consequence of the soil quality, coupled with farm size and feedstock type. The total wood energy available in the farms (5.3 GJ capita -1 y -1 ) was not sufficient to meet the current cooking energy needs using conventional combustion stoves, but may be sufficient for improved combustion stoves depending on their energy efficiency. However, the biomass that is usable in pyrolytic cook stoves including crop residues, shrub and tree litter can provide 17.2 GJ capita -1 y -1 of energy for cooking, which is well above the current average cooking energy consumption of 10.5 GJ capita -1 y -1 . The introduction of a first-generation pyrolytic cook stove reduced wood energy consumption by 27% while producing an average of 0.46 Mg ha -1 y -1 of biochar. -- Highlights: → Total energy from wood fuel available on smallholder farms in Western Kenya was not sufficient to meet current cooking energy needs using conventional combustion stoves, but may be sufficient for improved combustion stoves. → Feedstock options acceptable to pyrolysis cook stoves which includes crop residues, exceeded the energy needs required for daily

  12. Household consumption and environment. 2011 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report presents and comments numerous data and indicators concerning the constraints and impacts on the environment related to household consumption and behaviour. After a presentation of context indicators (household number and size, household consumption expenses) and of some global indicators (water and carbon footprint of household consumption), several specific aspects are addressed: housing (electric and electronic equipment, water, space and energy consumption, renewable energies, CO 2 emissions), transport (general statistics on travels, CO 2 and pollutant emissions related to motor cars), food (water print and carbon print related to household food, consumption of bio-agriculture products and of conditioned beverages), and wastes (production and composition, electronic and electric equipment wastes, waste treatment)

  13. The impacts of China’s household consumption expenditure patterns on energy demand and carbon emissions towards 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Hancheng; Masui, Toshihiko; Matsuoka, Yuzuru; Fujimori, Shinichiro

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores how China’s household consumption patterns over the period 2005–2050 influence the total energy demand and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions in two baseline scenarios, and how it influences carbon prices as well as the economic cost in the corresponding carbon mitigation scenarios. To this end we first put forward two possible household consumption expenditure patterns up to 2050 using the Working–Leser model, taking into account total expenditure increase and urbanization. For comparison, both expenditure patterns are then incorporated in a hybrid recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium model. The results reveal that as income level increases in the coming decades, the direct and indirect household energy requirements and CO 2 emissions would rise drastically. When household expenditure shifts from material products and transport to service-oriented goods, around 21,000 mtce of primary energy and 45 billion tons of CO 2 emissions would be saved over the 45-year period from 2005 to 2050. Moreover, carbon prices in the dematerialized mitigation scenario would fall by 13% in 2050, thus reducing the economic cost. - Highlights: ► Propose two household expenditure patterns considering income rise and urbanization. ► Much energy and CO 2 emissions would be saved in low-carbon consumption scenario. ► Carbon prices would reduce a lot in low-carbon consumption scenario.

  14. Household Energy Consumption Behaviour for Different Demographic Regions in Thailand from 2000 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Tharinya Supasa; Shu-San Hsiau; Shih-Mo Lin; Wongkot Wongsapai; Jiunn-Chi Wu

    2017-01-01

    Since 1995, the residential sector has been a fast-growing energy consumption sector in Thailand. This sector contributes dramatically to the growth of Thailand’s electricity and oil demand. Our study analysed Thailand’s residential energy consumption characteristics and the seven underlying factors affecting the growth in energy use of five demographic regions using an energy input–output method. Embodied energy decomposition revealed that direct energy consumption accounted for approximatel...

  15. The energy consumption of households - technical and social explanations of variations; Boligers energiforbrug - sociale og tekniske forklaringer pae forskelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gram-Hansen, K

    2003-07-01

    It is well known that the amount of energy consumed in different households varies greatly with respect to both heat and electricity. Previous research has focused on either technical or social explanations for this and the social explanations have focused on the big variations between social groups. In contrast to this, the aim of this project has been to explain differences in energy consumption between quite similar households and to seek social and technical explanations. Seven high-dense, low-rise neighbourhoods in the municipality of Albertslund have been investigated. The eco-account of the municipality shows large variations in the level of energy consumption both between households in the same neighbourhood and between the neighbourhoods. Noticeably larger heat consumption was found in neighbourhoods with rented apartments rather than with owner-occupied apartments. On this background the aim of this project has been: To explore technical and social explanations for large variations in energy consumption in similar neighbourhoods; To investigate connections between technical and social explanations; To point to relevant strategies concerning behaviour and lifestyle to reduce energy consumption. To answer these questions several investigations were carried out in the seven neighbourhoods including computer calculations of the buildings' heat loss, a survey among 500 residents, qualitative interviews with ten families and detailed measures of the indoor climate in thirty households. Based on the results the following strategies to reduce energy consumption are formulated: Emphasising positive aspect of a modest life to promote families with a saving attitude to stick to this in spite of societal pressure for increased consumption; Continuing information strategies towards a more environmentally sound behaviour, bur with greater emphasis on reducing consumption than on the attitude towards environment; Concerning new information technologies, technology

  16. The energy consumption of households - technical and social explanations of variations; Boligers energiforbrug - sociale og tekniske forklaringer pae forskelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gram-Hansen, K.

    2003-07-01

    It is well known that the amount of energy consumed in different households varies greatly with respect to both heat and electricity. Previous research has focused on either technical or social explanations for this and the social explanations have focused on the big variations between social groups. In contrast to this, the aim of this project has been to explain differences in energy consumption between quite similar households and to seek social and technical explanations. Seven high-dense, low-rise neighbourhoods in the municipality of Albertslund have been investigated. The eco-account of the municipality shows large variations in the level of energy consumption both between households in the same neighbourhood and between the neighbourhoods. Noticeably larger heat consumption was found in neighbourhoods with rented apartments rather than with owner-occupied apartments. On this background the aim of this project has been: To explore technical and social explanations for large variations in energy consumption in similar neighbourhoods; To investigate connections between technical and social explanations; To point to relevant strategies concerning behaviour and lifestyle to reduce energy consumption. To answer these questions several investigations were carried out in the seven neighbourhoods including computer calculations of the buildings' heat loss, a survey among 500 residents, qualitative interviews with ten families and detailed measures of the indoor climate in thirty households. Based on the results the following strategies to reduce energy consumption are formulated: Emphasising positive aspect of a modest life to promote families with a saving attitude to stick to this in spite of societal pressure for increased consumption; Continuing information strategies towards a more environmentally sound behaviour, bur with greater emphasis on reducing consumption than on the attitude towards environment; Concerning new information technologies, technology

  17. Development of the energy consumption of households in a liberalized energy market. Effects on purchasing and consumption behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeeninga, H.; Boots, M.G.

    2001-01-01

    The study on the title subject focuses on effects on purchase behaviour and changes in hours of usage of domestic appliances. It is concluded that prices for natural gas are expected to rise considerably, as a result of the application of the Commodity Distribution System (CDS) and the increase in taxes on energy and VAT (value-added taxes). Compared to prices of natural gas in 2000, prices are expected to increase by 45% in 2004. As a result of increasing competition due to the liberalisation of the energy market, electricity prices (before tax) in 2004 are expected to decrease by 15% compared to 2000. However, as a result of the increase in taxes (VAT as well as the Regulating Energy Tax (REB)), the total electricity price increases slightly (+3%). Especially for low-income households, the expenditures on energy as percentage of the disposable income increase significantly. By means of price elasticities, the effects of changes in energy prices on the development of residential energy use are estimated. In order to be able to translate the price elasticities to the future Dutch situation, attention is paid to the way the reported values of the price elasticities are determined. In general, price elasticities are based on historical data. However, the availability of energy conservation options as well as the knowledge of consumers with respect to the application of energy saving options may be of influence on the value of the price elasticities. It is expected that within the period up to 2010, the difference between reference technologies and more efficient energy conservation options will decrease. Therefore, it is expected that the price elasticities based on historical data are an upper estimate of the future long-term price elasticities. A delayed purchase or not purchasing an appliance at all is expected to be of more significance on the development of residential energy use than a change in purchase behaviour towards more efficient appliances. However

  18. Saturation, energy consumption, CO{sub 2} emission and energy efficiency from urban and rural households appliances in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas-Flores, Jorge Alberto; Rosas-Flores, Dionicio [Division de Estudios de Posgrado, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Posgrado de Arquitectura, Facultad de Arquitectura, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Galvez, David Morillon [Posgrado de Arquitectura, Facultad de Arquitectura, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad, Universitaria, Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2011-01-15

    Energy usage and energy efficiency are of increasing concern in Mexico, electricity generation principally depends upon fossil fuels. On one hand, the stocks of these fuels have been confirmed to be critically limited. On the other hand, in process of electricity generation by means of these fuels, a number of poisonous by-products adversely affect the conservation of natural eco-system. This paper focuses on estimation of energy consumption, energy savings, reduction of emissions of CO{sub 2} for use of urban and rural household appliances in Mexico between 1996 and 2021. The analysis concentrates on six major energy end uses in the residential sector: refrigerators, air conditioners, washing machines, TV set, iron and heater. It is estimated that by 2021 there will be a cumulative saving of 22,605 GWh, as a result of the implementation of government programs on energy efficiency that represents a cumulative reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions of 15,087 Tg CO{sub 2}. It means that Mexico can reduce in 5650 MW the generation capacity of national electricity system, which is to avoid burning 40.35 MM barrels of oil. The findings can be useful to policy makers as well as household appliances users. (author)

  19. Household energy consumption pattern and socio-cultural dimensions associated with it: A case study of rural Haryana, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joon, Vinod; Chandra, A. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas 110 016, New Delhi (India); Bhattacharya, M. [National Institute of Health and Family Welfare, Munirka 110067, New Delhi (India)

    2009-11-15

    A survey of household energy consumption pattern was carried out in a village of Jhajjhar district of Haryana, India in the year 2007. The households surveyed covered heterogeneous population belonging to different income, educational and social groups. There was more availability and utilization of solid biomass fuels as energy resources in domestic sector as compared to the commercial fuels. Dung cakes, crop residues and firewood were found to be the three main fuels used for cooking, though LPG was also used along with biomass fuels. But complete conversion to cleaner fuels has not taken place yet even in households that has been using LPG for many years. Income was an important factor determining the choice of fuel for cooking, but there were some socio-cultural factors which were equally important in making fuel preferences at household level. (author)

  20. The Influence of Farmers’ Livelihood Strategies on Household Energy Consumption in the Eastern Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyan Zhao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available As an essential factor for sustainable development, energy plays a very important role in sustaining a modern lifestyle, particularly in poor rural areas. Considering that farmers’ livelihood in such areas is enormously dependent on services provided by environmental resources, it makes sense to investigate the relationships and interactions between farming households’ livelihood strategies and their energy consumption. The findings and outcomes would be expected to contribute to the body of knowledge and benefit local policy-making toward sustainable transformation in the long run. Taking Gannan as an example, this study employed a participatory rural appraisal approach, with first-hand data mainly from field surveys, using a stratified random sampling method to illustrate the influence of farmers’ livelihood strategies for household energy consumption in the eastern Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, China. Seven townships in Gannan were covered, three of them in pure pastoral areas, two in farming-pastoral areas, and two in farming areas. From these, 230 households were selected as study samples, with a valid return of 217 questionnaires, among which 78 came from pure pastoral areas, 60 from farming-pastoral areas, and 79 from farming areas. The results show that livelihood has a significant impact on farmers’ household energy consumption patterns, and increasing family income level and education level and improving the availability of commodity energy resources will help farmers reduce the proportion of biomass energy consumption and increase the proportion of commodity energy consumption. Furthermore, measures such as developing nonagricultural industries, improving the energy infrastructure, and enhancing farmers’ energy-saving awareness should be seriously considered to optimize farmers’ living energy consumption patterns in these poverty-stricken and eco-frangible regions.

  1. Characteristics Air Flow in Room Chamber Test Refrigerator Household Energy Consumption with Inlet Flow Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, Edy; Idrus Alhamid, M.; Nasruddin; Budihardjo

    2018-03-01

    Room Chamber is the most important in making a good Testing Laboratory. In this study, the 2-D modeling conducted to assess the effect placed the inlet on designing a test chamber room energy consumption of household refrigerators. Where the geometry room chamber is rectangular and approaching the enclosure conditions. Inlet varied over the side parallel to the outlet and compared to the inlet where the bottom is made. The purpose of this study was to determine and define the characteristics of the airflow in the room chamber using CFD simulation. CFD method is used to obtain flow characteristics in detail, in the form of vector flow velocity and temperature distribution inside the chamber room. The result found that the position of the inlet parallel to the outlet causes air flow cannot move freely to the side of the floor, even flow of air moves up toward the outlet. While by making the inlet is below, the air can move freely from the bottom up to the side of the chamber room wall as well as to help uniform flow.

  2. Labeling programs and efficiency standards to control the energy consumption of household appliances: current situation, main results and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menanteau, Ph.

    2000-09-01

    To control the rise in electricity consumption for specific uses, the industrialized countries started by introducing special programs aimed at improving energy efficiency. Among the different instruments available, labeling programs and minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) have proved to be very effective. The first part of this document presents the current situation, the main results and recommendations concerning the labeling programs and efficiency standards to control the energy consumption of household appliances. This analyze is done for each country in details providing the name of the program or measure, the date of implementation, the objective and the main characteristics of the program, the impacts and evaluation. (A.L.B.)

  3. Development of energy consumption in households. Relations with domestic behavior; Ontwikkeling energiegebruik in de huishouding. Relaties met huishoudelijk gedrag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot-Marcus, J.P.; Scherhorn, E.

    1999-07-01

    The development of technology, technological innovations and demographic developments are known factors with respect to their impact on energy consumption. However, it is not yet very clear to what extent behavioral changes play a part in favor or to the detriment of energy consumption. In this report an outline is given of developments with respect to the level of provisions, services, amenities, etc. and related domestic behavior, as far as it concerns the consumption of energy of private households in the Netherlands in the second part of the 20th century. Therefore, this study is not about the impact of technological innovations, but about technological changes and changes in the materialistic environment, which resulted in an adjustment of the domestic situation and of several types of domestic behavior, and thus, also resulted in effects on energy consumption. Concrete subjects that are dealt with are the house, heating, personal care, and laundry. 60 refs.

  4. Does fertility decrease household consumption?

    OpenAIRE

    Jungho Kim; Henriette Engelhardt; Alexia Fürnkranz-Prskawetz; Arnstein Aassve

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the relationship between fertility and a direct measure of poverty for Indonesia, a country, which has experienced unprecedented economic growth and sharp fertility declines over recent decades. It focuses on illustrating the sensitivity of the effect of fertility on household consumption with respect to the equivalence scale by applying the propensity score matching method. The analysis suggests that a newborn child decreases household consumption...

  5. Analysis of U.S. household wood energy consumption: 1967-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nianfu. Song; Francisco X. Aguilar; Stephen R. Shifley; Michael E. Goerndt

    2012-01-01

    The residential sector consumes about 23% of the energy derived from wood (wood energy) in the U.S. An estimated error correction model with data from 1967 to 2009 suggests that residential wood energy consumption has declined by an average 3% per year in response to technological progress, urbanization, accessibility of non-wood energy, and other factors associated...

  6. Energy consumption in rural China: A household model for three villages in Jiangxi Province

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, L.; Heerink, N.B.M.; Berg, van den M.M.

    2006-01-01

    In China, fuelwood and coal are the most important energy sources for rural households in poor areas. Along with population and economic growth, excessive fuelwood collection is a major cause of deforestation. Burning coal contributes to environmental problems such as air pollution, acid rain and

  7. Reporting 1998 - households[Energy consumption and consequences for Norway]; Rapportering 1998 - husholdinger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohm, Jostein

    1998-07-01

    The report summarises the results from an investigation among households in the seven counties which participates in the project ''Sustainable local communities'' - Fredrikstad, Flora, Hurum, Kristiansand, Roeros, Stavanger and Steigen. The study contained the fields of environmental involvement and motivation, transportation, energy utilisation, purchases, waste management and communication with the local project leadership.

  8. A Study on the Impact of Household Occupants’ Behavior on Energy Consumption Using an Integrated Computer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaolin eLin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, several models are integrated into a thermal model to study the impact of occupants’ behaviors on the building energy consumption. An air flow model is developed to simulate ventilation related to the occupant’s patterns of window opening and closing. An electric consumption model is developed to simulate the usage pattern and the electricity input to household electric appliances. The thermostat setpoint temperature and window shading schemes are varied with different occupants’ behavior norms and are included in the model. The simulation was applied to a typical household located in the city of Oshawa in Ontario, Canada. The results show that the window opening has the greatest impact on the energy consumption during the heating season, and the shading scheme has the greatest impact on the A/C energy consumption during the cooling season. The electricity consumption of the A/C can be significantly reduced by appropriately applying the shading and opening schemes and resetting the thermostat setpoint temperature to a slightly higher degree. Keeping the windows closed and allowing the solar radiation to be transmitted through the window in winter help reduce the energy usage to heat the house.

  9. Evaluating the direct and indirect rebound effects in household energy consumption behavior: A case study of Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Biying; Zhang, Junyi; Fujiwara, Akimasa

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines whether increases in energy efficiency of major household items cause additional short-run utilization of these end uses and other end uses for households in Beijing. An integrated model is first developed by combining a Logit model and a resource allocation model, where the former represents the choice of end-use ownership and the latter describes the end-use usage. The rebound effects are finally obtained from calculating the own- and cross-elasticities based on the prediction. The empirical results show that for refrigerators, electric fans, gas showers, TVs, and PCs, no evident rebound occurs; while for air conditioners, clothes washers, microwave ovens, and cars, either a direct rebound effect or an indirect rebound effect exists significantly. The respective average upper bound of direct rebound effects for them are 60.76%, 106.81%, 100.79%, and 33.61%, suggesting a possibility of backfire for the clothes washers and microwave ovens, while the respective upper bound of total rebound effects are 88.95%, 100.36%, 626.58%, and 31.61%. Furthermore, increasing the efficiency of air conditioners and cars can definitely reduce the total household energy consumption during the use phase. - Highlights: ► Evaluate the direct and indirect rebound effects for household energy consumption. ► Provide an evidence for rebound effect for the developing countries. ► Build an integrated model jointly representing end-use ownership and usage behavior. ► Significant rebound effects are found only for ACs, microwave ovens, washers and cars. ► Applicable policies for reducing residents' energy consumption in Beijing are given

  10. Comparison of household consumption and regional production approaches to assess urban energy use and implications for policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baynes, Timothy; Lenzen, Manfred; Steinberger, Julia K.; Bai Xuemei

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of urban energy use may proceed by a number of methods. Here we derive an energy account from local statistics, and compare them with an input output (IO) analysis as applied to Melbourne, Australia. These approaches highlight different aspects of urban energy use and comparable outputs are presented together to assess consistency, to identify complementarities and discuss the insight each approach brings to understanding urban energy. The IO method captures the direct and embodied primary energy requirements of local household expenditure (235.8 GJ/capita/year) while the regional assessment more directly accounts for local production activity (258.1 GJ/capita/year). The parity of these results is unexpected for a developed city with a strong tertiary sector. Sectoral detail reveals differences between the primary energy required by Melbourne's economic structure and that ultimately required through the full supply chain relating to household expenditure. This is accompanied by an IO analysis of the geography of Melbourne's 'energy catchment'. It is suggested that the IO consumption and regional production approaches have particular relevance to policies aimed at consumption behaviour and economic (re)structuring, respectively. Their complementarity further suggests that a combined analysis would be valuable in understanding urban energy futures and economic transitions elsewhere. - Highlights: → We compare an IO approach and a regional assessment of an urban energy use case. → Unusually, regional assessment of the primary energy use exceeds that from IO. → Sectoral and geographical detail reveals the urban consumption/production character. → We discuss the relative merits and policy utility of the different methods. → A combined approach is recommended for urban energy and economic transitions.

  11. Household consumption of different generations. Purchase of electric appliances and energy; Hushaallens konsumtion i olika generationer. Inkoep av eldriven hushaallsutrustning och energi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika; Stenerus, Ann-Sofie

    2008-02-15

    Considering that energy efficiency is an important task for the future, this study shows to what extent generation affiliation and other household characteristics affect consumption of primarily electrical household appliances and energy. The material used is a number of studies concerning household expenditures as well as average prices for goods and energy. Material from 1958, 1978, 1985, 1995 and 2003-2005 have been used. This report also includes a discussion regarding opportunities for energy efficiency. The term generation is explained in this context and earlier studies with relevance to generation affiliation and energy are summarized. An analysis of consumption habits among different generations highlights that the generations living in Sweden today experienced substantially different consumption opportunities during childhood and youth. Some generations have memories of much lower consumption levels, memories which could be recalled with the right policy instruments. The consumption experiences of the veteran generation are studied from 1958 up to 2003-2005, and this study also includes a comparison between the consumption levels in families with children in the 1950s and today. The current Swedish population have very different frames of reference concerning possible consumption styles. However, no generation would easily accept a more energy efficient lifestyle, because all generations have adapted to the increased consumption opportunities with high mobility and easy access. The analysis of household purchases of electrical appliances is based on information from 6 700 households (2003-2005) and 4 400 households (1985). The results are both surprising and expected. Generation affiliation is important for explaining expenditure levels for equipment for entertainment and information, where the youngest generations spend the most. But there are also differences related to gender as well as differences related to income and dwelling type. The differences

  12. Energy consumption: energy consumption in mainland Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnussen, Inger Helene; Killingland, Magnus; Spilde, Dag

    2012-07-25

    The purpose of this report is to describe trends in energy consumption in mainland Norway, with an emphasis on key trends within the largest consumer groups. We also explain common terms and concepts in the field of energy consumption. Finally, we look at forecasts for future energy consumption, produced by bodies outside NVE. Total final energy consumption in mainland Norway in 2009 was 207 TWh. The most important end-user groups are households, service industries, manufacturing industry and transport. In addition, the energy sector in mainland Norway consumed 15 TWh. Energy consumed in the energy sector is not considered as final consumption, as the energy is used to produce new energy products. The long-term trend in energy consumption in mainland Norway is that fuel in the transport sector and electricity for the energy sector increases, while energy consumption in other sectors flattens out. The main reason for an increased use of fuel in the transport sector is the rise in the number of motorised machinery and vehicles in mainland Norway. This has caused a rise in gasoline and diesel consumption of 75 per cent since 1976. The petroleum sector is the largest consumer of energy within the energy sector in mainland Norway, and electricity from onshore to platforms in the North Sea and to new shore side installations has led to a rise in electricity consumption from 1 TWh in 1995 to 5 TWh in 2009. The energy consumption in households showed flat trend from 1996 to 2009, after many years of growth. The main reasons are a warmer climate, higher energy prices, the use of heats pumps and more energy-efficient buildings. In the service industries, the growth in energy consumptions has slightly decreased since the late 1990s, for much the same reasons as for households. In manufacturing industries the energy consumption have flatten out mainly due to the closure of energy-intensive businesses and the establishment of new more energy-efficient businesses. Electricity is

  13. Implementation of the new statistics approach on final energy consumption of biomass in household sector in three countries: Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kos Grabar Robina, Vlatka; Kinderman Lončarević, Alenka

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Improved way of collection of data on fuelwood consumption in households. • Quality and accuracy of statistical energy balance can be improved. • Accurate energy statistics is necessary for analysis of future energy demand. • Survey results and methods applied are presented for three selected countries. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present an improved way of collection and compilation of data about solid biomass consumption in households in order to improve accuracy of official energy statistics data. The accurate, timely and reliable energy data significantly contribute to the consistency in national energy statistics, energy balance, as well as for many other obligatory reporting procedures which are requested and prescribed by national and international standards. When compiling energy statistics, statistics on renewables, particularly biomass consumption, it is often the most questionable as little or no available official data exists in the country. According to the international standards and definitions, solid biomass covers organic, non-fossil material of biological origin which may be used as fuel for heat production or electricity generation. In households, the most commonly used biomass are fuelwood and wood residues. In the process of compiling national energy statistics, national institutions responsible for official energy statistics usually estimate biomass consumption based on the reports on fuelwood cuts in state forests and official biomass production, although it is known that consumption is much higher. Over the past two decades, Energy Institute Hrvoje Požar worked intensively on the energy consumption data collection and particularly on the development of the tailored-made surveying methods for different final energy consumption sectors, particularly for the household sector. The similar methods were recommended to national statistics institutes in the countries in the region when providing technical

  14. Residential energy consumption across different population groups: Comparative analysis for Latino and non-Latino households in U.S.A.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyer, D.A.; Teotia, A.P.S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Henderson, L. [Univ. of Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Residential energy cost, an important part of the household budget, varies significantly across different population groups. In the United States, researchers have conducted many studies of household fuel consumption by fuel type -- electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) -- and by geographic areas. The results of past research have also demonstrated significant variation in residential energy use across various population groups, including white, black, and Latino. However, research shows that residential energy demand by fuel type for Latinos, the fastest-growing population group in the United States, has not been explained by economic and noneconomic factors in any available statistical model. This paper presents a discussion of energy demand and expenditure patterns for Latino and non-Latino households in the United States. The statistical model developed to explain fuel consumption and expenditures for Latino households is based on Stone and Geary`s linear expenditure system model. For comparison, the authors also developed models for energy consumption in non-Latino, black, and nonblack households. These models estimate consumption of and expenditures for electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, and LPG by various households at the national level. The study revealed significant variations in the patterns of fuel consumption for Latinos and non-Latinos. The model methodology and results of this research should be useful to energy policymakers in government and industry, researchers, and academicians who are concerned with economic and energy issues related to various population groups.

  15. Description and application of the EAP computer program for calculating life-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of household consumption items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benders, R.M.J.; Wilting, H.C.; Kramer, K.J.; Moll, H.C.

    2001-01-01

    Focusing on reduction in energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, a life-cycle-based analysis tool has been developed. The energy analysis program (EAP) is a computer program for determining energy use and greenhouse gas emissions related to household consumption items, using a hybrid calculation

  16. The role of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in household energy consumption-prospects for the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martiskainen, M.; Coburn, J. [Sussex Energy Group, SPRU (Science and Technology Policy Research), University of Sussex, Freeman Centre, Falmer, Brighton, East Sussex, BN1 9QE (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    Growing concerns about climate change and energy security have led to a strong focus on energy demand reduction and energy efficiency within United Kingdom (UK) energy policy. At the same time, information and communication technologies (ICTs) have become pervasive in society and this has brought with it new policy options which use them as enabling technologies. One such policy option planned for implementation in the UK is the use of smart meters and real-time displays to encourage people to become more aware of their energy consumption and possibly change their energy-related behaviours. Smart meters and display units by definition link individuals, technologies and society, and their effectiveness is influenced by a range of factors. Ten semi-structured stakeholder interviews with industry, government and academia and a review of literature were conducted in order to identify which factors are most likely to contribute to the effectiveness of implementing smart meters and real-time displays in the UK. Further analysis showed a number of key themes and perspectives on behavioural change, particularly as they relate to household electricity use and the role of smart meters in the UK energy policy, including the role of ICTs in energy demand reduction more generally.

  17. Householders' Mental Models of Domestic Energy Consumption: Using a Sort-And-Cluster Method to Identify Shared Concepts of Appliance Similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabe-Thomas, Elizabeth; Walker, Ian; Verplanken, Bas; Shaddick, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    If in-home displays and other interventions are to successfully influence people's energy consumption, they need to communicate about energy in terms that make sense to users. Here we explore householders' perceptions of energy consumption, using a novel combination of card-sorting and clustering to reveal shared patterns in the way people think about domestic energy consumption. The data suggest that, when participants were asked to group appliances which they felt naturally 'went together', there are relatively few shared ideas about which appliances are conceptually related. To the extent participants agreed on which appliances belonged together, these groupings were based on activities (e.g., entertainment) and location within the home (e.g., kitchen); energy consumption was not an important factor in people's categorisations. This suggests messages about behaviour change aimed at reducing energy consumption might better be tied to social practices than to consumption itself.

  18. Householders' Mental Models of Domestic Energy Consumption: Using a Sort-And-Cluster Method to Identify Shared Concepts of Appliance Similarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Gabe-Thomas

    Full Text Available If in-home displays and other interventions are to successfully influence people's energy consumption, they need to communicate about energy in terms that make sense to users. Here we explore householders' perceptions of energy consumption, using a novel combination of card-sorting and clustering to reveal shared patterns in the way people think about domestic energy consumption. The data suggest that, when participants were asked to group appliances which they felt naturally 'went together', there are relatively few shared ideas about which appliances are conceptually related. To the extent participants agreed on which appliances belonged together, these groupings were based on activities (e.g., entertainment and location within the home (e.g., kitchen; energy consumption was not an important factor in people's categorisations. This suggests messages about behaviour change aimed at reducing energy consumption might better be tied to social practices than to consumption itself.

  19. Household Consumption, Investment and Life Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Kenneth; Steffensen, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a continuous-time Markov model for utility optimization of households. The household optimizes expected future utility from consumption by controlling consumption, investments and purchase of lifeinsurance for each person in the household. The optimal controls are investigated...... in the special case of a two-person household, and we present graphics illustrating how differences between the two persons affect the controls....

  20. Promoting household energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steg, Linda

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil energy use. Strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. Therefore, this paper first discusses the factors influencing household energy use. Three barriers to fossil fuel energy conservation are discussed: insufficient knowledge of effective ways to reduce household energy use, the low priority and high costs of energy savings, and the lack of feasible alternatives. Next, the paper elaborates on the effectiveness and acceptability of strategies aimed to promote household energy savings. Informational strategies aimed at changing individuals' knowledge, perceptions, cognitions, motivations and norms, as well as structural strategies aimed at changing the context in which decisions are made, are discussed. This paper focuses on the psychological literature on household energy conservation, which mostly examined the effects of informational strategies. Finally, this paper lists important topics for future research

  1. Residential energy consumption and conservation programs: A systematic approach to identify inefficient households, provide meaningful feedback, and prioritize homes for conservation intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macsleyne, Amelia Chadbourne Carus

    There are three main objectives for residential energy conservation policies: to reduce the use of fossil fuels, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and reduce the energy costs seen by the consumer (U.S. Department of Energy: Strategic Objectives, 2006). A prominent difficulty currently facing conservation policy makers and program managers is how to identify and communicate with households that would be good candidates for conservation intervention, in such a way that affects a change in consumption patterns and is cost-effective. This research addresses this issue by separating the problem into three components: how to identify houses that are significantly more inefficient than comparable households; how to find the maximum financially-feasible investment in energy efficiency for a household in order to reduce annual energy costs and/or improve indoor comfort; and how to prioritize low-income households for a subsidized weatherization program. Each component of the problem is presented as a paper prepared for publication. Household consumption related to physical house efficiency, thermostat settings, and daily appliance usage is studied in the first and second paper by analyzing natural gas utility meter readings associated with over 10,000 households from 2001-2006. A rich description of a house's architectural characteristics and household demographics is attained by integrating publicly available databases based on the house address. This combination of information allows for the largest number of individual households studied at this level of detail to date. The third paper uses conservation program data from two natural gas utilities that administer and sponsor the program; over 1,000 weatherized households are included in this sample. This research focuses on natural gas-related household conservation. However, the same principles and methods could be applied for electricity-related conservation programs. We find positive policy implications from each of

  2. Steps to design a household energy game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijnheer, J.D.L.; van Oostendorp, H.

    2016-01-01

    Research where gamification is used to influence household energy consumption is an emerging field. This paper reviews the design and effectiveness of ten games that aim to influence household energy consumption and presents a novel gamification approach in which real world activities are

  3. Gamification in a Prototype Household Energy Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijnheer, J.D.L.; van Oostendorp, H.; Veltkamp, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Research where gamification is used to influence household energy consumption is an emerging field. This paper reviews design features of the prototype Powersaver Game. The aim of this game is to influence household energy consumption in the long-term. The evaluation of the design of the prototype,

  4. Domestic energy use and householders' energy behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yohanis, Yigzaw Goshu

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses domestic energy use and energy behaviour. It shows some improvement in domestic energy consumption and adoption of good energy practice. The survey conducted indicated that 35% of homes could improve their energy efficiency by improved tank insulation. In the last 5 years condensing boilers have been installed only in 3% of homes, indicating that householders are unaware of their advantages. Although 88% of surveyed homes had purchased a major appliance in the last 2 years, only 16% had any idea of the energy rating of their new appliances. Use of energy saving light bulbs is predominant in kitchens compared to other rooms. 70–80% of householders undertook some kind of day-to-day energy efficiency measures. 20–35% of householders would like to invest in energy-saving measures but found cost to be a key barrier. Approximately 84% of those surveyed were unaware of the energy rating of their household appliances. Price and brand were the most important factors determining the purchase of a new appliance. Significant energy-saving could be achieved by providing appropriate information to the general public regarding temperature control, efficiency of appliances and energy-saving heating systems. - Highlights: ▶ Good practice in household energy use is being adopted but actual use is rising. ▶ Cost is dominant in energy related decisions purchasing of household appliances. ▶ Energy behaviour is improving but level of awareness needs more work.

  5. Estimating broad-brush rebound effects for household energy consumption in the EU 28 countries and Norway: some policy implications of Odyssee data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvin, Ray

    2014-01-01

    Currently there is a strong policy commitment in European Union (EU) and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries to increase the energy efficiency of residential buildings, and it is widely assumed that this will naturally and automatically reduce domestic energy consumption. However, other factors such as fuel prices, wages, attitudes and lifestyles also influence energy consumption. This paper calculates broad-brush rebound effects based on changes in energy efficiency and energy consumption in each of the 28 EU countries plus Norway, for the years 2000–2011. In doing so, it tests how well the assumption of energy efficiency leading to energy reduction stands up to scrutiny in these lands. It uses the EU’s Odyssee database for efficiency and consumption figures and a commonly employed econometric definition of the rebound effect as an energy-efficiency elasticity. Most older EU lands show rebound effects in the expected range of 0–50%. However, the range for newer EU countries is 100–550%, suggesting that energy efficiency increases are not a good predictor of energy consumption. A more in-depth look at one country, Germany, suggests these results underestimate the rebound effect significantly. This also identifies research needs for specific energy consumption determinants in each country, to find more precisely what is driving consumption levels. - Highlights: • Policymakers frequently link energy efficiency gains with energy consumption falls. • Household energy rebound effects are calculated for EU lands using Odyssee data. • Most older EU lands show results in the range of 0–50% but newer lands show 100–552%. • Energy efficiency gains are not always a reliable predictor of energy consumption. • Targeted research could explore why consumption is often so unrelated to efficiency

  6. Household consumption of electricity in Brazil between 1985 and 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villareal, Maria José Charfuelan; Moreira, João Manoel Losada

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the electricity consumption in Brazilian residences between 1985 and 2013 through linear regressions. The explanatory variables considered were the number of households, effective consumption of families as a proxy for family income, and electricity tariff for households. To deal with the power generation crisis of 2001 we have introduced a dummy variable in the form of a step function. With such explanatory variables, we were able to account for the reduction of household electricity consumption caused by the policies conducted in 2001 and their permanent consequences. The regression presented coefficient of determination of 0.9892, and the several statistic tests conducted assured the existence of long-term relation between the electricity consumption in residences and the explanatory variables. The obtained elasticities for the household consumption of electricity with respect to number of residences, family income and residential tariff of electricity were 1.534±0.095, 0.189±0.049, and −0.230±0.060, respectively. These results allowed understanding the evolution over time of the household consumption of electricity in Brazil. They suggest that the electric sector in Brazil should pursue an active policy to manage demand of residential electricity using tariffs as a means to control it. - Highlights: •Brazilian residential electricity sector. •Special Features and structure of the residential electricity consumption. •Representation and modeling of electrical energy consumption. •Elasticities consumption-tariff; consumption-income; consumption- households.

  7. How can results from macro economic analyses of the energy consumption of households be used in macro models? A discussion of theoretical and empirical literature about aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halvorsen, Bente; Larsen, Bodil M.; Nesbakken, Runa

    2001-01-01

    The literature on energy demand shows that there are systematic differences in income- and price elasticity from analyses based on macro data and micro data. Even if one estimates models with the same explanatory variables, the results may differ with respect to estimated price- and income sensitivity. These differences may be caused by problems involved in transferring micro properties to macro properties, or the estimated macro relationships have failed to adequately consideration the fact that households behave differently in their energy demand. Political goals are often directed towards the entire household sector. Partial equilibrium models do not capture important equilibrium effects and feedback through the energy markets and the economy in general. Thus, it is very interesting, politically and scientifically, to do macro economic model analyses of different political measures that affect the energy consumption. The results of behavioural analyses, in which one investigates the heterogeneity of the energy demand, must be based on information about individual households. When the demand is studied based on micro data, it is difficult to aggregate its properties to a total demand function for the entire household sector if different household sectors have different behaviour. Such heterogeneity of behaviour may for instance arise when households in different regions have different heating equipment because of regional differences in the price of electricity. The subject of aggregation arises immediately when one wants to draw conclusions about the household sector based on information about individual households, whether the discussion is about the whole population or a selection of households. Thus, aggregation is a topic of interest in a wide range of problems

  8. Wood fuels consumption in households in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glavonjić Branko D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of researching wood fuels consumption in households in Montenegro in the heating season 2011/2012. The research was conducted in the period October-November 2012 on the sample of 5% of the total number of households which stated to use solid fuels for heating purposes in the 2011 census. Results of the conducted researches on the presence and amounts of fuels consumed in households in Montenegro showed that total firewood consumption in the heating season 2011/2012 (both urban and rural households was 703,571 m3. Wood consumption is the lowest in the households in the municipalities in the coastal zone, it is somewhat higher in central zone and the highest in the zone on the north of Montenegro. Average wood consumption in households in the coastal zone municipalities is 3.79 m3, in the central zone it is 5.02 m3 and on the north of Montenegro it is 6.74 m3/household. Observed on the level of Montenegro, average firewood consumption per household was 5.49 m3 and as such it best represents relatively low consumption level in the coastal zone and high consumption level on the north of Montenegro. Compared to the neighboring countries, average firewood consumption per household in Montenegro in the amount of 5.49 m3 is significantly lower than the average consumption in Serbia which is 7.3 m3/household as well as in Slovenia in the amount of 6.5 m3.

  9. Household electricity and gas consumption for heating homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jaehoon; Seob Kim, Chang; Lee, Jongsu

    2011-01-01

    Energy consumption has been drastically changed because of energy source depletion, price fluctuations, development and penetration of alternative energy sources, and government policies. Household energy sources are interrelated, and energy price and household characteristics, such as income level and dwelling size, affect the usage. To supply energy consistently and achieve a balance between production and consumption, stakeholders must understand consumer energy-consumption behavior. Therefore, this study identifies household heating energy usage patterns and the substitutive and/or complementary relationships between electricity and gas. Based on a multiple discrete-continuous extreme value model, household utility structure is identified from data on gas-heating usage. Results show greater utility and the smallest satiation values for gas boilers than for electric heaters and electric heating beds. The effects of consumer socioeconomic and environmental characteristics on the choice of heating energy sources were analyzed. Also, for further comparison, the respondents were split into high and low categories for income, heating degree days, dwelling size, and gas usage. Gas was found to be the most economical heating choice for households. - Research highlights: → This study investigates household electricity and gas consumption behavior for heating. → It also studied the relationship between two energy sources. → A research framework is suggested by combining the CDA and the MDCEV models. → It provides quantitative data that might be used for designing efficient energy policies.

  10. Feedback on household electricity consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present results from a project aiming to develop a new feedback technology to support sustainable living in private households. Against the backdrop of a review of the relevant literature and based on qualitative family interviews and registration of the households' electricity ...

  11. Simulation models for household consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso

    2011-01-01

    In many countries in the EU and in the United States, coil and nuclear plants provide the majority of energy production [2, 3], while peak absorption is matched by regulation plants and power exchange between grids. Throughout the last two decades, factors, such as increased global energy demand,...... are thermal and electrical storages, whose internal temperature or state of charge (SOC) is to be kept within specific comfort bounds. Alternatively, also PV plants can offer flexibility as soon as the controlling inverters are capable of controlling the power output......., speculation of fossil fuels, and global warming have generated a high interest in renewable energy sources. Nevertheless, energy sources, such as wind and solar power, have an intrinsic variability that can seriously affect the power grid stability if they account for a high percentage of the total generation...... as the capability of a device or cluster of devices to change the power consumption or production in time and magnitude. This behavior can be granted by local controllers or supervisory controllers who are able to operate under the direct or indirect control paradigm [5]. Typical devices that offer flexibility...

  12. Standby-consumption in households; Standby-Verbrauch im Haushalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnder, U.

    2006-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made in five types of housing on the standby-consumption of various household appliances. 461 measurements were made in 37 households, whereby three modes - ready-for-use, standby and sleep - were examined. 71 different appliances were looked at in six consumer groups. These included entertainment, hygiene/health, kitchen/household, communication, office and garage. Data is presented in tabular form and commented on.

  13. A Glance at China’s Household Consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Bin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2009-10-01

    Known for its scale, China is the most populous country with the world’s third largest economy. In the context of rising living standards, a relatively lower share of household consumption in its GDP, a strong domestic market and globalization, China is witnessing an unavoidable increase in household consumption, related energy consumption and carbon emissions. Chinese policy decision makers and researchers are well aware of these challenges and keen to promote green lifestyles. China has developed a series of energy policies and programs, and launched a wide-range social marketing activities to promote energy conservation.

  14. Household energy transition in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hills, Peter (Hong Kong Univ. (Hong Kong). Centre of Urban Planning and Environmental Management)

    1994-05-01

    A household energy survey in Hong Kong confirmed that domestic energy consumption is dominated by modern fuels. Household spending on fuels typically amounts to less than 3% of monthly income. Delivered energy use per household per month averages 1.77 GJ and per capita use 0.37 GJ. Electricity accounts for more than half of fuel expenditure and energy use. Patterns of fuel choice and use are quite consistent across income levels, although electricity use rises with higher household incomes. Many households use a combination of kerosene, gas and electricity (rice cookers) for cooking, which appears to reflect culinary practices more than fuel prices, perceived safety or availability. Electrical appliance saturation is high already, and air conditioning use is growing rapidly. Household electricity consumption may increase substantially during the 1990s as higher comfort levels lead to increased heating and cooling demand and space standards in public housing units improve. (Author)

  15. Micro Econometric Modelling of Household Energy Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2002-01-01

    Presents a micro econometric analysis of household electricity and natural gas demand for Danish households observed in 1996. Dependence between demand for gas and demand for electricity; Separability of demand for gas from demand for electricity; Relation between energy consumption and the age...

  16. Household energy consumption: the future is in our hands. ITER, an experimental fusion reactor. Do CO2-free energies exist? Liquefied natural gas, king of the gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    This issue of Alternatives newsletter features 4 main articles dealing with: 1 - Household energy consumption - the future is in our hands: With energy resources growing scarcer and more expensive, everyone has a duty to conserve energy. Because combating global warming also means adopting simple habits and using the right equipment - with help from our governments to lead us to change. A practical look at what we can do. 2 - ITER, an experimental fusion reactor: The entire international community is trying to reproduce here on Earth the fusion of hydrogen atoms occurring naturally in the Sun, lured by the promise of a virtually inexhaustible source of energy. More on ITER from the project's Director General. 3 - Do CO 2 -free energies exist?: As nations struggle to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the question is moot. Environmental engineer Jean-Marc Jancovici gives us his point of view. 4 - Liquefied natural gas, king of the gas market: LNG's many advantages are enticing industry to develop supply routes and infrastructure to meet strong demand. But the race for LNG is not without its limits

  17. Variations in energy consumption and survival status between rural and urban households: A case study of the Western Loess Plateau, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Shuwen; Zhang Xin; Zhao Chunsheng; Niu Yunzhu

    2012-01-01

    As energy consumption is closely related to all aspects of human life, it becomes the standard by which to measure people's quality of life and the national development level. Based on the “energy ladder” hypothesis, we conducted questionnaire surveys in the Western Loess Plateau of China, and accessed a considerable amount of information about the energy usage of rural and urban households. The results show that the per capita effective heat is 323.3, 282.8, 250.0 and 123.6 kgce in the provincial capital, medium-sized cities, county towns and rural areas, respectively. The energy ladder feature is obvious. Using 719 sample data, the multiple regression analysis was conducted between per capita effective heat and two independent variables including per capita income and the attributes of energy used, the parameter estimation of the cross-quadratic model produced more significant effects. The three-dimensional graph clearly shows the differences in living standards and survival status between urban and rural households. High-income residents in urban areas consume more high-quality energy, they enjoy an affluent lifestyle. While low-income households in rural areas obtain less effective heat, and use poor quality fuels, they are still at the level of basic survival. - Highlights: ► The per capita effective heat is 323.3.4, 282.8, 250.0 and 123.6 kgce in four types of region. ► The energy attributes score of a rural resident is 60% of that of an urban resident. ► The energy ladder feature is obvious. ► The effective heat is the result of two independent variables interacting together. ► The differences in living standards and survival status between urban and rural households are great.

  18. Smart Energy Management for Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja van Dam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to infer design-related insights and guidelines to improve the use and effectiveness of home energy management systems (HEMS. This was done through an empirical evaluation of the longitudinal effectiveness of these devices and an exploration of factors that influence their use and effectiveness. Three case studies executed with three different HEMS in households, a life cycle assessment (LCA on those three HEMS, as well as a reflection on the challenges of both researching and implementing HEMS in existing housing gave a comprehensive picture of the opportunities and barriers for HEMS. The research revealed five typical use patterns that emerged amongst households. It also revealed average energy savings of 7.8%, which however decreased in the follow-up that was conducted, and factors that may influence the use and effectiveness of HEMS. Nonetheless, the LCA calculations divulged that the HEMS can achieve net energy savings when taking their embedded energy into account. Problem statement The goal of reducing the energy consumption of existing housing formed the basis for this research. There are many facets to this energy consumption, including the characteristics of the house, its appliances, and the behaviours of its inhabitants. Because of this complexity, addressing only one of these facets is not effective in substantially reducing the overall energy consumption of households. This called for an interdisciplinary approach, merging the domains of design for sustainability, sustainable housing transformation and environmental psychology. In this thesis, HEMS were chosen as the intervention to address the various elements that contribute to household energy consumption, thereby functioning as a pivot. By giving feedback and/or helping manage consumption they can assist households in changing their behaviour and help save energy. However, in analysing literature on HEMS, four critique points

  19. Price elasticities, policy measures and actual developments in household energy consumption - A bottom up analysis for the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonekamp, Piet G.M.

    2007-01-01

    In the Netherlands it seems likely that the large number of new policy measures in the past decade has influenced the response of households to changing prices. To investigate this issue the energy trends in the period 1990-2000 have been simulated with a bottom-up model, applied earlier for scenario studies, and extensive data from surveys. For a number of alternative price cases the elasticity values found are explained using the bottom-up changes in energy trends. One finding is that the specific set of saving options defines for a great part the price response. The price effect has been analysed too in combination with the policy measures standards, subsidies and energy taxes. The simulation results indicate that the elasticity value could be 30-40% higher without these measures. (author)

  20. Increasing Household Protein Consumption Through Minilivestock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mini-livestock production can be a major contributor of a more balanced diet for both rural and urban settlements. The attributes of mini-livestock gives it the potential of increasing household protein consumption as well as being a source of income. Mini-livestock production can be practiced in rural and urban settlements ...

  1. The flame dilemma: A data analytics study of fireplace influence on winter energy consumption at the residential household level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afamia Elnakat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of the presence of fireplaces at the household level independent of the function of ambiance and indoor air quality. The focus of this study is on the winter heating energy use of homes with and without fireplaces to promote energy conservation. Three years of winter energy usage (2011–2013 of 365,190 single-family homes are analyzed and compared. The data is further segmented by fuel type, all-electric versus dual-fuel homes as well as by size and vintage. On average, homes with fireplaces used 23,650 kBtu, source energy, for heating purposes during the winter months versus 18,055 kBtu (p≤0.0001 during the same time period, January, February, and December. There is a significant 31% increase in energy use in homes with fireplaces. In conclusion, policy prescriptions and retrofits are recommended during new home construction permits, renovations, and utility rebate outreach programs to encourage more efficient and cleaner fireplace technology applications.

  2. Distributed Coordination of Household Electricity Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juelsgaard, Morten; Teixeira, Andre; Johansson, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a distributed framework for coordination of flexible electricity consumption for a number of households in the distribution grid. We conduct coordination with the purpose of minimizing a trade-off between individual concerns about discomfort and electricity cost, on the one hand......, and joint concerns about grid losses and voltage variations on the other. Our contribution is mainly to illustrate how to conduct distributed coordination when consumers are jointly coupled by grid losses and voltage variations. In addition we illustrate the benefit of including consumption management...... in the grid operation, and how different types of consumption may present various benefits....

  3. Measuring consumption in households. Interpretations and strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole [Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, Hoersholm (Denmark)

    2008-12-01

    The paper discusses the connection between environmental awareness and metering data on household consumption (electricity, heating, water), and it is based on recent Danish studies. It is discussed, how families' understanding of environmental awareness and environmental practices relates to their overall household consumption. The paper indicates that residents' environmental practices in everyday life are often overshadowed by consumption practices in other areas, and that such practices are often rooted in quite different rationales than environmental awareness. These findings are seen as an example of what Pierre Bourdieu calls the 'economy of symbolic goods', offering an explanation for why some symbolic actions apparently play a larger role than other, more environmentally serious consumption practices. From this, it is argued that the social structures underlying consumption and green behaviour should be recognised in the formulation of environmental policies, and that instead of using sustainable practices such as 'environmental awareness' as a sales argument, more reflexive strategies that take consumers' preferences into account should be considered. (author)

  4. Plug-in-Hybrid Vehicle Use, Energy Consumption, and Greenhouse Emissions: An Analysis of Household Vehicle Placements in Northern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kammen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on the real-world use over the course of one year of a nickel-metal-hydride plug-in hybrid—the Toyota Plug-In HV—by a set of 12 northern California households able to charge at home and work. From vehicle use data, energy and greenhouse-emissions implications are also explored. A total of 1557 trips—most using under 0.5 gallons of gasoline—ranged up to 2.4 hours and 133 miles and averaged 14 minutes and 7 miles. 399 charging events averaged 2.6 hours. The maximum lasted 4.6 hours. Most recharges added less than 1.4 kWh, with a mean charge of 0.92 kWh. The average power drawn was under one-half kilowatt. The greenhouse gas emissions from driving and charging were estimated to be 2.6 metric tons, about half of the emissions expected from a 22.4-mpg vehicle (the MY2009 fleet-wide real-world average. The findings contribute to better understanding of how plug-in hybrids might be used, their potential impact, and how potential benefits and requirements vary for different plug-in-vehicle designs. For example, based on daily driving distances, 20 miles of charge-depleting range would have been fully utilized on 81% of days driven, whereas 40 miles would not have been fully utilized on over half of travel days.

  5. Household energy requirement and value patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vringer, Kees; Aalbers, Theo; Blok, Kornelis

    2007-01-01

    For an effective consumer energy policy, it is important to know why some households require more energy than others. The aim of the study described here was to examine whether there is a relationship between the total household energy requirement, on one hand, and value patterns, the motivation to save energy or the problem perception of climate change, on the other. To examine these relationships, we held a consumer survey among 2304 respondent households. We did not find significant differences in the energy requirement of groups of households with different value patterns, taking into account the differences in the socio-economic situation of households. Only for the 'motivation to save energy' we did find that the least motivated group requires 10 GJ more energy than the average and most motivated groups; this is about 4% of the total household energy requirement. This means that a self-regulating energy policy, solely based on the fact that a strategy of internalising environmental responsibility will not be effective in saving energy. There are indications that a social dilemma is one of the reasons why people's consumption patterns do not conform to their value patterns, problem perception or motivation to save energy

  6. The household energy transition in India and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachauri, Shonali; Jiang, Leiwen

    2008-01-01

    Both India and China are countries in energy transition. This paper compares the household energy transitions in these nations through the analysis of both aggregate statistics and nationally representative household surveys. The two countries differ sharply in several respects. Residential energy consumption in China is twice that in India, in aggregate terms. In addition, Chinese households have almost universal access to electricity, while in India almost half of rural households and 10% of urban households still lack access. On aggregate, urban households in China also derive a larger share of their total energy from liquid fuels and grids (77%) as compared to urban Indian households (65%). Yet, at every income level, Indians derive a slightly larger fraction of their total household energy needs from liquid and grid sources of energy than Chinese with comparable incomes. Despite these differences, trends in energy use and the factors influencing a transition to modern energy in both nations are similar. Compared with rural households, urban households in both nations consume a disproportionately large share of commercial energy and are much further along in the transition to modern energy. However, total energy consumption in rural households exceeds that in urban households, because of a continued dependence on inefficient solid fuels, which contribute to over 85% of rural household energy needs in both countries. In addition to urbanisation, key drivers of the transition in both nations include income, energy prices, energy access and local fuel availability. (author)

  7. Steps to Design a Household Energy Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Dirk Fijnheer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research where gamification is used to influence household energy consumption is an emerging field. This paper reviews the design and effectiveness of ten games that aim to influence household energy consumption and presents a novel gamification approach in which real world activities are implemented in a game design. From the review suggestions for the design of a new game have been identified, such as including real life missions in order to optimize the transfer between the game world and the real world, feedback from monitoring the electricity meter, the presence of a strong storyline, personalized game characters, social interaction, etc. Based on this comparative analysis, the new game 'Powersaver Game' focused on reducing energy consumption has been designed and its prototype is described. In the next stage of iterative design, end-users evaluated the match between in-game scenes and household energy saving activities. This considerate user-centered design process should allow us to build a serious game that is potentially effective in reducing household energy consumption

  8. Electricity consumption and electricity saving in the Swedish households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstroem, B M; Eklund, Y; Sjoeberg, L

    1997-03-01

    The objective of the present study is to determine which factors influence electricity consumption behavior of Swedish households, the level of knowledge about electricity use and the willingness to pay for the use of electricity. In Sweden, as in many other developed countries, the need for electric power is constantly increasing. The major reason for this increase in electricity consumption is the lifestyle of a modern society. A feature in the nuclear power discussion is that the government in Sweden is having a hard time to establish how to phase-out all nuclear power plants by 2010. An additional major change in Swedish energy policy is the deregulation of the electricity market, which started in the beginning of 1996. There is an increased demand for strategies to save electricity among households. The results of this study stress the difficulties in reducing electricity consumption and to develop new electricity saving strategies in Sweden 125 refs, 6 figs, 21 tabs

  9. Households' hourly electricity consumption and peak demand in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Andersen, Frits; Baldini, Mattia; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    2017-01-01

    consumption, we analyse the contribution of appliances and new services, such as individual heat pumps and electric vehicles, to peak consumption and the need for demand response incentives to reduce the peak.Initially, the paper presents a new model that represents the hourly electricity consumption profile...... of households in Denmark. The model considers hourly consumption profiles for different household appliances and their contribution to annual household electricity consumption. When applying the model to an official scenario for annual electricity consumption, assuming non-flexible consumption due...... to a considerable introduction of electric vehicles and individual heat pumps, household consumption is expected to increase considerably, especially peak hour consumption is expected to increase.Next the paper presents results from a new experiment where household customers are given economic and/or environmental...

  10. Adolescents and electricity consumption; Investigating sociodemographic, economic, and behavioural influences on electricity consumption in households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallis, Hannah; Nachreiner, Malte; Matthies, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    With respect to changes in the energy systems of many countries, electricity consumption in households is an important topic. Extensive research has investigated the various determinants of electricity consumption. However, insights into how specific sociodemographic, behavioural, and attitudinal determinants influence residential electricity consumption are still scarce. In this study, we used hierarchical regression analysis to systematically investigate these determinants (including household engagement in electricity saving) along with a wide range of other measures in a sample of German households (N=763). Special attention was given to households with adolescents and children by analysing the influence of the number of adolescents on electricity consumption in a path model. Our results indicate that sociodemographic influences can be explained by the purchasing and use behaviours of residents. Our findings also suggest that the use of behavioural information provides a more detailed picture of the conditions of electricity consumption and thus allows for more appropriate policy planning. - Highlights: •We examined causal drivers of sociodemographic influences on electricity consumption •Sociodemographic influences can be explained by behaviour •Influence of adolescents is mediated by their purchases of IT appliances •It is necessary to also use behavioural information for policy planning

  11. Energy Consumption Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption Database The California Energy Commission has created this on-line database for informal reporting ) classifications. The database also provides easy downloading of energy consumption data into Microsoft Excel (XLSX

  12. Analysis of safety issues in household meat consumption in Odeda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study analyzed the safety problems with household meat consumption in Odeda Local Government Area, Ogun state, Nigeria. The objectives were to describe the socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents; assess the level of awareness of safety issues in households' meat consumption; and evaluate the ...

  13. Individual Decisions and Household Demand for Consumption And Leisure

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Concetta Chiuri

    1999-01-01

    The standard microeconomic assumption of a household utility function raises two theoretical problems: it contradicts methodological individualism and it ignores economic phenomena like income and consumption sharing, division of labour, externalities and altruism within a household. This paper reviews two approaches, aggregation theory and more recent non-unitary models, to compare the different properties that household consumption and leisure demands have to satisfy in the two basic contex...

  14. A review of intervention studies aimed at household energy conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, W; Steg, L; Vlek, C; Rothengatter, T; Rothengatter, J.A.

    This article reviews and evaluates the effectiveness of interventions aiming to encourage households to reduce energy consumption. Thirty-eight studies performed within the field of (applied) social and environmental psychology are reviewed, and categorized as involving either antecedent strategies

  15. Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Quality Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) is a periodic national survey that provides timely information about energy consumption and expenditures of U.S. households and about energy-related characteristics of housing units. The survey was first conducted in 1978 as the National Interim Energy Consumption Survey (NIECS), and the 1979 survey was called the Household Screener Survey. From 1980 through 1982 RECS was conducted annually. The next RECS was fielded in 1984, and since then, the survey has been undertaken at 3-year intervals. The most recent RECS was conducted in 1993.

  16. The Effect of Household Debt on Consumption in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Thitima Chucherd

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the quantitative influence of household debt and wealth on total consumption in Thailand during the recession and recovery periods after the 1997 financial crisis. The analysis of the consumption function was based on the Life-Cycle and Permanent Income Hypotheses and used household survey data in Thailand. This empirical study found that debt positively influences consumption similar to wealth effect with greater impact of the latter. Moreover, positive debt effect can b...

  17. Effects of household dynamics on resource consumption and biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianguo; Daily, Gretchen C; Ehrlich, Paul R; Luck, Gary W

    2003-01-30

    Human population size and growth rate are often considered important drivers of biodiversity loss, whereas household dynamics are usually neglected. Aggregate demographic statistics may mask substantial changes in the size and number of households, and their effects on biodiversity. Household dynamics influence per capita consumption and thus biodiversity through, for example, consumption of wood for fuel, habitat alteration for home building and associated activities, and greenhouse gas emissions. Here we report that growth in household numbers globally, and particularly in countries with biodiversity hotspots (areas rich in endemic species and threatened by human activities), was more rapid than aggregate population growth between 1985 and 2000. Even when population size declined, the number of households increased substantially. Had the average household size (that is, the number of occupants) remained static, there would have been 155 million fewer households in hotspot countries in 2000. Reduction in average household size alone will add a projected 233 million additional households to hotspot countries during the period 2000-15. Rapid increase in household numbers, often manifested as urban sprawl, and resultant higher per capita resource consumption in smaller households pose serious challenges to biodiversity conservation.

  18. Household MIPS. Natural resource consumption of Finnish households and its reduction; KotiMIPS. Kotitalouksien luonnonvarojen kulutus ja sen pienentaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotakorpi, E.; Laehteenoja, S.; Lettenmeier, M.

    2008-10-15

    consumption is the same in terms of air consumption, which is correlated with CO2 emissions, but housing consumes around twice as much air as tourism and mobility. Home heating accounts for the highest proportion of air consumption by housing. After the consumption monitoring the households participated in focus group interviews in which the opportunities available for reducing natural resource consumption were debated. The conclusion to the report is based on the consumption monitoring results and focus group interviews. In it the authors enquire what subsectors of consumption might offer consumers potential for reducing their natural resource consumption and what the barriers are to modifying consumption practices. It is the opinion of the households that in relation to housing the easiest way to reduce natural resource consumption is to change over to eco-electricity and in the case of foodstuffs to cut down on the amount of meat and cheese consumed. Incentives and guidelines are necessary for increasing consumers' willingness and opportunities to change their habits in their daily mobility and particularly in tourism. In addition to changes in consumer choices and practices, and for the support of such changes, novel technical solutions, e.g. low-energy dwellings, are required for conserving natural resources. The business sector and the authorities have a significant role to play in increasing the demand for solutions of this kind and in offering them to the public. (orig.)

  19. The effect of providing free autopoweroff plugs to households on electricity consumption - a field experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Lynge; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Fjordbak, Troels

    on metered electricity consumption for different types of households. We find effects for single men and couples without children, while we find no effect for single women and households with children. We suggest that this could be because of differences in saving potential (e.g. some households do not have......Experimental evidence of the effect of providing cheap energy saving technology to households is sparse. We present results from a field experiment in which autopoweroff plugs are provided free of charge to randomly selected households. We use propensity score matching to find treatment effects...... increase efficiency of programmes....

  20. Scheduling home-appliances to optimize energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana

    In order to optimize the energy consumption, energy demand peaks should be avoided, and energy consumption should be smoothly distributed over time. This can be achieved by setting a maximum energy consumption per user’s household. In other words, the overall consumption of the user’s appliances...

  1. Household energy preferences for cooking in urban Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouedraogo, Boukary

    2006-01-01

    An extensive survey on household expenditures in Ouagadougou, the capital of Burkina Faso, was used to analyze the factors determining urban household energy choices using a multinomial logit model. Wood-energy remains the preferred fuel of most urban households in the country; though rational, the choice is not sustainable as it portends a threat to the savanna woodlands and the economy. Many important policies have been adopted by public authorities to minimize household wood-energy consumption and to substitute it by alternative fuel. Despite the magnitude of all these policies, the depletion rate of the forest resource is increasing. A kind of inertia is thus observed for household preferences for cooking fuel. This model analyzes the sociological and economic variables of household energy preferences for cooking in Ouagadougou. The analyses show that the inertia of household cooking energy preferences are due to poverty factors such as low income, poor household access to electricity for primary and secondary energy, low house standard, household size, high frequency of cooking certain meals using woodfuel as cooking energy. The descriptive analyses show that the domestic demand for wood-energy is strongly related to household income. The firewood utilization rate decreases with increasing household income. In other words, this fuel appears as a 'transition good' for these households which aim for other sources of energy for cooking that are more adapted for urban consumption. This implies that a price subsidy policy for liquid petroleum gas (LPG) and its cook stoves could significantly decrease the utilization rate of wood-energy

  2. Energy literacy, awareness, and conservation behavior of residential households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brounen, Dirk; Kok, Nils; Quigley, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The residential sector accounts for one-fifth of global energy consumption, resulting from the requirements to heat, cool, and light residential dwellings. It is therefore not surprising that energy efficiency in the residential market has gained importance in recent years. In this paper, we examine awareness, literacy and behavior of households with respect to their residential energy expenditures. Using a detailed survey of 1721 Dutch households, we measure the extent to which consumers are aware of their energy consumption and whether they have taken measures to reduce their energy costs. Our results show that “energy literacy” and awareness among respondents is low: just 56% of the respondents are aware of their monthly charges for energy consumption, and 40% do not appropriately evaluate investment decisions in energy efficient equipment. We document that demographics and consumer attitudes towards energy conservation, but not energy literacy and awareness, have direct effects on behavior regarding heating and cooling of the home. The impact of a moderating factor, measured by thermostat settings, ultimately results in strong variation in the energy consumption of private consumers. - Highlights: • We use a detailed survey of 1,721 Dutch households to measure awareness and conservation behavior in energy consumption. • Energy literacy and awareness among residential households is low. • 40 percent of the sample does not appropriately evaluate investment decisions in energy efficient equipment • Demographics and consumer attitudes affect behavior regarding heating and cooling of a home

  3. Temperature Changes, Household Consumption and Internal Migration: Evidence from Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Kalle Hirvonen

    2015-01-01

    Large rural-urban wage gaps observed in many developing countries are suggestive of barriers to migration that keep potential migrants in the rural areas. Using long panel data spanning nearly two decades, I study the extent to which migration rates are constrained by liquidity constraints in rural Tanzania. The analysis begins by quantifying the impact of weather variation on household welfare. The results show how household consumption co-moves with temperature rendering households vulnerab...

  4. The impact of household consumption patterns on emissions in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Rosa; Mainar, Alfredo; Sanchez-Choliz, Julio

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the relationship between household consumption patterns and pollution in the Spanish economy. The analysis was carried using a Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) for the Spanish economy prepared for 1999. Taking the final demand of households as the exogenous account in the SAM framework and combining this with the information provided by the Household Budget Continuous Survey on income and consumption (INE, 1999), we analyse the pollution produced by both the economy and households in order to satisfy consumption requirements. We also consider the effects of income inequality on expenditure levels, establishing a link between income level, consumption patterns, propensity to consume and CO 2 emissions. (author)

  5. Consumption patterns and intra-household roles in the production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consumption patterns and intra-household roles in the production, processing and marketing of soyabeans in the Northern Agricultural Zone of Benue State, Nigeria. AE Agwu, J Ellah, E Ekweagwu, JC Iwuchukwu ...

  6. Changing practices of energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Toke Haunstrup; Friis, Freja; Skjølsvold, Tomas Moe

    2017-01-01

    to produce hydrogen for transport use), whereas others emphasise the role of individual consumers. The latter approach is dominant within the smart grid vision. In this paper, we explore implications of smart grid technologies in households for the everyday practices related to electricity consumption...... (microgeneration) influence the everyday practices? What kind of influence does the combination of PVs with other “smart” energy technologies have on everyday practices and electricity consumption patterns? A specific focus is on the time patterns of households’ energy consumption. The analysis is based...... settlement scheme (hourly versus annual net metering) and the trial context play a role. Also, the study finds a broader interest in increasing the level of self-sufficiency through combining PVs with home batteries. Finally, the paper discusses a distinct (male) gendering in relation to who is most actively...

  7. Accounting for Households' Perceived Income Uncertainty in Consumption Risk Sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, S.; Stoltenberg, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    We develop a consumption risk-sharing model that distinguishes households' perceived income uncertainty from income uncertainty as measured by an econometrician. Households receive signals on their future disposable income that can drive a gap between the two uncertainties. Accounting for the

  8. Energy consumption and energy prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, J.

    1993-01-01

    Data are presented on energy consumption and energy prices related to a number of OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) lands covering the period 1951-1990. The information sources are described and the development of energy consumption and prices in Denmark are illustrated in relation to these other countries. The energy intensity (the relation between energy consumption and the gross national product) is dealt with. Here it is possible to follow development during the whole post-war period. It is generally understood that Denmark saved large amounts of energy after 1973-74 but, taken over the whole post-war period, savings and decline in energy-gross national product relations are less dramatic compared to conditions in other OECD countries. Energy coefficients or elasticities show the relative rise in consumption compared to the relative rise in gross national product (growth rate). This is shown to be typically unstable and an eventual connection with the amount of energy price increase and/or the growth rate of the national economy is considered. Results of Granger causuality tests on energy consumption, national income and energy prices are presented. Effective energy prices were very low in Denmark up to 1970 when they suddenly began to increase. Since the oil crisis Denmark's energy consumption has fallen whereas the other countries have used rather more energy than before. Effective promotion of energy savings must be seen in relation to the fact that the 1970 basis level of energy consumption and intensity was unusually high. The high effective energy prices have also encouraged energy savings in Denmark. (AB)

  9. How much electric power do we need in households. Will a reduction of household power consumption change the energy supply situation in the Federal Republic. A draft generic model of demand analysis. Information on energy and environment, Part A, No. 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, E.H.; Schuh, U.

    1980-06-01

    After explaining the problems of prognoses and some basic facts of energy consumption, the demand analysis is carried out in which the present consumption by large units in households is dealt with individually. Some advice to reduce the energy need of these units are also given. By refining to corresponding figures the author states that by changing to more energy-efficient units, the national primary energy turn-over is being lowered approximately by that amount for which the capacity of the power plants is planned to be increased during the next decade. It is important that the introduction of such units on the market is supported by such a motivation of producers and consumers.

  10. Flexible Energy Consumption in Smart House's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per Printz

    2012-01-01

    the consumer have to use the energy when it is available. The main electrical energy consumer in a modern society is buildings and private homes. The amount of electrical energy used in this sector is about 70% of the total electricity consumption. Because of that buildings and private homes has to play...... an automatic and inteligente house control system that maximize the consumption exibility based on the energy users behavior with out aection the living comfort. This behavior is of course dierent from household to household, because of that it is nessasary include an adaptive behavior prediction system...

  11. Energy Consumption vs. Energy Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, L. T.; Zhang, Tengyan; Schlup, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Energy is necessary for any phenomenon to occur or any process to proceed. Nevertheless, energy is never consumed; instead, it is conserved. What is consumed is available energy, or exergy, accompanied by an increase in entropy. Obviously, the terminology, "energy consumption" is indeed a misnomer although it is ubiquitous in the…

  12. Meat consumption patterns in Vietnam: effects of household characteristics on pork and poultry consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Van Phuong; Mergenthaler, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    This study relates social-demographic characteristics of Vietnamese households to their consumption of meat. Tobit models are estimated drawing on the latest Vietnamese Household Living Standard Survey in 2010 (VHLSS 2010). The analysis of demand for pork and poultry in Vietnamese households demonstrates that the meat demand in Vietnam is significantly affected by socio-economic and geographic factors.

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions accounting of urban residential consumption: a household survey based approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Lin

    Full Text Available Devising policies for a low carbon city requires a careful understanding of the characteristics of urban residential lifestyle and consumption. The production-based accounting approach based on top-down statistical data has a limited ability to reflect the total greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from residential consumption. In this paper, we present a survey-based GHG emissions accounting methodology for urban residential consumption, and apply it in Xiamen City, a rapidly urbanizing coastal city in southeast China. Based on this, the main influencing factors determining residential GHG emissions at the household and community scale are identified, and the typical profiles of low, medium and high GHG emission households and communities are identified. Up to 70% of household GHG emissions are from regional and national activities that support household consumption including the supply of energy and building materials, while 17% are from urban level basic services and supplies such as sewage treatment and solid waste management, and only 13% are direct emissions from household consumption. Housing area and household size are the two main factors determining GHG emissions from residential consumption at the household scale, while average housing area and building height were the main factors at the community scale. Our results show a large disparity in GHG emissions profiles among different households, with high GHG emissions households emitting about five times more than low GHG emissions households. Emissions from high GHG emissions communities are about twice as high as from low GHG emissions communities. Our findings can contribute to better tailored and targeted policies aimed at reducing household GHG emissions, and developing low GHG emissions residential communities in China.

  14. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Accounting of Urban Residential Consumption: A Household Survey Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Yu, Yunjun; Bai, Xuemei; Feng, Ling; Wang, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Devising policies for a low carbon city requires a careful understanding of the characteristics of urban residential lifestyle and consumption. The production-based accounting approach based on top-down statistical data has a limited ability to reflect the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from residential consumption. In this paper, we present a survey-based GHG emissions accounting methodology for urban residential consumption, and apply it in Xiamen City, a rapidly urbanizing coastal city in southeast China. Based on this, the main influencing factors determining residential GHG emissions at the household and community scale are identified, and the typical profiles of low, medium and high GHG emission households and communities are identified. Up to 70% of household GHG emissions are from regional and national activities that support household consumption including the supply of energy and building materials, while 17% are from urban level basic services and supplies such as sewage treatment and solid waste management, and only 13% are direct emissions from household consumption. Housing area and household size are the two main factors determining GHG emissions from residential consumption at the household scale, while average housing area and building height were the main factors at the community scale. Our results show a large disparity in GHG emissions profiles among different households, with high GHG emissions households emitting about five times more than low GHG emissions households. Emissions from high GHG emissions communities are about twice as high as from low GHG emissions communities. Our findings can contribute to better tailored and targeted policies aimed at reducing household GHG emissions, and developing low GHG emissions residential communities in China. PMID:23405187

  15. Habit formation and consumption of energy for heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we ask if consumption of energy for space heating by households is habit forming. A model of intertemporal consumption allocation allowing for habit-forming preferences is estimated on a register-based panel data set with high quality information about consumption of natural gas...... for a sample of Danish households. Results indicate that preferences are weakly habit forming...

  16. an assessment of household energy types, sources, uses and its

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    xtz

    these energy types/sources, seasons and the disappearing forest. KEYWORDS: Energy, Types, Sources, Household, Consumption. INTRODUCTION. The running of any given economic sector. (industrial, domestic) is powered by various forms of energy that can be sourced from renewable and non-renewable sources ...

  17. A Study on Efficient Energy Use for Household Appliances in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Efficient , energy use, household appliances, power consumption. ... Although the hydro-electric power transmission lines extend the entire length of ..... R. Karri and P. Mishra, “Minimizing Energy Consumption of Secure Wireless ...

  18. Interactive energy consumption visualization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lunga, D

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available in an office building environment. The main goal is to highlight high consumptions patterns, estimate costs and savings, and recommend energy saving strategies. In its useful nature, the dashboard can provide valuable information for further programs tied...

  19. Household transitions to energy efficient lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Bradford; Schleich, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    New energy efficient lighting technologies can significantly reduce household electricity consumption, but adoption has been slow. A unique dataset of German households is used in this paper to examine the factors associated with the replacement of old incandescent lamps (ILs) with new energy efficient compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and light emitting diodes (LEDs). The ‘rebound’ effect of increased lamp luminosity in the transition to energy efficient bulbs is analyzed jointly with the replacement decision to account for household self-selection in bulb-type choice. Results indicate that the EU ban on ILs accelerated the pace of transition to CFLs and LEDs, while storage of bulbs significantly dampened the speed of the transition. Higher lighting needs and bulb attributes like energy efficiency, environmental friendliness, and durability spur IL replacement with CFLs or LEDs. Electricity gains from new energy efficient lighting are mitigated by 23% and 47% increases in luminosity for CFL and LED replacements, respectively. Model results suggest that taking the replacement bulb from storage and higher levels of education dampen the magnitude of these luminosity rebounds in IL to CFL transitions. - Highlights: • EU ban on ILs has fostered transitions to energy efficient lighting • Energy efficient, environmentally friendly, and durable lighting preferences make CFL and LED transitions more likely • Indicators of greater lighting needs are associated with higher propensities to replace ILs with CFLs and LEDs • For residential lighting, the rebound effect manifests itself through increases in luminosity • In IL to CLF transitions luminosity increases are lower with higher levels of education

  20. Process-based investigation of cross-boundary environmental pressure from urban household consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Dewei; Lin, Yanjie; Gao, Lijie; Sun, Yanwei; Wang, Run; Zhang, Guoqin

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability research at the city scale is increasingly focusing on urban household consumption in the context of global climate change. We use a complementary emergy accounting (EMA) and carbon footprint accounting (CFA) method to investigate the environmental pressure generated by household consumption in Xiamen, China. We distinguish between the resource extraction, consumption and disposal stages within an urban spatial conceptual framework, comprising the Urban Footprint Region (UFR) and Urban Sprawl Region (USR), and analyze five environmental footprint categories associated with cross-boundary household emergy and carbon flows. Cross-boundary activities, which link the USR with its UFR, contributed nearly 90% of total emergy and 70% of total GHG emissions in CFA. Transport fuel, building materials and food contribute most to environmental pressure in both EMA and CFA. The results indicate a significant cross-boundary resource burden and environmental footprint associated with household activities. The employed framework, method, and scope challenge the conventional spatial boundary of the urban system, and the results have important policy implications for urban sustainability and cross-boundary environmental management. - Highlights: ► We propose an urban spatial conceptual framework that includes USR and UFRs. ► A complementary EMA and CFA method is employed in urban household consumption system. ► Process-based cross-boundary environmental pressure of household consumption are evaluated. ► USR exerts pressure on its UFRs by extensive resource extraction and environmental emissions. ► We elucidate the USR–UFR environmental relationships and household energy policy

  1. The energy consumption of private households 1990 - 2035 - Results of scenarios I - IV; Der Energieverbrauch der Privaten Haushalte, 1990 - 2035. Ergebnisse der Szenarien I bis IV und der zugehoerigen Sensitivitaeten BIP hoch, Preise hoch und Klima waermer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofer, P.

    2007-07-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents four scenarios concerning the development of energy consumption in Swiss private households for the period 1990 - 2035. The four scenarios - status quo, increased co-operation between the state and the economy with various levies, global reduction of energy consumption and, finally, scenario IV 'on the way to a 2000-Watt Society' - are briefly described. In particular, the scenarios are examined for various sensitivities: high gross domestic product GDP, high prices and warmer climate. The results of the sensitivity analyses are compared and discussed and the necessary instruments are examined. This comprehensive report contains a large number of data-tables and graphical representations

  2. Increasing the flexibility of electricity consumption in private households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørring, Lise; Jensen, Carsten Lynge; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    2018-01-01

    households received incentivized text messages, suggesting that they shift electricity consumption to certain hours of the day. The study shows that when text messages were sent to women, there was a significantly greater response than when they were sent to men. Based on qualitative in-depth interviews, we...... find that an important reason for this is gender difference in household work task responsibility. Our study suggests that incorporating knowledge about gendered practices when designing and targeting policies to change electricity consumption habits and induce flexibility could significantly increase...

  3. Networking in private households. Impacts on electricity consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aebischer, B. [Center for Energy Policy and Economics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFZ), Zuerich (Switzerland); Huser, A. [Encontrol GmbH, Niederrohrdorf (Switzerland)

    2000-07-01

    With the rapidly increasing use of the Internet for private purposes, it is possible that the concept of the 'intelligent home', which has been a matter of wishful thinking for many years now, will become reality in the near future. The fusion of the various media is both the catalyst and, at the same time, the first visible sign of this evolution. The development of user-friendly people-to-machine interfaces and new services, together with the possibility to 'have a look' back home and intervene from there at any time and from any location, will also foster the interconnection of white goods and the intelligent control of other building equipment and services. The impact of this development on energy demand are wide-ranging and could take on considerable dimensions. Inside the house, the induced increase in energy demand is probably far more significant than the quantity of energy saved by more efficient control. It is estimated that electricity demand in the private households sector will increase by a maximum of 1.3% per annum over the next two decades. Even if this Internet-induced increase should only be half as fast, the interconnection of equipment and services would still be the most important driver of electricity demand in the household sector. The most promising measure to slow down this increase consists in minimising the electricity consumption of components and equipment in standby and off modes, We recommend an internationally co-ordinated procedure supported by national information and education campaigns. (author)

  4. Energy demand analysis in the household, commercial and agriculture sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapillonne, B.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter of the publication is dealing with Energy Demand Analysis in the Household, Commercial and Agricultural Sector. Per Capita total energy consumption in the residential and commercial sector is given and variation among countries are discussed. 12 figs, 1 tab

  5. Turkey's net energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol; Oezkaymak, Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to develop the equations for forecasting net energy consumption (NEC) using an artificial neural-network (ANN) technique in order to determine the future level of energy consumption in Turkey. In this study, two different models were used in order to train the neural network. In one of them, population, gross generation, installed capacity and years are used in the input layer of the network (Model 1). Other energy sources are used in input layer of network (Model 2). The net energy consumption is in the output layer for two models. Data from 1975 to 2003 are used for the training. Three years (1981, 1994 and 2003) are used only as test data to confirm this method. The statistical coefficients of multiple determinations (R 2 -value) for training data are equal to 0.99944 and 0.99913 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. Similarly, R 2 values for testing data are equal to 0.997386 and 0.999558 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. According to the results, the net energy consumption using the ANN technique has been predicted with acceptable accuracy. Apart from reducing the whole time required, with the ANN approach, it is possible to find solutions that make energy applications more viable and thus more attractive to potential users. It is also expected that this study will be helpful in developing highly applicable energy policies

  6. Energy end use statistics and estimations in the Polish household sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilecki, R.

    1997-01-01

    The energy statistics in Poland was in the past concentrated on energy production and industrial consumption, but little information was available on the households energy consumption. This data unavailability was an important barrier for the various analyses and forecasting of the energy balance developments. In the recent years some successful attempts were made to acquire a wider and more reliable picture of household energy consumption. The households surveys were made and some existing data were analyzed and verified. The better and more detailed picture of households energy use was in this way constructed. The breakdown of energy consumption by end-use categories (space heating, water heating, cooking, electrical appliances) was quite reliably estimated. Important international cooperation and guidance was used in the course of Polish households energy consumption research. (author). 6 refs

  7. Energy end use statistics and estimations in the Polish household sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilecki, R [Energy Information Centre, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-09-01

    The energy statistics in Poland was in the past concentrated on energy production and industrial consumption, but little information was available on the households energy consumption. This data unavailability was an important barrier for the various analyses and forecasting of the energy balance developments. In the recent years some successful attempts were made to acquire a wider and more reliable picture of household energy consumption. The households surveys were made and some existing data were analyzed and verified. The better and more detailed picture of households energy use was in this way constructed. The breakdown of energy consumption by end-use categories (space heating, water heating, cooking, electrical appliances) was quite reliably estimated. Important international cooperation and guidance was used in the course of Polish households energy consumption research. (author). 6 refs.

  8. Household energy and climate mitigation policies: Investigating energy practices in the housing sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffrin, André; Reibling, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    One central aim of climate change mitigation in the European Union is to reduce energy consumption in the housing sector. In order to ensure effectiveness of policies targeting household energy conservation, it is important to investigate existing energy practices of different social groups. This article describes and explains energy practices in three leading states in environmental politics, technological innovation, and support for renewable energy production: Denmark, Austria, and the United Kingdom. Based on a longitudinal analysis of housing utility costs from the European Community Statistics on Income and Living Conditions we show that income plays a central role in households' energy practices. While high-income households have higher overall energy consumption, low-income groups spend a larger share of their income on utility costs. The variation of energy consumption across income groups is related to household characteristics, characteristics of the dwellings, and cross-national differences in the housing sector. - Highlights: • We explain energy practices in Denmark, Austria, and the United Kingdom. • We show that income plays a central role in households’ energy practices. • High-income households have higher overall energy consumption. • Low-income groups spend a larger share of their income on utility costs. • Consumption depends on the household, dwelling and the housing sector

  9. Three Essays Examining Household Energy Demand and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Anthony G.

    This dissertation consists of three essays examining household energy decisions and behavior. The first essay examines the adoption of energy efficient Energy Star home appliances by U.S. households. Program effectiveness requires that consumers be aware of the labeling scheme and also change their purchase decisions based on label information. The first essay examines the factors associated with consumer awareness of the Energy Star label of recently purchased major appliances and the factors associated with the choice of Energy Star labeled appliances. The findings suggest that eliminating identified gaps in Energy Star appliance adoption would result in house electricity cost savings of $164 million per year and associated carbon emission reductions of about 1.1 million metric tons per year. The second essay evaluates household energy security and the effectiveness of the Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP), the single largest energy assistance program available to poor households within the United States. Energy security is conceptually akin to the well-known concept of food security. Rasch models and household responses to energy security questions in the 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey are used to generate an energy insecurity index that is consistent with those found in the food insecurity literature. Participating in LIHEAP is found to significantly reduce household energy insecurity score in the index. Further, simulations show that the elimination of the energy assistance safety net currently available to households increases the number of energy insecure house- holds by over 16 percent. The third essay develops a five equation demand system to estimate household own-price, cross-price and income elasticities between electricity, natural gas, food at home, food away from home, and non-durable commodity groups. Household cross-price elasticities between energy and food commodities are of particular importance. Energy price shocks

  10. The relationship among energy prices and energy consumption in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Chaoqing; Liu, Sifeng; Wu, Junlong

    2010-01-01

    The pricing mechanism for energy is not in line with the international standards, because the energy prices are controlled by the government partly or completely in China. Chinese government made a lot of efforts to improve the pricing mechanism for energy. The relations between Chinese energy prices and energy consumption are the foundations to reform the mechanism. In this paper, the relations between Chinese energy consumption and energy prices are researched by cointegration equations, impulse response functions, granger causality and variance decomposition. The cointegration relations among energy prices, energy consumption and economic outputs show that higher energy price will decrease energy consumption in Chinese industrial sectors but will not reduce the economic output in the long run. The cointegration relation between energy price and household energy consumption shows that higher energy price will decrease household energy consumption in the long run and increase it in the short run. So Chinese government should deepen the reform of pricing mechanism for energy, and increase the energy prices reasonably to save energy. (author)

  11. Understanding change and continuity in residential energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    of material consumer goods in practice theory. Case studies on household energy consumption are used as an empirical basis for these discussions. Looking at household energy consumption through the theoretical lens of practice theory necessitates discussion on whether energy consumption should be viewed......Practice theory has recently emerged within consumer studies as a promising approach that shifts focus from the individual consumer towards the collective aspects of consumption and from spectacular and conspicuous dimensions of consumption towards routine and mundane aspects of consumption...

  12. Survey of household energy use (SHEU) : summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-12-15

    A survey was conducted to gather information on energy use and the factors affecting energy use in households residing in houses and residential buildings with fewer than 5 storeys. Dwelling characteristics, usage of appliances, and energy efficiency and consumption data were collected. An overview of the main findings were presented in this summary and included details of thermal envelopes; residential heating, air-conditioning and ventilation; household appliances; hot water; lighting; and Energy Star systems and appliances. The survey covered over 11 million households in all 10 Canadian provinces. Data were collected through computer-assisted personal interviews with owners, renters, landlords and property managers. It was observed that the average heated area of a Canadian dwelling was 1321 square feet, and that dwellings constructed after 1979 were larger and more energy efficient than previous dwellings. The majority of households located west of Quebec used natural gas, whereas the majority of Quebec households used electricity. Households in the Atlantic region used both electricity and oil. Penetration rates for high efficiency furnaces using natural gas, propane or oil furnaces was 62 per cent among dwellings built between 1990-2003. It was noted that more basements, attics, crawlspaces and garages are now being insulated. An increasing number of households use both a main and a secondary refrigerator. Nearly 25 per cent of households used 3 or more televisions. The use of central and window/room air-conditioners has increased, with Ontario households accounting for more than 60 per cent of all air-conditioning systems. Nearly 25 per cent of light bulbs were energy-efficient bulbs. It was also observed that Energy Star products have had a high penetration since the inception of the Energy Star initiative. However, a significant number of households were not aware if their products were Energy Star qualified. tabs., figs.

  13. The millennium development goals and household energy requirements in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibitoye, Francis I

    2013-01-01

    Access to clean and affordable energy is critical for the realization of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals, or MDGs. In many developing countries, a large proportion of household energy requirements is met by use of non-commercial fuels such as wood, animal dung, crop residues, etc., and the associated health and environmental hazards of these are well documented. In this work, a scenario analysis of energy requirements in Nigeria's households is carried out to compare estimates between 2005 and 2020 under a reference scenario, with estimates under the assumption that Nigeria will meet the millennium goals. Requirements for energy under the MDG scenario are measured by the impacts on energy use, of a reduction by half, in 2015, (a) the number of household without access to electricity for basic services, (b) the number of households without access to modern energy carriers for cooking, and (c) the number of families living in one-room households in Nigeria's overcrowded urban slums. For these to be achieved, household electricity consumption would increase by about 41% over the study period, while the use of modern fuels would more than double. This migration to the use of modern fuels for cooking results in a reduction in the overall fuelwood consumption, from 5 GJ/capita in 2005, to 2.9 GJ/capita in 2015.

  14. The role of household composition in egg consumption in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the role of household composition in egg consumption in Obafemi Awolowo University Community. An Ordinary Least Square regression model was used to obtain at-home demand function parameter estimates for egg. Positive and significant relationship was found between quantity of eggs ...

  15. Biomass consumption for energetic purpose in the household sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerardi, V.; Perrella, G.

    1999-01-01

    The report shows the results of a sampling survey performed to determine the biomass consumption for energetic purpose in the household sector. In particular, the methodology and sampling plan adopted to get a result with an error, at national level, of ±2.4%. are illustrated. Data are described and discusses [it

  16. The egg consumption of the average household in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prencipe, Vincenza; Rizzi, Valentina; Giovannini, Armando; Migliorati, Giacomo

    2010-01-01

    A survey was conducted over a one-year period by means of telephone interviews with 7 991 Italian households to establish the domestic consumption of eggs, the distribution by source of supply, seasonal variations and storage and preparation methods used. Eggs are mainly purchased from large retailers (53%), followed by small retailers (25.2%), direct purchase from producers (16%), and local or itinerant markets (5.8%). It was found that 69.9% of households buy packaged eggs; 92% of households store them in the refrigerator, although this percentage varies considerably, according to the type of presentation (packaged or loose) and the number of eggs bought. Italian households mainly eat eggs cooked (48.9%), followed by partly cooked (35.0%) and raw (16.1%).

  17. The egg consumption of the average household in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Migliorati

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted over a one-year period by means of telephone interviews with 7 991 Italian households to establish the domestic consumption of eggs, the distribution by source of supply, seasonal variations and storage and preparation methods used. Eggs are mainly purchased from large retailers (53%, followed by small retailers (25.2%, direct purchase from producers (16%, and local or itinerant markets (5.8%. It was found that 69.9% of households buy packaged eggs; 92% of households store them in the refrigerator, although this percentage varies considerably, according to the type of presentation (packaged or loose and the number of eggs bought. Italian households mainly eat eggs cooked (48.9%, followed by partly cooked (35.0% and raw (16.1%.

  18. Energy catastrophes and energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, G.

    1991-01-01

    The possibility of energy catastrophes in the production of energy serves to make estimation of the true social costs of energy production difficult. As a result, there is a distinct possibility that the private marginal cost curve of energy producers lies to the left or right of the true cost curve. If so, social welfare will not be maximized, and underconsumption or overconsumption of fuels will exist. The occurrence of energy catastrophes and observance of the market reaction to these occurrences indicates that overconsumption of energy has been the case in the past. Postulations as to market reactions to further energy catastrophes lead to the presumption that energy consumption levels remain above those that are socially optimal

  19. Household Behavior with Respect to Meat Consumption: Differences between Households with and without Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, Merlino Valentina; Danielle, Borra; Tibor, Verduna; Stefano, Massaglia

    2017-10-31

    Meat consumers around the world are increasingly paying attention to product quality and safety, and are starting to reduce their meat consumption, especially with regard to red meat. This trend is prevalent in households with children who prefer health-certified meat products. Our study compares meat consumption habits in households with and without children or adolescences (0-18 years). A structured questionnaire was distributed to 401 retail purchasers at 12 different points of sales of meat in the Piedmont region in northwest Italy. Socio-demographic variables and quantitative-qualitative meat consumption habits of retail purchasers were investigated. One part of the questionnaire analyzed the relative importance of 12 meat choice purchasing attributes by employing the Best-Worst scaling methodology, a type of choice experiment. Our research found that households without children (subset B) have higher weekly meat consumption habits than those with children (subset A). Alternatively, the households with children (subset A) have a diet characterized by a greater variety of protein sources, such as legumes and fish. Both of the considered subsets preferred trusted butchers for meat buying, with supermarkets as a second choice. However, only consumers of subset A bought meat from farm butchers. Our team performed a consumer analysis to identify meat consumption patterns in the two considered subsets. Simultaneously, a Best-Worst analysis evidenced several choice attributes with different relevance for the two investigated samples segmentation in three clusters of purchase.

  20. Household Behavior with Respect to Meat Consumption: Differences between Households with and without Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlino Valentina Maria

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Meat consumers around the world are increasingly paying attention to product quality and safety, and are starting to reduce their meat consumption, especially with regard to red meat. This trend is prevalent in households with children who prefer health-certified meat products. Our study compares meat consumption habits in households with and without children or adolescences (0–18 years. A structured questionnaire was distributed to 401 retail purchasers at 12 different points of sales of meat in the Piedmont region in northwest Italy. Socio-demographic variables and quantitative-qualitative meat consumption habits of retail purchasers were investigated. One part of the questionnaire analyzed the relative importance of 12 meat choice purchasing attributes by employing the Best-Worst scaling methodology, a type of choice experiment. Our research found that households without children (subset B have higher weekly meat consumption habits than those with children (subset A. Alternatively, the households with children (subset A have a diet characterized by a greater variety of protein sources, such as legumes and fish. Both of the considered subsets preferred trusted butchers for meat buying, with supermarkets as a second choice. However, only consumers of subset A bought meat from farm butchers. Our team performed a consumer analysis to identify meat consumption patterns in the two considered subsets. Simultaneously, a Best-Worst analysis evidenced several choice attributes with different relevance for the two investigated samples segmentation in three clusters of purchase.

  1. Regional final energy consumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report comments the differences observed between the French regions and also between these regions and national data in terms of final energy consumption per inhabitant, per GDP unit, and per sector (housing and office building, transport, industry, agriculture). It also comments the evolutions during the last decades, identifies the most recent trends

  2. The energy requirement of holidays and household reduction options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Berg, M.; Vringer, K.

    1999-12-01

    Like all consumer products and services, holidays require energy. The aim of this study is to give insight to the energy consumption for holidays of Dutch households and to suggest options to reduce this energy demand. To examine the energy consumption for holidays, nine holiday packages are composed, each representing a large group of Dutch vacationers. The packages describe the destination, means of transport, duration, accommodation and number of vacationers. The average energy requirement for the accommodation and transport for long summer holidays is 12.5 GJ per Dutch household, excluding the energy requirement for food and activities. About 10% of the Dutch households, the ones that travel by plane to their holiday destination, consume 70% of the total amount of energy all households require for holiday purposes. This is mainly due to the distance travelled, rather than to the chosen means of transport. If the travelled distances will be reduced by 50% and all nights are spent in a tent, the average household energy requirement would be 6.1 GJ, a reduction of more than 50%. 36 refs

  3. Development of German energy consumption: A deterministic study of energy-relevant customer groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumert, M.

    1994-01-01

    A detailed study of the characteristic features of group-specific energy consumption was conducted (identification of the factors determining energy consumption of the productive sector, private households and private mobility demand). The question of who shall determine energy consumption in the future is analysed. This question is answered in a demand-specific study of consumption patterns and -effects. (orig./UA) [de

  4. Investigation of Factors Affecting Fuel Consumption of Rural Households in Central District of Zahedan County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sharifzadeh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Domestic fuel forms a significant part of the total energy demand and providing adequate and sustainable fuel is considered as a pivotal foundation for development. This survey study aims at investigating domestic fuel consumption patterns of rural areas in central district of Zahedan County, Eastern Iran. The sample was consisted of 250 household heads resided in rural areas with more than 25 households. The validity of questionnaire was confirmed by a panel of experts and its reliability was measured by using a pilot study. Findings revealed that, only 43 percent (n=102 household revealed an efficient energy use behavior. The efficient energy consumers were significantly different with respect to their education level, age, income, and the other household characteristics. Results from the structural equation modeling which was used to confirm adequacy of the reasoned action model of fuel consumption behavior, showed that 0.24 percent of fuel consumption behavior was determined by attitude, intention and subjective norms towards fuel consumption. The paper presented applied suggestions regarding fuel consumption with special consideration on health and ecosystem and indoor sanitation issues.

  5. Household energy studies: the gap between theory and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosbie, T.

    2006-09-15

    At the level of theory it is now widely accepted that energy consumption patterns are a complex technical and socio-cultural phenomenon and to understand this phenomenon, it must be viewed from both engineering and social science perspectives. However, the methodological approaches taken in household energy studies lag behind the theoretical advances made in the last ten or fifteen years. The quantitative research methods traditionally used within the fields of building science, economics, and psychology continue to dominate household energy studies, while the qualitative ethnographic approaches to examining social and cultural phenomena traditionally used within anthropology and sociology are most frequently overlooked. This paper offers a critical review of the research methods used in household energy studies which illustrates the scope and limitations of both qualitative and quantitative research methods in this area of study. In doing so it demonstrates that qualitative research methods are essential to designing effective energy efficiency interventions. [Author].

  6. Household energy demand. Empirical studies concerning Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dargay, J; Lundin, A

    1978-06-01

    This paper investigates the effects of energy policy on households in Sweden and provides the material necessary for evaluation of current and proposed energy-conservation measures. Emphasis is placed on the impact of enery taxation or price changes on household demand for electricity, heating oil, and gasoline and the consequences of such measures for income distribution. The results of the Swedish studies of household demand for heating oil and gasoline indicate that price changes can have a considerable long run impact on fuel utilization. In the short run, price responsiveness is notably reduced, but it is nevertheless of consequence for energy demand.

  7. A Meta Model for Domestic Energy Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.,J SREEKANTH

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of energy consumption particularly in micro level is of vital importance in terms of energy planning and also implementation of any Clean Development Mechanism (CDM activities that has become the order of the world today. It may be difficult to model household energy consumption using conventional methods such as time series forecasting due to many influencing factors. This paper presents a step wise regression model for forecasting domestic energy consumption based on micro level household survey data collected from Kerala, a state in southern part of India. The analysis of the data reveals significant influence of socio-economic, demographic, geographic, and family attributes upon total household energy requirements. While a wide variation in the pattern of energy requirements across the domestic sector belonging to different expenditure classes, per capita income level can be identified as the most important explanatory variable influencing variation in energy requirements. The models developed also demonstrates the influence of per capita land area, residential area among the higher income group while average age and literacy forms significant variables among the lower income group.

  8. Household lifestyle, energy related practices and perceptions of energy efficiency: Evidence from Kitwe, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilias Makashini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa is noted for not only constant power shortages but also poor access to electricity. In Zambia, for example, 75% of the population does not have access to electricity. This is partly because although Zambia has one of the lowest energy tariffs in Southern Africa, when compared with household monthly income, the resource is still reasonably unaffordable. Therefore, there is need to find innovative ways of reducing energy cost. Recent studies have indicated that there are patterns that show that there is a relationship between households' lifestyles and energy consumption. This means that understanding household lifestyles and how that impacts on energy use would be crucial in helping occupants to change their behaviours. This would result in the minimisation of energy consumption and thus a reduction in energy bills. However, there is a dearth of scholarly literature about households' lifestyles and their impacts on energy consumption in most developing countries including Zambia. This study investigates the perceptions of different lifestyles on household energy consumption and knowledge about energy efficiency in the city of Kitwe, the second largest city in Zambia. Motivation and barriers to energy efficiency have also been investigated. To achieve this, a mixed research approach was adopted. Firstly, a quantitative closed structured questionnaire instrument was used to collect data from 59 households in Kitwe. Secondly, mini-focus group discussions (average size of 5 ― brought about by the curiosity of residents and hence the contribution as families per household ― were undertaken in the informal settlement. The major findings are that households are generally motivated to implement energy saving strategies like covering pots when cooking, switching off lights in rooms that are not in use and that more information is needed as lack of knowledge and ‘landlord control' were identified as some of the barriers to energy

  9. Households' ICT use in an energy perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2008-01-01

    The starting point for this paper is the lack of linkage between two of the prominent social agendas of the time – the development of the information society and the question of how to prevent man-made climate change. The paper is intended as a contribution to integrate the two agendas by conside......The starting point for this paper is the lack of linkage between two of the prominent social agendas of the time – the development of the information society and the question of how to prevent man-made climate change. The paper is intended as a contribution to integrate the two agendas...... by considering ICT in an energy perspective. In particular, the paper focuses on the integration of ICT in households and the energy impacts related to changing everyday practices. As this has not received much attention in previous research, the paper has an explorative character. Firstly, the paper reviews...... some of the previous studies on ICT and energy and the consumption perspective is introduced. Secondly, the integration of ICT in everyday practices and the dynamics behind the changes are outlined, inspired by a historical perspective. Thirdly, a figure of the relationships between changing everyday...

  10. Energy consumption: Past, present, future

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The energy consumption history of the United States and the changes which could occur in consumption characteristics in the next 50 years are presented. The various sources of energy are analyzed to show the limitations involved in development and utilization as a function of time available. Several scenarios were prepared to show the consumption and supply of energy under varying conditions.

  11. Modelling household responses to energy efficiency interventions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-11-01

    Nov 1, 2010 ... to interventions aimed at reducing energy consumption (specifically the use of .... 4 A system dynamics model of electricity consumption ...... to base comparisons on overly detailed quantitative predictions of behaviour.

  12. Energy consumption declined in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    On presenting the energy consumption figures for 1993 the Minister for Economic Affairs of Baden-Wuerttemberg Dieter Spoeri (SPD) spoke of the eternal task of saving energy. In his view the slight decline in energy consumption from 1992 to 1993 should not be interpreted as a greater willingness to save energy; its main cause is rather to be seen in the course of the economy. According to estimations, total energy consumption fell 0.5% and electricity consumption 1.0% from 1992 to 1993. The economy on the other hand, still a decisive factor in energy consumption, is estimated to have declined 3% during that period. In the ten years from 1983 to 1993 total energy consumption in the Land rose an average annual 1.8% while electricity consumption kept astride with the economy with an average annual rise 2.7%, he said. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Effect of energy taxes on energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsen, T.A.

    1991-01-01

    The energy consumption and taxation in Norway is described in addition to some of the consequences of this taxation on the energy market. Modelling of energy demand is dealt with. It is concluded that the influence of energy taxation on energy consumption is dependent on market conditions for individual energy products. This thesis is elaborated. (AB)

  14. ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND REAL GDP IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Naji Meidani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most important production factors and one of the most urgent final products, energy has a special position in the growth and development of the country. This paper examines the causal relationship between Real GDP and energy consumption in various economic sectors including (household and commercial, industry, transportation and agriculture sectors for Iran during 1967–2010 using the time series technique known as the Toda-Yamamoto method. Moreover, an error correction model is also estimated so that the results of these two methods are compared. We found a strong unidirectional causality from energy consumption in industry sector to real gross domestic product. Energy consumption in industry sector can observably promote the development of economy.

  15. Feedback and household energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauser, G A; Kendall, K W; Filiatrault, P

    1979-06-01

    The literature is reviewed relevant to the use of (a) information campaigns through the mass media; and (b) immediate feedback about the results of consumer behavior, to influence consumer energy use. The study focuses on residential energy use. (MHR)

  16. Household energy isn't all stoves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy S.

    1998-01-01

    When people talk about 'household energy', most people automatically think of stoves. A lot of attention has been paid to improving stoves to make them more energy efficient and to reduce their pollution. This is one side of the 'stoves' approach, whilst others look at the 'supply' side of the

  17. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the US economy. These estimates are based on data from the 1991 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). This survey--administered by the Energy End Use and Integrated Statistics Division, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Energy Information Administration (EIA)--is the most comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries.

  18. Evaluating Sustainability of Household Consumption Using DEA to Assess Environmental Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Line Block; Jensen, Trine Susanne; Wier, Mette

    2005-01-01

    We assess environmental performance across product types and across household types in order to evaluate environmental pressure from human activities. To so do, we combine family budget statistics, input-output tables, energy and material flow matrices, various types of emissions and environmenta...... friendly consumption pattern. Middle income families living in houses have the least environmentally friendly consumer basket, and these families constitute a high share of all families in Denmark....

  19. Energy consumption and conservation, evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.

    2006-04-01

    The energy consumption is increasing of more than 1% each year. It is necessary to slow down this growth and much better to inverse it. Observing the main consumption posts, energy saving is possible at short dated for the residential sector and medium and long dated for the transports and the industry. Anyway the individual behaviors are essential. The author presents the situation for each posts, providing data on the energy consumption and saving and recommendations. (A.L.B.)

  20. Making energy visible: A qualitative field study of how householders interact with feedback from smart energy monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargreaves, Tom; Nye, Michael; Burgess, Jacquelin

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores how UK householders interacted with feedback on their domestic energy consumption in a field trial of real-time displays or smart energy monitors. After examining relevant bodies of literature on the effects of energy feedback on consumption behaviour, and on the complex role of energy and appliances within household moral economies, the paper draws on qualitative evidence from interviews with 15 UK householders trialling smart energy monitors of differing levels of sophistication. It focuses specifically on householder motivations for acquiring the monitors, how the monitors have been used, how feedback has changed consumption behaviour, and the limitations to further behavioural change the householders experienced. The paper concludes by identifying significant implications for future research and policy in this area.

  1. Exploring variance in residential electricity consumption: Household features and building properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartusch, Cajsa; Odlare, Monica; Wallin, Fredrik; Wester, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Statistical analysis of variance are of considerable value in identifying key indicators for policy update. ► Variance in residential electricity use is partly explained by household features. ► Variance in residential electricity use is partly explained by building properties. ► Household behavior has a profound impact on individual electricity use. -- Abstract: Improved means of controlling electricity consumption plays an important part in boosting energy efficiency in the Swedish power market. Developing policy instruments to that end requires more in-depth statistics on electricity use in the residential sector, among other things. The aim of the study has accordingly been to assess the extent of variance in annual electricity consumption in single-family homes as well as to estimate the impact of household features and building properties in this respect using independent samples t-tests and one-way as well as univariate independent samples analyses of variance. Statistically significant variances associated with geographic area, heating system, number of family members, family composition, year of construction, electric water heater and electric underfloor heating have been established. The overall result of the analyses is nevertheless that variance in residential electricity consumption cannot be fully explained by independent variables related to household and building characteristics alone. As for the methodological approach, the results further suggest that methods for statistical analysis of variance are of considerable value in indentifying key indicators for policy update and development.

  2. Rural wood consumption patterns of local and immigrant households with differentiated access to resources in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, Charlotte Filt; Bruun, Thilde Bech; Schmidt-Vogt, Dietrich; He, Jun; Neergaard, Andreas de

    2015-01-01

    In Xishuangbanna, China, rubber production has spread rapidly, resulting in extensive land use changes and an increasing influx of migrant workers who have come to find work on the plantations. These migrant workers have limited access to subsidies and the local collective forest due to the household registration system in China called hukou. To assess how these policy-based restrictions on access affect wood consumption and local communities, a case study was conducted in Manlin village, Xishuangbanna, undertaking a household and weight survey with local and immigrant households. The results show no significant difference in firewood consumption between the subpopulations, despite predominantly more local than immigrant households have access to subsidised alternative energy sources. On the other hand, limited access to the collective forest is found to influence the choice of housing materials and living standards in immigrant households as they cannot access timber or afford brick houses. This paper highlights rural issues connected to the hukou system and suggests that rural energy and resource policies should take the growing population of immigrant workers into consideration in future to expand the reach of the polices to the de facto and not only de jure rural population and thus optimise policy efficiency. - Highlights: • The hukou system directly affects rural wood access and consumption. • Immigrant households have little or no access to timber. • Registration status does not have a significant effect on firewood consumption. • Excluding immigrant households will limit policy outreach and efficiency

  3. Realizing potential savings of energy and emissions from efficient household appliances in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, Kirit S.; Parikh, Jyoti K.

    2016-01-01

    The paper projects households' stock of four major electricity consuming appliances till 2030 and explores policy options to accelerate adoption of more energy efficient appliances. India's rapid economic growth has enabled the growing middle class to buy household appliances in increasing numbers. The consequent rise in energy consumption and GHG emissions can be significantly reduced if consumers are motivated by awareness and options in the market to buy energy efficient appliances. India has introduced a star rating scheme for appliances, and even without incentives consumers purchase star-rated appliances. The stock of household appliances is projected using the data of a national sample survey of household consumption, observed sale of star-rated appliances and projected consumption distribution. Estimated savings in households' electricity consumption from just four appliances, ACs, refrigerators, TVs, and ceiling fans, for which data were available, range from 52 bKwh to 145 bkwh in 2030, reductions of 10–27%. The corresponding reduction in CO_2 emissions will be between 42 Mt and 116 Mt in 2030. With policies of finance and bulk procurement to reduce costs, emissions reduction can be 128 Mt in 2030, a reduction of 30%. - Highlights: • Estimates the stock of selected household appliances with 20 classes of rural and urban households in the years 2030 in India. • Assesses the economics of energy efficient appliances. • Estimates spread of selected energy efficient appliances. • Assesses savings in energy consumption and CO_2 emissions in four alternative scenarios. • Suggests policies to promote energy efficient appliances.

  4. Contribution of crude oil price to households' budget: The weight of indirect energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasparian, Jerome

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new method to evaluate the burden of oil price on any set of goods and services, and apply it to French households. This method takes into account the contribution of indirect energy consumption, which constitutes typically one half of the energy used by a typical French household. It yields an average burden of 4.4% in 2006, with a higher relative burden for households with lower income, older members and rural dwelling

  5. Food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns: a study of low and middle income urban households in Delhi, India

    OpenAIRE

    MR Pradhan; FC Taylor; S Agrawal; D Prabhakaran; S Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Background: Food habits and choices in India are shifting due to many factors: changing food markets, fast urbanization, food price inflation, uncertain food production and unequal distribution during the past decade. This study aims to explore food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns in urban low and middle income (LMI) households in Delhi. Methods: Twenty households were randomly selected from the Center for Cardio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS) surveillance...

  6. Food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns: a study of low and middle income urban households in Delhi, India

    OpenAIRE

    MR Pradhan .; F C Taylor; S Agrawal; D Prabhakaran; S Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Background: Food habits and choices in India are shifting due to many factors: changing food markets, fast urbanization, food price inflation, uncertain food production and unequal distribution during the past decade. This study aims to explore food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns in urban low and middle income (LMI) households in Delhi. Methods: Twenty households were randomly selected from the Center for Cardio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS) surveillance...

  7. Cost-benefit analysis: introducing energy efficient and renewable energy appliances in Lebanese households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruble, Isabella [American University of Beirut, Department of Economics (Lebanon)], E-mail: economics.ir@gmail.com

    2011-07-01

    In Lebanon, neglect of the electricity sector has led to a serious shortage in installed capacity. Recently, the government of Lebanon declared its intention to raise the share of renewable energy (RE) year by year in order to reduce energy consumption. This paper gave a cost-benefit analysis and reviewed the replacement of five major traditional household appliances with their energy efficient (EE) or renewable energy counterparts. This initiative would mostly be felt in three main areas: electricity consumption, consumer costs, and government expenditure. There is a strong possibility that the electricity demand of the 1.2 million Lebanese households can be reduced by introduction of these EE household appliances. Benefits would also accrue to the government in the form of avoided subsidies and reduced need for installed capacity. This paper finds that the benefits to be expected from these policy recommendations largely outweigh the costs.

  8. Analysis on Energy Consumption and Indoor Environment in Kunming, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianchi Hu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study are to investigate and analyze the actual conditions of the urban residential energy consumption, and hence to ascertain what will be the important factors that influence the annual energy consumption in Kunming, which has a mild climate. The questionnaire surveys reveal building characteristics, housing appliances, household characteristics, indoor thermal environment and aspects of life style, during winter and summer seasons. The questionnaire analyses show that only 5% of the investigated households have air conditioning, and 12% have heating appliances. Most households use solar energy as a water heater energy source because the sunshine hours in Kunming are long. The energy consumption analyses show that the average annual energy consumption of households in Kunming reached 12.2 GJ, and cooking accounted for 5.3 GJ, which is the largest part. Most of the time in summer, the outdoor temperature is lower than living room and bedroom temperatures; thus, natural ventilation is a useful cooling method for households in Kunming. The absolute humidity in summer is about 11 g/kg, while in winter it is about 5 g/kg. The influence factor analyses show that building construction year, water heater type and annual income are important influential factors on annual energy consumption.

  9. Householder behaviour and domestic energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawshaw, A J.E.

    1984-01-01

    A review of research which points to the importance of behaviour in energy consumption is presented. The literature or ways of controlling energy consumption by behavioural means is reviewed. This thesis investigates the idea that consumption could be reduced through an understanding of people's beliefs. A variety of methodologies was used to this end. As a result of the studies, many suboptimal strategies based on erroneous beliefs came to light. The research has not only enabled practical recommendations to be made for immediate implementation but has also demonstrated the fruitfulness of investigating consumers' understanding of their heating systems as a means of promoting the efficient use of energy.

  10. Understanding the spectrum of domestic energy consumption: Empirical evidence from France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belaïd, Fateh

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on residential energy consumption in France. Using a bottom-up statistical approach, this analysis explores determinants of household energy consumption using data from the most recent National Housing Survey. The primary objective is to tease out the impacts of various factors on the domestic energy consumption spectrum across different population groups. The aim of this approach is to neutralize conventional factors affecting energy consumption (age of house, total area, etc.) to finely analyze the impact of other determinants including those relating to household characteristics and other control variables. First, we define homogeneous consumption groups of households by using multivariate statistical techniques, namely the Multiple Correspondence Analysis and Ascending Hierarchical Classification. Second, we use standard OLS regression to explore the effects of various factors on domestic energy consumption among homogeneous groups of households. This multivariate analysis exercise has led us to identify four main consumption typologies. Results revealed that energy prices were the most important factors determining domestic energy consumption. In addition, this study showed that occupant characteristics significantly affect domestic energy use. Results of this research call for combine all efforts, multiple strategies and smart policies, to incorporate household and consumption behaviors in managing domestic energy consumption. - Highlights: •Survey data of 36,000 occupiers from France is analyzed. •Bottom-up statistical approach is used to analyze domestic energy consumption. •Occupant characteristics significantly affect domestic energy use. •The impact of households attributes varies markedly across consumption groups.

  11. The Impact of Tobacco Consumption on Rural Household Expenditure and Self-rated Health Among Rural Household Members in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changle; Supakankunti, Siripen

    2018-03-26

    To estimate how tobacco consumption affects household expenditure on other goods and services in rural China and to assess the tobacco consumption affects self-rated health among rural household members in China. A Seemingly Unrelated Regression was used to assess the impact of tobacco consumption on rural household expenditure. To detect tobacco consumption causing heterogeneity in self-rated health among adults in rural China, this study employed a random effects generalized ordered probit model. 2010-2014 China Family Panel Studies was used for the analysis. The data set included 3,611 households and 10,610 adults in each wave. Tobacco consumption households assign significantly lower budget shares to food, health care, dress, and education in rural China. Moreover, self-rated health factor has a significantly positive coefficient with respect to non-smokers and ex-smokers, that is, when the individuals is a non-smoker or ex-smoker, he/ she will be more likely to report his/her health status as positive. The first analysis showed that tobacco consumption crowds out expenditures on food, dress, health care, and education for rural households in China, and the second analysis indicated that non-smokers and ex-smokers are more likely to report their health status as better compared with last year. The results of the present study revealed that Chinese policymakers might consider controlling tobacco consumption since tobacco control can improve not only rural household welfare but also rural household members' health status. Therefore, the tobacco tax policy and brief clinical interventions by the doctor should be implemented in rural China.

  12. Energy conservation through smart homes in a smart city: A lesson for Singapore households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhati, Abhishek; Hansen, Michael; Chan, Ching Man

    2017-01-01

    Energy saving is a hot topic due to the proliferation of climate changes and energy challenges globally. However, people's perception about using smart technology for energy saving is still in the concept stage. This means that people talk about environmental awareness readily, yet in reality, they accept to pay the given energy bill. Due to the availability of electricity and its integral role, modulating consumers’ attitudes towards energy savings can be a challenge. Notably, the gap in today's smart technology design in smart homes is the understanding of consumers’ behaviour and the integration of this understanding into the smart technology. As part of the Paris Climate change agreement (2015), it is paramount for Singapore to introduce smart technologies targeted to reduce energy consumption. This paper focused on the perception of Singapore households on smart technology and its usage to save energy. Areas of current research include: (1) energy consumption in Singapore households, (2) public programs and policies in energy savings, (3) use of technology in energy savings, and (4) household perception of energy savings in smart homes. Furthermore, three case studies are reviewed in relation to smart homes and smart technology, while discussing the maturity of existing solutions. - Highlights: • Analyse perception of Singapore households about the usage of smart technology to save energy. • Reviews energy consumption, public policies and household perception of energy savings. • Three case studies were developed and reviewed in relation to smart homes and smart technology. • Analyse research gap of household behaviours and perceptions as smart home design focus.

  13. Energy consumption assessment methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, K S

    1975-01-01

    The why, what, and how-to aspects of energy audits for industrial plants, and the application of energy accounting methods to a chemical plant in order to assess energy conservation possibilities are discussed. (LCL)

  14. Distribution Loss Reduction by Household Consumption Coordination in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juelsgaard, Morten; Andersen, Palle; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2014-01-01

    for coordinating consumption of electrical energy within the community, with the purpose of reducing grid loading and active power losses. For this we present a simplified model of the electrical grid, including system losses and capacity constraints. Coordination is performed in a distributed fashion, where each...... are obeyed. These objectives are enforced by coordinating consumers through a nonlinear penalty on power consumption. We present simulation test-cases, illustrating that significant reduction of active losses, can be obtained by such coordination. The distributed optimization algorithm employs...

  15. Reassessing the 'energy ladder': Household energy use in Maun, Botswana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiemstra-van der Horst, Greg; Hovorka, Alice J.

    2008-01-01

    In the context of Sub-Saharan Africa's rapid urbanization, improved insight into urban energy use is increasingly important. Based on the predictions of 'energy transition' theory, a regional shift from biomass to 'modern' fuels has long been expected to occur in tandem with urban growth. However, trends observed in the region's towns and cities have often not followed such patterns and fuelwood continues to be important in most areas. This paper examines the practical relevance of transition theory using a recent case study, conducted by the authors in Maun, Botswana, and results previously reported in the literature. It finds that, despite the long-term link between socio-economic development and increased modern fuel consumption at the national scale, the notion of 'transition' does not accurately reflect ongoing energy-use patterns at lower levels of aggregation. This is chiefly because its model of household fuel switching largely dismisses the importance of active (and strategic) decision making by urban consumers and their responsiveness to structural factors such as relative fuel prices. As the Botswana case illustrates, this weakness can significantly distort expectations and policies around urban fuelwood use

  16. FOOD ACQUISITION AND INTRA-HOUSEHOLD CONSUMPTION PATTERNS: A STUDY OF LOW AND MIDDLE INCOME URBAN HOUSEHOLDS IN DELHI, INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Mr; Taylor, Fc; Agrawal, S; Prabhakaran, D; Ebrahim, S

    2013-12-01

    Food habits and choices in India are shifting due to many factors: changing food markets, fast urbanization, food price inflation, uncertain food production and unequal distribution during the past decade. This study aims to explore food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns in urban low and middle income (LMI) households in Delhi. Twenty households were randomly selected from the Center for Cardio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS) surveillance study. Data were derived from 20 questionnaires administered to women responsible for food preparation, four key-informant-interviews, and 20 in-depth interviews with household heads during September-November 2011. STATA and ATLAS.ti software were used for data analysis. Half of the households spent at least two-thirds of their income on food. The major expenditures were on vegetables (22% of total food expenditure), milk and milk products (16%), and cereal and related products (15%). Income, food prices, food preferences, and seasonal variation influenced food expenditure. Adults usually ate two to three times a day while children ate more frequently. Eating sequence was based on the work pattern within the household and cultural beliefs. Contrary to previous evidence, there was no gender bias in intra-household food distribution. Women considered food acquisition, preparation and distribution part of their self-worth and played a major role in food related issues in the household. Women's key roles in food acquisition, preparation and intra household food consumption should be considered in formulating food policies and programs.

  17. Estimating energy conservation patterns of Greek households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardianou, Eleni

    2007-01-01

    This paper develops an empirical model to investigate the main determinants of household energy conservation patterns in Greece employing cross-section data. In the empirical analysis, household energy-conserving choices models are employed, using a discrete and a latent trait variable respectively as a dependent variable. The results show that socio-economic variables such as consumers' income and family size are suitable to explain differences towards energy conservation preferences. In addition, the results suggest that electricity expenditures and age of the respondent are negatively associated with the number of energy-conserving actions that a consumer is willing to adopt. Finally, other variables such as environmental information feedback and consciousness of energy problems are characteristics of the energy-saver consumer. By evaluating consumer's decision-making process with regards to energy conservation measures, we are able to formulate and propose an effective energy conservation framework for Greece. An energy policy framework is among the main prerequisites not only to achieve sustainable development but also to maintain consumers' quality of life

  18. 1999 world energy consumption (ENERDATA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Here is given a compilation of detailed statistical tables on various aspects of world energy production and consumption over the years 1994 to 1999. The present tables indicate the production, trade and consumption of crude oil, liquefied natural gas, oil products, natural gas, coal, lignite, electric power; the energy balance for the year 1999; the total energy consumption in European Union, Western Europe, North America, Japan and Pacific, CIS and Central Europe, Latin America, Asia, Middle East and Africa for the years 1994 to 1999. The CO 2 emissions for these countries are also given. These data are an extraction of the energy statistics yearbook, ENERDATA, June 2000. They are commented by Mr J.M. Martin. According to ENERDATA, the 1999 world energy consumption stagnates. (O.M.)

  19. Energy consumption and technological developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okorokov, V.R.

    1990-02-01

    The paper determines an outline of the world energy prospects based on principal trends of the development of energy consumption analysed over the long past period. According to the author's conclusion the development of energy systems will be determined in the nearest future (30 - 40 years) by contemporary energy technologies based on the exploitation of traditional energy resources but in the far future technologies based on the exploitation of thermonuclear and solar energy will play the decisive role. (author)

  20. Towards sustainable household energy use in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, J; Moll, H.C.

    2001-01-01

    Households consume direct energy, using natural gas, heating oil, gasoline and electricity, and consume indirect energy, the energy related to the production of goods and the delivery of services for the households. Past trends and present-day household energy use (direct and indirect) are analysed

  1. Elasticity of energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stam, M.

    2004-01-01

    Insight is given into the price elasticities of several energy carriers. Next, attention is paid to the impact of the discussion on changes of the Regulating Energy Levy (REB, abbreviated in Dutch) in the Netherlands [nl

  2. Online-based energy auditing and incentive mechanisms to reduce domestic energy consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Lossin, Felix; Staake, Thorsten; Fleisch, Elgar

    2014-01-01

    Domestic energy consumption accounts for about 20-30% of total energy use in western countries [1], [2]. On the level of single households, however, energy consumption tends to vary greatly. This is particularly due to differences regarding behavior and decisions made by individuals. For example, heating and ventilation behavior, the intensity of the use of electrical appliances and hot water, as well as home insulation and weatherization provisions affect total energy consumption. Therefore,...

  3. Household appliances using solar energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, H.

    2000-01-01

    Many solar energy technologies are now sufficiently developed to make it possible to use these to replace some of our conventional energy sources, but still need improvement and reduction in cost. It is, therefore, necessary to focus attention on household uses of solar energy. This paper describes the recent developments and current position in respect of several such devices, which include; solar cooker, with curved concentrator, Panel Cooker, Solar Dryer, solar water heater, Solar Still, Solar Water Pump, Solar Water Disinfection, Solar space Heating and greenhouse solar Reflectors, Development and Extension activities on these should be taken up at various levels. (author)

  4. An analysis of the welfare and distributive implications of factors influencing household electricity consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero-Jordán, Desiderio; Río, Pablo del; Peñasco, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The deep economic crisis and the sharp rise in electricity prices have reduced electricity demand by Spanish households. This paper aims to analyse the responsiveness of household electricity demand and the welfare effects related to both factors in the 2006–2012 period by applying a demand model estimated with the quantile regression method. The results show that the electricity consumption of medium-high income households is particularly responsive to price increases, whereas that of medium-low income households is more responsive to changes in income. The retail electricity price increases and the economic crisis have led to lower and steeper U-shape price elasticities of demand and higher and steeper N-shape income elasticities of demand. The joint impact of those two factors on the welfare of lower-income households is higher in relative terms (i.e., as a share of household income) than for other income groups. These results suggest that the economic crisis and increases in retail electricity prices have had detrimental welfare effects, especially on the lower-income segment of the population. They should be considered when financing climate and energy policies through the electricity bill and provide a rationale to take such support, which pushes the retail electricity price upwards, out of the electricity bill. - Highlights: • Impact of the economic crisis and higher electricity prices on electricity demand. • Analysis of the welfare effects. • Lower and steeper U-shape price elasticities of demand. • Higher and steeper N-shape income elasticities of demand. • Welfare of lower-income households more negatively affected.

  5. Energy consumption trends in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galinis, A.; Miskinis, V.

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes some problems related to integration into EU, current state of the Lithuania economy and energy sector and changes in energy consumption during transition period. It provides and analysis of the main indicators of energy consumption, such as the ratio of primary energy consumption to Gross Domestic Product (GDP), primary and final energy intensity and others based on estimates of Purchasing Power Parity. The paper also discusses problems arising at evaluation of economical and energy indices for the countries in transition and compares them with those existing in other countries of Central and Eastern Europe and in Western countries. It shows uneven tendencies of energy intensity occurring under transitions in Lithuania and other Baltic States. (author)

  6. Energy consumption trends in Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, Abidin; Yalcintas, Melek

    2010-01-01

    This study begins with a review of energy consumption by end-use sector in Hawaii. Then, the energy generated from renewable energy sources is analyzed between 1991 and 2006. The results show that while geothermal is a considerable source of renewable energy on the Island of Hawaii (also known as Big Island), fossil fuel is the main energy source in the State of Hawaii. The energy intensity index for the State of Hawaii is then calculated by dividing energy consumption per capita by the income per capita. The calculated energy intensity index reveals that energy consumption is directly controlled by per capita income. The results also indicate that the energy intensity index increases over time despite positive developments in energy efficient technologies. In the second part of the paper, the effect of the tourism industry on energy usage in the State of Hawaii is analyzed. The results show that tourism volume, measured in terms of tourist arrival numbers, does not change the energy consumption directly. However, a change in tourism volume does affect per capita income within a few months to a year. In the last part of the study, the energy efficiency index of Hawaii is compared with consumption averages for the US, California and the most energy efficient country in Europe, Denmark. The comparison shows that Hawaii lags behind California and Denmark in terms of energy efficiency. The comparison also shows that an increase in energy efficiency corresponds to an increase in per capita income across the board, which is in agreement with a recent report published by the American Physical Society.

  7. Energy Consumption Management in Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jaap

    1997-01-01

    A survey of the basic issues in low power design is presented, including techniques for the analysis of energy consumption in the early design phase of analog and digital circuits. The concept of energy complexity will be introduced in conjunction with techniques for parameterized energy management.

  8. The industrial energy consumption in 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    The Danish industrial energy consumption in 1999 is presented in tables. The tables include: the development in the energy consumption, the amount of employees in each of the main branches, fuel consumption, the fuel and energy consumption in 1999 based on each group of branches and energy category, the energy consumption in 1997 for each group of branches and the percentage distribution on energy category, and the fuel and energy consumption of motor vehicles in 1999 based on each group of branches. (SM)

  9. Household level domestic fuel consumption and forest resource in relation to agroforestry adoption: Evidence against need-based approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sood, Kamal Kishor [Division of Agroforestry, Shere-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu Main Campus-Chatha, Jammu (J and K) 180 009 (India); Mitchell, C. Paul [Institute of Energy Technologies, Fraser Noble Building, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    The need-based approach (assuming that higher consumption of tree products would motivate farmers to adopt agroforestry) has led to uneven success, in many cases failure, of many agroforestry projects. Current study investigated the association between fuelwood and forest resource use, and agroforestry adoption based on a survey of 401 households in the Indian Western Himalaya. Data on household domestic fuel utilisation and forest resource use were collected using a questionnaire in personal interviews. Agroforestry adoption increased significantly with increase in distance of nearest State forest from the house, distance travelled to collect fuelwood, and consumption of cattle dung, crop residues, charcoal, kerosene and liquid petroleum gas as domestic fuels by the household. Agroforestry adoption was also significantly higher in households with non-forest than those with State forests as primary source of fuelwood and timber. The proportion of adopters decreased significantly with increase in quantity of fuelwood used for domestic consumption, frequency of collection from State forests, total domestic energy consumption, fuelwood dependency, timber consumption and availability of timber through rights of households on State forests. Logistic regression analysis revealed that none of the factors related to need (quantity of fuelwood and timber used) appeared in the model but primary source of fuelwood, distance travelled to collect fuelwood and availability of timber through rights on the State forests appeared as important factors. This implies that need of the tree products is not a necessary condition to motivate farmers to adopt agroforestry, rather, it is accessibility of tree products which influence agroforestry adoption. (author)

  10. Electricity's "Disappearing Act": Understanding Energy Consumption and Phantom Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusk, Bryan; Mahfouz, Tarek; Jones, James

    2011-01-01

    Energy exists in many forms and can be converted from one form to another. However, this conversion is not 100% efficient, and energy is lost in the form of heat during conversion. In addition, approximately 6% of the monthly consumption of the average American household's electricity is neither lost nor used by its residents. These losses are…

  11. Energy consumption performance analysis of electrical mitad at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Injera baking electrical mitad is the most energy-consuming device in every household in Ethiopia. This research presents a detail engineering study on the energy-consumption performance of existing electrical mitad in Mekelle city. The research work considered thirty-one electrical mitad from different workshops in ...

  12. Price sensitivity of residential energy consumption in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesbakken, R.

    1999-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to test the stability of the results of a model which focus on the relationship between the choice of heating equipment and the residential energy consumption. The results for the income and energy price variables are of special interest. Stability in the time dimension is tested by applying the model on micro data for each of the years 1993-1995. The parameter estimates are stable within a 95% confidence interval. However, the estimated impact of the energy price variable on energy consumption was considerably weaker in 1994 than in 1993 and 1995. The results for two different income groups in the pooled data set are also subject to stability testing. The energy price sensitivity in residential energy consumption is found to be higher for high-income households than for low-income households. 19 refs

  13. Understanding energy consumption: Beyond technology and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhite, H.; Shove, E.

    1998-07-01

    This paper summarizes two years of efforts among a cross-disciplinary group of senior researchers to bring social and cultural perspectives to modeling of household energy consumption. The work has been organized by the Center for Energy Studies of the University of Geneva. The researchers represent both the physical and social sciences, several institutions and a number of countries. The initiative was based on an acknowledgement of the failure of technical and economic models to explain consumption or more importantly, how consumption patterns change. Technical and economic models most often either ignore social and cultural issues or reduce them to parameters of other variables. An important objective for the Geneva Group has been to engage modelers and social scientists in a dialogue which brings social and cultural context to the fore. The process reveals interesting insights into the frictions of cross-disciplinary interaction and the emergence of new perspectives. Various classical modeling approaches have been discussed and rejected. Gradually, a framework has emerged which says something about the appropriate institutions and actors which contribute to consumption patterns; about how they are related; and finally about how the interinstitutional relationships and the consumption patterns themselves change. A key point of convergence is that a complete understanding of energy end-use will not be possible from an analysis directed at the point of end use alone. The analysis must incorporate what happens inside institutions like manufacturers, retailers, and public policy organizations as well as how those organizations interact with consumers, including media and advertising. Progress towards a better understanding of energy consumption requires a greater engagement of social scientists with these heretofore little explored actors an relationships.

  14. Associations between children's television advertising exposure and their food consumption patterns: a household diary-survey study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.; Schuurman, J.; Bomhof, E.

    2008-01-01

    In a diary-survey study in 234 households with children aged 4-12 years, we investigated the associations between children's exposure to food advertising and their consumption of (a) advertised food brands, (b) advertised energy-dense food product categories, and (c) food products overall. Relations

  15. Associations between children's television advertising exposure and their food consumption patterns: A household diary-survey study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.A.; Schuurman, J.; Bomhof, E.

    2008-01-01

    In a diary–survey study in 234 households with children aged 4–12 years, we investigated the associations between children's exposure to food advertising and their consumption of (a) advertised food brands, (b) advertised energy-dense food product categories, and (c) food products overall. Relations

  16. Energy sustainability: consumption, efficiency, and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the critical challenges in achieving sustainability is finding a way to meet the energy consumption needs of a growing population in the face of increasing economic prosperity and finite resources. According to ecological footprint computations, the global resource consumption began exceeding planetary supply in 1977 and by 2030, global energy demand, population, and gross domestic product are projected to greatly increase over 1977 levels. With the aim of finding sustainable energy solutions, we present a simple yet rigorous procedure for assessing and counterbalancing the relationship between energy demand, environmental impact, population, GDP, and energy efficiency. Our analyses indicated that infeasible increases in energy efficiency (over 100 %) would be required by 2030 to return to 1977 environmental impact levels and annual reductions (2 and 3 %) in energy demand resulted in physical, yet impractical requirements; hence, a combination of policy and technology approaches is needed to tackle this critical challenge. This work emphasizes the difficulty in moving toward energy sustainability and helps to frame possible solutions useful for policy and management. Based on projected energy consumption, environmental impact, human population, gross domestic product (GDP), and energy efficiency, for this study, we explore the increase in energy-use efficiency and the decrease in energy use intensity required to achieve sustainable environmental impact le

  17. Rural household biomass fuel production and consumption in Ethiopia: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekonnen, A. [Addis Ababa Univ. (Ethiopia). Dept. of Economics and Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden)

    1999-04-01

    Over 90 percent of energy consumption in Ethiopia comes from biomass fuels and this pattern is a major cause of land degradation and deforestation in the country. This paper examines biomass fuel collection and consumption behaviour of a sample of rural households in Ethiopia. We use a non-separable agricultural household model to take into account imperfections in, or absence of, markets for fuel and labour used in collection. The method of instrumental variables (2SLS) is used in the estimation of demand functions to take care of endogeneity of virtual (shadow) fuel prices and wages. Negative own-price elasticities indicate advantages of forest policies that can reduce fuel collection time and make more time available for other activities. The results also suggest that fuel choice and mix are influenced by scarcity which indicate a possibility of policy interventions directed at reducing the relative price of wood and encouraging increased dung use as fertilizer and hence reduced land degradation. While income elasticities of demand give indications of increasing viability of such interventions with growth, the absence of evidence of substitutability and the effects of household resource endowment indicate the importance of cooking habits and culture 36 refs, 3 tabs

  18. Conceptualizing urban household energy use: Climbing the 'Energy Services Ladder'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2011-01-01

    This article begins by defining energy services and identifying how they differ according to sector, urban and rural areas, and direct and indirect uses. It then investigates household energy services divided into three classes: lower income, middle income, and upper income. It finds that the primary energy technologies involved with low-income households involve a greater number of fuels and carriers, ranging from dung and fuelwood to liquefied petroleum gas and charcoal, but a fewer number of services. Middle-income households throughout the world tend to rely on electricity and natural gas, followed by coal, liquefied petroleum gas, and kerosene. These homes utilize energy to produce a much broader range services. The upper class or rich have access to the same energy fuels, carriers, and technologies as middle-income homes and families, but consume more energy (and more high luxury items). The study highlights how focusing on energy services reorients the direction of energy policy interventions, that energy services are neither uniform nor innate, and by noting exciting areas of potential research. - Research highlights: → The primary energy technologies involved with low-income households involve a greater number of fuels and carriers, ranging from dung and fuelwood to liquefied petroleum gas and charcoal, but a fewer number of services. → Middle-income households throughout the world tend to rely on electricity and natural gas, followed by coal, liquefied petroleum gas, and kerosene. These homes utilize energy to produce a much broader range services. → The upper class or rich have access to the same energy fuels, carriers, and technologies as middle-income homes and families, but consume more energy (and more high luxury items).

  19. Greenhouse energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric van Steenis

    2009-01-01

    Depending on location and luck, natural gas rates have gone from less that CAN$ 3.00 to more than CAN$ 20.00/gigajoule (Gj). Natural gas rates are currently around CAN$ 13.00/Gj, although industry "analysts" predict an increase. A gigajoule is equivalent to the energy released by the combustion of approximately 30 L (8 gal) of gasoline. It is also equivalent...

  20. Measuring household consumption and waste in unmetered, intermittent piped water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, Emily; Woelfle-Erskine, Cleo; Ray, Isha; Nelson, Kara L.

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of household water consumption are extremely difficult in intermittent water supply (IWS) regimes in low- and middle-income countries, where water is delivered for short durations, taps are shared, metering is limited, and household storage infrastructure varies widely. Nonetheless, consumption estimates are necessary for utilities to improve water delivery. We estimated household water use in Hubli-Dharwad, India, with a mixed-methods approach combining (limited) metered data, storage container inventories, and structured observations. We developed a typology of household water access according to infrastructure conditions based on the presence of an overhead storage tank and a shared tap. For households with overhead tanks, container measurements and metered data produced statistically similar consumption volumes; for households without overhead tanks, stored volumes underestimated consumption because of significant water use directly from the tap during delivery periods. Households that shared taps consumed much less water than those that did not. We used our water use calculations to estimate waste at the household level and in the distribution system. Very few households used 135 L/person/d, the Government of India design standard for urban systems. Most wasted little water even when unmetered, however, unaccounted-for water in the neighborhood distribution systems was around 50%. Thus, conservation efforts should target loss reduction in the network rather than at households.

  1. Global risks from energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Hippel, F.

    1983-01-01

    A discussion of some of the global risks associated with current and frequently proposed future levels of consumption of energy from oil, coal, fission, fusion, and renewable sources points out the the dangers are serious and relatively near term. These include world war over Persian Gulf oil, climate change due to the buildup of atmospheric carbon dioxide, the accelerated proliferation of nuclear weapons, and competition between food and energy for land and water. The author urges placing a greater emphasis on how we use energy and how to reduce energy waste. At the levels of consumption which economically justified levels of energy efficiency could bring about, enough flexibility could develop in our choice of a future energy-supply mix to dramatically reduce the associated global risks. 47 references, 3 figures

  2. GHG reduction potential of changes in consumption patterns and higher quality levels: Evidence from Swiss household consumption survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girod, Bastien, E-mail: bastien.girod@env.ethz.c [ETH Zurich, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Natural and Social Science Interface, Universitaetstrasse 22, CHN J72.1, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Haan, Peter de [ETH Zurich, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Natural and Social Science Interface, Universitaetstrasse 22, CHN J72.1, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2009-12-15

    An effective consumer-oriented climate policy requires knowing the GHG reduction potential of sustainable consumption. The aim of this study is to draw lessons from differences in consumption between households with high and low GHG emissions. We evaluate a survey of 14,500 households and use a method that allows measuring changes in price level of consumption. Comparing the 10% of households with the highest GHG emissions per capita with the lowest 10% - controlling for differences in expenditure level and household structure - we find a range 5-17 tons of CO{sub 2}-equivalent per capita and year. The observed differences stem mainly from heating, electricity use, car use, and travel by aircraft. Consumption patterns with low GHG emissions are characterized by less spending on mobility, but more on leisure and quality oriented consumption (leading to higher prices per unit). Further characteristics are: a higher share of organic food, low meat consumption and fewer detached single family houses. Our findings imply that a significant reduction in GHG emissions would be possible by adopting real-world consumption patterns observable in society. The twin challenge is to shift consumption towards more climate friendly patterns, and to prevent any trend towards high emitting consumption patterns.

  3. GHG reduction potential of changes in consumption patterns and higher quality levels. Evidence from Swiss household consumption survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girod, Bastien; De Haan, Peter [ETH Zurich, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Natural and Social Science Interface, Universitaetstrasse 22, CHN J72.1, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2009-12-15

    An effective consumer-oriented climate policy requires knowing the GHG reduction potential of sustainable consumption. The aim of this study is to draw lessons from differences in consumption between households with high and low GHG emissions. We evaluate a survey of 14,500 households and use a method that allows measuring changes in price level of consumption. Comparing the 10% of households with the highest GHG emissions per capita with the lowest 10% - controlling for differences in expenditure level and household structure - we find a range 5-17 tons of CO{sub 2}-equivalent per capita and year. The observed differences stem mainly from heating, electricity use, car use, and travel by aircraft. Consumption patterns with low GHG emissions are characterized by less spending on mobility, but more on leisure and quality oriented consumption (leading to higher prices per unit). Further characteristics are: a higher share of organic food, low meat consumption and fewer detached single family houses. Our findings imply that a significant reduction in GHG emissions would be possible by adopting real-world consumption patterns observable in society. The twin challenge is to shift consumption towards more climate friendly patterns, and to prevent any trend towards high emitting consumption patterns. (author)

  4. GHG reduction potential of changes in consumption patterns and higher quality levels: Evidence from Swiss household consumption survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girod, Bastien; Haan, Peter de

    2009-01-01

    An effective consumer-oriented climate policy requires knowing the GHG reduction potential of sustainable consumption. The aim of this study is to draw lessons from differences in consumption between households with high and low GHG emissions. We evaluate a survey of 14,500 households and use a method that allows measuring changes in price level of consumption. Comparing the 10% of households with the highest GHG emissions per capita with the lowest 10% - controlling for differences in expenditure level and household structure - we find a range 5-17 tons of CO 2 -equivalent per capita and year. The observed differences stem mainly from heating, electricity use, car use, and travel by aircraft. Consumption patterns with low GHG emissions are characterized by less spending on mobility, but more on leisure and quality oriented consumption (leading to higher prices per unit). Further characteristics are: a higher share of organic food, low meat consumption and fewer detached single family houses. Our findings imply that a significant reduction in GHG emissions would be possible by adopting real-world consumption patterns observable in society. The twin challenge is to shift consumption towards more climate friendly patterns, and to prevent any trend towards high emitting consumption patterns.

  5. Food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns: a study of low and middle income urban households in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Pradhan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food habits and choices in India are shifting due to many factors: changing food markets, fast urbanization, food price inflation, uncertain food production and unequal distribution during the past decade. This study aims to explore food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns in urban low and middle income (LMI households in Delhi. Methods: Twenty households were randomly selected from the Center for Cardio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS surveillance study. Data were derived from 20 questionnaires administered to women responsible for food preparation, four key-informant-interviews, and 20 in-depth interviews with household heads during September-November 2011. STATA and ATLAS.ti software were used for data analysis. Results: Half of the households spent at least two-thirds of their income on food. The major expenditures were on vegetables (22% of total food expenditure, milk and milk products (16%, and cereal and related products (15%. Income, food prices, food preferences, and seasonal variation influenced food expenditure. Adults usually ate two to three times a day while children ate more frequently. Eating sequence was based on the work pattern within the household and cultural beliefs. Contrary to previous evidence, there was no gender bias in intra-household food distribution. Women considered food acquisition, preparation and distribution part of their self-worth and played a major role in food related issues in the household. Conclusion: Women’s key roles in food acquisition, preparation and intra household food consumption should be considered in formulating food policies and programs. 

  6. Food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns: a study of low and middle income urban households in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Pradhan .

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food habits and choices in India are shifting due to many factors: changing food markets, fast urbanization, food price inflation, uncertain food production and unequal distribution during the past decade. This study aims to explore food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns in urban low and middle income (LMI households in Delhi. Methods: Twenty households were randomly selected from the Center for Cardio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS surveillance study. Data were derived from 20 questionnaires administered to women responsible for food preparation, four key-informant-interviews, and 20 in-depth interviews with household heads during September-November 2011. STATA and ATLAS.ti software were used for data analysis. Results: Half of the households spent at least two-thirds of their income on food. The major expenditures were on vegetables (22% of total food expenditure, milk and milk products (16%, and cereal and related products (15%. Income, food prices, food preferences, and seasonal variation influenced food expenditure. Adults usually ate two to three times a day while children ate more frequently. Eating sequence was based on the work pattern within the household and cultural beliefs. Contrary to previous evidence, there was no gender bias in intra-household food distribution. Women considered food acquisition, preparation and distribution part of their self-worth and played a major role in food related issues in the household. Conclusion: Women’s key roles in food acquisition, preparation and intra household food consumption should be considered in formulating food policies and programs.  

  7. Household debt and consumption during the financial crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Duus, Charlotte; Jensen, Thais Lærkholm

    2014-01-01

    We use data for nearly 800,000 Danish families to examine whether high household leverage prior to the financial crisis may have amplified the reduction in household spending over the course of the crisis. We find a strong negative correlation between pre-crisis leverage and the change in non...

  8. Long-term trends in direct and indirect household energy intensities: a factor in dematerialisation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vringer, K.; Blok, K.

    2000-01-01

    Dematerialisation is assumed to contribute significantly to the alleviation of environmental problems. One of the possible causes of dematerialisation is a change in the consumption patterns of households. The aim of this article is to analyse changes in consumption patterns of Dutch households in the period between 1948 to 1996 in order to discover whether these changes have influenced the energy intensity of society. Due to the rise in consumption, the total household energy requirement per capita grew on average by 2.4 per cent per year over a period of 48 years (this figure ignores efficiency changes in the supplying sectors). In the same period the total energy intensity of households fluctuated but on average changed from 5.6 to 6.3 MJ/NLG, an increase of 0.25 per cent per year. If we exclude the direct energy consumption we find a slight decline in the indirect energy intensity, namely from 3.8 to 3.6 MJ/NLG ( - 0.14 per cent per year). No significant trends to a lower energy intensity are found and there is no indication of dematerialisation of the consumption patterns. If governments pursue a policy of sustainable development they have to take into account the fact that dematerialisation of the consumption pattern does not seem to be an autonomous process. (author)

  9. Alcohol Consumption in Family Budgets: Effects of Purchasing Power and Households Demographic Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo García Arancibia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the problems associated with family alcohol consumption is the effect on household resource distribution, with a larger incidence in those households that are socially more vulnerable. This study examines the influence that household socioeconomic and demographic characteristics have on the share of alcoholic beverages in the household budget, using data from Santa Fe, Argentina for the period 2004-2005. Engel parametric curves are estimated using a sample selection model (Tobit type II. The sample is subdivided using the poverty line as the criterion. The results show that the most relevant characteristics differ depending on whether the household is poor or not. In non-poor households, variables such as the age of the household head, the share of women and the number of minors have a statistically significant effect on alcohol’s share of expenditures. In contrast, only characteristics related to purchasing power are relevant in poor households.

  10. Potentials for energy savings and long term energy demand of Croatian households sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pukšec, Tomislav; Vad Mathiesen, Brian; Duić, Neven

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Long term energy demand of Croatian households sector has been modelled. ► Developed model can describe the whole households sector. ► Main modes include heating, cooling, electrical appliances, cooking and hot water. ► Different scenarios regarding future energy demand are presented and discussed. -- Abstract: Households represent one of the most interesting sectors, when analyzing Croatia’s energy balance. It makes up one of the largest energy consumers with around 75 PJ per year, which is almost 29% of Croatia’s final energy demand. Considering this consumption, implementing various mechanisms, which would lead to improvements in energy efficiency of this sector, seems relevant. In order to plan future energy systems, important would be to know future possibilities and needs regarding energy demand of different sectors. Through this paper, long term energy demand projections of Croatian households sector will be shown. Focus of the paper will be on various mechanisms influencing future energy demand scenarios. Important would be to quantify this influence, whether positive or negative, and see which mechanisms would be the most significant. Energy demand projections in this paper are based upon bottom-up approach model which combines and processes a large number of input data. The model will be compared to Croatian National Energy Strategy and certain differences and conclusions will be presented. One of the major conclusions shown in this paper is significant possibilities for energy efficiency improvements and lower energy demand in the future, based on careful and rational energy planning. Different financial, legal and technological mechanisms can lead to significant savings in the households sector which leads to lower GHG emissions and lower Croatian dependence on foreign fossil fuels.

  11. The effect of feedback by SMS-text messages and email on household electricity consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gleerup, Maria; Larsen, Anders; Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of supplying feedback by text messages (SMS) and email about electricity consumption on the level of total household electricity consumption. An experiment was conducted in which 1,452 households were randomly allocated to three experimental groups and two control....... Results suggest that email and SMS messaging that communicated timely information about a household's 'exceptional' consumption periods (e.g. highest week of electricity use in past quarter) produced average reductions in total annual electricity use of about 3%. The feedback technology is cheap...

  12. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy based on data from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey. The sample used in this report represented about 250,000 of the largest manufacturing establishments which account for approximately 98 percent of U.S. economic output from manufacturing, and an expected similar proportion of manufacturing energy use. The amount of energy use was collected for all operations of each establishment surveyed. Highlights of the report include profiles for the four major energy-consuming industries (petroleum refining, chemical, paper, and primary metal industries), and an analysis of the effects of changes in the natural gas and electricity markets on the manufacturing sector. Seven appendices are included to provide detailed background information. 10 figs., 51 tabs.

  13. Households' dietary habits and food consumption patterns in Hamishkoreib locality, Kassala State, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima A. Khalid

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: The study revealed consumption of an unbalanced diet with insufficient proteins and micronutrients. There was excessive consumption of tea and coffee, which had a negative impact on food intake and absorption. The paper recommends launching a major nutrition program to encourage diversity of food consumption and to improve the capacity building of households.

  14. Seasonal fuel consumption, stoves, and end-uses in rural households of the far-western development region of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Nicholas L.; Upadhyay, Basudev; Maharjan, Shovana; Jagoe, Kirstie; Weyant, Cheryl L.; Thompson, Ryan; Uprety, Sital; Johnson, Michael A.; Bond, Tami C.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding how fuels and stoves are used to meet a diversity of household needs is an important step in addressing the factors leading to continued reliance on polluting devices, and thereby improving household energy programs. In Nepal and many other countries dependent on solid fuel, efforts to mitigate the impacts of residential solid fuel use have emphasized cooking while focusing less on other solid fuel dependent end-uses. We employed a four-season fuel assessment in a cohort of 110 households residing in two elevation regions of the Far-Western Development Region (Province 7) of Nepal. Household interviews and direct fuel weights were used to assess seasonality in fuel consumption and its association with stoves that met cooking and non-cooking needs. Per-capita fuel consumption in winter was twice that of other measured seasons, on average. This winter increase was attributed to greater prevalence of use and fuel consumption by supplemental stoves, not the main cooking stove. End-use profiles showed that fuel was used in supplemental stoves to meet the majority of non-meal needs in the home, notably water heating and preparation of animal food. This emphasis on fuels, stoves, and the satisfaction of energy needs—rather than just stoves or fuels—leads to a better understanding of the factors leading to device and fuel choice within households.

  15. Design and Implementation of PIR-Array to Reduce Power Consumption for Iraq's Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhal Yousif Nasser

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to design and implement a model using PIR-sensors for motion detection to reduce the electrical power for designing smart home requirements for Iraq households. Reducing energy consumption of home appliances plays an important role in modern designs of smart homes. The PIR (passive infrared sensor has been designed to detect human motion and has many applications especially in security fields. The main concept of the proposed work in this paper has focused on controlling the electrical devices (appliances, based on the location of a person movement inside the home. The design of the circuit control has also been designed to run specific devices located closed to person position in a room by designing PIR sensor array mounted in different angles. The proposed work has been compared with normal state by finding consumption in power (kWh and tariffs belong to MoE-Iraq.

  16. System Dynamics Modeling of Households' Electricity Consumption and Cost-Income Ratio: a Case Study of Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariss, Uldis; Bazbauers, Gatis; Blumberga, Andra; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2017-11-01

    Increased energy efficiency of the building sector is high on the list of priorities for energy policy since better energy efficiency would help to reduce impact on climate change and increase security of energy supply. One aim of the present study was to find a relative effect of growth of demand for energy services due to changes in income, energy consumption per unit of demand due to technological development, changes in electricity price and household income on household electricity consumption in Latvia. The method applied included system dynamics modeling and data from a household survey regarding the relationship between electricity saving activities and the electricity cost-income ratio. The results revealed that, in direct contrast to the expected, a potential reduction of the electricity consumption is rather insensitive to electricity price and electricity cost-income ratio, and that the efficiency of technologies could be the main drivers for future electricity savings. The results suggest that support to advancement of technologies and faster replacement of inefficient ones rather than influencing the energy price could be effective energy policy measures. The model, developed in the study could be used in similar assessments in other countries.

  17. Households' use of information and communication technologies - a future challenge for energy savings?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Haunstrup Christensen, Toke; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten (Danish Building Research Inst., Aalborg Univ., Aalborg (Denmark)). e-mail: joj@sbi.dk; Roepke, Inge (Dept. of Management Engineering, Aalborg Univ., Aalborg (Denmark))

    2009-07-01

    Increasing consumption of electricity due to a growing number of information and communication technology (ICT) appliances in households is a major challenge to reducing energy consumption. Several studies have predicted escalating ICT-related energy consumption, but relatively little has been said and done about possible initiatives to curb this increase. This paper presents results of a research project focusing on how dynamics of consumption influence household energy consumption on ICT. Results of the project include scenarios on how electricity consumption on ICT is expected to grow, suggesting that in a few years on average ICT will make up half of household electricity consumption. Recent initiatives from various actors to prevent this development are presented and discussed, and difficulties in regulating this area, as compared to other parts of household electricity consumption are highlighted. Through presentation and discussion of qualitative interviews with families having extensive ICT use in their everyday lives, the interviews illustrate how users domesticate and use technologies in many different ways. The interviews reveal a variety of practices and dynamics in different aspects of everyday life, including sport, shopping, entertainment and different hobbies. The growing electricity consumption related to ICT is thus as dependent on the consumers' use and domestication of the technologies as on the energy efficiency of the appliances. By analysing the interviews with the use of theories of domestication of technologies, it is argued that aspects such as consumers' creativity in technology use and their non-adaption are relevant aspects to include in policy and regulation discussions on how to limit the escalating electricity consumption from household ICT use.

  18. Energy engenderment: An industrialized perspective assessing the importance of engaging women in residential energy consumption management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elnakat, Afamia; Gomez, Juan D.

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses gender role and participation in energy utilization at the residential household level in an advanced industrial country setting. Two hundred and twenty one (221) standardized surveys of single-family residential households in San Antonio, Texas – the seventh largest city in the United States of America – are collected and used as a test case. The objective is to highlight the role of women in improving household energy efficiency. By coupling the behavioral and analytical sciences, studies such as this one provide better insight for the effective deployment of targeted energy efficiency programs that can benefit both households and municipalities while reducing impact on environmental resources. Study conclusions highlight 80% higher per capita consumption in female dominant households versus male dominant households (p=0.000) driven by approximately double the gas consumption in female-headed households (p=0.002), and 54% more electric usage (p=0.004). The higher use in female dominant homes is examined through the socio-demographic impacts of education, income, vintage of home occupied and size of home occupied. The theoretical framework and test case presented in this study promote the need for market segmented energy efficiency initiatives that better engage women in energy demand-side management in industrialized populated cities. -- Highlights: •Role of women in energy consumption is understudied in industrial settings. •There is a significant impact from women on energy consumption in test case. •Higher per capita, per square foot, and gas consumption are indicated for women. •Women’s intrinsic role at household level can allow for better energy efficiency

  19. Energy Policy and Long Term Energy Demand in Croatian Households Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puksec, T.; Duic, N.

    2011-01-01

    Households sector in Croatia represents one of the largest consumers of energy today with around 75,75PJ, which is almost 29% of Croatia's final energy demand. Considering this consumption, implementing different mechanisms that would lead to improvements in energy efficiency in this sector seems relevant. In order to plan future energy systems it is important to know future possibilities and needs regarding energy demand for different sectors. Through this paper long term energy demand projections for Croatian households sector will be shown with a special emphasis on different mechanisms, both financial, legal but also technological that will influence future energy demand scenarios. It is important to see how these mechanisms influence, positive or negative, on future energy demand and which mechanism would be most influential. Energy demand predictions in this paper are based upon bottom-up approach model which combines and process large number of input data. The Model will be compared to Croatian national Energy Strategy and certain difference will be presented. One of the major conclusions shown in this paper is significant possibilities for energy efficiency improvements and lower energy demand in the future, based on careful and rational energy planning. Different financial, legal and technological mechanisms can lead to significant savings in the households sector which also leads to lesser greenhouse gas emissions and lower Croatian dependence on foreign fossil fuels. (author)

  20. The industrial energy consumption in 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    The Danish industrial energy consumption in 2001 is presented in tables. The tables include: the development in the energy consumption, the amount of employees in each of the main branches, fuel consumption, the fuel and energy consumption in 2001 based on each group of branches and energy category, and the emission of CO 2 . (LN)

  1. Hypercoagulability after energy drink consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommerening, Matthew J; Cardenas, Jessica C; Radwan, Zayde A; Wade, Charles E; Holcomb, John B; Cotton, Bryan A

    2015-12-01

    Energy drink consumption in the United States has more than doubled over the last decade and has been implicated in cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, and even sudden cardiac death. We hypothesized that energy drink consumption may increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events by increasing platelet aggregation, thereby resulting in a relatively hypercoagulable state and increased risk of thrombosis. Thirty-two healthy volunteers aged 18-40 y were given 16 oz of bottled water or a standardized, sugar-free energy drink on two separate occasions, 1-wk apart. Beverages were consumed after an overnight fast over a 30-min period. Coagulation parameters and platelet function were measured before and 60 min after consumption using thrombelastography and impedance aggregometry. No statistically significant differences in coagulation were detected using kaolin or rapid thrombelastography. In addition, no differences in platelet aggregation were detected using ristocetin, collagen, thrombin receptor-activating peptide, or adenosine diphosphate-induced multiple impedance aggregometry. However, compared to water controls, energy drink consumption resulted in a significant increase in platelet aggregation via arachidonic acid-induced activation (area under the aggregation curve, 72.4 U versus 66.3 U; P = 0.018). Energy drinks are associated with increased platelet activity via arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation within 1 h of consumption. Although larger clinical studies are needed to further address the safety and health concerns of these drinks, the increased platelet response may provide a mechanism by which energy drinks increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The direct and indirect energy requirement of households in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinders, A.H.M.E.; Vringer, K.; Blok, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this article we evaluate the average energy requirement of households in 11 EU member states. By investigating both the direct (electricity, natural gas, gasoline, etc.) and the indirect energy requirement, i.e. the energy embodied in consumer goods and services, we add to research done on only the direct household energy requirement. Our analysis is mainly based on data of expenditures of households and the associated energy intensities of consumer goods. We found that differences between countries in the total energy requirement of households are mainly due to differences in total household expenditure. In particular, the indirect energy requirement is linearly related to the total household expenditure. The share of direct energy to the total energy requirement in different countries varies from 34% up to 64%. Differences in climate do not fully account for this variation. Corrected for total household expenditure, indirect energy requirement may vary significantly per country in the consumption classes 'food, beverages and tobacco', 'recreation and culture', 'housing', and 'hotels, cafes and restaurants'

  3. Household Consumption of Food-Away-From-Home: Total Expenditure and by Type of Food Facility

    OpenAIRE

    Vicki A. McCracken; Jon A. Brandt

    1987-01-01

    Consistent with prior expectations based on household production theory, household income, time value, size and composition, and the environment in which production and consumption occurred were all important determinants of total household expenditures on food-away-from-home. However, the importance of these factors varied by type of food facility: conventional restaurants, fast-food facilities, and other commercial establishments. Decomposition of the tobit elasticities indicated the differ...

  4. Modelling the impact of urban form on household energy demand and related CO2 emissions in the Greater Dublin Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaochen; Sweeney, John

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between household space heating energy use and urban form (land use characteristics) for the Greater Dublin Region. The geographical distributions of household energy use are evaluated at the Enumeration Districts (ED) level based on the building thermal balance model. Moreover, it estimates the impact of possible factors on the household space heating consumption. Results illustrate that the distribution profile of dwellings is a significant factor related to overall heating energy demand and individual dwelling energy consumption for space heating. Residents living in compact dwellings with small floor areas consume less energy for space heating than residents living in dwellings with big floor areas. Moreover, domestic heating energy demand per household was also estimated for two extreme urban development scenarios: the compact city scenario and the dispersed scenario. The results illustrate that the compact city scenario is likely to decrease the domestic heating energy consumption per household by 16.2% compared with the dispersed city scenario. Correspondingly, the energy-related CO 2 emissions could be significantly decreased by compact city scenario compared with the dispersed city scenario. - Highlights: ► A method was developed to investigate urban form impacts on energy demand. ► This study estimates impacts of possible factors on the household energy consumption. ► Household heating energy demand is sensitive to dwelling distribution profile. ► The compact case could reduce domestic energy demand compared with the dispersed case.

  5. Energy consumption by gender in some European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raety, R.; Carlsson-Kanyama, A.

    2010-01-01

    Household total energy use has been estimated in numerous studies in recent decades and differences have mainly been explained by levels of income/expenditure. Studies of gender consumption patterns show that men eat more meat than women and drive longer distances, potentially leading to higher total energy use by men. In this study we calculated the total energy use for male and female consumption patterns in four European countries (Germany, Norway, Greece and Sweden) by studying single households. Significant differences in total energy use were found in two countries, Greece and Sweden. The largest differences found between men and women were for travel and eating out, alcohol and tobacco, where men used much more energy than women. We suggest that these findings are policy relevant for the EU, which aims to mainstream gender issues into all activities and to lower its total energy use.

  6. Representing in-home and out-of-home energy consumption behavior in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Biying; Zhang Junyi; Fujiwara, Akimasa

    2011-01-01

    It is expected that in-home and out-of-home energy consumption behavior in a household might be correlated with each other, probably due to the existence of household budget constraints. Ownership and usage of energy-saving technologies for in-home appliances (or vehicles) might lead to the increase in out-of-home (or in-home) energy consumption. It is therefore necessary to jointly represent in-home and out-of-home energy consumption in the same modeling framework. With this consideration, we first build a new type of energy consumption model based on the Multiple Discrete-Continuous Extreme Value (MDCEV) modeling framework. Next, we conducted a questionnaire survey in Beijing in 2009 and successfully collected the information about households' energy consumption, ownership/usage of in-home appliances and vehicles, and households' and their members' attributes from 1014 households. Throughout an empirical analysis, it is confirmed that the MDCEV model is effective to simultaneously describe the in-home and out-of-home energy consumption behavior. In addition, it is revealed that a set of household and personal attributes affect the ownership and usage of in-home appliances and vehicles. Furthermore, it is shown that the unobserved factors play a much more important role in explaining energy consumption behavior than the observed attributes of households and their members. - Highlights: → Representing in-home and out-of-home energy consumption behavior jointly. → MDCEV model is built to describe household energy consumption behavior. → Log-linear competitive relationships are found among expenditures of end-uses. → Model results provide some insights about the influence of varied observed factors. → Unobserved factors are more important in explaining energy consumption behavior.

  7. Energy security issues at household level in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Garima

    2010-01-01

    Energy security at the household level implies ensuring assured and regular supply of clean energy fuels at an affordable price for various household activities. Threat to physical availability of clean energy fuels for cooking and lighting is determined through various indicators such as dependence on traditional fuels and limited access to clean fuels. Energy insecurity translates into various adverse social impacts. Financial threat to energy security is indicated by expenses incurred on energy fuels and affordability of clean fuels. Households spend a major portion of their income on acquiring energy fuels; however, due to high price of clean fuels, they continue to depend on traditional and inefficient fuels. There is an urgent need to address factors that pose a threat to energy security at the household level. In this regard, measures taken by the government agencies and other institutions are also reviewed. The paper also suggests the regulatory and policy interventions required to address the energy security issues at the household level.

  8. Reduction of electric power consumption in relation to household appliances. Elbesparelser ved husholdningsapparater; Forprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gydesen, A.

    1989-07-15

    Possibilities were investigated for the reduction of electric power consumption in relation to household appliances, and for cooperation with manufacturers in this respect. It is suggested that in the cases of washing-up machines, and washing and drying machines, hot water from the tap could be utilized. This would mean that the energy consumption would then shift to domestic heating equipment, dual-purpose power plants and district heating plants. Ovens, drying machines, washing machines and washing-up machines could use natural gas, especially in areas where this fuel could be conveyed to each household via pipes. Cooperation with manufacturers seems feasible, especially with regard to electric ovens, saucepans for use in combination with the latter, and water beds. Considering future developments, it is reasonable to expect that ultra sound will be utilized in connection with washing-up and washing machines, moreover it is likely that the use of enzymes in washing powders will mean that washing machines will be able to run on cold water. (AB) 21 refs.

  9. An overview of energy consumption of the globalized world economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.M.; Chen, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    For the globalized world economy with intensive international trade, an overview of energy consumption is presented by an embodied energy analysis to track both direct and indirect energy uses based on a systems input-output simulation. In 2004, the total amounts of energy embodied in household consumption, government consumption, and investment are 7749, 874, and 2009 Mtoe (million tons of oil equivalent), respectively. The United States is shown as the world's biggest embodied energy importer (683 Mtoe) and embodied energy surplus receiver (290 Mtoe), in contrast to China as the biggest exporter (662 Mtoe) and deficit receiver (274 Mtoe). Energy embodied in consumption per capita varies from 0.05 (Uganda) to 19.54 toe (Rest of North America). Based on a forecast for 2005-2035, China is to replace the United States as the world's leading embodied energy consumer in 2027, when its per capita energy consumption will be one quarter of that of the United States. - Highlights: → We present an overview of global energy profile in terms of embodied energy. → The US and China are top embodied energy consumers as well as traders in 2004. → Equality issue is studied by analyzing per capita embodied energy consumption. → The US remains to be the leading energy consumer until replaced by China in 2027.

  10. Opportunities and insights for reducing fossil fuel consumption by households and organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Paul C.; Janda, Kathryn B.; Brown, Marilyn A.; Steg, Linda; Vine, Edward L.; Lutzenhiser, Loren

    2016-05-01

    Realizing the ambitious commitments of the 2015 Paris Climate Conference (COP21) will require new ways of meeting human needs previously met by burning fossil fuels. Technological developments will be critical, but so will accelerated adoption of promising low-emission technologies and practices. National commitments will be more achievable if interventions take into account key psychological, social, cultural and organizational factors that influence energy choices, along with factors of an infrastructural, technical and economic nature. Broader engagement of social and behavioural science is needed to identify promising opportunities for reducing fossil fuel consumption. Here we discuss opportunities for change in households and organizations, primarily at short and intermediate timescales, and identify opportunities that have been underused in much of energy policy. Based on this survey, we suggest design principles for interventions by governments and other organizations, and identify areas of emphasis for future social science and interdisciplinary research.

  11. Motivating sustainable energy consumption in the home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, H.A.; Greenberg, S. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Computer Science

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed social motivations related to household energy conservation. The aim of the study was to explore how technology can be designed and used in the home to encourage sustainable energy use. The basic techniques used to motivate sustainable energy action included behaviour change techniques; information techniques; positive motivational techniques; and coercive motivational techniques. The psychological theories used in the study included cognitive dissonance as a means of reminding people of the inconsistency of their attitudes towards energy and their behaviour, and utility theory as a means of determining personal motivations for energy conservation. The study showed that people are more motivated to act when presented with personalized information and monetary losses as opposed to monetary gain. Social value orientation and self-reflection motivations were also considered. The study showed that pro-social orientation can be used in the form of ambient displays located in public areas of the home. Self-reflection can be encouraged by allowing family members to annotate visualizations containing a history of their energy consumption data. Results of the study will be used to design actual feedback visualizations of energy use. 18 refs.

  12. The industrial energy consumption in 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    The statistics present the industry's energy consumption and composition, and the development from 1973 to 2003. In this period the composition of the energy consumption has changed considerably: a decrease in the consumption of liquid fuels and an increase in the consumption of natural gas and electric power. The energy consumption in the Danish industry decreased with almost 9 % from 2001 to 2003. This relatively large decrease was mainly due to the closing down of a steel factory. In the wood industry the energy consumption decreased with 36 % from 2001 to 2003, while the energy consumption in the electronics industry increased. (ln)

  13. CO2 emissions from household consumption in India between 1993–94 and 2006–07: A decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Aparna; Paul, Saikat Kumar

    2014-01-01

    CO 2 emission from anthropogenic activities is one of the major causes of global warming. India being an agriculture dependent country, global warming would mean monsoon instability and consequent food scarcity, natural disasters and economic concerns. However with proper policy interventions, CO 2 emissions can be controlled. Input–output analysis has been used to estimate direct and indirect CO 2 emissions by households for 1993–94, 1998–99, 2003–04 and 2006–07. Complete decomposition analysis of the changes in CO 2 emissions between 1993–94 and 2006–07 has been done to identify the causes into pollution, energy intensity, structure, activity and population effects according to broad household consumption categories. Results indicate that activity, structure and population effects are the main causes of increase in CO 2 emission from household fuel consumption. To identify the causes at the sectoral level a second decomposition has been done for changes between 2003–04 and 2006–07 to identify the causes in the next stage. Finally alternative energy policy options have been examined for each consumption category to reduce emissions. Combined strategies of technology upgradation, fuel switching and market management in order to reduce CO 2 emissions for sectors like Batteries, Other non-electrical machinery, Construction and Electronic equipments (including Television), for which all the effects are positive, need to be adopted. - Highlights: • Household CO 2 emissions (direct and indirect) from 1993–94 to 2006–07 using IOTT. • Decomposition of changes between 1993–94 and 2006–07 for consumption categories. • Decomposition of changes in CO 2 emission from 2003–04 to 2006–07 at the sectoral level. • Monetary and physical resource saving under different energy policy options. • Energy policy guideline pertaining to the consumption categories at the sectoral level

  14. Economic energy distribution and consumption in a microgrid Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahersima, Fatemeh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    Energy management of a small scale electrical microgrid is investigated. The microgrid comprises residential houses with local renewable generation, consumption and storage units. The microgrid has the possibility of connection to the electricity grid as well to compensate energy decit of local...... power producers. The nal objective is to full the microgrid's energy demands mainly from the local electricity producers. The other objective is to manage power consumption such that the consumption cost is minimum for individual households. In this study, a hierarchical controller composed of three...... levels is proposed. Each layer from bottom to top focus on individual energy consuming units, individual buildings, and the microgrid respectively. At the middle layer, a model predictive controller is formulated to schedule the building's energy consumption using potential load exibilities. The top...

  15. Consumption patterns and intra-household roles in the production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-18

    Feb 18, 2009 ... cost of hiring tractors, high cost of fertilizers and other agro-chemicals and lack of finance. This study recommended the provision of institutional loans and credit facilities to encourage farmers to produce more soyabeans. .... households, while crops with mean scores of 2.5 or above were taken to be of high ...

  16. Hurdles for sport consumption? Determining factors of household sports expenditure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erik Thibaut; Steven Vos; Jeroen Scheerder

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the determining factors of household expenditures on sports participation. Due to a relatively large amount of zero-expenditures, simple regression methods are not suited. Because of methodological reasons, the two-step Heckman approach is used over the

  17. Household consumption, female employment and fertility decisions; A microeconometric analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalwij, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis is mainly concerned with a simultaneous analysis of the economic determinants of female employment and fertility decisions on a household level in the Netherlands. In particular, this thesis is interested in the role of the employment decisions of women in the observed behavior that

  18. Keeping energy visible? Exploring how householders interact with feedback from smart energy monitors in the longer term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargreaves, Tom; Nye, Michael; Burgess, Jacquelin

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on how, over a 12-month period, UK householders interacted with feedback on their domestic electricity consumption in a field trial of real time displays or smart energy monitors. Drawing on the findings of 11 follow-up qualitative interviews with householders involved in a ‘Visible Energy Trial’, the paper suggests that: (i) over time, smart energy monitors gradually become ‘backgrounded’ within normal household routines and practices; (ii) the monitors do increase householders’ knowledge of and confidence about the amount of electricity they consume; (iii) but, beyond a certain level and for a wide variety of reasons, the monitors do not necessarily encourage or motivate householders to reduce their levels of consumption; and (iv) once equipped with new knowledge and expertise about their levels of electricity consumption, household practices may become harder to change as householders realise the limits to their energy saving potential and become frustrated by the absence of wider policy and market support. The paper concludes by reflecting on the policy and research implications of these findings in relation to future transition pathways to a low-carbon economy. - Highlights: ► We interviewed 11 householders who had used a smart energy monitor for 12 months. ► The monitors did help interviewees learn about their energy use. ► Over time, the monitors became ‘backgrounded’ within normal household routines. ► After early behaviour changes, the monitors did not motivate further energy saving. ► The monitors may ‘harden’ energy use patterns in the absence of wider support.

  19. Differential effects of negative publicity on beef consumption according to household characteristics in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Hyungho; Lim, Byung In; Jin, Hyun Joung

    2012-07-01

    This paper examines how South Korean households responded to an unprecedented boycott campaign against US beef from spring to summer of 2008, and investigates differential responses in relation to households' characteristics. It was found that beef consumption reduced by 4.8% immediately after the so-called candle-light demonstration. Instead, pork and chicken consumption increased by 17.2% and 16.6%, respectively. This confirms a substitution effect due to the negative publicity concerning US beef. It was also found that the negative publicity effect was transitory and the reactions of consumers were not uniform; they differed depending on their socio-economic characteristics. The econometric model revealed that younger, less-educated, and/or lower-income households were more susceptible to the negative publicity, and reduced their beef consumption more than other households. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The determinants of household energy demand in rural Beijing: Can environmentally friendly technologies be effective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingchao; Kotani, Koji

    2012-01-01

    With the recent rapid economic growth, total energy demand in rural China has increased dramatically, and the energy structure is in the transition from non-commercial to commercial sources. Simultaneously, it is expected that households in rural areas will face energy shortages and additional environmental problems unless they have more access to renewable energy technologies. However, little is known about (i) the transition of energy use patterns and (ii) whether introduced technologies have been effective. To analyze these issues, we estimated the energy demands of rural households by using survey data taken from Beijing's ten suburban districts. The data contain information on both non-commercial and commercial energy use, key characteristics of the households and several renewable energy technologies. Our empirical analysis yielded three main results. First, the per capita income is a key factor in the per capita energy consumption. More specifically, the marginal increase (or marginal change) in per capita coal consumption strongly diminishes (or declines) as per capita income increases. Second, coal and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) prices do not exhibit substitution effects, but an increase in these prices has strong negative effects on the use of these energy resources. Third, renewable energy technologies are identified to reduce coal consumption and to improve energy efficiency. Overall, these findings suggest a positive perspective: if the Chinese government were to design appropriate policies associated with renewable energy technologies and related energy prices, then coal consumption can be reduced in the near future, and the substitution to cleaner energy use will accelerate. Therefore, a smooth energy transition in rural China could be made in a more environmentally sustainable manner. - Highlights: ► Energy demands of non-commercial/commercial sources are examined in rural Beijing. ► Income and energy prices are key determinants of the energy

  1. Projected electricity savings from implementing minimum energy efficiency standard for household refrigerators in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlia, T.M.I.; Masjuki, H.H.; Saidur, R.; Choudhury, I.A.; NoorLeha, A.R.

    2003-01-01

    The Malaysian economy has grown rapidly in the last two decades. This growth has increased the ownership of household electrical appliances, especially refrigerator-freezers. Almost every house in Malaysia owns a refrigerator-freezer. The Malaysia Energy Center considered implementing a minimum energy efficiency standard for household refrigerator-freezers sometime in the coming year. This paper attempts to predict the amount of energy savings in the residential sector by implementing a minimum energy efficiency standard for household refrigerator-freezers. The calculations are based on the growth of refrigerator-freezer ownership data in Malaysian households. By implementing the programs in 2004, about 8722 GWh will be saved in the year 2013. Therefore, efficiency improvement of this appliance will provide a significant impact in future electricity consumption in Malaysia

  2. An inquiry into the impact of globalization on the potential for 'sustainable consumption' in households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuchs, D.A.; Lorek, Sylvia

    2000-01-01

    This paper aims to determine whether and how globalization affects the sustainability of household consumption in industrialized countries. Our focus of inquiry arises from the existence of a tremendous gap between references to the influence of globalization on sustainable consumption in political

  3. Energy consumption of sport halls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The energy consumption of Finland's sports halls (ball games halls, ice hockey halls and swimming halls) represent approximately 1% of that of the country's whole building stock. In the light of the facts revealed by the energy study the potential energy saving rate in sports halls is 15-25%. The total savings would be something like FIM 30-40 million per annum, of which about a half would be achieved without energy-economic investments only by changing utilization habits and by automatic control measures. The energy-economic investments are for the most part connected with ventilation and their repayment period is from one to five years. On the basis of the energy study the following specific consumption are presented as target values: swimming halls: heat (kWh/m*H3/a)100, electricity (kWh/m*H3/a)35, water (l/m*H3/a)1000 icehockey halls (warm): heat (kWh/m*H3/a)25, electricity (kWh/m*H3/a)15, water (l/m*H3/a)200, ball games halls (multi-purpose halls): heat (kWh/m*H3/a)30, electricity (kWh/m*H3/a)25, water (l/m*H3/a)130. In the study the following points proved to be the central areas of energy saving in sports halls: 1. Flexible regulation of the temperature in sports spaces on the basis of the sport in question. 2. The ventilation of swimming halls should be adjusted in such a way that the humidity of the hall air would comply with the limit humidity curve determined by the quality of structures and the temperature of the outdoor air. 3. An ice skating hall is an establishment producing condensing energy from 8 to 9 months a year worth of approx. 100.000-150.000 Finnmarks. The development of the recovery of condensing energy has become more important. 4. The ventilation of ball games halls may account for over 50% of the energy consumption of the whole building. Therefore special attention should be paid to the optimatization of ventilation as a whole.

  4. The world energy consumption in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapillonne, B.

    2006-01-01

    Based on Enerdata 2005 data, this analysis presents the situation of the world energy consumption in 2005, the electric power consumption per region and production per source, the consumption increase for each energy source and the petroleum and gas consumption increase. (A.L.B.)

  5. The effect of information on household water and energy use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans, Liesel

    Water and Energy Utilities are faced with growing demand at a time when supply expansion is increasingly costly, inconsistent and taxing on the environment. Given that supply expansion is limited, to meet future needs utilities need demand-side management policies to result in more reliable and consistent consumer responsiveness. Currently, most households do not have access to the level or type of information needed to respond to price signals in a reliable and effective way. Advanced information technology solutions exist and are being increasingly adopted, but we need to know more about how the informational setting affects decision-making, consumption levels and price responsiveness. This research analyzes the effect of information on household water and energy consumption, which is a decision-making environment characterized by uncertainty and imperfect information. This study also analyzes additional complexities stemming from infrequent billing, non-linear pricing structures, and combined utility bills, each of which may dampen price signals. I first develop a theoretical model of decision-making under uncertainty. I use this model to illustrate the effect of more frequent information, which eliminates uncertainty about past decisions, on remaining decisions within the billing period. The model emphasizes the role of risk preferences and the realization of the uncertain quantity. On average, risk averse consumers will increase consumption when uncertainty is reduced; risk seeking consumers will do the opposite. Introduction of a non-linear rate structure induces behavior that makes individuals appear as if they are risk averse or risk seeking, despite their actual risk preferences. This model highlights the importance of modeling multiple decisions within a billing period and accounting for a spectrum of risk preferences. In Chapter 3, I create a computerized laboratory experiment designed to generate data used to test some of the hypotheses formulated in

  6. Modelling the Italian household sector at the municipal scale: Micro-CHP, renewables and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comodi, Gabriele; Cioccolanti, Luca; Renzi, Massimiliano

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the potential of energy efficiency, renewables, and micro-cogeneration to reduce household consumption in a medium Italian town and analyses the scope for municipal local policies. The study also investigates the effects of tourist flows on town's energy consumption by modelling energy scenarios for permanent and summer homes. Two long-term energy scenarios (to 2030) were modelled using the MarkAL-TIMES generator model: BAU (business as usual), which is the reference scenario, and EHS (exemplary household sector), which involves targets of penetration for renewables and micro-cogeneration. The analysis demonstrated the critical role of end-use energy efficiency in curbing residential consumption. Cogeneration and renewables (PV (photovoltaic) and solar thermal panels) were proven to be valuable solutions to reduce the energetic and environmental burden of the household sector (−20% in 2030). Because most of household energy demand is ascribable to space-heating or hot water production, this study finds that micro-CHP technologies with lower power-to-heat ratios (mainly, Stirling engines and microturbines) show a higher diffusion, as do solar thermal devices. The spread of micro-cogeneration implies a global reduction of primary energy but involves the internalisation of the primary energy, and consequently CO 2 emissions, previously consumed in a centralised power plant within the municipality boundaries. - Highlights: • Energy consumption in permanent homes can be reduced by 20% in 2030. • High efficiency appliances have different effect according to their market penetration. • Use of electrical heat pumps shift consumption from natural gas to electricity. • Micro-CHP entails a global reduction of energy consumption but greater local emissions. • The main CHP technologies entering the residential market are Stirling and μ-turbines

  7. Commercial and institutional consumption of energy survey : summary report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fecteau, V.; Hulan, I.; McNabb, D. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Office of Energy Efficiency

    2007-06-15

    A survey was conducted on the energy consumption of Canada's commercial and institutional sectors. The primary purpose was to improve the understanding of various aspects of energy consumption in these sector and to enable Natural Resources Canada to develop programs to support institutions that seek to achieve greater energy efficiency and reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. Energy intensity data was presented by energy source and region amongst the following commercial and institutional sectors: retail trade including food and non-food; education including colleges and universities; health care including non-hospital health care and hospitals; and, accommodation and food services. Data obtained on each establishment's energy consumption and floor area were used to calculate their energy intensity ratio. In 2005, the commercial and institutional establishments consumed 1.04 billion gigajoules, nearly double the annual consumption of all private households in Ontario. The total energy intensity was 1.54 GJ per square metre. The lowest energy rating was found in social assistance establishments, while the highest energy rating was in food services and drinking places, followed by hospitals. Quebec and the Atlantic provinces had the lowest energy intensity levels, while the Prairie provinces had the highest energy intensity rate. The survey included data on the age of establishments; the energy sources used for space heating cooling and water heating; establishment spending on energy consumption; and, the use of auxiliary equipment. refs., tabs., figs.

  8. Energy activity guide : simple steps to reduce your household energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byckalo-Khan, F.; Wallace, C.L. (ed.)

    2003-07-01

    This guide presents 13 practical activities that can help households reduce energy consumption in order to create a more sustainable lifestyle and to help meet Canada's Kyoto commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Most energy sources create pollution that harms both human health and the Earth. The burning of fossil fuels creates greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change, smog, pollution and adverse health effects. This guide offers suggestions on how households can reduce the impact on the environment while saving money. Some of the initiatives include lowering the thermostat, replacing incandescent light bulbs with compact fluorescent light bulbs, turning off appliances when not in use, weatherising building envelopes, using a clothes line to dry clothes instead of a dryer, laundering clothes with cold water, and proper maintenance of heating equipment. An energy use chart is included with this guide to help track activities and to estimate how much time and money is required by each activity. refs., figs.

  9. Energy activity guide : simple steps to reduce your household energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byckalo-Khan, F; Wallace, C L [ed.

    2003-07-01

    This guide presents 13 practical activities that can help households reduce energy consumption in order to create a more sustainable lifestyle and to help meet Canada's Kyoto commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Most energy sources create pollution that harms both human health and the Earth. The burning of fossil fuels creates greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change, smog, pollution and adverse health effects. This guide offers suggestions on how households can reduce the impact on the environment while saving money. Some of the initiatives include lowering the thermostat, replacing incandescent light bulbs with compact fluorescent light bulbs, turning off appliances when not in use, weatherising building envelopes, using a clothes line to dry clothes instead of a dryer, laundering clothes with cold water, and proper maintenance of heating equipment. An energy use chart is included with this guide to help track activities and to estimate how much time and money is required by each activity. refs., figs.

  10. International oil shocks and household consumption in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dayong; Broadstock, David C.; Cao, Hong

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the impacts that oil price shocks have on residential consumption in China. While it is well understood that oil prices affect consumption in a multitude of ways, the timing and directness of these effects on specific consumption categories is not clear. We demonstrate that the most immediate and direct effect passes through transportation consumption, as might be expected. But we also show that significant effects pass through consumption in other sectors—including “food and clothes”, “medical expenditure”, and other general “living expenditure”—with less immediacy. Given the results, particularly observed asymmetries with respect to rises and falls in international oil prices, we discuss some implications for future adjustments to domestic price policies, in particular the case for removal of domestic price regulation. - Highlights: • We study the impact of oil price shocks on residential consumption in China. • The most immediate effect passes through expenditure on transportation. • Effects also appear for health, education and food and clothing expenditure. • Existing price regulation offers no great benefit. • We argue that a compelling case for removing current price regulation exists

  11. Immigration, Real Estate Prices and the Consumption Decisions of Native Households

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Zeno; Blickle, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Since house prices govern the consumption decisions of renters and owners alike, changing house prices can have far-reaching macroeconomic consequences. We analyze how the disposable income and consumption decisions of households are affected by exogenous house price changes in Switzerland. We look at consumption of both housing and non-durable goods to establish a comprehensive picture. We ensure that our house price variation is exogenous by instrumenting house prices with origin-shift immi...

  12. Household production and consumption over the life cycle: National Time Transfer Accounts in 14 European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Vargha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: While the importance of unpaid household labour is recognised in total economic output, little is known about the demographics of household production and consumption. Objective: Our goal is to give a comprehensive estimation on the value of household production and its consumption by age and gender and analyse nonmarket economic transfers in 14 European countries based on publicly available harmonised data. Methods: We introduce a novel imputation method of harmonised European time use (HETUS data to the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC in order to assign time spent on home production to consumers in households and estimate time transfers. Moreover, monetary values are attributed to household production activities using data on earnings from the Structure of Earnings Survey (SES. Results: We show that the nonmarket economic life cycle of men differs from that of women. The gender gap in household production is not evenly distributed over the life cycle. Women of working age contribute the most in net terms, while the main beneficiaries of household goods and services are children and to a lesser extent adult men. These patterns are similar across countries, with variations in the gender- and age-specific levels of home production and consumption. Conclusions: In Europe, in the national economy, intergenerational flows are important in sustaining both childhood and old age. In contrast, in the household economy, intergenerational transfers flow mostly towards children. Contribution: We add a new focus to the research on household production: While keeping the gender aspect, we demonstrate the importance of the life cycle component in household production.

  13. Consumption of food away from home in Bangladesh: Do rich households spend more?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottaleb, Khondoker A; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Mishra, Ashok K

    2017-12-01

    While consumption of food away from home (FAFH) is an established phenomenon among households in the developed countries, FAFH is a growing phenomenon in many middle-income and rapidly growing developing countries. Although, studies are available on the factors affecting consumption of FAFH in developed countries, there is a paucity of such studies in developing countries. This study examines households' choice of and expenditures on FAFH. We used information from Bangladeshi households and applied a double-hurdle regression model estimation procedure. Findings show that, in general, rich households are spending proportionately less on FAFH and, over time, the trend is continuing. Although households with female members who work in the non-farm sector are more likely to consume FAFH, educated household heads and spouses, and particularly urban households are less likely to consume and spend on FAFH. As the problem of food adulteration by dishonest sellers is rampant in Bangladesh, perhaps it discourages rich, urban and households headed by educated heads and spouses to consume and spend more on FAFH. Based on the findings, some points of interventions are also prescribed in this study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Practical versus theoretical domestic energy consumption for space heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audenaert, A.; Briffaerts, K.; Engels, L.

    2011-01-01

    Methods to calculate the theoretical energy consumption consider several things: the number of degree days per year that need to be compensated by heating, the characteristics of the dwelling, the number of occupants and the characteristics of the installation for space heating and sanitary hot water. However, these methods do not take into account consumer behaviour, which may affect the actual consumption. The theoretical calculation methods are based on assumptions and use a number of standardized parameters. The difference between the actual and the theoretical energy consumption, and the impact of the residents' behaviour on energy consumption, is analysed by means of a literature study and a practical research. An energy advice procedure (EAP) audit is executed in five dwellings, as well as a survey regarding the energy related behaviour of the households. The theoretically calculated consumption is compared with the billed actual energy consumption of the families. The results show some problems with the current procedure and give some options to improve it. Some research needs are identified to gain more insights in the influence of different behavioural factors on the actual energy use for heating. - Highlights: → The energy advice procedure (EAP) calculates the energy use for heating in dwellings. → Calculations are compared with the real energy use for 5 dwellings. → A survey on the occupants' behaviour is used to interpret the observed differences. → Default values used in the EAP can be very different from the observed behaviour.

  15. Practical versus theoretical domestic energy consumption for space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audenaert, A., E-mail: amaryllis.audenaert@artesis.be [Department of Applied Engineering: Construction, Artesis University College of Antwerp, Paardenmarkt 92, B-2000 Antwerp (Belgium); Department of Environment, Technology and Technology Management, University of Antwerp, Prinsstraat 13, B-2000 Antwerp (Belgium); Briffaerts, K. [Unit Transition Energy and Environment, VITO NV, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Engels, L. [Department of Applied Engineering: Construction, Artesis University College of Antwerp, Paardenmarkt 92, B-2000 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2011-09-15

    Methods to calculate the theoretical energy consumption consider several things: the number of degree days per year that need to be compensated by heating, the characteristics of the dwelling, the number of occupants and the characteristics of the installation for space heating and sanitary hot water. However, these methods do not take into account consumer behaviour, which may affect the actual consumption. The theoretical calculation methods are based on assumptions and use a number of standardized parameters. The difference between the actual and the theoretical energy consumption, and the impact of the residents' behaviour on energy consumption, is analysed by means of a literature study and a practical research. An energy advice procedure (EAP) audit is executed in five dwellings, as well as a survey regarding the energy related behaviour of the households. The theoretically calculated consumption is compared with the billed actual energy consumption of the families. The results show some problems with the current procedure and give some options to improve it. Some research needs are identified to gain more insights in the influence of different behavioural factors on the actual energy use for heating. - Highlights: > The energy advice procedure (EAP) calculates the energy use for heating in dwellings. > Calculations are compared with the real energy use for 5 dwellings. > A survey on the occupants' behaviour is used to interpret the observed differences. > Default values used in the EAP can be very different from the observed behaviour.

  16. Energy consumption 2005 with Danish industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    The energy consumption in the Danish industries decreased with 4% from 2003 to 2005. The consumption of liquid fuels and district heat decreased with 27% and 21%, respectively. The consumption of solid fuels increased with 13%. The aim of the statistics is to elucidate the industry's energy consumption and its composition. The statistics present the development in the industry from 1973 to 2005, in which period the composition of the energy consumption has changed significantly. Especially, consumption of liquid fuels has decreased and consumption of gas and electricity has increased. (ln)

  17. State energy data report 1992: Consumption estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This is a report of energy consumption by state for the years 1960 to 1992. The report contains summaries of energy consumption for the US and by state, consumption by source, comparisons to other energy use reports, consumption by energy use sector, and describes the estimation methodologies used in the preparation of the report. Some years are not listed specifically although they are included in the summary of data.

  18. Renewable energy in Dutch households. An online survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mors, B.; Both, J.

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of the title survey was to find out how households in the Netherlands can be interested and involved in the use of renewable energy, in particular biomass, wind power and solar energy [nl

  19. Effect of fuelwood scarcity and socio-economic factors on household bio-based energy use and energy substitution in rural Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guta, Dawit Diriba

    2014-01-01

    In Ethiopia biomass is predominantly utilized for household energy needs often using inefficient rudimentary stoves which cause adverse environmental and welfare effects. This paper examined the contribution of biomass resources to rural household energy use and energy substitution. The analysis applied the ordinary least square in the final stage estimation of fuelwood and overall biomass energy consumption by using predicted shadow prices. The paper used Tobit model to estimate charcoal and agricultural fuel consumption due to the presence of censoring. An increase in fuelwood shadow price was associated with reduced household fuelwood consumption with price elasticity of −0.38. The cross price elasticity between fuelwood and agricultural fuels revealed no evidence of energy substitution, which conforms to the findings of previous studies. Household access to electricity was associated with lower household biomass energy utilization but kerosene was not fuelwood substitute. Household energy use conformed to the ‘fuel stacking’ or ‘multiple fuel use’ concept, but households preferred modern energy options as welfare increased in areas where modern energy is available. This suggests that there is a promising prospect for fuel-transition, but access to modern energy and economic growth have key roles. The findings suggest that a concerted policy effort is required that would help diversify rural livelihoods, improve living standards and encourage economic growth, encourage inter-fuel substitution through improved modern energy access and afforestation to increase biomass supply. - Highlights: • The paper examined household biomass energy use and energy substitution. • Fuelwood use declined with increases in fuelwood scarcity or its shadow price. • Fuelwood and charcoal use increased with increase in household wealth. • Biomass energy consumption declined with an increase in household electricity use. • The result indicated agricultural fuel and

  20. The Impacts of household consumption and options for change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tukker, A.; Cohen, M.J.; Hubacek, K.; Mont, O.

    2010-01-01

    This introductory article situates the contributions that comprise this special issue within the field of sustainable consumption and production (SCP) studies. After a brief review of the policy history surrounding SCP, we organize our discussion and the subsequent collection of articles into two

  1. Electricity consumption by battery-powered consumer electronics: A household-level survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAllister, J. Andrew; Farrell, Alexander E.

    2007-01-01

    The rapid proliferation of battery-powered consumer electronics and their reliance on inefficient linear transformers has been suggested to be an important part of the rapid growth in 'miscellaneous' electricity consumption in recent years, but detailed data are scarce. We conducted a survey of 34 randomly selected households (HHs) in Northern California about the number, type, and usage of consumer electronics. We also measured the energy consumption of 85 typical consumer electronic devices through various parts of the charge cycle. These primary data were supplemented by national sales information for consumer electronics. Results indicate that typical HHs own 8.4 rechargeable devices, which have a total average demand of 12-17 W per HH. Statewide, this amounts to 160-220 MW of demand, with the peak occurring in the late evening, and about 1600 GWh per year. Only about 15% of this energy is used for battery charging, the rest is lost as waste heat during no-load and charge maintenance periods. Technical options to increase the efficiency of these devices, and the research and policy steps needed to realize these savings are discussed

  2. Board computer for houses. A high resolution monitoring tool for energy and water consumption of typical households in Germany; Das Gebaeude-Armaturenbrett (GAB). Ein hochaufloesendes Monitoring-Tool fuer Verbrauchsdaten in Privathaushalten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthrakidis, A.; Gabrysch, K.; Goettsche, J.; Hartz, T.; Schwarzer, K. [Solar-Inst. Juelich der Fachhochschule Aachen, Juelich (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The primary goal of the project is to save energy, valuable resources and to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in an area everyone can potentially contribute to: the own house. A tool has been developed that monitors consumption data of resources such as solar energy, heating oil, gas, electric power, cold and hot water. Up to now home owners get a feedback about their energy consumption exclusively by bills sent by their suppliers once per year. In order to put the consumer in the position to learn more about his/her energy and water consuming habits it is necessary to supply him/her with short-term information. The 'Board Computer' in the house is a manageable tool that generates the needed feedback via internet. It gives an understanding about the interrelation of daily behaviour and costs that appear on the bill and thus gives a feeling for the scope of intervention and at best causes a change of attitude. This project leads to an economic, useful, user-friendly, energy-saving product that can have a high impact on CO{sub 2} reduction and saving of resources. (orig.)

  3. Energy consumption and economic growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookes, L G

    1972-10-01

    A mathematical model relating Gross National Product (GNP) per capita to useful energy consumed per capita is demonstrated to predict the shift in this relationship actually experienced in the U.K. and the U.S. over a period of years. World GNP growths in the recent past are used to forecast GNP growth to the year 2030 and also (via the model) the necessary fuel consumption for such growth; likewise, potential production of fossil fuels (exclusive of tar sands and oil shale) is shown to 2030, based on two different assumptions about total world reserves. Fossil fuel ceases to meet world requirements for energy at some time between 1985 and 1995. The most likely candidate for filling the gap is nuclear power.

  4. Household energy use in urban Venezuela: Implications from surveys in Maracaibo, Valencia, Merida, and Barcelona-Puerto La Cruz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, M.J.; Sathaye, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies the most important results of a comparative analysis of household commercial energy use in Venezuelan urban cities. The use of modern fuels is widespread among all cities. Cooking consumes the largest share of urban household energy use. The survey documents no use of biomass and a negligible use of kerosene for cooking. LPG, natural gas, and kerosene are the main fuels available. LPG is the fuel choice of low-income households in all cities except Maracaibo, where 40% of all households use natural gas. Electricity consumption in Venezuela`s urban households is remarkably high compared with the levels used in households in comparable Latin American countries and in households of industrialized nations which confront harsher climatic conditions and, therefore, use electricity for water and space heating. The penetration of appliances in Venezuela`s urban households is very high. The appliances available on the market are inefficient, and there are inefficient patterns of energy use among the population. Climate conditions and the urban built form all play important roles in determining the high level of energy consumption in Venezuelan urban households. It is important to acknowledge the opportunities for introducing energy efficiency and conservation in Venezuela`s residential sector, particularly given current economic and financial constraints, which may hamper the future provision of energy services.

  5. Rebound effect in Chinese household energy efficiency and solution for mitigating it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Jinlong; Long, Enshen [College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Hokao, Kazunori [Department of Civil Engineering, Saga University, Saga, 840-8502 (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    The current efforts and technologies on energy efficiency seem unable to hold back the increasing momentum of the household energy consumption per unit of China, which has been on the increase since 2000. Usually, this phenomenon is simply attributed to the demand for more comfortable household lifestyle due to the current rapid economic development of China. However, the latent cause - rebound effect has long been ignored in the household energy efficiency of China, while it has been analyzed deeply and recognized widely all over the world. This article studies the rebound effect in the household energy efficiency of China and its related negative influence on the energy demand. A high rebound effect of at least 30% in the household energy efficiency of China is presumed by reference to the rebound effects of other countries. Finally, five feasible ways are summarized to mitigate the rebound effect and their values are analyzed respectively: (1) develop renewable energy resources, (2) increase energy prices, (3) improve energy efficiency, (4) build rational energy prices system, and (5) improve consumer behavior. (author)

  6. Rebound effect in Chinese household energy efficiency and solution for mitigating it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Jinlong; Long, Enshen; Hokao, Kazunori

    2010-01-01

    The current efforts and technologies on energy efficiency seem unable to hold back the increasing momentum of the household energy consumption per unit of China, which has been on the increase since 2000. Usually, this phenomenon is simply attributed to the demand for more comfortable household lifestyle due to the current rapid economic development of China. However, the latent cause-rebound effect has long been ignored in the household energy efficiency of China, while it has been analyzed deeply and recognized widely all over the world. This article studies the rebound effect in the household energy efficiency of China and its related negative influence on the energy demand. A high rebound effect of at least 30% in the household energy efficiency of China is presumed by reference to the rebound effects of other countries. Finally, five feasible ways are summarized to mitigate the rebound effect and their values are analyzed respectively: (1) develop renewable energy resources, (2) increase energy prices, (3) improve energy efficiency, (4) build rational energy prices system, and (5) improve consumer behavior.

  7. Assessing Nutritional Differences in Household Level Production and Consumption in African Villages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, K.; Palm, C.; Wood, S.

    2015-12-01

    Studies of agriculture often focus on yields and calories, but overlook the production of diverse nutrients needed for human health. Nutritional production is particularly important in low-income countries, where foods produced correspond largely to those consumed. Through an analysis of crops, livestock, and animal products, this study aims to quantify the nutritional differences between household-level production and consumption in the Millennium Village at Bonsaaso, Ghana. By converting food items into their nutritional components it became clear that certain nutritional disparities existed between the two categories. In Bonsasso, 64-78% of households exhibited deficiencies in the consumption of Calcium, Fat, and/or Vitamin A despite less than 30% of households showing deficiencies on the production side. To better understand these differences, k-means clustering analysis was performed, placing households into groups characterized by nutritional means. By comparing the households in these groupings, it was clear that clusters formed around certain nutritional deficiencies. The socioeconomic characteristics of these groupings were then studied for correlations, concentrating on number of people at the household, sex and age of household head, and dependency ratio. It was found that clusters with high dependency ratios (the number of working persons in the household to non-working persons) exhibited a large variety of, and often drastic, nutritional deficiencies. In fact, the cluster with the highest average dependency ratio exhibited deficiencies in every nutrient. In light of these findings, regional policies may look to target households with a large number of dependents, and package nutrients for household distribution based on the characteristics of these clusters.

  8. Assessment of household charcoal consumption in urban areas: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... respondents used charcoal as their main source of energy for cooking followed by gas (16.9%). ... sources of energy in order to reduce pressure on natural forests for the supply of charcoal.

  9. Modeling Aggregate Hourly Energy Consumption in a Regional Building Stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kipping

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sound estimates of future heat and electricity demand with high temporal and spatial resolution are needed for energy system planning, grid design, and evaluating demand-side management options and polices on regional and national levels. In this study, smart meter data on electricity consumption in buildings are combined with cross-sectional building information to model hourly electricity consumption within the household and service sectors on a regional basis in Norway. The same modeling approach is applied to model aggregate hourly district heat consumption in three different consumer groups located in Oslo. A comparison of modeled and metered hourly energy consumption shows that hourly variations and aggregate consumption per county and year are reproduced well by the models. However, for some smaller regions, modeled annual electricity consumption is over- or underestimated by more than 20%. Our results indicate that the presented method is useful for modeling the current and future hourly energy consumption of a regional building stock, but that larger and more detailed training datasets are required to improve the models, and more detailed building stock statistics on regional level are needed to generate useful estimates on aggregate regional energy consumption.

  10. A time use survey derived integrative human-physical household system energy performance model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiou, Y.S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). School of Architecture

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on a virtual experiment that extrapolated the stochastic yet patterned behaviour of the integrative model of a 4-bedroom house in Chicago with 4 different household compositions. The integrative household system theory considers the household as a combination of 2 sub-systems, notably the physical system and the human system. The physical system is the materials and devices of a dwelling, and the human system is the occupants that live within the dwelling. A third element is the environment that influences the operation of the 2 sub-systems. The human-physical integrative household energy model provided a platform to simulate the effect of sub-house energy conservation measures. The virtual experiment showed that the use of the bootstrap sampling approach on American Time Use Survey (ATUS) data to determine the occupant's stochastic energy consumption behaviour has resulted in a robust complex system model. Bell-shaped distributions were presented for annual appliance, heating and cooling load demands. The virtual experiment also pointed to the development of advanced multi-zone residential HVAC system as a suitable strategy for major residential energy efficiency improvement. The load profiles generated from the integrative model simulation were found to be in good agreement with those from field studies. It was concluded that the behaviour of the integrative model is a good representation of the energy consumption behaviour of real households. 10 refs., 4 tabs., 12 figs.

  11. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Matthew K [Kennewick, WA; Chassin, David P [Pasco, WA; Dagle, Jeffery E [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael [Richland, WA; Winiarski, David W [Kennewick, WA; Pratt, Robert G [Kennewick, WA; Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie [Alexandria, VA

    2006-03-07

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  12. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Matthew K [Kennewick, WA; Chassin, David P [Pasco, WA; Dagle, Jeffery E [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael [Richland, WA; Winiarski, David W [Kennewick, WA; Pratt, Robert G [Kennewick, WA; Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie [Alexandria, VA

    2008-09-02

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  13. Alcohol consumption and household expenditure on alcohol in a rural district in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Allebeck

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems are on the rise in low- and middle-income countries. Expenditure on alcohol is an important problem for families and communities and needs to be assessed. Aim: This study examines level of alcohol consumption and expenditure on alcohol in a district in Vietnam. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a rural district in northern Vietnam. Multi-stage sampling was employed to randomly select participants from 20 communities and a town in the same district. One thousand five hundred and sixty-four adults (765 males and 799 females aged 18–60 years were interviewed. Information about alcohol use as well as expenditure on alcohol consumption four weeks prior to the interview was gathered. Non-parametric tests and log-linear regression were employed to compare expenditure on alcohol consumption across socioeconomic groups. Results: The prevalence of alcohol use one month prior to interview was 35% (66% among men and 5% among women. The median alcohol consumption among those who reported use of alcohol in the week prior to the interview was 7.9 standard drinks. Excessive drinking (more than 14 standard drinks per week for men and more than seven standard drinks per week for women occurred among 35% of those who used alcohol. Median expenditure for alcohol consumption during one month by those who drank alcohol was USD 3.5, accounting for 4.6% of household food expenditure, 2.7% of total household expenditure, and 1.8% of household income. The differences in alcohol consumption and expenditure between sexes and between socioeconomic groups are also presented. Conclusion: Our study confirms that alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems are common among men in Vietnam. The share of alcohol expenditure in total household expenditure is substantial, especially among poor households. This should be considered an important public health issue, which needs to be taken into account in

  14. Alcohol consumption and household expenditure on alcohol in a rural district in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Kim Bao; Van Minh, Hoang; Allebeck, Peter

    2013-01-28

    Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems are on the rise in low- and middle-income countries. Expenditure on alcohol is an important problem for families and communities and needs to be assessed. This study examines level of alcohol consumption and expenditure on alcohol in a district in Vietnam. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a rural district in northern Vietnam. Multi-stage sampling was employed to randomly select participants from 20 communities and a town in the same district. One thousand five hundred and sixty-four adults (765 males and 799 females) aged 18-60 years were interviewed. Information about alcohol use as well as expenditure on alcohol consumption four weeks prior to the interview was gathered. Non-parametric tests and log-linear regression were employed to compare expenditure on alcohol consumption across socioeconomic groups. The prevalence of alcohol use one month prior to interview was 35% (66% among men and 5% among women). The median alcohol consumption among those who reported use of alcohol in the week prior to the interview was 7.9 standard drinks. Excessive drinking (more than 14 standard drinks per week for men and more than seven standard drinks per week for women) occurred among 35% of those who used alcohol. Median expenditure for alcohol consumption during one month by those who drank alcohol was USD 3.5, accounting for 4.6% of household food expenditure, 2.7% of total household expenditure, and 1.8% of household income. The differences in alcohol consumption and expenditure between sexes and between socioeconomic groups are also presented. Our study confirms that alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems are common among men in Vietnam. The share of alcohol expenditure in total household expenditure is substantial, especially among poor households. This should be considered an important public health issue, which needs to be taken into account in the alcohol policy debate.

  15. Household energy use in Asian cities: Responding to development success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Stephen R.

    In the past 10-15 years, gains in household income and urban development in many countries in Asia have led to significant shifts in household use of fuels away from traditional, biomass-based household fuels to modern, fossil fuels. These results suggest that, while the global atmospheric emissions implications need further analysis, the local air quality effects of urban household fuel use changes have been positive. These changes also demonstrate improvements in living conditions, particularly for poor women and children most affected by indoor air quality. However, for electricity use, where there is evidence of dramatic increases in household consumption, the longer term implications for atmospheric emissions are more troubling. Rapid demand growth in the urban household sector is contributing to huge increases in thermal electric generating capacity needs in Asia. Improving technologies of electricity use in the household sector appears to be easily achievable and could be stimulated through market and policy mechanisms which have been used elsewhere. These measures offer the prospect of real environmental and economic gains without sacrificing lifestyle advantages of electrical appliance use in households.

  16. Eight Tons of Material Footprint—Suggestion for a Resource Cap for Household Consumption in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lettenmeier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper suggests a sustainable material footprint of eight tons, per person, in a year as a resource cap target for household consumption in Finland. This means an 80% (factor 5 reduction from the present Finnish average. The material footprint is used as a synonym to the Total Material Requirement (TMR calculated for products and activities. The paper suggests how to allocate the sustainable material footprint to different consumption components on the basis of earlier household studies, as well as other studies, on the material intensity of products, services, and infrastructures. It analyzes requirements, opportunities, and challenges for future developments in technology and lifestyle, also taking into account that future lifestyles are supposed to show a high degree of diversity. The targets and approaches are discussed for the consumption components of nutrition, housing, household goods, mobility, leisure activities, and other purposes. The paper states that a sustainable level of natural resource use by households is achievable and it can be roughly allocated to different consumption components in order to illustrate the need for a change in lifestyles. While the absolute material footprint of all the consumption components will have to decrease, the relative share of nutrition, the most basic human need, in the total material footprint is expected to rise, whereas much smaller shares than at present are proposed for housing and especially mobility. For reducing material resource use to the sustainable level suggested, both social innovations, and technological developments are required.

  17. Regional energy consumption and income differences in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    income of households grouped in income deciles and by other characteristics. The impact of environmental taxes depends on income levels in rural areas compared to income in urban areas. In Denmark, the income difference is found to be quite small, but energy consumption and, therefore, also the burden......Internationally a debate on the distributional impact of energy taxation has focused on the tax burden relative to income. The general conclusion is that taxes are regressive, but at a varying degree for different countries. This study examines the relationship between location, income, heating...... technology characteristics and the energy tax that households pay. The article aims at identifying general implications of energy taxes with respect to different impacts on population groups depending on location and income. Tax payments associated with energy use are considered relative to total disposable...

  18. Energy consumption in France's industry. Conjuncture note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-04-01

    Energy consumption in the industry represents today 1/5 of France's end-use energy consumption. Gas and electricity are the most consumed and represent 2/3 of the overall. The 5 most energy consuming industries are the following: paper and cardboard industry, food industry, rubber, plastic and other non-metallic mineral products industry, metallurgy and chemical industry. The reduction of the industry's energy consumption is explained by the decline of production, but above all by the energy efficiency improvement of the sector. Technological innovations in production means have indeed led to reduce energy consumption

  19. Psychological strategies to reduce energy consumption: project summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, L J; Seligman, C; Darley, J M

    1979-06-30

    This report reviews the research conducted in connection with a project to apply psychological theory and procedures to the problems of encouraging residential energy conservation. A major part of the project involved surveys of residents' energy-related attitudes. The best (and only consistent) attitudinal predictor of residents' actual energy consumption was their attitude about thermal comfort. A number of other attitudes that could conceivably have been related to consumption, such as attitudes about the reality of the crisis, were not found to be related to consumption. Another major focus of the project was on the effectiveness of feedback (that is, giving residents information about their energy use) as an aid to residents' conservation efforts. A series of experiments demonstrated that frequent, credible energy-consumption feedback, coupled with encouragement to adopt a reasonable but difficult energy-conservation goal, could facilitate conservation. However, these studies also demonstrated that residents could not be given just any kind of information about their energy use as feedback and that even proper feedback would not lead to conservation in all households. Conditions that are crucial for the success of feedback as a conservation aid are discussed. Other studies conducted by the project looked at the effect on energy consumption of (1) a device to reduce air-conditioning waste by signalling when it is cool outside, (2) an automatic multi-setback thermostat, and (3) utility companies' average payment plans. A survey of residents' knowledge of their energy use also was conducted. 23 references.

  20. An inquiry into the impact of globalization on the potential for 'sustainable consumption' in households

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, D.A.; Lorek, Sylvia

    2000-01-01

    This paper aims to determine whether and how globalization affects the sustainability of household consumption in industrialized countries. Our focus of inquiry arises from the existence of a tremendous gap between references to the influence of globalization on sustainable consumption in political and academic discussions on the one side and empirical evidence on the reality and strength of such an influence on the other. In order to prepare the ground for filling this gap, our paper inquire...

  1. Household Income and Vegetable Consumption among White, Chinese, Korean and Vietnamese Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Thanh V Tran; Rita Vatcher; Hae Nim Lee; Phu Tai Phan; Thuc-Nhi Nguyen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives; This study aims to examine racial/ethnic differences in vegetable consumption between White and three major groups of Asian Americans. We hypothesize that racial/ethnic differences in frequency of vegetable consumption is significantly related to respondents¡¯ household income. Methods; We used the 2009 California Health Survey Interview (CHIS) data set that has a total sample of 47,167 respondents aged 18 and over. The selected sample used in this study consisted of four racial a...

  2. Associations between children's television advertising exposure and their food consumption patterns: a household diary-survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijzen, Moniek; Schuurman, Joris; Bomhof, Elise

    2008-01-01

    In a diary-survey study in 234 households with children aged 4-12 years, we investigated the associations between children's exposure to food advertising and their consumption of (a) advertised food brands, (b) advertised energy-dense food product categories, and (c) food products overall. Relations were examined using multiple hierarchical regression analysis, while controlling for various child (i.e., age, sex, television viewing time) and family variables (i.e., family income and consumption-related communication styles). Results showed that children's exposure to food advertising was significantly related to their consumption of advertised brands (beta=.21) and energy-dense product categories (beta=.19). The relation between advertising exposure and overall food consumption only held in lower-income families (beta=.19). In addition, consumption-related family communication was an important moderator of the relations between advertising and the food consumption variables. Socio-oriented family communication (i.e., striving for harmony and conformity) was particularly successful in reducing these relations. In conclusion, consistent with communication theories predicting spill-over effects of advertising, the impact of television food advertising exceeded the advertised brand and generalized to more generic unhealthy consumption patterns. Theoretical and societal consequences, as well as the important role of the family are discussed.

  3. Does trade liberalization effect energy consumption?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghani, Gairuzazmi M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of trade liberalization on the environment can be directly linked to energy consumption, because energy consumption and production are the underlying cause of most pollutants that harm the environment. The descriptive statistics show that average annual growth of energy consumption per capita after trade liberalization varies among countries; hence it is a possibility that the effect of trade liberalization is conditional on factors other than liberalization per se. The regression results show that trade liberalization per se does not affect the growth of energy consumption of the developing countries analyzed, but its interaction with capital per labor reduces the growth of energy consumption as capital per labor increases. However, the effect is only significant after a certain minimum threshold level capital per labor is reached. On the other hand, economic growth increases energy consumption and its effect is not conditioned on trade liberalization. These two different effects mean that, with regards to energy consumption, countries at a higher level of economic development are more likely to reap the benefit of liberalization relative to less developed countries. - Research highlights: ► This paper examines the effect of trade liberalization on energy consumption. ► Developed countries are more likely to reap the benefit of trade liberalization. ► Growth of energy consumption after trade liberalization varies among countries. ► Interaction of capital per labor with liberalization reduces energy consumption.

  4. Rural-urban household energy use and inter-relation in the Central Region of the Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgizouli, I.A.R.

    1990-01-01

    Urban and rural household energy consumption accounts for the major part of total energy consumption in most African countries. It ranges between 50 and 70 percent in African countries with medium per capita incomes and between 58 and 93 percent in those with low per capita incomes. Satisfying household energy needs takes up a substantial portion of the income of the urban household, while in the rural areas much time and effort are spent collecting wood instead of in more productive activities. Woodfuel meets over 85 percent of household energy demand in most African countries. This high level of consumption will remain, irrespective of the country's per capita income: woodfuel will continue to play a major role in the economics of developing countries and especially in the living standards of both rural and urban poor. The two major issues which must be considered are whether the forest resources are going to meet the future demand for woodfuel and whether prices will remain affordable to the low income groups. This paper deals with household energy issues with special reference to the Central Region in the Sudan. It assesses local resources in the region, analyzes consumption patterns of both rural and urban households, and discusses possible solutions to the impact of current energy practices

  5. Model projections for household energy use in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruijven, B.J.; van Vuuren, D.P.; de Vries, B.J.M.; Isaac, M.; van der Sluijs, J.P.; Lucas, P.L.; Balachandra, P.

    2011-01-01

    Energy use in developing countries is heterogeneous across households. Present day global energy models are mostly too aggregate to account for this heterogeneity. Here, a bottom-up model for residential energy use that starts from key dynamic concepts on energy use in developing countries is

  6. Degrees of Cooperation in Household Consumption Models : A Revealed Preference Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherchye, L.J.H.; Demuynck, T.; de Rock, B.

    2009-01-01

    We develop a revealed preference approach to analyze non-unitary con- sumption models with intrahousehold allocations deviating from the cooper- ative (or Pareto e¢ cient) solution. At a theoretical level, we establish re- vealed preference conditions of household consumption models with varying

  7. Identifying Socioeconomic and Cultural Patterns in the Heat Consumption of Copenhagen Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiter, Ida Maria; Hansen, Henning Sten

    2017-01-01

    out which household types need political targeting in order to reach the goal of a 20% decrease in the Copenhagen heat consumption in 2025 compared to 2010. Using a combination of choropleth maps, Pearson’s R, and regression analyses, the total effects as well as direct effects of socioeconomic...

  8. Special charges related to household energy use. Documentations 1970-2012; Saeravgifter relatert til husholdningenes energiforbruk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessmann, Sandra; Halvorsen, Bente; Larsen, Bodil M.

    2012-11-15

    This paper provides an overview of special charges related to household energy use in Norway from 1970 to 2012. Excise duties are presented by the object they apply (rather than to describe the fee arrangements separately). Moreover, they are categorized into three groups: tax on stationary energy, taxes on mobile purposes relating to the ownership and usage-dependent charges on mobile applications. Chapter 2 collects taxes in the first category. The author describes the special taxes imposed on households' stationary energy, such as heating the home. Chapter 3 discusses the various fees imposed on the owner of the vehicle, and how these fees are independent of the amount of transport used. Chapter 4 describes the history of usage-dependent charges on mobile purposes, which include taxes on fuel. This paper is intended to be an encyclopedia for use in future analyzes of the Special Tax behavioral effects in Norwegian households. It is first and foremost in the project households respond to energy and environmental policy measures, funded by the Research Council of the project is not only to look at the excise taxes separately but also how various energy and environmental policy instruments work together. This is one of the reasons for the division of special taxes that have been made in the note. Household energy use contributes to a significant proportion of greenhouse gas emissions and a reduction in household energy consumption is an important goal of climate policy. A number of policy instruments have been eager cat to move household energy consumption away from fossil fuels to renewable energy and increase energy efficiency in Norwegian homes. To ensure the effectiveness of current and future policies, and minimize adverse behavioral effects, information from analyzes of several means changing household adaptation would be of great importance. Project Support: The work of this paper is funded within the Research Council Renergie program (project {sup H}ousehold

  9. Bioenergy, material, and nutrients recovery from household waste: Advanced material, substance, energy, and cost flow analysis of a waste refinery process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Dorini, Gianluca Fabio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    Energy, materials, and resource recovery from mixed household waste may contribute to reductions in fossil fuel and resource consumption. For this purpose, legislation has been enforced to promote energy recovery and recycling. Potential solutions for separating biogenic and recyclable materials...

  10. Modeling the relationship between energy consumption and economy development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jing; Deng, Shihuai; Shen, Fei; Yang, Xinyao; Liu, Guodong; Guo, Hang; Li, Yuanwei; Hong, Xiao; Zhang, Yanzong; Peng, Hong; Zhang, Xiaohong; Li, Li; Wang, Yingjun

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigated the empirical relationship between economy development and energy consumption by material production, nonmaterial production and household. Empirical models accounting for the key influential factors were constructed. Ordinary Least Square Regression (OLS) analysis of the official data of China for the year 1985-2007 permitted the relationship between individual energy consumption components and the corresponding coefficients to be investigated. The results showed that (1) the Unit Energy Consumption by Primary Industry (UECPI), Secondary Industry (UECSI), and Tertiary Industry (UECTI) demonstrated an inverse relationship with Gross Domestic Product (GDP); (2) a linear relationship exists between the Energy Consumption by Nonmaterial Production (ECNP) and GDP; (3) the hypotheses that there is an inverse S-shaped relationship between Unit Energy Consumption by Household (UECH) and Personal Income (PI) is valid. Based on the above findings and an analysis of China's energy policies, suggestions on China's energy policy were given in the end. -- Highlights: → Decomposed total energy consumption in three parts, branch of material produces, branch of the immaterial production, and households. → Energy consumed by branch of material produces considered the economic scale and construction. → Energy consumed by immaterial production was first referred in this article. → The relationship between energy consumed by household and GDP fits the invert-S curve, which is first referred too.

  11. Iodine Intake Estimation from the Consumption of Instant Noodles, Drinking Water and Household Salt in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutrisna, Aang; Knowles, Jacky; Basuni, Abas; Menon, Ravi; Sugihantono, Anung

    2018-03-08

    The objective of this study was to assess the contribution of iodine intake from iodised household salt, iodised salt in instant noodles, and iodine in ground water in five regions of Indonesia. Secondary data analysis was performed using the 2013 Primary Health Research Survey, the 2014 Total Diet Study, and data from food industry research. Iodine intake was estimated among 2719 children, 10-12 years of age (SAC), 13,233 women of reproductive age (WRA), and 578 pregnant women (PW). Combined estimated iodine intake from the three stated sources met 78%, 70%, and 41% of iodine requirements for SAC, WRA and PW, respectively. Household salt iodine contributed about half of the iodine requirements for SAC (49%) and WRA (48%) and a quarter for PW (28%). The following variations were found: for population group, the percentage of estimated dietary iodine requirements met by instant noodle consumption was significantly higher among SAC; for region, estimated iodine intake was significantly higher from ground water for WRA in Java, and from household salt for SAC and WRA in Kalimantan and Java; and for household socio-economic status (SES), iodine intake from household salt was significantly higher in the highest SES households. Enforcement of clear implementing regulations for iodisation of household and food industry salt will promote optimal iodine intake among all population groups with different diets.

  12. Iodine Intake Estimation from the Consumption of Instant Noodles, Drinking Water and Household Salt in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aang Sutrisna

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the contribution of iodine intake from iodised household salt, iodised salt in instant noodles, and iodine in ground water in five regions of Indonesia. Secondary data analysis was performed using the 2013 Primary Health Research Survey, the 2014 Total Diet Study, and data from food industry research. Iodine intake was estimated among 2719 children, 10–12 years of age (SAC, 13,233 women of reproductive age (WRA, and 578 pregnant women (PW. Combined estimated iodine intake from the three stated sources met 78%, 70%, and 41% of iodine requirements for SAC, WRA and PW, respectively. Household salt iodine contributed about half of the iodine requirements for SAC (49% and WRA (48% and a quarter for PW (28%. The following variations were found: for population group, the percentage of estimated dietary iodine requirements met by instant noodle consumption was significantly higher among SAC; for region, estimated iodine intake was significantly higher from ground water for WRA in Java, and from household salt for SAC and WRA in Kalimantan and Java; and for household socio-economic status (SES, iodine intake from household salt was significantly higher in the highest SES households. Enforcement of clear implementing regulations for iodisation of household and food industry salt will promote optimal iodine intake among all population groups with different diets.

  13. State Energy Data Report, 1991: Consumption estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining SEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. SEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to the Government, policy makers, and the public; and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA's energy models

  14. State energy data report 1993: Consumption estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining SEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. SEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public; and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models.

  15. Cost-benefit analysis of implementing minimum energy efficiency standards for household refrigerator-freezers in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlia, T.M.I.; Masjuki, H.H.; Saidur, R.; Amalina, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The ownership of household electrical appliances especially refrigerator-freezer has increased rapidly in Malaysia. Almost every household in this country has a refrigerator-freezer. To reduce energy consumption in this sector the refrigerator is one of the top priorities of the energy efficiency program for household appliances. Malaysian authority is considering implementing minimum energy efficiency standards for refrigerator-freezer sometime in the coming year. This paper attempts to analyze cost-benefit of implementing minimum energy efficiency standards for household refrigerator-freezers in Malaysia. The calculations were made based on growth of ownership data for refrigerators in Malaysian households. The number of refrigerator-freezer has increased from 175,842 units in 1970 to 4,196,486 in 2000 and it will be about 11,293,043 in the year of 2020. Meanwhile it has accounted for about 26.3% of electricity consumption in a single household. Therefore, efficiency improvement of this appliance will give a significant impact in the future of electricity consumption in this country. Furthermore, it has been found that implementing an energy efficiency standard for household refrigerator-freezers is economically justified

  16. The potential for quantitative sociological research on residential energy consumption in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Rhiger

    2013-01-01

    sociological analysis into energy consumption, enabling researchers in Denmark to use information on energy consumption derived from the energy-supply companies. Furthermore, I present a preliminary research design that employs both a quantitative sociological perspective and the newly available data on actual...... energy consumption. The research design contains a descriptive analysis of how energy demand differs between different types of households. In my conclusion, I claim that quantitative sociological research on energy consumption has great potential for obtaining more knowledge on energy consumption......In this paper, I begin with a description of how a sociological perspective can be employed to understand energy consumption while taking into account that energy consumption is embedded in everyday social practices. Next, I describe how newly available data enhances the potential of quantitative...

  17. Building and occupant characteristics as determinants of residential energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Nieves, A.L.

    1981-10-01

    The major goals of the research are to gain insight into the probable effects of building energy performance standards on energy consumption; to obtain observations of actual residential energy consumption that could affirm or disaffirm comsumption estimates of the DOE 2.0A simulation model; and to investigate home owner's conservation investments and home purchase decisions. The first chapter covers the investigation of determinants of household energy consumption. The presentation begins with the underlying economic theory and its implications, and continues with a description of the data collection procedures, the formulation of variables, and then of data analysis and findings. In the second chapter the assumptions and limitations of the energy use projections generated by the DOE 2.0A model are discussed. Actual electricity data for the houses are then compared with results of the simulation. The third chapter contains information regarding households' willingness to make energy conserving investments and their ranking of various conservation features. In the final chapter conclusions and recommendations are presented with an emphasis on the policy implications of this study. (MCW)

  18. Initiative EnergieEffizienz : An information campaign on energy efficiency for private households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricola, Annegret-Cl.; Ahrens, Wiebke

    2005-01-01

    Unnecessary energy consumption can be avoided easily by making intelligent decisions when buying and using household equipment and hence cut the electricity bill and reduce carbon dioxide emissions. This is the key message imparted by the information campaign on energy efficiency for private households. The campaign addresses three main topics: the reduction or avoidance of stand by energy consumption of consumer electronics and IT-equipment, energy efficient high quality lighting and energy efficiency in the white goods sector. Consumers are addressed via a broad range of communication measures highlighting the efficiency issue. These instruments include advertisement in nationwide print media, regular press releases, public relations activities etc. Special information material are made for young people as well as for the Turkish minority in Germany. The main strategy of the campaign is to co-operate with retailers: consumers are to gain information on energy efficiency at the point of sale where domestic appliances and lighting equipment are sold. The campaign offers information for the point of sale including brochures for customers as well as for sales assistants. By December 2004 approximately 7,200 points of sale all over in Germany were equipped with the campaign's information. The German national energy agency (dena) runs the information campaign in co-operation with the German associations of power suppliers, the German foundation for environmental protection and the Federal Ministry of Economy and Labour. The campaign started in 2002. Its aims are to arise consumers' awareness, to inform consumers on energy efficient appliances and give motivation when buying and using them. Through these aims the campaign should contribute to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the private sector In order to measure the campaign's impact a quantitative analysis is carried out. First results show a change in public's awareness and attitude towards energy efficiency

  19. Wood, energy and households: perspectives on rural Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, C; Ensminger, J; O' Keefe, P [eds.

    1984-01-01

    A collection of nine articles on agricultural and pastoral households in Kenya stems from a growing concern about the ability of households to meet their energy needs as the demand for wood resources increasingly outstrips the supply and the potential for securing non-biomass sources appears bleak. The future for most rural households relates to the socio-economic differentiation and the economic condition which exists in most Fourth World countries. The studies reflect the author's diverse interests in ecology, economics, geography, history, and anthropology, but all employ a household-level analysis. Separate abstracts were prepared for the nine chapters selected for the Energy Data Base (EDB) and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EPA).

  20. The Effect of Feedback by SMS-text messages and email on Household Electricity Consumption: Experimental Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of supplying online feedback by SMS-text messages and email about electricity consumption on the level of total household electricity consumption. An experiment was conducted in which 1,452 households were randomly allocated to three experimental groups and two...

  1. The Impact of Public Pension on Household Consumption: Evidence from China’s Survey Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zhao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is of vital importance to examine the relationship between pensions and household consumption/saving because this forms a link between social policy and economic development. Based on theories of absolute income, permanent income, and the life-cycle hypothesis, this paper constructs panel data models to investigate the effect of public pension participation and benefit level on household consumption. Evidence from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS 2011 and 2013 survey data shows that, compared with those not covered by any public pension program, individuals enrolled in the public pension system tend to consume more within respective income-quantile groups. Moreover, for the retired population, we found lower income groups have a higher marginal propensity to consume than higher income groups. In other words, lower income groups are likely to spend a higher proportion of any increase in pension benefit on consumption than higher income groups. To achieve a virtuous cycle between public pension, household consumption, and economic growth and, thus, a social-economically sustainable development, we suggest that China’s pension system should be extended to cover all in the lowest income group, and the benefit level should be increased gradually to secure a stable expectation for the future and motivate current consumption.

  2. 20:60:20--differences in energy behaviour and conservation between and within households with electricity monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtagh, Niamh; Gatersleben, Birgitta; Uzzell, David

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of electricity monitors (in-home displays; IHDs), which show accurate and up-to-the-minute energy usage, is expected to lead to reduction in consumption. Studies of feedback on domestic electricity use have generally supported this view. However, such studies also demonstrate wide variation between households. Examining the heterogeneity of responses is essential for understanding the actual and potential effectiveness of IHDs and in order to target interventions effectively. To explore differences between households' responses to IHDs, we conducted a qualitative study with 21 households who had an IHD for more than six months. Of the 21, only four households continued to refer to the IHD and the findings suggest that attempts to reduce energy consumption were situated in wider social and physical contexts. Further, the participants demonstrated energy saving behaviour before and outside of IHD usage. The patterns of energy behaviours and attempts at electricity conservation could best be understood by categorising the households into three types: the Monitor Enthusiasts (20%), the Aspiring Energy Savers (60%) and the Energy Non-Engaged (20%). The factors of importance in energy behaviour differed between the categories. Financial savings contributed to efforts to reduce energy use but only up to boundaries which varied considerably between households. Social practices and social relationships appeared to constrain what actions households were prepared to undertake, illuminating aspects of inter-household variation. Within the household, all energy users were not equal and we found that women were particularly influential on energy use through their primary responsibility for domestic labour on behalf of the household. The implications of the findings for environmental campaigning are discussed.

  3. 20∶60∶20 - Differences in Energy Behaviour and Conservation between and within Households with Electricity Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtagh, Niamh; Gatersleben, Birgitta; Uzzell, David

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of electricity monitors (in-home displays; IHDs), which show accurate and up-to-the-minute energy usage, is expected to lead to reduction in consumption. Studies of feedback on domestic electricity use have generally supported this view. However, such studies also demonstrate wide variation between households. Examining the heterogeneity of responses is essential for understanding the actual and potential effectiveness of IHDs and in order to target interventions effectively. To explore differences between households' responses to IHDs, we conducted a qualitative study with 21 households who had an IHD for more than six months. Of the 21, only four households continued to refer to the IHD and the findings suggest that attempts to reduce energy consumption were situated in wider social and physical contexts. Further, the participants demonstrated energy saving behaviour before and outside of IHD usage. The patterns of energy behaviours and attempts at electricity conservation could best be understood by categorising the households into three types: the Monitor Enthusiasts (20%), the Aspiring Energy Savers (60%) and the Energy Non-Engaged (20%). The factors of importance in energy behaviour differed between the categories. Financial savings contributed to efforts to reduce energy use but only up to boundaries which varied considerably between households. Social practices and social relationships appeared to constrain what actions households were prepared to undertake, illuminating aspects of inter-household variation. Within the household, all energy users were not equal and we found that women were particularly influential on energy use through their primary responsibility for domestic labour on behalf of the household. The implications of the findings for environmental campaigning are discussed. PMID:24642946

  4. Energy and associated greenhouse gas emissions from household appliances in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidur, R.; Masjuki, H.H.; Jamaluddin, M.Y.; Ahmed, S.

    2007-01-01

    Today, electricity is an indispensable key for civilization and development. The trend of electricity consumption is rather escalating. Electricity generation principally depends upon fossil fuels. In one hand, the stocks of these fuels have been confirmed to be critically limited. On the other hand, in process of electricity generation by means of these fuels, a number of poisonous by-products adversely affect the conservation of natural eco-system. Further, electricity driven appliances use emanate anti-environmental gases that also affect human health and climate. Therefore, estimation of energy consumption for operating household appliances, savings of energy under policy intervention, and emission of poisonous gases in a fast developing country deserve academic attention. This paper focuses on estimation of energy consumption, energy savings, reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases for use of household appliances in Malaysia between 1999 and 2015. In the upstream side of electricity generation, the study estimates the amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs) resulting from burning of fossil fuels. In downstream side, it considers the energy savings and reduction of CHGs. The results show that significant amount of energy can be saved and thus huge volume of toxic emissions can be controlled. The findings can be useful to policy makers as well as household appliances users

  5. Lighting and social practices - what role does lighting play for low energy house (LEH) households and LED frontrunners?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte Louise

    As lighting in Danish households consume approximately 1.3 TWh every year, reducing electricity consumption from lighting is important. Studies have shown that a mere substitution of inefficient lighting technologies towards more efficient ones may not be possible, as many social and cultural...... dimensions influence how people use and relate to lighting. Assessing how very distinctive contexts of households (that diverge from an exemplary kind of household), such as low energy houses and LED frontrunner households, use and understand lighting, may give some insight into what may trigger or hamper...

  6. Investigation of the economic possibilities regarding the reduction of energy intensity for electrical household appliances. Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, G

    1980-01-01

    Investigation results concerning the analysis of the energy application for electrical household appliances have not been available up to now. The investigation had the purpose of analysing the energy consumption of energy-intensive household appliances so that energy conservation possibilities with regard to the effectiveness may be developed. The parts of the effective and of the lost energy are being experimentally determined for the following appliances: large-scale hot water tank, washing machine, laundry drier, dish washer, electric hearth, coolers and refrigerators. The influence of the utilization habits on the specific energy consumption and the relationship between the energy application and the application properties are being investigated. On the basis of the investigation results the different possibilities of energy conservation are shown, together with some aspects of economical operation. On the basis of the investigation results also, the potential of the energy conservation, related to practical consumption values, is estimated at about 5-40%, depending on the appliance.

  7. State energy data report 1994: Consumption estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This document provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), operated by EIA. SEDS provides State energy consumption estimates to members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public, and provides the historical series needed for EIA`s energy models. Division is made for each energy type and end use sector. Nuclear electric power is included.

  8. State energy data report 1994: Consumption estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This document provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), operated by EIA. SEDS provides State energy consumption estimates to members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public, and provides the historical series needed for EIA's energy models. Division is made for each energy type and end use sector. Nuclear electric power is included

  9. Alcohol Consumption: Measuring the Risk of Household Poverty - Case of the Urban District of Toamasina - Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela SARPE

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The individual consumer of alcohol, often the household head, loses part of his income to buy alcohol. Excessive consumption of alcohol causes social costs (support costs of illness, family trauma, car accident, job loss and productivity etc.. Its effects on the health of the individual drinker are asymptomatic. If it is the case of a disease of alcoholism, the household must bear the costs of care, and those whose low-income or average income is below the permanent poverty, are confronted with a financial difficulty, drawing their savings and even selling their property to address this shortfall. The accumulation of costs caused by alcohol consumption is then a catastrophic expense for the household. The aim of the study is to show to what point we can calculate the risk of household poverty with an alcoholic individual head of household between the two periods: "disease free" and "appearance of the disease of alcoholism" Having obtained the value of the poverty line, a mathematical modeling of the expense of alcohol was made to derive an orientation axis to minimize the risk of poverty.

  10. DETERMINING INDICATORS OF URBAN HOUSEHOLD WATER CONSUMPTION THROUGH MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gledsneli Maria Lima Lins

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Water has a decisive influence on populations’ life quality – specifically in areas like urban supply, drainage, and effluents treatment – due to its sound impact over public health. Water rational use constitutes the greatest challenge faced by water demand management, mainly with regard to urban household water consumption. This makes it important to develop researches to assist water managers and public policy-makers in planning and formulating water demand measures which may allow urban water rational use to be met. This work utilized the multivariate techniques Factor Analysis and Multiple Linear Regression Analysis – in order to determine the participation level of socioeconomic and climatic variables in monthly urban household consumption changes – applying them to two districts of Campina Grande city (State of Paraíba, Brazil. The districts were chosen based on socioeconomic criterion (income level so as to evaluate their water consumer’s behavior. A 9-year monthly data series (from year 2000 up to 2008 was utilized, comprising family income, water tariff, and quantity of household connections (economies – as socioeconomic variables – and average temperature and precipitation, as climatic variables. For both the selected districts of Campina Grande city, the obtained results point out the variables “water tariff” and “family income” as indicators of these district’s household consumption.

  11. The impact of high energy prices in Central American households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuesta, Ana; Manzano, Osmel

    2010-09-15

    Central American countries have one the highest energy costs in Latin America. We look at the potential social impact of higher energy prices using household data. Depending on a portfolio of characteristics, higher energy prices could have significant impact on the poor purchasing power. In countries like Guatemala, the poorest could see a higher impact than the richest. In Mexico and Panama, the impact is higher for the 'lower middle class'. We measure indirect effects of lack of energy sources, we conclude that children that live in households that cook with fossil fuels are subject to attend less to school.

  12. The impact of high energy prices in Central American households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuesta, Ana; Manzano, Osmel

    2010-09-15

    Central American countries have one the highest energy costs in Latin America. We look at the potential social impact of higher energy prices using household data. Depending on a portfolio of characteristics, higher energy prices could have significant impact on the poor purchasing power. In countries like Guatemala, the poorest could see a higher impact than the richest. In Mexico and Panama, the impact is higher for the 'lower middle class'. We measure indirect effects of lack of energy sources, we conclude that children that live in households that cook with fossil fuels are subject to attend less to school.

  13. State energy data report 1996: Consumption estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sectors. The estimates are developed in the Combined State Energy Data System (CSEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining CSEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. CSEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models. To the degree possible, energy consumption has been assigned to five sectors: residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, and electric utility sectors. Fuels covered are coal, natural gas, petroleum, nuclear electric power, hydroelectric power, biomass, and other, defined as electric power generated from geothermal, wind, photovoltaic, and solar thermal energy. 322 tabs.

  14. State energy data report 1996: Consumption estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sectors. The estimates are developed in the Combined State Energy Data System (CSEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining CSEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. CSEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA's energy models. To the degree possible, energy consumption has been assigned to five sectors: residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, and electric utility sectors. Fuels covered are coal, natural gas, petroleum, nuclear electric power, hydroelectric power, biomass, and other, defined as electric power generated from geothermal, wind, photovoltaic, and solar thermal energy. 322 tabs

  15. Price sensitive electric power consumption in households. Final report; Prisfoelsomt elforbrug i husholdninger. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togeby, M.; Hay, C. (Ea Energianalyse A/S, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2009-08-15

    To gain experience with electric power consumption in households based on demand response a demonstration project was carried out for households with electric heating. More than 500 households with high power consumption (over 15,000 kWh / yr) participated. Participating households were divided into four groups: 1) a group with automation equipment ('Devi') installed, which automatically controls the electric heating in relation to electricity price signals based on pre-defined standards, 2) a group with electronics equipment ('Electronic House Keeper') installed which can show price signals so that the participant himself can control the electric heating in relation thereto, 3) a group who daily received an e-mail or a text message indicating the fluctuations in electricity prices, so that the participant can control the electric heating in relation to the received information, 4) a control group who did not have knowledge of or participated in the experiment. The main results of the project are that consumption must be controlled through automation. A real impact of the experiment can only be seen for the Devi group, which had automation equipment installed, and not for the email / text message group who had to manually respond to price signals. There must be opportunities for higher degree of differentiation. The automatics should be coupled to multiple thermostats, and the control should be detailed, for example, with control based on the individual thermostat in each room. The thermal comfort is essential. The participants want to manage and move their electricity consumption directly via 'Electronic House Keeper'. They would welcome the opportunity to have all household appliances connected to the solution, making it possible to turn on / off these depending on prices. Good information and communication are crucial to participants' motivation. (ln)

  16. Energy saving in the household. Vol. 2. A reasoning interview investigation on the current consumption differential in the summer time in a residential block estate. Energisparing i husstellet. Vol. 2. En intervju-undersoekelse om aarsaker til forskjeller i stroemforbruket om sommeren i et blokkomraade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilstad, S; Lund, I

    1983-01-01

    The present study represents a behavioral approach to residential energy (electricity) conservation. It is especially concerned with socio-psychological variabales like habits, attitudes, social control and mass communication. In addition to that, the effects of family structural variables (size, age, occupation, absence from home), some physical environmental variables and household equipment and appliances are investigated. (Some data on the use of private cars are also included). The sample consists of 113 appartments of identical size (94 m/sup 2/), heated by electricity. The data collection procedure included reading the electric meters in May and September 1982 and systematic interviews with each family after the second reading. The general purpose of the data analysis was to explain the variance in electricity consumption. The most important determinants for differences between families in electricity consumption during the investigated summer period were found to be: family size, number of weeks away from home, use of heating equipment, and attitudes toward energy conservation at home. A number of other factors also contributed substantially to the differences, e.g. age, the use of hot water, size and placement of home freezer, frequency of using washing mashine and dish washer, the use of light, perceived consequences of energy conservation, family cooperation etc. Practical implications for disseminating information on energy conservation in the residential sector through mass media campaigns are discussed.

  17. Energy-microfinance intervention for low income households in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P. Sharath Chandra

    In India, limited energy access and energy inequity hamper the lives of low income households. Traditional fuels such as firewood and dung cake account for 84 percent and 32 percent of the rural and urban household cooking energy (NSSO, 2007). With 412 million people without access to electricity in 2005, India hosts the world's largest such population (IEA, 2007). But, low income households still spend 9 - 11.7 percent1 of their incomes on inefficient forms of energy while wealthy households spend less than 5 percent on better energy products (Saghir, 2005). Renewable energy technologies coupled with innovative financial products can address the energy access problem facing the low income households in India (MacLean & Siegel, 2007; REEEP, 2009). Nevertheless, the low income households continue to face low access to mainstream finance for purchasing renewable energy technology at terms that meet their monthly energy related expenditure (ESMAP, 2004a; SEEP, 2008a) and low or no access to energy services (Ailawadi & Bhattacharyya, 2006; Modi et. al., 2006). The lack of energy-finance options has left the marginalized population with little means to break the dependence on traditional fuels. This dissertation proposes an energy microfinance intervention to address the present situation. It designed a loan product dedicated to the purchase of renewable energy technologies while taking into account the low and irregular cash flows of the low income households. The arguments presented in this dissertation are based on a six-month pilot project using this product designed and developed by the author in conjunction with a microfinance institution and its low income clients and Energy Service Companies in the state of Karnataka. Finding the right stakeholders and establishing a joint agreement, obtaining grant money for conducting the technology dissemination workshops and forming a clear procedure for commissioning the project, are the key lessons learnt from this study

  18. Does fertility decrease household consumption?: An analysis of poverty dynamics and fertility in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungho Kim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical analysis of the relationship between fertility and a direct measure of poverty for Indonesia, a country, which has experienced unprecedented economic growth and sharp fertility declines over recent decades. It focuses on illustrating the sensitivity of the effect of fertility on household consumption with respect to the equivalence scale by applying the propensity score matching method. The analysis suggests that a newborn child decreases household consumption per person by 20 percent within four years. When the estimates of equivalence scales implied by the Indonesian sample are applied, the effect of a child on household consumption is still negative, but the magnitudes are in the range from 20 to 65 percent of that found with the per-capita expenditure as a measure of consumption. Therefore, it is suggested that the analysis based on the conventional measure of poverty is likely to exaggerate the effect of fertility on poverty at least because of the neglect of the proper equivalence scale.

  19. The direct and indirect household energy requirements in the Republic of Korea from 1980 to 2000 - An input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hi-Chun; Heo, Eunnyeong

    2007-01-01

    As energy conservation can be realized through changes in the composition of goods and services consumed, there is a need to assess indirect and total household energy requirements. The Korean household sector was responsible for about 52% of the national primary energy requirement in the period from 1980 to 2000. Of this total, more than 60% of household energy requirement was indirect. Thus, not only direct but also indirect household energy requirement should be the target of energy conservation policies. Electricity became the main fuel in household energy use in 2000. Households consume more and more electricity intensive goods and services, a sign of increasing living standards. Increases in household consumption expenditure were responsible for a relatively high growth of energy consumption. Switching to consumption of less energy intensive products and decrease in energy intensities of products in 1990s contributed substantially to reduce the increase in the total household energy requirement. A future Korean study should apply a hybrid method as to reduce errors occurred by using uniform (average) prices in constructing energy input-output tables and as to make energy intensities of different years more comparable. (author)

  20. The Relationship Between Energy Consumption and Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As evidenced from the study, causality runs from energy consumption to economic growth. Energy consumption in Nigeria is mainly based on the use of fossil fuels which is non-renewable. Therefore, in order to actualize its vision of becoming one of the 20th largest economies in the World by the year 2020, government ...

  1. Environmental degradation, energy consumption, population growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the result, there is no evidence of unidirectional causality running from CO2 emissions and energy consumption to economic growth and strong unidirectional causality running from CO2 emissions, energy consumption and economic growth to population growth was found. The long run and short run estimates ...

  2. Household consumption, associated fossil fuel demand and carbon dioxide emissions: The case of Greece between 1990 and 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papathanasopoulou, Eleni

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores how Greece's household consumption has changed between 1990 and 2006 and its environmental implications in terms of fossil fuel demand and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. The results show that the 44% increase in Greece's household expenditure between 1990 and 2006 was accompanied by a 67% increase in fossil fuel demand. Of this total, indirect demand accounted for approximately 60% throughout the 16-year period, increasing by 56% overall, whereas direct fossil fuel demand grew by 80%. The results also show that associated CO 2 emissions increased by 60%, resulting in a 'relative decoupling' from energy demand. This relative decoupling is shown to be due to fossil fuel mix changes from the supply side rather than action from consumers. These insights highlight the opportunities for demand-side policies to further reduce fossil fuel demand and CO 2 emissions, allowing Greece to set more proactive and ambitious post-Kyoto targets.

  3. Energy requirements of consumption: Urban form, climatic and socio-economic factors, rebounds and their policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedenhofer, Dominik; Lenzen, Manfred; Steinberger, Julia K.

    2013-01-01

    Household consumption requires energy to be used at all stages of the economic process, thereby directly and indirectly leading to environmental impacts across the entire production chain. The levels, structure and determinants of energy requirements of household consumption therefore constitute an important avenue of research. Incorporating the full upstream requirements into the analysis helps to avoid simplistic conclusions which would actually only imply shifts between consumption categories without taking the economy wide effects into account. This paper presents the investigation of the direct and indirect primary energy requirements of Australian households, contrasting urban, suburban and rural consumption patterns as well as inter- and intra-regional levels of inequality in energy requirements. Furthermore the spatial and socio-economic drivers of energy consumption for different categories of energy requirements are identified and quantified. Conclusions regarding the relationships between energy requirements, household characteristics, urban form and urbanization processes are drawn and the respective policy implications are explored. - Highlights: • We statistically analyze the energy requirements of consumption in Australia. • Contrasting urban/suburban/rural consumption patterns and spatial inequality. • Energy requirements are influenced by urban form, income and demographics. • Urban households require less direct energy, but their total consumption is higher. • Significant rebound effects can be expected when direct energy use is decreased

  4. URBAN FEATURES AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION AT LOCAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Soltani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a growing interest in discovering the human effects on the environment and energy consumption in recent decades. It is estimated that the share of energy consumed in transportation and housing systems are around 20 and 30 percent of total energy consumption respectively. Furthermore, the residential greenhouse emissions depend on urban form and structure. This paper explores the effects of urban features on residential energy consumption at neighborhood level using data collected through household questionnaire (n=140. Two residential districts in metropolitan Shiraz, south of Iran, were selected as case study areas. Different features of two areas were compared including building density, typology, housing location, parcel size, floor area and construction materials. Ordinary linear regression was used to discover the impact of explanatory variables on energy consumption. It was found that some physical variables such as parcel size, setback and number of floors played significant roles in explaining the variances exist in energy use level. The results can be used by governmental agencies to modify land use policies and subdivision rules in hope of saving energy and achieving a sustainable community.

  5. Testing the Optimality of Consumption Decisions of the Representative Household: Evidence from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gesteira Costa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates whether there is a fraction of consumers that do not behave as fully forward-looking optimal consumers in the Brazilian economy. The generalized method of moments technique was applied to nonlinear Euler equations of the consumption-based capital assets model contemplating utility functions with time separability and non-separability. The results show that when the household utility function was modeled as constant relative risk aversion, external habits and Kreps–Porteus, estimates of the fraction of rule-of-thumb households was, respectively, 89%, 78% and 22%. According to this, a portion of disposable income goes to households who consume their current incomes in violation of the permanent income hypothesis.

  6. Calculations of energy consumption in ventilation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreslins, Andris; Ramata, Anna [Riga Technical University (Latvia)], e-mail: kreslins@rbf.rtu.lv, email: Anna.Ramata@rtu.lv

    2011-07-01

    Energy cost is an important economic factor in the food industry production process. With the rising price of energy, a reduction in energy consumption would greatly impact production and the end product. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology for optimizing energy consumption. A comparison between a traditional ventilation system and a mechanical system was carried out; the necessary enthalpy for heating the air supply and thermal energy consumption were calculated and compared for both systems during the heating season, from October to April, using climatological data for Latvia. Results showed that energy savings of 46% to 87% can be achieved by applying the methodology in the design of industrial buildings; in addition, a well-designed ventilation system increases the workers' productivity. This study presented a methodology which can optimize energy consumption in the food industry sector.

  7. Lessons for integrated household energy conservation policies from an intervention study in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kua, H.W.; Wong, S.E.

    2012-01-01

    In preparation for a community energy conservation program in the southwest district of Singapore, a pilot intervention study was conducted between August and November 2008 to study the effectiveness of tailored information and feedback in promoting household conservation. A sample of 125 households was involved in the study, of which 63 were the control group. Both self-reported behavioral changes and actual energy reductions were measured and any Hawthorne effect was identified. It was found that self-reported behavioral changes were strongly correlated to the level of trust in the energy conservation information given, the need for ease in practicing the recommended conservation measures and feeling of satisfaction in executing the measures; these results differ from several past studies on energy interventions. 60.7% of those who reported behavioral changes actually reduced energy consumption. Reasons were found and discussed. Lessons from this intervention study can be applied to design integrated policies aimed at promoting energy conservation in households. - Highlights: ► Energy intervention was implemented on 125 households. ► Outreach instruments included stickers, pamphlets and counseling. ► Self-reported behavioral and actual reductions were recorded. ► Self-reported behavioral change was only correlated to trust of information given. ► It was also correlated to ease of actions and feeling of satisfaction from actions.

  8. How do socio-demographic and psychological factors relate to households' direct and indirect energy use and savings?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, Wokje; Steg, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Households constitute an important target group for energy conservation. They not only use energy in a direct way (gas, electricity and fuel) but also in an indirect way (embedded in the production, consumption and disposal of goods). During a period of five months (viz., October 2002-March 2003),

  9. Estimates of US biomass energy consumption 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report is the seventh in a series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to quantify the biomass-derived primary energy used by the US economy. It presents estimates of 1991 and 1992 consumption. The objective of this report is to provide updated estimates of biomass energy consumption for use by Congress, Federal and State agencies, biomass producers and end-use sectors, and the public at large

  10. Estimates of US biomass energy consumption 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-06

    This report is the seventh in a series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to quantify the biomass-derived primary energy used by the US economy. It presents estimates of 1991 and 1992 consumption. The objective of this report is to provide updated estimates of biomass energy consumption for use by Congress, Federal and State agencies, biomass producers and end-use sectors, and the public at large.

  11. State energy data report 1995 - consumption estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sectors. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining SEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public, and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models.

  12. Energy Beverage Consumption Among Naval Aviation Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sather, Thomas E; Delorey, Donald R

    2016-06-01

    Since the debut of energy beverages, the consumption of energy beverages has been immensely popular with young adults. Research regarding energy beverage consumption has included college students, European Union residents, and U.S. Army military personnel. However, energy beverage consumption among naval aviation candidates in the United States has yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to assess energy beverage consumption patterns (frequency and volume) among naval aviation candidates, including attitudes and perceptions regarding the benefits and safety of energy beverage consumption. A 44-item survey was used to assess energy beverage consumption patterns of 302 students enrolled in the Aviation Preflight Indoctrination Course at Naval Air Station Pensacola, FL. Results indicated that 79% of participants (N = 239) reported consuming energy beverages within the last year. However, of those who reported consuming energy beverages within the last year, only 36% (N = 85) reported consuming energy beverages within the last 30 d. Additionally, 51% (N = 153) of participants reported no regular energy beverages consumption. The majority of participants consumed energy beverages for mental alertness (67%), mental endurance (37%), and physical endurance (12%). The most reported side effects among participants included increased mental alertness (67%), increased heart rate (53%), and restlessness (41%). Naval aviation candidates appear to use energy drinks as frequently as a college student population, but less frequently than expected for an active duty military population. The findings of this study indicate that naval aviation candidates rarely use energy beverages (less than once per month), but when consumed, they use it for fatigue management.

  13. Effects of socioeconomic factors on household appliance, lighting, and space cooling electricity consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydinalp, M. [Itron Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Ismet Ugursal, V.; Fung, A.S. [Dalhousie University, Halifax (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2003-07-01

    Two methods are currently used to model residential energy consumption at the national or regional level: the engineering method and the conditional demand analysis (CDA) method. One of the major difficulties associated with the use of engineering models is the inclusion of consumer behaviour and socioeconomic factors that have significant effects on the residential energy consumption. The CDA method can handle socioeconomic factors if they are included in the model formulation. However, the multicollinearity problem and the need for a very large amount of data make the use of CDA models very difficult. It is shown in this paper that the neural network (NN) method can be used to model the residential energy consumption with the inclusion of socioeconomic factors. The appliances, lighting, and cooling component of the NN based energy consumption model developed for the Canadian residential sector is presented here and the effects of some socioeconomic factors on the residential energy consumption are examined using the model. (author)

  14. Total energy consumption in Finland increased by one percent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timonen, L.

    2000-01-01

    in Finland. About 50% of the energy is consumed by the industry. The share of industry of the total energy consumption increased by 2% from the year 1998. Electric power consumption increased by 1.6%. The total annual consumption of electric power in Finland was 77.9 TWh. The share of industry was 42.5 TWh corresponding to 55% of the total. Households consumed about 2% more electric power in 1999 than in 1998, while the share of agricultural sector decrease by 1.5%. The total electric power generation in Finland in 1999 was 66.8 TWh, being about 1.0 % less than in 1998

  15. Effective and persistent changes in household energy-saving behaviors: Evidence from post-tsunami Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimi, Toshio; Kajitani, Yoshio; Chang, Stephanie E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Some households’ adaptations to electricity shortage can be new efficient habits. • The electricity shortage in Japan was used as a natural experiment. • Some behaviors contributed to 2–4% electricity savings and persisted for two years. • Behaviors requiring frequency and discomfort cannot be effective or persistent. • Lowering the electricity-usage level of appliances might be a promising behavior. - Abstract: This paper focuses on households’ development of new energy-efficient habits as demonstrated in the context of a major electricity shortfall event. Energy conservation policies should encourage households to take measures that are actually effective in reducing energy consumption and that can be sustained over long periods of time. Few studies, however, have empirically examined what types of energy-saving measures are actually effective and persistent. The electricity shortages following the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear disaster provided an opportunity to examine this question. A web survey of households in Japan was implemented to obtain data on metered electricity use in the summers of 2010–2013, household behaviors for electricity savings, and household socioeconomic attributes. Regression analysis was conducted to explain the effectiveness and persistence of energy saving behaviors. Results indicate that most households took several electricity-saving measures after the disaster to adapt to the electricity shortage. Certain types of measures led to 2–4% savings in electricity consumption (per measure) and persisted for two years. The effective and persistent electricity-saving measures tended to be those that did not require either frequent efforts or considerable discomfort. Findings suggest that electricity-saving behaviors requiring infrequent effort and little discomfort can become engrained as new habits or lifestyles. In particular, one promising measure may be to lower the electricity

  16. Wealth Effects on Household Final Consumption: Stock and Housing Market Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yener Coskun

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The study primarily explores the linkage between wealth effects, arising from stock and housing market channels, and household final consumption for 11 advanced countries over the period from 1970 Q1 to 2015 Q4. As a modelling strategy, we employ regression analysis through the common correlated effects mean group (CCEMG estimator, as well as Durbin–Hausman cointegration and Dumitrescu and Hurlin (2012 causality tests. The study provides various pieces of evidence through whole-panel and country-level analyses. In this respect, we find that consumption is mostly explained by income and housing wealth is positively and significantly correlated with consumption. As counter-intuitive evidence, we detect a negative linkage between consumption and stock wealth. The evidence also suggests a long-run cointegration relationship among consumption, income, interest rates, housing wealth, and stock wealth. Moreover, we find bidirectional causality between consumption and income, stock wealth, housing wealth, and interest rates. Overall, the evidence implies that housing wealth, rather than stock wealth, is the primary source of consumption growth in advanced countries.

  17. Social costs of energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohmeyer, O.

    1988-01-01

    This study systematically compares the external costs and benefits of different electricity generating technologies. It covers environmental and employment effects, the depletion of natural resources, and public subsidies. Electricity production based on fossil fuels and nuclear energy compared with electricity production based on wind energy and photovoltaic systems. The study shows that wind and photovoltaic solar energy induce far less social costs than conventionally generated electricity. The impact of excluding social costs on the competitive position of the different energy technologies is analyzed. It is shown that the allocation process is seriously distorted resulting in sub-optimal investment decisions concerning competing energy technologies. This exclusion of social costs can delay the introduction of renewable energy sources by more than ten years and results in considerable losses to society. (orig./HSCH) With 17 figs., 24 tabs

  18. 2005 primary energy consumption in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    According to preliminar calculations by the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Working Party on Energy Balances, AGEB), the consumption of an aggregate 486 million TCE of primary energy resources in Germany last year was 1.3% below the level of the year before. Energy consumption was influenced by both the high level of prices and the development of the economy. Hardly any influence was attributable to the level of temperatures, which was largely unchanged compared to the figure of the year before. Oil consumption in 2005 in Germany dropped by nearly 2% to 174.8 million TCE. On the whole, oil with its 36% share in the energy balance remained by far the most important energy resource in Germany. Natural gas consumption of 110.4 million TCE was at the level of the year before. Its share in the primary energy balance rose slightly to 22.7%. Hard coal, because of lower use in power plants and the decline in iron making, showed a 4.6% drop in consumption to 62.8 million TCE. In this way, hard coal contributed 13% to total energy consumption. Lignite consumption dropped by 3.2% to 54.4 million TCE as a result of lower deliveries to power plants. Its 11.2% share in the total consumption of primary energy continued to make lignite the most important domestic energy resource. More than 90% of the lignite produced is used for electricity generation. The contribution to primary energy consumption of nuclear power dropped by more than 2% to 60.7 million TCE. Hydroelectric plants and wind power plants increased their contribution by 3.6%. The contribution to primary energy consumption made by all renewable energy resources rose to 4.6%. AGEB evaluates statistics of all areas of the power economy on the basis of standard criteria in order to combine these data in a comprehensive picture. Since 1994, the energy balances for Germany have been compiled by DIW on behalf of AGEB. (orig.)

  19. Using Household Consumption and Expenditures Survey (HCES) data to assess dietary intake in relation to the nutrition transition: a case study from Cape Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dop, Marie Claude; Pereira, Clodomir; Mistura, Lorenza; Martinez, Claudio; Cardoso, Edith

    2012-09-01

    Few surveys of food and nutrient intakes are conducted at the individual level in low- and middle-income countries, whereas Household Consumption and Expenditures Surveys (HCES) are regularly carried out to monitor economic conditions. Because of the paucity of individual-level data, there is interest in using HCES to aid in the design of food and nutrition policies. Data from the 2001/02 HCES from Cape Verde were used to assess household dietary intakes in the context of the country's nutrition transition. The survey included weighed measurements of household food intake and measurements of the weight and height of all household members. Households were classified as "underweight" if they had at least one underweight member, "overweight" if they had at least one overweight member, and "dual burden" if they had at least one underweight and one overweight member. The proportion of households classified as underweight, overweight, and dual burden was 18%, 41%, and 14%, respectively. Household food and nutrient intakes were higher in the overweight households (particularly protein, vitamin A, and calcium) and lower in the underweight households, while there was no clear pattern of intakes in the dual burden group. Overweight households consumed more animal food groups than other households. Intakes of fruits and vegetables were low in all groups. The HCES data for Cape Verde were useful for assessing the extent of the nutrition transition and characterizing dietary intakes by anthropometric classification. Analysis of nutrient and food intakes showed that ensuring sufficient energy availability is no longer the most important issue for Cape Verde, but that ensuring dietary quality is equally crucial, in particular increasing access to fruits and vegetables.

  20. Organic saffron position in the future household consumption basket and effective structures (Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Shahpouri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of planning at the production level, it is necessary to identify the consumer's future behavior towards organic products. Thus, using seemingly unrelated regression and data of 2012 for 200 households in mashhad, in the present study we have tried to determine the future share of these products in the household's basket and also survey the effective factors on this share in organic saffron. The results showed that households in mashhad tend to allocate an average of 34 percent of their future consumption basket for organic saffron. The regression results illustrated that while children below 10 years old in the households, willingness to pay the price differential compared with non-organic products and organic labeling positively affected the willingness to pay for organic products, environmental concerns variables created by non-organic products had a negative effect on their willingness. Considering the research results, helping to raise people's awareness about food through different educational and advertising approaches, providing a mechanism to label organic products and assessing the strengths and weaknesses of producing and distributing the organic products are provided as suggestions.

  1. Uncertainty analysis of energy consumption in dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, Trine Dyrstad

    1997-12-31

    This thesis presents a comprehensive study of an energy estimation model that can be used to examine the uncertainty of predicted energy consumption in a dwelling. The variation and uncertainty of input parameters due to the outdoor climate, the building construction and the inhabitants are studied as a basis for further energy evaluations. The occurring variations of energy consumption in nominal similar dwellings are also investigated due to verification of the simulated energy consumption. The main topics are (1) a study of expected variations and uncertainties in both input parameters used in energy consumption calculations and the energy consumption in the dwelling, (2) the development and evaluation of a simplified energy calculation model that considers uncertainties due to the input parameters, (3) an evaluation of the influence of the uncertain parameters on the total variation so that the most important parameters can be identified, and (4) the recommendation of a simplified procedure for treating uncertainties or possible deviations from average conditions. 90 refs., 182 figs., 73 tabs.

  2. A comparative multivariate analysis of household energy requirements in Australia, Brazil, Denmark, India and Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenzen, M. [University of Sydney (Australia). School of Physics; Wier, M. [Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Copenhagen (Denmark). Danish Research Institute of Food Economics; Cohen, C. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Faculdade de Economia; Hayami, Hitoshi [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan). Keio Economic Observatory; Pachauri, S. [Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland). Centre for Energy Policy and Economics; Schaeffer, R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). COPPE

    2006-03-01

    In this paper, we appraise sustainable household consumption from a global perspective. Using per capita energy requirements as an indicator of environmental pressure, we focus on the importance of income growth in a cross-country analysis. Our analysis is supported by a detailed within-country analysis encompassing five countries, in which we assess the importance of various socioeconomic-demographic characteristics of household energy requirements. We bring together family expenditure survey data, input-output tables, and energy statistics in a multivariate analysis. Instead of a uniform Kuznet's curve, we find that the effect of increasing income varies considerably across countries, even when controlling for socioeconomic and demographic variations. The latter variables show similar influences, but differing importance across countries. (author)

  3. Energy consumption for shortcuts to adiabaticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrontegui, E.; Lizuain, I.; González-Resines, S.; Tobalina, A.; Ruschhaupt, A.; Kosloff, R.; Muga, J. G.

    2017-08-01

    Shortcuts to adiabaticity let a system reach the results of a slow adiabatic process in a shorter time. We propose to quantify the "energy cost" of the shortcut by the energy consumption of the system enlarged by including the control device. A mechanical model where the dynamics of the system and control device can be explicitly described illustrates that a broad range of possible values for the consumption is possible, including zero (above the adiabatic energy increment) when friction is negligible and the energy given away as negative power is stored and reused by perfect regenerative braking.

  4. Energy consumption and economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremblay, M.T.

    1994-01-01

    Speaking as an economic planner, the author of this address suggests a scenario that is rather pessimistic for the future of nuclear energy. He emphasizes that technological change will lead to economic growth, but then supposes that improvements in hydrogen energy and solar energy, combined with global competition, may lead to a fall rather than an increase in oil prices early in the next century. The 10 year lead time for bringing a nuclear station from design to commissioning makes it difficult to predict the economics of operation

  5. Energy consumption and conservation in food retailing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassou, S.A.; Ge, Y.; Hadawey, A.; Marriott, D.

    2011-01-01

    The total annual CO 2 emissions associated with the energy consumption of the major retail food outlets in the UK amount to around 4.0 MtCO 2 . The energy consumption and emissions from supermarkets varies widely and can depend on many factors such as the type and size of the store, business and merchandising practices and refrigeration and environmental control systems used. This paper provides energy consumption data of a sample of 2570 retail food stores from a number of major retail food chains in the UK. The sample covers all major store categories from convenience stores to hypermarkets and includes approximately 30% of the total number of stores in the UK having a net sales area more than 280 m 2 . The data show a wide variability of energy intensity even within stores of the same retail chain. A power law can be used to describe the variation of the average electrical energy intensity of the stores in the sample with sales area. If the electrical intensity of the stores above the average is reduced to the average by energy conservation measures, annual energy savings of the order of 10% or 840 GWh can be achieved representing 355,000 tonnes annual reduction in CO 2 emissions. The paper also discusses the major energy consuming processes in retail food stores and identifies opportunities for energy savings. - Research highlights: → Energy consumption by supermarkets in the UK is significant and a wide variability exists between stores of similar size. → Energy conservation measures to reduce energy consumption of individual stores to the average can produce a0% energy savings. → Significant opportunities for energy savings exist from the integration of HVAC and refrigeration equipment.

  6. Cooperative Energy Management for a Cluster of Households Prosumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Graells, Moises

    2016-01-01

    . Therefore, consumers become prosumers in which they internally generate and consume energy looking for an autonomous operation. This paper proposes an energy management system for coordinating the operation of distributed household prosumers. It was found that better performance is achieved when cooperative...... operation with other prosumers in a neighborhood environment is achieved. Simulation and experimental results validate the proposed strategy by comparing the performance of islanded prosumers with the operation in cooperative mode....

  7. Quantifying the influence of environmental and water conservation attitudes on household end use water consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Rachelle M; Stewart, Rodney A; Panuwatwanich, Kriengsak; Williams, Philip R; Hollingsworth, Anna L

    2011-08-01

    Within the research field of urban water demand management, understanding the link between environmental and water conservation attitudes and observed end use water consumption has been limited. Through a mixed method research design incorporating field-based smart metering technology and questionnaire surveys, this paper reveals the relationship between environmental and water conservation attitudes and a domestic water end use break down for 132 detached households located in Gold Coast city, Australia. Using confirmatory factor analysis, attitudinal factors were developed and refined; households were then categorised based on these factors through cluster analysis technique. Results indicated that residents with very positive environmental and water conservation attitudes consumed significantly less water in total and across the behaviourally influenced end uses of shower, clothes washer, irrigation and tap, than those with moderately positive attitudinal concern. The paper concluded with implications for urban water demand management planning, policy and practice. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Domestic energy-use pattern by the households: A comparison between rural and semi-urban areas of Noakhali in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, Md.Danesh; Foysal, Muhammad Abul; Koike, Masao; Kobayashi, Hajime

    2011-01-01

    An explorative survey was carried out on rural and semi-urban households to find out the energy consumption pattern with respect to socio-demographic and geographic factors in Bangladesh by using stratified random sampling technique. The study revealed that 100% of the households used biomass, 98% kerosene, 61% electricity, 23% LPG and 5% candle in the rural areas. In the semi-urban areas, 100% of the households used electricity, candle and natural gas, 60% kerosene and 13% petrol. Households' mean expenditure for total energy was US$ 5.34 (SE, 0.43) with total income US$ 209.84 (SE, 6.69) month -1 in the rural areas, while it was US$ 6.20 (SE, 1.35) in the semi-urban areas with the total income US$ 427.76 (SE, 24.19) month -1 . This study may be a useful baseline information to energy policy makers in Bangladesh. - Highlights: →The study provides an empirical analysis of household energy consumption. → Rural households are dominated by biomass energy. → Semi-urban households are dominated by standard commercial energy (natural gas and electricity).→ Monthly income, dwelling status and literacy of the households clearly influences energy use.→ The major energy use in the rural households is for the cooking purpose.

  9. Domestic energy-use pattern by the households: A comparison between rural and semi-urban areas of Noakhali in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, Md.Danesh, E-mail: danesh@cu.ac.bd [Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong, 4331 Chittagong (Bangladesh); Forest Policy Laboratory, Shinshu University, 8304 Minamiminowa-Mura, Kami Ina Gun, 399-4598 Nagano-ken (Japan); Foysal, Muhammad Abul [Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong, 4331 Chittagong (Bangladesh); Koike, Masao [Forest Policy Laboratory, Shinshu University, 8304 Minamiminowa-Mura, Kami Ina Gun, 399-4598 Nagano-ken (Japan); Kobayashi, Hajime [Laboratory of Forest Environment and Ecology, Faculty of Agriculture, Shinshu University, 8304 Minamiminowa-Mura, Kami Ina Gun, 399-4598 Nagano-ken (Japan)

    2011-06-15

    An explorative survey was carried out on rural and semi-urban households to find out the energy consumption pattern with respect to socio-demographic and geographic factors in Bangladesh by using stratified random sampling technique. The study revealed that 100% of the households used biomass, 98% kerosene, 61% electricity, 23% LPG and 5% candle in the rural areas. In the semi-urban areas, 100% of the households used electricity, candle and natural gas, 60% kerosene and 13% petrol. Households' mean expenditure for total energy was US$ 5.34 (SE, 0.43) with total income US$ 209.84 (SE, 6.69) month{sup -1} in the rural areas, while it was US$ 6.20 (SE, 1.35) in the semi-urban areas with the total income US$ 427.76 (SE, 24.19) month{sup -1}. This study may be a useful baseline information to energy policy makers in Bangladesh. - Highlights: >The study provides an empirical analysis of household energy consumption. > Rural households are dominated by biomass energy. > Semi-urban households are dominated by standard commercial energy (natural gas and electricity).> Monthly income, dwelling status and literacy of the households clearly influences energy use.> The major energy use in the rural households is for the cooking purpose.

  10. Quantification of variables that affect energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, C.S.

    1993-01-01

    Facility energy consumption is the summation of a number of contributory factors, caused by equipment that uses energy in response to demands placed by the user and according to its particular design. While energy efficiency improvements usually concentrate on individual parts or systems, overall energy consumption is analyzed by examining the use of specific fuels. Because independent variables effect the consumption of these fuels, accurate comparisons of a facility's energy consumption for time-measured periods must include these effects. In many cases, it is possible to determine and quantify the effects of one or more of the independent variables through a statistically valid regression analysis of the data. The regression model can be linear, or be dependent on other functions such as powers, time lead or lag, or exponential. The most common model is linear, but other dependencies are often encountered. Regression analyses are not difficult to accomplish, and are included as one of the tools in most spreadsheet software. The analyses provide the energy manager with a means to better understand the energy consumption of his/her facility

  11. Residential energy consumption in urban China: A decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaoli; Li Na; Ma, Chunbo

    2012-01-01

    Residential energy consumption (REC) is the second largest energy use category (10%) in China and urban residents account for 63% of the REC. Understanding the underlying drivers of variations of urban REC thus helps to identify challenges and opportunities and provide advices for future policy measures. This paper applies the LMDI method to a decomposition of China's urban REC during the period of 1998–2007 at disaggregated product/activity level using data collected from a wide range of sources. Our results have shown an extensive structure change towards a more energy-intensive household consumption structure as well as an intensive structure change towards high-quality and cleaner energy such as electricity, oil, and natural gas, which reflects a changing lifestyle and consumption mode in pursuit of a higher level of comfort, convenience and environmental protection. We have also found that China's price reforms in the energy sector have contributed to a reduction of REC while scale factors including increased urban population and income levels have played a key role in the rapid growth of REC. We suggest that further deregulation in energy prices and regulatory as well as voluntary energy efficiency and conservation policies in the residential sector should be promoted. - Highlights: ► We examine china's residential energy consumption (REC) at detailed product level. ► Results show significant extensive and intensive structure changed. ► Price deregulation in the energy sector has contributed a reduction of REC. ► Growth of population and income played a key role in REC rapid growth. ► We provide policy suggestions to promote REC saving.

  12. Modelling household responses to energy efficiency interventions via system dynamics and survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Davis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An application of building a system dynamics model of the way households might respond to interventions aimed at reducing energy consumption (specifically the use of electricity is described in this paper. A literature review of past research is used to build an initial integrated model of household consumption, and this model is used to generate a small number of research hypotheses about how households possessing different characteristics might react to various types of interventions. These hypotheses are tested using data gathered from an efficiency intervention conducted in a town in the South African Western Cape in which households were able to exchange regular light bulbs for more efficient compact fluorescent lamp light bulbs. Our experiences are (a that a system dynamics approach proved useful in advancing a non-traditional point of view for which, for historical and economic reasons, data were not abundantly available; (b that, in areas where traditional models are heavily quantitative, some scepticism to a system dynamics model may be expected; and (c that a statistical comparison of model results by means of empirical data may be an effective tool in reducing such scepticism.

  13. METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE SEGMENTATION OF HOUSEHOLD ENERGY CONSUMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Alexandru

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, the World has shown increased concern for climate change and energy security. The emergence of these issues has pushed many nations to pursue the development of clean domestic electricity production via renewable energy (RE technologies. However, RE also comes with a higher production and investment cost, compared to most conventional fossil fuel based technologies. In order to analyse exactly how Romanian electricity consumers feel about the advantages and the disadvantages of RE, we have decided to perform a comprehensive study, which will constitute the core of a doctoral thesis regarding the Romanian energy sector and household consumers’ willingness to pay for the positive attributes of RE. The current paper represents one step toward achieving the objectives of the above mentioned research, specifically dealing with the issue of segmenting household energy consumers given the context of the Romanian energy sector. It is an argumentative literature review, which seeks to critically assess the methodology used for customer segmentation in general and for household energy users in particular. Building on the experience of previous studies, the paper aims to determine the most adequate segmentation procedure given the context and the objectives of the overall doctoral research. After assessing the advantages and disadvantages of various methodologies, a psychographic segmentation of household consumers based on general life practices is chosen, mainly because it provides more insights into consumers compared to traditional socio-demographic segmentation by focusing on lifestyles and not external characteristics, but it is also realistically implementable compared to more complex procedures such as the standard AIO. However, the life practice scale developed by Axsen et al. (2012 will need to be properly adapted to the specific objectives of the study and to the context of the Romanian energy sector. All modifications

  14. Energy consumption in fermentation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, P

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the present publication is to limit energy used to aerate the anaerobic fermentation processes. In yeast production the aeration process consumes the greatest part of the total energy required. A mathematical model, based on literature data, is presented for a yeast fermenter. the effect of various aeration and raw product strategies can be calculated. Simulation of yeast fermentation proves it to be independent of oxygen transport. However interaction between flow conditions and biological kinetics (glucose effect) is a limiting factor. With many feeding point the use of enegy for aeration (mixing) can be reduced to 1/3 of the present one.

  15. Alcohol Consumption Practices among Married Women of Reproductive Age in Nepal: A Population Based Household Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narbada Thapa

    Full Text Available Alcohol chemically known as ethanol, causes several health, economic and social consequences across the world. Literatures suggest potential harm of alcohol drinking by pregnant women especially to the fetus and the mother. Despite a number of significant public health problems related to alcohol consumption, this area has been ignored in Nepal and information at the national level is limited. Thus this study aimed at finding the prevalence of alcohol consumption among married women of reproductive age.A nationally representative household survey was carried out from April to August 2013 by taking 16 districts across all 15 eco administrative regions. From the selected districts, 86 village development committees and 14 municipalities were selected as primary sampling units using probability proportionate to size, followed by random selection of 3 wards from each primary sampling unit. Finally, 30 households within each ward were selected using systematic random sampling, and one married women of reproductive age from each household. A total of 9000 married women of reproductive age were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire, on alcohol consumption practices including environmental factors and socio demographic characteristics and were included in the analysis.National prevalence of alcohol consumption ever among married women of reproductive age was 24.7% (95% CI:21.7-28.0, last 12 months 17.9% (95% CI:15.3-20.7 and last 30 days (current drinking 11.8% (95% CI:9.8-14.1. There was substantial variation among the districts ranging from 2% to 60%. Multivariable analysis suggests women with no education or within formal education, dalit and janajatis ethnicity, whose husbands drink alcohol, who brew alcohol at home and women from mountains were significantly at higher risk of consuming alcohol. Among the women who drank alcohol in last 12 months, a substantial proportion of them drank home brewed alcoholic beverages (95.9%, 95% CI:94

  16. Overcoming the energy efficiency gap in India's household sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, B.S.

    2003-01-01

    Energy efficiency generates substantial financial savings while simultaneously improving environmental quality. Despite these benefits, developing countries like India are missing out on energy efficiency opportunities and instead concentrating on increased energy production. This paper identifies the efficient technologies in the household sector in India, and details their benefits to the consumer as well as to the society. It identifies the barriers that prevent the government from achieving its energy efficiency goals, analyses programs that addresses these barriers, and explores the creation of an institutional mechanism

  17. Occupant behavior and energy consumption in dwellings: An analysis of behavioral models and actual energy consumption in the dutch housing stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Bedir

    2017-11-01

    informatics. The main question that this thesis deals with is: How much does the occupant behavior influence the energy consumption of dwellings in the Netherlands, and how could we identify the determinants of consumption, as well as the behavioral patterns and profiles? In order to research this question, the following questions are formulated: • I What is the sensitivity of a dwelling’s heating energy consumption to occupant behavior? (Chapter 3 • What are the existing models developed for the occupant behavior and energy performance relationship? and how different are the results of these models in terms of calculating the influence of occupant behavior on energy performance? • How can behavior be modelled in order to assess the robustness of the energy performance in dwellings to occupant behavior? • What is the weight of each behavioral aspect in terms of its influence on energy consumption? • II What is the influence of lighting and appliance use on the total electricity consumption in dwellings? (Chapter 4 • What are the main direct and indirect determinants of electricity consumption? (Direct determinant: such as number of appliances and duration of appliance use …; Indirect determinant: such as household size, dwelling size, dwelling type … • How much of the variance in electricity consumption in dwellings can be explained by direct and indirect determinants? • III What are the behavioral patterns and profiles of energy consumption? • What are the behavioral patterns of thermostat control? How do they relate to the household characteristics, revealing behavioral profiles? (Chapter 5 • What are the behavioral patterns of electricity consumption? How do they relate to the household characteristics, revealing behavioral profiles? (Chapter 6 In this thesis, occupant behavior is modeled in different chapters using sensitivity, correlation, regression, repeated measures, and cluster and factor analyses, based on data on dwelling and household

  18. Consumption of Water for Household Needs and the Affecting Factors at Banyudono Boyolali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alif Noor Anna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of drinking water for a community is different from one area to the other. This is normally influenced by the population development, socio-economic, cultural, and physical conditions mainly related to the supply of drinking water and how to exploit it. Banyudono district is an area located in the regency of Boyolali. The development of this area depends on Boyolali City and Kartasura district. Such a location enables the area to have a process of the physical and socio-economi developments. In addition, it has an influence upon social behaviour to consume water. This research is aimed at knowing the average consumption of household need and analyzing the factors influencing the utilization of water as drinking water. The result of this research indicated that 1 the average consumption of a human being for drinking water was 79,37 litter a day. It means that the onsumption of a human being for drinking ater generally ranged from 60 to 80 litter a day; 2 most of the ater was consumed to meet basic needs such as cooking, drinking, bathing, and washing; 3 the difference of the average consumption was influenced by the kind of water source and how to exploit it; 4 a parameter of the most significant socio-economic condition that took effect on the average consumption for drinking water was the parameter of income with correlation of 0.362 and the significant level of 0.01.

  19. monthly energy consumption forecasting using wavelet analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. Monthly energy forecasts help heavy consumers of electric power to prepare adequate budget to pay their electricity bills and also draw the attention of management and stakeholders to electric- ity consumption levels so that energy efficiency measures are put in place to reduce cost. In this paper, a wavelet ...

  20. Tables of energies consumption in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    This short paper presents the evolution of the energy consumption by sector (industry, domestic, tertiary industry, transports, agriculture and all sectors together), since 1973. It gives an abstract of a more complete book: tableaux des consommations d'energie en France; edition 1999. (A.L.B.)

  1. Analysis and Optimization of Building Energy Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Jun Wei

    Energy is one of the most important resources required by modern human society. In 2010, energy expenditures represented 10% of global gross domestic product (GDP). By 2035, global energy consumption is expected to increase by more than 50% from current levels. The increased pace of global energy consumption leads to significant environmental and socioeconomic issues: (i) carbon emissions, from the burning of fossil fuels for energy, contribute to global warming, and (ii) increased energy expenditures lead to reduced standard of living. Efficient use of energy, through energy conservation measures, is an important step toward mitigating these effects. Residential and commercial buildings represent a prime target for energy conservation, comprising 21% of global energy consumption and 40% of the total energy consumption in the United States. This thesis describes techniques for the analysis and optimization of building energy consumption. The thesis focuses on building retrofits and building energy simulation as key areas in building energy optimization and analysis. The thesis first discusses and evaluates building-level renewable energy generation as a solution toward building energy optimization. The thesis next describes a novel heating system, called localized heating. Under localized heating, building occupants are heated individually by directed radiant heaters, resulting in a considerably reduced heated space and significant heating energy savings. To support localized heating, a minimally-intrusive indoor occupant positioning system is described. The thesis then discusses occupant-level sensing (OLS) as the next frontier in building energy optimization. OLS captures the exact environmental conditions faced by each building occupant, using sensors that are carried by all building occupants. The information provided by OLS enables fine-grained optimization for unprecedented levels of energy efficiency and occupant comfort. The thesis also describes a retrofit

  2. Energy consumption, energy efficiency, and consumer perceptions: A case study for the Southeast United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Interaction between climate, efficiency, and electricity consumption were examined. • 2450 state residents were surveyed about clean energy and subsidy policies. • Indirect energy efficiency costs negatively influenced electricity consumption. • Cooling degree days were positively related to electricity consumption. • Resident awareness influenced policy perceptions about clean energy and subsidies. - Abstract: This study examined the interaction between climatic variability and residential electricity consumption in a Southeast US state. Residential electricity consumers were surveyed to better understand how to diffuse positive attitudes and behaviors related to energy efficiency (EE) into households. The study found that 16.8% of the variability in residential electricity consumption for heating applications was explained by indirect EE costs. 36.6% of the variability in residential electricity consumption for cooling applications was explained by indirect EE costs and cooling degree days (CDD). A survey of 2450 residential electricity consumers was analyzed using the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Significant findings suggest that those residents are aware of utility EE programs are more likely to participate, view utility company motives more favorably, to support governmental subsidies for EE programs, and to support the use of clean energy by utility companies.

  3. Solar energy storage in German households: profitability, load changes and flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaschub, Thomas; Jochem, Patrick; Fichtner, Wolf

    2016-01-01

    The developments of battery storage technology together with photovoltaic (PV) roof-top systems might lead to far-reaching changes in the electricity demand structures and flexibility of households. The implications are supposed to affect the generation mix of utilities, distribution grid utilization, and electricity price. Using a techno-economic optimization model of a household system, we endogenously dimension PV system and stationary battery storage (SBS). The results of the reference scenario show positive net present values (NPV) for PV systems of approx. 500–1,800 EUR/kW_p and NPV for SBS of approx. 150–500 EUR/kWh. Main influences are the demand of the households, self-consumption rates, investment costs, and electricity prices. We integrate electric vehicles (EV) with different charging strategies and find increasing NPV of the PV system and self-consumption of approx. 70%. With further declining system prices for solar energy storage and increasing electricity prices, PV systems and SBS can be profitable in Germany from 2018 on even without a guaranteed feed-in tariff or subsidies. Grid utilization substantially changes by households with EV and PV-SBS. We discuss effects of different incentives and electricity tariff options (e. g. load limits or additional demand charges). Concluding, solar energy storage systems will bring substantial changes to electricity sales. - Highlights: • Domestic photovoltaics (PV) and storage systems are techno-economically analyzed. • PV & storage are profitable in the medium term due to high self-consumption rates. • Controlled electric vehicle charging improves load flexibility and self-generation. • External procurement of electricity drastically changes and decreases to 48–58%. • Dynamic tariffs e. g. with load limits or demand charges incentivize load shifting.

  4. The linkage between household water consumption and rainfall in the semi-arid region of East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messakh, J. J.; Moy, D. L.; Mojo, D.; Maliti, Y.

    2018-01-01

    Several studies have shown that the amount of water consumption by communities will depend on the factors of water consumption patterns that are influenced by social, cultural, economic and local climate conditions. Research on the linkage between rainfall and household water consumption in semi-arid areas of Indonesia has never been done. This study has been conducted on 17 regions in NTT, and case study has taken samples in one town and one village. The research used survey and documentation method. The results show that the average amount of household water consumption in semi-arid region of East Nusa Tenggara is 107 liters / person / day. Statistical test results using Pearson correlation found r = -0.194 and sig = 0.448. This means that there is a negative correlation between rainfall and household water consumption. The greater the rainfall the smaller the consumption of water, or the smaller the rainfall the greater the consumption of water, but the linkage is not significant. Research shows that the amount of household water consumption will be influenced by many interrelated factors and none of the most dominant factors, including the size of the rainfall that occurs in a region.

  5. Economic energy distribution and consumption in a microgrid Part1: Cell level controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahersima, Fatemeh; Andersen, Palle; Madsen, Per Printz

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated energy management of a small scale electrical microgrid comprised of local renewable generation, consumption and storage units. The microgrid has the possibility of connection to the electricity grid as well to compensate for energy deficit. The objective is to fulfill...... microgrid's energy demands from the local electricity producers as much as possible. The other objective is to manage the consumption such that consumption costs are minimum for all households. To fulfill the objectives, as the first step of designing a hierarchical controller, we focused on designing...... an energy and cost minimizing controller for one building. To this aim, a model predictive controller is formulated to schedule the building's energy consumption using potential load flexibility. Simulation results show the economically optimal energy consumption of one building based on the defined load...

  6. Comparison of energy efficiency solutions for households applying electrical energy measurement of individual consumers - Final report; Vergleich verschiedener Effizienzloesungen mit Einzelverbrauchermessung fuer Haushalte - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fercu, M.; Kistler, R.

    2009-12-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the growing demand for so-called 'Energy Feedback Systems' being experienced by numerous energy utilities. These systems allow the presentation of highly-detailed (electrical) energy consumption information to the residents of households. The aim of these systems is discussed which is to sensitize the customers and provide them with a higher level of awareness of their personal energy consumption in order to motivate them to conserve power. This short report analyses existing and near-future systems that can provide power consumption information and which can also automate the operation of household electrical devices. The report focuses on the comparison of four commercial systems available in Switzerland that conform to basic requirements. Furthermore, information on other systems is also provided.

  7. Comparison of energy efficiency solutions for households applying electrical energy measurement of individual consumers - Final report; Vergleich verschiedener Effizienzloesungen mit Einzelverbrauchermessung fuer Haushalte - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fercu, M.; Kistler, R.

    2009-12-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the growing demand for so-called 'Energy Feedback Systems' being experienced by numerous energy utilities. These systems allow the presentation of highly-detailed (electrical) energy consumption information to the residents of households. The aim of these systems is discussed which is to sensitize the customers and provide them with a higher level of awareness of their personal energy consumption in order to motivate them to conserve power. This short report analyses existing and near-future systems that can provide power consumption information and which can also automate the operation of household electrical devices. The report focuses on the comparison of four commercial systems available in Switzerland that conform to basic requirements. Furthermore, information on other systems is also provided.

  8. Exploring energy consumption and demand in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Ying; Xia, Yan

    2012-01-01

    China has been experiencing industrialization and urbanization since reform and opening of its economy in 1978. Energy consumption in the country has featured issues such as a coal-dominated energy mix, low energy efficiency and high emissions. Thus, it is of great importance to explore the factors driving the increase in energy consumption in the past two decades and estimate the potential for decreasing energy demands in the future. In this paper a hybrid energy input–output model is used to decompose driving factors to identify how these factors impact changes in energy intensity. A modified RAS approach is applied to project energy requirements in a BAU scenario and an alternative scenario. The results show that energy input mix, industry structure and technology improvements have major influences on energy demand. Energy demand in China will continue to increase at a rapid rate if the economy develops as in the past decades, and is projected to reach 4.7 billion tce in 2020. However, the huge potential for a decrease cannot be neglected, since growth could be better by adjusting the energy mix and industrial structure and enhancing technology improvements. The total energy demand could be less than 4.0 billion tce in 2020. -- Highlights: ► In this paper a hybrid energy input–output model is used to decompose driving factors to China’s energy intensity change. ► A modified RAS approach is applied to project energy requirements in China. ► The results show that energy input mix, industry structure and technology improvements have major influences on energy demand. ► Energy demand in China will reach 4.7 billion ton in 2020 if the economy develops as in the past decades. ► There is a huge potential for a decrease of energy demand by adjusting the energy mix and industrial structure and enhancing technology improvements.

  9. Cities and Energy Consumption: a Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between cities and energy consumption has been of great interest for the scientific community for over twenty years. Most of the energy consumption, indeed, occurs in cities because of the high concentration of human activities. Thus, cities are responsible for a big share of carbon dioxide emissions (CO2. However, the debate on this topic is still open, mainly because of the heterogeneity of published studies in the selection, definition and measurement of the urban features influencing energy consumption and CO2 emissions, as well as in the choice of the energy sectors to be considered, in the territorial scale of analysis, and in the geographical distribution of the sample. Therefore, the goal of this research is to systematize and compare the approach, methodology and results of the relevant literature on the relationship between cities and energy consumption over the last twenty years. Furthermore, this critical review identifies the knowledge gap between what is known and what is still under debate and, based on that, it proposes a conceptual framework that will help to outline a new direction for future research and support local policy makers in the definition of strategies and actions that can effectively reduce urban energy use and CO2 emissions.

  10. Forecasting household transport energy demand in South African cities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokonyama, Mathetha T

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available in South Africa have over the recent past increased at a rate more than any other household expenditure item (StasSA, 2008). Transport energy from fuel, forms a large component of the transport costs for both private car and public transport trips... by the Constitution to plan and manage the provision of services to communities in a sustainable manner. The services include water, sanitation, electricity and transport. Some of the management instruments used by local government include Integrated Development...

  11. Energy consumption modeling during dairy sewage pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dąbrowski Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in a dairy WWTP located in north-eastern Poland with the average flow of 546 m3d-1 and PE 11500 in 2016. Energy consumption was measured with the help of Lumel 3-phase network parameter transducers installed within the plant. The modeling was conducted based on the quantity and quality of raw sewage, after its screening, averaging and dissolved air flotation. The following parameters were determined: BOD5, COD. N-total and P-total. During the research period. 15 measurement series were carried out. Pollution loads removed in primary treatment varied from 167.0 to 803.5 kgO2d-1 and 1205.9 to 10032 kgO2d-1 for BOD5 and COD respectively. The energy consumption share during dairy pretreatment in relation to the total energy consumption was in the range from 13.8 to 28.5% with the mean value of 18.7% during the research period. Energy consumption indicators relating to removed pollution loads for primary treatment were established with the mean values of 0.74 and 0.83 kWhkg-1d-1 for BOD5 and COD respectively. An attempt was made to determine the influence of raw sewage characteristics and pretreatment efficiency on energy consumption of the object. A model of energy consumption during pretreatment was estimated according to the experimental data obtained in the research period. It was modeled using the linear regression model and principal component analysis.

  12. Final Energy Consumption Trends and Drivers in Czech Republic and Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqian Yu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the trends of final energy consumption in Latvia and Czech Republic. Analysis of final energy consumption during 2000-2013 period indicated the main driving forces of final energy consumption during and after world financial crisis of 2008. The paper aimed to evaluate the impact of economic activity and other factors on final energy consumption. The decomposition of the final energy consumption is assessed by analyzing effect of different drivers by the main end-users sector (industry, transport, households, agriculture, services, activity, demography, lifestyles, structural effects, energy savings etc. The results show that the reduction in final energy consumption in most EU members states before and after year 2008 can be related to the decline in energy intensities within endusers sectors. At the same time, the increase in final energy intensity after the year 2008 is attributed to expansion of energy demand sectors. Comparison of final energy consumption trends and drivers in Latvia and Czech Republic indicated that Czech Republic implemented more policies and measures in industry and tertiary sector and this provided for final energy consumption decreased and huge energy savings in these sectors.

  13. The effect of energy performance regulations on energy consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerra-Santin, O.; Itard, L.

    2012-01-01

    Governments have developed energy performance regulations in order to lower energy consumption in the housing stock. Most of these regulations are based on the thermal quality of the buildings. In the Netherlands, the energy efficiency for new buildings is expressed as the EPC (energy performance

  14. Energy consumption for different greenhouse constructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djevic, M.; Dimitrijevic, A. [Department for Agricultural Engineering, University of Belgrade, Faculty of Agriculture, Nemanjina 6, 11080 Belgrade (RS)

    2009-09-15

    In this paper the influence of greenhouse construction on energy efficiency in winter lettuce production was estimated for four different double plastic covered greenhouses in Serbia region. Plastic coverings were introduced in this region as a mean of making the plant production more energy efficient. Additionally, as a means of lowering energy consumption, tunnel structures were proposed. In order to see whether the greenhouse structure influences energy consumption, four different double plastic covered greenhouses. Two tunnel types, 9 x 58 m and 8 x 25 m, one gutter-connected structure and multi-span plastic covered greenhouse. The gutter-connected structure was 2 x 7 m wide and 39 m long while the multi-span structure was 20 x 6.4 m wide and 42 m long. On the basis of lettuce production output and the energy input, specific energy input, energy output-input ratio and energy productivity were estimated. Results show that the lowest energy consumption was obtained for multi-span greenhouse, 9.76 MJ/m{sup 2}. The highest energy consumption was obtained in tunnel, 9 x 58 m, 13.93 MJ/m{sup 2}. The highest value for output-input ratio was calculated for multi-span greenhouse (0.29), followed by gutter-connected greenhouse (0.21), tunnel 9 x 58 m (0.17) and tunnel, 8 x 25 m (0.15). Results also show that energy productivity can be higher if multi-span greenhouse structures are used. (author)

  15. A framework for targeting household energy savings through habitual behavioural change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothitou, Mary; Kolios, Athanasios J.; Varga, Liz; Gu, Sai

    2016-08-01

    This paper reviews existing up-to-date literature related to individual household energy consumption. The how and why individual behaviour affects energy use are discussed, together with the principles and perspectives which have so far been considered in order to explain the habitual consuming behaviour. The research gaps, which are revealed from previous studies in terms of the limitations or assumptions on the methodology to alter individuals' energy usage, give insights for a conceptual framework to define a comprehensive approach. The proposed framework suggests that the individual energy perception gaps are affected by psychological, habitual, structural and cultural variables in a wider-contextual, meso-societal and micro-individual spectrum. All these factors need to be considered in order for a variety of combined intervention methods, which are discussed and recommended, to introduce a more effective shift in the conventional energy-consuming behaviour, advancing insights for successful energy policies.

  16. Energy use of US residential refrigerators and freezers. Function derivation based on household and climate characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenblatt, J.; Letschert, V. [Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Hopkins, A. [Vermont Department of Public Service, Burlington, VT (United States); Blasnik, M. [Blasnik Consulting, Boston, MA (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Field-metered energy use data for 1,467 refrigerators and 185 freezers from seven studies conducted between 1992 and 2010 were used to calculate usage adjustment factors (UAFs), defined as the ratio of measured to tested annual energy use. Multiple regressions of UAFs against several household and climate variables were then performed to obtain separate predictive functions for primary (most-used) refrigerators, secondary (second most-used) refrigerators, and freezers, and residual differences between observed and modeled UAFs were fit to log normal distributions. These UAF functions were used to project energy use in the more than 4,000 households in the 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey, a statistical representation of US homes. These energy use projections formed the basis of calculating lifecycle energy savings for more efficient refrigerators and freezers, as well as national energy and cost savings. Results were compared with previous published work by the Department of Energy, demonstrating how UAFs impact energy and cost savings. Such an approach could be further improved with additional data and adapted for other appliances in future analyses.

  17. Commercial and institutional consumption of energy survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-12-15

    This paper presented the results of a survey on 2004 energy consumption data for commercial and institutional establishments in Canada. The objective of the survey was to enable Natural Resources Canada to develop programs to support institutions seeking to gain greater energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Data were published by energy source and region. Energy intensity data were presented by region amongst the following commercial and institutional sectors: retail trade including food and non-food; education including colleges and universities; health care including non-hospital health care and hospitals; and accommodation and food services. Data obtained on each establishment's energy consumption and floor area were used to calculate their energy intensity ratio which included accounting for weather conditions, age of buildings and energy sources. It was observed that commercial and institutional establishments consumed nearly 945 million gigajoules in 2004. The wholesale trade and warehousing sector used the highest amount of energy, accounting for 17 per cent of all commercial and institutional energy use. The education sector accounted for 16 per cent of energy use, while the office sector accounted for 14 per cent. The energy intensity rate of hospitals in Canada was the highest of all sectors and subsectors, due to their nearly constant use of lighting and medical equipment. Retail trade accounted for the largest share of establishments at 26 per cent of all establishments, followed by offices with 22 per cent. Education accounted for the largest percentage of floor area. 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  18. Energy Consumption of Fast Ferries in Danish Domestic Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Steen; Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of energy consumption in connection with selected passenger transport trip chains. In particular the publication aims to evaluate the energy consumption of fast ferries in Denmark.......Analysis of energy consumption in connection with selected passenger transport trip chains. In particular the publication aims to evaluate the energy consumption of fast ferries in Denmark....

  19. Towards Flexibility Detection in Device-Level Energy Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neupane, Bijay; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Thiesson, Bo

    2014-01-01

    The increasing drive towards green energy has boosted the installation of Renewable Energy Sources (RES). Increasing the share of RES in the power grid requires demand management by flexibility in the consumption. In this paper, we perform a state-of-the-art analysis on the flexibility and operat......The increasing drive towards green energy has boosted the installation of Renewable Energy Sources (RES). Increasing the share of RES in the power grid requires demand management by flexibility in the consumption. In this paper, we perform a state-of-the-art analysis on the flexibility...... and operation patterns of the devices in a set of real households. We propose a number of specific pre-processing steps such as operation stage segmentation, and aberrant operation duration removal to clean device level data. Further, we demonstrate various device operation properties such as hourly and daily...... regularities and patterns and the correlation between operating different devices. Subsequently, we show the existence of detectable time and energy flexibility in device operations. Finally, we provide various results providing a foundation for load- and flexibility-detection and -prediction at the device...

  20. Energy sustainability: consumption, efficiency, and environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the critical challenges in achieving sustainability is finding a way to meet the energy consumption needs of a growing population in the face of increasing economic prosperity and finite resources. According to ecological footprint computations, the global resource consump...

  1. Computer Profile of School Facilities Energy Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswalt, Felix E.

    This document outlines a computerized management tool designed to enable building managers to identify energy consumption as related to types and uses of school facilities for the purpose of evaluating and managing the operation, maintenance, modification, and planning of new facilities. Specifically, it is expected that the statistics generated…

  2. The determinants of household energy-saving behavior: Survey and comparison in five major Asian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Shiro; Kondo, Kayoko; Nogata, Daisuke; Ben, Han

    2013-01-01

    It is difficult to control household energy consumption through regulation. From a policy standpoint, it is particularly challenging to identify the factors that influence people’s actions. Moreover, whatever these factors are, they are unlikely to uniformly span multiple cities in the Asian region. In this paper, we conduct a survey of energy-saving behavior to clarify the differences among such factors across five major Asian cities. The results from these surveys in Dalian, Chongqing, Fukuoka, Bangkok, and Ho Chi Minh indicate that global warming consciousness, environmental behavior, and social interaction significantly affect energy-saving behavior. Income and age also had weak positive effects on energy-saving behaviors. Social interaction was strongly linked to energy-saving behaviors, particularly in the rural areas of Dalian and Chongqing. This result indicates that community-based activities impact energy-saving behaviors. - Highlights: ► We conduct a survey of energy saving behavior in household in major Asian cities. ► We identify the factors that influence people's actions. ► Global warming consciousness and social interaction affect people behavior. ► This indicates community-based activities impact energy-saving behaviors in Asia.

  3. Residential energy use in one-family households with natural gas provision in a city of the Patagonian Andean region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.D.; Carlsson-Kanyama, A.; Crivelli, E.S.; Gortari, S.

    2007-01-01

    Residential energy use was studied in one-family houses in the city of Bariloche, in the Patagonian Andean region of Argentina. A survey was conducted of households connected to the natural gas network to correlate use of gas, living area and number of inhabitants per house. The annual average consumption of gas was found to be 169 GJ, and consumption of electricity 8 GJ. This total energy use per household per year is almost double the average value reported for Stockholm, Sweden, although both locations have similar heating requirements. The difference was mainly due to heating energy consumption per unit living space, which in Bariloche was 1530 MJ/m 2 per year, while in Stockholm the average is around 570 MJ/m 2 per year. The high energy consumption in Bariloche is explained primarily by the construction characteristics of the buildings, and secondarily by the efficiency of the heating devices used. We were able to conclude that subsidies on natural gas tariffs given to the residential sector do not promote a rational use of the resource. Furthermore, almost 40% of the population (mostly households in poverty) are not connected to the subsidised gas resource, but pay prices for alternative fuels that are between 10- and 15 times higher. Policies to improve buildings and appliances would reduce emissions and make access to energy more equitable

  4. Socio-Demographic Differences in Energy Drink Consumption and Reasons for Consumption among US College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Natalie S.; Pasch, Keryn E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Energy drink consumption has become increasingly prevalent among US college students, yet little is known about current rates of consumption and reasons for consumption among current energy drink users, particularly differences related to gender and race/ethnicity. Objectives: To better understand energy drink consumption alone and…

  5. Food insecurity and food consumption by season in households with children in an Arctic city: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, Catherine; Ford, James D; Edge, Victoria L; Shirley, Jamal; King, Nia; Harper, Sherilee L

    2017-06-15

    High rates of food insecurity are documented among Inuit households in Canada; however, data on food insecurity prevalence and seasonality for Inuit households with children are lacking, especially in city centres. This project: (1) compared food consumption patterns for households with and without children, (2) compared the prevalence of food insecurity for households with and without children, (3) compared food consumption patterns and food insecurity prevalence between seasons, and (4) identified factors associated with food insecurity in households with children in Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada. Randomly selected households were surveyed in Iqaluit in September 2012 and May 2013. Household food security status was determined using an adapted United States Department of Agriculture Household Food Security Survey Module. Univariable logistic regressions were used to examine unconditional associations between food security status and demographics, socioeconomics, frequency of food consumption, and method of food preparation in households with children by season. Households with children (n = 431) and without children (n = 468) participated in the survey. Food insecurity was identified in 32.9% (95% CI: 28.5-37.4%) of households with children; this was significantly higher than in households without children (23.2%, 95% CI: 19.4-27.1%). The prevalence of household food insecurity did not significantly differ by season. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the person responsible for food preparation, including low formal education attainment (OR Sept  = 4.3, 95% CI: 2.3-8.0; OR May  = 3.2, 95% CI: 1.8-5.8), unemployment (OR Sept  = 1.1, 95% CI: 1.1-1.3; OR May  = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.5), and Inuit identity (OR Sept  = 8.9, 95% CI: 3.4-23.5; OR May  = 21.8, 95% CI: 6.6-72.4), were associated with increased odds of food insecurity in households with children. Fruit and vegetable consumption (OR Sept  = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.8; OR May  = 0.5, 95

  6. Control mechanisms for battery energy storage system performing primary frequency regulation and self-consumption optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pliatskas Stylianidis, A.

    2016-01-01

    This report contains the design of a model for the integration of a battery energy system in a household level and its use for primary frequency regulation and self-consumption optimization. The main goal of this project was to investigate what are the possible applications and the most suitable for

  7. Food consumption and waste and the embedded carbon, water and ecological footprints of households in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guobao; Li, Mingjing; Semakula, Henry Musoke; Zhang, Shushen

    2015-10-01

    Strategies for reducing food waste and developing sustainable diets require information about the impacts of consumption behavior and waste generation on climatic, water, and land resources. We quantified the carbon, water, and ecological footprints of 17,110 family members of Chinese households, covering 1935 types of foods, by combining survey data with available life-cycle assessment data sets. We also summarized the patterns of both food consumption and waste generation and analyzed the factors influencing the observed trends. The average person wasted (consumed) 16 (415) kg of food at home annually, equivalent to 40 (1080) kg CO2e, 18 (673) m(3), and 173 (4956) gm(2) for the carbon, water and ecological footprints, respectively. The generation of food waste was highly correlated with consumption for various food groups. For example, vegetables, rice, and wheat were consumed the most and accounted for the most waste. In addition to the three plant-derived food groups, pork and aquatic products also contributed greatly to embedded footprints. The data obtained in this study could be used for assessing national food security or the carrying capacity of resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The barriers to energy efficiency in China: Assessing household electricity savings and consumer behavior in Liaoning Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Dianshu; Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Khuong Minh Vu

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the barriers to energy efficiency at the residential sector within one province in China and explores patterns of household electricity consumption. The article presents the results of a survey questionnaire distributed to more than 600 households in Liaoning Province, field research at various Liaoning government agencies, and research interviews of Liaoning government officials to determine the efficacy of their energy efficiency efforts in China. It then investigates the extent that electricity consumers have taken advantage of energy efficiency opportunities relating to more efficient lights, water heaters, appliances, air-conditioners and heaters, and better energy-efficiency labels. The article also assesses the degree that electricity users have become more aware about electricity prices and their levels of consumption, and touches on the connection between rising levels of income and electricity use. It concludes by providing recommendations for how to improve efforts to promote conservation and reduce electricity load growth in Liaoning Province and beyond.

  9. The barriers to energy efficiency in China. Assessing household electricity savings and consumer behavior in Liaoning Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dianshu, Feng; Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Minh Vu, Khuong [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2010-02-15

    This article investigates the barriers to energy efficiency at the residential sector within one province in China and explores patterns of household electricity consumption. The article presents the results of a survey questionnaire distributed to more than 600 households in Liaoning Province, field research at various Liaoning government agencies, and research interviews of Liaoning government officials to determine the efficacy of their energy efficiency efforts in China. It then investigates the extent that electricity consumers have taken advantage of energy efficiency opportunities relating to more efficient lights, water heaters, appliances, air-conditioners and heaters, and better energy-efficiency labels. The article also assesses the degree that electricity users have become more aware about electricity prices and their levels of consumption, and touches on the connection between rising levels of income and electricity use. It concludes by providing recommendations for how to improve efforts to promote conservation and reduce electricity load growth in Liaoning Province and beyond. (author)

  10. The barriers to energy efficiency in China: Assessing household electricity savings and consumer behavior in Liaoning Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Dianshu, E-mail: dianshu@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore); Sovacool, Benjamin K., E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore); Khuong Minh Vu, E-mail: sppkmv@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2010-02-15

    This article investigates the barriers to energy efficiency at the residential sector within one province in China and explores patterns of household electricity consumption. The article presents the results of a survey questionnaire distributed to more than 600 households in Liaoning Province, field research at various Liaoning government agencies, and research interviews of Liaoning government officials to determine the efficacy of their energy efficiency efforts in China. It then investigates the extent that electricity consumers have taken advantage of energy efficiency opportunities relating to more efficient lights, water heaters, appliances, air-conditioners and heaters, and better energy-efficiency labels. The article also assesses the degree that electricity users have become more aware about electricity prices and their levels of consumption, and touches on the connection between rising levels of income and electricity use. It concludes by providing recommendations for how to improve efforts to promote conservation and reduce electricity load growth in Liaoning Province and beyond.

  11. Lifestyles and domestic energy consumption : strategic options for encouraging sustainable energy consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemhaar, B.; Gool, van W.A.C.; Ester, P.; Midden, C.J.H.

    1996-01-01

    The National Research Programme for Global Air Pollution and Climate Change commissioned us to investigate whether the different ways in which households use energy for their domestic activities can be divided into patterns that could be regarded as lifestyles. At the same time we investigated

  12. Household dietary diversity and Animal Source Food consumption in Ethiopia: evidence from the 2011 Welfare Monitoring Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workicho, Abdulhalik; Belachew, Tefera; Feyissa, Garumma Tolu; Wondafrash, Beyene; Lachat, Carl; Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2016-11-25

    It is imperative to track dietary quality and progress in nutritional outcomes in a population to develop timely interventions. Dietary diversity is a commonly used proxy to assess dietary quality in low-income countries. This study identified predictors of household dietary diversity in Ethiopia and pattern of consumption of animal source food (ASF) among households. Secondary data were analyzed from the 2011 Ethiopian Welfare Monitoring Survey (WMS). This survey used a structured questionnaire to collect socio-demographic and economic data. Dietary data were collected using a dietary diversity questionnaire measuring dietary diversity over the past 1 week. A Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS) was constructed according to the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) guidelines. Consumption of ASFs is described by its distribution among the regions and by HDDS. Multiple logistic regression analysis was fitted to identify independent predictors for HDDS. A total of 27,995 households were included in the analyses. A little over half of the study households (52.2%) had more than four household members, and 75% of households were male headed. The mean HHDS was five food groups. Cereals were the most commonly (96%) consumed food groups. Fish, egg and fruits, on the other hand, were the least consumed food groups. ASFs were consumed in greater proportion among households with higher HDDS. Being part of the higher and middle socio economic strata (P < 0.001), literacy (P < 0.01), urban residence (P < 0.01), male headed household (P < 0.01), larger family size (P <0.01) and owning livestock (P < 0.01) were positively associated with higher HDDS. Considering these findings, nutrition sensitive interventions which address the problem through economic and educational empowerment and modern technologies supporting agricultural practices need to be designed to increase both local production and increased consumption.

  13. Encountering energy strategies and plans with the social context of household practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Nyborg, Sophie; Røpke, Inge

    Encountering energy strategies and plans with the social context of household practices Governments and utility companies have developed a great deal of strategies and plans on how to cope with energy saving in households, since this represents a major issue for climate change remediation. Many...... in households, and provides important clues about the potentiality to anchor energy strategies and plans in the social context of local households....

  14. Simulation Tool For Energy Consumption and Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nysteen, Michael; Mynderup, Henrik; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    In order to promote adoption of smart grid with the general public it is necessary to be able to visualize the benefits of a smart home. Software tools that model the effects can help significantly with this. However, only little work has been done in the area of simulating and visualizing...... the energy consumption in smart homes. This paper presents a prototype simulation tool that allows graphical modeling of a home. Based on the modeled homes the user is able to simulate the energy consumptions and compare scenarios. The simulations are based on dynamic weather and energy price data as well...... as well as appliances and other electrical components used in the modeled homes....

  15. Postmortem Inventories in Medieval Valencia. A Source for the Study of Household Consumption and Living Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Almenar Fernández

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Basic questions about the nature of postmortem inventories in late medieval Valencia have rarely been asked. What distinguished them from other lists of goods and what was their legal basis? Why were inventories made? Which goods were listed and which ones omitted? How many inventories are preserved today? Which sectors of medieval society requested them? The answers that this paper provides clearly show the potential of a serial and quantitative usage of the Valencian inventory for the study of household consumption, an analysis that would enable us to measure far more accurately the changes in living standards in late medieval society to a degree that is difficult to achieve in other regions of Europe.

  16. Household demand for energy, water and the collection of waste. A microeconometric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linderhof, V.G.M.

    2001-05-17

    This thesis focuses on the effectiveness and efficiency of economic incentives with respect to the household demand for energy, water and the collection of household waste. In particular, we are primarily interested in the price and income responses of households with respect to the energy and water consumption as well as the household waste production. Chapter 2 reviews the historical trends of the natural gas, electricity and water consumption and their determinants - in particular prices - in the Netherlands. The historical perspective covers the period 1950 - 1990. The development of prices has several aspects such as nominal versus real prices, pricing schedules and the price per unit of consumer durable services.' In addition, we present the penetration rates of household appliances. Furthermore, we review the development in household waste collection and taxes paid by households for the collection of household waste. Finally, we make a small side step and evaluate car ownership and usage. Chapter 3 analyzes two issues with respect to consumer durables: first, we analyze the effect of energy and water use on the purchase price of domestic appliances empirically, and secondly, we analyze the effect of subsidies on high-efficiency versions on the consumer decision and consequently on the penetration rate theoretically. As to the first issue, we estimate hedonic regressions equations for purchase prices, energy use and water use with data on four domestic appliances. As to the second issue, the purchase of an appliance has implications for future consumption. Therefore, the purchase decision is analyzed with an intertemporal choice model including the time preference of consumers measured by subjective discount rates. We build a general framework in which a consumer can choose between a low-efficiency version and a high-efficiency version. The latter version requires less energy, produces similar services, and has a higher purchase price; see Kooreman and

  17. Electrical energy consumption control apparatuses and electrical energy consumption control methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2012-09-04

    Electrical energy consumption control apparatuses and electrical energy consumption control methods are described. According to one aspect, an electrical energy consumption control apparatus includes processing circuitry configured to receive a signal which is indicative of current of electrical energy which is consumed by a plurality of loads at a site, to compare the signal which is indicative of current of electrical energy which is consumed by the plurality of loads at the site with a desired substantially sinusoidal waveform of current of electrical energy which is received at the site from an electrical power system, and to use the comparison to control an amount of the electrical energy which is consumed by at least one of the loads of the site.

  18. Energy vulnerability. Far from urban centres, space heating and fuel costs weigh heavily on the household budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochez, Nicolas; Durieux, Eric; Levy, David; Moreau, Sylvain; Baudu-Baret, Claude

    2015-01-01

    For 15% of resident households in metropolitan France, the proportion of income going on home and water heating is high, in the sense that it is twice the median housing-expense to income ratio. With this same criterion, the cost of the most mandatory car journeys is high for 10% of households, in relation to their budgets. In all, 22% of households (i.e. 5.9 million) are experiencing energy vulnerability for one or other of the items of consumption, and 3% of households (i.e. 700 000) are vulnerable for both items. The risk of vulnerability varies over national territory, with differences depending on the items of expenditure considered: climate is the primary factor where disparity in housing-related vulnerability is concerned, whereas the predominant factor for travel is distance from urban centres

  19. Assessing the Energy Consumption of Smartphone Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abousaleh, Mustafa M.

    Mobile devices are increasingly becoming essential in people's lives. The advancement in technology and mobility factor are allowing users to utilize mobile devices for communication, entertainment, financial planning, fitness tracking, etc. As a result, mobile applications are also becoming important factors contributing to user utility. However, battery capacity is the limiting factor impacting the quality of user experience. Hence, it is imperative to understand how much energy impact do mobile apps have on the system relative to other device activities. This thesis presents a systematic studying of the energy impact of mobile apps features. Time-series electrical current measurements are collected from 4 different modern smartphones. Statistical analysis methodologies are used to calculate the energy impact of each app feature by identifying and extracting mobile app-feature events from the overall current signal. In addition, the app overhead energy costs are also computed. Total energy consumption equations for each component is developed and an overall total energy consumption equation is presented. Minutes Lost (ML) of normal phone operations due to the energy consumption of the mobile app functionality is computed for cases where the mobile app is simulated to run on the various devices for 30 minutes. Tutela Technologies Inc. mobile app, NAT, is used for this study. NAT has two main features: QoS and Throughput. The impact of the QoS feature is indistinguishable, i.e. ML is zero, relative to other phone activities. The ML with only the TP feature enabled is on average 2.1 minutes. Enabling the GPS increases the ML on average to 11.5 minutes. Displaying the app GUI interface in addition to running the app features and enabling the GPS results in an average ML of 12.4 minutes. Amongst the various mobile app features and components studied, the GPS consumes the highest amount of energy. It is estimated that the GPS increases the ML by about 448%.

  20. Urban transport energy consumption: Belgrade case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miomir M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available More than half of the global population now lives in towns and cities. At the same time, transport has become the highest single energy-consuming human activity. Hence, one of the major topics today is the reduction of urban transport demand and of energy consumption in cities. In this article we focused on the whole package of instruments that can reduce energy consumption and transport demand in Belgrade, a city that is currently at a major crossroad. Belgrade can prevent a dramatic increase in energy consumption and CO2 emissions (and mitigate the negative local environmental effects of traffic congestion, traffic accidents and air pollution, only if it: 1 implements a more decisive strategy to limit private vehicles use while its level of car passenger km (PKT is still relatively low; 2 does not try to solve its transport problems only by trying to build urban road infrastructure (bridges and ring roads; and 3 if it continues to provide priority movement for buses (a dominant form of public transport, while 4 at the same time developing urban rail systems (metro or LRT with exclusive tracks, immune to the traffic congestion on urban streets. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37010

  1. Solar Adoption and Energy Consumption in the Residential Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Joseph Andrew

    This dissertation analyzes the energy consumption behavior of residential adopters of solar photovoltaic systems (solar-PV). Based on large data sets from the San Diego region that have been assembled or otherwise acquired by the author, the dissertation quantifies changes in energy consumption after solar-PV installation and determines whether certain household characteristics are correlated with such changes. In doing so, it seeks to answer two related questions: First, "Do residential solar adopters increase or decrease their electricity consumption after they install a solar-PV system?" Assuming that certain categories of residential adopters increase and others decrease, the second question is "Which residential adopters increase and which decrease their consumption and why?" The database that was used to conduct this analysis includes information about 5,243 residential systems in San Diego Gas & Electric's (SDG&E) service territory installed between January 2007 and December 2010. San Diego is a national leader in the installation of small-scale solar-electric systems, with over 12,000 systems in the region installed as of January 2012, or around 14% of the total number installed in California. The author performed detailed characterization of a significant subset of the solar installations in the San Diego region. Assembled data included technical and economic characteristics of the systems themselves; the solar companies that sold and installed them; individual customer electric utility billing data; metered PV production data for a subgroup of these solar systems; and data about the properties where the systems are located. Primarily, the author was able to conduct an electricity consumption analysis at the individual household level for 2,410 PV systems installed in SDG&E service territory between January 2007 and December 2010. This analysis was designed to detect changes in electricity consumption from the pre-solar to the post-installation period. To

  2. Energy Management Systems to Reduce Electrical Energy Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Oriti, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY An energy management system comprises an electrical energy storage element such as a battery, renewable electrical energy sources such as solar and wind, a digital signal processing controller and a solid state power converter to interface the elements together. This hardware demonstration in the lab at the Naval Postgraduate School will focus on solid state power conversion methods to improve the reliability and efficiency of electrical energy consumption by Navy facilit...

  3. New Haven, Connecticut: Targeting Low-Income Household Energy Savings (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team, Office of Strategic Programs

    2017-11-01

    This fact sheet "New Haven, Connecticut: Targeting Low-Income Household Energy Savings" explains how the City of New Haven used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  4. A new approach to household appliance energy test procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernebrant, S.; Wihlborg, M.

    1999-03-01

    Energy test procedures provides the industry with a method to measure its products energy consumption. The energy test procedures are the technical foundation to every energy standard and labelling system. Depending on which country the product is going to be sold in, the manufacturers must follow different standards. This report concentrates on appliance test procedures, with the main focus on refrigerators. Recently, a new technology -microcontrollers- is undermining the credibility of the test procedures. New features, saving energy in real-life, are not picked up by the test procedures. It is estimated that as much as 30% of energy could be saved with this technology. Microcontrollers have also led to the possibility to circumvent tests. A new model is presented in the report, which handles these energy savings and make it harder cheating on tests. The model divides the test procedure in two parts; hardware tests and software tests, and uses a Matlab/Simulink computer model to calculate the energy consumption. Examples of hardware- and software test methods for refrigerators are described. A refrigerator is used as an example to present the model. The possibility to harmonize the energy standards to one global standard, which could mean substantial savings and make international trade more efficient, is also discussed 24 refs, 30 figs. Examination paper

  5. Exploring the potential for energy conservation in French households through hybrid modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraudet, Louis-Gaëtan; Guivarch, Céline; Quirion, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Although the building sector is recognized as having major potential for energy conservation and carbon dioxide emission mitigation, conventional bottom–up and top–down models are limited in their ability to capture the complex economic and technological dynamics of the sector. This paper introduces a hybrid framework developed to assess future household energy demand in France. Res-IRF, a bottom–up module of energy consumption for space heating, has several distinctive features: (i) a clear separation between energy efficiency, i.e. investment in energy efficient technologies, and sufficiency, i.e. changes in the utilization of energy consuming durables which allows the rebound effect to be assessed; (ii) the inclusion of barriers to energy efficiency in the form of intangible costs, consumer heterogeneity parameters and the learning-by-doing process; (iii) an endogenous determination of retrofitting which represents trade-offs between retrofit quantity and quality. Subsequently, Res-IRF is linked to the IMACLIM-R computable general equilibrium model. This exercise shows that, compared to a 37% reduction in final energy demand achievable in business as usual in existing dwellings in 2050, an additional reduction of 21% could be achieved if relevant barriers to efficiency and sufficiency were overcome. - Highlights: ► The paper introduces a hybrid framework developed to assess future household energy demand in France. ► The model offers a clear separation between investment in energy efficient technologies and changes in their utilization. ► Intangible costs, heterogeneous discount rates and learning-by-doing functions mimic some barriers to energy efficiency. ► Simulations show that a 37% energy demand reduction could be achieved in business as usual in existing dwellings in 2050. ► An additional reduction of 21% could be achieved if relevant barriers to energy conservation were overcome.

  6. The effect of building regulations on energy consumption in single family houses in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbye, Vibeke; Larsen, Anders; Togeby, Mikael

    This paper explores how changes in regulatory requirements for energy efficiency in buildings (in the US also known as building energy codes) affect household energy consumption. The focus in this paper is on natural gas consumption by Danish single-family owner-occupied houses. Unlike most other...... advanced econometric methods we examine differences in heating energy consumption due to different building regulation requirements at the time of house construction. As for the effect of the building regulation, we find that changes in Danish building regulations have led to significant reductions...... in energy used for heating. The latest revision of the Danish building regulation covered by this paper is that of 1998. This revision has resulted in a 7% reduction in natural gas consumption....

  7. Efficient Energy Consumption Scheduling: Towards Effective Load Leveling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Hong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Different agents in the smart grid infrastructure (e.g., households, buildings, communities consume energy with their own appliances, which may have adjustable usage schedules over a day, a month, a season or even a year. One of the major objectives of the smart grid is to flatten the demand load of numerous agents (viz. consumers, such that the peak load can be avoided and power supply can feed the demand load at anytime on the grid. To this end, we propose two Energy Consumption Scheduling (ECS problems for the appliances held by different agents at the demand side to effectively facilitate load leveling. Specifically, we mathematically model the ECS problems as Mixed-Integer Programming (MIP problems using the data collected from different agents (e.g., their appliances’ energy consumption in every time slot and the total number of required in-use time slots, specific preferences of the in-use time slots for their appliances. Furthermore, we propose a novel algorithm to efficiently and effectively solve the ECS problems with large-scale inputs (which are NP-hard. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach is significantly more efficient than standard benchmarks, such as CPLEX, while guaranteeing near-optimal outputs.

  8. Comparing the Life Cycle Energy Consumption, Global ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managing the water-energy-nutrient nexus for the built environment requires, in part, a full system analysis of energy consumption, global warming and eutrophication potentials of municipal water services. As an example, we evaluated the life cycle energy use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and aqueous nutrient releases of the whole anthropogenic municipal water cycle starting from raw water extraction to wastewater treatment and reuse/discharge for five municipal water and wastewater systems. The assessed options included conventional centralized services and four alternative options following the principles of source-separation and water fit-for-purpose. The comparative life cycle assessment identified that centralized drinking water supply coupled with blackwater energy recovery and on-site greywater treatment and reuse was the most energyand carbon-efficient water service system evaluated, while the conventional (drinking water and sewerage) centralized system ranked as the most energy- and carbon-intensive system. The electricity generated from blackwater and food residuals co-digestion was estimated to offset at least 40% of life cycle energy consumption for water/waste services. The dry composting toilet option demonstrated the lowest life cycle eutrophication potential. The nutrients in wastewater effluent are the dominating contributors for the eutrophication potential for the assessed system configurations. Among the parameters for which variability

  9. 2014 Navajo Nation Energy and Water Consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Suzanne L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Woods, Sam [Navajo Transitional Energy Company, Farmington, NM (United States)

    2017-03-31

    The Navajo Nation is the home of the largest land-based Indian reservation in the U.S., covering more than twenty-seven thousand square miles. The land in the southwestern U.S. holds an abundance of natural resources, which are intimately integrated in the history, economy, and growth of the Navajo tribe. This report aims to wholly visualize the Navajo Nation’s resources and energy and water consumption using quantitative data and systems engineering analysis. The energy and water flow chart visualizations provide structured information for tribal leaders, policymakers, and educators around energy and water system discussions, technology development opportunities, and policy decisions. The analysis of both energy and water is a first step to visualizing the interconnectedness and complexities of the energy-water-food nexus of the nation. The goal of this energy analysis was to first estimate coal resource consumption because of the considerable impact coal has on the Navajo economy, recently as much as $26 million per year in coal royalties.

  10. Urban energy consumption and related carbon emission estimation: a study at the sector scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weiwei; Chen, Chen; Su, Meirong; Chen, Bin; Cai, Yanpeng; Xing, Tao

    2013-12-01

    With rapid economic development and energy consumption growth, China has become the largest energy consumer in the world. Impelled by extensive international concern, there is an urgent need to analyze the characteristics of energy consumption and related carbon emission, with the objective of saving energy, reducing carbon emission, and lessening environmental impact. Focusing on urban ecosystems, the biggest energy consumer, a method for estimating energy consumption and related carbon emission was established at the urban sector scale in this paper. Based on data for 1996-2010, the proposed method was applied to Beijing in a case study to analyze the consumption of different energy resources (i.e., coal, oil, gas, and electricity) and related carbon emission in different sectors (i.e., agriculture, industry, construction, transportation, household, and service sectors). The results showed that coal and oil contributed most to energy consumption and carbon emission among different energy resources during the study period, while the industrial sector consumed the most energy and emitted the most carbon among different sectors. Suggestions were put forward for energy conservation and emission reduction in Beijing. The analysis of energy consumption and related carbon emission at the sector scale is helpful for practical energy saving and emission reduction in urban ecosystems.

  11. The impact of seasonal rice price changes on rice self-consumption in farm household of rural Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ani, S. W.; Antriyandarti, E.

    2018-03-01

    Seasonal rice price changes are very volatile and not predictable. This price changes have a heterogeneous impact on public consumption. The problem of seasonal rice price changes is not only experienced by consumers, but also in the farmers side as producers. The objective of this study is to provide a detail overview and description of the changing seasonal rice self-consumption of farm households in rural Java in response to seasonal rice price changes and income shocks to anticipate seasonal scarcity. This paper constructs a theoretical model to address such seasonality of food deprivation by using one year of seasonally farm household panel data, empirically tests the extent to which farmers in rural Java can smooth their rice self-consumption from season to season in response to income shocks. The result shows that rice farmers increase their rice self-consumption when prices are high.

  12. Data mining, mining data : energy consumption modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessureault, S. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Most modern mining operations are accumulating large amounts of data on production and business processes. Data, however, provides value only if it can be translated into information that appropriate users can utilize. This paper emphasized that a new technological focus should emerge, notably how to concentrate data into information; analyze information sufficiently to become knowledge; and, act on that knowledge. Researchers at the Mining Information Systems and Operations Management (MISOM) laboratory at the University of Arizona have created a method to transform data into action. The data-to-action approach was exercised in the development of an energy consumption model (ECM), in partnership with a major US-based copper mining company, 2 software companies, and the MISOM laboratory. The approach begins by integrating several key data sources using data warehousing techniques, and increasing the existing level of integration and data cleaning. An online analytical processing (OLAP) cube was also created to investigate the data and identify a subset of several million records. Data mining algorithms were applied using the information that was isolated by the OLAP cube. The data mining results showed that traditional cost drivers of energy consumption are poor predictors. A comparison was made between traditional methods of predicting energy consumption and the prediction formed using data mining. Traditionally, in the mines for which data were available, monthly averages of tons and distance are used to predict diesel fuel consumption. However, this article showed that new information technology can be used to incorporate many more variables into the budgeting process, resulting in more accurate predictions. The ECM helped mine planners improve the prediction of energy use through more data integration, measure development, and workflow analysis. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  13. An analysis of cross-sectional variations in total household energy requirements in India using micro survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachauri, Shonali

    2004-01-01

    Using micro level household survey data from India, we analyse the variation in the pattern and quantum of household energy requirements, both direct and indirect, and the factors causing such variation. An econometric analysis using household survey data from India for the year 1993-1994 reveals that household socio-economic, demographic, geographic, family and dwelling attributes influence the total household energy requirements. There are also large variations in the pattern of energy requirements across households belonging to different expenditure classes. Results from the econometric estimation show that total household expenditure or income level is the most important explanatory variable causing variation in energy requirements across households. In addition, the size of the household dwelling and the age of the head of the household are related to higher household energy requirements. In contrast, the number of members in the household and literacy of the head are associated with lower household energy requirements

  14. An analysis of cross-sectional variations in total household energy requirements in India using micro survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pachauri, Shonali E-mail: shonali.pachauri@cepe.mavt.ethz.ch

    2004-10-01

    Using micro level household survey data from India, we analyse the variation in the pattern and quantum of household energy requirements, both direct and indirect, and the factors causing such variation. An econometric analysis using household survey data from India for the year 1993-1994 reveals that household socio-economic, demographic, geographic, family and dwelling attributes influence the total household energy requirements. There are also large variations in the pattern of energy requirements across households belonging to different expenditure classes. Results from the econometric estimation show that total household expenditure or income level is the most important explanatory variable causing variation in energy requirements across households. In addition, the size of the household dwelling and the age of the head of the household are related to higher household energy requirements. In contrast, the number of members in the household and literacy of the head are associated with lower household energy requirements.

  15. Pakistan energy consumption scenario and some alternate energy option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maher, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Pakistan with its energy-deficient resources is highly dependent on import-oriented energy affected the economy because of repeated energy price hike on international horizon. The energy consumption pattern in Pakistan comprises about two-third in commercial energy and one-third in non-commercial forms. Most of the country's energy requirements are met by oil, gas hydro power, coal, nuclear energy and thermal power. Pakistan meets it's commercial energy requirements indigenously up to 64%. The balance of deficit of 35-40% is met through import. The consumption of various agro-residues and wood as fuel also plays a vital role. The analysis shows that emphasis needs to be placed on new and renewable resources of energy besides adopting technologies for energy conservation. Renewable energy depends on energy income and constitutes the development process. The are several renewable energy options such as biogas technology, micro-hydro power generation, direct solar energy and biomass energy conservation etc. By improving the conservation techniques as designs of solar converters, pre treating the biomass fuel, increasing the effectiveness of carbonization and pyrolysis increases the energy production. (A.B.)

  16. Energy Awareness Displays - Prototype for personalised energy consumption feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Storm, Jeroen; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Börner, D., Storm, J., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2012). Energy Awareness Displays - Prototype for personalised energy consumption feedback. In A. Ravencroft, S. Lindstaedt, C. D. Kloos, & D. Hernández-Leo (Eds.), 21st Century Learning for 21st Century Skills - 7th European Conference on Technology

  17. Urban Forest and Rural Cities: Multi-sited Households, Consumption Patterns, and Forest Resources in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Padoch

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In much of the Amazon Basin, approximately 70% of the population lives in urban areas and urbanward migration continues. Based on data collected over more than a decade in two long-settled regions of Amazonia, we find that rural-urban migration in the region is an extended and complex process. Like recent rural-urban migrants worldwide, Amazonian migrants, although they may be counted as urban residents, are often not absent from rural areas but remain members of multi-sited households and continue to participate in rural-urban networks and in rural land-use decisions. Our research indicates that, despite their general poverty, these migrants have affected urban markets for both food and construction materials. We present two cases: that of açaí palm fruit in the estuary of the Amazon and of cheap construction timbers in the Peruvian Amazon. We find that many new Amazonian rural-urban migrants have maintained some important rural patterns of both consumption and knowledge. Through their consumer behavior, they are affecting the areal extent of forests; in the two floodplain regions discussed, tree cover is increasing. We also find changes in forest composition, reflecting the persistence of rural consumption patterns in cities resulting in increased demand for and production of açaí and cheap timber species.

  18. Time-Saving Innovations, Time Allocation, and Energy Use: Evidence from Canadian Households

    OpenAIRE

    Brencic, Vera; Young, Denise

    2009-01-01

    Time and energy are major inputs into the production of household goods and services. The introduction of time-saving innovations allows households to change their activity patterns and to reallocate their time across competing activities. As a result, the market penetration of time-saving technologies for general household use is expected to have a two-fold impact on energy use in the residential sector. Firstly, increased use of time-saving technologies for basic household chores (cooking, ...

  19. Decomposition analysis of the variations in household electricity consumption in Brazil; Analise de decomposicao das variacoes no consumo de energia eletrica no setor residencial brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achao, Carla da Costa Lopes

    2009-09-15

    Introduced at the end of the 1970s to study the impacts of structural changes on electricity consumption by industry, index decomposition analysis techniques have been extended to various other areas to help in the formulation of energy policies, notably in developed countries. However, few authors have applied these techniques to study the evolution of energy consumption in developing countries. In Brazil, the few available studies have focused only on the industrial sector. In this thesis, we apply the decomposition technique called the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) to electricity consumption of the Brazilian residential sector, to explain its evolution in terms of the activity, structure and intensity affects, over the period from 1980 to 2007. The results obtained in a preliminary analysis point out, in a general way, that the observed variables in electricity consumption in the Brazilian residential sector are, mainly, the product of the increase in the number of consumers and the changes in the specific consumption of electricity in households. In a further analysis, carried out when the structure is given through consumers participation in consumption categories (Low Income and Conventional) taken from an overall point of view, although the intensity and activity effects may be considered the main explaining factors in consumption variation, the structure effect stands out in the period immediately after the 2001 rationing, as a reflect of the changes in the inclusion criteria in the Low Income category, specifically in the Northeast. (author)

  20. The challenge to UK energy policy: An ageing population perspective on energy saving measures and consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, Neveen; Gilroy, Rose

    2011-01-01

    With a focus on the residential sector, this paper explores the likelihood of the UK government meeting its energy targets. The paper contends that energy policy needs to take into account the interplay of four major factors: an ageing population of increasing diversity; a cultural inclination for older housing much of which is thermally inefficient; levels of fuel poverty; and the inexorable rise of consumer spending on leisure related services and goods. Decisions made by older households (both the poorer and the better off) may be critical to the success of energy policy. Among the better off the changing expectations of the baby boomers, with their predilection for consumption and travel, may have particular impact. The paper concludes that much of the reduction in carbon footprint made by older people's choices in heating and insulation may be offset, not only by increasing domestic thermal comfort, but also potentially by increasing consumables in the home and other consumer lifestyle choices. What could be achieved at best, may be a shift in energy mix. - Research highlights: → An aging society in the UK will not lead to reduction in energy consumption. → Physical ability, housing condition, cultural habits and energy poverty undermine policy. → Rise of home entertainment and consumerism 'Afluenza' increase energy consumption.

  1. The challenge to UK energy policy: An ageing population perspective on energy saving measures and consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamza, Neveen, E-mail: n.hamza@ncl.ac.u [School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Newcastle University, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Gilroy, Rose [School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Newcastle University, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    With a focus on the residential sector, this paper explores the likelihood of the UK government meeting its energy targets. The paper contends that energy policy needs to take into account the interplay of four major factors: an ageing population of increasing diversity; a cultural inclination for older housing much of which is thermally inefficient; levels of fuel poverty; and the inexorable rise of consumer spending on leisure related services and goods. Decisions made by older households (both the poorer and the better off) may be critical to the success of energy policy. Among the better off the changing expectations of the baby boomers, with their predilection for consumption and travel, may have particular impact. The paper concludes that much of the reduction in carbon footprint made by older people's choices in heating and insulation may be offset, not only by increasing domestic thermal comfort, but also potentially by increasing consumables in the home and other consumer lifestyle choices. What could be achieved at best, may be a shift in energy mix. - Research highlights: {yields} An aging society in the UK will not lead to reduction in energy consumption. {yields} Physical ability, housing condition, cultural habits and energy poverty undermine policy. {yields} Rise of home entertainment and consumerism 'Afluenza' increase energy consumption.

  2. Impact of Implementation of Direct Cash Transfer Program 2008/2009 on Household Consumption in Central Java Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subanti, S.; Hakim, A. R.; Hakim, I. M.

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to see the impact of direct cash transfer program for 2008/2009 on household consumption of food, nonfood, education, and health in Central Java Province. The study is expected to provide important findings for the improvement of a similar program in the future. This study findings that (1) the increasing in food and non-food consumption for direct cash transfer recipients than non direct cash transfer recipients; (2) the impact of households expenditure on education for direct cash transfer recipients is higher than non direct cash transfer recipients; (3) the impact of households expenditure on health for direct cash transfer recipients is lower than non direct cash transfer recipients. This study recommended that (1) implementation of direct cash transfer program 2008/2009 must be managed to be better because this program can defend household welfare. It shows from several indicators of well-being such as consumption spending, education, and health; (2) data targets for poor households (very poor, poor, nearly poor) must be updated.

  3. Energy saving and consumption reducing evaluation of thermal power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiu; Han, Miaomiao

    2018-03-01

    At present, energy saving and consumption reduction require energy saving and consumption reduction measures for thermal power plant, establishing an evaluation system for energy conservation and consumption reduction is instructive for the whole energy saving work of thermal power plant. By analysing the existing evaluation system of energy conservation and consumption reduction, this paper points out that in addition to the technical indicators of power plant, market activities should also be introduced in the evaluation of energy saving and consumption reduction in power plant. Ttherefore, a new evaluation index of energy saving and consumption reduction is set up and the example power plant is calculated in this paper. Rresults show that after introducing the new evaluation index of energy saving and consumption reduction, the energy saving effect of the power plant can be judged more comprehensively, so as to better guide the work of energy saving and consumption reduction in power plant.

  4. Oil pipeline energy consumption and efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooker, J.N.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes an investigation of energy consumption and efficiency of oil pipelines in the US in 1978. It is based on a simulation of the actual movement of oil on a very detailed representation of the pipeline network, and it uses engineering equations to calculate the energy that pipeline pumps must have exerted on the oil to move it in this manner. The efficiencies of pumps and drivers are estimated so as to arrive at the amount of energy consumed at pumping stations. The throughput in each pipeline segment is estimated by distributing each pipeline company's reported oil movements over its segments in proportions predicted by regression equations that show typical throughput and throughput capacity as functions of pipe diameter. The form of the equations is justified by a generalized cost-engineering study of pipelining, and their parameters are estimated using new techniques developed for the purpose. A simplified model of flow scheduling is chosen on the basis of actual energy use data obtained from a few companies. The study yields energy consumption and intensiveness estimates for crude oil trunk lines, crude oil gathering lines and oil products lines, for the nation as well as by state and by pipe diameter. It characterizes the efficiency of typical pipelines of various diameters operating at capacity. Ancillary results include estimates of oil movements by state and by diameter and approximate pipeline capacity utilization nationwide.

  5. Managing environmental aspects resulting from energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Human health and environmental impacts of fossil fuel energy consumptions are examined and the ongoing effort to align energy management plans with sustainable development strategies and environmental management systems is described. Human health impacts are manifested in mortality rates, hospital admissions, visits to emergency rooms and physicians' offices, reduced physical performance, increase in the use of medications, impaired pulmonary function and a variety of lesser (or less perceptible) effects. Environmental impacts are demonstrated through climatic change, increase in greenhouse gas emissions, increase in smog, acid rain, and soil, groundwater and surface water contamination. The importance of commitment, integrated planning, measurement and evaluation, periodic review and improvement and documentation in aligning energy and environmental management plans are highlighted, along with the need for behavioral and operational changes, the creation of employee awareness and training, and the adoption of green procurement and life cycle costing. Adoption of the ISO 14000 approach to managing energy consumption is also seen as an important step in the direction of integrated energy and environmental management and sustainable development

  6. Hair mercury levels versus freshwater fish consumption in household members of Swedish angling societies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsson, Cecilia; Saellsten, Gerd; Schuetz, Andrejs; Sjoers, Anna; Barregaard, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Hair mercury levels were determined in 143 individuals from households of members in angling societies in an area of Sweden with many lakes that have freshwater fish with relatively high mercury levels. Thus, the individuals had a potentially high intake of methyl mercury. The mean mercury concentration of pike and perch was approximately 0.7 μg/g. One-third of the subjects consumed these freshwater fish at least once a week. As could be expected, there was a clear increase in hair Hg with reported freshwater fish consumption (P<0.001). The median mercury level in hair was 0.9 μg Hg/g for the whole group, and for those who reported consumption of freshwater fish at least once a week it was 1.8 μg/g. The highest hair mercury level was 18.5 μg/g, in a man who consumed pike and perch several times per week. Men had higher hair Hg than women, also when stratified for fish consumption. This was verified in 32 couples, of which the man and woman consumed the same fish and reported the same consumption. The median hair mercury level in these 32 couples was 1.3 μg/g for men and 0.8 μg/g for women (P=0.002). About half of the subjects had hair mercury exceeding 1 μg/g, corresponding to the reference dose (RfD) of 0.1 μg of mercury per kilogram body weight set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Although the RfD applies to all populations, the most at-risk group at these levels is pregnant women. There were only 2 women (of 12) of fertile age with hair mercury above 1 μg/g. In Sweden pregnant women are advised not to eat perch and pike at all during pregnancy. Since fish is rich in many important nutrients, it is unsatisfactory that fish consumption must be restricted, and thus there is a need to reduce mercury levels in fish

  7. Modeling and optimization of HVAC energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusiak, Andrew; Li, Mingyang; Tang, Fan [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 - 1527 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    A data-driven approach for minimization of the energy to air condition a typical office-type facility is presented. Eight data-mining algorithms are applied to model the nonlinear relationship among energy consumption, control settings (supply air temperature and supply air static pressure), and a set of uncontrollable parameters. The multiple-linear perceptron (MLP) ensemble outperforms other models tested in this research, and therefore it is selected to model a chiller, a pump, a fan, and a reheat device. These four models are integrated into an energy optimization model with two decision variables, the setpoint of the supply air temperature and the static pressure in the air handling unit. The model is solved with a particle swarm optimization algorithm. The optimization results have demonstrated the total energy consumed by the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning system is reduced by over 7%. (author)

  8. Energy consumption and income. A semiparametric panel data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen-Van, Phu [BETA, CNRS and Universite de Strasbourg, 61 avenue de la Foret Noire, F-67085 Strasbourg (France)

    2010-05-15

    This paper proposes a semiparametric analysis for the study of the relationship between energy consumption per capita and income per capita for an international panel dataset. It shows little evidence for the existence of an environmental Kuznets curve for energy consumption. Energy consumption increases with income for a majority of countries and then stabilizes for very high income countries. Neither changes in energy structure nor macroeconomic cycle/technological change have significant effect on energy consumption. (author)

  9. Determining residential energy consumption-based CO2 emissions and examining the factors affecting the variation in Ankara, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Melike; Akan, Perihan; Aydinalp Koksal, Merih; Gullu, Gulen

    2017-11-01

    Energy demand of Turkey has been showing a remarkable increase in the last two decades due to rapid increase in population and changes in consumption trends. In parallel to the increase in energy demand, the CO2 emissions in Turkey are also increasing dramatically due to high usage of fossil fuels. CO2 emissions from the residential sector covers almost one fourth of the total sectoral emissions. In this study, CO2 emissions from the residential sector are estimated, and the factors affecting the emission levels are determined for the residential sector in Ankara, Turkey. In this study, detailed surveys are conducted to more than 400 households in Ankara. Using the information gathered from the surveys, the CO2 emissions associated with energy consumption of the households are calculated using the methodology outlined at IPCC. The statistical analyses are carried out using household income, dwelling characteristics, and household economic and demographic data to determine the factors causing the variation in emission levels among the households. The results of the study present that the main factors impacting the amount of total energy consumption and associated CO2 emissions are household income, dwelling construction year, age, education level of the household, and net footage of the dwelling.

  10. Kinky Choices, Dictators and Split Might : A Non-Cooperative Model for Household Consumption and Labor Supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; van der Wiel, K.M.; Vermeulen, F.M.P.

    2009-01-01

    It is unlikely that husbands and wives always agree on exactly what public goods to buy. Nor do they necessarily agree on how many hours to work with obvious consequences for the household budget. We therefore model consumption and labor supply behavior of a couple in a non-cooperative setting by

  11. Conceptualizing urban household energy use: Climbing the 'Energy Services Ladder'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K., E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.s [Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2011-03-15

    This article begins by defining energy services and identifying how they differ according to sector, urban and rural areas, and direct and indirect uses. It then investigates household energy services divided into three classes: lower income, middle income, and upper income. It finds that the primary energy technologies involved with low-income households involve a greater number of fuels and carriers, ranging from dung and fuelwood to liquefied petroleum gas and charcoal, but a fewer number of services. Middle-income households throughout the world tend to rely on electricity and natural gas, followed by coal, liquefied petroleum gas, and kerosene. These homes utilize energy to produce a much broader range services. The upper class or rich have access to the same energy fuels, carriers, and technologies as middle-income homes and families, but consume more energy (and more high luxury items). The study highlights how focusing on energy services reorients the direction of energy policy interventions, that energy services are neither uniform nor innate, and by noting exciting areas of potential research. - Research highlights: {yields} The primary energy technologies involved with low-income households involve a greater number of fuels and carriers, ranging from dung and fuelwood to liquefied petroleum gas and charcoal, but a fewer number of services. {yields} Middle-income households throughout the world tend to rely on electricity and natural gas, followed by coal, liquefied petroleum gas, and kerosene. These homes utilize energy to produce a much broader range services. {yields} The upper class or rich have access to the same energy fuels, carriers, and technologies as middle-income homes and families, but consume more energy (and more high luxury items).

  12. Energy Consumption Forecasting for University Sector Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuram Pervez Amber

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Reliable energy forecasting helps managers to prepare future budgets for their buildings. Therefore, a simple, easier, less time consuming and reliable forecasting model which could be used for different types of buildings is desired. In this paper, we have presented a forecasting model based on five years of real data sets for one dependent variable (the daily electricity consumption and six explanatory variables (ambient temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, wind speed, weekday index and building type. A single mathematical equation for forecasting daily electricity usage of university buildings has been developed using the Multiple Regression (MR technique. Data of two such buildings, located at the Southwark Campus of London South Bank University in London, have been used for this study. The predicted test results of MR model are examined and judged against real electricity consumption data of both buildings for year 2011. The results demonstrate that out of six explanatory variables, three variables; surrounding temperature, weekday index and building type have significant influence on buildings energy consumption. The results of this model are associated with a Normalized Root Mean Square Error (NRMSE of 12% for the administrative building and 13% for the academic building. Finally, some limitations of this study have also been discussed.

  13. Power production and energy consumption in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    The main electrical resource of Norway comes from its rivers: 99% of the electric power is produced by hydroelectric power plants. Other sources, like wind and natural gas, are envisaged for the enhancement of Norway's energy production capacity. In this document, the part devoted to power production presents the different electricity production sources and their impact on the Norwegian economy. The energy consumption is detailed in the third part with an historical review of its evolution and a description of the main sectors involved in this consumption. The forth part describes the main actors of the energy sector with their industrial structure, the research institutes and universities performing R and D in this domain, and the energy trades with surrounding countries. The fifth part stresses on the research projects, on the government promoting actions through the Norwegian Research Council, and gives some examples of todays research projects. The sixth part deals with international cooperation in the R and D domain with a particular attention given to the relations between Norway, France and Europe. (J.S.)

  14. Energy consumption and stocks of energy-converting artefacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bladh, Mats

    2012-01-01

    The development of total energy consumption is important in a world with limited resources. It is the result of two basic tendencies working in opposite directions: growth in number and in use (such as more cars and driving more) and improvements in energy efficiency (such as more fuel-efficient engines). Since the 1970s growth of energy consumption has slowed down in Sweden. This means that increasing supply has been counteracted by measures improving overall energy efficiency to a larger degree than before. How can long-term development in energy consumption be analysed? This paper proposes a focus on stocks of energy-converting artefacts as a tool for such analyses. In order to show the fruitfulness of this approach, historical data on cars, dwellings and lamps in Sweden are used. Results from the cases in this paper show considerable gains of efficiency in fuel consumption in private cars and heating efficiency in multi-dwelling houses. Demographic factors are important for the outcome. The approach seems to promise a way to analyse energy efficiency that captures both promoting and counteracting factors at both the micro and macro level. - Highlights: ► Growth of energy consumption slowed down in the 1970s, a break in the long-run trend. ► Balance between growth and efficiency factors changes over time and areas of use. ► Savings in heating were not taken back, while those for cars were. ► Focus on stocks of artefacts is a promising tool for analyses. ► Incremental changes within existing stocks can be as big as radical changes.

  15. Modelling resource consumption for laundry and dish treatment in individual households for various consumer segments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamminger, R. [Institute for Agricultural Engineering, Household and Appliance Technology Section, University of Bonn, Nussallee 5, 53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Recent research allocates up to 80% of environmental impact in energy and CO2 terms to direct and indirect consumer activities. Various models discussed how this impact can be assigned to specific lifestyles, production and consumption systems, and psychological motives in order to be able to predict and influence these effects. In this work, another approach is followed by showing on the example of laundry and dish washing how well-known factors of the technical status, consumer practices and demographic data allow building up a model to predict the energy and water consumption for these processes. The results show a variation of a factor of 5 between a more sustainable and a more careless behaviour and allow thus to identify levers to influence it. As results can also be easily transformed into monetary values, this may allow influencing the consumer via this channel as he/she can easily understand what may need to be changed.

  16. Model projections for household energy use in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruijven, Bas J. van; Vuuren, Detlef P. van; Vries, Bert J.M. de; Isaac, Morna; van der Sluijs, Jeroen P.; Lucas, Paul L.; Balachandra, P.

    2011-01-01

    Energy use in developing countries is heterogeneous across households. Present day global energy models are mostly too aggregate to account for this heterogeneity. Here, a bottom-up model for residential energy use that starts from key dynamic concepts on energy use in developing countries is presented and applied to India. Energy use and fuel choice is determined for five end-use functions (cooking, water heating, space heating, lighting and appliances) and for five different income quintiles in rural and urban areas. The paper specifically explores the consequences of different assumptions for income distribution and rural electrification on residential sector energy use and CO 2 emissions, finding that results are clearly sensitive to variations in these parameters. As a result of population and economic growth, total Indian residential energy use is expected to increase by around 65–75% in 2050 compared to 2005, but residential carbon emissions may increase by up to 9–10 times the 2005 level. While a more equal income distribution and rural electrification enhance the transition to commercial fuels and reduce poverty, there is a trade-off in terms of higher CO 2 emissions via increased electricity use. - Highlights: ► A bottom-up model for residential energy use was developed and applied to India. ► The model distinguishes five end-use functions and rural/urban income quintiles. ► We explore consequences of income distribution and electrification on energy use. ► Equal income and electrification enhance the transition to commercial fuels. ► Higher CO 2 emissions from increased electricity use are a trade-off.

  17. Minimum energy consumption process synthesis for energy saving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao-Ping, Jia [Institute for Petroleum and Chemical Industry, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042, Shandong (China); Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Fang, Wang; Shu-Guang, Xiang; Xin-Sun, Tan; Fang-Yu, Han [Institute for Petroleum and Chemical Industry, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042, Shandong (China)

    2008-05-15

    The paper presents a synthesis strategy for the chemical processes with energy saving. The concept of minimum energy consumption process (MECP) is proposed. Three characteristics of MECP are introduced, including thermodynamic minimum energy demand, energy consumption efficiency and integration degree. These characteristics are evaluated according to quantitative thermodynamic analysis and qualitative knowledge rules. The procedure of synthesis strategy is proposed to support the generation of MECP alternatives, which combine flowsheet integration and heat integration. The cases studies will focus on how integration degrees of a process affect the energy-saving results. The separation sequences of the hydrodealkylation of toluene (HDA) process and ethanol distillation process as case studies are used to illustrate. (author)

  18. Trade and energy consumption in the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadorsky, Perry

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 30 years many economies have experienced large increases in economic trade, income and energy consumption. This brings up an interesting question. How do increases in trade affect energy consumption? This study uses panel cointegration data estimation techniques to examine the impact of trade on energy consumption in a sample of 8 Middle Eastern countries covering the period 1980 to 2007. Short-run dynamics show Granger causality from exports to energy consumption, and a bi-directional feedback relationship between imports and energy consumption. Long run elasticities estimated from FMOLS show that a 1% increase in per capita exports increases per capita energy consumption by 0.11% while a one percent increase in per capita imports increases per capita energy consumption by 0.04%. These results are important in establishing that increased trade affects energy demand in the Middle East in both the short and long-run. This has implications for energy policy and environmental policy. - Research Highlights: → Trade affects energy consumption in Middle Eastern economies. → Short-run causality runs from exports to energy consumption. → There is a short-run feedback relationship between energy consumption and imports. → In the long-run a 1% increase in per capita exports increases per capita energy consumption by 0.11%. → In the long-run a 1% increase in per capita imports increases per capita energy consumption by 0.04%.

  19. Green smartphone GPUs: Optimizing energy consumption using GPUFreq scaling governors

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmad, Enas M.; Shihada, Basem

    2015-01-01

    and alternatives in controlling the power consumption and performance of their GPUs. We implemented and evaluated our model on a smartphone GPU and measured the energy performance using an external power monitor. The results show that the energy consumption

  20. Households as change agents in a Dutch smart energy transition: On power, privacy and participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naus, J.; Vliet, van B.J.M.; Hendriksen, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the participation of Dutch households in a smart and sustainable energy transition. Particular attention is paid to new forms of cooperation that are arising between households (horizontal opening-up) and between households and service providers (vertical opening-up). Data are

  1. Efficient energy consumption and operation management in a smart building with microgrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Di; Shah, Nilay; Papageorgiou, Lazaros G.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • An MILP model is formulated for energy consumption scheduling in a smart building. • Domestic appliances from multiple smart homes are considered. • Equipment operation and power consumption tasks starting time are scheduled. • Results from two examples indicate cost savings and power peak reduction. • Peak demand charge scheme is adopted to reduce the peak demand from grid. - Abstract: Microgrid works as a local energy provider for domestic buildings to reduce energy expenses and gas emissions by utilising distributed energy resources (DERs). The rapid advances in computing and communication capabilities enable the concept smart buildings become possible. Most energy-consuming household tasks do not need to be performed at specific times but rather within a preferred time. If these types of tasks can be coordinated among multiple homes so that they do not all occur at the same time yet still satisfy customers’ requirement, the energy cost and power peak demand could be reduced. In this paper, the optimal scheduling of smart homes’ energy consumption is studied using a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) approach. In order to minimise a 1-day forecasted